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1

Determination of radioactive elements and heavy metals in sediments and soil from domestic water sources in northern peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

Soil serves as a major reservoir for contaminants as it posseses an ability to bind various chemicals together. To safeguard the members of the public from an unwanted exposure, studies were conducted on the sediments and soil from water bodies that form the major sources of domestic water supply in northern peninsular Malaysia for their trace element concentration levels. Neutron Activation Analysis, using Nigeria Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) located at the Centre for Energy Research and Training, Zaria, Nigeria was employed as the analytical tool. The elements identified in major quantities include Na, K, and Fe while As, Br, Cr, U, Th, Eu, Cs, Co, La, Sm, Yb, Sc, Zn, Rb, Ba, Lu, Hf, Ta, and Sb were also identified in trace quantities. Gamma spectroscopy was also employed to analyze some soil samples from the same area. The results indicated safe levels in terms of the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index as well as the mean external exposure dose rates from the soil. The overall screening of the domestic water sources with relatively high heavy metals concentration values in sediments and high activity concentration values in soil is strongly recommended as their accumulation overtime as a consequence of leaching into the water may be of health concern to the members of the public. PMID:21901308

Muhammad, Bashir G; Jaafar, Mohammad Suhaimi; Abdul Rahman, Azhar; Ingawa, Farouk Abdulrasheed

2012-08-01

2

Domestic Water Use  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the USGS Water Science for School's web site, this page describes domestic water uses that include water for all the things you do at home: drinking, preparing food, bathing, washing clothes and dishes, brushing your teeth, watering the yard, and even washing the dog.

2008-04-28

3

Contaminated Sediments in Water  

MedlinePLUS

... Sediments Contaminated Sediments in Water Contaminated Sediments in Water Overview Basic Information Technical Resources CS Data Find ... released years ago while other contaminants enter our water every day. Some contaminants flow directly from industrial ...

4

Domestic wash water reclamation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System consists of filtration unit, reverse-osmosis module, tanks, pumps, plumbing, and various gauges, meters, and valves. After water is used in washing machine or shower, it is collected in holding tank. Water is pumped through series of five particulate filters. Pressure tank supplies processed water to commode water closet.

Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

1974-01-01

5

Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report deals with the application of an appropriate technology, namely, solar domestic hot water heaters in a very specialized milieu within the larger society. In bringing solar domestic hot water to the Alamo Navajo Reservation this unique project ...

1984-01-01

6

Solar domestic water heating performance test program  

Microsoft Academic Search

A test program operated since early 1978 to evaluate commercially available solar domestic water heating systems in actual installations is described. The readiness and expertise of suppliers and installers are assessed and the interaction between solar energy and utility power determined. Six different solar water heating systems were retrofitted to employees' homes in the Philadelphia area. In addition, existing solar

R. H. Auris; W. J. Draving Jr.

1981-01-01

7

Water-Using Equipment: Domestic  

SciTech Connect

Water management is an important aspect of energy engineering. This article addresses water-using equipment primarily used for household purposes, including faucets, showers, toilets, urinals, dishwashers, and clothes washers, and focuses on how the equipment can be optimized to save both water and energy. Technology retrofits and operation and maintenance changes are the primary methods discussed for water and energy conservation. Auditing to determine current consumption rates is also described for each technology.

Solana, Amy E.; McMordie-Stoughton, Katherine L.

2006-01-24

8

Distribution of heavy metals in sediment and water of river Gomti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gomti river receives industrial as well as domestic wastes from various drains of Lucknow city. In the process the water and sediment of the river Gomti get contaminated with heavy metals and other pollutants. In the present study, impacts of domestic\\/industrial wastes on the water and sediment chemistry of river Gomti with special reference to heavy metals have been investigated

Vivek K. Gaur; Sanjay K. Gupta; S. D. Pandey; Krishna Gopal; Virendra Misra

2005-01-01

9

Economic valuation of domestic water uses.  

PubMed

There are many reasons of concern about the quality of water for domestic uses. The strategic goals of water tariffs must include savings, efficient management and equity in order to optimise availability of the best quality water. The main domestic uses of water are food preparation, personal hygiene and household cleaning; not all of them need the same quality, and for some of them there are even potential substitutes. In order to contribute to this debate, we need to know how these different uses are valued by direct users. This article focuses on eliciting values for different domestic uses, using discrete choice experiments. As far as we know, this is the first time that a differentiated valuation per use has been defined. The paper introduces three innovations in the design of the experiment. The design takes into account decisive variables in household water consumption, such as family size, together with the consumption level, and the options offered in the choice task are combinations of different prices for each of the uses. A latent class model with both common and class-specific random parameters is applied to better account for the influence of heterogeneity in the respondents' choices. The results show that the most valued use depends on the consumption level class. PMID:24333993

Justes, Antón; Barberán, Ramón; Farizo, Begoña A

2014-02-15

10

9. SEDIMENTATION CHAMBER, VIEW DOWNSTREAM. AFTER SEDIMENTATION, WATER FLOWS INTO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. SEDIMENTATION CHAMBER, VIEW DOWNSTREAM. AFTER SEDIMENTATION, WATER FLOWS INTO ONE 8" CAST-IRON PIPELINE. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

11

Sediment, erosion and water intake in furrows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations and studies were conducted on the origin and destination of sediment in irrigation water, and the effects of sediment adsorbed on the wetted perimeter of furrows on water intake and erosion. Fine sediment adsorbed on the perimeter reduced intake and increased soil water tension which was the primary mechanism holding the sediment on the perimeter. This self enhancing effect

M. J. Brown; W. D. Kemper; T. J. Trout; A. S. Humpherys

1988-01-01

12

Solar Domestic Water Heating Technology: Market Barriers and Adoption Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the United States' domestic water heating industry and solar domestic water heating technology adoption from the standpoint of Porter's five forces model and the technology adoption life cycle model. Using Porter's five forces model, the key barriers to entry for solar water heating technology are high buyer price sensitivity and unequal access to distribution channels. In the

Alan J. Fitzmorris

2010-01-01

13

Accounting for Water Insecurity in Modeling Domestic Water Demand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water demand management uses price elasticity estimates to predict consumer demand in relation to water pricing changes, but studies have shown that many additional factors effect water consumption. Development scholars document the need for water security, however, much of the water security literature focuses on broad policies which can influence water demand. Previous domestic water demand studies have not considered how water security can affect a population's consumption behavior. This study is the first to model the influence of water insecurity on water demand. A subjective indicator scale measuring water insecurity among consumers in the Palestinian West Bank is developed and included as a variable to explore how perceptions of control, or lack thereof, impact consumption behavior and resulting estimates of price elasticity. A multivariate regression model demonstrates the significance of a water insecurity variable for data sets encompassing disparate water access. When accounting for insecurity, the R-squaed value improves and the marginal price a household is willing to pay becomes a significant predictor for the household quantity consumption. The model denotes that, with all other variables held equal, a household will buy more water when the users are more water insecure. Though the reasons behind this trend require further study, the findings suggest broad policy implications by demonstrating that water distribution practices in scarcity conditions can promote consumer welfare and efficient water use.

Galaitsis, S. E.; Huber-lee, A. T.; Vogel, R. M.; Naumova, E.

2013-12-01

14

Domestic livestock resources of Turkey: water buffalo.  

PubMed

Water buffalo are an ancient component of Turkey's domestic livestock resources. Commonly referred to as the Anatolian buffalo the animal is part of the Mediterranean group which includes Syrian, Egyptian and Southeast European animals. Once quite numerous, there have been drastic reductions in their numbers since the 1970s due to intensification of dairy activities, agricultural mechanization and changing consumer preferences. The main areas of distribution are in northwest Turkey in the Marmara and Black Sea Regions. Buffalo are kept in small herds by livestock and mixed crop-livestock farmers. Milk is the main product, meat is largely a by-product of the dairy function and provision of the once-important draught power is now a minor output. Buffalo milk is used to prepare a variety of speciality products but output of both milk and meat is very low in comparison to cattle. Conditions of welfare and health status are not optimal. Internal parasites are a constraint on productivity. Some buffalo are being used for conservation grazing in the Black Sea area to maintain optimal conditions for bird life in a nature reserve. Long neglected by government there are recent activities to establish conservation herds, set up in vitro banks and undertake molecular characterization. More effort is needed by government to promote buffalo production and to engage the general public in conservation of their national heritage. PMID:21870064

Yilmaz, Orhan; Ertugrul, Mehmet; Wilson, Richard Trevor

2012-04-01

15

Inorganic chemicals in domestic water of the United Arab Emirates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of selected inorganic chemicals was determined for 396 samples of bottled water, desalinated water, and\\u000a groundwater used for drinking and domestic purposes in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The objective of this study was to\\u000a compare the concentrations of inorganic chemicals in different domestic water types used in the UAE with the World Health\\u000a Organization (WHO) limits for

Zeinelabidin S. Rizk

2009-01-01

16

Inorganic chemicals in domestic water of the United Arab Emirates.  

PubMed

The concentration of selected inorganic chemicals was determined for 396 samples of bottled water, desalinated water, and groundwater used for drinking and domestic purposes in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The objective of this study was to compare the concentrations of inorganic chemicals in different domestic water types used in the UAE with the World Health Organization (WHO) limits for drinking water. Results of the present study revealed a wide variation in the concentrations of major, minor, and trace inorganic chemicals in domestic water of the UAE. For example, the bottled water sold for drinking is depleted in major ions and the total dissolved solids (TDS) in some brands do not exceed 100 mg/l. On the other hand, some of the domestic water used may contain as much as 3,000 mg/l TDS, which is above the WHO recommended limit for drinking water (500-1,500 mg/l TDS). Similarly, while bottled water is almost free of trace ions and minor constituents, some natural groundwater may have concentrations higher than the WHO recommended limits for drinking water. The cause of this variation is related to the different water sources and the large number of companies producing and distributing drinking and domestic water. Moreover, it is clear that the current controls on domestic water quality in some areas, namely conformance of pH and electrical conductivity measurements with prescribed ranges of values, are currently inadequate. These two parameters are not enough to judge if water is suitable for drinking or not and some consumers may receive domestic water of uncertain quality. PMID:18266056

Rizk, Zeinelabidin S

2009-02-01

17

Comparative Analysis of Six Generic Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results were analyzed from experiments on six solar domestic hot water systems tested at National Bureau of Standards. Use of pumps, fans, controls, and solenoid valves in the pumped systems resulted in high parasitic energy consumption. Storage losses fr...

R. Farrington D. Noreen L. M. Murphy

1980-01-01

18

Water-Saving Study of Urban Domestic Water Based on the Flow Pipe Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The waste of domestic water causes the waste of water resource and the increasing sanitary sewage generated. To make the necessary reductions in the volumes of water used and wastewater generated, the water-saving study of urban domestic water based on the optimization design of flow pipe was performed at laboratory scale. Dynamics of the two-dimensional flow in siphonic water closets

Zhi-Wei Peng; Zi-Jian Liu; Dan-Lian Huang; Pan-Yue Zhang

2008-01-01

19

DOMESTIC HOT WATER HEATING IN ZERO NET ENERGY HOMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to examine different means of producing domestic hot water (DHW) in Zero net energy homes (ZNEH). Four alternatives are examined : i) a regular electric hot water tank; ii) the desuperheater of a ground-source heat pump with electric backup; iii) thermal solar collectors with electric backup; iv) a heat pump water heater (HPWH) indirectly

Affouda-Léon Biaou; Michel Bernier

20

Exergy analysis of domestic-scale solar water heaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar water heater is the most popular means of solar energy utilization because of technological feasibility and economic attraction compared with other kinds of solar energy utilization. Earlier assessments of domestic-scale solar water heaters were based on the first thermodynamic law. However, this kind of assessment cannot perfectly describe the performance of solar water heaters, since the essence of energy

Wang Xiaowu; Hua Ben

2005-01-01

21

AMBIENT WATER, POREWATER, AND SEDIMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Sediment assessments may be performed for a variety of purposes; these include: dredging and dredged sediment disposal, for evaluations of sediments as a capping material, to determine sediment quality, to assess biological impairment and to assess the status of environment monit...

22

Effects of Alum Water Treatment Sludge on Domestic Wastewater Sludges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research on the effects of alum sludge generated by water treatment plants on the properties of domestic waste water sludges is reported. Phase I of the three phase investigation was concerned with the effects of raw sewage containing alum sludge on an ac...

M. E. Burman

1975-01-01

23

Design package for solar domestic hot water system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The initial design of a solar domestic hot water system is considered. The system performance specification and detailed design drawings are included. The hot water systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished site data acquisition. The two systems are installed at Tempe, Arizona, and San Diego, California.

1980-01-01

24

Analysis Model for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

A thermal model was developed to estimate the energy losses from prototypical domestic hot water (DHW) distribution systems for homes. The developed model, using the TRNSYS simulation software, allows researchers and designers to better evaluate the performance of hot water distribution systems in homes. Modeling results were compared with past experimental study results and showed good agreement.

Maguire, J.; Krarti, M.; Fang, X.

2011-11-01

25

Assessment of domestic water quality: case study, Beirut, Lebanon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In urban cities, the environmental services are the responsibility of the public sector, where piped water supply is the norm\\u000a for urban household. Likewise, in Beirut City (capital of Lebanon) official water authorities are the main supplier of domestic\\u000a water through a network of piping system that leaks in many areas. Beirut City and its suburbs are overpopulated since it

Samira Ibrahim Korfali; Mey Jurdi

2007-01-01

26

Prototype solar domestic hot water systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Construction of a double wall heat exchanger using soft copper tube coiled around a hot water storage tank was completed and preliminary tests were conducted. Solar transport water to tank potable water heat exchange tests were performed with a specially constructed test stand. Work was done to improve the component hardware and system design for the solar water heater. The installation of both a direct feed system and a double wall heat exchanger system provided experience and site data to enable informative decisions to be made as the solar market expands into areas where freeze protection is required.

1978-01-01

27

Solar domestic and service hot water manual  

SciTech Connect

Focuses on cost-effective technology. Discusses several system types and related components, along with ways of combining them economically based on hot water (load) requirements, climate building configuration. Presents methods for load determination, equipment selection, and system performance estimation.

Not Available

1983-01-01

28

Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters  

SciTech Connect

The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium concentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms.

Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

1981-04-01

29

Comparative analysis of six generic solar domestic hot water systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results were analyzed from experiments on six solar domestic hot water systems tested at National Bureau of Standards. Use of pumps, fans, controls, and solenoid valves in the pumped systems resulted in high parasitic energy consumption. Storage losses from double tank systems were greater than expected due to poor storage tank insulation. Direct systems performed better than indirect systems as

R. Farrington; D. Noreen; L. M. Murphy

1980-01-01

30

Cold-Climate Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Solar Heating and Lighting Sub-program has set the key goal to reduce the cost of saved energy (Csav, defined as (total cost, $)/(total discounted savings, kWh thermal)) for solar domestic water heaters (SDWH) by at least 50%. To determine if this goa...

J. Burch J. Salasovich T. Hillman

2005-01-01

31

Solar energy for domestic water heating:system design criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design criteria for solar energy domestic water heating applications are outlined. The following guidelines are presented for evaluating relative thermal performance of a collector for water heating applications: transmissivity of cover plates, 90% minimum; absorptivity of the absorber plate, 95% of the incident radiation; insulation of the back and sides of the collector housing, 0.05 Btu-hr\\/ft²\\/F; space between the cover

R. E. Hedden; T. A. King

1977-01-01

32

Review of domestic water conservation practices in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabian (KSA) has a substantial water shortage problem where water demand far exceeds water resources sustainable yields. This fact has motivated the Ministry of Water and Electricity (MOWE) to launch a massive water conservation awareness program to enhance water-using efficiency in the country. The MOWE among other water awareness activities has introduced a four-stage program of free distribution of water conservation tools. This research reviewed the domestic water conservation awareness program in Saudi Arabia and assessed the program performance through conducting questionnaire surveys. The latter was designed and implemented in Al-Khobar city in the Eastern Province to measure public awareness regarding water issues. The survey started on April 28, 2012, and continued for 3 weeks. A total of 197 questionnaires were completed. The survey results showed a relatively low awareness among respondents about water shortage problem in the Kingdom. A low percentage of respondents have water conservation tools installed in their houses, but a high percentage is willing to buy and install water conservation tools. The majority of respondents consider the water price low and are willing to pay more for water. The respondents' feedback highlighted the need to improve the current water conservation awareness program.

Ouda, Omar K. M.; Shawesh, Ahmad; Al-Olabi, Tareq; Younes, Firas; Al-Waked, Rafat

2013-12-01

33

Estimated Domestic, Irrigation, and Industrial Water Use in Washington, 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since 1950, the U.S. Geological Survey has published a series of Circulars and other reports on the estimated use of water in the United States at 5-year intervals. This report presents State, regional, and county estimates of the amount of water used for domestic, irrigation, and industrial purposes in the State of Washington during the year 2000. Domestic water use was estimated to be 674 million gallons per day and the per-capita rate, 114 gallons per day. Crop-irrigation water use was estimated to be 3,005 million gallons per day and the application rate, 2.2 acre-feet per acre per year, or feet per year. Golf-course irrigation water use was estimated to be 23.6 million gallons per day and the application rate, 1.4 feet per year. Industrial water use was estimated to be 681 million gallons per day. Historically, these core categories account for about 92 percent of the estimated offstream water used in Washington.

Lane, R. C.

2004-01-01

34

Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

Paller, M.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Wike, L.D.

1996-06-01

35

The effect of domestic ion-exchange water softeners on the microbiological quality of drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper covers the testing and evaluation of the impact an ion-exchange water softener has on the microbiological quality of water. Water quality was assessed in two situations, firstly in normal domestic use and secondly under microbial shock loading conditions in the laboratories at Cranfield University. This study was undertaken to determine whether the passage of water through an ion-exchange

Simon A Parsons

2000-01-01

36

Unclathratable water - The intrinsic factor for sediment control on saturation of gas hydrate in natural sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field and laboratory investigations have found that sediment controls the saturation of gas hydrate in sediments: high in coarse sediments and low in fine sediments. Our previous laboratory-based investigations revealed that particle size and mineral composition are the two main factors affecting hydrate saturation in sediments. However it is still not well understood how these two factors affect hydrate saturation in sediments. Natural gas hydrate forms from and exists in the pore water that is confined in sediments, so it is reasonable to consider that sediment controls hydrate saturation through affecting the properties of water in sediments. Based on this consideration we conducted extensive investigations to study the state of water in sediments. The proton relaxation times of water in both artificial and natural sediments were measured on a 200 MHz Bruker NMR instrument. The study has revealed that hydrate saturation is closely related to the state of water in sediments: the bonded and surface water not able to convert into hydrate. We term the water, which cannot be converted into hydrate, as unclathratable water. The sediments with larger particle size and/or smaller fraction of clay minerals are found with less unclathratable water, so the amount of unclathratable water is the intrinsic factor controlling the saturation of gas hydrate in sediments.

Lu, H.; Moudrakovski, I.

2012-12-01

37

Comparative analysis of six generic solar domestic hot water systems  

SciTech Connect

Results were analyzed from experiments on six solar domestic hot water systems tested at National Bureau of Standards. Use of pumps, fans, controls, and solenoid valves in the pumped systems resulted in high parasitic energy consumption. Storage losses from double tank systems were greater than expected due to poor storage tank insulation. Direct systems performed better than indirect systems as expected. The thermosyphon delivered the most solar energy to the hot water load for the lowest initial cost. The air system performed poorly due to the parasitic energy consumption and poor heat transfer across the air-to-water heat exchanger. Reliable freeze protection needs to be developed for direct systems, especially thermosyphon systems, to take advantage of direct heat transfer.

Farrington, R.; Noreen, D.; Murphy, L.M.

1980-01-01

38

Domestic water and sanitation as water security: monitoring, concepts and strategy.  

PubMed

Domestic water and sanitation provide examples of a situation where long-term, target-driven efforts have been launched with the objective of reducing the proportion of people who are water-insecure, most recently through the millennium development goals (MDGs) framework. Impacts of these efforts have been monitored by an increasingly evidence-based system, and plans for the next period of international policy, which are likely to aim at universal coverage with basic water and sanitation, are being currently developed. As distinct from many other domains to which the concept of water security is applied, domestic or personal water security requires a perspective that incorporates the reciprocal notions of provision and risk, as the current status of domestic water and sanitation security is dominated by deficiency This paper reviews the interaction of science and technology with policies, practice and monitoring, and explores how far domestic water can helpfully fit into the proposed concept of water security, how that is best defined, and how far the human right to water affects the situation. It is considered that they fit well together in terms both of practical planning of targets and indicators and as a conceptual framework to help development. The focus needs to be broad, to extend beyond households, to emphasize maintenance as well as construction and to increase equity of access. International and subnational monitoring need to interact, and monitoring results need to be meaningful to service providers as well as users. PMID:24080628

Bradley, David J; Bartram, Jamie K

2013-11-13

39

Domestic water and sanitation as water security: monitoring, concepts and strategy  

PubMed Central

Domestic water and sanitation provide examples of a situation where long-term, target-driven efforts have been launched with the objective of reducing the proportion of people who are water-insecure, most recently through the millennium development goals (MDGs) framework. Impacts of these efforts have been monitored by an increasingly evidence-based system, and plans for the next period of international policy, which are likely to aim at universal coverage with basic water and sanitation, are being currently developed. As distinct from many other domains to which the concept of water security is applied, domestic or personal water security requires a perspective that incorporates the reciprocal notions of provision and risk, as the current status of domestic water and sanitation security is dominated by deficiency This paper reviews the interaction of science and technology with policies, practice and monitoring, and explores how far domestic water can helpfully fit into the proposed concept of water security, how that is best defined, and how far the human right to water affects the situation. It is considered that they fit well together in terms both of practical planning of targets and indicators and as a conceptual framework to help development. The focus needs to be broad, to extend beyond households, to emphasize maintenance as well as construction and to increase equity of access. International and subnational monitoring need to interact, and monitoring results need to be meaningful to service providers as well as users.

Bradley, David J.; Bartram, Jamie K.

2013-01-01

40

Description of 2005-10 domestic water use for selected U.S. cities and guidance for estimating domestic water use  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Domestic water-use and related socioeconomic and climatic data for 2005-10 were used in an analysis of 21 selected U.S. cities to describe recent domestic per capita water use, investigate variables that potentially affect domestic water use, and provide guidance for estimating domestic water use. Domestic water use may be affected by a combination of several factors. Domestic per capita water use for the selected cities ranged from a median annual average of 43 to 177 gallons per capita per day (gpcd). In terms of year-to-year variability in domestic per capita water use for the selected cities, the difference from the median ranged from ± 7 to ± 26 percent with an overall median variability of ± 14 percent. As a percentage of total annual water use, median annual domestic water use for the selected cities ranged from 33 to 71 percent with an overall median of 57 percent. Monthly production and water sales data were used to calculate daily per capita water use rates for the lowest 3 consecutive months (low-3) and the highest 3 consecutive months (high-3) of usage. Median low-3 domestic per capita water use for 16 selected cities ranged from 40 to 100 gpcd. Median high-3 domestic per capita water use for 16 selected cities ranged from 53 to 316 gpcd. In general, the median domestic water use as a percentage of the median total water use for 16 selected cities was similar for the low-3 and high-3 periods. Statistical analyses of combined data for the selected cities indicated that none of the socioeconomic variables, including cost of water, were potentially useful as determinants of domestic water use at the national level. However, specific socioeconomic variables may be useful for the estimation of domestic water use at the State or local level. Different socioeconomic variables may be useful in different States. Statistical analyses indicated that specific climatic variables may be useful for the estimation of domestic water use for some, but not all, of the selected cities. National average public supply per capita water use declined from 185 gpcd in 1990 to 171 gpcd in 2005. National average domestic delivery per capita water use declined from 105 gpcd in 1990 to 99 gpcd in 2005. Average State domestic delivery per capita water use ranged from 51 to 189 gpcd in 2005. The average annual total per capita water use in 19 selected cities that provided data for each year declined from 167 gpcd in 2006 to 145 gpcd in 2010. During this time period, average per capita water use measured during the low-3 period each year declined from 115 to 102 gpcd, and average per capita use measured during the high-3 period declined from 250 to 211 gpcd. Continued collection of data on water deliveries to domestic populations, as well as updated estimates of the population served by these deliveries, is recommended for determination of regional and temporal trends in domestic per capita water use. Declines in various measures of per capita water use have been observed in recent years for several States with municipal water use data-collection programs. Domestic self-supplied water use historically has not been metered. Estimates of self-supplied domestic water use are made using estimates of the population that is not served by public water suppliers and per capita coefficients. For 2005, the average State domestic self-supplied per capita use in the United States ranged from 50 to 206 gpcd. The median domestic self-supplied per capita use was 76 gpcd for States in which standard coefficients were used, and 98 gpcd for States in which coefficients were based on domestic deliveries from public supply. In specific areas with scarce resources or increasing numbers of households with private wells, an assessment of domestic water use may require metering of households or development of more specific per capita coefficients to estimate water demand.

Kenny, Joan F.; Juracek, Kyle E.

2012-01-01

41

Sediment Transport and Water Quality Model of Cedar Lake, Indiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EPA-supported Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code, EFDC, is used to model hydrodynamics, sediment transport, and water quality in coastal regions, estuaries, rivers, and lakes. However, the empirical formulations used for sediment transport are not always adequate to accurately characterize cohesive sediment erosion and transport. New sediment transport subroutines have been incorporated into EFDC and the new model is called SNL-EFDC.

S. C. James; C. A. Jones; J. D. Roberts; M. Ahlmann; D. A. Bucaro

2006-01-01

42

Water-sediment flow models for river reaches sediment related pollution control.  

