Sample records for water sediment domestic

  1. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (Phase I) of water and sediment samples from a tropical reservoir contaminated with industrial and domestic effluents.

    PubMed

    Matos, Mariana de F; Botta, Clarice Maria Rispoli; Fonseca, Ana Lúcia

    2014-11-01

    The Funil Reservoir (Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil) is an environment degraded by constant discharge of nutrients and pollution coming from the most industrialized region of the country. As a consequence of eutrophication, there are continuous cyanobacteria blooms, which cause acute and chronic toxicity to zooplankton. In this context, Phase I of Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) was performed on Daphnia similis using water and interstitial water from the reservoir, with the aim of identifying classes of compounds responsible for toxicity. The results indicated that water toxicity was due to cyanobacteria resulting from blooms in the reservoir and surfactants. Metals, especially copper, contributed to sediment toxicity. This research is the first attempt to describe the nature of toxicity in this reservoir using this method. PMID:25103213

  2. Domestic wash water reclamation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    System consists of filtration unit, reverse-osmosis module, tanks, pumps, plumbing, and various gauges, meters, and valves. After water is used in washing machine or shower, it is collected in holding tank. Water is pumped through series of five particulate filters. Pressure tank supplies processed water to commode water closet.

  3. Water-Using Equipment: Domestic

    SciTech Connect

    Solana, Amy E.; Mcmordie, Katherine

    2006-01-24

    Water management is an important aspect of energy engineering. This article addresses water-using equipment primarily used for household purposes, including faucets, showers, toilets, urinals, dishwashers, and clothes washers, and focuses on how the equipment can be optimized to save both water and energy. Technology retrofits and operation and maintenance changes are the primary methods discussed for water and energy conservation. Auditing to determine current consumption rates is also described for each technology.

  4. 9. SEDIMENTATION CHAMBER, VIEW DOWNSTREAM. AFTER SEDIMENTATION, WATER FLOWS INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. SEDIMENTATION CHAMBER, VIEW DOWNSTREAM. AFTER SEDIMENTATION, WATER FLOWS INTO ONE 8" CAST-IRON PIPELINE. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  5. STATE OF CALIFORNIA SOLAR DOMESTIC HOT WATER SYSTEMS (SDHW)

    E-print Network

    STATE OF CALIFORNIA SOLAR DOMESTIC HOT WATER SYSTEMS (SDHW) CEC- CF-6R-MECH-02 (Revised 08/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-02 Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems (SDHW 2009 SOLAR HOT WATER HEATING SYSTEMS: SRCC Certified Mfr Name & Model Number Net Solar Fraction (from

  6. Accounting for Water Insecurity in Modeling Domestic Water Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galaitsis, S. E.; Huber-lee, A. T.; Vogel, R. M.; Naumova, E.

    2013-12-01

    Water demand management uses price elasticity estimates to predict consumer demand in relation to water pricing changes, but studies have shown that many additional factors effect water consumption. Development scholars document the need for water security, however, much of the water security literature focuses on broad policies which can influence water demand. Previous domestic water demand studies have not considered how water security can affect a population's consumption behavior. This study is the first to model the influence of water insecurity on water demand. A subjective indicator scale measuring water insecurity among consumers in the Palestinian West Bank is developed and included as a variable to explore how perceptions of control, or lack thereof, impact consumption behavior and resulting estimates of price elasticity. A multivariate regression model demonstrates the significance of a water insecurity variable for data sets encompassing disparate water access. When accounting for insecurity, the R-squaed value improves and the marginal price a household is willing to pay becomes a significant predictor for the household quantity consumption. The model denotes that, with all other variables held equal, a household will buy more water when the users are more water insecure. Though the reasons behind this trend require further study, the findings suggest broad policy implications by demonstrating that water distribution practices in scarcity conditions can promote consumer welfare and efficient water use.

  7. Inorganic chemicals in domestic water of the United Arab Emirates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zeinelabidin S. Rizk

    2009-01-01

    The concentration of selected inorganic chemicals was determined for 396 samples of bottled water, desalinated water, and\\u000a groundwater used for drinking and domestic purposes in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The objective of this study was to\\u000a compare the concentrations of inorganic chemicals in different domestic water types used in the UAE with the World Health\\u000a Organization (WHO) limits for

  8. Inorganic chemicals in domestic water of the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Zeinelabidin S

    2009-02-01

    The concentration of selected inorganic chemicals was determined for 396 samples of bottled water, desalinated water, and groundwater used for drinking and domestic purposes in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The objective of this study was to compare the concentrations of inorganic chemicals in different domestic water types used in the UAE with the World Health Organization (WHO) limits for drinking water. Results of the present study revealed a wide variation in the concentrations of major, minor, and trace inorganic chemicals in domestic water of the UAE. For example, the bottled water sold for drinking is depleted in major ions and the total dissolved solids (TDS) in some brands do not exceed 100 mg/l. On the other hand, some of the domestic water used may contain as much as 3,000 mg/l TDS, which is above the WHO recommended limit for drinking water (500-1,500 mg/l TDS). Similarly, while bottled water is almost free of trace ions and minor constituents, some natural groundwater may have concentrations higher than the WHO recommended limits for drinking water. The cause of this variation is related to the different water sources and the large number of companies producing and distributing drinking and domestic water. Moreover, it is clear that the current controls on domestic water quality in some areas, namely conformance of pH and electrical conductivity measurements with prescribed ranges of values, are currently inadequate. These two parameters are not enough to judge if water is suitable for drinking or not and some consumers may receive domestic water of uncertain quality. PMID:18266056

  9. AMBIENT WATER, POREWATER, AND SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment assessments may be performed for a variety of purposes; these include: dredging and dredged sediment disposal, for evaluations of sediments as a capping material, to determine sediment quality, to assess biological impairment and to assess the status of environment monit...

  10. Performance evaluation of a locally developed domestic drinking water filter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. O. Bolaji; G. A. Bolaji; S. O. Ismaila

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design, construction and testing of a domestic water filter. Its construction was accomplished using mainly locally available materials to make it relatively affordable for both the rural and urban dwellers. The developed raw water filter was tested by using it to filter raw water samples obtained from wells, borehole and rain. The water samples were collected

  11. Chronic toxicity of the Sava River (SE Europe) sediments and river water to the algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torsten Källqvist; Radmila Mila?i?; Tvrtko Smital; Kevin V. Thomas; Sanja Vranes; Knut-Erik Tollefsen

    2008-01-01

    The Sava River, the largest and most commercially valuable water body in the riparian countries, receives inputs of organic and inorganic compounds from a variety of domestic and industrial activities that may affect the health of human beings and wildlife. In this work, the chronic toxicity of sediment, sediment porewater and surface water from the Sava River and connecting tributaries

  12. Assessment of domestic water quality: case study, Beirut, Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Korfali, Samira Ibrahim; Jurdi, Mey

    2007-12-01

    In urban cities, the environmental services are the responsibility of the public sector, where piped water supply is the norm for urban household. Likewise, in Beirut City (capital of Lebanon) official water authorities are the main supplier of domestic water through a network of piping system that leaks in many areas. Beirut City and its suburbs are overpopulated since it is the residence of 1/3 of the Lebanese citizens. Thus, Beirut suffers deficiency in meeting its water demand. Water rationing, as a remedial action, is firmly established since four decades by the Lebanese Water Authorities. Consumers resorted then to private wells to supplement their domestic water needs. Consequently, household water quality is influenced by external factors relating to well water characteristics and internal factors depending on the types of the pipes of the distribution network and cross connections to sewer pipes. These factors could result in chemical and microbial contamination of drinking water. The objective of this study is to investigate domestic water quality variation in Beirut City emerging form the aforementioned factors. The presented work encircles a typical case study of Beirut City (Ras Beirut). Results showed deterioration pattern in domestic water quality. The predicted metal species and scales within the water pipes of distribution network depended on water pH, hardness, sulfate, chloride, and iron. The corrosion of iron pipes mainly depended on Mg hardness. PMID:17380419

  13. Potential microbial bioinvasions via ships' ballast water, sediment, and biofilm.

    PubMed

    Drake, Lisa A; Doblin, Martina A; Dobbs, Fred C

    2007-01-01

    A prominent vector of aquatic invasive species to coastal regions is the discharge of water, sediments, and biofilm from ships' ballast-water tanks. During eight years of studying ships arriving to the lower Chesapeake Bay, we developed an understanding of the mechanisms by which invasive microorganisms might arrive to the region via ships. Within a given ship, habitats included ballast water, unpumpable water and sediment (collectively known as residuals), and biofilms formed on internal surfaces of ballast-water tanks. We sampled 69 vessels arriving from foreign and domestic ports, largely from Western Europe, the Mediterranean region, and the US East and Gulf coasts. All habitats contained bacteria and viruses. By extrapolating the measured concentration of a microbial metric to the estimated volume of ballast water, biofilm, or residual sediment and water within an average vessel, we calculated the potential total number of microorganisms contained by each habitat, thus creating a hierarchy of risk of delivery. The estimated concentration of microorganisms was greatest in ballast water>sediment and water residuals>biofilms. From these results, it is clear microorganisms may be transported within ships in a variety of ways. Using temperature tolerance as a measure of survivability and the temperature difference between ballast-water samples and the water into which the ballast water was discharged, we estimated 56% of microorganisms could survive in the lower Bay. Extrapolated delivery and survival of microorganisms to the Port of Hampton Roads in lower Chesapeake Bay shows on the order of 10(20) microorganisms (6.8 x 10(19) viruses and 3.9 x 10(18) bacteria cells) are discharged annually to the region. PMID:17215010

  14. Design package for solar domestic hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The initial design of a solar domestic hot water system is considered. The system performance specification and detailed design drawings are included. The hot water systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished site data acquisition. The two systems are installed at Tempe, Arizona, and San Diego, California.

  15. Analysis Model for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, J.; Krarti, M.; Fang, X.

    2011-11-01

    A thermal model was developed to estimate the energy losses from prototypical domestic hot water (DHW) distribution systems for homes. The developed model, using the TRNSYS simulation software, allows researchers and designers to better evaluate the performance of hot water distribution systems in homes. Modeling results were compared with past experimental study results and showed good agreement.

  16. CONTAMINANTS IN WATER AND SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit River has experienced over a century of heavy contaminant discharges from industry and municipalities. The sources of contaminants vary, and include non-point sources, combined sewer overflows, point sources, tributaries, sediments, and upstream inputs. --- Demonst...

  17. Design package for solar domestic hot water system

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1980-09-01

    Information used to evaluate the initial design of the Elcam, Inc., Solar Domestic Hot Water System is presented. Included are such items as the system performance specification, detailed design drawings and other information. Elcam, Inc., has developed two solar heated prototype hot water systems and two heat exchangers. The hot water systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished Site Data Acquisition. The two systems are installed at Tempe, Arizona, and San Diego, California.

  18. Assessment of domestic water quality: case study, Beirut, Lebanon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samira Ibrahim Korfali; Mey Jurdi

    2007-01-01

    In urban cities, the environmental services are the responsibility of the public sector, where piped water supply is the norm\\u000a for urban household. Likewise, in Beirut City (capital of Lebanon) official water authorities are the main supplier of domestic\\u000a water through a network of piping system that leaks in many areas. Beirut City and its suburbs are overpopulated since it

  19. Prototype solar domestic hot water systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Construction of a double wall heat exchanger using soft copper tube coiled around a hot water storage tank was completed and preliminary tests were conducted. Solar transport water to tank potable water heat exchange tests were performed with a specially constructed test stand. Work was done to improve the component hardware and system design for the solar water heater. The installation of both a direct feed system and a double wall heat exchanger system provided experience and site data to enable informative decisions to be made as the solar market expands into areas where freeze protection is required.

  20. "ITM" (INLAND WATERS SEDIMENT TESTING MANUAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA public web site providing the national sediment testing manual for dredged material proposed for discharge in waters of the U.S. Description from site: "The "Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Dischage in Waters of the U.S. - Testing Manual", commonly referred to as...

  1. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium conentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms.

  2. Promising freeze protection alternatives in solar domestic hot water systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1997-01-01

    Since the gains associated with solar thermal energy technologies are comparatively small in relation to the required capital investment, it is vital to maximize conversion efficiency. While providing the necessary function of freeze protection, the heat exchanger commonly included in solar domestic water heating systems represents a system inefficiency. This thesis explores two alternate methods of providing freeze protection without

  3. Suspended sediment transport, sedimentation, and resuspension in Lake Houston, Texas: Implications for water quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane M. Matty; John B. Anderson; Robert B. Dunbar

    1987-01-01

    Lake Houston is a man-made reservoir located northeast of Houston, Texas. The purpose of this investigation was to document suspended sediment transport, sedimentation, and resuspension in the lake with a view towards estimating the influence of sedimentation on water quality. Sediment traps were placed in strategic locations in the lake to collect suspended sediments. Samples were analyzed for bulk density,

  4. Dynamic simulation of a domestic hot-water system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Parker; A. S. Tucker

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the building and testing of a domestic hot-water system in a laboratory of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Canterbury, New Zealand. The system included not only conventional household devices, but also solar panels and a waste-water heat exchanger. The rig was controlled by a micro-processor so that tests could be readily repeated to assess the

  5. 1. DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY TREATMENT HOUSE, ON PENSTOCK ABOVE SAR1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY TREATMENT HOUSE, ON PENSTOCK ABOVE SAR-1. VIEW TO NORTWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Domestic Water Supply Treatment House, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  6. Electrochemical chlorination for purifying domestic water supplies 

    E-print Network

    Peters, Joseph Ludwig

    1973-01-01

    as the coagulating agent which causes flocculation of sus- l pendsd matter so that it can be easily separated Prom watsz in a settling tank. This electrochemical clarification process is +References follow the style and format of the Transactions of the ASAE...- t tivities. Considerable electrolysis occurs when high electrolyte water is used; this causes turbulence that nullifies the electro- phoretic migration process. In the same research' Hilsr end Lyle (1970) also investigated electrochemicel flocculation...

  7. Domestic hot water consumption in four low-income apartment buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.; Diamond, R.; Szydlowski, R.

    1986-06-01

    Domestic hot water consumption is a major source of energy use in multifamily buildings. In contrast to space heating energy consumption, in which behavioral factors compete with the effect of climate, domestic hot water consumption is highly dependent on behavior. Consequently, knowledge of usage patterns is useful in understanding domestic hot water consumption, whether for calculating baseline usage or for estimating retrofit performance.

  8. Numerical simulation of sediment related processes in water quality model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sediment is a major nonpoint-source pollutant, and the exchange of materials between water and sediment is an important component of the lake eutrophication process. Suspended sediment increases water surface reflectivity and light attenuation in the water column. Nutrients can be absorbed to sedime...

  9. Summary of Selected USGS Data on DomesticSummary of Selected USGS Data on Domestic Well Water Quality for the CDCWell Water Quality for the CDC--EPHT ProgramEPHT Program

    E-print Network

    · Analyze water-quality data from private water supplies from multiple USGS sources · Summarize;55 Why focus on domestic well (privateWhy focus on domestic well (private supplies) watersupplies) water11 Summary of Selected USGS Data on DomesticSummary of Selected USGS Data on Domestic Well Water

  10. Removal of cyanobacterial toxins (microcystins) and cyanobacterial cells from drinking water using domestic water filters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda A. Lawton; Benjamin J. P. A. Cornish; Andrew W. R. MacDonald

    1998-01-01

    Toxic cyanobacteria are increasingly found in drinking water reservoirs, with cells and\\/or dissolved toxins entering the potable water supply. The most commonly observed group of cyanobacterial toxins is the microcystins, and concern about their impact on human health has prompted investigations into remedial treatment methods. This study investigates the ability of domestic water filters to remove cyanobacterial cells and microcystins

  11. Suspended sediment transport, sedimentation, and resuspension in Lake Houston, Texas: Implications for water quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane M. Matty; John B. Anderson; Robert B. Dunbar

    1987-01-01

    Lake Houston is a man-made reservoir located northeast of Houston, Texas. The purpose of this investigation was to document\\u000a suspended sediment transport, sedimentation, and resuspension in the lake with a view towards estimating the influence of\\u000a sedimentation on water quality. Sediment traps were placed in strategic locations in the lake to collect suspended sediments.\\u000a Samples were analyzed for bulk density,

  12. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Lake Catchments, in River Water Abstracted for Domestic Use, and in Effluent from Domestic Sewage Treatment Works: Diverse Opportunities for Environmental Cycling and Human Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Pickup, R. W.; Rhodes, G.; Bull, T. J.; Arnott, S.; Sidi-Boumedine, K.; Hurley, M.; Hermon-Taylor, J.

    2006-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from infected animals enters surface waters and rivers in runoff from contaminated pastures. We studied the River Tywi in South Wales, United Kingdom, whose catchment comprises 1,100 km2 containing more than a million dairy and beef cattle and more than 1.3 million sheep. The River Tywi is abstracted for the domestic water supply. Between August 2002 and April 2003, 48 of 70 (68.8%) twice-weekly river water samples tested positive by IS900 PCR. In river water, the organisms were associated with a suspended solid which was depleted by the water treatment process. Disposal of contaminated slurry back onto the land established a cycle of environmental persistence. A concentrate from 100 liters of finished water tested negative, but 1 of 54 domestic cold water tanks tested positive, indicating the potential for these pathogens to access domestic outlets. In the separate English Lake District region, with hills up to 980 m, tests for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the high hill lakes and sediments were usually negative, but streams and sediments became positive lower down the catchment. Sediments from 9 of 10 major lakes receiving inflow from these catchments were positive, with sediment cores indicating deposition over at least 40 to 50 years. Two of 12 monthly 1-liter samples of effluent and a single 100-liter sample from the Ambleside sewage treatment works were positive for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Since Lake Ambleside discharges into Lake Windermere, which is available for domestic supply, there is a potential for these organisms to cycle within human populations. PMID:16751517

  13. Sedimentation and pedogenesis in a Central Amazonian Black water basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Chauvel; I. Walker; Y. Lucas

    1996-01-01

    Sedimentation rates were estimated in a Central Amazonian Black-water inundation forest. Sediment deposition on the forest ground, remote from the river bed, during an annual flood period, is of the order of 1 to 10 tons per hectare, depending on water depth and duration of flooding. The sediments consisted of fine organic matter, kaolinite, quartz sands and biogenic particles of

  14. The human right to water: the importance of domestic and productive water rights.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ralph P; Van Koppen, Barbara; Van Houweling, Emily

    2014-12-01

    The United Nations (UN) Universal Declaration of Human Rights engenders important state commitments to respect, fulfill, and protect a broad range of socio-economic rights. In 2010, a milestone was reached when the UN General Assembly recognized the human right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation. However, water plays an important role in realizing other human rights such as the right to food and livelihoods, and in realizing the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. These broader water-related rights have been recognized but have not yet been operationalized. This paper unravels these broader water-related rights in a more holistic interpretation of existing international human rights law. By focusing on an emerging approach to water services provision--known as 'domestic-plus' services--the paper argues how this approach operationalizes a comprehensive range of socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas. Domestic-plus services provide water for domestic and productive uses around homesteads, which challenges the widespread practice in the public sector of planning and designing water infrastructure for a single-use. Evidence is presented to show that people in rural communities are already using their water supplies planned for domestic uses to support a wide range of productive activities. Domestic-plus services recognize and plan for these multiple-uses, while respecting the priority for clean and safe drinking water. The paper concludes that domestic-plus services operationalize the obligation to progressively fulfill a comprehensive range of indivisible socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas. PMID:24337891

  15. Effects of Water Chemistry on the Bioavailability of Metals in Sediment to Hyalella azteca : Implications for Sediment Quality Guidelines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Nowierski; D. G. Dixon; U. Borgmann

    2005-01-01

    Risk assessments of metals in sediments are often based on sediment-quality guidelines (SQGs) and do not take into account the chemistry of the overlying water. To determine the effects of water chemistry on the toxicity of metals in sediments, both water and sediment were collected from five metal-contaminated lakes with widely differing water chemistry near Canadian smelters. Metal bioaccumulation by

  16. Lead levels in domestic water supplies and neural tube defects in Glasgow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J E Macdonell; H Campbell; D H Stone

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo study the association between “pregnancy” prevalence (affected births and terminations) of neural tube defects in postcode districts of Glasgow and lead concentrations in domestic water.SETTINGPostcode districts of Glasgow supplied by water from the Loch Katrine reservoir.DESIGNAn ecological study. Lead concentrations from 1911 randomly selected domestic water samples were obtained from the Glasgow 93 lead study. Neural tube defects (affected

  17. Description of 2005-10 domestic water use for selected U.S. cities and guidance for estimating domestic water use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenny, Joan F.; Juracek, Kyle E.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic water-use and related socioeconomic and climatic data for 2005-10 were used in an analysis of 21 selected U.S. cities to describe recent domestic per capita water use, investigate variables that potentially affect domestic water use, and provide guidance for estimating domestic water use. Domestic water use may be affected by a combination of several factors. Domestic per capita water use for the selected cities ranged from a median annual average of 43 to 177 gallons per capita per day (gpcd). In terms of year-to-year variability in domestic per capita water use for the selected cities, the difference from the median ranged from ± 7 to ± 26 percent with an overall median variability of ± 14 percent. As a percentage of total annual water use, median annual domestic water use for the selected cities ranged from 33 to 71 percent with an overall median of 57 percent. Monthly production and water sales data were used to calculate daily per capita water use rates for the lowest 3 consecutive months (low-3) and the highest 3 consecutive months (high-3) of usage. Median low-3 domestic per capita water use for 16 selected cities ranged from 40 to 100 gpcd. Median high-3 domestic per capita water use for 16 selected cities ranged from 53 to 316 gpcd. In general, the median domestic water use as a percentage of the median total water use for 16 selected cities was similar for the low-3 and high-3 periods. Statistical analyses of combined data for the selected cities indicated that none of the socioeconomic variables, including cost of water, were potentially useful as determinants of domestic water use at the national level. However, specific socioeconomic variables may be useful for the estimation of domestic water use at the State or local level. Different socioeconomic variables may be useful in different States. Statistical analyses indicated that specific climatic variables may be useful for the estimation of domestic water use for some, but not all, of the selected cities. National average public supply per capita water use declined from 185 gpcd in 1990 to 171 gpcd in 2005. National average domestic delivery per capita water use declined from 105 gpcd in 1990 to 99 gpcd in 2005. Average State domestic delivery per capita water use ranged from 51 to 189 gpcd in 2005. The average annual total per capita water use in 19 selected cities that provided data for each year declined from 167 gpcd in 2006 to 145 gpcd in 2010. During this time period, average per capita water use measured during the low-3 period each year declined from 115 to 102 gpcd, and average per capita use measured during the high-3 period declined from 250 to 211 gpcd. Continued collection of data on water deliveries to domestic populations, as well as updated estimates of the population served by these deliveries, is recommended for determination of regional and temporal trends in domestic per capita water use. Declines in various measures of per capita water use have been observed in recent years for several States with municipal water use data-collection programs. Domestic self-supplied water use historically has not been metered. Estimates of self-supplied domestic water use are made using estimates of the population that is not served by public water suppliers and per capita coefficients. For 2005, the average State domestic self-supplied per capita use in the United States ranged from 50 to 206 gpcd. The median domestic self-supplied per capita use was 76 gpcd for States in which standard coefficients were used, and 98 gpcd for States in which coefficients were based on domestic deliveries from public supply. In specific areas with scarce resources or increasing numbers of households with private wells, an assessment of domestic water use may require metering of households or development of more specific per capita coefficients to estimate water demand.

  18. The lipid geochemistry of interstitial waters of recent marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Saliot, A.; Brault, M.; Boussuge, C. (l'Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France))

    1988-04-01

    To elucidate the nature of biogeochemical processes occurring at the water-sediment interface, the authors have analyzed fatty acids, n-alkanes and sterols contained in interstitial waters collected from oxic and anoxic marine sediments in the eastern and western intertropical Atlantic Ocean and in the Arabian Sea. Lipid concentrations in interstitial waters vary widely and are generally much higher than concentrations encountered in the overlying sea water. Higher concentrations in interstitial water are observed in environments favorable for organic input and preservation of the organic matter in the water column and in the surficial sediment. The analysis of biogeochemical markers in the various media of occurrence of the organic matter such as sea water, suspended particles, settling particles and sediment is discussed in terms of differences existing between these media and bio-transformations of the organic matter at the water-sediment interface.

  19. Sediment tracers in water erosion studies: Current approaches and challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The interest in the use of sediment tracers as a complementary tool to traditional water soil erosion or deposition measurements or assessment has increased due to the additional information they may provide such as sediment source identification and tracking of sediment movement over the landscape ...

  20. Domestic wash-water reclamation using an aerospace-developed water recovery subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A prototype aerospace distillation water recovery subsystem was tested to determine its capability to recover potable water from domestic wash water. A total of 0.0994 cu m (26.25 gallons) of domestic wash water was processed over a 7-day period at an average process rate of 0.0146 cu m per day (3.85 gallons per day). The subsystem produced water that met all United States Public Health Standards for drinking water with the exception of two standards which could not be analyzed at the required sensitivity levels. Average energy consumption for this evaluation to maintain both the recovery process and microbial control in the recovered water was approximately 3366 kilowatt-hours per cubic meter (12.74 kilowatt-hours per gallon) of water recovered. This condition represents a worst case energy consumption since no attempt was made to recover heat energy in the subsystem. An ultraviolet radiation cell installed in the effluent line of the subsystem was effective in controlling coliform micro-organisms within acceptable levels for drinking water. The subsystem recovered virtually 100 percent of the available water in the waste-water process. In addition, the subsystem removed 99.6 percent and 98.3 percent of the surfactants and phosphate, respectively, from the wash water.

  1. Exchange of phosphorus across the sediment-water interface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bengt Boström; Jens M. Andersen; Siegfried Fleischer; Mats Jansson

    1988-01-01

    In this article, principles of phosphorus retention and phosphorus release at the sediment-water interface in lakes are reviewed. New results and hypotheses are discussed in relation to older models of phosphorus exchange between sediments and water. The fractional composition of sedimentary phosphorus is discussed as a tool for interpretation of different retention mechanisms. Special emphasis is given to the impact

  2. DEVELOPING WATER QUALITY CRITERIA FOR SUSPENDED AND BEDDED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA?s Framework for Developing Suspended and Bedded Sediments (SABS) Water Quality Criteria (SABS Framework) is a nationally-consistent process for developing ambient sediment quality criteria for surface waters. The SABS Framework accommodates natural variation among wa...

  3. TOXICITY EVALUATION OF LOWER FOX RIVER WATER AND SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many persistent, xenobiotic compounds have been identified from Lower Fox River water, biota, sediment, and effluent discharges; some of which are suspected of causing adverse effects to aquatic organisms. Water and sediment were collected as grab samples from the Lower Fox River...

  4. Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

    2012-07-01

    The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

  5. Control strategies for domestic hot water recirculation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goldner, F.S.

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of a domestic hot water (DHW) recirculation system is to decrease the time spent waiting for the water to be delivered at acceptable temperatures when called for and also decrease the subsequent water consumption. The research detailed in this paper considered whether it is necessary to continuously run these recirculation pumps, as is general practice, or whether it is possible to reduce DHW system energy consumption by operating these pumps with some type of control strategy. Three different control strategies were evaluated by employing detailed monitoring. The different operating modes were: (1) base case (continuous operation), (2) shutdown during the overnight period, (3) shutdown during the peak morning and evening periods, and (4) cycling by a return line aquastat set at 110 F (61 C). In order to accomplish the research, six sites each had an aquastat installed onto the DHW return line and a programmable timeclock wired into the pump. The analysis identifies the relative energy use for each of the strategies during four round-robin rounds of two weeks each during the spring, summer, fall, and winter periods. When compared to the base case, (pump running 24 hours per day), Strategy B saves an average of 6%, Strategy C saves 6%, and Strategy D saves 11% of the DHW portion of a building's DHW energy requirements annually. This is significant in that for Strategy D, this translates into a savings of 4% of the building's total annual fuel bill. All of the control strategies evaluated were simple and employed low-cost devices (under $250 installed), which should help in achieving an extremely large implementation rate for the control strategy recommended. Tenant water quality survey questionnaires show that there was always an acceptable level of satisfaction, regardless of system control strategy.

  6. 30 CFR 77.216-4 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...operating, or controlling a water, sediment, or slurry...elevation of the impounded water, sediment, or slurry...reporting period. (4) Storage capacity of the impounding structure...volume of the impounded water, sediment, or...

  7. A novel domestic electric water heater model for a multi-objective demand side management program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liam Paull; Howard Li; Liuchen Chang

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel domestic hot water heater model to be used in a multi-objective demand side management program. The model incorporates both the thermal losses and the water usage to determine the temperature of the water in the tank. Water heater loads are extracted from household load data and then used to determine the household water usage patterns.

  8. Domestic wash water reclamation for reuse as commode water supply using filtration: Reverse-osmosis separation technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A combined filtration-reverse-osmosis water recovery system has been evaluated to determine its capability to reclaim domestic wash water for reuse as a commode water supply. The system produced water that met all chemical and physical requirements established by the U.S. Public Health Service for drinking water with the exception of carbon chloroform extractables, methylene blue active substances, and phenols. It is thought that this water is of sufficient quality to be reused as commode supply water. The feasibility of using a combined filtration and reverse-osmosis technique for reclaiming domestic wash water has been established. The use of such a technique for wash-water recovery will require a maintenance filter to remove solid materials including those less than 1 micron in size from the wash water. The reverse-osmosis module, if sufficiently protected from plugging, is an attractive low-energy technique for removing contaminants from domestic wash water.

  9. DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC WASTEWATER CONTAMINANTS BETWEEN WATER AND SEDIMENT IN SURFACE WATERS OF THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trace concentrations of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants have been determined in the surface waters of Europe and the United States. A preliminary report of substantially higher concentrations of pharmaceuticals in sediment suggests that bottom sediment ...

  10. Comparing Sediment and Pore-water Measurements as Predictors of PCB Uptake by Oligochaetes from Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an increasing amount of chemical and biological evidence that using sediment concentrations and commonly applied Koc values frequently overpredicts interstitial water concentrations of HOCs, and thereby overestimates uptake and/or effects of those chemicals on exposed or...

  11. Sediment pore water distribution coefficients of PCB congeners in enriched black carbon sediment

    PubMed Central

    MARTINEZ, ANDRES; O'SULLIVAN, COLIN; REIBLE, DANNY; HORNBUCKLE, KERI C.

    2013-01-01

    More than 2300 sediment pore water distribution coefficients (KPCBi ds) of 93 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured and modeled from sediments from Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal. KPCBi ds were calculated from previously reported bulk sediment values and newly analyzed pore water. PCBs in pore waters were measured using SPME PDMS-fiber and ?PCB ranged from 41 to 1500 ng L?1. The resulting KPCBi ds were ~ 1 log unit lower in comparison to other reported values. A simple model for the KPCBi d consisted of the product of the organic carbon fraction and the octanol-water partition coefficient and provided an excellent prediction for the measured values, with a mean square error of 0.09 ± 0.06. Although black carbon content is very high in these sediments and was expected to play an important role in the distribution of PCBs, no improvement was obtained when a two-carbon model was used. PMID:23974165

  12. Yellow River's water and sediment discharge decreasing steadily

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. S. Yang; J. D. Milliman; J. Galler; J. P. Liu; X. G. Sun

    1998-01-01

    The amount of water and sediment discharged by the Yellow River in northern China has been decreasing steadily over the past 20-25 years, such that in recent years it has contributed relatively little sediment to the Gulf of Bohai. This is quite at odds with the well-known story in which the Yellow River has been regarded as a primary contributor

  13. Fluorescent dissolved organic matter in marine sediment pore waters

    E-print Network

    Burdige, David

    ­water interface. Furthermore, the interplay between transport processes and the depth zonation of DOM cycling with sediment depth at almost all stations, and was closely correlated with total DOC. This fluorescence with depth during sediment diagenesis. Fluorescence­DOC relationships indicated that larger relative amounts

  14. Toxicity of silicon carbide nanowires to sediment-dwelling invertebrates in water or sediment exposures.

    PubMed

    Mwangi, Joseph N; Wang, Ning; Ritts, Andrew; Kunz, James L; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Li, Hao; Deng, Baolin

    2011-04-01

    Silicon carbide nanowires (SiCNW) are insoluble in water. When released into an aquatic environment, SiCNW would likely accumulate in sediment. The objective of this study was to assess the toxicity of SiCNW to four freshwater sediment-dwelling organisms: amphipods (Hyalella azteca), midges (Chironomus dilutus), oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus), and mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea). Amphipods were exposed to either sonicated or nonsonicated SiCNW in water (1.0?g/L) for 48?h. Midges, mussels, and oligochaetes were exposed only to sonicated SiCNW in water for 96?h. In addition, amphipods were exposed to sonicated SiCNW in whole sediment for 10 d (44% SiCNW on dry wt basis). Mean 48-h survival of amphipods exposed to nonsonicated SiCNW in water was not significantly different from the control, whereas mean survival of amphipods exposed to sonicated SiCNW in two 48-h exposures (0 or 15% survival) was significantly different from the control (90 or 98% survival). In contrast, no effect of sonicated SiCNW was observed on survival of midges, mussels, or oligochaetes. Survival of amphipods was not significantly reduced in 10-d exposures to sonicated SiCNW either mixed in the sediment or layered on the sediment surface. However, significant reduction in amphipod biomass was observed with the SiCNW either mixed in sediment or layered on the sediment surface, and the reduction was more pronounced for SiCNW layered on the sediment. These results indicated that, under the experimental conditions, nonsonicated SiCNW in water were not acutely toxic to amphipods, sonicated SiCNW in water were acutely toxic to the amphipods, but not to other organisms tested, and sonicated SiCNW in sediment affected the growth but not the survival of amphipods. PMID:21305577

  15. Toxicity and genotoxicity of water and sediment from streams on dotted duckweed (Landoltia punctata).

    PubMed

    Factori, R; Leles, S M; Novakowski, G C; Rocha, C L S C; Thomaz, S M

    2014-11-01

    Most rivers are used as a source to supply entire cities; the quality of water is directly related to the quality of tributaries. Unfortunately men have neglected the importance of streams, which receive domestic and industrial effluents and transport nutrients and pesticides from rural areas. Given the complexity of the mixtures discharged into these water bodies, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of water and sediment of ten tributaries of Pirapó River, in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil. To this end, the free-floating macrophyte Landoltia punctata (G. Meyer) Les & D.J.Crawford was used as test organism in microcosm, and the toxicity of water and sediment samples was evaluated by the relative growth rate, dry/fresh biomass ratio, and genotoxic effects (comet assay). Samples of water and sediment of each stream were arranged in microcosms with L. punctata. Seven days later, plants were collected for analysis. Nutrient levels were higher than the reference location, indicating eutrophication, but the results indicated a toxic effect for only three streams, and a genotoxic effect for all streams. PMID:25627585

  16. Fugacity approach to evaluate the sediment-water diffusion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Wang, De-Gao; Alaee, Mehran; Byer, Jonathan; Liu, Yong-Jun; Tian, Chong-Guo

    2011-06-01

    Diffusion is an important process for sediment-water exchange and plays a vital role in controlling water quality. Fugacity fraction (ff) was used to estimate the sediment-water diffusion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) between seawater and surficial sediment. A total of 33 surface sediment and sea water samples were collected concurrently from the northeast coastal area in China and 25 PAHs were analyzed including the alkylated and chlorated PAHs. Fugacity fraction was calculated based on the PAH concentrations in water and sediment, octanol-water partition coefficient of PAHs, organic matter content in sediment, and density of sediment. The calculated results showed that ff increased with decreasing molecular weight of PAHs. The low molecular weight PAHs (2-3 rings) transferred from sediment to water and the sediment acted as a secondary source to the water. The medium molecular weight PAHs (4-5 rings) were close to the sediment-water equilibrium and the transfer tendency shifted between sediment and water. The high molecular weight PAHs (5-6 rings) transferred from water into sediment and the sediment acted as a sink. Soot carbon and the difference of PAH concentrations between sediment and water were found to be important factors affecting the sediment-water diffusion. This study provided new insight into the process of sediment-water diffusion, which has a great influence on the quality of water, especially in severely-polluted sediment areas. PMID:21552633

  17. THE IMPACT OF URBAN STORM WATER RUNOFF AND DOMESTIC WASTE EFFLUENT ON WATER QUALITY OF LAKE TANA AND LOCAL

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    THE IMPACT OF URBAN STORM WATER RUNOFF AND DOMESTIC WASTE EFFLUENT ON WATER QUALITY OF LAKE TANA, three shallow wells were installed. Urban storm water runoffs at six storm drains, which empty to Lake and NURP) and it shows that the Bahir Dar storm water runoff pollutant load is in excess of the North

  18. Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murawczyk, C.

    1973-01-01

    The work is described accomplished in compiling information needed to establish the current water supply and waste water processing requirements for dwellings, and for developing a preliminary design for a waste water to potable water management system. Data generated was used in formulation of design criteria for the preliminary design of the waste water to potable water recycling system. The system as defined was sized for a group of 500 dwelling units. Study tasks summarized include: water consumption, nature of domestic water, consumer appliances for low water consumption, water quality monitoring, baseline concept, and current and projected costs.

  19. Pore Water Transport of Enterococci out of Beach Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Matthew C.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Reniers, Adrianus J. H. M.; Wang, John D.; Kiger, Russell T.; Abdel-Mottaleb, Noha

    2011-01-01

    Enterococci are used to evaluate the safety of beach waters and studies have identified beach sands as a source of these bacteria. In order to study and quantify the release of microbes from beach sediments, flow column systems were built to evaluate flow of pore water out of beach sediments. Results show a peak in enterococci (average of 10% of the total microbes in core) released from the sand core within one pore water volume followed by a marked decline to below detection. These results indicate that few enterococci are easily removed and that factors other than simple pore water flow control the release of the majority of enterococci within beach sediments. A significantly larger quantity and release of enterococci were observed in cores collected after a significant rain event suggesting the influx of fresh water can alter the release pattern as compared to cores with no antecedent rainfall. PMID:21945015

  20. High-Frequency Acoustic Sediment Classification in Shallow Water

    E-print Network

    Bentrem, F W; Kalcic, M T; Duncan, M E; Bentrem, Frank W.; Sample, John; Kalcic, Maria T.; Duncan, Michael E.

    2002-01-01

    A geoacoustic inversion technique for high-frequency (12 kHz) multibeam sonar data is presented as a means to classify the seafloor sediment in shallow water (40-300 m). The inversion makes use of backscattered data at a variety of grazing angles to estimate mean grain size. The need for sediment type and the large amounts of multibeam data being collected with the Naval Oceanographic Office's Simrad EM 121A systems, have fostered the development of algorithms to process the EM 121A acoustic backscatter into maps of sediment type. The APL-UW (Applied Physics Laboratory at the University of Washington) backscattering model is used with simulated annealing to invert for six geoacoustic parameters. For the inversion, three of the parameters are constrained according to empirical correlations with mean grain size, which is introduced as an unconstrained parameter. The four unconstrained (free) parameters are mean grain size, sediment volume interaction, and two seafloor roughness parameters. Acoustic sediment cla...

  1. Assessing and managing sediment contamination in transitional waters.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Peter M; Wang, Feiyue; Caeiro, Sandra Sofia

    2013-05-01

    Sediment contamination remains a global problem, particularly in transitional waters such as estuaries and coastal lagoons, which are the recipients of chemicals from multiple near- and far-field sources. Although transitional waters are highly productive ecosystems, approaches for assessing and managing their sediment contamination are not as well developed as in marine and fresh waters. Further, although transitional waters remain defined by their variable and unique natural water quality characteristics, particularly salinity, the biota inhabiting such ecosystems, once thought to be defined by Remane's "paradox of brackish water", are being redefined. The purpose of the present paper is to build on an earlier but now dated (>12years old) review of methods to assess sediment contamination in estuaries, extending this to all transitional waters, including information on integrative assessments and on management decision-making. The following are specifically discussed: chemical assessments; bioindicators; biomarkers; and, biological surveys. Assessment and management of sediment contamination in transitional waters need to be focused on ecosystem services and, where appropriate and possible, be proactive rather than reactive when uncertainty has been suitably reduced. PMID:23528483

  2. Nitrogen cycling in different types of sediments from Danish waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. H. Blackburn; K. Henridsen

    1983-01-01

    Variations in sediment N:C ratios were correlated with water depth and season. ¹⁴NHâ\\/sup +\\/ was used to measure the rates of NHâ\\/sup +\\/ production (d) and incorporation into bacterial cells (i) in sediments from different stations, at different seasons. The validity of the rates d and i was indicated by the predicted correlation of d:i ratios with N:C ratios of

  3. High-Frequency Acoustic Sediment Classification in Shallow Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank W. Bentrem; John Sample; Maria T. Kalcic; Michael E. Duncan

    2006-01-01

    A geoacoustic inversion technique for high-frequency (12 kHz) multibeam sonar data is presented as a means to classify the seafloor sediment in shallow water (40--300 m). The inversion makes use of backscattered data at a variety of grazing angles to estimate mean grain size. The need for sediment type and the large amounts of multibeam data being collected with the

  4. High-frequency acoustic sediment classification in shallow water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank W. Bentrem; John Sample; Maria T. Kalcic; Michael E. Duncant

    2002-01-01

    A geoacoustic inversion technique for high-frequency (12 kHz) multibeam sonar data is presented as a means to classify the seafloor sediment in shallow water (40-300 m). The inversion makes use of backscattered data at a variety of grazing angles to estimate mean grain size. The need for sediment type and the large amounts of multibeam data being collected with the

  5. Water quality effects of herded stream crossings by domestic sheep bands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On rangelands, free-ranging or loosely-herded domestic sheep tend not to linger in shrub-dominated riparian areas thus limiting their impacts on stream water quality. The water quality effects when sheep are tightly-herded during stream crossings, however, are largely unknown. In this study, downs...

  6. Study into a Small-Scale Water-Driven Domestic Heat Pump: Design and Performance Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BEKIR S. YILBAS; AHMED Z. AL-GARNI; AHMET Z. ?AHIN

    1996-01-01

    A heal pump of domestic capacity and applicable for a water-powered system is studied. A design of the necessary parts is carried out, and realization of the heat pump system is achieved. In realization of the system, output power of a small-scale water turbine is considered, and an electrical motor requiring similar power is employed. The estimation of capital cost

  7. Microbial quality of domestic and imported brands of bottled water in Trinidad

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bharath; M. Mosodeen; S. Motilal; S. Sandy; S. Sharma; T. Tessaro; K. Thomas; M. Umamaheswaran; D. Simeon; A. A. Adesiyun

    2003-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the microbial quality of domestic and imported brands of bottled water available in Trinidad, purchased from six geographical regions in Trinidad, and representing the whole island. A sample size of 344 bottles of water was determined by using a precision rate of 2% and a Type 1 error of 5%. The membrane filter

  8. The Chemical Quality of Self-Supplied Domestic Well Water in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Focazio; Deborah Tipton; Stephanie Dunkle Shapiro; Linda H. Geiger

    2006-01-01

    Existing water quality data collected from domestic wells were summarized to develop the first national-scale retrospective of self-supplied drinking water sources. The contaminants evaluated represent a range of inorganic and organic compounds, and although the data set was not originally designed to be a statistical representation of national occurrence, it encompasses large parts of the United States including at least

  9. [Research of urban eutrophic water repair by water/sediment biological bases].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hui-Hua; Song, Xiao-Guang; Wu, Ge; Xie, Xin-Yuan

    2013-10-01

    A micro power turbine water aeration system with a water biological base and a sediment biological base was independently developed, aimed at urban water eutrophication. The results showed that the average removal rates of COD, NH+4 -N, TP by the water biological base were 82. 33% , 98. 00% and 54. 73% , respectively; The sediment reduction rate achieved by the sediment biological base could reach 20% within 5 days, and aeration in the overlying water could relieve the nutrient releasing caused by the degradation of organic matter; The effect of nutrient removal and organic matter reduction in sediment by the combined ecological restoration technology was perfect in pilot scale. The average removal rates of COD, NH+4 -N, TP were 52. 0%, 33. 6% and 23.4%, respectively, and the organic content in sediment was reduced from 38. 20% to 12.20% . PMID:24364306

  10. Response of crayfish to hyporheic water availability and excess sedimentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyer, Joseph J.; Worthington, Thomas A.; Brewer, Shannon K.

    2015-01-01

    Crayfish in many headwater streams regularly cope with seasonal drought. However, it is unclear how landscape changes affect the long-term persistence of crayfish populations. We designed two laboratory experiments to investigate the acute effects of common landscape stressors on crayfish: water withdrawal and sedimentation. The first experiment tested the interaction among water withdrawals (four 24-h water reductions of 0, 15, 30, or 45 cm) and two substrate treatments (pebble and cobble) on the burrowing depth of crayfish. The second experiment evaluated the effects of excess fine sediment (three treatments of 0, 45, and 90% sediment) and substrate type (cobble and pebble) on crayfish burrowing depth. Crayfish were able to burrow deeper into the simulated hyporheic zone in cobble substrate when compared to pebble. Crayfish subjected to greater water withdrawals in the pebble treatment were not able to reach the simulated hyporheic zone. Excess fine sediment reduced the depth that crayfish burrowed, regardless of substrate type. Results from this study suggest excess fine sediment may reduce crayfish persistence, particularly when seeking refuge during prolonged dry conditions.

  11. A model for sulfur accumulation in soft water lake sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Matisoff, G. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)] [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Holdren, G.R. Jr. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA (United States)] [Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-07-01

    A geochemical model for sulfur in soft water lake sediments of the Adirondack Mountains, New York, is developed to gain insight into the timing and magnitude of historical changes in sulfur loading. Surficial sulfur concentrations range from 3500 to 10,000 {mu}g g{minus}{sup 1}, increase to 6000 to >20,000 {mu}g g{minus}{sup 1} at a depth of 2-6 cm, and then decrease downcore to background levels of 2500-7500 {mu}g g{minus}{sup 1}. Sulfate concentrations are about 50-80 {mu}M in the overlying water and decrease rapidly below the sediment-water interface. A mathematical model is constructed assuming sulfur is incorporated into sediments by burial of detrital organic matter and by diffusion of dissolved sulfate from the overlying water with subsequent fixation into the sediment solids. Several scenarios of historical sulfate deposition were examined as model boundary conditions. The observed sediment sulfur profiles are best modeled using boundary conditions showing loading increases of about a factor of 8 since about 1940. Assuming as much as a decade of retention of sulfate within the terrestrial portion of the ecosystem, this suggests that significant increases in sulfate deposition rates began sometime about 1930 in this area. 34 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Cobalt in pore waters of marine sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Heggie; Tim Lewis

    1984-01-01

    During early diagenesis on the sea floor, metal-recycling processes exert important controls on the preservation rates and distributions of metals in marine sediments. The elucidation of internal recycling processes, therefore, is important in understanding trace-metal mass balances in the oceans. Recent measurements of cobalt in seawater1 suggest that cobalt is scavenged from the deep sea and hence follows biogeochemical pathways

  13. Fluorescent dissolved organic matter in marine sediment pore waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Burdige; Scott W. Kline; Wenhao Chen

    2004-01-01

    Fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in sediment pore waters from contrasting sites in the Chesapeake Bay and along the mid-Atlantic shelf\\/slope break was studied using three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy. Benthic fluxes of FDOM were also examined at the Chesapeake Bay sites. The major fluorescence peaks observed in these pore waters corresponded to those observed in the water column. These included peaks

  14. Sediment Resuspension and Drawdown in a Water Supply Reservior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Effler, Steven W.; Matthews, David A.

    2004-02-01

    The magnitudes and patterns of sediment resuspension are assessed in Cannonsville Reservoir, New York, to quantify and characterize this internal source of sediment. The assessment is based on analyses of sediment trap collections from 10 sites over the spring to fall interval of two years. Temporal and spatial patterns in sediment deposition are demonstrated to be driven by resuspension/redeposition processes. Sediment that had been resuspended and redeposited represented 80 to 96 percent, on average, of the depositing solids collected along the main axis of the lake. About 90 percent of the redeposited sediment was inorganic. Increased resuspension caused by drawdown of the reservoir surface and fall turnover resulted in 10 to 50-fold increases in deposition rates compared to levels observed when the reservoir was full and strongly thermally stratified. Elevated levels of redeposition from resuspension in the reservoir have been driven by both higher water column concentrations of suspended solids and settling velocities. Recurring longitudinal and lateral gradients in resuspension are delineated, establishing that resuspended solids are transported from the riverine to the lacustrine zone and from near-shore to pelagic areas. Resuspension is demonstrated to cause increases in inanimate particle (tripton) concentrations. Higher tripton levels have been observed in years with greater drawdown. Water quality impacts of the resuspension phenomenon are considered.

  15. Suspended sediment dynamics in the Kromme Rijn river: indication for intense fine sediment exchange between water column and streambed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van den Boomen, R.; Zweers, A. J.; Van der Perk, M.

    2012-04-01

    The limited transparency of the river water of the Kromme Rijn, a dammed distributary of the Rhine River in the Netherlands, restricts the ecological function of the stream and the achievement of the EU-Water Framework Directive targets. To increase water transparency in this river, the 'Hoogheemraadschap De Stichtse Rijnlanden' (HDSR) water authority considers to design one or more large-scale sediment traps. For an optimal design of these possible sediment traps, further knowledge about the local sediment characteristics and sedimentation and resuspension rates is a prerequisite. At the request of the HDSR water authority, we studied the fine sediment characteristics and dynamics in the Kromme Rijn river and its tributaries. Between summer 2010 and summer 2011, eleven monthly water samples were collected from six monitoring locations in the 25 km long reach of the Kromme Rijn river between the inlet from the Nederrijn river and Utrecht. Additional samples were collected from seven monitoring locations in streams and canals discharging into the Kromme Rijn river. The water samples were analysed for suspended sediment concentration and the suspended sediment was analysed for loss on ignition and particle size distribution by laser diffraction. In addition, at these monitoring locations, small sediment traps with an 8 cm circular opening were installed at 0.7 m below the water surface to measure the gross long-term sedimentation rate. These sediment traps were emptied every two months. During the monitoring period, the average sediment load in the Kromme Rijn near the inlet was 112 g/s and decreased to about 90 g/s near Utrecht. The vast majority of the sediment load (91%) in the main branch of the Kromme Rijn originates from the inlet from the Nederrijn river. The 2-16 ?m and 16-63 ?m particle size classes comprise about 80% of the suspended sediment. The average organic fraction of the suspended sediment was 36%. The sediment collected from the sediment traps were slightly finer and contained less organic matter (20%). The long-term (>2 months) average gross sedimentation flux in the Kromme Rijn river was measured to be 330 g m-2 d-1. As the sediment load only decreases by 20% in the 25 km long studied reach of the Kromme Rijn river and the sediment supply from the tributary streams and canals is limited, this gross sedimentation flux should be compensated by an average gross resuspension flux of approximately 240 g m-2 d-1. This would imply that the river reach length over which the effect of a possible sediment trap is noticeable is limited to about 5-10 km.

  16. Seasonal variations in pore water and sediment geochemistry of littoral lake sediments (Asylum Lake, MI, USA)

    PubMed Central

    Koretsky, Carla M; Haas, Johnson R; Miller, Douglas; Ndenga, Noah T

    2006-01-01

    Background Seasonal changes in pore water and sediment redox geochemistry have been observed in many near-surface sediments. Such changes have the potential to strongly influence trace metal distribution and thus create seasonal fluctuations in metal mobility and bioavailability. Results Seasonal trends in pore water and sediment geochemistry are assessed in the upper 50 cm of littoral kettle lake sediments. Pore waters are always redox stratified, with the least compressed redox stratification observed during fall and the most compressed redox stratification observed during summer. A 2-step sequential sediment extraction yields much more Fe in the first step, targeted at amorphous Fe(III) (hydr)oxides (AEF), then in the second step, which targets Fe(II) monosulfides. Fe extracted in the second step is relatively invariant with depth or season. In contrast, AEF decreases with sediment depth, and is seasonally variable, in agreement with changes in redox stratification inferred from pore water profiles. A 5-step Tessier extraction scheme was used to assess metal association with operationally-defined exchangeable, carbonate, iron and manganese oxide (FMO), organic/sulfide and microwave-digestible residual fractions in cores collected during winter and spring. Distribution of metals in these two seasons is similar. Co, As, Cd, and U concentrations approach detection limits. Fe, Cu and Pb are mostly associated with the organics/sulfides fraction. Cr and Zn are mostly associated with FMO. Mn is primarily associated with carbonates, and Co is nearly equally distributed between the FMO and organics/sulfide fractions. Conclusion This study clearly demonstrates that near-surface lake sediment pore water redox stratification and associated solid phase geochemistry vary significantly with season. This has important ramifications for seasonal changes in the bioavailability and mobility of trace elements. Without rate measurements, it is not possible to quantify the contribution of various processes to natural organic matter degradation. However, the pore water and solid phase data suggest that iron reduction and sulfate reduction are the dominant pathways in the upper 50 cm of these sediments. PMID:17181862

  17. An evaluation of rural communities’ water use patterns and preparedness to manage domestic water sources in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machingambi, Memory; Manzungu, Emmanuel

    This paper makes an evaluation of rural communities’ preparedness to manage domestic water sources in Zimbabwe, as a way of assessing rural people’s willingness to contribute in cash and kind to safe and clean domestic water. A questionnaire was administered to respondents in two areas that have different rainfall regimes, as water availability was hypothesised to affect its management. This was complemented by interviews with personnel from government and semi-government institutions involved in provision of domestic water in rural areas. Information gathered included respondents’ awareness of the water resource ownership and supply structure at the community and national level, roles played by various institutions in domestic water provision, water sources ownership, number and distribution of water points, water use patterns, water based socio-economic activities and respondents’ willingness to contribute towards establishment, operation and maintenance of water points. Respondents attributed water ownership to God, the government, the community, ancestors, chiefs, ZINWA, RDCS and no one. Boreholes, shallow and deep wells, rivers, dams, canals and taps were mainly used for primary water uses like drinking, cooking, bathing, livestock watering, gardening and laundry. Brick making, gardening and irrigating plots were classified as commercial water uses because they were used to generate income. Views on water ownership affected perceptions towards establishment, maintenance and management of water points. There was a higher preference for community than individual participation except for canals and taps. The responsibility for water point establishment and repairs were regarded as the responsibility of the government, community and donors. Respondents without piped water had higher WTP amounts for the repair and desiltation of water points than those with piped water. This showed a willingness to ensure that the working order of water points was assured. Frequent maintenance and timely repairs of community-managed schemes showed respondents’ willingness and preparedness to contribute towards maintenance of their water points. It can be concluded that people are willing to participate in the management of domestic water sources. However, limited capacity to finance establishment of water points was a problem.

  18. Contaminated marine sediments: Water column and interstitial toxic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, R.M.; Schweitzer, K.A.; McKinney, R.A.; Phelps, D.K.

    1993-01-01

    The toxicity that contaminated sediments may introduce into the water column has not been measured extensively. In order to quantify this potential toxicity, the seawater overlying two uncontaminated and three contaminated marine sediments was evaluated in the laboratory with the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata fertilization test. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and copper, as representative contaminants, were also measured. To characterize sources of toxicity, samples were chemically manipulated using reversed-phase chromatography, cation exchange, and chelation. Water column toxicity and contaminant concentrations were higher in the suspended exposures than in bedded exposures. Interstitial water toxicity and contaminant concentrations were generally greater than either bedded or suspended exposures. Chemical manipulation indicated that the observed toxicity in water column exposures was probably caused by metallic and/or nonionic organic contaminants. Conversely, manipulation of interstitial waters did not result in significantly reduced toxicity, suggesting that other toxicants such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide may be active.

  19. Bacterial Mercury Methylation At The Sediment-Water Interface Of Mercury Contaminated Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench scale experiments were conducted to improve our understanding of bacterial mediation of mercury transformation (methylation), specifically those factors which govern the production of methyl mercury (MeHg) at the sediment-water interface. The greatest cause for concern re...

  20. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at North Dallas High School. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    This Document is the Final Technical Report of the Solar Energy System located at the North Dallas High School, Dallas, Texas. The system is designed as a retrofit in a three story with basement, concrete frame high school building. The building was air conditioned with an electric drive 300-ton chilled water central system in 1973. The building contains 126,000 square feet and the solar energy system will preheat 100 percent of domestic hot water and supply 47.5 percent of annual building heating requirements. During the building cooling seasons, the solar energy system will supply 100 percent of domestic hot water. The solar energy system consists of 4800 square feet (320 panels) Lennox/Honeywell flat plate liquid collector subsystem, and a 10,000 gallon steel tank storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 686.6 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/year (specified) building heating and domestic hot water heating. The start up date is December 4, 1979. Extracts from the site files, specification references for solar modification to existing building heating and domestic hot water systems, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are presented.

  1. Evaluation of petroleum-degrading potential of bacteria from water and sediment. [Pseudomonas; Acinetobacter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Walker; R. R. Colwell; L. Petrakis

    1975-01-01

    Bacteria from water and sediment of an oil-polluted harbor were examined for ability to degrade petroleum. Water samples contained a greater variety of bacterial species capable of degrading petroleum than sediment. Cultures from both water and sediment contained Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter spp. Bacteria present in the water samples produced significantly greater degradation of 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-ring cycloalkanes and

  2. Investigation of the spreading and dilution of domestic waste water inputs into a tidal bay using the finite-volume model FVCOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettmann, Karsten; Wolff, Jörg-Olaf; Liebezeit, Gerd; Meier, Georg

    2010-05-01

    The 'Jade Bay' is a tidal bay located in the western part of the German Wadden Sea, southern North-Sea coast. During particularly heavy rain falls, rain water mixed with domestic waste water is discharged into the bay due to the limited capacities of the waste water treatment plant of the city of Wilhelmshaven. As the discharge point is located only a few hundred meters from a public bathing beach it is important to know spreading and dilution of the waste waters by tidal and wind-driven mixing. To model the behaviour of the waste water plumes, the unstructured mesh finite-volume model FVCOM (Chen and al., 2003) is used, which allows to cover the large area of the Jade and the nearby North Sea with a relatively high resolution near the point of discharge and a coarser resolution at the outer edges of the study side. We adapted the included sediment module of FVCOM to handle the sedimentation, decay and evolution in the bottom sediments of the discharged waste water particles, especially with respect to bacteria. Furthermore, alternative discharge points located in the interior of the Jade bay were tested, which might be more suited for a faster dilution and a smaller residence time of the waste water particles in the tidal bay.

