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1

Water retention curve for hydrate-bearing sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

water retention curve plays a central role in numerical algorithms that model hydrate dissociation in sediments. The determination of the water retention curve for hydrate-bearing sediments faces experimental difficulties, and most studies assume constant water retention curves regardless of hydrate saturation. This study employs network model simulation to investigate the water retention curve for hydrate-bearing sediments. Results show that (1) hydrate in pores shifts the curve to higher capillary pressures and the air entry pressure increases as a power function of hydrate saturation; (2) the air entry pressure is lower in sediments with patchy rather than distributed hydrate, with higher pore size variation and pore connectivity or with lower specimen slenderness along the flow direction; and (3) smaller specimens render higher variance in computed water retention curves, especially at high water saturation Sw > 0.7. Results are relevant to other sediment pore processes such as bioclogging and mineral precipitation.

Dai, Sheng; Santamarina, J. Carlos

2013-11-01

2

Water retention curves and thermal insulating properties of Thermosand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heat loss and the efficiency of isolating material surrounding heat supply pipes are essential issues for the energy budget of heat supply pipe lines. Until now heat loss from the pipe is minimized by enlarging the polyurethane (PU) - insulation thickness around the pipe. As a new approach to minimize the heat loss a thermally insulating bedding material was developed and investigated. Conventional bedding sands cover all necessary soil mechanical properties, but have a high thermal conductivity from ? =1,5 to 1,7 W/(m K). A newly developed embedding material 'Thermosand' shows thermal properties from ?=0,18 W/(m K) (dry) up to 0,88 W/(m K) (wet). The raw material originates from the waste rock stockpiles of a coal mine near Fohnsdorf, Austria. With high temperatures up to nearly 1000 ° C and a special mineral mixture, a natural burned reddish material resembling clinker arises. The soilmechanical properties of Thermosand has been thoroughly investigated with laboratory testing and in situ investigations to determine compaction-, permeability- and shear-behaviour, stiffness and corresponding physical parameters. Test trenches along operational heat pipes with temperature-measurement along several cross-sections were constructed to compare conventional embedding materials with 'Thermosand'. To investigate the influence of varying moisture content on thermal conductivity a 1:1 large scale model test in the laboratory to simulate real insitu-conditions was established. Based on this model it is planned to develop numerical simulations concerning varying moisture contents and unsaturated soil mechanics with heat propagation, including the drying out of the soil during heat input. These simulations require the knowledge about the water retention properties of the material. Thus, water retention curves were measured using both steady-state tension and pressure techniques and the simplified evaporation method. The steady-state method employs a tension table (sand box) at tensions below 100 hPa and a pressure extractor at tensions between 300 hPa and 15,000 hPa; the water content is measured by weighing after the sample has equilibrated at the tension value set on the table or plate. In the transient evaporation method two tensiometers with a measurement range between 0 and 850 hPa are installed at a depth of 1.25 cm and 3.75 cm in a sample of 5 cm in height; the mean values of the two tensiometers and the water contents measured by weighting are used to obtain the water retention curve. First results of both methods show that the Thermosand samples release water over the entire tension range measured above 10 hPa. Because of the limited measurement range of the tensiometers used for the evaporation method, the measured curve must be extrapolated between 850 hPa and 15,000 hPa, to allow comparison with the steady-state method. To this end, it was attempted to match the Van-Genuchten and a bimodal Van-Genuchten retention function to the data from the evaporation experiments. This involves a simultaneous fit of both the water-retention and the hydraulic-conductivity function. As one first result only the Van-Genuchten model was found to be able to produce satisfactorily fits to the data. The extrapolated water retention curves (above 850 hPa) however do not match the data from the steady-state method. This suggests that alternative soil hydraulic functions are needed to provide an adequate representation of the water retention characteristics of the Thermosand. It has to be considered that especially for the heat flow simulation water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions above 15,000 hPa have to be determined.

Leibniz, Otto; Winkler, Gerfried; Birk, Steffen

2010-05-01

3

A Global Optimization Method to Calculate Water Retention Curves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water retention curves (WRC) have a key role for the hydraulic characterization of soils and rocks. The behaviour of the medium is defined by relating the unsaturated water content to the matric potential. The experimental determination of WRCs requires an accurate and detailed measurement of the dependence of matric potential on water content, a time-consuming and error-prone process, in particular for rocky media. A complete experimental WRC needs at least a few tens of data points, distributed more or less uniformly from full saturation to oven dryness. Since each measurement requires to wait to reach steady state conditions (i.e., between a few tens of minutes for soils and up to several hours or days for rocks or clays), the whole process can even take a few months. The experimental data are fitted to the most appropriate parametric model, such as the widely used models of Van Genuchten, Brooks and Corey and Rossi-Nimmo, to obtain the analytic WRC. We present here a new method for the determination of the parameters that best fit the models to the available experimental data. The method is based on differential evolution, an evolutionary computation algorithm particularly useful for multidimensional real-valued global optimization problems. With this method it is possible to strongly reduce the number of measurements necessary to optimize the model parameters that accurately describe the WRC of the samples, allowing to decrease the time needed to adequately characterize the medium. In the present work, we have applied our method to calculate the WRCs of sedimentary carbonatic rocks of marine origin, belonging to 'Calcarenite di Gravina' Formation (Middle Pliocene - Early Pleistocene) and coming from two different quarry districts in Southern Italy. WRC curves calculated using the Van Genuchten model by simulated annealing (dashed curve) and differential evolution (solid curve). The curves are calculated using 10 experimental data points randomly extracted from the full experimental dataset. Simulated annealing is not able to find the optimal solution with this reduced data set.

Maggi, S.; Caputo, M. C.; Turturro, A. C.

2013-12-01

4

Hysteresis and uncertainty in soil water-retention curve parameters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Accurate estimates of soil hydraulic parameters representing wetting and drying paths are required for predicting hydraulic and mechanical responses in a large number of applications. A comprehensive suite of laboratory experiments was conducted to measure hysteretic soil-water characteristic curves (SWCCs) representing a wide range of soil types. Results were used to quantitatively assess differences and uncertainty in three simplifications frequently adopted to estimate wetting-path SWCC parameters from more easily measured drying curves. They are the following: (1) ?w=2?d, (2) nw=nd, and (3) ?ws=?ds, where ?, n, and ?s are fitting parameters entering van Genuchten’s commonly adopted SWCC model, and the superscripts w and d indicate wetting and drying paths, respectively. The average ratio ?w/?d for the data set was 2.24±1.25. Nominally cohesive soils had a lower ?w/?d ratio (1.73±0.94) than nominally cohesionless soils (3.14±1.27). The average nw/nd ratio was 1.01±0.11 with no significant dependency on soil type, thus confirming the nw=nd simplification for a wider range of soil types than previously available. Water content at zero suction during wetting (?ws) was consistently less than during drying (?ds) owing to air entrapment. The ?ws/?ds ratio averaged 0.85±0.10 and was comparable for nominally cohesive (0.87±0.11) and cohesionless (0.81±0.08) soils. Regression statistics are provided to quantitatively account for uncertainty in estimating hysteretic retention curves. Practical consequences are demonstrated for two case studies.

Likos, William J.; Lu, Ning; Godt, Jonathan W.

2014-01-01

5

Effects of the water retention curve on evaporation from arid soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water retention curves approaching infinitely negative matric potentials at residual water content are widely employed to model soil moisture dynamics. When used in numerical simulations, these retention curves fail to satisfactorily describe evaporation from arid soil (moisture-limited regime) because they do not allow the soil to dry below residual water content. We show that simple modifications can be introduced to prevent unrealistic water retention at residual water content and predict more physically sound moisture dynamics. Modified retention models that allow drying below residual predict a moisture-limited regime characterized by a thin subsurface evaporation zone and produce vapor fluxes up to 3 times larger than classical retention models. This might reduce the need to introduce empirical enhancement factors and improve the capability of modeling evaporation into the atmosphere and runoff in arid regions.

Ciocca, Francesco; Lunati, Ivan; Parlange, Marc B.

2014-05-01

6

Multiple pixel-scale soil water retention curves quantified by neutron radiography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The soil water retention function is needed for modeling multiphase flow in porous media. Traditional techniques for measuring the soil water retention function, such as the hanging water column or pressure cell methods, yield average water retention data which have to be modeled using inverse procedures to extract relevant point parameters. In this study, we have developed a technique for directly measuring multiple point (pixel-scale) water retention curves for a repacked sand material using 2-D neutron radiography. Neutron radiographic images were obtained under quasi-equilibrium conditions at nine imposed basal matric potentials during monotonic drying of Flint sand at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold Guide (CG) 1D beamline at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. All of the images were normalized with respect to an image of the oven dry sand column. Volumetric water contents were computed on a pixel by pixel basis using an empirical calibration equation after taking into account beam hardening and geometric corrections. Corresponding matric potentials were calculated from the imposed basal matric potential and pixel elevations. Volumetric water content and matric potential data pairs corresponding to 120 selected pixels were used to construct 120 point water retention curves. Each curve was fitted to the Brooks and Corey equation using segmented non-linear regression in SAS. A 98.5% convergence rate was achieved resulting in 115 estimates of the four Brooks and Corey parameters. A single Brooks and Corey point water retention function was constructed for Flint sand using the median values of these parameter estimates. This curve corresponded closely with the point Brooks and Corey function inversely extracted from the average water retention data using TrueCell. Forward numerical simulations performed using HYDRUS 1-D showed that the cumulative outflows predicted using the point Brooks and Corey functions from both the direct (neutron radiography) and inverse (TrueCell) methods were in good agreement with independent measurements of cumulative outflow determined with a transducer. Our results indicate that neutron radiography can be used to quantify the point water retention curve of homogeneous mineral particles. Further research will be needed to extend this approach to more heterogeneous porous media.

Kang, M.; Perfect, E.; Cheng, C. L.; Bilheux, H. Z.; Lee, J.; Horita, J.; Warren, J. M.

2014-03-01

7

Temperature dependence of large-scale water retention curves: Acase study  

SciTech Connect

A local-scale model for temperature-dependence of water-retention curves may be applicable to large scales. Consideration of this temperature dependence is important for modeling unsaturated flow and transport in the subsurface in numerous cases. Although significant progress has been made in understanding and modeling this temperature effect, almost all the previous studies have been limited to small scales (on the order of several centimeters). Numerical experiments were used to investigate the possibility of extending a local-scale model for the temperature-dependence of water retention curves to large scales (on the order of meters). Temperature effects on large-scale hydraulic properties are of interest in many practical applications. Numerical experiment results indicate that the local-scale model can indeed be applicable to large-scale problems for special porous media with high air entry values. A typical porous medium of this kind is the porous tuff matrix in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the proposed geologic disposal site for national high-level nuclear wastes. Whether this finding can approximately hold for general cases needs to be investigated in future studies.

Liu, Hui-Hai; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Dane, J.H.

2001-10-26

8

Interrelations among the soil-water retention, hydraulic conductivity, and suction-stress characteristic curves  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The three fundamental constitutive relations that describe fluid flow, strength, and deformation behavior of variably saturated soils are the soil-water retention curve (SWRC), hydraulic conductivity function (HCF), and suction-stress characteristic curve (SSCC). Until recently, the interrelations among the SWRC, HCF, and SSCC have not been well established. This work sought experimental confirmation of interrelations among these three constitutive functions. Results taken from the literature for six soils and those obtained for 11 different soils were used. Using newly established analytical relations among the SWRC, HCF, and SSCC and these test results, the authors showed that these three constitutive relations can be defined by a common set of hydromechanical parameters. The coefficient of determination for air-entry pressures determined independently using hydraulic and mechanical methods is >0.99, >0.98 for the pore size parameter, and 0.94 for the residual degree of saturation. One practical implication is that one of any of the four experiments (axis-translation, hydraulic, shear-strength, or deformation) is sufficient to quantify all three constitutive relations.

Lu, Ning; Kaya, Murat; Godt, Jonathan W.

2014-01-01

9

Modeling the Soil Water Retention Curves of Soil-Gravel Mixtures with Regression Method on the Loess Plateau of China  

PubMed Central

Soil water retention parameters are critical to quantify flow and solute transport in vadose zone, while the presence of rock fragments remarkably increases their variability. Therefore a novel method for determining water retention parameters of soil-gravel mixtures is required. The procedure to generate such a model is based firstly on the determination of the quantitative relationship between the content of rock fragments and the effective saturation of soil-gravel mixtures, and then on the integration of this relationship with former analytical equations of water retention curves (WRCs). In order to find such relationships, laboratory experiments were conducted to determine WRCs of soil-gravel mixtures obtained with a clay loam soil mixed with shale clasts or pebbles in three size groups with various gravel contents. Data showed that the effective saturation of the soil-gravel mixtures with the same kind of gravels within one size group had a linear relation with gravel contents, and had a power relation with the bulk density of samples at any pressure head. Revised formulas for water retention properties of the soil-gravel mixtures are proposed to establish the water retention curved surface models of the power-linear functions and power functions. The analysis of the parameters obtained by regression and validation of the empirical models showed that they were acceptable by using either the measured data of separate gravel size group or those of all the three gravel size groups having a large size range. Furthermore, the regression parameters of the curved surfaces for the soil-gravel mixtures with a large range of gravel content could be determined from the water retention data of the soil-gravel mixtures with two representative gravel contents or bulk densities. Such revised water retention models are potentially applicable in regional or large scale field investigations of significantly heterogeneous media, where various gravel sizes and different gravel contents are present.

Wang, Huifang; Xiao, Bo; Wang, Mingyu; Shao, Ming'an

2013-01-01

10

Comparison of different approaches to the development of pedotransfer functions for water-retention curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) for estimating water-retention from particle-size and bulk density are presented for Australian soil. The water-retention data sets contain 733 samples for prediction and 109 samples for validation. We present both parametric and point estimation PTFs using different approaches: multiple linear regression (MLR), extended nonlinear regression (ENR) and artificial neural network (ANN). ENR was found to be the

Budiman Minasny; Alex B. McBratney; Keith L. Bristow

1999-01-01

11

Determination of water retention curves of rocks by a differential evolution algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several different parametric models have been developed to describe fluid flow and mass transport in unsaturated media. The experimental data can be fitted to the models obtaining a water retention curve (WRC) which best describes the hydraulic properties of the soil or rock under investigation. However, all these models need a complete data set and require an accurate measurement of the dependence of the matric potential () on water content (?) from saturation to oven dryness using methods that are time consuming and error-prone, especially when investigating rock media. In this work, a new approach for the determination of the model parameters that best fit the WRC of rocks is presented. The approach uses a differential evolution algorithm (DE), an evolutionary computation algorithm particularly useful for multidimensional real-valued problems, to calculate the parameters that best fit the models to the available experimental data. We show here that with DE it is possible to strongly decrease the number of experimental data needed to obtain model parameters that accurately describe the hydraulic properties of the rocks. In this work, we have applied DE to calculate the WRCs of rock samples, using several widely used models. The measurements have been performed on samples of sedimentary carbonatic rocks of marine origin, belonging to "Calcarenite di Gravina" formation (Middle Pliocene - Early Pleistocene) and coming from two different quarry districts in Southern Italy.

Turturro, Antonietta Celeste; Clementina Caputo, Maria; Maggi, Sabino

2013-04-01

12

Estimating Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity from Soil Water Retention Curve using Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of soil hydraulic properties like saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is required in the environmental investigations. Since, direct measurement of soil hydraulic properties is time consuming and expensive, indirect methods such as pedotransfer function and artificial neural networks (ANN) have been developed based on the readily available soil characteristics. In this study, we used soil water retention data i.e.

B. Ghanbarian-Alavijeh; A. M. Liaghat; S. Sohrabi

2009-01-01

13

Water retention curves of loamy-sandy soils: Transient evaporation method versus steady-state tension and pressure techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water retention curves of loamy-sandy soils at the agricultural test site Wagna (Austria) were measured using both the simplified evaporation method according to Schindler (Arch. Acker- u. Pflanzenbau u. Bodenkd. Berlin 24, 1-7, 1980) and steady-state tension and pressure techniques. The soil was sampled with 250-ccm and 100-ccm steel pipes for the evaporation method and the steady-state technique, respectively. In the transient evaporation method two tensiometers with a measurement range between 0 and 850 hPa are installed at a depth of 1.25 cm and 3.75 cm in a sample of 5 cm in height; the mean values of the two tensiometers and the water contents measured by weighing are used to obtain the water retention curve. The steady-state method employs a tension table (sand box) at tensions below 100 hPa and a pressure extractor at tensions between 300 hPa and 15,000 hPa; the water content is measured by weighing after the sample has equilibrated at the tension value set on the table or plate. First results of both methods suggest that the soil samples release water over the entire tension range measured. In particular, the release of water at very low tension values may suggest the presence of macropores. Despite the generally good agreement between the two methods, the values appear to deviate systematically close to saturation. This is potentially caused by the large relative error of the tension measurement close to saturation. Alternatively, the different size of the samples used for the evaporation experiment (250 ccm) and the steady-state method (100 ccm) might play a role. Because of the limited measurement range of the tensiometers used for the evaporation method, the measured curve must be extrapolated between 850 hPa and 15,000 hPa to allow comparison with the steady-state method. To this end, it was attempted to match the Brooks-Corey, the Van-Genuchten, and a bimodal Van-Genuchten retention function to the data from the evaporation experiments. This involves a simultaneous fit of both water-retention and hydraulic-conductivity function. Only the bimodal Van-Genuchten model was found to be able to produce satisfactory fits to the data. The extrapolated water retention curves, however, do not match the data from the steady-state method. This suggests that alternative soil hydraulic functions are needed to provide an adequate representation of the water retention characteristics of the loamy-sandy soils considered in this investigation.

Winkler, G.; Eberhard, E.; Fank, J.; Birk, S.

2009-12-01

14

Use of a lognormal distribution model for estimating soil water retention curves from particle-size distribution data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle-size distribution (PSD) of soils has been widely used to estimate water retention curves (WRCs). Lognormal distribution model, which estimates the WRC directly from the PSD data by applying a lognormal distribution law to both PSD and void-size distribution (VSD), has been recently developed and successfully applied to sandy soils. The objective of this study was to investigate in detail the applicability of the lognormal distribution model for a broader range of soil textures. Performance of the model was evaluated on five aggregated USDA texture classes (coarse-, moderately coarse-, medium-, moderately fine-, and fine-texture soils) using 229 'undisturbed' soils (159 soils for model calibration and 70 soils for validation). The model performed worst for moderately fine-textured soils, since the PSDs and VSDs of soils included in this texture did not strongly follow the lognormal distribution. In general, performance of the model decreased with increase in fine particle fraction, possibly because of the surface sorption behavior of clay particles.

Hwang, Sang Il.; Choi, Sang Il.

2006-05-01

15

Evolution of water repellency of organic growing media used in Horticulture and consequences on hysteretic behaviours of the water retention curve  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of growing media used in horticulture (particularly peat substrates) shows hysteresis phenomena during desiccation and rehydration cycles, which greatly affects their hydraulic properties. The origins of these properties have often been related to one or several of the specific mechanisms such as the non-geometrical uniformity of the pores (also called ‘ink bottle' effect), presence of trapped air, shrinkage-swelling phenomena, and changes in water repellency. However, recent results showed that changes in wettability during desiccation and rehydration could be considered as one of the main factors leading to hysteretic behaviour in these materials with high organic matter contents (Naasz et al., 2008). The general objective was to estimate the evolutions of changes in water repellency on the water retention properties and associated hysteresis phenomena in relation to the intensity and the number of drying/wetting cycles. For this, simultaneous shrinkage/swelling and water retention curves were obtained using method previously developed for soil shrinkage analysis by Boivin (2006) that we have adapted for growing media and to their physical behaviours during rewetting. The experiment was performed in a climatic chamber at 20°C. A cylinder with the growing medium tested was placed on a porous ceramic disk which is used to control the pressure and to full/empty water of the sample. The whole of the device was then placed on a balance to record the water loss/storage with time; whereas linear displacement transducers were used to measure the changes in sample height and diameter upon drying and wetting in the axial and radial directions. Ceramic cups (2 cm long and 0.21 cm diameter) connected to pressure transducers were inserted in the middle of the samples to record the water pressure head. In parallell, contact angles were measured by direct droplet method at different steps during the drying/rewetting cycles. First results obtained on weakly decomposed peat samples with or without surfactants showed isotropic shrinkage and swelling, and highlighted hysteresis phenomena in relation to the intensity of drying/wetting cycle. Contact angle measurements are in progress. Other measurements on highly decomposed peat (more repellent than weakly decomposed), composted pine bark (without volume change during dryin/wetting cycles), and coco fiber (expected as non repellent organic growing media) are also in progress.

Michel, Jean-Charles; Qi, Guifang; Charpentier, Sylvain; Boivin, Pascal

2010-05-01

16

Analysis of water retention curve as a potential tool in comparing the effect of different soil management in two olive orchard in southern Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water soil erosion is one of the major concerns in agricultural areas in Southern Spain, and the use of cover crops has been recommended as an alternative to tillage to prevent, or mitigate, soil erosion. This change of soil management implies a progressive modification of soil chemical, biological and physical properties which to date, have been documented by a limited number of studies. In this communication we describe a methodology based on the modification of the water retention curves of intact cores, present the results obtained in two olive orchards in Southern Spain, and compare them with several chemical and physical properties measured simultaneously in the orchards. The experimental areas were located in Benacazón and Pedrera, Seville province in Southern Spain, and at each location two experimental plots were established. One of the plots was under traditional tillage management and the other under cover crop soil management. The slope at the plots was 12 and 4% respectively. Soil samples were taken at both plots differentiating between the inter tree areas and the under the olive canopy areas, between two different depths: 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm. These resulted in eight different sampling areas (2x2x2). Samples were taken three year after establishing the experiments. Water retention curves of soils were obtained as the average of replications per and using the Eijkelkamp Sand and Sand/Kaolin suction tables (0-500 hPa) and a Decagon's WP4-T dewpoint potentiometer (0-300•106 hPa). The latest was used to determine the residual water content. Experimental water retention curves were to two different models: van Genuchten (1980) and Kosugi (1994). Once modeling was done, the slope value of the curves at the inflexion point, proposed by Dexter (2004a, b, c) to estimate physical quality of soils, was calculated. This study presents and discusses the advantages and problems of the different approaches for determining the water retention curves, the potential of these curves to evaluate physical modifications of the soils, and compares them with the other soil properties measured at the experiments. References: Dexter, A. R. 2004. a.- Soil physical quality. Part I. Theory, effects of soil texture, density, and organic matter, and effects on root growth. Geoderma 120 (2004) 201-214. Dexter, A. R. 2004. b.- Soil physical quality. Part II. Friability, tillage, tilth and hardsetting. Geoderma 120 (2004) 215-225. Dexter, A. R. 2004. c.- Soil physical quality. Part III: Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and general conclusions about S-theory. Geoderma 120 (2004) 227-239. Kosugi, K. 1994. Three-parameter lognormal distribution model for soil water retention. Water Resour. Re. 30: 891-901. van Genutchen, M.Th. A closed-form equation for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils, Soil Science Society of America Journal, v.44, p.892-898,1980.

Guzmán, G.; Gómez, J. A.; Giráldez, J. V.

2010-05-01

17

Deriving NMR surface relaxivities, pore size distributions and water retention curves by NMR relaxation experiments on partially de-saturated rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a method used over a wide field of geophysical applications to non-destructively determine transport and storage properties of rocks and soils. In NMR relaxometry signal amplitudes correspond directly to the rock's fluid (water, oil) content. On the other hand the NMR relaxation behavior, i.e. the longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) NMR relaxation times, can be used to derive pore sizes and permeability as it is linearly linked to the pore's surface-to-volume-ratio and physiochemical properties of the rock-fluid interface by the surface relaxivity ?_s This parameter, however, is dependent on the type and mineral constituents of the investigated rock sample and thus has to be determined and calibrated prior to estimating pore sizes from NMR relaxometry measurements. Frequently used methods to derive surface relaxivity to calibrate NMR pore sizes comprise mercury injection, pulsed field gradients (PFG-NMR) or grain size analysis. This study introduces an alternative approach to jointly estimate NMR surface relaxivity and pore radii distributions using NMR relaxation data obtained from partially de-saturated rocks. In this, inverse modeling is carried on a linked Young Laplace equation for capillary bundles and the Brownstein and Tarr equations. Subsequently, this approach is used to predict water retention curves of the investigated rocks. The method was tested and validated on simulated and laboratory transverse NMR data. Calculated inverse models are generally in a good agreement with results obtained from mercury injection and drainage measurements. Left: Measured and predicted water retention (pF) curves. Center: NMR relaxometry data, fit and error. Right: Mercury injection data (HgPor, dashed line) and jointly derived pore radii distributions and surface relaxivity by joint inverse modelling

Mohnke, O.; Nordlund, C. L.; Klitzsch, N.

2013-12-01

18

Spatial Variability of Physical Properties of a Tropical Soil. II. Soil Water Retention Curves and Hydraulic Conductivity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The characterization of a field site from the soil physics point of view, the improvement of the use of soil and water resources under a particular condition and the development of means for controlling the dynamics of soil-water movement are presented. S...

K. Reichardt P. L. Libardi S. V. Queiroz F. Grohmann

1976-01-01

19

Formulation of soil hydraulic conductivity from water retention curve, based on data inversion results, interpreted in terms of tortuosity, connectivity and flow turbulence.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to refine hydraulic conductivity determination from soil water retention curve, we calculated the correcting factors, by data inversion, using a generalised formulation issued from Burdine or Mualem hydraulic conductivity. These formulations use the laminar flow, obeying Poiseuille law, through a bundle of cylinders of different radii, and correcting factors traducing the gap with real flow and real soil geometry. A general correcting factor is supposed to be proportional to water content, with an exponent a. An inner correcting factor is a function of pore size and/or water content and is inside the integral. We did not presuppose any analytical form for this inner correcting function. We used soil data obtained from clayey Amazonian tropical ferralsols composed of around 7/8 of clay fraction and fine silt (mainly kaolinite with some gibbsite and goethite) and 1/8 of coarse sand (quartz and kaolinite aggregates), with 0,2 to 1,5 % organic carbon content. Data were obtained using three different techniques : high pressurized water extraction disposal, evaporation experiment (Wind method) and in situ infiltration. The explored pore size domain was very large, ranging from 2 micrometers to 2 mm, completed by some data around 0,1 micrometer, so three to four orders of magnitude. We precised pore distribution in the range from 4 nm to 2 micrometers with mercury injection porosimetry corrected from drying effects. The pore distribution is bimodal, with a very small pore volume around 0,25 micrometer pore size. Such pore distribution allows observing separately the effects of pore size and water content on hydraulic conductivity, as water content is not a regularly increasing function of largest filled pores size. The results showed that a general correcting factor as an exponent of water content over all the described domain is inappropriate, as we encountered the smallest spreading of the inner correcting function when the exponent a is zero. The general correcting factor was taken constant with respect to water content ; it decreased with increasing organic carbon content (decrease of a factor 2). For the inner correcting factor, we shall interpret separately two domains, pores smaller or greater than 0,1 mm. For pores greater than 0,1 mm, hydraulic conductivity increase was simply proportional to water content increase : Poiseuille law does no longer apply as flow gets turbulent. For pores smaller than 0,1 mm, Poiseuille law applies, hydraulic conductivity increase (6 orders of magnitude) was explained, the inner correcting function extreme values ratio was 50. The correcting function variations correlated with the poral volume of the two orders of magnitude smaller than the size of the largest pores filled with water, we interpreted this as the connectivity effect. The remaining correcting factor extreme values ratio was then 2.7, that we interpreted as the square of tortuosity variations, that should depend on soil mineralogy and must be defined by some hydraulic conductivity data. Then the whole hydraulic conductivity curve can be predicted from poral data and organic carbon content.

du Gardin, Béryl; Lucas, Yves

2014-05-01

20

Water retention and gas relative permeability of two industrial concretes  

SciTech Connect

This experimental study aims at identifying the water retention properties of two industrial concretes to be used for long term underground nuclear waste storage structures. Together with water retention, gas transfer properties are identified at varying water saturation level, i.e. relative gas permeability is assessed directly as a function of water saturation level S{sub w}. The influence of the initial de-sorption path and of the subsequent re-saturation are analysed both in terms of water retention and gas transfer properties. Also, the influence of concrete microstructure upon water retention and relative gas permeability is assessed, using porosity measurements, analysis of the BET theory from water retention properties, and MIP. Finally, a single relative gas permeability curve is proposed for each concrete, based on Van Genuchten-Mualem's statistical model, to be used for continuous modelling approaches of concrete structures, both during drying and imbibition.

Chen Wei; Liu Jian; Brue, Flore; Skoczylas, Frederic [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); ECLille, LML, BP 48, F-59650 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France); CNRS, UMR 8107, F-59650 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France); Davy, C.A., E-mail: catherine.davy@ec-lille.fr [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); ECLille, LML, BP 48, F-59650 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France); CNRS, UMR 8107, F-59650 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France); Bourbon, Xavier; Talandier, Jean [Andra, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, F-92298 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France)

2012-07-15

21

Water retention capacity of tissue cultured plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaves rapidly close their stomata after detachment resulting in a strong reduction of water loss. It has been reported that detached leaves of in vitro produced plants show continuous water loss indicating that they are unable to close the stomata properly and\\/or that their cuticle is malfunctioning. We examined the water retention capacity (WRC) of detached primary leaves of in

Klerk de G. J. M; F. Wijnhoven

2005-01-01

22

Wildfire impacts on soil-water retention in the Colorado Front Range, United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work examined the plot-scale differences in soil-water retention caused by wildfire in the area of the 2010 Fourmile Canyon Fire in the Colorado Front Range, United States. We measured soil-water retention curves on intact cores and repacked samples, soil particle-size distributions, and organic matter content. Estimates were also made of plant-available water based on the soil-water retention curves. Parameters for use in soil-hydraulic property models were estimated; these parameters can be used in unsaturated flow modeling for comparing burned and unburned watersheds. The primary driver for measured differences in soil-water retention in burned and unburned soils was organic matter content and not soil-particle size distribution. The tendency for unburned south-facing soils to have greater organic matter content than unburned north-facing soils in this field area may explain why unburned south-facing soils had greater soil-water retention than unburned north-facing soils. Our results suggest that high-severity wildfire can "homogenize" soil-water retention across the landscape by erasing soil-water retention differences resulting from organic matter content, which for this site may be affected by slope aspect. This homogenization could have important implications for ecohydrology and plant succession/recovery in burned areas, which could be a factor in dictating the window of vulnerability of the landscape to flash floods and erosion that are a common consequence of wildfire.

Ebel, Brian A.

2012-12-01

23

Upscaled soil-water retention using van Genuchten's function  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soils are often layered at scales smaller than the block size used in numerical and conceptual models of variably saturated flow. Consequently, the small-scale variability in water content within each block must be homogenized (upscaled). Laboratory results have shown that a linear volume average (LVA) of water content at a uniform suction is a good approximation to measured water contents in heterogeneous cores. Here, we upscale water contents using van Genuchten's function for both the local and upscaled soil-water-retention characteristics. The van Genuchten (vG) function compares favorably with LVA results, laboratory experiments under hydrostatic conditions in 3-cm cores, and numerical simulations of large-scale gravity drainage. Our method yields upscaled vG parameter values by fitting the vG curve to the LVA of water contents at various suction values. In practice, it is more efficient to compute direct averages of the local vG parameter values. Nonlinear power averages quantify a feasible range of values for each upscaled vG shape parameter; upscaled values of N are consistently less than the harmonic means, reflecting broad pore-size distributions of the upscaled soils. The vG function is useful for modeling soil-water retention at large scales, and these results provide guidance for its application.

Green, T. R.; Constantz, J. E.; Freyberg, D. L.

1996-01-01

24

Water and nutrient retention by Aquasoil and Stockosorb polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water retention and hydration rate of Aquasoil and Stockosorb polymers, the effects of these polymers on the water, ammonium and nitrate retention of a pine bark growth medium and the response of the polymers to fer- tilizer solutions were investigated. Aquasoil retained 129 g of distilled water g\\

M. G. Ghebru; E. S. duToit; J. M. Steyn

25

Estimating soil water retention using soil component additivity model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil water retention is a major soil hydraulic property that governs soil functioning in ecosystems and greatly affects soil management. Data on soil water retention are used in research and applications in hydrology, agronomy, meteorology, ecology, environmental protection, and many other soil-related fields. Soil organic matter content and composition affect both soil structure and adsorption properties; therefore water retention may be affected by changes in soil organic matter that occur because of both climate change and modifications of management practices. Thus, effects of organic matter on soil water retention should be understood and quantified. Measurement of soil water retention is relatively time-consuming, and become impractical when soil hydrologic estimates are needed for large areas. One approach to soil water retention estimation from readily available data is based on the hypothesis that soil water retention may be estimated as an additive function obtained by summing up water retention of pore subspaces associated with soil textural and/or structural components and organic matter. The additivity model and was tested with 550 soil samples from the international database UNSODA and 2667 soil samples from the European database HYPRES containing all textural soil classes after USDA soil texture classification. The root mean square errors (RMSEs) of the volumetric water content estimates for UNSODA vary from 0.021 m3m-3 for coarse sandy loam to 0.075 m3m-3 for sandy clay. Obtained RMSEs are at the lower end of the RMSE range for regression-based water retention estimates found in literature. Including retention estimates of organic matter significantly improved RMSEs. The attained accuracy warrants testing the 'additivity' model with additional soil data and improving this model to accommodate various types of soil structure. Keywords: soil water retention, soil components, additive model, soil texture, organic matter.

Zeiliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.; Semenov, V.

2009-04-01

26

Estimation of hydraulic conductivities of Yucca Mountain tuffs from sorptivity and water retention measurements  

SciTech Connect

The hydraulic conductivity functions of the matrix rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, are among the most important data needed as input for the site-scale hydrological model of the unsaturated zone. The difficult and time-consuming nature of hydraulic conductivity measurements renders it infeasible to directly measure this property on large numbers of cores. Water retention and sorptivity measurements, however, can be made relatively rapidly. The sorptivity is, in principle, a unique functional of the conductivity and water retention functions. It therefore should be possible to invert sorptivity and water retention measurements in order to estimate the conductivity; the porosity is the only other parameter that is required for this inversion. In this report two methods of carrying out this inversion are presented, and are tested against a limited data set that has been collected by Flint et al. at the USGS on a set of Yucca Mountain tuffs. The absolute permeability is usually predicted by both methods to within an average error of about 0.5 - 1.0 orders of magnitude. The discrepancy appears to be due to the fact that the water retention curves have only been measured during drainage, whereas the imbibition water retention curve is the one that is relevant to sorptivity measurements. Although the inversion methods also yield predictions of the relative permeability function, there are yet no unsaturated hydraulic conductivity data against which to test these predictions.

Zimmerman, R.W.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

1995-06-01

27

Soil water retention and maximum capillary drive from saturation to oven dryness  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper provides an alternative method to describe the water retention curve over a range of water contents from saturation to oven dryness. It makes two modifications to the standard Brooks and Corey [1964] (B-C) description, one at each end of the suction range. One expression proposed by Rossi and Nimmo [1994] is used in the high-suction range to a zero residual water content. (This Rossi-Nimmo modification to the Brooks-Corey model provides a more realistic description of the retention curve at low water contents.) Near zero suction the second modification eliminates the region where there is a change in suction with no change in water content. Tests on seven soil data sets, using three distinct analytical expressions for the high-, medium-, and low-suction ranges, show that the experimental water retention curves are well fitted by this composite procedure. The high-suction range of saturation contributes little to the maximum capillary drive, defined with a good approximation for a soil water and air system as H(cM) = {???)/(o) k(rw) dh(c), where k(rw) is relative permeability (or conductivity) to water and h(c) is capillary suction, a positive quantity in unsaturated soils. As a result, the modification suggested to describe the high-suction range does not significantly affect the equivalence between Brooks-Corey (B-C) and van Genuchten [1980] parameters presented earlier. However, the shape of the retention curve near 'natural saturation' has a significant impact on the value of the capillary drive. The estimate using the Brooks-Corey power law, extended to zero suction, will exceed that obtained with the new procedure by 25 to 30%. It is not possible to tell which procedure is appropriate. Tests on another data set, for which relative conductivity data are available, support the view of the authors that measurements of a retention curve coupled with a speculative curve of relative permeability as from a capillary model are not sufficient to accurately determine the (maximum) capillary drive. The capillary drive is a dynamic scalar, whereas the retention curve is of a static character. Only measurements of infiltration rates with time can determine the capillary drive with precision for a given soil.

Morel-Seytoux, H. J.; Nimmo, J. R.

1999-01-01

28

Determination of water retention in stratified porous materials  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Predicted and measured water-retention values, ??(??), were compared for repacked, stratified core samples consisting of either a sand with a stone-bearing layer or a sand with a clay loam layer in various spatial orientations. Stratified core samples were packed in submersible pressure outflow cells, then water-retention measurements were performed between matric potentials, ??, of 0 to -100 kPa. Predictions of ??(??) were based on a simple volume-averaging model using estimates of the relative fraction and ??(??) values of each textural component within a stratified sample. In general, predicted ??(??) curves resembled measured curves well, except at higher saturations in a sample consisting of a clay loam layer over a sand layer. In this case, the model averaged the air-entry of both materials, while the air-entry of the sample was controlled by the clay loam in contact with the cell's air-pressure inlet. In situ, avenues for air-entry generally exist around clay layers, so that the model should adequately predict air-entry for stratified formations regardless of spatial orientation of fine versus coarse layers. Agreement between measured and predicted volumetric water contents, ??, was variable though encouraging, with mean differences between measured and predicted ?? values in the range of 10%. Differences in ?? of this magnitude are expected due to variability in pore structure between samples, and do not indicate inherent problems with the volume averaging model. This suggets that explicit modeling of stratified formations through detailed characterization of the stratigraphy has the potential of yielding accurate ??(??) values. However, hydraulic-equilibration times were distinctly different for each variation in spatial orientation of textural layering, indicating that transient behavior during drainage in stratified formations is highly sensitive to the stratigraphic sequence of textural components, as well as the volume fraction of each textural component in a formation. This indicates that prolonged residence times of water, nutrients, and pollutants are likely within finer-textured layers, when ?? conditions have resulted in drainage of underlying coarser-textured strata. ?? 1995 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Constantz, J.

1995-01-01

29

Is the Water Heating Curve as Described?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We analysed the heating curve of water which is described in textbooks. An experiment combined with some simple heat transfer calculations is discussed. The theoretical behaviour can be altered by changing the conditions under which the experiment is modelled. By identifying and controlling the different parameters involved during the heating…

Riveros, H. G.; Oliva, A. I.

2008-01-01

30

Comparison of artificial neural network and regression pedotransfer functions for prediction of soil water retention and saturated hydraulic conductivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling water flow and solute transport in vadose zone requires knowledge of soil hydraulic properties, which are water retention and hydraulic conductivity curves. As an alternative to direct measurement, indirect determination of these functions from basic soil properties using pedotransfer functions (PTFs) has attracted the attention of researchers in a variety of fields such as soil scientists, hydrologists, and agricultural

Hasan Merdun; Özer Ç?nar; Ramazan Meral; Mehmet Apan

2006-01-01

31

Water-Retention of Fractal Soil Models Using Continuum Percolation Theory: Tests of Hanford Site Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT,of percolation theory for flow in a fractal medium in- creases understanding of the steady-state hydraulic con- For 43 Hanford site soils, we use fractal analysis and assume propor- ductivity in the DOE Hanford Site soils. A related prob- tionality of pore radii to particle radii to generate water-retention curves, h(), from particle-size distributions. The air-entry head is lem, which

Allen G. Hunt; Glendon W. Gee

2002-01-01

32

Closed-form expressions for water retention and conductivity data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Closed-form expressions for quantifying the unsaturated soil hydraulic properties are widely used in computer programs to model subsurface flow and transport in porous media and to investigate indirect methods for estimating these properties. For example, water retention data, which relate soil-water pressure head (h) and effective water saturation (S{sub e}), are frequently used to predict the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (K).

Feike J. Leij; Walter B. Russell; Scott M. Lesch

1997-01-01

33

Modelling Soil Water Retention Using Support Vector Machines with Genetic Algorithm Optimisation  

PubMed Central

This work presents point pedotransfer function (PTF) models of the soil water retention curve. The developed models allowed for estimation of the soil water content for the specified soil water potentials: –0.98, –3.10, –9.81, –31.02, –491.66, and –1554.78?kPa, based on the following soil characteristics: soil granulometric composition, total porosity, and bulk density. Support Vector Machines (SVM) methodology was used for model development. A new methodology for elaboration of retention function models is proposed. Alternative to previous attempts known from literature, the ?-SVM method was used for model development and the results were compared with the formerly used the C-SVM method. For the purpose of models' parameters search, genetic algorithms were used as an optimisation framework. A new form of the aim function used for models parameters search is proposed which allowed for development of models with better prediction capabilities. This new aim function avoids overestimation of models which is typically encountered when root mean squared error is used as an aim function. Elaborated models showed good agreement with measured soil water retention data. Achieved coefficients of determination values were in the range 0.67–0.92. Studies demonstrated usability of ?-SVM methodology together with genetic algorithm optimisation for retention modelling which gave better performing models than other tested approaches.

Lamorski, Krzysztof; Slawinski, Cezary; Moreno, Felix; Barna, Gyongyi; Skierucha, Wojciech; Arrue, Jose L.

2014-01-01

34

Phosphorus Retention Mechanisms of a Water Treatment Residual  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water treatment residuals (WTRs) are a by-product of municipal drinking water treatment plants and can have the,capacity to adsorb tremendous amounts of P. Understanding the WTR phosphorus ad- sorption process is important for discerning the mechanrism and tenac- ity of P retention. We studied P adsorbing mechanism(s) of an alumi- num-based (A12(SO 4),14H 2O) WTR from Englewood, CO. In a

J. A. Ippolito; K. A. Barbarick; D. M. Heil; J. P. Chandler; E. F. Redente

2003-01-01

35

A soil-water retention function that includes the hyper-dry region through the BET adsorption isotherm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most existing full-range soil-water retention functions extend standard capillary pressure curves into the dry region to zero water content at a finite matric pressure. A description of dryness is commonly taken as oven-dry conditions given by a matric suction of about 109 Pa at zero liquid saturation. However, no finite pressure can be exerted by a zero amount of water,

Orlando Silva; Jordi Grifoll

2007-01-01

36

Water retention, hydraulic conductivity of hydrophilic polymers in sandy soil as affected by temperature and water quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryHydrophilic polymers can swell by absorbing huge volumes of water or aqueous solutions. This property has led to many practical applications of these new materials, particularly in arid regions for improving water retention in sandy soils and the water supply to plants grown on them. The effects of two hydrophilic polymers, carboxymethylcellulose (RF) and isopropyl acrylamide (BF) on the water holding capacity and saturated hydraulic conductivity ( KS) of a sandy soil at varying soil temperature and water quality were evaluated. The RF was less efficient in absorbing water than BF, but the efficiency of BF in retaining water was negatively affected by its thermo-sensitivity and the quality of water. The temperature dependence of the water absorption was not clear for the soils treated with RF, whereas, the efficiency of BF treatment in absorbing water decreased significantly ( P < 0.05) with increasing soil temperature. The dependence of the KS on soil temperature differed with the type of hydrophilic polymer used. The KS of the control soil remained nearly constant as the soil temperature increased. The KS of the BF treated soil increased significantly ( P < 0.05) and linearly with increasing soil temperature, while that of soil treated with RF showed a quadratic response. The soil-absorbent mixtures exhibited different water retention characteristics under different soil temperature conditions. The increase in soil temperature did not affect the water retention characteristics curve of the control. The effect of soil temperature on the water potential curve of the soil treated with RF was not clear particularly when the temperature increased from 25 to 35 °C. The water potential curve for soil-BF mixtures showed that the water content value at field capacity shifted from 0.21 to 0.10 cm 3 cm -3 for 0.1% and from 0.27 to 0.12 cm 3 cm -3 for 0.2%, as the soil temperature increased from 15 to 35 °C. This implies that the soil-BF absorbent mixtures would release some moisture as the soil temperature would increase from 15 to 35 °C, and this water could be lost by percolation or taken up by plant. It was found that available water content increased up to four times with RF as compared to control soil whereas it increased up to five times with BF treatment. At high temperature, the difference was much reduced except for RF at 0.2%. This understanding of the characteristics of the absorbents and the interactions among absorbents, soil, and temperature would be of help in water management in sandy soil.

Andry, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Irie, T.; Moritani, S.; Inoue, M.; Fujiyama, H.

2009-06-01

37

Soil-water characteristic curves for compacted clays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil-water characteristic curves (SWCCs) are presented for four compacted clay barrier soils that were prepared at different compaction water contents (dry, wet, and optimum water content) and compactive efforts (standard and modified Proctor). The SWCCs were measured in the laboratory using pressure plate extractors. The shape of the SWCC depends on compaction water content and compactive effort, but compaction water

James M. Tinjum; Craig H. Benson; Lisa R. Blotz

1997-01-01

38

No tillage effect on water retention characteristics of soil aggregates in rainfed semiarid conditions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evaluation of changes in soil moisture retention characteristics associated to alterations in soil structure is of great interest in tillage studies. Most of these studies have evaluated soil properties in samples of total soil but not in individual aggregates. However, soil behavior at a macroscale level depends on the aggregate properties. A better knowledge of aggregate characteristics, as the water retention properties, will help to explain, for example, the response of soil to tillage, compaction and crop growth, and hence, to plan adequate soil management practices. In this study we determine the water retention curve of soil aggregates of different sizes from a soil under two tillage systems (conventional and no tillage). The study was carried out in a silty clay loam soil of semiarid Aragon (NE Spain). Two tillage systems were compared: no tillage (NT) and conventional tillage with mouldboard plough (CT). Water retention curves (WRC) were determined for soil surface aggregates (0-5 cm) of three different sizes (8-4, 4-2 and 2-1 mm in diameter) by using the TDR-pressure cell (Moret et al. 2008. Soil Till. Res, 100, 114-119). The TDR-pressure cell is a non-destructive method which permits determining WRC with the only one and same soil sample. Thus, the pressure cell was filled with aggregates up to 4 cm height, weighted and wetted to saturation from the bottom. Pressure steps were sequentially applied at -0.5, -1.5, -3, -5, -10, -33, -100, -300 kPa, and water content of each aggregate sample was measured gravimetrically and by TDR 24 h after starting each pressure head step. The volume of the sample within the cell was also determined at this moment in order to obtain the bulk density and thus calculate the volumetric water content. A good relationship was obtained between the volumetric water content calculated from the gravimetric water content and the corresponding values measured by TDR (r2=0.907; p?0.05). Within the same tillage treatment, no significant differences in WRC were found among soil aggregate sizes. Soil aggregates under CT retained more water at lower pressure heads in all aggregate sizes; in contrast the retention was more effective in those from NT at high pressure level. The extensive structural degradation of the CT aggregates observed during wetting with the consequent decrease in the soil volume within the transparent cell, can help to explain the different behaviour of both soils. The CT aggregates were probably disintegrated by slaking, causing a reduction in water drainage and, therefore, an increase in soil water content at low pressure heads. This idea was also confirmed with the application of the double exponential function proposed by Dexter et al. (2008. Geoderma 173, 243-253). The WRC curves measured by TDR were successfully fitted to the theoretical model proposed by Dexter (r2=0.986; p?0.05). Thus, the model estimated that the large porosity between aggregates retain slightly more water under CT (0.36-0.39 m3 m-3) than under NT (0.31-0.35 m3 m-3). On the contrary, pores inside the aggregates tend to storage more water in NT (0.16-0.20 m3 m-3vs. 0.13-0.17 m3 m-3 in CT). These results show the suitability of NT to reduce the risk of soil crusting and compaction in agricultural lands of Aragón.