PubMed

Hybrid water-sediment flow models for river reaches have been for predicting sediment and sediment related pollutions in water courses. The models are developed by combining sediment rating model and the Muskingum model applicable for a reach. The models incorporate sediment concentration and water discharge variables for a river reach; allow defining downstream sediment rating curve in terms of upstream water discharges. The model is useful in generating sediment concentration graph for a station having no water discharge records. The hybrid models provide forecasting forms that can be used to forecast downstream sediment concentration/water discharges 2kx time unit ahead. The forecasting models are useful for applications in real time namely, in the real time management of sediment related pollution in water courses and in issuing flood warning. Integration of sediment rating model and the Muskingum model increases model parameters and nonlinearity requiring efficient estimation technique for parameter identification. To identify parameters in the hybrid models genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization technique can be used. The new model relies on the Muskingum model, obey continuity requirement and the parameters can be used in the Muskingum model with water discharges to estimate/predict downstream water discharge values. The proposed model formulations are demonstrated for simulating and forecasting sediment concentration and water discharges in the Mississippi River Basin, USA. Model parameters are estimated using non-dominated sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II). Model results show satisfactory model performances. PMID:24749192

Sil, Briti Sundar; Choudhury, Parthasarathi

2012-07-01

43

The Suburbanization of Water Scarcity in the Barcelona Metropolitan Region: Sociodemographic and Urban Changes Influencing Domestic Water Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metropolitan region of Barcelona is facing change in urban development patterns, sociodemographic structures, and domestic water use and management. In recent years, several drought alerts have been enacted and water restrictions applied, uncovering the fragile equilibrium between the demand and the supply of this resource. We find the literature on determinants of domestic water consumption to be strongly biased

Hug March; David Saurí

2010-01-01

44

Factors affecting pore water hydrocarbon concentrations in Puget Sound sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations have been determined for sediments and associated pore waters collected at 2 sites (11 stations) in Puget Sound, Washington (northwest U.S.A.). These sediments have been contaminated to varying degrees by hydrocarbons from a creosote plant and from various combustion sources. PAH were not detected in pore waters of sediments whose PAH were

Stephen B. Socha; Roy Carpenter

1987-01-01

45

STAND, a dynamic model for sediment transport and water quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new model–STAND (Sediment-Transport-Associated Nutrient Dynamics)–for simulating stream flow, sediment transport, and the interactions of sediment with other attributes of water quality. In contrast to other models, STAND employs a fully dynamic basis for quantifying sediment transport, thus distinguishing it from the well-known HEC-6 model. This latter, in particular, computes a steady-state form of sediment transport based on

Wei Zeng; M. B. Beck

2003-01-01

46

Evaluation of a multifiltration water reclamation subsystem to reclaim domestic clothes wash water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation has been performed of a multifiltration water reclamation subsystem to determine its capability to recover water from domestic clothes wash water. A total of 32.89 kg (72.5 lb) of clothes were washed during eight wash cycles which used 1.4 lb of detergent, 145 gallons of hot water and 133.9 gallons of cold water. Water recovered at a weighted average process rate of 3.81 gallons per hour met the majority of the 23 requirements established for potable water by the U.S. Public Health Service. Average power consumed during this evaluation was approximately 71 watt-hours per gallon of water recovered. Filter replacement, which was required primarily for the control of micro-organisms in the recovered water averaged 4.86 filters per 100 gallons of wash water processed. The subsystem removed approximately 98 percent and virtually 100 percent of the phosphates and surfactants, respectively, from the wash water.

Hall, J. B., Jr.

1973-01-01

47

Domestic wash-water reclamation using an aerospace-developed water recovery subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype aerospace distillation water recovery subsystem was tested to determine its capability to recover potable water from domestic wash water. A total of 0.0994 cu m (26.25 gallons) of domestic wash water was processed over a 7-day period at an average process rate of 0.0146 cu m per day (3.85 gallons per day). The subsystem produced water that met all United States Public Health Standards for drinking water with the exception of two standards which could not be analyzed at the required sensitivity levels. Average energy consumption for this evaluation to maintain both the recovery process and microbial control in the recovered water was approximately 3366 kilowatt-hours per cubic meter (12.74 kilowatt-hours per gallon) of water recovered. This condition represents a worst case energy consumption since no attempt was made to recover heat energy in the subsystem. An ultraviolet radiation cell installed in the effluent line of the subsystem was effective in controlling coliform micro-organisms within acceptable levels for drinking water. The subsystem recovered virtually 100 percent of the available water in the waste-water process. In addition, the subsystem removed 99.6 percent and 98.3 percent of the surfactants and phosphate, respectively, from the wash water.

Hall, J. B., Jr.

1973-01-01

48

Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems  

SciTech Connect

The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

2012-07-01

49

Cold-Climate Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Solar Heating and Lighting Sub-program has set the key goal to reduce the cost of saved energy [Csav, defined as (total cost, $)/(total discounted savings, kWh_thermal)] for solar domestic water heaters (SDWH) by at least 50%. To determine if this goal is attainable and prioritize R&D for cold-climate SDWH, life-cycle analyses were done with hypothetical lower-cost components in glycol, drainback, and thermosiphon systems. Balance-of-system (BOS, everything but the collector) measures included replacing metal components with polymeric versions and system simplification. With all BOS measures in place, Csav could be reduced more than 50% with a low-cost, selectively-coated, glazed polymeric collector, and slightly less than 50% with either a conventional selective metal-glass or a non-selective glazed polymer collector. The largest percent reduction in Csav comes from replacing conventional pressurized solar storage tanks and metal heat exchangers with un-pressurized polymer tanks with immersed polymer heat exchangers, which could be developed with relatively low-risk R&D.

Burch, J.; Salasovich, J.; Hillman, T.

2005-11-01

50

Promising freeze protection alternatives in solar domestic hot water systems  

SciTech Connect

Since the gains associated with solar thermal energy technologies are comparatively small in relation to the required capital investment, it is vital to maximize conversion efficiency. While providing the necessary function of freeze protection, the heat exchanger commonly included in solar domestic water heating systems represents a system inefficiency. This thesis explores two alternate methods of providing freeze protection without resorting to a heat exchanger. Commonly, collectors are made of rigid copper tubes separated by copper or aluminum fins. Cracking damage can occur when water is allowed to freeze and expand inside the non compliant tubes. The possibility of making collectors out of an elastic material was investigated and shown to be effective. Since unlike copper, elastomers typically have low thermal conductivities, the standard collector performance prediction equations do not apply. Modified thermal performance prediction equations were developed which can be used for both low and high thermal conductivity materials to provide accurate predictions within a limited range of plate geometries. An elastomeric collector plate was then designed and shown to have comparable performance to a copper plate collector whose aperture area is approximately 33% smaller. Another options for providing freeze protection to an SDHW system is to turn it off during the winter. Choosing a three-season operating period means two things. First, the system will have different optimums such as slope and collector area. Second, the wintertime solar energy incident on the collector is unavailable for meeting a heating load. However, the system`s heat exchanger becomes unnecessary and removing it increases the amount of energy that arrives at the storage tank during those periods in which the system is operating.

Bradley, D.E.

1997-12-31

51

TRACER STUDY OF SEDIMENT-WATER INTERACTIONS IN ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Rates of sediment bioturbation and advective exchange of water across the sediment-water interface in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island were studied by radioactive tracer experiments. The 'biological pumping rate' of water across the interface (.7 + or - .3 cc/sq cm day) was calcula...

52

The interaction between water movement, sediment dynamics and submersed macrophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water movement in freshwater and marine environments affects submersed macrophytes, which also mediate water movement. The result of this complex interaction also affects sediment dynamics in and around submersed macrophyte beds. This review defines known relationships and identifies areas that need additional research on the complex interactions among submersed macrophytes, water movement, and sediment dynamics. Four areas are addressed: (1)

J. D. Madsen; P. A. Chambers; W. F. James; E. W. Koch; D. F. Westlake

2001-01-01

53

Benthic invertebrate bioassays with toxic sediment and pore water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The relative sensitivities of bioassays to determine the toxicity of sediments were investigated and three methods of making the sample dilutions required to generate dose-response relationships were compared. The assays studied were: (a) Microtox(R), a 15-min assay of Photobacterium phosphoreum bioluminescence inhibition by pore water; (b) 48-h Daphnia magna lethality test in pore water; (c) 10-d subchronic assay of lethality to and reduction of weight gain by Chironomus tentans performed in either whole sediment or pore water; (d) 168-h acute lethality assay of Hexagenia limbata in either whole sediment or pore water. The three methods of diluting sediments were: (a) extracting pore water from the toxic location and dilution with pore water from the control station; (b) diluting whole sediment from the toxic location with control whole sediment from a reference location, then extracting pore water; and (c) diluting toxic, whole sediment with whole sediment from a reference location, then using the whole sediment in bioassays. Based on lethality, H. limbata was the most sensitive organism to the toxicity of Detroit River sediment. Lethality of D. magna was similar to that of H. limbata in whole sediment and can be used to predict effects of whole sediment toxicity to H. limbata. The concentration required to cause a 50% reduction in C. tentans growth (10-d EC50) was approximately that which caused 50% lethality of D. magna (48-h LC50) and was similar to the toxicity that restricts benthic invertebrate colonization of contaminated sediments. While the three dilution techniques gave similar results with some assays, they gave very different results in other assays. The dose-response relationships determined by the three dilution techniques would be expected to vary with sediment, toxicant and bioassay type, and the dose-response relationship derived from each technique needs to be interpreted accordingly.

Giesy, John P.; Rosiu, Cornell J.; Graney, Robert L.; Henry, Mary G.

1990-01-01

54

Potential for release of sediment phosphorus to Lake Powell (Utah and Arizona) due to sediment resuspension during low water level  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water level in Lake Powell, an important water-supply reservoir on the Colorado River, United States, decreased in most years from 1999 to 2010, exposing the sediment delta in the inflow region of this reservoir. This study assesses the potential for sediment-associated phosphorus (P) to enter the water column during sediment resuspension. We collected sediment samples from the reservoir inflow

Richard A. Wildman Jr; Janet G. Hering

2011-01-01

55

Domestic wash water reclamation for reuse as commode water supply using filtration: Reverse-osmosis separation technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combined filtration-reverse-osmosis water recovery system has been evaluated to determine its capability to reclaim domestic wash water for reuse as a commode water supply. The system produced water that met all chemical and physical requirements established by the U.S. Public Health Service for drinking water with the exception of carbon chloroform extractables, methylene blue active substances, and phenols. It is thought that this water is of sufficient quality to be reused as commode supply water. The feasibility of using a combined filtration and reverse-osmosis technique for reclaiming domestic wash water has been established. The use of such a technique for wash-water recovery will require a maintenance filter to remove solid materials including those less than 1 micron in size from the wash water. The reverse-osmosis module, if sufficiently protected from plugging, is an attractive low-energy technique for removing contaminants from domestic wash water.

Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

1974-01-01

56

Water retention curve for hydrate-bearing sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

water retention curve plays a central role in numerical algorithms that model hydrate dissociation in sediments. The determination of the water retention curve for hydrate-bearing sediments faces experimental difficulties, and most studies assume constant water retention curves regardless of hydrate saturation. This study employs network model simulation to investigate the water retention curve for hydrate-bearing sediments. Results show that (1) hydrate in pores shifts the curve to higher capillary pressures and the air entry pressure increases as a power function of hydrate saturation; (2) the air entry pressure is lower in sediments with patchy rather than distributed hydrate, with higher pore size variation and pore connectivity or with lower specimen slenderness along the flow direction; and (3) smaller specimens render higher variance in computed water retention curves, especially at high water saturation Sw > 0.7. Results are relevant to other sediment pore processes such as bioclogging and mineral precipitation.

Dai, Sheng; Santamarina, J. Carlos

2013-11-01

57

Effect of domestic storage tanks on the quality of drinking waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation covering 12 districts of Baghdad city was conducted over 2 yr to monitor the effect of domestic storage practice on the quality of drinking water. Water storage tanks are widely used in Iraq as an additional water source. Tap and stored waters were tested for their chemical constituents i.e. Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, Zn, Fe, Pb, Cd,

I. M. Jawad; M. R. Al-Ghazali; M. S. H. Khorshid

1988-01-01

58

European Modelling Group for SHS (Solar Heating Systems) and DHW (Domestic Hot Water).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the contribution of the German participant, the Fraunhofer-Institut fur Systemtechnik and Innovationsforschung, of the European Modelling Group for Solar Heating Systems and Domestic Hot Water in the years 1980 and 1981. The main purp...

J. Reichert D. Schlag H. Herz

1984-01-01

59

TOXICITY EVALUATION OF LOWER FOX RIVER WATER AND SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Many persistent, xenobiotic compounds have been identified from Lower Fox River water, biota, sediment, and effluent discharges; some of which are suspected of causing adverse effects to aquatic organisms. Water and sediment were collected as grab samples from the Lower Fox River...

60

Exchange of phosphorus across the sediment-water interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, principles of phosphorus retention and phosphorus release at the sediment-water interface in lakes are reviewed. New results and hypotheses are discussed in relation to older models of phosphorus exchange between sediments and water. The fractional composition of sedimentary phosphorus is discussed as a tool for interpretation of different retention mechanisms. Special emphasis is given to the impact

Bengt Boström; Jens M. Andersen; Siegfried Fleischer; Mats Jansson

1988-01-01

61

Interpretation of measured concentration profiles in sediment pore water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robust numerical procedure for biogeochemical interpretation and analysis of measured concentration profiles of solutes in sediment pore water has been developed. Assuming that the concentration-depth profile represents a steady state, the rate of net production or consumption as a function of depth can be calculated, together with the flux across the sediment-water interface. Three kinds of vertical transport can

Peter Berg; Nils Risgaard-Petersen; Søren Rysgaard

1998-01-01

62

The role of domestic tap water in Acanthamoeba contamination in contact lens storage cases in Korea  

PubMed Central

A survey was carried out from August to December 2004 in Pusan, Korea to document the presence of free-living amoeba (FLA), including the genus Acanthamoeba, in both contact lens storage cases and domestic tap water. Acanthamoeba was isolated from 5 (4.2%) in 120 contact lens storage cases. Four house tap water samples from residents, whose contact lens storage cases had been contaminated by Acanthamoeba, were also found to be contaminated with Acanthamoeba. Therefore, the contamination rate of FLA and Acanthamoeba in domestic tap water was investigated in order to examine the role of domestic tap water in Acanthamoeba contamination of contact lens storage cases. FLA and Acanthamoeba were identified in 97 (46.8%) and 16 (7.7%) of the 207 domestic tap water samples, respectively. There were no significant differences between the contamination rates of FLA in tap water according to the filtration plant of origin. No FLA was detected in the tap water directly supplied by the water purification plants. Water storage tanks appear to promote FLA colonization, including Acanthamoeba, in domestic tap water. This increases the risk of Acanthamoeba contamination in contact lens storage cases as well as increasing the risk of Acanthamoeba keratitis.

Jeong, Hae Jin

2005-01-01

63

Brucellosis in domestic water buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis ) of Trinidad and Tobago with comparative epidemiology to cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water buffalo is an important domestic animal worldwide, and the local Buffalypso variety was developed in Trinidad to\\u000a have improved beef qualities. Brucellosis was diagnosed in Trinidad and Tobago during 1998 in both cattle and domestic water\\u000a buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) populations. Brucellosis in the latter species is caused by infection with Brucella abortus, similar to bovine brucellosis. Control of

Geoffrey T. Fosgate; Michael D. Diptee; Anil Ramnanan; Abiodun Adewale Adesiyun

64

Microbiological Evaluation of Water Quality from Urban Watersheds for Domestic Water Supply Improvement  

PubMed Central

Agricultural and urban runoffs may be major sources of pollution of water bodies and major sources of bacteria affecting the quality of drinking water. Of the different pathways by which bacterial pathogens can enter drinking water, this one has received little attention to date; that is, because soils are often considered to be near perfect filters for the transport of bacterial pathogens through the subsoil to groundwater. The goals of this study were to determine the distribution, diversity, and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from low flowing river water and sediment with inputs from different sources before water is discharged into ground water and to compare microbial contamination in water and sediment at different sampling sites. Water and sediment samples were collected from 19 locations throughout the watershed for the isolation of pathogenic E. coli. Heterotrophic plate counts and E. coli were also determined after running tertiary treated water through two tanks containing aquifer sand material. Presumptive pathogenic E. coli isolates were obtained and characterized for virulent factors and antimicrobial resistance. None of the isolates was confirmed as Shiga toxin E. coli (STEC), but as others, such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to show the diversity E. coli populations from different sources throughout the watershed. Seventy six percent of the isolates from urban sources exhibited resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent. A subsequent filtration experiment after water has gone through filtration tanks containing aquifer sand material showed that there was a 1 to 2 log reduction in E. coli in aquifer sand tank. Our data showed multiple strains of E. coli without virulence attributes, but with high distribution of resistant phenotypes. Therefore, the occurrence of E. coli with multiple resistances in the environment is a matter of great concern due to possible transfer of resistant genes from nonpathogenic to pathogenic strains that may result in increased duration and severity of morbidity.

Ibekwe, A. Mark; Murinda, Shelton E.; Graves, Alexandria K.

2011-01-01

65

Element concentrations in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.), fish and sediment from a wetland production system that receives wastewater from Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cheung Ek Lake, which is located south of Phnom Penh, Cambodia, receives most of the industrial and domestic wastewater that is produced in the city. The lake is used for fishing and production of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk). Concentrations of 35 elements were determined in water spinach and sediment that were collected along transects of two wastewater inlets

Helle Marcussen; Anders Dalsgaard; Peter E. Holm

2009-01-01

66

Degassing of Pore Water Methane during Sediment Incubations †  

PubMed Central

Laboratory experiments were used to examine the degassing of CH4 from a muddy sediment. Sediment containing dissolved CH4 showed a hyperbolic time course of CH4 release when allowed to degas in stoppered 20-ml vials. Equilibration required ca. 24 h for 5 ml of sediment. The rate of CH4 release was found to be dependent on the ratio of exposed sediment surface area to sediment volume. The water content of the sediment was a factor in the total amount of CH4 released but did not affect the rate of degassing. Addition of water to sediment samples (to form a slurry) accelerated CH4 release, with a 1:1 dilution giving ca. 80% of maximum release after only 2 min. Shaking (vortexing) the sediments also facilitated CH4 exchange, with 2 min of vigorous agitation giving 77% of maximum release. The organic content of the sediment did not affect either the amount or the rate of CH4 degassing. Rubber stoppers exposed to CH4 were found to absorb CH4 rapidly and to subsequently release it in proportion to the concentration to which they were exposed. Artifacts may be associated with CH4 production measurements if sediment and stopper degassing are not considered. It is recommended that any study of methane production or distribution include preliminary experiments to determine the degassing kinetics for the specific sediment system being used.

Kiene, Ronald P.; Capone, Douglas G.

1985-01-01

67

30 CFR 77.216-3 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...77.216-3 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...requirements. (a) All water, sediment, or slurry impoundments that meet the...

2010-07-01

68

30 CFR 77.216-1 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures... § 77.216-1 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...immediately adjacent to each water, sediment or slurry impounding structure within the...

2009-07-01

69

30 CFR 77.216-5 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures... § 77.216-5 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...abandonment of any water, sediment, or slurry impoundment and impounding...

2009-07-01

70

30 CFR 77.216-1 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures... § 77.216-1 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...immediately adjacent to each water, sediment or slurry impounding structure within the...

2010-07-01

71

A new inverter heat pump operated all year round with domestic hot water  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new scheme of an inverter air cooling heat pump system with domestic hot water. A water reheater is placed between the compressor outlet and the four way valve inlet to utilize the sensible heat of the superheated gas exhausted from the compressor, and a water preheater is placed between the condenser and the throttling device to

Shuangquan Shao; Wenxing Shi; Xianting Li; Jie Ma

2004-01-01

72

Distribution of bacteria in a domestic hot water system in a Danish apartment building  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial growth in hot water systems seems to cause problems such as bad odor of the water, skin allergies and increased heat transfer resistance in heating coils. In order to establish a basis for long-term suppression of bacterial growth, we studied the distribution of bacteria in a Danish domestic hot water system. Heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) were measured in both

Lene Karen Bagh; Hans-Jørgen Albrechtsen; Erik Arvin; Kaj Ovesen

2004-01-01

73

Techno-economic evaluation of domestic solar water heating systems in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most wide spread thermal use of solar energy, so far, has been for water heating. Solar water heating systems have been commercialized in many counties in the world. Though the technical feasibility of domestic solar water heating systems (DSWHS) has long been established, their financial viability needs to be carefully examined, particularly in tropical countries with relatively lower annual

B. Chandrasekar; T. C. Kandpal

2004-01-01

74

Presence of Thermophilic Bacteria in Laundry and Domestic Hot-Water Heaters  

PubMed Central

Thermophilic bacteria resembling Thermus aquaticus were isolated from hot water taken from domestic and commercial hot-water tanks. Cold water from the same locations never yielded thermophilic bacteria, suggesting that the bacteria were growing in the tanks. In contrast to the T. aquaticus isolates from hot springs, the present isolates were rarely pigmented. In general, the hotter sources more frequently yielded bacteria.

Brock, Thomas D.; Boylen, Kathryn L.

1973-01-01

75

Estimate of self-supplied domestic water use in Oklahoma during 1980  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reported or measured water-use data for the domestic self-supplied user were not available for Oklahoma; therefore estimates of water use within this classification were derived. The total self-supplied population in Oklahoma during 1980 was estimated to be 343,615, which was 11.4 percent of the total 1980 State population. The rate of water use by this group was estimated to be 56 gallons per capita per day. The estimated annual domestic self-supplied water use by county ranged from 10 to 1,180 acre-feet, with a total statewide use of 21,610 acre-feet.

Stoner, J. D.

1984-01-01

76

Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work is described accomplished in compiling information needed to establish the current water supply and waste water processing requirements for dwellings, and for developing a preliminary design for a waste water to potable water management system. Data generated was used in formulation of design criteria for the preliminary design of the waste water to potable water recycling system. The system as defined was sized for a group of 500 dwelling units. Study tasks summarized include: water consumption, nature of domestic water, consumer appliances for low water consumption, water quality monitoring, baseline concept, and current and projected costs.

Murawczyk, C.

1973-01-01

77

Recent sediment dynamics in the region of Mekong water influence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent fine sediment dynamics in the region of fresh water influence (ROFI) off the Mekong River are subject of this study. Each year about 160 t of sediment discharges from the river and disperses over the shelf. The typical tropical monsoon regime induces the pronounced seasonal cycle of the discharge of water and sediment. This cycle is reflected in rates of erosion and deposition on the shelf. The modern hypothesis says that this cycle of sediment results in deposition of sediment on the shelf during the high flow season and the transport back into the river mouth during the low flow season. A coupled hydrodynamic-wind-wave and sediment model, which simulates the seasonal cycle of the system, is used to prove this hypothesis.

Hein, Hartmut; Hein, Birte; Pohlmann, Thomas

2013-11-01

78

Measurement of Mercury Methylation in Lake Water and Sediment Samples  

PubMed Central

Biological mercury methylation was assayed by a new radiochemical technique in the water column and sediments of a mercury-contaminated lake. In 24 weeks during 1979, there were three episodes of methylating activity in surface floc and in water, each lasting 3 to 5 weeks. Periods of methylation in the water column coincided with surface sediment methylation and appeared to be related to overall microbial activity. Mercury was actively methylated in the presence of bound sulfide.

Furutani, Akira; Rudd, John W. M.

1980-01-01

79

Comparing Sediment and Pore-water Measurements as Predictors of PCB Uptake by Oligochaetes from Sediments  

EPA Science Inventory

There is an increasing amount of chemical and biological evidence that using sediment concentrations and commonly applied Koc values frequently overpredicts interstitial water concentrations of HOCs, and thereby overestimates uptake and/or effects of those chemicals on exposed or...

80

Toxicity of silicon carbide nanowires to sediment-dwelling invertebrates in water or sediment exposures.  

PubMed

Silicon carbide nanowires (SiCNW) are insoluble in water. When released into an aquatic environment, SiCNW would likely accumulate in sediment. The objective of this study was to assess the toxicity of SiCNW to four freshwater sediment-dwelling organisms: amphipods (Hyalella azteca), midges (Chironomus dilutus), oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus), and mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea). Amphipods were exposed to either sonicated or nonsonicated SiCNW in water (1.0?g/L) for 48?h. Midges, mussels, and oligochaetes were exposed only to sonicated SiCNW in water for 96?h. In addition, amphipods were exposed to sonicated SiCNW in whole sediment for 10 d (44% SiCNW on dry wt basis). Mean 48-h survival of amphipods exposed to nonsonicated SiCNW in water was not significantly different from the control, whereas mean survival of amphipods exposed to sonicated SiCNW in two 48-h exposures (0 or 15% survival) was significantly different from the control (90 or 98% survival). In contrast, no effect of sonicated SiCNW was observed on survival of midges, mussels, or oligochaetes. Survival of amphipods was not significantly reduced in 10-d exposures to sonicated SiCNW either mixed in the sediment or layered on the sediment surface. However, significant reduction in amphipod biomass was observed with the SiCNW either mixed in sediment or layered on the sediment surface, and the reduction was more pronounced for SiCNW layered on the sediment. These results indicated that, under the experimental conditions, nonsonicated SiCNW in water were not acutely toxic to amphipods, sonicated SiCNW in water were acutely toxic to the amphipods, but not to other organisms tested, and sonicated SiCNW in sediment affected the growth but not the survival of amphipods. PMID:21305577

Mwangi, Joseph N; Wang, Ning; Ritts, Andrew; Kunz, James L; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Li, Hao; Deng, Baolin

2011-04-01

81

Partitioning studies of dioxin between sediment and water: The measurement of Koc for Lake Ontario sediment  

SciTech Connect

A desorption experiment is described in which the sediment-to-water partition coefficient for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin is measured for a sample from Lake Ontario. After a contact period of 4 days, the logarithm of the partition coefficient on an organic carbon basis, LogKoc, ranges from 7.25 to 7.59. Information on the partitioning behavior of dioxin between water and dissolved or suspended matter derived from the sediment is provided.

Lodge, K.B.; Cook, P.M.

1989-01-01

82

DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC WASTEWATER CONTAMINANTS BETWEEN WATER AND SEDIMENT IN SURFACE WATERS OF THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Trace concentrations of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants have been determined in the surface waters of Europe and the United States. A preliminary report of substantially higher concentrations of pharmaceuticals in sediment suggests that bottom sediment ...

83

Physicomechanical properties of the water-sediment barrier zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complex geoecological works carried out in the St. Anna Trough resulted in the detailed investigation of the water-sediment barrier zone. The physicomechanical properties such as the moisture, the moisture at the flowing boundary, the sedimentation rates, and the strength of the sediments measured and calculated for the upper 10-cm-thick layer of the bottom sediments were used as the main parameters characterizing the barrier zone. These data served as a basis for developing the model of the barrier zone with defining the lithogenesis stages: protosyngenesis—syngenesis—protodiagenegis—early diagenesis. The quantitative estimates of the environmental physicochemical properties presented in this work characterize each of these stages.

Ivanov, G. I.; Svertilov, A. A.; Kholmyanskii, M. A.

2012-11-01

84

Risk assessment of oxytetracycline in water phase to major sediment bacterial community: a water-sediment microcosm study.  