  3. Domestic air-conditioner and integrated water heater for subtropical climate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Ji; Tin-tai Chow; Gang Pei; Jun Dong; Wei He

    2003-01-01

    The technology of using a heat pump for space conditioning and domestic hot water heating in residences has been developed for half a century. The earlier air-to-water heat pumps and water-heating heat pumps suffered from drawbacks like high costs, unreliable operation, and inflexible applications. They were not well positioned in the market to attract customers. This paper introduces a novel

  4. Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 1: Final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive study of advanced water recovery and solid waste processing techniques employed in both aerospace and domestic or commercial applications is reported. A systems approach was used to synthesize a prototype system design of an advanced water treatment/waste processing system. Household water use characteristics were studied and modified through the use of low water use devices and a limited amount of water reuse. This modified household system was then used as a baseline system for development of several water treatment waste processing systems employing advanced techniques. A hybrid of these systems was next developed and a preliminary design was generated to define system and hardware functions.

  5. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1980-11-01

    The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  6. 19. EMPTY SEDIMENTATION TANKS. TOP LAYER OF WATER FLOWS OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. EMPTY SEDIMENTATION TANKS. TOP LAYER OF WATER FLOWS OVER TRIANGULATED CHANNELS AND OUT THE RAISED DUCTS TO FILTRATION PLANT. MOVEABLE BOARDS ON BOTTOM ASSIST IN REMOVING SLUDGE. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST. FILTER CONTROL BUILDING AT REAR. - F. E. Weymouth Filtration Plant, 700 North Moreno Avenue, La Verne, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. Bank Erosion, Mass Wasting, Water Clarity, Bathymetry and a Sediment

    E-print Network

    Bank Erosion, Mass Wasting, Water Clarity, Bathymetry and a Sediment Budget Along the Dam this report. Suggested citation: Schenk, E.R., Hupp, C.R., Richter, J.M., and Kroes, D.E. 2010, Bank erosion...........................................................................................................................................................3 Bank Erosion

  8. Sediment testing intermittent renewal system for the automated renewal of overlying water in toxicity tests with contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Benoit, D.A.; Phipps, G.L.; Ankley, G.T.

    1993-01-01

    A sediment testing intermittent renewal (STIR) system (stationary or portable) for invertebrate toxicity testing with contaminated sediments has been successfully developed and thoroughly tested at ERL-Duluth. Both the stationary and portable systems enable the maintenance of acceptable water quality (e.g. DO) through the capability of automatically renewing overlying water in sediment tests at rates ranging from 1 to 21 volume renewals/day. The STIR system not only significantly reduces the labor associated with renewal of overlying water but also affords a gentle exchange of water that results in virtually no sediment resuspension. Both systems can also be installed in a compact vented enclosure to permit safe testing of hazardous contaminated sediments. To date the STIR system has been used extensively for conducting 10-day bulk sediment tests with Chironomus tentans, Hyalella azteca and Lumbriculus variegatus.

  9. Equation of state of supercooled water from the sedimentation profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Masako; Stanley, H. Eugene; Sciortino, Francesco

    2003-01-01

    To study the coexistence of two liquid states of water within one simulation box, we implement an equilibrium sedimentation method—which involves applying a gravitational field to the system and measuring or calculating the resulting density profile in equilibrium. We simulate a system of particles interacting via the Stillinger-2 (ST2) potential, a model for water. We detect the coexistence of two liquid phases at low temperature.

  10. Extraction and concentration of phenolic compounds from water and sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, M.C.; Weiner, Eugene R.

    1980-01-01

    Continuous liquid-liquid extractors are used to concentrate phenols at the ??g l-1 level from water into dichloromethane; this is followed by Kuderna-Danish evaporative concentration and gas chromatography. The procedure requires 5 h for 18 l of sample water. Overall concentration factors around 1000 are obtained. Overall concentration efficiencies vary from 23.1 to 87.1%. Concentration efficiencies determined by a batch method suitable for sediments range from 18.9 to 73.8%. ?? 1980.

  11. IMPORTANCE OF INTERSTITIAL, OVERLYING WATER AND WHOLE SEDIMENT EXPOSURES TO BIOACCUMUALTION BY MARINE BIVALVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the performance of contaminated sediment studies using nonpolar pollutants, like polyclorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with marine organisms, the routes of exposure can include whole sediment, overlying waters and interstitial waters (assuming no feeding). These routes can be f...

  12. Preliminary design package for Sunspot Domestic Hot Water Heating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The design review includes a drawing list, auto-control logic, measurement definitions, and other document pertaining to the solar heated prototype hot water systems and two heat exchangers. The hot water systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control transport, auxiliary energy, and site data acquisition.

  13. Solar Heating And Cooling Of Buildings (SHACOB): Requirements definition and impact analysis-2. Volume 2: Domestic hot water systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. K. Cretcher

    1980-01-01

    The various types of solar domestic hot water systems are discussed including their advantages and disadvantages. The problems that occur in hydronic solar heating systems are reviewed with emphasis on domestic hot water applicatons. System problems in retrofitting of residential buildings are also discussed including structural and space constraints for various components and subsystems. System design parameters include various collector

  14. Evaluation of petroleum-degrading potential of bacteria from water and sediment.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, J D; Colwell, R R; Petrakis, L

    1975-01-01

    Bacteria from water and sediment of an oil-polluted harbor were examined for ability to degrade petroleum. Water samples contained a greater variety of bacterial species capable of degrading petroleum than sediment. Cultures from both water and sediment contained Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter spp. Bacteria present in the water samples produced significantly greater degradation of 2-,3-,4-, and 5-ring cycloalkanes and mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, and pentaaromatics compared with bacteria in sediment samples. PMID:1211932

  15. Direct gain passive solar, domestic hot water and wind generation system. Final technical report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1982-01-01

    The passive solar residence was occupied in late October, 1980. During the past year the dwelling was monitored and performed according to design expectations. There have been several hundred people visit the project and there have been several newspaper stories and television spots pertaining to the solar house, the wind energy conversion system, and the solar domestic hot water heater.

  16. Supporting gardeners to plan domestic watering: a case study of designing an 'everyday simulation'

    E-print Network

    Pearce, Jon

    1 Supporting gardeners to plan domestic watering: a case study of designing an 'everyday simulation is identified here as an instance of 'everyday simulation'; implying the use of simulation techniques for non-specialist users. Design strategies for everyday simulations are discussed including: the characteristic

  17. DESIGN AND VALIDATION OF A SOLAR DOMESTIC HOT WATER HEATING SIMULATOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas A. Cemo; Kirk G. Bolton; Kenneth W. Van Treuren; Ian A. Gravagne

    Domestic water heating consumes approximately 20% of average residential energy use. Coupled with rising energy costs, this provides a strong motivation for the implementation of residential solar thermal systems. The purpose of this project is to implement a simulator for a small solar thermal collector array that can be used to research solar thermal system efficiencies. A modified on- demand

  18. Feasibility analysis of an indirect heat pump assisted solar domestic hot water system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Sterling; M. R. Collins

    2012-01-01

    It is well understood that a typical solar domestic hot water system can greatly reduce a building’s reliance on electrical consumption. The system may be further improved by including a heat pump as part of the design. In theory, a heat pump would result in colder fluid temperatures entering the collector thereby resulting in higher collector efficiencies and longer operation

  19. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at North Dallas High School

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system located at the North Dallas High School, Dallas, Texas is discussed. The system is designed as a retrofit in a three story with basement, concrete frame high school building. Extracts from the site files, specification references for solar modification to existing building heating and domestic hot water systems, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  20. Sediments, porewaters and diagenesis in an urban water body, Salford, UK: impacts of remediation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin G. Taylor; Nathan A. Boyd; Stephen Boult

    2003-01-01

    Contaminated sediments deposited within urban water bodies commonly exert a significant negative effect on overlying water quality. However, our understanding of the processes operating within such anthropogenic sediments is currently poor. This paper describes the nature of the sediment and early diagenetic reactions in a highly polluted major urban water body (the Salford Quays of the Manchester Ship Canal) that

  1. Advanced biological unit processes for domestic water recycling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. jefferson; A. l. Laine; T. Stephenson; S. j. Judd

    Abstract The potential of advanced,biological unit operations for the recycling of grey and black waters has been evaluated. The membrane,bioreactor (MBR) demonstrated,the greatest efficacy towards water recycling in terms of all the quality determinants. Both the biologically aerated filter (BAF) and the MBR were able to effectively treat the organic and physical pollutants in all the types of wastewater,tested. The

  2. Applying a Domestic Water-cooled Air-conditioner in Subtropical Cities

    E-print Network

    Lee, W.; Chen, H.

    2006-01-01

    ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency, Vol. IV-9-4 Applying a Domestic Water-cooled Air-conditioner in Subtropical Cities WL Lee Hua Chen Assistant Professor Research Associate The Hong Kong Polytechnic... University Hong Kong bewll@polyu.edu.hk Abstract: Water-cooled air-conditioning systems (WACS) are in general more energy efficient than air-cooled air- conditioning systems (AACS), especially in subtropical climates where the outdoor air is hot...

  3. Analysis of Leakage Failure in a Domestic Hydraulic Installation Assisted by Pitting Corrosion of Water Tube

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Pantazopoulos

    2009-01-01

    Deoxidized high phosphorus copper (C12200, DHP-Cu) is the principal construction material in hydraulic and heating ventilation\\u000a and air-conditioning installations due to its excellent thermal\\/electrical conductivity, formability, corrosion resistance\\u000a and antimicrobial properties. However, design and installation deficiencies or aggressive environmental conditions, such as\\u000a improper water chemistry, may lead to unexpected failures. A corroded copper water tube caused leakage in a domestic

  4. Tomographic imaging of residual hydrocarbon in water saturated unconsolidated sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xun

    2002-08-01

    Determining the amount and distribution of residual hydrocarbon in granular media is important for monitoring secondary and tertiary recovery processes during hydrocarbon production. The distribution of residual hydrocarbon is affected by the structure of the granular media (layering, grain, pore size, etc.), and the method used to produce oil (single well, multi-well, etc.). Seismic technique are often used to monitor the recovery process, thus, it is required that the effect of structure and hydrocarbon distribution be understood. The objectives of this thesis work is to determine if acoustic methods can (1) delineate sediment structure caused by variation in grain size and (2) delineate the amount and spatial distribution of residual hydrocarbon. Naturally occurring sediments are often complicated in composition and structure that results in a range of seismic attenuation mechanisms. For this study, synthetic sediments with idealized 3-D sediment structures were created from glass beads (with known composition and geometry) saturated with two fluid phase: water and paraffin wax. A series of control experiments were performed using different saturation techniques to (1) explore the immiscible fluid displacement processes and (2) to study the effect of amount and the spatial distribution of the immiscible fluid residue on the acoustic response. An acoustic tomographic approach was used to delineate the 3-D sediment structure and to study the effect of sediment structure on the amount and the spatial distribution of the immiscible fluid. From the control experiments, it was determined that the saturation method affected the residual wax distribution in the pores. The residual wax distribution can be categorized into four types, i.e. bridging, thin fingering, cements at grain contacts, and patchy saturation. The tomographic experiments determined that sediment structure caused by a variation in grain size could barely be determined seismically. However, the 3-D sediment structure was clearly determined when residual paraffin resided in the sediment. Even residual saturation of less than 1% altered the seismic signal of the sediments. Seismic-wave attenuation and velocity is sensitive to alteration of the grain contact stiffness even for only a few percent residual hydrocarbon saturation and to spatial features that are ˜1/100 of a wavelength. Thus the affect of micro-scale phenomena on macro-scale measurements of seismic wave attenuation and velocity cannot be ignored.

  5. Solar domestic hot water system installed at Texas City, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This is the final technical report of the solar energy system located at LaQuinta Motor Inn, Texas City, Texas. The system was designed to supply 63 percent of the total hot water load for a new 98 unit motor inn. The solar energy system consists of a 2100 square feet Raypack liquid flat plate collector subsystem and a 2500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 3.67 x 10 to the 8th power Btu/year. Abstracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation, and maintenance instructions are included.

  6. Seasonal dynamics of the North Sea sediments using a three-dimensional coupled sediment-water model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luff, Roger; Moll, Andreas

    2004-06-01

    A high-resolution early diagenetic model for the North Sea sediments has been coupled with a pelagic ecosystem model to quantify the three-dimensional processes in the coupled sediment-water system from the sea surface to a sediment depth of 11 cm focussing on the processes in the sediments of the North Sea. The pelagic ecosystem model ECOHAM1 simulates the 1986 phytoplankton dynamics considering circulation, temperature, nutrient availability in the water column and the resulting flux of particulate organic carbon (POC) onto the sediment. These seasonal and regional variable water column processes are considered as forcing for the early diagenetic model C. CANDI, which calculates the processes in the upper sediment column, represented by 14 dissolved and 6 solid species, resolved with 84 vertical levels. With the coupled model the daily benthic fluxes of POC, oxygen, nitrate, phosphate, and sulphate at the sediment-water interface for each of the 1158 horizontal cells covering the whole North Sea area has been determined. The simulations show the seasonal and regional variations in the pelagic and the sediment system. The coupled model reproduces very well measured oxygen and nitrate penetration depths at selected validation stations. A vertical section from Fair Isle into the German Bight in summer demonstrates high spatial phosphate variability in the water column and in the sediment. Observations on the sediment-water interface fluxes and of concentration distributions in the sediment are very sparse. The results of this high-resolution model allows the calculation of budgets at the sediment-water interface for the whole simulation area. The annual cumulated phosphate flux across the sediment-water interface exhibits strong fluxes concentrated in a narrow band off the continental coast in shallow waters over 40 mmol m -2 yr -1, whereas in the central North Sea fluxes are lower than 30 mmol m -2 yr -1. Simulated annual cycle of fluxes at the sediment-water interface at a position located in the central North Sea showed a phosphate flux shifted by 1 month compared to the organic matter flux, whereas the sulphate flux into the sediment showed an overall time lag of about 5 months.

  7. Application of ecological modelling to investigate the impact of domestic waste water to one natural river system in tropical area (the nhue river, outskirts of hanoi, vietnam)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh Anh, D.; Bonnet, M. P.; Prieur, N.

    2003-04-01

    Water quality modelling has been employed as an effective tool to investigate the ecological situation of surface water sources. Within a researching collaboration of Vietnamese and French scientists, one portion, 40 km, of the Nhue river, outskirts of Hanoi city, northern Vietnam, has been investigated since the river has been highly impacted from anthropogenic activities and one 1-D ecological river model was formed based on the investigation. In this paper, biochemical process equations integrated with hydraulic conditions and human alterations are presented as the basis for ecological variation of this river system. Investigation showed that at the origin the river water remains untouched (nutrients are low in natural tropical water) while downstream the river is full of domestic pollutants (organic materials and nutrients). From the hydraulic, biological, chemical data and fieldwork experiments, the sensitivity analysis and parameter estimation have been carried out to verify the biochemical processes and optimise this model. Most calculations (simulation, sensitivity functions and parameter estimation) were performed with AQUASIM, a computer program designed for simulation and data analysis of 1-D river and other aquatic systems. The other supporting calculations for system analysis were implemented with IDENT based on output of a sensitivity analysis carried out with AQUASIM. The simulation results accomplished with available data indicate that the sediment exchanges and biodegradation processes emerge as the most important features that influence the water quality of the river where water is usually overloaded by domestic wastewater and where hydraulic characters are less pronounced. The model construction and simulation results have also pointed out that the river water quality has been spoiled dramatically after the main open-air sewer of the Hanoi city, the To Lich river, excesses to the Nhue. Beside, a metal speciation module was proposed to integrate with existing biochemical model in order to simulate the metal fractions in water column and metal exchange between river water and sediment.

  8. Solar heat pump systems for domestic hot water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lu Aye; W. W. S Charters; C Chaichana

    2002-01-01

    Vapour compression heat pumps can upgrade ambient heat sources to match the desired heating load temperature. They can offer considerable increase in operational energy efficiency compared to current water heating systems. Solar heat pumps collect energy not only from solar radiation but also from the ambient air. They can operate even at night or in totally overcast conditions. Since the

  9. Mineralogical Evidence of Galvanic Corrosion in Domestic, Drinking Water Pipes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water distribution system (DWDS) piping contains numerous examples of galvanically-coupled metals (e.g., soldered copper pipe joints, copper-lead pipes joined during partial replacements of lead service lines). The possible role of galvanic corrosion in the release of l...

  10. Numerical Simulation of Sediment-Associated Water Quality Processes for a Mississippi Delta Lake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three major sediment-associated processes were presented to describe the effects of sediment on lake water quality processes: the effect of suspended sediment on the light intensity for the growth of phytoplankton (PHYTO), the adsorption–desorption of nutrients by sediment, and the release of nutrie...

  11. Report on water quality, sediment and water chemistry data for water and sediment samples collected from source areas to Melton Hill and Watts Bar reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Tomaszewski, T.M.; Bruggink, D.J.; Nunn, D.L.

    1995-08-18

    Contamination of surface water and sediments in the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir (CR/WBR) system as a result of past and present activities by the US Department of Energy (DOE) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and also activities by non-ORR facilities are being studied by the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP). Previous studies have documented the presence of heavy metals, organics, and radionuclides in the sediments of reservoirs in the vicinity. In support of the CR-ERP, during the summer of 1991, TVA collected and evaluated water and sediment samples from swimming areas and municipal water intakes on Watts Bar Reservoir, Melton Hill Reservoir and Norris Reservoir, which was considered a source of less-contaminated reference or background data. Despite the numerous studies, until the current work documented by this report, relatively few sediment or water samples had been collected by the CR-ERP in the immediate vicinity of contaminant point sources. This work focused on water and sediment samples taken from points immediately downstream from suspected effluent point sources both on and off the ORR. In August and September, 1994, TVA sampled surface water and sediment at twelve locations in melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs.

  12. Remote Sensing of Suspended Sediments and Shallow Coastal Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Rong-Rong; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Gao, Bo-Cai; Davis, Curtiss O.

    2002-01-01

    Ocean color sensors were designed mainly for remote sensing of chlorophyll concentrations over the clear open oceanic areas (case 1 water) using channels between 0.4 and 0.86 micrometers. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) launched on the NASA Terra and Aqua Spacecrafts is equipped with narrow channels located within a wider wavelength range between 0.4 and 2.5 micrometers for a variety of remote sensing applications. The wide spectral range can provide improved capabilities for remote sensing of the more complex and turbid coastal waters (case 2 water) and for improved atmospheric corrections for Ocean scenes. In this article, we describe an empirical algorithm that uses this wide spectral range to identifying areas with suspended sediments in turbid waters and shallow waters with bottom reflections. The algorithm takes advantage of the strong water absorption at wavelengths longer than 1 micrometer that does not allow illumination of sediments in the water or a shallow ocean floor. MODIS data acquired over the east coast of China, west coast of Africa, Arabian Sea, Mississippi Delta, and west coast of Florida are used in this study.

  13. A longitudinal study of domestic water conservation behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Moore; Margot Murphy; Ray Watson

    1994-01-01

    A 1988 study of a school-linked sample in a metropolitan and a regional urban area established baseline data for knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and behavior with regard to water management and conservation (Murphy, Watson, & Moore, 1991). This paper reports on a 1991 follow-up, utilising both longitudinal and cross-sectional samples of students, teachers and parents, which aimed at identifying changes within

  14. Evidence of dispersion in a water-saturated granular sediment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Wilbur; W. M. Carey; R. A. Roy

    2005-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to measure the sound speed in a water-saturated granular sediment within a range of frequencies where dispersion is predicted by a number of existing models. Between 2-4 kHz, the sound speed was inferred from measurements of the resonance frequencies of a right-circular-cylindrical container filled with the material. From 20-300 kHz, the sound speed was obtained directly

  15. Environmental assessment for the domestic water supply upgrades and consolidation on the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The domestic water systems on the Savannah River Site (SRS) are currently in need of upgrading to ensure compliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act and South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Drinking Water Regulations. The SRS has 28 separate goundwater-based drinking water systems in use across the site. These aging systems were designed and constructed in the 1950s and are now facing increasing difficulties in meeting cur-rent regulations. Audits of the systems conducted by SCDHEC in 1986, 1988, 1991, and 1993 identified shortfalls in meeting the requirements for secondary maximum containment levels (MCLS) and SCDHEC design standards. Secondary MCLs are those items, such as odor or appearance, that do not pose a direct health impact. SRS has committed to SCDHEC to correct the drinking water discrepancies and construct two new consolidated inter-area drinking water systems. Upgrading the SRS drinking water systems would be necessary to support site activities regardless of the makeup or the mission at SRS. As such, the proposed upgrade and consolidation of SRS domestic water systems is treated as part of the ``No Action`` alternative for the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Reconfiguration of the Nuclear Weapons Complex .

  16. Case study of the effectiveness of passive grease trap for management on domestic kitchen waste water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nidzamuddin, M. Y.; Juffrizal, K.; Mustapha, F.; Zulfattah, Z. M.; Tan, C. F.; Taha, M. M.; Hidayah, I.; Hilwa, M. Z.

    2015-05-01

    Household waste, generally known as trash or garbage is mostly includes food wastes, product packaging, and other miscellaneous inorganic wastes that are coming from domestic household. Grease waste such as oil and fats can contaminate water and also clot on pipes provoking blockages. Thus, waste water from kitchen sink need a proper way of filtration. Grease trap developed in this paper is viable in trapping the grease residue. The experiments have been conducted in controlled environment and the objectives are to investigate the effectiveness of grease trap by proving the existence of retention time and the expected ratio of collected water and oil during experiment process using a prototype model.

  17. Geochemical dynamics of the Atlantis II Deep (Red Sea): II. Composition of metalliferous sediment pore waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Anschutz; Gérard Blanc; Christophe Monnin; Jacques Boulègue

    2000-01-01

    The Atlantis II Deep is an axial depression of the Red Sea filled with highly saline brines and covered by layered metalliferous sediment. We report new data on the vertical distribution of major salts and trace metals dissolved in the pore waters of the metalliferous sediments. We have studied the chemical composition of interstitial waters of two sediment cores of

  18. Integrating the simulation of domestic water demand behaviour to an urban water model using agent based modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutiva, Ifigeneia; Makropoulos, Christos

    2015-04-01

    The urban water system's sustainable evolution requires tools that can analyse and simulate the complete cycle including both physical and cultural environments. One of the main challenges, in this regard, is the design and development of tools that are able to simulate the society's water demand behaviour and the way policy measures affect it. The effects of these policy measures are a function of personal opinions that subsequently lead to the formation of people's attitudes. These attitudes will eventually form behaviours. This work presents the design of an ABM tool for addressing the social dimension of the urban water system. The created tool, called Urban Water Agents' Behaviour (UWAB) model, was implemented, using the NetLogo agent programming language. The main aim of the UWAB model is to capture the effects of policies and environmental pressures to water conservation behaviour of urban households. The model consists of agents representing urban households that are linked to each other creating a social network that influences the water conservation behaviour of its members. Household agents are influenced as well by policies and environmental pressures, such as drought. The UWAB model simulates behaviour resulting in the evolution of water conservation within an urban population. The final outcome of the model is the evolution of the distribution of different conservation levels (no, low, high) to the selected urban population. In addition, UWAB is implemented in combination with an existing urban water management simulation tool, the Urban Water Optioneering Tool (UWOT) in order to create a modelling platform aiming to facilitate an adaptive approach of water resources management. For the purposes of this proposed modelling platform, UWOT is used in a twofold manner: (1) to simulate domestic water demand evolution and (2) to simulate the response of the water system to the domestic water demand evolution. The main advantage of the UWAB - UWOT model integration is that it allows the investigation of the effects of different water demand management strategies to an urban population's water demand behaviour and ultimately the effects of these policies to the volume of domestic water demand and the water resources system. The proposed modelling platform is optimised to simulate the effects of water policies during the Athens drought period of 1988-1994. The calibrated modelling platform is then applied to evaluate scenarios of water supply, water demand and water demand management strategies.

  19. Hydrogeologic, water-quality, streamflow, bottom-sediment analyses, and biological data near the Wayne County landfill, Wayne County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinones, F.; Bradfield, Arthur D.; Wescott, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes the data collected as part of a hydrogeologic investigation to determine the effects of the Wayne County landfill on local water quality. The investigation was conducted from 1988 through 1989 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment, Division of Superfund. The landfill was closed in November 1984 after allegations that contaminants from the landfill were affecting the quality of water from domestic wells in the Banjo Branch-Hardin Hollow valley. Test well construction data; water-quality data for selected wells, seeps, and surface-water sites: streamflow data from Banjo Branch; analyses of bottom-sediment samples: and biological data for the study area are documented in this report.

  20. PII S0016-7037(99)00084-8 Dissolved sulfide distributions in the water column and sediment pore waters

    E-print Network

    van Geen, Alexander

    PII S0016-7037(99)00084-8 Dissolved sulfide distributions in the water column and sediment pore) Abstract--Dissolved sulfide concentrations in the water column and in sediment pore waters were measured in February 1995, November­December 1995, and April 1997. In the water column, sulfide concentrations measured

  1. Hydrogeology of the Unconsolidated Sediments, Water Quality, and Ground-Water/Surface-Water Exchanges in the Methow River Basin, Okanogan County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, Christopher P.; Drost, Brian W.; Wagner, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Okanogan County, investigated the hydrogeology of the unconsolidated sedimentary deposits in the Methow River Basin, the quality of surface and ground waters, and the exchanges between ground water and surface water. Alluvium (Qa) and glaciofluvial sediments (Qga) deposited during the Quaternary period constitute the primary aquifer in the Methow River Basin, which is used as a source of water for domestic and public-water supplies and for maintaining streamflow during seasonal dry periods. The sediments form a nearly continuous unit along the valley bottom from above the Lost River to the confluence of the Methow and Columbia Rivers, covering more than 45 square miles of the basin?s surface. There are no distinct units within the deposit that can be identified across or along the valley except for fragments of a possible lake bed near the town of Twisp. Ground-water levels in the unconsolidated aquifer are highest during the summer and lowest in the winter and early spring. Ground water and surface water, sampled during June and September 2001, generally were of high quality. Only two samples from domestic and municipal wells indicated the possibility of ground-water contamination from nitrate and arsenic concentrations. In both cases, potential contamination was isolated to an individual well. No trends in water quality were apparent when comparing the results of this investigation with previous studies. The flow of water between rivers and aquifers is important for regulating the availability of water resources for in-stream and out-of-stream uses in the Methow River Basin. Ground-water discharge from the unconsolidated aquifer to the Methow River from Lost River to Pateros ranged from an estimated 153,000 acre-ft in water year 2001 to 157,000 acre-ft in water year 2002. In contrast, ground-water discharge to the lower Twisp River from Newby Creek to near Twisp ranged from 4,700 acre-ft in water year 2001 to 9,200 acre-ft in water year 2002. The Methow and Twisp Rivers, among others in the basin, are major sources of recharge for the unconsolidated aquifer, particularly during high-flow periods in May and June. Aquifer recharge by both rivers increased with streamflow in water year 2002 compared to water year 2001 as indicated by daily losses of streamflow. Aquifer recharge by the Methow River from Lost River to Pateros was estimated to be 82,000 acre-ft in water year 2001 and 137,000 acre-ft in water year 2002. Aquifer recharge by the Twisp River from Newby Creek to near Twisp was estimated to be 2,000 acre-ft in water year 2001 and 6,400 acre-ft in water year 2002. Seepage from unlined irrigation canals also recharges the unconsolidated aquifer during the late spring and summer and may contribute as much 38,000 acre-ft annually to aquifer recharge in the basin. Some portion of this ground water returns to rivers as indicated by a seasonal increase in ground-water discharge in the Methow River from Winthrop to Twisp and in the lower Twisp River during late summer and early autumn. Although the increase is likely due primarily to irrigation canal seepage, however, fluvial recharge during the summer also may have contributed to the increase. The increased rate of ground-water discharge decays by January in both reaches.

  2. Dynamics of particle clouds in ambient currents with application to open-water sediment disposal

    E-print Network

    Gensheimer, Robert James, III

    2010-01-01

    Open-water sediment disposal is used in many applications around the world, including land reclamation, dredging, and contaminated sediment isolation. Timely examples include the land reclamation campaign currently underway ...

  3. Survey of the Mutagenicity of Surface Water, Sediments, and Drinking Water from the Penobscot Indian Nation.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Survey of the Mutagenicity of Surface Water, Sediments, andDrinking Water from the Penobscot Indian NationSarah H. Warren, Larry D. Claxton,1, Thomas J. Hughes,*, Adam Swank,Janet Diliberto, Valerie Marshall, Daniel H. Kusnierz, Robert Hillger, David M. DeMariniNational Health a...

  4. Assessing the fate of dredged sediments placed in open-water sites, Northern Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halka, Jeffrey; Panageotou, William; Sanford, Lawrence; Yu-Chou, Shenn

    1994-01-01

    An integrated series of field studies and experiments have been carried out on dredged sediments placed in open water sites in Northern Chesapeake Bay. The studies include: (1) examination of the potential for fluidized sediment flow, (2) quantifying the volumetric changes that the sediments undergo during dredging process and subsequent to deposition, (3) estimating parameters for cohesive sediment erosion models from field data on currents and suspended sediment concentrations, and (4) incorporating the erosion model parameters and sediment transport equation into a 3-D hydrodynamic model for the upper Chesapeake Bay to predict transport directions and setting sites of eroded sediments under a variety of seasonal weather and river flow conditions.

  5. Global Implications for Domestic and Industrial Water Reuse Workshop Starr Pass Resort, Tucson, Arizona, January 1314, 2011

    E-print Network

    Fay, Noah

    State University Water Reuse Today and Tomorrow 12:00pm Mike McCullough, Northern California Golf 1:30pm Jun Yan, University of Arizona Water Usage Reduction and Water Reuse in SemiconductorGlobal Implications for Domestic and Industrial Water Reuse Workshop Starr Pass Resort, Tucson

  6. Sludge accumulation and conversion to methane in a septic tank treating domestic wastewater or black water.

    PubMed

    Elmitwalli, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    Although the septic tank is the most applied on-site system for wastewater pre-treatment, limited research has been performed to determine sludge accumulation and biogas production in the tank. Therefore a dynamic mathematical model based on the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) was developed for anaerobic digestion of the accumulated sludge in a septic tank treating domestic wastewater or black water. The results showed that influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the tank mainly control the filling time with sludge, while operational temperature governs characteristics of the accumulated sludge and conversion to methane. For obtaining stable sludge and high conversion, the tank needs to be operated for a period more than a year without sludge wasting. Maximum conversion to methane in the tank is about 50 and 60% for domestic wastewater and black water, respectively. The required period for sludge wasting depends on the influent COD concentration and the HRT, while characteristics of the wasted sludge are affected by operational temperature followed by the influent COD concentration and the HRT. Sludge production from the tank ranges between 0.19 to 0.22 and 0.13 to 0.15 L/(person.d), for the domestic wastewater and black water, respectively. PMID:23985530

  7. Evaluation of toxicity: Whole-sediment versus overlying-water exposures with amphipod Hyalella azteca

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, C.G.; Ivey, C.D.; Brunson, E.L.; Hardesty, D.K.; Kemble, N.E.

    2000-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the toxicity of whole-sediment versus overlying-water exposures to the amphipod Hyalella azteca using field-collected sediments. Severe toxic effects (5-63% survival) were observed with amphipods exposed for 10 d in direct contact with sediment. In contrast, amphipods exposed only to overlying water in these sediment exposures did not exhibit any toxic effects.

  8. One Machine for Heating Cooling & Domestic Hot Water: Multi-Function Heat Pumps to Enable Zero Net Energy Homes

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    , and introduce opportunities for waste heat recovery. The domestic hot water heating market is beginning for a significant amount of waste heat recovery. This paper explores a variety of heat pump system architectures

  9. Concentrations of Elements in Sediments and Selective Fractions of Sediments, and in Natural Waters in Contact with Sediments from Lake Roosevelt, Washington, September 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paulson, Anthony J.; Wagner, Richard J.; Sanzolone, Richard F.; Cox, Steven E.

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-eight composite and replicate sediment samples from 8 Lake Roosevelt sites were collected and analyzed for 10 alkali and alkaline earth elements, 2 non-metals, 20 metals, and 4 lanthanide and actinide elements. All elements were detected in all sediment samples except for silver (95 percent of the elements detected for 1,008 analyses), which was detected only in 4 samples. Sequential selective extraction procedures were performed on single composite samples from the eight sites. The percentage of detections for the 31 elements analyzed ranged from 76 percent for the first extraction fraction using a weak extractant to 93 percent for the four-acid dissolution of the sediments remaining after the third sequential selective extraction. Water samples in various degrees of contact with the sediment were analyzed for 10 alkali and alkaline earth elements, 5 non-metals, 25 metals, and 16 lanthanide and actinide elements. The filtered water samples included 10 samples from the reservoir water column at 8 sites, 32 samples of porewater, 55 samples from reservoir water overlying sediments in 8 cores from the site incubated in a field laboratory, and 24 water samples that were filtered after being tumbled with sediments from 8 sites. Overall, the concentrations of only 37 percent of the 6,776 analyses of the 121 water samples were greater than the reporting limit. Selenium, bismuth, chromium, niobium, silver, and zirconium were not detected in any water samples. The percentage of concentrations for the water samples that were above the reporting limit ranged from 14 percent for the lanthanide and actinide elements to 77 percent for the alkali and alkaline earth elements. Concentrations were greater than reporting limits in only 23 percent of the analyses of reservoir water and 29 percent of the analyses of reservoir water overlying incubation cores. In contrast, 47 and 48 percent of the concentrations of porewater and water samples tumbled with sediments, respectively, were greater than the reporting limit.

  10. A new approach to energy consumption prediction of domestic heat pump water heater based on grey system theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Guo; J. Y. Wu; R. Z. Wang

    2011-01-01

    This paper presented a new approach to energy consumption prediction from a domestic air source heat pump water heater (ASHPWH) based on grey system theory. An improved GM (1, 1) (i.e. a single-variable first-order grey model) applied in domestic hot water system was developed and its prediction accuracy was tested. Comparison of the measured and predicted values of heat from

  11. Summary report on water quality, sediment and water chemistry data for water and sediment samples collected from source areas to Melton Hill and Watts Bar reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Tomaszewski, T.M.; Bruggink, D.J.; Nunn, D.L.

    1995-08-01

    Contamination of surface water and sediments in the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir (CR/WBR) system as a result of past and present activities by the US Department of Energy (DOE) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and also activities by non-ORR facilities are being studied by the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP). Previous studies have documented the presence of heavy metals, organics, and radionuclides in the sediments of reservoirs in the vicinity. In support of the CR-ERP, during the summer of 1991, TVA collected and evaluated water and sediment samples from swimming areas and municipal water intakes on Watts Bar Reservoir, Melton Hill Reservoir (which is considered part of the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir System), and Norris Reservoir, which was considered a source of less-contaminated reference or background data. Results of this study indicated that the levels of contamination in the samples from the Watts Bar and Melton Hill Reservoir sites did not pose a threat to human health. Despite the numerous studies, until the current work documented by this report, relatively few sediment or water samples had been collected by the CR-ERP in the immediate vicinity of contaminant point sources. This work focused on water and sediment samples taken from points immediately downstream from suspected effluent point sources both on and off the ORR. In August and September, 1994, TVA sampled surface water and sediment at twelve locations in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. Eleven of the sampling sites were selected based on existence of pollutant discharge permits, known locations of hazardous waste sites, and knowledge of past practices. The twelfth sample site was selected as a relatively less contaminated reference site for comparison purposes.

  12. Patterns of domestic water use in rural areas of Zimbabwe, gender roles and realities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makoni, Fungai S.; Manase, Gift; Ndamba, Jerry

    This paper presents practical experiences into the pattern of domestic water use, benefits and the gender realities. The study was undertaken in two districts of Zimbabwe, Mt Darwin and Bikita covering a total of 16 villages. The study aimed to assess the patterns of domestic water use, benefits derived from its use among the gender groups. Methodology for participatory assessment (MPA) was used for data collection and was done in a participatory manner. Traditionally most people in Zimbabwe are subsistence farmers who rely on rain fed agriculture. Where primary water sources are available such as shallow wells, family wells, deep wells and boreholes households use the water for household water and sanitation, irrigate small family gardens as well as their livestock. The survey established that women and men usually rank uses of water differently. In the two districts it was evident that women are playing more roles in water use and it is apparent that women are most often the users, managers and guardians of household water and hygiene. Women also demonstrated their involvement in commercial use of water, using water for livestock watering (20%) as well as brick moulding (21%). These involvement in commercial use were influenced by survival economics as well as the excess and reliability of the supply. The different roles and incentives in water use of women and men was demonstrated in how they ranked the benefits of water and sanitation. Men ranked clean drinking water among others as a top priority while women ranked improved health and hygiene and reduced distance as top priority. Overall the benefits highlighted by the communities and especially women were meeting the practical needs such as better access to water and reducing their work load. The assessment demonstrated the active role of women in water sources management highlighting quality, reliability and restrictions to their use. Though the communities gave the impression that decision making in the sitting and construction of water points was equally among the gender groups, however it was evident that men have a greater role than women in public decision making.

  13. Hexachlorobenzene uptake by fathead minnows and macroinvertebrates in recirculating sediment/water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schuytema, G.S.; Krawczyk, D.F.; Griffis, W.L.; Nebeker, A.V.; Robideaux, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), the worm, Lumbriculus variegatus, and the amphipods Hyalella azteca and Gammarus lacustris were exposed to hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in water with and without a bed of HCB-spiked sediment. Water HCB concentrations were maintained by recirculation through HCB-packed columns. Recirculating HCB-bound particulates and possibly eroded HCB particulates were an added source of HCB in addition to the sediment bed. Significant bioaccumulation of HCB in animal tissues was observed in water-only and water-sediment exposures. The presence of the HCB-spiked sediment did not result in a significant increase in the uptake of HCB by the organisms, but there was a substantial increase in sediment HCB levels over time. Higher tissue HCB levels in aquaria without sediment suggest that the sediment was a more efficient sink for HCB than the organisms.

  14. Biogeochemical processes at the sediment–water interface, Bombah Broadwater, Myall Lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. T. Heggie; G. A. Logan; C. S. Smith; D. J. Fredericks; D. Palmer

    2008-01-01

    Myall Lakes has experienced algal blooms in recent years which threaten water quality. Biomarkers, benthic fluxes measured\\u000a with chambers, and pore water metabolites were used to identify the nature and reactivity of organic matter (OM) in the sediments\\u000a of Bombah Broadwater (BB), and the processes controlling sediment-nutrient release into the overlying waters. The OM in the\\u000a sediments was principally from

  15. Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options With Validated Analysis Models

    SciTech Connect

    Weitzel, E.; Hoeschele, M.

    2014-09-01

    A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. A full distribution system developed in TRNSYS has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. This study builds upon previous analysis modelling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. Of the configurations evaluated, distribution losses account for 13-29% of the total water heating energy use and water use efficiency ranges from 11-22%. The base case, an uninsulated trunk and branch system sees the most improvement in energy consumption by insulating and locating the water heater central to all fixtures. Demand recirculation systems are not projected to provide significant energy savings and in some cases increase energy consumption. Water use is most efficient with demand recirculation systems, followed by the insulated trunk and branch system with a central water heater. Compact plumbing practices and insulation have the most impact on energy consumption (2-6% for insulation and 3-4% per 10 gallons of enclosed volume reduced). The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

  16. EFFECT OF SEDIMENT ON THE FATE OF METOLACHLOR AND ATRAZINE IN SURFACE WATER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to determine the persistence of atrazine and metolachlor in surface water, and to evaluate the contribution of sediment to their dissipation from surface waters. Atrazine was more persistent than metolachlor in the sediment-free surface water systems. First-order 50% dissi...

  17. Quantitative bacterial examination of domestic water supplies in the Lesotho Highlands: water quality, sanitation, and village health.

    PubMed Central

    Kravitz, J. D.; Nyaphisi, M.; Mandel, R.; Petersen, E.

    1999-01-01

    Reported are the results of an examination of domestic water supplies for microbial contamination in the Lesotho Highlands, the site of a 20-year-old hydroelectric project, as part of a regional epidemiological survey of baseline health, nutritional and environmental parameters. The population's hygiene and health behaviour were also studied. A total of 72 village water sources were classified as unimproved (n = 23), semi-improved (n = 37), or improved (n = 12). Based on the estimation of total coliforms, which is a nonspecific bacterial indicator of water quality, all unimproved and semi-improved water sources would be considered as not potable. Escherichia coli, a more precise indicator of faecal pollution, was absent (P < 0.001) in most of the improved water sources. Among 588 queried households, only 38% had access to an "improved" water supply. Sanitation was a serious problem, e.g. fewer than 5% of villagers used latrines and 18% of under-5-year-olds had suffered a recent diarrhoeal illness. The study demonstrates that protection of water sources can improve the hygienic quality of rural water supplies, where disinfection is not feasible. Our findings support the WHO recommendation that E. coli should be the principal microbial indicator for portability of untreated water. Strategies for developing safe water and sanitation systems must include public health education in hygiene and water source protection, practical methods and standards for water quality monitoring, and a resource centre for project information to facilitate programme evaluation and planning. PMID:10593031

  18. LIGHT DEPENDENCE OF SEDIMENT-WATER NUTRIENT EXCHANGE IN A GULF OF MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The flux of dissolved nutrients between sediments and overlying water is an important component of nutrient processing in estuaries. These fluxes can be linked to sediment metabolism, which in shallow estuaries can be affected by light. Sediment cores were collected at sight stat...

  19. STAND, A DYNAMIC MODEL FOR SEDIMENT TRANSPORT AND WATER QUALITY. (R825758)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We introduce a new model–STAND (Sediment-Transport-Associated Nutrient Dynamics)–for simulating stream flow, sediment transport, and the interactions of sediment with other attributes of water quality. In contrast to other models, STAND employs a fully dynamic ba...

  20. An evaluation of water and sediment quality along the Texas Gulf Intracoastal Waterway 

    E-print Network

    Giesler, Ralph Steven

    1975-01-01

    and nitrate nutrient concentrations. Data was also obtained for the amount of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc dissolved in the water. In January, bottom samples were obtained to provide information regarding the pH, Eh, and heavy metal concentration... . . . , . . . ~ Middepth Values of Copper in Water Middepth Values of Lead in Water Middepth Values of Zinc in Water Ph in Sediments 37 38 39 40 42 43 44 45 50 51 52 22 Eh in Sediments 53 2 3 Cadminum in Sediments 54 Figure 24 Copper in Sediments 25 Lead...

  1. Resuspension and settling of helminth eggs in water: Interactions with cohesive sediments.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Mita E; Andersen, Thorbjørn J; Dalsgaard, Anders; Olsen, Annette; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2012-08-01

    Helminth parasite eggs in low quality water represent main food safety and health hazards and are therefore important indicators used to determine whether such water can be used for irrigation. Through sedimentation helminth eggs accumulate in the sediment, however resuspension of deposited helminth eggs will lead to increased concentration of suspended eggs in the water. Our study aimed to determine the erodibility (erosion rate and erosion threshold) and settling velocity of Ascaris and Trichuris eggs as well as cohesive sediment at different time points after incorporation into the sediment. Cohesive sediment collected from a freshwater stream was used to prepare a sediment bed onto which helminth eggs were allowed to settle. The erodibility of both sediment and helminth eggs was found to decrease over time indicating that the eggs were incorporated into the surface material of the bed and that this material was stabilized through time. This interaction between eggs and bulk sediment was further manifested in an increased settling velocity of suspended eggs when sediment was present in the suspension as compared to a situation with settling in clean water. The incorporation into the sediment bed and the aggregation with sediment particles decrease the mobility of both helminth egg types. Our findings document that helminth eggs should not be viewed as single entities in water systems when modelling the distribution of eggs since both erodibility and settling velocity of eggs are determined by mobility of the sediment present in the water stream. Recalculation of the erosion threshold for helminth eggs and sediment showed that even at relatively low current velocities i.e. 0.07-0.12ms(-1) newly deposited eggs will be mobile in open irrigation channels. These environmental factors affecting resuspension must be taken into account when developing models for sedimentation of helminth eggs in different water systems. PMID:22591818

  2. Underwater MASW to evaluate stiffness of water-bottom sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Park, C.B.; Miller, R.D.; Xia, J.; Ivanov, J.; Sonnichsen, G.V.; Hunter, J.A.; Good, R.L.; Burns, R.A.; Christian, H.

    2005-01-01

    The multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) is initially intended as a land survey method to investigate the near-surface materials for their elastic properties. The acquired data are first analyzed for dispersion characteristics and, from these the shear-wave velocity is estimated using an inversion technique. Land applications show the potential of the MASW method to map 2D bedrock surface, zones of low strength, Poisson's ratio, voids, as well as to generate shear-wave profiles for various othe geotechnical problems. An overview is given of several underwater applications of the MASW method to characterize stiffness distribution of water-bottom sediments. The first application details the survey under shallow-water (1-6 m) in the Fraser River (Canada). The second application is an innovative experimental marine seismic survey in the North Atlantic Ocean near oil fields in Grand Bank offshore Newfoundland.

  3. Heavy metal concentrations in water and sediments in Tasik Chini, a freshwater lake, Malaysia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Ebrahimpour; Idris Mushrifah

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper are to determine the concentration of heavy metals namely cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb)\\u000a in water and sediment; and to investigate the effect of sediment pH and sediment organic matter on concentration of cadmium,\\u000a copper and lead in sediment at oxidation fraction. For this purpose the concentration of heavy metals were measured in

  4. [Changes of bacterial community structure on reusing domestic sewage of Daoxianghujing Hotel to landscape water].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing-nan; Wang, Xiao-dan; Zhai, Zhen-hua; Ma, Wen-lin; Li, Rong-qi; Wang, Xue-lian; Li, Yan-hong

    2010-05-01

    A 16S rDNA library was used to evaluate the bacterial diversity and identify dominant groups of bacteria in different treatment pools in the domestic sewage system of the Beijing Daoxianghujing Hotel. The results revealed that there were many types of bacteria in the hotel domestic sewage, and the bacterial Shannon-Weaver diversity index was 3.12. In addition, epsilon Proteobacteria was found to be the dominant group with the ratio of 32%. In addition, both the CFB phylum, Fusobacteria, gamma Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were also reached to 9%-15%. After treated with the reclaimed water station, the bacterial Shannon-Weaver diversity index was reduced to 2. 41 and beta Proteobacteria became the dominant group and occupied 73% of the total clones. However, following artificial wetland training, the bacterial Shannon-Weaver diversity index in the sample increased to 3.38, Actinobacteria arrived to 33% and became the most dominant group; Cyanobacteria reached to 26%, and was the second dominant group. But, the control sample comprised 38% Cyanobacteria, and mainly involved in Cyanobium, Synechoccus and Microcystis, with ratios of 47.1%, 17.6% and 8.8%, respectively. Some bacteria of Microcystis aenruginosa were also detected, which probably resulted in the light bloom finally. Therefore, the bacterial diversity and community structures changed in response to treatment of the hotel domestic sewage; there was no cyanobacteria bloom explosion in the treated water. This study will aid in investigation the changes of microbial ecology in different types of water and providing the useful information for enhancing the cyanobacteria blooms control from ecological angle. PMID:20623868

  5. Solar domestic hot water system, a comparative study and storage tank investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, M. F.

    1980-03-01

    A computer program was developed to simulate five typical solar domestic hot water systems which included both thermosyphon and pumped designs that were assembled and tested. Numerical simulations of these systems were verified by comparison to experimental results. Predicted thermal performance, i.e., collector inlet and outlet temperatures, and auxiliary energy requirements were found to be in excellent agreement with experiments. The computer program was then used to predict the long term annual performance of the various systems at 14 different locations throughout California. Load size and load distribution were also varied. Economic analyses were performed on each system with the goal of identifying the most economical system at each location under a prescribed load (gallons/day) size and distribution pattern (time of day for hot water use). It was found that in almost all cases the two tank thermosyphon system was the most cost effective system for all locations, load sizes and distributions and shows promise of being the most widely used solar domestic hot water system.

  6. Impact of total organic carbon (in sediments) and dissolved organic carbon (in overlying water column) on Hg sequestration by coastal sediments from the central east coast of India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Parthasarathi; Sharma, Brijmohan; Babu, P V Raghunath; Yao, Koffi Marcellin; Jaychandran, Saranya

    2014-02-15

    Total organic carbon (TOC) (in sediment) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) (in water column) play important roles in controlling the mercury sequestration process by the sediments from the central east coast of India. This toxic metal prefers to associate with finer size particles (silt and clay) of sediments. Increasing concentrations of DOM in overlying water column may increase complexation/reduction processes of Hg(2+) within the water column and decrease the process of Hg sequestration by sediments. However, high concentrations of DOM in water column may increase Hg sequestration process by sediments. PMID:24355570

  7. [A laboratory and field study on the disposal of domestic waste water based on soil permeation].

    PubMed

    Yamaura, G

    1989-02-01

    The present study was conducted to get information necessary for the disposal of domestic waste water by soil permeation. The clarifying ability of soil was examined by conducting laboratory experiments using soil columns and making inquiries about practical disposal facilities based on soil permeation using trenches. In the column experiment, soil columns were prepared by packing polyvinyl chloride pipes with volcanic-ash loam, river sand, or an equivolume mixture of both, and secondary effluent of domestic waste water was poured into each soil column at a daily rate of 100 l/m2. In this experiment, loam and sand loam, both containing fine silt and clay, gave BOD removals of over 95% when the influent BOD load per 1 m3 of soil was less than 10 g/d and gave the coliform group removals of 100% when the influent coliform group load per 1 m3 soil was less than 10(9)/d. Loam and sand loam gave T-P removals of over 90%. The P adsorption capacity of soil was limited to less than 12% of the absorption coefficient of phosphoric acid. All the soils gave low T-N removals, mostly less than 50%. The trench disposal gave high removals of 90-97% for BOD, 90-97% for T-P, and 94-99% for the coliform group but low removals of 11-49% for T-N, showing a trend similar to that of the column disposal. Thus, we can roughly estimate the effectiveness of actual soil permeation disposal from the results of the column experiments. In the waste water permeation region, the extent of waste water permeation exceeded 700 cm horizontally from the trench, but the waste water load within 100 cm laterally from the trench occupied 60.3% of the total. The concentrations of T-C and T-N at almost all observation spots in the permeation region were lower than in the control region, and were not caused to accumulate in soil by waste water loading. In contrast, T-P was accumulated concentratively in the depth range from 50-100 cm right below the trench. The conditions for effective disposal of domestic waste water by soil permeation have been estimated to be: (1) the soil should contain more than 30% silt and clay, (2) the absorption coefficient of phosphoric acid should be more than 1000, (3) the permeation rate should be 1.0-1.8 mm/min, and (4) the soil volume to be permeated should be more than 6.86 m3/person. PMID:2746976

  8. U.S. Biofuel Policies and Domestic Shifts in Agricultural Land Use and Water Balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teter, J.; Yeh, S.; Mishra, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    Policies promoting domestic biofuels production could lead to significant changes in cropping patterns. Types of direct and indirect land use change include: switching among crops (displacement), expanding cropped area (extensification), and altering water/soil management practices (e.g. irrigation, tillage) (intensification). Most studies of biofuels water use impacts calculate the water intensity of biofuels in liters of irrigated/total evapotranspired water per unit energy of biofuels. But estimates based on this approach are sensitive to assumptions (e.g. co-product allocation, system boundaries), and do not convey policy-relevant information, as highlighted by the issue of land use change. We address these shortcomings by adopting a scenario-based approach that combines economic modeling with crop-water modeling of major crops and biofuel feedstocks. This allows us to holistically compare differences in water balances across policy scenarios in an integrated economic/agricultural system. We compare high spatial resolution water balance estimates under three hypothetical policy scenarios: 1) a counterfactual no-policy scenario, 2) modified Renewable Fuels Standard mandates (M-RFS2), & 3) a national Low Carbon Fuel Standard plus a modified RFS2 scenario (LCFS+RFS2). Differences between scenarios in crop water balances (i.e. transpiration, evaporation, runoff, groundwater infiltration, & irrigation) are regional and are a function of changes in land use patterns (i.e. displacement, intensification, & extensification), plus variation in crop water-use characteristics. Cropped land area increases 6.2% and 1.6% under M-RFS2 and LCFS+RFS2 scenarios, respectively, by 2030. Both policy scenarios lead to reductions in net irrigation volumes nationally compared to the no-policy scenario, though more irrigation occurs in regions of the Midwest and West. The LCFS+RFS2 reduces net irrigation water use by 3.5 times more than M-RFS2. However, both policies drive extensification and hence greater net transpiration (i.e. economically useful water consumption), at the expense of groundwater infiltration, which recharges surface & groundwater stocks. Our study illustrates potential tradeoffs in water resource availability that might result from domestic policies promoting bioenergy.

  9. Effects of handling, temperature and storage time on sediment and pore-water chemistry and toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Lasier, P.J.; Winger, P.V.; Jackson, B.P. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). National Biological Survey

    1994-12-31

    Effects of sediment disturbance, storage temperature (230 C and 40 C) and storage time on chemistry and toxicity of sediment and pore water were evaluated using two sediments (sandy freshwater and organic estuarine) contaminated with metals. Solid-phase (10 d with water renewal) and pore-water (96-h static) toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca were conducted upon collection and at two week intervals for 8--10 weeks. Chemistries (redox, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, ammonia, trace metals, major cations and anions) were measured at each toxicity testing interval. Following extraction, pore-water chemistry changed significantly during the initial 96 h due to oxidation reactions and CO{sub 2} equilibration. Pore water collected in situ was slightly less toxic and had major differences in water chemistry compared to pore water extracted from homogenized sediment. Storage temperature and time significantly influenced pore-water toxicity and chemistry, but had minimal effect on solid-phase toxicity. After four weeks, the highly-toxic sandy sediment became slightly less toxic in solid-phase tests and Significantly less toxic in pore-water tests, coinciding with changes in trace-metal concentrations, activities, and speciation. The estuarine sediment became slightly more toxic in both solid-phase and pore-water tests after four weeks, but returned to original levels after six and eight weeks. Sediment disturbance, storage temperature, and storage time significantly influenced toxicity and pore-water chemistry.

  10. The Influence of Extraction Procedure on Ion Concentrations in Sediment Pore Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. V. Winger; P. J. Lasier; B. P. Jackson

    1998-01-01

    .   Sediment pore water has the potential to yield important information on sediment quality, but the influence of isolation\\u000a procedures on the chemistry and toxicity are not completely known and consensus on methods used for the isolation from sediment\\u000a has not been reached. To provide additional insight into the influence of collection procedures on pore water chemistry, anion\\u000a (filtered only)

  11. Factors Affecting Domestic Water Consumption in Rural Households upon Access to Improved Water Supply: Insights from the Wei River Basin, China

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Liangxin; Liu, Guobin; Wang, Fei; Geissen, Violette; Ritsema, Coen J.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensively understanding water consumption behavior is necessary to design efficient and effective water use strategies. Despite global efforts to identify the factors that affect domestic water consumption, those related to domestic water use in rural regions have not been sufficiently studied, particularly in villages that have gained access to improved water supply. To address this gap, we investigated 247 households in eight villages in the Wei River Basin where three types of improved water supply systems are implemented. Results show that domestic water consumption in liters per capita per day was significantly correlated with water supply pattern and vegetable garden area, and significantly negatively correlated with family size and age of household head. Traditional hygiene habits, use of water appliances, and preference for vegetable gardening remain dominant behaviors in the villages with access to improved water supply. Future studies on rural domestic water consumption should pay more attention to user lifestyles (water appliance usage habits, outdoor water use) and cultural backgrounds (age, education). PMID:23977190

  12. Water quality in a rural river environment: distribution of metals among water and sediment compartments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, A.; Parker, A.; Alencoao, A.

    2009-04-01

    Sediments have a significant influence on water quality, owing to their role both as a sink and a potential source of pollutants. In fluvial environments from mountainous catchments, the dynamics of sediment particles and particle-bound contaminants are still poorly understood. As stated by Symader et al. (2007), bottom sediments of small rivers in mountainous areas behave like a transport system of its own and show high temporal variation in their chemical composition. The transport of significant sedimentary loads, as suspended matter, in short periods of time, mainly in winter, poses some issues concerning monitoring and modelling approaches of the transport and fate of micro-pollutants at the catchment scale. On one hand, high stream-flow velocity peaks make it difficult or impossible to maintain suspended sediment samplers fixed in the river channel. On the other hand, the cycle of deposition and re-suspension of finer material, throughout the hydrological year, leads to temporal changes of sediment properties. Our contribution reports some results of an investigation on the water quality in a mountainous rural meso-scale catchment, located in the NE of Portugal. The study integrates the examination of metal contents in the sediments and the water body. The river-bottom sediments and water were simply collected in a planned sampling network, in two different periods of the hydrological year (high and low flow). The finer and most recently deposited sediment was preferentially sampled, and the <63µm granulometric class analysed for the potentially bioavailable fraction. Three metals were considered to illustrate the observations resulting from the combination of data on its dissolved and particulate contents. These are Cu, Pb and Zn, which show similar spatial and temporal distributions at the catchment scale. In the main streams a general increase of metal contents in the potentially bioavailable fraction is observed downstream. The residual fraction decreases in high-energetic sites of the drainage network. No simultaneous variation trends in the metal contents in the water and in the sediment fractions studied are observed. The transport mechanisms and the exchange of material exert a joint influence. Regarding the possible origin of the considered elements we observe peaks of contents in sites influenced by geological mineralisation and urban effluents. The influence of agricultural practices in the fluvial environment quality is more noticeable in the zones of the basin where small agricultural fields, in narrow terraces, are inter-related with urban settlements. In the valleys the impact is lower; the soil layer is thicker and the topography is smoother, attenuating the superficial transport and higher retention of these metals in soils. The results show that the pollutant dispersion and transport in mountainous fluvial environments is governed by multiple interrelated factors difficult to control over time, and predictive models still need better information about the processes governing the transport into and within the fluvial network. The regular monitoring of bed sediments in this kind of basins is important to give some insight into the micro-pollutant transport in small mountainous catchments with an impact on the quality of receiving waters. Symader, W.; Bierl R.; Kurtenbach, A.; Krein, A. (2007). Transport Indicators. In: Sediment Dynamics and Pollutant Mobility in Rivers (eds Westrich, B. & Forstner, U.), pp. 269-304, Springer.