Blanco-Moure, Nuria; López, M. Victoria; Moret, David

2010-05-01

39

Soil–water characteristic curves of Singapore residual soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil–water characteristic curves were obtained for a number of Singapore residual soil samples. Soil samples were obtained from the two main residual soil formations, the Jurong sedimentary formation and the Bukit Timah granitic formation, at various depths. The effect of weathering on the shape of the soil–water characteristic curve is examined. As the test procedure in obtaining the soil–water characteristic

S. S. Agus; E. C. Leong; H. Rahardjo

2001-01-01

40

Water Repellency, Infiltration and Water Retention Properties of Forest Soils Under Different Management Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

For soils under both agricultural and forest use, management and tillage practice can have significant influence on the hydraulic properties. It is therefore supposed, that management practices are capable of altering surface runoff, water retention and flood- ing risk for river catchments. Soil water repellency (hydrophobicity) can adversely affect soil hydrological properties, e.g. reduce infiltration capacity and induce pref- erential

N. A. Wahl; O. Bens; B. Schäfer; R. F. Hüttl

2002-01-01

41

Thermodynamic assessment of the effect of strongly swelling polymer hydrogels on the water retention capacity of model porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of different rates and fractions of strongly swelling polymer hydrogel (SSPH) based on radiation-grafted polyacrylamide on the water retention capacity and structural state of model porous media in the form of quartz sand fractions with different degrees of dispersion has been studied. The water retention curve (WRC) of sandy porous media obtained by the capillarimetric method has been used as a basic thermodynamic parameter. An original method has been proposed for the comparative study of the effect of SSPHs on the WRC based on the approximation of data by the nonlinear van Genuchten function followed by differential analysis. Equations are given for the calculation of capillary water capacity and structural curves of pore size distribution. SSPH concentrations in the range 0.05-0.2% of enclosing material weight reliably increase the water retention capacity of sandy fractions and the total, capillary, and field capacities (determined by the Voronin secant method) by 2-3 times; as well as the range of available water and the contents of fine macropores and mesopores. Factors limiting the swelling of SSPHs in model porous media have been revealed.

Sadovnikova, N. B.; Smagin, A. V.; Sidorova, M. A.

2014-04-01

42

Primer on Condition Curves for Water Mains  

EPA Science Inventory

ABSTRACT The development of economical tools to prioritize pipe renewal based upon structural condition and remaining asset life is essential to effectively manage water infrastructure assets for both large and small diameter pipes. One tool that may facilitate asset management...

43

Influence of Soil Management on Water Retention from Saturation to Oven Dryness and Dominant Soil Water States in a Vertisol under Crop Rotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unique water transfer and retention properties of Vertisols strongly affect their use in rainfed agriculture in water-limited environments. Despite the agricultural importance of the hydraulic properties of those soils, water retention data dryer than the wilting point are generally scarce, mainly as a result of practical constraints of traditional water retention measurement methods. In this work we provide a detailed description of regionalized water retention data from saturation to oven dryness, obtained from 54 minimally disturbed topsoil (0-0.05m) samples collected at a 3.5-ha experimental field in SW Spain where conventional tillage (CT) and direct drilling (DD) is compared in a wheat-sunflower-legume crop rotation on a Vertisol. Water retention was measured from saturation to oven dryness using sand and sand-kaolin boxes, a pressure plate apparatus and a dew point psychrometer, respectively. A common shape of the water retention curve (WRC) was observed in both tillage systems, with a strong discontinuity in its slope near -0.4 MPa and a decreasing spread from the wet to the dry end. A continuous function, consisting of the sum of a double exponential model (Dexter et al, 2008) and the Groenevelt and Grant (2004) model could be fitted successfully to the data. Two inflection points in the WRC were interpreted as boundaries between the structural and the textural pore spaces and between the textural and the intra-clay aggregate pore spaces. Water retention was significantly higher in DD (p<0.05) for pressure heads ranging from -0.006 to -0.32 MPa, and from -1.8 to -3.3 MPa. The magnitude of these differences ranged from 0.006 to 0.015 kg kg-1. The differential water capacity and associated equivalent pore-size distribution showed that these differences could be attributed to a combined effect of tillage and compaction, increasing and decreasing the amount of the largest pores in CT and DD, respectively, but resulting in a proportionally larger pore space with relevant pore-sizes for water dynamics and agronomic performance. Significant differences in water retention and equivalent pore-sizes at the dry end of the WRC could be associated with the higher organic matter content found in DD. These results explain the superior performance of DD over CT in satisfying high crop water demands, especially at the end of spring when atmospheric water demands become very high, resulting in an extension of the growing period under DD. The results provide also an explanation for the observed soil water dynamics pattern in the field, with rapid transitions between persistent wet and dry water content states. References Dexter, A.R., E.A. Czy?, G. Richard, A. Reszkowska, 2008. A user-friendly water retention function that takes account of the textural and structural pore spaces in soil. Geoderma, 143:243-253. Groenevelt, P.A., C.D. Grant, 2004. A new model for the soil-water retention curve that solves the problem of residual water contents. Eur. J. Soil Sci. 55:479-485.

Vanderlinden, Karl; Pachepsky, Yakov; Pederera, Aura; Martinez, Gonzalo; Espejo, Antonio Jesus; Giraldez, Juan Vicente

2014-05-01

44

REGIONAL SOIL WATER RETENTION IN THE CONTIGUOUS US: SOURCES OF VARIABILITY AND VOLCANIC SOIL EFFECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Water retention of mineral soil is often well predicted using algorithms (pedotransfer functions) with basic soil properties but the spatial variability of these properties has not been well characterized. A further source of uncertainty is that water retention by volcanic soils...

45

Estimation of water retention parameters from nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation time distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For characterizing water flow in the vadose zone, the water retention curve (WRC) of the soil must be known. Because conventional WRC measurements demand much time and effort in the laboratory, alternative methods with shortened measurement duration are desired. The WRC can be estimated, for instance, from the cumulative pore size distribution (PSD) of the investigated material. Geophysical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry have successfully been applied to recover PSDs of sandstones and limestones. It is therefore expected that the multiexponential analysis of the NMR signal from water-saturated loose sediments leads to a reliable estimation of the WRC. We propose an approach to estimate the WRC using the cumulative NMR relaxation time distribution and approximate it with the well-known van-Genuchten (VG) model. Thereby, the VG parameter n, which controls the curvature of the WRC, is of particular interest, because it is the essential parameter to predict the relative hydraulic conductivity. The NMR curves are calibrated with only two conventional WRC measurements, first, to determine the residual water content and, second, to define a fixed point that relates the relaxation time to a corresponding capillary pressure. We test our approach with natural and artificial soil samples and compare the NMR-based results to WRC measurements using a pressure plate apparatus and to WRC predictions from the software ROSETTA. We found that for sandy soils n can reliably be estimated with NMR, whereas for samples with clay and silt contents higher than 10% the estimation fails. This is the case when the hydraulic properties of the soil are mainly controlled by the pore constrictions. For such samples, the sensitivity of the NMR method for the pore bodies hampers a plausible WRC estimation.

Costabel, Stephan; Yaramanci, Ugur

2013-04-01

46

DIVISION S-6—SOIL & WATER MANAGEMENT & CONSERVATION Soil Water Retention as Related to Topographic Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

long been routinely used in soil mapping (Northcote, 1954). Geomorphometry was proposed as a data source Digital elevation models were proposed and used as a data source to predict soil properties (Moore et al., 1993; McKenzie to estimate soil properties. This study evaluated variability of texture and water retention of soils for a gently sloping 3.7-ha field located and Austin,

A. Pachepsky; D. J. Timlin; W. J. Rawls

47

Effects of sodium polyacrylate on water retention and infiltration capacity of a sandy soil.  

PubMed

Based on the laboratory study, the effects of sodium polyacrylate (SP) was investigated at 5 rates of 0, 0.08, 0.2, 0.5, and 1%, on water retention, saturated hydraulic conductivity(Ks), infiltration characteristic and water distribution profiles of a sandy soil. The results showed that water retention and available water capacity effectively increased with increasing SP rate. The Ks and the rate of wetting front advance and infiltration under certain pond infiltration was significantly reduced by increasing SP rate, which effectively reduced water in a sandy soil leaking to a deeper layer under the plough layer. The effect of SP on water distribution was obviously to the up layer and very little to the following deeper layers. Considering both the effects on water retention and infiltration capacity, it is suggested that SP be used to the sandy soil at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 0.5%. PMID:24701379

Zhuang, Wenhua; Li, Longguo; Liu, Chao

2013-01-01

48

Simple consistent models for water retention and hydraulic conductivity in the complete moisture range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The commonly used hydraulic models only account for capillary water retention and conductivity. Adsorptive water retention and film conductivity is neglected. This leads to erroneous description of hydraulic properties in the dry range. The few existing models, which account for film conductivity and adsorptive retention are either difficult to use or physically inconsistent. A new set of empirical hydraulic models for an effective description of water dynamics from full saturation to complete dryness is introduced. The models allow a clear partitioning between capillary and adsorptive water retention as well as between capillary and film conductivity. The number of adjustable parameters for the new retention model is not increased compared to the commonly used models, whereas only one extra parameter for quantifying the contribution of film conductivity is required for the new conductivity model. Both models are mathematically simple and thus easy to use in simulation studies. The new liquid conductivity model is coupled with an existing vapor conductivity model to describe conductivity in the complete moisture range. The new models were successfully applied to literature data, which all reach the dry to very dry range and cannot be well described with the classic capillary models. The investigated soils range from pure sands to clay loams. A simulation study with steady-state water transport scenarios shows that neglecting either film or vapor conductivity or both can lead to significant underestimation of water transport at low water contents.

Peters, A.

2013-10-01

49

Rhizosphere water dynamics: role of exudates in mediating water retention and flow characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, significant amount of literature showed that rhizosphere's physical and chemical properties markedly differ from those of the bulk soil. Plants invest large portion of their photosynthetic carbon in developing root architecture that optimally exploits water and nutrient distributions in the soil. There is indirect evidence suggesting that these exudates play a major role in altering the of the soil water retention properties. In this study, we investigated the role of root exudates on rhizosphere water dynamics using analog system. Glass beads were used to represent loose soil and dilute solutions of polygalacutronic acid (PGA) to mimic exudates (0, 1, 5, 15 and 29 g/L). The samples were subjected to periods of drying and subsequent equilibration. At each stage, the water potential was measured using WP4C Dewpoint PotentiaMeter. On the other hand, sand samples were saturated with PGA at the same concentration used to study the effect of exudates on water evaporation rate. The effect of root exudates on soil water retention can be attributed to at least two factors. The most widely speculated effect is through enhanced of soil aggregation. This effect is primarily due to capillary adhesion in fine pores within aggregates and is consistent with visual observation of pronounced aggregation in many rhizosphere soils. The second factor is related to osmotic effect of the exudate solution. Our observations show that the capillary effect is mostly limited to higher water potential regime (> -1 bar suction). Whereas the osmotic effect dominates in <- 1 bar suction. At the same time, the osmotic potential results from these organic exudates play an important role in reducing the evaporation rate. These results will provide direct quantitative evidence of how rhizosphere organic matter helps plant-soil relations.

Albalasmeh, Ammar; Ghezzehei, Teamrat

2013-04-01

50

Soil-water characteristic curves for compacted clays  

SciTech Connect

Soil-water characteristic curves (SWCCs) are presented for four compacted clay barrier soils that were prepared at different compaction water contents (dry, wet, and optimum water content) and compactive efforts (standard and modified Proctor). The SWCCs were measured in the laboratory using pressure plate extractors. The shape of the SWCC depends on compaction water content and compactive effort, but compaction water content is more important. Compaction at higher compaction water content or with greater compactive effort results in larger air entry. Also, clays with higher plasticity index have greater air-entry suction. Changes in the shape of the SWCC are consistent with changes in pore size that occur by varying compaction conditions and with the mineralogical composition of the soils. These changes in the SWCC also are reflected in the van Genuchten and Brooks-Corey parameters, which were obtained from least-squares fits to the SWCC data. Regression equations are presented that can be used to estimate the van Genuchten parameters {alpha} and n from compaction water content, compactive effort, and plasticity index.

Tinjum, J.M. [CH2M Hill, Inc., Denver, CO (United States); Benson, C.H.; Blotz, L.R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1997-11-01

51

Sediment and nutrient retention by freshwater wetlands: Effects on surface water quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater wetlands alter surface water quality in ways which benefit downstream use. This review summarizes the mechanisms of freshwater wetland interaction with sediment and nutrients that affect surface water quality. The mechanisms vary in magnitude and reversibility, and differ among wetland types. They include sedimentation, plant uptake, litter decomposition, retention in the soil, and microbial processes. Sedimentation is a relatively

1991-01-01

52

Nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion investigations of water retention mechanism by cellulose ethers in mortars  

SciTech Connect

We show how nuclear magnetic spin-lattice relaxation dispersion of proton-water (NMRD) can be used to elucidate the effect of cellulose ethers on water retention and hydration delay of freshly-mixed white cement pastes. NMRD is useful to determine the surface diffusion coefficient of water, the specific area and the hydration kinetics of the cement-based material. In spite of modifications of the solution's viscosity, we show that the cellulosic derivatives do not modify the surface diffusion coefficient of water. Thus, the mobility of water present inside the medium is not affected by the presence of polymer. However, these admixtures modify significantly the surface fraction of mobile water molecules transiently present at solid surfaces. This quantity measured, for the first time, for all admixed cement pastes is thus relevant to explain the water retention mechanism.

Patural, Laetitia [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, Centre SPIN, LPMG FRE 3312, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint-Etienne Cedex 2 (France)] [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, Centre SPIN, LPMG FRE 3312, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint-Etienne Cedex 2 (France); Korb, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: jean-pierre.korb@polytechnique.fr [Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Ecole Polytechnique-CNRS, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)] [Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Ecole Polytechnique-CNRS, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Govin, Alexandre; Grosseau, Philippe [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, Centre SPIN, LPMG FRE 3312, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint-Etienne Cedex 2 (France)] [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, Centre SPIN, LPMG FRE 3312, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint-Etienne Cedex 2 (France); Ruot, Bertrand; Deves, Olivier [Universite Paris-Est, Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, Departement Enveloppe et Revetements/Division Enduits, Mortiers et Colles, 84 avenue Jean Jaures, 77447 Marne-la-Vallee Cedex 2 (France)] [Universite Paris-Est, Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, Departement Enveloppe et Revetements/Division Enduits, Mortiers et Colles, 84 avenue Jean Jaures, 77447 Marne-la-Vallee Cedex 2 (France)

2012-10-15

53

Effect of boundary conditions on measured water retention behavior within soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Soil Water Characteristic Curve (SWCC) is a practical representation of the behavior of soil water by relating the suction (difference between the air and water pressures to the moisture content (water saturation). The SWCC is characterized by a hysteresis loop, which is thought to be unique in that any drainage-imbibition cycle lies within a main hysteresis loop limited by two different curves for drainage and imbibition. This 'uniqueness' is the main argument for considering the SWCC as a material-intrinsic feature that characterizes the pore structure and its interaction with fluids. Models have been developed with the SWCC as input data to describe the evolution of the water saturation and the suction within soils. One example of these models is the widely used Richard's equation [1]. In this work we present a series of numerical simulations to evaluate the 'unique' nature of the SWCC. The simulations involves the use of the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) [2] within a regular soil, modelling the flow behavior of two immiscible fluids: wetting and non-wetting. The soil is packed within a cubic domain to resemble the experimental setups that are commonly used for measuring the SWCC[3]. The boundary conditions ensure that the non-wetting phase enters through one cubic face and the wetting phase enters trough the opposite phase, with no flow boundary conditions in the remaining 4 cubic faces. The SWCC known features are inspected including the presence of the common limit curves for different cycles involving varying limits for the suction. For this stage of simulations, the SWCC is indeed unique. Later, different boundary conditions are applied with the two fluids each injected from 3 opposing faces into the porous medium. The effect of this boundary condition change is a net flow direction, which is different from that in the previous case. A striking result is observed when both SWCC are compared and found to be noticeable different. Further analysis is conducted to examine how the fluids are distributed inside the porous medium. This distribution is quantified by the measurement of the interfacial area which behaves also differently between the two configurations. Hassanizadeh proposed an unique relation among saturation, suction and interfacial area, which has been validated experimentally [4]. However we found that such relation is not 'unique' and instead depends on the flow and boundary conditions. While future experimental tests on these results need to be carried out, the simulated SWCC behaviors raise serious questions about the current experimental set-up for measuring the soil water retention characteristics. References. 1. Serrano, S.E., Modeling infiltration with approximate solutions to Richard's equation. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 2004. 9(5): p. 421-432. 2. Galindo-Torres, S.A., et al., A Lattice Boltzmann model for studying transient effects during imbibition-drainage cycles in unsaturated soils. Computer Physics Communications, 2013. 184(4): p. 1086-1093. 3. Drake, S.S., D.M. O'Carroll, and J.I. Gerhard, Wettability contrasts between fresh and weathered diesel fuels. Journal of contaminant hydrology, 2012. 4. Culligan, K.A., et al., Interfacial area measurements for unsaturated flow through a porous medium. Water Resources Research, 2004. 40(12).

Galindo-torres, S.; Scheuermann, A.; Pedroso, D.; Li, L.

2013-12-01

54

DEVELOPING JOINT PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS OF SOIL WATER RETENTION CHARACTERISTICS  

EPA Science Inventory

A method is presented for developing probability density functions for parameters of soil moisture relationships of capillary head and hydraulic conductivity. These soil moisture parameters are required for the assessment of water flow and solute transport in unsaturated media. T...

55

A Simple Approach for Demonstrating Soil Water Retention and Field Capacity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is difficult to demonstrate the soil water retention relationship and related concepts because the specialized equipment required for performing these measurements is unavailable in most classrooms. This article outlines a low-cost, easily visualized method by which these concepts can be demonstrated in most any classroom. Columns (62.5 cm…

Howard, A.; Heitman, J. L.; Bowman, D.

2010-01-01

56

Integrated vegetation designs for enhancing water retention and recycling in agroecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long term studies have shown strong links between vegetation clearing and rainfall declines and more intense droughts. Many\\u000a agroecosystems are exposed to more extreme weather and further declines in rainfall under climate change unless adaptations\\u000a increase the retention of water in landscapes, and its recycling back to the lower atmosphere. Vegetation systems provide\\u000a vital feedbacks to mechanisms that underpin water

Justin G. RyanClive; Clive A. McAlpine; John A. Ludwig

2010-01-01

57

Correcting the errors from variable sea salt retention and water of hydration in loss on ignition analysis: Implications for studies of estuarine and coastal waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard technique of determining the concentrations of total suspended solids (TSSs), particulate inorganic matter (PIM), and particulate organic matter (POM) by filtration with glass fiber filters is subject to an error or bias from sea salt plus water of hydration retention, when applied to saline waters. The sea salt plus water of hydration retention by the filters occurs even

Robert H. Stavn; Hans J. Rick; Alexander V. Falster

2009-01-01

58

Developing joint probability distributions of soil water retention characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for developing probability density functions for parameters of soil moisture relationships of capillary head (h(Phi)) and hydraulic conductivity (K(Phi)). These soil moisture parameters are required for the assessment of water flow and solute transport in unsaturated media. The method employs a statistical multiple regression equations proposed in the literature for estimating (h(Phi)) or (K(Phi)) relationships using

Robert F. Carsel; Rudolph S. Parrish

1988-01-01

59

Phosphorus retention in a newly constructed wetland receiving agricultural tile drainage water.  

PubMed

One measure used in Sweden to mitigate eutrophication of waters is the construction of small wetlands (free water surface wetland for phosphorus retention [P wetlands]) to trap particulate phosphorus (PP) transported in ditches and streams. This study evaluated P retention dynamics in a newly constructed P wetland serving a 26-ha agricultural catchment with clay soil. Flow-proportional composite water samples were collected at the wetland inlet and outlet over 2 yr (2010-2011) and analyzed for total P (TP), dissolved P (DP), particulate P (PP), and total suspended solids (TSS). Both winters had unusually long periods of snow accumulation, and additional time-proportional water samples were frequently collected during snowmelt. Inflow TP and DP concentrations varied greatly (0.02-1.09 mg L) during the sampling period. During snowmelt in 2010, there was a daily oscillation in P concentration and water flow in line with air temperature variations. Outflow P concentrations were generally lower than inflow concentrations, with net P losses observed only in August and December 2010. On an annual basis, the wetland acted as a net P sink, with mean specific retention of 69 kg TP, 17 kg DP, and 30 t TSS ha yr, corresponding to a reduction in losses of 0.22 kg TP ha yr from the agricultural catchment. Relative retention was high (36% TP, 9% DP, and 36% TSS), indicating that small constructed wetlands (0.3% of catchment area) can substantially reduce P loads from agricultural clay soils with moderately undulating topography. PMID:23673852

Kynkäänniemi, Pia; Ulén, Barbro; Torstensson, Gunnar; Tonderski, Karin S

2013-01-01

60

Epiphyte Water Retention and Evaporation in Native and Invaded Tropical Montane Cloud Forests in Hawaii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epiphyte water retention was quantified at two montane cloud forest sites in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, one native and the other invaded by an alien tree species. Water storage elements measured included all epiphytic mosses, leafy liverworts, and filmy ferns. Tree surface area was estimated and a careful survey was taken to account for all epiphytes in the sample area of the forest. Samples were collected and analyzed in the lab for epiphyte water retention capacity (WRC). Based on the volume of the different kinds of epiphytes and their corresponding WRC, forest stand water retention capacity for each survey area was estimated. Evaporation from the epiphyte mass was quantified using artificial reference samples attached to trees that were weighed at intervals to determine changes in stored water on days without significant rain or fog. In addition, a soil moisture sensor was wrapped in an epiphyte sample and left in the forest for a 6-day period. Epiphyte biomass at the Native Site and Invaded Site were estimated to be 2.89 t ha-1 and 1.05 t ha-1, respectively. Average WRC at the Native Site and Invaded Site were estimated at 1.45 mm and 0.68 mm, respectively. The difference is likely due to the presence of the invasive Psidium cattleianum at the Invaded Site because its smooth stem surface is unable to support a significant epiphytic layer. The evaporation rate from the epiphyte mass near WSC for the forest stand at the Native Site was measured at 0.38 mm day-1, which represented 10.6 % of the total ET from the forest canopy at the Native Site during the period. The above research has been recently complemented by a thorough investigation of the WSC of all water storage elements (tree stems, tree leaves, shrubs, grasses, litter, fallen branches, and epiphytes) at six forested sites at different elevations within, above, and below the zone of frequent cloud-cover. The goal of this study was to create an inexpensive and efficient methodology for acquiring estimates of above-ground water retention in different types of forests by means of minimally-destructive sampling and surveying. The results of this work serve as baseline data providing a range of possible values of the water retention of specific forest elements and the entire above-ground total where no values have been previously recorded.

Mudd, R. G.; Giambelluca, T. W.

2006-12-01

61

Submersible pressure outflow cell for measurement of soil water retention and diffusivity from 5 to 95oC.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The technique is designed to measure soil water retention characteristics and to make transient outflow estimates of the soil water diffusivity at temperatures from 5 to 95oC. We also used the technique to determine the isobaric temperature dependence of water retention in soil. Results indicate that at constant capillary pressure, the relationship between moisture content and temperature is hysteretic.-from Authors

Constantz, J.; Herkelrath, W. N.

1984-01-01

62

Pure sponge-like membranes bearing both high water permeability and high retention capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porous poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes were prepared using phase inversion method. It was found that three pure sponge-like membranes could be generated using composite additive such as ferrous chloride\\/nano-silica, calcium chloride\\/nano-silica, and ferrous chloride\\/hydroxylamine hydrochloride. The generated sponge-like membranes all bear obviously higher water permeability and higher or little lower retention capacity compared with their counterpart macrovoid membranes, which were

Zhenghui Wang; Jun Ma; Qianliang Liu

2011-01-01

63

Understanding the Water Retention of Composite Proton Exchange Membranes Based on Surface Chemistry of Inorganic Fillers  

SciTech Connect

Use of metal oxide additives is considered a viable option for improving thermal, chemical, and transport properties of the proton exchange membranes for fuel cells operating at elevated temperatures (>100 C) and reduced relative humidity (<70%). The purpose of this paper is to review the characteristics of some specific oxide materials for fuel cell applications based on available experimental surface chemistry data and surface modeling. Several commonly used oxides were differentiated based on their thermodynamic solubility, surface charge, and states of the surface water. Surface charge is discussed as a primary factor controlling water retention by the composite membranes in dehydrating environments.

Fedkin, Mark V. [Pennsylvania State University; Chalkova, E. [Pennsylvania State University; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Lvov, Serguei N. [Pennsylvania State University

2008-01-01

64

Soil Organic Carbon and Water Retention after Conversion of Grasslands to Pine Plantations in the Ecuadorian Andes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree plantations in the high elevations of the tropics constitute a growing land use, but their effect on ecosystem processes and services is not well known. We examined changes in soil organic carbon (C) and water retention in a chronosequence of Pinus radiata stands planted in páramo grasslands in Cotopaxi province, Ecuador. Water retention at 10, 33, and 1,500 kPa declined

Kathleen A. Farley; Eugene F. Kelly; Robert G. M. Hofstede

2004-01-01

65

In vivo hydration and water-retention capacity of stratum corneum in clinically uninvolved skin in atopic and psoriatic patients.  

PubMed

Hydration and the water-retention capacity of stratum corneum have been investigated in uninvolved psoriatic and atopic skin and compared with that of healthy controls. Thirty-three subjects of either sex and matched for age entered the study. The subjects were free from all signs of skin disease and skin dryness. Hydration was evaluated by means of transepidermal water loss and skin capacitance measurements. Water-retention capacity was investigated using the plastic occlusion stress test. Atopic skin differed significantly from uninvolved psoriatic and control skin which had a reduced water content and an increased transepidermal water loss. Furthermore, the skin surface water loss profile representing the stratum corneum water-retention capacity was significantly lower in normal atopic skin. The data suggest that clinically normal skin may be functionally abnormal, resulting in a defective barrier that could lead to higher risk of irritant or contact dermatitis. PMID:1980973

Berardesca, E; Fideli, D; Borroni, G; Rabbiosi, G; Maibach, H

1990-01-01

66

Retention of contaminants in northern natural peatlands treating mine waste waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mining industry in Finland is growing, leading to an increasing number of working and proposed mine sites. As a consequence, the amount of mine waste waters created is likewise increasing. This poses a great challenge for water management and purification, as these mine waste waters can lead to severe environmental and health consequences when released to receiving water bodies untreated. In the past years, the use of natural peatlands for cost-effective passive waste water treatment has been increasing. In this study, the fate of mine water contaminants in a treatment peatland receiving process waters from the Kittilä gold mine was investigated. Special attention was paid to the fate of potentially harmful substances such as arsenic, antimony or nickel. During the 4 years of operation, the peatland removed contaminants from process waters at varying efficiencies. While arsenic, antimony and nickel were retained at high efficiencies (>80% retention), other contaminants such as zinc, sulfate or iron were not retained or even leaching from the peatland. Soil samples taken in 2013 showed a linear increase of arsenic, antimony and nickel concentration in the peatland as compared to earlier sampling times, in agreement with the good retention efficiencies for those contaminants. Measured concentrations exceeded guideline values for contaminated soils, indicating that the prolonged use of treatment peatlands leads to high soil contamination and restrict further uses of the peatlands without remediation measures. Soil and pore water samples were taken along a transect with varying distance from the process water distribution ditch and analyzed for total and more easily mobile concentrations of contaminants (peat soil) as well as total and dissolved contaminants (water samples). Concentrations of contaminants such as arsenic, manganese or antimony in peat and pore water samples were highest near the distribution ditch and decreased with increasing distance from the ditch. Moreover, ratios of dissolved and total concentrations in pore water and of mobile and total concentrations in peat changed along the transect. Higher ratios of dissolved contaminants in water in greater distance from the distribution ditch indicate a decrease of particulate matter. Additionally, higher ratios of mobile contaminants in peat at greater distance from the distribution ditch indicate efficient immobilization of contaminants by chemical adsorption or sedimentation of particulate contaminants near the distribution ditch. Other contaminants such as sulfur/sulfate, sodium, magnesium and zinc showed similar concentrations in peat and pore water at all points of the transect, as well as similar concentration ratios, indicating that there is only minor net retention of those contaminants. This is in good agreement with the low retention efficiencies obtained for those contaminants. In conclusion, the study revealed that (i) removal efficiencies are variable depending on the individual contaminant, (ii) major contaminants are enriched to a degree which exceeds guideline values for contaminated soils, (iii) concentrational changes with distance from the process water distribution ditch can give further insights on the fate of individual contaminants. Even though the dominant processes involved in contaminant removal are not clearly identified to date, further analysis of the data obtained in this study will provide new insights on the fate of mine water contaminants in treatment peatlands and help evaluate potential consequences of the use of peatlands for mine water treatment.

Palmer, Katharina; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Klöve, Björn

2014-05-01

67

Transportation and Bioavailability of Copper and Zinc in a Storm Water Retention Pond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highway runoff has been identified as a non-point source of metals to storm water retention ponds. Zinc and copper are major components of tires and brake pads, respectively. As these automobile parts degrade, they deposit particulates onto the roadway surface. During a storm event, these metal containing particulates are washed into a storm water retention pond where they can then accumulate over time. These metals may be available to organisms inhabiting the pond and surrounding areas. This study focuses on tracking the metals from their deposition on the roadway to their transport and accumulation into a retention pond. The retention pond is located in Owings Mills, MD and collects runoff from an adjacent four lane highway. Pond sediments, background soils, road dust samples, and storm events were collected and analyzed. Copper and zinc concentrations in the pond sediments are higher than local background soils indicating that the pond is storing anthropogenically derived metals. Storm event samples also reveal elevated levels of copper and zinc transported through runoff, along with a large concentration of total suspended solids. After looking at the particulate and dissolved fractions of both metals in the runoff, the majority of the Zn and Cu are in the particulate fraction. Changes in TSS are proportional with changes in particulate bound Zn, indicating that the solid particulates that are entering into the pond are a major contributor of the total metal loading. Sequential extractions carried out on the road dust show that the majority of zinc is extracted in the second and third fractions and could become available to organisms in the pond. There is a small amount of Cu that is being released in the more available stages of the procedure; however the bulk of the Cu is seen in the more recalcitrant steps. In the pond sediments however, both Cu and Zn are only being released from the sediments in the later steps and are most likely not highly available.

Camponelli, K.; Casey, R. E.; Wright, M. E.; Lev, S. M.; Landa, E. R.

2006-05-01

68

Surface Water Ground Water Interaction Inferred from Discharge vs. Basin Area Curves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peak discharge (Qp) vs. basin area (A) curves have been studied for long time leading to the development of some of the promising hydrological response models. In this study we also analyze discharge vs. basin area curves for recession periods. We define the characteristic discharge, Qn, as the discharge observed in the n-th day after a peak, then for each value of n we analyze Qn vs. A curves, which typically follow a power law equation of type: Qp ? A?n. The exponent ? n for n=0 is known to take value between 0.5 and 1 (note that Qn = Qp for n=0), and the commonly accepted theoretical explanation for it is that Qp is controlled by width of channel network and effective rainfall duration. This premise is based on the assumption that surface flow dominates during a flood event in a basin and that flow velocity is constant everywhere in the stream network of the basin. As n increases, i.e. during recession periods, Qn is expected to be controlled by subsurface flow. According to the geomorphological recession flow model Qn for higher values of n is controlled by the dynamics of saturated channel network, and for this case the value of ? n is close to 1. Results here show that ? n increases and approaches 1 as n increases, confirming the notion that a transition from surface water dominated flow process to subsurface water dominated flow process occurs with time during a recession event.

Biswal, B.; D, N.

2012-12-01

69

Analysis of water-level fluctuations of the US Highway 90 retention pond, Madison, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A closed basin stormwater retention pond, located 1 mile west of Madison, Florida, has a maximum storage capacity of 134.1 acre-feet at the overtopping altitude of 100.2 feet. The maximum observed altitude (July 1982 to March 1984) was 99.52 feet (126.7 acre-feet) on March 28, 1984. This report provides a technique for simulating net monthly change-in-altitude in response to rainfall and evaporation. A regression equation was developed which relates net monthly change in altitude (dependent variable) to rainfall and evaporation (independent variables). Rainfall frequency curves were developed using a log-Pearson Type III distribution of the annual, January through April, June through August, and July monthly rainfall totals for the years 1908-72, 1974, 1976-82. The altitude of the retention pond increased almost 7 feet during the 4-month period January through April 1983. The rainfall total was 35.1 inches, and the recurrence interval exceeded the 100-year January-April rainfall. (USGS)

Bridges, W. C.

1985-01-01

70

Gastric emptying of water in children with severe functional fecal retention  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to evaluate gastric emptying (GE) in pediatric patients with functional constipation. GE delay has been reported in adults with functional constipation. Gastric emptying studies were performed in 22 children with chronic constipation, fecal retention and fecal incontinence, while presenting fecal retention and after resuming regular bowel movements. Patients (18 boys, median age: 10 years; range: 7.2 to 12.7 years) were evaluated in a tertiary pediatric gastroenterology clinic. Gastric half-emptying time of water (reference range: 12 ± 3?min) was measured using a radionuclide technique immediately after first patient evaluation, when they presented fecal impaction (GE1), and when they achieved regular bowel movements (GE2), 12 ± 5 weeks after GE1. At study admission, 21 patients had reported dyspeptic symptoms, which were completely relieved after resuming regular bowel movements. Medians (and interquartile ranges) for GE1 and GE2 were not significantly different [27.0 (16) and 27.5 (21) min, respectively (P = 0.10)]. Delayed GE seems to be a common feature among children with chronic constipation and fecal retention. Resuming satisfactory bowel function and improvement in dyspeptic symptoms did not result in normalization of GE data.

Fernandes, V.P.I.; Lima, M.C.L.; Camargo, E.E.; Collares, E.F.; Bustorff-Silva, J.M.; Lomazi, E.A.

2013-01-01

71

Increased Water Retention in Polymer Electrolyte Membranes at Elevated Temperatures Assisted by Capillary Condensation  

SciTech Connect

We establish a new systematic methodology for controlling the water retention of polymer electrolyte membranes. Block copolymer membranes comprising hydrophilic phases with widths ranging from 2 to 5 nm become wetter as the temperature of the surrounding air is increased at constant relative humidity. The widths of the moist hydrophilic phases were measured by cryogenic electron microscopy experiments performed on humid membranes. Simple calculations suggest that capillary condensation is important at these length scales. The correlation between moisture content and proton conductivity of the membranes is demonstrated.

Park, M.J.; Downing, K.H.; Jackson, A.; Gomez, E.D.; Minor, A.M.; Cookson, D.; Weber, A.Z.; Balsara, N.P. (UCB); (NIST); (LBNL); (UC)

2008-10-03

72

Water retention properties of porous geopolymers for use in cooling applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of geopolymers were prepared with varying ratios of sodium silicate, metakaolinite, NaOH and H2O and their porous properties, water retention and mechanical properties were determined, to develop materials for counteracting heat island effects. Samples were prepared with the molar ratios SiO2:Al2O3:Na2O:H2O of 3.66:1:x:y, where x=0.92–1.08 and y=14.2–19.5. The porous and mechanical properties of the geopolymers showed a good

Kiyoshi Okada; Asami Ooyama; Toshihiro Isobe; Yoshikazu Kameshima; Akira Nakajima; Kenneth J. D. MacKenzie

2009-01-01

73

Influence of DMPS on the water retention capacity of electroporated stratum corneum: ATR-FTIR study.  

PubMed

Anionic lipids like phosphatidylserine are known to significantly enhance electroporation mediated transepidermal transport of polar solutes of molecular weights up to 10kDa. The underlying mechanism of the effect of anionic lipids on transdermal transport is not fully understood. The main barrier to transdermal transport lies within the intercellular lipid matrix (ILM) of the stratum corneum (SC) and our previous studies indicate that dimyristoyl phosphatidylserine (DMPS) can perturb the packing of this lipid matrix. Here we report on our investigation on water retention in the SC following electroporation in the presence and the absence of DMPS. The water content in the outer most layers of the SC of full thickness porcine skin was determined using ATR-FTIR-spectroscopy. The results show that in the presence of DMPS, the SC remains in a state of enhanced hydration for longer periods after electroporation. This increase in water retention in the SC by DMPS is likely to play an important role in trans-epidermal transport, since improved hydration of the skin barrier can be expected to increase the partitioning of polar solutes and possibly the permeability. PMID:17931807

Sckolnick, Maria; Hui, Sek-Wen; Sen, Arindam

2008-02-28

74

Investigating and simulating the impact of surface water retention potential in Western Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Western Siberian lowland is characterised through an extreme climate with a yearly temperature difference of more than 60°C. An intensive growth period of five months follows the most important hydrological event of the year, the snowmelt, which defines more than 90% of the yearly runoff. The geophysical setting is mainly influenced through low hydraulic gradients, clayey soils, retention basins, landscape depressions and embankments that lead to a high water rentention potential on the surface and the soil. During snowmelt, this leads to a runoff delay. In hand with high evaporation, the described characteristics cause low runoff generation during the rest of the year, even after intense rainfall events. Within the scope of the project "Sustainable land management and adaptation stategies to climate change for the Western Siberian corn-belt" (SASCHA) the hydrological processes are simulated in three catchments, in a gradient from the pre-taiga to the forest steppe. The three catchments are Pyschma (16.762 km²), Vagai (2.851 km²) and Loktinka (334 km²). The special challenges in the simulations are: (1) the correct simulation of the half-year long snow cover and its melting, (2) the scarce historical flow data, which could only be extended in 2013 through own measurement campaings and (3) to quantify and simulate the impact of the water retention potential on the catchment hydrology using raw and filled digital elevation models and landscape characteristics. Against the background of these challenges, we present the hydrological simulations with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT).

Kiesel, Jens; Kolychalow, Olga; Sheludkov, Artyom; Marciniak, Hasmik; Abramenko, Katya; Schmalz, Britta; Conrad, Yvonne; Pfannerstill, Matthias; Veshkurseva, Tatyana; Khoroshavin, Vitaliy; Tolstikov, Andrey; Fohrer, Nicola

2014-05-01

75

IPhO 2012: how magnets curve the water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of the 43rd International Physics Olympiad (held in Tallinn and Tartu, Estonia) is given; this includes short summaries of the problems and competition results. Experimental problem no 1 is discussed in detail, including the full text, solution, and additional theoretical analysis. In this experiment, laser beam reflection from the water surface is used to calculate the recession depth of the water surface above a strong permanent magnet; this result is used to determine the magnetic permeability of the water.

Kalda, J.; Kikas, J.; Heidelberg, M.; Ainsaar, S.; Lõhmus, R.

2013-07-01

76

Electrocapillary Curves of Chloride Ions in Water-Hydrogen Flouride Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have determined the electrocapillary curves of the mercury electrode with a mixture of hydrogen fluoride and water contaning 40% (by weight) of HF, using the mercury electrode drop time formation technique. The addition of KCl at concentrations from 0.01 to 0.5 M provokes a displacement of the electrocapillary curves showing a possible specific adsorption of HCl at the electrode.

Hugues Ménard; Francine Leblond-routhier; Jean-Luc Roux; Jacques Devynck

1979-01-01

77

Determining factors for anodic polarization curves of typical structural materials of boiling water reactors in high temperature – high purity water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to examine the anodic polarization characteristics of typical structural materials of boiling water reactors (BWRs), the anodic polarization curves of type 316L stainless steel (316L SS) and Alloy 182 were measured in deaerated high purity water at 553 K using the previously reported measurement method which was confirmed suitable for high temperature – high purity water. In order to

Masahiko Tachibana; Kazushige Ishida; Yoichi Wada; Ryosuke Shimizu; Nobuyuki Ota; Nobuyoshi Hara

2012-01-01

78

Studies on Microbial Heavy Metal Retention from Uranium Mine Drainage Water with Special Emphasis on Rare Earth Elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial heavy metal retention was studied using seepage water sampled from a former uranium mining site in Eastern Thuringia, Germany. The seepage water has a low pH and contains high concentrations of metals, including uranium, rare earth elements (REE), and other heavy metals. Microbial influence on sorption and\\/or active uptake of heavy metals was studied using REE patterns. Incubation of

D. Merten; E. Kothe; G. Büchel

2004-01-01

79

Source or Sink: Investigating the role of storm water retention ponds in the urban landscape (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of human activities on surface water, groundwater and soil is nowhere more apparent than in urban and suburban systems. Dramatic changes to watersheds in urbanizing areas have led to changes in hydrology and an associated increase in the flux of sediment and contaminants to surface and ground waters. In an effort to mediate these impacts, Best Management Practices (BMP) have been established in order to increase infiltration of runoff and trap sediment and particulates derived from impervious surfaces before they enter surface waters. Perhaps the most ubiquitous BMP are storm water retention ponds. While these structures are designed to reduce runoff and particulate loading to urban streams, their addition to the urban landscape has created a large number of new wetland habitats. In the Red Run watershed, just outside of Baltimore, Maryland, 186 discrete natural or man-made wetland areas have been identified. Of these 186 wetland areas, 165 were created to manage stormwater and most were specifically designed as stormwater management ponds (i.e., human-created basins or depressions that hold runoff for some period during the annual hydrological year). Despite their abundance in the landscape, very little is known about how these systems impact the flux of stormwater pollutants or affect the organisms using these ponds as habitat. Results from a series of related projects in the Red Run watershed are presented here in an effort to summarize the range of issues associated with stormwater management ponds. The Red Run watershed is situated inside the Urban-Rural Demarcation Line (URDL) around Baltimore City and has been identified as a smart growth corridor by Baltimore County. This region is one of two areas in Baltimore County where new development is focused. In a series of investigations of soils, surface and ground waters, and amphibian and earthworm use of 68 randomly selected stormwater retention ponds from the Red Run watershed, a range of hydrologic, ecologic, and geochemical conditions have been identified. Results from these investigations suggest that pollutant conditions, specifically trace metals and chloride, limit the use of these ponds by amphibians and effect the distribution of earthworms within ponds. The soils in ponds associated with high use roadways contain elevated levels of PAHs, Zn and Cu and the groundwater beneath these same ponds tends to have elevated chloride levels year round. Pond and associated flood plain soils in these systems have been altered and exhibit elevated Na+ or Ca2+ concentrations suggesting years of interaction with road salt contaminated discharge. These Na+ and Ca2+ form soils affect the retention of dissolved trace metals with Ca-enriched soils potentially increasing the dissolved metal concentrations of surface and pore waters and enabling the transport of roadway derived metals to surface waters and Na-enriched soils scavenging trace metals from incoming runoff. The increase in dissolved metals may also increase the toxicity to amphibians and other organisms inhabiting the storm water ponds and ultimately, streams fed by ground water recharge from ponds. Our results to date suggest both the intended and unintended function of storm water ponds in urban landscapes are complicated and deserving of more attention.

Lev, S.; Casey, R.; Ownby, D.; Snodgrass, J.

2009-12-01

80

Construction of estimated flow- and load-duration curves for Kentucky using the Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flow- and load-duration curves were constructed from the model outputs of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) application for streams in Kentucky. The WATER application was designed to access multiple geospatial datasets to generate more than 60 years of statistically based streamflow data for Kentucky. The WATER application enables a user to graphically select a site on a stream and generate an estimated hydrograph and flow-duration curve for the watershed upstream of that point. The flow-duration curves are constructed by calculating the exceedance probability of the modeled daily streamflows. User-defined water-quality criteria and (or) sampling results can be loaded into the WATER application to construct load-duration curves that are based on the modeled streamflow results. Estimates of flow and streamflow statistics were derived from TOPographically Based Hydrological MODEL (TOPMODEL) simulations in the WATER application. A modified TOPMODEL code, SDP-TOPMODEL (Sinkhole Drainage Process-TOPMODEL) was used to simulate daily mean discharges over the period of record for 5 karst and 5 non-karst watersheds in Kentucky in order to verify the calibrated model. A statistical evaluation of the model's verification simulations show that calibration criteria, established by previous WATER application reports, were met thus insuring the model's ability to provide acceptably accurate estimates of discharge at gaged and ungaged sites throughout Kentucky. Flow-duration curves are constructed in the WATER application by calculating the exceedence probability of the modeled daily flow values. The flow-duration intervals are expressed as a percentage, with zero corresponding to the highest stream discharge in the streamflow record. Load-duration curves are constructed by applying the loading equation (Load = Flow*Water-quality criterion) at each flow interval.

Unthank, Michael D.; Newson, Jeremy K.; Williamson, Tanja N.; Nelson, Hugh L.

2012-01-01

81

Prediction of the saturated hydraulic conductivity from Brooks and Corey's water retention parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prediction of flow through variably saturated porous media requires accurate knowledge of the soil hydraulic properties, namely the water retention function (WRF) and the hydraulic conductivity function (HCF). Unfortunately, direct measurement of the HCF is time consuming and expensive. In this study, we derive a simple closed-form equation that predicts the saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks from the WRF parameters of Brooks and Corey (1964). This physically based analytical expression uses an empirical tortuosity parameter (?) and exploits the information embedded in the measured pore-size distribution. Our proposed model is compared against the current state of the art using more than 250 soil samples from the Grenoble soil catalog (GRIZZLY) and hydraulic properties of European soils (HYPRES) databases. Results demonstrate that the proposed model provides better predictions of the saturated hydraulic conductivity values with reduced size of the 90% confidence intervals of about 3 orders of magnitude.

Nasta, Paolo; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Romano, Nunzio

2013-05-01

82

Assessment of retention basin volume and outlet capacity in urban stormwater drainage systems with respect to water quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of river water or other surface waters is detrimentally affected by the contaminants carried by the rainfall runoff\\u000a in urban areas. The control of pollution moved by rainfall runoff is achieved by installing outlets and small retention basins\\u000a in stormwater collection systems, thereby allowing only a certain amount of rainfall water to overflow and leading the remaining\\u000a to

Mehmet A. Yurdusev; Ahmet A. Kumanlio?lu; Bekir Solmaz

2005-01-01

83

The Role of Environmental Forcing in Controlling Water Retention Gyres in Subsystems of Narragansett Bay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greenwich Bay and the Providence River represent two subsystems of the Narragansett Bay (RI) estuary with chronic water quality problems. Both underway and moored Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) observations have shown the presence of large-scale, subtidal gyres within these subsystems. Prior numerical models of Narragansett Bay, developed using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), indicate that prevailing summer sea breeze conditions are favorable to the evolution of stable circulation gyres, which increase retention times within each subsystem. Fluid dynamics laboratory models of the Providence River, conducted in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory of the Research School of Earth Sciences (Australian National University), reproduce gyres that match first order features of the ADCP data. These laboratory models also reveal details of small-scale eddies along the edges of the retention gyre. We report results from spatially and temporally detailed current meter deployments (using SeaHorse Tilt Current Meters) in both subsystems, which reveal details on the growth and decay of gyres under various spring-summer forcing conditions. In particular, current meters were deployed during the severe flooding events in the Narragansett Bay watershed during March, 2010. A combination of current meter data and high-resolution ROMS modeling is used to show how gyres effectively limit subtidal exchange from the Providence River and Greenwich Bay and to understand the forcing conditions that favor efficient flushing. The residence times of stable gyres within these regions can be an order of magnitude larger than values predicted by fraction of water methods. ROMS modeling is employed to characterize gyre energy, stability, and flushing rates for a wide range of seasonal, wind and runoff scenarios.

Balt, C.; Kincaid, C. R.; Ullman, D. S.

2010-12-01

84

Water Repellency Effects on Water Retention in Heat Pre-treated Volcanic Ash Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water repellency (WR) in soil is a common phenomenon after forest fires all over the world. It can induce hydrological problems such as preferential flow in soils and reduced water infiltration rate which in turn can lead to surface runoff and erosion. In this study, we examined the hydrophobicity for pre-heated volcanic ash soil samples with different temperatures between 60

T. Chhoden; A. Karunarathna; K. Kawamoto; T. Komatsu; P. Moldrup

2009-01-01

85

Characterizing Scale and Location-Dependent Correlation of Water Retention Parameters with Soil Physical Properties Using Wavelet Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the correlation between soil hydraulic parameters and soil physical properties is a prerequisite for the prediction of soil hydraulic properties from soil physical properties. Th e objective of this study was to examine the scale- and location-dependent correlation between two water retention parameters (? and n) in the van Genuchten (1980) function and soil physical properties (sand content, bulk

Qiaosheng Shu; Zuoxin Liu; Bingcheng Si

2008-01-01

86

Evaluation of the effects of incorporation rate and depth of water-retentive amendment materials in sports turf constructions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the current laboratory study was to assess the effects of a number of amendment materials and the depth of incorporation on water retention. 300 mm rootzone profiles were established in 150 mm diameter plastic cylinders over a 50 mm gravel drainage layer. Five amendment materials (sphagnum peat, compost, zeolite, TerraCottem and Stockosorb) were mixed with a medium-coarse

Stanislav Hejduk; Stephen W. Baker; Christian A. Spring

2012-01-01

87

The infrared light curve of Periodic Comet Halley 1986 III and its relationship to the visual light curve, C2, and water production rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The near-IR light curve of Periodic Comet Halley 1986 III is analyzed and compared with C2 production, water production, and the visual light curve. This is the most complete IR light curve compiled to date for any comet. The scattering phase function at small sun-comet-earth angles is shown to affect the slope of near-IR light curve significantly. P/Halley's dust production, as inferred from the IR light curve showed an increased production rate near perihelion which appears to be correlated with the onset of significant jet activity. The near-IR light curve, visual light curve, C2, and water production rates displayed different heliocentric variations, suggesting that one parameter cannot be accurately estimated from another. This is particularly true of the early preperihelion visual light curve. A peak of 0.3-0.5 magnitude in the visual magnitude, representing the integrated brightness of the comet's visible coma, lagged the other parameters by about a day. The near-IR color, J-H, was less red during periods of strong dust activity.