PubMed

With an increasing need for assessing the risk of aquaculture antibiotics, there has been growing interest in their fate and effect on sedimentary bacteria. Here we show the risk assessment for oxytetracycline (OTC) use in seawater and its subsequent transfer to sediment, and illustrate that the sediment bacterial community was stable against OTC at dosed concentrations. Water-sediment microcosm experiments were conducted to simulate quiescent aquaculture conditions. The sorption coefficient (Kd) was 12.3-44.2mL/g, which is lower than the previous reports employing vigorous mixing. In a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, the addition of OTC at 50?g/L into the water phase had little effect on the major sediment bacterial community structure. This finding suggests that low concentrations of OTC in the water phase - such as those used within many aquaculture operations - do not pose a high risk of causing major changes in environmental sediment bacterial community structures. PMID:23619519

Suga, Natsumi; Ogo, Mitsuko; Suzuki, Satoru

2013-07-01

85

Thermal analysis of including phase change material in a domestic hot water cylinder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The domestic electrical hot water cylinder used in this paper incorporates encapsulated phase change material (PCM) placed in 57 vertical pipes. The use of PCM increases the thermal energy storage capacity of the cylinder and allows the use of low cost electricity during low peak periods. The operational mode of the system is based on heating the water and melting

A. de Gracia; E. Oró; M. M. Farid; L. F. Cabeza

2011-01-01

86

The Chemical Quality of Self-Supplied Domestic Well Water in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing water quality data collected from domestic wells were summarized to develop the first national-scale retrospective of self-supplied drinking water sources. The contaminants evaluated represent a range of inorganic and organic compounds, and although the data set was not originally designed to be a statistical representation of national occurrence, it encompasses large parts of the United States including at least

Michael J. Focazio; Deborah Tipton; Stephanie Dunkle Shapiro; Linda H. Geiger

2006-01-01

87

Sediment properties and benthic pelagic coupling in the North Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of sediment oxygen consumption were made during spring and summer in the North Water, the polynya that forms between Greenland and Ellesmere Island, and used in conjunction with sediment trap data to assess benthic-pelagic coupling in this system. Bottom sediments ranged from cobble in the north to soft muds in the southern part of the sampling grid. Muddy sediments were often pelletized as shown by disaggregation. Sediment photopigments were generally lower in coarse sediment stations to the north than in finer sediments stations to the south. Shipboard incubation of intact cores provided rates of 0.07-0.17 mmol O 2 m -2 h -1, with significantly greater oxygen consumption in summer than in spring. Additional incubation of macrofauna-free sediment aliquots in vials demonstrated significantly lower oxygen consumption in summer than in spring. Partitioning of benthic metabolism via these selective exclusion experiments showed a seasonal change in the response of the benthos to pelagic input, with meio-microbenthos dominating oxygen consumption in spring and macrofauna dominating in summer. Increased oxygen demand in the western polynya is suggested to coincide with the highest rates of carbon input measured by sediment traps and highest levels of sediment pigments. This region is an advective sink for particles produced in the east and subsequently transported by net polynya circulation. Although the benthos of the North Water does not display enhanced rates of carbon processing compared to other Arctic sediments, including other polynyas, the protracted production season of North Water provides a longer period over which the benthos can receive and mineralize organic carbon.

Grant, Jon; Hargrave, Barry; MacPherson, Paul

88

Sediment Transport and Water Quality Model of Cedar Lake, Indiana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EPA-supported Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code, EFDC, is used to model hydrodynamics, sediment transport, and water quality in coastal regions, estuaries, rivers, and lakes. However, the empirical formulations used for sediment transport are not always adequate to accurately characterize cohesive sediment erosion and transport. New sediment transport subroutines have been incorporated into EFDC and the new model is called SNL-EFDC. The updated model provides an improved, coupled hydrodynamics, sediment transport, and water quality framework. The newly incorporated sediment transport subroutines facilitate direct use of measured erosion rate data from the Sediment Erosion with Depth Flume (SEDflume). Erosion rates are included as functions of both depth within the sediment bed and applied shear stresses. This bypasses problems associated with empirical erosion formulations often based on disaggregated particle size. Restoration alternatives are under consideration for Cedar Lake in Indiana and SNL-EFDC models its hydrodynamics, sediment transport, and water quality. The water quality model as implemented on Cedar Lake tracks algae, oxygen, temperature, carbon, phosphorous, and nitrogen kinetics, as well as, sediment bed diagenesis. Environmental conditions, wind, temperature, rainfall, and sunlight, were based on data collected in 2005. Tributary loading was modeled using L-THIA and provided influxes of water, nutrients (phosphorous, nitrogen, etc.), and sediments. The calibrated model was used to simulate a nine month period from March to November 2005. Results suggest that the model simulates sediments transport and associated water quality correctly. The calibrated model is being used to evaluate several restoration measures throughout the lake and watershed and their effect on water quality. Because Cedar Lake is a nitrogen limited lake, changes in the level of eutrophication from each measure are being tracked by calculating the Carlson trophic state index based on total phosphorus. To date, several dredging measures have been modeled and the measure resulting in the greatest benefit to water quality per unit dredge volume was identified. Several other restoration measures including nutrient inactivation, increasing dilution, creation of in-lake structures, aquatic vegetation restoration, institutional controls, fish community management, and reducing tributary loadings are currently being modeled and evaluated. As part of the Cedar Lake Ecosystem Restoration Feasibility Study currently being developed by the Chicago District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, results from the EFDC-SNL model will be used to justify a recommended ecosystem restoration plan for implementation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE AC04 94AL85000.

James, S. C.; Jones, C. A.; Roberts, J. D.; Ahlmann, M.; Bucaro, D. A.

2006-12-01

89

Lessons learned from water/sediment-testing of pharmaceuticals.  

PubMed

Previous studies revealed large differences in the transformation of pharmaceuticals in rivers with similar characteristics. The present work aimed at answering the question whether these differences are related to the transformation capacity of the specific river sediments. More generally, we also aimed at evaluating the overall diagnostic power of water/sediment tests. Incubation experiments with 9 pharmaceuticals were carried out with sediments sampled from three rivers. All compounds expect carbamazepine were removed at dissipation half-lives between 2.5 and 56 days; biotransformation was identified as the major removal process. Interestingly, sediment from river Roter Main was more efficient in removing pharmaceuticals than sediment from river Gründlach, while the opposite pattern was observed in previous field studies. Obviously, the physical boundary conditions are governing the actual elimination of pharmaceuticals and not the transformation potential of the specific sediments. In a separate experiment, an immediate onset of transformation was observed after introducing oxygen to an anoxic water/sediment system. Transformation rates in sediments sampled from several sites within one river varied up to a factor of 2.5. This considerable in-stream variability is a critical factor for environmental risk assessment where single cutoff values are being used for evaluating a compound's persistence. PMID:24602861

Radke, Michael; Maier, Michael P

2014-05-15

90

Nutritional composition of water hyacinths grown on domestic sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nutrient analysis of water hyacinths grown in sewage wastewaters was conducted. Crude protein averaged 32.9% dry weight\\u000a in the leaves, where it was most concentrated. The amino acid content of water hyacinth leaves was found to compare favorably\\u000a with that of soybean and cottonseed meal. The vitamin and mineral content of dried water hyacinths met or exceeded the FAO

B. C. Wolverton; Rebecca C. Mcdonald

1978-01-01

91

Domestic air-conditioner and integrated water heater for subtropical climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technology of using a heat pump for space conditioning and domestic hot water heating in residences has been developed for half a century. The earlier air-to-water heat pumps and water-heating heat pumps suffered from drawbacks like high costs, unreliable operation, and inflexible applications. They were not well positioned in the market to attract customers. This paper introduces a novel

Jie Ji; Tin-tai Chow; Gang Pei; Jun Dong; Wei He

2003-01-01

92

Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 1: Final report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive study of advanced water recovery and solid waste processing techniques employed in both aerospace and domestic or commercial applications is reported. A systems approach was used to synthesize a prototype system design of an advanced water treatment/waste processing system. Household water use characteristics were studied and modified through the use of low water use devices and a limited amount of water reuse. This modified household system was then used as a baseline system for development of several water treatment waste processing systems employing advanced techniques. A hybrid of these systems was next developed and a preliminary design was generated to define system and hardware functions.

Murray, R. W.

1973-01-01

93

Preliminary design package for Sunspot Domestic Hot Water Heating System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design review includes a drawing list, auto-control logic, measurement definitions, and other document pertaining to the solar heated prototype hot water systems and two heat exchangers. The hot water systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control transport, auxiliary energy, and site data acquisition.

1976-01-01

94

Comparison of six generic solar domestic hot water systems  

SciTech Connect

The cost effectiveness of residential solar water heating is explored by analyzing six different system types. A figure of merit (that considers both performance and cost) is calculated for each system, providing information for both researchers and industry. Thermosyphon water heaters are determined to be the most cost effective option, and their wider application is recommended once a reliable draindown technique is developed.

Farrington, R.B.; Murphy, L.M.; Noreen, D.L.

1980-04-01

95

Antifouling biocides in water and sediments from California marinas.  

PubMed

Irgarol 1051 is a common antifouling biocide and is highly toxic to non-target plant species at low ng/L concentrations. We measured up to 254 ng/L Irgarol in water and up to 9 ng/g dry weight Irgarol in sediments from Southern California recreational marinas. Irgarol's metabolite, M1, concentrations were up to 62 ng/L in water and 5 ng/g dry weight in sediments. Another antifouling biocide, diuron, reached up to 68 ng/L in water and 4 ng/g dry weight in sediments. The maximum Irgarol concentrations in water were greater than the Irgarol concentration recommended as the plant toxicity benchmark (136 ng/L), suggesting that Irgarol concentrations may be high enough to cause changes in phytoplankton communities in the sampled marinas. Irgarol concentrations measured in sediments were greater than calculated Environmental Risk Limits (ERLs) for Irgarol in sediments (1.4 ng/g). Antifouling pesticide accumulation in sediments may present a potential undetermined risk for benthic organisms. PMID:23453818

Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Wirth, Edward; Schiff, Kenneth; Fulton, Michael

2013-04-15

96

Factors affecting pore water hydrocarbon concentrations in Puget Sound sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations have been determined for sediments and associated pore waters collected at 2 sites (11 stations) in Puget Sound, Washington (northwest U.S.A.). These sediments have been contaminated to varying degrees by hydrocarbons from a creosote plant and from various combustion sources. PAH were not detected in pore waters of sediments whose PAH were primarily derived from combustion and natural sources, even though pore water concentrations predicted from sediment concentrations and two-phase equilibrium partitioning models were above detection limits from most PAH. Equilibrium partition coefficients calculated from field aqueous and solid phase data from an area contaminated with creosote agreed with laboratory-derived coefficients to within a factor of ± 4. Pore water concentrations of creosote-derived aliphatic hydrocarbons increase with increasing concentration in bulk sediments. However, pore water concentrations of natural and contaminant aliphatic hydrocarbons are much higher than predicted by solubility data, possibly due to association with nonfilterable dissolved organic matter and colloids. Other major factors controlling hydrocarbon pore water concentrations include differential hydrocarbon sources, specific particle associations and solubility.

Socha, Stephen B.; Carpenter, Roy

1987-05-01

97

Factors affecting pore water hydrocarbon concentrations in Puget Sound sediments  

SciTech Connect

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations have been determined for sediments and associated pore waters collected at 2 sites (11 stations) in Puget Sound, Washington (northwest U.S.A.). These sediments have been contaminated to varying degrees by hydrocarbons from a creosote plant and from various combustion sources. PAH were not detected in pore waters of sediments whose PAH were primarily derived from combustion and natural sources, even though pore water concentrations predicted from sediment concentrations and two-phase equilibrium partitioning models were above detection limits from most PAH. Equilibrium partition coefficients calculated from field aqueous and solid phase data from an area contaminated with creosote agreed with laboratory-derived coefficients to within a factor of +/- 4. Pore water concentrations of creosote-derived aliphatic hydrocarbons increase with increasing concentration in bulk sediments. However, pore water concentrations of natural and contaminant aliphatic hydrocarbons are much higher than predicted by solubility data, possible due to association with nonfilterable dissolved organic matter and colloids. Other major factors controlling hydrocarbon pore water concentrations include differential hydrocarbon sources, specific particle associations and solubility.

Socha, S.B.; Carpenter, R.

1987-05-01

98

Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

Not Available

1980-11-01

99

Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

1980-01-01

100

Sediment tracers in water erosion studies: Current approaches and challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quest for alternative methods of soil losses assessment, due to water erosion to complement and enhance existing methods has directed attention to the use of tracing approaches because of the additional information they provide, such as sediment source identification, tracking of sediment movement across the landscape at various temporal and spatial scales and soil erosion rates. For these reasons, the utility and robustness of sediment tracing approaches using a wide range of substances and soil properties have been evaluated in numerous studies. A comprehensive literature review on tracing approaches used in water erosion studies was carried out in June 2011 using the Web of Science database and as search terms in the title or as keywords: "erosion AND tracer" OR "sediment AND tracer" OR "sediment AND tracking". The search excluded reviews and tillage and/or wind erosion studies. Only studies that used tracers to make a determination of water erosion or sedimentation rates, or in some cases relative erosion contribution, were considered in this study, and were further refined by manually checking that the articles corresponded to experiments involving sediment studies using tracers, as defined within the context of this review. Five distinct groups of tracing approaches were identified: fallout radionuclides, rare earth elements, soil magnetism and magnetic substances, other tracers, and sediment fingerprinting techniques. This abstract presents a synthesis of the current approaches of each of the tracing techniques identified in assessing soil erosion and sediment redistribution and a summary with the commonalities and differences between the approaches and identifying research gaps and future trends.

Guzmán, Gema; Quinton, John N.; Nearing, Mark A.; Mabit, Lionel; Giráldez, Juan V.; Gómez, José A.

2013-04-01

101

Solar domestic water heating performance test program - Interim report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance results from utility-installed or monitored flat plate collector systems on 13 residences are reported. The systems comprised either drain-down, i.e., emptying the water-working fluid into a reservoir in response to thermistor sensing of sufficiently low temperatures, or water\\/glycol mixture as freeze protection measures. Installation errors committeed by commercial solar contractors employed by the utility customers are outlined, indicating the

R. H. Auris; W. J. Draving

1981-01-01

102

Use of hydrocyclones for centrifugal dewatering of waste water sediments  

SciTech Connect

This article investigates the effectiveness of hydrocyclones in the separation of abrasive inclusions from the sediment of primary sedimentation tanks at the Orekhovo-Zuevo aeration station. The studies were performed in a pressure hydrocyclone which was fed with wet sediment from the primary sedimentation tanks with a water content of 93.8-95.5% and an ash content of 35.1-45.1%. The flow rate characteristics and the qualitative indices of the hydrocyclone operation, depending on its geometric parameters and inlet pressure, were determined. In the process of sediment separation in the hydrocyclones, the moisture content of the drained fluid rises above and that of the slime falls below the moisture content of the wet sediment. It is established that the pattern of change in the moisture content of the separation products, the content of the dry and mineral matters, and the efficiency of separation of the dry and mineral matters with the change in the pressure at the hydrocyclone inlet and its geometric parameters in the case of activated sludge treatment is similar to the pattern of change in the corresponding indices in the cases of hydrocyclone processing of the sediment from primary sedimentation tanks.

Lipmanovich, V.Y.

1984-07-01

103

Size spectra of biogenic particles in ocean water and sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle size spectra if foraminifera and diatoms in near-surface ocean water and sediments can generally be represented by a relationship of the type dN\\/dr=Ar-b. Stokes settling of the particles of density that is uniform and independent of the particle radius r would result in the spectrum slope value of b-2 in the sediment, when b characterizes the parent particle population

D. Lal; A. Lerman

1975-01-01

104

European Modelling Group Solar Space Heating and Domestic Hot Water Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The co-operative work within the European Modelling Group for Solar Heating Systems and Domestic Hot Water is undertaken as part of the CEC's research and development program on Solar Applications for Dwellings. During the last two years of operation of t...

O. Balslev-Olesen

1985-01-01

105

Solar Equipment System Packages for Old and New Buildings to Provide Domestic Water and Partial Heating.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The inspected commercial solar collectors for heating of domestic water and space heating from 1977/78 failed in an long-time-test. From architectural viewpoint it is difficult to integrate the collectors into roof- or wall surfaces due to its typical box...

G. Berg F. J. Mueller

1982-01-01

106

Analysis of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems from a System Perspective.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Six solar domestic hot water systems tested at the National Bureau of Standards have been analyzed. Results indicate that the thermosyphon system delivered the most solar energy to the load per dollar of initial investment (the air system delivered the le...

L. M. Murphy R. Farrington D. Noreen

1980-01-01

107

Analysis of solar domestic hot water systems from a system perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six solar domestic hot water systems tested at the National Bureau of Standards have been analyzed. Results indicate that the thermosyphon system delivered the most solar energy to the load per dollar of initial investment (the air system delivered the least) and that direct systems performed better than indirect systems. Storage losses from the double tank systems were greater than

L. M. Murphy; R. Farrington; D. Noreen

1980-01-01

108

COST OPTIMIZATION OF LOW-COST SOLAR DOMESTIC HOT WATER SYSTEMS ASSISTED BY ELECTRIC ENERGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper the optimization of the insulation thickness of the storage tank of a low cost solar domestic water heating system (SDWHS) is carried out. The system is equipped with an auxiliary heater in the tank. The model assumes that the auxiliary energy needed to face the energy requirement for a shower in the evening, is supplied to

Sergio Colle; Juan Pablo; L. C. Salazar; Samuel L. Abreu; Karime Glitz; Wilson Reguse

109

A load model to support demand management decisions on domestic storage water heater control strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Load control of domestic water heaters is a well known demand side management activity. A model capable of simulating the effect of various control parameters which affect the control strategy is presented in this paper. These parameters include the tariff structure, the number of control blocks, the maximum demand set point and the maximum duration for which any block may

J. C. van Tonder

1996-01-01

110

Acanthamoeba Keratitis: The Role of Domestic Tap Water Contamination in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. The incidence of acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) in the UK is some 15 times that in the United States and seven times that in Holland. To investigate reasons for this higher fre- quency, a study of the role of domestic tap water as a potential source of AK was undertaken. METHODS. Tap outlets from the homes of 27 patients with

Simon Kilvington; Trevor Gray; John Dart; Nigel Morlet; John R. Beeching; David G. Frazer; Melville Matheson

2004-01-01

111

Influence of Pipe Quality on Corrosion of Galvanized Steel Pipes for Domestic Water Supply.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments were made for the purpose of comparing corrosion in galvanized pipes of eight different makes in hot and cold domestic water. Fittings of two makes and two methods of jointing were also compared. Experiments were made throughout a period of 15...

F. Yding K. Nielsen

1982-01-01

112

Domestic hot water consumption of the developed and developing communities in South Africa  

SciTech Connect

Domestic hot water consumption for five different types of dwellings in the developed and developing communities of the Johannesburg Metropolitan Area, South Africa, are determined with measurements over a period of one year (1996) in more than 770 dwellings. The hot water consumption was taken monthly with the exception of 310 dwellings where the measurements were logged, resulting in hourly hot water consumptions. The results of the two types of measurements are presented: first, hot water consumption per person per day for the different months of a year; second, hourly hot water consumption per person per day as a function of winter weekdays.

Meyer, J.P.

1999-07-01

113

Maximum use of resources present in domestic "used water".  

PubMed

Environmental protection and the sustainable management of natural resources stand at the foreground of economic and technological activities worldwide. Current sewage technologies, however, deal with diluted wastes and do not focus on recovery and are therefore not sustainable. Here, the most promising methods available for the recovery of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus), organic material and energy from "used waters" are examined both at the decentralised and centralised level. Novel approaches for water processing, not implementing aerobic biological treatment as a core technology, are conceived and critically evaluated regarding efficiency, diffuse emissions and requisite costs. By implementing up-concentration of dilute wastewaters, the concentrated stream becomes suitable for the waste-to-energy strategy. The approach of up-concentration of municipal effluent at arrival at the water treatment plant followed by anaerobic digestion of organics and maximal reuse of the mineral nutrients and water is estimated to have a total cost of the order 0.9 euros/m(3); the latter is comparable to that of conventional aerobic treatment technologies which has little or no reuse. It is argued that in view of the fact that recovered nutrients will become of increasing economic and ecological value, this new conceptual design for the treatment of "used water" will become feasible in the next decade. PMID:19577923

Verstraete, Willy; Van de Caveye, Pieter; Diamantis, Vasileios

2009-12-01

114

Solar domestic hot water system installed at Texas City, Texas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the final technical report of the solar energy system located at LaQuinta Motor Inn, Texas City, Texas. The system was designed to supply 63 percent of the total hot water load for a new 98 unit motor inn. The solar energy system consists of a 2100 square feet Raypack liquid flat plate collector subsystem and a 2500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 3.67 x 10 to the 8th power Btu/year. Abstracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation, and maintenance instructions are included.

1980-01-01

115

Solar heat pump systems for domestic hot water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapour compression heat pumps can upgrade ambient heat sources to match the desired heating load temperature. They can offer considerable increase in operational energy efficiency compared to current water heating systems. Solar heat pumps collect energy not only from solar radiation but also from the ambient air. They can operate even at night or in totally overcast conditions. Since the

Lu Aye; W. W. S Charters; C Chaichana

2002-01-01

116

Mineralogical Evidence of Galvanic Corrosion in Domestic, Drinking Water Pipes  

EPA Science Inventory

Drinking water distribution system (DWDS) piping contains numerous examples of galvanically-coupled metals (e.g., soldered copper pipe joints, copper-lead pipes joined during partial replacements of lead service lines). The possible role of galvanic corrosion in the release of l...

117

Microsystem sediment-water simulation: a practical technique for predicting reservoir water quality  

SciTech Connect

Water quality at the bottom of a lake or reservoir may be conveniently simulated in a controlled laboratory environment using the technique of microsystem sediment-water simulation. The technique provides predictive data on planned or existing reservoirs and lakes by duplicating conditions expected at the sediment-water interface including anaerobic (chemically reducing) conditions which may occur in the hypolimnion during summer and winter stratification. Using many small sediment-water 'microsystems' allows for replication and the estimation of experimental error, as well as application of a variety of analytical chemical techniques for characterizing the simulation water.

Craft, D.

1983-10-01

118

Analysis of Leakage Failure in a Domestic Hydraulic Installation Assisted by Pitting Corrosion of Water Tube  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deoxidized high phosphorus copper (C12200, DHP-Cu) is the principal construction material in hydraulic and heating ventilation\\u000a and air-conditioning installations due to its excellent thermal\\/electrical conductivity, formability, corrosion resistance\\u000a and antimicrobial properties. However, design and installation deficiencies or aggressive environmental conditions, such as\\u000a improper water chemistry, may lead to unexpected failures. A corroded copper water tube caused leakage in a domestic

G. Pantazopoulos

2009-01-01

119

Spectroscopic analyses of pollutants in water, sediment and fish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water ways in Egypt is suffering from continual discharge without adequate treatment especially in the Delta and greater Cairo area. Accordingly water, sediments and catfishes were collected from El Mouheet El Youmna drain in Giza. Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn were determined furthermore the molecular structure of sediment and catfish were conducted with FTIR spectroscopy. Although studied metals were lower in water, higher values are recorded in sediment and catfish samples. FTIR shows possible interaction among metals and organic structures mainly proteins. The bioaccumulation of Pb and Cd proportion was significantly increased in the liver tissues of catfish. A correlation coefficient among sediment and fish liver metals accumulation exist. This infers that the waste assimilation capacity for the drain is high, a phenomena that could be ascribed to dilution, sedimentation and continual water exchange. Furthermore, the genotoxicity affect in catfish genomic corroborates the genus diagnostic markers which attributed to long pollution. This is an indication that agriculture and industrial wastes discharged into the drain has badly a significant effect on the ecological balance.

Abdel-Gawad, Fagr Kh.; Ibrahim, Hanan S.; Ammar, Nabila S.; Ibrahim, Medhat

2012-11-01

120

Spectroscopic analyses of pollutants in water, sediment and fish.  

PubMed

Water ways in Egypt is suffering from continual discharge without adequate treatment especially in the Delta and greater Cairo area. Accordingly water, sediments and catfishes were collected from El Mouheet El Youmna drain in Giza. Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn were determined furthermore the molecular structure of sediment and catfish were conducted with FTIR spectroscopy. Although studied metals were lower in water, higher values are recorded in sediment and catfish samples. FTIR shows possible interaction among metals and organic structures mainly proteins. The bioaccumulation of Pb and Cd proportion was significantly increased in the liver tissues of catfish. A correlation coefficient among sediment and fish liver metals accumulation exist. This infers that the waste assimilation capacity for the drain is high, a phenomena that could be ascribed to dilution, sedimentation and continual water exchange. Furthermore, the genotoxicity affect in catfish genomic corroborates the genus diagnostic markers which attributed to long pollution. This is an indication that agriculture and industrial wastes discharged into the drain has badly a significant effect on the ecological balance. PMID:22898112

Abdel-Gawad, Fagr Kh; Ibrahim, Hanan S; Ammar, Nabila S; Ibrahim, Medhat

2012-11-01

121

A longitudinal study of domestic water conservation behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1988 study of a school-linked sample in a metropolitan and a regional urban area established baseline data for knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and behavior with regard to water management and conservation (Murphy, Watson, & Moore, 1991). This paper reports on a 1991 follow-up, utilising both longitudinal and cross-sectional samples of students, teachers and parents, which aimed at identifying changes within

Susan Moore; Margot Murphy; Ray Watson

1994-01-01

122

Impact of domestic sewage on fresh water body.  

PubMed

In the present study various (physico-chemical) factors were assessed over a period of two years (from February 2002 to January 2004) to note the chemistry and quality of tank water in Bhalki town of Bidar. Physico-chemical factors like pH, dissolved oxygen, magnesium, chlorine, nitrite, sulphates and chemical oxygen demand were found with maximum concentration during summer season. Similarly, during monsoon season free carbon dioxide, alkalinity hardness, calcium, phosphate, silicon, total solids and biological oxygen demand; and in winter season organic matter were recorded. The concentrations viz., pH, hardness and nitrite were more compared to the potable water standard of WHO. The correlation matrix and dendrogram of physico-chemical factors have been computed and analysed. The positive co-relation coefficient observed between pH and magnesium, dissolved oxygen and hardness, free carbondioxide and calcium, alkalinity and nitrite, alkalinityand phosphate, alkalinity and biological oxygen demand, hardness and calcium, hardness and magnesium, magnesium and chlorine, nitrate and phosphate, nitrite and biological oxygen demand, phosphate and organic matter; and silicon and chemical oxygen demand. The dendrogram confirms chlorine, pH, hardness, silicon, total solids and sulphates are the key factors of the change in the chemistry of water body PMID:18972682

Shiddamallayya, N; Pratima, M

2008-05-01

123

Fluorescent dissolved organic matter in marine sediment pore waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in sediment pore waters from contrasting sites in the Chesapeake Bay and along the mid-Atlantic shelf\\/slope break was studied using three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy. Benthic fluxes of FDOM were also examined at the Chesapeake Bay sites. The major fluorescence peaks observed in these pore waters corresponded to those observed in the water column. These included peaks

David J. Burdige; Scott W. Kline; Wenhao Chen

2004-01-01

124

[Research of urban eutrophic water repair by water/sediment biological bases].  