  13. The distribution of tritium between water and suspended matter in a laboratory experiment exposing sediment to tritiated water.

    PubMed

    Jean-Baptiste, Philippe; Fourré, Elise

    2013-02-01

    Following recent suggestions regarding the strong affinity of tritiated water for organic matter in suspended particulates and sediments, two equilibration experiments between sediment organic matter (dry and fresh) and tritiated water were performed to look for potential tritium bio-concentration. The T/H ratios measured at the end of both experiments are lower in the sediment organic matter than in the water, indicating that only a fraction of the hydrogen pool (between 14% and 20%) within the sediment equilibrated with the tritiated water. These results are consistent with the widely used concept of exchangeable and non-exchangeable tritium pools in organic matter and show no sign of tritium bio-accumulation in the sediment relative to water. PMID:23202579

  14. Sediment-water distribution of contaminants of emerging concern in a mixed use watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the occurrence and distribution of 15 contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) in stream water and sediments in the Zumbro River watershed in Minnesota and compared these with sub-watershed land uses. Sixty pairs of sediment and water samples were collected across all seasons from...

  15. Sediment-water fluxes of nutrients in an Antarctic coastal environment: influence of bioturbation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. Nedwell; T. R. Walker

    1995-01-01

    Rates of exchanges of nitrate and ammonium across the sediment-water interface were measured in an inshore marine environment at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, Antarctica, over 6 months from August 1991 to February 1992. The sediment was a source of ammonium to the water column but a sink of nitrate, although nitrate exchange rates were very variable. Concentration profiles of

  16. Early diagenesis in sediments from Danish coastal waters: microbial activity and Mn-Fe-S geochemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Soerensen; B. B. Joergensen

    1987-01-01

    Depth distributions of bacterial respiration of Oâ, NOâ⁻ and SOâ\\/sup 2 -\\/ were compared with geochemical data for Mn, Fe and S in coastal sediments from water depths between 26 and 520 m. As water depth increased, the zone of SOâ\\/sup 2 -\\/ respiration was found deeper in the sediment and was eventually separated from the surface-located activity of Oâ

  17. Dynamic modelling of passive margin salt tectonics: effects of water loading, sediment properties and

    E-print Network

    Beaumont, Christopher

    Dynamic modelling of passive margin salt tectonics: effects of water loading, sediment properties by Couette £ow in the underlying salt.The e¡ects of water: (i) increase solid and £uid pressures that are formed above salt. Sediment progradation above a viscous salt layer results in formation of landward

  18. Zinc in the sediments, water and biota of Lake Burley Griffin, Canberra

    E-print Network

    Canberra, University of

    HI 235 Zinc in the sediments, water and biota of Lake Burley Griffin, Canberra W.A. Maher, RResearchCentre. Universityo/Canberra. P.O. Box /. BelconnenACT 26/6. Australia ABSTRAcr Zinc concentrations and total amounts in the sediment, water and biota of Lake Burley Griffin were measured to identify where zinc originating from

  19. Petroleum hydrocarbons in water and sediments of northwest Arabian Gulf 1980–2005

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Faris J. M. Al-Imarah; Abass A. Hantoosh; Ali M. Nasir

    2007-01-01

    A survey has been conducted to evaluate pollution by petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC's) in water, sediments and living organisms of southern Iraqi sectors represented by Shatt Al-Arab River, Khor Al-Zubair, Umm Qasser, Khor Abdullah and the northwest Arabian Gulf. Petroleum hydrocarbons in water as dissolved and particulate, in sediments as exchangeable and residual and in the organs of living organisms were

  20. Trace metal concentrations in water, sediments and fish tissue from Lake Tanganyika

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. M. M. Chale

    2002-01-01

    Trace metal (Cu, Pb, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd) concentrations were determined in water, sediments, various fin fish species and a bivalve (Mutelaspekei) from Lake Tanganyika using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Integrated water samples to depths of 10 m were collected using a pre-rinsed flexible plastic pipe. Sediment samples were collected using a ponar mud sampler. Fish samples were obtained using

  1. Trace Organic Contaminants in Sediment and Water from Ulsan Bay and Its Vicinity, Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Khim; K. T. Lee; K. Kannan; D. L. Villeneuve; J. P. Giesy; C. H. Koh

    2001-01-01

    Sediment and water samples collected from 32 locations in Ulsan Bay and adjacent inland areas were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocabons (PAHs), nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), bisphenol A (BPA), organochlorine (OC) pesticides (HCB, HCHs, CHLs, and DDTs), and poly- chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to characterize their spatial dis- tribution and contamination status. PAHs were detected in nearly all sediment and water

  2. Sulfide controls on mercury speciation and bioavailability to methylating bacteria in sediment pore waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janina M. Benoit; Cynthia C. Gilmour; A. Heyes; R. P. Mason

    1999-01-01

    A chemical equilibrium model for Hg complexation in sediments with sulfidic pore waters is presented. The purpose of the model was to explain observed relationships between pore water sulfide, dissolved inorganic Hg (Hg{sub D}), and bulk methylmercury (MeHg) in surficial sediments of two biogeochemically different ecosystems, the Florida Everglades and Patuxent River, MD. The model was constructed to test the

  3. Sulfide Controls on Mercury Speciation and Bioavailability to Methylating Bacteria in Sediment Pore Waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JANINA M. B ENOIT; CYNTHIA C. G ILMOUR; ROBERT P. M ASON; ANDREW H EYES

    1999-01-01

    A chemical equilibrium model for Hg complexation in sediments with sulfidic pore waters is presented. The purpose of the model was to explain observed relationships between pore water sulfide, dissolved inorganic Hg (HgD), and bulk methylmercury (MeHg) in surficial sediments of two biogeochemically different ecosystems, the Florida Everglades and Patuxent River, MD. The model was constructed to test the hypothesis

  4. Modeling sedimentation-filtration basins for urban watersheds using Soil and Water Assessment Tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sedimentation-filtration (SedFil) basins are one of the storm-water best management practices (BMPs) that are intended to mitigate water quality problems in urban creeks and rivers. A new physically based model of variably saturated flows was developed for simulating flow and sediment in SedFils wi...

  5. Sediment Inventory and Phosphorus Fractions for Water Conservation Area Canals in the Everglades

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Sediment Inventory and Phosphorus Fractions for Water Conservation Area Canals in the Everglades O in the Water Conservation Area (WCA) canals in the Ever- glades. A study was conducted to characterize

  6. Sustainability estimation of energy system options that use gas and renewable resources for domestic hot water production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina Jovanovic; Valentina Turanjanin; Vukman Bakic; Milada Pezo; Biljana Vucicevic

    2011-01-01

    Two possible substitutions for fossil fuel used in heat production are biomass and solar energy. This paper presents an evaluation of various energy sources for hot water production in a heating plant. The heating plant was situated in one of the largest municipalities in the city of Belgrade, Serbia. It produces and delivers domestic hot water and energy for heating

  7. Effects of drainage on water, sediment and biota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engberg, Richard A.; Sylvester, Marc A.; Feltz, Herman R.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior started a program in 1985 to identify effects of irrigation-induced trace constituents in water, bottom sediment and biota. The program was developed in response to concerns that contamination similar to that found in 1983 at Kesterson Reservoir in California might exist elsewhere. Studies are complete or underway for 26 sites in 15 western States. Selenium is the trace constituent most often found at elevated concentrations in all media. Maximum selenium concentrations in fish from 9 of 20 areas exceeded the threshold concentration for adverse reproductive effects. Maximum selenium concentrations in bird livers from 11 areas exceeded the level at which embryonic deformities are likely; deformed birds were observed in 5 areas. Trace constituent problems may be anticipated if geologic sources such as marine shales occur in an irrigation project area. The potential for problems is increased if closed basins or sinks are present.

  8. Marine waters contaminated with domestic sewage: nonenteric illnesses associated with bather exposure in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed Central

    Fleisher, J M; Kay, D; Salmon, R L; Jones, F; Wyer, M D; Godfree, A F

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study identified possible dose-response relationships among bathers exposed to marine waters contaminated with domestic sewage and subsequent risk of nonenteric illness. METHODS: Four intervention follow-up studies were conducted within the United Kingdom. Healthy volunteers (n = 1273) were randomized into bather and nonbather groups. Intensive water-quality monitoring was used to assign five bacteriological indices of water quality to individual bathers. Illnesses studied were acute febrile respiratory illness, and eye, ear, and skin ailments. RESULTS: Fecal streptococci exposure was predictive of acute febrile respiratory illness, while fecal coliform exposure was predictive of ear ailments. Estimated thresholds of effect occurred at bather exposures above 60 fecal streptococci and 100 fecal coliform per 100 ml of water, respectively. Although no relationship was found between eye ailments and indicator organism exposure, compared with nonbathers, bathers were at higher risk for eye ailments. CONCLUSIONS: Nonenteric illness can be transmitted via recreational contact with marine waters contaminated with sewage. These results argue against the use of a single indicator to establish water quality standards. PMID:8806373

  9. Enhancement of natural circulation type domestic solar hot water system performance by using a wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, K. K.; Srinivasan, P. S. S.

    2011-08-01

    Performance improvement of existing 200 litres capacity natural convection type domestic solar hot water system is attempted. A two-stage centrifugal pump driven by a vertical axis windmill having Savonius type rotor is added to the fluid loop. The windmill driven pump circulates the water through the collector. The system with necessary instrumentation is tested over a day. Tests on Natural Circulation System (NCS) mode and Wind Assisted System (WAS) mode are carried out during January, April, July and October, 2009. Test results of a clear day are reported. Daily average efficiency of 25-28 % during NCS mode and 33-37 % during WAS mode are obtained. With higher wind velocities, higher collector flow rates and hence higher efficiencies are obtained. In general, WAS mode provides improvements in efficiency when compared to NCS mode.

  10. Sedimentation and water quality in the West Branch Shade River basin, Ohio, 1984 water year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childress, C.J.; Jones, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Sedimentation in, and flooding of, the West Branch Shade River and its tributaries have been major concerns of residents and State and local officials. The area was extensively surface mined for coal between the mid-1940 's and the early 1960's. Reclamation efforts immediately after mining were unsuccessful. The results have been elevated sediment loads and the subsequent loss of channel conveyance. Two sediment and stream gaging stations were established on West Branch Shade River in the area of past mining to provide data to evaluate the effectiveness of current reclamation activities on reducing sediment loads. A third station was established on the East Branch Shade River in an unmined area as a control. From October 1983 through September 1984, the annual suspended sediment yield/acre-ft of runoff was approximately two times as high for West Branch Shade River (0.51 ton/acre-ft of runoff) as for East Branch Shade River (0.28 ton/acre-ft). In addition, water quality of West Branch indicates that acidity is higher, pH is lower, and concentrations of dissolved sulfate and metals are higher than for East Branch. The concentration of coal in bed material increased in the downstream direction along West Branch Shade River. The concentration downstream in the West Branch was more than 20 times greater than in the East Branch. (Author 's abstract)

  11. Suspended sediment control and water quality conservation through riparian vegetation:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavanelli, D.; Cavazza, C.; Correggiari, S.

    2009-04-01

    Soil erosion and Suspended Sediment River are strongly related in the Apennines catchments which are generally characterised by a clayey lithology and impermeable soils and extensive and severe erosion and slope stability problems. In fact the suspended sediment yield represents one of the most reliable tools to assess real basin soil loss (Pavanelli and Pagliarani, 2002; Pavanelli and Rigotti, 2007) from the surface rain erosive features in a mountain watershed, as rills and interrills erosion, gullies, bad-lands (calanchi basins). Suspended sediment yield is known to imply several detrimental consequences: soil losses from agricultural land, worsening of the quality of the water, clogging of water supply filters and reservoir siltation. In addition, suspended sediment yield is also one of the main vector for pollutants and nutrients: various studies have already proved how nitrogen content has been constantly rising in aquifers and surface waters [Böhlke and Denver, 1995]. Finer particles and their aggregates have been proved to be the preferential vehicle for particulate nitrogen [Droppo et al., 1997; Ongley et al., 1992]. In one research [Pavanelli and al. 2006] four Apennines torrents (Gaiana, Sillaro, Savena and Lavino) with mountain basins ranging from 8.7 to 139 Km2 were monitored via automatic sampling devices, the samples of water collected were analysed to characterise suspended solids in terms of their grain size distribution and total nitrogen with respect to the source of eroded area in the catchment. Preliminary results [Pavanelli and al. 2007] seem to show the existence of a direct relationship between nitrogen concentration and finer particle concentration (<20 ?m), with the maximum nitrogen loss values being related to factors like the presence of clayey formations, their position within the catchment and the availability of suspended particles. The results seem to indicate hillsides as main sources of suspended sediment to the torrents monitored. The problem of controlling the river suspended sediment concentration can be tackled by increasing the riparian vegetation able to hold back the ground eroded by the slopes, but it is necessary to know where the critical zones are. The aim of the work is to propose a method allow us to detect the risk of soil erosion areas near the river and the functionality of existing riparian vegetation along river as buffers / filters towards the eroded soil from the hill slopes. The proposed methodology is supposed has been designed for water pollution control from suspended solids, pollutants and nutrients coming from hills and an improvement of the quality of the river environment. The methodology was applied on the riparian vegetation of the Gaiana torrent where it was related to soil cover and erosion areas of the hillslope, thus correlating the impact of human activities. The Gaiana catchment area is 8.6 km2 and the mean altitude is 237 a.m.s.l., the average rainfall is of 784 mm.. It is a typical Apennines streams, about 35 km south of Bologna, Italy. The main trunk stream is 6 km long and the whole drainage network is organized in a dendritic pattern, typical of clayey lithology of the basins. The main erosion processes active in the area are caused by precipitation and surface runoff: sheet wash, concentrated water erosion and badlands watersheds (calanchi), which represent about 15% of the basin area. The vegetation of the Gaiana basin is constituted by crops (39%), woods (37%), rock outcrops(i.e. badlands)(15%), bushes (5%) and pastures(3%). The stages of the study are to spot critical areas made up of streambank and the eroded areas on the slopes near the river, with the support of aerial photos and satellite images, survey and a geographic information system. The Gaiana riparian vegetation map has been drawn and, on a strip buffer 200 metres wide along river, the Vegetation cover and the Geomorphology maps (scale 1:5000) has been drawn, after photogrammetric interpretation of aerial photography and satellite images . The two maps have been overlapped to

  12. Domestic water conservation: a component of long term water resources planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rubinstein

    1982-01-01

    This paper examines the use of demand management projects in medium and long term plans for the supply of water in an urban environment. Some of the issues involved include, among others, the benefits and costs of water conservation, the water savings achieved with different demand management projects, the risks associated with the use of water conservation, and the relationship

  13. Determining the optimum solar water pumping system for domestic use, livestock water, or irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For several years we have field tested many different types of solar powered water pumping systems. In this paper, several steps are given to select a solar-PV water pumping system. The steps for selection of stand-alone water pumping system were: deciding whether a wind or solar water pumping sys...

  14. [Controlling effect of coagulation and sedimentation on naidid in water treatment process].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ting-Lin; Zhang, Shuang; Nie, Xiao-Bao; Zhang, Jin-Song; Chen, Hui; Ding, Li-Jun; Liu, Li-Jun

    2011-09-01

    To control naidid pollution in water treatment conducted by O3-BAC, the removal effects of coagulation and sedimentation to naidid were estimated by field sampling of water plant, jar test and simulation study. The results showed that both coagulation and sedimentation of water plant and jar test had obvious removal efficiency on naidids. In the former the mean population density of naidid was decreased from 0. 52 ind/m3 to 0.17 ind/m3, while in the later removal efficiency, which did not be influenced by operation condition of coagulation and sedimentation, reached nearly 100%. Drift migration of naidid from sediment to over-lying water were observed in simulation study and the drift efficiency could be influenced by both temperature and water flow. The drift efficiency of 20 degrees C was 18.5%, much higher than that of 30 degrees C and 10 degrees C. While the velocities of water flow were 2, 4 and 8 mm/s, the number of drifting naidid were 11, 25 and 39 ind respectively. Because of the existence of drift migration, the settlement in sedimentation tank does not mean the real remove of naidid and the thoroughly separating of naidid from water treatment process can only be realized by sludge discharge of sedimentation tank. The naidid removal efficiency of coagulation and sedimentation can be increased by optimizing sludge discharge and restraining drift migration of naidid in sedimentation tank. PMID:22165216

  15. Sediment Enzyme Activities and Microbial Community Diversity in an Oligotrophic Drinking Water Reservoir, Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haihan; Huang, Tinglin; Liu, Tingting

    2013-01-01

    Drinking water reservoir plays a vital role in the security of urban water supply, yet little is known about microbial community diversity harbored in the sediment of this oligotrophic freshwater environmental ecosystem. In the present study, integrating community level physiological profiles (CLPPs), nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone sequence technologies, we examined the sediment urease and protease activities, bacterial community functional diversity, genetic diversity of bacterial and fungal communities in sediments from six sampling sites of Zhou cun drinking water reservoir, eastern China. The results showed that sediment urease activity was markedly distinct along the sites, ranged from 2.48 to 11.81 mg NH3-N/(g·24h). The highest average well color development (AWCD) was found in site C, indicating the highest metabolic activity of heterotrophic bacterial community. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed tremendous differences in the functional (metabolic) diversity patterns of the sediment bacterial communities from different sites. Meanwhile, DGGE fingerprints also indicated spatial changes of genetic diversity of sediment bacterial and fungal communities. The sequence BLAST analysis of all the sediment samples found that Comamonas sp. was the dominant bacterial species harbored in site A. Alternaria alternate, Allomyces macrogynus and Rhizophydium sp. were most commonly detected fungal species in sediments of the Zhou cun drinking water reservoir. The results from this work provide new insights about the heterogeneity of sediment microbial community metabolic activity and genetic diversity in the oligotrophic drinking water reservoir. PMID:24205265

  16. Survey of the mutagenicity of surface water, sediments, and drinking water from the Penobscot Indian Nation.

    PubMed

    Warren, Sarah H; Claxton, Larry D; Diliberto, Janet; Hughes, Thomas J; Swank, Adam; Kusnierz, Daniel H; Marshall, Valerie; DeMarini, David M

    2015-02-01

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) projects address the effects of environmental pollutants in a particular region on the health of the population in that region. This report is part of a RARE project that addresses this for the Penobscot Indian Nation (PIN), Penobscot Island, Maine, U.S., where the Penobscot River has had fish advisories for many years due to high levels of mercury. We used the Salmonella mutagenicity assay with strains TA100, TA98, YG1041, and YG1042 with and without metabolic activation to assess the mutagenic potencies of organic extracts of the Penobscot River water and sediment, as well as drinking-water samples, all collected by the PIN Department of Natural Resources. The source water for the PIN drinking water is gravel-packed groundwater wells adjacent to the Penobscot River. Most samples of all extracts were either not mutagenic or had low to moderate mutagenic potencies. The average mutagenic potencies (revertants/L-equivalent) were 337 for the drinking-water extracts and 177 for the river-water extracts; the average mutagenic potency for the river-sediment extracts was 244 revertants(g-equivalent)(-1). This part of the RARE project showed that extracts of the Penobscot River water and sediments and Penobscot drinking water have little to no mutagenic activity that might be due to the classes of compounds that the Salmonella mutagenicity assay detects, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs (nitroarenes), and aromatic amines. This study is the first to examine the mutagenicity of environmental samples from a tribal nation in the U.S. PMID:25462314

  17. Enumeration of Aeromonas hydrophila from domestic wastewater treatment plants and surface waters.

    PubMed

    Poffé, R; Op de Beeck, E

    1991-10-01

    Influents, effluents and sludges from sewage purification plants and surface water samples were examined quantitatively for Aeromonas hydrophila on the mA medium of Rippey and Cabelli. Between 10(4) and 10(6)/ml A. hydrophila were found in domestic wastewaters. On the average 99.975% were removed by activated sludge and 98.25% by trickling filters. Only 20.9% of A. hydrophila end up in the primary sludge, which contained up to 10(7)/g dry sludge. After 3 months, anaerobically (methane) fermented and partially dried sludge from trickling filters contained more than 10(6) A. hydrophila/g dry sludge. Surface water receiving raw sewage contained several hundreds of A. hydrophila/ml, comparable with the numbers found in effluent waters, while surface receiving no municipal wastewater and destined for the preparation of drinking water contained only small and negligible numbers. It was concluded that A. hydrophila was omnipresent in surface water. PMID:1960113

  18. Field Observations of Hydrodynamics, Sediment Transport, and Water and Sediment Quality in the Hudson-Raritan Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, M. S.; Glenn, S.; Chant, R.; Rankin, K.; Korfiatis, G.; Dimou, N.; Creed, E.; Fullerton, B.; Pence, A.; Burke, P.; Haldeman, C.; Hires, R.; Hunter, E.

    2002-12-01

    The New York-New Jersey Harbor estuary system is of enormous ecological and economic importance to the region. The presence of toxic chemicals in the water and sediments results in reduced water quality, fisheries restrictions/advisories, and general adverse impacts to the estuarine ecosystem. The Port of New York and New Jersey is central to the economy of the region. However, in recent years, problems associated with the management of contaminated dredged material, including high costs and the lack of suitable disposal/use alternatives, have threatened to impact the volume of shipping in the Harbor. Sources of contaminants include atmospheric deposition, municipal and industrial wastewater treatment facilities, combined sewer and stormwater outfalls, and rainfall-induced runoff (non-point sources). In addition, Harbor sediments can act as a continuing source as they are re-suspended and moved throughout the system by both natural and man-made means. As part of the New Jersey Toxics Reduction Workplan, Stevens Institute of Technology and Rutgers University are conducting hydrodynamic, sediment transport, and water and suspended sediment quality measurements in Newark Bay, the Arthur Kill and the Kill van Kull. The goals of the project include: (1) collection of high resolution (event-driven and long-term) hydrodynamic, sediment transport and water and suspended sediment quality measurements for use in the assessment of the dominant physics of the system and in the development of a combined hydrodynamic-sediment transport-water/sediment quality model for the region. (2) identification of those tributaries to NY-NJ Harbor that are significant sources of the chemicals of concern, and evaluation of the importance of non-point sources and existing contaminated bottom sediments as sources of the chemicals of concern. (3) identification of point discharges that represent significant sources of the chemicals of concern. Observations were obtained over a two-year period, during 21 tributary flow "events", each having an approximate duration of 1 week. The measurement program included 3 fixed mooring stations and 5 shipboard locations. Each mooring consisted of an acoustic Doppler current profiler; a high-resolution pressure sensor; an OBS; a CTD; and a laser-based scatterometer. The ship-board measurements included vertical current profiles using a towed acoustic Doppler current profiler; CTD measurements; OBS measurements; suspended sediment concentration and particle size spectrum using a laser-based scatterometer; and chemical characterization of water and suspended sediment samples. The water and sediment quality measurements were obtained using a specially designed Trace Organics Platform Sampler. This sampler allowed for the measurement of low-level concentrations of PCBs (108 congeners), dioxins/furans, Pesticides, PAHs and metals (Hg, Cd, Pb). Preliminary analysis of the data has improved our understanding of the circulation and sediment transport patterns in this region of the estuary, including the influence of extreme tributary flow events, local winds, and anthropogenic effects such as port structures, vessels, and the navigation channels, and has identified the most highly contaminated reaches of the tributaries.

  19. Ecological impacts of lead mining on Ozark streams: Toxicity of sediment and pore water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Allert, A.L.; Poulton, B.C.; Schmitt, C.J.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the toxicity of sediments downstream of lead-zinc mining areas in southeast Missouri, using chronic sediment toxicity tests with the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, and pore-water toxicity tests with the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Tests conducted in 2002 documented reduced survival of amphipods in stream sediments collected near mining areas and reduced survival and reproduction of daphnids in most pore waters tested. Additional amphipod tests conducted in 2004 documented significant toxic effects of sediments from three streams downstream of mining areas: Strother Creek, West Fork Black River, and Bee Fork. Greatest toxicity occurred in sediments from a 6-km reach of upper Strother Creek, but significant toxic effects occurred in sediments collected at least 14 km downstream of mining in all three watersheds. Toxic effects were significantly correlated with metal concentrations (nickel, zinc, cadmium, and lead) in sediments and pore waters and were generally consistent with predictions of metal toxicity risks based on sediment quality guidelines, although ammonia and manganese may also have contributed to toxicity at a few sites. Responses of amphipods in sediment toxicity tests were significantly correlated with characteristics of benthic invertebrate communities in study streams. These results indicate that toxicity of metals associated with sediments contributes to adverse ecological effects in streams draining the Viburnum Trend mining district.

  20. Exergetic modeling and assessment of solar assisted domestic hot water tank integrated ground-source heat pump systems for residences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arif Hepbasli

    2007-01-01

    The present study deals with the exergetic modeling and performance evaluation of solar assisted domestic hot water tank integrated ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems for residences for the first time to the best of the author's knowledge. The model is applied to a system, which mainly consists of (i) a water-to-water heat pump unit (ii) a ground heat exchanger system

  1. Sediment contact tests as a tool for the assessment of sediment quality in German waters.

    PubMed

    Feiler, Ute; Höss, Sebastian; Ahlf, Wolfgang; Gilberg, Daniel; Hammers-Wirtz, Monika; Hollert, Henner; Meller, Michael; Neumann-Hensel, Helga; Ottermanns, Richard; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Spira, Denise; Heininger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A sediment contact test (SCT) battery consisting of five ecotoxicological test systems was applied to 21 native freshwater sediments characterized by a broad variety of geochemical properties and anthropogenic contamination. Higher plants (Myriophyllum aquaticum), nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans), oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus), zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio), and bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis), representing various trophic levels and exposure pathways, were used as test organisms. The test battery detected sediment toxicity caused by anthropogenic pollution, whereas the various tests provided site-specific, nonredundant information to the overall toxicity assessment. Based on the toxicity pattern derived from the test battery, the sediments were classified according to a newly proposed classification system for sediment toxicity assessment. The SCT-derived classification generally agreed well with the application of consensus-based sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), especially with regard to sediments with high toxic potential. For sediments with low to medium toxic potential, the SQGs often underestimated the toxicity that was detected by the SCTs, underpinning the need for toxicity tests in sediment quality assessment. PMID:23027525

  2. Design, Simulation, and Analysis of Domestic Solar Water Heating Systems in Phoenix, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Fresart, Edouard Thomas

    Research was conducted to quantify the energy and cost savings of two different domestic solar water heating systems compared to an all-electric water heater for a four-person household in Phoenix, Arizona. The knowledge gained from this research will enable utilities to better align incentives and consumers to make more informed decisions prior to purchasing a solar water heater. Daily energy and temperature data were collected in a controlled, closed environment lab. Three mathematical models were designed in TRNSYS 17, a transient system simulation tool. The data from the lab were used to validate the TRNSYS models, and the TRNSYS results were used to project annual cost and energy savings for the solar water heaters. The projected energy savings for a four-person household in Phoenix, Arizona are 80% when using the SunEarthRTM system with an insulated and glazed flat-plate collector, and 49% when using the FAFCO RTM system with unglazed, non-insulated flat-plate collectors. Utilizing all available federal, state, and utility incentives, a consumer could expect to recoup his or her investment after the fifth year if purchasing a SunEarth RTM system, and after the eighth year if purchasing a FAFCO RTM system. Over the 20-year analysis period, a consumer could expect to save 2,519 with the SunEarthRTM system, and 971 with the FAFCORTM system.

  3. Sudden clearing of estuarine waters upon crossing the threshold from transport to supply regulation of sediment transport as an erodible sediment pool is depleted: San Francisco Bay, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoellhamer, David H.

    2011-01-01

    The quantity of suspended sediment in an estuary is regulated either by transport, where energy or time needed to suspend sediment is limiting, or by supply, where the quantity of erodible sediment is limiting. This paper presents a hypothesis that suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) in estuaries can suddenly decrease when the threshold from transport to supply regulation is crossed as an erodible sediment pool is depleted. This study was motivated by a statistically significant 36% step decrease in SSC in San Francisco Bay from water years 1991–1998 to 1999–2007. A quantitative conceptual model of an estuary with an erodible sediment pool and transport or supply regulation of sediment transport is developed. Model results confirm that, if the regulation threshold was crossed in 1999, SSC would decrease rapidly after water year 1999 as observed. Estuaries with a similar history of a depositional sediment pulse followed by erosion may experience sudden clearing.

  4. Acoustic penetration of a sandy shallow water sediment in the 500 to 1000 Hz band

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. P. Chotiros

    1998-01-01

    To study the transmission of sound through the water-sediment interface in a shallow water environment, sound waves, in the 500 to 1000 Hz band, were projected in water and received by an array of hydrophones buried in the sediment, in a joint experiment conducted by the SACLANTCEN in cooperation with ARL:UT. Eight hydrophones were formed into a sparse three-dimensional array,

  5. Domestic water conservation: a component of long term water resources planning

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper examines the use of demand management projects in medium and long term plans for the supply of water in an urban environment. Some of the issues involved include, among others, the benefits and costs of water conservation, the water savings achieved with different demand management projects, the risks associated with the use of water conservation, and the relationship between water conservation and other community programs such as energy conservation and reduction of inflows to wastewater treatment facilities. A computer program that implements a dynamic programming optimization algorithm is used to determine the combination of supply augmentation and demand management projects that optimize two objectives: (1) the minimization of the present value of the costs of implementing the projects, and (2) the minimization of the expected value of the costs to cope with emergencies in the supply of water. A case study is drawn from the Santa Clara Valley Water District in Santa Clara County, California. The methodological framework developed allows planners and managers of water supply systems to make efficient use of water resources by explicitly considering the management of the demand for water as a supplement to traditional supply augmentation projects.

  6. Analysis of space heating and domestic hot water systems for energy-efficient residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Dennehy, G

    1983-04-01

    An analysis of the best ways of meeting the space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) needs of new energy-efficient houses with very low requirements for space heat is provided. The DHW load is about equal to the space heating load in such houses in northern climates. The equipment options which should be considered are discussed, including new equipment recently introduced in the market. It is concluded that the first consideration in selecting systems for energy-efficient houses should be identification of the air moving needs of the house for heat distribution, heat storage, ventilation, and ventilative cooling. This is followed, in order, by selection of the most appropriate distribution system, the heating appliances and controls, and the preferred energy source, gas, oil, or electricity.

  7. Pilot-scale study of efficient coagulation sedimentation of micro-polluted water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liang Shen; Li Cheng; Heli Wang; Xinying Lian; Jingxian Qi

    2010-01-01

    This pilot-scale study is based on an efficient coagulation sedimentation process technology used for micro-polluted water treatment of Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal(BHGC). The best coagulant among PAC, Al2(SO4)3 and FeCl3 and its optimal dosage were studied in coagulation sedimentation jar test. The best coagulant was PAC, and its optimal dosage was 40 mg\\/L. The coagulation sedimentation jar test showed that the

  8. Survival of daphnia magna and hyalella azteca in cadmium-spiked water and sediment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan V. Nebeker; Samuel T. Onjukka; Michael A. Cairns; Daniel F. Krawczyk

    1986-01-01

    Freshwater sediments and water were spiked with cadmium (Cd) in the laboratory, and toxicity tests were conducted with the cladoceran Daphnia magna and the amphipod Hyalella azteca to determine if Cd in the sediment would cause increased toxicity. The 48-h LC50 values for Daphnia in tests without sediment were 36, 33, 24, and 40 micrograms\\/L total Cd. Calculated free-ion (Cd\\/sup

  9. Phytoremediation facilitates removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from eutrophicated water and release from sediment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wu Xiang; Yang Xiao-E; Zed Rengel

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) fractions and the effect of phytoremediation on nitrogen and phosphorus removal from eutrophicated water and\\u000a release from sediment were investigated in the eco-remediation experiment enclosures installed in the Hua-jia-chi pond (Hangzhou\\u000a city, Zhejiang province, China). The main P fraction in the sediment was inorganic phosphorus (IP). For the mesotrophic sediments,\\u000a IP mainly consisted of HCl-extractable P (Ca-P). The

  10. Distribution of Total Mercury and Methyl Mercury in Water, Sediment, and Fish from South Florida Estuaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kannan; R. F. Lee; H. L. Windom; P. T. Heitmuller; J. M. Macauley; J. K. Summers

    1998-01-01

    .   Concentrations of total mercury and methyl mercury were determined in sediment and fish collected from estuarine waters\\u000a of Florida to understand their distribution and partitioning. Total mercury concentrations in sediments ranged from 1 to 219\\u000a ng\\/g dry wt. Methyl mercury accounted for, on average, 0.77% of total mercury in sediment. Methyl mercury concentrations were\\u000a not correlated with total mercury

  11. ECO: A Generic Eutrophication Model Including Comprehensive Sediment-Water Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Johannes G. C.; van Beek, Jan K. L.

    2013-01-01

    The content and calibration of the comprehensive generic 3D eutrophication model ECO for water and sediment quality is presented. Based on a computational grid for water and sediment, ECO is used as a tool for water quality management to simulate concentrations and mass fluxes of nutrients (N, P, Si), phytoplankton species, detrital organic matter, electron acceptors and related substances. ECO combines integral simulation of water and sediment quality with sediment diagenesis and closed mass balances. Its advanced process formulations for substances in the water column and the bed sediment were developed to allow for a much more dynamic calculation of the sediment-water exchange fluxes of nutrients as resulting from steep concentration gradients across the sediment-water interface than is possible with other eutrophication models. ECO is to more accurately calculate the accumulation of organic matter and nutrients in the sediment, and to allow for more accurate prediction of phytoplankton biomass and water quality in response to mitigative measures such as nutrient load reduction. ECO was calibrated for shallow Lake Veluwe (The Netherlands). Due to restoration measures this lake underwent a transition from hypertrophic conditions to moderately eutrophic conditions, leading to the extensive colonization by submerged macrophytes. ECO reproduces observed water quality well for the transition period of ten years. The values of its process coefficients are in line with ranges derived from literature. ECO’s calculation results underline the importance of redox processes and phosphate speciation for the nutrient return fluxes. Among other things, the results suggest that authigenic formation of a stable apatite-like mineral in the sediment can contribute significantly to oligotrophication of a lake after a phosphorus load reduction. PMID:23844160

  12. Toxicity of phthalates to selected benthic organisms via water and sediment exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Call, D.J.; Markee, T.P.; VandeVenter, F.A.; Cox, D.A.; Geiger, D.L.; Brooke, L.T. [univ. of Wisconsin, Superior, WI (United States). Lake Superior Research Inst.

    1995-12-31

    A three-tiered approach was applied to evaluate the bioavailability and toxicity of a series of phthalic acid esters to selected benthic invertebrates. Tier 1 consisted of 10-day exposures of the test species to the phthalates in water without sediments to determine toxicity. Tier 2 consisted of incorporating the phthalates into natural sediments and evaluating their persistence in phthalate-amended sediments under conditions simulating those of a 10-day toxicity test of contaminated sediments. Tier 3 consisted of performing 10-day exposures of test animals to phthalate-amended sediments. Phthalates were amended to sediments for Tier 3 testing based upon the results of Tier 1 and Tier 2 tests, and an estimation of partitioning between sediment and pore water based upon equilibrium partitioning theory (EPT). Sediments of varying organic carbon content were used to evaluate the bioavailability and toxicity of phthalate-amended sediments. The phthalates included in this study were dimethyl, diethyl, di-n-butyl, butylbenzyl, di-n-hexyl, di-2-ethylhexyl and di-n-decyl phthalate. The sensitivities of the three test species followed the general order in water-only tests: Hyalella azteca > Chironomus tentans > Lumbriculus variegatus. The persistence of selected phthalates from Tier 2 tests, their respective toxicities from Tier 3 tests, and the utility of the EPT approach in assessing phthalate toxicity will be discussed.

  13. Toxicity tests of effluents with marsh plants in water and sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, G.E.; Weber, D.E.; Simon, T.L.; Brashers, L.K.

    1991-01-01

    Methods are described for toxicity testing of water and sediment with two varieties of the freshwater marsh plant Echinochloa crusgalli (Linneaus) Palisot de Beauvois (Poaceae), and complex effluents. Two tests are described: a seed germination and early seedling growth test in water, and a survival and seedling growth test in natural and synthetic sediments. Effects of effluents from a sewage treatment plant, tannery, textile mill, pulp and paper mill, coking plant and sewage treatment plant included inhibition of germination, chlorophyll synthesis and growth. The tests with rooted marsh plants were sensitive to pollutants and detected toxicity of a range of pollutants in water and sediment. Synthetic sediments similar to natural sediments allowed toxicity tests to be done under carefully controlled conditions of particle size distribution, organic content, pH, electrode potential (Eh) and cation exchange capacity (CEC).

  14. Assessing the occurrence and distribution of pyrethroids in water and suspended sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hladik, M.L.; Kuivila, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of pyrethroid insecticides in the environment was assessed by separately measuring concentrations in the dissolved and suspended sediment phases of surface water samples. Filtered water was extracted by HLB solid-phase extraction cartridges, while the sediment on the filter was sonicated and cleaned up using carbon and aluminum cartridges. Detection limits for the 13 pyrethroids analyzed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were 0.5 to 1 ng L-1 for water and 2 to 6 ng g for the suspended sediments. Seven pyrethroids were detected in six water samples collected from either urban or agricultural creeks, with bifenthrin detected the most frequently and at the highest concentrations. In spiked water samples and field samples, the majority of the pyrethroids were associated with the suspended sediments.

  15. Predicting the toxicity of metal-spiked laboratory sediments using acid-volatile sulfide and interstitial water normalizations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Berry; D. J. Hansen; W. S. Boothman; J. D. Mahony; D. L. Robson; D. M. di Toro; B. P. Shipley; B. Rogers; J. M. Corbin

    1996-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that dry weight concentrations of metals in sediments cannot be used to predict toxicity across sediments. However, several studies using sediments from both freshwater and saltwater have shown that interstitial water concentration or normalization involving acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) can be used to predict toxicity in sediments contaminated with cadmium, copper, nickel, lead, or zinc across a

  16. A vacuum-operated pore-water extractor for estuarine and freshwater sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winger, P.V.; Lasier, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    A vacuum-operated pore-water extractor for estuarine and freshwater sediments was developed and constructed from a fused-glass air stone attached with aquarium airline tubing to a 30 or 60 cc polypropylene syringe. Pore water is extracted by inserting the air stone into the sediment and creating a vacuum by retracting and bracing the syringe plunger. A hand-operated vacuum pump attached to a filtration flask was also evaluated as an alternative vacuum source. The volume and time to extract pore water varies with the number of devices and the sediment particle size. Extraction time is longer for fine sediments than for sandy sediments. Four liters of sediment generally yield between 500 and 1,500 mL of pore water. The sediment that surrounds and accumulates on the air stone acts as a filter, and, except for the first few milliliters, the collected pore water is clear. Because there is no exposure to air or avenue for escape, volatile compounds andin situ characteristics are retained in the extracted pore water.

  17. Metal leaching in drinking water domestic distribution system: an Italian case study.

    PubMed

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Gialdini, Francesca; Collivignarelli, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate metal contamination of tap water in seven public buildings in Brescia (Italy). Two monitoring periods were performed using three different sampling methods (overnight stagnation, 30-min stagnation, and random daytime). The results show that the water parameters exceeding the international standards (Directive 98/83/EC) at the tap were lead (max = 363??g/L), nickel (max = 184??g/L), zinc (max = 4900??g/L), and iron (max = 393??g/L). Compared to the total number of tap water samples analyzed (122), the values higher than limits of Directive 98/83/EC were 17% for lead, 11% for nickel, 14% for zinc, and 7% for iron. Three buildings exceeded iron standard while five buildings exceeded the standard for nickel, lead, and zinc. Moreover, there is no evident correlation between the leaching of contaminants in the domestic distribution system and the age of the pipes while a significant influence is shown by the sampling methods. PMID:24382119

  18. Modelling nutrient exchange at the sediment water interface of river systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouvenot, Marie; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette

    2007-07-01

    SummaryIn-stream benthic processes can play a significant role on the water quality of overlying waters flowing through a river network. In order to better understand and quantify the fate of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus and silica) during their travel through the river continuum, a deterministic benthic sub-model was developed with the purpose of being connected to a drainage network model. This benthic sub-model resolves the differential equations representing early diagenesis in the sediment, linking the sedimentation rate of organic matter onto the sediment to the resulting flux of nutrients across the sediment-water interface. The model has been developed for conditions where sedimentation prevails as well as for situations where net erosion prevents the built-up of a significant sediment layer and where only a biofilm can develop, attached to solid substrates. The benthic model was tested independently of the main water column biological-hydrological model to which it is intended to be coupled. For this, three case studies were chosen from the literature representing various sedimentation/erosion conditions: the 8th order river Seine (France), the water storage basin of Méry s/Oise (France), and the headwater stream Orneau (Belgium). The general benthic model has been validated for ammonium, nitrate, oxygen and phosphorus fluxes across the sediment-water interface. The capability of the model to correctly predict the observed nutrients profiles within the sediment was also validated for organic carbon, ammonium and phosphorus. An uncertainty analysis showed that using two modelling objectives (observed fluxes and concentration profiles in the sediment) strongly reduces the uncertainty in parameters calibration. A sensitivity analysis illustrated the complexity of the interacting reactions driving each variable, and justifies the usefulness of the model as a tool for understanding and predicting the behaviour of the benthic compartment of river systems.

  19. Physiological Response of Rainbow Trout to Sediment Released during Open-Cut Pipeline Water Crossing Construction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SCOTT M. REID; GLENN ISAAC; SERGE METIKOSH; JIM EVANS

    2003-01-01

    The physiological response of rainbow trout exposed to elevated suspended sediment concentrations downstream of two open-cut pipeline water crossings was investigated. Trout held in cages downstream of construction had increased respiration rates and shorter times till loss of equilibrium during sealed jar bioassays. Differences in blood hematocrit levels between experiments and transects is attributed to sediment concentration and particle size.

  20. Dynamics of indicator bacteria populations in sediment and river water near a combined sewer outfall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. N. Irvine; G. W. Pettibone

    1993-01-01

    Sediments collected throughout the summer of 1991 from a river bed around a combined sewer outfall were found to have geometric mean faecal coliform and faecal streptococci densities ranging between 10?10 g and 10?10 g respectively. During the study period, faecal coliform densities in water samples from the same river reach were several logs lower than in the sediment, but

  1. Muddy waters: temporal variation in sediment discharging from a karst spring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara J. Mahler; F. Leo Lynch

    1999-01-01

    Karst aquifers are capable of transporting and discharging large quantities of suspended sediment, which can have an important impact on water quality. Here we present the results of intensive monitoring of sediment discharging from a karst spring in response to two storm events, one following a wet season and the other following a dry season; we describe temporal changes in

  2. Measurement and Modeling of Wave-induced Sediment Resuspension in Nearshore Water

    E-print Network

    Measurement and Modeling of Wave-induced Sediment Resuspension in Nearshore Water Primary deployed during the unstratified period at various locations in southern Lake Michigan to measure the heights and periods of surface waves. Measurements of bottom current velocity and suspended sediment

  3. PCB fluxes from the sediment to the water column following resuspension A column experiment

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PCB fluxes from the sediment to the water column following resuspension ­ A column experiment was systematically due to significant levels of PCB-DL and PCDD/F in fish tissue. New campaigns of characterization of cubic meters of contaminated sediments and to improve the understanding of the behavior of PCB

  4. Changes in pore water chemistry of desiccating freshwater sediments with different sulphur contents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. P. Smolders; M. Moonen; K. Zwaga; L. P. M. Lamers; J. G. M. Roelofs

    2006-01-01

    Especially in dry summers, such as 2003 in Europe, wetlands may become subject to desiccation and oxidation processes may affect sediment top layers. In this paper, we present the results of a study in which the development of the pore water chemistry (major ions, nitrate, ammonium, phosphate and some metals) was monitored during experimental desiccation of previously anaerobic freshwater sediments.

  5. SURVIVAL OF 'DAPHNIA MAGNA' AND 'HYALELLA AZTECA' IN CADMIUM-SPIKED WATER AND SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freshwater sediments and water were spiked with cadmium (Cd) in the laboratory, and toxicity tests were conducted with the cladoceran Daphnia magna and the amphipod Hyalella azteca to determine if Cd in the sediment would cause increased toxicity. The 48-h LC50 values for Daphnia...

  6. Biodiversity links above and below the marine sediment–water interface that may influence community stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Austen; P. J. D. Lambshead; P. A. Hutchings; G. Boucher; P. V. R. Snelgrove; C. H. R. Heip; G. King; I. Koike; C. Smith

    2002-01-01

    Linkages across the sediment–water interface (SWI) between biodiversity and community stability appear to exist but are very poorly studied. Processes by which changes in biodiversity could affect stability on the other side of the SWI include carbon transfer during feeding, decomposition of organic matter, nutrient recycling, organism recruitment and structural stabilisation of sediments. The importance of these processes will clearly

  7. DEGRATION OF SELECTED HALOGENATED ETHANES IN ANOXIC SEDIMENT-WATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The degradation of selected halogenated ethanes was studied in anoxic sediment-water suspensions at 1 to 20% sediment concentrations. Batch kinetic experiments were used to quantify decay. Eh measurements of all suspensions were below -100mV (vs SHE), indicating reduced environme...

  8. STUDIES OF BENZIDINE-BASED DYES IN SEDIMENT-WATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorption and degradation of several benzidine-based dyes were studied in sediment-water systems. tudies in resaturated sediment demonstrated that sorption was strongly dependent on pH and the nature and concentration of the inorganic salt in solution. egradation of the dyes i...

  9. Cadmium movement and accumulation in a sediment-water-plant system. [Myriophyllum spicatum L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peverly

    1988-01-01

    Studies in 1986 of cadmium (Cd) mobilization from dosed pond sediments after inputs stopped in 1983 indicated that Cd may be absorbed by rooted aquatic plants and thus returned to the aquatic food chain. The limits of this process were studied in 1987. Cd in plants, water, and sediments was determined and characterized in replicated, outdoor aquaria after single acute

  10. AUTOMATED LONG-TERM REMOTE MONITORING OF SEDIMENT-WATER INTERFACIAL FLUX

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advective flux across the sediment-water interface is temporally and spatially heterogeneous in nature. For contaminated sediment sites, monitoring spatial as well as temporal variation of advective flux is of importance to proper risk management. This project was conducted to ...

  11. Preservation of forcing signals in shallow water carbonate sediments Jon Hill a,

    E-print Network

    Preservation of forcing signals in shallow water carbonate sediments Jon Hill a, , Rachel Wood a: B. Jones Keywords: Carbonate sedimentation Cyclicity Forward modelling Preservation Spectral must be preserved. Here, a deterministic, three-dimensional geological process model is used to explore

  12. INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-02 Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems (SDHW) (Page 1 of 1)

    E-print Network

    INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-02 Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems (SDHW) (Page 1 of 1) Site HEATING SYSTEMS: SRCC Certified Mfr Name & Model Number Net Solar Fraction (from attached CEC F-Chart) # of Collectors in System Collector Size Solar Tank Volume (gallons) §150(j)1B: Backup storage tanks for solar

  13. [Distribution characteristics of organochlorine pesticides in surface water and sediments from the Mengjin wetland].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chun-Yan; Tai, Chao; Zhao, Tong-Qian; Wu, Li; Zhou, Tian-Jian; Dong, Jing-Jing

    2009-06-15

    The surface water and sediments from the Mengjin wetland were collected. After seperated and concentrated by solid phase extraction and Soxhlet extraction, twenty kinds of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the samples from the Mengjin wetland were analyzed by gas chromatography. In the surface water, 7 kinds of OCPs (incluing alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, delta-HCH, 4,4-DDT, heptachor and aldrin) were detected, with the detected ratio of 4.2% -62.5% and the content range of ND-12.21 ng/L. In the sediments, 4,4-DDE and 4,4-DDT were detected, with the detected ratio of 50%-75% and the content range of ND-64.58 ng/g. HCHs and DDTs in the surface water were both lower than the limited value defined by Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water in China, while the surface sediments in the Mengjin wetland pose a bit high risk comparing with ERL and ERM value of risk evaluation. Distribution characteristics of OCPs components showed that HCHs usually had higher residue levels in surface water, while sediment was the fate of DDTs in the transfer process of materials from water to sediment. OCPs content in the surface water and sediments both decreased in the order of high water period > level water period > low water period. OCPs in the low water seasons were mainly the early residue, but OCPs in the high seasons had some new input in near term in the surface water and sediments. The results suggested that non-point source was one of the important sources of OCPs entering Mengjin wetland. PMID:19662839

  14. Ecological risk assessment of urban creek sediments contaminated by untreated domestic wastewater: potential contribution of antimicrobials and a musk fragrance.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Ikumi; Kimura, Kumiko; Kameda, Yutaka; Nakada, Norihide; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that some hydrophobic pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been found to accumulate in river sediments, little is known about the contribution of these compounds to the toxicity of the whole sediment. We sampled river sediments from two urban creeks with an unsewered drainage area to investigate the toxicity for a benthic organism, Chironomus yoshimatsui. The concentrations of selected hydrophobic PPCPs, triclosan (TCS), triclocarban (TCC) and galaxolide (HHCB) were analysed using gas chromatographic mass spectroscopy or liquid chromatographic mass spectroscopy and were found to lie within the range 50 to 200 ng g(-1). The toxicity of the three individual contaminants for the chironomid was also determined. The toxicity of TCC was found to be the strongest, with an NOEC value of 2.5 microg g(-1). Combining the toxicity and measured environmental concentration, the ecological risk was assessed and the contribution of these contaminants to the whole sediment toxicity estimated, assuming additivity. The hazard quotient of all three compounds, determined without assessment factor, ranged between 0.01 and 0.1. The combined contribution of the three compounds to total sediment toxicity was as high as 8.2%, but other unknown factors may also make an important contribution. PMID:24191491

  15. Phosphorus Sources for Aquatic Weeds: Water or Sediments?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Carignan; J. Kalff

    1980-01-01

    Nine common species of aquatic macrophytes took all their phosphorus from the sediments when grown in situ in both a mesotrophic and a mildly eutrophic bay. Even under hypertrophic conditions, the sediments contributed an average of 72 percent of all the phosphorus taken up during growth. These experiments unambiguously demonstrate for the first time that submergent macrophytes in nature overwhelmingly

  16. Remote sensing of suspended sediment water research: principles, methods, and progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ping; Zhang, Jing

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we reviewed the principle, data, methods and steps in suspended sediment research by using remote sensing, summed up some representative models and methods, and analyzes the deficiencies of existing methods. Combined with the recent progress of remote sensing theory and application in water suspended sediment research, we introduced in some data processing methods such as atmospheric correction method, adjacent effect correction, and some intelligence algorithms such as neural networks, genetic algorithms, support vector machines into the suspended sediment inversion research, combined with other geographic information, based on Bayesian theory, we improved the suspended sediment inversion precision, and aim to give references to the related researchers.

  17. Oxygen consumption in the water column and sediments of the northern Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Mark J.; Carini, Stephen A.; Liu, Zhanfei; Ostrom, Nathaniel E.; Gardner, Wayne S.

    2013-05-01

    Hypoxia is a global problem resulting from excessive nutrient inputs to coastal regions, but the biogeochemical mechanisms of hypoxia development are not well understood. The primary location of oxygen consumption (i.e., sediments versus water column) is still debated and may depend on the analytical approach used. In this study, oxygen respiration was measured using incubations combined with membrane inlet mass spectrometry in sediments, water overlying sediments, and the water column in the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone. Water column respiration ranged from 0.09 to 4.42 ?mol O2 l-1 h-1 (mean = 0.77 ± 0.07 (standard error)) and was significantly higher shortly after two hurricanes. Overlying water respiration ranged from 0.31 to 2.46 ?mol O2 l-1 h-1 (mean = 0.70 ± 0.09) and accounted for 3.7 ± 0.8% of total below-pycnocline respiration. Sediment oxygen consumption, measured using a continuous-flow incubation technique, was lowest after the two hurricanes and ranged from 408 to 1800 ?mol O2 m-2 h-1 (mean = 834 ± 83.8 ?mol O2 m-2 h-1). Sediments accounted for 25 ± 5.3% of total below-pycnocline respiration, and sediment oxygen consumption was related negatively to ambient bottom-water oxygen concentration. This negative relationship contradicts previous literature and suggests that high sediment oxygen consumption is driven by abundant, fresh organic material and regulates bottom-water oxygen concentration, rather than the common assumption that bottom-water oxygen concentration determines sediment oxygen consumption. The results from this study suggest that storms and mixing events may lead to conditions suitable for hypoxia redevelopment in as little as two days after disturbances, with the water column playing a critical role in system hypoxia development and maintenance.

  18. The mechanisms of contaminants release due to incipient motion at sediment-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, HongWei; Cheng, PengDa; Zhong, BaoChang; Wang, DaoZeng

    2014-08-01

    Sediments in many rivers and lakes are subjected to resuspension due to a combination of hydrodynamics. However, the roles of contaminant-contained dissolved and particulate sediments during the resuspension release are rarely studied. This study focuses on the release quantity of contaminants in both water phase and solid phase. Conservative tracer (NaCl) and reactive tracer (Phosphorus) were respectively added to cohesive fine-grained sediments and non-cohesive coarse-grained sediments. A range of typical shear stress was conducted to characterize the time-depended release of contaminants in a laboratory flume. When the sediment started to move, the concentration of contaminant in the overlying water increased with the bed shear stress, but the dissolved contaminants responded faster than the particulate ones. The observed contaminant release process can be divided into three main stages: the initial two hours fast mixing: the release contribution of pore water could reach up to 75%; the middle 4-6 h adsorption: the partitioning coefficient of contaminant between water phase and solid phase decreased over the time, and the adsorption of contaminates from resuspended sediment dominated the negative release; the last equilibrium stage: the desorption and adsorption reached equilibrium, and the reactive contaminant made an impact on the water quality in the solid phase. The existing formulas to evaluate the release flux are far from practice meaning as the sediment contaminants undergo a very complex release process.

  19. Partition of nonpolar organic pollutants from water to soil and sediment organic matters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiou, C.T.

    1995-01-01

    The partition coefficients (Koc) of carbon tetrachloride and 1,2-dichlorobenzene between normal soil/sediment organic matter and water have been determined for a large set of soils, bed sediments, and suspended solids from the United States and the People's Republic of China. The Koc values for both solutes are quite invariant either for the soils or for the bed sediments; the values on bed sediments are about twice those on soils. The similarity of Koc values between normal soils and between normal bed sediments suggests that natural organic matters in soils (or sediments) of different geographic origins exhibit comparable polarities and possibly comparable compositions. The results also suggest that the process that converts eroded soils into bed sediments brings about a change in the organic matter property. The difference between soil and sediment Koc values provides a basis for identifying the source of suspended solids in river waters. The very high Koc values observed for some special soils and sediments are diagnostic of severe anthropogenic contamination.

  20. 30 CFR 77.216-5 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    This plan shall provide for major slope stability, include a schedule for the plan's implementation and, except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, contain provisions to preclude the probability of future impoundment of water, sediment, or...

  1. 30 CFR 77.216-5 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    This plan shall provide for major slope stability, include a schedule for the plan's implementation and, except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, contain provisions to preclude the probability of future impoundment of water, sediment, or...

  2. HEXACHLOROBENZENE UPTAKE BY FATHEAD MINNOWS AND MACRO INVERTEBRATES IN RECIRCULATING SEDIMENT/WATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), the worm, Lumbriculus variegatus, and the amphipods Hyalella azteca and Gammarus lacustris were exposed to hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in water with and without a bed of HCB-spiked sediment. ater HCB concentrations were maintained by recirculatio...

  3. VISUALIZING THE RELATIONSHIP OF PBTS IN WATER AND SEDIMENT TO RESIDUES IN FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioaccumulation of persistent bioaccumulative toxicants (PBTs) in aquatic organisms results from uptake of the chemicals through several different exposure routes associated with water, sediment, and biota. This paper presents an approach for depicting and interpreting bioaccumul...

  4. Use of compost filter bermsfor sediment trapping: primary focus on water quality and structural stability 

    E-print Network

    Raut Desai, Aditya Babu

    2004-11-15

    Runoff from road construction and maintenance sites is responsible for erosion and deposition of sediments in the receiving water bodies. In addition to soil particles from erosion, runoff also transports other pollutants ...

  5. Three-dimensional acoustic propagation through shallow water internal, surface gravity and bottom sediment waves

    E-print Network

    Shmelev, Alexey Alexandrovich

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the physics of fully three-dimensional low frequency acoustic interaction with internal waves, bottom sediment waves and surface swell waves that are often observed in shallow waters and on continental ...

  6. Hydrothermal sediments are a source of water column Fe and Mn in the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquilina, Alfred; Homoky, William B.; Hawkes, Jeffrey A.; Lyons, Timothy W.; Mills, Rachel A.

    2014-07-01

    Short sediment cores were collected from ?1100 m water depth at the top of Hook Ridge, a submarine volcanic edifice in the Central Basin of the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica, to assess Fe and Mn supply to the water column. Low-temperature hydrothermal fluids advect through these sediments and, in places, subsurface H2S is present at high enough concentrations to support abundant Sclerolinum sp., an infaunal tubeworm that hosts symbiotic thiotrophic bacteria. The water column is fully oxic, and oxygen penetration depths at all sites are 2-5 cmbsf. Pore water Fe and Mn content is high within the subsurface ferruginous zone (max. 565 ?mol Fe L-1, >3-7 cmbsf)-14-18 times higher than values measured at a nearby, background site of equivalent water depth. Diffusion and advection of pore waters supply significant Fe and Mn to the surface sediment. Sequential extraction of the sediment demonstrates that there is a significant enrichment in a suite of reactive, authigenic Fe minerals in the upper 0-5 cm of sediment at one site characterised by weathered crusts at the seafloor. At a site with only minor authigenic mineral surface enrichment we infer that leakage of pore water Fe and Mn from the sediment leads to enriched total dissolvable Fe and Mn in bottom waters. An Eh sensor mounted on a towed package mapped a distinct Eh signature above this coring site which is dispersed over several km at the depth of Hook Ridge. We hypothesise that the main mechanism for Fe and Mn efflux from the sediment is breach of the surface oxic layer by the abundant Sclerolinum sp., along with episodic enhancements by physical mixing and resuspension of sediment in this dynamic volcanic environment. We propose that Hook Ridge sediments are an important source of Fe and Mn to the deep waters of the Central Basin in the Bransfield Strait, where concentrations are sustained by the benthic flux, and Fe is stabilised in the water column as either colloidal phases or ligand-bound dissolved species. Entrainment of this water mass into the Drake Passage and thereby the Antarctic Circumpolar Current could provide a significant metal source to this HNLC region of the Southern Ocean if mixing and upwelling occurs before removal of this metal pool to underlying sediments. Sediment-covered volcanic ridges are common within rifted margins and may play a previously overlooked role in the global Fe cycle.