Morris, C. S.; Hanner, M. S.

1993-04-01

88

Effect of soil texture, organic carbon and water retention on the compactability of soils from the Argentinean pampas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mollisols from the Pampas Region of Argentina have been described as presenting different compactability behaviors under agricultural systems. The purpose of this study was to provide information on the inherent soil factors related to the susceptibility to compaction. Total organic carbon (TOC), texture (CLAY, SILT, SAND), water retention at 0.33kPa (WR), Proctor maximum bulk density (BDMAX) and critical water

M D??az-Zorita; G. A Grosso

2000-01-01

89

Water retention and runoff retardation in a drained wetland after heavy rainfall events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands are often described as a sponge; they are believed to buffer surplus water coming from precipitation or inflow from the catchment and to emit it slowly to the downstream part of the river basin. However, in Middle or Western Europe anthropogenically influenced wetlands outnumber natural ones. In the last 200 years many wetlands have been drained to use the land for agriculture or forestry. Their water balance is nowadays regulated by water management systems consisting of ditches, weirs and sometimes pumping stations. Still, typical wetland characteristics are maintained: Groundwater levels only a few decimeters below the land surface, small surface slopes, high evapotranspiration, the domination of peat soils and extensive grasslands as the prevailing form of land use. Two main issues arise and are discussed in different contexts: (i) the extent to which the behavior of anthropogenically influenced wetlands differs from that of natural wetlands and (ii) their buffering capacities. The objective of our study was to investigate how a drained, agricultural wetland reacted to heavy rainfall events and to determine the influencing factors. In total 29 rainfall events with amounts greater than 10 mm were selected in the period between April 2010 and October 2012. The reactions of groundwater and ditch water levels were analysed, as well as the water balance of the rainfall events. The latter was determined using a weighable groundwater lysimeter installed in the Spreewald wetland in northeast Germany, whose groundwater level was adjusted to the surrounding grassland site. Our measurements showed that on average 70% of the rainfall was stored in the wetland, while only 10% was discharged. In dry periods, when sub-irrigation was present at the beginning of the rainfall event, more water was stored (83%) than in wet periods (51%) while the share of runoff was nearly halved. Evapotranspiration played an important role during the runoff process. The wetland had a high retardation effect, since in most cases the maximum ditch water level lagged several hours behind the peak in groundwater level. Besides a multitude of process-influencing factors, it was shown that in flat areas even drained wetlands can display a marked retention effect.

Dietrich, Ottfried; Fahle, Marcus; Steidl, Jörg

2014-05-01

90

Statistical assessment of soil-water characteristic curve models for geotechnical engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of empirical equations have been proposed for the soil-water characteristic curve. A nonlinear, least squares method was used to determine best-fit parameters for several empirical equations that were best-fit to 230 water content versus soil suction data sets. In addition, two proposed correction methods to accommodate high soil suctions up to 1 000 000 kPa were applied to

W. Scott Sillers; Delwyn G. Fredlund

2001-01-01

91

Transport and retention of phosphorus in surface water in an urban slum area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transport of excessive phosphorus (P) discharged from unsewered informal settlements (slums) due to poor on-site sanitation is largely unknown. Hence, we investigated the processes governing P transport in a 28 km2 slum-dominated catchment in Kampala, Uganda. During high runoff events and a period of base flow, we collected hourly water samples (over 24 h) from a primary channel draining the catchment and from a small size tertiary channel draining one of the contributing slum areas (0.5 km2). Samples were analyzed for orthophosphate (PO4-P), particulate P (PP), total P (TP) and selected hydro-chemical parameters. Channel bed and suspended sediments were collected to determine their sorption potential, geo-available metals and dominant P forms. We found that P inputs in the catchment originated mainly from domestic wastewater as evidenced by high concentrations of Cl (36-144 mg L-1), HCO3 and other cations in the channels. Most P discharged during low flow conditions was particulate implying that much of it was retained in bed sediments. Retained P was mostly bound to Ca and Fe/Al oxides. Hence, we inferred that mineral precipitation and adsorption to Ca-minerals were the dominant P retention processes. Bed sediments were P-saturated and showed a tendency to release P to discharging waters. P released was likely due to Ca-bound P because of the strong correlation between Ca and total P in sediments (r2 = 0.9). High flows exhibited a strong flush of PP and SS implying that part of P retained was frequently flushed out of the catchment by surface erosion and resuspension of bed sediment. Our findings suggest that P accumulated in the channel bed during low flows and then was slowly released into surface water. Hence, it will likely take some time, even with improved wastewater management practices, before P loads to downstream areas can be significantly reduced.

Nyenje, P. M.; Meijer, L. M. G.; Foppen, J. W.; Kulabako, R.; Uhlenbrook, S.

2013-08-01

92

Estimation of fatigue strain-life curves for austenitic stainless steels in light water reactor environments.  

SciTech Connect

The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code design fatigue curves for structural materials do not explicitly address the effects of reactor coolant environments on fatigue life. Recent test data indicate a significant decrease in fatigue lives of austenitic stainless steels (SSs) in light water reactor (LWR) environments. Unlike those of carbon and low-alloy steels, environmental effects on fatigue lives of SSs are more pronounced in low-dissolved-oxygen (low-DO) water than in high-DO water, This paper summarizes available fatigue strain vs. life data on the effects of various material and loading variables such as steel type, DO level, strain range, and strain rate on the fatigue lives of wrought and cast austenitic SSs. Statistical models for estimating the fatigue lives of these steels in LWR environments have been updated with a larger data base. The significance of the effect of environment on the current Code design curve has been evaluated.

Chopra, O. K.; Smith, J. L.

1998-02-12

93

Modeling gravity effects on water retention and gas transport characteristics in plant growth substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growing plants to facilitate life in outer space, for example on the International Space Station (ISS) or at planned deep-space human outposts on the Moon or Mars, has received much attention with regard to NASA’s advanced life support system research. With the objective of in situ resource utilization to conserve energy and to limit transport costs, native materials mined on Moon or Mars are of primary interest for plant growth media in a future outpost, while terrestrial porous substrates with optimal growth media characteristics will be useful for onboard plant growth during space missions. Due to limited experimental opportunities and prohibitive costs, liquid and gas behavior in porous substrates under reduced gravity conditions has been less studied and hence remains poorly understood. Based on ground-based measurements, this study examined water retention, oxygen diffusivity and air permeability characteristics of six plant growth substrates for potential applications in space, including two terrestrial analogs for lunar and Martian soils and four particulate substrates widely used in reduced gravity experiments. To simulate reduced gravity water characteristics, the predictions for ground-based measurements (1 - g) were scaled to two reduced gravity conditions, Martian gravity (0.38 - g) and lunar gravity (0.16 - g), following the observations in previous reduced gravity studies. We described the observed gas diffusivity with a recently developed model combined with a new approach that estimates the gas percolation threshold based on the pore size distribution. The model successfully captured measured data for all investigated media and demonstrated the implications of the poorly-understood shift in gas percolation threshold with improved gas percolation in reduced gravity. Finally, using a substrate-structure parameter related to the gaseous phase, we adequately described the air permeability under reduced gravity conditions.

Chamindu Deepagoda, T. K. K.; Jones, Scott B.; Tuller, Markus; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen; Kawamoto, Ken; Komatsu, Toshiko; Moldrup, Per

2014-08-01

94

Utilization of wheat straw for the preparation of coated controlled-release fertilizer with the function of water retention.  

PubMed

With the aim of improving fertilizer use efficiency and minimizing the negative impact on the environment, a new coated controlled-release fertilizer with the function of water retention was prepared. A novel low water solubility macromolecular fertilizer, poly(dimethylourea phosphate) (PDUP), was "designed" and formulated from N,N'-dimethylolurea (DMU) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate. Simultaneously, an eco-friendly superabsorbent composite based on wheat straw (WS), acrylic acid (AA), 2-acryloylamino-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS), and N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide (NHMAAm) was synthesized and used as the coating to control the release of nutrient. The nitrogen release profile and water retention capacity of the product were also investigated. The degradation of the coating material in soil solution was studied. Meanwhile, the impact of the content of N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide on the degradation extent was examined. The experimental data showed that the product with good water retention and controlled-release capacities, being economical and eco-friendly, could be promising for applications in agriculture and horticulture. PMID:22730900

Xie, Lihua; Liu, Mingzhu; Ni, Boli; Wang, Yanfang

2012-07-18

95

Analysis of water intake and dry matter intake using different lactation curve models.  

PubMed

The objective was to evaluate 6 different lactation curve models for daily water and dry matter intake. Data originated from the Futterkamp dairy research farm of the Chamber of Agriculture of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany. A data set of about 23,000 observations from 193 Holstein cows was used. Average daily water and dry matter intake were 82.3 and 19.8 kg, respectively. The basic linear mixed model included the fixed effects of parity and test-day within feeding group. Additionally, 6 different functions were tested for the fixed effect of lactation curve and the individual (random) effect of cow-lactation curve. Furthermore, the autocorrelation between repeated measures was modeled with the spatial (power) covariance structure. Model fit was evaluated by the likelihood ratio test, Akaike's and Bayesian information criteria, and the analysis of mean residual at different days in milk. The Ali and Schaeffer function was best suited for modeling the fixed lactation curve for both traits. A Legendre polynomial of order 4 delivered the best model fit for the random effect of cow-lactation. Applying the error covariance structure led to a significantly better model fit and indicated that repeated measures were autocorrelated. Generally, the best information criteria values were yielded by the most complex model using the Ali and Schaeffer function and Legendre polynomial of order 4 to model the average lactation and cow-specific lactation curves, respectively, with inclusion of the spatial (power) error covariance structure. This model is recommended for the analysis of water and dry matter intake including missing observations to obtain estimation of correct statistical inference and valid variance components. PMID:19620691

Kramer, E; Stamer, E; Spilke, J; Thaller, G; Krieter, J

2009-08-01

96

Impact of Natural Conditioners on Water Retention, Infiltration and Evaporation Characteristics of Sandy Soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil conditioners i.e., natural deposits and organic fertilizer are used for alleviate some of poor physical properties of sandy soils such as low water retention and inefficient water use, especially in arid and semi-arid regions such as in Saudi Arabia conditions. The present study aims to investigate the impact of clay deposits and organic fertilizer on water characteristics, cumulative infiltration and intermittent evaporation of loamy sand soil. Soil sample was collected from surface layer (0-30 cm depth) of the Agricultural Experiment and Research Station at Dierab, 40 km south west of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Two samples of clay deposits (CD#22 and CD#23) collected from Khyleis area, Jeddah-Madina road in addition of commercial Organic Fertilizer (OF) were used in the present study. The experiments were done during August to December 2005 in soil physics laboratory, the soil was mixed with clay deposits and organic fertilizer at rates of 0, 1, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0% (w/w). The transparent PVC columns were packed with soil to depth of 30 cm every 5.0 cm intervals to insure a homogeneity of soil in columns. The clay deposits (CD#22 and CD#23) and Organic Fertilizer (OF) mixed with the soil were packed in the upper 0-5.0 cm of each soil column. The infiltration experiment was done using a flooding apparatus (Marriot device) with constant head of 3.0 cm over the soil surface. The cumulative infiltration and wetting front depth as a function of time were recorded. The evaporation experiment was conducted in 40 cm long transparent sectioned Lucite cylinders (5.0 cm ID). Fifty millimeters of tap water were applied weekly for three wetting/drying cycles. Cumulative evaporation against time was measured daily by weighing each soil column. The soil moisture distribution at the end of the experiment was determined gravimetrically for each 5.0 cm interval. The results indicated that the three conditioners significantly increased the water constants of mixed soil (i.e., SWC, FC, PWP and AW), but the CD#22 has a superior effect. The results clearly indicated that increasing the application rate of conditioners significantly decreased the cumulative infiltration (D). The decrease in D more pronounced at higher rates. The CD#22 was more effective in reducing the cumulative infiltration. The relationship between (D) as a function of Time (T) was done by fitting the data to the Kostiakov and Philip equations. Increasing the application rate of natural conditioners restricted the wetting front movement and need more time to reach 30 cm depth. The natural conditioners significantly reduced the cumulative evaporation throughout the 3 evaporation cycles. The reduction significantly increased with increasing the application rate, except for the higher rate (10%), which increases the cumulative evaporation under the present conditions. The improvement of soil hydro-physical properties and reduction in water infiltration and cumulative evaporation are good practices for plant growth in region limited in water such as most regions in Saudi Arabia.

Abdel-Nasser, G.; Al-Omran, A. M.; Falatah, A. M.; Sheta, A. S.; Al-Harbi, A. R.

97

Application of thermal flux for establishing soil–water characteristic curve of kaolin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of field and laboratory insertion tensiometers, pressure membrane extractor, PME, a dew point potentiameter, WP4, and a geotechnical centrifuge for establishing soil–water characteristic curve (SWCC) of fine-grained soils is well established. However, these techniques are quite elaborate, cumbersome to follow and resort to invasive and destructive techniques for moisture content determination. This calls for development of an alternate technique

B. Hanumantha Rao; D. N. Singh

2010-01-01

98

Stiffness-Modulated Water Retention and Neovascularization of Dermal Fibroblast-Encapsulating Collagen Gel  

PubMed Central

There is increasing evidence that matrix stiffness modulates various phenotypic activities of cells surrounded by a three-dimensional (3D) matrix. These findings suggest that matrix stiffness can also regulate dermal fibroblasts activities to remodel, repair, and recreate skin dermis, but this has not yet been systematically demonstrated to date. This study examines the effects of matrix rigidity on the morphology, growth rates, and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) production of dermal fibroblasts cultured in collagen-based hydrogels with controlled elastic moduli. The elastic moduli (E) of collagen hydrogels were increased from 0.7 to 1.6 and 2.2?kPa by chemically cross-linking collagen fibrils with poly(ethylene glycol) disuccinimidylester. Increasing E of the hydrogel led to decreases in cellular spreading, nuclear aspect ratio, and growth rate. In contrast, the cellular GAG production level was elevated by increasing E from 0.7 to 1.6?kPa. The larger accumulation of GAG in the stiffer hydrogel led to increased water retention during exposure to air, as confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging. Additionally, in a chicken chorioallantoic membrane, a cell-encapsulating hydrogel with E of 1.6?kPa created dermis-like tissue with larger amount of GAG and density of blood vessels, while a cell–hydrogel construct with E of 0.7?kPa generated scar-like tissue. Overall, the results of this study will be highly useful for designing advanced tissue engineering scaffolds that can enhance the quality of a wide array of regenerated tissues including skin.

Jeong, Jae Hyun; Liang, Youyun; Jang, Michelle; Cha, Chaenyung; Chu, Cathy; Lee, Haekwang; Jung, Woonggyu; Kim, Jin Woong; Boppart, Stephen A.

2013-01-01

99

Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis of Beach Water Quality Indicator Variables  

PubMed Central

Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis is a simple and effective means to compare the accuracies of indicator variables of bacterial beach water quality. The indicator variables examined in this study were previous day's Enterococcus density and antecedent rainfall at 24, 48, and 96 h. Daily Enterococcus densities and 15-min rainfall values were collected during a 5-year (1996 to 2000) study of four Boston Harbor beaches. The indicator variables were assessed for their ability to correctly classify water as suitable or unsuitable for swimming at a maximum threshold Enterococcus density of 104 CFU/100 ml. Sensitivity and specificity values were determined for each unique previous day's Enterococcus density and antecedent rainfall volume and used to construct ROC curves. The area under the ROC curve was used to compare the accuracies of the indicator variables. Twenty-four-hour antecedent rainfall classified elevated Enterococcus densities more accurately than previous day's Enterococcus density (P = 0.079). An empirically derived threshold for 48-h antecedent rainfall, corresponding to a sensitivity of 0.75, was determined from the 1996 to 2000 data and evaluated to ascertain if the threshold would produce a 0.75 sensitivity with independent water quality data collected in 2001 from the same beaches.

Morrison, Ann Michelle; Coughlin, Kelly; Shine, James P.; Coull, Brent A.; Rex, Andrea C.

2003-01-01

100

Curve Number Hydrology in Water Quality Modeling: Uses, Abuses, and Future Directions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the curve number method of the Natural Resources Conservation Service has been used as the foundation of the hydrology algorithms in many nonpoint source water quality models, there are significant problematic issues with the way it has been implemented and interpreted that are not generally recognized. This usage is based on misconceptions about the meaning of the runoff value that the method computes, which is a likely fundamental cause of uncertainty in subsequent erosion and pollutant loading predictions dependent on this value. As a result, there are some major limitations on the conclusions and decisions about the effects of management practices on water quality that can be supported with current nonpoint source water quality models. They also cannot supply the detailed quantitative and spatial information needed to address emerging issues. A key prerequisite for improving model predictions is to improve the hydrologic algorithms contained within them. The use of the curve number method is still appropriate for flood hydrograph engineering applications, but more physically based algorithms that simulate all streamflow generating processes are needed for nonpoint source water quality modeling. Spatially distributed hydrologic modeling has tremendous potential in achieving this goal.

Garen, David C.; Moore, Daniel S.

2005-04-01

101

Effects of organic and inorganic lead on the oxygen equilibrium curves of the fresh water field crab, Barytelphusa guerini  

SciTech Connect

Haemocyanin serves as normal transporter of oxygen in many Arthropods. The oxygen equilibrium curves have been described for the haemocyanins of many Arthropods and Molluscs. Oxygen equilibrium curves of the blood reveal the relationship between the oxygen tension and the percentage saturation of the haemocyanin. The shape of the oxygen equilibrium curves vary in position from sigmoid to hyperbolic in different animals or even undulatory as shown in some chitons. Oxygen equilibrium curves are known to be influenced by pH, temperature and inorganic ions. The effect of environmental pollutants like the heavy metals on the oxygen equilibrium curves of the fresh water crab has not been previously reported. One of the toxic heavy metals with regard to aquatic organisms is lead. Hence the present study was designed to determine the effect of organic and inorganic lead on the oxygen equilibrium curve of the fresh water crab, Barytelphusa guerini.

Tulasi, S.J.; Ramana Rao, J.V.

1989-02-01

102

The disappearing Environmental Kuznets Curve: a study of water quality in the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB).  

PubMed

The literature is flush with articles focused on estimating the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) for various pollutants and various locations. Most studies have utilized air pollution variables; far fewer have utilized water quality variables, all with mixed results. We suspect that mixed evidence of the EKC stems from model and error specification. We analyze annual data for four water quality indicators, three of them previously unstudied - total phosphorus (TOTP), dissolved oxygen (DO), ammonium (NH4) and nitrites (NO2) - from the Lower Mekong Basin region to determine whether an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) is evident for a transboundary river in a developing country and whether that curve is dependent on model specification and/or pollutant. We build upon previous studies by correcting for the problems of heteroskedasticity, serial correlation and cross-sectional dependence. Unlike multi-country EKC studies, we mitigate for potential distortion from pooling data across geographically heterogeneous locations by analyzing data drawn from proximate locations within a specific international river basin in Southeast Asia. We also attempt to identify vital socioeconomic determinants of water pollution by including a broad list of explanatory variables alongside the income term. Finally, we attempt to shed light on the pollution-income relationship as it pertains to trans-boundary water pollution by examining data from an international river system. We do not find consistent evidence of an EKC for any of the 4 pollutant indicators in this study, but find the results are entirely dependent on model and error specification as well as pollutant. PMID:24211570

Wong, Yoon Loong Andrew; Lewis, Lynne

2013-12-15

103

The effects of flow-path modification on water-quality constituent retention in an urban stormwater detention pond and wetland system, Orlando, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Changes in constituent retention in a wet stormwater-detention pond and wetland system in Orlando, Florida, were evaluated following the 1988 installation of a flow barrier which approximately doubled the flow path and increased detention time in the pond. The pond and wetland were arranged in series so that stormwater first enters the pond and overflows into the wetland before spilling over to the regional stream system. Several principal factors that contribute to constituent retention were examined, including changes in pond-water quality between storms, stormwater quality, and pond-water flushing during storms. A simple, analytical pond-water mixing model was used as the basis for interpreting changes in retention efficiencies caused by pond modification. Retention efficiencies were calculated by a modified event-mean concentration efficiency method using a minimum variance unbiased estimator approach. The results of this study generally support the hypothesis that changes in the geometry of stormwater treatment systems can significantly affect the constituent retention efficiency of the pond and wetland system. However, the results also indicate that these changes in efficiency are caused not only by changes in residence time, but also by changes in stormwater mixing and pond water flushing during storms. Additionally, the use of average efficiencies as indications of treatment effectiveness may fail to account for biases associated with sample distribution and independent physical properties of the system, such as the range and concentrations of constituents in stormwater inflows and stormwater volume. Changes in retention efficiencies varied among chemical constituents and were significantly different in the pond and wetland. Retention efficiency was related to inflow concentration for most constituents. Increased flushing of the pond after modification caused decreases in retention efficiencies for constituents that concentrate in the pond between storms (dissolved solids) and increases in retention efficiency for constituents that settle out of pond and wetland storage between storms. The greatest increase in retention efficiencies in the detention pond was observed for total lead, which increased from 19 percent before modification to 73 percent after modification. However, retention efficiencies for nutrients for nutrients and suspended constituents decreased in the wetland after modification. This was probably because of the flushing of accumulated sediments as a result of a change in flow path through the wetland. As a result, the overall effect of modification on the system (pond and wetland retention efficiencies combined) was a reduction in retention efficiency for all but two constituents (total zinc and total ammonia nitrogen).

Gain, W. S.

1996-01-01

104

Soil water repellency characteristic curves for soil profiles with natural organic carbon gradients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil water repellency (SWR) is a phenomenon that influences many soil hydrologic processes such as reduction of infiltration, increase in overland flow, and enhanced preferential flow. SWR has been observed in various soil types and textures, and the degree of SWR is greatly controlled by soil moisture content and levels of organic matter and clay. One of the key topics in SWR research is how to describe accurately the seasonal and temporal variation of SWR with the controlling factors such as soil moisture, organic matter, and clay contents for soil profiles with natural organic carbon gradients. In the present study, we summarize measured SWR data for soil profiles under different land uses and vegetation in Japan and New Zealand, and compared these with literature data. We introduce the contact angle-based evaluation of SWR and predictive models for soil water repellency characteristic curves, in which the contact angle is a function of the moisture content. We also discuss a number of novel concepts, including i) the reduction in the contact angle with soil-water contact time to describe the time dependence of SWR, ii) the relationship between the contact angles from the measured scanning curves under controlled wetting and drying cycles, and iii) the initial contact angles measured by the sessile drop method.

Kawamoto, Ken; Müller, Karin; Moldrup, Per; de Jonge, Lis; Clothier, Brent; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Komatsu, Toshiko

2014-05-01

105

Performance Evaluation of Four-Parameter Models of the Soil-Water Characteristic Curve  

PubMed Central

Soil-water characteristic curves (SWCCs) are important in terms of groundwater recharge, agriculture, and soil chemistry. These relationships are also of considerable value in geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering. Their measurement, however, is difficult, expensive, and time-consuming. Many empirical models have been developed to describe the SWCC. Statistical assessment of soil-water characteristic curve models found that exponential-based model equations were the most difficult to fit and generally provided the poorest fit to the soil-water characteristic data. In this paper, an exponential-based model is devised to describe the SWCC. The modified equation is similar to those previously reported by Gardner (1956) but includes exponential variable. Verification was performed with 24 independent data sets for a wide range of soil textures. Prediction results were compared with the most widely used models to assess the model's performance. It was proven that the exponential-based equation of the modified model provided greater flexibility and a better fit to data on various types of soil.

Taha, Mohd Raihan

2014-01-01

106

Formation and Retention of Hydroxyl and Water on the Lunar Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral reflectance observations by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) showed that both hydroxyl and (molecular) water (hereafter referred to collectively as H/OH) vary spatially as a function of solar illumination geometry. At low solar incidence angles, the observed strengths of the H/OH spectral features are stronger than at higher angles, suggesting that the abundance varies with the diurnal cycle. This is also demonstrated in the increasing abundances with increasing latitude, such that above ~60 degrees there is little reduction in the depth of the water-related spectral absorption bands. It was immediately recognized that the wide-spread occurrence of H/OH across the lunar surface was the result of solar wind-induced hydroxylation, a phenomenon that was predicted almost 50 years ago. The lunar soil has a finite capacity to retain implanted hydrogen, and over time, the surface reaches a steady state, or background H/OH abundance, which is manifested in spectra of the mature soil. In addition to maturity, the retention of H/OH is a function of composition and texture (i.e., crystallinity and surface/volume). There are two hypotheses for how solar wind-implanted H/OH is retained in the soil: 1) H/OH adsorbs onto active surface sites on fresh soil particles. 2) H/OH is trapped in vesicles in agglutinates and amorphous coatings on soil grains created by space weathering. Undoubtedly both of these mechanisms occur, but one process is ultimately responsible for the observed steady state mature soil abundance, and this can be studied by measuring the strength of the H/OH spectral feature from soils as a function of variable composition, texture, and maturity. Space weathering is capable of both activating and neutralizing grain surfaces. Micrometeorite and larger impacts can activate mineral surfaces through mechanical forces, such as crushing and shattering of minerals, which creates fresh surfaces with partially unsatisfied chemical bonds. The freshly fractured crystalline materials provide defect lattice sites and dangling bonds often providing an electronegative surface that would enhance adsorption (chemisorption) of solar wind hydrogen. Continual irradiation by solar-wind protons will pacify broken bonds through sputtering and impact vaporization and deposition. These space weathering processes create amorphous rims on soil particles, turning a once active surface electroneutral. If hypothesis #1 is the dominant process, the ejecta of fresh craters in crystalline materials will have relatively strong H/OH spectral features, which decrease with increasing maturity. Agglutinitic glass and submicroscopic Fe^0 are products of the space weathering process, and their abundance is proportional to maturity. Heating and melting of the soil by micro-impacts facilitates reduction of FeO by implanted H/OH to submicroscopic Fe^0 and H2O. Some of these volatiles could not escape the melt before quenching, and are trapped within agglutinitic glass and amorphous coatings on soil particles. If hypothesis #2 is the dominant process, the H/OH absorption features increases with increasing maturity, regardless of composition or texture. Using M3 spectra, we are testing these hypotheses on diverse regions of the Moon, including highlands, mare, impact melts, pyroclastic deposits, and most interestingly, the lunar swirls.

Kramer, G. Y.; Clark, R. N.; Combe, J.; Noble, S. K.

2012-12-01

107

Development of a quasi-adiabatic calorimeter for the determination of the water vapor pressure curve  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress in the knowledge of the water saturation curve is required to improve the accuracy of the calibrations in humidity. In order to achieve this objective, the LNE-CETIAT and the LNE-CNAM have jointly built a facility dedicated to the measurement of the saturation vapor pressure and temperature of pure water. The principle is based on a static measurement of the pressure and the temperature of pure water in a closed, temperature-controlled thermostat, conceived like a quasi-adiabatic calorimeter. A copper cell containing pure water is placed inside a temperature-controlled copper shield, which is mounted in a vacuum-tight stainless steel vessel immersed in a thermostated bath. The temperature of the cell is measured with capsule-type standard platinum resistance thermometers, calibrated with uncertainties below the millikelvin. The vapor pressure is measured by calibrated pressure sensors connected to the cell through a pressure tube whose temperature is monitored at several points. The pressure gauges are installed in a thermostatic apparatus ensuring high stability of the pressure measurement and avoiding any condensation in the tubes. Thanks to the employment of several technical solutions, the thermal contribution to the overall uncertainty budget is reduced, and the remaining major part is mainly due to pressure measurements. This paper presents a full description of this facility and the preliminary results obtained for its characterization.

Mokdad, S.; Georgin, E.; Hermier, Y.; Sparasci, F.; Himbert, M.

2012-07-01

108

Development of a quasi-adiabatic calorimeter for the determination of the water vapor pressure curve.  

PubMed

Progress in the knowledge of the water saturation curve is required to improve the accuracy of the calibrations in humidity. In order to achieve this objective, the LNE-CETIAT and the LNE-CNAM have jointly built a facility dedicated to the measurement of the saturation vapor pressure and temperature of pure water. The principle is based on a static measurement of the pressure and the temperature of pure water in a closed, temperature-controlled thermostat, conceived like a quasi-adiabatic calorimeter. A copper cell containing pure water is placed inside a temperature-controlled copper shield, which is mounted in a vacuum-tight stainless steel vessel immersed in a thermostated bath. The temperature of the cell is measured with capsule-type standard platinum resistance thermometers, calibrated with uncertainties below the millikelvin. The vapor pressure is measured by calibrated pressure sensors connected to the cell through a pressure tube whose temperature is monitored at several points. The pressure gauges are installed in a thermostatic apparatus ensuring high stability of the pressure measurement and avoiding any condensation in the tubes. Thanks to the employment of several technical solutions, the thermal contribution to the overall uncertainty budget is reduced, and the remaining major part is mainly due to pressure measurements. This paper presents a full description of this facility and the preliminary results obtained for its characterization. PMID:22852731

Mokdad, S; Georgin, E; Hermier, Y; Sparasci, F; Himbert, M

2012-07-01

109

Cathodic polarization curves of the oxygen reduction reaction on various structural materials of boiling water reactors in high temperature–high purity water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cathodic polarization curves of the O2 reduction reaction were measured by using electrodes made from typical structural materials of boiling water reactors (BWRs) to evaluate the effects of kind of material on the electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) calculation. To estimate ECPs at any region in the BWRs on the basis of the BWR environmental conditions, anodic and cathodic polarization curves

Masahiko Tachibana; Kazushige Ishida; Yoichi Wada; Ryosuke Shimizu; Nobuyuki Ota; Nobuyoshi Hara

2012-01-01

110

A micropuncture study of renal salt and water retention in chronic bile duct obstruction.  

PubMed Central

The mechanism of sodium retention by the kidney in rats with ligation of the common bile duct was studied with micropuncture techniques. 10-14 days after bile duct ligation, rats showed positive sodium balance and ascites formation. Measurements of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate yielded values that were not different from those in normal control animals. Likewise, single nephron filtration rte of surface nephrons was the same in the experimental rats as in the controls. Sodium reabsorption, however, was markedly increased in the proximal convoluted tubule, as well as in segments beyond the proximal convolutions. Single nephron filtration fraction, calculated from measurements of efferent arteriolar and arterial hematocrits, was significantly elevated in the cortical nephrons, even though whole kidney filtration fraction was the same as in normal rats. The calculated protein concentration of cortical peritubular blood was higher in the bile duct-ligated rats than in the normal controls. The observations are consistent with the view that sodium retention is the result of enhanced reabsorption primarily by cortical nephrons. The enhanced reabsorption can be accounted for by relative cortical ischemia due to efferent arteriolar vasoconstriction with the consequent elevation of peritubular colloid oncotic pressure.

Bank, N; Aynedjian, H S

1975-01-01

111

Nonlinear analysis of flow recession curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow recession curves of rivers are commonly simulated by the equation of a single linear reservoir which is determined by one param­ eter, the retention constant. In reality, however, retention-discharge characteristics are hardly linear and recession curves can be approxi­ mated only sectionwise by linear reservoirs with retention \\

H. WITTENBERG

112

Improved Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Performance by Removal of the Curve Number Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a watershed model widely used to predict water quantity and quality under varying land and water use regimes. To determine the respective amounts of infiltration and surface runoff, SWAT uses the popular Curve Number (CN) method. While appropriate for engineering design in temperate climates, the CN is less than ideal when used for temporal hydrologic modeling, especially in monsoonal regions. The CN methodology is based on the assumption that moisture content distribution in the watershed is similar for each runoff event, a questionable assumption in many regions where rainfall is concentrated into distinct time periods. In monsoonal climates water balance models generally capture the runoff generation processes and thus the flux of water or transport of chemicals and sediments better than CN based models. In order to use SWAT in monsoonal climates, the CN routine to predict runoff was replaced with a simple water balance routine in the code base. Additionally, rather than determine the spatial distribution of runoff as a function of solely soil and landcover, as the CN method does, a soil topographic index (STI) was included in the derivation of hydrologic response units. To compare this new water balance based SWAT (SWAT-WB) to the original CN based SWAT (SWAT-CN), several watersheds in the headwaters of the Blue Nile in Ethiopia were modeled at a daily time step. While long term, daily data are largely non-existent for portions of the Blue Nile, data were available for one 1270 km2 subbasin of the Lake Tana watershed, northeast of Bahir Dar, Ethiopia, which was used to initialize both versions of SWAT. Prior to any calibration of the models, daily Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiencies improved from 0.01 with SWAT-CN to 0.50 with SWAT-WB, with a similar increase in R-squared values from 0.27 to 0.55, respectively. These initial results indicate that replacement of the CN with a water balance routine in SWAT significantly improves model predictions in monsoonal climates.

White, E. D.; Easton, Z. M.; Fuka, D. R.; Steenhuis, T. S.

2008-12-01

113

The Potential Impact of Water Reallocation on Retention and Chlorophyll a in Weiss Lake, Alabama  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water supply demand has increased in North Georgia and prompted government officials to propose a water reallocation plan that would permit two reservoirs upstream from Weiss Lake, Alabama to increase water withdrawals nearly three fold. Hydrologic modeling predicted lower flows in the Coosa River, the primary tributary of Weiss Lake, during average to below average flows (exceedences from 50 to

Michael J. Maceina; David R. Bayne

2003-01-01

114

Nearshore retention of upwelled waters north and south of Point Reyes (northern California)—Patterns of surface temperature and chlorophyll observed in CoOP WEST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Retentive embayments can be found near capes in upwelling regions, where they stand out as relatively warm features with higher chlorophyll a concentrations than surrounding waters. Within the area of the "Wind Events and Shelf Transport" study site (WEST) from the Gulf of the Farallones to Point Arena (37.5-39°N and 122.5-124°W), we describe two retentive embayments, extending approximately 20 km north of Point Reyes, and 30 km south of Point Reyes in the northern Gulf of the Farallones. These areas are identifiable from chlorophyll a (SeaWiFS) and sea-surface temperature (MODIS) satellite radiometry. Additional data from moorings and drifters were used to further characterize these retentive features. The persistence of these features is on time scales between 2 and 10 days, determined from time-series analysis of mooring data for chlorophyll and temperature. The alongshore wind stress is negatively correlated with chlorophyll and temperature mooring values. The time scale of persistence of these retentive features was similar to both the upwelling-relaxation timescale and the timescale of phytoplankton bloom development. The WEST region is notable in that the spring and summer is subject to the strongest wind stress along the US west coast, yet the coastal waters are highly productive. Based on our observations, we suggest that the apparent persistence of high biomass coastal waters in this strongly advective and wind-dominated system may be partially explained by the presence of retentive features identified in this study.

Vander Woude, A. J.; Largier, J. L.; Kudela, R. M.

2006-12-01

115

Metal-ion retention properties of water-soluble amphiphilic block copolymer in double emulsion systems ( w\\/ o\\/ w) stabilized by non-ionic surfactants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal-ion retention properties of water-soluble amphiphilic polymers in presence of double emulsion were studied by diafiltration. Double emulsion systems, water-in-oil-in-water, with a pH gradient between external and internal aqueous phases were prepared. A poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (PSAM) solution at pH 6.0 was added to the external aqueous phase of double emulsion and by application of pressure a divalent metal-ion stream was

Manuel Palencia; Bernabé L. Rivas

2011-01-01

116

Potential Water Retention Capacity as a Factor in Silage Effluent Control: Experiments with High Moisture By-product Feedstuffs  

PubMed Central

The role of moisture absorptive capacity of pre-silage material and its relationship with silage effluent in high moisture by-product feedstuffs (HMBF) is assessed. The term water retention capacity which is sometimes used in explaining the rate of effluent control in ensilage may be inadequate, since it accounts exclusively for the capacity of an absorbent incorporated into a pre-silage material prior to ensiling, without consideration to how much the pre-silage material can release. A new terminology, ‘potential water retention capacity’ (PWRC), which attempts to address this shortcoming, is proposed. Data were pooled from a series of experiments conducted separately over a period of five years using laboratory silos with four categories of agro by-products (n = 27) with differing moisture contents (highest 96.9%, lowest 78.1% in fresh matter, respectively), and their silages (n = 81). These were from a vegetable source (Daikon, Raphanus sativus), a root tuber source (potato pulp), a fruit source (apple pomace) and a cereal source (brewer’s grain), respectively. The pre-silage materials were adjusted with dry in-silo absorbents consisting wheat straw, wheat or rice bran, beet pulp and bean stalks. The pooled mean for the moisture contents of all pre-silage materials was 78.3% (±10.3). Silage effluent decreased (p<0.01), with increase in PWRC of pre-silage material. The theoretical moisture content and PWRC of pre-silage material necessary to stem effluent flow completely in HMBF silage was 69.1% and 82.9 g/100 g in fresh matter, respectively. The high correlation (r = 0.76) between PWRC of ensiled material and silage effluent indicated that the latter is an important factor in silage-effluent relationship.

Razak, Okine Abdul; Masaaki, Hanada; Yimamu, Aibibula; Meiji, Okamoto

2012-01-01

117

Water in the Earth's Mantle: Melting Curves of Basalt-Water and Basalt-Water-Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

At depths below about 45 kilometers in the earth, the presence of high proportions of carbon dioxide does not significantly affect the temperature of the beginning of melting of basalt-water compositions. Water must be present only in trace amounts in the solid part of the silicate mantle if it contains appreciable proportions of basaltic composition.

Robin E. T. Hill; A. L. Boettcher

1970-01-01

118

Biobased polymer composites derived from corn stover and feather meals as double-coating materials for controlled-release and water-retention urea fertilizers.  

PubMed

In this paper, we synthesized a biobased polyurethane using liquefied corn stover, isocyanate, and diethylenetriamine. The synthesized polyurethane was used as a coating material to control nitrogen (N) release from polymer-coated urea. A novel superabsorbent composite was also formulated from chicken feather protein (CFP), acrylic acid, and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide and used as an outer coating material for water retention. We studied the N release characteristics and water-retention capability of the double-layer polymer-coated urea (DPCU) applied in both water and soils. The ear yields, dry matter accumulation, total N use efficiency and N leaching from a sweet corn soil-plant system under two different irrigation regimes were also investigated. Comparison of DPCU treatments with conventional urea fertilizer revealed that DPCU treatments reduced the N release rate and improved water retention capability. Evaluation of soil and plant characteristics within the soil-plant system revealed that DPCU application effectively reduced N leaching loss, improved total N use efficiency, and increased soil water retention capability. PMID:23923819

Yang, Yuechao; Tong, Zhaohui; Geng, Yuqing; Li, Yuncong; Zhang, Min

2013-08-28

119

Retention Equations of Nonionic Organic Chemicals in Soil Column Chromatography with Methanol–Water Eluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

is long. An alternative is to use methanol-water mixed solvents. Rao et al. (1985) found that the soil sorption Research efforts dealing with chemical transportation in soils are coefficients (Kd) of NOCs decreased exponentially with needed to prevent damage to ground water. Methanol-containing increasing the volume fractions of methanol () in the solvents can increase the translocation of nonionic organic

Feng Xu; Xinmiao Liang; Bingcheng Lin

2002-01-01

120

Influence of Water on the Retention of Organic Probes on Clays Studied by IGC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil recovery is strongly related to the wettability of reservoir rocks that are formed of quartz grains attached by mineral hydroxides and clay minerals. Illites and kaolinites are the most active due to their high specific surface areas and electrical charge densities. Therefore, these minerals' relative affinities for oil or water when in contact with a water-oil mix are of

Henri Balard; ALAIN SAADA; BERNARD SIFFERT

1997-01-01

121

Regional water-balance modelling using flow-duration curves with observational uncertainties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Robust and reliable water-resources mapping in ungauged basins requires estimation of the uncertainties in the hydrologic model, the regionalisation method, and the observational data. In this study we investigated the use of regionalised flow-duration curves (FDCs) for constraining model predictive uncertainty, while accounting for all these uncertainty sources. A water-balance model was applied to 36 basins in Central America using regionally and globally available precipitation, climate and discharge data that were screened for inconsistencies. A rating-curve analysis for 35 Honduran discharge stations was used to estimate discharge uncertainty for the region, and the consistency of the model forcing and evaluation data was analysed using two different screening methods. FDCs with uncertainty bounds were calculated for each basin, accounting for both discharge uncertainty and, in many cases, uncertainty stemming from the use of short time series, potentially not representative for the modelling period. These uncertain FDCs were then used to regionalise a FDC for each basin, treating it as ungauged in a cross-evaluation, and this regionalised FDC was used to constrain the uncertainty in the model predictions for the basin. There was a clear relationship between the performance of the local model calibration and the degree of dataset consistency - with many basins with inconsistent data lacking behavioural simulations and the basins with the highest dataset consistency also having the highest simulation reliability. For the basins where the regionalisation of the FDCs worked best, the uncertainty bounds for the regionalised simulations were only slightly wider than those for a local model calibration. The predicted uncertainty was greater for basins where the result of the FDC-regionalisation was more uncertain, but the regionalised simulations still had a high reliability compared to the locally-calibrated simulations and often encompassed them. The regionalised FDCs were found to be useful on their own as a basic signature constraint; however, additional regionalised signatures could further constrain the uncertainty in the predictions and may increase the robustness to severe data inconsistencies, which are difficult to detect in ungauged basins.

Westerberg, I. K.; Gong, L.; Beven, K. J.; Seibert, J.; Semedo, A.; Xu, C.-Y.; Halldin, S.

2013-12-01

122

In the Way of Peacemaker Guide Curve between Water Supply and Flood Control for Short Term Reservoir Operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective management of a controlled reservoir system where it involves multiple and sometimes conflicting objectives is a complex problem especially in real time operations. Yuvac?k Dam Reservoir, located in the Marmara region of Turkey, is built to supply annual demand of 142 hm3 water for Kocaeli city requires such a complex management strategy since it has relatively small (51 hm3) effective capacity. On the other hand, the drainage basin is fed by both rainfall and snowmelt since the elevation ranges between 80 - 1548 m. Excessive water must be stored behind the radial gates between February and May in terms of sustainability especially for summer and autumn periods. Moreover, the downstream channel physical conditions constraint the spillway releases up to 100 m3/s although the spillway is large enough to handle major floods. Thus, this situation makes short term release decisions the challenging task. Long term water supply curves, based on historical inflows and annual water demand, are in conflict with flood regulation (control) levels, based on flood attenuation and routing curves, for this reservoir. A guide curve, that is generated using both water supply and flood control of downstream channel, generally corresponds to upper elevation of conservation pool for simulation of a reservoir. However, sometimes current operation necessitates exceeding this target elevation. Since guide curves can be developed as a function of external variables, the water potential of a basin can be an indicator to explain current conditions and decide on the further strategies. Besides, releases with respect to guide curve are managed and restricted by user-defined rules. Although the managers operate the reservoir due to several variable conditions and predictions, still the simulation model using variable guide curve is an urgent need to test alternatives quickly. To that end, using HEC-ResSim, the several variable guide curves are defined to meet the requirements by taking inflow, elevation, precipitation and snow water equivalent into consideration to propose alternative simulations as a decision support system. After that, the releases are subjected to user-defined rules. Thus, previous year reservoir simulations are compared with observed reservoir levels and releases. Hypothetical flood scenarios are tested in case of different storm event timing and sizing. Numerical weather prediction data of Mesoscale Model 5 (MM5) can be used for temperature and precipitation forecasts that will form the inputs for a hydrological model. The estimated flows can be used for real time short term decisions for reservoir simulation based on variable guide curve and user defined rules.

Uysal, G.; Sensoy, A.; Yavuz, O.; Sorman, A. A.; Gezgin, T.

2012-04-01

123

Nanofiltration for enhanced removal of disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors in swimming pool water-retention and water quality estimation.  

PubMed

Three nanofiltration (NF) membranes with a chlorine tolerance > or = 1 mg L-1 were applied to reduce DBPs and their precursors in swimming pool water. A lab scale plant with crossflow modules was installed in by-pass at the sand filter outlet of a swimming pool for a period of several weeks. The chlorine tolerances of the membranes SB90 and NP030 were found to be adequate for filtration under swimming pool water conditions over the given experimental period. Retention of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) were about 70% and 80% for SB90 and 50% and 40% for NP030, respectively. DOC accumulation in the pool and the expected fresh water consumption for a treatment system consisting of ultrafiltration (UF) and NF with backwash water treatment were estimated by mass balances based on the results. Mass balances were calculated also for a German public swimming pool with a conventional water treatment system (flocculation-sand filtration-chlorination) and were compared to DOC on-line measurements. Calculation of DOC mass balances for different UF-NF treatment scenarios showed that pool water quality could be improved significantly compared to the conventional treatment system. PMID:21866773

Klüpfel, A M; Glauner, T; Zwiener, C; Frimmel, F H

2011-01-01

124

Water retention of selected microorganisms and Martian soil simulants under close to Martian environmental conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the latest knowledge about microorganisms resistant towards extreme conditions on Earth and results of new complex models on the development of the Martian atmosphere we quantitatively examined the water-bearing properties of selected extremophiles and simulated Martian regolith components and their interaction with water vapor under close to Martian environmental conditions. Three different species of microorganisms have been chosen and prepared for our study: Deinococcus geothermalis, Leptothrix sp. OT_B_406, and Xanthoria elegans. Further, two mineral mixtures representing the early and the late Martian surface as well as montmorillonite as a single component of phyllosilicatic minerals, typical for the Noachian period on Mars, were selected. The thermal mass loss of the minerals and bacteria-samples was measured by thermoanalysis. The hydration and dehydration properties were determined under close to Martian environmental conditions by sorption isotherm measurements using a McBain-Bakr quartz spring balance. It was possible to determine the total water content of the materials as well as the reversibly bound water fraction as function of the atmospheres humidity by means of these methods. Our results are important for the evaluation of future space mission outcomes including astrobiological aspects and can support the modeling of the atmosphere/surface interaction by showing the influence on the water inventory of the upper most layer of the Martian surface.

Jänchen, J.; Bauermeister, A.; Feyh, N.; de Vera, J.-P.; Rettberg, P.; Flemming, H.-C.; Szewzyk, U.

2014-08-01

125

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF "STAGNATION CURVES" FOR LEAD AND COPPER, AND WATER QUALITY FACTORS AFFECTING THEM  

EPA Science Inventory

"Stagnation curves" are the response of metal levels, particularly lead and copper, to time under conditions of no water flow. Research on lead pipe in the early 1980's in the United States, Germany, and in the United Kingdom suggested that they were characterized by rapid incre...

126

INVESTIGATION OF PHASE AND EMULSION BEHAVIOR, SURFACTANT RETENTION, AND CONDENSATE RECOVERY FOR CONDENSATE/WATER/ETHANOL MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-02NT15447 during the period April 01, 2003 to September 30, 2003 which covers the second six months of the project. Presently work is in progress to characterize phase and emulsion behavior for ethylbenzene/water/ethanol system. During this reporting period, salinity scans were completed for 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 mM salt concentrations at room temperature to identify optimal salinity intervals in which all three phases coexist for this system. Temperature scans are in progress at Morehouse College to identify the optimal temperature, and the temperature intervals in which all three phases coexist for this system. Coreflooding experiments are being conducted by our industrial partner in this project, Surtek, CO, to measure the effectiveness for surfactant retention and condensate recovery in flooding processes. Review of the current literature in the subject area, and modeling efforts that were established in our previous studies to predict electrical conductivities and inversion phenomena was continued from the previous reporting period. Based on the review a computer model to predict electrical conductivities of the ethylbenzene (that has the equivalent carbon number of the condensate)/water/ethanol system is being developed.