PubMed

A micro power turbine water aeration system with a water biological base and a sediment biological base was independently developed, aimed at urban water eutrophication. The results showed that the average removal rates of COD, NH+4 -N, TP by the water biological base were 82. 33% , 98. 00% and 54. 73% , respectively; The sediment reduction rate achieved by the sediment biological base could reach 20% within 5 days, and aeration in the overlying water could relieve the nutrient releasing caused by the degradation of organic matter; The effect of nutrient removal and organic matter reduction in sediment by the combined ecological restoration technology was perfect in pilot scale. The average removal rates of COD, NH+4 -N, TP were 52. 0%, 33. 6% and 23.4%, respectively, and the organic content in sediment was reduced from 38. 20% to 12.20% . PMID:24364306

Zhou, Hui-Hua; Song, Xiao-Guang; Wu, Ge; Xie, Xin-Yuan

2013-10-01

125

Domestic Water Conservation Technologies: Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Federal Technology Alert (Booklet)  

SciTech Connect

Executive Order 13123 calls for the Federal government to conserve water as well as energy in its 500,000 facilities. To help set priorities among water-saving measures, the Federal Energy Management Program conducted a study of Federal water use in 1997. The study indicated that the government consumes more than 50% of its water in just three types of Federal facilities: housing, hospitals, and office buildings. These facilities have enough kitchens, rest rooms, and laundry areas to provide facility managers with many opportunities to begin reducing their water use (and utility costs) with appropriate water-saving fixtures and products. Therefore, this Federal Technology Alert focuses on domestic technologies, products, and appliances such as water-efficient faucets, showerheads, toilets, urinals, washing machines, and dishwashers. Conserving water also saves the energy needed to treat, pump, and heat that water in homes, businesses, and other buildings.

Not Available

2002-10-01

126

DETERMINATION OF OCTANOL/WATER DISTRIBUTION COEFFICIENTS, WATER SOLUBILITIES, AND SEDIMENT/WATER PARTITION COEFFICIENTS FOR HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Octanol/water distribution coefficients, water solubilities, and sediment/water partition coefficients are basic to any assessment of transport or dispersion of organic pollutants. In addition, these determinations are prerequisites for many chemical or biological process studies...

127

Seasonal variations in pore water and sediment geochemistry of littoral lake sediments (Asylum Lake, MI, USA)  

PubMed Central

Background Seasonal changes in pore water and sediment redox geochemistry have been observed in many near-surface sediments. Such changes have the potential to strongly influence trace metal distribution and thus create seasonal fluctuations in metal mobility and bioavailability. Results Seasonal trends in pore water and sediment geochemistry are assessed in the upper 50 cm of littoral kettle lake sediments. Pore waters are always redox stratified, with the least compressed redox stratification observed during fall and the most compressed redox stratification observed during summer. A 2-step sequential sediment extraction yields much more Fe in the first step, targeted at amorphous Fe(III) (hydr)oxides (AEF), then in the second step, which targets Fe(II) monosulfides. Fe extracted in the second step is relatively invariant with depth or season. In contrast, AEF decreases with sediment depth, and is seasonally variable, in agreement with changes in redox stratification inferred from pore water profiles. A 5-step Tessier extraction scheme was used to assess metal association with operationally-defined exchangeable, carbonate, iron and manganese oxide (FMO), organic/sulfide and microwave-digestible residual fractions in cores collected during winter and spring. Distribution of metals in these two seasons is similar. Co, As, Cd, and U concentrations approach detection limits. Fe, Cu and Pb are mostly associated with the organics/sulfides fraction. Cr and Zn are mostly associated with FMO. Mn is primarily associated with carbonates, and Co is nearly equally distributed between the FMO and organics/sulfide fractions. Conclusion This study clearly demonstrates that near-surface lake sediment pore water redox stratification and associated solid phase geochemistry vary significantly with season. This has important ramifications for seasonal changes in the bioavailability and mobility of trace elements. Without rate measurements, it is not possible to quantify the contribution of various processes to natural organic matter degradation. However, the pore water and solid phase data suggest that iron reduction and sulfate reduction are the dominant pathways in the upper 50 cm of these sediments.

Koretsky, Carla M; Haas, Johnson R; Miller, Douglas; Ndenga, Noah T

2006-01-01

128

Sediment Resuspension and Drawdown in a Water Supply Reservior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnitudes and patterns of sediment resuspension are assessed in Cannonsville Reservoir, New York, to quantify and characterize this internal source of sediment. The assessment is based on analyses of sediment trap collections from 10 sites over the spring to fall interval of two years. Temporal and spatial patterns in sediment deposition are demonstrated to be driven by resuspension/redeposition processes. Sediment that had been resuspended and redeposited represented 80 to 96 percent, on average, of the depositing solids collected along the main axis of the lake. About 90 percent of the redeposited sediment was inorganic. Increased resuspension caused by drawdown of the reservoir surface and fall turnover resulted in 10 to 50-fold increases in deposition rates compared to levels observed when the reservoir was full and strongly thermally stratified. Elevated levels of redeposition from resuspension in the reservoir have been driven by both higher water column concentrations of suspended solids and settling velocities. Recurring longitudinal and lateral gradients in resuspension are delineated, establishing that resuspended solids are transported from the riverine to the lacustrine zone and from near-shore to pelagic areas. Resuspension is demonstrated to cause increases in inanimate particle (tripton) concentrations. Higher tripton levels have been observed in years with greater drawdown. Water quality impacts of the resuspension phenomenon are considered.

Effler, Steven W.; Matthews, David A.

2004-02-01

129

Chemistry of Stream Sediments and Surface Waters in New England  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Summary -- This online publication portrays regional data for pH, alkalinity, and specific conductance for stream waters and a multi-element geochemical dataset for stream sediments collected in the New England states of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. A series of interpolation grid maps portray the chemistry of the stream waters and sediments in relation to bedrock geology, lithology, drainage basins, and urban areas. A series of box plots portray the statistical variation of the chemical data grouped by lithology and other features.

Robinson, Gilpin R., Jr.; Kapo, Katherine E.; Grossman, Jeffrey N.

2004-01-01

130

Water and protein dynamics in sedimented systems: a relaxometric investigation.  

PubMed

Sedimented proteins have recently been shown to provide solid-state NMR spectra of high quality, suitable for structural investigation. This is ascribed to the strong self-crowding effect, which apparently increases the reorientation time up to the point that the protein can be considered immobile on the NMR timescale. Herein, a relaxometric investigation of sedimented bovine serum albumin is performed to obtain information on the dynamics of the system. The measurement of the proton longitudinal relaxation rates as a function of the applied magnetic field indicates that the sedimented protein has relaxation properties very different from those of the protein in concentrated water solutions, even in the presence of glycerol, and similar to those of slightly rehydrated lyophilized systems. This study confirms the hypothesis that the reorientation of the protein molecules is largely abolished in sediments. PMID:23671018

Luchinat, Claudio; Parigi, Giacomo; Ravera, Enrico

2013-09-16

131

Contrasting water quality from paired domestic/public supply wells, central High Plains  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Closely located domestic and public supply wells were sampled using identical sampling procedures to allow comparison of water quality associated with well type. Water samples from 15 pairs of wells with similar screened intervals completed in the central High Plains regional aquifer in parts of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas were analyzed for more than 200 water quality constituents. No statistically significant differences were observed between the concentrations of naturally-derived constituents (major ions, trace elements, and radon) in paired wells. However, differences in water quality between paired wells were observed for selected anthrepogenic compounds (pesticides and tritium), in that some public supply wells produced water that was more recently recharged and contained constituents derived from surface activities. The presence of recently recharged water and compounds indicative of anthrepogenic activities in some public supply wells was likely due to operational variations (pumping rate and pumping cycles), as demonstrated in a particle tracking simulation. Water containing surface-derived anthropogenic compounds from near the water table was more quickly drawn to high volume public supply wells (less than five years) than domestic wells (greater than 120 years) with small pumping rates. These findings indicate that water quality samples collected from different well types in the same area are not necessarily directly comparable. Sampling domestic wells provides the best broad-scale assessment of water quality in this aquifer setting because they are less susceptible to localized contamination from near the water table. However, sampiing public supply wells better represents the quality of the used resource because of the population served.

Bruce, B. W.; Oelsner, G. P.

2001-01-01

132

Bacterial Mercury Methylation At The Sediment-Water Interface Of Mercury Contaminated Sediments  

EPA Science Inventory

Bench scale experiments were conducted to improve our understanding of bacterial mediation of mercury transformation (methylation), specifically those factors which govern the production of methyl mercury (MeHg) at the sediment-water interface. The greatest cause for concern re...

133

Environmental assessment for the domestic water supply upgrades and consolidation on the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The domestic water systems on the Savannah River Site (SRS) are currently in need of upgrading to ensure compliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act and South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Drinking Water Regulations. The SRS has 28 separate goundwater-based drinking water systems in use across the site. These aging systems were designed and constructed in the 1950s and are now facing increasing difficulties in meeting cur-rent regulations. Audits of the systems conducted by SCDHEC in 1986, 1988, 1991, and 1993 identified shortfalls in meeting the requirements for secondary maximum containment levels (MCLS) and SCDHEC design standards. Secondary MCLs are those items, such as odor or appearance, that do not pose a direct health impact. SRS has committed to SCDHEC to correct the drinking water discrepancies and construct two new consolidated inter-area drinking water systems. Upgrading the SRS drinking water systems would be necessary to support site activities regardless of the makeup or the mission at SRS. As such, the proposed upgrade and consolidation of SRS domestic water systems is treated as part of the ``No Action`` alternative for the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Reconfiguration of the Nuclear Weapons Complex .

Not Available

1994-06-01

134

Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at Kansas City, Fire Stations, Kansas City, Missouri  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar system was designed to provide 47 percent of the space heating, 8,800 square feet area and 75 percent of the domestic hot water (DHW) load. The solar system consists of 2,808 square feet of Solaron, model 2001, air, flat plate collector subsystem, a concrete box storage subsystem which contains 1,428 cubic feet of 0.5 inch diameter pebbles weighing 71.5 tons, a DHW preheat tank, blowers, pumps, heat exchangers, air ducting, controls and associated plumbing. Two 120 gallon electric DHW heaters supply domestic hot water which is preheated by the solar system. Auxiliary space heating is provided by three electric heat pumps with electric resistance heaters and four 30 kilowatt electric unit heaters. There are six modes of system operation.

1980-01-01

135

Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at Kansas City, Fire Stations, Kansas City, Missouri  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar system was designed to provide 47 percent of the space heating, 8,800 square feet area and 75 percent of the domestic hot water (DHW) load. The solar system consists of 2,808 square feet of Solaron, model 2001, air, flat plate collector subsystem, a concrete box storage subsystem which contains 1,428 cubic feet of 0.5 inch diameter pebbles weighing 71.5 tons, a DHW preheat tank, blowers, pumps, heat exchangers, air ducting, controls and associated plumbing. Two 120 gallon electric DHW heaters supply domestic hot water which is preheated by the solar system. Auxiliary space heating is provided by three electric heat pumps with electric resistance heaters and four 30 kilowatt electric unit heaters. There are six modes of system operation.

1980-07-01

136

Occurrence of haemolytic & cytotoxic Aeromonas species in domestic water supplies in Chennai.  

PubMed

A study on the occurrence of Aeromonas species in the domestic water supplies in Chennai showed that as much as 37.9 per cent of the water samples analyzed from various sources harbored Aeromonas spp. Majority of the isolates belonged to Aeromonas sobria (13.7%), A. caviae (11.6%) and A. hydrophila (9.5%). Among the 37 metropolitan water samples analyzed, 11 samples yielded Aeromonas spp. inclusive of three isolates of A. hydrophila, four of A. sobria and two isolates each of A. caviae and A. jandaei. From a total of 28 bore well water samples analyzed, Aeromonas spp. were recovered from 15 samples, comprising five isolates of A. hydrophila, six of A. sobria and four isolates of A. caviae. Aeromonas spp. inclusive of one isolate of A. hydrophila, five of A. caviae, three of A. sobria and one isolate of A. veronii were isolated from 10 of the 30 water packets of various commercial brands sold in Chennai. Of a total of 36 isolates obtained, 32 (89%) produced beta-haemolysin with the titres ranging from 2-32 and 20 isolates (56%) were cytotoxic to vero cell monolayers. All the Aeromonas isolates were resistant to ampicillin and polymyxin B. All A. hydrophila and A. caviae isolates were also resistant to cephalothin and erythromycin and 83.3 per cent of Aeromonas isolates were resistant to erythromycin. Aeromonads resistant to tetracycline, gentamycin, co-trimoxazole and nalidixic acid appear to be emerging. The study revealed that Aeromonas spp. occur in the potable and domestic water supplies and even in the chlorinated water supplies in Chennai city, which are potentially enteropathogenic and hence may be hazardous to public health. In view of these findings drinking and domestic water quality standards need to be re-evaluated. PMID:10573655

Alavandi, S V; Subashini, M S; Ananthan, S

1999-08-01

137

Sediment testing intermittent renewal system for the automated renewal of overlying water in toxicity tests with contaminated sediments  

SciTech Connect

A sediment testing intermittent renewal (STIR) system (stationary or portable) for invertebrate toxicity testing with contaminated sediments has been successfully developed and thoroughly tested at ERL-Duluth. Both the stationary and portable systems enable the maintenance of acceptable water quality (e.g. DO) through the capability of automatically renewing overlying water in sediment tests at rates ranging from 1 to 21 volume renewals/day. The STIR system not only significantly reduces the labor associated with renewal of overlying water but also affords a gentle exchange of water that results in virtually no sediment resuspension. Both systems can also be installed in a compact vented enclosure to permit safe testing of hazardous contaminated sediments. To date the STIR system has been used extensively for conducting 10-day bulk sediment tests with Chironomus tentans, Hyalella azteca and Lumbriculus variegatus.

Benoit, D.A.; Phipps, G.L.; Ankley, G.T.

1993-01-01

138

Domestic hot water system combining solar and waste heat from thermoelectric air-conditioner  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the performance of a new hybrid domestic hot water system that combines solar energy with waste heat from a thermoelectric (TE) air-conditioner. To this end, 30 TE modules model no. TEC1-12704 (module specifications: 40 × 40 mm, maximum operating voltage and current: 13.5 VDC and 4.4 Amp) were used. The collector\\/storage tank capacity was 120 litres. The

J. Khedari; S. Maneewan; N. Pratinthong; W. Chimchavee; J. Hirunlabh

2001-01-01

139

Chemical characterization of blue stains in domestic fixtures in contact with drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bluish green staining in domestic fixtures was observed in three to 9-year-old houses in the city of Talca, located 256 km.\\u000a south of Santiago, the capital of Chile. The houses contained copper pipes which were exposed to soft well water, with low\\u000a pH and low buffer capacity. The aim of this paper is to establish the chemical composition of the stains

María V. Letelier; Gustavo E. Lagos; Arturo Reyes

2008-01-01

140

Metal-Complexing Ligands and Metal Speciation in Sediment Porewaters: Implications for Sediment/Water Exchange and Water Column Speciation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this project, we determined: concentrations and benthic fluxes of total dissolved Cu (TDCu), Zn (TDZn) and Cu- and Zn-complexing ligands (L sub Cu and L sub Zn) Cu and Zn complexation and speciation in the sediment porewaters and water column of two si...

J. R. Donat D. J. Burdige

1999-01-01

141

FRAMEWORK FOR DEVELOPING SUSPENDED AND BEDDED SEDIMENT (SABS) WATER QUALITY CRITERIA  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA announces the release of the final document, Framework for Developing Suspended and Bedded Sediments (SABS) Water Quality Criteria which describes an integrative assessment process for developing water quality criteria suspended and bedded sediments in aquatic systems....

142

Relative role of pore water versus ingested sediment in bioavailability of organic contaminants in marine sediments  

SciTech Connect

Experimental data for fluoranthene and feeding selectivity in combination with reaction-diffusion modeling suggest that ingestion of contaminated sediment may often be the dominant uptake pathway for deposit-feeding invertebrates in sediments. A dietary absorption efficiency of 56% and accompanying forage ratio of 2.4 were measured using natural sediment that had been dual-labeled ({sup 14}C:{sup 51}Cr) with fluoranthene and fed to the marine deposit-feeding polychaete Capitella species I. Only 3 to 4% of the total absorption could be accounted for by desorption during gut passage. These data were then used as input into a reaction-diffusion model to calculate the importance of uptake from ingested sediment relative to pore-water exposure. The calculations predict a fluoranthene dietary uptake flux that is 20 to 30 times greater than that due to pore water. Factors that act to modify or control the formation of local chemical gradients, boundary layers, or dietary absorption rates including particle selection or burrow construction will be important in determining the relative importance of potential exposure pathways. From a chemical perspective, the kinetics of the adsorption and desorption process are especially important as they will strongly influence the boundary layer immediately surrounding burrowing animals or irrigated tubes. The most important biological factors likely include irrigation behavior and burrow density and size.

Forbes, T.L.; Hansen, R.; Kure, L.K. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark). Dept. of Marine Ecology and Microbiology; Forbes, V.E. [Univ. of Maine, Walpole, ME (United States). Dept. of Oceanography; Giessing, A. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark). Dept. of Marine Ecology and Microbiology]|[Roskilde Univ. Center (Denmark). Dept. of Life Sciences and Chemistry

1998-12-01

143

Brucellosis in domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) of Trinidad and Tobago with comparative epidemiology to cattle.  

PubMed

The water buffalo is an important domestic animal worldwide, and the local Buffalypso variety was developed in Trinidad to have improved beef qualities. Brucellosis was diagnosed in Trinidad and Tobago during 1998 in both cattle and domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) populations. Brucellosis in the latter species is caused by infection with Brucella abortus, similar to bovine brucellosis. Control of brucellosis is of paramount importance to preservation of the genetic diversity of these animals in Trinidad, and this has been complicated by differences in the epidemiology of water buffalo and bovine brucellosis. Some diagnostic tests do not have comparable accuracy between the two species, and the RB51 vaccine does not adequately protect against infection in water buffalo. The water buffalo in Trinidad may also be more resistant to infection than cattle. Development of effective vaccination protocols is key to brucellosis control in Buffalypso in Trinidad, and prohibitions on import of virulent B. abortus strains for vaccine efficacy studies has impeded progress in this area. These Trinidadian strains are of variable virulence; some might be effective for challenge in vaccine efficacy studies, while other, of lower virulence, may be vaccine candidates for use in water buffalo. PMID:21479842

Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Diptee, Michael D; Ramnanan, Anil; Adesiyun, Abiodun Adewale

2011-12-01

144

Draix multidisciplinary observatory for water and sediment processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decades, much progress has been done in the modeling and conceptualizing of surface processes. Testing theories and models requires field data, and possibly long-term time series. Here we present a 30-year old field observatory dedicated to water and sediment fluxes in the French Alps. Draix observatory is located in a badland area of the French Alps (shale lithology), and includes several subcatchments which differ in size (0.001 to 1 km2) and vegetation coverage (bare soil or forest). Climate is mountainous and Mediterranean, characterized with summer storm-induced floods and winter frost. Data collected includes climatic data (rainfall, temperature) and water and sediment fluxes (discharge at the outlet of each subcatchment, suspended load and bedload fluxes). High frequency monitoring (minute/hour) is used to capture flood dynamics. Some soil hydraulic and geophysical properties, lidar scans and vegetation maps are also available. The combination of an erodible badland morphology and tough climatic conditions induces very high erosion rates and sediment yield (up to 70 tons/ha/yr). Observed erosion processes include landslides, small-scale debris flows, gully formation, weathering on the slopes and in the riverbeds, hyperconcentrated flows and in-transport sediment abrasion. The sediment response is highly non-linear with a strong seasonal pattern of storage and scour in the bed. Current research on Draix observatory is multidisciplinary and involves hydraulic engineers, hydrologists, geomorphologists, soil scientists and restoration ecologists. Fast rates of geomorphic changes, well-constrained sediment budgets and long data series are some of the advantages of this site for the study of earth surface processes. Our data is available for the community and we welcome everyone who is interested in collaborating on it.

Le Bouteiller, C.; Mathys, N.; Liébault, F.; Klotz, S.

2013-12-01

145

Heating of domestic water by waste heat recovery from household refrigerating equipment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat from a 370 l deep freeze was used to heat water in a 250 l boiler. Both units were made from mass produced components. Tests show that the functions of cooling and deep freezing units can be effectively combined with one warm water boiler. The necessary expenditure for the appliance is, however, only economical with deep freezing units because with normal domestic refrigerators the amount of waste heat is too small. The economy of the unit could be considerably increased by the development of a mass produced motor compressor with a sufficiently large oil cooler to accomplish an optimum thermal insulation of the motor compressor surface area.

Reil, J.; Kaster, B.; Wegner, M.

1982-09-01

146

30 CFR 77.216-1 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding...Installations § 77.216-1 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding...immediately adjacent to each water, sediment or slurry impounding structure...

2013-07-01

147

30 CFR 77.216-3 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding...Installations § 77.216-3 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding...program requirements. (a) All water, sediment, or slurry impoundments that meet...

2013-07-01

148

30 CFR 77.216-4 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding...Installations § 77.216-4 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding...operating, or controlling a water, sediment, or slurry impoundment and...

2013-07-01

149

30 CFR 77.216 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding...Installations § 77.216 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding...maintenance of structures which impound water, sediment, or slurry shall be required if...

2013-07-01

150

30 CFR 77.216 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...Installations § 77.216 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...structures which impound water, sediment, or slurry shall be required if such an...

2010-07-01

151

30 CFR 77.216 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...Installations § 77.216 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...structures which impound water, sediment, or slurry shall be required if such an...

2009-07-01

152

Trace metal levels in freshwater fish, sediment and water.  

PubMed

The trace metal concentrations in water, sediment and aquatic organisms, such as fish, could indicate the level and tendency of the pollution. This is important not only for the protection of the environment, but for evaluation of the quality of fish meat either captured from natural waters or cultured in fishponds. The total trace metal concentrations in samples of fish from different regions of Hungary and from different species have been determined by using an X-ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF). Water, sediment and fish samples from fishpond systems with different feeding and stocking has also been analyzed. In the case of zinc contents, differences have been traced between the cultured and wild common carp. In the case of common carp reared under different feeding conditions, differences were also observed in the zinc concentration. The retention of the trace metals in the fish has been studied by measuring the levels in sediment, water and feed. The different retention can be explained by the different availability of zinc in the applied feeds, which can be related to the presence of different metal species in the feeds. PMID:11601363

Sandor, Z; Csengeri, I; Oncsik, M B; Alexis, M N; Zubcova, E

2001-01-01

153

Sulfide release from estuarine sediments underlying anoxic bottom water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Independent measurements of dissolved sulfide (DS) production in and release from mesohaline Chesapeake Bay sediments underlying anoxic bottom water were made during summer. DS ac- cumulated under benthic chambers at a rate of 27.3rt8.2 mmol m-2 d-l. Rates of DS release ranged from 60 to 80% ofdepth-integrated@-12 cm) sulfate reduction (SR) rates (average 39.Ok9.0 mmol m-2 d-l) determined with 35S0,

ERIC E. RODEN; JON H. TUTTLE

1992-01-01

154

Methane in the water and bottom sediments of the mouth area of the Severnaya Dvina River (White Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mouth area of the Severnaya Dvina River is characterized by a high level of methane in the water (from 1.0 to 165.4 ?l/l) and in the bottom sediments (from 14 to 65000 ?l/kg), being quite comparable to the productive mouth areas of the rivers in the temperate zone. The maximum methane concentrations in the water and sediments were registered in the delta in the segments of channels and branches with low rates of tidal and runoff currents to which domestic and industrial wastewaters are supplied. In the riverine and marine water mixing zone with its upper boundary situated far into the delta and displaced depending on the phase of the tidal cycle, a decrease of the methane amount with the salinity increase was observed. The prevailing role in the formation of the methane content level in the water of the mouth area pertains to the bottom sediments, which is testified to by the close correlation between the gas concentrations in these two media. The existence of periodicity in the variations of the methane content level in the water of the river downstream caused by the tidal effects was found.

Gar'kusha, D. N.; Fedorov, Yu. A.; Khromov, M. I.

2010-08-01

155

Heavy metals content in water, water hyacinth and sediments of Lalbagh tank, Bangalore (India).  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken for assessing the level of heavy metals such as iron, zinc, copper, nickel, chromium, lead and cadmium in water, water hyacinth and sediment samples of Lalbagh tank, Bangalore. Metals were detected using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results revealed that by and large all metals are present in all the samples, except cadmium in the sediment samples. The average concentrations of iron in water and sediment samples, and lead in water hyacinth were found exceeding the limits of Indian Standards. In general, the concentrations of iron and zinc were found more, followed by lead, chromium, copper, nickel and cadmium cancentration was low. Bioaccumulation factor for water hyacinth was found maximum for chromium. Geoaccumulation index results revealed that there is moderate input of copper and lead from anthropogenic sources to the tank basin. PMID:17915781

Lokeshwari, H; Chandrappa, G T

2006-07-01

156

Domestic water carrying and its implications for health: a review and mixed methods pilot study in Limpopo Province, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lack of access to safe water remains a significant risk factor for poor health in developing countries. There has been little research into the health effects of frequently carrying containers of water. The aims of this study were to better understand how domestic water carrying is performed, identify potential health risk factors and gain insight into the possible health

Jo-Anne L Geere; Paul R Hunter; Paul Jagals

2010-01-01

157

Quantitative bacterial examination of domestic water supplies in the Lesotho Highlands: water quality, sanitation, and village health.  