  7. Contribution of ammonia, metals, and nonpolar organic compounds to the toxicity of sediment interstitial water from an Illinois River tributary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary K. Schubauer-Berigan; Gerald T. Ankley

    1991-01-01

    Toxicity of Illinois River bulk sediment, sediment interstitial (pore) water and elutriates to the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the amphipod Hyalella azteca was compared to determine the most representative aqueous fraction for toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies. Toxicity of pore water corresponded better than elutriates to bulk sediment toxicity. Subsequent TIE procedures conducted with the cladoceran

  8. Modeling and interpreting element ratios in water and sediments: A sensitivity analysis of post-Chernobyl Ru:Cs ratios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hilton; E. Rigg; W. Davison; J. Hamilton-Taylor; M. Kelly; F. R. Livens; D. L. Singleton

    1995-01-01

    When elements are simultaneously added to lakes, experimentally or by accident, their ratios in the water phase and in bottom sediments can change with time due to differential partitioning between solution and suspended particles or sediments. A number of equations are developed to show the change of ratio with time in water and sediments assuming simultaneous pulse inputs followed by

  9. Water column and bed-sediment core samples collected from Brownlee Reservoir near Oxbow, Oregon, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fosness, Ryan L.; Naymik, Jesse; Hopkins, Candice B.; DeWild, John F.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Idaho Power Company, collected water-column and bed-sediment core samples from eight sites in Brownlee Reservoir near Oxbow, Oregon, during May 5–7, 2012. Water-column and bed-sediment core samples were collected at each of the eight sites and analyzed for total mercury and methylmercury. Additional bed-sediment core samples, collected from three of the eight sites, were analyzed for pesticides and other organic compounds, trace metals, and physical characteristics, such as particle size. Total mercury and methylmercury were detected in each of the water column and bed-sediment core samples. Only 17 of the 417 unique pesticide and organic compounds were detected in bed-sediment core samples. Concentrations of most organic wastewater compounds detected in bed sediment were less than the reporting level. Trace metals detected were greater than the reporting level in all the bed-sediment core samples submitted for analysis. The particle size distribution of bed-sediment core samples was predominantly clay mixed with silt.

  10. Land application of domestic wastewater in Florida--statewide assessment of impact on ground-water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franks, Bernard J.

    1981-01-01

    In Florida domestic waste water is being applied to the land for disposal and reuse. State and Federal regulations favor land-application methods over other advanced waste water treatment practices. Despite the increasing use of this alternative technology, little is known about localized effects on groundwater quality. This report documents the extent of land-application practices in Florida and summarizes case study information on some of the more adequately monitored site throughout the State. More than 2,500 sites in Florida are permitted by the Department of Environmental Regulation for applying domestic waste water to the land. The majority (more than 1,700 sites), classified as infiltration ponds, are concentrated in central and southern Florida. More than 560 sites classified as drainfields, and more than 250 sites classified as irrigation sites, are located primarily in central Florida. An estimated 150 million gallons per day of domestic waste water, after required secondary treatment, are applied to Florida soils. Despite the large numbers of sites and the considerable volume of waste water utilized, little is known about potential impact on groundwater quality. At the few sites where observation wells have been drilled and local groundwater quality monitored, no significant deterioration of water quality has been detected. (USGS)

  11. High performance in low-flow solar domestic hot water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dayan, M.

    1997-12-31

    Low-flow solar hot water heating systems employ flow rates on the order of 1/5 to 1/10 of the conventional flow. Low-flow systems are of interest because the reduced flow rate allows smaller diameter tubing, which is less costly to install. Further, low-flow systems result in increased tank stratification. Lower collector inlet temperatures are achieved through stratification and the useful energy produced by the collector is increased. The disadvantage of low-flow systems is the collector heat removal factor decreases with decreasing flow rate. Many solar domestic hot water systems require an auxiliary electric source to operate a pump in order to circulate fluid through the solar collector. A photovoltaic driven pump can be used to replace the standard electrical pump. PV driven pumps provide an ideal means of controlling the flow rate, as pumps will only circulate fluid when there is sufficient radiation. Peak performance was always found to occur when the heat exchanger tank-side flow rate was approximately equal to the average load flow rate. For low collector-side flow rates, a small deviation from the optimum flow rate will dramatically effect system performance.

  12. Heavy metal profile of water, sediment and freshwater cat fish, Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Siluriformes: Bagridae), of Cross River, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ayotunde, Ezekiel Olatunji; Offem, Benedict Obeten; Ada, Fidelis Bekeh

    2012-09-01

    Cross River serves as a major source of drinking water, transportation, agricultural activities and fishing in Cross River State, Nigeria. Since there is no formal control of effluents discharged into the river, it is important to monitor the levels of metals contaminants in it, thus assessing its suitability for domestic and agricultural use. In order to determine this, three sampling stations designated as Ikom (Station I), Obubra Ogada (Station II) and Calabar (Station III) were randomly selected to study. For this, ten samples of the freshwater Silver Catfish (Chryshchythys nigrogitatus) (29.4-39.5cm SL, 310-510g), sediment and water were collected from each sampling Station from June 2009-June 2010. The heavy metals profiles ofZn, Cu, Fe, Co, Pb, Cd and Cr, in water, sediments and fish muscle were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). In fish, the heavy metals concentration was found to be Cu>Fe>Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd>Co; the highest mean concentration of Copper (0.297 +/- 0.022 microg/g), Cadmium (0.011 +/- 0.007 microg/g), Iron (0.371 +/- 0.489 microg/g), Lead (0.008 +/- 0.008 microg/g), were determined for the fish. In water, the order was found to be Fe>Pb>Zn>Cu>Cr>Cd>Co; the highest mean concentration of Iron (0.009 +/- 0.00) microg/g), Copper (0.015 +/- 0.01 microg/g), Lead (0.0002 +/- 0.00 microg/g) Cadmium (0.0006 +/- 0.001 microg/g), Zinc (0.0036 +/- 0.003 microg/g), were observed in the surface water, respectively. The highest mean concentration of Copper (0.037 +/- 0.03 microg/g), Iron (0.053 +/- 0.04 microg/g), Lead (0.0002 +/- 0.00 microg/g), Cobalt (0.0002 +/- 0.00 microg/g), Cadmium (0.0006 +/- 0.001 microg/g) and Zinc (.009 +/- 0.0015 microg/g) was observed in the bottom water. In sediments, the concentration order found was Zn>Fe>Cu>Pb>Co>Cd; the highest mean concentration of 0.057 +/- 0.04 microg/g, 0.043 +/- 0.03 microg/g, 0.0006 +/- 0.00 microg/g, 0.0002 +/- 0.00 microg/g, 0.0009 +/- 0.00 microg/g, 0.099 +/- 0.00404 microg/g in Iron, Copper, Lead, Cobalt, Cadmium and Zinc were observed in the sediment, respectively; Chromium was not detected in the sediment for the whole sampling area. Most of the heavy metals were below the maximum allowable levels set by the WHO, FEPA and USEPA, except Zinc which mean concentration of 0.099 +/- 0.00404 microg/g was above the recommended limit of 0.0766 microg/g of USEPA in the sediment at Ikom. This implies that the waste assimilation capacity of the river is high, a phenomenon that could be ascribed to dilution, sedimentation and continuous water exchange. This is an indication that an urban and industrial waste discharged into the Cross River has a significant effect on the ecological balance of the river. Thus fish species from the Cross River harvested are safe for human consumption. PMID:23025098

  13. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum in Surface Waters: Interplay of Hydrodynamic Processes, Sediments, and Biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Searcy, K. E.; Packman, A. I.; Atwill, E. R.; Harter, T.

    2005-05-01

    Understanding the movement of pathogens in the environment is necessary to ensure the safety and protection of municipal water supply systems. Cryptosporidium parvum is a human pathogen of particular concern as it is common in surface waters of the United States, it can survive for long periods of time in the environment, and it is difficult to disinfect in water treatment plants. The transport of oocysts through watersheds can be mediated by interactions with the stream channel and suspended particles in the water column. For example, the association of C. parvum oocysts with suspended particles can alter the effective physical properties of the oocysts and increase their settling velocity. The hydrodynamic coupling of the overlying water with the pore water of the sediment bed can carry oocysts from the surface water into the sediment bed. Surface-attached communities of microorganisms, called biofilms, are ubiquitous in surface water systems and can capture C. parvum oocysts. Laboratory experiments were conducted at multiple scales (flowcell, batch, and flume) to determine the association of oocysts with sediments and biofilm communities and to assess the impact of this association on C. parvum transport. The effects of flow conditions, water chemistry, sediment composition, biofilm composition, and biofilm structure on these associations were all evaluated. The experimental results demonstrate that oocyst-sediment-biofilm interactions have significant implications for the propagation of C. parvum oocysts through watersheds and should generally be considered when predicting the fate of pathogens in the environment.

  14. Influence of Potamogeton crispus growth on nutrients in the sediment and water of Lake Tangxunhu

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Mi; D. W. Zhu; Y. Y. Zhou; H. D. Zhou; T. W. Yang; D. P. Hamilton

    2008-01-01

    An incubation experiment was performed on Potamogeton crispus (P. crispus) using sediment collected from Lake Tangxunhu in the center of China, in order to determine the effects of plant growth on\\u000a Fe, Si, Cu, Zn, Mn, Mg, P, and Ca concentrations in the sediments and overlying waters. After 3 months of incubation, Ca,\\u000a Mg, and Si concentrations in the water column were

  15. Pilot Investigation of Perfluorinated Compounds in River Water, Sediment, Soil and Fish in Tianjin, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuanyuan Pan; Yali Shi; Jieming Wang; Xinglong Jin; Yaqi Cai

    2011-01-01

    Detectable PFCs could be found in all samples. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the major PFC in river water, while perfluorooctane\\u000a sulfonate (PFOS) was dominant in sediment and were 17- to 153-fold higher than those in water. PFCs concentrations in soil\\u000a were little higher than those in sediment. In fish muscles PFOS showed the highest concentrations. Generally, PFC concentrations\\u000a in fish

  16. Trace Organic Contaminants in Sediment and Water from Ulsan Bay and Its Vicinity, Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Khim; K. T. Lee; K. Kannan; D. L. Villeneuve; J. P. Giesy; C. H. Koh

    2001-01-01

    Sediment and water samples collected from 32 locations in Ulsan Bay and adjacent inland areas were analyzed for polycyclic\\u000a aromatic hydrocabons (PAHs), nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), bisphenol A (BPA), organochlorine (OC) pesticides (HCB, HCHs,\\u000a CHLs, and DDTs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to characterize their spatial distribution and contamination status.\\u000a PAHs were detected in nearly all sediment and water extracts from

  17. Temperature tolerance and water balance in feral and domestic honey bees, Apis mellifera L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita H. Atmowidjojo; Diana E. Wheeler; Eric H. Erickson; Allen C. Cohen

    1997-01-01

    Feral and domestic honey bees were compared to determine relative levels of adaptation to the Arizona desert. Feral honey bees were more tolerant to high temperatures than domestic honey bees. Monthly critical thermal maxima (CTMs) of feral bees were significantly different from those of domestic bees (P < 0.001). The highest mean CTM for feral bees was 50.7 ± 1.0°C,

  18. CHANGES IN TRACE METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN DETROIT RIVER WATER AND SEDIMENT SINCE THE 1980S

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water samples werre collected from the Trenton Channel of the Detroit River between March 1995 and June 1996. Both unfiltered and filtered samples were collected. Sediments were collected by MDEQ between 1993 and 1996. Water results were compared to those for water samples collec...

  19. LIQUID AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF DIETHYL PHTHALATE IN WATER AND SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diethyl phthalate was determined in water and sediment by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and in water by gas-liquid chromatography with electron capture detection (GLC-ECD). Water samples were extracted with hexane, using a high-speed homogenizer-ultrasonic apparat...

  20. Impact of suburbanization on ground water quality and denitrification in coastal aquifer sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Marjorie Aelion; J. N. Shaw; M. Wahl

    1997-01-01

    The South Carolina coastal plain is currently facing rapid population growth and suburbanization. Suburbanization brings the potential for surface- and ground water contamination from the use of nitrogen-based fertilizers, which can render water toxic to humans and fish, and lead to eutrophication. Additionally, nitrate is highly mobile in sediments and poses the potential for contamination of receiving waters, downstream areas,

  1. Analysis of national water pollution control policies: 2. Agricultural sediment control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin

    1981-01-01

    Application of a national water network model permits an analysis of the likely affects of agricultural sediment control policies on the quality of the nation's waters. This analysis is believed superior to previous assessments based mainly on erosion estimates without accounting for the characteristics of the receiving water or the contribution of pollutants from nonagricultural activities. Specifically, while the earlier

  2. Percentage land use in the watershed determines the water and sediment quality of

    E-print Network

    McMaster University

    Percentage land use in the watershed determines the water and sediment quality of 22 marshes the relationship between land use and water quality. PC3, driven by soluble reactive phosphorus and nitrate nitrogen concentration in the water, was not correlated with land use. Concentrations of polycyclic

  3. Accumulation of radium in sediments from continued disposal of produced water and hydraulic fracturing flowback water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, N. R.; Menio, E. C.; Landis, J. D.; Vengosh, A.; Lauer, N.; Harkness, J.; Kondash, A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent public interest in high volume slickwater hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) has drawn increased interest in wastewater management practices by the public, researchers, industry, and regulators. The management of wastes, including both fluids and solids, poses many engineering challenges, including elevated total dissolved solids and elevated activities of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). One management option for wastewater in particular, which is used in western Pennsylvania, USA, is treatment at centralized waste treatment facilities [1]. Previous studies conducted from 2010-2012 indicated that one centralized facility, the Josephine Brine Treatment facility, removed the majority of radium from produced water and hydraulic fracturing flowback fluid (HFFF) during treatment, but low activities of radium remained in treated effluent and were discharged to surface water [2]. Despite the treatment process and radium reduction, high activities (200 times higher than upstream/background) accumulated in stream sediments at the point of effluent discharge. Here we present new results from sampling conducted at two additional centralized waste treatment facilities (Franklin Brine Treatment and Hart Brine Treatment facilities) and Josephine Brine Treatment facility conducted in June 2014. Preliminary results indicate radium is released to surface water at very low (<50 pCi/L) to non-detectable activities, however; radium continues to accumulate in sediments surrounding the area of effluent release. Combined, the data indicate that 1) radium continues to be released to surface water streams in western Pennsylvania despite oil and gas operators voluntary ban on treatment and disposal of HFFF in centralized waste treatment facilities, 2) radium accumulation in sediments occurred at multiple brine treatment facilities and is not isolated to a single accidental release of contaminants or a single facility. [1] Wilson, J. M. and J. M. VanBriesen (2012). "Oil and Gas Produced Water Management and Surface Drinking Water Sources in Pennsylvania." Environmental Practice 14(04): 288-300. [2] Warner, N. R., C. A. Christie, R. B. Jackson and A. Vengosh (2013). "Impacts of Shale Gas Wastewater Disposal on Water Quality in Western Pennsylvania." ES&T 47(20): 11849-11857.

  4. Occurrence of perfluorinated compounds in the aquatic environment as found in science park effluent, river water, rainwater, sediments, and biotissues.

    PubMed

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Tsai, Yu-Ting; Yu, Tsung-Hsien

    2014-05-01

    The current article maps perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) contamination in the largest Science Park of Taiwan. The occurrence of ten target PFAAs in the effluent of an industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWWTP), its receiving rivers, rainwater, sediment, and the muscles and livers of fish was investigated. All target PFAAs were found in effluent of IWWTP, in which perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (6,930 ng/L), perfluorohexyl sulfonate (PFHxS) (2,662 ng/L) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (3,298 ng/L) were the major constituents. Concentrations of PFBS and PFOS in the IWWTP downstream areas have exceeded safe concentration levels of avian and aquatic life, indicating a potential risk to wildlife in those areas. In sediment samples, predominant contaminants were PFOS (1.5-78 ng/g), PFOA (0.5-5.6 ng/g), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA) (nd-5.4 ng/g). In biological tissue samples, concentrations as high as 28,933 ng/g of PFOS were detected in tilapia and catfish liver samples. A positive correlation for log (C sediment/C water) and log (C tissue/C water) was found. The concentration and proportion (percentage of all PFAAs) of PFOS found in biotissue samples from the Keya River (which receives industrial wastewater) were found to be much greater (200 times) than those of samples from the Keelung River (which receives mainly domestic wastewater). These findings suggest that the receiving aquatic environments and, in turn, the human food chain can be significantly influenced by industrial discharges. PMID:24464397

  5. Effects of sediment transport and seepage direction on hydraulic properties at the sediment-water interface of hyporheic settings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberry, D.O.; Pitlick, J.

    2009-01-01

    Relations between seepage flux and hydraulic properties are difficult to quantify in fluvial settings because of the difficulty in measuring these variables in situ. Tests conducted in a 1.5-m diameter by 1.5-m tall sediment-filled tank indicate that hydraulic gradient increased and hydraulic conductivity (K) decreased following the onset of downward seepage but both parameters were little changed following the onset of upward seepage. Reductions in K during downward seepage were more pronounced when surface-water current was sufficient to mobilize sediment on the bed. Averaged ratios of K determined during upward seepage to K determined during downward seepage (Kup/Kdown) through a sand-and-gravel bed increased from 1.4 to 1.7 with increasing surface-water velocity, and decreased to slightly greater than 1 when the sediment bed became fully mobile. Kup/Kdown for tests conducted with a silt veneer on the bed surface was greater than 2 for all but the fastest surface-water velocities. Substantial reductions in K also were associated with a silt floc that formed on the bed surface during and following test runs. Although the silt floc was typically less than 0.5 mm in thickness, most of the hydraulic gradient was distributed across this thin layer. K of the thin silt floc was reduced by two to three orders of magnitude relative to the underlying sediment. Directional bias in K and relation between K and surface-water velocity require the presence or absence of a layer of lower-K sediment at or near the bed surface, without which no reduction in K and corresponding increase in hydraulic gradient can occur at the bed surface. The lack of prior observation of the consistent bias in K associated with seepage direction is somewhat surprising given the numerous studies where K has been measured in fluvial settings, but may be explained by the small value of the bias relative to the typical uncertainty associated with field determinations of K. If shown to exist in field settings, this bias and its relation to fluvial processes will be relevant to many studies conducted in hyporheic settings that require determination of fluxes across the sediment-water interface.

  6. CONTRIBUTION OF AMMONIA, METALS AND NONPOLAR ORGANIC COMPOUNDS TO THE TOXICITY OF SEDIMENT INTERSTITIAL WATER FROM AN ILLINOIS RIVER TRIBUTARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity of Illinois River bulk sediment, sediment interstitial (pore) water and elutriates to the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the amphipod Hyalella azteca was compared to determine the most representative aqueous fraction for toxi...

  7. Sediment-water distribution of contaminants of emerging concern in a mixed use watershed.

    PubMed

    Fairbairn, David J; Karpuzcu, M Ekrem; Arnold, William A; Barber, Brian L; Kaufenberg, Elizabeth F; Koskinen, William C; Novak, Paige J; Rice, Pamela J; Swackhamer, Deborah L

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated the occurrence and distribution of 15 contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in stream water and sediments in the Zumbro River watershed in Minnesota and compared these with sub-watershed land uses. Sixty pairs of sediment and water samples were collected across all seasons from four stream sites for over two years and analyzed for selected personal care products, pesticides, human and veterinary medications, and phytoestrogens. Spatial and temporal analyses indicate that pharmaceuticals and personal care products (urban/residential CECs) are significantly elevated in water and/or sediment at sites with greater population density (>100 people/km(2)) and percentage of developed land use (>8% of subwatershed area) than those with less population density and land area under development. Significant spatial variations of agricultural pesticides in water and sediment were detectable, even though all sites had a high percentage of agricultural land use. Seasonality in CEC concentration was observed in water but not in sediment, although sediment concentrations of three CECs did vary between years. Average measured non-equilibrium distribution coefficients exceeded equilibrium hydrophobic partitioning-based predictions for 5 of the 7 detected CECs by at least an order of magnitude. Agreement of measured and predicted distribution coefficients improved with increasing hydrophobicity and in-stream persistence. The more polar and degradable CECs showed greater variability in measured distributions across different sampling events. Our results confirm that CECs are present in urban and agricultural stream sediments, including those CECs that would typically be thought of as non-sorptive based on their log Kow values. These results and the observed patterns of sediment and water distributions augment existing information to improve prediction of CEC fate and transport, leading to more accurate assessments of exposure and risk to surface water ecosystems. PMID:25461092

  8. [Influence of submerged macrophytes on phosphorus transference between sediment and overlying water in the growth period].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Zhi; Wang, Guo-Xiang; Yu, Zhen-Fei; Zhou, Bei-Bei; Chen, Qiu-Min; Li, Zhen-Guo

    2012-02-01

    In order to study the process of phosphorus transfer between sediment and overlying water, Hydrilla verticillata and Vallisneria natans were cultured in spring, Potamogeton crispus was cultured in winter. Changes of environmental factors and phosphorus concentrations in water and sediment were investigated. The results indicated that: submerged macrophytes could reduce all phosphorus fractions in the overlying water. Phosphorus concentrations in overlying water maintained in a relative low level in the growth period of submerged macrophytes. The concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) in overlying water of H. verticillata, V. natans and P. crispus were 0.03-0.05, 0.04-0.12, 0.02-0.11 mg x L(-1), respectively. All phosphorus fractions in sediment were reduced. The maximum value between submerged macrophyte and control of H. verticillata, V. natans and P. crispus were 35.34, 60.67 and 25.92 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Dissolved oxygen (DO), redox potential (Eh) and pH in overlying water increased (DO 10.0-14.0 mg x L(-1), Eh 185-240 mV, pH 8.0-11.0) in the submerged macrophytes groups. Submerged macrophytes increased Eh( -140 - -23 mV) and maintained pH(7.2-8.0) in neutral range. The results indicated that submerged macrophytes affected phosphorus transferring between sediment and overlying water through increasing DO, Eh and pH in overlying water, and Eh in sediment. PMID:22509571

  9. Geochemical dynamics of the Atlantis II Deep (Red Sea): II. Composition of metalliferous sediment pore waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anschutz, Pierre; Blanc, Gérard; Monnin, Christophe; Boulègue, Jacques

    2000-12-01

    The Atlantis II Deep is an axial depression of the Red Sea filled with highly saline brines and covered by layered metalliferous sediment. We report new data on the vertical distribution of major salts and trace metals dissolved in the pore waters of the metalliferous sediments. We have studied the chemical composition of interstitial waters of two sediment cores of the western (core 684) and southwestern (core 683) basins. The major dissolved elements are Na and Cl. Their concentrations are close to those of the brine overlying the sediment. The pore waters are undersaturated with respect to halite at the in situ conditions (62°C, 220 bars), but are saturated at the shipboard conditions (10°C, 1 bar). The salt and water contents of the bulk sediment show that core 683 contained halite in the solid fraction. A part of it precipitated after core collection, but most of it was present in situ. Thermodynamic calculations with a water-rock interaction model based on Pitzer's ion interaction approach reveal that equilibrium between the pore waters and anhydrite is achieved in sediment layers for which observations report the presence of this mineral. We used a transport model, which shows that molecular diffusion can smooth the profile of dissolved salt and partly erase the pore water record of past variations of salinity in the lower brine. For example, we calculated that the pore water record of modern variation of brine salinity is rapidly smoothed by molecular diffusion. The dissolved transition metals show large variations with depth in the interstitial waters. The profiles of core 683 reflect the possible advection of hydrothermal fluid within the sediment of the southwestern basin. The distribution of dissolved metals in core 684 is the result of diagenetic reactions, mainly the reduction of Mn-oxide with dissolved Fe(II), the recrystallization of primary oxide minerals, and the precipitation of authigenic Mn-carbonates.

  10. Metal cycling during sediment early diagenesis in a water reservoir affected by acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Torres, E; Ayora, C; Canovas, C R; García-Robledo, E; Galván, L; Sarmiento, A M

    2013-09-01

    The discharge of acid mine drainage (AMD) into a reservoir may seriously affect the water quality. To investigate the metal transfer between the water and the sediment, three cores were collected from the Sancho Reservoir (Iberian Pyrite Belt, SW Spain) during different seasons: turnover event; oxic, stratified period; anoxic and under shallow perennially oxic conditions. The cores were sliced in an oxygen-free atmosphere, after which pore water was extracted by centrifugation and analyzed. A sequential extraction was then applied to the sediments to extract the water-soluble, monosulfide, low crystallinity Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide, crystalline Fe(III)-oxide, organic, pyrite and residual phases. The results showed that, despite the acidic chemistry of the water column (pH<4), the reservoir accumulated a high amount of autochthonous organic matter (up to 12 wt.%). Oxygen was consumed in 1mm of sediment due to organic matter and sulfide oxidation. Below the oxic layer, Fe(III) and sulfate reduction peaks developed concomitantly and the resulting Fe(II) and S(II) were removed as sulfides and probably as S linked to organic matter. During the oxic season, schwertmannite precipitated in the water column and was redissolved in the organic-rich sediment, after which iron and arsenic diffused upwards again to the water column. The flux of precipitates was found to be two orders of magnitude higher than the aqueous one, and therefore the sediment acted as a sink for As and Fe. Trace metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Co) and Al always diffused from the reservoir water and were incorporated into the sediments as sulfides and oxyhydroxides, respectively. In spite of the fact that the benthic fluxes estimated for trace metal and Al were much higher than those reported for lake and marine sediments, they only accounted for less than 10% of their total inventory dissolved in the column water. PMID:23747557

  11. Sediment toxicity test results for the Urban Waters Study 2010, Bellingham Bay, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biedenbach, James M.

    2011-01-01

    The Washington Department of Ecology annually determines the quality of recently deposited sediments in Puget Sound as a part of Ecology's Urban Waters Initiative. The annual sediment quality studies use the Sediment Quality Triad (SQT) approach, thus relying on measures of chemical contamination, toxicity, and benthic in-faunal effects (Chapman, 1990). Since 2002, the studies followed a rotating sampling scheme, each year sampling a different region of the greater Puget Sound Basin. During the annual studies, samples are collected in locations selected with a stratified-random design, patterned after the designs previously used in baseline surveys completed during 1997-1999 (Long and others, 2003; Wilson and Partridge, 2007). Sediment samples were collected by personnel from the Washington Department of Ecology, in June of 2010 and shipped to the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) laboratory in Corpus Christi, Texas (not shown), where the tests were performed. Sediment pore water was extracted with a pneumatic apparatus and was stored frozen. Just before testing, water-quality measurements were made and salinity adjusted, if necessary. Tests were performed on a dilution series of each sample consisting of 100-, 50-, and 25-percent pore-water concentrations. The specific objectives of this study were to: * Extract sediment pore water from a total of 30 sediment samples from the Bellingham Bay, Washington area within a day of receipt of the samples. * Measure water-quality parameters (salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, sulfide, and ammonia) of thawed pore-water samples before testing and adjust salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen, if necessary, to obtain optimal ranges for the test species. * Conduct the fertilization toxicity test with pore water using sea urchin (Stronylocentrotus purpuratus) (S. purpuratus) gametes. * Perform quality control assays with reference pore water, dilution blanks and a positive control dilution series with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in conjunction with each test. * Determine which samples caused a significant decrease in percent fertilization success relative to the negative control.

  12. Behavior of cinosulfuron in paddy surface waters, sediments, and ground water.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, A; Vidotto, F; Gennari, M; Nègre, M

    2001-01-01

    Cinosulfuron (3-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-1-[2-(2-methoxyethoxy)-phenylsulfonyl]-urea) is a sulfonylurea herbicide used to control a wide range of broadleaf weeds in rice (Oryza sativa L.). A 2-yr field study was conducted in northwest Italy to determine the effect of cinosulfuron on surface and subsoil waters in rice paddies. Cinosulfuron was applied at 70 g a.i. ha(-1) on 35 ha of flooded rice. After the treatment, the change in herbicide concentration over time was studied by analyzing water and sediment samples in a test paddy field (2.16 ha, located in the treated area), water in a spring and a pond (both located near the test paddy), two wells (up- and downhill to the treated area), and two piezometers (along the test paddy levee). To better understand some of the field study results, cinosulfuron degradation was also evaluated in the laboratory in solutions buffered to different pH values. Two weeks after the treatment, the cinosulfuron concentration in the paddy water decreased by about 60%. No cinosulfuron was detected at about 2.5 mo after the treatment. The concentration in the sediment gradually increased after the treatment, reaching the highest value (13.53 microg kg(-1)) 3 wk later. The maximum cinosulfuron content in the spring and pond were 0.91 and 0.29 microg L(-1), respectively, and these were detected 60 to 90 days after treatment (DAT). The water collected in the piezometers reached the highest concentration (0.99 microg L(-1)) 29 DAT. Cinosulfuron was never detected in the wells. In the degradation study at different pH values, cinosulfuron degraded rapidly at low pH values. PMID:11215644

  13. Survival of daphnia magna and hyalella azteca in cadmium-spiked water and sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Nebeker, A.V.; Onjukka, S.T.; Cairns, M.A.; Krawczyk, D.F.

    1986-01-01

    Freshwater sediments and water were spiked with cadmium (Cd) in the laboratory, and toxicity tests were conducted with the cladoceran Daphnia magna and the amphipod Hyalella azteca to determine if Cd in the sediment would cause increased toxicity. The 48-h LC50 values for Daphnia in tests without sediment were 36, 33, 24, and 40 micrograms/L total Cd. Calculated free-ion (Cd/sup 2 +/)LC50 values for the same tests were 28, 25, 18 and 31 micrograms/L. LC50 values (48-h) determined for total Cd(uncentrifuged water sample) in the sediment-containing beakers were 252, 69, and 122 micrograms/L for Daphnia. LC50 values for dissolved Cd(centrifuged 10,000 rpm) in the sediment-containing beakers were 61, 27, and 100 micrograms/L for Daphnia. Higher total Cd LC50 values indicate that Cd adsorbed to soluble organic material was not biologically available. No significant mortality of Daphnia or Hyalella occurred in the flow-through tests in which sediment contained the same levels of Cd as in the static tests. Mortality was similar in beakers with and without Cd-spiked sediment, indicating that Cd in the sediment and adsorbed to organic materials was not available to cause increased mortality.

  14. Arsenic Redistribution Between Sediments and Water Near a Highly Contaminated Source

    SciTech Connect

    Keimowitz,A.; Zheng, Y.; Chillrud, S.; Mailloux, B.; Bok Jung, H.; Stute, M.; Simpson, H.

    2005-01-01

    Mechanisms controlling arsenic partitioning between sediment, groundwater, porewaters, and surface waters were investigated at the Vineland Chemical Company Superfund site in southern New Jersey. Extensive inorganic and organic arsenic contamination at this site (historical total arsenic >10 000 {micro}g L{sup -1} or >130 {micro}M in groundwater) has spread downstream to the Blackwater Branch, Maurice River, and Union Lake. Stream discharge was measured in the Blackwater Branch, and water samples and sediment cores were obtained from both the stream and the lake. Porewaters and sediments were analyzed for arsenic speciation as well as total arsenic, iron, manganese, and sulfur, and they indicate that geochemical processes controlling mobility of arsenic were different in these two locations. Arsenic partitioning in the Blackwater Branch was consistent with arsenic primarily being controlled by sulfur, whereas in Union Lake, the data were consistent with arsenic being controlled largely by iron. Stream discharge and arsenic concentrations indicate that despite large-scale groundwater extraction and treatment, >99% of arsenic transport away from the site results from continued discharge of high arsenic groundwater to the stream, rather than remobilization of arsenic in stream sediments. Changing redox conditions would be expected to change arsenic retention on sediments. In sulfur-controlled stream sediments, more oxic conditions could oxidize arsenic-bearing sulfide minerals, thereby releasing arsenic to porewaters and streamwaters; in iron-controlled lake sediments, more reducing conditions could release arsenic from sediments via reductive dissolution of arsenic-bearing iron oxides.

  15. Soil, Groundwater, Surface Water, and Sediments of Kennedy Space Center, Florida: Background Chemical and Physical Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shmalzer, Paul A.; Hensley, Melissa A.; Mota, Mario; Hall, Carlton R.; Dunlevy, Colleen A.

    2000-01-01

    This study documented background chemical composition of soils, groundwater, surface; water, and sediments of Kennedy Space Center. Two hundred soil samples were collected, 20 each in 10 soil classes. Fifty-one groundwater wells were installed in 4 subaquifers of the Surficial Aquifer and sampled; there were 24 shallow, 16 intermediate, and 11 deep wells. Forty surface water and sediment samples were collected in major watershed basins. All samples were away from sites of known contamination. Samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, aroclors, chlorinated herbicides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), total metals, and other parameters. All aroclors (6) were below detection in all media. Some organochlorine pesticides were detected at very low frequencies in soil, sediment, and surface water. Chlorinated herbicides were detected at very low frequencies in soil and sediments. PAH occurred in low frequencies in soiL, shallow groundwater, surface water, and sediments. Concentrations of some metals differed among soil classes, with subaquifers and depths, and among watershed basins for surface water but not sediments. Most of the variation in metal concentrations was natural, but agriculture had increased Cr, Cu, Mn, and Zn.

  16. Contamination of estuarine water, biota, and sediment by halogenated organic compounds: A field study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Chiou, C.T.; Brinton, T.I.; Barber, L.B., II; Demcheck, D.K.; Demas, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    Studies conducted in the vicinity of an industrial outfall in the Calcasieu River estuary, Louisiana, have shown that water, bottom and suspended sediment, and four different species of biota are contaminated with halogenated organic compounds (HOC) including haloarenes. A "salting-out" effect in the estuary moderately enhanced the partitioning tendency of the contaminants into biota and sediments. Contaminant concentrations in water, suspended sediments, and biota were found to be far below the values predicted on the basis of the assumption of phase equilibria with respect to concentrations in bottom sediment. Relative concentration factors of HOC between biota (catfish) and bottom sediment increased with increasing octanol/estuarine water partition coefficients (Kow*), maximizing at log Kow* of about 5, although these ratios were considerably less than equilibrium values. In contrast, contaminant concentrations in water, biota, and suspended sediments were much closer to equilibrium values. Bioconcentration factors of HOC determined on the basis of lipid content for four different biotic species correlated reasonably well with equilibrium triolein/water partition coefficients (Ktw).

  17. Estimating Water Fluxes Across the Sediment-Water Interface in the Lower Merced River, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zamora, Celia

    2008-01-01

    The lower Merced River Basin was chosen by the U.S. Geological Survey?s (USGS) National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) to be included in a national study on how hydrological processes and agricultural practices interact to affect the transport and fate of agricultural chemicals. As part of this effort, surface-water?ground-water (sw?gw) interactions were studied in an instrumented 100-m reach on the lower Merced River. This study focused on estimating vertical rates of exchange across the sediment?water interface by direct measurement using seepage meters and by using temperature as a tracer coupled with numerical modeling. Temperature loggers and pressure transducers were placed in monitoring wells within the streambed and in the river to continuously monitor temperature and hydraulic head every 15 minutes from March 2004 to October 2005. One-dimensional modeling of heat and water flow was used to interpret the temperature and head observations and deduce the sw?gw fluxes using the USGS numerical model, VS2DH, which simulates variably saturated water flow and solves the energy transport equation. Results of the modeling effort indicate that the Merced River at the study reach is generally a slightly gaining stream with small head differences (cm) between the surface water and ground water, with flow reversals occurring during high streamflow events. The average vertical flux across the sediment?water interface was 0.4?2.2 cm/day, and the range of hydraulic conductivities was 1?10 m/day. Seepage meters generally failed to provide accurate data in this high-energy system because of slow seepage rates and a moving streambed resulting in scour or burial of the seepage meters. Estimates of streambed hydraulic conductivity were also made using grain-size analysis and slug tests. Estimated hydraulic conductivity for the upstream transect determined using slug tests ranged from 40 to 250 m/day, whereas the downstream transect ranged from 10 to 100 m/day. The range in variability was a result of position along each transect. A relative percent difference was used to describe the variability in estimates of hydraulic conductivity by grain-size analysis and slug test. Variability in applied methods at the upstream transect ranged from 0 to 9 percent, whereas the downstream transect showed greater variability, with a range of 80 to 133 percent.

  18. A conceptual model for river water and sediment dispersal in the Santa Barbara Channel, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, J.A.; Mertes, L.A.K.; Washburn, L.; Siegel, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    The ephemeral Santa Clara River delivers large amounts of freshwater and sediment to the eastern Santa Barbara Channel during brief, episodic discharge events. This discharge into the channel was characterized here with shipboard measurements during floods of 1997 and 1998. Within approximately 1-km of the river mouth, the river discharge quickly stratifies into a freshened, turbid surface plume and a bottom nephloid layer. Observations immediately off the Santa Clara River mouth on a peak day of river discharge revealed that sediment rapidly settled from the freshened surface waters, as suspended sediment in the freshened surface plume contained only ???6% of the sediment mass expected if the sediment mixed conservatively. On the two subsequent days the reduction of sediment mass in the surface plume continued at ???50% per day. These observations suggest that river sediment undergoes rapid initial settling within ???1-km of the river mouth, followed by somewhat slower rates of settling. Although we did not measure sedimentation or bottom boundary layer processes, our mass balance results suggest that almost all of the river sediment either escapes along or deposits upon the inner shelf seabed.

  19. Presence of pyrethroid pesticides in water and sediments of Ebro River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feo, M. L.; Ginebreda, A.; Eljarrat, E.; Barceló, D.

    2010-11-01

    SummaryThe distribution of pyrethroid insecticides of the Ebro River Delta (NE Spain) was assessed by measuring concentrations in surface water and sediment samples. Pyrethroid extraction from water was carried out by ultrasound-assisted emulsification-extraction (UAEE), while the sediment was sonicated and cleaned up using Florisil cartridge. Method detection of limits (MLODs) for the 12 pyrethroids analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer in negative chemical ionization (GC-NCI-MS) ranged from 0.03 to 35.8 ng L -1 for water and 2.6 to 62.4 pg g -1 for sediment. Recoveries values were in the range of 47-105% for water and 51-105% for sediments, showing satisfactory robustness of the method for analyzing pyrethroids in water and sediment samples. Cypermethrin was detected in 22 water samples collected from Ebro River Delta, while deltamethrin was present only in three water samples at concentrations ranging from 0.73 ng L -1 to 57.2 ng L -1 and 2 ng L -1 to 58.8 ng L -1 for cypermethrin and deltamethrin, respectively. These concentration levels were higher than median lethal concentration (LC50) values found for deltamethrin and lower than LC50 values found for cypermethrin when short time toxic effects are considered. In sediment samples only cypermethrin was detected at concentration levels ranged from 8.27 ng g -1 to 71.9 ng g -1. These levels were higher than its LC50 values. Environmental dynamic behaviour and fate were also evaluated for cypermethrin measuring the sediment/water partition coefficient (ranging from 5.0 to 6.3) and kinetic data (half-life ranging between 13 and 50 days). Results were in good agreement to those reported in literature

  20. A review of surface-water sediment fractions and their interactions with persistent manmade organic compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witkowski, P.J.; Smith, J.A.; Fusillo, T.V.; Chiou, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the suspended and surficial sediment fractions and their interactions with manmade organic compounds. The objective of this review is to isolate and describe those contaminant and sediment properties that contribute to the persistence of organic compounds in surface-water systems. Most persistent, nonionic organic contaminants, such as the chlorinated insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are characterized by low water solubilities and high octanol-water partition coefficients. Consequently, sorptive interactions are the primary transformation processes that control their environmental behavior. For nonionic organic compounds, sorption is primarily attributed to the partitioning of an organic contaminant between a water phase and an organic phase. Partitioning processes play a central role in the uptake and release of contaminants by sediment organic matter and in the bioconcentration of contaminants by aquatic organisms. Chemically isolated sediment fractions show that organic matter is the primary determinant of the sorptive capacity exhibited by sediment. Humic substances, as dissolved organic matter, contribute a number of functions to the processes cycling organic contaminants. They alter the rate of transformation of contaminants, enhance apparent water solubility, and increase the carrying capacity of the water column beyond the solubility limits of the contaminant. As a component of sediment particles, humic substances, through sorptive interactions, serve as vectors for the hydrodynamic transport of organic contaminants. The capabilities of the humic substances stem in part from their polyfunctional chemical composition and also from their ability to exist in solution as dissolved species, flocculated aggregates, surface coatings, and colloidal organomineral and organometal complexes. The transport properties of manmade organic compounds have been investigated by field studies and laboratory experiments that examine the sorption of contaminants by different sediment size fractions. Field studies indicate that organic contaminants tend to sorb more to fine-grained sediment, and this correlates significantly with sediment organic matter content. Laboratory experiments have extended the field studies to a wider spectrum of natural particulates and anthropogenic compounds. Quantitation of isotherm results allows the comparison of different sediment sorbents as well as the estimation of field partition coefficients from laboratory-measured sediment and contaminant properties. Detailed analyses made on the basis of particle-size classes show that all sediment fractions need to be considered in evaluating the fate and distribution of manmade organic compounds. This conclusion is based on observations from field studies and on the variety of natural organic sorbents that demonstrate sorptive capabilities in laboratory isotherm experiments.

  1. Sequestration of priority pollutant PAHs from sediment pore water employing semipermeable membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, K.S.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Lebo, J.A.; Kaiser, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were employed to sample sediment pore water in static exposure studies under controlled laboratory conditions using (control pond and formulated) sediments fortified with 15 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPPAHs). The sediment fortification level of 750 ng/g was selected on the basis of what might be detected in a sediment sample from a contaminated area. The sampling interval consisted of 0, 4, 7, 14, and 28 days for each study. The analytical methodologies, as well as the extraction and sample cleanup procedures used in the isolation, characterization, and quantitation of 15 PPPAHs at different fortification levels in SPMDs, water, and sediment were reported previously (Williamson, M.S. Thesis, University of Missouri - Columbia, USA; Williamson et al., Chemosphere (This issue - PII: S0045-6535(02)00394-6)) and used for this project. Average (mean) extraction recoveries for each PPPAH congener in each matrix are reported and discussed. No procedural blank extracts (controls) were found to contain any PPPAH residues above the method quantitation limit, therefore, no matrix interferences were detected. The focus of this publication is to demonstrate the ability to sequester environmental contaminants, specifically PPPAHs, from sediment pore water using SPMDs and two different types of fortified sediment.

  2. Testing and analysis of load-side immersed heat exchangers for solar domestic hot water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, R.B.; Bingham, C.E.

    1987-10-01

    This report describes work to determine the performance of load-side heat exchangers for use in residential solar domestic hot water systems. We measured the performance of four heat exchangers: a smooth coil and a finned coil having heat transfer areas of 2.5 m/sup 2/ (26 ft/sup 2/) and those having areas of 1.7 m/sup 2/ (19 ft/sup 2/). A numerical model using the thermal network program MITAS was constructed, and results were compared to the experimental results. Research showed a smooth coil with only 70% of the surface area of a finned coil performed better than the finned coil. Also, load-side heat exchangers can maintain and enhance stratification in storage tanks, permitting the use of control strategies that take advantage of stratified storage tanks to increase system performance. The analytical model, which agreed reasonably well with the experimental results, was used to vary heat exchanger flow rate and area and initial tank temperature for both a smooth- and a finned-coil heat exchanger. Increasing the heat exchanger flow rate and area results in higher heat transfer rates but not necessarily optimal performance. Lower initial tank temperatures resulted in reduced tank stratification. The smooth heat exchanger outperformed the finned heat exchanger with the same outside surface area. 15 refs., 37 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Low-Cost Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems for Mild Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, J.; Christensen, C.; Merrigan, T.; Hewett, R.; Jorgensen, G.

    2005-01-01

    In FY99, Solar Heating and Lighting set the goal to reduce the life-cycle cost of saved-energy for solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems in mild climates by 50%, primarily through use of polymer technology. Two industry teams (Davis Energy Group/SunEarth (DEG/SE) and FAFCO) have been developing un-pressurized integral-collector-storage (ICS) systems having load-side heat exchangers, and began field-testing in FY04. DEG/SE?s ICS has a rotomolded tank and thermoformed glazing. Based upon manufacturing issues, costs, and poor performance, the FAFCO team changed direction in late FY04 from an un-pressurized ICS to a direct thermosiphon design based upon use of pool collectors. Support for the teams is being provided for materials testing, modeling, and system testing. New ICS system models have been produced to model the new systems. A new ICS rating procedure for the ICS systems is undergoing testing and validation. Pipe freezing, freeze protection valves, and overheating have been tested and analyzed.

  4. Contaminants in surface water and sediments near the Tynagh silver mine site, County Galway, Ireland.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, A; Phillips, D H; Bowen, J; Sen Gupta, B

    2015-04-15

    A former silver mine in Tynagh, Co. Galway, Ireland is one of the most contaminated mine sites in Europe with maximum concentrations of Zn, As, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Cd far exceeding guideline values for water and sediment. The aims of this research were to 1) further assess the contamination, particularly metals, in surface water and sediment around the site, and 2) determine if the contamination has increased 10 years after the Environmental Protection Agency Ireland (EPAI) identified off-site contamination. Site pH is alkaline to neutral because CaCO3-rich sediment and rock material buffer the exposed acid generating sulphide-rich ore. When this study was compared to the previous EPAI study conducted 10 years earlier, it appeared that further weathering of exposed surface sediment had increased concentrations of As and other potentially toxic elements. Water samples from the tailings ponds and adjacent Barnacullia Stream had concentrations of Al, Cd, Mn, Zn and Pb above guideline values. Lead and Zn concentrations from the tailings pond sediment were 16 and 5 times higher, respectively, than concentrations reported 10 years earlier. Pb and Zn levels in most sediment samples exceeded the Expert Group (EGS) guidelines of 1000 and 5000 mg/kg, respectively. Arsenic concentrations were as high as 6238 mg/kg in the tailings ponds sediment, which is 62 and 862 times greater than the EGS and Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines (CSQG), respectively. Cadmium, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn concentrations in water and sediment were above guideline values downstream of the site. Additionally, Fe, Mn and organic matter (OM) were strongly correlated and correlated to Zn, Pb, As, Cd, Cu and Ni in stream sediment. Therefore, the nearby Barnacullia Stream is also a significant pathway for contaminant transport to downstream areas. Further rehabilitation of the site may decrease the contamination around the area. PMID:25634731

  5. Bottom-water Hypoxia Effects on Sediment–Water Interface Nitrogen Transformations in a Seasonally Hypoxic, Shallow Bay (Corpus Christi Bay, TX, USA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark J. McCarthy; Karen S. McNeal; John W. Morse; Wayne S. Gardner

    2008-01-01

    Bottom-water hypoxia effects on sediment–water interface nitrogen (N) transformations in Corpus Christi Bay (TX, USA) were\\u000a examined using continuous-flow intact sediment core incubations. Sediment cores were collected from three sites in August\\u000a 2002 (summer hypoxia) and April 2003 (normoxia). Oxygen (O2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) depth profiles were generated with microelectrodes. Membrane inlet mass spectrometry was used to measure sediment

  6. A sensitivity analysis of the parameters controlling water-sediment interactions in the coastal zone: Consequences to man and environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iosjpe, M.

    2011-10-01

    A sensitivity analysis has been carried out on the basis of the local and global sensitivity indexes for selected radionuclides ( 3H, 137Cs, 238Pu, 241Am and 244Cm) and main parameters describing the water-sediment interaction (sediment reworking rate, pore-water turnover rate, sediment distribution coefficient, suspended sediment load in water column, sedimentation rate, molecular diffusion coefficient, surface sediment thickness, porosity of bottom sediment and density of sediment material). Sensitivity analysis has been carried out using a compartment model for dose assessment to man and biota, which includes the processes of advection of radioactivity between compartments, sedimentation, diffusion of radioactivity through pore water in sediments, particle mixing, pore water mixing and a burial process of radioactivity in deep sediment layers. The sensitivity analysis indicates that for the conditions in the Norwegian Current (the Norwegian Sea) particle mixing dominates the transfer of radioactivity between the bottom water and surface sediment compartments. For the conditions in the Ob Bay (the Kara Sea), the sedimentation process has also been found to be significant. The calculated dynamics of the sensitivity indexes demonstrate clearly the complexities encountered when modeling water-sediment interactions. It is also shown that the results can be strongly dependent on the time of analysis. For example, given a specific change of parameters the radionuclide concentration will be either increased or decreased, depending on the temporal interval. Information provided by the sensitivity analysis can contribute to a better understanding of experimental data and might further improve the parameterization process. The obtained results show that water-sediment interactions can play a key role in the marine coastal environment, thus demonstrating the need to further deepen our understanding of them, as well as improve the models describing them.

  7. Enzyme activities in the water column and in shallow permeable sediments from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnosti, C.; Ziervogel, K.; Ocampo, L.; Ghobrial, S.

    2009-09-01

    The activities of extracellular enzymes that initiate the microbial remineralization of high molecular weight organic matter were investigated in the water column and sandy surface sediments at two sites in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Six fluorescently labeled polysaccharides were hydrolyzed rapidly in the water column as well as in permeable sediments. This result contrasts with previous studies carried out in environments dominated by fine-grained muds, in which the spectrum of enzymes active in the water column is quite limited compared to that of the underlying sediments. Extracts of Spirulina, Isochrysis, and Thalassiosira were also used to measure hydrolysis rates in water from one of the sites. Rates of hydrolysis of the three plankton extracts were comparable to those of the purified polysaccharides. The broad spectrum and rapid rates of hydrolysis observed in the water column at both sites in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico may be due to the permeable nature of the sediments. Fluid flux through the sediments is sufficiently high that the entire 1.5 m deep water column could filter though the sediments on timescales of a few days to two weeks. Movement of water through sediments may also transport dissolved enzymes from the sediment into the water column, enhancing the spectrum as well as the rate of water column enzymatic activities. Such interaction between the sediments and water column would permit water column microbial communities to access high molecular weight substrates that might otherwise remain unavailable as substrates.

  8. Grazing Land Management Strongly Controls Water Quality, Sediment and Channel Dynamics in Tallgrass Prairie Headwater Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grudzinski, B. G.; Daniels, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    In the prairie remnants of North America, watershed sediment regimes are heavily influenced by livestock grazing practices. Despite dramatic declines in stream water quality and ecosystem function concomitant with increasing gazing pressures, there have been no studies to quantitatively assess the relationship between various grazing treatments and sediment production in natural grassland ecosystems. In this study, we evaluate suspended sediment transport and channel morphology in the Flint Hills physiographic province using a paired whole-watershed approach, including 2 replicates of high density cattle grazing, 2 replicates of low density cattle grazing, 3 replicates of bison grazing and 3 replicates of no grazing. As expected, results demonstrate that cattle grazing operations increase e-coli, sediment concentrations and increase channel width. However, no significant differences in e-coli, suspended sediment dynamics or channel geomorphology were found between bison grazed and ungrazed watersheds.

  9. Sediment microbial communities in Great Boiling Spring are controlled by temperature and distinct from water communities.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jessica K; Peacock, Joseph P; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Williams, Amanda J; Thompson, Daniel B; Dong, Hailiang; Wu, Geng; Hedlund, Brian P

    2013-04-01

    Great Boiling Spring is a large, circumneutral, geothermal spring in the US Great Basin. Twelve samples were collected from water and four different sediment sites on four different dates. Microbial community composition and diversity were assessed by PCR amplification of a portion of the small subunit rRNA gene using a universal primer set followed by pyrosequencing of the V8 region. Analysis of 164 178 quality-filtered pyrotags clearly distinguished sediment and water microbial communities. Water communities were extremely uneven and dominated by the bacterium Thermocrinis. Sediment microbial communities grouped according to temperature and sampling location, with a strong, negative, linear relationship between temperature and richness at all taxonomic levels. Two sediment locations, Site A (87-80 °C) and Site B (79 °C), were predominantly composed of single phylotypes of the bacterial lineage GAL35 (\\[pmacr]=36.1%), Aeropyrum (\\[pmacr]=16.6%), the archaeal lineage pSL4 (\\[pmacr]=15.9%), the archaeal lineage NAG1 (\\[pmacr]=10.6%) and Thermocrinis (\\[pmacr]=7.6%). The ammonia-oxidizing archaeon 'Candidatus Nitrosocaldus' was relatively abundant in all sediment samples <82 °C (\\[pmacr]=9.51%), delineating the upper temperature limit for chemolithotrophic ammonia oxidation in this spring. This study underscores the distinctness of water and sediment communities in GBS and the importance of temperature in driving microbial diversity, composition and, ultimately, the functioning of biogeochemical cycles. PMID:23235293

  10. Sediment microbial communities in Great Boiling Spring are controlled by temperature and distinct from water communities

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Jessica K; Peacock, Joseph P; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Williams, Amanda J; Thompson, Daniel B; Dong, Hailiang; Wu, Geng; Hedlund, Brian P

    2013-01-01

    Great Boiling Spring is a large, circumneutral, geothermal spring in the US Great Basin. Twelve samples were collected from water and four different sediment sites on four different dates. Microbial community composition and diversity were assessed by PCR amplification of a portion of the small subunit rRNA gene using a universal primer set followed by pyrosequencing of the V8 region. Analysis of 164?178 quality-filtered pyrotags clearly distinguished sediment and water microbial communities. Water communities were extremely uneven and dominated by the bacterium Thermocrinis. Sediment microbial communities grouped according to temperature and sampling location, with a strong, negative, linear relationship between temperature and richness at all taxonomic levels. Two sediment locations, Site A (87–80?°C) and Site B (79?°C), were predominantly composed of single phylotypes of the bacterial lineage GAL35 (p?=36.1%), Aeropyrum (p?=16.6%), the archaeal lineage pSL4 (p?=15.9%), the archaeal lineage NAG1 (p?=10.6%) and Thermocrinis (p?=7.6%). The ammonia-oxidizing archaeon ‘Candidatus Nitrosocaldus' was relatively abundant in all sediment samples <82?°C (p?=9.51%), delineating the upper temperature limit for chemolithotrophic ammonia oxidation in this spring. This study underscores the distinctness of water and sediment communities in GBS and the importance of temperature in driving microbial diversity, composition and, ultimately, the functioning of biogeochemical cycles. PMID:23235293

  11. Threshold events in spring discharge: Evidence from sediment and continuous water level measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Ellen K.; Toran, Laura; White, William B.

    2008-03-01

    SummaryIn September 2004, three major hurricanes, Frances, Ivan, and Jeanne, traveled up the eastern United States from the Gulf Coast bringing large amounts of rain to Central Pennsylvania. Monitoring equipment in place at Arch Spring, Blair County, PA captured the effects of these storms on the karstic spring flow. Together these storms revealed a quantitative limit for the carrying capacity of the conduit system. Ivan was a much more devastating storm to the area because rain fell on ground already saturated by Frances, but the net stage increase at the spring was greater during the earlier Frances storm, a 74 cm stage increase versus a 54 cm increase. Storm water not transported through the Arch Spring system was diverted into surface channels during these storms. Suspended sediment collected by an automatic sampler during Frances reveals another threshold crossed. Concurrent with increasing stage and high conductance water, maximum sediment concentrations (933 mg/L) exceed previous fluxes by up to an order of magnitude. The timing of the sediment pulse indicates that high sediment concentrations occur not only when the storm water reaches the spring, but also when stored water is being flushed out of the karst spring system. Sediment previously deposited in the conduit system is flushed only when adequate flows occur, indicating that sediment transport in karst is marked by thresholds and is a strongly non-linear process.

  12. Biogeochemistry of (210)Pb and (210)Po in fresh waters and sediments. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Benoit, G.

    1988-06-01

    The geochemical cycling of (210)Pb in a Massachusetts lake was studied. A mass balance for the epilimnion showed that (210)Pb inputs by precipitation were matched by outputs on settling particles, so direct uptake by bottom sediments was inconsequential. Below the epilimnion, vertical mixing was very low because of a steep temperature/density gradient, and this limited vertical transport. Anoxic conditions caused remobilization of iron and (210)Pb, which reprecipitated at the oxycline and returned to the bottom via settling. Below the zone of precipitation, (210)Pb and iron distributions resulted from constant release from anoxic sediments and dilution in the water column. Sediment (210)Pb distributions were caused by sedimentation and Fickian transport. The Fickian component was equal to the pore water diffusive flux. In pore waters, (210)Pb and (210)Po were 100 times greater that in overlying water and had steep concentration gradients, unlike Fe, Mn, S(-II), and alkalinity. (210)Pb partition coefficients decreased from 15000 to 1500 with depth controlled by sorption on iron oxides. Remobilization to the water column comes from a thin layer of iron-rich floc near the sediment/water interface. Deeper in the cores, diffusive transport can cause redistribution of (210)Pb to an extent that can affect (210)Pb dating.

  13. Phytoremediation of mercury- and methyl mercury-contaminated sediments by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes).