Ramanathan Sampath

2003-10-01

127

Use of a storm water retention system for conservation of regionally endangered fishes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Maintaining aquatic biodiversity in urban or suburban areas can be problematic because urban landscapes can be nearly devoid of aquatic habitats other than engineered basins for storm water management. These areas are usually of questionable value for fish, but we examined a case study in which five regionally imperiled fish species were reintroduced into an artificial storm water detention pond and subsequently thrived. Although not a formal experiment, postintroduction survey data suggested that three of the five species maintained high population densities for 10 years after initial stocking, and two persisted in lower numbers. Success was likely due to a combination of unique design features and prior habitat preparation that resulted in clear water conditions that supported dense vegetation. Stocked fish persisted despite occasional bouts of low dissolved oxygen and increased chloride levels resulting from road salt application within the watershed. Transplanted fish served as a source population for both research and further reintroduction experiments. We suggest that, for some fish species, habitat preservation has a middle ground between natural habitats and completely artificial environments that require constant husbandry and that storm water systems could be used to create engineered sanctuaries within the human landscape that have many potential benefits for both humans and fish.

Schaeffer, Jeffrey S.; Bland, James K.; Janssen, John

2012-01-01

128

Water retention and internal accumulation in the percolation zone of the Greenland ice sheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the lower accumulation area along the K-transect, Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland (67 °N 47 °W, 1850 m a.s.l.), a thermistor string installation including instrumentation for surface height, air temperature and radiation components captured the thermal changes during the extreme melt season of 2012 and the season of 2013. Firn cores were drilled in spring 2012 and 2013. The temperature variations in the firn reveal water percolation and refreezing in the uppermost 2.7 m during July and August 2012. Near melting-point temperatures at larger depths (approx. 6 m) recorded in autumn 2012 suggest the presence of liquid water, unable to penetrate the ice layers below. Comparing 2012 and 2013 firn cores reveal that refrozen melt water has filled most of the remaining pore space in the uppermost 7 meters. Below that depth there is no indication of melt water percolation and the temperature variations can be explained by conduction alone. The firn temperature measurements reveal a uniform 4 °C warming of the upper 10 meters from May 2012 to May 2013. This indicates that the firn/ice column gained 3629 kJ m-3 of energy. The formation of an impermeable ice layer along with the recorded albedo decrease is evidence of a rapidly changing area. If large melt events persist, the area will experience a transition towards a superimposed ice regime, or even turn into ablation area, drastically impacting melt and melt extent in the area.

Charalampidis, C.; van As, D.; Macferrin, M. J.; Machguth, H.; Pettersson, R.; Pohjola, V. A.

2013-12-01

129

Protective and retentive effects of liposomes on water-degradable hydrocortisone acetate in dermatological applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various dermatological samples containing Liposomes as a drug carrier were prepared, and the effects of variations in the\\u000a dermatological formulations, such as liposornal encapsulation, base materials, and the purity of lipid products, on drug stability\\u000a and characteristics for effective topical drug delivery were investigated. Hydrocortisone-21-acetate, a hydrophobic and water-degradable,\\u000a anti-inflammatory agent, was used as the model drug. It was found

Soo Kyoung Bae; Jin-Chul Kim; Ung Kil Jee; Jong-Duk Kim

1999-01-01

130

Stubble retention and tillage in a semi-arid environment: 1. Soil water accumulation during fallow  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out over 4 years at two sites in semi-arid, north-west Victoria, Australia, to examine the effect of soil surface management during fallow on water and nitrogen accumulation and their effect on the growth and yield of the subsequent wheat crop. The fallow treatments comprised four combinations of stubble management and tillage in 18-month-long fallows of a

G. J. O'Leary; D. J. Connor

1997-01-01

131

Role of air on local water retention behavior in the shallow heterogeneous vadose zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the presence of a subsurface source, air flowing through the unsaturated soil can transport toxic vapor into subsurface structures due to pressure gradients created by, e.g., a pressure drop within the building. Development of dynamic air pathways in the subsurface are largely controlled by the geological heterogeneity and the spatial and temporal distribution of soil moisture. To better understand how these air pathways are developed, it is crucial to know how water is retained in heterogeneous medium at spatial resolutions that are finer than those adopted in typical hydrologic and soil physics applications. Although methods for soil water pressure measurement can be readily found in literature, a technique for measuring “air pressure” in wet soil is not well-established or documented. Hydrophobic porous ceramic cups have been used to measure non-wetting NAPL phase pressure in two-phase systems. However, our preliminary tests using the hydrophobic ceramic cups installed in highly wet soil showed that under conditions of fast drainage of the wetting fluid that is replaced by air, it typically took some time before the cups responded to register the air pressure. Therefore, an attempt was made to develop a more robust method where the time lag is minimized. The tested materials were; 1) ceramic porous cups, 2) sintered stainless steel cups, 3) porous glass discs, and 4) non-woven PTFE fabric. The ceramic cups, sintered stainless steel cups and sintered porous glass discs required hydrophobic treatment, whereas the non-woven PTFE fabric is hydrophobic by itself. To treat the ceramic porous cups, the method proposed by Parker and Lenhard [1988] was adopted. The sintered porous stainless steel cups and porous glass discs were treated by a commercially available water repellant compound. For those four materials, contact angle, water entry pressure, and time lag to respond to an imposed pressure were measured. The best performing material was then tested in a simple heterogeneous column. The column was packed using two sands to form three layers where the coarser sand was sandwitched by two layers of a finer sand. In each layer, soil moisture, water pressure and air pressure were monitored. The soil was initially saturated and suction at the bottom was gradually increased to induce wetting fluid drainage, and followed by a wetting cycle. In the drainage cycle, the coarse middle layer did not drain until air front reached the bottom of the top fine layer. Once the air front reached the fine-coarse interface, air was quickly pulled into the coarse layer. The results showed that the newly developed hydrophobic material showed very small time lag and captured the abrupt air pressure change in the wet soil. In the wetting cycle, we observed positive air pressure which indicated entrapment of air and its compression as wetting proceeded. This behavior cannot be evaluated properly without the rapid measurement of air pressure. The method is currently being applied in a large 2D vertical aquifer with a structured heterogeneity to investigate how air pathways are formed under various flux/temperature conditions at the soil surface.

Sakaki, T.; Limsuwat, A.; Illangasekare, T. H.

2009-12-01

132

Superhydrophobic surfaces of the water bug Notonecta glauca: a model for friction reduction and air retention  

PubMed Central

Summary Superhydrophobic surfaces of plants and animals are of great interest for biomimetic applications. Whereas the self-cleaning properties of superhydrophobic surfaces have been extensively investigated, their ability to retain an air film while submerged under water has not, in the past, received much attention. Nevertheless, air retaining surfaces are of great economic and ecological interest because an air film can reduce friction of solid bodies sliding through the water. This opens perspectives for biomimetic applications such as low friction fluid transport or friction reduction on ship hulls. For such applications the durability of the air film is most important. While the air film on most superhydrophobic surfaces usually lasts no longer than a few days, a few semi-aquatic plants and insects are able to hold an air film over a longer time period. Currently, we found high air film persistence under hydrostatic conditions for the elytra of the backswimmer Notonecta glauca which we therefore have chosen for further investigations. In this study, we compare the micro- and nanostructure of selected body parts (sternites, upper side of elytra, underside of elytra) in reference to their air retaining properties. Our investigations demonstrate outstanding air film persistence of the upper side of the elytra of Notonecta glauca under hydrostatic and hydrodynamic conditions. This hierarchically structured surface was able to hold a complete air film under hydrostatic conditions for longer than 130 days while on other body parts with simple structures the air film showed gaps (underside of elytra) or even vanished completely after a few days (sternites). Moreover, the upper side of the elytra was able to keep an air film up to flow velocities of 5 m/s. Obviously the complex surface structure with tiny dense microtrichia and two types of larger specially shaped setae is relevant for this outstanding ability. Besides high air film persistence, the observation of a considerable fluid velocity directly at the air–water interface indicates the ability to reduce friction significantly. The combination of these two abilities makes these hierarchically structured surfaces extremely interesting as a biomimetic model for low friction fluid transport or drag reduction on ship hulls.

Schneider, Erik S; Melskotte, Jan-Erik; Brede, Martin; Leder, Alfred

2011-01-01

133

Climate Change Adaptation in the Western U.S.: the Case for Dynamic Rule Curves in Water Resources Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change in the Western U.S. will bring systematic hydrologic changes affecting many water resources systems. Successful adaptation to these changes, which will be ongoing through the 21st century, will require the 'rebalancing' of competing system objectives such as water supply, flood control, hydropower production, and environmental services in response to hydrologic (and other) changes. Although fixed operating policies for the operation of reservoirs has been a traditional approach to water management in the 20th century, the rapid pace of projected climate shifts (~0.5 F per decade), and the prohibitive costs of recursive policy intervention to mitigate impacts, suggest that more sophisticated approaches will be needed to cope with climate change on a long term basis. The use of 'dynamic rule curves' is an approach that maintains some of the key characteristics of current water management practice (reservoir rule curves) while avoiding many of the fundamental drawbacks of traditional water resources management strategies in a non-stationary climate. In this approach, water resources systems are optimized for each operational period using ensemble streamflow and/or water demand forecasts. The ensemble of optimized reservoir storage traces are then analyzed to produce a set of unique reservoir rule curves for each operational period reflecting the current state of the system. The potential advantage of this approach is that hydrologic changes associated with climate change (such as systematically warmer temperatures) can be captured explicitly in operational hydrologic forecasts, which would in turn inform the optimized reservoir management solutions, creating water resources systems that are largely 'self tending' as the climate system evolves. Furthermore, as hydrologic forecasting systems improve (e.g. in response to improved ENSO forecasting or other scientific advances), so does the performance of reservoir operations. An example of the approach is given for flood control in the Columbia River basin.

Lee, S.; Hamlet, A. F.; Burges, S. J.

2008-12-01

134

A feasibility study on the estimation of water retention parameters from surface nuclear magnetic resonance measurements in the vadose zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface nuclear magnetic resonance (SNMR) method is usually applied for groundwater prospection. Its unique property - distinct from other hydrogeophysical methods - is the direct sensitivity to water content in the subsurface. The inversion of SNMR data yields the subsurface water content distribution without the need of a specific petrophysical model. Recent developments in instrumentation, i.e., decreased instrumental dead times and advanced noise cancellation strategies enable the use of this method for investigating the vadose zone. The first attempt to interpret SNMR measurements with the focus on hydraulic parameters is the inversion approach of Costabel and Yaramanci (2011).Their inversion directly provides WR parameters by parameterizing the capillary fringe (CF) by means of soil-physical water retention (WR) models. We have developed and investigated this inversion approach further to assess its general applicability. A sensitivity study based on both synthetic and real data analyzes the resolution properties, the uncertainties and the covariances of the involved parameters: the saturated and the residual water content, a parameter for the height of the CF, a parameter describing the gradient of the water content increase in the CF, and the water table. We found that it is not meaningful to invert for all parameters at once. At least, an estimate of the CF's height or the water table must be available as a-priori information. Otherwise the CF inversion cannot reliably be applied, even when the noise level is unrealistically low. The water content of the saturated zone is generally estimated with high accuracy, i.e., errors of less than 1%. Depending on the actual noise level, the uncertainties of the other WR parameters are in the range of 10 to 100%. We conclude that, for moderate noise conditions, this kind of inversion provides WR parameters sufficiently accurate to estimate the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity roughly. However, a serious conceptual shortcoming of this approach is the inconsistency between observing a static system on the one hand and estimating dynamic parameters on the other hand. A promising approach to overcome this problem is to do time-lapse measurements. To assess the potential of SNMR for such experiments, we combine hydraulic simulations and SNMR forward modeling calculations to develop and investigate adequate measurement strategies based upon realistic field scenarios. We found that the common SNMR measurement scheme must be modified to allow faster repetitions, e.g., when monitoring infiltration of water with high dynamics. Otherwise it is not possible to realize an appropriate resolution in time. For such modifications one must accept the loss of spatial resolution. However, the direct sensitivity of the SNMR method for dynamic water content changes is an important benefit and we expect that future SNMR inversion approaches will provide hydraulic parameters, at least for the vertical water flux through the vadose zone. References: Costabel, S. and Yaramanci, U. (2011). Relative hydraulic conductivity in the vadose zone from magnetic resonance sounding - Brooks-Corey parameterization of the capillary fringe. Geophysics, 76 (3):B1-B11.

Costabel, S.; Guenther, T.; Meyer, U.

2012-12-01

135

Retention and loss of water extractable carbon in soils: effect of clay properties.  

PubMed

Clay sorption is important for organic carbon (C) sequestration in soils, but little is known about the effect of different clay properties on organic C sorption and release. To investigate the effect of clay content and properties on sorption, desorption and loss of water extractable organic C (WEOC), two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, a loamy sand alone (native) or mixed with clay isolated from a surface or subsoil (78 and 96% clay) resulting in 90, 158 and 175 g clay kg(-1) soil. These soil treatments were leached with different WEOC concentrations, and then CO2 release was measured for 28 days followed by leaching with reverse osmosis water at the end of experiment. The second experiment was conducted to determine WEOC sorption and desorption of clays isolated from the loamy sand (native), surface soil and subsoil. Addition of clays isolated from surface and subsoil to sandy loam increased WEOC sorption and reduced C leaching and cumulative respiration in percentage of total organic C and WEOC added when expressed per g soil and per g clay. Compared to clays isolated from the surface and subsoil, the native clay had higher concentrations of illite and exchangeable Ca(2+), total organic C and a higher CEC but a lower extractable Fe/Al concentration. This indicates that compared to the clay isolated from the surface and the subsoil, the native clay had fewer potential WEOC binding sites because it had lower Fe/Al content thus lower number of binding sites and the existing binding sites are already occupied native organic matter. The results of this study suggest that in the soils used here, the impact of clay on WEOC sorption and loss is dependent on its indigenous organic carbon and Fe and/or Al concentrations whereas clay mineralogy, CEC, exchangeable Ca(2+) and surface area are less important. PMID:24144942

Nguyen, Trung-Ta; Marschner, Petra

2014-02-01

136

Wettability of poultry litter biochars at variable pyrolysis temperatures and their impact on soil wettability and water retention relationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To reduce the impact of poultry farming on greenhouse gas emissions, poultry farming waste - poultry litter - can be converted to biofuel and biochar through slow-pyrolysis, with the biochar added to agricultural soil for nutrient enrichment and carbon sequestration. While biochars from source materials other than poultry litter have been shown to sequester carbon and increase soil fertility, there is considerable variability in biochar behavior - even with biochars created from the same source material. This situation is exacerbated by our limited understanding of how biochars alter physical, chemical, and biological processes in agricultural soils. The focus of this work is to develop a mechanistic understanding of how poultry litter (PL) biochars affect the hydrology, microbial communities, N2O emissions, and nitrogen cycling in agricultural soils. The initial focus is on the impact of PL biochar on soil hydrology. PL from Perdue AgriRecycle, LLC (Seaford, Delaware) was used to produce biochars at pyrolysis temperatures from 300°C to 600°C. To explore the impact of these biochars on soil wettability, the PL biochars were mixed with a 30/40 Accusand in mass fractions from 0% to 100%. The water contact angle was then measured using a goniometer on these sand/biochar mixtures using the sessile drop method and a single layer of sample particles. The PL biochars produced at temperatures between 300°C to 400°C were hydrophobic, while those pyrolized at > 400°C were hydrophilic. Water contact angles for samples with 100% biochar varied systematically with pyrolysis temperature, decreasing from 101.12° to 20.57° as the pyrolysis temperature increased from 300 to 600°C. Even for small amounts of hydrophobic biochar added to the hydrophilic sand, the contact angle of the mixture was altered: for sand/biochar mixtures containing only 2% hydrophobic PL biochar by weight, the contact angle of the mixture increased from ~ 8° (0% biochar) to 20° (2% biochar). For higher mass fractions, the impact of hydrophobic PL biochar on the sand/mixture contact angle was more dramatic: for a sand/biochar mixture with 15% PL biochar, the contact angle was 40.12°. Water drop penetration tests were also performed on these samples, and results were consistent with contact angles measured with the sessile drop method. To further explore the cause of the varying contact angle with pyrolysis temperature, the PL biochars were vigorously rinsed with deionized water or heated for 24 hours at 105°C, and the contact angle measurements repeated. Both rinsing and heating samples rendered hydrophobic PL biochar hydrophilic. Rinsate samples were analyzed for total organic carbon and with GC-MS. These data suggest that bio-oils produced during slow-pyrolysis at temperatures < 400°C condensed on biochar and caused hydrophobicity. These bio-oils could be removed through vigorous washing with deionized water or heating to 105°C. The implication of these changes in water contact angle from PL biochar addition on water retention relationships for soil and on water distribution within pores will be discussed.

Yi, S. C.; Witt, B.; Guo, M.; Chiu, P.; Imhoff, P. T.

2012-12-01

137

Linking the management of urban watersheds with the impacts on the receiving water bodies: the use of flow duration curves.  

PubMed

There is growing evidence that changes in the current hydrological behaviour of urbanising catchments are a major source of impacts on the downstream water bodies. However, current flow-rates are rarely considered in studies on urban stormwater management, usually focused on extreme flow-rates. We argue that taking into account receiving water bodies is possible with relatively small modifications in current practices of urban stormwater modelling, through the use of Flow duration curves (FDCs). In this paper, we discuss advantages and requirements of the use of FDCs. Then, we present an example of application comparing source control regulations over an urbanised catchment (178 ha) in Nantes, France. PMID:25026590

Petrucci, Guido; Rodriguez, Fabrice; Deroubaix, José-Frédéric; Tassin, Bruno

2014-01-01

138

Surface retention capacity calculation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood wave transformation in the floodplain is the phenomenon which is researched within interdisciplinary project NIVA - Water Retention in Floodplains and Possibilities of Retention Capacity Increase. The project focuses on broad range of floodplain ecosystem services and mitigation of flooding is one of them. Despite main influence on flood wave transformation is due to flow retardation, retention in surface depressions within floodplain has been analyzed to get better overview of whole transformation process. Detail digital relief model (DRM) has been used for given purposes to be able to analyze terrain depressions volumes. The model was developed with use of stereophotogrammetric evaluation of airborne images with high resolution of 10 cm. It was essential for purposes of presented analysis not to apply pit removal routines which are often used for generation of DRM for hydrological modelling purposes. First, the methodology of analysis was prepared and tested on artificial surface. This surface was created using random raster generation, filtration and resampling with final resolution of 1000 x 1000 units and height of maximum 10 units above datum. The methodology itself is based on analysis of areas inundated by water at different elevation levels. Volume is than calculated for each depression using extraction of terrain elevations under corresponding water level. The method was then applied on the area of Lužnice River floodplain section to assess retention capacity of real floodplain. The floodplain had to be cut into sections perpendicular to main river orientation for analyses as the method was tested for square shaped area without any significant inclination. Results obtained by mentioned analysis are presented in this paper. Acknowledgement Presented research was accomplished within national project NIVA - Water Retention in Floodplains and Possibilities of Retention Capacity Increase, nr. QH82078. The project is funded by Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic. The support is highly acknowledged.

David, Vaclav; Dostal, Tomas

2010-05-01

139

Retention of heavy metals and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons from road water in a constructed wetland and the effect of de-icing.  

PubMed

A full-scale remediation facility including a detention basin and a wetland was tested for retention of heavy metals and Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water drained from a motorway in The Netherlands. The facility consisted of a detention basin, a vertical-flow reed bed and a final groundwater infiltration bed. Water samples were taken of road water, detention basin influent and wetland effluent. By using automated sampling, we were able to obtain reliable concentration averages per 4-week period during 18 months. The system retained the PAHs very well, with retention efficiencies of 90-95%. While environmental standards for these substances were surpassed in the road water, this was never the case after passage through the system. For the metals the situation was more complicated. All metals studied (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Ni) had concentrations frequently surpassing environmental standards in the road water. After passage through the system, most metal concentrations were lower than the standards, except for Cu and Zn. There was a dramatic effect of de-icing salts on the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd and Ni, in the effluent leaving the system. For Cu, the concentrations even became higher than they had ever been in the road water. It is advised to let the road water bypass the facility during de-icing periods. PMID:22226719

Tromp, Karin; Lima, Ana T; Barendregt, Arjan; Verhoeven, Jos T A

2012-02-15

140

Metal-ion retention properties of water-soluble amphiphilic block copolymer in double emulsion systems (w/o/w) stabilized by non-ionic surfactants.  

PubMed

Metal-ion retention properties of water-soluble amphiphilic polymers in presence of double emulsion were studied by diafiltration. Double emulsion systems, water-in-oil-in-water, with a pH gradient between external and internal aqueous phases were prepared. A poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (PSAM) solution at pH 6.0 was added to the external aqueous phase of double emulsion and by application of pressure a divalent metal-ion stream was continuously added. Metal-ions used were Cu(2+) and Cd(2+) at the same pH of polymer solution. According to our results, metal-ion retention is mainly the result of polymer-metal interaction. Interaction between PSMA and reverse emulsion globules is strongly controlled by amount of metal-ions added in the external aqueous phase. In addition, as metal-ion concentration was increased, a negative effect on polymer retention capacity and promotion of flocculation phenomena were produced. PMID:21855082

Palencia, Manuel; Rivas, Bernabé L

2011-11-15

141

Molecular simulation of water along the liquid--vapor coexistence curve from 25 degree C to the critical point  

SciTech Connect

Previous work has shown that the simple point-charge (SPC) model can represent the experimental dielectric constant of water. In this work, we present results of Monte Carlo simulations of SPC water in the isothermal--isobaric (NPT) ensemble and in the Gibbs ensemble. Long-range intermolecular interactions are included in these simulations by use of the Ewald summation method. When Ewald sums are used, simulated, uniphase liquid potential energies are slightly lower (in absolute value) than those obtained for a simple spherical cutoff of the intermolecular potential. The coexistence curve of SPC water is obtained from 25 to 300{degree}C. The critical constants of SPC water are estimated by adjusting the coefficients of a Wegner expansion to fit the difference between simulated liquid and vapor orthobaric densities; the estimated critical temperature is 314 {degree}C and the estimated critical density is 0.27 g/cm{sup 3}.

de Pablo, J.J.; Prausnitz, J.M. (Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA (USA) Materials and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (USA)); Strauch, H.J.; Cummings, P.T. (Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (USA))

1990-11-15

142

Physically based estimation of soil water retention from textural data: General framework, new models, and streamlined existing models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Numerous models are in widespread use for the estimation of soil water retention from more easily measured textural data. Improved models are needed for better prediction and wider applicability. We developed a basic framework from which new and existing models can be derived to facilitate improvements. Starting from the assumption that every particle has a characteristic dimension R associated uniquely with a matric pressure ?? and that the form of the ??-R relation is the defining characteristic of each model, this framework leads to particular models by specification of geometric relationships between pores and particles. Typical assumptions are that particles are spheres, pores are cylinders with volume equal to the associated particle volume times the void ratio, and that the capillary inverse proportionality between radius and matric pressure is valid. Examples include fixed-pore-shape and fixed-pore-length models. We also developed alternative versions of the model of Arya and Paris that eliminate its interval-size dependence and other problems. The alternative models are calculable by direct application of algebraic formulas rather than manipulation of data tables and intermediate results, and they easily combine with other models (e.g., incorporating structural effects) that are formulated on a continuous basis. Additionally, we developed a family of models based on the same pore geometry as the widely used unsaturated hydraulic conductivity model of Mualem. Predictions of measurements for different suitable media show that some of the models provide consistently good results and can be chosen based on ease of calculations and other factors. ?? Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

Nimmo, J. R.; Herkelrath, W. N.; Laguna, Luna, A. M.

2007-01-01

143

Multivariate curve-resolution analysis of pesticides in water samples from liquid chromatographic-diode array data.  

PubMed

Liquid chromatographic-diode array detection data recorded for aqueous mixtures of 11 pesticides show the combined presence of strongly coeluting peaks, distortions in the time dimension between experimental runs, and the presence of potential interferents not modeled by the calibration phase in certain test samples. Due to the complexity of these phenomena, data were processed by a second-order multivariate algorithm based on multivariate curve resolution and alternating least-squares, which allows one to successfully model both the spectral and retention time behavior for all sample constituents. This led to the accurate quantitation of all analytes in a set of validation samples: aldicarb sulfoxide, oxamyl, aldicarb sulfone, methomyl, 3-hydroxy-carbofuran, aldicarb, propoxur, carbofuran, carbaryl, 1-naphthol and methiocarb. Limits of detection in the range 0.1-2 ?g mL(-1) were obtained. Additionally, the second-order advantage for several analytes was achieved in samples containing several uncalibrated interferences. The limits of detection for all analytes were decreased by solid phase pre-concentration to values compatible to those officially recommended, i.e., in the order of 5 ng mL(-1). PMID:21215852

Maggio, Rubén M; Damiani, Patricia C; Olivieri, Alejandro C

2011-01-30

144

Damage Survey of Water Supply Systems and Fragility Curve of PVC Water Pipelines in the Chi–Chi Taiwan Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial damage to water supply systems, including water delivery pipelines, water treatment plants, reservoirs, and water\\u000a storage tanks, was reported after the 1999 Chi–Chi Taiwan Earthquake. This paper first summarizes the damage survey and then\\u000a presents the results of seismic fragility analysis for underground pipelines. Construction blueprints of the water delivery\\u000a pipelines and repair work orders of 11 townships and

Ban-Jwu Shih; Che-Hao Chang

2006-01-01

145

[Matrix effect and retention efficiency of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance cartridges in multi-residual determination of veterinary drugs in river water].  

PubMed

Matrix effect is an important interfering factor in LC-MS quantitative analysis. In this paper, matrix effects and retention efficiencies of 33 veterinary drugs spiked in river water were studied on hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) cartridges of 3 brands (Waters, Supelco, and CNW), using LC-MS/MS for detection and reverse osmosis (RO) water as the control under 500-fold concentration. In RO water, only the exogenous matrix effects were observed on three brands of HLB cartridges. Most quinolones and tetracyclines showed positive matrix effects. Estrogens showed negative matrix effects on two brands of HLB cartridges. Sulfonamides were not obviously affected by matrix effects. Chloramphenicols showed negative matrix effects on one brand of HLB cartridge. In river water, matrix effects were different from those of the RO water due to the combined exogenous and endogenous interfering substances. Sulfonamides showed slight matrix effects as those in RO water. Most quinolones and tetracyclines showed positive matrix effects. Chloramphenicols and estrogens showed negative matrix effects. Compared to the external standard method, matrix matched calibration method effectively overcame the matrix effects with better quantitative results. The recoveries of 33 target veterinary drugs spiked in river water at 50 ng/L and 200 ng/L levels were in the ranges of 40.3%-146.0% (Waters), 37.8%-104.2% (Supelco), and 52.9%-150.1% (CNW) with RSDs (n = 4) of 0.2%-14.6%. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in the retention efficiency between the 3 HLB cartridges with the matrix matched calibration method. This study provided supporting data for the HLB cartridge selection in multi-residual determination of the veterinary drugs in river water samples. PMID:24432641

Lin, Shanshan; Yi, Qitong; Hong, Jiajun; Chen, Meng; Yuan, Dongxing

2013-10-01

146

Spatially varying dispersion to model breakthrough curves.  

PubMed

Often the water flowing in a karst conduit is a combination of contaminated water entering at a sinkhole and cleaner water released from the limestone matrix. Transport processes in the conduit are controlled by advection, mixing (dilution and dispersion), and retention-release. In this article, a karst transport model considering advection, spatially varying dispersion, and dilution (from matrix seepage) is developed. Two approximate Green's functions are obtained using transformation of variables, respectively, for the initial-value problem and for the boundary-value problem. A numerical example illustrates that mixing associated with strong spatially varying conduit dispersion can cause strong skewness and long tailing in spring breakthrough curves. Comparison of the predicted breakthrough curve against that measured from a dye-tracing experiment between Ames Sink and Indian Spring, Northwest Florida, shows that the conduit dispersivity can be as large as 400 m. Such a large number is believed to imply strong solute interaction between the conduit and the matrix and/or multiple flow paths in a conduit network. It is concluded that Taylor dispersion is not dominant in transport in a karst conduit, and the complicated retention-release process between mobile- and immobile waters may be described by strong spatially varying conduit dispersion. PMID:21143474

Li, Guangquan

2011-01-01

147

Evaluation of pollutant loads from stormwater BMPs to receiving water using load frequency curves with uncertainty analysis.  

PubMed

This study examined pollutant loads released to receiving water from a typical urban watershed in the Los Angeles (LA) Basin of California by applying a best management practice (BMP) performance model that includes uncertainty. This BMP performance model uses the k-C model and incorporates uncertainty analysis and the first-order second-moment (FOSM) method to assess the effectiveness of BMPs for removing stormwater pollutants. Uncertainties were considered for the influent event mean concentration (EMC) and the aerial removal rate constant of the k-C model. The storage treatment overflow and runoff model (STORM) was used to simulate the flow volume from watershed, the bypass flow volume and the flow volume that passes through the BMP. Detention basins and total suspended solids (TSS) were chosen as representatives of stormwater BMP and pollutant, respectively. This paper applies load frequency curves (LFCs), which replace the exceedance percentage with an exceedance frequency as an alternative to load duration curves (LDCs), to evaluate the effectiveness of BMPs. An evaluation method based on uncertainty analysis is suggested because it applies a water quality standard exceedance based on frequency and magnitude. As a result, the incorporation of uncertainty in the estimates of pollutant loads can assist stormwater managers in determining the degree of total daily maximum load (TMDL) compliance that could be expected from a given BMP in a watershed. PMID:22578429

Park, Daeryong; Roesner, Larry A

2012-12-15

148

SYNTHETIC RUNOFF CAPTURE AND DELIVERY CURVES FOR STORM WATER QUALITY CONTROL DESIGNS  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1989 through 1996, Urban Drainage and Flood Control District in coordination with the University of Colorado at Denver has dedicated to the development of the concept of storm water quality runoff capture volume (QWCV). Before 1996, the major effort was to analyze tens of hundreds of individual events delimited from a continuous record. A serial of design charts and

James C. Y. Guo; Ben Urbonas

149

pH-responsive controlled-release fertilizer with water retention via atom transfer radical polymerization of acrylic acid on mussel-inspired initiator.  

PubMed

This work reports a polydopamine-graft-poly(acrylic acid) (Pdop-g-PAA)-coated controlled-release multi-element compound fertilizer with water-retention function by a combination of mussel-inspired chemistry and surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) techniques for the first time. The morphology and composition of the products were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) emission spectrometry. The results revealed that the stimuli-responsive layer formed by a Pdop inner layer and a PAA outer corona exhibit outstanding selective permeability to charged nutrients and the release rate of encapsulated elements can be tailored by the pH values. At low pH, the Pdop-g-PAA layer can reduce nutrient loss, and at high pH, the coating restrains transportation of negative nutrients but favors the release of cations. Moreover, PAA brushes provide good water-retention property. This Pdop-graft-polymer brushes coating will be effective and promising in the research and development of multi-functional controlled-release fertilizer. PMID:23692274

Ma, Zhi-yuan; Jia, Xin; Zhang, Guo-xiang; Hu, Jia-mei; Zhang, Xiu-lan; Liu, Zhi-yong; Wang, He-yun; Zhou, Feng

2013-06-12

150

Role of mixed boundaries on flow in open capillary channels with curved air-water interfaces.  

PubMed

Flow in unsaturated porous media or in engineered microfluidic systems is dominated by capillary and viscous forces. Consequently, flow regimes may differ markedly from conventional flows, reflecting strong interfacial influences on small bodies of flowing liquids. In this work, we visualized liquid transport patterns in open capillary channels with a range of opening sizes from 0.6 to 5.0 mm using laser scanning confocal microscopy combined with fluorescent latex particles (1.0 ?m) as tracers at a mean velocity of ?0.50 mm s(-1). The observed velocity profiles indicate limited mobility at the air-water interface. The application of the Stokes equation with mixed boundary conditions (i.e., no slip on the channel walls and partial slip or shear stress at the air-water interface) clearly illustrates the increasing importance of interfacial shear stress with decreasing channel size. Interfacial shear stress emerges from the velocity gradient from the adjoining no-slip walls to the center where flow is trapped in a region in which capillary forces dominate. In addition, the increased contribution of capillary forces (relative to viscous forces) to flow on the microscale leads to increased interfacial curvature, which, together with interfacial shear stress, affects the velocity distribution and flow pattern (e.g., reverse flow in the contact line region). We found that partial slip, rather than the commonly used stress-free condition, provided a more accurate description of the boundary condition at the confined air-water interface, reflecting the key role that surface/interface effects play in controlling flow behavior on the nanoscale and microscale. PMID:22867425

Zheng, Wenjuan; Wang, Lian-Ping; Or, Dani; Lazouskaya, Volha; Jin, Yan

2012-09-01

151

Ogive Curves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains a discussion of ogive curves, logistic regression curves, and architecture. Nice photographs of architectural applications are included. The classic Birthday Problems is included as an example of an ogive curve.

2008-01-01

152

Determination of sulphate in water and biodiesel samples by a sequential injection analysis--multivariate curve resolution method.  

PubMed

A spectrophotometric sequential injection analysis (SIA-DAD) method linked to multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) has been developed for sulphate determination. This method involves the reaction, inside the tubes of the SIA system, of sulphate with barium-dimethylsulphonazo (III) complex, Ba-DMSA (III), displacing Ba(2+) from the complex and forming DMSA (III). When the reaction products reach the detector a data matrix is obtained, which allows a second-order calibration to be developed. The experimental conditions (concentration and sample and reagent volumes) to obtain the highest sensitivity have been chosen applying a 2(4-1) fractional factorial design. The proposed sequential flow procedure permits up to 15 mg SO(4)(2-) L(-1) to be determined with a limit of detection of 1.42 mg L(-1) and it is able to monitor sulphate in samples at a frequency of 15 samples per hour. The method was applied to determine sulphate in natural and residual waters and in biodiesel. The reliability of the method was established for water samples by parallel determination using a standard turbidimetric method for sulphate in natural and residual water samples with results within statistical variation. For biodiesel samples, the method was validated comparing the concentration of some spiked samples with the expected concentration using a test-t. PMID:20800738

del Río, Vanessa; Larrechi, M Soledad; Callao, M Pilar

2010-08-31

153

River inflow and retention time affecting spatial heterogeneity of chlorophyll and water-air CO2 fluxes in a tropical hydropower reservoir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much research has been devoted to understanding the complexity of biogeochemical and physical processes responsible for the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from hydropower reservoirs. Spatial complexity and heterogeneity of GHG emission may be observed in these systems because it is dependent on flooded biomass, river inflow, primary production and dam operation. In this study, we investigate the relationships between water-air CO2 fluxes and phytoplanktonic biomass in Funil Reservoir, an old and stratified tropical reservoir, where intense phytoplankton blooms and low partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) are observed. Our results showed that Funil Reservoir seasonal and spatial variability of chlorophyll concentration (Chl) and pCO2 is more related to changes in river inflow over the year than environmental factor such as air temperature and solar radiation. Field data and hydrodynamic simulations reveal that the river inflow contributes to increased heterogeneity in dry season due to the variation of reservoir retention time and river temperature. Contradictory conclusion can be drawn if temporal data collected only near the dam is considered instead of spatial data to represent CO2 fluxes in whole reservoir. The average CO2 fluxes was -17.6 and 22.1 mmol m-2d-2 considering data collected near the dam and spatial data, respectively, in periods of low retention time. In this case, the lack of spatial information can change completely the role of Funil Reservoir regarding GHG emissions. Our results support the idea that Funil Reservoir is a dynamic system where the hydrodynamics represented by changes in river inflow and retention time is potentially more important force driving both Chl and pCO2 spatial variability than in-system ecological factors.

Pacheco, F. S.; Soares, M. C. S.; Assireu, A. T.; Curtarelli, M. P.; Roland, F.; Abril, G.; Stech, J. L.; Alvalá, P. C.; Ometto, J. P.

2014-06-01

154

Coupled water and heat flow in a grass field with aggregated Andisol during soil-freezing periods  

Microsoft Academic Search

During soil-freezing periods, coupled water and heat flow is important for predicting frost depth and unsaturated water flow between frozen and unfrozen soil. We investigated water and heat flow in Andisol with aggregated soil structure at a grass field during soil-freezing periods. The water retention curve (WRC) had a stepwise shape, in which water content, ?, decreased drastically at air

Ieyasu Tokumoto; Kosuke Noborio; Kiyoshi Koga

2010-01-01

155

A possible role for protein synthesis, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in long-term spatial memory retention in the water maze.  

PubMed

Hippocampal protein synthesis is dependent upon a number of different molecular and cellular mechanisms that act together to make previously labile memories more stable and resistant to disruption. Both brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) are known to play an important role in protein synthesis-dependent memory consolidation, via the mitogen-activated protein-kinase (MAP-K) signaling pathway during the transcription phase of protein synthesis. The current study investigates the influence of protein synthesis inhibition (PSI) by cycloheximide on spatial learning and memory. In an initial experiment, the authors utilized two doses of cycloheximide (0.5 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) to determine the dose at which long-term (>24 hours) memories are impaired. A second experiment was designed to investigate the effect of PSI on the formation of cue-platform associations in the watermaze, and on BDNF and ERK expression in the hippocampus. At the higher dose (1.0 mg/kg) cycloheximide resulted in impaired retention of the water maze. BDNF and ERK expression was also down-regulated in animals injected with this dose of cycloheximide. Our results demonstrate a role of protein synthesis in spatial memory retention, along with a possible relationship between protein synthesis and hippocampal BDNF/ERK expression. PMID:18729634

McGauran, Anne-Marie T; Moore, J Bernadette; Madsen, Declan; Barry, Daniel; O'Dea, Shirley; Mahon, Bernard P; Commins, Sean

2008-08-01

156

Retention of ionizable compounds on HPLC. 6. pH measurements with the glass electrode in methanol–water mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship, ? values, between the two rigorous pH scales, sspH (pH measured in a methanol–water mixture and referred to the same mixture as standard state) and swpH (pH measured in a methanol–water mixture but referred to water as standard state), in several methanol–water mixtures was determined (?=swpH?sspH). ? values were measured using a combined glass electrode and a wide

Immaculada Canals; Fadoua Z. Oumada; Mart?? Rosés; Elisabeth Bosch

2001-01-01

157

Determination of n-octanol/water partition coefficient for DDT-related compounds by RP-HPLC with a novel dual-point retention time correction.  

PubMed

n-Octanol/water partition coefficients (P) for DDTs and dicofol were determined by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) on a C(18) column using methanol-water mixture as mobile phase. A dual-point retention time correction (DP-RTC) was proposed to rectify chromatographic retention time (t(R)) shift resulted from stationary phase aging. Based on this correction, the relationship between logP and logk(w), the logarithm of the retention factor extrapolated to pure water, was investigated for a set of 12 benzene homologues and DDT-related compounds with reliable experimental P as model compounds. A linear regression logP=(1.10±0.04) logk(w) - (0.60±0.17) was established with correlation coefficient R(2) of 0.988, cross-validated correlation coefficient R(cv)(2) of 0.983 and standard deviation (SD) of 0.156. This model was further validated using four verification compounds, naphthalene, biphenyl, 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane (p,p'-DDD) and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene (p,p'-DDE) with similar structure to DDT. The RP-HPLC-determined P values showed good consistency with shake-flask (SFM) or slow-stirring (SSM) results, especially for highly hydrophobic compounds with logP in the range of 4-7. Then, the P values for five DDT-related compounds, 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (o,p'-DDT), 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane (o,p'-DDD), 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene (o,p'-DDE), and 2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethanol (dicofol) and its main degradation product 4,4'-dichlorobenzophenone (p,p'-DBP) were evaluated by the improved RP-HPLC method for the first time. The excellent precision with SD less than 0.03 proved that the novel DP-RTC protocol can significantly increases the determination accuracy and reliability of P by RP-HPLC. PMID:21300395

Han, Shu-ying; Qiao, Jun-qin; Zhang, Yun-yang; Yang, Li-li; Lian, Hong-zhen; Ge, Xin; Chen, Hong-yuan

2011-03-01

158

Assessing effects of aerobic and anaerobic conditions on phosphorus sorption and retention capacity of water treatment residuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water treatment residuals (WTRs) are the by-products of drinking water clarification processes, whereby chemical flocculants such as alum or ferric chloride are added to raw water to remove suspended clay particles, organic matter and other materials and impurities. Previous studies have identified a strong phosphorus (P) fixing capacity of WTRs which has led to experimentation with their use as P-sorbing

Ian W. Oliver; Cameron D. Grant; Robert S. Murray

2011-01-01

159

Evaluation of the physical properties of water treatment residue for use as a soil substitute compared with decomposed granite soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate water treatment residue (WTR) as a soil substitute material, its physical properties were investigated and compared with decomposed granite soil (DGS). For comparison purposes, relative gas diffusivity (D\\/D0), saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), water retention curve, porosity and readily available water were measured for both the WTR and the DGS. The measured D\\/D0, Ks, water retention ability and porosity

Seok-Gon Park; Mizue Ohashi; Kiyoshi Kurosawa; Young-Jin Kim; Hisashi Yahata

2010-01-01

160

Properties of water along the liquid-vapor coexistence curve via molecular dynamics simulations using the polarizable TIP4P-QDP-LJ water model  

PubMed Central

We present an extension of the TIP4P-QDP model, TIP4P-QDP-LJ, that is designed to couple changes in repulsive and dispersive nonbond interactions to changes in polarizability. Polarizability is intimately related to the dispersion component of classical force field models of interactions, and we explore the effect of incorporating this connection explicitly on properties along the liquid-vapor coexistence curve of pure water. Parametrized to reproduce condensed-phase liquid water properties at 298 K, the TIP4P-QDP-LJ model predicts density, enthalpy of vaporization, self-diffusion constant, and the dielectric constant at ambient conditions to about the same accuracy as TIP4P-QDP but shows remarkable improvement in reproducing the liquid-vapor coexistence curve. TIP4P-QDP-LJ predicts critical constants of Tc=623 K, ?c=0.351 g?cm3, and Pc=250.9 atm, which are in good agreement with experimental values of Tc=647.1 K, ?c=0.322 g?cm3, and Pc=218 atm, respectively. Applying a scaling factor correction (obtained by fitting the experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium data to the law of rectilinear diameters using a three-term Wegner expansion) the model predicts critical constants (Tc=631 K and ?c=0.308 g?cm3). Dependence of enthalpy of vaporization, self-diffusion constant, surface tension, and dielectric constant on temperature are shown to reproduce experimental trends. We also explore the interfacial potential drop across the liquid-vapor interface for the temperatures studied. The interfacial potential demonstrates little temperature dependence at lower temperatures (300–450 K) and significantly enhanced (exponential) dependence at elevated temperatures. Terms arising from the decomposition of the interfacial potential into dipole and quadrupole contributions are shown to monotonically approach zero as the temperature approaches the critical temperature. Results of this study suggest that self-consistently treating the coupling of phase-dependent polarizability with dispersion interactions in classical water force fields may be an important effect for the extension of polarizable water force fields to reproduce properties along the liquid-vapor coexistence envelope as well as near critical conditions. More importantly, the present study demonstrates the rather remarkable transferability of a water model parametrized to a single state point to other thermodynamic states. Further studies are recommended.

Bauer, Brad A.; Patel, Sandeep

2009-01-01

161

Proposal of Vibrionimonas magnilacihabitans gen. nov., sp. nov., a curved Gram-stain-negative bacterium isolated from lake water.  

PubMed

A mesophilic bacterium appearing as curved rod-shaped cells was isolated from Lake Michigan water. It exhibited highest similarities with Sediminibacterium ginsengisoli DCY13(T) (94.4%); Sediminibacterium salmoneum NJ-44(T) (93.6%) and Hydrotalea flava CCUG 51397 (T) (93.1%) while similarities with other recognized species were <92.0%. The primary polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine, with moderate amounts of two unidentified glycolipids, three unknown polar lipids, one unknown aminophospholipid and one aminolipid. The primary respiratory quinone was MK-7 and sym-homospermidine was the primary polyamine. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 1)G, iso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0) 3-OH and iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH, with moderate amounts of iso-C(16 : 0). The presence of glycolipids differentiated the novel strains from related genera. The DNA mol% G+C content of the type strain MU-2(T) was 45.2. Results for other phenotypic and molecular analyses indicated that strain MU-2(T) is a representative of a novel genus and species for which the name Vibrionimonas magnilacihabitans is proposed. The type strain is MU-2(T) (?=?NRRL B-59231?=?DSM 22423). PMID:24170777

Albert, Richard A; Zitomer, Daniel; Dollhopf, Michael; Schauer-Gimenez, A E; Struble, Craig; King, Michael; Son, Sona; Langer, Stefan; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

2014-02-01

162

Prediction of compaction curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compaction of soil is one of the major activities in geotechnical engineering involving earthworks. Compaction curve generally features an inverted parabolic shape and is used to find the optimum water content that maximises dry density. Since its introduction by Proctor in 1933, several researchers have provided qualitative explanations for the general shape of the compaction curve. Furthermore, there is a

Nurses Kurucuk; Australia Jayantha Kodikara; Australia Delwyn Fredlund

163

Transport and retention from single to multiple fractures in crystalline rock at Äspö (Sweden): 1. Evaluation of tracer test results and sensitivity analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluate the breakthrough curves obtained within a comprehensive experimental program for investigating the retention properties of crystalline rock, referred to as Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments (TRUE). The tracer tests were conducted at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (Sweden) in two phases jointly referred to as TRUE Block Scale (TBS); the TBS tests comprise a total of 17 breakthrough curves with nonsorbing and a range of sorbing tracers. The Euclidian length scales are between 10 and 30 m, compared to 5 m for the earlier tests TRUE-1. The unlimited diffusion model is consistent with measured breakthrough curves and is adopted here for evaluation. The model has four independent parameters, two of which are related to advection and dispersion, one which is related to diffusion-sorption, and one which is related to surface sorption; the individual retention parameters or properties cannot be inferred from breakthrough curves alone and require additional constraints. The mean water residence times for the TBS tests are in the range 15-250 h, whereas the coefficient of variation of the water residence times is in the range 0.4-0.6. A consistent trend is found in the calibrated retention parameters with the sorption affinities of the tracers involved. Using Bode sensitivity functions, it is shown that sensitivity increases for the retention parameter with increasing sorption affinity; for nonsorbing tracers, diffusion and hydrodynamic dispersion are shown to "compete," exhibiting similar effects; hence, their estimates are uncertain. The analysis presented here exposes a few fundamental limitations and sensitivities when evaluating diffusion-controlled retention in the subsurface; it is general and applicable to any site with comparable tracer test data. In part 2, it will be shown how discrete fracture network simulations based on the hydrostructural information available can be used for further constraining individual retention parameters, in particular, the active specific surface area (sf) and the rock matrix porosity (?).

Cvetkovic, V.; Cheng, H.; ByegâRd, J.; Winberg, A.; Tullborg, E.-L.; Widestrand, H.

2010-05-01

164

Investigation of Phase and Emulsion Behavior, Surfactant Retention and Condensate Recovery for Condensate/Water/Ethanol Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-02NT15447 during the period October 01, 2003 to March 31, 2004 which covers the third six months of the project. Presently work is in progress to characterize phase and emulsion behavior for ethylbenzene/water/ethanol system. Ethylbenzene that has the equivalent carbon number is used as the model condensate. During this reporting period, temperature scans were performed mixing equal volumes of ethylbenzene and 10mM NaCl water with various concentrations of ethanol ranging from 2 to 70 vol%. For the range of temperatures tested (2 to 70 C), results indicate that temperature is invariant and produced a single phase for ethanol concentrations greater than 60 vol%. For ethanol concentrations less than 60 vol%, only two phases were obtained with aqueous rich bottom phase more in volume than that of the ethylbenzene rich top phase. Linear coreflooding experiments were completed by our industrial partner in this project, Surtek, CO, to measure the condensate recovery in flooding processes. It was found about 30% ethylbenzene recovery was obtained by the waterflooding, however, 2wt% ethanol flooding did not produce incremental recovery of the ethylbenzene. Radial coreflooding with ethanol injection prior to water injection is in progress to assess the effectiveness of the surfactant flooding in the recovery of condensate.