PubMed Central

Reported are the results of an examination of domestic water supplies for microbial contamination in the Lesotho Highlands, the site of a 20-year-old hydroelectric project, as part of a regional epidemiological survey of baseline health, nutritional and environmental parameters. The population's hygiene and health behaviour were also studied. A total of 72 village water sources were classified as unimproved (n = 23), semi-improved (n = 37), or improved (n = 12). Based on the estimation of total coliforms, which is a nonspecific bacterial indicator of water quality, all unimproved and semi-improved water sources would be considered as not potable. Escherichia coli, a more precise indicator of faecal pollution, was absent (P < 0.001) in most of the improved water sources. Among 588 queried households, only 38% had access to an "improved" water supply. Sanitation was a serious problem, e.g. fewer than 5% of villagers used latrines and 18% of under-5-year-olds had suffered a recent diarrhoeal illness. The study demonstrates that protection of water sources can improve the hygienic quality of rural water supplies, where disinfection is not feasible. Our findings support the WHO recommendation that E. coli should be the principal microbial indicator for portability of untreated water. Strategies for developing safe water and sanitation systems must include public health education in hygiene and water source protection, practical methods and standards for water quality monitoring, and a resource centre for project information to facilitate programme evaluation and planning.

Kravitz, J. D.; Nyaphisi, M.; Mandel, R.; Petersen, E.

1999-01-01

158

Analysis of solar domestic hot water systems from a system perspective  

SciTech Connect

Six solar domestic hot water systems tested at the National Bureau of Standards have been analyzed. Results indicate that the thermosyphon system delivered the most solar energy to the load per dollar of initial investment (the air system delivered the least) and that direct systems performed better than indirect systems. Storage losses from the double tank systems were greater than expected, and this significantly reduced the relative performance of these systems. Further, the use of pumps, fans, controls, and solenoid valves in the pumped systems can reduce the net energy savings of the solar system by up to 30%.

Murphy, L.M.; Farrington, R.; Noreen, D.

1980-03-01

159

Hydrogeologic, water-quality, streamflow, bottom-sediment analyses, and biological data near the Wayne County landfill, Wayne County, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report summarizes the data collected as part of a hydrogeologic investigation to determine the effects of the Wayne County landfill on local water quality. The investigation was conducted from 1988 through 1989 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment, Division of Superfund. The landfill was closed in November 1984 after allegations that contaminants from the landfill were affecting the quality of water from domestic wells in the Banjo Branch-Hardin Hollow valley. Test well construction data; water-quality data for selected wells, seeps, and surface-water sites: streamflow data from Banjo Branch; analyses of bottom-sediment samples: and biological data for the study area are documented in this report.

Quinones, F.; Bradfield, Arthur D.; Wescott, J. B.

1992-01-01

160

Thermal Energy Storage using PCM for Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems: A Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal energy storage using phase chase materials (PCM) has received considerable attention in the past two decades for time dependent energy source such as solar energy. From several experimental and theoretical analyses that have been made to assess the performance of thermal energy storage systems, it has been demonstrated that PCM-based systems are reliable and viable options. This paper covers such information on PCMs and PCM-based systems developed for the application of solar domestic hot water system. In addition, economic analysis of thermal storage system using PCM in comparison with conventional storage system helps to validate its commercial possibility. From the economic analysis, it is found that, PCM based solar domestic hot water system (SWHS) provides 23 % more cumulative and life cycle savings than conventional SWHS and will continue to perform efficiently even after 15 years due to application of non-metallic tank. Payback period of PCM-based system is also less compared to conventional system. In conclusion, PCM based solar water heating systems can meet the requirements of Indian climatic situation in a cost effective and reliable manner.

Khot, S. A.; Sane, N. K.; Gawali, B. S.

2012-06-01

161

Sediment and nutrient retention by freshwater wetlands: Effects on surface water quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater wetlands alter surface water quality in ways which benefit downstream use. This review summarizes the mechanisms of freshwater wetland interaction with sediment and nutrients that affect surface water quality. The mechanisms vary in magnitude and reversibility, and differ among wetland types. They include sedimentation, plant uptake, litter decomposition, retention in the soil, and microbial processes. Sedimentation is a relatively

1991-01-01

162

Chemical Exchange at the Sediment-Water Interface of Cannonsville Reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rates of chemical exchange at the sediment-water interface of Cannonsville Reservoir were determined using intact sediment cores. Reference sites for coring were selected based on the results of a surficial sediment survey. Higher levels of volatile suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus were noted at deep water stations proximate to the dam and

Michael J. Erickson; Martin T. Auer

1998-01-01

163

Estimating suspended sediment concentrations in surface waters of the Amazon River wetlands from Landsat images  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed, based on spectral mixture analysis, to estimate the concentration of suspended sediment in surface waters of the Amazon River wetlands from Landsat MSS and TM images. Endmembers were derived from laboratory reflectance measurements of water-sediment mixtures with a range of sediment concentrations. Using these references spectra, the authors applied a linear mixture analysis to multispectral

L. A. K. Mertes; M. O. Smith; J. B. Adams

1993-01-01

164

Geochemical dynamics of the Atlantis II Deep (Red Sea): II. Composition of metalliferous sediment pore waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atlantis II Deep is an axial depression of the Red Sea filled with highly saline brines and covered by layered metalliferous sediment. We report new data on the vertical distribution of major salts and trace metals dissolved in the pore waters of the metalliferous sediments. We have studied the chemical composition of interstitial waters of two sediment cores of

Pierre Anschutz; Gérard Blanc; Christophe Monnin; Jacques Boulègue

2000-01-01

165

Hydrogeology of the Unconsolidated Sediments, Water Quality, and Ground-Water/Surface-Water Exchanges in the Methow River Basin, Okanogan County, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Okanogan County, investigated the hydrogeology of the unconsolidated sedimentary deposits in the Methow River Basin, the quality of surface and ground waters, and the exchanges between ground water and surface water. Alluvium (Qa) and glaciofluvial sediments (Qga) deposited during the Quaternary period constitute the primary aquifer in the Methow River Basin, which is used as a source of water for domestic and public-water supplies and for maintaining streamflow during seasonal dry periods. The sediments form a nearly continuous unit along the valley bottom from above the Lost River to the confluence of the Methow and Columbia Rivers, covering more than 45 square miles of the basin?s surface. There are no distinct units within the deposit that can be identified across or along the valley except for fragments of a possible lake bed near the town of Twisp. Ground-water levels in the unconsolidated aquifer are highest during the summer and lowest in the winter and early spring. Ground water and surface water, sampled during June and September 2001, generally were of high quality. Only two samples from domestic and municipal wells indicated the possibility of ground-water contamination from nitrate and arsenic concentrations. In both cases, potential contamination was isolated to an individual well. No trends in water quality were apparent when comparing the results of this investigation with previous studies. The flow of water between rivers and aquifers is important for regulating the availability of water resources for in-stream and out-of-stream uses in the Methow River Basin. Ground-water discharge from the unconsolidated aquifer to the Methow River from Lost River to Pateros ranged from an estimated 153,000 acre-ft in water year 2001 to 157,000 acre-ft in water year 2002. In contrast, ground-water discharge to the lower Twisp River from Newby Creek to near Twisp ranged from 4,700 acre-ft in water year 2001 to 9,200 acre-ft in water year 2002. The Methow and Twisp Rivers, among others in the basin, are major sources of recharge for the unconsolidated aquifer, particularly during high-flow periods in May and June. Aquifer recharge by both rivers increased with streamflow in water year 2002 compared to water year 2001 as indicated by daily losses of streamflow. Aquifer recharge by the Methow River from Lost River to Pateros was estimated to be 82,000 acre-ft in water year 2001 and 137,000 acre-ft in water year 2002. Aquifer recharge by the Twisp River from Newby Creek to near Twisp was estimated to be 2,000 acre-ft in water year 2001 and 6,400 acre-ft in water year 2002. Seepage from unlined irrigation canals also recharges the unconsolidated aquifer during the late spring and summer and may contribute as much 38,000 acre-ft annually to aquifer recharge in the basin. Some portion of this ground water returns to rivers as indicated by a seasonal increase in ground-water discharge in the Methow River from Winthrop to Twisp and in the lower Twisp River during late summer and early autumn. Although the increase is likely due primarily to irrigation canal seepage, however, fluvial recharge during the summer also may have contributed to the increase. The increased rate of ground-water discharge decays by January in both reaches.

Konrad, Christopher P.; Drost, Brian W.; Wagner, Richard J.

2003-01-01

166

Chemical composition of sediments, suspended matter, river water and ground water of the Nile (Aswan-Sohag traverse)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment, suspended matter, river water and ground water samples were collected at twelve sites in the drainage valley of the Nile River, around Sohag (Central Egypt) and close to the Aswan High Dam. Elemental composition of the river water (27 elements), ground water (eight elements), suspended matter (12 elements) and sediments (12 elements) was studied. Aswan High Dam construction, agricultural

V. M. Dekov; Z. Komy; F. Araújo; A. Van Put; R. Van Grieken

1997-01-01

167

Field Evaluation Of Arsenic Speciation In Sediments At The Ground Water/Surface Water Interface  

EPA Science Inventory

The speciation and mineralogy of sediments contaminated with arsenic at the ground water/surface water interface of the Ft. Devens Super Fund Site in Ft. Devens, MA were determined using X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. Speciation and mineralog...

168

Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska, During Water Year 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains water-quality and sediment-quality data from samples collected in the Yukon River Basin from March through September during the 2005 water year (WY). Samples were collected throughout the year at five stations in the basin (three on t...

P. F. Schuster

2007-01-01

169

Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska, During Water Year 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains water-quality and sediment-quality data from samples collected in the Yukon River basin from March through September during the 2003 water year (WY). Samples were collected throughout the year at five stations in the basin (three on t...

P. F. Schuster

2005-01-01

170

INTERACTION OF METALS AND ORGAINIC CARBON COLLOIDS IN ANOXIC INTERSTITIAL WATERS OF MARINE SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Marine colloids are an important component of natural water geochemistry critical to the cycling, speciation and bioavailability of metals in marine sediments. In sediment, metals exist in three phases: particulate, colloidal and dissolved. Dissolved metal concentrations have bee...

171

Assessing the fate of dredged sediments placed in open-water sites, Northern Chesapeake Bay  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An integrated series of field studies and experiments have been carried out on dredged sediments placed in open water sites in Northern Chesapeake Bay. The studies include: (1) examination of the potential for fluidized sediment flow, (2) quantifying the volumetric changes that the sediments undergo during dredging process and subsequent to deposition, (3) estimating parameters for cohesive sediment erosion models from field data on currents and suspended sediment concentrations, and (4) incorporating the erosion model parameters and sediment transport equation into a 3-D hydrodynamic model for the upper Chesapeake Bay to predict transport directions and setting sites of eroded sediments under a variety of seasonal weather and river flow conditions.

Halka, Jeffrey; Panageotou, William; Sanford, Lawrence; Yu-Chou, Shenn

1994-01-01

172

Detection of Legionella spp. from Domestic Water in the Prefecture of Arta, Greece  

PubMed Central

The aim of this research was the isolation of Legionella spp. from domestic water supply networks in the Prefecture of Arta. A total of 100 water samples, from 25 houses, were collected. Half of the samples concerned the cold water and half the hot water supply. Purpose was to detect colonization of the water networks with Legionella spp. >500?cfu/L by using the method of filtration (ISO 11731). Out of 100 samples, 6 samples from 3 houses were positive for Legionella spp. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 2–14 was isolated in 5 of 6 samples, whereas in the sixth sample Legionella anisa was identified. Only three of the samples had residual chloride over 0.2?mg/L, rate which is necessary for potable water, according to the Greek hygienic practice. Concerning the temperature of hot water, the mean temperature of the negative for Legionella samples was higher compared to the mean temperature of the positive for Legionella samples (49.9°C versus 45.5°C). It is estimated that there is risk of infection through the use of showers. The low concentration of chloride and the temperature, which was found within the limits favorable to developing Legionella spp. (20–45°C), provide fertile ground for proliferation of the bacteria.

Dimitriadi, Dimitra; Velonakis, Emmanuel

2014-01-01

173

Impacts of Corbicula fluminea on Oxygen Uptake and Nutrient Fluxes across the Sediment–Water Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corbicula fluminea (Asian clam) can assemble in high densities and dominate benthic communities. To evaluate the influence of this clam on sediment\\u000a oxygen uptake and nutrient fluxes across the sediment–water interface, a microcosm study was conducted using a continuous-flow\\u000a cultivation system with sediment, lake water, and C. fluminea specimens from Taihu Lake, China. C. fluminea destroyed the initial sediment surface,

Lei Zhang; Qiushi Shen; Haiyan Hu; Shiguang Shao; Chengxin Fan

174

Risk factors for contamination of domestic hot water systems by legionellae.  

PubMed Central

To assess risk factors associated with the contamination of the domestic environment by legionellae, 211 houses in the Quebec City area were randomly selected and water samples were collected from the hot water tank, the shower heads, and the most frequently used faucet. After centrifugation, concentrated samples were seeded in triplicate on BCYE and GPV media. Data on the characteristics of the hot water system and plumbing in the house and on the personal habits of the occupants were collected for each house. Among these 211 houses, hot water was provided by either an oil or gas heater in 33 and by an electric heater in 178. Legionellae were isolated from none of the samples from houses with oil or gas heaters and from 39% (69 of 178) of those with electric water heaters (P less than 0.0001). This association remained highly significant after control for water temperature and other variables in a stratified analysis. In the 178 houses with an electric heater, 12% of the faucets, 15% of the shower heads, and 37% of the water heaters were contaminated. Legionella pneumophila serogroups 2 and 4 were the most frequently isolated strains. Logistic regression showed that factors associated with electric water heater contamination were (i) location of the house in older districts of the city (P less than 0.0001), (ii) old age of the water heater (P = 0.003), and (iii) low water temperature (P = 0.05). Contamination of the water heater was the only factor significantly associated with the contamination of peripheral outlets (P less than 0.0001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Alary, M; Joly, J R

1991-01-01

175

Risk factors for contamination of domestic hot water systems by legionellae.  

PubMed

To assess risk factors associated with the contamination of the domestic environment by legionellae, 211 houses in the Quebec City area were randomly selected and water samples were collected from the hot water tank, the shower heads, and the most frequently used faucet. After centrifugation, concentrated samples were seeded in triplicate on BCYE and GPV media. Data on the characteristics of the hot water system and plumbing in the house and on the personal habits of the occupants were collected for each house. Among these 211 houses, hot water was provided by either an oil or gas heater in 33 and by an electric heater in 178. Legionellae were isolated from none of the samples from houses with oil or gas heaters and from 39% (69 of 178) of those with electric water heaters (P less than 0.0001). This association remained highly significant after control for water temperature and other variables in a stratified analysis. In the 178 houses with an electric heater, 12% of the faucets, 15% of the shower heads, and 37% of the water heaters were contaminated. Legionella pneumophila serogroups 2 and 4 were the most frequently isolated strains. Logistic regression showed that factors associated with electric water heater contamination were (i) location of the house in older districts of the city (P less than 0.0001), (ii) old age of the water heater (P = 0.003), and (iii) low water temperature (P = 0.05). Contamination of the water heater was the only factor significantly associated with the contamination of peripheral outlets (P less than 0.0001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1768104

Alary, M; Joly, J R

1991-08-01

176

Concentrations of Elements in Sediments and Selective Fractions of Sediments, and in Natural Waters in Contact with Sediments from Lake Roosevelt, Washington, September 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Twenty-eight composite and replicate sediment samples from 8 Lake Roosevelt sites were collected and analyzed for 10 alkali and alkaline earth elements, 2 non-metals, 20 metals, and 4 lanthanide and actinide elements. All elements were detected in all sediment samples except for silver (95 percent of the elements detected for 1,008 analyses), which was detected only in 4 samples. Sequential selective extraction procedures were performed on single composite samples from the eight sites. The percentage of detections for the 31 elements analyzed ranged from 76 percent for the first extraction fraction using a weak extractant to 93 percent for the four-acid dissolution of the sediments remaining after the third sequential selective extraction. Water samples in various degrees of contact with the sediment were analyzed for 10 alkali and alkaline earth elements, 5 non-metals, 25 metals, and 16 lanthanide and actinide elements. The filtered water samples included 10 samples from the reservoir water column at 8 sites, 32 samples of porewater, 55 samples from reservoir water overlying sediments in 8 cores from the site incubated in a field laboratory, and 24 water samples that were filtered after being tumbled with sediments from 8 sites. Overall, the concentrations of only 37 percent of the 6,776 analyses of the 121 water samples were greater than the reporting limit. Selenium, bismuth, chromium, niobium, silver, and zirconium were not detected in any water samples. The percentage of concentrations for the water samples that were above the reporting limit ranged from 14 percent for the lanthanide and actinide elements to 77 percent for the alkali and alkaline earth elements. Concentrations were greater than reporting limits in only 23 percent of the analyses of reservoir water and 29 percent of the analyses of reservoir water overlying incubation cores. In contrast, 47 and 48 percent of the concentrations of porewater and water samples tumbled with sediments, respectively, were greater than the reporting limit.

Paulson, Anthony J.; Wagner, Richard J.; Sanzolone, Richard F.; Cox, Steven E.

2006-01-01

177

Enhancement of natural circulation type domestic solar hot water system performance by using a wind turbine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performance improvement of existing 200 litres capacity natural convection type domestic solar hot water system is attempted. A two-stage centrifugal pump driven by a vertical axis windmill having Savonius type rotor is added to the fluid loop. The windmill driven pump circulates the water through the collector. The system with necessary instrumentation is tested over a day. Tests on Natural Circulation System (NCS) mode and Wind Assisted System (WAS) mode are carried out during January, April, July and October, 2009. Test results of a clear day are reported. Daily average efficiency of 25-28 % during NCS mode and 33-37 % during WAS mode are obtained. With higher wind velocities, higher collector flow rates and hence higher efficiencies are obtained. In general, WAS mode provides improvements in efficiency when compared to NCS mode.

Ramasamy, K. K.; Srinivasan, P. S. S.

2011-08-01

178

Evaluating the exchange of DDTs between sediment and water in a major lake in North China.  

PubMed

A large-scale sampling program was conducted to simultaneously collect surface water, overlying water, pore water, and sediment samples at monthly intervals between March and December 2010 from Baiyangdian Lake, North China to assess the distribution of DDTs and determine the net direction of sediment-water exchange. Total DDT concentrations ranged 2.36-22.4 ng/L, 0.72-21.9 ng/L, 2.25-33.7 ng/L, and 4.42-7.29 ng/g in surface water, overlying water, pore water, and sediments, respectively, which were at the intermediate levels compared to those of other area around the world. Seasonal variations of DDTs were featured by higher concentration in summer. This was likely associated with (a) the increase of land runoff in the summer and (b) application of dicofol and DDT-containing antifouling paints for ships in summer. Sediment-water fugacity ratios of the DDT isomers were used to predict the direction of the sediment-water exchange of these isomers. The sediment-surface water, sediment-overlying water, and sediment-pore water fugacity ratios of DDT isomers averaged 0.34, 0.44, and 0.1, which are significantly lower than the equilibrium status (1.0), suggesting that the net flux direction were from the water to sediment and the sediment acted as a sink for the DDTs. The difference of DDT concentrations between sediment and water samples was found to be an important factor affecting the diffusion of DDT from the water to sediment. PMID:24337993

Dai, Guo-Hua; Liu, Xin-Hui; Liang, Gang; Gong, Wen-Wen

2014-03-01

179

[Characteristics of sediment heavy metal pollution in three water supply reservoirs in Huizhou, Guangdong Province of South China].  

PubMed

To understand the present status of the heavy metal (Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Hg) pollution of the sediments in water supply reservoirs in Huizhou, sediment cores were sampled from three representative reservoirs. The heavy metal concentrations were analyzed by ICP-MS, and the pollution status was assessed by geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and potential ecological risk index (RI). In the meantime, the possible sources of the heavy metals were analyzed by the principal component analysis (PCA). In the sediments of the three reservoirs, the test heavy metals had different vertical distribution, some had less change, the others decreased or increased with depth, and the distribution patterns differed with the reservoirs. According to the Igeo, the sediments in the reservoirs were seriously polluted by Zn and Pb (Zn: 49.98-640.29 mg x kg(-1); Pb: 21.94-300.66 mg x kg(-1)), reaching slight to high pollution, and the middle or bottom part of the sediments was slightly polluted by Cu (16.85-45.46 mg x kg(-1)). On the whole, the sediments were not polluted by Cr, Cd and Hg. According to the RI and the potential ecological risk coefficient [Er(i)], the sediments in the three reservoirs were under low potential ecological risk. Based on the PCA and relevant information, the human activities such as mining and smelting, urbanization, and agriculture and forestry had great contribution to the heavy metal pollution. The Zn and Pb pollution mainly originated from mining and smelting, Pb pollution also came from motor vehicle exhaust emission and domestic wastes, and Cu pollution mainly derived from agriculture and forestry. PMID:22919835

Chen, Xiu-Kang; Zhang, Hua-Jun; Gu, Ji-Guang; Hu, Ren; Yang, Hao-Wen; Chen, Jing-An

2012-05-01

180

Turbulent velocity profiles in clear water and sediment- laden flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turbulent velocity profiles in pipes and open-channels are studied. The purpose is to find a suitable velocity profile for the entire boundary layer, particularly near the water surface, and to study the effects of sediment suspension on the model parameters. A modified log-wake law is proposed. It consists of three parts: a log term, a wake term, and a linear term. Physically, the log term reflects the inertia effect, the wake term reflects the large scale turbulent mixing, and the linear term reflects the upper boundary condition. In open-channels, the log term reflects the effect of the bed, the wake term reflects the effect of the side-walls, and the linear term reflects the wind shear at the water surface. For pipes, the new law contains two universal constant: the von Karman constant ?0=0.406 and the wake strength ?0=3.2. For narrow open-channels, the velocity profile equation is similar to that in pipes except that the wake strength ?0 decreases with the width-depth ratio. For wide open-channels, the wake term may be neglected. The modified log-wake law then reduces to a log-linear law. The von Karman constant ?0 is still 0.406. The water surface shear stress is considered through the parameter ?0 which is about a constant 0.065 for a smooth bed at small relative roughness, but increases with the relative roughness in very rough beds. The modified log-wake law is also valid in sediment-laden flows. Sediment affects the velocity profile in two different ways: concentration and density gradient. Both reduce the von Karman constant /kappa . However, both have little effect on the wake term and the linear term. The new law compares quite well with over 100 experimental velocity profiles in pipes and open-channels. The correlation coefficients r are always over 0.99.

Guo, Junke

1998-11-01

181

Microbial contamination of contact lens storage cases and domestic tap water of contact lens wearers.  

PubMed

Contact lenses have been widely used as an alternative to spectacles both in developed and developing countries. However, under certain circumstances, adverse responses can occur during contact lens wear and several microorganisms--including bacteria, fungi, and free living amoebae--can cause several eye infections in wearers. Extended wear of contact lenses is the major risk factor of eye infections such as microbial keratitis, besides contaminated contact lens storage case, contaminated lens care solutions, and inaccurate contact lens handling. In this study, we collected contact lens storage case and domestic tap water samples from 50 asymptomatic contact lens wearers. We determined that total aerobic mesophilic bacteria were isolated in 45 (90 %), Gram negative rod bacteria were isolated in 20 (40 %), Pseudomonas spp. were isolated in 2 (4 %) and fungi were isolated in 18 (36 %) out of 50 contact lens storage cases. Free living amoebae were not detected in investigated contact lens storage cases. At the same time, out of 50, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria were isolated in 34 (68 %), fungi were isolated in 15 (30 %) and free living amoebae were isolated in 15 (30 %) domestic tap water samples. No Gram-negative rod bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. were detected in investigated water samples. Two contact lens case samples and two tap water samples were excluded from the analysis for Pseudomonas spp. for technical reasons. According to our findings, inadequate contact lens maintenance during lens wear may result in the contamination of contact lens storage cases. This situation can lead to severe eye infections in contact lens wearers over time. PMID:23064864

Üstüntürk, Miray; Zeybek, Zuhal

2012-11-01

182

Response of coliform populations in streambed sediment and water column to changes in nutrient concentrations in water.  

PubMed

As sediments increasingly become recognized as reservoirs of indicator and pathogen microorganisms, an understanding of the persistence of indicator organisms becomes important for assessment and predictions of microbial water quality. The objective of this work was to observe the response of water column and sediment coliform populations to the change in nutrient concentrations in the water column. Survival experiments were conducted in flow-through chambers containing sandy sediments. Bovine feces were collected fresh and introduced into sediment. Sixteen days later, the same fecal material was autoclaved and diluted to provide three levels - 1×, 0.5×, and 0.1× of nutrient concentrations - spike in water column. Total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and total aerobic heterotrophic bacterial concentrations were monitored in water and sediment. Bacteria responded to the nutrient spike with initial growth both in the water column and in sediment. The response of bacterial concentrations in water column was nonlinear, with no significant changes at 0.1 and .5× spikes, but a substantial change at 1× spike. Bacteria in sediment responded to the spikes at all added nutrient levels. Coliform inactivation rates both in sediment and in water after the initial growth occurred, were not significantly different from the inactivation rates before spike. These results indicate that introduction of nutrients into the water column results in nonlinear response of E. coli concentrations both in water and in sediments, followed by the inactivation with the same rate as before introduction of nutrients. PMID:24839925

Shelton, D R; Pachepsky, Y A; Kiefer, L A; Blaustein, R A; McCarty, G W; Dao, T H

2014-08-01

183

Isolation of enteroviruses from water, suspended solids, and sediments from Galveston Bay: survival of poliovirus and rotavirus adsorbed to sediments.  

PubMed Central

The distribution and quantitation of enteroviruses among water, suspended solids, and compact sediments in a polluted estuary are described. Samples were collected sequentially from water, suspended solids, fluffy sediments (uppermost layer of bottom sediments), and compact sediment. A total of 103 samples were examined of which 27 (26%) were positive for virus. Polioviruses were recovered most often, followed by coxsackie B viruses and echoviruses 7 and 29. Virus was found most often attached to suspended solids: 72% of these samples were positive, whereas only 14% of water samples without solids yielded virus. Fluffy sediments yielded virus in 47% of the samples, whereas only 5% of compact bottom-sediment samples were positive. When associated with solids, poliovirus and rotavirus retained their infectious quality for 19 days. The same viruses remained infectious for only 9 days when freely suspended in seawater. Collection of suspended solids at ambient water pH appears to be very useful for the detection of virus; it has advantages over collecting and processing large volumes of water, with accompanying pH adjustment and salt addition for processing.