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Fimmen, Ryan L; Yates, Brian J; Lal, Vivek; Randall, Paul

    2012-02-01

    Phytoremediation has the potential for implementation at mercury- (Hg) and methylHg (MeHg)-contaminated sites. Water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) were investigated for their ability to assimilate Hg and MeHg into plant biomass, in both aquatic and sediment-associated forms, over a 68-day hydroponic study. The suitability of E. crassipes to assimilate both Hg and MeHg was evaluated under differing phosphate (PO4) concentrations, light intensities, and sediment:aqueous phase contamination ratios. Because aquatic rhizospheres have the ability to enhance MeHg formation, the level of MeHg in water, sediment, and water hyacinth was also measured. Hg and MeHg were found to concentrate preferentially in the roots of E. crassipes with little translocation to the shoots or leaves of the plant, a result consistent with studies from similar macrophytes. Sediments were found to be the major sink for Hg as they were able to sequester Hg, making it non-bioavailable for water hyacinth uptake. An optimum PO4 concentration was observed for Hg and MeHg uptake. Increasing light intensity served to enhance the translocation of both Hg and MeHg from roots to shoots. Assimilation of Hg and MeHg into the biomass of water hyacinths represents a potential means for sustainable remediation of contaminated waters and sediments under the appropriate conditions. PMID:22567701

  14. Field Evaluation Of Arsenic Transport Across The Ground Water/Surface Water Interface: Speciation In Sediment Material

    EPA Science Inventory

    The solubility and mobility of arsenic in ground water are influenced by a variety of processes in the northeastern US subjective to geogenic and anthropogenic sources. This presentation will discuss the speciation of arsenic in sediment profiles resulting from ground water disc...

  15. Microbial transformations of arsenic: mobilization from glauconitic sediments to water.

    PubMed

    Mumford, Adam C; Barringer, Julia L; Benzel, William M; Reilly, Pamela A; Young, L Y

    2012-06-01

    In the Inner Coastal Plain of New Jersey, arsenic (As) is released from glauconitic sediment to carbon- and nutrient-rich shallow groundwater. This As-rich groundwater discharges to a major area stream. We hypothesize that microbes play an active role in the mobilization of As from glauconitic subsurface sediments into groundwater in the Inner Coastal Plain of New Jersey. We have examined the potential impact of microbial activity on the mobilization of arsenic from subsurface sediments into the groundwater at a site on Crosswicks Creek in southern New Jersey. The As contents of sediments 33-90 cm below the streambed were found to range from 15 to 26.4 mg/kg, with siderite forming at depth. Groundwater beneath the streambed contains As at concentrations up to 89 ?g/L. Microcosms developed from site sediments released 23 ?g/L of As, and active microbial reduction of As(V) was observed in microcosms developed from site groundwater. DNA extracted from site sediments was amplified with primers for the 16S rRNA gene and the arsenate respiratory reductase gene, arrA, and indicated the presence of a diverse anaerobic microbial community, as well as the presence of potential arsenic-reducing bacteria. In addition, high iron (Fe) concentrations in groundwater and the presence of iron-reducing microbial genera suggests that Fe reduction in minerals may provide an additional mechanism for release of associated As, while arsenic-reducing microorganisms may serve to enhance the mobility of As in groundwater at this site. PMID:22494492

  16. Exchange of nutrients across the sediment-water interface in intertidal ria systems (SW Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ospina-Alvarez, N.; Caetano, M.; Vale, C.; Santos-Echeandía, J.; Bernárdez, P.; Prego, R.

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphate and silicate were determined in river water, tidal water that floods the intertidal sediment (flooding water) and pore water of those sediments in the Northern Galician Rias of Ortigueira and Viveiro (NW Iberian Peninsula). The field surveys were done in the productive seasons of spring and summer 2008. Short-sediment cores and tidal flooding water were sampled at the intertidal area during the first 20 min that the tide inundates the sampling site. Nutrient fluxes of rivers (Lourido and Landro) flowing into the rias were in the order of H4SiO4 > NO3- > NH4+ > HPO42 Nutrients input from those rivers were low relative to the nutrient discharge of the entire coastal area. Striking changes of nutrient concentrations in flooding and pore waters of intertidal sediments were observed in the short periods of tidal inundation. Nutrient fluxes driven by molecular diffusion and tide-induced transport across the sediment-water interface were quantified and compared to the nutrient river contribution. Diffusive fluxes ranged from 9.3 to 13.7 nmol·cm- 2·d- 1 for nitrate and nitrite, - 1.32 to 30.1 nmol·cm- 2·d- 1 for ammonium, - 0.01 to 0.49 nmol·cm- 2·d- 1 for phosphate, and - 13.2 to 0.2 nmol·cm- 2·d- 1 for silicate. Tide-induced transport always exceeded diffusive fluxes, with differences reaching up to four orders of magnitude for silicate. The overall results of this study emphasize the relevance of tidal water movement in promoting the sediment-water exchange of nutrients in intertidal sub-ecosystems.

  17. Eutrophication in the northern Adriatic Sea: Pore water and sediment studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, D.E.; Berelson, W.M. (Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States)); Giordani, P.; Langone, L.; Frignani, M.; Ravaioli, M. (Inst. di Geologia Marina, CNR, Bologna (Italy))

    1990-01-09

    The northern Adriatic Sea has been plagued by problems of eutrophication. This area is relatively shallow (maximum depth = 60m), becoming stratified during the summer months which inhibits oxygen transport to bottom waters. Anthropogenic nutrient loading in rivers entering the northern Adriatic (Po River being the largest) has increased nutrient input to this system and stimulated algal growth. Cores were collected for studies of pore water and solid phase chemistry at 6 stations in this region. [sup 210]Pb was used to constrain sediment accumulation rates and a range of 0-0.5 cm/yr was determined at different stations. Excess [sup 234]Th was only found in the upper 1-2 cm, suggesting that bioturbation is largely restricted to shallow depths. Pore water profiles show evidence of irrigation, and mean diffusive fluxes for oxygen, silica phosphate and ammonia are generally 20-90% of the fluxes obtained from benthic chamber measurements. This is consistent with previous work in this area in which studies of radon fluxes indicated that irrigation plays an important role in sediment-water exchange. Pore water profiles in the northern portion of the study area (near the Po River Delta) were markedly different than profiles in the south; sediments in the north are substantially more acidic and have high concentrations of dissolved iron and phosphate. From the alkalinity vs. TCO[sub 2] relationship in sediment pore waters it appears that differences in reactions involving the reduction of iron oxides and the exchange of magnesium for iron in clays are responsible for this regional difference in pore water properties. Sediments close to the Po apparently undergo more iron-magnesium exchange, while more distal sediments are limited in their ability to do so. Other pore water observations are limited in their ability to do so. Other pore water observations and trends regarding the shape of the silica profiles (which show shallow maxima) will be discussed.

  18. Analysis of pesticides in surface water and sediment from Yolo Bypass, California, 2004-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smalling, Kelly L.; Orlando, James L.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.

    2005-01-01

    Inputs to the Yolo Bypass are potential sources of pesticides that could impact critical life stages of native fish. To assess the direct inputs during inundation, pesticide concentrations were analyzed in water, in suspended and bed-sediment samples collected from six source watersheds to the Yolo Bypass, and from three sites within the Bypass in 2004 and 2005. Water samples were collected in February 2004 from the six input sites to the Bypass during the first flood event of the year representing pesticide inputs during high-flow events. Samples were also collected along a transect across the Bypass in early March 2004 and from three sites within the Bypass in the spring of 2004 under low-flow conditions. Low-flow data were used to understand potential pesticide contamination and its effects on native fish if water from these areas were used to flood the Bypass in dry years. To assess loads of pesticides to the Bypass associated with suspended sediments, large-volume water samples were collected during high flows in 2004 and 2005 from three sites, whereas bed sediments were collected from six sites in the fall of 2004 during the dry season. Thirteen current-use pesticides were detected in surface water samples collected during the study. The highest pesticide concentrations detected at the input sites to the Bypass corresponded to the first high-flow event of the year. The highest pesticide concentrations at the two sites sampled within the Bypass during the early spring were detected in mid-April following a major flood event as the water began to subside. The pesticides detected and their concentrations in the surface waters varied by site; however, hexazinone and simazine were detected at all sites and at some of the highest concentrations. Thirteen current-use pesticides and three organochlorine insecticides were detected in bed and suspended sediments collected in 2004 and 2005. The pesticides detected and their concentrations varied by site and sediment sample type. Trifluralin, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT were highest in the bed sediments, whereas oxyfluorfen and thiobencarb were highest in the suspended sediments. With the exception of the three organochlorine insecticides, suspended sediments had higher pesticide concentrations compared with bed sediments, indicating the potential for pesticide transport throughout the Bypass, especially during high-flow events. Understanding the distribution of pesticides between the water and sediment is needed to assess fate and transport within the Bypass and to evaluate the potential effects on native fish.

  19. Sedimentation patterns on a cold-water coral mound off Mauritania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisele, Markus; Frank, Norbert; Wienberg, Claudia; Titschack, Jürgen; Mienis, Furu; Beuck, Lydia; Tisnerat-Laborde, Nadine; Hebbeln, Dierk

    2014-01-01

    An unconformity-bound glacial sequence (135 cm thick) of a coral-bearing sediment core collected from the flank of a cold-water coral mound in the Banda Mound Province off Mauritania was analysed. In order to study the relation between coral framework growth and its filling by hemipelagic sediments, U-series dates obtained from the cold-water coral species Lophelia pertusa were compared to 14C dates of planktonic foraminifera of the surrounding matrix sediments. The coral ages, ranging from 45.1 to 32.3 ka BP, exhibit no clear depositional trend, while on the other hand the 14C dates of the matrix sediment provide ages within a much narrower time window of <3000 yrs (34.6-31.8 cal ka BP), corresponding to the latest phase of the coral growth period. In addition, high-resolution computer tomography data revealed a subdivision of the investigated sediment package into three distinct parts, defined by the portion and fragmentation of corals and associated macrofauna as well as in the density of the matrix sediments. Grain size spectra obtained on the matrix sediments show a homogeneous pattern throughout the core sediment package, with minor variations. These features are interpreted as indicators of redeposition. Based on the observed structures and the dating results, the sediments were interpreted as deposits of a mass wasting event, namely a debris flow. During this event, the sediment unit must have been entirely mixed; resulting in averaging of the foraminifera ages from the whole unit and giving randomly distributed coral ages. In this context, for the first time mass wasting is proposed to be a substantial process of mound progradation by exporting material from the mound top to the flanks. Hence, it may not only be an erosional feature but also widening the base of the mound, thus allowing further vertical mound growth.

  20. Development of a modular solar domestic hot water system for Department of Defense barracks. Final technical report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Joncich; R. E. Kirts

    1984-01-01

    This report describes the development of a modular concept for solar domestic water heating on Department of Defense (DOD) barracks buildings. In this approach, the solar energy system consists of only two major components: a collector module and a heat-exchanger-pump-storage tank (HPS) module. The collector module is comprised of a three-collector assembly on an aluminum rack for ground or roof

  1. Effects of plumbing attachments on heat losses from solar domestic hot water storage tanks. Final report, Part 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Song; B. D. Wood; L. J. Ji

    1998-01-01

    The Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC) has established a standardized methodology for determining the performance rating of the Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) systems it certifies under OG-300. Measured performance data for the solar collector component(s) of the system are used along with numerical models for the balance of the system to calculate the system`s thermal performance under a

  2. Laboratory measurements of physical, chemical, and optical characteristics of Lake Chicot sediment waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, W. G.; Whitlock, C. H.; Usry, J. W.; Morris, W. D.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    Reflectance, chromaticity, diffuse attenuation, beam attenuation, and several other physical and chemical properties were measured for various water mixtures of lake bottom sediment. Mixture concentrations range from 5 ppm to 700 ppm by weight of total suspended solids in filtered deionized tap water. Upwelled reflectance is a nonlinear function of remote sensing wave lengths. Near-infrared wavelengths are useful for monitoring highly turbid waters with sediment concentrations above 100 ppm. It is found that both visible and near infrared wavelengths, beam attenuation correlates well with total suspended solids ranging over two orders of magnitude.

  3. Normalized rare earth elements in water, sediments, and wine: identifying sources and environmental redox conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, David Z.; Bau, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of the rare earth elements (REE) in surface waters and sediments, when normalized on an element-by-element basis to one of several rock standards and plotted versus atomic number, yield curves that reveal their partitioning between different sediment fractions and the sources of those fractions, for example, between terrestrial-derived lithogenous debris and seawater-derived biogenous detritus and hydrogenous metal oxides. The REE of ancient sediments support their partitioning into these same fractions and further contribute to the identification of the redox geochemistry of the sea water in which the sediments accumulated. The normalized curves of the REE that have been examined in several South American wine varietals can be interpreted to reflect the lithology of the bedrock on which the vines may have been grown, suggesting limited fractionation during soil development.

  4. Humic acid effects on uptake of hexachlorobenzene and hexachlorobiphenyl by sheepshead minnows in static sediment/water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lores, E.M.; Patrick, J.M.; Summers, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of humic acid on accumulation of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorobiphenyl (HCBP) by sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) from two separate experiments is presented. In the first experiment, static sediment/water exposure chambers were used to determine the effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), in the form of terrestrial humic acid (HA), on partitioning of HCB among sediment, water, and sheepshead minnows. Sediments from three geographically different locations were used to test the effect of added HA (0, 3, and 30 mg/L) on accumulation in fish of sediment-bound HCB. Total organic carbon levels in sediment and water and residues of HCB ((14)C-labeled and unlabeled) in sediment, water, and whole-body tissue were measured. Fish/sediment ratios or accumulation relative to sediment (ARS) indicated that addition of HA did not reduce accumulation of sediment-bound toxicants. ARS ranged from 7.5 + or - 4 without added HA to 9.3 + or - 4 with 30 mg/L added HA, but were not statistically different. In a second experiment using HCBP with 0 and 30 mg/L HA and sediment from one location, HCBP concentration in water averaged 0.29 micrograms/L in non-HA tanks and 0.91 micrograms/L in the HA tanks, but both ARS ratios averaged 5.4. In conclusion, the authors believe that these tests indicate that HA does not significantly alter bioavailability of toxicants that are in equilibrium with sediment and water.

  5. Sediment-Water Partition Coefficients of Hydrophobic Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    total organic carbon, black carbon and oil phases model) could model PCB data suc- cessfully whereas on the fraction of organic carbon (foc) and organic carbon­water partition coefficients (Koc) to correctly predict Sediment-Water Partition Coefficients of Hydrophobic Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs

  6. Methyl parathion toxicity to and removal efficiency by Typha latifolia in water and artificial sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Amaya-Chávez; L. Martínez-Tabche; E. López-López; M. Galar-Martínez

    2006-01-01

    Methyl parathion (MeP) is a very hazardous pesticide freely used in agriculture in Mexico. This pesticide and others, arriving through different processes, exert significant effects on water quality with serious consequences for environmental and human health. This study evaluates the removal efficiency of common cattail Typha latifolia L. on MeP in water and artificial sediments. The effects of the pesticide

  7. Monitoring and management of water and sediment quality changes caused by a Harbour impoundment scheme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. H. Babbedge

    1995-01-01

    A long-term monitoring programme of water and sediment quality is being undertaken before, during, and after the impoundment of Sutton Harbour, Plymouth (UK). The impoundment scheme protects an area of the city from periodic flooding, but harbour access is allowed via a lock. The water replacement times have increased from 45 h to 72 h, at springs, with a consequent

  8. Hypolimnetic Anoxia and Sediment Oxygen Demand in California Drinking Water Reservoirs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc W. Beutel

    2003-01-01

    Summertime hypolimnetic anoxia can occur in productive drinking water reservoirs as a result of the decay of phytoplankton. Anoxic conditions promote ecological processes that degrade water quality through the release of problem-causing compounds from anoxic sediments including phosphates, ammonia, sulfides, methyl-mercury, iron and manganese. Hypolimnetic aeration systems are commonly installed in reservoirs to prevent hypolimnetic anoxia, but these systems have

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF A BIDIRECTIONAL ADVECTIVE FLUX METER FOR SEDIMENT-WATER INTERFACE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A bidirectional advective flux meter for measuring water transport across the sediment-water interface has been successfully developed and field tested. The flow sensor employs a heat-pulse technique combined with a flow collection funnel for the flow measurement. Because the dir...

  10. Proposed development of Sediment Quality Guidelines under the European Water Framework Directive: a critique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Crane

    2003-01-01

    The Water Framework Directive is the most important piece of water legislation in Europe for many years and will substantially influence the environmental regulation of chemicals, including human and veterinary pharmaceuticals. The development of Sediment Environmental Quality Standards (EQSs) is called for by the Directive, and proposals have been made for achieving this. However, these proposals are technically controversial and

  11. Water harvesting and sediment trapping in exclosures - A gully diversion experiment in the Tigray Highlands, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descheemaeker, K.; Nyssen, J.; Poesen, J.; Raes, D.; Terryn, L.; Haile, M.; Muys, B.; Deckers, J.

    2009-04-01

    Due to rapid vegetation restoration, exclosures (i.e. areas protected from grazing) are an effective and efficient measure for soil and water conservation. As a result, exclosures have become a widespread measure to combat the severe soil erosion and to rehabilitate the degraded land in the Tigray highlands of northern Ethiopia. Given the high infiltration rates and sediment trapping capacity of exclosures, this study investigates to what extent these characteristics can be optimized through the diversion of runoff water from an eroding gully into a well-restored exclosure. A representative exclosure of 20 years old was selected for the gully diversion experiment. The exclosure was located on a steep limestone escarpment and was cut by a strongly eroding gully. The runoff from the gully was diverted into the exclosure by three diversion structures and canals, which led the runoff about 50 - 100 m into the exclosure and allowed it to infiltrate gradually. At the bottom of the exclosure, a cut-off drain served to evacuate the excess water back into the gully. The aim of the experimental set-up was (1) to supply additional water to the restoring vegetation in the exclosure so as to increase biomass production, (2) to decrease sediment and runoff output from the catchment, (3) to decrease gully erosion rates. The experiment was evaluated using a sediment budget and a water balance. The sediment budget of the gully diversion system was drawn up based on records of the sediment load in the runoff water of the gully and measurements of the volumes of sediment deposited in the exclosure. The water balance of the exclosure system was developed based on measurements of the additional runoff input at the three inlet canals and of the outflow of excess runoff water in the cut-off drain. Runoff discharge measurements were made using v-notches in the canals. Weekly soil water content measurements allowed for calibration and validation of the BUDGET soil water balance model. This model was then used to determine the contribution of the additional water input to groundwater recharge and to biomass production for different rainfall scenarios. The gully diversion experiment indicated that sediment deposition rates of 60 Mg ha-1 y-1 can be easily achieved in well-restored exclosures. Infiltration of runoff water from gullies in exclosures resulted in water harvesting, as 1100 mm extra water can infiltrate in normal rainfall years. This had important beneficial effects for the exclosure as fertile sediment was trapped and extra water infiltration resulted in water stress alleviation, increased transpiration and therefore a far higher biomass production. The gully diversion also resulted in a huge increase in deep percolation of water (up to 850 mm of water) and thus recharge of the groundwater, which is expected to result in spring formation downstream. Finally, the trapping of runoff and sediment from the gully in the exclosure decreased runoff and sediment discharges downstream of the exclosure, which resulted in smaller runoff erosivity and hence smaller sediment yield from the gully.

  12. Magnetic field-enhanced sedimentation of nanopowder magnetite in water flow.

    PubMed

    Bakhteeva, Iu; Medvedeva, I; Byzov, I; Zhakov, S; Yermakov, A; Uimin, M; Shchegoleva, N

    2015-07-01

    Sedimentation dynamics of magnetite (?-Fe3O4) nanopowder (10-20?nm) in water in a gradient magnetic field Bmax?=?0.3 T, (dB/dz)max?=?0.13?T/cm was studied for different water flow speeds and starting particle concentrations (0.1 and 1.0?g/l). The aggregates formation in water was monitored under the same conditions. In cyclical water flow, the velocity of particle sedimentation increases significantly in comparison to its rate in still water, which corresponds to the intensified aggregate formation. However, at a water flow speed more than 0.1?cm/s sedimentation velocity slows down, which might be connected to aggregate destruction in a faster water flow. Correlation between sedimentation time and the nanoparticle concentration in water does not follow the trend expected for spherical superparamagnetic particles. In our case sedimentation time is shorter for c?=?0.1?g/l in comparison with that for c?=?1?g/l. We submit that such a feature is caused by particle self-organization in water into complex structures of fractal type. This effect is unexplained in the framework of existing theoretical models of colloids systems, so far. Provisional recommendations are suggested for the design of a magnetic separator on the permanent magnets base. The main device parameters are magnetic field intensity B???0.1?T, magnetic field gradient (dB/dz)max ? (0.1-0.2)?T/cm, and water flow speed V?water from magnetite down to ecological and hygienic standards is reached in 80?min, for c?=?0.1 g/l the time is reduced down to 50?min. PMID:25650300

  13. A comparison of solids collected in sediment traps and automated water samplers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartsch, L.A.; Rada, R.G.; Sullivan, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Sediment traps are being used in some pollution monitoring programs in the USA to sample suspended solids for contaminant analyses. This monitoring approach assumes that the characteristics of solids obtained in sediment traps are the same as those collected in whole-water sampling devices. We tested this assumption in the upper Mississippi River, based on the inorganic particle-size distribution (determined with a laser particle- analyzer) and volatile matter content of solids (a surrogate for organic matter). Cylindrical sediment traps (aspect ratio 3) were attached to a rigid mooring device and deployed in a flowing side channel in Navigation Pool 7 of the upper Mississippi River. On each side of the mooring device, a trap was situated adjacent to a port of an autosampler that collected raw water samples hourly to form 2-d composite samples. Paired samples (one trap and one raw water, composite sample) were removed from each end of the mooring device at 2-d intervals during the 30-d study period and compared. The relative particle collection efficiency of paired samplers did not vary temporally. Particle-size distributions of inorganic solids from sediment traps and water samples were not significantly different. The volatile matter content of solids was lesser in sediment traps (mean, 9.5%) than in corresponding water samples (mean, 22.7%). This bias may have been partly due to under-collection of phytoplankton (mainly cyanobacteria), which were abundant in the water column during the study. The positioning of water samplers and sediment traps in the mooring device did not influence the particle-size distribution or total solids of samples. We observed a small difference in the amount of organic matter collected by water samplers situated at opposite ends of the mooring device.

  14. The Association of Cryptosporidium parvum With Suspended Sediments: Implications for Transport in Surface Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Searcy, K. E.; Packman, A. I.; Atwill, E. R.; Harter, T.

    2003-12-01

    Understanding the transport and fate of microorganisms in surface waters is of vital concern in protecting the integrity and safety of municipal water supply systems. The human pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum is a particular public health interest, as it is ubiquitous in the surface waters of the United States, it can persist for long periods in the environment, and it is difficult to disinfect in water treatment plants. Due to its small size (5 um), low specific gravity (1.05 g/cm3), and negative surface charge, C. parvum oocysts are generally considered to move through watersheds from their source to drinking water reservoirs with little attenuation. However, the transport of the oocysts in surface waters may be mediated by interactions with suspended sediments. Batch experiments were conducted to determine the extent of C. parvum oocyst attachment to several inorganic and organic sediments under varying water chemical conditions, and settling column experiments were performed to demonstrate how these associations influence the effective settling velocity of C. parvum oocysts. Results from these experiments showed that C. parvum oocysts do associate with inorganic and organic sediments and often settle at the rate of the suspended sediment. The size and surface charge of the host suspended sediment influenced the extent of oocyst attachment as oocysts preferentially associated with particles greater than 3 um, and fewer oocysts associated with particles having a highly negative surface charge. Background water chemical conditions including ionic strength, ion composition, and pH did not have a significant effect on oocyst attachment to suspended sediments.

  15. Sediment-to-water blue-green algal recruitment in response to alum and environmental factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven S. Perakis; Eugene B. Welch; Jean M. Jacoby

    1996-01-01

    The sediment-to-water recruitment of blue-green algae was investigated in a shallow lake following treatment with aluminum sulfate and sodium aluminate to control sediment phosphorus (P) release. A comparison of results from two summers each before and after treatment indicates that the treatment did not universally impact the recruitment of either sporulating or non-sporulating forms of blue-green algae. Blooms of Anabaena,

  16. Sediment water exchange of trace metals and nutrients in Galveston Bay, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Warnken, Kent Wayne

    1998-01-01

    a variety of species of sulfur and oxygen within the sediments (Visscher et al. , 1991). They also make it possible to measure such parameters as the redox potential E?within the sediments. The method used during this work for porewater collection... Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry as a method of analyzing natural waters is subject to many limitations that must be addressed before accurate analysis can be performed. The direct analysis of seawater by ICP-MS has been shown to produce spectral...

  17. Rare earth elements in the pore waters of reducing nearshore sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Elderfield; E. R. Sholkovitz

    1987-01-01

    The REE are mobile during early diagenesis in reducing nearshore sediments of Buzzards Bay leading to greatly enhanced concentrations in pore waters, e.g. 815 pmol kg-1 Nd and 1910 pmol kg-1 Ce within 30 cm of the sediment-seawater interface, about 10-50 times local seawater values. Two principal diagenetic reactions have been identified. Preferential Ce enrichment (positive Ce anomalies) and preferential

  18. Benthic trophic status and nutrient fluxes in shallow-water sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Engelsen; Stefan Hulth; Leif Pihl; Kristina Sundbäck

    2008-01-01

    Proliferation of fast-growing ephemeral macroalgae in shallow-water embayments constitutes a large-scale environmental change of coastal marine ecosystems. Since inorganic nutrients essential for the initiation and maintenance of macroalgal growth may be supplied from the underlying sediment, we investigated the coupling between benthic inorganic nutrient (mainly N and P) fluxes and sediment properties in 6 bays representing a wide gradient of

  19. Natural and artificial radionuclides in the Suez Canal bottom sediments and stream water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. El-Tahawy; M. A. Farouk; N. M. Ibrahiem; S. A. M. El-Mongey

    1994-01-01

    Concentration of natural and artificial radionuclides in Suez Canal bottom sediments and stream water have been measured using gamma spectrometers based on a hyper-pure Ge detector. The activity concentrations of 238U series, 232Th series and 40K did not exceed 16.0, 15.5 and 500.0 Bq kg-1 dry weight for sediments. The activity concentration of 238U series and 40K did not exceed

  20. Determination of DDT and Metabolites in Surface Water and Sediment Using LLE, SPE, ACE and SE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda L. Sibali; Jonathan O. Okonkwo; Caliphs Zvinowanda

    2009-01-01

    Surface water and sediment samples collected from Jukskei River in South Africa, were subjected to different extraction techniques,\\u000a liquid–liquid (LLE), solid-phase extraction (SPE), activated carbon extraction (ACE) and soxhlet extraction (SE) for sediment.\\u000a The samples were extracted with dichloromethane, cleaned in a silica gel column and the extracts quantified using a Varian\\u000a 3800 GC-ECD. The percentage recovery test for 2,4?DDT,

  1. Heterotrophic nanoflagellates and bacteria in sediment of a brackish water sill basin in the Baltic Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Ekebom

    1999-01-01

    This study was performed in 1992–1993 in Pojo Bay, a 30–35 m deep brackish water sill basin situated on the SW coast of Finland.\\u000a Bacterial productivity as well as abundance of bacteria and heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF) in the sediment were studied\\u000a in the top 10 mm of the sediment at three stations. Bacterial productivity was measured by incorporation of 3H-thymidine

  2. Methyl t-Butyl Ether Mineralization in Surface-Water Sediment Microcosms under Denitrifying Conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.; Landmeyer, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    Mineralization of [U-14C] methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) to 14CO2 without accumulation of t-butyl alcohol (TBA) was observed in surface-water sediment microcosms under denitrifying conditions. Methanogenic activity and limited transformation of MTBE to TBA were observed in the absence of denitrification. Results indicate that bed sediment microorganisms can effectively degrade MTBE to nontoxic products under denitrifying conditions.

  3. Speciation of metals in bed sediments and water of Qaraaoun Reservoir, Lebanon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samira Ibrahim Korfali; Mey S. Jurdi

    2011-01-01

    Determination of only total element in sediments does not give an accurate estimate of the likely environmental impacts. Speciation\\u000a study of metals in sediment provides information on the potential availability of metals (toxic) to biota under various environmental\\u000a conditions. In water, the toxic metal specie is the free hydrated metal ion. The toxicity of metals depends especially on\\u000a their chemical

  4. WATER AND SEDIMENT MANAGEMENT FOR THE BLUE NILE BASIN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarek Mohamed Abdel-Aziz

    2009-01-01

    The sediment yield of rivers is often sensitive to changes in catchments land use and human activities. Such an impact is most likely to be demonstrated at a restricted spatial scale, particularly in headwater catchments. In large river basins such as Nile River Basin, there are needs to study, understand, and quantify the impacts of these modifications on the hydrologic

  5. ABIOTIC TRANSFORMATIONS OF PESTICIDES IN NATURAL WATERS AND SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Selected organic compounds can undergo abiotic reduction in anaerobic sediment systems. he factors that govern these reactions are not well defined, but the chemistry and the biology are strongly coupled. o ideal methodology is now available to quantitatively separate the contrib...

  6. Sedimentation in Coal-Water Slurry Pipelining Fabio Rosso

    E-print Network

    Rosso, Fabio

    of the sedimentation bed which accumulates on the bottom of the pipe. The analysis is carried out using a combination' stables by diverting two rivers to form an open-channel hydrotransport system [42]. Despite is that hydrotransport may be, in many cases, an attractive alternative to other modes of transport (tracks, ships and so

  7. BENTHIC INVERTEBRATE BIOASSAYS WITH TOXIC SEDIMENT AND PORE WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relative sensitivities of bioassays to determine the toxicity of sediments were investigated and three methods of making the sample dilutions required to generate dose-response relationships were compared. he assays studied were: (a) Microtox, a 15-min assay of Photobacterium...

  8. An Integrated Assessment of Sediment Remediation in a Midwestern U.S. Stream Using Sediment Chemistry, Water Quality, Bioassessment and Fish Biomarkers

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive biological, sediment and water quality study of the lower Little Scioto River near Marion, Ohio, USA was undertaken in July 2007 to evaluate the effectiveness of removal of creosote-contaminated sediment. The study area covered 7.5 river miles (RMs) of the river, ...

  9. Submerged macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum affects phosphorus exchange at the sediment-water interface.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yanran; Cheng, Shuiping; Liang, Wei; Wu, Zhenbin

    2015-01-01

    Substantial research efforts were made to assess the effects of submerged macrophytes on water quality improvement, but information on the mechanism of submerged macrophytes relative to the exchange of phosphorus (P) at the sediment-water interface is very limited. To help fill the void, a popular species, Ceratophyllum demersum L. was chosen to address the effects and mechanisms of submerged macrophyte growth on the processes of P exchange across the sediment--water interface. In treatment mesocosms (planted), equilibrium phosphorus concentration (EPC0) value falls from 68.4 to 36.0 µg/L, with a mean value of 52.5 µg/L. Conversely, the distribution coefficient (Kd) value has a predominantly increasing trend. But they are both significantly higher than an unplanted control (p < 0.05). Also, in the planted mesocosm, maximum phosphate sorption capacity (Qmax) was significantly reduced (4,721-3,845 mg/kg), and most of the linear correlations between different forms of phosphorus and sediment P adsorption parameters were affected (p < 0.05). The EPC0 Percentage Saturation percentages (EPCsat) in planted groups were 325% higher than that in control (p < 0.05). We conclude that C. demersum could promote the release of P from sediments, and soluble reactive phosphorus concentration in overlying water is probably the driving force for P exchange at the sediment-water interface. PMID:25812102

  10. Occurrence of ionophore antibiotics in water and sediments of a mixed-landscape watershed.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Chul; Carlson, Kenneth

    2006-07-01

    Analytical methods for quantifying three ionophore antibiotics, monensin, salinomycin, and narasin, were developed for water and sediment matrices. Sample preparation was based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used to separate and detect the compounds. Recoveries ranged from 83% to 117% for water and from 51% to 105% for sediment in three different concentrations with less than 10% of relative standard deviation. The statistical detection limit was 0.001-0.003 microg/L for water and 0.4-3.6 microg/kg for sediment. Ionophore antibiotics are only used to treat coccidiostats for broilers or turkeys, and to increase growth and feed efficiency for beef and dairy cattle. Since they are not used for human purposes, these compounds can act as markers for the transport of animal pharmaceuticals to the watershed. The occurrence of three ionophore compounds was determined at five sampling sites along the Cache la Poudre River in Northern Colorado representing pristine, urban, and agriculture landscapes. Statistical analysis demonstrates that the measured concentration was significantly different among sampling sites in different sampling events for both water and sediment. In addition, significant differences were observed among different sampling times at each sampling site. Furthermore, all three ionophores were found in the sediments at much higher concentrations than in water indicating the importance of this matrix when determining environmental impacts. PMID:16790258

  11. An Assessment of Metals (Pb and Cu) Contamination in Bottom Sediment from South China Sea Coastal Waters, Malaysia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Ong

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: The accumulation of metal contaminants in sediments can pose serious environmental problems to the surrounding areas. Tr ace metal contamination in sediment could affect the water quality and the bio-assimilation and bioa ccumulation of metals in aquatic organisms, resulting in potential long-term implications on hu man health and ecosystem. Approach: About 154 bottom sediment samples were collected using

  12. Suspended-sediment and fresh-water discharges in the Ob and Yenisey rivers, 1960-1988

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Meade; N. N. Bobrovitskaya; V. I. Babkin

    2000-01-01

    Of the world's great rivers, the Ob and Yenisey rank among the largest suppliers of fresh water and among the smallest suppliers of suspended sediment to the coastal ocean. Sediment in the middle reaches of the rivers is mobilized from bordering terraces and exchanged between channels and flood plains. Sediment in the lower reaches of these great rivers is deposited

  13. Development of Layered Sediment Structure and its Effects on Pore Water Transport and Hyporheic Exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Packman, Aaron I.; Marion, Andrea; Zaramella, Mattia; Chen, Cheng; Gaillard, Jean-François; Keane, Denis T. (Padua); (NWU)

    2008-04-15

    Hyporheic exchange is known to provide an important control on nutrient and contaminant fluxes across the stream-subsurface interface. Similar processes also mediate interfacial transport in other permeable sediments. Recent research has focused on understanding the mechanics of these exchange processes and improving estimation of exchange rates in natural systems. While the structure of sediment beds obviously influences pore water flow rates and patterns, little is known about the interplay of typical sedimentary structures, hyporheic exchange, and other transport processes in fluvial/alluvial sediments. Here we discuss several processes that contribute to local-scale sediment heterogeneity and present results that illustrate the interaction of overlying flow conditions, the development of sediment structure, pore water transport, and stream-subsurface exchange. Layered structures are shown to develop at several scales within sediment beds. Surface sampling is used to analyze the development of an armor layer in a sand-and-gravel bed, while innovative synchrotron-based X-ray microtomography is used to observe patterns of grain sorting within sand bedforms. We show that layered bed structures involving coarsening of the bed surface increase interfacial solute flux but produce an effective anisotropy that favors horizontal pore water transport while limiting vertical penetration.

  14. Microbial and chemical contamination of water, sediment and soil in the Nakivubo wetland area in Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Fuhrimann, Samuel; Stalder, Michelle; Winkler, Mirko S; Niwagaba, Charles B; Babu, Mohammed; Masaba, Godfrey; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Halage, Abdullah A; Schneeberger, Pierre H H; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2015-07-01

    The reuse of domestic and industrial wastewater in urban settings of the developing world may harm the health of people through direct contact or via contaminated urban agricultural products and drinking water. We assessed chemical and microbial pollutants in 23 sentinel sites along the wastewater and faecal sludge management and reuse chain of Kampala, Uganda. Water samples were examined for bacteria (thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs), Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp.) and helminth eggs. Physico-chemical parameters were determined. Water, sediment and soil samples and edible plants (yams and sugar cane) were tested for heavy metals. Water samples derived from the Nakivubo wetland showed mean concentrations of TTCs of 2.9?×?10(5) colony-forming units (CFU)/100 mL. Mean E. coli was 9.9?×?10(4) CFU/100 mL. Hookworm eggs were found in 13.5 % of the water samples. Mean concentrations of iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) were 21.5, 3.3 and 0.14 mg/L, respectively. In soil samples, we found a mean lead (Pb) concentration of 132.7 mg/L. In yams, concentrations of Cd, chromium (Cr) and Pb were 4.4, 4.0 and 0.2 mg/L, while the respective concentrations in sugar cane were 8.4, 4.3 and 0.2 mg/L. TTCs and E. coli in the water, Pb in soil, and Cd, Cr and Pb in the plants were above national thresholds. We conclude that there is considerable environmental pollution in the Nakivubo wetland and the Lake Victoria ecosystem in Kampala. Our findings have important public health implications, and we suggest that a system of sentinel surveillance is being implemented that, in turn, can guide adequate responses. PMID:26122126

  15. Monitoring of nutrients, pesticides, and metals in waters, sediments, and fish of a wetland.

    PubMed

    Salvadó, V; Quintana, X D; Hidalgo, M

    2006-10-01

    Wetland areas are of extraordinary importance for the conservation of wildlife. The Aiguamolls de l'Empordà Natural Park, located in Girona (northeast Spain), is one of the few areas in Europe acting as a way station for migratory birds. The natural park is made up of a brackish water reserve and a fresh water reserve. Agriculture and tourism, which are concentrated especially around coastal population centers, are the main activities in this area and result in the release into the environment of nutrients, pesticides, and heavy metals. This article aims to investigate the presence of nutrients, selected pesticides (organochlorine compounds, permethrin and triazines) and metals (Cr, Cu, Cd, Ni and Pb) in water, sediments, and fish samples. In the case of water, seasonal variations in levels of contamination were also monitored. Comparison was made of the fresh and brackish water reserves and concentration factors for metals and pesticides in sediment were determined. We conclude that the most significant sources of contamination in the natural park are from the entry of pesticides and nutrients into surface waters and sediments as a result of the intensive farming activity of the surrounding areas. The pesticides with the greatest presence were found to be lindane, heptachlor epoxide, permethrin, and atrazine. Among the metals analyzed, Cu and Cr presented the highest concentrations in surface waters and sediments. PMID:16763761

  16. Diffusive release of uranium from contaminated sediments into capillary fringe pore water

    SciTech Connect

    Rod, Kenton A.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Flury, Markus; Pierce, Eric M.; Harsh, James B.

    2012-10-01

    Despite remediation efforts at the former nuclear weapons facility at the Hanford site (Washington State), leaching of uranium (U) from contaminated sediments to the ground water persists at the Hanford 300 Area. Flooding of contaminated capillary fringe sediments due to seasonal changes in the Columbia River stage has been identified as a reason of continued U supply to ground water. We investigated the release of U from Hanford capillary fringe sediments to pore water. Contaminated Hanford sediments were packed into reservoirs of centrifugal filter devices and saturated with Columbia River water for 3 to 84 days at varying solution-to-solid ratios (1:3, 1:1, 5:1, 10:1, 25:1 mL:g). After specified times, samples were centrifuged to a gravimetric water content of 0.11 ± 0.06 g g-1. Within the first three days, there was an initial rapid release of 6-9% of total U from the sediments into the pore water, independent of the solution-to-solid ratio. After 14 days of reaction, however, the experiments with the narrowest solution-to-solid ratios (1:3 and 1:1 mL:g) showed a decline in dissolved U concentrations. The removal of U from the solution phase was accompanied by removal of Ca and HCO3-. Geochemist workbench simulations, conducted using measured solution concentrations from experiments, indicated that calcite could precipitate in the 1:3 solution-to-solid ratio experiment. After the rapid initial release in the first three days for the 5:1, 10:1, and 25:1 solution-to-solid ratio experiments, there was sustained release of U into the pore water. Up to 22% of total U was released on day 84 for the 25:1 solution-to-solid ratio reaction. This sustained release of U from the sediments had diffusion-limited kinetics.

  17. Factors Affecting Lead Concentrations in Drinking Water: Solder and Sediment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teresa M. Stimpfel; Catherine E. Volin; Daniel W. Rosenberg; Edward L. Gershey

    1991-01-01

    The lead content of the drinking water on a 15-acre urban campus was evaluated by a method employing graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Water samples were collected from supply mains, distribution lines, and drinking water fixtures in 14 buildings that range in age up to 80 years. Despite the age of many installations, the majority of the fixtures delivered water

  18. Sediment\\/water and octanol\\/water equilibrium partitioning of volatile organic compounds: temperature dependence in the 2–25°C range

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Dewulf; H. Van Langenhove; S. Graré

    1999-01-01

    The sediment\\/water (Kd) and octanol\\/water (Kow) equilibrium partitioning coefficients have been investigated for volatile chlorinated and monocylic aromatic hydrocarbons in the 2 to 25°C temperature range. The equilibrium partitioning in closed systems (EPICS) method has been optimized to measure both equilibrium partitioning coefficients. Sediment\\/water equilibrium partitioning for a riverine sediment (organic carbon fraction 4.12%) proved to increase with increasing temperature,

  19. Water volume and sediment accumulation in Lake Linganore, Frederick County, Maryland, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sekellick, Andrew J.; Banks, S.L.

    2010-01-01

    To assist in understanding sediment and phosphorus loadings and the management of water resources, a bathymetric survey was conducted at Lake Linganore in Frederick County, Maryland in June 2009 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Frederick and Frederick County, Maryland. Position data and water-depth data were collected using a survey grade echo sounder and a differentially corrected global positioning system. Data were compiled and edited using geographic information system software. A three-dimensional triangulated irregular network model of the lake bottom was created to calculate the volume of stored water in the reservoir. Large-scale topographic maps of the valley prior to inundation in 1972 were provided by the City of Frederick and digitized. The two surfaces were compared and a sediment volume was calculated. Cartographic representations of both water depth and sediment accumulation were produced along with an area/capacity table. An accuracy assessment was completed on the resulting bathymetric model. Vertical accuracy at the 95-percent confidence level for the collected data, the bathymetric surface model, and the bathymetric contour map was calculated to be 0.95 feet, 1.53 feet, and 3.63 feet, respectively. The water storage volume of Lake Linganore was calculated to be 1,860 acre-feet at full pool elevation. Water volume in the reservoir has decreased by 350 acre-feet (about 16 percent) in the 37 years since the dam was constructed. The total calculated volume of sediment deposited in the lake since 1972 is 313 acre-feet. This represents an average rate of sediment accumulation of 8.5 acre-feet per year since Linganore Creek was impounded. A sectional analysis of sediment distribution indicates that the most upstream third of Lake Linganore contains the largest volume of sediment whereas the section closest to the dam contains the largest amount of water. In comparison to other Maryland Piedmont reservoirs, Lake Linganore was found to have one of the lowest sedimentation rates at 0.26 cubic yards per year per acre of drainage area. Sedimentation rates in other comparable Maryland reservoirs were Prettyboy Reservoir (filling at a rate of 2.26 cubic yards per year per acre), Loch Raven Reservoir (filling at a rate of 0.88 cubic yards per year per acre) and Piney Run Reservoir (filling at a negligible rate).

  20. Laboratory upwelled radiance and reflectance spectra of Kerr reservoir sediment waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, W. G.; Whitlock, C. H.; Morris, W. D.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    Reflectance, chromaticity, and several other physical and chemical properties were measured for various water mixtures of bottom sediments taken from two sites at Kerr Reservoir, Virginia. Mixture concentrations ranged from 5 to 1000 ppm by weight of total suspended solids (TSS) in filtered deionized tap water. The two sets of radiance and reflectance spectra obtained were similar in shape and magnitude for comparable values of TSS. Upwelled reflectance was observed to be a nonlinear function of TSS with the degree of curvature a function of wavelength. Sediment from the downstream site contained a greater amount of particulate organic carbon than from the upstream site. No strong conclusions can be made regarding the effects of this difference on the radiance and reflectance spectra. Near-infrared wavelengths appear useful for measuring highly turbid water with concentrations up to 1000 ppm or more. Chromaticity characteristics do not appear useful for monitoring sediment loads above 150 ppm.

  1. Concentration and distribution of antibiotics in water-sediment system of Bosten Lake, Xinjiang.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiaoning; Lu, Jianjiang; Liu, Zilong; Tong, Yanbin; Li, Shanman

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the residues of four sulfonamides, four quinolones, and four tetracyclines in surface water as well as surficial sediment samples, of Bosten Lake, in Xinjiang, China. The results showed the presence of 10 out of the 12 selected antibiotics in both water and sediment. Lomefloxacin was not detected in any of the samples. Among the 12 antibiotics considered, ciprofloxacin, with median concentrations of 39.22 ng L(-1) in surface water and 76.51 ?g kg(-1) in surficial sediment, was the dominant antibiotic in all samples. The sorption coefficient values presented higher sorption capacities of tetracycline and chlortetracycline than the other antibiotics. The cluster analysis revealed elevated levels of pollution in sampling sites 1, 2, and 3, which were situated in a nearby urban area and in the estuary of Kaidu River. This study demonstrates the necessity of regulating the use of antibiotics and improving the management and treatment of their release. PMID:24809500

  2. Geochemistry of waters and bottom sediments in landslide lakes in Babiogórski National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, Dariusz; Rzepa, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the contamination of the landslide lakes located within Babiogórski National Park. For this purpose, samples of water and bottom sediment from 12 lakes were collected. Chemical analyses of the waters (including main cation and anion concentrations, trace-metal levels and selected physicochemical parameters) and of the sediments (including heavy metals) were performed. The waters are acidic to neutral and are characterized by low mineralization. Concentrations of trace elements are commonly low. Elevated levels of Fe, Mn and Al are probably related to natural geochemical processes. The sediments are strongly contaminated by Cd, whereas other trace metals levels are at their hydrogeochemical background. The high level of Cd contamination is most probably related to long-range industrial emissions.

  3. Release of elements to natural water from sediments of Lake Roosevelt, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paulson, Anthony J.; Cox, Stephen E.

    2007-01-01

    Reservoir sediments from Lake Roosevelt (WA, USA) that were contaminated with smelter waste discharged into the Columbia River (BC, Canada) were examined using three measures of elemental release reflecting varying degrees of physical mixing and time scales. Aqueous concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the interstitial water of reservoir sediments, in the gently stirred overlying waters of incubated sediment cores, and in supernatants of aggressively tumbled slurries of reservoir sediments generally were higher than the concentrations from a reference site. When compared to chronic water-quality criteria, all three measures of release suggest that slag-contaminated sediments near the U.S.-Canadian border are potentially toxic as a result of Cu release and Pb release in two of the three measures. All three measures of Cd release suggest potential toxicity for one site farther down the reservoir, probably contaminated as a result of transport and adsorption of Cd from smelter liquid waste. Releases of Zn and As did not appear to be potentially toxic. Carbonate geochemistry indirectly affects the potential toxicity by increasing water hardness.

  4. Diffusive release of uranium from contaminated sediments into capillary fringe pore water

    SciTech Connect

    Rod, Kenton A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Wellman, Dawn M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Flury, Markus [Washington State University, Pullman; Pierce, Eric M [ORNL; Harsh, James B. [Washington State University, Pullman

    2012-01-01

    Despite remediation efforts at the former nuclear weapons facility, leaching of uranium (U) from contaminated sediments to the ground water persists at the Hanford site 300 Area. Flooding of contaminated capillary fringe sediments due to seasonal changes in the Columbia River stage has been identified as a source for U supply to ground water. We investigated U release from Hanford capillary fringe sediments by packing sediments into reservoirs of centrifugal filter devices and saturated with Columbia River water for 3 to 84 days at varying solution-to-solid ratios. After specified times, samples were centrifuged. Within the first three days, there was an initial rapid release of 6-9% of total U, independent of the solution-to-solid ratio. After 14 days of reaction, however, the experiments with the narrowest solution-to-solid ratios showed a decline in dissolved U concentrations. The removal of U from the solution phase was accompanied by removal of Ca and HCO3-. Geochemical modeling indicated that calcite could precipitate in the narrowest solution-to-solid ratio experiment. After the rapid initial release in the first three days for the wide solution-to-solid ratio experiments, there was sustained release of U into the pore water. This sustained release of U from the sediments had diffusion-limited kinetics.

  5. Assessment of metal toxicity in sediment pore water from Lake Macquarie, Australia.

    PubMed

    Doyle, C J; Pablo, F; Lim, R P; Hyne, R V

    2003-04-01

    Recent investigations into the level of heavy metal enrichment in the sediments of Lake Macquarie have indicated that significant contamination has occurred over the past 100 years, with elevated levels of lead, zinc, cadmium, copper, and selenium being observed in most parts of the lake. Pore water extracted from sediments showing the greatest contamination by these metals exhibited toxicity to the larval development of the sea urchin Heliocidaris tuberculata. However, an analysis of pore water metal concentrations revealed that the concentrations of these metals were too low to cause toxicity. Rather, pore water toxicity was highly correlated with manganese for the majority of sites sampled; subsequent spiking experiments confirmed manganese as a cause of toxicity. Current levels of manganese in the sediments of Lake Macquarie have arisen from natural sources and are not the result of anthropogenic activities. These results reiterate the importance of identifying the causes of toxicity in assessments of sediment contamination, particularly when testing sediment pore waters using sensitive early life stages. PMID:12712294

  6. Spatial distribution characteristics of polycyclic musks as a chemical marker in river water and sediment compared with other typical pollutants.

    PubMed

    Mu, Li; Wen, Jianping

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic musks (PMs), widely used in the cosmetic and perfume industries, are gaining attention as a new type of persistent organic pollutant (POP). The related contamination in developing countries, such as China, where the use of these compounds is increasing, needs to be closely monitored. This work systematically studied the distribution profile (water-suspended particulate-sediment-porewater) of PMs in Haihe River, China. The average concentrations of PMs were comparable to those of the traditional POPs. The typical PMs (galaxolide and tonalide) exhibited different environmental behaviors in various media. Water played a more significant role than suspended particulates in the transport of pollutants. Importantly, this work explored the relationships among PMs, surfactant, phosphorus, carbon, salinity, heavy metals and pesticides. Unlike previous reports focusing on the relationships among PMs, wastewater discharge and population distribution, this work innovatively studied the distribution characteristics of pollutants by principal components analysis. The results suggest that PMs can be used as a chemical marker indicating domestic contamination. PMID:23508139

  7. Effects of light, microbial activity, and sediment resuspension on the phosphorus immobilization capability of drinking water treatment residuals in lake sediment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhui; Pei, Yuansheng

    2013-12-01

    Drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs), nonhazardous by-products generated in a drinking water treatment plant, can be reused to immobilize phosphorus (P) to control the internal P loading from lake sediments for eutrophication control. Reasonably, before practical application, it is essential to determine the P immobilization capability of WTRs in lake sediments under various conditions. In this work, laboratory scale experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of light, microbial activity, and sediment resuspension on the P immobilization capability of WTRs. The results suggested that absence of light, low microbial activity, and sediment resuspension can increase the internal P loading from lake sediments. WTRs can, however, reduce the internal P loading significantly. Further analysis demonstrated that WTRs can stabilize P, decreasing the P bioavailability in the sediments under varied conditions. WTRs also presented little undesirable effects on the dissolved oxygen levels and pH of overlying water. Therefore, light, microbial activity, and sediment resuspension have little effect on the P immobilization capability of WTRs in lake sediments. PMID:23749370

  8. Elemental Analysis of Water and Sediments by External Beam Pixe Part 3: Axios (Vardar) River, Greece

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Papadopoulou-mourkidou; G. A. Mourkides; A. A. Katsanos; P. K. Kakanis

    1986-01-01

    The Axios (Vardar) River originates from the south west part of Yugoslavia, transverses Greece, and discharges into the Thermaikos bay in the north Aegean Sea.The proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method with external beam was used for the elemental analysis of water and sediment samples, while measurements of water temperature, dissolved oxygen content, conductivity, pH, and the water flow were

  9. Assessment of arsenic concentrations in domestic well water, by town, in Maine 2005-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, M.G.; Lombard, P.J.; Schalk, L.F.

    2010-01-01

    Prior studies have established that approximately 10 percent of domestic wells in Maine have arsenic levels greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant limit (10 micrograms per liter (ug/L)). Of even greater concern are multiple discoveries of wells with very high arsenic levels (> 500 ug/L) in several areas of the State. A study was initiated to assist the Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention (ME-CDC) in developing a better understanding of the statewide spatial occurrence of wells with elevated arsenic levels at the individual town level, identify areas of the State that should be targeted for increased efforts to promote well-water testing, and generate data for potential use in predicting areas of the State likely to have very high levels of arsenic. The State's Health and Environmental and Testing Laboratory (HETL) annually analyzes samples from thousands of domestic wells for arsenic. Results of arsenic analyses of domestic well water submitted to the HETL from 2005 to 2009 were screened and organized, by town, in order to summarize the results for all towns with samples submitted to the HETL. In order to preserve the privacy of well owners, the screening and organization of samples was conducted in the offices of the ME-CDC, following applicable Maine and United States laws, rules, and privacy policies. After screening, the database contained samples from 531 towns in Maine and from 11,111 individual wells. Of those towns, 385 had samples from 5 or more individual wells, 174 towns had samples from 20 or more individual wells, and 49 towns had samples from 60 or more wells. These samples, because they were submitted by homeowners and were not part of a random sample, may not be representative of all wells in a given area. The minimum, maximum, and median arsenic values for the towns with five or more samples were calculated, and the maximum and median values were mapped for the State. The percentages of samples exceeding 10, 50, 100, and 500 ug/L were calculated for the 174 towns with 20 or more sampled wells, and statewide maps were prepared for each of these categories. More than 25 percent of the sampled wells in 44 towns exceeded 10 ug/L. Many fewer towns had wells with samples that exceeded the 50, 100, or 500 ug/L categories. For 19 towns, more than 10 percent of the sampled wells had arsenic concentrations that exceeded 50 ug/L, and in 45 towns, 1 percent or more exceeded 100 ug/L. Of these, Surry in Hancock County had 120 wells tested, and 23 percent of those wells had arsenic concentrations that exceeded 100 ug/L, which is a much higher rate than for other towns. In only four towns (Danforth in Washington County, Surry and Blue Hill in Hancock County, and Woolwich in Sagadahoc County), 1 percent or more of the sampled wells had arsenic concentrations greater than 500 ug/L during 2005-09. The distribution of high arsenic concentrations in wells follows some geographic patterns, which are generally geologically controlled. There are clusters or belts of towns with high arsenic concentrations (> 50 ug/L), such as in southern coastal areas, the Kennebec County area, and towns along the central coastal part of Maine. In contrast, there are areas of the State with low arsenic concentrations, such as the northernmost towns, as well as towns in the western and west-central areas. There appear to be three distinct large-scale areas of high concentrations of arsenic in groundwater-one in southern coastal areas, one in central Kennebec County, and one in the town of Ellsworth (Hancock County) and the surrounding areas. In addition, several smaller clusters of isolated high concentrations of arsenic in groundwater exist. Earlier testing has identified other clusters of very high arsenic concentrations in groundwater in the towns of Northport, Buxton/Hollis, and Waldoboro, but those samples were collected before 2005 and did not factor in this analysis.

  10. Phthalate esters in water and sediments of the Kaveri River, India: environmental levels and ecotoxicological evaluations.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Krishna Kumar; Sundaramoorthy, Gomathy; Ravichandran, Praveen Kumar; Girijan, Girish Kumar; Sampath, Srimurali; Ramaswamy, Babu Rajendran

    2015-02-01

    Phthalate esters are well known for their environmental contamination and toxicological effects as "endocrine disruptors." In this study, environmental levels of phthalate esters and ecotoxicological risk assessments were performed in one of the major rivers in India, the Kaveri. Water and sediment samples were collected during 2010-2012 representing the major stretch of the river and extracted by solid-phase and ultrasonic methods, respectively, and analyzed for six major phthalates by using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The analytical recovery for phthalates in water and sediment ranged from 79 to 121%. Results indicated that diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dimethyl phthalate were found in every sample, whereas butylbenzyl phthalate and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were detected in 92% of the water samples. Likewise, in sediment samples, DEP was found most often (94%). The total phthalates in water samples ranged from 313 to 1,640 ng/l, whereas in sediments it was 2 to 1,438 ng/g dw (dry weight) with DEHP having the highest concentration. Human health risk assessment based on drinking water consumption showed no potential risk for phthalates and also DEHP levels were safe with respect to USEPA guideline (6,000 ng/l). Further, DEHP and di-n-octyl phthalate levels in water were expected to pose little threat to sensitive organisms in the riverine ecosystem as per ECOSAR chronic values. In case of sediment, the DEHP concentration was well above the USEPA sediment guideline value. To our knowledge, this is the first study to describe the levels and ecotoxicological risks of phthalates in Kaveri River, India. PMID:25056812

  11. Environmental pollution impact on water and sediments of Kumaun lakes, Lesser Himalaya, India: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Brijraj K.

    2005-12-01

    A study of the water and sediment chemistry of the Nainital, Bhimtal, Naukuchiyatal and Sattal Lakes of Kumaun, has shown that the water of these lakes are alkaline and that electrical conductivity, total dissolved solid and bicarbonate HCO{3/-} are much higher in Nainital than in the other three lakes. The weathering of limestone lithology and anthropogenic pollution, the latter due to the very high density of population in the Nainital valley, are the primary sources of enhanced parameters. The low pH of Nainital Lake water is due to low photosynthesis and enhanced respiration, increasing CO2 in the water and the consequent enhancement of Ca2+ and HCO{3/-}. The dissolved oxygen in Nainital Lake is less compared to other lakes, indicating anoxic conditions developing at the mud water interface at depth. The PO{4/3-} content in Nainital is higher (124 ?g/l), showing an increasing trend over time leading to eutrophic conditions. The trace metals (Cu, Co, Zn, Ni, Mn, and Sr) are present in greater amounts in the water of Nainital Lake than in the other three lakes, though Fe and Cr are high in Bhimtal and Fe in Naukuchiyatal. The higher abundance is derived from the leaching of Fe Mg from metavolcanic and metabasic rocks. Most of the heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Mn, Fe, Sr, and Zn) significantly enrich the suspended sediments of the lakes compared to the bed sediments which due to their adsorption on finer particles and owing to multiple hydroxide coating and organic content, except for Fe, which is enriched in the bed sediments. The high rate of sedimentation, 11.5 mm/year in Nainital, compared to Bhimtal with 4.70 mm/year, Naukuchiyatal with 3.72 mm/year, and Sattal with 2.99 mm/year, has resulted in shorter residence time, poor sorting of grains, and lesser adsorption of heavy metals, leading consequently, their depletion in the bed sediments of Nainital Lake.