Ramanathan Sampath

2004-03-31

165

Investigation of Phase and Emulsion Behavior, Surfactant Retention and Condensate Recovery for Condensate/Water/Ethanol Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-02NT15447 during the period April 01, 2004 to September 30, 2004 which covers the fourth six months of the project. Presently work is in progress to characterize phase and emulsion behavior for ethylbenzene/water/ethanol system. Ethylbenzene that has the equivalent carbon number is used as the model condensate. During this reporting period, work was under way and the electrical conductivity experimental system was set up at the Atlanta University Center. Following the set-up of the emulsion measurement system, the electronic instruments and data acquisition modules involved were tested for proper operation of the system. Then, the conductivity output was normalized with that obtained for 10mM NaCl water. Radial coreflooding experiments with ethanol injection prior to and after water injection were completed to assess the effectiveness of the surfactant flooding in the recovery of condensate by our industrial partner, Surtek, CO, in this reporting period. In Run 1, 10 mM NaCl without ethanol injection recovered 31.5% of the initial ethyl benzene saturation. Injection of ethanol following 10 mM NaCl produced a tertiary ethyl benzene bank with maximum ethyl benzene cuts of 32%. In Run 2, 50 vol% of pure (100%) ethanol was injected and flowed through the Berea sandstone after Ethyl Benzene Saturation. 69% of the initial ethyl benzene was recovered. Results of the radial corefloods are very encouraging. Emulsion conductivity measurements for conjugate pair phases are in progress at Morehouse.

Ramanathan Sampath

2004-09-30

166

Flow-duration curves  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The flow-duration curve is a cumulative frequency curve that shows the percent of time specified discharges were equaled or exceeded during a given period. It combines in one curve the flow characteristics of a stream throughout the range of discharge, without regard to the sequence of occurrence. If the period upon which the curve is based represents the long-term flow of a stream, the curve may be used to predict the distribution of future flows for water- power, water-supply, and pollution studies. This report shows that differences in geology affect the low-flow ends of flow-duration curves of streams in adjacent basins. Thus, duration curves are useful in appraising the geologic characteristics of drainage basins. A method for adjusting flow-duration curves of short periods to represent long-term conditions is presented. The adjustment is made by correlating the records of a short-term station with those of a long-term station.

Searcy, James Kincheon

1959-01-01

167

Investigation of Phase and Emulsion Behavior, Surfactant Retention and Condensate Recovery for Condensate/Water/Ethanol Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-02NT15447 during the period April 01, 2005 to September 30, 2005 which covers the sixth six months of the project. Presently work is in progress to characterize phase and emulsion behavior for ethylbenzene/water/ethanol system. Ethylbenzene that has the equivalent carbon number is used as the model condensate. In the last reporting period, electrical conductivity measurements for bottom/top, and top/bottom conjugate pair phases of the ethylbenzene/water/ethanol system were performed for various ethanol volume percentage in the mixture: 2,10,20,33,43,50, and 56. During this reporting period, prediction of electrical conductivity data obtained in the past was conducted employing a theoretical model already developed in this project. Results of the comparisons for 2, and 10% ethanol volume in the mixture are presented here. A good agreement was obtained between the predicted emulsion conductivities and the measured values. To date about 99% of the proposed work has been completed. Conductivity prediction for 56% ethanol volume in the mixture is in progress. Following this prediction, a final report will be developed describing the research activities conducted through the entire project period including results and conclusions.

Ramanathan Sampath

2005-09-30

168

Investigation of Phase and Emulsion Behavior, Surfactant Retention and Condensate Recovery for Condensate/Water/Ethanol Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-02NT15447 during the period October 01, 2004 to March 31, 2005 which covers the fifth six months of the project. Presently work is in progress to characterize phase and emulsion behavior for ethylbenzene/water/ethanol system. Ethylbenzene that has the equivalent carbon number is used as the model condensate. During this reporting period, electrical conductivity measurements for bottom, and top phases, as well as bottom/top, and top/bottom conjugate pair phases of the ethylbenzene/water/ethanol system were performed for various ethanol volume percentage of the mixtures starting from 2% to 60%. Preliminary findings are that electrical conductivity of the bottom phase decreased as ethanol volume fraction of the mixture increased. Conductivity of the top phase was small and remained almost the same for variations in ethanol volume fraction of the mixture. Conductivity of the emulsion of the conjugate pair phases decreased as the fraction of volume of the top phase was increased and vice versa. Also inversion phenomena was observed. Detailed analyses are in progress including the prediction of conductivity data using the theoretical model already developed in this project.

Ramanathan Sampath

2005-03-31

169

Investigation of Phase and Emulsion Behavior, Surfactant Retention and Condensate Recovery for Condensate/Water/Ethanol Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-02NT15447 during the period October 01, 2002 to April 01, 2003 which covers the first six months of the project. Presently work is in progress to characterize phase and emulsion behavior for condensate/water/ethanol system. Temperature and salinity scans are planned to identify the optimal salinity and temperature, and the temperature and salinity intervals in which all three phases coexist for this system. Test matrix to perform salinity and temperature scans has been established. Supply requests to obtain hydrocarbons, surfactant, etc., were processed and supplies obtained. Current literature in the subject area, and modeling efforts that were established in our previous studies to predict electrical conductivities and inversion phenomena were reviewed. Based on the review a computer model to predict electrical conductivities of the ethylbenzene (that has the equivalent carbon number of the condensate)/water/ethanol system is being developed. These activities resulted in one published conference abstract during this reporting period.

Ramanathan Sampath

2003-03-31

170

INVESTIGATION OF PHASE AND EMULSION BEHAVIOR, SURFACTANT RETENTION, AND CONDENSATE RECOVERY FOR CONDENSATE/WATER/ETHANOL MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This final technical report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-02NT15447 during the period October 01, 2002 to September 30, 2005, which covers the total performance period of the project. During this period, work was conducted to characterize phase and emulsion behavior for ethylbenzene/water/ethanol system. Ethylbenzene that has the equivalent carbon number was used as the model condensate. Salinity scans were performed for 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 mM salt concentrations at room temperature to identify the optimal salinity and salinity intervals in which all phases coexisted. It was found that only two phases formed, and salinity has no significant effect in the volumes of the phases formed. Experiments were repeated at 30 C and observed salinity has no effect at higher temperatures as well. Following the salinity experiments, measurements were made with 10mM NaCl water for surfactant concentrations from 2 to 70 volume percent at room temperature. It was found that only two phases were formed upto 60 vol% concentration of the surfactant. Above 60 vol% surfactant, the mixture produced only a single phase. Experiments were repeated from 2 to 70 C and observed that temperature has no significant effect on the number of phases formed. At the temperatures and surfactant concentration tested, volume fraction of the aqueous bottom phase was found to be larger than that of the top phase. Electrical conductivity measurements were then conducted for bottom/top, and top/bottom conjugate pair phases of the ethylbenzene/water/ethanol system formed by mixing ethanol at various volume percentages including 2,10,33,and 56% while keeping the volumes of ethylbenzene and water the same in the mixture. Electrical conductivity of the bottom phase decreased as ethanol volume fraction in the mixture increased. Conductivity of the top phase was found small and remained almost the same for variations in ethanol volume fraction in the mixture. Also inversion phenomena was observed. Prediction of the conductivity data obtained was then conducted employing a theoretical model developed in this project based on Maxwell relations. Results of the comparisons for 2, 10, 33, and 56% ethanol volume in the mixture are presented here. A good agreement was obtained between the predicted emulsion conductivities and the measured values. Work was also conducted at Surtek, Golden, CO, our industrial partner in this project, to measure the effectiveness for condensate recovery employing coreflooding techniques. In Run 1 of the radial coreflooding experiments conducted, 10 mM NaCl without ethanol injection recovered 31.5% of the initial ethyl benzene saturation. Injection of ethanol following 10 mM NaCl produced a tertiary ethyl benzene bank with maximum ethyl benzene cuts of 32%. In Run 2, 50 vol% of pure (100%) ethanol was injected and flowed through the Berea sandstone after Ethyl Benzene Saturation. 69% of the initial ethyl benzene was recovered. While 50 vol% of ethanol injection does not make economic sense when injecting a large fraction of a pore volume, injection of sufficient volume to remove water and condensate from around the near well bore area of a gas well could be economic.

Ramanathan Sampath

2005-12-01

171

Stabilities of thiomolybdate complexes of iron; implications for retention of essential trace elements (Fe, Cu, Mo) in sulfidic waters.  

PubMed

In aquatic ecosystems, availabilities of Fe, Mo and Cu potentially limit rates of critical biological processes, including nitrogen fixation, nitrate assimilation and N2O decomposition. During long periods in Earth's history when large parts of the ocean were sulfidic, what prevented these elements' quantitative loss from marine habitats as insoluble sulfide phases? They must have been retained by formation of soluble complexes. Identities of the key ligands are poorly known but probably include thioanions. Here, the first determinations of stability constants for Fe(2+)-[MoS4](2-) complexes in aqueous solution are reported based on measurements of pyrrhotite (hexagonal FeS) solubility under mildly alkaline conditions. Two linear complexes, [FeO(OH)MoS4](3-) and [(Fe2S2)(MoS4)2](4-), best explain the observed solubility variations. Complexes that would be consistent with cuboid cluster structures were less successful, implying that such clusters probably are minor or absent in aqueous solution under the conditions studied. The new data, together with prior data on stabilities of Cu(+)-[MoS4](2-) complexes, are used to explore computationally how competition of Fe(2+) and Cu(+) for [MoS4](2-), as well as competition of [MoS4](2-) and HS(-) for both metals would be resolved in solutions representative of sulfidic natural waters. Thiomolybdate complexes will be most important at sulfide concentrations near the [MoO4](2-)-[MoS4](2-) equivalence point. At lower sulfide concentrations, thiomolybdates are insufficiently stable to be competitive ligands in natural waters and at higher sulfide concentrations HS(-) ligands out-compete thiomolybdates. PMID:24226648

Helz, George R; Erickson, Britt E; Vorlicek, Trent P

2014-05-28

172

Research of data retention in EEPROM cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates date retention ability of EEPROM cells for a given voltage or temperature by theory and experiment. The expression of EEPROM date retention is derived. In the temperature acceleration experiment, the logarithm of device inactivation time have linear ratio with temperature according to Arrhenius formula and the device life retention was acquired in the various temperature. According to Arrhenius equation, lifetime curve is deduced. In the electric acceleration experiment, because of the charge leaking on the floating-gate, the threshold voltage would decrease gradually. In the log-log plot, the decrease efficiency of threshold voltage have linear ratio with time. Under the assumption that the charge loss mechanism is Fowler-Nordheim tunneling through the thin oxide, date retention time of EEPROM cells is derived and the experience formula is derived by experiment.

Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Ni; Hu, Cang-lu; Jiao, Gang-cheng; Miao, Zhuang; Fu, Ling-yun; Liu, Feng

2013-08-01

173

Two-dimensional array of particles originating from dipole-dipole interaction as evidenced by potential curve measurements at vertical oil/water interfaces.  

PubMed

We propose a new method to evaluate the interaction potential energy between the particles adsorbed at an oil/water interface as a function of interparticle distance. The method is based on the measurement of the interparticle distance at a vertical oil/water interface, at which the gravitational force is naturally applied to compress the particle monolayer in the in-plane direction. We verified the method by examining whether we obtained the same potential curve upon varying the gravitational acceleration by tilting the interface. The present method is applicable in the force range from ?0.1 to ?100 pN, determined by the effective weight of the particles at the interface. The method gives a rather simple procedure to estimate a long range interaction among the particles adsorbed at oil/water interfaces. We applied this method to polystyrene particles at the decane/aqueous surfactant solution interface, and obtained the interparticle potential curves. All the potential curves obtained by the present method indicated that the interparticle repulsion is due to the electrical dipole-dipole interaction based on the negative charge of the particles. The mechanism of the dipole-dipole interaction is further discussed on the basis of the effects of surfactants. PMID:25005863

Sakka, Tetsuo; Kozawa, Daichi; Tsuchiya, Kiyoto; Sugiman, Nao; Oye, Gisle; Fukami, Kazuhiro; Nishi, Naoya; Ogata, Yukio H

2014-07-23

174

An Analytical Method for Deriving Reservoir Operation Curves to Maximize Social Benefits from Multiple Uses of Water in the Willamette River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A central characteristic of large river basins in the western US is the spatial and temporal disjunction between the supply of and demand for water. Water sources are typically concentrated in forested mountain regions distant from municipal and agricultural water users, while precipitation is super-abundant in winter and deficient in summer. To cope with these disparities, systems of reservoirs have been constructed throughout the West. These reservoir systems are managed to serve two main competing purposes: to control flooding during winter and spring, and to store spring runoff and deliver it to populated, agricultural valleys during the summer. The reservoirs also provide additional benefits, including recreation, hydropower and instream flows for stream ecology. Since the storage capacity of the reservoirs cannot be used for both flood control and storage at the same time, these uses are traded-off during spring, as the most important, or dominant use of the reservoir, shifts from buffering floods to storing water for summer use. This tradeoff is expressed in the operations rule curve, which specifies the maximum level to which a reservoir can be filled throughout the year, apart from real-time flood operations. These rule curves were often established at the time a reservoir was built. However, climate change and human impacts may be altering the timing and amplitude of flood events and water scarcity is expected to intensify with anticipated changes in climate, land cover and population. These changes imply that reservoir management using current rule curves may not match future societal values for the diverse uses of water from reservoirs. Despite a broad literature on mathematical optimization for reservoir operation, these methods are not often used because they 1) simplify the hydrologic system, raising doubts about the real-world applicability of the solutions, 2) exhibit perfect foresight and assume stationarity, whereas reservoir operators face uncertainty and risk daily, and 3) require complex computer programming. The proposed research addresses these critiques by pursuing a novel approach - the development of an analytical method to demonstrate how reservoir management could adapt to anticipated changes in water supply and demand, which incorporates some of the complexity of the hydrologic system, includes stochasticity, and can be readily implemented. Employing a normative economic framework of social welfare maximization, the research will 1) estimate the social benefits associated with reservoir uses, 2) analytically derive conditions for maximizing the benefits of reservoir operation, and 3) estimate the resulting optimal operating rules under future trajectories of climate, land cover, and population. The findings of this analysis will be used to address the following research questions: 1) How do the derived optimal operating rules compare to the existing rule curves? 2) How does the shape of the derived rule curves change under different scenarios of global change? 3) What is the change in net social benefits resulting from the use of these derived rule curves as compared to existing rule curves? 4) To the extent possible, what are the distributional and social justice implications of the derived changes in the rule curves?

Moore, K. M.; Jaeger, W. K.; Jones, J. A.

2013-12-01

175

The effects of water replacement by oral rehydration fluids with or without betaine supplementation on performance, acid-base balance, and water retention of heat-stressed broiler chickens.  

PubMed

Exposing broilers to a high temperature increases water and electrolyte K(+) and Na(+) excretion, which negatively affects the heat dissipation capacity and acid-base homeostasis, resulting in losses in growth performance. In this experiment, the efficacy of providing oral rehydration therapy and betaine on growth performance, acid-base balance, and water and electrolyte retention was evaluated. A total of 432 one-day-old broiler chicks (Cobb) were allocated to 72 metabolic cages and reared to 31 d of age under standard conditions. From 32 to 41 d of age, chicks were exposed to heat stress (ambient temperature, 32°C) and high RH (80 to 100% RH) for 9 h daily. The ameliorative effects of a 3 × 3 factorial array of treatments administered via drinking water were evaluated in 8 replicates of 6 chicks per cage for each treatment. Two oral rehydration therapy (ORT) fluids, based on either citrate or bicarbonate salts, were added to tap water. In addition, betaine was added to tap water at an inclusion rate of 0, 500, or 1,000 mg/L to complete the array of 9 liquid-based treatments. Growth performance was assessed at 32, 35, and 41 d of age. From 32 to 35 d of age, chicks receiving ORT fluids exhibited improved growth performance, water balance, and electrolyte (K(+), Na(+)) retention. In addition, the physiological response to stress was attenuated, as indicated by lower heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratios and blood glucose concentrations relative to the negative controls. The addition of betaine at an inclusion rate of 500 mg/L improved BW gain. From d 36 to 41, treatments did not significantly influence growth performance, which suggests that chicks receiving tap water were able to compensate and adapt to the heat-stress conditions. The results demonstrate that the beneficial effects of providing ORT fluids and 500 mg of betaine/L were observed only during the first 4 d of heat exposure. After this period, adaptation to the heat appears to occur, and none of the treatments was successful in improving growth performance. PMID:21177455

Sayed, M A M; Downing, J

2011-01-01

176

Light Curves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a game about light curves that will test your ability to figure out things about an asteroid from just a graph of its brightness. Astronomers use telescopes to collect light curves - measurements of the brightness of distant asteroids over time. It is part of the Killer Asteroids Web Site. The site also features a background overview of the differences between asteroids and comets, information on different types of asteroids (rubble piles vs monoliths), a discussion of how at risk Earth really is to an asteroid or comet impact, and background information on light curves.

177

Field experiments of Controlled Drainage of agricultural clay soils show positive effects on water quantity (retention, runoff) and water quality (nitrate leaching).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite best management practices, agriculture is still facing major challenges to reduce nutrients leaching to the aquatic environment. In deltas, most of total nutrient losses from artificially drained agricultural soils are discharged via drains. Controlled drainage is a promising measure to prevent drainage of valuable nutrients, improve water quality and agricultural yield and adapt to climate change (reduce peak runoff, manage water scarcity and drought). In The Netherlands, this technique has attracted much attention by water managers and farmers alike, yet field studies to determine the expected (positive) effects for Dutch conditions were scarce. Recently, a field experiment was set up on clay soils. Research questions were: how does controlled, subsurface drainage perform on clay soils? Will deeper tile drains function just as well? What are the effects on drain water quality (especially with respect to nitrogen and salt) and crop yield? An agricultural field on clay soils was used to test different tile drainage configurations. Four types of tile drainage systems were installed, all in duplicate: eight plots in total. Each plot has its own outlet to a control box, where equipment was installed to control drain discharge and to measure the flow, concentrations of macro-ions, pH, nitrogen, N-isotopes and heavy metals. In each plot, groundwater observation wells and suction cups are installed in the saturated and vadose zones, at different depths, and crop yield is determined. Four plots discharge into a hydrologic isolated ditch, enabling the determination of water- and nutrient balances. Automatic drain water samplers and innovative nitrate sensors were installed in four plots. These enable identification and unravelling so-called first flush effects (changes in concentrations after a storm event). Water-, chloride- and nitrogen balances have been set up, and the interaction between groundwater and surface water has been quantified. The hydrological processes in the soil have been modelled with simulation model SWAP. The experiment started in 2010 and is ongoing. Data, collected so far show that the plots with controlled drainage (all compared with plots equipped with conventional drainage) conserve more rain water (higher groundwater tables in early spring), lower discharges under average weather conditions and storm events, reduce N-loads and saline seepage to surface waters, enhance denitrification, show a different 'first flush' effect and show similar crop yields. The results of the experiments will contribute to a better understanding of the impact of controlled drainage on complex hydrological en geochemical processes in agricultural clay soils, the interaction between ground- en surface water and its effects on drain water quantity, quality and crop yield.

schipper, peter; stuyt, lodewijk; straat, van der, andre; schans, van der, martin

2014-05-01

178

Transport and retention of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in saturated porous media: effects of input concentration and grain size.  

PubMed

Water-saturated column experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of input concentration (C?) and sand grain size on the transport and retention of low concentrations (1, 0.01, and 0.005 mg L?¹) of functionalized ¹?C-labeled multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) under repulsive electrostatic conditions that were unfavorable for attachment. The breakthrough curves (BTCs) for MWCNT typically did not reach a plateau, but had an asymmetric shape that slowly increased during breakthrough. The retention profiles (RPs) were not exponential with distance, but rather exhibited a hyper-exponential shape with greater retention near the column inlet. The collected BTCs and RPs were simulated using a numerical model that accounted for both time- and depth-dependent blocking functions on the retention coefficient. For a given C?, the depth-dependent retention coefficient and the maximum solid phase concentration of MWCNT were both found to increase with decreasing grain size. These trends reflect greater MWCNT retention rates and a greater number of retention locations in the finer textured sand. The fraction of the injected MWCNT mass that was recovered in the effluent increased and the RPs became less hyper-exponential in shape with higher C? due to enhanced blocking/filling of retention locations. This concentration dependency of MWCNT transport increased with smaller grain size because of the effect of pore structure and MWCNT shape on MWCNT retention. In particular, MWCNT have a high aspect ratio and we hypothesize that solid phase MWCNT may create a porous network with enhanced ability to retain particles in smaller grain sized sand, especially at higher C?. Results demonstrate that model simulations of MWCNT transport and fate need to accurately account for observed behavior of both BTCs and RPs. PMID:23228890

Kasel, Daniela; Bradford, Scott A; Šim?nek, Ji?í; Heggen, Marc; Vereecken, Harry; Klumpp, Erwin

2013-02-01

179

Preliminary Assessment of Infiltration Rates and Effects on Water Quality of Selected Infiltration Media for Use in Highway Runoff Retention Basins in Washington State.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Infiltration experiments were undertaken to investigate an infiltration medium that could be used in retention basins to decrease the infiltration rate to between 5 and 10 inches per hour and to also decrease the concentrations of some pollutants in highw...

K. C. Ames E. L. Inkpen L. M. Frans W. R. Bidlake

2001-01-01

180

Gas phase retention volume behavior of organic compounds on the sorbent poly(oxy-m-terphenyl-2',5'-ylene)  

SciTech Connect

There has been considerable interest in the gas phase retention volume behavior of organic compounds on the sorbent Tenax-GC (poly(oxy-m-terphenyl-2',5'-ylene)). This has been due to the need to select the compound-dependent volumes of gas that can be sampled with little breakthrough at a given temperature with a particular amount of sorbent. Ambient and workplace air, stack-gas effluents, and gas streams in purge and trap (P and T) concentrators for water analysis have all been sampled with Tenax-GC. In addition to a compound's retention volume, knowledge of the chromatographic efficiency (i.e., number of theoretical plates) for that compound on the trap is also needed to predict the actual breakthrough curve. However, regardless of what the chromatographic efficiency is, a significant fraction of the influent concentration will always be breaking through when the sample volume exceeds the retention volume. Although a fair amount of retention volume data have been generated for Tenax-GC, additional analysis of that data is needed to help predict the behaviors of compounds of interest that have not as yet been studied. This paper reviews the basis for expecting physical constants like boiling point and vapor pressure to correlate with retention volume values and a variety of such correlations for Tenax-GC. Only retention volume data from simple single-component systems will be considered.

Pankow, J.F.

1988-05-01

181

Biochar from Sugarcane Filtercake Reduces Soil CO2 Emissions Relative to Raw Residue and Improves Water Retention and Nutrient Availability in a Highly-Weathered Tropical Soil  

PubMed Central

In Brazil, the degradation of nutrient-poor Ferralsols limits productivity and drives agricultural expansion into pristine areas. However, returning agricultural residues to the soil in a stabilized form may offer opportunities for maintaining or improving soil quality, even under conditions that typically promote carbon loss. We examined the use of biochar made from filtercake (a byproduct of sugarcane processing) on the physicochemical properties of a cultivated tropical soil. Filtercake was pyrolyzed at 575°C for 3 h yielding a biochar with increased surface area and porosity compared to the raw filtercake. Filtercake biochar was primarily composed of aromatic carbon, with some residual cellulose and hemicellulose. In a three-week laboratory incubation, CO2 effluxes from a highly weathered Ferralsol soil amended with 5% biochar (dry weight, d.w.) were roughly four-fold higher than the soil-only control, but 23-fold lower than CO2 effluxes from soil amended with 5% (d.w.) raw filtercake. We also applied vinasse, a carbon-rich liquid waste from bioethanol production typically utilized as a fertilizer on sugarcane soils, to filtercake- and biochar-amended soils. Total CO2 efflux from the biochar-amended soil in response to vinasse application was only 5% of the efflux when vinasse was applied to soil amended with raw filtercake. Furthermore, mixtures of 5 or 10% biochar (d.w.) in this highly weathered tropical soil significantly increased water retention within the plant-available range and also improved nutrient availability. Accordingly, application of sugarcane filtercake as biochar, with or without vinasse application, may better satisfy soil management objectives than filtercake applied to soils in its raw form, and may help to build soil carbon stocks in sugarcane-cultivating regions.

Eykelbosh, Angela Joy; Johnson, Mark S.; Santos de Queiroz, Edmar; Dalmagro, Higo Jose; Guimaraes Couto, Eduardo

2014-01-01

182

Biochar from sugarcane filtercake reduces soil CO2 emissions relative to raw residue and improves water retention and nutrient availability in a highly-weathered tropical soil.  

PubMed

In Brazil, the degradation of nutrient-poor Ferralsols limits productivity and drives agricultural expansion into pristine areas. However, returning agricultural residues to the soil in a stabilized form may offer opportunities for maintaining or improving soil quality, even under conditions that typically promote carbon loss. We examined the use of biochar made from filtercake (a byproduct of sugarcane processing) on the physicochemical properties of a cultivated tropical soil. Filtercake was pyrolyzed at 575°C for 3 h yielding a biochar with increased surface area and porosity compared to the raw filtercake. Filtercake biochar was primarily composed of aromatic carbon, with some residual cellulose and hemicellulose. In a three-week laboratory incubation, CO2 effluxes from a highly weathered Ferralsol soil amended with 5% biochar (dry weight, d.w.) were roughly four-fold higher than the soil-only control, but 23-fold lower than CO2 effluxes from soil amended with 5% (d.w.) raw filtercake. We also applied vinasse, a carbon-rich liquid waste from bioethanol production typically utilized as a fertilizer on sugarcane soils, to filtercake- and biochar-amended soils. Total CO2 efflux from the biochar-amended soil in response to vinasse application was only 5% of the efflux when vinasse was applied to soil amended with raw filtercake. Furthermore, mixtures of 5 or 10% biochar (d.w.) in this highly weathered tropical soil significantly increased water retention within the plant-available range and also improved nutrient availability. Accordingly, application of sugarcane filtercake as biochar, with or without vinasse application, may better satisfy soil management objectives than filtercake applied to soils in its raw form, and may help to build soil carbon stocks in sugarcane-cultivating regions. PMID:24897522

Eykelbosh, Angela Joy; Johnson, Mark S; Santos de Queiroz, Edmar; Dalmagro, Higo José; Guimarães Couto, Eduardo

2014-01-01

183

Ultrasonic spectroscopy allows a rapid determination of the relative water content at the turgor loss point: a comparison with pressure-volume curves in 13 woody species.  

PubMed

The turgor loss point (TLP), which is considered a threshold for many physiological processes, may be useful in plant-breeding programs or for the selection of reforestation species. Obtaining TLP through the standard pressure-volume (p-v) curve method in a large set of species is highly time-consuming and somewhat subjective. To solve this problem, we present an objective and a less time-consuming technique based on the leaf resonance able to calculate the relative water content (RWC) at TLP (RWCTLP). This method uses air-coupled broadband ultrasonic spectroscopy to obtain the sigmoidal relation between RWC and the standardized resonant frequency (f/fo). For the 13 species measured, the inflexion point of the RWC-f/fo relationship ( ) was not statistically different from the value of RWC at the TLP obtained with the p-v curves (RWCTLP p-v). PMID:23933828

Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Fariñas, María Dolores; Alvarez-Arenas, Tomás Gómez; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

2013-07-01

184

Effects of age and calving season on lactation curves of milk production traits in Italian water buffaloes.  

PubMed

Test day (TD) records of milk production traits (milk yield, fat, and protein percentages) of 534 Italian buffalo cows were analyzed with a mixed linear model in order to estimate lactation curves pertaining to different ages at calving and different seasons of calving. Milk yield lactation curves of younger animals were lower than those of older animals until 20 wk from parturition. No effect of age at calving could be observed for fat and protein percentages. Season of calving affected milk yield only in the first phase of lactation, with the lowest production levels for summer calvings; no effect could be observed on fat and protein contents. Average correlations among TD measures within lactation were 0.59, 0.31, and 0.36 for milk yield, fat, and protein percentages, respectively. Five standard linear functions of time were able to reconstruct the average lactation curves. Goodness of fit was satisfactory for all models considered, although only the five-parameter model was flexible enough to fit all the three traits considered with excellent results. PMID:12086067

Catillo, G; Macciotta, N P P; Carretta, A; Cappio-Borlino, A

2002-05-01

185

Preliminary analysis of water discharge and suspended sediment data from the Columbia River Basin: shifting rating curves and diminishing sediment loads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant erosion along the coastlines of southwestern Washington in the last decade has motivated increased studies of sediment sources, sinks, and transport dynamics in the region. A key question is whether a reduction in sediment supply is responsible for the recent shift from a depositional regime. Because the Columbia River is the major fluvial system in the littoral cell, it is important to quantify sediment flux from the Columbia River to the coastal environment. We examine historical records of water discharge and suspended sediment transport along the Columbia main stem and in three subbasins in an attempt to quantify changes in total sediment transport and total load, and examine possible shifts in sediment sources over time. Suspended sediment data from the main stem near Vancouver, WA demonstrate a 3 to 5 fold downward shift in the rating curve in the last 90 years. The same trend is visible in data from the Snake River, with a decrease of almost an order of magnitude in sediment transport since the 1950's. Grain size data from the Kootenai River show a clear fining trend in the suspended load. The John Day River is the only long-term record we examined with no change in the rating curve over time; it is also the largest undammed river in the basin. Calculations of sediment load in the main stem were made using actual water discharge, estimated discharge (assuming no dams), and calculated `virgin' flow (Naik and Jay, in review). Preliminary results suggest that changes in the hydrograph (assuming a uniform rating curve) would diminish sediment transport to the coast by up to 20% over the last century; changes in the rating curve are responsible for at least that change, possibly more.

MacGregor, K. R.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Rubin, D.

2003-12-01

186

Ultrafast quantitation of six quinolones in water samples by second-order capillary electrophoresis data modeling with multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares.  

PubMed

This paper presents the development of a capillary electrophoresis method with diode array detector coupled to multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to conduct the resolution and quantitation of a mixture of six quinolones in the presence of several unexpected components. Overlapping of time profiles between analytes and water matrix interferences were mathematically solved by data modeling with the well-known MCR-ALS algorithm. With the aim of overcoming the drawback originated by two compounds with similar spectra, a special strategy was implemented to model the complete electropherogram instead of dividing the data in the region as usually performed in previous works. The method was first applied to quantitate analytes in standard mixtures which were randomly prepared in ultrapure water. Then, tap water samples spiked with several interferences were analyzed. Recoveries between 76.7 and 125 % and limits of detection between 5 and 18 ?g L(-1) were achieved. PMID:24566760

Alcaráz, Mirta R; Vera-Candioti, Luciana; Culzoni, María J; Goicoechea, Héctor C

2014-04-01

187

Evolution of volume fractions and droplet sizes by analysis of electrical conductance curves during destabilization of oil-in-water emulsions.  

PubMed

Destabilization of hexane-in-water emulsions is studied by a continuous, non-intrusive, multi-probe, electrical conductance technique. Emulsions made of different oil fractions and surfactant (C(10)E(5)) concentrations are prepared in a stirred vessel using a Rushton turbine to break and agitate droplets. During the separation of phases, electrical signals from pairs of ring electrodes mounted at different heights onto the vessel wall, are recorded. The evolution of the local water volume fractions at the locations of the electrodes is estimated from these signals. It is found that in the absence of coalescence, the water fraction evolution curve from the bottom pair of electrodes is compatible with a bidisperse oil droplet size distribution. The sizes and volume fractions of the two droplet modes are estimated using theoretical arguments. The electrically determined droplet sizes are compared to data from microscopy image analysis. Results are discussed in detail. PMID:20621814

Kostoglou, M; Varka, E-M; Kalogianni, E P; Karapantsios, T D

2010-09-01

188

The effect of macrophytes on retention times in a constructed wetland for wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retention times of treated water in a constructed wetland (CW) with horizontal subsurface flow were determined both in the vegetative and non-vegetative periods of 2005. Tracer experiments were performed using fluorescein, an organic compound detectable at extremely low concentrations. Nominal and tracer retention times were determined and compared. Winter tracer retention time (TRT 194 h) and nominal retention time (nHRT

Veronika Holcová; Jan Šíma; Keith Edwards; Eva Seman?íková; Ji?í Dušek; Hana Šantr??ková

2009-01-01

189

Neurogenic urinary retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review article on neurogenic urinary retention is divided into three main sections. The first covers the neuroanatomy of the bladder and urethral sphincters, developing the peripheral innervation as well as the spinal cord organization and the cortical and subcortical brain control of micturition. The second discusses the main central and peripheral neurological lesions and diseases causing urinary retention. The

A. G. Herbaut

1993-01-01

190

Liquid chromatography with diode array detection and multivariate curve resolution for the selective and sensitive quantification of estrogens in natural waters.  

PubMed

Following the green analytical chemistry principles, an efficient strategy involving second-order data provided by liquid chromatography (LC) with diode array detection (DAD) was applied for the simultaneous determination of estriol, 17?-estradiol, 17?-ethinylestradiol and estrone in natural water samples. After a simple pre-concentration step, LC-DAD matrix data were rapidly obtained (in less than 5min) with a chromatographic system operating isocratically. Applying a second-order calibration algorithm based on multivariate curve resolution with alternating least-squares (MCR-ALS), successful resolution was achieved in the presence of sample constituents that strongly coelute with the analytes. The flexibility of this multivariate model allowed the quantification of the four estrogens in tap, mineral, underground and river water samples. Limits of detection in the range between 3 and 13ngL(-1), and relative prediction errors from 2 to 11% were achieved. PMID:24952625

Pérez, Rocío L; Escandar, Graciela M

2014-07-01

191

Rating curves and estimation of average water depth at the upper Negro River based on satellite altimeter data and modeled discharges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe objective of this study is to derive the stage-discharge relationship for 21 "virtual gauge stations" located at the upper Negro River (Amazon Basin, Brazil). A virtual station can be defined as any crossing of water body surface (i.e., large rivers) by radar altimeter satellite tracks. Rating curve parameters are estimated by fitting with a power law the temporal series of water surface altitude derived from satellite measurements and the discharge. Discharges are calculated using ProGUM, a flow routing model based on the Muskingum-Cunge (M-C) approach considering a diffusion-cum-dynamic wave propagation [Leon, J.G., Bonnet, M.P., Cauhope, M., Calmant, S., Seyler, F., submitted for publication. Distributed water flow estimates of the upper Negro River using a Muskingum-Cunge routing model based on altimetric spatial data. J. Hydrol.]. Among these parameters is the height of effective zero flow. Measured from the WGS84 ellipsoid used as reference, it is shown that the height of effective zero flow is a good proxy of the mean water depth from which bottom slope of the reaches can be computed and Manning roughness coefficients can be evaluated. Mean absolute difference lower than 1.1 m between estimated equivalent water depth and measured water depth indicates the good reliability of the method employed. We computed the free surface water slope from ENVISAT altimetry data for dry and rainy seasons. These profiles are in good agreement with the bottom profile derived from the aforementioned water depths. Also, the corresponding Manning coefficients are consistent with the admitted ranges for natural channels with important flows (superficial width >30.5 m [Chow, V.T., 1959. Open Channel Hydraulics. McGraw-Hill, New York]) and irregular section.

Leon, J. G.; Calmant, S.; Seyler, F.; Bonnet, M.-P.; Cauhopé, M.; Frappart, F.; Filizola, N.; Fraizy, P.

2006-09-01

192

Effect of solvent strength and temperature on retention for a polar-endcapped, octadecylsiloxane-bonded silica stationary phase with methanol-water mobile phases.  

PubMed

Synergi Hydro-RP is a new type of polar-endcapped, octadecylsiloxane-bonded silica packing for reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Its retention properties as a function of solvent strength and temperature are evaluated from the change in retention factors over the composition range (0-70% v/v methanol) and temperature range (25-65 degrees C) using the solvation parameter model and response surface methodologies. The main factors that affect retention are solute size and hydrogen-bond basicity, with minor contributions from solute hydrogen-bond acidity, dipole-type and electron lone pair interactions. Within the easily accessible range for both temperature and solvent strength, the ability to change selectivity is much greater for solvent strength than temperature. Also, a significant portion of the effect of increasing temperature is to reduce retention without changing selectivity. Response surfaces for the system constants are smooth and non-linear, except for cavity formation and dispersion interactions (v system constant), which is linear. Modeling of the response surfaces suggests that solvent strength and temperature are not independent factors for the b, s and e system constants and for the model intercept (c term). PMID:15628160

Kiridena, Waruna; Poole, Colin F; Koziol, Wladyslaw W

2004-12-10

193

Influence of River Rating Curves Interpolation Methods on In-stream Water Level Assessment and Stream-aquifer Exchanges in a Regional Distributed Hydro(Geo)logical Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this study is to provide a realistic simulation of river stage in regional river networks in order to improve the quantification of stream-aquifer exchanges. The study focuses on the Oise basin (4 500 km2, part of the 65 000 km2-Seine basin in Northern France) where two original methodologies of rating curves estimations are proposed. The general framework is the distributed model Eau-Dyssée, which couples existing specialized models to address water resources in river basins. In particular, it simulates flow in aquifer units with a finite difference pseudo 3D model and river flow with a Muskingum model. Rating curves are used in the regional distributed hydro(geo)logical model to deduce river stage from the routed discharge, which permits to calculate the exchanges between aquifer units and rivers. The first methodology, which was already validated in the Oise basin, is based on simulating the main rivers with a 1D Saint-Venant model, from which functional stage-discharge relationships, or rating curves, are derived at a 200-m resolution and projected onto each 1-km grid-cell of the regional model. Such method can only be developed on well instrumented basins. In order to estimate river height on most basins (even those where the St Venant approach is not valid or cannot be set up due to lack of data), a second methodology is developed using data calculated with models at lower resolution (? 500 m): Rating curves at each center of the river network at regional scale are thus interpolated, based on a segmentation of the space compatible with the hydraulics and the regional model. This second methodology has been carried out over half the Seine basin river network, and the aim of the study is to validate it in the Oise basin with regards to the results of the first one. Assessed by the first method, average stream-aquifer exchanges are 39 mm.yr-1 for aquifer to streams fluxes and 2 mm.yr-1 for streams to aquifer fluxes, mainly due to storage in aquifer units during storm events. The stream to aquifer fluxes during high flow periods involve a longer transfer time in the aquifer units near to the river network, what corresponds to an increase of stored water in the aquifer system. In terms of spatial impact on simulated piezometric heads, the area influenced by in-stream water level fluctuations extends across 3 to 20 km around the streams, depending on the hydrogeological setting of the aquifer unit (confined/unconfined), with deviations of the simulated piezometric heads from their average ranging from a few centimeters to more than 1 m in aquifer grid-cells near the main stream. The second methodology leads to similar results offering a low computational cost opportunity for taking into account in-stream water level fluctuations in regional distributed process-based hydro(geo)logical models. It is an efficient way to improve the physics of the stream-aquifer interactions and better assess soil water content at the regional scale, with a limited computational burden owing to the pre-computation of the rating curves.

Saleh, F.; Flipo, N.; de Fouquet, C.; Ducharne, A.; Oudin, L.; Habets, F.; Ledoux, E.

2011-12-01

194

Improvement in the water retention characteristics of sandy loam soil using a newly synthesized poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid)/AlZnFe2O4 superabsorbent hydrogel nanocomposite material.  

PubMed

The use of some novel and efficient crop nutrient-based superabsorbent hydrogel nanocomposites (SHNCs), is currently becoming increasingly important to improve the crop yield and productivity, due to their water retention properties. In the present study a poly(Acrylamide-co-acrylic acid)/AlZnFe2O4 superabsorbent hydrogel nanocomposite was synthesized and its physical properties characterized using Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX), FE-SEM and FTIR spectroscopic techniques. The effects of different levels of SHNC were studied to evaluate the moisture retention properties of sandy loam soil (sand 59%, silt 21%, clay 19%, pH 7.4, EC 1.92 dS/m). The soil amendment with 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 w/w% of SHNC enhanced the moisture retention significantly at field capacity compared to the untreated soil. Besides, in a separate experiment, seed germination and seedling growth of wheat was found to be notably improved with the application of SHNC. A delay in wilting of seedlings by 5-8 days was observed for SHNC-amended soil, thereby improving wheat plant growth and establishment. PMID:22864245

Shahid, Shaukat Ali; Qidwai, Ansar Ahmad; Anwar, Farooq; Ullah, Inam; Rashid, Umer

2012-01-01

195

Assessing Chemical Retention Process Controls in Ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small ponds are a ubiquitous component of the landscape and have earned a reputation as effective chemical retention devices. The most common characterization of pond chemical retention is the retention coefficient, Ri= ([Ci]inflow-[Ci] outflow)/[Ci]inflow. However, this parameter varies widely in one pond with time and among ponds. We have re-evaluated literature reported (Borden et al., 1998) monthly average retention coefficients for two ponds in North Carolina. Employing a simple first order model that includes water residence time, the first order process responsible for species removal have been separated from the water residence time over which it acts. Assuming the rate constant for species removal is constant within the pond (arguable at least), the annual average rate constant for species removal is generated. Using the annual mean rate constant for species removal and monthly water residence times results in a significantly enhanced predictive capability for Davis Pond during most months of the year. Predictive ability remains poor in Davis Pond during winter/unstratified periods when internal loading of P and N results in low to negative chemical retention. Predictive ability for Piedmont Pond (which has numerous negative chemical retention periods) is improved but not to the same extent as Davis Pond. In Davis Pond, the rate constant for sediment removal (each month) is faster than the rate constant for water and explains the good predictability for sediment retention. However, the removal rate constant for P and N is slower than the removal rate constant for sediment (longer water column residence time for P,N than for sediment). Thus sedimentation is not an overall control on nutrient retention. Additionally, the removal rate constant for P is slower than for TOC (TOC is not the dominate removal process for P) and N is removed slower than P (different in pond controls). For Piedmont Pond, sediment removal rate constants are slower than the removal rate constant for water indicating significant sediment resuspension episodes. It appears that these sediment resuspension events are aperiodic and control the loading and the chemical retention capability of Piedmont Pond for N,P,TOC. These calculated rate constants reflect the differing internal loading processes for each component and suggest means and mechanisms for the use of ponds in water quality management.

Torgersen, T.; Branco, B.; John, B.

2002-05-01

196

DEVELOPMENT OF DURATION-CURVE BASED METHODS FOR QUALIFYING VARIABILITY AND CHANGE IN WATERSHED HYDROLOGY AND WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

During the past decades, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and other Federal program administrative and regulatory agencies spent considerable amounts of time and money to manage risks to surface waters associated with agricultural ...

197

Postoperative urinary retention.  

PubMed

Postoperative urinary retention (PUR) is a common complication of surgery and anesthesia. The risk of retention is especially high after anorectal surgery, hernia repair, and orthopedic surgery and increases with advancing age. Certain anesthetic and analgesic modalities, particularly spinal anesthesia with long-acting local anesthetics and epidural analgesia, promote the development of urinary retention. Portable ultrasound provides rapid and accurate assessment of bladder volume and aids in the diagnosis and management of PUR. Catheterization is recommended when bladder volume exceeds 600 mL to prevent the negative sequelae of prolonged bladder overdistention. PMID:19825487

Darrah, Daniela M; Griebling, Tomas L; Silverstein, Jeffrey H

2009-09-01

198

Semiempirical model of soil water hysteresis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In order to represent hysteretic soil water retention curves accurately using as few measurements as possible, a new semiempirical model has been developed. It has two postulates related to physical characteristics of the medium, and two parameters, each with a definite physical interpretation, whose values are determined empirically for a given porous medium. Tests of the model show that it provides high-quality optimized fits to measured water content vs. matric pressure wetting curves for a wide variety of media. A practical use of this model is to provide a complete simulated main wetting curve for a medium where only a main drying curve and two points on the wetting curve have been measured. -from Author

Nimmo, J. R.

1992-01-01

199

Approximate Bézier curves by cubic LN curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to derive the offset curves by using cubic Bézier curves with a linear field of normal vectors (the so-called LN Bézier curves) more efficiently, three methods for approximating degree n Bézier curves by cubic LN Bézier curves are considered, which includes two traditional methods and one new method based on Hausdorff distance. The approximation based on shifting control

Wei-Xian Huang; Cong-Jian Jin; Guo-Jin Wang

2011-01-01

200

Fuel retention in tokamaks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tritium retention constitutes an outstanding problem for ITER operation and future fusion reactors, particularly for the choice of the first wall materials. In present day tokamaks, fuel retention is evaluated by two complementary methods. The in situ gas balance allows evaluation of how much fuel is retained during a discharge and, typically, up to one day of experiments. Post-mortem analysis is used to determine where the fuel is retained, integrated over an experimental campaign. In all the carbon clad devices, using the two methods, the retention is demonstrated to be very closely related to the carbon net erosion. This results from plasma-wall interaction with ion and charge-exchange fluxes, ELMs and is proportional to the pulse duration. The fuel retention by implantation saturates at high wall temperatures and limits the D/C ratio in the deposited layers but, as far as a carbon source exists, the dominant retention process remains the co-deposition of carbon with deuterium. In full metallic device, in the absence of wall conditioning with boron, co-deposition is strongly reduced and fuel retention below 1% can be achieved. Extrapolation to ITER shows that removing the carbon from the plasma-facing components would increase the number of discharges to 2500 before reaching the maximum tritium limit of 700 g.

Loarer, T.

2009-06-01

201

Correcting Laboratory Retention Curves for Hydrostatic Fluid Distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

a mathematical formula that accounts for nonuniform fluid distributions due to hydrostatic fluid pressures, and Many experimental methods for obtaining capillary pressure- thus enables the correction of experimentally obtained volumetric fluid content relations in porous media are affected by odeling the flowof immiscible fluids in a porousnonwetting fluid, whose pressure is gradually stepwise in- medium requires knowledge of the capillary

Marc Jalbert; Jacob H. Dane

2001-01-01

202

A 2H nuclear magnetic resonance study of the state of water in neat silica and zwitterionic stationary phases and its influence on the chromatographic retention characteristics in hydrophilic interaction high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

2H NMR has been used as a tool for probing the state of water in hydrophilic stationary phases for liquid chromatography at temperatures between -80 and +4 °C. The fraction of water that remained unfrozen in four different neat silicas with nominal pore sizes between 60 and 300 ?, and in silicas with polymeric sulfobetaine zwitterionic functionalities prepared in different ways, could be determined by measurements of the line widths and temperature-corrected integrals of the 2H signals. The phase transitions detected during thawing made it possible to estimate the amount of non-freezable water in each phase. A distinct difference was seen between the neat and modified silicas tested. For the neat silicas, the relationship between the freezing point depression and their pore size followed the expected Gibbs-Thomson relationship. The polymeric stationary phases were found to contain considerably higher amounts of non-freezable water compared to the neat silica, which is attributed to the structural effect that the sulfobetaine polymers have on the water layer close to the stationary phase surface. The sulfobetaine stationary phases were used alongside the 100 ? silica to separate a number of polar compounds in hydrophilic interaction (HILIC) mode, and the retention characteristics could be explained in terms of the surface water structure, as well as by the porous properties of the stationary phases. This provides solid evidence supporting a partitioning mechanism, or at least of the existence of an immobilized layer of water into which partitioning could be occurring. PMID:21855078

Wikberg, Erika; Sparrman, Tobias; Viklund, Camilla; Jonsson, Tobias; Irgum, Knut

2011-09-23

203

Campus Retention Committee Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In January 1996, Prince George's Community College (PGCC) established the Campus Retention Committee to review community college retention strategies, determine PGCC's strengths and weaknesses in the area of retention, and develop a list of retention goals and an implementation schedule for the college. After reviewing findings from previous…

James, David P.; Alford, Veronica; Alpha-Kpetewama, Tamba; Clagett, Craig A.; Engleberg, Isa N.