Rao, V C; Seidel, K M; Goyal, S M; Metcalf, T G; Melnick, J L

1984-01-01

184

Radioactive dating: Studies on ground water and sediments. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning radioactive dating of ground water and sediments. Articles discuss ground water movement and recharge; and lake, marine, and glacial sediments. Citations address dating techniques using isotopes of carbon, lead, uranium, radium, and tritium. Studies on sedimentation rate, water quality, aquifer characteristics, geological survey, and glacial history are presented. (Contains a minimum of 103 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01

185

A multilayer shallow water system for polydisperse sedimentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work considers the flow of a fluid containing one disperse substance consisting of small particles that belong to different species differing in size and density. The flow is modelled by combining a multilayer shallow water approach with a polydisperse sedimentation process. This technique allows one to keep information on the vertical distribution of the solid particles in the mixture, and thereby to model the segregation of the particle species from each other, and from the fluid, taking place in the vertical direction of the gravity body force only. This polydisperse sedimentation process is described by the well-known Masliyah-Lockett-Bassoon (MLB) velocity functions. The resulting multilayer sedimentation-flow model can be written as a hyperbolic system with nonconservative products. The definitions of the nonconservative products are related to the hydrostatic pressure and to the mass and momentum hydrodynamic transfer terms between the layers. For the numerical discretization a strategy of two steps is proposed, where the first one is also divided into two parts. In the first step, instead of approximating the complete model, we approximate a reduced model with a smaller number of unknowns. Then, taking advantage of the fact that the concentrations are passive scalars in the system, we approximate the concentrations of the different species by an upwind scheme related to the numerical flux of the total concentration. In the second step, the effect of the transference terms defined in terms of the MLB model is introduced. These transfer terms are approximated by using a numerical flux function used to discretize the 1D vertical polydisperse model, see Bürger et al. [ R. Bürger, A. García, K.H. Karlsen, J.D. Towers, A family of numerical schemes for kinematic flows with discontinuous flux, J. Eng. Math. 60 (2008) 387-425]. Finally, some numerical examples are presented. Numerical results suggest that the multilayer shallow water model could be adequate in situations where the settling takes place from a suspension that undergoes horizontal movement.

Fernández-Nieto, E. D.; Koné, E. H.; Morales de Luna, T.; Bürger, R.

2013-04-01

186

Metabolism of niclosamide in sediment and water systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A series of experiments analyzed the kinetics and mechanisms of [ 14C]niclosamide degradation. The aerobic aquatic metabolism of [ 14C]niclosamide was studied in nonsterile river water/sediment mixtures. Test systems, maintained under aerobic conditions, were treated with niclosamide and incubated in the dark at 25.0 ?? 1.0 ??C for 30 days. Half-lives of 4.9 and 5.4 days were calculated for the chlorosalicylic acid- and chloronitroaniline-labeled test systems, respectively. From 0 to 21 days after treatment (DAT), the only metabolism product observed in either test system was aminoniclosamide. At the final sampling interval, five peaks were resolved from the chlorosalicylic acid label, and three peaks were resolved from the chloronitroaniline label test substance. By 30 DAT, sediment-bound residues represented ???70% of the observed radioactivity. For the anaerobic aquatic metabolism of [14C]niclosamide, test systems were incubated under anaerobic conditions for 365 days. Half-lives of 0.65 day for the chlorosalicylic acid label and 2.79 days for the chloronitroaniline label were calculated. From 0 to 3 DAT, niclosamide was first transformed into aminoniclosamide. Aminoniclosamide is readily formed, as it was observed in the chlorosalicylic acid label 0 DAT sampling. Several minor metabolites were observed in the water and sediment extracts. None of these metabolites were formed to a significant amount until the parent niclosamide dissipated below the detection limit. Two of the byproducts from these metabolism studies are polar unknowns eluting at 3 and 5 min by HPLC, similar to the unknowns observed in aqueous photolysis studies.

Graebing, P. W.; Chib, J. S.; Hubert, T. D.; Gingerich, W. H.

2004-01-01

187

The chemical quality of self-supplied domestic well water in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Existing water quality data collected from domestic wells were summarized to develop the first national-scale retrospective of self-supplied drinking water sources. The contaminants evaluated represent a range of inorganic and organic compounds, and although the data set was not originally designed to be a statistical representation of national occurrence, it encompasses large parts of the United States including at least some wells sampled in every state and Puerto Rico. Inorganic contaminants were detected in many of the wells, and concentrations exceeded the U.S. EPA maximum contaminant levels (MCLs; federal drinking water standards used to regulate public drinking water quality) more often than organic contaminants. Of the inorganic constituents evaluated, arsenic concentrations exceeded the MCL (10 ??g/L) in ???11% of the 7580 wells evaluated, nitrate exceeded the MCL (10 mg/L) in ???8% of the 3465 wells evaluated, uranium-238 exceeded the MCL (30 ??g/L) in ???4% of the wells, and radon-222 exceeded 300 and 4000 pCi/L (potential drinking water standards currently under review by the U.S. EPA) in ???75% and 9% of the wells, respectively. The MCLs for total mercury and fluoride were each exceeded in <1% of the wells evaluated. The MCL was exceeded in <1% of all wells for all anthropogenically derived organic contaminants evaluated and was not exceeded for many contaminants. In addition, 10 contaminants evaluated do not currently have an MCL. Atrazine, however, was detected in 24% of the wells evaluated and was the most frequently detected organic contaminant of the 28 organic contaminants evaluated in this study. Simazine and metolachlor each were detected in ???9% of all wells and tied for second in frequency of detection for organic contaminants. The third and fourth most frequently detected organic contaminants were methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) (6%) and chloroform (5%), respectively. Because the water quality of domestic wells is not federally regulated or nationally monitored, this study provides a unique, previously nonexistent, perspective on the quality of the self-supplied drinking water resources used by ???45 million Americans in the United States. Copyright ?? 2006 The Author(s).

Focazio, M. J.; Tipton, D.; Dunkle, Shapiro, S.; Geiger, L. H.

2006-01-01

188

Underwater MASW to evaluate stiffness of water-bottom sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) is initially intended as a land survey method to investigate the near-surface materials for their elastic properties. The acquired data are first analyzed for dispersion characteristics and, from these the shear-wave velocity is estimated using an inversion technique. Land applications show the potential of the MASW method to map 2D bedrock surface, zones of low strength, Poisson's ratio, voids, as well as to generate shear-wave profiles for various othe geotechnical problems. An overview is given of several underwater applications of the MASW method to characterize stiffness distribution of water-bottom sediments. The first application details the survey under shallow-water (1-6 m) in the Fraser River (Canada). The second application is an innovative experimental marine seismic survey in the North Atlantic Ocean near oil fields in Grand Bank offshore Newfoundland.

Park, C. B.; Miller, R. D.; Xia, J.; Ivanov, J.; Sonnichsen, G. V.; Hunter, J. A.; Good, R. L.; Burns, R. A.; Christian, H.

2005-01-01

189

Comparison of techniques for the isolation of sediment pore water for toxicity testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to define an interstitial (pore) water isolation technique suitable for sediment toxicity testing and toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) research. Pore water was prepared from sediments collected at two fresh-water sites (Saginaw River, Keweenaw Waterway) using four or five different techniques, and the samples were compared with respect to toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and several

G. T. Ankley; M. K. Schubauer-Berigan

1994-01-01

190

Laboratory study on the interaction between herbicides and sediments in water systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interaction between herbicides and sediments in water systems is an important process occurring in water, which influences the behaviour of the herbicides in water. This paper reports on the sorption of herbicides norflurazon, oxadiazon and trifluralin on soil and the interaction between the herbicides and sediments under stirred and non-stirred conditions. The sorption coefficients of the herbicides on soils are

G.-G Ying; B Williams

2000-01-01

191

Heavy metals in water, sediments, fish and plants of river Hindon, U.P., India  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analysed the concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in the water, sediments, fish and plants of the River Hindon, U.P., India, at seven sampling stations, in the year 1982. Considerable variation in concentration between water, sediments, fish and plants were noted. The concentration in the water was in the order Fe > Zn

Mohammad Ajmal; Raziuddin; Ahsan Ullah Khan

1987-01-01

192

LIGHT DEPENDENCE OF SEDIMENT-WATER NUTRIENT EXCHANGE IN A GULF OF MEXICO  

EPA Science Inventory

The flux of dissolved nutrients between sediments and overlying water is an important component of nutrient processing in estuaries. These fluxes can be linked to sediment metabolism, which in shallow estuaries can be affected by light. Sediment cores were collected at sight stat...

193

Sediment Resuspension and Drawdown in a Water Supply Reservior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnitudes and patterns of sediment resuspension are assessed in Cannonsville Reservoir, New York, to quantify and characterize this internal source of sediment. The assessment is based on analyses of sediment trap collections from 10 sites over the spring to fall interval of two years. Temporal and spatial patterns in sediment deposition are demonstrated to be driven by resuspension\\/redeposition processes.

Steven W. Effler; David A. Matthews

2004-01-01

194

Measurements of 222Rn activity concentration in domestic water sources in Penang, northern peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

Measurements of (222)Rn activity concentration were carried out in 39 samples collected from the domestic and drinking water sources used in the island and mainland of Penang, northern peninsular, Malaysia. The measured activity concentrations ranged from 7.49 to 26.25 Bq l(-1), 0.49 to 9.72 Bq l(-1) and 0.58 to 2.54 Bq l(-1) in the raw, treated and bottled water samples collected, respectively. This indicated relatively high radon concentrations compared with that from other parts of the world, which still falls below the WHO recommended treatment level of 100 Bq l(-1). From this data, the age-dependent associated committed effective doses due to the ingestion of (222)Rn as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water were calculated. The committed effective doses from (222)Rn resulting from 1 y's consumption of these water were estimated to range from 0.003 to 0.048, 0.001 to 0.018 and 0.002 to 0.023 mSv y(-1), for age groups 0-1, 2-16 and >16 y, respectively. PMID:21642647

Muhammad, B G; Jaafar, M S; Azhar, A R; Akpa, T C

2012-04-01

195

On site experiments of the slanted soil treatment systems for domestic gray water.  

PubMed

In order to make a breakthrough for the acute problem of water shortage in the world, the key words "decentralization and re-use" are very important for new sustainable sanitation systems that will be developed. Therefore, we focused on a new treatments system called "a slanted soil treatment system" which combines a biotoilet system with a domestic grey water treatment system. Because this system is a low cost and compact system, the system can be easily introduced to homes in urban areas or in the suburbs of cities in many developing countries. In this study, we performed on site experiments carried out on Shikoku Island, Japan, for several years. We obtained the following results. The slanted soil treatment system could remove organic pollutants and total nitrogen and total phosphorus in grey water effectively. Furthermore, the system performance became high in the case of the high concentration of the influent water. The nitrification reaction and denitrification reaction were speculated to exist due to aerobic zones and anaerobic zones present in the slanted soil treatment system. The slanted soil treatment system could perform for approximately 3 years with zero maintenance. The plug flow model of 1st order reaction kinetics could describe the reaction in the slanted soil treatment system. However, it is necessary to improve the system to maintain the performance in all seasons. PMID:16841743

Itayama, Tomoaki; Kiji, Masato; Suetsugu, Aya; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Saito, Takeshi; Iwami, Norio; Mizuochi, Motoyuki; Inamori, Yuhei

2006-01-01

196

Analysis of space heating and domestic hot water systems for energy-efficient residential buildings  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of the best ways of meeting the space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) needs of new energy-efficient houses with very low requirements for space heat is provided. The DHW load is about equal to the space heating load in such houses in northern climates. The equipment options which should be considered are discussed, including new equipment recently introduced in the market. It is concluded that the first consideration in selecting systems for energy-efficient houses should be identification of the air moving needs of the house for heat distribution, heat storage, ventilation, and ventilative cooling. This is followed, in order, by selection of the most appropriate distribution system, the heating appliances and controls, and the preferred energy source, gas, oil, or electricity.

Dennehy, G

1983-04-01

197

Cost and performance comparison of drainback and integral collector storage systems for residential domestic hot water  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed in FY 1984 at the Solar Energy Research Institute as part of the continuing effort to lower the delivered energy cost of solar domestic hot water and space heating systems. In this work, a cost and performance comparison of drainback and integral collector storage (ICS) systems was conducted. Cost data for installed system costs were developed for both systems. Performance for the systems was generated using either accepted design tools (FCHART for drainback systems) or new methodologies (for the ICS systems). The cost and performance data were used to calculate discounted payback as a means for comparing the two systems and for assessing their market potential. The results of this economic analysis show that ICS systems have lower discounted paybacks than commercially available drainback systems. Low-cost drainback systems using new, low-cost components have about the same discounted payback as ICS systems.

Lewandowski, A.; Leboeuf, C.M.; Kutscher, C.F.

1985-11-01

198

Site-specific economic analysis of solar thermosyphon domestic hot water systems  

SciTech Connect

A market analysis and economic assessment has been conducted for solar thermosyphon domestic hot water (STDHW) systems. For the continental United States, a specific procedure was followed using current information in the public domain to select three sites with potentially viable markets for the STDHW systems. Following this, a technique was developed and applied to each of the sites to determine the required cost/performance boundary conditions for economic viability of the solar systems versus available conventional systems. The technique developed allows the user to input any site- and system-specific parameters required and to choose from any or all of the three different economic assessment methods combined into a single nomography. The technique is thus repeatable for any system, any site.

Coleman, G.B.; Ford, K.E.

1982-01-01

199

Resuspension and settling of helminth eggs in water: Interactions with cohesive sediments.  

PubMed

Helminth parasite eggs in low quality water represent main food safety and health hazards and are therefore important indicators used to determine whether such water can be used for irrigation. Through sedimentation helminth eggs accumulate in the sediment, however resuspension of deposited helminth eggs will lead to increased concentration of suspended eggs in the water. Our study aimed to determine the erodibility (erosion rate and erosion threshold) and settling velocity of Ascaris and Trichuris eggs as well as cohesive sediment at different time points after incorporation into the sediment. Cohesive sediment collected from a freshwater stream was used to prepare a sediment bed onto which helminth eggs were allowed to settle. The erodibility of both sediment and helminth eggs was found to decrease over time indicating that the eggs were incorporated into the surface material of the bed and that this material was stabilized through time. This interaction between eggs and bulk sediment was further manifested in an increased settling velocity of suspended eggs when sediment was present in the suspension as compared to a situation with settling in clean water. The incorporation into the sediment bed and the aggregation with sediment particles decrease the mobility of both helminth egg types. Our findings document that helminth eggs should not be viewed as single entities in water systems when modelling the distribution of eggs since both erodibility and settling velocity of eggs are determined by mobility of the sediment present in the water stream. Recalculation of the erosion threshold for helminth eggs and sediment showed that even at relatively low current velocities i.e. 0.07-0.12ms(-1) newly deposited eggs will be mobile in open irrigation channels. These environmental factors affecting resuspension must be taken into account when developing models for sedimentation of helminth eggs in different water systems. PMID:22591818

Sengupta, Mita E; Andersen, Thorbjørn J; Dalsgaard, Anders; Olsen, Annette; Thamsborg, Stig M

2012-08-01

200

Exergetic modeling and assessment of solar assisted domestic hot water tank integrated ground-source heat pump systems for residences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study deals with the exergetic modeling and performance evaluation of solar assisted domestic hot water tank integrated ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems for residences for the first time to the best of the author's knowledge. The model is applied to a system, which mainly consists of (i) a water-to-water heat pump unit (ii) a ground heat exchanger system

Arif Hepbasli

2007-01-01

201

Using Domestic Water Analysis to Value Groundwater Recharge in the Hadejia–Jama’are Floodplain, Northern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article values the groundwater recharge function performed by the Hadejia—Jama'are flood-plain which is threatened by planned upstream water utilization schemes. Domestic consumption of groundwater resources for households dependent on groundwater resources is analyzed. Three types of households are identified as(i) those which collect all their water, (ii) those which purchase all their water, and (iii) those which both collect

Gayatri Acharya; Edward B Barbier

2002-01-01

202

Water and sediment quality in the Yukon River basin, Alaska, during water year 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains water-quality and sediment-quality data from samples collected in the Yukon River Basin from March through September during the 2004 water year (WY). Samples were collected throughout the year at five stations in the basin (three on the main stem Yukon River, one each on the Tanana and Porcupine Rivers). A broad range of physical, chemical, and biological analyses are presented.

edited By Schuster, Paul F.

2006-01-01

203

Factors Regulating the Flux of Phosphate at the Sediment - Water Interface of a Subtropical Calcareous Lake: a Simulation Study with Intact Sediment Cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different factors which interactively control the flux of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) at the sediment-water interface (SWI) of Lake Kinneret were studied seasonally. The influence of pH, Eh and microbial activity on SRP flux at the SWI was investigated by manipulating the conditions in the overlying water of intact sediment cores. The calculated diffusive SRP flux out of the sediment

W. Eckert; A. Nishri; R. Parparova

1997-01-01

204

Ecosystem engineering at the sediment-water interface: bioturbation and consumer-substrate interaction.  

PubMed

In soft-bottom sediments, consumers may influence ecosystem function more via engineering that alters abiotic resources than through trophic influences. Understanding the influence of bioturbation on physical, chemical, and biological processes of the water-sediment interface requires investigating top-down (consumer) and bottom-up (resource) forces. The objective of the present study was to determine how consumer bioturbation mode and sediment properties interact to dictate the hydrologic function of experimental filtration systems clogged by the deposition of fine sediments. Three fine-grained sediments characterized by different organic matter (OM) and pollutant content were used to assess the influence of resource type: sediment of urban origin highly loaded with OM and pollutants, river sediments rich in OM, and river sediments poor in OM content. The effects of consumer bioturbation (chironomid larvae vs. tubificid worms) on sediment reworking, changes in hydraulic head and hydraulic conductivity, and water fluxes through the water-sediment interface were measured. Invertebrate influences in reducing the clogging process depended not only on the mode of bioturbation (construction of biogenic structures, burrowing and feeding activities, etc.) but also on the interaction between the bioturbation process and the sediments of the clogging layer. We present a conceptual model that highlights the importance of sediment influences on bioturbation and argues for the integration of bottom-up influence on consumer engineering activities. PMID:19462183

Nogaro, Géraldine; Mermillod-Blondin, Florian; Valett, Maurice H; François-Carcaillet, Frédérique; Gaudet, Jean-Paul; Lafont, Michel; Gibert, Janine

2009-08-01

205

Distribution of bacteria in a domestic hot water system in a Danish apartment building.  

PubMed

Bacterial growth in hot water systems seems to cause problems such as bad odor of the water, skin allergies and increased heat transfer resistance in heating coils. In order to establish a basis for long-term suppression of bacterial growth, we studied the distribution of bacteria in a Danish domestic hot water system. Heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) were measured in both water and biofilm samples from various sampling sites in the system. In hot water samples, where the temperature was 55-60 degrees C, the HPC were 10(3)-10(4)CFU/mL at incubation temperatures of 25 degrees C or 37 degrees C and 10(5)CFU/mL at 55 degrees C or 65 degrees C. In the cold water (10 degrees C) supplying the hot water system, the HPC at 25 degrees C or 37 degrees C was lower than in the hot water, and no bacteria were found after incubation at 55 degrees C or 65 degrees C. HPC constituted from 38% to 84% of the AODC results in hot water but only 2% in cold water, which showed a high ratio of culturable bacteria in hot water. Biofilm samples from the hot water tank and the inner surface of the pipes in the cold and hot water distribution system were collected by specially designed sampling devices, which were exposed in the system for 42 days. The quasi-steady-state number of bacteria in the biofilm, measured as the geometric mean of the HPC obtained between 21 and 42 days, was five-fold higher in the hot water pipe (13x10(5)CFU/cm(2) at 55 degrees C) than in the cold water pipe (2.8x10(5)CFU/cm(2) at 25 degrees C). There was no significant difference between the number of bacteria in the biofilm samples from the top, middle and bottom of the hot water tank, and the number of bacteria in the biofilm counted at 55 degrees C ranged from 0.6x10(4) to 1.7x10(4)CFU/cm(2). The surfaces of the sacrificial aluminum anodes and the heating coils in the hot water tank also contained high bacterial numbers. The measured number of bacteria in water and biofilm samples was related to the dimensions of the hot water system, and calculations showed that the majority of bacteria (72%) were located in the biofilm especially in the distribution system, which accounts for the greatest surface area. Free-living bacteria accounted for 26% and only a minor part of the bacteria were in the sludge in the hot water tank (2%). PMID:14630121

Bagh, Lene Karen; Albrechtsen, Hans Jørgen; Arvin, Erik; Ovesen, Kaj

2004-01-01

206

Identification of Naegleria fowleri in domestic water sources by nested PCR.  

PubMed

The free-living amoeboflagellate Naegleria fowleri is the causative agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), a rapidly fatal disease of the central nervous system. In the United States, the disease is generally acquired while swimming and diving in freshwater lakes and ponds. In addition to swimming, exposure to N. fowleri and the associated disease can occur by total submersion in bathwater or small backyard wading pools. In the present study, swipe samples and residual pipe water from homes in Arizona were examined for N. fowleri by nested PCR due to the death of two previously healthy children from PAM. Since neither child had a history of swimming in a freshwater lake or pond prior to the onset of disease symptoms, the domestic water supply was the suspected source of infection. Of 19 samples collected from bathroom and kitchen pipes and sink traps, 17 samples were positive for N. fowleri by PCR. A sample from a Micro-Wynd II filter was obtained by passing water from bathtubs through the filter. Organisms attached to the filter also tested positive by PCR. The two samples that tested negative for N. fowleri were one that was obtained from a kitchen sink trap and a swipe sample from the garbage disposal of one home. PMID:14532037

Marciano-Cabral, Francine; MacLean, Rebecca; Mensah, Alex; LaPat-Polasko, Laurie

2003-10-01

207

Impact of total organic carbon (in sediments) and dissolved organic carbon (in overlying water column) on Hg sequestration by coastal sediments from the central east coast of India.  

PubMed

Total organic carbon (TOC) (in sediment) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) (in water column) play important roles in controlling the mercury sequestration process by the sediments from the central east coast of India. This toxic metal prefers to associate with finer size particles (silt and clay) of sediments. Increasing concentrations of DOM in overlying water column may increase complexation/reduction processes of Hg(2+) within the water column and decrease the process of Hg sequestration by sediments. However, high concentrations of DOM in water column may increase Hg sequestration process by sediments. PMID:24355570

Chakraborty, Parthasarathi; Sharma, Brijmohan; Babu, P V Raghunath; Yao, Koffi Marcellin; Jaychandran, Saranya

2014-02-15

208

AN ASSESSMENT OF USING WATER RECYCLING TO RELEASE WATER FOR NEW DOMESTIC CONSUMERS: INITIAL RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the benefits of recycling water to industry is the opportunity to free existing potable water supplies for new customers. A recycling plant was commissioned in May 2001 in Merebank, Durban. The plant receives effluent from the Durban Southern Wastewater Treatment works and treats it to an acceptable standard for industrial use. However, as with any industrial activity there

S. D. Pillay; E. Friedrich; C. A. Buckley

209

Estimating suspended sediment concentrations in surface waters of the Amazon River wetlands from Landsat images  

SciTech Connect

A method has been developed, based on spectral mixture analysis, to estimate the concentration of suspended sediment in surface waters of the Amazon River wetlands from Landsat MSS and TM images. Endmembers were derived from laboratory reflectance measurements of water-sediment mixtures with a range of sediment concentrations. Using these references spectra, the authors applied a linear mixture analysis to multispectral images after accounting for instrument and atmosphere gains and offsets. Sediment concentrations were estimated for individual pixels from the mixture analysis results based on a nonlinear calibration curve relating laboratory sediment concentrations and reflectance to endmember fractions. The uncertainty in the sediment concentrations derived from this analysis for three Amazon images is predicted to be within [plus minus] 20 mg/L, and the concentrations fall within a range of concentrations of suspended sediment that were measured at several times and places in the field over the past 15 years. The emphasis of their work is to use the patterns of sediment concentrations to compute the approximate volumes of sediment that are transferred between the main channel and floodplain of the Amazon River. However, the methodology can be applied universally if the optical properties of water and sediment at the site are known, and it is, therefore, useful for the study of suspended sediment concentrations in surface waters of wetlands elsewhere.

Mertes, L.A.K.; Smith, M.O.; Adams, J.B. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States))

1993-03-01

210

Distributions of pesticides and organic contaminants between water and suspended sediment, San Francisco Bay, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Suspended-sediment and water samples were collected from San Francisco Bay in 1991 during low river discharge and after spring rains. All samples were analyzed for organophosphate, carbamate, and organochlorine pesticides; petroleum hydrocarbons; biomarkers; and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. The objectives were to determine the concentrations of these contaminants in water and suspended sediment during two different hydrologic conditions and to determine partition coefficients of the contaminants between water and sediment. Concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants, such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, varied with location of sample collection, riverine discharge, and tidal cycle. Concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants in suspended sediments were highest during low river discharge but became diluted as agricultural soils entered the bay after spring rains. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons defined as dissolved in the water column were not detected. The concentrations sorbed on suspended sediments were variable and were dependent on sediment transport patterns in the bay. In contrast, the relatively hydrophilic organophosphate pesticides, such as chlorpyrifos and diazinon, has a more uniform concentration in suspended sediment. These pesticides were detected only after spring rains. Most of the measured diazinon, at least 98% for all samples, was in the dissolved phase. Measured partition coefficients for diazinon generally were uniform, which suggests that suspended-sediment concentrations were close to equilibrium with dissolved concentrations. The concentration of diazinon sorbed to suspended sediments, at any given sampling site, was driven primarily by the more abundant solution concentration. The concentrations of diazinon sorbed to suspended sediments, therefore, were independent of the patterns of sediment movement. ?? 1993 Estuarine Research Federation.

Domagalski, J. L.; Kuivila, K. M.

1993-01-01

211

Microbial Diversity in Water and Sediment of Lake Chaka, an Athalassohaline Lake in Northwestern China  

PubMed Central

We employed culture-dependent and -independent techniques to study microbial diversity in Lake Chaka, a unique hypersaline lake (32.5% salinity) in northwest China. It is situated at 3,214 m above sea level in a dry climate. The average water depth is 2 to 3 cm. Halophilic isolates were obtained from the lake water, and halotolerant isolates were obtained from the shallow sediment. The isolates exhibited resistance to UV and gamma radiation. Microbial abundance in the sediments ranged from 108 cells/g at the water-sediment interface to 107 cells/g at a sediment depth of 42 cm. A major change in the bacterial community composition was observed across the interface. In the lake water, clone sequences affiliated with the Bacteroidetes were the most abundant, whereas in the sediments, sequences related to low G+C gram-positive bacteria were predominant. A similar change was also present in the archaeal community. While all archaeal clone sequences in the lake water belonged to the Halobacteriales, the majority of the sequences in the sediments were related to those previously obtained from methanogenic soils and sediments. The observed changes in the microbial community structure across the water-sediment interface were correlated with a decrease in salinity from the lake water (32.5%) to the sediments (approximately 4%). Across the interface, the redox state also changed from oxic to anoxic and may also have contributed to the observed shift in the microbial community.