  12. Reactivity of recently deposited organic matter: Degradation of lipid compounds near the sediment-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canuel, Elizabeth A.; Martens, Christopher S.

    1996-05-01

    The usefulness of biomarker compounds buried in marine sediments depends upon a quantita tive understanding of the effects of early diagenesis on their distribution. To address this, a new experimental approach was utilized to determine rates of degradation in a coastal sediment. Rates of degradation for solvent-extractable lipid components were quantified in four sediment horizons composed of newly accumulated organic matter (31-144 days since deposition). Sediment accumulation rate data derived from changes in the inventory of Be-7 ( t 1/2 = 53.3 days) were combined with concentration data for lipid biomarker compounds, enabling us to evaluate the reactivity of organic matter in the upper 8 cm of the rapidly accumulating sediments of Cape Lookout Bight, North Carolina, USA (CLB). Net rates of loss and rate constants were calculated for individual compounds belonging to three classes of lipids: fatty acids, sterols, and n-alkanes. Individual components showed a range in reactivity, in some cases (fatty acids), attributable to differences in their biological sources. Rates and rate constants were consistently highest in the surficial sediments (0-2.5 cm), indicating that the reactivity of a given molecule(s) decreases over time, and beginning soon after deposition. Comparison with apparent rate constants ( k') calculated over longer timescales (one and ten years) shows that steady-state diagenetic models underestimate rates of degradation at or near the sediment-water interface by an order of magnitude.

  13. HPLC-PFD determination of priority pollutant PAHs in water, sediment, and semipermeable membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, K.S.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Lebo, J.A.; Kaiser, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography coupled with programmable fluorescence detection was employed for the determination of 15 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPPAHs) in water, sediment, and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs). Chromatographic separation using this analytical method facilitates selectivity, sensitivity (ppt levels), and can serve as a non-destructive technique for subsequent analysis by other chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. Extraction and sample cleanup procedures were also developed for water, sediment, and SPMDs using various chromatographic and wet chemical methods. The focus of this publication is to examine the enrichment techniques and the analytical methodologies used in the isolation, characterization, and quantitation of 15 PPPAHs in different sample matrices.

  14. Natural and artificial radionuclides in the Suez Canal bottom sediments and stream water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Tahawy, M. S.; Farouk, M. A.; Ibrahiem, N. M.; El-Mongey, S. A. M.

    1994-07-01

    Concentration of natural and artificial radionuclides in Suez Canal bottom sediments and stream water have been measured using ? spectrometers based on a hyper-pure Ge detector. The activity concentrations of 238U series, 232Th series and 40K did not exceed 16.0, 15.5 and 500.0 Bq kg-1 dry weight for sediments. The activity concentration of 238U series and 40K did not exceed 0.6 and 18.0 Bq 1-1 for stream water.

  15. Modeling water and sediment contamination of Lake Pontchartrain following pump-out of Hurricane Katrina floodwater.

    PubMed

    Dortch, Mark S; Zakikhani, Mansour; Kim, Sung-Chan; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2008-05-01

    Levee failure and overtopping as a result of Hurricane Katrina caused major flooding of New Orleans, Louisiana. Floodwaters, which were contaminated with heavy metals, organic chemicals, and fecal coliform bacteria (FCB), were pumped into neighboring Lake Pontchartrain during dewatering. The impact of levee failure on water and benthic sediment concentrations in the lake was investigated by applying a numerical water quality model coupled to a three-dimensional, numerical hydrodynamic model. The model was used to compute water and benthic sediment concentrations throughout the lake for lead, arsenic, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE), and water concentrations for FCB. Computed concentrations resulting from actual pumped discharges with levee failure and overtopping were compared to computed concentrations resulting from pumped discharges without levee failure or overtopping, and concentrations from both sets of conditions were compared to ecological water and sediment quality screening guideline values. The model indicated that incremental increases above pre-Katrina benthic sediment concentrations are about a factor of 10 greater with dewatering of the floodwaters than with dewatering of storm water without flooding. However, these increases for the metals are small relative to pre-Katrina concentrations. The results showed that the ecological screening-level sediment quality guideline values were exceeded for BaP and DDE in areas near the south shoreline of the lake as a result of floodwater pump-out, whereas, this was not the case for storm water removal without flooding. The model showed that lake water column concentrations should be about the same during both dewatering conditions regardless of whether there is flooding or not. PMID:17399885

  16. Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy was used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system had an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water was the transfer medium that delivered solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivered solar heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy was insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provided auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are presented.

  17. Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy was used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system had an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water was the transfer medium that delivered solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivered solar heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy was insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provided auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are presented.

  18. Analysis of bacterial diversity and metals in produced water, seawater and sediments from an offshore oil and gas production platform.

    PubMed

    Yeung, C William; Law, Brent A; Milligan, Tim G; Lee, Kenneth; Whyte, Lyle G; Greer, Charles W

    2011-10-01

    Produced water is one of the largest waste products routinely discharged into the ocean from offshore oil and gas platforms. This study analyzed bacterial communities and metals in the produced water, surrounding seawater, and sediment around the Thebaud platform. The bacterial community within the produced water was different from the seawater (SAB=13.3), but the discharge had no detectable effect on the bacterial communities in the seawater (SAB>97). In contrast, genomic analysis of sediments revealed that the bacterial community from 250 m was different (SAB=70) from other locations further from the discharge, suggesting that the produced water had a detectable effect on the bacterial community in the sediment closest to the discharge. These near-field sediments contained elevated concentrations of manganese and iron that are associated with the produced water effluent. The results suggested that the discharge of produced water has influenced the bacterial community structure of sediments adjacent to the platform. PMID:21864859

  19. In situ chemical transformations of silver nanoparticles along the water-sediment continuum.

    PubMed

    Khaksar, Maryam; Jolley, Dianne F; Sekine, Ryo; Vasilev, Krasimir; Johannessen, Bernt; Donner, Erica; Lombi, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    In order to accurately assess the potential environmental risk posed by silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), their transformation and fate must be investigated in natural systems. This has proven to be very challenging due to the difficulties encountered in retrieving/analyzing NPs dispersed in complex and heterogeneous environmental matrices at relevant (i.e., low) concentrations. In this study, we overcame this challenge by immobilizing functionalized Ag-NPs onto plasma polymerized solid substrates to form "nano in situ deployment devices" (nIDDs). This method allowed us to retrieve and analyze the Ag-NPs after 48 h of direct exposure in freshwater-sediment and saltwater-sediment environments. The type and extent of Ag-NPs transformation was expected to vary along the water-sediment continuum as sediments typically contain steep gradients in solute concentrations and redox potential. To trace the distribution of redox sensitive elements (e.g., Fe, Mn), Diffusive Equilibration in Thin-films (DET) devices were inserted into the sediments alongside the nIDDs. Chemical transformation of the immobilized Ag-NPs across the water-sediment continuum was investigated after retrieval by synchrotron radiation X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy. Linear combination fitting of Ag K-edge X-ray absorption spectra indicated that the chemical transformations of Ag-NPs in both freshwater and saltwater sediments were strongly affected by the redox conditions over the investigated range. Silver bound to reduced sulfur was the principal product of Ag-NP transformations but different extents of transformation were observed for Ag-NPs exposed to different depths in the sediment. These field results add important insights about the transformation of Ag-NPs in heterogeneous environments. PMID:25405257

  20. Local scale marine modelling of Fukushima releases. Assessment of water and sediment contamination and sensitivity to water circulation description.

    PubMed

    Periáñez, R; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Min, Byung-Il

    2012-11-01

    The dispersion of (137)Cs released from Fukushima nuclear power plant to the sea after the March 11th 2011 tsunami has been studied using numerical models. The 3D dispersion model consists of an advection/diffusion equation with terms describing uptake/release reactions between water and seabed sediments. The dispersion model has been fed with daily currents provided by HYCOM and JCOPE2 ocean models. Seabed sediment (137)Cs patterns obtained using both current data set have been compared. The impact of tides and of atmospheric deposition has been evaluated as well. It has been also found that a 2-step kinetic model (two consecutive reversible reactions) for describing water/sediment interactions produces better results than a 1-step model (one single reversible reaction). PMID:23021937

  1. An evaluation of the OECD 308 water/sediment systems for investigating the biodegradation of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Ericson, Jon F

    2007-08-15

    In recent times, trace levels of pharmaceuticals detected in wastewater effluents and surface waters have raised the level of attention around the ultimate fate and the potential persistence of pharmaceuticals in the environment. We have seen the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicines (EMEA) recently include more rigorous environmental fate testing in European Union (EU) Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) guidance to assess the ultimate fate in water/sediment systems. Yet to date, there is little data available that covers the fate of pharmaceuticals in the water/sediment compartment, and little that assess whether current aerobic and anaerobic methods are appropriate for pharmaceuticals. In this study, the biodegradation profiles of 3 Pfizer products were investigated following the latest ERA guidance and its recommendation for OECD 308 water/sediment biodegradation testing. Experiments included 14C-labeled exemestane, azithromycin, and varenicline representing neutral and cationic pharmaceuticals with average K(oc) values of 3704, 49 400, and 10 483 respectively. Specific HPLC/radioactive monitoring (RAM) methods were used to profile water and sediment samples for biotransformation products. Binding to sediment, as "non-extractables", was considerable for all three pharmaceuticals, though most notable for the cationic pharmaceuticals varenicline and azithromycin ranging from 52% to 94% at study termination, respectively. In general, for all 3 pharmaceuticals studied, the anaerobic conditions demonstrated less biotransformation and mineralization than the aerobic; though their biotransformation profile (number of metabolites) and amount bound to sediment were similar. Based on these findings and our current understanding of anaerobic biodegradation, we would recommend a tiered approach to the OECD 308 water/ sediment test: with default testing just for aerobic conditions; and then if needed, anaerobic testing only for those compounds potentially amenable to typical anaerobic processes. We suggest that as a simulation test would be better suited in later tier testing under EU ERA guidance. Inherent biodegradation or die-away tests seem better suited to derive biodegradation rate constants for subsequent environmental modeling of water and sediment compartments. PMID:17874790

  2. Trace element concentrations in fish, surficial sediments and water from northern part of the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Pourang, N; Nikouyan, A; Dennis, J H

    2005-10-01

    Concentrations of cadmium, lead, nickel and vanadium were determined in water, surficial sediments and the muscle of three demersal fish species (Epinephelus coioides, Psettodes erumei and Solea elongate) from 15 sampling sites in the northern part of Persian Gulf. Concentrations of the elements were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer. There were no significant differences among the sampling sites in Cd and Pb levels in the sediments. The highest concentrations of Ni and V in sediments were found near the southern coast of Qeshm Iland and Bandar Lengeh. Concentrations of Cd, Pb and Ni in the sediments were notably higher than global baseline values. Nearly in all cases the element concentrations in the sediments were considerably greater than RSA (ROPME Sea Area) and the ERL (Effects Range Low) guidelines. Significant differences among the sampling sites could be found for concentrations of all the four metals in water. The mean Ni, Pb and Cd levels in the water samples were relatively higher than those in some other regions of the Persian Gulf. Except few cases, the mean concentrations of the elements in muscle of the selected fish species were markedly below the international guidelines for human consumption. PMID:16240204

  3. Pharmaceutical residues in water and sediment of Msunduzi River, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Matongo, Solomon; Birungi, Grace; Moodley, Brenda; Ndungu, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    The little data about pharmaceutical residue contamination in African water bodies motivated our study on the occurrence of pharmaceutical residues in the water and sediment of Msunduzi River in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa; and in the Darvill wastewater treatment plant found in Msunduzi catchment. Samples collected along the River and wastewater treatment plant were extracted and analysed for pharmaceutical residues selected based on statistics of drug usage in South Africa i.e. antipyretics, antibiotics, caffeine, an antiepileptic and an antipsychotic drug were determined using HPLC-MS/MS. In all the matrices investigated, the antipyretic ibuprofen had the highest concentration of up to 117?gL(-1), 84.60?gL(-1) and 659ngg(-1) in wastewater, surface water and sediment respectively. Antibiotics were detected in generally low concentrations of<10?gL(-1) in surface water samples and up to 34.50?gL(-1) in wastewater; moreover they were not completely removed during wastewater treatment. The percentage removal efficiency of the studied group was 6.55-98.00% for antipyretics, 73.33-98.90% for antibiotics, 48.80% for the anti-epileptic drug and 86.40% for Caffeine. Clozapine exhibited a negative removal. In surface water, Henley dam exhibited a high concentration of the pharmaceutical residues and the highest concentration of metronidazole in sediment (up to 1253.50ngg(-1)) detected. Metronidazole was only detected in sediment and bio-solids. PMID:25935602

  4. Physicochemical and Analytical Data for Tributary Water, Lake Water, and Lake Sediment, Lake Arrowhead, Clay and Archer Counties, Texas, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Jennifer T.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Haynie, Monti M.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    Lake Arrowhead is a reservoir about 24 kilometers southeast of Wichita Falls, Texas, that provides drinking water for the city of Wichita Falls and surrounding areas. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Wichita Falls, did a study in 2006 to assess conditions contributing to elevated arsenic concentrations in Lake Arrowhead. This report describes the sampling and analytical methods, quality assurance, and physicochemical and analytical data. Physiochemical properties were measured in and water samples were collected from five tributaries to Lake Arrowhead (Little Wichita River, West Little Post Oak Creek, East Little Post Oak Creek, Deer Creek, and an unnamed tributary) immediately after storms. Lake water measuring and sampling were done approximately monthly from January through September 2006 at three deep-water sites and seasonally, in January and August 2006, at three shallow-water sites. Cores of lake bottom sediment were collected from five sites on August 30, 2006. Arsenic concentrations in tributary water samples ranged from 1.5 to 6.3 and 0.5 to 4.8 micrograms per liter for unfiltered and filtered samples, respectively. The highest arsenic concentrations were in samples collected from the West Little Post Oak Creek sampling site. Physicochemical properties in lake water varied with depth and season. Dissolved arsenite plus arsenate concentrations in lake water samples generally were between 3 and 5 micrograms per liter. Arsenite concentrations typically were below the laboratory reporting level of 0.6 microgram per liter. There were no detections of monomethylarsonate or dimethylarsinate. The concentration of arsenic in lake sediment samples ranged from 4.4 to 11.2 milligrams per kilogram, with a median of 6.4 milligrams per kilogram. The median arsenic concentration of the five top-interval sediment samples was 8.8 milligrams per kilogram, which generally is higher than the concentrations estimated to be on suspended sediment in the tributaries. Sediment concentrations of seven trace elements were compared to two consensus-based sediment quality guidelines for each: the threshold effect concentration and the probable effect concentration. Arsenic concentration exceeded the threshold effect concentration in one top-interval sediment sample.

  5. Impact of water column acidification on protozoan bacterivory at the lake sediment-water interface

    SciTech Connect

    Tremaine, S.C.; Mills, A.L. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Although the impact of acidification on planktonic grazer food webs has been extensively studied, little is known about microbial food webs either in the water column or in the sediments. Protozoan-bacterium interactions were investigated in a chronically acidified (acid mine drainage) portion of a lake in Virginia. The authors determined the distribution, abundance, apparent specific grazing rate, and growth rate of protozoa over a pH range of 3.6 to 6.5. Protozoan abundance was lower at the most acidified site, while abundance, in general, was high compared with other systems. Specific grazing rates were uncorrelated with pH and ranged between 0.02 and 0.23 h{sup {minus}1}, values similar to those in unacidified systems. The protozoan community from an acidified station was not better adapted to low-pH conditions than a community from an unacidified site (multivariate analysis of variance on growth rates for each community incubated at pHs 4, 5, and 6). Both communities had significantly lower growth rates at pHs 4 and 5 than at pH 6. Reduced protozoan growth rates coupled with high grazing rates and relatively higher bacterial yields (ratio of bacterial-protozoan standing stock) at low pH indicate reduced net protozoan growth efficiency and a metabolic cost of acidification to the protozoan community. However, the presence of an abundant, neutrophilic protozoan community and high bacterial grazing rates indicates that acidification of Lake Anna has not inhibited the bacterium-protozoan link of the sediment microbial food web.

  6. Sudden Clearing of Estuarine Waters upon Crossing the Threshold from Transport to Supply Regulation of Sediment Transport as an Erodible Sediment Pool is Depleted: San Francisco Bay, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2011-01-01

    The quantity of suspended sediment in an estuary is regulated either by transport, where energy or time needed to suspend sediment is limiting, or by supply, where the quantity of erodible sediment is limiting. This paper presents a hypothesis that suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) in estuaries can suddenly decrease when the threshold from transport to supply regulation is crossed as an erodible sediment pool is depleted. This study was motivated by a statistically significant 36% step decrease in SSC in San Francisco Bay from water years 1991-1998 to 1999-2007. A quantitative conceptual model of an estuary with an erodible sediment pool and transport or supply regulation of sediment transport is developed. Model results confirm that, if the regulation threshold was crossed in 1999, SSC would decrease rapidly after water year 1999 as observed. Estuaries with a similar history of a depositional sediment pulse followed by erosion may experience sudden clearing. ?? 2011 Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation (outside the USA).

  7. Comparison of whole-sediment, elutriate and pore-water exposures for use in assessing sediment-associated organic contaminants in bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Harkey, G.A. (Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab., Ann Arbor, MI (United States) Clemson Univ., Pendleton, SC (United States)); Landrum, P.F. (Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)); Klaine, S.J. (Clemson Univ., Pendleton, SC (United States))

    1994-08-01

    Bioassays have frequently been used as tools to simulate exposure of benthos to sediment-associated contaminants in hazard assessments. Due to the problems involved with estimating bioavailability in whole-sediment bioassays, aqueous fractions such as elutriates and pore water have been substituted for whole-sediment exposures. The objective of this research was to compare and evaluate the bioavailability of representative neutral hydrophobic contaminants in whole sediments and in aqueous extracts of whole sediment in simultaneous bioassays, using three representative indicator species, Diporeia spp., Chironomus riparius larvae, and Lumbriculus variegatus. Aqueous extracts of whole sediment did not accurately represent the exposure observed in whole sediment. Generally, the aqueous extracts underexposed organisms compared to whole sediment, even after adjusting accumulation to the fraction of organic carbon in the test media. Accumulation comparisons among whole-sediment, elutriate, and pore-water exposures depended on sampling time. At some sampling times for some contaminants, differences in accumulation between a particular aqueous extract and whole sediment were not significant; however, these similarities were not observed for all species at the particular sampling time. Bioaccumulation and contaminant clearance data suggest that a number of factors such as the indicator species, exposure media, and chemical/physical properties of individual contaminants are responsible for the accumulation differences observed among the tested media. Normalizing bioaccumulation to the amount of organic carbon in a source compartment adjusted for bioavailability differences of only some contaminants. The authors suggest that the bioavailability of contaminants such as those tested cannot be accurately predicted in bioassays that expose organisms to aqueous representations of whole sediment.

  8. In situ Measurement of Pore-Water pH in Anoxic Sediments Using Laser Raman Spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. T. Peltzer; M. Luna; P. M. Walz; X. Zhang; P. G. Brewer

    2010-01-01

    Accurate measurement of the geochemical properties of sediment pore waters is of fundamental importance in ocean geochemistry and microbiology. Recent work has shown that the properties of pore waters can be measured rapidly in situ with a novel Raman based insertion probe (Zhang et al., 2010), and that data obtained from anoxic sediments on in situ dissolved methane concentrations are

  9. A Modified Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Model for Flow and Sediment Transport in the Genesee River Basin

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    A Modified Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Model for Flow and Sediment Transport Corps of Engineers Buffalo, NY Abstract A modified version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was employed to simulate the flow and sediments in the Genesee River Basin, New York. SWAT

  10. Surface Water, Ground Water and Sediment Quality in Three Oxbow Lake Watersheds in the Mississippi Delta Agricultural Region: Pesticides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHARLES COOPER; SAMMIE SMITH; MATT MOORE

    We measured residual and current use pesticides in shallow groundwater, surface water, and lake sediment in three oxbow lakes and their watersheds in the intensively cultivated alluvial plain of the Mississippi River, USA. The three-year study focussed on providing knowledge of pesticide movement and concentrations from intensive agricultural production into aquatic ecosystems and evaluating the degree of contaminant deposition and

  11. Water selenium speciation and sediment fractionation in a California flow-through wetland system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gao, S.; Tanii, K.K.; Peters, D.W.; Herbel, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    A flow-through wetland system was established in the Tulare Lake Drainage District (TLDD) in California to determine if selenium (Se) from saline irrigation drainage can be removed prior to impoundment in evaporation basins to reduce potential toxicity to waterbirds. The objective of this research was to evaluate Se speciation, accumulation, and fractionation in the waters and sediments of the newly developed wetland system. The inlet water was dominated by selenate [Se(VI), 92%], with smaller percentages of selenite [Se(IV), 5%] and organic Se [org-Se(-II), 3%]. For the outflow water, the average percentage of Se(VI) was 72% in November 1997 and 59% in February 1999. This change may be due to an increase in either residence time and/or accumulation of organic detrital matter, which may enhance Se(VI) reduction processes. Selenium accumulation, transformation, and incorporation with the solid phase were all intensified in the surface sediment (<20 cm). The highest total Se concentrations in the sediments were found in the top 5 cm and concentrations dramatically decreased with depth. Elemental Se [Se(0)], as extracted by Na2SO3, was the largest fraction (average of 46%) of the total sediment Se, followed by organic matter-associated Se (OM-Se) extracted by NaOH (average of 34%). Soluble, adsorbed, and carbonate-associated Se, as extracted by KCl, K2HPO4 (pH 8.0), and NaOAc (pH 5.0), were about 3, 10, and 3% of the total sediment Se, respectively. After establishing the wetland for 2 yr, significant Se removal from the flowing water was observed. The major sink mechanisms in the sediment are reduction to Se(0) and immobilization into the organic phase.A flow-through wetland system was established in the Tulare Lake Drainage District (TLDD) in California to determine if selenium (Se) from saline irrigation drainage can be removed prior to impoundment in evaporation basins to reduce potential toxicity to waterbirds. The objective of this research was to evaluate Se speciation, accumulation, and fractionation in the waters and sediments of the newly developed wetland system. The inlet water was dominated by selenate [Se(VI), 92%], with smaller percentages of selenite [Se(IV), 5%] and organic Se [org-Se(-II), 3%]. For the outflow water, the average percentage of Se(VI) was 72% in November 1997 and 59% in February 1999. This change may be due to an increase in either residence time and/or accumulation of organic detrital matter, which may enhance Se(VI) reduction processes. Selenium accumulation, transformation, and incorporation with the solid phase were all intensified in the surface sediment (<20 cm). The highest total Se concentrations in the sediments were found in the top 5 cm and concentrations dramatically decreased with depth. Elemental Se [Se(0)], as extracted by Na2SO3, was the largest fraction (average of 46%) of the total sediment Se, followed by organic matter-associated Se (OM-Se) extracted by NaOH (average of 34%). Soluble, adsorbed, and carbonate-associated Se, as extracted by KCl, K2HPO4 (pH 8.0), and NaOAc (pH 5.0), were about 3, 10, and 3% of the total sediment Se, respectively. After establishing the wetland for 2 yr, significant Se removal from the flowing water was observed. The major sink mechanisms in the sediment are reduction to Se(0) and immobilization into the organic phase.

  12. Global-scale simulation of river-floodplain water and sediment exchange within a riverine modeling framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, S.; Kettner, A. J.; Syvitski, J. P.; Yamazaki, D.

    2014-12-01

    The exchange of water, sediment and nutrients between a river and its floodplain can significantly alter the fluvial flux towards the ocean. The flux of water and sediment from the active river channel to the floodplain during overbank flows can considerably reduce peak water discharge downstream and store large volumes of sediment. On the other hand floodplains can serve as short-term reservoirs of water, increasing base flow discharge following a flood event. For sediment, floodplains can serve as longer-term reservoirs, affecting the sediment flux as a function of river migration and flooding frequency. The effect of these relatively local processes can propagate downstream, potentially effecting riverine fluxes, especially in larger river systems. Here we present a floodplain module within our spatially and temporally explicit global riverine model (WBMsed v.2). The module predicts daily water and sediment exchange between the active river channel and its floodplain. Given the large spatial scale (and resulting resolution) of our predictions (6 arc-min) the floodplain module is based on simple estimations of bankfull discharge for every river location globally. During flood events, when daily-simulated water discharge is to "exceed" overbank flow, excess water and sediment will be routed to the floodplain. After the flood, water will be re-injected to the river when simulated water discharge is lower than bankfull discharge. These returning waters can transport sediment from the floodplain but here we assume that all the sediment transported during a flood event will be deposited on the floodplain. This will allow us to estimate floodplain sedimentation rates. Our results show that the WBMsed water discharge simulations significantly improved when introducing the floodplain reservoir module. Here we present our modeling approach, results and future developments.

  13. Sediment and water toxicity evaluations for the Clinch River ecological risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, A.M.; Phipps, T.L. [CKY, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kszos, L.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The sediment and surface water at three sites in the Clinch River and six sites in Poplar Creek were evaluated by means of toxicity tests with aquatic organisms. The results of these tests were used as one of the lines of evidence in an assessment of ecological risk due to contaminants, transported from the Oak Ridge Reservation, to the off-site sediment and water environment. Results from a suite of six whole sediment, elutriate and pore water toxicity tests were summarized in terms of survival (Hyalella azteca, Daphnia magna, Anodonta imbecillis, Ceriodaphnia dubia), fecundity (Daphnia magna) or light output reduction (Microtox{reg_sign}). Results from the water toxicity tests were summarized in terms of reduction in survival or fecundity of C. dubia, and survival or growth of Pimephales promelas. Toxicity test results (covering a period of about 1 6 months) showed little difference between reference site media and media from sites of concern. They also showed no strong spatial or temporal response pattern. These results are further supported by the presence of indigenous Chironomus and Hexagenia spp. in the sediment samples. Toxicity results will be discussed with respect to three issues. Two criteria were used to define significant differences between reference sites and sites of concern: a difference of 20%, and statistical significance at a = 0.05. Secondly, the relevance of comparing mean responses to control vs. reference site will be discussed. Lastly, toxicity results are consistent with site characterization information which suggest that contaminants of concern in sediment are buried under clean sediment, effectively isolating the material from potential human or ecological exposure.

  14. Dissolution kinetics of biogenic silica from the water column to the sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rickert, Dirk; Schlüter, Michael; Wallmann, Klaus

    2002-02-01

    Stirred flow-through experiments were conducted for the first time with planktonic biogenic silica (BSi). We investigated the dissolution kinetics of uncleaned and chemically cleaned BSi collected in ocean surface water, sediment traps, and sediments from the Norwegian Sea, the Southern Ocean, and the Arabian Sea. The solubility at 2°C is rather constant (1000 to 1200 ?M). The dissolution rates are, however, highly variable, declining with water depth, and phytoplankton reactivity is two to three orders of magnitude higher than pure siliceous oozes. The reactivity decrease correlates well with an increase in the integrated peak intensity ratios of Si-O-Si/Si-OH measured by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The removal of organic or inorganic coatings enhance the reactivity by at least an order of magnitude. Atomic Al/Si ratios of 0.03 to 0.08 in sedimentary diatom frustules decrease significantly to 0.02 as a result of removal of inorganic coatings and detritals present. Near equilibrium, the dissolution rates exhibit a linear dependence on the degree of undersaturation. At higher degrees of undersaturation - that is, at low concentrations of dissolved silica - the dissolution rates of uncleaned samples define a nonlinear trend. The nonlinear kinetics imply that the dissolution of natural BSi is strongly accelerated in silica-depleted surface waters. The FTIR results suggest that internal condensation reactions reduce the amount of surface reaction sites and are partly responsible for the reactivity decrease with depth. The high content of Al in sedimentary BSi is likely caused by precipitation of dissolved silica with Al dissolved from minerals in sediment. Nonbiogenic silica as coatings or detritals are partly responsible for the solubility and reactivity decrease of BSi in sediments. One order of magnitude different rate constants measured in Norwegian Sea and Southern Ocean sediment trap material support the so-called opal paradox - that is, high BSi accumulation rates in sediments in spite of low BSi production rates in surface waters of the Southern Ocean.

  15. Survival of Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli in estuarine waters and sediments.

    PubMed Central

    Hood, M A; Ness, G E

    1982-01-01

    In in vitro estuarine water and sediment chambers, the survival of Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli was determined by plate counting and direct counting techniques. V. cholerae strains included environmental, clinical, and serotype O1 and non-O1 isolates, whereas E. coli strains included ATCC 25922 and a freshly cultured human isolate. Recovery of V. cholerae varied significantly with incubation temperature. Growth and extended periods of survival occurred in sterile sediments, sterile waters, and nonsterile waters, but not in nonsterile sediments. In contrast to V. cholerae, viable cells of E. coli decreased rapidly in both sterile and nonsterile estuarine waters. Direct counts revealed that E. coli cells were intact in the estuarine water, but attempts to resuscitate them were unsuccessful. The data suggest that V. cholerae survives better in estuarine waters than E. coli. The results may explain the recent observations that V. cholerae levels do not correlate well with fecal coliform concentrations in estuarine waters. Furthermore, the results add increasing evidence to support the theory that V. cholerae is an autochthonous bacterium in estuaries. PMID:7041820

  16. Calibration of Littoral Diatoms to Water Chemistry in Standing Fresh Waters (Flanders, Lower Belgium): Inference Models for Historical Sediment Assemblages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luc Denys

    2006-01-01

    Relationships between littoral surface-sediment diatom assemblages and ambient limnological conditions were examined in 186\\u000a lentic fresh waters throughout lower Belgium (Flanders). Most of these waters were small, unstratified, alkaline and rich\\u000a in nutrients. Using weighted-averaging techniques, robust and accurate transfer functions were developed for median pH-values\\u000a ranging from 3.4 to 9.3 and dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations from ?1 (jackknifed r

  17. [Impact of wind-water alternate erosion on the characteristics of sediment particles].

    PubMed

    Tuo, Deng-Feng; Xu, Ming-Xiang; Ma, Xin-Xin; Zheng, Shi-Qing

    2014-02-01

    Wind and water are the two dominant erosion agents that caused soil and water losses in the wind-water alternate erosion region on the Loess Plateau. It is meaningful to study the impact of wind-water alternate erosion on the characteristics of soil particles for understanding the response of soil quality and environment to erosion. Through wind tunnel combined rainfall simulation, this paper studied the characteristics of the erosive sediment particles under the effect of wind-water alternate erosion. The results showed that the particles of 0-1 cm soil were coarsened by wind erosion at the wind speeds of 11 and 14 m x s(-1) compared with no wind erosion. Soil fine particles (< 0.01 mm) decreased by 9.8%-10.8%, and coarse particles (> 0.05 mm) increased by 16.8%-20.8%. The physical property of surface soil was changed by the wind erosion, which, in turn, caused an increase in finer particles content in the sediment. Compared with no wind erosion, fine particles (< 0.01 mm) in sediment under the water-wind alternate erosion increased by 2.7%-18.9% , and coarse particles (> 0.05 mm) decreased by 3.7%-9.3%. However, the changing trend of erosive sediment particles after the wind erosion at wind speeds of 11 and 14 m x s(-1) was different along with the rainfall intensity and duration. The erosive sediment particles at the rainfall intensities of 60, 80, 100 mm x h(-1) changed to greater extents than at the 150 mm x h(-1) rainfall intensity with longer than 15 min runoff flowing. PMID:24830236

  18. SEDIMENT INFLOWS AND WATER QUALITY IN AN URBANIZING WATERSHED

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David F. Brakke

    1984-01-01

    Lake Whatcom is a large, deep, monomictic lake in the Puget lowlands of Washington State. Expanding development from the city of Bellingham and a large diversion of water from the Nooksack River to the lake are two recent impacts. Bellingham depends on the lake as its sole drinking and industrial water supply. Additionally, the lake is an important recreational resource.

  19. NUMERICAL MODELING OF WATER QUALITY AND SEDIMENT RELATED PROCESSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three-dimensional water quality model was developed for simulating temporal and spatial variations of water quality with respect to phytoplankton, nutrients, and dissolved oxygen. Four major interacting systems were simulated, including phytoplankton dynamics, the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles, a...

  20. Suspended-sediment and fresh-water discharges in the Ob and Yenisey rivers, 1960-1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meade, R.H.; Bobrovitskaya, N.N.; Babkin, V.I.

    2000-01-01

    Of the world's great rivers, the Ob and Yenisey rank among the largest suppliers of fresh water and among the smallest suppliers of suspended sediment to the coastal ocean. Sediment in the middle reaches of the rivers is mobilized from bordering terraces and exchanged between channels and flood plains. Sediment in the lower reaches of these great rivers is deposited and stored (permanently, on a millennial time scale) in flood plains. Sediment discharges, already small under natural conditions, are diminished further by large manmade reservoirs that trap significant proportions of the moving solids. The long winter freeze and sudden spring breakup impose a peakedness in seasonal water runoff and sediment discharge that contrasts markedly with that in rivers of the tropics and more temperate climates. Very little sediment from the Ob and Yenisey rivers is being transported to the open waters of the Arctic Ocean under present conditions.

  1. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL ANALYSES OF THE BACTERIAL FAUNA AND WATER, SEDIMENT, AND AMPHIPOD TISSUE CHEMISTRY

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Steven J.

    bioaccumulation of Pendemethalin and Dieldrin, and low levels of lead were detected in most tissue samplesSPATIAL AND TEMPORAL ANALYSES OF THE BACTERIAL FAUNA AND WATER, SEDIMENT, AND AMPHIPOD TISSUE samples. Analysis of tissues of amphipods and isopods collected from the four caves demonstrated

  2. Degradation of Fluxapyroxad in Soils and Water/Sediment Systems Under Aerobic or Anaerobic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Shasha; Liu, Xingang; Chen, Chao; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Zheng, Yongquan

    2015-07-01

    The persistence and fate of fluxapyroxad were investigated including studies with four soils from Hunan (HN), Shanxi (SX), Jiangsu (JS), and Heilongjiang (HLJ) and two water/sediment systems (water/sediment systems 1 and 2) from Beijing, China. The results demonstrated that the biodegradation efficiency of fluxapyroxad in soils under aerobic conditions was higher than that observed under anaerobic conditions. The order of degradation capability was HLJ soil > JS soil > SX soil > HN soil, and fluxapyroxad dissipated faster in water/sediment system 2 than in system 1. The tested systems (four soils and two water/sediments systems) with rich organic matter content, high oxygen level and neutral pH had a high potential to degrade fluxapyroxad, possibly because rich organic matter and oxygen level stimulated microbial activity and the neutral pH was suitable for microbial growth. These results showed that fluxapyroxad exhibited high persistence in tested systems, with half-lives ?157.6 day. PMID:25935333

  3. Heavy metals in water, sediments and submerged macrophytes in ponds around the Dianchi Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhixiu; Yao, Lu; Liu, Guihua; Liu, Wenzhi

    2014-09-01

    Through retaining runoff and pollutants such as heavy metals from surrounding landscapes, ponds around a lake play an important role in mitigating the impacts of human activities on lake ecosystems. In order to determine the potential for heavy metal accumulation of submerged macrophytes, we investigated the concentrations of 10 heavy metals (i.e., As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in water, sediments, and submerged macrophytes collected from 37 ponds around the Dianchi Lake in China. Our results showed that both water and sediments of these ponds were polluted by Pb. Water and sediments heavy metal concentrations in ponds received urban and agricultural runoff were not significantly higher than those in ponds received forest runoff. This result indicates that a large portion of heavy metals in these ponds may originate from atmospheric deposition and weathering of background soils. Positive relationships were found among heavy metal concentrations in submerged macrophytes, probably due to the coaccumulation of heavy metals. For most heavy metals, no significant relationships were found between submerged macrophytes and their water and sediment environments. The maximum concentrations of Cr, Fe and Ni in Ceratophyllum demersum were 4242, 16,429 and 2662mgkg(-1), respectively. The result suggests that C. demersum is a good candidate species for removing heavy metals from polluted aquatic environments. PMID:25011115

  4. Potential Release Site Sediment Concentrations ; Correlated to Storm Water Station Runoff through GIS ; Modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. T. McLean

    2005-01-01

    This research examined the relationship between sediment sample data taken at Potential Release Sites (PRSs) and storm water samples taken at selected sites in and around Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The PRSs had been evaluated for erosion potential and a matrix scoring system implemented. It was assumed that there would be a stronger relationship between the high erosion PRSs

  5. WATER EROSION PREDICTION PROJECT (WEPP) TECHNOLOGY FOR ASSESSMENT OF RUNOFF, SOIL LOSS AND SEDIMENT YIELD POTENTIAL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model is a process-based, distributed parameter, continuous simulation computer program for estimation of runoff, soil loss and sediment yield from fields and small watersheds. In addition to having large databases for application to a multitude of U.S. s...

  6. Terrestrial Fluxes of Sediments and Nutrients to Pacific Coastal Waters and

    E-print Network

    Fleskes, Joe

    .4.1.1. Total Organic Carbon............................................................................................................................................14 Figures 11.1. Maps showing total organic carbon flux and yield under baseline (1992) and projected ....................................................................................................................................................6 11.4.1. Flux of Organic Carbon, Nitrogen, and Suspended Sediment to Coastal Waters..........6 11

  7. Eos, Vol. 91, No. 29, 20 July 2010 Water and wet sediments under ice sheets

    E-print Network

    Priscu, John C.

    Eos, Vol. 91, No. 29, 20 July 2010 Water and wet sediments under ice sheets can play an important role in regulating the rate of ice stream flow in Antarctica, particularly over short time scales. Indeed, the discharge of subglacial lakes has been linked to an increase in ice velocity of Byrd Glacier

  8. A finite element model of mercury species fate in the Detroit River water column and sediment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadia Badr El-Sayed

    2002-01-01

    As mercury is considered one of the most toxic metals found in the environment, its speciation is an important consideration in any representation of its fate, transport and availability for biogeochemical reactions. A speciation model was developed to estimate the concentrations for three mercury components—elemental mercury, divalent mercury and methyl mercury in the Detroit River water column and sediment. The

  9. REMOTE SENSING OF SUSPENDED SEDIMENTS IN SURFACE WATERS, USING MODIS IMAGES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mousavi Hamid

    Collecting information about (Suspended Sediment Concentration) SSC, in coastal Waters and estuaries is vital for proper management of coastal environments. Traditionally, SSC used to be measured by time consuming and costly point measurements. This Method allows you to accurately measure SSC only for a point in space and time. Remote sensing from air-borne and space-borne sensors have proved to be

  10. 30 CFR 77.216-1 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    30 ? Mineral Resources ? 1 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; identification. ? 77.216-1 ? Section 77.216-1 ? Mineral Resources ? MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ? COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ?...

  11. Determination of organometallic compounds in surface water and sediment samples with SPME-CGC-ICPMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom De Smaele; Luc Moens; Pat Sandra; Richard Dams

    1999-01-01

    Organometal compounds of tin, mercury and lead were simultaneously determined in environmental water and sediment samples by CGC-ICPMS. Instead of classical liquid\\/liquid extractions, solid phase microextraction was used as sampling technique. In this method, the organometallic compounds arein situ derivatised in the aqueous phase and simultaneously extracted onto a polydimethylsiloxane fiber, so that organic solvents are no longer necessary. The

  12. Trace metal contamination of waters, sediments, and organisms of the Swan Lake area of Galveston Bay 

    E-print Network

    Park, Junesoo

    1995-01-01

    , mussel, snail, crab, fish, shrimp, and spartina) in the area. Sediments and organisms were analyzed for total Ag, Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn, and Zn. Water samples were analyzed for Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Sn. The variabilities and geographic...

  13. MULTISPECTRAL TECHNIQUES FOR REMOTE MONITORING OF SEDIMENT IN WATER: A FEASIBILITY INVESTIGATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A data acquisition and analysis program has been undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility of remote multispectral techniques for monitoring suspended sediment concentrations in natural water bodies. Two hundred surface albedo measurements (400 to 1,000 nanometers) were made at L...

  14. A polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254) in the water, sediment, and biota of escambia bay, Florida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. W. Duke; J. I. Lowe; A. J. Wilson

    1970-01-01

    We have detected a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), Aroclor 1254, in the biota, sediment, and water of estuarine areas near Pensacola, Florida~ 0nly one source of the chemical, an industrial plant on the Escambia River, has been located~ However, the chemical occurs in tissues of pelagic and sessile organisms that are widely distributed within the estuary. This distribution of Aroclor 1254

  15. Progressive changes in water and sediment quality in a wetland system for control of highway runoff

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Pontier; J. B Williams; E May

    2004-01-01

    Innovative wetland based systems were designed and installed on the Newbury Bypass, Berkshire, England to provide flow balancing and pollution control for road runoff. The systems were monitored over 18 months to evaluate performance, pollutant removal processes and offer improved design and operation codes for this new application of wetlands. Water quality, sediment accumulation rates, and metal concentrations in size-fractionated,

  16. Water Research 39 (2005) 19351945 Fractionation of surface sediment fines based on a coupled

    E-print Network

    Coppola, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    Water Research 39 (2005) 1935­1945 Review Fractionation of surface sediment fines based Anderssona , Pa¨ r Axelssonb a Swedish Museum of Natural History, Laboratory for Isotope Geology, Box 50007 the smallest mesh size (generally 38 mm) and is not further fractionated. In this study, a common sieve

  17. TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT FOR MODELING DENITRIFICATION IN SURFACE WATER SEDIMENTS USING THE MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the cost of water quality research at the watershed level, modeling has become an important tool for researchers. When modeling nitrate transport within drainage networks, denitrification within the sediments needs to be accounted for. Birgand et al. developed an equation using a term called a ...

  18. REDUCTIVE TRANSFORMATIONS OF HALOGENATED AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ANAEROBIC SEDIMENT-WATER SYSTEMS: KINETICS, MECHANISMS, AND PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The degradation of several classes of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons in methanogenic sediment-water systems was examined in laboratory studies. everal transformation processes were shown to occur, leading to formation of a variety of products. n the study, a clear distinction ...

  19. Sulfur Isotopic Analysis of Water and Sediment From Lake Hoare, Antarctica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. L. Anglen; L. M. Pratt; J. L. Bishop; P. T. Doran

    2003-01-01

    Lake Hoare is a perennially ice-covered lake located in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of east Antarctica. Benthic microbial mats containing sulfate reducing and sulfide oxidizing bacteria are present in anoxic waters at depths greater than 27 m. Extreme cold and dry conditions in the valleys make them compelling analogs for possible paleolake systems on Mars. Sediment samples from 9 to

  20. Phytoremediation Of Mercury And Methylmercury Contaminated Sediments By Water Hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes )

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phytoremediation has potential to be implemented at mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) contaminated sites. Water hyacinths ( Eichhornia crassipes ) were investigated for their ability to assimilate Hg and MeHg into plant biomass, in both aquatic and sediment-associated f...

  1. Phytoremediation of Mercury- and Methyl Mercury-Contaminated Sediments by Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phytoremediation has the potential for implementation at Hg- (Hg) and methylHg (MeHg)-contaminated sites. Water hyacinths ( Eichhornia crassipes ) were investigated for their ability to assimilate Hg and MeHg into plant biomass, in both aquatic and sediment-associated forms...

  2. Molybdenum Accumulation in Marine Sediments as an Indicator of Hypoxic Water Conditions (NACAETAC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Direct monitoring of hypoxic water column conditions over large spatial and temporal extents is difficult due to the substantial logistical and financial investment required. Recent studies have indicated that concentrations of molybdenum (Mo) in marine sediments may serve as a u...

  3. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN RESIDUES OF AHR AGONISTS IN FISH AND CONCENTRATIONS IN WATER AND SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Relationships between Residues of AhR Agonists in Fish and Concentrations in Water and Sediment. Cook, PM*, Burkhard, LP, Mount, DR, US-EPA, NHEERL, MED, Duluth, MN. The bioaccumulation visualization approach of Burkhard et al. (2002) can be effectively used to describe the bioa...

  4. Sediment Quality in Near Coastal Waters of the Gulf of Mexico: Influence of Hurricane Katrina

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results from this study represent a synoptic analysis of sediment quality in coastal waters of Lake Pontchartrain and Mississippi Sound two months after the landfall of Hurricane Katrina. Post-hurricane conditions were compared to pre-hurricane (2000-2004) conditions, for se...

  5. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF METHODS TO SEPARATE FINE GRAINED SEDIMENT FROM STORM WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A literature survey had been conducted by the St. Anthony Falls Hydraulic laboratory to assess various methods for separation of sediment from storm water at construction sites. Two methods have shown some promise in this application, and a research program was initiated with the...

  6. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at Kansas City, Fire Station, Kansas City, Missouri. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1980-07-01

    This document is the final report of the solar energy heating and hot water system installed at the Kansas City Fire Station, Number 24, 2309 Hardesty Street, Kansas City, Missouri. The solar system was designed to provide 47 percent of the space heating, 8800 square feet area and 75 percent of the domestic hot water (DHW) load. The solar system consists of 2808 square feet of Solaron, model 2001, air, flat plate collector subsystem, a concrete box storage subsystem which contains 1428 cubic feet of 1/2 inch diameter pebbles weighing 71 1/2 tons, a DHW preheat tank, blowers, pumps, heat exchangers, air ducting, controls and associated plumbing. Two 120-gallon electric DHW heaters supply domestic hot water which is preheated by the solar system. Auxiliary space heating is provided by three electric heat pumps with electric resistance heaters and four 30-kilowatt electric unit heaters. There are six modes of system operation. This project is part of the Department of Energy PON-1 Solar Demonstration Program with DOE cost sharing $154,282 of the $174,372 solar system cost. The Final Design Review was held March 1977, the system became operational March 1979 and acceptance test was completed in September 1979.

  7. Chronic toxicity of tire and road wear particles to water- and sediment-dwelling organisms.

    PubMed

    Panko, Julie M; Kreider, Marisa L; McAtee, Britt L; Marwood, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Tire and road wear particles (TRWP) consist of a complex mixture of rubber, and pavement released from tires during use on road surfaces. Subsequent transport of the TRWP into freshwater sediments has raised some concern about the potential adverse effects on aquatic organisms. Previous studies have shown some potential for toxicity for tread particles, however, toxicity studies of TRWP collected from a road simulator system revealed no acute toxicity to green algae, daphnids, or fathead minnows at concentrations up to 10,000 mg/kg under conditions representative of receiving water bodies. In this study, the chronic toxicity of TRWP was evaluated in four aquatic species. Test animals were exposed to whole sediment spiked with TRWP at concentrations up to 10,000 mg/kg sediment or elutriates from spiked sediment. Exposure to TRWP spiked sediment caused mild growth inhibition in Chironomus dilutus but had no adverse effect on growth or reproduction in Hyalella azteca. Exposure to TRWP elutriates resulted in slightly diminished survival in larval Pimephales promelas but had no adverse effect on growth or reproduction in Ceriodaphnia dubia. No other endpoints in these species were affected. These results, together with previous studies demonstrating no acute toxicity of TRWP, indicate that under typical exposure conditions TRWP in sediments pose a low risk of toxicity to aquatic organisms. PMID:23001428

  8. Comprehensive sediment toxicity assessment of Hessian surface waters using Lumbriculus variegatus and Chironomus riparius.

    PubMed

    Galluba, Simone; Oetken, Matthias; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was a sediment assessment of predominantly small rivers in the German federal state of Hesse. For this purpose, sediment samples were taken at 50 study sites with different contamination levels. The benthic invertebrates Chironomus riparius (Diptera) and Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta) were used as test species and exposed to whole sediments in chronic laboratory experiments. The bioassays were carried out on the basis of OECD guidelines 218 and 225 for the testing of chemicals. For about 50 % of the study sites chemical analytical data for pollutants from environmentally important substance classes like metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organotin compounds were available. These data were used to analyze correlations between effects in the bioassays and measured chemical contaminations at sampling sites. For 22 % of the sediments ecologically relevant adverse effects were observed. In the majority of these cases effects occurred in only one of the biotests, and only one sediment sample exerted a negative effect on both test organisms. There was no significant correlation between biological responses and chemical data considering substance classes. However, there was a weak positive correlation between arsenic concentration and both worm number and worm biomass as well as a weak positive correlation between single PAHs and worm biomass. In some sediment tests elevated ammonia concentrations occurred in the overlying water so that an influence of these partially toxic concentrations on the test results cannot be ruled out. PMID:22375534

  9. Development of a gas backup heater for solar domestic hot-water systems. Final report, April 1978-April 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, D.J.; Grunes, H.E.; de Winter, F.; Armstrong, P.R.

    1980-06-01

    A comprehensive program was undertaken to develop a unique gas fired backup for solar domestic hot water systems. Detailed computer design tools were written. A series of heat transfer experiments were performed to characterize the performance of individual components. A full scale engineering prototype, including the solar preheat tank and solar heat exchanger, was designed, fabricated and subjected to limited testing. Firing efficiency for the backup system was found to be 81.4% at a firing rate of 50,000 Btu/h. Long term standby losses should be negligible.

  10. Preservation of forcing signals in shallow water carbonate sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Jon; Wood, Rachel; Curtis, Andrew; Tetzlaff, Daniel M.

    2012-11-01

    No consensus has been reached on whether the metre-scale cycles that commonly occur in peritidal carbonates are predominately a product of external relative sea-level variations (allocycles) or an intrinsic property of carbonate production generated via the interaction of non-linear processes (autocycles). For any forcing signal such as eustatic sea-level change, to be detectable in stratigraphy its effects must be preserved. Here, a deterministic, three-dimensional geological process model is used to explore how such cycles are preserved in the geological record in the presence of autocyclic processes. Each simulation produced cycle thickness distributions that are statistically indistinguishable from a theoretical Poisson process, regardless of whether auto- or allo-cycles dominated. Spectral analysis of depositional time series constructed from idealised geological sections showed that all detectable signals occurred within the Milankovitch forcing frequency bands, even when no Milankovitch forcing was present. Thus, it is deduced that from any geological section alone, external forcing signals are detectable but are not distinguishable from autocyclically produced signals. Interestingly, there is no correlation between the percentage of sediment preserved and the accuracy with which signals are detectable in the preserved sediment: in some model realisations, even with preservation as low as 40%, the correct forcing signal can be detected accurately while, conversely, sections with preservation as high as 90% can have poor signal preservation. The reverse can also be true in other models. It is therefore concluded that distinguishing allocyclic and autocyclic forcing in shallow marine or peritidal carbonate successions is likely to be extremely difficult except in cases of extraordinary sedimentary preservation and dating accuracy.

  11. Controls of the water and sediment fluxes on alluvial fans morphology: theory and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerit, Laure; Delorme, Pauline; Métivier, François; Lajeunesse, Eric; Devauchelle, Olivier; Barrier, Laurie

    2015-04-01

    Alluvial fans are major sedimentary bodies that make the transition between the reliefs in erosion and the sedimentary basins, where deposition occurs. Understanding their dynamics of formation and evolution is a great problem of sediment transport, which leads to a better understanding of the control exerted by the water and sediment fluxes on the fan morphology. At the cost of several simplifications, we propose a totally predictive model for one-dimensional fans composed by one grain size and built under laminar flow. In this simplified context, it is possible to propose a unique relationship between the water flux, the sediment flux, the grain size and the slope of the fan. The theory is validated by one-dimension experiments, performed with glass beads and glycerine: the fan grows quasi-statically and maintains its slope just above the threshold for sediment transport. In addition, at leading order, the sediment discharge only controls the velocity at which the fan grows. These main predictions are then successfully tested in two-dimensional experiments.

  12. Precipitation of ikaite crystals in Antarctic marine sediments: implications from pore water geochemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Lu; H. Kennedy; R. E. Rickaby; B. Georg; S. Shaw; A. Lennie; R. D. Pancost

    2008-01-01

    Ikaite is a calcium carbonate hexahydrate (CaCO3•6H20) considered to be stable only at low temperatures. It has been found in form of tufa tower at locations where alkaline water mixes with water masses enriched in calcium (e.g. Ikka Fjord, Mono Lake). Large euhedral single crystals of ikaite were also recovered in marine sediments, associated with organic matter degradation, anaerobic oxidation

  13. Phosphorus fluctuation in water and deposition into sediment within an emergent macrophyte stand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timo Kairesalo; Tuula Matilainen

    1994-01-01

    Seasonal fluctuation of phosphorus in water, and total phosphorus and different inorganic P fractions (extracted by NH4Cl, NH4F, NaOH and H2SO4) and organic P fraction (residual P) in surface sediment, were measured in the littoral of oligotrophic Lake Pääjärvi (southern Finland). After the emergence of Equisetum fluviatile L. shoots in mid June, water exchange between the littoral and pelagial area

  14. Organochlorine Contaminants in Water, Sediment and Fish of Lake Burullus, Egyptian Mediterranean Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarek O. Said; Khaled M. El Moselhy; Abdel Aziz M. Rashad; Mohamed A. Shreadah

    2008-01-01

    Lake Burullus is one of the Delta lakes, connected with the Mediterranean Sea through El Boughaz opening. Concentrations of\\u000a organochlorine contaminants were measured in water, sediments and biota of the lake because of concerns about their effects\\u000a on its productivity. The concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons decreased in the order of PCBs > DDTs > TC > HCHs for\\u000a all water samples collected from Lake Burullus during

  15. Perfluorinated compounds in water and sediment from coastal regions of the northern Bohai Sea, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunli Chen; Tieyu Wang; Jong Seong Khim; Wei Luo; Wentao Jiao; Yonglong Lu; Jonathan E. Naile; Wenyou Hu; Xiang Zhang; Jing Geng; Cencen Bi; Jing Li; John P. Giesy

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and other perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in water and sediment from coastal Bohai Bay and surrounding rivers flowing into the bay. Of the 15 PFCs measured, PFOS and PFOA were detected with the greatest frequency. Concentrations in water ranged from<0.2 to 31 ng·L and<1.0 to 82 ng·L for PFOS and PFOA, respectively. Concentrations of

  16. Metal ions in water and sediments of the Pom-Atasta Lagoon, Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Nischt; G. L. Domingo; J. W. Morales; V. K. Sharma

    1999-01-01

    Temperature, salinity, turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS), pH, and dissolved oxygen were measured in the surface water of the Pom-Atasta Lagoon at 15 stations during 5 sampling events from September 1996-May 1997. Concentrations of Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ag, Fe, Co, and Ba were also determined in the water and sediments at 15 stations during the study period.

  17. Water and sediment quality of dry season pools in a dryland river system: the upper Leichhardt River, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Alana K; Taylor, Mark P; Hudson-Edwards, Karen A

    2011-07-01

    This article presents the geochemical characteristics and physicochemical properties of water and sediment from twelve semi-permanent, dryland pools in the upper Leichhardt River catchment, north-west Queensland, Australia. The pools were examined to better understand the quality of sediments and temporary waters in a dryland system with a well-established metal contamination problem. Water and sediment sampling was conducted at the beginning of the hydroperiod in May and September 2007. Water samples were analyzed for major solute compositions (Ca, Na, K, Mg, Cl, SO(4), HCO(3)) and water-soluble (operationally defined as the <0.45 ?m fraction) metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn). Sediment samples were analyzed for total extractable and bioaccessible metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn), elemental composition and grain morphology. At the time of sampling a number of pools contained water and sediment with elevated concentrations, compared to Australian regulatory guidelines, of Cu (maximum: water 28 ?g L(-1); sediment 770 mg kg(-1)), Pb (maximum: water 3.4 ?g L(-1); sediment 630 mg kg(-1)) and Zn (maximum: water 150 ?g L(-1); sediment 780 mg kg(-1)). Concentrations of Cd and As in pools were relatively low and generally within Australian regulatory guideline values. Localized factors, such as the interaction of waters with anthropogenic contaminants from modern and historic mine wastes (i.e. residual smelter and slag materials), exert influence on the quality of pool waters. Although the pools of the upper Leichhardt River catchment are contaminated, they do not appear to be the primary repository of water and sediment associated metals when compared to materials in the remainder channel and floodplain. Nevertheless, a precautionary approach should be adopted to mitigating human exposure to contaminated environments, which might include the installation of appropriate warning signs by local health and environmental authorities. PMID:21674072

  18. Brevetoxin persistence in sediments and seagrass epiphytes of east Florida coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock, Gary L; Fourqurean, James W; Drake, Jeana L; Mead, Ralph N; Heil, Cynthia A

    2012-01-01

    A bloom of Karenia brevis Davis developed in September 2007 near Jacksonville, Florida and subsequently progressed south through east Florida coastal waters and the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (ICW). Maximum cell abundances exceeded 10(6) cells L(-1) through October in the northern ICW between Jacksonville and the Indian River Lagoon. The bloom progressed further south during November, and terminated in December 2007 at densities of 10(4) cells L(-1) in the ICW south of Jupiter Inlet, Florida. Brevetoxins were subsequently sampled in sediments and seagrass epiphytes in July and August 2008 in the ICW. Sediment brevetoxins occurred at concentrations of 11-15 ng PbTx-3 equivalents (g dry wt sediment)(-1) in three of five basins in the northern ICW during summer 2008. Seagrass beds occur south of the Mosquito Lagoon in the ICW. Brevetoxins were detected in six of the nine seagrass beds sampled between the Mosquito Lagoon and Jupiter Inlet at concentrations of 6-18 ng (g dry wt epiphytes)(-1). The highest brevetoxins concentrations were found in sediments near Patrick Air Force Base at 89 ng (g dry wt sediment)(-1). In general, brevetoxins occurred in either seagrass epiphytes or sediments. Blades of the resident seagrass species have a maximum life span of less than six months, so it is postulated that brevetoxins could be transferred between epibenthic communities of individual blades in seagrass beds. The occurrence of brevetoxins in east Florida coast sediments and seagrass epiphytes up to eight months after bloom termination supports observations from the Florida west coast that brevetoxins can persist in marine ecosystems in the absence of sustained blooms. Furthermore, our observations show that brevetoxins can persist in sediments where seagrass communities are absent. PMID:23762030

  19. Water and sediment characteristics associated with avian botulism outbreaks in wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Samuel, Michael D.