204

Refining the M BH-V c Scaling Relation with H I Rotation Curves of Water Megamaser Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black-hole-galaxy scaling relations provide information about the coevolution of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies. We compare the black-hole mass-circular-velocity (M BH-V c) relation with the black-hole-mass-bulge-stellar-velocity-dispersion (M BH-?*) relation to see whether the scaling relations can passively emerge from a large number of mergers or require a physical mechanism, such as feedback from an active nucleus. We present Very Large Array H I observations of five galaxies, including three water megamaser galaxies, to measure the circular velocity. Using 22 galaxies with dynamical M BH measurements and V c measurements extending to large radius, our best-fit M BH-V c relation, log M_{BH}= \\alpha + \\beta log (V_{c}/ 200 \\ km\\ s^{-1}), yields \\alpha = 7.43^{+0.13}_{-0.13}, \\beta = 3.68^{+1.23}_{-1.20}, and an intrinsic scatter \\epsilon _{int}=0.51^{+0.11}_{-0.09}. The intrinsic scatter may well be higher than 0.51, as we take great care to ascribe conservatively large observational errors. We find comparable scatter in the M BH-?* relations, \\epsilon _{int} =0.48^{+0.10}_{-0.08}, while pure merging scenarios would likely result in a tighter scaling with the dark halo (as traced by V c) properties rather than the baryonic (?*) properties. Instead, feedback from the active nucleus may act on bulge scales to tighten the M BH-?* relation with respect to the M BH-V c relation, as observed.

Sun, Ai-Lei; Greene, Jenny E.; Impellizzeri, C. M. Violette; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Braatz, James A.; Tuttle, Sarah

2013-11-01

205

Comparison of soil moisture retention characteristics obtained by the extended evaporation method and the pressure plate/sand box apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water retention curve (WRC) characterizes the capacity of soil to hold water at specified soil matric potentials. It is a key property in any soil hydrologic application. To determine water retention data accurately and in turn use them to draw the whole curve by optimizing parameters of a proper soil hydraulic equation, it is of crucial importance to choose a suitable measurement procedure. For many years, the sand box-pressure plate apparatus are widely accepted as a reference laboratory procedure. To overcome shortcomings of the pressure plate, the evaporation method was introduced, besides many others. The method is not dependent on hydrostatic equilibrium conditions, thus allowing much quicker measurements, and yields the WRC in very high resolution. The method furthermore enables to quantify the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function. We investigated a set of 40 fine-textured soils with both methods. The samples were packed from aggregated, dried and sieved material. Eight (-5, -10, -33, -100, -400, -700,-1000 and -1500kPa) water retention data points were obtained from sand box-pressure plate apparatus. Evaporation measurements were performed with the commercial apparatus HYPROP by UMS GmbH, Munich, applying the extended method, which yields water retention data in the range from 0 to -500kPa. We found that the sand box-pressure plate method lead to immediate drainage of water, whereas in HYPROP water started to drain only after reaching an air-entry point of pF 1.2-1.3. Accordingly, HYPROP gave higher water contents until pF 2, compared to the sand box/pressure plate apparatus, but from this point on both curves begin to be close and around the field capacity (pF 2.5) they overlap. Both methods show that the textural pore system starts to drain much later, around pF 3.5. We hypothesize that the reason for the different drainage behaviour of the interaggrate pore system lies in the saturation procedure. For HYPROP, samples were saturated under vacuum, yielding 100% saturation, whereas for the traditional method saturation took place by capillary uptake.

Öztürk, Hasan S.; Durner, Wolfgang; Haghverdi, Amir; Walter, Birgit

2013-04-01

206

[Postpartum urinary retention].  

PubMed

Postpartum urinary retention is an uncommon event that occurs in 0.7 to 0.9% of vaginal deliveries. An ignorance of this situation can lead to delayed diagnosis worsening the prognosis and to inadequate treatments. This complication is defined as the absence of spontaneous micturition within 6hours of vaginal delivery with a bladder volume above 400mL. The etiology depends on multiple factors. Because of physiological changes during pregnancy, the bladder is hypotonic with an increased post-void residual volume. The occurrence of a perineal neuropathy during delivery may cause a urinary retention. Risk factors are primiparity, prolonged labour, instrumental delivery and perineal lacerations. Treatment consists on clean intermittent catheterization and recovery occurs generally in 72hours. Persistent urinary retention is the principal short-term complication and should be treated by clean intermittent self-catheterization. Long-term consequences are poorly reported in the literature. PMID:21193140

Bouhours, A C; Bigot, P; Orsat, M; Hoarau, N; Descamps, P; Fournié, A; Azzouzi, A-R

2011-01-01

207

Modeling of the Transport and Retention of Fullerene C60 Aggregates in Porous Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Buckminster fullerene (C60) has recently gained wide application in many commercial products. Given its widespread use, release of C60 into the environment during manufacture, transportation, and/or application is likely. Although C60 has negligible solubility in water, it is capable of acquiring charge and form highly stable nano-scale aggregates (nC60) in aqueous systems. In recent years, several laboratory research efforts have been devoted to studying the potential fate and transport of nC60 in porous media representative of the natural subsurface environment. Traditional clean-bed filtration theory is typically applied to analyze the experimental results. Far less attention has focused on the applicability of filtration theory to nC60 transport under different soil and solution conditions. In this work, we simulate column transport of nC60 under progressively more complex conditions and compare with laboratory observations. For nC60 transport in columns packed with Ottawa sand and simple electrolyte solutions, i.e. 1mM CaCl2 and 1mM NaCl, simulation results reveal that traditional clean-bed filtration theory is not sufficient to model the asymmetric breakthrough curves and relatively flat retention profiles observed in these systems. Modification of the filtration model, incorporating a maximum retention capacity term, can provide remarkably improved modeling results. The second application is for transport of nC60 in Ottawa sand coated with surfactant. The observed retention profiles in these experiments exhibit a hyper-exponential feature. Modeling results demonstrate that coupled simulation of both surfactant and nC60 transport is required to correctly capture the hyper-exponential retention profile in these systems. Finally, efforts to model the transport of nC60 in real soils, including Appling and Webster soils, are presented, suggesting that modification of filtration theory is also necessary in this case, to capture the shape of the observed retention profiles.

Li, Y.; Wang, Y.; Pennell, K.; Abriola, L.

2008-12-01

208

Optimal design for hydraulic efficiency performance of free-water-surface constructed wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to provide the optimal design of different free-water-surface constructed wetlands (FWS CWs) according to hydraulic efficiency index (?). This index is mainly determined by the position and distribution of the hydraulic retention time (HRT) curve of a wetland. HRT can be defined as the period during which each portion of fluid remains in the wetland under the

Tsung-Min Su; Sheng-Chi Yang; Shang-Shu Shih; Hong-Yuan Lee

2009-01-01

209

Stubble retention and nitrogen fertilisation in a fallow-wheat rainfed cropping system. 1. Soil water and nitrogen conservation, crop growth and yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

In semi-arid environments where water supply is the factor usually limiting grain yield, fallowing provides a way to increase water and nitrogen supply. An experiment was maintained from 1980 to 1990 at the Wimmera Research Station, Dooen, Australia. In each year, water use, growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were measured following three tillage methods of year-long fallow.

C. Cantero-Martinez; G. J. O'Leary; D. J. Connor

1995-01-01

210

Data Show Retention Disparities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New nationwide data collected by the U.S. Department of Education's civil rights office reveal stark racial and ethnic disparities in student retentions, with black and Hispanic students far more likely than white students to repeat a grade, especially in elementary and middle school. The contrast is especially strong for African-Americans. In the…

Adams, Caralee J.; Robelen, Erik W.; Shah, Nirvi

2012-01-01

211

Financial Literacy and Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education administrators know it is more cost-effective to keep students than to recruit them. Understanding financial literacy--and how it impacts student retention and persistence on the campuses--is an important concept for administrators to comprehend. Most students are not financially literate when they enter the world of higher…

Adams, Ruth L.

2006-01-01

212

Principals Retention. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many districts are struggling with the problem of administrator retention. Hoffman (2004) identifies some of the reasons for this: (1) Increased accountability expectations; (2) Diminished or static levels of resources to support reform efforts; (3) Greater administrator vulnerability to sanctions; (4) The complex demands of government and the…

Muir, Mike

2005-01-01

213

Promoting Employment Retention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document examines policy and program issues related to promoting employment retention among recipients of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) who have moved from welfare into employment. The document begins with background information about the work requirements and time limits affecting TANF recipients. The second section…

Relave, Nanette

2000-01-01

214

Modelling of arsenic retention in constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

A new model was developed in order to simulate the most significant arsenic retention processes that take place in constructed wetlands (CWs) treating high arsenic waters. The present contribution presents the implementation phases related to plants (arsenic uptake and accumulation, root arsenic adsorption, and root oxygen release), showing the first simulation results of the complete model. Different approaches with diverse influent configurations were simulated. In terms of total arsenic concentrations in effluent, the simulated data closely matched the data measured in all evaluated cases. The iron and arsenic species relationships, and the arsenic retention percentages obtained from simulations, were in agreement with the experimental data and literature. The arsenic retention efficiency increased whenever a new phase was implemented, reaching a maximum efficiency range of 85-95%. According to the quality of the obtained results, it can be considered that the implementation of all steps of RCB-ARSENIC provided reasonably good response values. PMID:23994963

Llorens, Esther; Obradors, Joshua; Alarcón-Herrera, María Teresa; Poch, Manel

2013-11-01

215

Liposome retention in size exclusion chromatography  

PubMed Central

Background Size exclusion chromatography is the method of choice for separating free from liposome-encapsulated molecules. However, if the column is not presaturated with lipids this type of chromatography causes a significant loss of lipid material. To date, the mechanism of lipid retention is poorly understood. It has been speculated that lipid binds to the column material or the entire liposome is entrapped inside the void. Results Here we show that intact liposomes and their contents are retained in the exclusion gel. Retention depends on the pore size, the smaller the pores, the higher the retention. Retained liposomes are not tightly fixed to the beads and are slowly released from the gels upon direct or inverted eluent flow, long washing steps or column repacking. Further addition of free liposomes leads to the elution of part of the gel-trapped liposomes, showing that the retention is transitory. Trapping reversibility should be related to a mechanism of partitioning of the liposomes between the stationary phase, water-swelled polymeric gel, and the mobile aqueous phase. Conclusion Retention of liposomes by size exclusion gels is a dynamic and reversible process, which should be accounted for to control lipid loss and sample contamination during chromatography.

Ruysschaert, Tristan; Marque, Audrey; Duteyrat, Jean-Luc; Lesieur, Sylviane; Winterhalter, Mathias; Fournier, Didier

2005-01-01

216

The Failure of Self-threading Retentive Pins Under Tensile Load  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resistance of self-threading retentive pins to failure in tension is due primarily to residual compressive forces in dentin generated during pin insertion. Examination of load-elongation curves and photomicrographs of samples also indicated that the interlocking of pin threads with dentin provides only a minor contribution to the peak retentive load.

E. S. Schlissel; A. B. Hmelo; J. C. Bilello; A. J. Gwinnett

1979-01-01

217

Generic Recruitment and Retention Plan  

Cancer.gov

February 23, 2010 Version 3 Division of Cancer Prevention Recruitment Retention and Adherence Plan TemplateInstructions NCI DCP requires a study-specific recruitment, retention and adherence (RRA) plan for each cancer chemoprevention study. Each participating

218

Biofilm Roughness Determines Cryptosporidium parvum Retention in Environmental Biofilms  

PubMed Central

The genus Cryptosporidium is a group of waterborne protozoan parasites that have been implicated in significant outbreaks of gastrointestinal infections throughout the world. Biofilms trap these pathogens and can contaminate water supplies through subsequent release. Biofilm microbial assemblages were collected seasonally from three streams in eastern Pennsylvania and used to grow biofilms in laboratory microcosms. Daily oocyst counts in the influx and efflux flow allowed the calculation of daily oocyst retention in the biofilm. Following the removal of oocysts from the influx water, oocyst attachment to the biofilm declined to an equilibrium state within 5 days that was sustained for at least 25 days. Varying the oocyst loading rate for the system showed that biofilm retention could be saturated, suggesting that discrete binding sites determined the maximum number of oocysts retained. Oocyst retention varied seasonally but was consistent across all three sites; however, seasonal oocyst retention was not consistent across years at the same site. No correlation between oocyst attachment and any measured water quality parameter was found. However, oocyst retention was strongly correlated with biofilm surface roughness and roughness varied among seasons and across years. We hypothesize that biofilm roughness and oocyst retention are dependent on environmentally driven changes in the biofilm community rather than directly on water quality conditions. It is important to understand oocyst transport dynamics to reduce risks of human infection. Better understanding of factors controlling biofilm retention of oocysts should improve our understanding of oocyst transport at different scales.

Hargreaves, B. R.; Jellison, K. L.

2012-01-01

219

Teacher Retention: Problems and Solutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a teacher retention crisis in the United States. The purpose of this paper is to answer the following questions: What contributes to teachers leaving the field? How has "No Child Left Behind" affected teacher retention? What can be done to retain good teachers? What impact do school administrators have on teacher retention? After…

McLaurin, Sidney E.; Smith, Willis; Smillie, Amanda

2009-01-01

220

Determining straining of Escherichia coli from breakthrough curves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though coliform bacteria are used world wide as an indication of faecal pollution, the parameters determining the transport of Escherichia coli in aquifers are relatively unknown, especially for the period after the clean bed collision phase brought about by prolonged infiltration of waste water. In this research, the breakthrough curves of E. coli after total flushing of 50-200 pore volumes were studied for various influent concentrations in various sediments at different pore water flow velocities. The results indicated that straining in Dead End Pores (DEPs) was an important process that dominated bacteria breakthrough in fine-grained sediment (0.06-0.2 mm). The filling of the DEP space with bacteria took 5-65 pore volumes and was dependent on concentration. Column breakthrough curves were modelled and from this the DEP volumes were determined. These volumes (0.21-0.35% of total column volume) corresponded well with values calculated with a formula based on purely geometrical considerations and also with values calculated with a pore size density function. For this function the so-called Van Genuchten parameters of the sediments used in the experiments were determined. The results indicate that straining might be a dominant process affecting colloid transport in the natural environment and therefore it is concluded that proper knowledge of the pore size distribution is crucial to an understanding of the retention of bacteria.

Foppen, J. W. A.; Mporokoso, A.; Schijven, J. F.

2005-02-01

221

Determining straining of Escherichia coli from breakthrough curves.  

PubMed

Though coliform bacteria are used world wide as an indication of faecal pollution, the parameters determining the transport of Escherichia coli in aquifers are relatively unknown, especially for the period after the clean bed collision phase brought about by prolonged infiltration of waste water. In this research, the breakthrough curves of E. coli after total flushing of 50-200 pore volumes were studied for various influent concentrations in various sediments at different pore water flow velocities. The results indicated that straining in Dead End Pores (DEPs) was an important process that dominated bacteria breakthrough in fine-grained sediment (0.06-0.2 mm). The filling of the DEP space with bacteria took 5-65 pore volumes and was dependent on concentration. Column breakthrough curves were modelled and from this the DEP volumes were determined. These volumes (0.21-0.35% of total column volume) corresponded well with values calculated with a formula based on purely geometrical considerations and also with values calculated with a pore size density function. For this function the so-called Van Genuchten parameters of the sediments used in the experiments were determined. The results indicate that straining might be a dominant process affecting colloid transport in the natural environment and therefore it is concluded that proper knowledge of the pore size distribution is crucial to an understanding of the retention of bacteria. PMID:15683880

Foppen, J W A; Mporokoso, A; Schijven, J F

2005-02-01

222

Recall, retention, and Ritalin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studied the effects of Ritalin on 2-hr story recall, 2-day story retention, and 2-day changes on screening tests of achievement in 16 male and 4 female primary-grade underachieving children. Ss were of average intelligence and free of both demonstrable neurological impairment and major psychological problems. Comparisons of drug and no-drug responses showed a significant positive drug effect on 2-hr story

Ellen D. Rie; Herbert E. Rie

1977-01-01

223

Retention: A Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bowie State University, one of six institutions, received a Model Institution for Excellence Award through the National Science Foundation and was funded by the National Aeronautic Space Administration - Goddard Space Flight Center. The primary goals for the Initiative are to increase Science Mathematics Engineering and Technology (SMET)student enrollment, retention and graduation rates and the number of minorities and women entering graduate school and SMET related workforces. Additionally, a satellite operations and control center was established at Bowie State University to provide training for students interested in space science. Thus far, the number of students entering the SMET domain has increase, the retention rate is up to 72-75%, graduation rate is up 80% and approximately 70 certifications have been awarded to students as Command Controllers, Spacecraft Analysts or Mission Planners as a result of their training in the Bowie State Satellite Operations and Control Center (BSOCC). The partnership between NASA and Bowie State University has been extremely beneficial to both and has established a model for the retention of science, mathematics, engineering and technology students.

Davis, E. J.; Strand, D.; Wiggs, M.

2004-12-01

224

Effects of Solution Chemistry on Quantum Dot Transport and Retention in Porous Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engineered nanomaterials with tunable surface chemistries, such as quantum dots, are becoming increasingly prevalent in commercial and medical applications. This increase in usage corresponds to an elevated risk of environmental exposures, and limited data are available on the fate and transport of quantum dots in the environment. The objective of this study was to quantify quantum dot transport and retention behavior under a variety of solution chemistries and in the presence of a non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) phase. The quantum dots were prepared with a CdSe/CdZnS core/shell that was coated with an amphiphilic copolymer. The primary quantum dot coating used in this study was octylamine modified polyacrylic acid, which yields a negative surface charge (zeta potential) ranging from -30 to -40 mV in water. The mean diameter of the quantum dots in deionized water ranged from 20-30 nm based on dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis. Higher salt concentrations, ranging from 3 to 1000 mM NaCl, resulted in increased diameters of the quantum dots (28 to 190 nm, respectively). Transport and retention behavior of the quantum dots was evaluated using borosilicate glass columns (2.5 cm i.d. x 10 cm length) packed with 40-50 mesh (d50 = 355 µm) Ottawa sand that had been completely saturated with water. A pulse (ca. 60mL) of quantum dot suspension was introduced to the column at a flow rate of 1mL/min (pore-water velocity of 8m/d), followed by three pore volumes of particle-free solution. To evaluate effects of the presence of a NAPL phase, a uniform distribution of residual NAPL (Soltrol 220) was established prior to the quantum dot pulse injection. Concentrations of quantum dots in the column effluent and extracted from solid samples, quantified using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES), were used to construct an effluent breakthrough curve and retention profile for each experiment. The presence of a residual NAPL phase had negligible impact on quantum dot transport and retention in porous media, while the increasing NaCl concentrations (1 to 1000mM) drastically increased quantum dot retention within the columns.

Englehart, J.; Wang, Y.; Zhu, H.; Colvin, V. L.; Pennell, K. D.

2010-12-01

225

Rassegna di tecniche relative alla depurazione naturale delle acque. Utilizzo di macrofite e microfite nei sistemi di depurazione. (Waste water phytodepuration, macrophytes and microphytes nutrient retention).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The traditional systems of water depuration are often responsible of undesirable ecological problems. In fact, the oxidation of pollutants due to standard sewage treatments may induce the overproduction of nutrients. Therefore the wastewater effluents may...

J. G. Morgana G. Corazzi M. Lestini L. Naviglio

1997-01-01

226

Colloidal particle transport in unsaturated porous media: Influence of flow velocity and ionic strength on colloidal particle retention  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, anthropogenic colloidal particles are increasingly present into the environment. They can carry contaminants or constitute themselves a risk for the environment. Several factors can influence the fate of colloidal particles in soils. This work presents the investigation of effects of flow velocity and ionic strength on colloidal particles retention in unsaturated porous media. Experiments were carried out in laboratory column (D = 10 cm, L = 30 cm) with compacted mixture sand-gravel from a fluvioglacial basin of Lyon, France. Fluorescents nanoparticles (D = 50 to 60 nm) of silica doped with fluorescent organic molecules (fluorescein) have been used to simulate colloid particle transport. A solution of a non-reactive tracer, Br-, was used to determine the water flow behavior. Three different unsaturated water flow velocities (i.e. V = 0.025, 0.064 and 0.127 cm/min) and five ionic strengths (i.e. IS = 1, 5, 50, 100 and 200 mM at pH=8.5) have been tested for the case of a pulse injection of a colloidal particle solution at a concentration of 2 mg/L. Breakthrough curves are modeled by the non-equilibrium transfer model MIM (mobile and immobile water fraction), taking into account a sink term to reflect the colloidal particles adsorption. Results show that, when the flow velocity increases, the colloidal particle retention decreases. The decrease in flow velocity allows a better homogenization of the flow. In addition, colloidal entrapment is favored by the fact that their pore velocity is reduced. The retention of colloidal particle is function of ionic strength as well. Indeed, when the ionic strength increases, the retention increases. However for ionic strength higher than 50 mM, the retention decreases suggesting that there is a threshold value for the ionic strength with respect to the retention of colloidal particles. The retention profiles at the end of experiments indicate that the colloidal particles are retained at the inlet of the columns. Experimental and simulation results can be used to understand the mechanisms that are responsible for the transfer of colloidal particles in the environment and then to improve remediation techniques for contaminated soils. Keys words: colloidal particles, flow velocity, ionic strength, unsaturated soil

Predelus, Dieuseul; Coutinho, Paiva Artur; Lassabatere, Laurent; Winiarsky, Thierry; Angulo Jaramillo, Rafael

2014-05-01

227

Cooperative multimodal retention of IgG, fragments, and aggregates on hydroxyapatite  

PubMed Central

Retention mapping of chimeric monoclonal IgG1, Fc, Fab, F(ab?)2, and aggregated antibody was conducted on hydroxyapatite (HA) by systematically varying phosphate and chloride concentrations during gradient elution in order to characterize the interactions of each solute with calcium and phosphate residues on the solid phase. Lysozyme was used as a control to model cation exchange-dominant interactions. Bovine serum albumin was used as a control for calcium affinity-dominant interactions. Calcium affinity and phosphoryl cation exchange were positively cooperative for IgG-related species. Fc retention was dominated by calcium affinity, while retention of Fab was dominated by cation exchange. F(ab?)2 exhibited a curve shape similar to Fab, but stronger retention. The retention curve for intact IgG incorporated the distinctive elements of its fragments but stronger retention than that predicted by their addition to one another. Aggregate retention paralleled the curve for non-aggregated antibody, with stronger retention by both binding mechanisms. Experimental data revealed evidence of charge repulsion between IgG carboxyls and HA phosphate at low conductivity values. Electrostatic repulsion of amino residues and attraction of carboxyls by HA calcium appeared to be blocked by strong complexation of calcium with mobile phase phosphate.

Gagnon, Pete; Cheung, Chia-Wei; Yazaki, Paul J.

2011-01-01

228

Application of multivariate self-modeling curve resolution to the quantitation of trace levels of organophosphorus pesticides in natural waters from interlaboratory studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multivariate self-modeling curve resolution is applied to the quantitation of coeluted organophosphorus pesticides: fenitrothion, azinphos-ethyl, diazinon, fenthion and parathion-ethyl. Analysis of these pesticides at levels of 0.1 to 1 ?g\\/l in the presence of natural interferences is achieved using automated on-line liquid-solid extraction (Prospekt) coupled to liquid chromatography and diode array detection followed by a recently developed multivariate self-modeling curve

R. Tauler; S. Lacorte; D. Barceló

1996-01-01

229

Retention of 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl derivatives of linear alcohol polyethoxylates in reversed-phase liquid chromatographic system with acetonitrile–water mobile phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of mobile phase composition (acetonitrile–water ratio) on the separation of derivatised linear alkyl polyethoxylates (LAEs) is evaluated using thermodynamic quantities (Gibbs energy, enthalpy and entropy). In comparison to homologue series of alcohols oligomers of LAEs show irregular chromatographic behaviour that is demonstrated in irregular changes of thermodynamic quantities. It might be explained considering an influence of some of

Karel Lemr; Juraj Šev???k; Jan Hlavá?

2003-01-01

230

Retention model for sorptive extraction–thermal desorption of aqueous samples: application to the automated analysis of pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in water samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, an automated method for sorptive enrichment of aqueous samples is presented. It is based on sorption of the analytes of interest into a packed bed containing 100% polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) particles followed by thermal desorption for complete transfer of the enriched solutes onto the GC column. Compared to other solvent-less sample preparation techniques for water samples, several improvements

Erik Baltussen; Frank David; Pat Sandra; Hans-Gerd Janssen; Carel A Cramers

1998-01-01

231

Floating nut retention system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A floating nut retention system includes a nut with a central aperture. An inner retainer plate has an opening which is fixedly aligned with the nut aperture. An outer retainer member is formed of a base plate having an opening and a surface adjacent to a surface of the inner retainer plate. The outer retainer member includes a securing mechanism for retaining the inner retainer plate adjacent to the outer retainer member. The securing mechanism enables the inner retainer plate to float with respect to the outer retainer number, while simultaneously forming a bearing surface for inner retainer plate.

Charles, J. F.; Theakston, H. A. (inventors)

1980-01-01

232

Metals Retention in Constructed Wetland Sediments  

SciTech Connect

The A-01 wetland treatment system (WTS) was designed to remove metals from the effluent at the A-01 NPDES outfall at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC. Sequential extraction data was used to evaluate remobilization and retention of Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, and Fe in the wetland sediment. Remobilization of metals was determined by the Potentially Mobile Fraction (PMF) and metal retention by the Recalcitrant Factor (RF). The PMF, which includes water soluble, exchangeable, and oxides fractions, is the contaminant fraction that has the potential to enter into the mobile aqueous phase under changeable environmental conditions. PMF values were low for Cu, Zn and Pb (about 20 percent) and high for Fe and Mn (about 60 to 70 percent). The RF, which includes crystalline oxides, sulfides or silicates and aluminosilicates, is the ratio of strongly bound fractions to the total concentration of elements in sediment. RF values were about 80 percent for Cu, Zn and Pb, indicating high retention in the sediment and 30 percent to above 40 percent for Fe and Mn indication low retention.

KNOX, ANNA

2004-10-27

233

Plus curves and surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formulations for parametric curves and surfaces that are based on control points are revised to use control lines and control planes instead. Curves defined by control lines are called control- line curves or plus curves, and surfaces defined by control planes are called control-plane surfaces or plus surfaces; plus implies that in addition to the control points, tangents at

A. Ardeshir Goshtasby

2005-01-01

234

An integrated approach with Trichoderma harzianum DGA01 and hot water treatment on control of crown rot disease and retention of overall quality in banana  

Microsoft Academic Search

A biological control of crown rot disease of banana fruit was analysed using an integrated approach combining hot water treatment and Trichoderma harzianum strain DGA01. Treated fruit were stored at 22–25°C and 90–95% relative humidity for 2 weeks. The bioefficacy of fungal antagonist in vitro towards crown rot-causing pathogens namely: Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Thielaviopsis paradoxa, Colletotrichum musae, and Fusarium verticillioides, was

Dionisio G. Alvindia; Miriam A. Acda

2012-01-01

235

Water-retention properties of porous ceramics prepared from mixtures of allophane and vermiculite for materials to counteract heat island effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porous ceramics for anti-heat island effect were prepared from mixtures of allophane and vermiculite (VA samples). Allophane and vermiculite which had been ground for 0.5–2h was mixed in various mass ratios, formed into pellets by uniaxial pressing at 40MPa, and heated at 600–800°C to form porous ceramics. The large thermal expansion of the vermiculite upon explosive dehydration of interlayer water

Kiyoshi Okada; Shunsuke Matsui; Toshihiro Isobe; Yoshikazu Kameshima; Akira Nakajima

2008-01-01

236

Hyperexponential and nonmonotonic retention of polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanoparticles in an Ultisol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing application of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) has heightened the concern that these ENPs would eventually be released to the environment and may enter into life cycle of living beings. In this regard, it is essential to understand how these ENPs transport and retain in natural soils because they are considered to be a major repository for ENPs. Herein, transport and retention of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-coated silver nanoparticles (PVP-AgNPs) were investigated over a wide range of physicochemical factors in water-saturated columns packed with an Ultisol rich in clay-size particles. Higher mobility of PVP-AgNPs occurred at larger soil grain size, lower solution ionic strength and divalent cation concentration, higher flow rate, and greater PVP concentrations. Most breakthrough curves (BTCs) for PVP-AgNPs exhibited significant amounts of retardation in the soil due to its large surface area and quantity of retention sites. In contrast to colloid filtration theory, the shapes of retention profiles (RPs) for PVP-AgNPs were either hyperexponential or nonmonotonic (a peak in particle retention down-gradient from the column inlet). The BTCs and hyperexponential RPs were successfully described using a 1-species model that considered time- and depth-dependent retention. Conversely, a 2-species model that included reversibility of retained PVP-AgNPs had to be employed to better simulate the BTCs and nonmonotonic RPs. As the retained concentration of species 1 approached the maximum solid-phase concentration, a second mobile species (species 2, i.e., the same PVP-AgNPs that are reversibly retained) was released that could be retained at a different rate than species 1 and thus yielded the nonmonotonic RPs. Some retained PVP-AgNPs were likely to irreversibly deposit in the primary minimum associated with microscopic chemical heterogeneity (favorable sites). Transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis suggested that these favorable sites were positively charged sites on montmorillonite edges and goethite surfaces in the soil. Overall, our study highlights that the transport and especially retention of PVP-AgNPs are highly sensitive to the physicochemical factors, but mathematical modeling can accurately predict the fate of these ENPs in porous media which is important for better understanding the fate of these ENPs in point of exit and in the environment.

Wang, Dengjun; Ge, Liqiang; He, Jianzhou; Zhang, Wei; Jaisi, Deb P.; Zhou, Dongmei

2014-08-01

237

Soluble reactive phosphorus transport and retention in tropical, rainforest streams draining a volcanic and geothermally active landscape in Costa Rica.: Long-term concentration patterns, pore water environment and response to ENSO events  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) transport/retention was determined at four sites in three rainforest streams draining La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. La Selva is located at the base of the last remaining intact rainforest transect from 30 m above sea level to 3000 m along the entire Caribbean slope of Central America. Steam SRP levels can be naturally high there due to regional, geothermal groundwater discharged at ambient temperature. Monitoring since 1988 has revealed distinctive long-term differences in background SRP and total P (TP) for three streams in close proximity, and identified the impact of ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation) events on SRP-enriched reaches. Mean interannual SRP concentrations (?? standard deviation) were 89 ?? 53??g/l in the Salto (1988-1996), 21 ?? 39??g/l in the Pantano (1988-1998), and 26 ?? 35??g/l in the Sabalo (1988-1996). After January, 1997 the separate upland-lowland contributions to discharge and SRP load were determined monthly in the Salto. SRP in Upper Salto was low (19 ?? 8??g/l, 1997-2002) until enriched at the upland-lowland transition by regional groundwater. Mean SRP concentration in Lower Salto (108 ?? 104??g/l) was typically highest February-April, the driest months, and lowest July-September, the wettest. SRP concentration was positively correlated to the inverse of discharge in Lower Salto when ENSO data were omitted (1992 and 1998-1999), but not in the Upper Salto, Pantano, or Sabalo. TP was positively correlated to the inverse of discharge in all three streams when ENSO data were omitted. High SRP springs and seeps along the Lower Salto contributed 36% of discharge but 85% of SRP export 1997-2001. Annual SRP flux from the total Salto watershed (1997-2001) averaged 2.9 kg/ha year, but only 0.6 kg/ha year from the Upper Salto. A dye tracer injection showed that pore water environments were distinctly different between Upper and Lower Salto. Upper Salto had high surface water-pore water exchange, high dissolved oxygen, low SRP, and low conductivity similar to surface water, and Lower Salto had low surface water-pore water exchange, low dissolved oxygen, high SRP, and high conductivity reflecting geothermal groundwater influence. SRP export from the Salto was controlled by regional groundwater transfer, which in similar volcanic settings could be a significant P source. However, ENSO events modified the SRP concentration in the Salto suggesting that long-term monitoring is required to understand underlying SRP dynamics and P flux to downstream communities. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

Triska, F. J.; Pringle, C. M.; Duff, J. H.; Avanzino, R. J.; Ramirez, A.; Ardon, M.; Jackman, A. P.

2006-01-01

238

RETENTION TIME EFFECT ON METAL REMOVAL BY PEAT COLUMNS  

SciTech Connect

The potential use of a peat bed to treat the H-12 Outfall discharge to bring it to new compliance limits was previously investigated and reported utilizing a 7 hour retention time. The influence of retention time (contact time) of water with peat moss on the removal of copper from the water was investigated under laboratory conditions using vertical flow peat moss columns. Reduction of the necessary retention time has a large influence on the design sizing of any peat bed that would be constructed to treat the H-12 discharge on a full scale basis. Retention times of 5 hours, 3 hours and 1 hour were tested to determine the copper removal by the peat columns using vertical flow. Water samples were collected after 4, 8, 12, and 16 water volumes had passed through the columns and analyzed for a suite of metals, with quantitative emphasis on copper. Laboratory results indicated that copper removal was very high at each of the 3 retention times tested, ranging from 99.6 % removal at 5 and 3 hours to 98.8% removal at 1 hour. All these values are much lower that the new compliance limit for the outfall. The results also indicated that most divalent metals were removed to their normal reporting detection limit for the analytical methods used, including zinc. Lead levels in the H-12 discharge used in this study were below PQL in all samples analyzed. While each of the retention times studied removed copper very well, there were indications that 1 hour is probably too short for an operational, long-term facility. At that retention time, there was about 6% compaction of the peat in the column due to the water velocity, and this may affect long term hydraulic conductivity of the peat bed. At that retention time, copper concentration in the effluent was higher than the other times tested, although still very low. Because of the potential compacting and somewhat reduced removal efficiency at a 1 hour retention time, it would be prudent to design to at least a 3 hour retention time for water in any peat bed system that is proposed for the H-12 Outfall. A scope to design and install a pilot level study at H-12 is currently under development. This study will be designed to examine some of the engineering issues that are of concern regarding the scaling of an actual peat bed to treat the volumes of water that are typically discharged through the H-12 Outfall. Different hydraulic paths and configurations are expected to be part of that scope.

Nelson, E

2007-02-28

239

The Retention/Promotion Checklist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book focuses on how elementary school teachers and administrators can make sensible, well-reasoned, and defensible retention and promotion decisions. The book contains a reproducible retention/promotion checklist made up of questions selected on the basis of factors that have an impact on school success or failure. Checklist summary and…

Grant, Jim; Richardson, Irv

240

Increasing undergraduate student retention rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on data from a questionnaire survey of the new undergraduate intake to the University of Birmingham, the factors which influence withdrawal\\/retention rates in the first term were examined. The effectiveness of counselling intervention with first-year undergraduate students at risk of leaving university in their first term is also explored. The implications for universities wishing to increase retention rates and

Barbara Rickinson; Desmond Rutherford

1995-01-01

241

Solvent Retention and Fibre Chemistry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this study was to understand in which way different chemical and physical treatments affect the solvent retention properties of pulps used in the middle layer of folding boxboard. The solvent retention properties of the treated pulps were exami...

M. Rantanen

2003-01-01

242

Ammonia-water mixtures at high pressures - Melting curves of ammonia dihydrate and ammonia monohydrate and a revised high-pressure phase diagram for the water-rich region. [in primordial solar system ices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The phase relations of some mixtures of ammonia and water are investigated to create a phase diagram in pressure-temperature-composition space relevant to the geophysical study of bodies in the outer solar system. The mixtures of NH3(x)H2O(1-x), where x is greater than 0.30 but less than 0.51, are examined at pressures and temperatures ranging from 0-6.5 GPa and 125-400 K, respectively. The ruby luminescence technique monitors the pressure and a diamond-anvil cell compresses the samples, and the phases are identified by means of normal- and polarized-light optical microscopy. The melting curve for NH3H2O(2) is described by the equation T = 176 + 60P - 8.5P squared for the ranges of 0.06-1.4 GPa and 179-243 K. The equation for NH3H2O is T = 194 + 37P - P squared, which represents a minor correction of a previous description by Johnson et al. (1985). Observed phase transitions are consistent with the high-pressure stability limit of NH3H2O(2), and the transition boundary is found to be linear.

Boone, S.; Nicol, M. F.

1991-01-01

243

Fluid Retention and Relative Hypoventilation in Acute Mountain Sickness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of pulmonary, cerebral, and\\/or peripheral edema in acute mountain sickness (AMS) implies a derangement in the body’s handling of water. Previously, we demonstrated water retention and increased symptoms of AMS when hypocapnia was prevented in subjects exposed to simulated high altitude. This led us to the hypothesis that upon ascent to high altitude, those persons who fail to

Peter H. Hackett; Drummond Rennie; Stephen E. Hofmeister; Robert F. Grover; Estelle B. Grover; John T. Reeves

1982-01-01

244

CURV Linkage Manipulator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A spot-mounted, variable, rate-controlled hydraulic manipulator was developed for the cable-controlled undersea research vehicles, CURV 2 and CURV 3. This manipulator incorporates a mechanical linkage arm which provides linear hand extension and eliminate...

R. Uhrich

1971-01-01

245

From principal curves to granular principal curves.  

PubMed

Principal curves arising as an essential construct in dimensionality reduction and data analysis have recently attracted much attention from theoretical as well as practical perspective. In many real-world situations, however, the efficiency of existing principal curves algorithms is often arguable, in particular when dealing with massive data owing to the associated high computational complexity. A certain drawback of these constructs stems from the fact that in several applications principal curves cannot fully capture some essential problem-oriented facets of the data dealing with width, aspect ratio, width change, etc. Information granulation is a powerful tool supporting processing and interpreting massive data. In this paper, invoking the underlying ideas of information granulation, we propose a granular principal curves approach, regarded as an extension of principal curves algorithms, to improve efficiency and achieve a sound accuracy-efficiency tradeoff. First, large amounts of numerical data are granulated into C intervals-information granules developed with the use of fuzzy C-means clustering and the two criteria of information granulation, which significantly reduce the amount of data to be processed at the later phase of the overall design. Granular principal curves are then constructed by determining the upper and the lower bounds of the interval data. Finally, we develop an objective function using the criteria of information confidence and specificity to evaluate the granular output formed by the principal curves. We also optimize the granular principal curves by adjusting the level of information granularity (the number of clusters), which is realized with the aid of the particle swarm optimization. A number of numeric studies completed for synthetic and real-world datasets provide a useful quantifiable insight into the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:23996588

Zhang, Hongyun; Pedrycz, Witold; Miao, Duoqian; Wei, Zhihua

2014-06-01

246

An extraordinary origami curve  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study a special Teichmueller curve in the moduli space of curves of genus\\u000a3 that is intersected by infinitely many other Teichmueller curves. The Veech\\u000agroup of the underlying translation surface is SL_2(Z). All occurring\\u000aTeichmueller curves are induced by origamis, i.e. unramified coverings of the\\u000aonce punctured torus.

Frank Herrlich; Gabriela Schmithusen

2008-01-01

247

Theoretical modelling of the compaction curve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil compaction is one of the major activities in geotechnical engineering involving earthworks. The compaction curve is used to find the optimum water content that maximizes dry density. Since its introduction by Proctor in 1933, several researchers have provided qualitative explanations for the inverted parabolic shape of the compaction curve. However, fundamental research on the compaction process and the evolution

N. Kurucuk; J. Kodikara; D. G. Fredlund

2008-01-01

248

Rethinking Student Retention in Community Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States that student retention is significant for measuring institutional effectiveness in the prevailing environment of accountability and budgetary constraints. Presents recommendations for increasing retention, including training staff on retention issues, reviewing admission and advising strategies affecting minority populations, and piloting…

Wild, Linda; Ebbers, Larry

2002-01-01

249

Nitrogen retention in natural Mediterranean wetlands affected by agricultural runoff  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen retention efficiency in natural Mediterranean wetlands affected by agricultural runoff was quantified and the effect of season and hydrological/chemical loading was examined from March 2007 to June 2008 in two wetland-streams located in Southeast Spain. Nitrate-N (NO3--N), ammonium-N (NH4+-N), total organic nitrogen-N (TON-N) and chloride (Cl-) concentrations were analyzed to calculate nitrogen retention efficiencies. These wetlands consistently reduced water nitrogen concentration throughout the year with higher values for NO3--N (72.3%), even though the mean values of inflow NO3--N concentrations were above 20 mg l-1. Additionally, they usually acted as sinks for TON-N (45.4%), but as sources for NH4+-N. Over the entire study period, the Taray and Parra wetlands were capable of removing a mean value of 1.6 and 0.8 kg NO3--N a day-1, respectively. Retention efficiencies were not affected by temperature variation and did not follow a seasonal pattern. The temporal variability for NO3--N retention efficiency was positively and negatively explained by the net hydrologic retention and the inflow NO3--N concentration (R2adj=0.832, p<0.001), respectively. TON-N retention efficiency was only positively explained by the net hydrologic retention (R2adj=0.1997, p<0.05). No significant regression model was found for NH4+-N. Finally, the conservation of these Mediterranean wetland-streams may act as a tool to not only improves the surface water quality in agricultural catchments, but to also achieve a good ecological status for surface waters, this being the Water Framework Directive's ultimate purpose.

García García, V.; Gómez, R.; Vidal-Abarca, M. R.; Suárez, M. L.

2009-08-01

250

Retrofitting a stormwater retention pond using a deflector island.  

PubMed

Stormwater retention ponds are one of the principal methods to treat stormwater runoff. Analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) curves can be used to evaluate the capability of these ponds for sediment removal. Deflector islands have been suggested as a means of improving the performance of retention ponds, due to their diffusing the inlet jet. In this study, the effect of an island on retention pond performance was investigated using a physical model of an existing stormwater retention pond. The physical model is a trapezoidal pond having top dimensions 4.1 x 1.5 x 0.23 m and side slopes of 2:1 (h:v). Three different arrangements were studied. The results show that placing an island to deflect the influent to a stormwater retention pond does not improve pond performance, rather it stimulates short-circuiting. This unexpected behaviour, in relation to previous studies, is considered to be a consequence of the model pond incorporating sloping walls; which is a novel aspect of this paper. PMID:22049712

Khan, S; Melville, B W; Shamseldin, A Y

2011-01-01

251

Use of the root contact concept, an empirical leaf conductance model and pressure-volume curves in simulating crop water relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulation model “DanStress” was developed for studying the integrated effects of soil, crop and climatic conditions on\\u000a water relations and water use of field grown cereal crops. The root zone was separated into 0.1 m deep layers of topsoil and\\u000a subsoil. For each layer the water potential at the root surface was calculated by a single root model, and

C. R. Jensen; H. Svendsen; M. N. Andersen; R. Lösch

1993-01-01

252

EA Shuttle Document Retention Effort  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the effort of code EA at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to identify and acquire databases and documents from the space shuttle program that are adjudged important for retention after the retirement of the space shuttle.

Wagner, Howard A.

2010-01-01

253

Motorcoach Side Glazing Retention Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2003, NHTSA and Transport Canada entered into a joint research program conducted by Martec Limited that focused on preventing unrestrained occupant ejections during motorcoach rollovers by improving standard window glazing and retention. Through comput...

A. Prasad S. Duffy

2013-01-01

254

Turnover: strategies for staff retention.  

PubMed

This discussion has focused on a number of areas where organizations may find opportunities for more effectively managing employee retention. Given the multitude of causes and consequences, there is no one quick fix. Effective management of employee retention requires assessment of the entire human resources process, that is, recruitment, selection, job design, compensation, supervision, work conditions, etc. Regular and systematic diagnosis of turnover and implementation of multiple strategies and evaluation are needed (Mobley, 1982). PMID:10106673

SnowAntle, S

1990-01-01

255

Grade Retention and School Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A follow-up study of the predictors and consequences of grade retention up to age 14 was conducted. This study investigated the effects of retention on school achievement, perceived school competence, and delinquency. The study sample included 1,164 low-income, minority (95% Black, 5% Hispanic) children from the Chicago Longitudinal Study. This was 93% of the original study by Reynolds (1992). Twenty-eight

Ann R. McCoy; Arthur J. Reynolds

1999-01-01

256

Interpretation of spring recession curves.  

PubMed

Recession curves contain information on storage properties and different types of media such as porous, fractured, cracked lithologies and karst. Recession curve analysis provides a function that quantitatively describes the temporal discharge decay and expresses the drained volume between specific time limits (Hall 1968). This analysis also allows estimating the hydrological significance of the discharge function parameters and the hydrological properties of the aquifer. In this study, we analyze data from perennial springs in the Judean Mountains and from others in the Galilee Mountains, northern Israel. All the springs drain perched carbonate aquifers. Eight of the studied springs discharge from a karst dolomite sequence, whereas one flows out from a fractured, slumped block of chalk. We show that all the recession curves can be well fitted by a function that consists of two exponential terms with exponential coefficients alpha1 and alpha2. These coefficients are approximately constant for each spring, reflecting the hydraulic conductivity of different media through which the ground water flows to the spring. The highest coefficient represents the fast flow, probably through cracks, or quickflow, whereas the lower one reflects the slow flow through the porous medium, or baseflow. The comparison of recession curves from different springs and different years leads to the conclusion that the main factors that affect the recession curve exponential coefficients are the aquifer lithology and the geometry of the water conduits therein. In normal years of rainy winter and dry summer, alpha1 is constant in time. However, when the dry period is longer than usual because of a dry winter, alpha1 slightly decreases with time. PMID:12236268

Amit, H; Lyakhovsk, V; Katz, A; Starinsky, A; Burg, A

2002-01-01

257

Curve Family Index (Visual Dictionary of Special Plane Curves)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A discussion of the many ways to classify curves, how they are named, a curve family tree, and interconnection between curves, with related Web sites about fractals and curves. Hosted by the Math Forum.

Lee, Xah

2007-12-20

258

Mathematical Curve Conjectures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, a six-foot length of nylon rope is suspended at both ends to model a mathematical curve known as the hyperbolic cosine. In a write-pair-share activity, students are asked to make a conjecture concerning the nature of the curve and then embark on a guided discovery in which they attempt to determine a precise mathematical description of the curve using function notation.

Rutledge, James

259

Grade Retention: Research, Policies, and Decision Making.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviewing research on grade retention, this paper describes tools and guidelines developed as an aid in retention decisions and examines actual promotion/retention policies and practices. Most research on academic and social effects of grade retention suffers from poor methodology, leaving the conclusions suspect and the results contradictory. The…

Chafe, Doug

260

Retention Rate by Ethnicity. Information Capsule.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document from the Miami-Dade Community College Office of Institutional Research (Florida) briefly reports student retention rates at the college for the year 2000. Retention rates for degree-seeking students in 2000 increased from 1998 for all major ethnic categories. The year 2000 total college retention rate was 72.5%. Retention rates by…

Baldwin, Anne

261

Gas retention in irradiated beryllium  

SciTech Connect

Helium (an inert gas) with low solubility in beryllium is trapped in irradiated beryllium at low temperatures (<100{degree}C) while the tritium generated may have some mobility and be released. The subject of tritium retention in irradiated beryllium within fusion reactor blankets is of considerable interest in their conceptual design. Results from experiments on three sets of irradiated beryllium specimens are examined in this paper. The beryllium specimens were irradiated at abut 75{degree}C in capsules to protect them from the cooling water. One set of samples was irradiated to {approximately}3 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV). In these samples the calculated helium generated was {approximately} 14,000 appm. They are described in terms of swelling, annealing, microstructure, and helium bubble behavior (size, density and mobility). A second sample was irradiated to {approximately}5 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV). In that one the calculated helium and tritium generated were {approximately}24,000 appm He and {approximately}3720 appm, and tritium content was examined in a dissolution experiment. Most of the tritium was released as gas to the glovebox indicating the generated tritium was retained in the helium bubbles. In a third set of experiments a specimen was examined by annealing at a succession of temperatures to more than 600{degree}C for tritium release. In the temperature range of 300--500{degree}C little release (0.01--0.4%) occurred, but there was a massive release at just over 600{degree}C. Theories of swelling appear to adequately describe bubble behavior with breakaway release occurring at high helium contents and at large bubble diameters. 8 refs., 6 figs.

Beeston, J.M.; Miller, L.G.; Longhurst, G.R. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA)); Causey, R.A. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-06-01

262

Pearson Curves Revisited.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses the use of Pearson curves to give approximate percentage points to intractable distributions, when the first four moments (or three moments and one end-point) are available. It is shown how to fit the curves, and their effectiveness ...

H. Solomon M. A. Stephens

1975-01-01

263

Symmetrized curve-straightening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ‘traditional’ curve-straightening flow is based on one of the standard Sobolev inner products and it is known to break certain symmetries of reflection. The purpose of this paper is to show that there are alternative Riemannian structures on the space of curves that yield flows that preserve symmetries. This feature comes at a price. In one symmetrizing metric the

Anders Linnér

2003-01-01

264

Markov Processes on Curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the classification problem that arises when two variables—one continuous (x), one discrete (s)—evolve jointly in time. We suppose that the vector x traces out a smooth multidimensional curve, to each point of which the variable s attaches a discrete label. The trace of s thus partitions the curve into different segments whose boundaries occur where s changes value.