Jiang, Hongchen; Dong, Hailiang; Zhang, Gengxin; Yu, Bingsong; Chapman, Leah R.; Fields, Matthew W.

2006-01-01

212

Chemical quality of surface waters and sedimentation in the Saline River basin, Kansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report gives the results of an investigation of the sediment and dissolved minerals that are transported by the Saline River and its tributaries. The Saline River basin is in western and central Kansas; it is long and narrow and covers 3,420 square miles of rolling plains, which is broken in some places by escarpments and small areas of badlands. In the western part the uppermost bedrock consists predominantly of calcareous elastic sedimentary rocks of continental origin of Pliocene age and in most places is covered by eolian deposits of Pleistocene and Recent age. In the central part the ex posed bedrock consists predominantly of calcareous marine sedimentary rocks of Late Cretaceous age. In the eastern part the exposed bedrock consists mainly of noncalcareous continental and littoral elastic sedimentary rocks of Early Cretaceous and Permian age. Fluvial deposits are in the valleys, and eolian materials are present over much of the uplands. Average precipitation increases rather uniformly from about 18 inches per year in the west to almost 28 inches per year in the east. Runoff is not affected by irrigation nor regulated by large structures, but it is closely related to precipitation. Average runoff increases from less than 0.2 inch per year in the west to more than 1.5 inches per year in the east. Aquifers of the flood-plain and terrace deposits and of the Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone are the major sources of ground-water accretion to the streams. In the upper reaches of the Saline River, the water is only slightly mineralized; during the period of record the specific conductance near Wakeeney never exceeded 750 micromhos per centimeter. In the lower reaches, however, the water is slightly mineralized during periods of high flow and is highly mineralized during periods of low flow; the specific conductance near Russell exceeded 1,500 micromhos per centimeter more than 80 percent of the time. Near Russell, near Wilson, and at Tescott the water is of the calcium bicarbonate type when the specific conductance is less than about 1,000 micromhos per centimeter, but it is of the sodium chloride type when the specific conductance is more than about 1,500 micromhos per centimeter. The water is off the calcium bicarbonate, sodium bicarbonate, or sodium chloride type when the conductance is between 1,000 and 1,500 micromhos per centimeter. Most of the increase in mineralization of the water is caused by inflow of highly mineralized ground water. The ground-water inflow was estimated to be 22 percent of the total streamflow at Tescott in 1948 and 60 percent in 1952. Mineralization increases and water quality deteriorates progressively downstream along nearly the entire Saline River, especially in the part of the area directly underlain by the Dakota Sandstone between the vicinities of Fairport and Wilson: sodium and chloride are the principal constituents of water contributed by the Dakota. The total percentage of the salt in the Saline River that comes from oil-field brines is considered to be small. The water in the upper Saline River is of good quality for domestic use except that it is hard; the water in the lower Saline River is of poor quality for domestic use because most of the time it is highly mineralized, is hard, and contains high concentrations of chloride and sulfate. In the upper reaches of the river, the water is of good quality for irrigation. In the lower reaches, if the water were impounded in a reservoir, it would be of good quality for irrigation during years of high flow and of very poor quality during years of low flow. The water in the lower reaches is of poor quality for industrial use because it is highly mineralized most of the tinge. Relations of suspended-sediment discharge to water discharge were used with the long-term streamflow duration curves to compute the long-term aver age suspended-sediment discharges and concentrations at five indications. Sediment discharge is closely related to runoff. S

Jordan, Paul Robert; Jones, B. F.; Petri, Lester R.

1964-01-01

213

Influence of water solubility, phase equilibria, and capillary pressure on methane occurrence in sediments  

SciTech Connect

Microbial methane is generated in rapidly accumulating marine sediments (>40 m/my) where pore waters are deficient in dissolved oxygen and sulfate. Based on indirect geochemical evidence, microbial methane generation is largely confined to depths of between 10 and 1000 meters beneath the sea floor. Under shelf conditions (water depth <200 m), methane concentrations can exceed solubility in pore water and accumulate as free gas, or escape the sediment as bubbles, or be oxidized in surface sediments. Under some deeper-water conditions of continental slope and rise sediments, more of the methane can be retained and buried because of increased solubility, and because methane in excess of solubility can be stabilized as methane hydrate. Few direct measurements of methane concentration in subsurface pore waters have been made. However, methane-water phase transitions (gas-water contacts, base of gas hydrate reflector) on seismic records can be used with methane solubility relationships to estimate gas contents of sediments. Comparison of various environments shows a relatively narrow range of dissolved methane contents. In marine sediments, free gas (and methane hydrate) is stable only in contact with methane-saturated pore water. Finer-grained sediments can be supersaturated with respect to a gas (and gas hydrate ) phase because of capillary pressure inhibition of bubble (or hydrate ) formation. The amount of methane dissolved in marine sediment pore water is necessarily larger than that present as gas hydrate.

Claypool, G.E. (Mobil Technology Co., Dallas, TX (United States))

1996-01-01

214

Effects of drainage on water, sediment and biota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Department of the Interior started a program in 1985 to identify effects of irrigation-induced trace constituents in water, bottom sediment and biota. The program was developed in response to concerns that contamination similar to that found in 1983 at Kesterson Reservoir in California might exist elsewhere. Studies are complete or underway for 26 sites in 15 western States. Selenium is the trace constituent most often found at elevated concentrations in all media. Maximum selenium concentrations in fish from 9 of 20 areas exceeded the threshold concentration for adverse reproductive effects. Maximum selenium concentrations in bird livers from 11 areas exceeded the level at which embryonic deformities are likely; deformed birds were observed in 5 areas. Trace constituent problems may be anticipated if geologic sources such as marine shales occur in an irrigation project area. The potential for problems is increased if closed basins or sinks are present.

Engberg, Richard, A.; Sylvester, Marc, A.; Feltz, Herman, R.

1991-01-01

215

Sedimentation of Free and Attached Cryptosporidium Oocysts and Giardia Cysts in Water  

PubMed Central

Experimental analysis of the sedimentation velocity of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts was compared with mathematical description of their sedimentation velocities by using measurements of (oo)cyst size and density and the density and viscosity of the sedimentation medium to determine if the sedimentation kinetics of freely suspended oocysts of C. parvum and cysts of G. lamblia can be described by Stokes’ law. The theoretically calculated sedimentation kinetics showed a good agreement with the experimentally observed kinetics. Both showed a decline in sedimentation velocity over time, caused primarily by variation in (oo)cyst density. The initial apparent sedimentation velocities in Hanks balanced salt solution at 23°C was 0.35 ?m · s?1 for oocysts and 1.4 ?m · s?1 for cysts. (Oo)cysts that enter the surface water environment by discharges of biologically treated sewage may be attached to sewage particles, and this will affect their sedimentation kinetics. Therefore, (oo)cysts were mixed with settled secondary effluent. (Oo)cysts readily attached to the (biological) particles in effluent; 30% of both cysts and oocysts attached during the first minutes of mixing, and this fraction increased to approximately 75% after 24 h. The sedimentation velocity of (oo)cysts attached to secondary effluent particles increased with particle size and was (already in the smallest size fraction [1 to 40 ?m]) determined by the sedimentation kinetics of the effluent particles. The observed sedimentation velocities of freely suspended (oo)cysts are probably too low to cause significant sedimentation in surface water or reservoirs. However, since a significant proportion of both cysts and oocysts attached readily to organic biological particles in secondary effluent, sedimentation of attached (oo)cysts after discharge into surface water will probably be a significant factor in the environmental ecology of C. parvum and G. lamblia. Attachment to particles influences not only sedimentation of (oo)cysts in surface water but also their behavior in drinking water treatment processes.

Medema, G. J.; Schets, F. M.; Teunis, P. F. M.; Havelaar, A. H.

1998-01-01

216

Biodegradation of [ 14C]-4-nitrophenol in a sediment–water simulation test  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory simulation test with natural water and sediments to study biodegradability of low concentrated chemicals in surface waters was evaluated by measuring the mineralisation and fate of 0.37 ?g kg?1 [14C]-4-nitrophenol. The effects of the sediment type, the time of sediment collection, temperature, illumination and the method of aeration on the feasibility of the test, the mineralisation of 4-nitrophenol, the

Wolfgang Kalsch; Thomas Knacker; Gerhard Danneberg; Gabriele Studinger; Christian Franke

1999-01-01

217

Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska, During Water Year 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

OVERVIEW: This report contains water-quality and sediment-quality data from samples collected in the Yukon River Basin from March through September during the 2005 water year (WY). Samples were collected throughout the year at five stations in the basin (three on the main stem Yukon River, one each on the Tanana and Porcupine Rivers). A broad range of physical, chemical, and biological analyses are presented. This is the final report in a series of five USGS Open-File Reports spanning five WYs, from October 2000 through September 2005. The previous four reports are listed in the references (Schuster, 2003, 2005a, 2005b, 2006). Water-quality and sediment-quality data from samples collected on the Yukon River and selected major tributaries in Alaska for synoptic studies during WYs 2002-03 are published in Dornblaser and Halm (2006).

Edited by Schuster, Paul F.

2007-01-01

218

Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska, During Water Year 2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Overview -- This report contains water-quality and sediment-quality data from samples collected in the Yukon River Basin during water year 2001 (October 2000 through September 2001). A broad range of chemical and biological analyses from three sets of samples are presented. First, samples were collected throughout the year at five stations in the basin (three on the mainstem Yukon River, one each on the Tanana and Porcupine Rivers). Second, fecal indicators were measured on samples from drinking-water supplies collected near four villages. Third, sediment cores from five lakes throughout the Yukon Basin were sampled to reconstruct historic trends in the atmospheric deposition of trace elements and hydrophobic organic compounds.

edited by Schuster, Paul F.

2003-01-01

219

Control of groundwater recharge-discharge on coupled N-processing across the sediment- water interface of floodplain sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From headwater agricultural streams to floodplain sloughs, denitrification is a common and environmentally important redox mediated reaction that occurs as dissolved NO3- is transported across the sediment- water interface within these systems. Factors influencing denitrification rates include carbon quality, NO3- availability, and the presence of O2. Here we present findings illustrating the influence of net groundwater recharge-discharge on nitrogen fate within two floodplain sloughs. Using a combination of slough-scale flood measurements (within 2 floodplain sloughs) and labeled 15NO3- additions, we show that coupled nitrogen removal is 4 times higher in the recharging slough. Our results suggest that O2 delivery to the sediment-water interface of the recharging slough resulted in measurable nitrification, relative to the discharging slough where nitrification was not detected. The redox profiles (e.g. Fe) and hydrologic gradients are consistent with the deeper penetration of O2 into the sediments within the recharging slough. Although the recharge/discharge N-flux was small relative to the overall N-balance within each slough, the subtle changes in recharge/discharge altered O2 availability and redox conditions near the sediment-water interface enhancing coupled N-removal within the recharging slough. These results suggest that O2 delivery across the sediment-water interface (e.g. hyporheic environments) may enhance net N-removal, especially if NO3- is limiting.

Scott, D.; Harvey, J. W.; Noe, G. B.; Böhlke, J.

2007-12-01

220

Wasted water pressure and potential energy generation. A feasibility study of the hydroelectric potential in part of the domestic water system of Boulder, Colorado. Draft final  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colorado Project\\/Tip's study of the feasibility of using the City of Boulder's domestic water system for the generation of electricity was funded by an Appropriate Technology Grant from the Department of Energy, Region VIII. It has looked at how the extreme pressure being generated in this gravity water system can be used for a beneficial use rather than the current

P. S. Stern; J. Kiel; L. Fey

1980-01-01

221

Suspended sediment control and water quality conservation through riparian vegetation:  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil erosion and Suspended Sediment River are strongly related in the Apennines catchments which are generally characterised by a clayey lithology and impermeable soils and extensive and severe erosion and slope stability problems. In fact the suspended sediment yield represents one of the most reliable tools to assess real basin soil loss (Pavanelli and Pagliarani, 2002; Pavanelli and Rigotti, 2007) from the surface rain erosive features in a mountain watershed, as rills and interrills erosion, gullies, bad-lands (calanchi basins). Suspended sediment yield is known to imply several detrimental consequences: soil losses from agricultural land, worsening of the quality of the water, clogging of water supply filters and reservoir siltation. In addition, suspended sediment yield is also one of the main vector for pollutants and nutrients: various studies have already proved how nitrogen content has been constantly rising in aquifers and surface waters [Böhlke and Denver, 1995]. Finer particles and their aggregates have been proved to be the preferential vehicle for particulate nitrogen [Droppo et al., 1997; Ongley et al., 1992]. In one research [Pavanelli and al. 2006] four Apennines torrents (Gaiana, Sillaro, Savena and Lavino) with mountain basins ranging from 8.7 to 139 Km2 were monitored via automatic sampling devices, the samples of water collected were analysed to characterise suspended solids in terms of their grain size distribution and total nitrogen with respect to the source of eroded area in the catchment. Preliminary results [Pavanelli and al. 2007] seem to show the existence of a direct relationship between nitrogen concentration and finer particle concentration (<20 ?m), with the maximum nitrogen loss values being related to factors like the presence of clayey formations, their position within the catchment and the availability of suspended particles. The results seem to indicate hillsides as main sources of suspended sediment to the torrents monitored. The problem of controlling the river suspended sediment concentration can be tackled by increasing the riparian vegetation able to hold back the ground eroded by the slopes, but it is necessary to know where the critical zones are. The aim of the work is to propose a method allow us to detect the risk of soil erosion areas near the river and the functionality of existing riparian vegetation along river as buffers / filters towards the eroded soil from the hill slopes. The proposed methodology is supposed has been designed for water pollution control from suspended solids, pollutants and nutrients coming from hills and an improvement of the quality of the river environment. The methodology was applied on the riparian vegetation of the Gaiana torrent where it was related to soil cover and erosion areas of the hillslope, thus correlating the impact of human activities. The Gaiana catchment area is 8.6 km2 and the mean altitude is 237 a.m.s.l., the average rainfall is of 784 mm.. It is a typical Apennines streams, about 35 km south of Bologna, Italy. The main trunk stream is 6 km long and the whole drainage network is organized in a dendritic pattern, typical of clayey lithology of the basins. The main erosion processes active in the area are caused by precipitation and surface runoff: sheet wash, concentrated water erosion and badlands watersheds (calanchi), which represent about 15% of the basin area. The vegetation of the Gaiana basin is constituted by crops (39%), woods (37%), rock outcrops(i.e. badlands)(15%), bushes (5%) and pastures(3%). The stages of the study are to spot critical areas made up of streambank and the eroded areas on the slopes near the river, with the support of aerial photos and satellite images, survey and a geographic information system. The Gaiana riparian vegetation map has been drawn and, on a strip buffer 200 metres wide along river, the Vegetation cover and the Geomorphology maps (scale 1:5000) has been drawn, after photogrammetric interpretation of aerial photography and satellite images . The two maps have been overlapped to

Pavanelli, D.; Cavazza, C.; Correggiari, S.

2009-04-01

222

Historical and Hypothetical Future Sedimentation and Water Storage in Kajakai Reservoir, Central Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

SUMMARY Sedimentation has reduced water storage in Kajakai Reservoir. If current sedimentation rates continue, hypothetical future reservoir water volumes at the spillway elevation of 1,033.5 meters could be reduced about 22 percent from 2006 to 2057. Even if the spillway elevation is raised to 1,045 meters, a severe drought could result in large multiyear irrigation-supply deficits in which reservoir water levels remain below 1,022 meters for more than 4 years. Hypothetical climate change and sedimentation could result in greater water-supply deficits. The chance of having sufficient water supplies in Kajakai Reservoir during the worst month is about 47 percent.

Vining, Kevin C.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

2008-01-01

223

The distribution of tritium between water and suspended matter in a laboratory experiment exposing sediment to tritiated water.  

PubMed

Following recent suggestions regarding the strong affinity of tritiated water for organic matter in suspended particulates and sediments, two equilibration experiments between sediment organic matter (dry and fresh) and tritiated water were performed to look for potential tritium bio-concentration. The T/H ratios measured at the end of both experiments are lower in the sediment organic matter than in the water, indicating that only a fraction of the hydrogen pool (between 14% and 20%) within the sediment equilibrated with the tritiated water. These results are consistent with the widely used concept of exchangeable and non-exchangeable tritium pools in organic matter and show no sign of tritium bio-accumulation in the sediment relative to water. PMID:23202579

Jean-Baptiste, Philippe; Fourré, Elise

2013-02-01

224

Trace metal concentrations in water, sediments and fish tissue from Lake Tanganyika  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace metal (Cu, Pb, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd) concentrations were determined in water, sediments, various fin fish species and a bivalve (Mutelaspekei) from Lake Tanganyika using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Integrated water samples to depths of 10 m were collected using a pre-rinsed flexible plastic pipe. Sediment samples were collected using a ponar mud sampler. Fish samples were obtained using

F. M. M. Chale

2002-01-01

225

Petroleum hydrocarbons in water and sediments of northwest Arabian Gulf 1980–2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey has been conducted to evaluate pollution by petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC's) in water, sediments and living organisms of southern Iraqi sectors represented by Shatt Al-Arab River, Khor Al-Zubair, Umm Qasser, Khor Abdullah and the northwest Arabian Gulf. Petroleum hydrocarbons in water as dissolved and particulate, in sediments as exchangeable and residual and in the organs of living organisms were

Faris J. M. Al-Imarah; Abass A. Hantoosh; Ali M. Nasir

2007-01-01

226

The study of PAC-coagulation sedimentation-UF process for treating micro-polluted water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process of powdered activated carbon?ƒ PAC?? - coagulation sedimentation - Ultrafiltration?ƒ UF ?? was used to investigate the effect of removing organic matter in micro- polluted water. The results showed that the PAC-coagulation sedimentation - UF combined process could remove effectively dissolved organic matter in micro-polluted water. After pre- dosing 15mg \\/ L PAC, the whole removal of CODMn,

Tao Lin; Liang Li; Wei Chen

2011-01-01

227

Perfluorinated compounds in water, sediment, soil and biota from estuarine and coastal areas of Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil, sediment, water, and biota collected from the western coast of Korea were analyzed to determine occurrence and sources of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). PFCs were significantly concentrations of PFCs were measured in some water and biological samples, while concentrations of PFCs in soils and sediments were relatively low. The most widely detected compound was found to be perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), with

Jonathan E. Naile; Jong Seong Khim; Tieyu Wang; Chunli Chen; Wei Luo; Bong-Oh Kwon; Chul-Hwan Koh; Paul D. Jones; Yonglong Lu; John P. Giesy

2010-01-01

228

Trace Organic Contaminants in Sediment and Water from Ulsan Bay and Its Vicinity, Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment and water samples collected from 32 locations in Ulsan Bay and adjacent inland areas were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocabons (PAHs), nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), bisphenol A (BPA), organochlorine (OC) pesticides (HCB, HCHs, CHLs, and DDTs), and poly- chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to characterize their spatial dis- tribution and contamination status. PAHs were detected in nearly all sediment and water

J. S. Khim; K. T. Lee; K. Kannan; D. L. Villeneuve; J. P. Giesy; C. H. Koh

2001-01-01

229

Sediment data for streams near Mount St. Helens, Washington; Volume 1, 1980 water year  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents fluvial sediment data collected primarily in response to the eruption of Mount St. Helens. To monitor the sediment transported by streams in the Mount St. Helens area and the particle-size distributions of the sediment, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey initially established 18 fluvial sediment stations. In this report, concentrations and discharges of suspended sediment are given for 16 fluvial-sediment stations (5 are in the Toutle River basin) and for 11 miscellaneous sampling sites. Also included are particle-size distributions of suspended sediment and bed material, water discharge, and water temperature for many of the sediment samples. Daily sediment discharges for the period May 18 to September 30 were calculated for Toutle River at Highway 99 near Castle Rock and Cowlitz River at Castel Rock. Over 150 million tons of sediment are estimated to have passed the Toutle River at Highway 99 station on May 18-19, 1980. High concentrations of suspended sediment persisted at several stations throughout the spring and summer of 1980. (USGS)

Dinehart, Randal L.; Ritter, John R.; Knott, J. M.

1981-01-01

230

Environmental pollution impact on water and sediments of Kumaun lakes, Lesser Himalaya, India: a comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the water and sediment chemistry of the Nainital, Bhimtal, Naukuchiyatal and Sattal Lakes of Kumaun, has shown that the water of these lakes are alkaline and that electrical conductivity, total dissolved solid and bicarbonate HCO

Brijraj K. Das

2005-01-01

231

Hexachlorobenzene Uptake by Fathead Minnows and Macroinvertebrates in Recirculating Sediment/Water Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), the worm, Lumbriculus variegatus, and the amphipods Hyalella azteca and Gammarus lacustris were exposed to hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in water with and without a bed of HCB-spiked sediment. Water HCB concentrations were ...

G. S. Schuytema D. F. Krawczyk W. L. Griffis A. V. Nebeker M. L. Robideaux

1990-01-01

232

IMPORTANCE OF SEDIMENT RESEARCH IN GLOBAL WATER SYSTEM SCIENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global production of suspended sediments to discharge into the ocean is estimated about 20 × 10 9 t·y -1 , of which over 25% may be trapped by about 45,000 large dams constructed around the world. Both sediment production and reservoir trapping are increasing. Sediment production, transport, deposition and its temporal and spatial balance have a major impact on

Kuniyoshi TAKEUCHI

2004-01-01

233

Suspended sediments in karst spring waters near Massa (Tuscany), Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marble quarries of the Alpi Apuane supply some of the world's finest ornamental stone. Scanning electron microscopy of sediments emerging from Cartaro Grande, one of the major Apuane springs, reveals that sediments produced by the cutting of the marble are worked through the groundwater system during storm events at concentrations of up to 12,574 mg l-1. Sediment loads during

R. Drysdale; L. Pierotti; L. Piccini; F. Baldacci

2001-01-01

234

A generic method for projecting and valuing domestic water uses, application to the Mediterranean basin at the 2050 horizon.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim is to be able to assess future domestic water demands in a region with heterogeneous levels of economic development. This work offers an original combination of a quantitative projection of demands (similar to WaterGAP methodology) and an estimation of the marginal benefit of water. This method is applicable to different levels of economic development and usable for large-scale hydroeconomic modelling. The global method consists in building demand functions taking into account the impact of both the price of water and the level of equipment, proxied by economic development, on domestic water demand. Our basis is a 3-blocks inverse demand function: the first block consists of essential water requirements for food and hygiene; the second block matches intermediate needs; and the last block corresponds to additional water consumption, such as outdoor uses, which are the least valued. The volume of the first block is fixed to match recommended basic water requirements from the literature, but we assume that the volume limits of blocks 2 and 3 depend on the level of household equipment and therefore evolve with the level of GDP per capita (structural change), with a saturation. For blocks 1 and 2 we determine the value of water from elasticity, price and quantity data from the literature, using the point-extension method. For block 3, we use a hypothetical zero-cost demand and maximal demand with actual water costs to linearly interpolate the inverse demand function. These functions are calibrated on the 24 countries part of the Mediterranean basin using data from SIMEDD, and are used for the projection and valuation of domestic water demands at the 2050 horizon. They enable to project total water demand, and also the respective shares of the different categories of demand (basic demand, intermediate demand and additional uses). These projections are performed under different combined scenarios of population, GDP and water costs.

Neverre, Noémie; Dumas, Patrice

2014-05-01

235

Characterization of heavy metals in water and sediments in Taihu Lake, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore a comprehensive status of heavy metals in the Taihu Lake, which is one of the most important waters in China, water\\u000a and sediment samples were taken throughout the lake during April to May of 2010, and metal elements (Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Sn,\\u000a Sb, Zn, Mn) were analyzed in the water column, interstitial water and sediment. Relevant

Yu Tao; Zhang Yuan; Meng Wei; Hu Xiaona

236

Nano-porous pottery using calcined waste sediment from tap water production as an additive.  

PubMed

A suspension of sediment from a lagoon in a tap water production plant was collected for this experiment. The suspension was spray dried and calcined at 700 °C for 1 h. After calcining, 30 wt.% of the sediment were mixed with pottery clay. Samples with and without calcined sediment were sintered at 900, 1000 and 1100 °C. The results show that calcined sediment can be used as an additive in pottery clay. The samples with calcined sediment show higher porosity, water absorption and flexural strength, especially for 900 and 1000 °C. At 900 °C, samples with calcined sediment show a porosity of 50% with an average pore size of 68 nm, water absorption of 31% and flexural strength of 12.61 MPa. PMID:19942644

Sangsuk, Supin; Khunthon, Srichalai; Nilpairach, Siriphan

2010-10-01

237

Domestic Violence  

MedlinePLUS

Domestic Violence Domestic violence is an escalating pattern of violence or intimidation by an intimate partner, which is used to gain power and control. Several categories of domestic violence against the elderly have been identified: "Domestic violence ...

238

Sediment Enzyme Activities and Microbial Community Diversity in an Oligotrophic Drinking Water Reservoir, Eastern China  

PubMed Central

Drinking water reservoir plays a vital role in the security of urban water supply, yet little is known about microbial community diversity harbored in the sediment of this oligotrophic freshwater environmental ecosystem. In the present study, integrating community level physiological profiles (CLPPs), nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone sequence technologies, we examined the sediment urease and protease activities, bacterial community functional diversity, genetic diversity of bacterial and fungal communities in sediments from six sampling sites of Zhou cun drinking water reservoir, eastern China. The results showed that sediment urease activity was markedly distinct along the sites, ranged from 2.48 to 11.81 mg NH3-N/(g·24h). The highest average well color development (AWCD) was found in site C, indicating the highest metabolic activity of heterotrophic bacterial community. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed tremendous differences in the functional (metabolic) diversity patterns of the sediment bacterial communities from different sites. Meanwhile, DGGE fingerprints also indicated spatial changes of genetic diversity of sediment bacterial and fungal communities. The sequence BLAST analysis of all the sediment samples found that Comamonas sp. was the dominant bacterial species harbored in site A. Alternaria alternate, Allomyces macrogynus and Rhizophydium sp. were most commonly detected fungal species in sediments of the Zhou cun drinking water reservoir. The results from this work provide new insights about the heterogeneity of sediment microbial community metabolic activity and genetic diversity in the oligotrophic drinking water reservoir.