    1999-01-01

    Avian botulism kills thousands of waterbirds annually throughout North America, but management efforts to reduce its effects have been hindered because environmental conditions that promote outbreaks are poorly understood. We measured sediment and water variables in 32 pairs of wetlands with and without a current outbreak of avian botulism. Wetlands with botulism outbreaks had greater percent organic matter (POM) in the sediment (P = 0.088) and lower redox potential in the water (P = 0.096) than paired control wetlands. We also found that pH, redox potential, temperature, and salinity measured just above the sediment-water interface were associated (P ? 0.05) with the risk of botulism outbreaks in wetlands, but relations were complex, involving nonlinear and multivariate associations. Regression models indicated that the risk of botulism outbreaks increased when water pH was between 7.5 and 9.0, redox potential was negative, and water temperature was >20°C. Risk declined when redox potential increased (>100), water temperature decreased (10-15°C), pH was 9.0, or salinity was low (<2.0 ppt). Our predictive models could allow managers to assess potential effects of wetland management practices on the risk of botulism outbreaks and to develop and evaluate alternative management strategies to reduce losses from avian botulism.

  20. Importance of Sediment-Water Interactions in Coeur d'Alene Lake, Idaho, USA: Management Implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, J.S.; Carter, J.L.; Topping, B.R.; Fend, S.V.; Woods, P.F.; Berelson, W.M.; Balistrieri, L.S.

    2003-01-01

    A field study at Coeur d'Alene Lake, Idaho, USA, was conducted between October 1998 and August 2001 to examine the potential importance of sediment-water interactions on contaminant transport and to provide the first direct measurements of the benthic flux of dissolved solutes of environmental concern in this lake. Because of potential ecological effects, dissolved zinc and orthophosphate were the solutes of primary interest. Results from deployments of an in situ flux chamber indicated that benthic fluxes of dissolved Zn and orthophosphate were comparable in magnitude to riverine inputs. Tracer analyses and benthic-community metrics provided evidence that solute benthic flux were diffusion-controlled at the flux-chamber deployment sites. That is, effects of biomixing (or bioturbation) and ground-water interactions did not strongly influence benthic flux. Remediation efforts in the river might not produce desired water-quality effects in the lake because imposed shifts in concentration gradients near the sediment-water interface would generate a benthic feedback response. Therefore, development of water-quality models to justify remediation strategies requires consideration of contaminant flux between the water column and underlying sediment in basins that have been affected by long-term (decadal) anthropogenic activities.

  1. Desorption of organochlorine pesticides from historically contaminated sediments into water-biofuel mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero-Diaz, M.; Demond, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Gasoline spills in surface waters generally volatilize due to their low miscibility and high volatility. However, biofuel blends may contain ethanol, a compound completely miscible in water. As hazardous components of gasoline are more soluble in ethanol than in water, the presence of ethanol increases the solubilization of these components, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), in surface water. Furthermore, many of these spills may occur in water bodies that have sediments that are historically contaminated with persistent organic contaminants such as organochlorine pesticides. High concentrations of ethanol in the water column, along with solubilized components of gasoline, may increase the desorption of organochlorine pesticides from the sediment. Thus spills of ethanol/gasoline fuel blends have the potential of increasing concentrations of hazardous compounds in rivers and lakes, resulting in increased risk for human and ecological exposure. Using UNIFAC to calculate activity coefficients, one can predict the enhancement of the solubility of pesticides in the aqueous phase as the ethanol fraction increases. Moreover, by predicting the solubility of pesticides in both the aqueous phase and an organic liquid phase, one can construct ternary phase diagrams that show the partitioning behavior of pesticides as a function of ethanol fraction. Such information is useful in estimating the amount of desorption from contaminated sediments that may occur in the presence of biofuel spills. In order to confirm the predicted values, experiments have been conducted to measure the impact of ethanol on the partitioning coefficients of pesticides.

  2. Sediment-water gas exchange in two Swedish lakes measured by Eddy Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokic, J.; Sahlee, E.; Brand, A.; Sobek, S.

    2014-12-01

    Lake sediments are hotspots for carbon (C) cycling, acting both as sinks and sources through C burial and production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane. The fate of this CO2 in the water column is controlled by bottom water turbulence, a factor not accounted for in current estimates of sediment CO2 fluxes. This study is aimed to quantify the turbulent CO2 flux across the sediment-water interface (SWI) by measuring the oxygen (O2) flux with the non-invasive Eddy Correlation (EC) method that combines measurements of 3D velocity (ADV) and O2 fluctuations with a microsensor. Using the metabolic relation (respiratory quotient, RQ) of O2 and CO2 derived from a sediment incubation experiment we present the first estimates of turbulent lake sediment CO2 flux from two boreal lakes in Sweden (Erssjön and Erken, 0.07 km2 and 23.7 km2 respectively). Only ~10 % of the total dataset was extracted for flux calculations due to poor signal-to-noise ratio in the velocity and O2 signals. The sediment in Lake Erssjön was both consuming and producing O2, related to bacterial respiration and photosynthesis. Mean O2 flux was -0.19 and 0.17 ?mol O2 m-2 sec-1, comparing to 0.04 ?mol O2 m-2 sec-1 derived from the sediment incubation experiment. Fluxes for Lake Erken are still to be determined. Experimentally derived RQ of the both lake sediments were close to unity implying that in-situ CO2 fluxes are of similar magnitude as O2 fluxes, varying between -0.15 and 0.18 ?mol C m-2 sec-1. The first measurement of turbulent sediment O2 flux and estimate of turbulent CO2 flux from a small boreal lake show higher and more variable fluxes than previously found in experimental studies. The low amount of data extracted for flux calculations (~10%) point towards the difficulties in EC measurement in low-turbulence environments. On-going work focuses on the turbulence structure in lakes and its influence on the gas fluxes at the SWI.

  3. Distribution Characteristics of Phosphorus in the Sediments and Overlying Water of Poyang Lake

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingqing; Liang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a key indicator of the aquatic organism growth and eutrophication in lakes. The distribution and speciation of P and its release characteristics from sediments were investigated by analyzing sediment and water samples collected during high flow and low flow periods. Results showed that the average concentrations (ranges) of total phosphorus (TP) in the surface and deep water were 0.06 mg L-1 (0.03–0.13 mg L-1) and 0.15 mg L-1 (0.06–0.33 mg L-1), respectively, while the average concentration (range) of TP in sediments was 709.17 mg kg-1 (544.76–932.11 mg kg-1). The concentrations of TP and different forms of P varied spatially in the surface sediments, displaying a decreasing trend from south to north. P also varied topographically from estuarine areas to lake areas. The vertical distribution of TP and different forms of P were observed to decrease as depth increased. The P concentrations during the low flow period were higher than those during the high flow period. Inorganic phosphorus (IP) was the dominant form of P, accounting for 61%–82% of TP. The concentration of bioavailable phosphorus in sediments was relatively large, indicating a high risk of release to overlying water. The simulation experiment of P release from sediments showed that the release was relatively fast in the first 0-5 min and then decreased to a plateau after 1 hr. Approximately 84–89% of the maximum amount of P was released during the first hour. PMID:25938758

  4. Chemical composition of sediments, suspended matter, river water and ground water of the Nile (Aswan-Sohag traverse).

    PubMed

    Dekov, V M; Komy, Z; Araújo, F; Van Put, A; Van Grieken, R

    1997-08-18

    Sediment, suspended matter, river water and ground water samples were collected at twelve sites in the drainage valley of the Nile River, around Sohag (Central Egypt) and close to the Aswan High Dam. Elemental composition of the river water (27 elements), ground water (eight elements), suspended matter (12 elements) and sediments (12 elements) was studied. Aswan High Dam construction, agricultural and industrial human activities have led to dramatic changes in the Nile River chemistry. Nowadays, the Nile River has the highest dissolved salt content among the major African rivers. Dissolved transport is a major process for Ca, K, Sr, Zn, Cu, Ni and V. Manganese, Fe and Cr are mainly carried by suspended matter. The Nile suspended matter is exhausted in almost all elements studied (except for Mn) compared to the world average river suspended matter. Along the course of the river, the distribution of elements in the suspended matter and sediments is generally controlled by natural processes: the relative importance of elemental transport phases; and the oxidation, precipitation and sedimentation of mineral species through the varying physico-chemical conditions of the environment. Pollution input in the Nile particulate load is not major, as compared to the natural inputs. Eight genetic particle types describe the composition of the Nile suspended matter and sediments: (1) biogenous-aeolian (or silica); (2) terrigenous (Fe-aluminosilicate); (3) authigenic (calcium carbonate); (4) biogenous (apatite); (5) authigenous-terrigenous (Fe-oxyhydroxide-montmorillonite); (6) diagenetic (iron-sulfide); (7) terrigenous (titanium oxide); (8) authigenous (Mn-Fe-oxyhydroxide). PMID:9241870

  5. Contribution of ammonia, metals, and nonpolar organic compounds to the toxicity of sediment interstitial water from an Illinois River tributary

    SciTech Connect

    Schubauer-Berigan, M.K.; Ankley, G.T.

    1991-01-01

    Toxicity of Illinois River bulk sediment, sediment interstitial (pore) water and elutriates to the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the amphipod Hyalella azteca was compared to determine the most representative aqueous fraction for toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies. Toxicity of pore water corresponded better than elutriates to bulk sediment toxicity. Subsequent TIE procedures conducted with the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia indicated that ammonia, metals and nonpolar organic compounds (nonylphenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzenes, long-chain hydrocarbons) were responsible for toxicity of the sediment pore water. Results of TIE manipulations also suggested that methods for recovering pore water that include filtration may eliminate, a priori, a major component of the sediment contaminants responsible for toxicity.

  6. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface water and sediment near a drinking water reservoir in Northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Shen, Jimin; Chen, Zhonglin; Ren, Nanqi; Li, Yifan

    2013-04-01

    The levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the water and the sediment samples collected near the Mopanshan Reservoir-the most important drinking water resource of Harbin City in Northeast China-were examined. A total of 16 PAHs were concurrently identified and quantified in the three water bodies tested (Lalin River, Mangniu River, and Mopanshan Reservoir) and in the Mopanshan drinking water treatment plant during the high- and low water periods. The total PAH concentrations in the water and sediment samples ranged from 122.7 to 639.8 ng/L and from 89.1 to 749.0 ng/g dry weight, respectively. Similar spatial and temporal trends were also found for both samples. The lowest ?16PAH concentration of the Mopanshan Reservoir was obtained during the high water period; by contrast, the Lalin River had the highest concentration during the low water period. The PAH profiles resembling the three water bodies, with high percentages of low-molecular weight PAHs and dominated by two- to three-ring PAHs (78.4 to 89.0%). Two of the molecular indices used reflected the possible PAH sources, indicating the main input from coal combustion, especially during the low water period. The conventional drinking water treatment operations resulted in a 20.7 to 67.0% decrease in the different-ringed PAHs in the Mopanshan-treated drinking water. These findings indicate that human activities negatively affect the drinking water resource. Without the obvious removal of the PAHs in the waterworks, drinking water poses certain potential health risks to people. PMID:22961559

  7. [Variation of water DOC during the process of pre-pressure and coagulation sedimentation treatment].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Jing; Cong, Hai-Bing; Xu, Ya-Jun; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Xin-Yue; Liu, Yu-Jiao

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the study was to explore whether the pre-pressure and coagulation sedimentation process would result in algal cell disruption, leading to increased dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in water, based on which, the pressure application mode would be optimized and safe and efficient pre-pressure algae removal process would be obtained. The changes in DOC during the process of pre-pressure and preoxidation treatment, the distribution of molecular weight in water as well as the removal efficiency of algae, turbidity and DOC after coagulation and sedimentation were investigated. The results showed that the DOC in water did not increase but decreased, and the molecular weight decreased after treated with 0.5-0.8 MPa pressure. While KMnO4 and NaClO pre-oxidation both increased the DOC, in the meanwhile, the distribution of molecular weight showed no obvious change. After the pre-pressure coagulation and sedimentation process, the removal rate of algae was 96.23% and that of DOC was 29. 11%, which was by 10% - 30% higher than the rate of pre-oxidation coagulation and sedimentation process. PMID:25244840

  8. Persistence and Differential Survival of Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Subtropical Waters and Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kimberly L.; Whitlock, John E.; Harwood, Valerie J.

    2005-01-01

    Fecal coliforms and enterococci are indicator organisms used worldwide to monitor water quality. These bacteria are used in microbial source tracking (MST) studies, which attempt to assess the contribution of various host species to fecal pollution in water. Ideally, all strains of a given indicator organism (IO) would experience equal persistence (maintenance of culturable populations) in water; however, some strains may have comparatively extended persistence outside the host, while others may persist very poorly in environmental waters. Assessment of the relative contribution of host species to fecal pollution would be confounded by differential persistence of strains. Here, freshwater and saltwater mesocosms, including sediments, were inoculated with dog feces, sewage, or contaminated soil and were incubated under conditions that included natural stressors such as microbial predators, radiation, and temperature fluctuations. Persistence of IOs was measured by decay rates (change in culturable counts over time). Decay rates were influenced by IO, inoculum, water type, sediment versus water column location, and Escherichia coli strain. Fecal coliform decay rates were significantly lower than those of enterococci in freshwater but were not significantly different in saltwater. IO persistence according to mesocosm treatment followed the trend: contaminated soil > wastewater > dog feces. E. coli ribotyping demonstrated that certain strains were more persistent than others in freshwater mesocosms, and the distribution of ribotypes sampled from mesocosm waters was dissimilar from the distribution in fecal material. These results have implications for the accuracy of MST methods, modeling of microbial populations in water, and efficacy of regulatory standards for protection of water quality. PMID:15933000

  9. To prevent the occurrence of black water agglomerate through delaying decomposition of cyanobacterial bloom biomass by sediment microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-Li; Jiang, He-Long; Cai, Hai-Yuan

    2015-04-28

    Settlement of cyanobacterial bloom biomass (CBB) into sediments in eutrophic lakes often induced the occurrence of black water agglomerate and then water quality deterioration. This study investigated the effect of sediment microbial fuel cell (SMFC) on CBB removal in sediments and related water pollution. Sediment bulking and subsequent black water from decomposition of settled CBB happened without SMFC, but were not observed over 100-day experiments with SMFC employment. While CBB in sediments improved power production from SMFC, the removal efficiency of organic matters in CBB-amended sediments with SMFC was significantly lower than that without SMFC. Pyrosequencing analysis showed higher abundances of the fermentative Clostridium and acetoclastic methanogen in CBB-amended bulk sediments without SMFC than with SMFC at the end of experiments. Obviously, SMFC operation changed the microbial community in CBB-amended sediments, and delayed the CBB degradation against sediment bulking. Thus, SMFC could be potentially applied as pollution prevention in CBB-settled and sensitive zones in shallow lakes. PMID:25621829

  10. Bottom sediments and pore waters near a hydrothermal vent in Lake Baikal (Frolikha Bay)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granina, L.Z.; Klerkx, J.; Callender, E.; Leermakers, M.; Golobokova, L.P.

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the redox environments and the compositions of bottom sediments and sedimentary pore waters in the region of a hydrothermal vent in Frolikha Bay, Lake Baikal. According to our results, the submarine vent and its companion nearby spring on land originate from a common source. The most convincing evidence for their relation comes from the proximity of stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions in pore waters and in the spring water. The isotope composition indicates a meteoric origin of pore waters, but their major- and minor-element chemistry bears imprint of deep water which may seep through permeable faulted crust. Although pore waters near the submarine vent have a specific enrichment in major and minor constituents, hydrothermal discharge at the Baikal bottom causes a minor impact on the lake water chemistry, unlike the case of freshwater geothermal lakes in the East-African Rift and North America. ?? 2007.

  11. Installation guidelines for solar domestic hot water (DHW) systems in one- and two-family dwellings. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Written for the professional installation contractor and the skilled homeowner, this manual presents instructions for solar domestic hot water systems installation in single - family and two - family dwellings. Using these guidelines together with the manufacturer's manual, individuals should be able to install and fill their systems. The manual assumes knowledge of the basic skills of plumbing, wiring, roofing, carpentry, and masonry, as well as knowledge of paints, glazing, and insulation materials. It begins with discussions of startup, system layout, and siting and continues with procedures for roof mounting and ground mounting and for transfer fluids, piping, and ductwork. Additional chapters discuss insulation; pumps, valves, gages, and expansion tanks; heat exchangers and storage tanks; and system controls. Further chapters discuss checkout and chargeup of the system and maintenance. A checklist to be consulted when doing the actual installation concludes the manual. Extensive photographs and diagrams are provided, and appendices present a glossary, about 30 references, a suggested list of tools, and HUD's minimum property standards which apply to dwellings equiped with solar heating and solar domestic hot water systems.

  12. Molecular identification of the occurrence of magnetotactic bacteria in fresh water sediments (Czech Republic)

    PubMed Central

    Rulík, Martin; Chaudhary, Prem Prashant

    2014-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are of considerable interest because of their importance in the manufacture of various bioinspired materials. In order to find out the status of magnetotactic bacteria at three different sediment in Czech Republic, samples collected from both standing and running freshwaters were subjected to molecular diversity analysis by using 16S rRNA gene approach. Total community DNA from sediment sample was isolated and used for PCR, cloning and sequence analysis. Of the 24 analyzed sequences, six clones are closely related to Magnetobacterium sp. affiliated with the Nitrospira phylum which showed the dominance of Magnetobacterium phylotypes in the sample. This study will provide useful insight about the community structure of MTB in this particular geographical region. However more detailed and specific studies are warranted in order to properly assess the community structure of MTB’s in fresh water sediments. PMID:25763029

  13. Trace elements in the interstitial waters of marine sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Brooks; B. J. Presley; I. R. Kaplan

    1968-01-01

    Phosphate and eleven elements were determined in the interstitial waters of four piston cores from the continental borderland area off the coast of Southern California. Calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium and strontium were determined directly by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Phosphate was determined colorimetrically and the trace elements: cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, nickel and zinc, were determined by extraction of the chelate

  14. Evaluating the metallic pollution of riverine water and sediments: a case study of Aras River.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, F; Hassani, A H; Monavvari, M; Karbassi, A R; Khorasani, N

    2013-01-01

    Metallic pollution caused by elements Zn, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, Cd, and Hg in water and sediments of Aras River within a specific area in Ardabil province of Iran is considered. Water and sediment samples were collected seasonally and once respectively from the five selected stations. Regarding WHO published permissible values, only Ni concentration in spring and summer water samples has exceeded the acceptable limit up to four times greater than the limit. The concentration of metals Ni, Pb, and Fe in river water shows a direct relationship with river water discharge and the amount of precipitation. Enhanced soil erosion, bed load dissolution, and runoffs may play a key role in remarkable augmentation of metallic ions concentration. Furthermore, excessive use of pesticides which contain a variety of metallic ions (mainly Cu) in spring and summer may also result in an increase in the metals' concentration. The potential risk of Ni exposure to the water environment of the study area is assigned to juice, dairy products, edible oil, and sugar cane factories as well as soybean crop lands which are located within the sub-basin of Aras River in the study area. Regarding the sediment samples, the bioavailable metal concentrations indicate an ascending order from the first station towards the last one. In comparison with earth crust, sedimental and igneous rocks the reported metallic concentration values, except for Cd, lie within the low-risk status. Regarding Cd, the reported values in some stations (S2, S4, and S5) are up to ten times greater than that of shale which may be considered as a remarkable risk potential. The industrial and municipal wastewater generated by Parsabad moqan industrial complex and residential areas, in addition to the discharges of animal husbandry centers, may be addressed as the key factors in the sharp increase of metallic pollution potential in stations 4 and 5. PMID:22318740

  15. Analysis of the deviations from the "average" curve of sediment transport vs water flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nones, Michael; di Silvio, Giampaolo; Bisiacco, Mauro

    2010-05-01

    Recent studies about analytical solutions of the 1-D morphodynamic model (Fasolato et al., 2009) have shown that any river reach maintains an equilibrium configuration (namely a stationary morphological situation) under the hypothesis that the boundaries of the river reach are in equilibrium as far as solid and liquid inputs are concerned. This hypothesis means that the bottom profile of the river and the grainsize composition of the bed should, in principle, remain constant in time, provided that sediments and water entering the reach are related by an equilibrium relation (transport formula). Obviously, this condition is not always satisfied, especially in the mountain rivers, as the formation mechanisms of water and sediment inputs are quite different and seasonally delayed. These initial perturbations give place to important deviations from the "average" curve of sediment transport vs water flow, namely from the curve calculated in equilibrium conditions. This study presents a general approach that can be used to explain and possibly predict these deviations. The approach is based on the deterministic analytical solution of the harmonic river (Fasolato et al., 2009), combined with a recursive model of ARMA type, with unknown parameters, which can be estimated by minimizing a suitable mean square error, in order to obtain the best ARMA model from two different points of view: its performances both in fitting the available (measured) data and in providing a prediction algorithm for the future evolutions. The recursive model for a synthetic river reach will provide the instantaneous sediment discharge as a function of the instantaneous water flow (namely equilibrium conditions) and the water flow measured at one or more previous time (non-equilibrium conditions). This model is calibrated against a relatively small dataset of measurements about an important Italian water course: the Adige River, which flows from the Alps to the Adriatic Sea south of Venice. The analysis is limited to two gauge stations: Trento (typical mountain river reach) and Boara Pisani (typical lowland river reach).

  16. SEDIMENT TESTING INTERMITTENT RENEWAL SYSTEM FOR THE AUTOMATED RENEWAL OF OVERLYING WATER IN TOXICITY TESTS WITH CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sediment testing intermittent renewal (STIR) system (stationary or portable) for invertebrate toxicity with contaminated sediments has been successfully developed and thoroughly tested at ERL-Duluth. oth the stationary and portable systems enable the maintenance of acceptable w...

  17. The role of bacteria in the nutrient exchange between sediment and water in a flow-through system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kairesalo; L. Tuominen; H. Hartikainen; K. Rankinen

    1995-01-01

    The contribution of bacteria to phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N ) release from, or retention in, sediment was studied in a flow-through system. “Live” and formaldehyde-“killed” sediment communities were incubated in 25-liter bottles with a continuous flow of P- or P + N-enriched water. Sediment bacteria in the killed communities were inhibited by adding formaldehyde (final concentration 0.04% v\\/v) to

  18. Level and degradation of Deepwater Horizon spilled oil in coastal marsh sediments and pore-water.

    PubMed

    Natter, Michael; Keevan, Jeff; Wang, Yang; Keimowitz, Alison R; Okeke, Benedict C; Son, Ahjeong; Lee, Ming-Kuo

    2012-06-01

    This research investigates the level and degradation of oil at ten selected Gulf saltmarsh sites months after the 2010 BP Macondo-1 well oil spill. Very high levels (10-28%) of organic carbon within the heavily oiled sediments are clearly distinguished from those in pristine sediments (<3%). Dissolved organic carbon in contaminated pore-waters, ranging up to hundreds of mg/kg, are 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than those at pristine sites. Heavily oiled sediments are characterized by very high sulfide concentrations (up to 80 mg/kg) and abundance of sulfate reducing bacteria. Geochemical biomarkers and stable carbon isotope analyses fingerprint the presence of oils in sediments. Ratios of selected parameters calculated from the gas chromatograph spectra are in a remarkable narrow range among spilled oils and initial BP crude. At oiled sites dominated by C(4) plants, ?(13)C values of sediments (-20.8 ± 2.0‰) have been shifted significantly lower compared to marsh plants (-14.8 ± 0.6‰) due to the inflow of isotopically lighter oil (-27 ± 0.2‰). Our results show that (1) lighter compounds of oil are quickly degraded by microbes while the heavier fractions of oil still remain and (2) higher inputs of organic matter from the oil spill enhance the key microbial processes associated with sulfate reducing bacteria. PMID:22571231

  19. Extraction of amino acids from soils and sediments with superheated water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, C. N.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1974-01-01

    A method of extraction for amino acids from soils and sediments involving superheated water has been investigated. About 75-97 per cent of the amino acids contained in four soils of a soil profile from Illinois were extracted by this method. Deep penetration of water into soil aggregates and partial hydrolysis of peptide bonds during this extraction by water at high temperature are likely mechanisms responsible for the release of amino acids from samples. This extraction method does not require subsequent desalting treatments when analyses are carried out with an ion-exchange amino acid analyzer.

  20. Development of a benthic-flux chamber for measurement of ground-water seepage and water sampling for mercury analysis at the sediment-water interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menheer, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    A benthic-flux chamber was constructed to collect data to determine the relation between ground- and surface-water interaction and mercury concentrations in water at the sediment- water interface. The benthic-flux chamber was successfully used to measure the rate of ground water seeping to surface water or surface water seeping to ground water, and to collect water samples for mercury analysis from the sedimentwater interface in a lake setting. The benthic-flux chamber was designed to be deployed in relatively calm fresh water lakes, in areas of water less than 2 meters deep. The groundwater seepage rate data were comparable to data from an in-line flow meter in a calibration tank and with data from two 55-gallon drum seepage meters concurrently deployed in two different lakes. The benthic-flux chamber was used to collect possible water samples for analysis of total mercury and methylmercury concentrations.

  1. Distribution of Anoplostoma viviparum (Nematoda) in Southampton Water sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Surey-Gent

    1981-01-01

    The juveniles, non-gravid females, gravid females and males of the free-living marine nematode Anoplostoma viviparum Bastian showed markedly different distributions within layers of mud from Southampton Water sampled during the early spring of 1975. Of the total population, 92% of gravid females occurred in the anoxic layer, 73% of juveniles occurred in the flocculant layer, non-gravid females and males were

  2. Sediment color tool for targeting arsenic-safe aquifers for the installation of shallow drinking water tubewells.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammed; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Frape, Shaun K; Jacks, Gunnar; Islam, M Mainul; Rahman, M Moklesur; von Brömssen, Mattias; Hasan, M Aziz; Ahmed, Kazi Matin

    2014-09-15

    In rural Bangladesh, drinking water supply mostly comes from shallow hand tubewells installed manually by the local drillers, the main driving force in tubewell installation. This study was aimed at developing a sediment color tool on the basis of local driller's perception of sediment color, arsenic (As) concentration of tubewell waters and respective color of aquifer sediments. Laboratory analysis of 521 groundwater samples collected from 144 wells during 2009 to 2011 indicate that As concentrations in groundwater were generally higher in the black colored sediments with an average of 239 ?g/L. All 39 wells producing water from red sediments provide safe water following the Bangladesh drinking water standard for As (50 ?g/L) where mean and median values were less than the WHO guideline value of 10 ?g/L. Observations for off-white sediments were also quite similar. White sediments were rare and seemed to be less important for well installations at shallow depths. A total of 2240 sediment samples were collected at intervals of 1.5m down to depths of 100 m at 15 locations spread over a 410 km(2) area in Matlab, Bangladesh and compared with the Munsell Color Chart with the purpose of direct comparison of sediment color in a consistent manner. All samples were assigned with Munsell Color and Munsell Code, which eventually led to identify 60 color shade varieties which were narrowed to four colors (black, white, off-white and red) as perceived and used by the local drillers. During the process of color grouping, participatory approach was considered taking the opinions of local drillers, technicians, and geologists into account. This simplified sediment color tool can be used conveniently during shallow tubewell installation and thus shows the potential for educating local drillers to target safe aquifers on the basis of the color characteristics of the sediments. PMID:24984232

  3. Column-centrifugation method for determining water retention curves of soils and disperse sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smagin, A. V.

    2012-04-01

    A new instrumental method was proposed for the rapid estimation of the water-retention capacity of soils and sediments. The method is based on the use of a centrifugal field to remove water from distributed soil columns. In distinction from the classical method of high columns, the use of a centrifugal force field stronger than the gravity field allowed reducing the height of the soil samples from several meters to 10-20 cm (the typical size of centrifuge bags). In distinction from equilibrium centrifugation, the proposed method obtained an almost continuous water retention curve during the rotation of the soil column only at one-two centrifuge speeds. The procedure was simple in use, had high accuracy, and obtained reliable relationships between the capillary-sorption water potential and the soil water content in a wide range from the total water capacity to the wilting point.

  4. An estimate of the influence of sediment concentration and type on remote sensing penetration depth for various coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, C. H.

    1976-01-01

    Under the assumptions of collimated light, a homogenous water column, zero molecular scattering, and constant ratio of volume scattering function to scattering coefficient, estimates of the remote sensing depth parameter, Z90, are made for various coastal waters at 540 nm. Calculations indicate that sediment concentration and type have a strong influence on remote sensing depth when concentrations are below 5 mg/theta. Above 5 mg/theta, the absorption coefficient of the sediments becomes large in comparison to that of water, causing Z90 values to be less than 2 m with only small differences between various sediment types.

  5. Method for relating suspended-chemical concentrations to suspended-sediment particle-size classes in storm-water runoff

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinella, Joseph F.; McKenzie, Stuart W.

    1982-01-01

    A method has been developed to relate suspended-chemical concentrations (associated with suspended sediments) in storm-water runoff to suspended-sediment particle-size classes. These classes are based on settling velocities in quiescent native water. This method requires processing 20 liters of water having a suspended-sediment concentration greater than 500 milligrams per liter. However, samples with suspended-sediment concentrations as low as 250 milligrams per liter may be analyzed, if sample volumes are increased to 50 liters. The time required for one person to separate suspended sediments into particle-size classes ranges from 6 to 14 hours. This report outlines procedures for processing metal, nutrient, and organic samples. (USGS)

  6. Instability of bottom-water redox conditions during accumulation of Quaternary sediment in the Japan Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, D.Z.; Isaacs, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Sb, U, V, and Zn were measured in early Quaternary sediment (1.32 to 1.08 Ma) from the Oki Ridge in the Japan Sea. The elements were partitioned between a detrital fraction, composed of terrigenous and volcaniclastic aluminosilicate debris, and a marine fraction, composed of biogenic and hydrogenous debris derived from seawater. The most important factors controlling minor-element accumulation rates in the marine fraction were (1) primary productivity in the photic zone, which largely controlled the flux of particulate organic-matter-bound minor elements settling through the water column and onto the seafloor, and (2) bottom-water redox, which determined the suite of elements that accumulated directly from seawater. This marine fraction of minor elements on Oki Ridge recorded six periods of high minor-element abundance. Assuming a constant bulk sediment accumulation rate, each period lasted roughly 5,000 to 10,000 years with a 41,000-year cycle. Accumulation rates of individual elements such as Cd, Mo, and U suggest sulfate-reducing conditions were established in the bottom water during the 10,000-year periods; accumulation rates of Cr and V during the intervening periods are indicative of less reducing, denitrifying conditions. Interelement ratios, for example, Cu:Mo, V:Cr, and Sb:Mo, further reflect bottom-water instability, such that bottom-water redox actually varied from sulfate reducing to denitrifying during the periods of highest minor-element accumulation rates; it varied from denitrifying to oxidizing during the intervening periods. Sediment lithology supports these interpretations of the minor-element distributions; the sediment is finely laminated for several of the periods represented by Cd, Mo, and U maxima and weakly laminated to bioturbated for the intervening periods. The geochemistry of this sediment demonstrates the unambiguous signal of Mo, principally, but of several other minor elements as well in recording sulfate-reducing conditions in bottom water. The forcing function that altered their accumulation, that is, that altered primary productivity and bottom water redox conditions, is problematic. Currently held opinion suggests that O2 depletion was most strongly developed during glacial advances. Low sea level during such times is interpreted to have enhanced primary productivity and restricted bottom-water advection.

  7. The effect of water oxygen content on the production of greenhouse gases from shallow pond sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freer, Adam; Quinton, John; Surridge, Ben; McNamara, Niall

    2014-05-01

    Shallow lakes and ponds, including those commonly found in agricultural landscapes are often only a few metres deep, with surface areas <1ha. Despite this, landscapes may contain a high number of these ponds, amounting to a considerable cumulative surface area. Many of these features, both naturally formed and man-made, receive and trap runoff with high nutrient and sediment loadings. As such, the potential for the production of greenhouse gases (GHGs) through biogeochemical cycling in the pond sediments may be significant. Furthermore, the abundance of available nutrients coupled with the shallow physical characteristics of these systems, mean that short, irregular eutrophic episodes during the summer are common, causing large fluctuations in the oxygen content of the overlying water column. The oxygen content of the water column is often cited as key factor in the production of GHGs in large lake and reservoir systems. Given the limited research focusing on shallow ponds/lakes, and potential for these systems to be important sources of GHGs, the impacts of variable water oxygen content should be investigated. Here we present the results from a sediment microcosm experiment utilising sediment cores from an agricultural pond system in Cumbria, UK. Intact sediment cores were incubated in the dark at in-situ temperature and continuously fed with filtered pond water for 2 weeks. During this time the oxygen content of the water was manipulated between fully oxygenated and anaerobic. Measurements of GHG release were based on calculated dissolved gas concentrations present in the water columns of these cores. Results indicated that during times of water column anoxia, production of methane and carbon dioxide increased significantly, despite the presence of substantial quantities of nitrate in the water columns. No change in N2O production was detected. These results indicate that while representing a significant cumulative carbon store in agricultural landscapes, shallow pond and lake systems can contribute to emission of GHGs. Furthermore, the physical and ecological characteristics of these systems have the potential to significantly increase the quantity of gas produced. This understanding will be valuable when constraining both freshwater and agricultural GHG budgets.

  8. Mercury in sediment, water, and fish in a managed tropical wetland-lake ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Malczyk, Evan A; Branfireun, Brian A

    2015-08-15

    Mercury pollution has not been well documented in the inland lakes or fishes of Mexico, despite the importance of freshwater fish as a source of protein in local diets. Total mercury and methylmercury in waters, sediments, and the commercial fish catch were investigated in Lake Zapotlán, Mexico. Concentrations of total and methylmercury were very high in runoff and wastewater inputs, but very low in sediments and surface waters of the open water area of the lake. Concentrations of total mercury in tilapia and carp were very low, consistent with the low concentrations in lake water and sediments. Particle settling, sorption, the biogeochemical environment, and/or bloom dilution are all plausible explanations for the significant reductions in both total mercury and methylmercury. Despite very high loading of mercury, this shallow tropical lake was not a mercury-impaired ecosystem, and these findings may translate across other shallow, alkaline tropical lakes. Importantly, the ecosystem services that seemed to be provided by peripheral wetlands in reducing mercury inputs highlight the potential for wetland conservation or restoration in Mexico. PMID:25909268

  9. Element concentrations in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.), fish and sediment from a wetland production system that receives wastewater from Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Marcussen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders; Holm, Peter E

    2009-01-01

    The Cheung Ek Lake, which is located south of Phnom Penh, Cambodia, receives most of the industrial and domestic wastewater that is produced in the city. The lake is used for fishing and production of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk). Concentrations of 35 elements were determined in water spinach and sediment that were collected along transects of two wastewater inlets in the lake, at the lake outlet, and in a non-wastewater exposed pond. Elevated concentrations of the potentially toxic elements (PTEs) Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn were found in the water spinach and sediment samples collected near the wastewater inlets. The highest determined PTE concentrations in water spinach were, in mg kg(- 1) fresh weight (f.w.), As 0.19, Cd 0.022, Cu 2.95, Fe 251, Pb 0.206 and Zn 9.08. For an adult person in Phnom Penh, the maximum intake of PTEs from consumption of water spinach harvested near the wastewater inlets amounts to 5.7% As, 1.4% Cd, 0.4% Cu, 20.5% Fe, 3.8% Pb and 0.6% Zn of the maximum tolerable intake set by the Codex Alimentarious Commission. Arsenic, Cd and Pb concentrations in the liver, skin, and muscle of three fish species caught in the lake were below or near the detection limits, except for a high accumulation of the three elements in the skin of the blackskin catfish. In conclusion, the consumption of water spinach and fish from Cheung Ek Lake constitutes a low food safety risk with respect to PTEs. PMID:19085597

  10. Modeling and interpreting element ratios in water and sediments: A sensitivity analysis of post-Chernobyl Ru:Cs ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Hilton, J.; Rigg, E. [Institute of Freshwater Ecology, Windermere Lab., Cumbria (United Kingdom); Davison, W.; Hamilton-Taylor, J.; Kelly, M. [Univ. of Lancaster (United Kingdom); Livens, F.R. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Singleton, D.L. [Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Merlewood Lab., Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    1995-11-01

    When elements are simultaneously added to lakes, experimentally or by accident, their ratios in the water phase and in bottom sediments can change with time due to differential partitioning between solution and suspended particles or sediments. A number of equations are developed to show the change of ratio with time in water and sediments assuming simultaneous pulse inputs followed by a range of combinations of loss processes form solution (i.e. hydraulic losses, sorption to particles followed by settling, and diffusion into the sediments). The pattern of events is discussed both for pulse events with specific limiting assumptions and for combined continuous and pulse inputs. The models show that elemental ratios in sediments are generally less sensitive indicators of differential partitioning that are elemental ratios in water. For lakes with long residence times, the long-term elemental ratio in the sediments does not differ from that in the initial spike to the water column, but for short residence times, it is directly dependent on the ratio of either partition or diffusion coefficients. The models are used to interpret Ru:Cs ratios measured in the water and sediments of Esthwaite Water subsequent to the pulse input of Chernobyl fallout. The ratios can be explained by assuming nuclides were lost either by flusing and sorption or by flushing, sorption, and diffusion. The process combination of flushing and diffusion in incompatible with the observed constant ratios. 12 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Dynamics of heavy metals and phosphorus in the pore water of estuarine sediments following agricultural intensification in Chao Lake Valley.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenzhong; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Wenqiang; Shan, Baoqing; Zhu, Xiaolei; Song, Zhixin

    2015-05-01

    Previous research has revealed that agricultural intensification in the Chao Lake Valley since the 1980s has led to significant heavy metal and phosphorus (P) contamination of estuarine sediments in this region. However, the pore water plays a more important role than do sediments in the cycling of nutrients and metals in estuarine ecosystems. Average concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, and P in the pore water of estuarine sediments were 0.634, 3.11, 4.98, 3.98, and 49.9 ?g L(-1), respectively. Average diffusive fluxes of these elements from the pore water to overlying water were -0.015, 0.058, 0.768, -0.238, and 20.0 ?g m(-2) d(-1), respectively. Compared with similar studies, the values of heavy metal fluxes were low, indicating minimal diffusion between sediments and overlying waters; however, P diffusion from the sediment pore water to overlying water was high, indicating that the sediments may be a direct source of P to overlying water. Since P is a major cause of algal blooming in agricultural estuaries of Chao Lake, the obtained results could be useful in developing effective management strategies to control pollution in the Chao Lake Valley. PMID:25516250

  12. Fluxes of water and solute in a coastal wetland sediment. l. The contribution of regional groundwater discharge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William K. Nuttle; Judson W. Harvey

    1995-01-01

    Upward discharge of fresh groundwater into a mid-Atlantic intertidal wetland contributed 62% of the water needed to replace evapotranspiration losses from the sediment during an 11 day period in September. Infiltration during flooding by tides provided most of the balance; thus there was a net advection of salt into the sediment. The amount of groundwater discharge was estimated from changes

  13. Evaluation Of The Physical Stability, Ground Water Seepage Control, And Faunal Changes Associated With An AquaBlok® Sediment Cap

    EPA Science Inventory

    Active sediment caps are being considered for addressing contaminated sediment areas in surface-water bodies. A demonstration of an active cap designed to reduce advective transport of contaminants using AquaBlok® (active cap material) was initiated in a small study a...

  14. Sediment and Lower Water Column Oxygen Consumption in the Seasonally-hypoxic Region of the Louisiana Continental Shelf

    EPA Science Inventory

    We report sediment and bottom water respiration rates from 10 cruises from 2003-2007 on the Louisiana Continental Shelf (LSC) where summer hypoxia regularly occurs. Cruises were conducted during spring (5 cruises), summer (3 cruises) and fall (2 cruises). Cruise average sediment ...

  15. A comparison of metals in sediments and water in the River Nahr-Ibrahim, Lebanon: 1996 and 1999.

    PubMed

    Korfali, Samira Ibrahim; Davies, Brian E

    2003-03-01

    Rivers whose basins are underlain by carbonate rocks exhibit high pH, lower desorption of metals and possess high buffering capacity against acidic inputs to the river. The catchment of River Nahr-Ibrahim, Lebanon, is largely underlain by limestone. Compared to neighbouring countries, Lebanon is relatively fortunate since precipitation is high. However, recently a warming in temperature and a drop in precipitation has occurred, thus causing low water levels in rivers. The objective of this study is to investigate the variation of the total metal content (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd) in bed sediments and water of River Nahr-Ibrahim between 1996 and 1999 (two years); and relate these variations to the effect of changes in human activities and/or due to the variations of precipitation rate, temperature and pH of water. Bed load sediments and stream water were collected simultaneously from five sampling sites. Water pH and temperature were determined in situ. Sediment samples were dried at room temperature and sieved; the sediment size < 75 microns size was retained. Water was analysed for major constituents and trace metals. Metals were extracted from sediments with aqua regia. Metal concentration in water and sediments were determined using ICP-MS technique. Data revealed a drop in metal concentrations (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd) in sediments at quarry site after its closure. The decrease in precipitation rate, lowering the level of water and the dilution of industrial discharges and decrease in water pH led most probably to the desorption of metals from sediments into the water. PMID:12901077

  16. Sources of mercury in sediments, water, and fish of the lakes of Whatcom County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paulson, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    Concerns about mercury (Hg) contamination in Lake Whatcom, Washington, were raised in the late 1990s after a watershed protection survey reported elevated concentrations of Hg in smallmouth bass. The U.S. Geological Survey, the Whatcom County Health Department, and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) cooperated to develop a study to review existing data and collect new data that would lead to a better understanding of Hg deposition to Lake Whatcom and other lakes in Whatcom County, Washington. A simple atmospheric deposition model was developed that allowed comparisons of the deposition of Hg to the surfaces of each lake. Estimates of Hg deposition derived from the model indicated that the most significant deposition of Hg would have occurred to the lakes north of the City of Bellingham. These lakes were in the primary wind pattern of two municipal waste incinerators. Of all the lakes examined, basin 1 of Lake Whatcom would have been most affected by the Hg emissions from the chlor-alkali plant and the municipal sewage-sludge incinerator in the City of Bellingham. The length-adjusted concentrations of Hg in largemouth and smallmouth bass were not related to estimated deposition rates of Hg to the lakes from local atmospheric sources. Total Hg concentrations in the surface sediments of Lake Whatcom are affected by the sedimentation of fine-grained particles, whereas organic carbon regulates the concentration of methyl-Hg in the surface sediments of the lake. Hg concentrations in dated sediment core samples indicate that increases in Hg sedimentation were largest during the first half of the 20th century. Increases in Hg sedimentation were smaller after the chlor-alkali plant and the incinerators began operating between 1964 and 1984. Analysis of sediments recently deposited in basin 1 of Lake Whatcom, Lake Terrell, and Lake Samish indicates a decrease in Hg sedimentation. Concentrations of Hg in Seattle precipitation and in tributary waters were used to calculate current (2002-03) loadings of Hg to Lake Whatcom. Hg in tributaries contributed 59 percent of the total Hg, whereas non-local atmospheric deposition was estimated to have contributed 41 percent of the 303 grams of Hg entering Lake Whatcom each year. However, these inputs cannot be verified without a better understanding of the sources of sediment to Lake Whatcom.

  17. Policy Analysis of Water Availability and Use Issues for Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development

    SciTech Connect

    Ruple, John; Keiter, Robert

    2010-12-31

    Oil shale and oil sands resources located within the intermountain west represent a vast, and as of yet, commercially untapped source of energy. Development will require water, and demand for scarce water resources stands at the front of a long list of barriers to commercialization. Water requirements and the consequences of commercial development will depend on the number, size, and location of facilities, as well as the technologies employed to develop these unconventional fuels. While the details remain unclear, the implication is not – unconventional fuel development will increase demand for water in an arid region where demand for water often exceeds supply. Water demands in excess of supplies have long been the norm in the west, and for more than a century water has been apportioned on a first-come, first-served basis. Unconventional fuel developers who have not already secured water rights stand at the back of a long line and will need to obtain water from willing water purveyors. However, uncertainty regarding the nature and extent of some senior water claims combine with indeterminate interstate river management to cast a cloud over water resource allocation and management. Quantitative and qualitative water requirements associated with Endangered Species protection also stand as barriers to significant water development, and complex water quality regulations will apply to unconventional fuel development. Legal and political decisions can give shape to an indeterminate landscape. Settlement of Northern Ute reserved rights claims would help clarify the worth of existing water rights and viability of alternative sources of supply. Interstate apportionment of the White River would go a long way towards resolving water availability in downstream Utah. And energy policy clarification will help determine the role oil shale and oil sands will play in our nation’s future.

  18. Water-surface elevation controls on sediment-transport dynamics in channel-flat environments of intertidal flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowacki, D. J.; Ogston, A. S.

    2010-12-01

    Tidal flats are thought to have a balanced sediment budget between export through channels and import via more diffuse processes over flat boundaries. However, little has been done to understand the mechanisms of sediment transport between channels and flats that span multiple morphological and temporal scales. The muddy flats of southeastern Willapa Bay, Washington, are tidally dominated and receive relatively little direct freshwater influence. We use data from instrumented tripods in representative channel and flat pairs of different orders to a) better understand sediment dynamics in each morphological setting, b) investigate whether sediment fluxes are balanced between channels and flats, and c) determine the importance of channel order on these sediment dynamics. Data from intensive field efforts as well as longer-term deployments help to inform how the hydrodynamic regimes of each environment serve to export or retain sediment and to further characterize the total sediment budget of intertidal flats. Results from two month-long deployments in winter 2009-2010 show channels of all orders in southeastern Willapa Bay were flood dominated. This was driven by longer durations of and sustained higher velocities during flooding tides, and suggests that larger circulation patterns were active within the tidal flat complex. The deployment periods were characterized by a range of meteorological conditions, including rain and several wind events. The wind events were correlated with increased flood dominance of water and sediment transport. Near-bed observations of velocity and suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) give insight to processes active when water levels are shallow over the flat. These processes are important in determining the net flux of water and sediment of the system. High-resolution water-column velocity and backscatter profiles reveal complex sediment-flux dynamics between channel and flat environments. Pulses of velocity and SSC were observed in the channel during flooding and ebbing tides when water levels were near the flat elevation, a phenomenon often observed in tidal flats and salt marshes. Instrumentation deployed near the bed on the flat measured elevated SSC when flat water depth dropped below 10 cm. This “skimming” of sediment on the flat contributed to the SSC pulse in the channel during ebbing tides. Water convergence from the flat led to increased channel bottom stresses and resuspension of freshly deposited sediment temporarily stored within the channel. These fine-scale observations allow us to address the mechanisms that govern the total sediment balance of channels and flats within tidal flat systems.

  19. Managing the sediment and water surplus of the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers for wetland restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Mossa, J. (Louisiana Geological Survey, Baton Rouge (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Because navigation and water supply in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya system must be maintained, use of water and sediment for wetland restoration in coastal Louisiana will be restricted to times of surplus flow. This paper characterizes sedimentary processes in the system to describe how to maximize the effectiveness of diversions when surplus flow is available. Considerations of river behavior include differences in sedimentary processes between years dominated by low discharges and years with high discharges, the most effective discharges for sediment transport, downstream variations in hydrologic and sedimentary processes, differences in relationships of discharge with the sand and silt-clay components, and seasonality. Human-induced changes that may affect these factors include engineering projects on tributaries and the main system.

  20. The effects of sea-level rise on water quality in coastal floodplain sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Vanessa; Johnston, Scott; Burton, Edward; Bush, Richard; Sullivan, Leigh; Slavich, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Sea level has risen approximately 1.2 mm/year over the last 100 years (Hennessy et al. 2004) and is predicted to rise up to 80 cm by 2100 relative to 1990 sea levels (IPCC 2007). The number of extreme events related to sea level such as higher sea levels and increased inter-annual variability have also increased in frequency in the same time period (Hennessy et al. 2004). Globally, large areas of coastal and estuarine floodplains are underlain by sulfidic sediments and acid sulfate soils (ASS). These sediments frequently contain high concentrations of acidity and trace metals. A significant portion of the stored acidity occurs in the form of exchangeable and hydrolysable acidic metal cations such as Al and Fe. Watertables in these environments are often close to the surface and intercepted by relatively shallow drains. Due to their low elevation and locations, these floodplains are highly susceptible to pulses of saline water caused by saltwater intrusion, storm surge and rising sea levels. Construction of extensive drainage systems has further increased the susceptibility of the floodplain to seawater inundation by increasing connectivity to the estuarine channel. This risk is likely to increase in the future with predicted increases in sea level and extreme events due to climate change. This study uses both batch experiments to determine the effects of increasing ionic strength on exchange processes and trace metal desorption in oxidised floodplain sediments and sulfidic drain sediments, and intact soil cores to determine the surface water-porewater interactions over the short term following seawater inundation in coastal floodplain sediments. We found that that saline inundation of oxidised ASS floodplain sediments, even by relatively brackish water may cause rapid, shorter-term water quality changes and a pulse release of acidity due to desorption of acidic metal cations (Wong et al. 2010). We also found that trace metals can be mobilised from sulfidic estuarine drain sediments at near-neutral pH values without oxidation as a result of increased ionic strength and competitive desorption of metal cations (Wong et al. in press). Rapid seawater incursion in CASS drainage networks is likely to adversely impact drain water quality by increasing trace metal mobilization. Drainage networks on ASS floodplains are highly susceptible to rapid seawater inundation through storm surge, seasonal salt wedge migration, floodgate failure or floodgate opening. The experimental results show that the initial addition of marine derived salts will result in a decrease in pH and increase in trace metals, even at low salt concentrations such as that found in brackish waters in estuarine environments. References Hennessy K, Page C, McInnes K, Jones R, Bathols J, Collins D, Jones D (2004) Climate Change in New South Wales. In. CSIRO, Canberra. IPCC (2007) Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. In: An Assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Wong VNL, Johnston SG, Burton ED, Bush RT, Sullivan LA, Slavich PG (2010) Seawater causes rapid trace metal mobilisation in coastal lowland acid sulfate soils: Implications of sea level rise for water quality. Geoderma 160(2): 252-263 Wong VNL, Johnston SG, Burton ED, Bush RT, Sullivan LA, Slavich PG (in press) Seawater-induced mobilization of trace metals from mackinawite-rich estuarine sediments. Water Research

  1. Florida River Project: Measuring discharge, sediment, and water chemistry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kim Hannula

    This is the data collection portion of a semester-long project. Before this lab, students will have graphed discharge data for one previous water year, graphed similar data collected by classes during a previous year, written one-page explanations of the techniques that they will be using, and speculated about the results they expect to get. After this lab, their data will be shared with other lab sections, which will have collected similar data at other sites along the same river. Each research group will present their preliminary data to the class during a later lab meeting, and the class will discuss how the different types of data relate to one another. The project culminates in a final paper (one per research group).

  2. Performance of Domestic Hot Water Supply and Heating by Waste Heat from Hot Spring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinhua Chen; Shuxia Wu; Baizhan Li; Meng Liu; Juanjuan Yuan; Yong Liu; Jie Chen

    2010-01-01

    Based the analysis of application method, principle and previous practices of the waste water utilization from hot spring, it is found that the waste water source heat pump is a feasible energy efficient system, compared with other heat pump systems. Through the analysis and theoretical calculations of the projects in which the hot spring water source heat pumps system was

  3. Analysis of a rainwater collection system for domestic water supply in Ringdansen, Norrköping, Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edgar L. Villarreal; Andrew Dixon

    2005-01-01

    The possibilities for implementing a rainwater collection system in Ringdansen, a residential area in Norrköping, Sweden, have been explored by analysing four scenarios for using rainwater in a dual water supply system to supplement drinking water. A computer model has been generated to quantify the water saving potential of the rainwater collection scheme. The performance of the rainwater system is

  4. Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    Water and sewage treatment systems are presented with concentration on the filtration of water. Equipment is described for organic removal, solids removal, nutrient removal, inorganic removal, and disinfection of the water. Such things as aseline hardware, additional piping connections, waste disposal, and costs involved are also reported.

  5. Neogene\\/Quaternary magnetostratigraphy of shallow-water carbonate sediments, San Salvador, Bahamas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. F. McNeill; J. L. Kirschvink; R. N. Ginsburg; S. B. R. Chang

    1987-01-01

    For the first time, a detailed sequence of late Neogene\\/Quaternary magnetic reversals is documented in shallow-water carbonate sediments. The magnetostratigraphy of a continuous core from San Salvador, Bahamas, correlates with the established magnetic polarity time scale. The remanent magnetism of 140 samples from a 91-m limestone\\/dolomite core was measured with a SQUID magnetometer. All samples were demagnetized using alternating field

  6. Cultivable bacteria from bulk water, aggregates, and surface sediments of a tidal flat ecosystem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heike Stevens; Meinhard Simon; Thorsten Brinkhoff

    2009-01-01

    Most-probable-number (MPN) dilution series were used to enumerate and isolate bacteria from bulk water, suspended aggregates,\\u000a the oxic layer, and the oxic–anoxic transition zone of the sediment of a tidal flat ecosystem in the southern North Sea. The\\u000a heterotrophic aerobic bacteria were able to grow on agar-agar, alginate, cellulose, chitin, dried and ground Fucus vesiculosus, Marine Broth 2216, palmitate, and

  7. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF HG AND METHYLHGCONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS BY WATER HYACINTH (Eichhornia crassipes)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandip Chattopadhyay; Ryan L. Fimmen; Brian J. Yates; Vivek Lal; Paul Randall

    2010-01-01

    Phytoremediation has the potential for implementation at Hg- (Hg) and methylHg (MeHg)-contaminated sites. Water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) were investigated for their ability to assimilate Hg and MeHg into plant biomass, in both aquatic and sediment-associated forms, over a 68-day hydroponic study. The suitability of E. crassipes to assimilate both Hg and MeHg was evaluated under differing phosphate (PO4) concentrations, light

  8. Simulation of land use–soil interactive effects on water and sediment yields at watershed scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xixi Wang; Shiyou Shang; Wanhong Yang; Calvin R. Clary; Dawen Yang

    2010-01-01

    Influences of vegetation management on soil erosion have been extensively studied. However, interactive effects between land use and soil are poorly documented in literature. Given the importance of understanding such effects for successful watershed management, the objective of this study was to examine the land use–soil interactive effects on water and sediment yields for the 117,845-ha drainage area upstream of

  9. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in Water and Sediment from Gully Pots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristin Karlsson; Maria Viklander

    2008-01-01

    A gully pot is often cleaned with the help of an eductor truck, which uses hydrodynamic pressure and a vacuum to loosen and\\u000a remove the solids and standing liquid from a gully pot. This paper considers the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) content\\u000a in the gully pot mixture (water and sediment) after it has been discharged from the eductor truck. The

  10. Event sedimentation in low-latitude deep-water carbonate basins, Anegada passage, northeast Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaytor, Jason D.; ten Brink, Uri S.

    2015-01-01

    The Virgin Islands and Whiting basins in the Northeast Caribbean are deep, structurally controlled depocentres partially bound by shallow-water carbonate platforms. Closed basins such as these are thought to document earthquake and hurricane events through the accumulation of event layers such as debris flow and turbidity current deposits and the internal deformation of deposited material. Event layers in the Virgin Islands and Whiting basins are predominantly thin and discontinuous, containing varying amounts of reef- and slope-derived material. Three turbidites/sandy intervals in the upper 2 m of sediment in the eastern Virgin Islands Basin were deposited between ca. 2000 and 13 600 years ago, but do not extend across the basin. In the central and western Virgin Islands Basin, a structureless clay-rich interval is interpreted to be a unifite. Within the Whiting Basin, several discontinuous turbidites and other sand-rich intervals are primarily deposited in base of slope fans. The youngest of these turbidites is ca. 2600 years old. Sediment accumulation in these basins is low (?1) for basin adjacent to carbonate platform, possibly due to limited sediment input during highstand sea-level conditions, sediment trapping and/or cohesive basin walls. We find no evidence of recent sediment transport (turbidites or debris flows) or sediment deformation that can be attributed to the ca. M7.2 1867 Virgin Islands earthquake whose epicentre was located on the north wall of the Virgin Islands Basin or to recent hurricanes that have impacted the region. The lack of significant appreciable pebble or greater size carbonate material in any of the available cores suggests that submarine landslide and basin-wide blocky debris flows have not been a significant mechanism of basin margin modification in the last several thousand years. Thus, basins such as those described here may be poor recorders of past natural hazards, but may provide a long-term record of past oceanographic conditions in ocean passages.

  11. Cadmium movement and accumulation in a sediment-water-plant system. [Myriophyllum spicatum L

    SciTech Connect

    Peverly, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    Studies in 1986 of cadmium (Cd) mobilization from dosed pond sediments after inputs stopped in 1983 indicated that Cd may be absorbed by rooted aquatic plants and thus returned to the aquatic food chain. The limits of this process were studied in 1987. Cd in plants, water, and sediments was determined and characterized in replicated, outdoor aquaria after single acute dosages. The aquaria were representative of the hardwater, non-flowing impoundments 1.1m deep used in 1986. Cd was added to the aquaria as soluble cadmium chloride at concentrations of 0.0, 10, 44, and 100 mgL/sup /minus/1/ on May 6. Soluble Cd decreased with a half-life of less than 30 days for all treatments. By October, over 90% of the added Cd had been removed to the sediment, in association with carbonates and sulfides as indicated by selective extraction. Shoots of Myriophyllum spicatum L (milfoil) were planted June 12 but no plants survived at the highest Cd application of 3500 mg Cd kg/sup /minus/1/ sediment. At 1500 mgkg/sup /minus/1/ plant growth was reduced 98% and net photosynthesis was reduced 70% compared to control plants. Tissue Cd ranged to 13,800 mgkg/sup /minus/1/ (dry wt.) compared to 7.5 mgkg/sup /minus/1/ in control plants. Over 60 mgCd m/sup /minus/2/ was absorbed from sediments by plants in the higher Cd treatments and accumulated in root and leaf tissue. Electron microscopy and x-ray analysis confirmed its presence in cell walls. This represented a considerable return of sediment Cd to the aquatic food chain.