Lawrence K. Saul; Mazin G. Rahim

2000-01-01

265

Grading on the Curve.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses some of the myths surrounding grading on the curve. Provides a simple explanation of such statistical terms as histograms, relative frequency, normal distribution, mean, and standard deviation. Describes how to restructure the curve, including the program listing for a computer program that will assist the teacher. (TW)

Wall, Charles R.

1987-01-01

266

The Curved Cube  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Take a solid cube with rods attached at diagonally opposite vertices. Hold the rods horizontally and rapidly spin the cube. (See Figure 1.) You should see a curved outline formed by the spinning cube. The objective of this demos is to discover how the straight edges of the cube become curved. The demo is physically based, but can be simulated within various software packages.

Hill, David R.

2003-02-24

267

Tempo curves considered harmful  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the literature of musicology, computer music research and the psychology of music, timing or tempo measurements are mostly presented in the form of continuous curves. The notion of these tempo curves is dangerous, despite its widespread use, because it lulls its users into the false impression that a continuous concept of temporal flow has an independent existence, a musical

Peter Desain; Henkjan Honing

1993-01-01

268

Famous Curves Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Throughout history, there have been many famous curves. In this case, the famous curves profiled here have names such as rhodonea, right strophoid, and the Kampyle of Eudoxus. These curves belong to the world of the mathematical sciences, and they are offered up for teachers and the generally curious by the staff at the School of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of St. Andrews. Visitors can scroll through the complete list of curves (there are over eighty here), and click on each one for an illustration and a listing of the equation that would create such a curve. The site is rounded out by an interactive map that lets users learn about the birthplaces of famous mathematicians from Leibniz to Babbage.

269

Quantifying flow retention due to vegetation in an earthen experimental channel using the Aggregated Dead Zone (ADZ) dilution approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding of flow resistance of forested floodplains is essential for floodplain flow routing and floodplain reforestation projects. Although the flow resistance of grass-lined channels is well-known, flow retention due to flow-blocking by trees is poorly understood. Flow behaviour through tree-filled channels or over forested floodplain surfaces has largely been addressed using laboratory studies of artificial surfaces and vegetation. Herein we take advantage of a broad, shallow earthen experimental outdoor channel with headwater and tailwater controls. The channel was disused and left undisturbed for more than 20 years. During this time period, small deciduous trees and a soil cover of grass, herbs and leaf-litter established naturally. We measured flow resistance and fluid retention in fifteen controlled water discharge experiments for the following conditions: (a) natural cover of herbs and trees; (b) trees only and; (c) earthen channel only. In the b-experiments the herbaceous groundcover was first removed carefully and in the c-experiments the trees were first cut flush with the earthen channel floor. Rhodamine-B dye was used to tag the flow and the resultant fluorescence of water samples were systematically assayed through time at two stations along the length of the channel. Dilution-curve data were analysed within the Aggregated Dead Zone (ADZ) framework to yield bulk flow parameters including dispersion, fluid retention and flow resistance parameters after the procedure of Richardson & Carling (2006). The primary response of the bulk flow to vegetation removal was an increase in bulk velocity, with depth and wetted width decreasing imperceptibly at the resolution of measurement. An overall reduction in flow resistance and retention occurred as discharge increased in all experiments and flow retention. Retentiveness was more prominent during low flow and for all three experimental conditions tended to converge on a constant low value for high discharges. Reach mean travel times and the advective time delays decreased very slightly from experiments (a) to (b) which is not surprising given the sparse nature of the herbaceous soil cover. Thus in these two initial experiments, the trees provided the majority of the resistance in contrast to the aggregate effect of grass, herbs and litter. Removing the trees leaving an earthen channel further decreased travel times such that the ADZ residence time was more than halved moving from (a) to (c). The overall bulk flow effect of tree cover on retention is here expressed by the dispersive fraction parameter, indicating retention volume and time, which reduced from typically 0.4 to closer to 0.2 when vegetation was removed. The Darcy-Weisbach friction factor during low discharges was higher for experiments (a) compared with (b) but the friction factors converged on the low earthen channel value as discharge increased. In conclusion the effect of vegetation on hydraulic retention compared with an unvegetated channel is prominent during low discharges but becomes negligible during high discharges as momentum increasingly dominates the flow.

Carling, Paul; Kleinhans, Maarten; Leyland, Julian; Besozzi, Louison; Duranton, Pierre; Trieu, Hai; Teske, Roy

2014-05-01

270

Phosphorus Retention in Streams and Wetlands: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetlands and streams buffer the interactions among uplands and adjacent aquatic systems. Phosphorus (P) is often the key nutrient found to be limiting in both estuarine and freshwater ecosystems. As such, the ability of wetlands and streams to retain P is key to determining downstream water quality. This article reviews the processes and factors regulating P retention in streams and

K. R. Reddy; R. H. Kadlec; E. Flaig; P. M. Gale

1999-01-01

271

Retention of hydrogen in graphite  

SciTech Connect

The retention of hydrogen in POCO AXF-5Q graphite has been measured at room temperature as a function of fluence and flux for H/sub 2//sup +/ ions at energies from 250 to 500 eV provided by a glow discharge. More than 2 x 10/sup 18/ H/cm/sup 2/ has been retained, and no indication of saturation has been observed to a fluence of 5 x 10/sup 19/ H/cm/sup 2/. In this experiment, retention was found to increase linearly with fluence for constant flux. A flux dependence was observed; that is, the retention rate was observed to decrease monotonically as the flux increased. A change-over experiment, deuterium to hydrogen, was conducted; the results show that significant change-over occurs (i.e., about 30% change-over for a fluence of 5 x 10/sup 17/ D/cm/sup 2/).

Langley, R.A.

1986-10-01

272

Retention of pins in amalgam.  

PubMed

The Max 021 titanium alloy self-threading retentive pin was evaluated for retention in amalgam and compared to the Link Plus titanium alloy self-threading pin. Fifteen specimens in which amalgam was condensed around the retentive pins were prepared. The specimens were mounted in a specially constructed test apparatus in an Instron Testing Machine and placed under a continuous tensile force (1 mm/min) until failure occurred. The mean force required to induce failure in the Max pin specimens was 87.6 (+/- 37.4) Newtons while the mean for the Link Plus pins was 180.4 (+/- 39.8) Newtons. The failure of the specimens using the Max pins was primarily a result of fracture of the amalgam with removal of the pin intact. The failure site of the Link Plus pin was primarily fracture of the pin itself. Statistically, a significantly greater force was required to induce failure in the Link Plus pins. PMID:2003894

Cooley, R L; Marshall, T D; Earnest, L

1991-02-01

273

Predicting saturated hydraulic conductivity from air permeability: Application in stochastic water infiltration modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several relationships exist for predicting unsaturated hydraulic conductivity K(psi) from saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks and the soil-water retention curve. These relationships are convenient for modeling of field scale system sensitivity to spatial variability in K(psi). It is, however, faster and simpler to measure air permeability ka at psi=-100cm H2O, than Ks. This study explores the existence of a general prediction

Per Loll; Per Moldrup; Per Schjønning; Hugh Riley

1999-01-01

274

Reading, Writing, and Retention: A Primer on Grade Retention Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that research shows that neither grade retention nor social promotion improves educational success. Suggests that familiarity with this research is essential when seeking intervention strategies. Considers how it is possible to strengthen the connection between research and practice by recognizing that educational professionals who know…

Jimerson, Shane R.; Kaufman, Amber M.

2003-01-01

275

Methylphenidate enhances acquisition and retention of spatial memory.  

PubMed

Psychostimulants containing methylphenidate (MPH) are increasingly being used both on and off-label to enhance learning and memory. Still, almost no studies have investigated MPH's ability to specifically improve spatial or long-term memory. Here we examined the effect of training with 1 or 10mg/kg MPH on hidden platform learning in the Morris water maze. 10mg/kg MPH improved memory acquisition and retention, while 1mg/kg MPH improved memory retention. Taken together with prior evidence that low, clinically relevant, doses of MPH (0.01-1mg/kg MPH) enhance fear memory we conclude that MPH broadly enhances memory. PMID:24680747

Carmack, Stephanie A; Block, Carina L; Howell, Kristin K; Anagnostaras, Stephan G

2014-05-01

276

Estimating Item Characteristics Curves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A simulation study of the effectiveness of the following four item characteristic curve estimation programs was conducted: ANCILLES, OGIVIA (from U. S. Civil Service Commission); LOGIST (from Educational Testing Service); and simple transformations to the...

M. J. Ree

1978-01-01

277

Logistic Curve Demo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive demo illustrates the generation of a logistic curve. This demo is appropriate for a pre-calculus course, but is quite effective in a calculus class immediately after a discussion of inflection points.

Roberts, Lila F.; Hill, David R.

2002-02-03

278

Arithmetic of ?-Curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper is a survey on the arithmetic of ?-curves: the elliptic curves defined over number fields which are isogenous to\\u000a all their Galois conjugates. Our purpose is to review some results concerning their basic properties such as: the moduli classification,\\u000a fields of definition, relationship with abelian varieties of GL2-type, and optimal quotients. Most of the results were separately\\u000a published

Josep González; Joan-Caries Lario; Jordi Quer

279

Highly curved microchannel plates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several spherically curved microchannel plate (MCP) stack configurations were studied as part of an ongoing astrophysical detector development program, and as part of the development of the ALEXIS satellite payload. MCP pairs with surface radii of curvature as small as 7 cm, and diameters up to 46 mm have been evaluated. The experiments show that the gain (greater than 1.5 x 10 exp 7) and background characteristics (about 0.5 events/sq cm per sec) of highly curved MCP stacks are in general equivalent to the performance achieved with flat MCP stacks of similar configuration. However, gain variations across the curved MCP's due to variations in the channel length to diameter ratio are observed. The overall pulse height distribution of a highly curved surface MCP stack (greater than 50 percent FWHM) is thus broader than its flat counterpart (less than 30 percent). Preconditioning of curved MCP stacks gives comparable results to flat MCP stacks, but it also decreases the overall gain variations. Flat fields of curved MCP stacks have the same general characteristics as flat MCP stacks.

Siegmund, O. H. W.; Cully, S.; Warren, J.; Gaines, G. A.; Priedhorsky, W.; Bloch, J.

1990-01-01

280

Exploring particulate retention mechanisms through visualization of E. coli transport through a single, saturated fracture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater is an extremely valuable resource; a large body of work has been conducted towards remediating, tracking and reducing its contamination. Even so, there are large gaps within the current understanding of groundwater flow and contaminant transport, particularly within fractured media. Fractured media has the ability transport contaminants over longer distances in less time relative to porous media. Furthermore, colloids display unique transport characteristics in comparison to dissolved constituents, including the fact that they typically exhibit earlier initial arrival times. Of particular concern to human health are pathogenic microorganisms, which often originate from fecal contamination. Escherichia coli is a common indicator for fecal contamination; some strains are pathogenic, causing acute illness and sometimes death, in humans. A comprehensive understanding of the transport and retention of E. coli in fractured media will improve our ability to accurately assess whether a site is at risk of becoming contaminated by pathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, the goal of this work is to expand our mechanistic understanding particulate retention, specifically E. coli, in fractures, and the influence of flow rate on these mechanisms. In order to achieve this goal, clear epoxy casts were fabricated of two dolomitic limestone fractures retrieved from a quarry in Guelph, Ontario. Each aperture field was characterized through hydraulic and tracer tests, and measured directly using the light transmission technique. E. coli RS2-GFP, which is a non-pathogenic strain of E. coli that has been tagged with a green fluorescent protein, was injected into the cast under three separate specific discharges ranging from 5 - 30 m/d. These experiments were conducted on an ultraviolet light source, and a high resolution charged-couple device (CCD) camera was employed to take photos at regular intervals in order to capture the dominant flow paths and the areas of retention within the epoxy fracture. Samples were drawn downstream to obtain the E. coli breakthrough curve and determine the percent retained within the fracture. This paper will present the dominant retention mechanisms of E. coli at various effective flow rates as determined from an analysis of the images showing trapped E. coli, together with the aperture field information from the direct measurement. This information will help to improve the robustness and of contaminant transport models in fractures, and will therefore improve the ability to assess the risk posed by using bedrock aquifers as drinking water sources.

Burke, M. G.; Dickson, S. E.; Schutten, M.

2011-12-01

281

JCC Recruitment, Retention, Attrition Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to reduce the class attrition rate of 40% at Jefferson Community College (JCC), and to investigate the entire process of recruitment, retention, and attrition (RRA), a series of four faculty workshops were held. The plan was to look at the RRA process from the student's point of view in terms of four phases: (1) the pre-enrollment…

Horvath, Ronald J.

282

Employee voice and employee retention.  

PubMed

This study investigates the relationship between the extent to which employees have opportunities to voice dissatisfaction and voluntary turnover in 111 short-term, general care hospitals. Results show that, whether or not a union is present, high numbers of mechanisms for employee voice are associated with high retention rates. Implications for theory and research as well as management practice are discussed. PMID:10278801

Spencer, D G

1986-09-01

283

Implicit Memory: Retention without Remembering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews recent research on retention that is demonstrated without conscious recollection, such as the ability to tie shoelaces or drive a car. Suggests that future research in this field may have implications for such educational issues as the transfer of training and the carryover of abstract classroom learning to problems in other contexts. (EVL)

Roediger, Henry L., III

1990-01-01

284

Improving Hunter Recruitment and Retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current trends show that despite overall support for hunting, fewer Americans are participating in the activity. Traditional recruitment and retention methods in which hunting families initiate, train, and socialize their children or other family members into hunting tradition are still the primary routes to recruiting and retaining new hunters. With declining numbers of hunters, however, this approach alone will not

Elizabeth L. Ryan; Bret Shaw

2011-01-01

285

Pathophysiology of renal fluid retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathophysiology of renal fluid retention. Central to a unifying hypothesis of body fluid regulation is maintenance of arterial circulatory integrity. This may be disturbed by arterial underfilling, either from reduction in cardiac output or by peripheral arterial vasodilation. In cardiac failure (CF), cardiac output falls and the nonosmotic release of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and expression of AVP mRNA in the

Robert W. Schrier; Robert G. Fassett; Mamiko Ohara; Pierre-Yves Martin

1998-01-01

286

Institutionalization of a Retention Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bowie State University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center have, for the past 10 years, worked diligently together to enhance the science, mathematics, engineering and technology (SMET) domain. Efforts made, because of a Model Institutions for Excellence (MIE) Award, have changed the landscape of the SMET domain by increasing the retention and graduation rates, the number of students entering graduate and professional schools, and the number of students entering SMET related careers for minorities and women. Several initiatives a Scholarship Program, PRISEM Tutoring Center, Safety-net Program, Research emphasis, Focused Mentoring, a Summer Academy for accepted incoming students, a Bridge Program for students needing assistance being admitted to the University, the RISE Program and the Bowie State Satellite Operations and Control Center (BSOCC) provide the nurturing, mentoring, and opportunities for our students. As a result of efforts made, the retention rate has increase to approximately 80%, the graduation rate has increased 40%, and 85% of the SMET students are now interested or entering graduate and professional schools. Successes that have been documented by various assessment activities have led to the institutionalization of the Retention Model of the MIE Initiative. It is anticipated that University-wide application of the retention model will prove the incentives necessary to obtain similar results as the MIE Initiative.

Davis, E. J.; Campbell, A.

2006-05-01

287

Strategies for improving employee retention.  

PubMed

This article proposes a solution to the perennial problem of talent retention in the clinical laboratory. It includes the presentation of 12 strategies that may be used to significantly improve institutional identity formation and establishment of the psychological contract that employees form with laboratory management. Identity formation and psychological contracting are deemed as essential in helping reduce employee turnover and increase retention. The 12 conversational strategies may be used as a set of best practices for all employees, but most importantly for new employees, and should be implemented at the critical moment when employees first join the laboratory. This time is referred to as "retention on-boarding"--the period of induction and laboratory orientation. Retention on-boarding involves a dialogue between employees and management that is focused on the psychological, practical, cultural, and political dimensions of the laboratory. It is placed in the context of the modern clinical laboratory, which is faced with employing and managing Generation X knowledge workers. Specific topics and broad content areas of those conversations are outlined. PMID:17394785

Verlander, Edward G; Evans, Martin R

2007-01-01

288

Maslow's Hierarchy and Student Retention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs offers perspective on student motivation and a rationale for college retention programing. Student affairs and faculty interventions addressing student safety needs and engaging students' sense of purpose reinforce persistence. A mentor program is a possible cooperative effort between student personnel and…

Brookman, David M.

1989-01-01

289

Guidelines for Permitting, Construction, and Monitoring of Retention Bulkheads in Underground Coal Mines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many mining operations rely on retention bulkheads to provide a barrier between impounded water and active mine workings. However, bulkhead failures can cause catastrophic flooding that puts the underground workforce at risk. Underground observations and ...

D. R. Dolinar S. P. Harteis T. M. Taylor

2008-01-01

290

Leadership and Retention in TPU's: A Framework.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Retention is a key readiness factor in US Army Reserve units. The initial report develops an integrative, conceptual model of retention in Troop Program Units (TPU' s) that highlights the role of TPU leadership. It describes three qualitatively different ...

K. Thomas

1995-01-01

291

Soluble Reactive Phosphorus Transport and Retention in Tropical, Rainforest Streams Draining a Volcanic and Geothermally Active Landscape in Costa Rica. : Long-Term Concentration Patterns, Pore Water Environment and Response to ENSO Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) transport\\/retention was determined at four sites in three rainforest streams draining La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. La Selva is located at the base of the last remaining intact rainforest transect from \\u000a30 m above sea level to 3000 m along the entire Caribbean slope of Central America. Steam SRP levels can be naturally high there due to

Frank J. Triska; Catherine M. Pringle; John H. Duff; Ronald J. Avanzino; Alonso Ramirez; Marcelo Ardon; Alan P. Jackman

2006-01-01

292

Nuclear reactor melt-retention structure to mitigate direct containment heating  

DOEpatents

A light water nuclear reactor melt-retention structure to mitigate the extent of direct containment heating of the reactor containment building. The structure includes a retention chamber for retaining molten core material away from the upper regions of the reactor containment building when a severe accident causes the bottom of the pressure vessel of the reactor to fail and discharge such molten material under high pressure through the reactor cavity into the retention chamber. In combination with the melt-retention chamber there is provided a passageway that includes molten core droplet deflector vanes and has gas vent means in its upper surface, which means are operable to deflect molten core droplets into the retention chamber while allowing high pressure steam and gases to be vented into the upper regions of the containment building. A plurality of platforms are mounted within the passageway and the melt-retention structure to direct the flow of molten core material and help retain it within the melt-retention chamber. In addition, ribs are mounted at spaced positions on the floor of the melt-retention chamber, and grid means are positioned at the entrance side of the retention chamber. The grid means develop gas back pressure that helps separate the molten core droplets from discharged high pressure steam and gases, thereby forcing the steam and gases to vent into the upper regions of the reactor containment building.

Tutu, Narinder K. (Manorville, NY) [Manorville, NY; Ginsberg, Theodore (East Setauket, NY) [East Setauket, NY; Klages, John R. (Mattituck, NY) [Mattituck, NY

1991-01-01

293

Spray Drying: Retention of Volatile Compounds Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retention or loss of trace volatile compounds during spray drying can be vital for product quality. Examples of cases where loss or retentions of volatile substances are important include retention of balanced flavor and aroma in food products, removal of odiferous substances, and control of the release of volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere. Factors and mechanisms determining losses of

C. Judson King

1995-01-01

294

Reframing Retention Strategy: A Focus on Profile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over 35 years of retention theory and literature have acknowledged the importance of institutional and student profiles in accounting for cross-sectional differences in retention and completion rates between types of colleges and universities. The first "P" within a 4 Ps framework of student retention--"profile"--recognizes that an institution's…

Kalsbeek, David H.; Zucker, Brian

2013-01-01

295

Issues related to staff retention and turnover.  

PubMed

Retention and turnover of staff, particularly highly skilled nurses, are important issues for administrators in the current health care environment. The purpose of this article is to review the literature to improve our understanding of factors related to staff retention. Group cohesion, job stress, manager style, and autonomy are examined. Strategies to improve retention, which focus on these critical factors, are described. PMID:12271763

Wells, Nancy; Roberts, Laura; Medlin, Lisa Cagle

2002-09-01

296

The Perceptions of Kindergarten Teachers on Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The perceptions of 37 kindergarten teachers on kindergarten student retention as an intervention were examined. The major goals of the study were to: 1) identify kindergarten teachers' perceptions of retention, 2) examine differences in reported perceptions of kindergarten student retention as an intervention by certified versus noncertified…

Okpala, Comfort O.

2007-01-01

297

Retention of Second Language Students. Information Capsule.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document addresses the retention of second language students at Miami-Dade Community College in October 2002. Overall, retention of second language students has improved since the previous year. It should be noted that despite the increase in retention, fewer students are passing all of their lower level EAP courses. The report contains…

Morris, Cathy

298

Designing Online Courses to Promote Student Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the issue of student retention is a campus-wide one, it is of special interest in online distance learning courses, where retention rates are reported to be lower than in face-to-face classes. Among the explanations and theories of retention rates in online courses, one that struck us as most useful is a structural one, namely, course…

Dietz-Uhler, Beth; Fisher, Amy; Han, Andrea

2008-01-01

299

Reframing Retention Strategy: A Focus on Progress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few words have dominated the vocabulary of college retention as has the word "persistence." Many institutions still struggle to engage faculty and administrators in building campuswide retention efforts, to find the organizational levers that translate the abstractions and complexities of retention theory into scalable and durable initiatives, and…

Spittle, Brian

2013-01-01

300

Student Retention: Crisis in Nursing Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conducted nationwide study of higher education student retention programs for baccalaureate-degree nursing programs in U.S. Findings from 263 National League for Nursing accredited programs revealed that respondent institutions with retention programs at college level had statistically significant higher retention rate (70.77%) than those colleges…

Catalano, Joseph T.; Eddy, John P.

1993-01-01

301

Do We Have a Retention Problem ... Or Do We Have a Problem "about" Retention?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper deals with the "problem" of student retention in higher education. But unlike most, this paper focuses not on the problem of retention "per se" but rather on how institutional leaders think about student retention, completion, and success--how the way they frame their concerns about retention can give rise to a different sort of…

Butler, Lawrence

2011-01-01

302

Dynamics of curved interfaces  

SciTech Connect

Stochastic growth phenomena on curved interfaces are studied by means of stochastic partial differential equations. These are derived as counterparts of linear planar equations on a curved geometry after a reparametrization invariance principle has been applied. We examine differences and similarities with the classical planar equations. Some characteristic features are the loss of correlation through time and a particular behavior of the average fluctuations. Dependence on the metric is also explored. The diffusive model that propagates correlations ballistically in the planar situation is particularly interesting, as this propagation becomes nonuniversal in the new regime.

Escudero, Carlos [Instituto de Ciencias Matematicas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C/ Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: cel@imaff.cfmac.csic.es

2009-08-15

303

Exploring Area between Curves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Calculus texts have problems on finding the Areas between Curves in the chapters on applications of Integration. The NCB suggests finding some of these examples in a text and trying them in Harumi's graph. Experimenting on a computer with the approximation for finding the area using rectangles is fascinating. As the number of rectangles increases, the approximation improves. Therefore, mathematicians define the area A between the two curves as the limit of the sum of the areas of these approximating rectangles where n is the number of rectangles bounded between a and b.

Monroy, Harumi

2006-01-01

304

Phosphorus retention patterns along the Tisza River, Hungary.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess in-stream retention of suspended solids (SS) and total phosphorus (TP) at low flow condition in a large watercourse, the Tisza River. The analysis was based on a longitudinal water quality profile obtained in July 2006 during a cruise along the Hungarian section of the river (nearly 600 km). Water samples were taken manually for SS and TP every half an hour (ca. 5.5 km). Additionally, concentration of SS was calculated from on-line turbidity records taken every 6 s (ca. 10 m). Velocity field was calculated with a 1D hydrodynamic model calibrated for low flow conditions. To describe the transport, a simple first-order equation was adjusted to the SS profile after estimating the potential maximum of SS that the flow with the given velocity could transport. Specific P content of SS was related to velocity to estimate longitudinal TP profile. Retention of TP amounted to 42% along the Hungarian section of the Tisza River at a flow of 110 m(3) s(-1). Storage reservoirs significantly influenced the longitudinal retention pattern. Upstream of Dam II (river kilometre 404), net TP retention reached 73%, while the downstream section was a source of TP. PMID:19182352

Kovács, A; Kozma, Zs; Istvánovics, V; Honti, M

2009-01-01

305

Recession slope curve analysis under human interferences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study the base flow recession at the watershed scale, the log-scale plot of - dQ/ dt ˜ Q proposed by Brutsaert and Nieber [10] has been used to estimate the recession parameters, i.e., the slope and interception of the theoretical recession slope curve. The lower envelope or the best fit in some studies is usually used to determine the recession slope curve for natural watersheds. However, human interferences exist in most watersheds around the world. This paper discusses the impact of human interferences, which include groundwater pumping, water diversion and return flow, on the determination of the recession slope curve and the cloud shape of the data points of - dQ/ dt ˜ Q. First, values of - dQ/ dt generated for hypothetical watersheds are analyzed. Then real data for three watersheds in Illinois is analyzed to verify the hypothetical analysis. The placement of the recession slope curve depends on the coexistence and relative amount of the evapotranspiration, groundwater pumping or even water diversion if it exists, and the return flow. When the water consumption rate is small, the recession slope curve can even be located at the upper envelope of the cloud of points representing historical data. These results suggest that the use of the lower envelope as a guideline for estimating recession parameters for watersheds subject to human interferences can result in biased estimates.

Wang, Dingbao; Cai, Ximing

2010-09-01

306

Curved Cap Corrugated Sheet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention is a structure for a strong, lightweight corrugated sheet. The sheet is planar or curved and includes a plurality of corrugation segments, each segment being comprised of a generally U-shaped corrugation with a part-cylindrical crown and cap...

R. C. Davis T. T. Bales D. M. K. Royster L. R. Jackson

1983-01-01

307

Curved Solids Nets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transformation of a solid to its net is based on something quite different from simple perceptual impression. It is a mental operation performed by manipulating mental images. The aim of this study was to observe pre-service and in-service teachers' ability to visualize the transformation of a curved solid to its net and vice versa, and to try…

Cohen, Nitsa

2003-01-01

308

Graphing Polar Curves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graphing polar curves typically involves a combination of three traditional techniques, all of which can be time-consuming and tedious. However, an alternative method--graphing the polar function on a rectangular plane--simplifies graphing, increases student understanding of the polar coordinate system, and reinforces graphing techniques learned…

Lawes, Jonathan F.

2013-01-01

309

Electrostatic curved electrode actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design and performance of an electrostatic actuator consisting of a laterally compliant cantilever beam and a fixed curved electrode, both suspended above a ground plane. A theoretical description of the static behavior of the cantilever as it is pulled into contact with the rigid fixed-electrode structure is given. Two models are presented: a simplified semi-analytical model

Rob Legtenberg; John Gilbert; Stephen D. Senturia; Miko Elwenspoek

1997-01-01

310

Straightening Out Learning Curves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The basic mathematical theory behind learning curves is explained, together with implications for clerical and industrial training, evaluation of skill development, and prediction of future performance. Brief studies of textile worker and typist training are presented to illustrate such concepts as the reduction fraction (a consistent decrease in…

Corlett, E. N.; Morecombe, V. J.

1970-01-01

311

Elliptic Curve Cryptography Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) has gained widespread exposure and acceptance, and has already been included in many security standards. Engineering of ECC is a complex, interdisciplinary research field encompassing such fields as mathematics, computer science, and electrical engineering. In this paper, we survey ECC implementation issues as a prominent case study for the relatively new discipline of

ALESSANDRO CILARDO; LUIGI COPPOLINO; NICOLA MAZZOCCA; LUIGI ROMANO

2006-01-01

312

Characteristic Curves of PEMFC  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This in-class exercise will allow students hands-on experience working with a proton exchange membrane fuel cell, or PEMFC. The class will examine the characteristic curve of one of these fuel cells and measure the voltage and current output of the cell. Step by step instructions are provided for the experiment. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

2012-07-11

313

Curve Fit Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graphic tips for using the Geometer's Sketchpad (GSP) are described. The methods to import an image into GSP, define a coordinate system, plot points and curve fit the function using a graphical calculator are demonstrated where the graphic features of GSP allow teachers to expand the use of the technology application beyond the classroom.

Harper, Suzanne R.; Driskell, Shannon

2005-01-01

314

Vegetable Light Curves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will observe the surface of rotating potatoes to help them understand how astronomers can sometimes determine the shape of asteroids from variations in reflective brightness. When astronomers graph data relating to reflective brightness as a function of time, the resulting graph is called a "light curve."

2009-04-22

315

Latent Curve Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model based on latent trait theory, with maximum likelihood parameter estimates and associated asymptotic tests, is presented. Latent curve analysis is a method for representing development and is an alternative to repeated measures analysis of variance and first-order auto-regressive models. (SLD)

Meredith, William; Tisak, John

1990-01-01

316

Uncertainty propagation: Curve fitting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn a sample-variance curve fitting method that can be used to determine whether a set of experimental data appears to have been generated by a model. This method is based on minimizing the reduced chi-squared value. This video includes a reminder to inspect normalized residuals before reporting fitted parameters.

Liao, David

317

Illumination from curved reflectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique is presented to compute the refkted illumination from curved mirror surfaces onto other surfaces. In accordance with Fermat's principle, this is equivalent to fiiding extremal paths from the light source to the visible surface via the mirrors. Once pathways of illumination are found, h-radiance is computed from the Gaussian curvature of the geometrical wavefront. Tech- niques from optics,

Don P. Mitchell; Pat Hanrahan

1992-01-01

318

Factorization with genus 2 curves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The elliptic curve method (ECM) is one of the best factorization methods available. It is possible to use hyperelliptic curves instead of elliptic curves but it is in theory slower. We use special hyperelliptic curves and Kummer surfaces to reduce the complexity of the algorithm. Our implementation GMP-HECM is faster than GMP-ECM for factoring large numbers.

Cosset, Romain

2010-04-01

319

Singular Moduli of Shimura Curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The $j$-function acts as a parametrization of the classical modular curve. Its values at complex multiplication (CM) points are called singular moduli and are algebraic integers. A Shimura curve is a generalization of the modular curve and, if the Shimura curve has genus 0, a rational parameterizing function exists and when evaluated at a CM point is again algebraic over

Eric Francis Errthum

2007-01-01

320

Water  

MedlinePLUS

... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ... you probably need more water. What about bottled water? top Some people like bottled water for its ...

321

Foundations of retention in partition chromatography.  

PubMed

The connection between the observable output in column chromatography (retention time, retention volume, retention factor, separation factor, etc.) and system properties (hold-up volume, pressure, temperature, isotherm behavior, etc.) is discussed from a practical and mechanistic perspective for gas-liquid chromatography, reversed-phase liquid chromatography, supercritical fluid chromatography, micellar electrokinetic chromatography, and capillary electrochromatography. The unifying feature of these techniques is that retention can be described by a partition model, although not always exclusively. When over simplistic system models are used to explain variation in retention parameters they frequently mask the true reasons for poor repeatability and difficulties in transfer between system. Methods employing relative retention afford higher precision but may contain residual uncorrected errors. For those systems with several separate mechanisms contributing to retention the effective retention parameters can no longer be interpreted by simple partition models. The broadly based and practically focused material in this article affords an illustration of the often complicated relationship between system properties and retention, and the dangers that lurk in simplified retention models if the validity of their underlining approximations is not appropriate for the system under study. PMID:19013576

Poole, Colin F; Poole, Salwa K

2009-03-01

322

Characterization of retention processes and their effect on the analysis of tracer tests in fractured reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Retention processes such as adsorption and diffusion into an immobile region can effect tracer movement through a fractured reservoir. This study has conducted experimental work and has developed a two-dimensional model to characterize retention processes. A method to directly determine some important flow parameters, such as the fracture aperture, from the analysis of tracer tests has been developed as a result of the new two-dimensional model. The experimental work consisted of batch experiments designed to both reproduce earlier work and to determine the magnitude of the retention effects. Negligible retention was observed from which it was concluded that the batch experiments were not sensitive enough and that more sensitive flowing tests were needed. A two-dimensional model that represents a fractured medium by a mobile region, in which convention, diffusion, and adsorption are allowed, and an immobile region in which only diffusion and adsorption are allowed has been developed. It was possible to demonstrate how each of the mass-transfer processes included in the model affect tracer return curves by producing return curves for any set of the defining variables. Field data from the New Zealand was numerically fit with the model. The optimum values of the parameters determined from curve fitting provided a direct estimate of the fracture width and could be used to estimate other important flow parameters if experimentally determinable values were known. 25 refs., 22 figs., 6 tabs.

Walkup, G.W. Jr.

1984-06-01

323

The Forming Limit Curve  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In a deforming sheet, the strain state is defined as the ratio between minor strain and major strain. The formability depends\\u000a on this strain state and can be expressed as the so-called forming limit curve (FLC). In complex strain states the deformation\\u000a is limited by an instability just as in a tensile test. In cases of negative minor strain this

Wilko C. Emmens

324

Curved geometry and Graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum Graphity is an approach to quantum gravity based on a background independent formulation of condensed matter systems on graphs. We summarize recent results obtained on the notion of emergent geometry from the point of view of a particle hopping on the graph. We discuss the role of connectivity in emergent Lorentzian perturbations in a curved background and the Bose-Hubbard (BH) model defined on graphs with particular symmetries.

Caravelli, Francesco

2012-05-01

325

Quantization on Curves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deformation quantization on varieties with singularities offers perspectives that are not found on manifolds. The Harrison component of Hochschild cohomology, vanishing on smooth manifolds, reflects information about singularities. The Harrison 2-cochains are symmetric and are interpreted in terms of abelian *-products. This paper begins a study of abelian quantization on plane curves over mathbb{C}, being algebraic varieties of the form {mathbb{C}}^2/R, where R is a polynomial in two variables; that is, abelian deformations of the coordinate algebra mathbb{C}[x,y]/(R). To understand the connection between the singularities of a variety and cohomology we determine the algebraic Hochschild (co)homology and its Barr Gerstenhaber Schack decomposition. Homology is the same for all plane curves mathbb{C}[x,y]/R, but the cohomology depends on the local algebra of the singularity of R at the origin. The Appendix, by Maxim Kontsevich, explains in modern mathematical language a way to calculate Hochschild and Harrison cohomology groups for algebras of functions on singular planar curves etc. based on Koszul resolutions.

Frønsdal, Christian; Kontsevich, Maxim

2007-02-01

326

Modelling global nutrient retention by river damming: Phosphorus and silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phosphorus to silicon (P:Si) nutrient ratio is a key variable affecting ecosystem health in many aquatic environments. River damming represents a major anthropogenic perturbation of natural material flows along the aquatic continuum, with the potential to profoundly modify absolute and relative nutrient availabilities in surface waters. In this study, a multi-tiered approach for estimating global nutrient retention in man-made reservoirs is presented. We illustrate its application to the global riverine flux of reactive Si, using a database of dissolved reactive Si (DSi) budgets for 24 natural lakes and 22 artificial reservoirs. The database includes information on bedrock geology, surface water pH, water residence time, reservoir age and function, climate, and trophic status. Statistical analyses (ANOVA, t-test, PCA, linear plus non-linear regressions) are used to identify the best predictors of DSi retention and delineate how reservoir properties modulate nutrient dynamics. Results indicate that (1) reservoirs retain significantly less DSi than natural lakes, and (2) the water residence time, reservoir age and function (e.g., hydroelectrical production, irrigation, flood control) are the main system variables controlling DSi retention by dams. Next, a biogeochemical Si model is used to reproduce the previously derived statistical trends for DSi retention. Calibration of the model yields a relationship that enables one to predict annual in-reservoir siliceous productivity as a function of the external reactive Si supply. The model further accounts for the transition from reservoirs where reactive Si retention is primarily due to burial of allochtonous Si to those where in-reservoir DSi uptake by diatoms dominates. Finally, the statistical and mechanistic relationships are extrapolated to estimate that 25-28 Tg SiO2 yr-1 are retained worldwide by dams, or 7% of the annual reactive Si load to watersheds. We are currently applying the same multi-tiered approach to the global P cycle. Our goal is to predict not only the effect of dams on reactive P retention, but also to determine how they are changing the P:Si ratios in river systems. Our preliminary results indicate that reservoirs are more effective in retaining nutrient P than Si.

Maavara, Taylor; Dürr, Hans; Van Cappellen, Philippe

2014-05-01

327

Chronic urinary retention in eunuchs  

PubMed Central

Eunuchs seek medical attention only when extremely distressed by symptoms. No scientific publication has highlighted the medical problems of eunuchs in India till date, probably because of lack of access to this community and their reluctance in seeking medical help. We evaluated four eunuchs in the last three years with chronic retention of urine due to urethral stenosis, caused by an incorrect method of amputation of the penis and urethra. Though the management of the problem is simple, the article highlights the traditional method of castration and penectomy which is practiced in Indian eunuchs which leads to urethral stenosis.

Patwardhan, Sujata; Sawant, Ajit; Nagabhushana, M.; Varma, Radheshyam; Ismail, Mohammed

2007-01-01

328

Retention at Departments of Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thriving physics department is the end result of many actions, taken over time, that results in the development of a sense of community between the faculty and the students. As part of this sense of community, gifted students must receive special attention and innovative ideas must be incorporated to successfully accommodate the needs of these students. We have found that the best retention strategy for gifted undergraduates is the total involvement of them in undergraduate research projects and also the development of leadership in extracurricular activities within the department. A careful employment strategy is needed to secure a faculty committed to the goals of the community.

Muller, Rafael; Rosa, Luis

2013-03-01

329

Phosphorus Retention and Remobilization along Hydrological Pathways in Karst Terrain.  

PubMed

Karst landscapes are often perceived as highly vulnerable to agricultural phosphorus (P) loss, via solution-enlarged conduits that bypass P retention processes. Although attenuation of P concentrations has been widely reported within karst drainage, the extent to which this results from hydrological dilution, rather than P retention, is poorly understood. This is of strategic importance for understanding the resilience of karst landscapes to P inputs, given increasing pressures for intensified agricultural production. Here hydrochemical tracers were used to account for dilution of P, and to quantify net P retention, along transport pathways between agricultural fields and emergent springs, for the karst of the Ozark Plateau, midcontinent USA. Up to ?70% of the annual total P flux and ?90% of the annual soluble reactive P flux was retained, with preferential retention of the most bioavailable (soluble reactive) P fractions. Our results suggest that, in some cases, karst drainage may provide a greater P sink than previously considered. However, the subsequent remobilization and release of the retained P may become a long-term source of slowly released "legacy" P to surface waters. PMID:24720609

Jarvie, Helen P; Sharpley, Andrew N; Brahana, Van; Simmons, Tarra; Price, April; Neal, Colin; Lawlor, Alan J; Sleep, Darren; Thacker, Sarah; Haggard, Brian E

2014-05-01

330

The human body retention time of environmental organically bound tritium.  

PubMed

Tritium in the UK environment causes low radiation doses to the public, but uncertainty exists in the dose coefficient for the organically bound component of tritium (OBT). This can affect the assessment of effective doses to representative persons. Contributing to that uncertainty is poor knowledge of the body retention time of OBT and how this varies for different OBT compounds in food. This study was undertaken to measure the retention time of tritium by volunteers after eating sole from Cardiff Bay, which may contain OBT from discharges from the GE Healthcare Ltd plant. Five volunteers provided samples of excreta over periods up to 150 days after intake. The results, which are presented in raw form to allow independent analysis, suggest retention of total tritium with body half-times ranging from 4 to 11 days, with no evidence (subject to experimental noise) of a significant contribution due to retention with a longer half-time. This range covers the half-time of 10 days used by the ICRP for tritiated water. The short timescale could be due to rapid hydrolysis in body tissues of the particular form of OBT used in this study. Implications for the dose coefficient for OBT are that the use of the ICRP value of 4.2 x 10(-11) Sv Bq(-1) may be cautious in this specific situation. These observations on dose coefficients are separate from any implications of recent discussion on whether the tritium radiation weighting factor should be increased from 1 to 2. PMID:19225188

Hunt, John; Bailey, Trevor; Reese, Allan

2009-03-01

331

INFLUENCE OF SURFACTANT TYPES ON CORRELATION OF RETENTION FACTOR AND HYDROPHOBICITY OF SELECTED TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES IN MICELLAR ELECTROKINETIC CHROMATOGRAPHY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) in quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) has been studied for selected triazole fungicides. Effect of different surfactant types and concentrations of bile salts and sodium dodecyl sulfate on the correlation between logarithm of retention factor (log k) in MEKC and logarithm of octanol-water partition coefficient (log P ow ) was investigated. Five standard fungicides (cyproconazole,

Wan Aini; Wan Ibrahim; Dadan Hermawan; Mohamed Noor Hasan; Mohd Marsin Sanagi

332

Prediction of retention for substituted and unsubstituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in micellar liquid chromatography in the presence of organic modifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical and factor analysis have been used to establish some general equations relating retention parameters to molecular descriptors of substituted and unsubstituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. They allow the determination of the retention behaviour of these solutes in micellar liquid chromatography using “hybrid” sodium dodecyl sulphate-water-alcohol micellar mobile phases and a Nova-Pak C18 column.

M. A. Rodri´guez Delgado; M. J. Sa´nchez; V. Gonza´lez; F. Garci´a Montelongo

1995-01-01

333

Multivariate curve resolution in liquid chromatography  

SciTech Connect

Self-modeling curve resolution has been shown to allow resolution of two co-eluting chromatographic peaks without requiring any assumption of an underlying peak shape. The subsequent problem of quantitation of these co-eluting peaks is limited by both the chromatographic resolution (separation in time and difference in elution profile) and by the degree of spectral uniqueness. An experimental system of two water-soluble vitamins has been used to examine the effects of varying chromatographic resolution on the quantitative accuracy of the curve resolution method.

Osten, D.W.; Kowalski, B.R.

1983-12-01

334

NASA's Potential Contributions for Remediation of Retention Ponds Using Solar Ultraviolet Radiation and Photocatalysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Candidate Solution uses NASA Earth science research on atmospheric ozone and aerosols data (1) to help improve the prediction capabilities of water runoff models that are used to estimate runoff pollution from retention ponds, and (2) to understand the pollutant removal contribution and potential of photocatalytically coated materials that could be used in these ponds. Models (the EPA's SWMM and the USGS SLAMM) exist that estimate the release of pollutants into the environment from storm-water-related retention pond runoff. UV irradiance data acquired from the satellite mission Aura and from the OMI Surface UV algorithm will be incorporated into these models to enhance their capabilities, not only by increasing the general understanding of retention pond function (both the efficacy and efficiency) but additionally by adding photocatalytic materials to these retention ponds, augmenting their performance. State and local officials who run pollution protection programs could then develop and implement photocatalytic technologies for water pollution control in retention ponds and use them in conjunction with existing runoff models. More effective decisions about water pollution protection programs could be made, the persistence and toxicity of waste generated could be minimized, and subsequently our natural water resources would be improved. This Candidate Solution is in alignment with the Water Management and Public Health National Applications.

Underwood, Lauren W.; Ryan, Robert E.

2007-01-01

335

Lenses on curved surfaces.  

PubMed

This Letter presents a theory that allows graded index lenses to be mapped onto arbitrary rotationally symmetric curved surfaces. Examples of the Luneburg and Maxwell fish-eye lens are given, for numerous surfaces, always resulting in isotropic permittivity requirements. The performance of these lenses is initially illustrated with full-wave simulations utilizing a waveguide structure. A transformation of the refractive index profiles is then performed to design surface-wave lenses, where the dielectric layer is not only isotropic but also homogenous, demonstrating the applicability and ease of fabrication. PMID:24978534

Mitchell-Thomas, R C; Quevedo-Teruel, O; McManus, T M; Horsley, S A R; Hao, Y

2014-06-15

336

Phosphorus retention and soil organic carbon in restored and natural freshwater wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient (e.g., phosphorus) retention is an important function of wetlands that can improve water quality. We examined soil\\u000a physical and chemical characteristics and phosphorus (P) sorption capacities in three recently restored herbaceous wetlands\\u000a (RWs) on previously cultivated soils and three adjacent natural forested wetlands (NWs) on Kent Island, Maryland, USA. Our\\u000a objective was to compare P retention in these two

Dianna M. Hogan; Thomas E. Jordan; Mark R. Walbridge

2004-01-01

337

Colloid transport in unsaturated porous media: the role of water content and ionic strength on particle straining.  

PubMed

Packed column and mathematical modeling studies were conducted to explore the influence of water saturation, pore-water ionic strength, and grain size on the transport of latex microspheres (1.1 microm) in porous media. Experiments were carried out under chemically unfavorable conditions for colloid attachment to both solid-water interfaces (SWI) and air-water interfaces (AWI) using negatively charged and hydrophilic colloids and modifying the solution chemistry with a bicarbonate buffer to pH 10. Interaction energy calculations and complementary batch experiments were conducted and demonstrated that partitioning of colloids to the SWI and AWI was insignificant across the range of the ionic strengths considered. The breakthrough curve and final deposition profile were measured in each experiment indicating colloid retention was highly dependent on the suspension ionic strength, water content, and sand grain size. In contrast to conventional filtration theory, most colloids were found deposited close to the column inlet, and hyper-exponential deposition profiles were observed. A mathematical model, accounting for time- and depth-dependent straining, produced a reasonably good fit for both the breakthrough curves and final deposition profiles. Experimental and modeling results suggest that straining--the retention of colloids in low velocity regions of porous media such as grain junctions--was the primary mechanism of colloid retention under both saturated and unsaturated conditions. The extent of stagnant regions of flow within the pore structure is enhanced with decreasing water content, leading to a greater amount of retention. Ionic strength also contributes to straining, because the number of colloids that are held in the secondary energy minimum increases with ionic strength. These weakly associated colloids are prone to be translated to stagnation regions formed at grain-grain junctions, the solid-water-air triple point, and dead-end pores and then becoming trapped. PMID:18068262

Torkzaban, Saeed; Bradford, Scott A; van Genuchten, Martinus Th; Walker, Sharon L

2008-02-19

338

Colloid transport in unsaturated porous media: The role of water content and ionic strength on particle straining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Packed column and mathematical modeling studies were conducted to explore the influence of water saturation, pore-water ionic strength, and grain size on the transport of latex microspheres (1.1 ?m) in porous media. Experiments were carried out under chemically unfavorable conditions for colloid attachment to both solid-water interfaces (SWI) and air-water interfaces (AWI) using negatively charged and hydrophilic colloids and modifying the solution chemistry with a bicarbonate buffer to pH 10. Interaction energy calculations and complementary batch experiments were conducted and demonstrated that partitioning of colloids to the SWI and AWI was insignificant across the range of the ionic strengths considered. The breakthrough curve and final deposition profile were measured in each experiment indicating colloid retention was highly dependent on the suspension ionic strength, water content, and sand grain size. In contrast to conventional filtration theory, most colloids were found deposited close to the column inlet, and hyper-exponential deposition profiles were observed. A mathematical model, accounting for time- and depth-dependent straining, produced a reasonably good fit for both the breakthrough curves and final deposition profiles. Experimental and modeling results suggest that straining — the retention of colloids in low velocity regions of porous media such as grain junctions — was the primary mechanism of colloid retention under both saturated and unsaturated conditions. The extent of stagnant regions of flow within the pore structure is enhanced with decreasing water content, leading to a greater amount of retention. Ionic strength also contributes to straining, because the number of colloids that are held in the secondary energy minimum increases with ionic strength. These weakly associated colloids are prone to be translated to stagnation regions formed at grain-grain junctions, the solid-water-air triple point, and dead-end pores and then becoming trapped.

Torkzaban, Saeed; Bradford, Scott A.; van Genuchten, Martinus Th.; Walker, Sharon L.