  12. Hydrothermal sediments record changes in deep water oxygen content in the SE Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Rachel A.; Taylor, Sarah L.; Pälike, Heiko; Thomson, John

    2010-12-01

    The distribution of redox-sensitive metals in sediments is potentially a proxy for past ocean ventilation and productivity, but deconvolving these two major controls has proved difficult to date. Here we present a 740 kyr long record of trace element concentrations from an archived sediment core collected at ˜15°S on the western flank of the East Pacific Rise (EPR) on 1.1 Myr old crust and underlying the largest known hydrothermal plume in the world ocean. The downcore trace element distribution is controlled by a variable diagenetic overprint of the inferred primary hydrothermal plume input. Two main diagenetic processes are operating at this site: redox cycling of transition metals and ferrihydrite to goethite transition during aging. The depth of oxidation in these sediments is controlled by fluctuations in the relative balance of bottom water oxygen and electron donor input (organic matter and hydrothermal sulfides). These fluctuations induce apparent variations in the accumulation of redox-sensitive species with time. Subsurface U and P peaks in glacial age sediments, in this and other published data sets along the southern EPR, indicate that basin-wide changes in deep ocean ventilation, in particular at glacial-interglacial terminations II, III, IV, and V, alter the depth of the oxidation front in the sediments. These basin-wide changes in the deep Pacific have significant implications for carbon partitioning in the ocean-atmosphere system, and the distribution of redox-sensitive metals in ridge crest sediment can be used to reconstruct past ocean conditions at abyssal depths in the absence of alternative proxy records.

  13. Contamination and potential sources of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in water and sediment from the artificial Lake Shihwa, Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyo-Bang; Choi, Minkyu; Yu, Jun; Jung, Rae-Hong; Choi, Hee-Gu

    2012-08-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in water and sediment collected from the artificial Lake Shihwa and surrounding creeks. Total concentrations of 23 PBDE congeners in water and sediment ranged from 0.16 to 11.0ngL(-1) and from 1.3 to 18700ngg(-1)dryweight, respectively. The concentrations of BDE 209 in water and sediment were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the total concentrations of other PBDE congeners. The concentrations of total PBDEs and BDE 209 in sediments were the highest compared to previously reported worldwide levels. The highest concentrations of PBDEs in water and sediments were found in creeks near industrial complexes. The PBDE concentrations gradually decreased with increasing distance from the creeks to the inshore and then offshore regions of the lake. BDE 209 was a major congener, accounting for 80% of the total PBDEs in water and sediment, consistent with a high consumption of deca-BDE for the brominated flame retardant market in Korea. Non-parametric multidimensional scaling ordination showed that surrounding creeks are major pathways of PBDE contamination associated with deca-BDE technical mixtures used in industrial complexes around Lake Shihwa. A significant correlation between total organic carbon and total PBDE concentration was found in sediments, and the correlation coefficients for individual PBDE congeners relatively increased from lower to higher brominated congeners. PMID:22542081

  14. Relationships among petroleum refining, water and sediment contamination, and fish health.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, R L; Berlin, K D; Hawkins, W E; Ostrander, G K

    1995-09-01

    Water, sediment, and fish were sampled from three streams that were receiving or had received effluents from oil refineries. Water and sediment samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Each stream contained aromatic carbons including substituted benzenes and naphthalenes, which are related to oil refinery operations. Fish were identified, counted, and examined for external lesions. Lengths and weights were recorded for older bullhead catfish, and their livers were examined histologically. Differences were seen in the diversity and abundance of fish among the upstream, impacted (effluent-receiving), and downstream stations. In one stream, differences in liver pathology were observed between reference bullhead, collected from an upstream station, and those collected at impacted stations with more than 50% of the bullheads taken from impacted stations having some sort of pathological change, including one with a liver clear-cell focus, which is considered a preneoplastic lesion in rodents. These data suggest a correlation between contamination of water and sediments with aromatic hydrocarbons, presumably from refinery effluents, and compromised fish health. PMID:7666489

  15. Water concentrations of PAH, PCB and OCP by using semipermeable membrane devices and sediments.

    PubMed

    Karac?k, B; Okay, O S; Henkelmann, B; Pfister, G; Schramm, K-W

    2013-05-15

    Water concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were estimated from semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and from sediment pollutant concentrations. SPMDs were deployed in the Istanbul Strait and Marmara Sea and retrieved after 7 and 21 days. Performance reference compounds (PRCs) were used to determine the site-specific sampling rates of the compounds. Water concentrations (C(w)) of the analyzed compounds estimated by using two different calculation methods for SPMDs were found similar. C(w) of total PAHs estimated from SPMDs (C(w-spmd)) were found between 13 and 79 ng L?¹ and between 7.0 and 68 ng L?¹ for 7 and 21 days of deployments respectively. Water concentrations of PCBs using sediment data was found as between 0.001 and 11.0 ng L?¹. The highest value of C(w-spmd) for two deployments were 2.8 ng L?¹ for OCPs. C(w) estimated from sediment concentrations were generally higher than those estimated from SPMDs. PMID:23523120

  16. AQUATIC SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    One hundred seventeen literature references in the area of freshwater sediments were abstracted and synthesized to produce a review of sediment-related research for the period November, 1975 through October, 1976. Research areas covered included sediment-water interchange, sampli...

  17. Diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs along depth profiles of arctic and subarctic lake water column and sediments

    PubMed Central

    He, Ruo; Wooller, Matthew J; Pohlman, John W; Quensen, John; Tiedje, James M; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2012-01-01

    Methane (CH4) emitted from high-latitude lakes accounts for 2–6% of the global atmospheric CH4 budget. Methanotrophs in lake sediments and water columns mitigate the amount of CH4 that enters the atmosphere, yet their identity and activity in arctic and subarctic lakes are poorly understood. We used stable isotope probing (SIP), quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), pyrosequencing and enrichment cultures to determine the identity and diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs in the water columns and sediments (0–25?cm) from an arctic tundra lake (Lake Qalluuraq) on the north slope of Alaska and a subarctic taiga lake (Lake Killarney) in Alaska's interior. The water column CH4 oxidation potential for these shallow (?2?m deep) lakes was greatest in hypoxic bottom water from the subarctic lake. The type II methanotroph, Methylocystis, was prevalent in enrichment cultures of planktonic methanotrophs from the water columns. In the sediments, type I methanotrophs (Methylobacter, Methylosoma and Methylomonas) at the sediment-water interface (0–1?cm) were most active in assimilating CH4, whereas the type I methanotroph Methylobacter and/or type II methanotroph Methylocystis contributed substantially to carbon acquisition in the deeper (15–20?cm) sediments. In addition to methanotrophs, an unexpectedly high abundance of methylotrophs also actively utilized CH4-derived carbon. This study provides new insight into the identity and activity of methanotrophs in the sediments and water from high-latitude lakes. PMID:22592821

  18. Influences on domestic well water testing behavior in a Central Maine area with frequent groundwater arsenic occurrence.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Sara V; Marvinney, Robert G; Zheng, Yan

    2015-02-01

    In 2001 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) adopted a new standard for arsenic (As) in drinking water of 10 ?g/L, replacing the old standard of 50 ?g/L. However, for the 12% of the U.S. population relying on unregulated domestic well water, including half of the population of Maine, it is solely the well owner's responsibility to test and treat the water. A mailed household survey was implemented in January 2013 in 13 towns of Central Maine with the goal of understanding the population's testing and treatment practices and the key behavior influencing factors in an area with high well-water dependency and frequent natural groundwater As. The response rate was 58.3%; 525 of 900 likely-delivered surveys to randomly selected addresses were completed. Although 78% of the households reported that their well has been tested, half of it was more than 5 years ago. Among the 58.7% who believe they have tested for As, most do not remember the results. Better educated, higher income homeowners who more recently purchased their homes are most likely to have included As when last testing. While households agree that water and As-related health risks can be severe, they feel low personal vulnerability and there are low testing norms overall. Significant predictors of including As when last testing include: having knowledge that years of exposure increases As-related health risks (risk knowledge), knowing who to contact to test well water (action knowledge), believing that regular testing does not take too much time (instrumental attitude), and having neighbors who regularly test their water (descriptive norm). Homeowners in As-affected communities have the tendency to underestimate their As risks compared to their neighbors. The reasons for this optimistic bias require further study, but low testing behaviors in this area may be due to the influence of a combination of norm, ability, and attitude factors and barriers. PMID:24875279

  19. Monitoring of antifouling booster biocides in water and sediment from the port of Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Harino, Hiroya; Mori, Yoshiaki; Yamaguchi, Yoshitaka; Shibata, Kiyoshi; Senda, Tetsuya

    2005-04-01

    Concentrations of booster antifouling compounds in the port of Osaka, Japan were assessed. Concentrations of Sea-Nine 211 (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-3-isothiazolone), thiabendazole (2-(4-thiazolyl)-benzimidazole), IPBC (3-iodo-2-propynyl butylcarbamate), Diuron (3,4-dichlorophenyl-N, N-dimethylurea), Irgarol 1051 (2-methylthio-4-t-butylamino-6-cyclopropylamino-s-triazine), and M1 (2-methylthio-4-t-butylamino-6-amino-s-triazine) in port water samples were in the range of <0.003-0.004 microg L(-1), <0.0008-0.020 microg L(-1), <0.0007-1.54 microg L(-1), <0.0008-0.267 microg L(-1), and <0.0019-0.167 microg L(-1), respectively. IPBC was not detected in the water samples, but the concentration of Diuron was higher than any previously reported. The concentrations of Sea-Nine 211, thiabendazole, Diuron, Irgarol 1051, and M1 in sediment samples were in the range of <0.04-2.4 microg kg(-1) dry, <0.08-1.2 microg kg(-1) dry, <0.64-1350 microg kg(-1) dry, <0.08-8.2 microg kg(-1) dry, and <0.18-2.9 microg kg(-1) dry, respectively. IPBC was again not detected. The levels of Sea-Nine 211, Diuron, and Irgarol 1051 in water and sediment samples were high in a poorly flushed mooring area for small and medium-hull vessels. Levels of Diuron and Irgarol 1051 were highest in summer. The concentration of Sea-Nine 211 in water increased between August and October 2002. Except for M1, increases in the levels of booster biocides in sediment were observed during the study period. The sediment-water partition (Kd) was calculated by dividing the concentrations in sediment by the concentrations in water. The Kd values for Sea-Nine 211, thiabendazole, Diuron, Irgarol 1051, and M1 were 690, 180, 2700, 300, and 870. The Kd value for these alternative compounds was lower than for TBT. PMID:15750770

  20. Contamination of sediments and water of a wet dune slack (SW Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conceição Freitas, Maria; Rosário Carvalho, Maria; Andrade, César; Cruces, Aanabela; Moreira, Sandra

    2015-04-01

    Lagoa da Sancha (LS), located in the Portuguese SW coast, is a small (0.12km2) wet dune slack with a shallow (<1m) open-water body, which occasionally dries out in summer. This environment is part of a Natural Reserve since 2000. It collects inputs from a 35km2 watershed essentially draining Cenozoic sandy materials. The main anthropogenic activities in the catchment area are related to agriculture and hog raising; however, an industrial waste disposal located proximal to LS, infilling an abandoned quarry, has been recently discovered. Field surveys have been conducted in March 2014 in order to collect sediment and water samples in LS as well as in the industrial waste disposal (TW3); riverine water and sediments and underground water have also been collected. Sedimentological (texture, pH, calcium carbonate and organic matter content) and geochemical (major elements, metals and organic compounds) analysis have been performed. Results show that riverine and groundwater have neutral pH and low to medium mineralization of NaCl to CaHCO3 types. The only metal found in high concentrations is iron, with a maximum value of 1200 ug/L. The texture and composition of alluvial sediments are compatible with the geologic background. LS bottom sediments areCaCO3-free organic muds, hyperacid and low organic; they present high contents of heavy metals, organic compounds (101 to 102 mg/kg) and S (2700 mg/kg). Also, the LS hydrosome presents pH values < 3, electric conductivity up to ? 8 mS/cm and very high concentrations of dissolved metals (iron attains 20000 ug/L and the heavy metals content is up to 3 orders of magnitude higher than in both the surface and groundwater). Dissolved hydrocarbon species (fraction C4-C10) reach 11 ug/L and bromoform 17 ug/L. Chemical analysis to TW3 revealed the presence of a large diversity of organic compounds in concentrations of up to 105 mg/kg. Hydrocarbon species and very high S content were only found in the soil and water of the waste disposal and in Sancha water and sediments, indicating that the lowland contamination probably originates by groundwater transport. In order to identify the hydrocarbon and S contamination plume, groundwater flowlines were drawn using the Modflow software and the particle tracking method. Results show that the Sancha lagoon is in the pathway of groundwater infiltrated in the hydrocarbon contaminated waste diposal area.

  1. Mineral-Water Interface Processes Affecting Uranium Fate in Contaminated Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, J. G.

    2011-12-01

    Widespread uranium contamination of soil, sediments, and groundwater systems has resulted from mining activities, nuclear weapon production, and energy generation. The fate and transport of uranium in such systems is strongly affected by geochemical processes occurring at mineral-water interfaces. I will present a summary of the mineral-water interface processes found to affect uranium fate in example contaminated sediments at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford sites and in related model systems. Processes occurring under oxic conditions will be the primary focus of this talk as under these conditions uranium is most mobile and thus presents the greatest hazard. Three dominant solid-phase uranium species are observed in contaminated soil and sediments at the Hanford site: uranyl silicates, uranyl phosphates, and uranyl adsorbed to clays and iron oxides. In deep sediments, uranyl silicates are found in microfractures in feldspar grains, likely because slow diffusion in such fractures maintains a high silicate activity. Such silicates are also found in waste-impacted shallow sediments and soil; waste fluids or evaporative processes may have generated the silicate activity needed to produce such phases. Uranyl phosphates are less abundant, occurring primarily in shallow sediments exposed to P-bearing waste fluids. However, remediation approaches under consideration may produce substantial quantities of uranyl phosphates in the future. Adsorbed uranyl is dispersed throughout contaminated soils and shallow sediments and likely has the greatest potential for remobilization. Analogue studies show that precipitation of uranyl phosphates is rapid when such phases are supersaturated and that both homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation may occur. Specific adsorption of uranyl to minerals is strongly affected by the presence of complexation anions. Carbonate suppresses uranyl adsorption but also forms uranyl-carbonate ternary surface complexes. At conditions below uranyl phosphate saturation there is evidence of uranyl-phosphate ternary complexes. These species may prove to be of substantial importance in reducing aqueous uranium concentrations when uranyl phosphate solubility is greater than water quality standards, as occurs in calcite-saturated fluids because of the formation of aqueous calcium-uranyl-carbonate complexes. Uranyl-phosphate ternary surface complexes may also represent precursors required for the nucleation of uranyl phosphate minerals; similar processes may occur in the uranyl silicate system. Major knowledge gaps still exist in our understanding of how these processes occur in complex subsurface materials rather than controlled laboratory systems and the dominant chemical controls on specific adsorption and precipitation processes in contaminated soils and sediments. In addition, contaminated sediments in contact with aqueous uranium concentrations near water quality standards often have solid phase concentrations in ranges that make characterization of sorption mechanisms challenging. Novel combinations of analytical methods are needed to overcome this challenge to understanding the mineral-water interface processes that control uranium fate in the environment.

  2. Controlling factors on the development and evolution of carbonate platforms: isostatic basement response to water-sediment loading

    E-print Network

    Mastrolorenzo, Maurizio

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to accurately use sensitivity analysis on input parameters so a set of numerical simulations will geologically show the relative effects of isostatically compensated water-sediment loads on evolving carbonate platforms...

  3. PREDICTING THE TOXICITY OF BULK SEDIMENTS TO AQUATIC ORGANISMS WITH AQUEOUS TEST FRACTIONS: PORE WATER VERSUS ELUTRIATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the acute toxicity of bulk sediment vs. pore water or elutriate to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), cladocerans (Ceriodaphnia dubia), amphipods (Hyalella azteca), and oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus). otal of 29 different ...

  4. Comparing the Accumulation of PCBs by Passive Samplers and Mussels from the Water Column at a Contaminated Sediment Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passive samplers, including semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs), solid phase microextraction (SPME) and polyethylene devices (PEDs), provide innovative tools for measuring hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) originating from contaminated waters and sediments. Because the...

  5. Perfluorinated Chemicals in Surface Waters and Sediments from Northwest Georgia, USA, and Their Bioaccumulation in Lumbriculus variegatus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrations of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) were measured in surface waters and sediments from the Coosa River watershed in northwest Georgia, USA, to examine their distribution downstream of a suspected source. Samples from eight sites were analyzed using liquid chromatogr...

  6. Study on Seasonal Variation of Metal Ion (Beryllium) Concentration in Water, Sediment and its Distribution in a Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, P. N.; Soundararajan, S.; Sharma, D. N.

    2015-06-01

    This study was aimed at determination of the beryllium concentration and its temporal variation in stream water and sediment (mud). The metal ion distribution in the stream of length 3.2 km, near the beryllium facility was evaluated. Beryllium in stream water and sediment was estimated by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (GFAAS). The beryllium concentration in water and sediment, varied in the range of 0.01-0.2 ng/ml and 600-30,000 ng/g respectively. The distribution coefficient (Kd) calculated for each locations was observed to be in the range of 500-212,500. The variation of the beryllium concentration at sampling locations of stream, selected for the study, with respect to distance may be due to sorption capacity of the matrix and other reactions of the metal ion involved in water and sediments.

  7. Macrophytes in shallow lakes: relationships with water, sediment and watershed characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kissoon, La Toya T; Jacob, Donna L; Hanson, Mark A; Herwig, Brian R; Bowe, Shane E; Otte, Marinus L

    2013-08-01

    We examined macrophyte-environment relationships in shallow lakes located within the Prairie Parkland and Laurentian Mixed Forest provinces of Minnesota. Environmental variables included land cover within lake watersheds, and within-lake, water and sediment characteristics. CCA indicated that sediment fraction smaller than 63 ?m (f<63), open water area, turbidity, and percent woodland and agricultural cover in watersheds were significant environmental variables explaining 36.6% of variation in macrophyte cover. When Province was added to the analysis as a spatial covariate, these environmental variables explained 30.8% of the variation in macrophyte cover. CCA also indicated that pH, f<63, percent woodland cover in watersheds, open water area, emergent vegetation area, and organic matter content were significant environmental variables explaining 43.5% of the variation in macrophyte biomass. When Province was added to the analysis as a spatial covariate, these environmental variables explained 39.1% of the variation in macrophyte biomass. The f<63 was the most important environmental variable explaining variation for both measures of macrophyte abundance (cover and biomass) when Province was added as a spatial covariate to the models. Percent woodland in watersheds, turbidity, open water area, and Ca+Mg explained 34.5% of the variation in macrophyte community composition. Most species showed a negative relationship with turbidity and open water area except for Potamogeton richardsonii, Stuckenia pectinata, and filamentous algae. Our study further demonstrates the extent to which macrophyte abundance and community composition are related to site- and watershed-scale variables including lake morphology, water and sediment characteristics, and percent land cover of adjacent uplands. PMID:23997402

  8. Nutrient dynamics at the sediment-water interface in a Mediterranean lagoon (Thau, France): influence of biodeposition by shellfish farming activities

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    -water interface in relation to organic matter (OM) sedimentation and degradation. Two stations inside (C51 Nutrient dynamics at the sediment-water interface in a Mediterranean lagoon (Thau, France of the present work was to evaluate the role of this activity on nutrient exchange at the sediment

  9. Perfluorinated chemicals in surface waters and sediments from northwest Georgia, USA, and their bioaccumulation in Lumbriculus variegatus.

    PubMed

    Lasier, Peter J; Washington, John W; Hassan, Sayed M; Jenkins, Thomas M

    2011-10-01

    Concentrations of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) were measured in surface waters and sediments from the Coosa River watershed in northwest Georgia, USA, to examine their distribution downstream of a suspected source. Samples from eight sites were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Sediments were also used in 28-d exposures with the aquatic oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, to assess PFC bioaccumulation. Concentrations of PFCs in surface waters and sediments increased significantly below a land-application site (LAS) of municipal/industrial wastewater and were further elevated by unknown sources downstream. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with eight or fewer carbons were the most prominent in surface waters. Those with 10 or more carbons predominated sediment and tissue samples. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the major homolog in contaminated sediments and tissues. This pattern among sediment PFC concentrations was consistent among sites and reflected homolog concentrations emanating from the LAS. Concentrations of PFCs in oligochaete tissues revealed patterns similar to those observed in the respective sediments. The tendency to bioaccumulate increased with PFCA chain length and the presence of the sulfonate moiety. Biota-sediment accumulation factors indicated that short-chain PFCAs with fewer than seven carbons may be environmentally benign alternatives in aquatic ecosystems; however, sulfonates with four to seven carbons may be as likely to bioaccumulate as PFOS. PMID:21766321

  10. Perfluorinated chemicals in surface waters and sediments from northwest Georgia, USA, and their bioaccumulation in Lumbriculus variegatus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lasier, Peter J.; Washington, John W.; Hassan, Sayed M.; Jenkins, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) were measured in surface waters and sediments from the Coosa River watershed in northwest Georgia, USA, to examine their distribution downstream of a suspected source. Samples from eight sites were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Sediments were also used in 28-d exposures with the aquatic oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, to assess PFC bioaccumulation. Concentrations of PFCs in surface waters and sediments increased significantly below a land-application site (LAS) of municipal/industrial wastewater and were further elevated by unknown sources downstream. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with eight or fewer carbons were the most prominent in surface waters. Those with 10 or more carbons predominated sediment and tissue samples. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the major homolog in contaminated sediments and tissues. This pattern among sediment PFC concentrations was consistent among sites and reflected homolog concentrations emanating from the LAS. Concentrations of PFCs in oligochaete tissues revealed patterns similar to those observed in the respective sediments. The tendency to bioaccumulate increased with PFCA chain length and the presence of the sulfonate moiety. Biota-sediment accumulation factors indicated that short-chain PFCAs with fewer than seven carbons may be environmentally benign alternatives in aquatic ecosystems; however, sulfonates with four to seven carbons may be as likely to bioaccumulate as PFOS.

  11. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePLUS

    Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also ... a child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

  12. The role of bacteria in the nutrient exchange between sediment and water in a flow-through system.

    PubMed

    Kairesalo, T; Tuominen, L; Hartikainen, H; Rankinen, K

    1995-03-01

    The contribution of bacteria to phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N ) release from, or retention in, sediment was studied in a flow-through system. "Live" and formaldehyde-"killed" sediment communities were incubated in 25-liter bottles with a continuous flow of P- or P + N-enriched water. Sediment bacteria in the killed communities were inhibited by adding formaldehyde (final concentration 0.04% v/v) to the sediment before the start of the experiment. Bacterial activity in the live sediments measured with [(3)H]thymidine and [(14)C]leucine incorporation techniques did not change essentially during the experiment period (7-8 days). Chemical mechanisms were found to be of principal importance in PO4-P retention in the sediment. In the live samples, the net retention of PO4-P was lower than in the killed samples, which was likely due to the reduced O2 conditions in the sediment as a consequence of bacterial mineralization. In total P exchange, however, bacteria increased the retention rate by recycling dissolved organic P in the sediment. In the live communities the retention of N was very efficient, and all the introduced NH4 -N and NO3-N was immobilized by sediment bacteria. Nitrogen enrichment, however, did not alter the P exchange rates. The gradual emergence of bacterial activity (and grazing) in the killed communities, subsequent to the dilution of formaldehyde concentration, enhanced the release of PO4-P and NH4-N from sediment. PMID:24186719

  13. Modeling crude oil droplet-sediment aggregation in nearshore waters.

    PubMed

    Sterling, Michael C; Bonner, James S; Page, Cheryl A; Fuller, Christopher B; Ernest, Andrew N S; Autenrieth, Robin L

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes a modeling approach that simulates changes in particle size distribution and density due to aggregation by extending the Smoluchowski aggregation kinetic model to particles of different density. Batch flocculation studies were conducted for clay, colloidal silica, crude oil, clay-crude oil, and silica-crude oil systems. A parameter estimation algorithm was used to estimate homogeneous collision efficiencies (alphaHOMO) for single-particle-type systems and heterogeneous collision efficiencies (alphaHET) for two-particle-type systems. Homogeneous collision efficiency values (alphaHOMO) were greater for clay (0.7) and for crude oil (0.3) than for silica (0.01). Thus, clay and crude oil were classified as cohesive particles while silica was classified as noncohesive. Heterogeneous collision efficiencies were similar for oil-clay (0.4) and oil-silica (0.3) systems. Thus, crude oil increases the aggregation of noncohesive particles. Data from the calibrated aggregation model were used to estimate apparent first-order flocculation rates (K') for oil, clay, and silica and apparent second-order flocculation rates (K'') for oil and clay in oil-clay systems and for oil and silica in oil-silica systems. For oil or clay systems, aggregation Damköhler numbers ranged from 0.1 to 1.0, suggesting that droplet coalescence and clay aggregation can occur on the same time scales as oil resurfacing and clay settling, respectively. For mixed oil-clay systems, the relative time scales of clay settling and clay-oil aggregation were also within an order of magnitude. Thus, oil-clay aggregation should be considered when modeling crude oil transport in nearshore waters. PMID:15461172

  14. Intra and interannual variability in the Madeira River water chemistry and sediment load

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nei K. Leite; Alex V. Krusche; Maria V. R. Ballester; Reynaldo L. Victoria; Jeffrey E. Richey; Beatriz M. Gomes

    Concentrations of cations (Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, NH4\\u000a +), anions (HCO3\\u000a ?, Cl?, NO3\\u000a ?, SO4\\u000a 2?, PO4\\u000a 3?) and suspended sediments in the Madeira River water were determined near the city of Porto Velho (RO), in order to assess\\u000a variation in water chemistry from 2004 to 2007. Calcium and bicarbonate were the dominant cation and anion, respectively.\\u000a Significant seasonal differences were found, with highest

  15. Novel and Unexpected Prokaryotic Diversity in Water and Sediments of the Alkaline, Hypersaline Lakes of the Wadi An Natrun, Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noha M. Mesbah; Soad H. Abou-El-Ela; Juergen Wiegel

    2007-01-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of the bacterial and archaeal community in the water and sediments of three large lakes of the\\u000a Wadi An Natrun was investigated using 16S rRNA clone libraries. The bacterial community was diverse: 769 clones formed 345\\u000a operational taxonomic units (OTUs) defined at 99% 16S rRNA sequence identity. The bacterial community in both the water and\\u000a sediments of

  16. Transformation and fate of nitrate near the sediment-water interface of Copano Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Carini, Stephen A.; Gardner, Wayne S.

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated potential transformation processes and fates of nitrate at the sediment-water interface of Copano Bay during a period of drought by conducting continuous-flow and slurry experiments combined with a 15NO3- addition technique. Rates of 15NO3--based denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) and potential dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) were in the range of 27.7-40.1, 0.26-1.6 and 1.4-3.8 ?mol 15N m-2 h-1, respectively. Compared with the total 15NO3-fluxes into sediments, dissimilatory processes contributed 29-49% to loss of the spiked 15NO3-. Based on the mass balance of 15NO3-, microbial assimilation was estimated to consume about 50-70% of the added 15NO3-, indicating that most of nitrate was incorporated by microorganisms in this N-limiting system. In addition, significant correlations of nitrate transformation rates with sediment characteristics reflect that the depth related behaviors of nitrate transformations in core sediments were coupled strongly to organic matter, iron (Fe) and sulfur (S) cycles.

  17. Novel carotenol chlorin esters in marine sediments and water column particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goericke, Ralf; Shankle, Amy; Repeta, Daniel J.

    1999-09-01

    Novel esters of carotenols and chlorins (carotenol chlorin esters, CCEs) were found in recent sediments from the California Borderlands, Monterey Bay, and the Peru and Oman margins. The chlorins associated with CCEs were pheophorbide a and pyropheophorbide a, degradation products of chlorophyll a. Isofucoxanthin-dehydrate and isofucoxanthinol-dehydrate and possibly their isomers, degradation products of fucoxanthin, were the only carotenols associated with CCEs. This result is surprising, considering that at least 8 major degradation products of fucoxanthin are present in organic-rich marine sediments. The carotenols of CCEs are likely derived from diatoms as these are the primary source for fucoxanthin in the marine environment. In sediments studied by us, CCEs contributed approximately 10% to total solvent extractable chlorins. The high relative concentrations of CCEs in these sediments suggest that CCEs are an important degradation product of chlorophyll a in some marine environments; a pathway hitherto unrecognized. Off Oman and Southern California we found CCEs in water column suspended particulate matter when diatoms dominated the phytoplankton community. By analogy with sterol chlorin esters, we suggest that CCEs are primarily produced by enzymatically mediated transesterifications in crustaceans grazing on diatoms. We are currently studying if CCEs are biomarkers for the grazing of crustaceans on diatoms, an important pathway of carbon remineralization in the marine environment.

  18. Contaminants at the sediment-water interface: implications for environmental impact assessment and effects monitoring.

    PubMed

    Milligan, T G; Law, B A

    2013-06-01

    Many contaminants in aquatic environments are associated with loosely packed aggregates of particulate material called flocs. Flocculation allows contaminants to accumulate at the sediment-water interface and it packages them in a form that is readily available for ingestion by filter feeding organisms. Unfortunately, most samplers being used for environmental assessment and monitoring suspend this material on impact and fail to sample this critical component of the seabed. In this study we use a slo-corer to collect seabed samples with an undisturbed surface layer and a Gust microcosm erosion chamber to erode the surface of the cores at increasing shear stresses. Results from two different sites, one impacted by tailings from historic gold mining and the other by open-pen salmon aquaculture, showed the levels of metals suspended at stresses below 0.24 Pa were greater than in the underlying sediment. Sampling this highly mobile surface layer is critical for determining the total contaminant load in bottom sediments and, more importantly, this layer represents the most readily available material for suspension. The loss of this layer during sampling could lead to inaccurate measurements of contaminant levels during environmental assessment and effects monitoring. A re-evaluation of the ISO standard for bottom sediment sampling is recommended. PMID:23647260

  19. Transfer of chemical elements from a contaminated estuarine sediment to river water. A leaching assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, Manuela; Peres, Sara; Magalhães, M. Clara F.

    2014-05-01

    Wastes of a former Portuguese steel industry were deposited during 40 years on the left bank of the Coina River, which flows into the estuary of the Tagus River near Lisbon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the release of the chemical elements from the contaminated sediment to the river water. A leaching experiment (four replicates) was performed using 1.6 kg/replicate of sediment from a landfill located in the Coina River bank, forming a lagoon subject to tidal influence. River water coming from this lagoon was collected during low tide. This water (200 mL) was added to the moist sediment, contained in cylindrical reactors, and was collected after 24 h of percolation. The leaching experiments were conducted for 77 days being leachates collected at time zero, after 28, 49 and 77 days with the sediment always moist. The sediment was characterized for: pH, electric conductivity (EC), total organic carbon (TOC), extractable phosphorus and potassium, mineral nitrogen, iron from iron oxides (crystalline and non-crystalline) and manganese oxides. Multi-elemental analysis was also made by ICP-INAA. Leachates and river water were analysed for pH, EC, hydrogencarbonate and sulfatetot by titrations, chloride by potentiometry, and multi-elemental composition by ICP-MS. The sediment presented pH=7.2, EC=18.5 dS/m, TOC=147.8 g/kg, high concentrations of extractable phosphorous (62.8 mg/kg) and potassium (1236.8 mg/kg), mineral nitrogen=11.3 mg/kg. The non-crystalline fraction of iron oxides corresponds to 99% (167.5 g Fe/kg) of the total iron oxides, and manganese from manganese oxides was low (52.7 mg/kg). Sediment is considered contaminated. It contained high concentrations (g/kg) of Zn (2.9), Pb (0.9), Cr (0.59), Cu (0.16), As (0.07), Cd (0.005), and Hg (0.001), which are above Canadian values for marine sediments quality guidelines for protection of aquatic life. River water had: pH=8.2, EC=28.6 dS/m, csulfate=1.23 g/L, and [Cl-]=251.6 mg/L. The concentrations of Cd (0.001 mg/L) and Hg (0.02 mg/L) were above Canadian water quality guidelines for protection of aquatic life. Leachates had pH?7.9 and EC=38.7 dS/m (mean values), and high concentrations of hydrogencarbonate (723.7 mg/L), sulfatetot (1.8 g/L) and chloride (252.2 mg/L). Over the experiment, only pH (7.6-8.0) and EC (35.7-55.2 dS/m) values showed statistical differences, increasing over time. Regarding multi-elemental contamination, statistical differences were found between some elements concentrations (Co, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, Sb, U, V, W, Zn) in the leachates/kg of sediment collected after river water percolation in the four periods. However, only the concentrations of Ni (4.7-9.2 µg/kg), Sb (0.08-0.14 µg/kg), W (0.16-1.1 µg/kg) and Zn (1.72-5.74 µg/kg) have increased. The concentration of the elements in the leachates when compared to the same elements concentration in the sediments corresponds to a fraction lower than 1%. When comparing the concentrations of the elements in the leachates and in the river water used for sediments leaching, the values in leachates are in general lower, being the highest obtained for Ni, W and U, which correspond to 62, 61 and 50% of the river water values, respectively. Chemical elements transfer from sediments to river water can be considered very low.

  20. Impact of recycling filter backwash water on organic removal in coagulation-sedimentation processes.

    PubMed

    Gottfried, A; Shepard, A D; Hardiman, K; Walsh, M E

    2008-11-01

    The overall purpose of this research was to examine the impacts of filter backwash water (FBWW) and membrane backwash water (MBWW) recycles on water quality in coagulation-sedimentation processes. Specifically, the impact of recycling 5 or 10% by volume of FBWW and MBWW with surface water on the removal of natural organic matter (NOM) was evaluated at bench-scale using a standard jar-test apparatus and measurement of specific water quality parameters including total organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV254, turbidity, total aluminum and zeta potential. The results of jar test conducted on a source water with a specific UV absorbance (SUVA) value within the range of 2-4 mg/Lm showed a significantly higher removal of DOC from the raw water that was blended with 5 and 10% by volume of FBWW as compared to control trials where backwash water was not added. Increasing rates of MBWW that did not contain destabilized hydroxide precipitates did not significantly change DOC concentrations in the settled water samples as compared to the control trials. For source waters that are characterized as having low turbidity with medium SUVA values, these results could hold particular significance for plants that have reached treatment ceilings in terms of dissolved NOM removal using conventional coagulation designs. PMID:18789473

  1. Morphodynamics of Rivers and Turbidity Currents:an Elegant Conversation between Water and Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Gary

    2007-11-01

    The flow of a fluid over erodible boundaries such as sediment or bedrock is capable of creating a kaleidoscope of beautiful patterns, including dunes, bars, meandering, alluvial fans and canyons. The key to the formation of these morphologies is an interaction between the fluid flow and the erodible boundary. The mathematical formulation of the problem involves a coupling between the relevant equations of fluid flow and an equation that describes the evolution of the boundary. The flow changes the boundary via differential erosion/deposition, and the boundary changes the flow by offering a modified bed boundary condition. While the fluid can be as esoteric as liquid methane, and the sediment can be granular particles of ice, as on Titan, the case of interest here is water flow associated with rivers and turbidity currents over an erodible bed composed of natural sediment on Earth. Turbidity currents are the deep-sea analogs of river flows: they consist of bottom-hugging currents driven by the presence of sediment in suspension, which makes the water in the flow heavier than the ambient water. In the case of the great majority of such problems, the fluid mechanics simplify in that the temporal terms can be neglected from all equations except the one that describes the evolution of the boundary. Here the general problem is discussed, and then interest is focused on cyclic steps, a universal rhythmic bedform associated with swift (Froude-supercritical) flow that can be found in mountain bedrock streams, gullies, steep alluvial river flows, and in the deep ocean. A single, unified mathematical formulation provides an explanation of all of these features.

  2. Determination of DDT and metabolites in surface water and sediment using LLE, SPE, ACE and SE.

    PubMed

    Sibali, Linda L; Okonkwo, Jonathan O; Zvinowanda, Caliphs

    2009-12-01

    Surface water and sediment samples collected from Jukskei River in South Africa, were subjected to different extraction techniques, liquid-liquid (LLE), solid-phase extraction (SPE), activated carbon extraction (ACE) and soxhlet extraction (SE) for sediment. The samples were extracted with dichloromethane, cleaned in a silica gel column and the extracts quantified using a Varian 3800 GC-ECD. The percentage recovery test for 2,4'DDT, DDE and DDD and 4,4'DDT, DDE and DDD in water ranged from 80%-96% and 76%-95% (LLE); 56%-76% and 56%-70% (SPE) and 75%-84% (ACE), respectively; while that recoveries for sediment samples varied from 65%-95% for 2,4'DDT, DDE and DDD and 80%-91% for 4,4'DDT, DDE and DDD. The high recoveries exhibited by ACE compared very well with LLE and SE. This was not the case with SPE which exhibited the lowest value of recoveries for both 2,4 and 4,4'DDD, DDE and DDT standard samples. The mean concentrations of DDT and metabolites ranged from nd-1.10 ?g/L, nd-0.80 ?g/L, nd-1.21 ?g/L and 1.92 ?g/L for LLE, SPE, ACE and SE, respectively. The total DDT (2,4' and 4,4'-DDT) in water and sediment samples ranged from 1.20-3.25 ?g/L and 1.82-5.24 ?g/L, respectively. The low concentrations of the DDT metabolites obtained in the present study may suggest a recent contamination of the river by DDT. PMID:19714283

  3. Lake Water and Sediment VI. The Standing Crop of Bacteria in Lake Sediments and Its Place in the Classification of Lakes1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. HAYES

    Procedures are given and field apparatus described for use of the millipore filter tech- nique for lake water and sediment bacteria. Agar plate and filter procedures give the same counts using a supplemented sodium cascinatc medium. Direct counts were higher than colony counts by factors from 59 to 233, with a mean of 111. Cultures made on lake scdi- ment

  4. Sediment accumulation and water volume in Loch Raven Reservoir, Baltimore County, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, William S.L.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    1999-01-01

    Baltimore City and its metropolitan area are supplied with water from three reservoirs, Liberty Reservoir, Prettyboy Reservoir, and Loch Raven Reservoir. Prettyboy and Loch Raven Reservoirs are located on the Gunpowder Falls (figure 1). The many uses of the reservoir system necessitate coordination and communication among resource managers. The 1996 Amendment to the Safe Drinking Water Act require States to complete source-water assessments for public drinking-water supplies. As part of an ongoing effort to provide safe drinking water and as a direct result of these laws, the City of Baltimore and the Maryland Department of the Environment (MDE), in cooperation with other State and local agencies, are studying the Gunpowder Falls Basin and its role as a source of water supply to the Baltimore area. As a part of this study, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Maryland Geological Survey (MGS), with funding provided by the City of Baltimore and MDE, is examining sediment accumulation in Loch Raven Reservoir. The Baltimore City Department of Public Works periodically determines the amount of water that can be stored in its reservoirs. To make this determination, field crews measure the water depth along predetermined transects or ranges. These transects provide consistent locations where water depth, or bathymetric, measurements can be made. Range surveys are repeated to provide a record of the change in storage capacity due to sediment accumulation over time. Previous bathymetric surveys of Loch Raven Reservoir were performed in 1943, 1961, 1972, and 1985. Errors in data-collection and analysis methods have been assessed and documented (Baltimore City Department of Public Works, 1989). Few comparisons can be made among survey results because of changing data-collection techniques and analysis methods.

  5. Immobilization of U(VI) from Oxic Groundwater by Hanford 300 Area Sediments and Effects of Columbia River Water

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, B.; Cao, Bin; Mishra, Bhoopesh; Boyanov, Maxim I.; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2012-09-23

    Regions within the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford 300 Area (300 A) site experience periodic hydrologic influences from the nearby Columbia River as a result of changing river stage, which causes changes in groundwater elevation, flow direction and water chemistry. An important question is the extent to which the mixing of Columbia River water and groundwater impacts the speciation and mobility of uranium (U). In this study, we designed experiments to mimic interactions among U, oxic groundwater or Columbia River water, and 300 A sediments in the subsurface environment of Hanford 300 A. The goals were to investigate mechanisms of: 1) U immobilization in 300 A sediments under bulk oxic conditions and 2) U remobilization from U-immobilized 300 A sediments exposed to oxic Columbia River water. Initially, 300 A sediments in column reactors were fed with U(VI)-containing oxic 1) synthetic groundwater (SGW), 2) organic-amended SGW (OA-SGW), and 3) de-ionized (DI) water to investigate U immobilization processes. After that, the sediments were exposed to oxic Columbia River water for U remobilization studies. The results reveal that U was immobilized by 300 A sediments predominantly through reduction (80-85%) when the column reactor was fed with oxic OA-SGW. However, U was immobilized by 300 A sediments through adsorption (100%) when the column reactors were fed with oxic SGW or DI water. The reduced U in the 300 A sediments fed with OA-SGW was relatively resistant to remobilization by oxic Columbia River water. Oxic Columbia River water resulted in U remobilization (?7%) through desorption, and most of the U that remained in the 300 A sediments fed with OA-SGW (?93%) was in the form of uraninite nanoparticles. These results reveal that: 1) the reductive immobilization of U through OA-SGW stimulation of indigenous 300 A sediment microorganisms may be viable in the relatively oxic Hanford 300 A subsurface environments and 2) with the intrusion of Columbia River water, desorption may be the primary process resulting in U remobilization from OA-SGW-stimulated 300 A sediments at the subsurface of the Hanford 300 A site.

  6. Interactive effects of grazing and burning on wind- and water-driven sediment fluxes: rangeland management implications.

    PubMed

    Field, Jason P; Breshears, David D; Whicker, Jeffrey J; Zou, Chris B

    2011-01-01

    Rangelands are globally extensive, provide fundamental ecosystem services, and are tightly coupled human-ecological systems. Rangeland sustainability depends largely on the implementation and utilization of various grazing and burning practices optimized to protect against soil erosion and transport. In many cases, however, land management practices lead to increased soil erosion and sediment fluxes for reasons that are poorly understood. Because few studies have directly measured both wind and water erosion and transport, an assessment of how they may differentially respond to grazing and burning practices is lacking. Here, we report simultaneous, co-located estimates of wind- and water-driven sediment transport in a semiarid grassland in Arizona, USA, over three years for four land management treatments: control, grazed, burned, and burned + grazed. For all treatments and most years, annual rates of wind-driven sediment transport exceeded that of water due to a combination of ongoing small but nontrivial wind events and larger, less frequent, wind events that generally preceded the monsoon season. Sediment fluxes by both wind and water differed consistently by treatment: burned + grazed > burned > grazed > or = control, with effects immediately apparent after burning but delayed after grazing until the following growing season. Notably, the wind:water sediment transport ratio decreased following burning but increased following grazing. Our results show how rangeland practices disproportionally alter sediment fluxes driven by wind and water, differences that could potentially help explain divergence between rangeland sustainability and degradation. PMID:21516885

  7. Subsurface sediment mobilization and active pockmarks from sublacustrine ground-water seepage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reusch, A.; Moernaut, J.; Loher, M.; Hilbe, M.; Meinecke, G.; Kipfer, R.; Anselmetti, F.; Bouffard, D.; Strasser, M.

    2014-12-01

    Lakes can be used as "model basins" to study fluid-flow processes with a multi-method approach in a well-defined environment. We present unprecedented insight into newly discovered pockmarks and associated subsurface sediment-mobilization structures in Lake Neuchâtel, Switzerland. A geophysical approach using multiple tools provides precise high-resolution bathymetric data and subsurface information of the sedimentary infill. We combine geophysical (300 kHz Kongsberg EM2040 multibeam, 3.5 kHz pinger seismic, deep-towed multi-frequency chirp seismic, mounted on an AUV), sedimentological (piston cores), hydrological (CTD), geochemical (methane, ?18O) and visual (ROV survey) data and observations. The data show several circular, crater-shaped pockmarks of up to 160 m in diameter and up to 30 m depth. The pockmarks are partially filled with mud in a fluid-like state. It is hypothesized that this mud is a result of active fluid flow within the pockmark. The levees of the pockmarks are characterized by high-amplitude wedge-shaped seismic reflections being intercalated with the background sediments. They are interpreted as overflow deposits originating from episodic increases in fluid flow from inside the pockmarks, causing sediment to be spilled over the margin and deposited on the levees. Data show multiple phases of sediment expulsion during discrete periods throughout the Holocene. Geochemical sediment analyses of headspace methane indicate the presence of purely microbial methane at low concentrations, thus no indications of active gas seepage. Elevated temperature values and depleted ?18O signals within the pockmark, compared to the reference sites, hint towards different water sources. We interpret these data to show two water bodies: (i) lake bottom-water, and (ii) groundwater entering as focused fluid flow through the pockmark. This multi-proxy approach shows that the newly discovered pockmarks of Lake Neuchâtel are sublacustrine springs, possibly related to regional karst structures and/or tectonic fault systems. The subsurface sediment-mobilization structures of these sublacustrine springs strongly resemble fluid-flow structures in the marine environment (e.g. mud volcanoes), thus linking processes within terrestrial hydrological systems and the marine realm.

  8. Transport of sludge-derived organic pollutants to deep-sea sediments at deep water dump site 106

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takada, H.; Farrington, J.W.; Bothner, Michael H.; Johnson, C.G.; Tripp, B.W.

    1994-01-01

    Linear alkylbenzenes (LABs), coprostanol and epi-coprostanol, were detected in sediment trap and bottom sediment samples at the Deep Water Dump Site 106 located 185 km off the coast of New Jersey, in water depths from 2400 to 2900 m. These findings clearly indicate that organic pollutants derived from dumped sludge are transported through the water column and have accumulated on the deep-sea floor. No significant difference in LABs isomeric composition was observed among sludge and samples, indicating little environmental biodegradation of these compounds. LABs and coprostanol have penetrated down to a depth of 6 cm in sediment, indicating the mixing of these compounds by biological and physical processes. Also, in artificially resuspended surface sediments, high concentrations of LABs and coprostanols were detected, implying that sewage-derived organic pollutants initially deposited on the deep-sea floor can be further dispersed by resuspension and transport processes. Small but significant amounts of coprostanol were detected in the sediment from a control site at which no LABs were detected. The coprostanol is probably derived from feces of marine mammals and sea birds and/or from microbial or geochemical transformations of cholesterol. Polcyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment trap samples from the dump site were largely from the sewage sludge and had a mixed petroleum and pyrogenic composition. In contrast, PAHs in sediments in the dump site were mainly pyrogenic; contributed either from sewage sludge or from atmospheric transport to the overlying waters. & 1994 American Chemical Society.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water, sediment and soil of the Songhua River Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wan-Li; Liu, Li-Yan; Qi, Hong; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Song, Wei-Wei; Shen, Ji-Min; Chen, Zhong-Lin; Ren, Nan-Qi; Grabuski, Josey; Li, Yi-Fan

    2013-10-01

    The Songhua River is the third largest river in China and the primary source of drinking and irrigation water for northeastern China. The distribution of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water [dissolved water (DW) and suspended particulate matter (SPM)], sediment, and soil in the river basin was investigated, and the associated risk of cancer from these PAHs was also assessed. The total concentration of PAHs ranged from 13.9 to 161 ng L(-1) in DW, 9.21 to 83.1 ng L(-1) in SPM, 20.5 to 632 ng g(-1) dw (dry weight) in sediment, and from 30.1 to 870 ng g(-1) dw in soil. The compositional pattern of PAHs indicated that three-ring PAHs were predominant in DW and SPM samples, while four-ring PAHs dominated in sediment and soil samples. The spatial distribution of PAHs revealed some site-specific sources along the river, with principal component analysis indicating that these were from pyrogenic sources (such as coal and biomass combustion, and vehicle emissions) and coke oven emission distinguished as the main source of PAHs in the Songhua River Basin. Based on the ingestion of PAH-contaminated drinking water from the Songhua River, cancer risk was quantitatively estimated by combining the Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk assessment model and BaP-equivalent concentration for five age groups of people (adults, teenagers, children, toddlers, and infants). Overall, the results suggest that the estimated integrated lifetime cancer risk for all groups was in acceptable levels. This study is the first attempt to provide information on the cancer risk of PAHs in drinking water from the Songhua River. PMID:23564413

  10. Sedimentation and chemical quality of surface water in the Heart River drainage basin, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maderak, Marion L.

    1966-01-01

    The Heart River drainage basin of .southwestern North Dakota comprises an area of 3,365 square miles and lies within the Missouri Plateau of the Great Plains province. Streamflow of the Heart River and its tributaries during 1949-58 was directly proportional to .the drainage area. After the construction of Heart Butte Dam in 1949 and Dickinson Dam in 1950, the mean annual streamflow near Mandan was decreased an estimated 10 percent by irrigation, evaporation from the two reservoirs, and municipal use. Processes that contribute sediment to the Heart River are mass wasting, advancement of valley heads, and sheet, lateral stream, and gully erosion. In general, glacial deposits, terraces, and bars of Quaternary age are sources of sand and larger sediment, and the rocks of Tertiary age are sources of clay, silt. and sand. The average annual suspended-sediment discharges near Mandan were estimated to be 1,300,000 tons for 1945-49 and 710,000 tons for 1970-58. The percentage composition of ions in water of the Heart River, based on average concentrations in equivalents per million for selected ranges of streamflow, changes with flow and from station to station. During extremely low flows the water contains a large percentage of sodium and about equal percentages of bicarbonate and .sulfate, and during extremely high flows the water contains a large percentage of calcium plus magnesium and bicarbonate. The concentrations, in parts per million, of most of the ions vary inversely with flow. The water in the reservoirs--Edward Arthur Patterson Lake and Lake Tschida--during normal or above-normal runoff is of suitable quality for public use. Generally, because of medium or high salinity hazards, the successful long-term use of Heart River water for irrigation will depend on a moderate amount of leaching, ,adequate drainage, ,and the growing of crops that have moderate or good salt tolerance.

  11. Microbiological evaluation of bottled non-carbonated (“still”) water from domestic brands in Greece

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Venieri; A. Vantarakis; G. Komninou; M. Papapetropoulou

    2006-01-01

    The microbiological quality of 1527 samples of bottled noncarbonated (‘still’) mineral water, purchased from retail outlets and derived from 10 manufacturing companies in Greece, was investigated during the period 1995–2003. Applying the membrane filter technique, the aliquots of water samples (250 ml) were analyzed for the presence and enumeration of total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Also,

  12. Study of the feasibility of a low cost membrane based decontaminant device for domestic drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Rajam; S. Basu

    1995-01-01

    The authors discuss the device design of two modules of low cost membrane based devices for decontamination of drinking water. The devices used were fitted with 1) CDA membranes, and 2) powdered charcoal sandwiched between two macroporous membranes. Optimisation has been carried out by inoculating samples of water with Escherichia coli, and observing their filterability. The design of the device

  13. Diversion of domestic sewage for improving urban lake water quality, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malay Raj Mukerjee

    Approximately 40% of the water supply to the city of Bhopal in Madhya Pradesh comes from Upper Lake. Until 1947, the water quality of Upper Lake was so good that it required no treatment before supply to the public. However, due to the tremendous population growth of the city (for example, from about 70,000 in 1951 to about 1.4 million

  14. THE OCCURRENCE OF CONTAMINANT ACCUMULATION IN LEAD PIPE SCALES FROM DOMESTIC DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous work has shown that contaminants, such as Al, As and Ra, can accumulate in drinking water distribution system solids. The release of accumulated contaminants back into the water supply could result in elevated levels at consumers? taps, and current monitoring practices d...

  15. Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks (ESBs) for the Protection of Benthic Organisms: Procedures for the Determination of the Freely Dissolved Interstitial Water Concentrations of Nonionic Organics

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document describes procedures to determine the concentrations of nonionic organic chemicals in sediment interstitial waters. In previous ESB documents, the general equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approach was chosen for the derivation of sediment benchmarks because it account...

  16. A Survey of the Quality ofWater Drawn from Domestic Wells in Nine Midwest States Page 1 of 2 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ... National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH)

    E-print Network

    A Survey of the Quality ofWater Drawn from Domestic Wells in Nine Midwest States Page 1 of 2) A Survey of the Quality of Water Drawn from Domestic Wells in Nine Midwest States Centers for Disease --Analytes --Bacteria --Nitrate --Atrazine --Samples with multiple contaminants --Well construction

  17. Seasonal variation of the microbially regulated buffering capacity at sediment-water interfaces in a freshwater lake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maja A. Lazzaretti-Ulmer; Kurt W. Hanselmann

    1999-01-01

    :   The consequences of microbial mineralization activities on the water chemistry of the sediment-water interface was studied\\u000a at two sampling sites in the southern basin of the eutrophic Lake Lugano (Lago di Lugano). Water samples were collected with\\u000a the aid of dialysis pore water samplers during three seasonally different time periods: in spring, after complete mixing of\\u000a the water column

  18. Preparation of low water-sorption lightweight aggregates from harbor sediment added with waste glass.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Ling; Lin, Chang-Yuan; Ko, Kuan-Wei; Wang, H Paul

    2011-01-01

    A harbor sediment is successfully recycled at 1150 °C as low water-absorption lightweight aggregate via addition of waste glass powder. Sodium content in the waste glass is responsible for the formation of low-viscosity viscous phases during firing process to encapsulate the gases generated for bloating pellet samples. Water sorption capacity of the lightweight products can be considerably reduced from 5.6% to 1.5% with the addition of waste glass powder. Low water-absorption property of lightweight products is beneficial for preparing lightweight concrete because the water required for curing the cement would not be seized by lightweight aggregate filler, thus preventing the failure of long-term concrete strength. PMID:21367431

  19. Variations of marine pore water salinity and chlorinity in Gulf of Alaska sediments (IODP Expedition 341)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    März, Christian; Mix, Alan C.; McClymont, Erin; Nakamura, Atsunori; Berbel, Glaucia; Gulick, Sean; Jaeger, John; Schneider (LeVay), Leah

    2014-05-01

    Pore waters of marine sediments usually have salinities and chlorinities similar to the overlying sea water, ranging around 34-35 psu (Practical Salinity Units) and around 550 mM Cl-, respectively. This is because these parameters are conservative in the sense that they do not significantly participate in biogeochemical cycles. However, pore water studies carried out in the frame of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) and its predecessors have shown that salinities and chlorinities of marine pore waters can substantially deviate from the modern bottom water composition in a number of environmental settings, and various processes have been suggested to explain these phenomena. Also during the recent IODP Expedition 341 that drilled five sites in the Gulf of Alaska (Northeast Pacific Ocean) from the deep Surveyor Fan across the continental slope to the glaciomarine shelf deposits, several occurrences of pore waters with salinities and chlorinities significantly different from respective bottom waters were encountered during shipboard analyses. At the pelagic Sites U1417 and U1418 (~4,200 and ~3,700 m water depth, respectively), salinity and chlorinity maxima occur around 20-50 m sediment depth, but values gradually decrease with increasing drilling depths (down to 30 psu in ~600 m sediment depth). While the pore water freshening at depth is most likely an effect of clay mineral dehydration due to increasing burial depth, the shallow salinity and chlorinity maxima are interpreted as relicts of more saline bottom waters that existed in the North Pacific during the Last Glacial Maximum (Adkins et al., 2002). In contrast, the glaciomarine slope and shelf deposits at Site U1419 to U1421 (~200 to 1,000 m water depth) are characterised by unexpectedly low salinitiy and chlorinity values (as low as 16 psu and 295 mM Cl-, respectively) already in very shallow sediment depths (~10 m), and their records do not show systematic trends with sediment depth. Freshening of pore waters in continental margin settings has been reported in association with dissociating gas hydrate deposits (Hesse, 2003), but neither seismic profiles nor sediment records showed any indications for the presence of gas hydrates at the Gulf of Alaska sites. An alternative and intriguing explanation for these almost brackish waters in the glaciomarine shelf and slope deposits is the presence of glacial meltwater that could either be "fossil" (stored in the glaciomarine sediments since the last glacial termination) or "recent" (i.e., actively flowing from currently melting glaciers of the St. Elias Mountain Range along permeable layers within the shelf deposits). As these relatively fresh waters are found at three distinct drill sites, it can be assumed that they are distributed all along the Gulf of Alaska shelf and slope, and similar findings have been reported at other glaciated continental margins, e.g., off East Greenland (DeFoor et al., 2011) and Antarctica (Mann and Gieskes, 1975; Chambers, 1991; Lu et al., 2010). While a recent review has highlighted the importance of fresh and brackish water reservoirs in continental shelf deposits worldwide (Post et al., 2013), we suggest that climatic and depositional processes affecting glaciated continental margins (e.g., the release of huge amounts of fresh water from ice sheets and glaciers during glacial terminations, and the rapid deposition of unconsolidated sediments on the adjacent shelf) are particularly favourable for the storage and/or flow of meltwater below the present sea floor. Adkins JF, McIntyre K, Schrag DP (2002) The salinity, temperature, and d18O of the glacial deep ocean. Science 298, 1769-1773. Chambers SR (1991) Solute distributions and stable isotope chemistry of interstitial waters from Prydz Bay, Antarctica. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program 119, 375-392. DeFoor W, Person M, Larsen HC, Lizarralde D, Cohen D, Dugam B (2011) Ice sheet-derived submarine groundwater discharge on Greenland's continental shelf. Water Resources Research 47, W07549. Hesse R (200

  20. Protozoan grazing on bacteria at the sediment-water interface of an acidified lake

    SciTech Connect

    Tremaine, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    Protozoan grazing on bacteria has been hypothesized to link the detrital and grazer food chains in aquatic ecosystems. The current study of protozoan bacterivory, evaluated methods, quantified bacterivory, and evaluated the role of protozoa at the sediment-water interface of an acidified lake ecosystem, Lake Anna, Virginia. Three limnetic methods for determining protozoan bacterivory were tested for applicability at the sediment-water interface. The eucaryote inhibitor, cycloheximide, was found unsatisfactory because it did not uniformly inhibit growth of target eucaryotes, and because it inhibited non-target anaerobic procaryotes. The filtration method was found to have limited application in sediment systems due to filtrational loss of particle-associated bacteria. The dilution method was tested for violations of its critical assumptions: bacterial growth is exponential; grazing mortality is proportional to the dilution factor; and bacterial growth rates are unaltered under experimental conditions. These assumptions were found not to be violated, and this method was used in subsequent grazing experiments. Carbon loading to the acidified arm of Lake Anna was 41 {times} 10{sup 6} g C {times} y{sup {minus}1}. This appears to be adequate carbon loading to support bacterial production and, in turn, protozoan bacterivory and production. Though there is no direct evidence that zooplankton graze on protozoa in this system, however, there is sufficient protozoan production to support an additional trophic level.