2008-02-01

339

Transport and retention of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes in porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saturated packed column experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of input concentration (Co) and grain size on the transport and retention of functionalized 14C-labeled multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) under unfavorable attachment conditions. Besides the determination of retention profiles, the radioactive labeling allowed the use of very low MWCNT concentrations that are more environmentally relevant. The normalized MWCNT effluent concentration, shown as breakthrough curve (BTC), slowly increased over time and typically did not reach a plateau. The overall mass of MWCNT recovered in the effluent tended to increase with sand grain size and Co. The normalized retention profiles (RPs) became increasingly hyper-exponential in shape with decreasing grain size and for lower Co values. The collected BTCs and RPs were accurately simulated using a numerical model that accounted for both time- and depth-dependent blocking functions on the retention coefficient. The depth-dependent retention coefficient and the maximum solid phase concentration of MWCNT were both found to increase with decreasing grain size. These trends reflect greater MWCNT retention rates and a greater number of retention locations in the finer textured sand. Higher Co values accentuated both of these trends and this rate of enhancement increased with decreasing grain size. Hence, the observed concentration dependency of MWCNT transport increased with higher Co and smaller grain size. These results were explained by the effect of particle shape and pore structure on MWCNT retention. Results demonstrate that risk assessment simulations of MWCNT transport and fate need to accurately account for observed behavior of BTCs and RPs with Co and grain size.

Kasel, D.; Bradford, S. A.; Simunek, J.; Heggen, M.; Vereecken, H.; Klumpp, E.

2012-12-01

340

Disk galaxy rotation curves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that simple axisymmetric Newtonian calculation suffices to consistently connect disk galaxy rotation curves to underlying mass distribution and vice versa, without need for any dark matter. To this end, we connect mass density profiles of five galaxies of varying sizes with observed galaxy rotation curves. The five galaxies are: NGC6822 (4.8 kpc), Large Magellanic Cloud (9 kpc), The Milky Way (17 kpc), NGC3198 (30 kpc) and UGC9133 (102.5 kpc). The mass and mass density profiles of these galaxies have been computed using the scientific computing s/w package MATLAB taking the already available velocity profiles of the galaxies as the input, and without considering any dark matter contribution. We have plotted these profiles after computing them according to three different theories of gravity (and dynamics): Newtonian, Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) and Vacuum Modified Gravity. We also consider how the profile due to the Newtonian theory would modify if we use a cosmological constant = 5 × 10^{-56} cm^{-2}. Comparing these mass and mass density profiles, we try to form an idea regarding what could be a realistic theory of gravity and whether we need dark matter to explain the results.

Banhatti, Dilip G.; Datta, Rahul

341

Adult Student Retention: A Practical Approach to Retention Improvement through Learning Enhancement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult student retention is an issue of growing concern for many institutions. It differs from traditional retention much like traditional students differ from adult students. As the majority of student body growth comes from adult students, adult student retention management will become critical to the majority of colleges and universities. To…

Fincher, Mark

2010-01-01

342

Titration Curves: Fact and Fiction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses ways in which datalogging equipment can enable titration curves to be measured accurately and how computing power can be used to predict the shape of curves. Highlights include sources of error, use of spreadsheets to generate titration curves, titration of a weak acid with a strong alkali, dibasic acids, weak acid and weak base, and…

Chamberlain, John

1997-01-01

343

Measurements of water potential and water content in unsaturated crystalline rock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A water desaturation zone develops around a tunnel in water-saturated rock when the evaporative water loss at the rock surface is larger than the water flow from the surrounding saturated region of restricted permeability. We describe the methods with which such water desaturation processes in rock materials can be quantified. The water retention characteristic ? (?) of crystalline rock samples was determined with a pressure membrane apparatus. The negative water potential, identical to the capillary pressure, ?, below the tensiometric range (? < -0.1 MPa) can be measured with thermocouple psychrometers (TP), and the volumetric water contents, ?, by means of time domain reflectometry (TDR). These standard methods were adapted for measuring the water status in a macroscopically unfissured granodiorite with a total porosity of approximately 0.01. The measured water retention curve of granodiorite samples from the Grimsel test site (central Switzerland) exhibits a shape which is typical for bimodal pore size distributions. The measured bimodality is probably an artifact of a large surface ratio of solid/voids. The thermocouples were installed without a metallic screen using the cavity drilled into the granodiorite as a measuring chamber. The water potentials observed in a cylindrical granodiorite monolith ranged between -0.1 and -3.0 MPa; those near the wall in a ventilated tunnel between -0.1 and -2.2 MPa. Two types of three-rod TDR probes were used, one as a depth probe inserted into the rock, the other as a surface probe using three copper stripes attached to the surface for detecting water content changes in the rock-to-air boundary. The TDR signal was smoothed with a low-pass filter, and the signal length determined based on the first derivative of the trace. Despite the low porosity of crystalline rock these standard methods are applicable to describe the unsaturated zone in solid rock and may also be used in other consolidated materials such as concrete.

Schneebeli, Martin; Flühler, Hannes; Gimmi, Thomas; Wydler, Hannes; LäSer, Hans-Peter; Baer, Toni

1995-08-01

344

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

2011-09-30

345

Automated solid-phase extraction of herbicides from water for gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed for the pre-concentration of chloroacetanilide and triazine herbicides, and two triazine metabolites from 100-ml water samples. Breakthrough experiments for the C18 SPE cartridge show that the two triazine metabolites are not fully retained and that increasing flow-rate decreases their retention. Standard curve r2 values of 0.998-1.000 for each compound were consistently obtained and a quantitation level of 0.05 ??g/l was achieved for each compound tested. More than 10,000 surface and ground water samples have been analyzed by this method.

Meyer, M. T.; Mills, M. S.; Thurman, E. M.

1993-01-01

346

MONOGRAPH - Recruitment & Retention of Engineering Technology Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Identifying strategies to assist with recruitment and retention of engineering technology students particularly women and minorities was the focus of a 1998 Retention Forum, held in Columbia, SC, and sponsored by the South Carolina Advanced Technological Education (SC ATE) Center of Excellence. The Center is funded by the National Science Foundation and the South Carolina State Board for Technical and Comprehensive Education. Approximately 90 Retention Forum participants discussed results from research on enrollment and retention of engineering technology (ET) students in South Carolinas technical college system. The SC ATE Center of Excellence commissioned the research report, Determinants of Enrollment and Retention in South Carolina Engineering Technology Programs, by Dr. W. Douglas Evans. Forum participants also heard a report on what SC technical colleges are doing well to recruit and retain women and minorities in ET fields. During the forum, a panel of women and minority ET students from South Carolina technical colleges shared their perspectives and experiences. In conclusion, participants met in focus groups to discuss new ways of enhancing recruitment and retention of engineering technology students. These research activities reveal some significant findings, which are being used to develop new retention strategies. In addition to an in-depth examination of opinions and attitudes of first- and second-year engineering technology students and engineering technology faculty and administrators, the research takes a closer look at recruitment and retention of women and minority students. The various components of this research activity by the SC ATE Center of Excellence are presented in this monograph.

Craft, Elaine; Mack, Lynn G.; Wood, James C.

2009-07-17

347

How “Good” is Your Institution's Retention Rate?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to assess institutional performance by means of retention rates, student performance on standardized tests, and other raw outcome measures are seriously flawed because such measures fail to take into account the powerful effect of student inputs. In this study, national longitudinal retention data on 52,898 students attending 365 baccalaureate-granting colleges and universities are used to generate formulas for estimating

Alexander W. Astin

1997-01-01

348

Factors Affecting Students' Retention at Kuwait University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the factors that affect students' retention at Kuwait University. Five hundred seventy students participated in the study. A survey of 22 retention factors was designed to measure student perceptions. Students presented their agreement on factors which included: achieving personal aspiration, getting jobs, free-of-charge…

AlKandari, Nabila

2008-01-01

349

Classroom Techniques for Black Male Student Retention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes and encourages the application of 20 classroom techniques to enhance the retention and success of black male college students. Though retention enhancement programs work best when institution-wide support and commitment are behind them, the techniques described here can be implemented in the classroom with significant results…

Gardenhire, John Fouts

350

How "Good" Is Your Institution's Retention Rate?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

National longitudinal retention data on 52,898 students at 65 colleges and universities were used to generate formulas for estimating any institution's expected retention rate based on its students' high school grades, admission test scores, and racial and gender composition. Separate formulas were computed for estimating degree completion rates…

Astin, Alexander W.

1997-01-01

351

Patterns of Aggregate Grade-Retention Rates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aggregate data on grade-retention rates for grades 1 through 12 from 12 American states for 1979-80 and 11 for 1985-86 were examined for across-grade patterns. A negative growth exponential model appears to capture a basic underlying pattern of grade retention rates. (SLD)

Morris, Don R.

1993-01-01

352

An Orientation Course and Community College Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Orientation and retention programs are common in institutions of higher education. The potential association between orientation programs and student retention, particularly within the community college sector, has long been neglected. This study presents an institutional view of a potential associative relationship between an orientation course…

Derby, Dustin; Smith, Thomas

2004-01-01

353

Measuring Student Retention: A National Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors analyzed class-by-class enrollment data from the 1985-86 annual survey of nursing education programs to report retention rates in different types of nursing education programs nationwide. They also present results from a survey addendum in which program directors were asked which factors contribute to their retention problems. (CH)

Rosenfeld, Peri

1988-01-01

354

Chromatographic behavior of ionizable compounds in liquid chromatography. Part 2. Standardization of potentiometric sensors and effect of pH and ionic strength on the retention of analytes using acetonitrile–water mobile phases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study several properties of acetonitrile–water (ACN–water) mixtures were examined which have an influence on the liquid chromatography (LC) behavior of ionizable compounds, such as Debye–Hückel parameters, pH scale, LC-useful pH range and solvatochromic parameters. Factor analysis techniques were applied to the correlation between standard pHS values of NIST buffer solutions and solvatochromic parameters in acetonitrile (ACN)–water. The relationships

J Barbosa; R Bergés; V Sanz-Nebot; I Toro

1999-01-01

355

Theoretical considerations of soil retention. [dirtying of solar energy devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of solar energy devices is adversely affected by surface soiling, and generally, the loss of performance increases with increases in the quantity of soil retained on their surfaces. To minimize performance losses caused by soiling, solar devices should not only be deployed in low soiling geographical areas, but employ surfaces or surfacing materials having low affinity for soil retention, maximum susceptibility to be naturally cleaned by wind, rain and snow, and to be readily cleanable by simple and inexpensive maintenance cleaning techniques. This article describes known and postulated mechanisms of soil retention on surfaces, and infers from these mechanisms that low soiling and easily cleanable surfaces should have low surface energy, and be hard, smooth, hydrophobic and chemically clean of sticky materials and water soluble salts.

Cuddihy, E. F.

1980-01-01

356

Ecotoxicological characterisation of sediments from stormwater retention basins.  

PubMed

Retention-detention basins are important structures for managing stormwater. However, their long-term operation raises the problem of managing the sediments they accumulate. Potential uses for such sediments have been envisaged, but each sediment must be characterised beforehand to verify its harmlessness. In this paper we address this issue through the development of a battery of bioassays specifically adapted to such sediments. We tested the method on samples taken from four retention basins in the region of Lyon (France). This battery focuses on the toxic effects linked to both the solid phase (ostracod and Microtox(®) solid-phase tests) and the liquid-phase (interstitial water) of sediments (rotifer and Microtox(®) liquid-phase tests). The results obtained permit the sorting of sediments presenting little toxicity, and which could therefore be potentially exploitable, from those from more polluted areas presenting higher toxicity that limits their use. PMID:24622554

Gonzalez-Merchan, C; Perrodin, Y; Sébastian, C; Bazin, C; Winiarski, T; Barraud, S

2014-01-01

357

Ironing Out Curves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students graph second and third order functions, discovering an inverse relationship between squares and square roots and between cubes and cube roots. Students graph these functions on both linear grid (evenly spaced numbers), and a log-log grid (evenly space exponents). Graph lines that curve on linear grids transform into straight lines on the log-log grids, with slopes equal to their exponential powers. This activity is activity E3 in the "Far Out Math" educator's guide. Lessons in the guide include activities in which students measure, compare quantities as orders of magnitude, become familiar with scientific notation, and develop an understanding of exponents and logarithms using examples from NASA's GLAST mission. These are skills needed to understand the very large and very small quantities characteristic of astronomical observations. Note: In 2008, GLAST was renamed Fermi, for the physicist Enrico Fermi.

358

Understanding curved detonation waves  

SciTech Connect

The reaction zone of a detonation wave is very small compared to the dynamic length scale for a typical application. Consequently, it is impractical for numerical calculations to fully resolve the reaction zone. A non-zero reaction zone width is critical to describe curved detonation waves because it affects the wave speed. The curvature effect is the result of an the interaction between the rate of energy release and geometric source terms within the reaction zone. When the reaction zone width is determined by the computational cell size rather than the physical scale, the numerics introduces an artificial curvature effect which frequently dominates the physical effect and leads to mesh dependence of simulations. Modified Hugoniot jump conditions are derived which characterize the curvature effect. They express the conservation laws and are not sensitive to the detailed reaction dynamics but instead depend only on the reaction zone width, and averages of pressure and of mass, momentum and energy densities.

Bukiet, B.G. [New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark, NJ (United States); Lackner, K.S.; Menikoff, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1993-06-01

359

Understanding curved detonation waves  

SciTech Connect

The reaction zone of a detonation wave is very small compared to the dynamic length scale for a typical application. Consequently, it is impractical for numerical calculations to fully resolve the reaction zone. A non-zero reaction zone width is critical to describe curved detonation waves because it affects the wave speed. The curvature effect is the result of an the interaction between the rate of energy release and geometric source terms within the reaction zone. When the reaction zone width is determined by the computational cell size rather than the physical scale, the numerics introduces an artificial curvature effect which frequently dominates the physical effect and leads to mesh dependence of simulations. Modified Hugoniot jump conditions are derived which characterize the curvature effect. They express the conservation laws and are not sensitive to the detailed reaction dynamics but instead depend only on the reaction zone width, and averages of pressure and of mass, momentum and energy densities.

Bukiet, B.G. (New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark, NJ (United States)); Lackner, K.S.; Menikoff, R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

1993-01-01

360

Curved nanostructured materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphite is a layered material that is very flexible, in which each layer is able to curve in order to form cages, nanotubes, nanocoils, nanocones, etc. In this paper, we demonstrate that various synthetic routes are capable of producing graphite-like nanomaterials with fascinating electronic and mechanical properties. There are other layered systems, which could curl and bend, thus generating novel nanostructures with positive and negative Gaussian curvature. In this context, we will also demonstrate that hexagonal boron nitride, tungsten disulfide (WS2), molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and rhenium disulfide (ReS2) are also able to create nanocages, nanotubes and nano-arrangements exhibiting novel physico-chemical properties that could revolutionize materials science in the 21st century.

Terrones, Humberto; Terrones, Mauricio

2003-10-01

361

Efficient Arithmetic on Hessian Curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper considers a generalized form for Hessian curves. The family of generalized Hessian curves covers more isomorphism\\u000a classes of elliptic curves. Over a finite field \\u000a\\u000a\\u000a\\u000a\\u000a\\u000a\\\\mathbbFq\\\\mathbb{F}_q, it is shown to be equivalent to the family of elliptic curves with a torsion subgroup isomorphic to ?\\/3?.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a This paper provides efficient unified addition formulas for generalized Hessian curves. The formulas even

Reza Rezaeian Farashahi; Marc Joye

2010-01-01

362

Novel word retention in sequential bilingual children.  

PubMed

Children's ability to learn and retain new words is fundamental to their vocabulary development. This study examined word retention in children learning a home language (L1) from birth and a second language (L2) in preschool settings. Participants were presented with sixteen novel words in L1 and in L2 and were tested for retention after either a 2-month or a 4-month delay. Results showed that children retained more words in L1 than in L2 for both of the retention interval conditions. In addition, children's word retention was associated with their existing language knowledge and their fast-mapping performance within and across language. The patterns of association, however, were different between L1 and L2. These findings suggest that children's word retention might be related to the interactions of various components that are operating within a dynamic system. PMID:23672812

Kan, Pui Fong

2014-03-01

363

An evaluation of retention and disposal options for tritium in fuel reprocessing  

SciTech Connect

This report assesses the possible options for retention of tritium and its ultimate disposal during future reprocessing of irradiated oxide fuels discharged from light water reactors (LWRs) and liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs). The assessment includes an appraisal of the state of the retention and disposal options, an estimate of the dose commitments to the general public, an estimation of the incremental costs of the several retention and disposal options, and the potential reduction of the dose commitments resulting from retention and disposal of the tritium. The assessment is based upon an extensive study of tritium retention in reprocessing completed in 1982 by Grimes et al. Two plants were assumed, one to process LWR oxide fuel and the other to process LMFBR fuel. In each base case plant the tritium was vaporized to the atmosphere. Each of the hypothetical plants was assumed to be constructed during the 1990`s and to operate for a 20-year lifetime beginning in the year 2000 at a rate of 1,500 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) per 300-d year. In addition to the base case (Case 1), six other cases which included tritium retention options were examined. Although many of the features of the base-case plants remain unchanged in the tritium retention options, each case requires some additions, deletions, and modifications of portions of the plants. The retained tritium must also be managed and disposed of in a manner that is environmentally acceptable.

Benjamin, R.W. [E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Lab.; Hampson, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1987-12-31

364

Wavefields Near Transverse Cusp Caustics Produced by Reflecting Ultrasonic Transients and Tone Bursts from Curved Surfaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ultrasonic wavefields reflected from curved surfaces were studied in the vicinity of caustics, Acoustical and optical transverse cusp diffraction catastrophes produced by reflections from a curved metal surface in water were imaged by displaying the ampli...

C. K. Frederickson

1991-01-01

365

DIN retention-transport through four hydrologically connected zones in a headwater catchment of the Upper Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) retention-transport through a headwater catchment was synthesized from studies encompassing four distinct hydrologic zones of the Shingobee River Headwaters near the origin of the Mississippi River. The hydrologic zones included: (1) hillslope ground water (ridge to bankside riparian); (2) alluvial riparian ground water; (3) ground water discharged through subchannel sediments (hyporheic zone); and (4) channel surface water. During subsurface hillslope transport through Zone 1, DIN, primarily nitrate, decreased from ???3 mg-N/l to <0.1 mg-N/l. Ambient seasonal nitrate:chloride ratios in hillslope flow paths indicated both dilution and biotic processing caused nitrate loss. Biologically available organic carbon controlled biotic nitrate retention during hillslope transport. In the alluvial riparian zone (Zone 2) biologically available organic carbon controlled nitrate depletion although processing of both ambient and amended nitrate was faster during the summer than winter. In the hyporheic zone (Zone 3) and stream surface water (Zone 4) DIN retention was primarily controlled by temperature. Perfusion core studies using hyporheic sediment indicated sufficient organic carbon in bed sediments to retain ground water DIN via coupled nitrification-denitrification. Numerical simulations of seasonal hyporheic sediment nitrification-denitrification rates from perfusion cores adequately predicted surface water ammonium but not nitrate when compared to 5 years of monthly field data (1989-93). Mass balance studies in stream surface water indicated proportionally higher summer than winter N retention. Watershed DIN retention was effective during summer under the current land use of intermittently grazed pasture. However, more intensive land use such as row crop agriculture would decrease nitrate retention efficiency and increase loads to surface water. Understanding DIN retention capacity throughout the system, including special channel features such as sloughs, wetlands and floodplains that provide surface water-ground water connectivity, will be required to develop effective nitrate management strategies. ?? 2007 American Water Resources Association.

Triska, F. J.; Duff, J. H.; Sheibley, R. W.; Jackman, A. P.; Avanzino, R. J.

2007-01-01

366

A comparison study of methods for measuring retention in HIV medical care.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare multiple measures of retention in HIV medical care by determining their ability to predict viral suppression. Patients who sought care between 2003 and 2011 were eligible. Visit constancy, gaps-in-care, and HRSA measure were the measures compared. Multiple logistic regressions and area under the curve statistics were employed to determine which measure most accurately discerned between patients with or without viral suppression. There were 850 patients included in the study. The mean follow-up time among the cohort was 5.6 years and less than half were consistently retained in care. All three measures had similar area under the curves, but only visit constancy and gaps in care were significantly associated with viral suppression. Retention in care should be defined consistently across studies and interventions should be set in place to increase the number of optimal retainers. PMID:23868692

Crawford, Timothy N; Sanderson, Wayne T; Thornton, Alice

2013-11-01

367

49 CFR 229.215 - Retention and inspection of designs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Retention and inspection of designs. 229.215 Section 229.215 Transportation...STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.215 Retention and inspection of designs. (a) Retention of...

2013-10-01

368

21 CFR 872.3740 - Retentive and splinting pin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Retentive and splinting pin. 872.3740 Section 872...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices...3740 Retentive and splinting pin. (a) Identification. A retentive and splinting pin is a device made of...

2010-04-01

369

21 CFR 872.3740 - Retentive and splinting pin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Retentive and splinting pin. 872.3740 Section 872...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices...3740 Retentive and splinting pin. (a) Identification. A retentive and splinting pin is a device made of...

2009-04-01

370

Uptake and retention of amitriptyline by kaolinite.  

PubMed

As the most commonly prescribed tricyclic antidepressant, amitriptyline (AT) is frequently detected in wastewater, surface runoff, and effluents from sewage treatment plants, and could potentially reach agriculture land through the application of municipal biosolids or reclaimed water. Kaolinite is one of the most important soil components under warm and humid climate conditions. In this study, the uptake and retention of AT by kaolinite from aqueous solution were investigated by batch tests, XRD, and FTIR analyses. The uptake of AT on kaolinite was instantaneous, attributed to surface adsorption as confirmed by XRD analyses. Quantitative correlation between desorption of exchangeable cations and AT adsorption confirmed experimentally that cation exchange was the dominant mechanism of AT uptake on kaolinite. The values for free energy of adsorption also suggested physi-sorption such as cation exchange. Solution pH had minimal influence at pH 5-11 even though the pKa value of AT was 9.4 and the surface charge of kaolinite was pH-dependent. PMID:24041550

Lv, Guocheng; Stockwell, Christie; Niles, Jacqueline; Minegar, Skylar; Li, Zhaohui; Jiang, Wei-Teh

2013-12-01

371

Tritium retention in jet cryopanel samples  

SciTech Connect

The possibility that tritium might exchange with water trapped in aluminum anodize cryopanels in JET prompted a test program at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly, TSTA, Los Alamos, New Mexico. JET furnished two test pieces of cryopanel which were exposed to tritium at approximately liquid nitrogen temperature and 25 torr pressure for nearly two weeks. One specimen was removed and the retained tritium was measured. The second specimen was subjected to several increasing temperature vacuum bakeouts and the effectiveness of the bakeouts were inferred from the pressure history of the chamber. When the retained tritium in the second specimen was measured it was found that nearly 95% of the tritium, as measured in the first specimen, had been removed during the vacuum bakeouts. If the tritium retained in the cryopanel without bakeout were scaled to JET conditions according to a linear pressure time relationship, the tritium expected to become trapped in the JET cryopanels would be approximately 0.6 gram. Testing is currently underway at TSTA which will determine the tritium retention to be expected under more realistic JET operating conditions and which will assess the effectiveness of various bake or purge schemes in removing the trapped tritium. 2 refs., 2 figs.

Walthers, C.R.; Jenkins, E.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Mayaux, C.; Obert, W. (JET Joint Undertaking, Oxfordshire, England (GB))

1991-01-01

372

Developing Sediment Retention Model for the Ecoservice Model InVEST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Valuation of Environmental Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model has been gaining popularity internationally as a tool to evaluate and value services provided by nature. The sediment retention sub-model is one of the key components of the InVEST model that assesses potentials of landscape and landcover to retain sediments preventing them from reaching the waterways and reservoirs. Based on the outputs of the sediment retention sub-model, InVEST estimates landcover's economic values of avoiding water quality pollution and reservoir sedimentation. The current version of the sediment retention sub-model uses retention-coefficient approach based solely on landcover type in estimating the quantities of sediment retained and transported downstream. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a sediment-delivery-ratio approach that integrates more catchment characteristics, including slope and flow length, in addition to the landcover characteristics. This approach was tested in Midwestern U.S. using distributed sediment data. Results show that the sediment-delivery-ratio approach has improved performance in identifying sediment transport and retention processes. Incorporating this approach into the InVEST tool will enhance the model's capability in more accurately estimating the economic values of avoiding water quality pollution and reservoir sedimentation. Keywords: ecosystem service, modeling, sediment delivery ratio, sediment retention

Ghebremichael, L.; Ziv, G.; Ghile, Y.

2012-12-01

373

Quantification of Colloid Retention in Unsaturated Porous Media Using Microscopic Image Analysis Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The movement of contaminants via colloidal transport mechanisms through the vadose zone to groundwater is of growing concern. Normally-immobile contaminants can enter an aquifer via colloid-facilitated transport, and pathogens themselves (e.g. Cryptosporidium parvum) are colloidal in scale. Little is known about the complex pore-scale mechanisms of transport and retention of colloids in soils. Measurements of colloid and microbial transport have been typically limited to the evaluation of breakthrough curves from column experiments (which yield only an integrated signal of all retention processes in the column) or to the visualization in micromodels with limited applicability to realistic conditions. The objective of the work discussed here is to observe and model colloid transport and retention on the pore scale. Flow experiments were run in a horizontal flow chamber containing clean quartz sand as the porous medium. Synthetic fluorescent microspheres were used as easily-detected colloid surrogates. A syringe inlet pump and peristaltic outlet pump controlled the chamber moisture content and flow rate. The chamber was mounted under a Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope (Leica TCS SP2, 10x 0.40 UV objective) which allowed the acquisition of time series images and 3D reconstruction of pore-scale images. Three spectral channels were used to detect: 1) fluorescent microsphere emissions (500 to 540 nm) excited at 488 nm by an argon laser; 2) water phase emissions (555 to 650 nm) due to Rhodamine B stain excited at 543 nm by a green HeNe laser; and 3) reflectance of laser light at the grain surfaces. Three 8-bit images were detected simultaneously for every time step. The system is also capable of obtaining image stacks in the z-direction, which allow the determination of the position of attached colloids relative to the interface between air, water menisci, and solid grains. The 3D z-axis stacks reveal that the colloids are attaching at the air/water meniscus/solid (AWmS) interface, our term for the region where the water menisci diminish into a thin film covering the grains. Methods of digital image analysis are presented for quantification of the number and area of both moving and retained colloids. After thresholding the argon laser channel images (in which the microsphere location information is stored), binary images are obtained. The total number and area of white pixels in selected regions are counted for each image sequence. Pixels are counted as colloids attached to the AWmS interface when they appear at exactly the same location in sequential images, as determined by using a Boolean logical operator in a measurement loop. The difference between total and attached particles represents mobile (suspended) particles. The results show that once the first colloid is attached at the AWmS interface, the attachment rate increases until the number of locations where the colloids can be attached near other colloids becomes limiting. A Langmuir model is presented that is capable of predicting the observed colloid attachment processes. Forces acting on the colloids are discussed.

Dathe, A.; Zevi, Y.; Gao, B.; Richards, B. K.; Steenhuis, T. S.

2006-05-01

374

Retention Loss of Resin Based Fissure Sealants - a Valid Predictor for Clinical Outcome?  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The null-hypothesis that retention loss of resin fissure sealants predicts caries manifestation no more accurately than random values was tested. Methods: Systematic reviews were checked and electronic databases searched for clinical trials. Trials reporting on the retention of resin sealants and caries occurrence in permanent molar teeth, with minimum 24-month follow-up period, were included. Extracted data: number of sealed teeth, number of teeth without completely retained sealants, number of sealed teeth with caries. The number of teeth with complete sealant retention and absence of carious lesions/cavities was calculated; the predictive outcomes: true/false positive; false/true negative were established. Random values were generated as control-data. Diagnostic Odds ratios (DOR) were computed and tested for statistical difference. Summary Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were plotted. Results: 95 trials were found. Median DOR values were 1.21 and 0.28 for test- and control data, respectively. Wilcoxon test (z = 0.56; p = 0.58) and Sign test (z = 1.38; p = 0.17) results were statistically non-significant. The null-hypothesis was not rejected. Conclusions: Predictions based on the retention loss of resin sealants, regarding caries manifestation, was no more accurate than random guesses. Sealant retention loss appears not to be a valid predictor for clinical outcome.

Mickenautsch, Steffen; Yengopal, Veerasamy

2013-01-01

375

Salivary retention after application of fluoride gel using toothbrush or tray: a crossover trial.  

PubMed

Currently, there are no studies in the literature evaluating salivary fluoride retention after small amounts of fluoride gel are applied to children's teeth. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to compare salivary retention after gel application using a toothbrush or by traditional application with trays. In this crossover study, children with active caries (n = 10) were randomized into one of the following treatment groups: a) application of fluoride gel using a tray (control), or b) application of fluoride gel with a toothbrush (treatment). After a 7-day washout period, the treatments were inverted. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected at baseline and 0.5, 5, 15, 30, 60 and 120 minutes after acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel application in order to analyze fluoride retention in saliva. The area under the curve (AUC) was also calculated. There were no differences in fluoride retention after application of small amounts of APF with a toothbrush compared to traditional gel application using trays at all time points studied, and no differences in AUC were observed (Student t-test, p > 0.05). These results suggest that application of fluoride gel in children using a toothbrush can be utilized as an option rather than traditional trays, since the same salivary retention of fluoride is obtained using a lower dose. PMID:23184162

Ribeiro, Cecilia Claudia Costa; Lula, Estevam Carlos de Oliveira; Azevedo, Izabelle Maria Cabral de; Maia, Mariana de Figueiredo Lopes E; Lopes, Fernanda Ferreira

2012-01-01

376

The ABC's of staff retention.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to aid management in recognizing the key components to staff retention. Preparation for recruitment efforts, evaluating compensation, and establishing and maintaining good channels of communication are worthy undertakings for the purposes of reducing turnover. Combating turnover is really as easy as Appreciating your staff, rewarding the Behavior you want, and Continuing to ensure a work environment that is conducive to a place employees want to work. One of the key factors is listening. Do you hear what your staff is saying? Can you address their concerns? Do you communicate regularly with line staff? Are there ideas they have that can lead to improvements? Lead by example. If your staff sees your passion for the work, they will respect you and work hard to deliver what you have agreed are the goals on an individual and overall business objective level. Once you have established the aggregate levels that exist within your practice, you can move on to evaluating where each employee falls within the range. PMID:11680146

High, S H

2001-01-01

377

Estimating steady-state evaporation rates from bare soils under conditions of high water table  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A procedure that combines meteorological and soil equations of water transfer makes it possible to estimate approximately the steady-state evaporation from bare soils under conditions of high water table. Field data required include soil-water retention curves, water table depth and a record of air temperature, air humidity and wind velocity at one elevation. The procedure takes into account the relevant atmospheric factors and the soil's capability to conduct 'water in liquid and vapor forms. It neglects the effects of thermal transfer (except in the vapor case) and of salt accumulation. Homogeneous as well as layered soils can be treated. Results obtained with the method demonstrate how the soil evaporation rates·depend on potential evaporation, water table depth, vapor transfer and certain soil parameters.

Ripple, C. D.; Rubin, J.; Van Hylckama, T. E. A.

1970-01-01

378

A time series approach to inferring groundwater recharge using the water table fluctuation method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water table fluctuation method for determining recharge from precipitation and water table measurements was originally developed on an event basis. Here a new multievent time series approach is presented for inferring groundwater recharge from long-term water table and precipitation records. Additional new features are the incorporation of a variable specific yield based upon the soil moisture retention curve, proper accounting for the Lisse effect on the water table, and the incorporation of aquifer drainage so that recharge can be detected even if the water table does not rise. A methodology for filtering noise and non-rainfall-related water table fluctuations is also presented. The model has been applied to 2 years of field data collected in the Tomago sand beds near Newcastle, Australia. It is shown that gross recharge estimates are very sensitive to time step size and specific yield. Properly accounting for the Lisse effect is also important to determining recharge.

Crosbie, Russell S.; Binning, Philip; Kalma, Jetse D.

2005-01-01

379

Water  

MedlinePLUS

... to groundwater (the fresh water found under the Earth’s surface that supplies wells and springs). Everything that ... body is water. 4. How much of the earth’s surface is water? About 80 percent of the ...

380

Enhancing nitrification at low temperature with zeolite in a mining operations retention pond.  

PubMed

Ammonium nitrate explosives are used in mining operations at Diavik Diamond Mines Inc. in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Residual nitrogen is washed into the mine pit and piped to a nearby retention pond where its removal is accomplished by microbial activity prior to a final water treatment step and release into the sub-Arctic lake, Lac de Gras. Microbial removal of ammonium in the retention pond is rapid during the brief ice-free summer, but often slows under ice cover that persists up to 9?months of the year. The aluminosilicate mineral zeolite was tested as an additive to retention pond water to increase rates of ammonium removal at 4°C. Water samples were collected across the length of the retention pond monthly over a year. The structure of the microbial community (bacteria, archaea, and eukarya), as determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified small subunit ribosomal RNA genes, was more stable during cold months than during July-September, when there was a marked phytoplankton bloom. Of the ammonia-oxidizing community, only bacterial amoA genes were consistently detected. Zeolite (10?g) was added to retention pond water (100?mL) amended with 5?mM ammonium and incubated at 12°C to encourage development of a nitrifying biofilm. The biofilm community was composed of different amoA phylotypes from those identified in gene clone libraries of native water samples. Zeolite biofilm was added to fresh water samples collected at different times of the year, resulting in a significant increase in laboratory measurements of potential nitrification activity at 4°C. A significant positive correlation between the amount of zeolite biofilm and potential nitrification activity was observed; rates were unaffected in incubations containing 1-20?mM ammonium. Addition of zeolite to retention ponds in cold environments could effectively increase nitrification rates year-round by concentrating active nitrifying biomass. PMID:22866052

Miazga-Rodriguez, Misha; Han, Sukkyun; Yakiwchuk, Brian; Wei, Kai; English, Colleen; Bourn, Steven; Bohnert, Seth; Stein, Lisa Y

2012-01-01

381

Average normalisations of elliptic curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ciet, Quisquater, and Sica have recently shown that every elliptic curve E over a finite field Fp is isomorphic to a curve y2 = x3 +ax+b with a and b of size O(p3\\/4). In this paper, we show that almost all elliptic curves satisfy the stronger bound O(p2\\/3). The problem is motivated by cryptographic considerations.

William D. Banks; Igor E. Shparlinski

2002-01-01

382

Connecting curves in higher dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Connecting curves have been shown to organize the rotational structure of strange attractors in three-dimensional dynamical systems. We extend the description of connecting curves and their properties to higher dimensions within a special class of differential dynamical systems. The general properties of connecting curves are derived and selection rules stated. Examples are presented to illustrate these properties for dynamical systems of dimension n = 3, 4, 5.

Byrne, Greg; Gilmore, Robert; Cebral, Juan

2014-05-01

383

Multifocus lemniscates: Approximation of curves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A focal method for the continuous approximation of smooth closed plane curves is proposed. Multifocus lemniscates are used as the approximating functions. The curve to be approximated is represented by a finite set of foci inside the curve; the number and the location of the foci provide the degrees of freedom for the focal approximation. An algorithmic solution of this problem in various modifications is constructed. Proximity criteria for curves are proposed. A comparative analysis of the approximative capabilities of the focal method with the capabilities of the classical harmonic approximation method is performed.

Rakcheeva, T. A.

2010-11-01

384

49 CFR 599.502 - Record retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES FOR CONSUMER ASSISTANCE TO RECYCLE AND SAVE ACT PROGRAM Enforcement § 599.502 Record retention. (a) Manufacturers, dealers, salvage...

2013-10-01

385

Escitalopram-associated acute urinary retention.  

PubMed

New-onset urinary retention can typically be explained by the use of the routine normally suspected medications (e.g., anticholinergics, antihistamines). However, selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors are not typically presumed as the cause of acute urinary retention (AUR). The following case describes the introduction of escitalopram in a patient and the subsequent development of AUR. Medical causes of urinary retention had been ruled out, and ipratropium was initially suspected to be the cause of urinary difficulties and was discontinued. However, the retention persisted four days after suspending the ipratropium. Normal micturition resumed only after stopping the escitalopram without further need for catheterization. Escitalopram may cause rare cases of AUR and may often times be overlooked possibly because of the paucity of reporting. PMID:24129221

Trombetta, Dominick; Garrett, Kathleen; Harrison, Marissa

2013-10-01

386

7 CFR 4280.136 - Minimum retention.  

...SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Renewable Energy System and Energy Efficiency Improvement Guaranteed Loans § 4280.136 Minimum retention....

2014-01-01

387

Retention of Junior Naval Special Warfare Officers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Commander of the Naval Special Warfare Command (NSWC) has identified junior officer retention within the Naval Special Warfare community as a significant problem. In 1997, the community experienced the highest number of resignations on record, and thi...

K. B. Davids

1998-01-01

388

Affiliation and Retention in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study that focused on the relationship between affiliation and retention is discussed. Affiliation was defined as the act of associating oneself with the university; a feeling of comfort with and belonging at the institution. (MLW)

Thomas, James H., Jr.; Andes, John

1987-01-01

389

Compensation and Teacher Retention: A Success Story.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes components of successful teacher-evaluation and compensation program at the Ladue School District in suburban St. Louis, Missouri. Reports that salary increases based on performance evaluations improve teacher satisfaction and retention. (Contains 13 references.) (PKP)

Morice, Linda C.; Murray, James E.

2003-01-01

390

Acute urinary retention: causes and treatment.  

PubMed

Acute urinary retention often is secondary to obstruction of the bladder or distal genitourinary system, which may be induced by any of a number of medical or surgical conditions. Treatment varies according to the cause. PMID:7058160

Ochsner, M G

1982-02-01

391

Retention models for programmed gas chromatography.  

PubMed

The models proposed by many authors for the prediction of retention times and temperatures, peak widths, retention indices and separation numbers in programmed temperature and pressure gas chromatography by starting from preliminary measurements of the retention in isothermal and isobaric conditions are reviewed. Several articles showing the correlation between retention data and thermodynamic parameters and the determination of the optimum programming rate are reported. The columns of different polarity used for the experimental measurement and the main equations, mathematical models and calculation procedures are listed. An empirical approach was used in the early models, followed by the application of thermodynamic considerations, iterative calculation procedures and statistical methods, based on increased computing power now available. Multiple column arrangements, simultaneous temperature and pressure programming, applications of two-dimensional and fast chromatography are summarised. PMID:19081102

Castello, G; Moretti, P; Vezzani, S

2009-03-01

392

19 CFR 10.308 - Records retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Canada Free Trade Agreement § 10.308 Records retention. ...or who knowlingly causes to be exported, any merchandise to Canada shall make, keep, and render for examination and...

2013-04-01

393

Statistical modelling of riverine nutrient sources and retention in the Lake Peipsi drainage basin.  

PubMed

Implementation of the Water Framework Directive calls for methodologies and tools to quantify nutrient losses from diffuse sources at a river basin district scale. Here, we examine the possibility of using a statistical model for source apportionment and retention of nutrients in a large transboundary drainage basin (44,000 km2). The model approach uses non-linear regression for simultaneous estimation of e.g. source strength, i.e. export coefficients to surface waters, for the different specified land-use or soil categories and retention coefficients for pollutants in a drainage basin. The model was tested on data from 26 water quality stations with corresponding sub-basin data, i.e., land cover, point sources and atmospheric deposition, from the Estonian part of the Lake Peipsi drainage basin. The model showed that it was statistically possible to derive reliable export coefficients (i.e. unit-area loads) for nitrogen on agricultural land and forests. Moreover, it was shown with simple empirical functions that lake retention was approximately 30-35% for both nitrogen and phosphorus and that the riverine retention was low for both nitrogen and phosphorus (approx. 10%). Results show that the MESAW model is a simple and powerful tool for simultaneous estimation of sources and retention of nutrient loads in a river basin. PMID:15850204

Vassiljev, A; Stålnacke, P

2005-01-01

394

Metal ion retention by emulsion liquid membrane coupled to liquid-phase polymer-based retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity of polyelectrolytes (PELs) to enhance the metal ion retention in a double emulsion system (DES) was studied by\\u000a diafiltration. Our results indicate that PELs can increase the maximum retention capacity of DES as functional groups of polymer\\u000a are being saturated. Increase of retention can be explained by interaction between reverse emulsion globules and metal–polymer\\u000a species formed in solution.

Manuel Palencia; Bernabé L. Rivas

395

All Retention all the Time: How Institutional Research Can Synthesize Information and Influence Retention Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This study reports how an institutionalre search office at a large public research university has taken the lead to call attention to retention problems, describe attrition\\/retention predictors, and influence policy. Building on existing retention theories and previous institutional research studies, the institutional research office began coordinating several first- year study-based initiatives whose primary purpose was understanding and promoting first-year

A. Michael Williford; Joni Y. Schaller

2005-01-01

396

Fouling and retention of nanofiltration membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanofiltration membranes retain substances with molar masses higher than ?300 g\\/mol and multivalent ions. The retention characteristics depend much on how much free volume there is in the membranes, which can for some membranes be related to the flux. In this study, fouling and retention of four different nanofiltration membranes (NF40, NTR-7450, NTR-7410 and NTR-7250) were followed using different model

Marianne Nyström; Lena Kaipia; Susana Luque

1995-01-01

397

VAPOR-PHASE TRANSPORT OF TRICHLOROETHENE IN AN INTERMEDIATE-SCALE VADOSE-ZONE SYSTEM: RETENTION PROCESSES AND TRACER-BASED PREDICTION  

PubMed Central

Gas-phase miscible-displacement experiments were conducted using a large weighing lysimeter to evaluate retention processes for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water-unsaturated (vadoze-zone) systems, and to test the utility of gas-phase tracers for predicting VOC retardation. Trichloroethene (TCE) served as a model VOC, while trichlorofluoromethane (CFM) and heptane were used as partitioning tracers to independently characterize retention by water and the air-water interface, respectively. Retardation factors for TCE ranged between 1.9 and 3.5, depending on water content. The results indicate that dissolution into the bulk water was the primary retention mechanism for TCE under all conditions studied, contributing approximately two thirds of the total measured retention. Accumulation at the air-water interface comprised a significant fraction of the observed retention for all experiments, with an average contribution of approximately 24%. Sorption to the solid phase contributed approximately 10% to retention. Water contents and air-water interfacial areas estimated based on the CFM and heptane tracer data, respectively, were similar to independently measured values. Retardation factors for TCE predicted using the partitioning-tracer data were in reasonable agreement with the measured values. These results suggest that gas-phase tracer tests hold promise for characterizing the retention and transport of VOCs in the vadose-zone.

Costanza-Robinson, Molly S.; Carlson, Tyson D.; Brusseau, Mark L.

2013-01-01

398

Retention characteristics of porous graphitic carbon in subcritical fluid chromatography with carbon dioxide-methanol mobile phases.  

PubMed

Numerous relationships usually used in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for describing the retention on porous graphitic carbon (PGC) have been applied in subcritical fluid chromatography, with CO2-methanol mobile phases. As reported in HPLC, octanol-water partition coefficient failed to fit the retention, whereas satisfactory results were obtained with the sum of partial negative charges. A better fit was reached by using the solvation parameter model, allowing a better understanding of the interactions developed between the solute, the stationary and the mobile phases. Results show that the dominant contribution to retention was given by the polarizability (E) and the volume (V), while the hydrogen-bond basicity (B) was not selected in the retention model, whatever the methanol content. The increase in methanol percentage favours the retention decrease, mainly through the volume for hydrophobic compounds, and through the hydrogen-bond acidity for polar compounds. PMID:15453424

West, C; Lesellier, E; Tchapla, A

2004-09-01

399

Retention characteristics of an immobilized artificial membrane column in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

Retention for a varied group of compounds on an immobilized artificial membrane column (IAM PC DD2) with a methanol-water mobile phase is shown to fit a second-order model for the retention factor (log k) as a function of the volume fraction of organic solvent. The numerical value of the intercept obtained by linear extrapolation to zero organic solvent (log k(w)) is shown to depend on the range of mobile phase composition used for the extrapolation. Each series of intercepts so obtained represents a different hypothetical distribution system as identified by the system constants of the solvation parameter model. Although a linear model is a poor fit for isocratic retention data, the linear solvent strength gradient model provides a reasonable estimate of isocratic retention factor values that are (slightly) larger than experimental values, but provide the same chemical information for the system. These preliminary results suggest that gradient elution may prove to be a rapid and useful method for creating system maps for column characterization and method development. In this work a system map is provided for methanol-water compositions from 0 to 60% (v/v) methanol and additional system constants for acetonitrile-water compositions containing 20 and 30% (v/v) acetonitrile. It is shown that the main factors contributing to retention on the IAM PC DD2 column are favorable cavity formation and dispersion interactions, electron lone pair interactions and the hydrogen-bond basicity of the sorbent. The latter feature more than any other distinguishes the IAM column from conventional chemically bonded phases. Interactions of a dipole-type (weakly) and inability to compete with the mobile phase as a hydrogen-bond acid reduce retention. A comparison of system constant ratios is used to demonstrate that the retention properties of the IAM column are not easily duplicated by conventional chemically bonded phases. The retention characteristics of the IAM column, however, are strongly correlated with the retention properties of pseudostationary phases used for micellar electrokinetic chromatography, which provide a suitable alternative to IAM columns for physical property estimations. By the same comparative method it is shown that retention on the IAM column possesses some similarity to biomembrane absorption processes, allowing suitable correlation models to be developed for the estimation of certain biopartitioning properties. PMID:11873960

Lepont, Claire; Poole, Colin F

2002-02-01

400

On the Ground Response Curve  

Microsoft Academic Search

curve, is used to illustrate the ground pressure on the lining as a function of deformations. A steep ground response curve with a low mini-mum indicates a stiff and strong ground which needs little support of a lining. Such a cohesive and frictional soil is able to carry the overburden load by arching around the tunnel. Vice versa, a relatively

Pieter A. Vermeer; Thomas Marcher; Nico Ruse

401

SN 1987A Light Curve.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The observation of the SN1987A light curve shows the latter to be highly unusual. The rise of the optical curve within a few hours and the very rapid UV decline shows a strong cooling in the early phase. The luminosity plateau was quite low, about 3 to 4 ...

R. Schaeffer

1987-01-01

402

Tool For Making Curved Holes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tool for use in electrical-discharge machining (EDM) guides EDM electrode in making curved holes. Guide rod fits in slot in arm, which moves through arc. Motion drives electrode into workpiece along desired curved path. Electrode burns into workpiece while arm rotates on spindle. Discharge cuts hole of same radius of curvature.

Allard, Robert; Calve, Andrew; Pastreck, Edwin; Padden, Edward

1992-01-01

403

The universal galaxy rotation curve  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correlation between the shape of the rotation curves and the luminosity is considered, and it is found that for a given luminosity the rotation curves within the optical radius are a universal function. This result implies strong systematic variations of the amplitude and the profile of the circular velocity with luminosity. Faint galaxies have low velocities and steep velocity

Massimo Persic; Paolo Salucci

1991-01-01

404

Grade Retention: A Three Part Series. Policy Briefs. Grade Retention: A Flawed Education Strategy [and] Cost-Benefit Analysis of Grade Retention [and] Grade Retention: The Gap between Research and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document compiles a series of three policy briefs focused on the subject of grade retention. The first brief, "Grade Retention: A Flawed Education Strategy," suggests educators and policymakers caution the use of grade retention as a remedy for poor student performance. As concluded by the majority of past studies, grade retention is a failed…

Xia, Claire; Glennie, Elizabeth

2005-01-01

405

Survey monitoring results on the reduction of micropollutants, bacteria, bacteriophages and TSS in retention soil filters.  

PubMed

A main source of surface water pollution in Western Europe stems from combined sewer overflow. One of the few technologies available to reduce this pollution is the retention soil filter. In this research project, we evaluated the cleaning efficiency of retention soil filters measuring the concentration ratio of standard wastewater parameters and bacteria according to factors limiting efficiency, such as long dry phases or phases of long-lasting retention. Furthermore, we conducted an initial investigation on how well retention soil filters reduce certain micropollutants on large-scale plants. There was little precipitation during the 1-year sampling phase, which led to fewer samples than expected. Nevertheless, we could verify how efficiently retention soil filters clean total suspended solids. Our results show that retention soil filters are not only able to eliminate bacteria, but also to retain some of the micropollutants investigated here. As the filters were able to reduce diclofenac, bisphenol A and metoprolol by a median rate of almost 75%, we think that further investigations should be made into the reduction processes in the filter. At this point, a higher accuracy in the results could be achieved by conducting bench-scale experiments. PMID:24037150

Tondera, Katharina; Koenen, Stefan; Pinnekamp, Johannes

2013-01-01

406