Zhang, Haihan; Huang, Tinglin; Liu, Tingting

2013-01-01

239

Field Observations of Hydrodynamics, Sediment Transport, and Water and Sediment Quality in the Hudson-Raritan Estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The New York-New Jersey Harbor estuary system is of enormous ecological and economic importance to the region. The presence of toxic chemicals in the water and sediments results in reduced water quality, fisheries restrictions/advisories, and general adverse impacts to the estuarine ecosystem. The Port of New York and New Jersey is central to the economy of the region. However, in recent years, problems associated with the management of contaminated dredged material, including high costs and the lack of suitable disposal/use alternatives, have threatened to impact the volume of shipping in the Harbor. Sources of contaminants include atmospheric deposition, municipal and industrial wastewater treatment facilities, combined sewer and stormwater outfalls, and rainfall-induced runoff (non-point sources). In addition, Harbor sediments can act as a continuing source as they are re-suspended and moved throughout the system by both natural and man-made means. As part of the New Jersey Toxics Reduction Workplan, Stevens Institute of Technology and Rutgers University are conducting hydrodynamic, sediment transport, and water and suspended sediment quality measurements in Newark Bay, the Arthur Kill and the Kill van Kull. The goals of the project include: (1) collection of high resolution (event-driven and long-term) hydrodynamic, sediment transport and water and suspended sediment quality measurements for use in the assessment of the dominant physics of the system and in the development of a combined hydrodynamic-sediment transport-water/sediment quality model for the region. (2) identification of those tributaries to NY-NJ Harbor that are significant sources of the chemicals of concern, and evaluation of the importance of non-point sources and existing contaminated bottom sediments as sources of the chemicals of concern. (3) identification of point discharges that represent significant sources of the chemicals of concern. Observations were obtained over a two-year period, during 21 tributary flow "events", each having an approximate duration of 1 week. The measurement program included 3 fixed mooring stations and 5 shipboard locations. Each mooring consisted of an acoustic Doppler current profiler; a high-resolution pressure sensor; an OBS; a CTD; and a laser-based scatterometer. The ship-board measurements included vertical current profiles using a towed acoustic Doppler current profiler; CTD measurements; OBS measurements; suspended sediment concentration and particle size spectrum using a laser-based scatterometer; and chemical characterization of water and suspended sediment samples. The water and sediment quality measurements were obtained using a specially designed Trace Organics Platform Sampler. This sampler allowed for the measurement of low-level concentrations of PCBs (108 congeners), dioxins/furans, Pesticides, PAHs and metals (Hg, Cd, Pb). Preliminary analysis of the data has improved our understanding of the circulation and sediment transport patterns in this region of the estuary, including the influence of extreme tributary flow events, local winds, and anthropogenic effects such as port structures, vessels, and the navigation channels, and has identified the most highly contaminated reaches of the tributaries.

Bruno, M. S.; Glenn, S.; Chant, R.; Rankin, K.; Korfiatis, G.; Dimou, N.; Creed, E.; Fullerton, B.; Pence, A.; Burke, P.; Haldeman, C.; Hires, R.; Hunter, E.

2002-12-01

240

Sediment toxicity assessment through evaluation of the toxicity of interstitial water  

SciTech Connect

The interstitial-water-toxicity approach is a multiphase procedure for assessing sediment toxicity using interstitial (i.e., pore) water. The use of pore water for sediment toxicity assessment was based on the strong correlations between contaminant concentrations in pore water and toxicity (and/or bioaccumulation) of sediment-associated contaminants by benthic macroinvertebrates. The approach combines the quantitation of pore water toxicity with toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) procedures to identify and quantify chemical components responsible for sediment toxicity. TIE involves recently developed procedures for the identification of toxic compounds in aqueous samples containing complex mixtures of chemicals. In the interstitial water-toxicity method, TIE procedures are implemented in three phases to characterize pore-water toxicity, identify the suspected toxicant, and confirm toxicant identification.

Ankley, G.

1989-01-01

241

Heavy Metal Distribution in Bottom Sediment and Water in the Tennessee River-Loudon Lake Reservoir System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Tennessee River flows through Knoxville and is dammed about 80 km below the city. Water and bottom sediments were collected over this 80-km course. The sediment was size fractionated and analyzed mineralogically and chemically. Waters were analyzed fo...

R. M. Perhac

1974-01-01

242

Ecological impacts of lead mining on Ozark streams: Toxicity of sediment and pore water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied the toxicity of sediments downstream of lead-zinc mining areas in southeast Missouri, using chronic sediment toxicity tests with the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, and pore-water toxicity tests with the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Tests conducted in 2002 documented reduced survival of amphipods in stream sediments collected near mining areas and reduced survival and reproduction of daphnids in most pore waters tested. Additional amphipod tests conducted in 2004 documented significant toxic effects of sediments from three streams downstream of mining areas: Strother Creek, West Fork Black River, and Bee Fork. Greatest toxicity occurred in sediments from a 6-km reach of upper Strother Creek, but significant toxic effects occurred in sediments collected at least 14 km downstream of mining in all three watersheds. Toxic effects were significantly correlated with metal concentrations (nickel, zinc, cadmium, and lead) in sediments and pore waters and were generally consistent with predictions of metal toxicity risks based on sediment quality guidelines, although ammonia and manganese may also have contributed to toxicity at a few sites. Responses of amphipods in sediment toxicity tests were significantly correlated with characteristics of benthic invertebrate communities in study streams. These results indicate that toxicity of metals associated with sediments contributes to adverse ecological effects in streams draining the Viburnum Trend mining district.

Besser, J. M.; Brumbaugh, W. G.; Allert, A. L.; Poulton, B. C.; Schmitt, C. J.; Ingersoll, C. G.

2009-01-01

243

Pore water nutrient characteristics and the fluxes across the sediment in the Pearl River estuary and adjacent waters, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatio-temporal distribution of pore water nutrients and the fluxes at the sediment-water interface (SWI) were investigated to probe into the geochemical behavior of nutrients associated with early diagenesis of organic matter (OM), and to study the accumulation and transformation processes of nutrients at the SWI, as well as to discuss the impact of riverine inputs on nutrients in the Pearl River estuary (PRE) and adjacent offshore areas. Nutrient concentrations decreased from the upper to the lower reaches of the estuary, suggesting that there was a high input of anthropogenic nutrients and the estuary was acting as a nutrient sink. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN: the sum of NH4-N, NO3-N and NO2-N) concentrations in the water column and the pore water were higher in the estuary than at offshore areas due to the riverine discharge and the high accumulation rate in the estuary. NO3-N concentration was the highest of the three forms of DIN in the overlying water and showed a sharp decrease from the surficial sediment with increasing sediment depth, indicating that there was strong denitrification at the SWI. NH4-N, mainly deriving from the anaerobic degradation of OM, was the main form of DIN in the pore water and increased with depth. Negative NO3-N fluxes (into the sediment) and positive NH4-N fluxes (from the sediment) were commonly observed from incubation experiments, indicating the denitrification occurred at the SWI. DIN flux suggested that the sediment was a sink of DIN in spring, however, the sediment was the source of DIN in summer and winter. Nutrients dominantly diffused out of the sediment, suggesting that the sediment was the source of nutrients in spring at adjacent offshore areas. The fluxes directed that PO4-P mainly diffused into the sediment while SiO4-Si mainly diffused out of the sediment.

Zhang, Ling; Wang, Lu; Yin, Kedong; Lü, Ying; Zhang, Derong; Yang, Yongqiang; Huang, Xiaoping

2013-11-01

244

Anthropogenic effects on global riverine sediment and water discharge - a spatially explicit analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in global riverine water discharge and suspended sediment flux over a 50-year period, 1960-2010 are studied, applying a new version of the WBMsed (WBMsed v.2.0) global hydrological water balance model. A new floodplain component is introduced to better represent water and sediment dynamics during periods of overbank discharge. Validated against data from 16 globally distributed stations, WBMsed v.2.0 simulation results show considerable improvement over the original model. Anthropogenic impact on sediment and water discharge is evaluated by comparing global scale simulations with and without human drivers and parameters (agricultural land use, water intake form aquifers and rivers, sediment trapping in reservoirs, and human-induced soil erosion). The results show that, on average, global riverine sediment flux is reduced by approximately 25% by anthropogenic activities (almost exclusively due to trapping in reservoirs) while water discharge is reduced by about 2%. These results correspond to previous analysis by other research groups. Substantial global and intra-basin variability is observed (see Figure 1) for the first time. In some regions an opposite anthropogenic effect on sediment and water discharge was predicted (e.g. west Mississippi Basin, Rio Grande River, Indian subcontinent). We discuss the western part of the Mississippi Basin as an example of this intriguing anthropogenic impact. Figure 1. Percent change between disturbed and pristine simulations (with and without human footprint respectively) for sediment flux (top) and water discharge (bottom).

Cohen, S.; Kettner, A. J.; Syvitski, J. P.

2013-12-01

245

Report on water quality, sediment and water chemistry data for water and sediment samples collected from source areas to Melton Hill and Watts Bar reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination of surface water and sediments in the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir (CR\\/WBR) system as a result of past and present activities by the US Department of Energy (DOE) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and also activities by non-ORR facilities are being studied by the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP). Previous studies have documented the presence

T. M. Tomaszewski; D. J. Bruggink; D. L. Nunn

1995-01-01

246

Summary report on water quality, sediment and water chemistry data for water and sediment samples collected from source areas to Melton Hill and Watts Bar reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination of surface water and sediments in the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir (CR\\/WBR) system as a result of past and present activities by the US Department of Energy (DOE) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and also activities by non-ORR facilities are being studied by the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP). Previous studies have documented the presence

T. M. Tomaszewski; D. J. Bruggink; D. L. Nunn

1995-01-01

247

234U and 238U isotopes in water and sediments of the southern Baltic.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to determine the concentration of 234U and 238U and calculate the values of the 234U/238U activity ratio in waters and sediments from the various regions of the southern Baltic Sea: Gda?sk Deep, S?upsk Narrow and Bornholm Deep. The concentration of uranium in analysed sediments from southern Baltic increase with core depth to what probably is connected with diffusion from sediments to water through interstitial water, where uranium concentration is much higher than in bottom water. The highest concentrations of uranium were observed in sediments of S?upsk Narrow (0.66-7.11 mg kg(-1) d.w.) and S?upsk Bank (0.61-6.93 mg kg(-1) d.w.), the lowest in sediments from Bornholm Deep (0.54-3.77 mg kg(-1) d.w.). The 234U/238U activity ratio results indicated that the sedimentation of terrigenic material and Vistula River transport are the general sources of uranium in the southern Baltic sediments. The value of 234U/238U activity ratio in sediments from reduction areas from southern Baltic (Gda?sk Deep and Bornholm Deep) indicated that reduction process of U(VI) to U(IV) and removing of anthropogenic uranium from seawater to sediments constitutes a small part only in Gda?sk Deep. PMID:14689997

Skwarzec, B; Bory?o, A; Strumi?ska, D

2002-01-01

248

Distribution of fullerenes (nC60) between sediment and water in freshwaters.  

PubMed

Depending on environmental conditions, fullerenes (nC60) have the potential to settle to the bottom sediments. In this study the distribution of nC60 was investigated in the labile zone between sediment and water. Three freshwater-sediment systems representing oligohumic, mesohumic, and polyhumic lakes with varying sediment composition and structure were used to investigate the target of fullerenes. The largest portion of water suspended fullerenes was found in the sediment, but a part re-suspended relatively quickly to water-stabile particles associated with natural particles. Rapid initial re-suspending was followed by a slower one offering a continuous pathway to the water phase. Re-suspending was highest from the sediment with a high amount of amorphous matter, small particles and a highly aliphatic character, amounting to 9±1% of the initial amount of fullerenes, whereas it was 4±1% in aromatic sediments with larger particles and less amorphous matter. These results indicate that bottom sediments can retain fullerenes but a portion may remain mobile depending on sediment character. Re-suspended fullerenes may again be available to aquatic species-this knowledge should thus be taken into account in the environmental risk assessment of fullerenes. PMID:24556542

Pakarinen, Kukka; Akkanen, Jarkko; Leppänen, Matti T; Kukkonen, Jussi V K

2014-08-01

249

Low-Cost Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems for Mild Climates  

SciTech Connect

In FY99, Solar Heating and Lighting set the goal to reduce the life-cycle cost of saved-energy for solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems in mild climates by 50%, primarily through use of polymer technology. Two industry teams (Davis Energy Group/SunEarth (DEG/SE) and FAFCO) have been developing un-pressurized integral-collector-storage (ICS) systems having load-side heat exchangers, and began field-testing in FY04. DEG/SE?s ICS has a rotomolded tank and thermoformed glazing. Based upon manufacturing issues, costs, and poor performance, the FAFCO team changed direction in late FY04 from an un-pressurized ICS to a direct thermosiphon design based upon use of pool collectors. Support for the teams is being provided for materials testing, modeling, and system testing. New ICS system models have been produced to model the new systems. A new ICS rating procedure for the ICS systems is undergoing testing and validation. Pipe freezing, freeze protection valves, and overheating have been tested and analyzed.

Burch, J.; Christensen, C.; Merrigan, T.; Hewett, R.; Jorgensen, G.

2005-01-01

250

Testing and analysis of load-side immersed heat exchangers for solar domestic hot water systems  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work to determine the performance of load-side heat exchangers for use in residential solar domestic hot water systems. We measured the performance of four heat exchangers: a smooth coil and a finned coil having heat transfer areas of 2.5 m/sup 2/ (26 ft/sup 2/) and those having areas of 1.7 m/sup 2/ (19 ft/sup 2/). A numerical model using the thermal network program MITAS was constructed, and results were compared to the experimental results. Research showed a smooth coil with only 70% of the surface area of a finned coil performed better than the finned coil. Also, load-side heat exchangers can maintain and enhance stratification in storage tanks, permitting the use of control strategies that take advantage of stratified storage tanks to increase system performance. The analytical model, which agreed reasonably well with the experimental results, was used to vary heat exchanger flow rate and area and initial tank temperature for both a smooth- and a finned-coil heat exchanger. Increasing the heat exchanger flow rate and area results in higher heat transfer rates but not necessarily optimal performance. Lower initial tank temperatures resulted in reduced tank stratification. The smooth heat exchanger outperformed the finned heat exchanger with the same outside surface area. 15 refs., 37 figs., 9 tabs.

Farrington, R.B.; Bingham, C.E.

1987-10-01

251

Use of expert systems for the selection and the design of solar domestic hot water systems  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this article is the study of the application of expert systems to a mechanical engineering research domain with practical and commercial interest, such as design and manufacturing of Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) Systems. The issues studied were the selection and the design of SDHW systems. The application of an expert system was explored. Frame and class formalism was used for knowledge representation together with forward and backward chaining techniques for drawing conclusions and utilizing the accumulated information present. The appropriate computer program was developed to yield the selection of SDHW systems using the software tool LEONARDO 3.0 (1989), an integrated environment for the development of expert systems. The developed program was tested with data according to the Greek standard ELOT corresponding to the ISO/DIS 9459-2 and it performed successfully for 21 SDHW systems available on the Greek market. Apart from the possibility of selection of a SDHW system, the program also supports the facility for updating its knowledge based with new data so that it can be adapted to changes appearing on the market. The program proved to be functional and user friendly to a high degree. 8 refs., 9 figs.

Panteliou, S.; Dentsoras, A.; Daskalopoulos, E. [Univ. of Patras (Greece)] [Univ. of Patras (Greece)

1996-07-01

252

[Variation of nitrogen during the high suspended sediments concentration water supply in an artificial shallow lake].  

PubMed

The effect of water quality and suspended sediments in the process of water supply is of an increasing concern recently in an artificial shallow lake. The water supply from the Yellow River to Dongchang Lake happened on April 23rd to 25th, 2012. The synchronous monitoring of flow velocity, suspended sediment concentration, dissolved nitrogen and particulate nitrogen concentration was conducted during the three days in five monitoring sites of the longitudinal profile from inlet to outlet. The spatio-temporal variation of nitrogen and the relationship between nitrogen concentration and suspended sediment concentration was analyzed. Moreover, the analysis of different nitrogen forms in surface water and bottom sediment was also made in the whole lake before and after the water supply. Results showed that the process of water supplement had an obvious effect on flow velocities and suspended sediment concentrations around the inlet area. The influence area was a limited scope. The spatial distribution of nitrogen presented a certain concentration gradient along the flow direction. Around the water inlet, concentrations of all nitrogen forms in water and bottom sediment was higher than those in other lake zones. The amplitude of variation of all nitrogen concentrations in surface water, suspended sediments showed a decreasing trend from water inlet to outlet. And concentrations of total dissolved and particulate nitrogen increased at different ratios after water supply in the lake. Total particulate nitrogen concentration increase was higher. It revealed the water supply of the Yellow River had a great influence on lake water. The dissolved nitrogen was the main nitrogen form in water supply. The ratio of total dissolved nitrogen to particulate nitrogen was 7.3 : 1. Nitrate was the primary form in dissolved nitrogen, and ammonium was the primary form in particulate nitrogen, respectively. The correlation between concentration of suspended sediments and ammonium, total nitrogen were notable during te water supply, the correlation coefficient were 0.868 and 0.876. Ammonium was mainly influenced by water supply and adsorption and precipitation of suspended sediments. However, the concentration of nitrate was not influenced. Organic nitrogen was the main form in bottom sediment. It meant that the Yellow River water and suspended sediments were the input sources of nitrogen to Dongehang Lake. PMID:24288987

Chen, You-yuan; Shen, Yu; Yang, Shi-ying

2013-09-01

253

224Ra:228Th disequilibrium in coastal sediments: Implications for solute transfer across the sediment-water interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We utilized 224Ra/228Th disequilibrium in the sediment to investigate processes that regulate solute transfer across the sediment-water interface. Depth profiles of dissolved and surface-bound 224Ra and 228Th in the upper 0-20 cm sediment column were measured using a delayed coincidence counter during a cruise to the Yangtze estuary from 15 to 24 August 2011. Along with 224Ra and 228Th, depth profiles of 234Th were collected to determine the bioturbation rate in the sediment. At most study sites, a significant deficit of 224Ra relative to 228Th was observed in the upper 0-10 cm. In contrast, 224Ra was in excess with respect to 228Th in the upper 0-5 cm at the river mouth, possibly due to redistribution of 224Ra from the mid-salinity region. By modeling the 224Ra depth profiles in the sediment using the general diagenetic equation, we demonstrated that in most cases molecular diffusion and bioturbation together can account for only ˜20-30% of the measured flux of 224Ra. We concluded that other mechanisms, especially irrigation, must be invoked to explain the remnant 70% of the observed deviation of 224Ra relative to 228Th. On the basis of the 224Ra/228Th disequilibrium in the sediment and a concept of increased surface area for exchange by irrigation as developed by early investigators, we proposed a new approach - the 224Ra/228Th disequilibrium approach to quantify the transfer rate of other dissolved species across the sediment-water interface. We have utilized this new approach to determine the benthic consumption rate of dissolved O2. The result reveals that benthic consumption is an important loss term of dissolved O2 in the Yangtze estuary and must be considered as one of the mechanisms that lead to hypoxia in this area.

Cai, Pinghe; Shi, Xiangming; Moore, Williard S.; Peng, Shiyun; Wang, Guizhi; Dai, Minhan

2014-01-01

254

Removal of hexavalent chromium from estuarine waters by model substrates and natural sediments  

SciTech Connect

Chromate removal from waters with a range of salinities (0-32%) was studied by using both model substrates, alumina and kaolinite, and natural estuarine sediments in order to determine possible effects of sediment on dissolved chromate in estuarine systems. The dependence of chromate removal on sediment concentrations (<1 g L/sup -1/) will be ineffective in removing dissolved chromate from the water column, though the reaction will be important in deposited sediments. Chromate removal is more effective in low- than high-salinity regimes. Removal by model substrates decreases monotonically with increasing salinity but shows a peak in the 0.1-1.0% range with estuarine sediments. This latter behavior shows similarity with the salinity dependence of chromate reduction by gallic acid, suggesting reductive adsorption by the estuarine sediments. Naturally occurring levels of phosphate ansilicate show negligible effect on chromate removal.

Mayer, L.M.; Schick, L.L.

1981-12-01

255

Sudden clearing of estuarine waters upon crossing the threshold from transport to supply regulation of sediment transport as an erodible sediment pool is depleted: San Francisco Bay, 1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The quantity of suspended sediment in an estuary is regulated either by transport, where energy or time needed to suspend sediment is limiting, or by supply, where the quantity of erodible sediment is limiting. This paper presents a hypothesis that suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) in estuaries can suddenly decrease when the threshold from transport to supply regulation is crossed as an erodible sediment pool is depleted. This study was motivated by a statistically significant 36% step decrease in SSC in San Francisco Bay from water years 1991–1998 to 1999–2007. A quantitative conceptual model of an estuary with an erodible sediment pool and transport or supply regulation of sediment transport is developed. Model results confirm that, if the regulation threshold was crossed in 1999, SSC would decrease rapidly after water year 1999 as observed. Estuaries with a similar history of a depositional sediment pulse followed by erosion may experience sudden clearing.

Schoellhamer, David H.

2011-01-01

256

Energy use and domestic hot water consumption - Phase 1. Final report  

SciTech Connect

New York State Energy Research & Development Authority has sponsored a project to develop comprehensive operating data on combined domestic hot water (DHW) and heating systems to be used in system design and specifications. The new, more precise DHW flow data (broken down on a per capita basis) result in a better foundation for sizing decisions. Thirty New York City multifamily buildings with combined steam heating and DHW plants were instrumented to monitor apartment, outdoor, boiler and DHW temperatures, and burner on-off times. In nine buildings, which had been upgraded, additional data collected were: stack temperature, DHW flow in 15-minute increments, oil and boiler make-up water flows, and DHW temperature before and after the mixing valve and on the return line. The data set collected for 14 months amounts to a data base of over 110 megabytes. This report presents DHW demand patterns, seasonal variations, weekday vs. weekend consumption, consumption vs. occupancy levels, coincidence of 15-, 60-, 120-, and 180- minute demand periods, and average vs. peak demand levels, as well as figures for energy to generate DHW. The format of guidelines presented in this report differs from those currently in use. The {open_quotes}Low - Medium - High{close_quotes} (LMH) users set of guidelines provide a range, rather than a specific, singular gallonage standard. By providing LMH tables and guidelines for their application the design engineer or contractor can then use these as a tool from which to select the appropriate level that matches the site being served. Values are presented for both New York sizing guidelines (developed from this study), as well as a set of {open_quote}National{close_quote} figures (derived from a compilation of studies conducted in other cities). The LMH approach and {open_quote}National{close_quote} guidelines were adopted for inclusion in the 1995 ASHRAE Handbook revision.

Goldner, F.S. [Energy Management & Research Associates, Brooklyn, NY (United States)

1994-11-01

257

Laboratory study on the interaction between herbicides and sediments in water systems.  

PubMed

Interaction between herbicides and sediments in water systems is an important process occurring in water, which influences the behaviour of the herbicides in water. This paper reports on the sorption of herbicides norflurazon, oxadiazon and trifluralin on soil and the interaction between the herbicides and sediments under stirred and non-stirred conditions. The sorption coefficients of the herbicides on soils are 3.58 and 5.41 for norflurazon, 23.43 and 28.07 for oxadiazon and 890.73 and 1217.20 for trifluralin. The sorption of the herbicides is related to the organic carbon content in the soils. This study shows a greater sorption of the herbicides on stirred sediments than on non-stirred sediments due to more significant contact under stirred conditions. The relative concentrations of the herbicides in water systems containing sediments were higher than those in pure water 6 and 13 days after treatment. When these herbicides were sorbed on sediments, their persistence in water increased. Sorption of herbicides on sediments in aquatic systems could protect them from degradation in water. PMID:15092986

Ying, G G; Williams, B

2000-03-01

258

Radon-222 and radium-226 in southeastern Bering Sea shelf waters and sediment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radon-222 and 226Ra activities were measured in the waters and sediment of the southeastern Bering Sea shelf to evaluate the use of radon as a tracer of gas exchange, water column mixing and sediment-water exchange. Cross-shelf distributions of 222Rn and 226Ra are presented. Gas transfer coefficients were estimated using near-surface 222Rn deficiency measurements. A statistically significant linear relationship between averaged wind speed and transfer coefficient was found. Vertical eddy diffusivities were evaluated by applying a one-dimensional model to near-bottom excess 222Rn distributions; these diffusivities were compared to independently determined values. The one-dimensional model applied to the near-bottom 222Rn data was found to be inadequate and a two-dimensional model was applied to improve the fit between model and data. Exchange across the sediment-water interface was computed from the deficiency of 222Rn measured in sediment cores, standing crop estimates of excess 222Rn in the water column and 222Rn production rates of sediment surface grab samples. Biological irrigation of the sediments appeared to be the primary exchange mechanism between the sediment and water columns. Distributions in the water column showed finestructure reported previously and suggested biological removal of 226Ra.

Glover, David M.; Reeburgh, William S.

1987-05-01

259

Chemical quality of surface waters, and sedimentation in the Grand River drainage basin, North and South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An investigation of the chemical quality of surface waters and of the sedimentation in the Grand River drainage basin by the U.S. Geological Survey began in 1946. The chemical quality of the water was studied to obtain information on the nature and amounts of dissolved solids in the streams and on the suitability of the water for domestic, industrial, and irrigation uses. Sedimentation was studied to determine the quantity of sediment that is transported by the streams, the particle sizes of the sediment, and the probable specific weight of the sediment when deposited in a reservoir. The basin is underlain by consolidated sedimentary rocks of Cretaceous and Tertiary age; along the Grand River and its tributaries the rocks are mantled by alluvium of Quaternary age. The Hell Creek and Fort Union Formations underlie about 4,700 of the 5,680 square miles of drainage area. The climate of the basin is semiarid and is characterized by hot summers and cold winters. Mean annual runoff is about 53 acre-feet per square mile of drainage area and is equal to about 7 percent of the mean annual precipitation. The highest streamflows on the Grand River and major tributaries are caused by melting of snow in March and April. Streamflow is extremely variable from year to year. Most of the surface waters in the basin are of the sodium sulfate or sodium bicarbonate type. High percent sodium is typical of almost all the surface waters. The streamflow-quality patterns of the Grand River and its two forks are very similar; dissolved-solids concentration, which usually does not exceed 3,000 ppm, is maximum during low-flow periods. The water in Shadehill Reservoir became stratified during the flood inflow of 1952; about 75 percent of the floodwater, which was of good quality, passed through the reservoir. The quality of the water became almost uniform throughout the reservoir the latter part of July 1952. After the specific conductance became relatively stable in 1956, it fluctuated from about 1,300 to 1,600 micromhos per centimeter and was between 1,400 and 1,500 micromhos per centimeter most of the time. During the representative period July 1937 to June 1950 the quantity of dissolved solids passing the station near Wakpala was estimated to have been about 140,000 tons per year. Yields computed for different parts of the basin ranged from about 22 to 32 tons per square mile. Except for sulfate, concentrations of chemical constituents usually do not exceed the maximum concentrations recommended for domestic supplies. The rather high dissolved solids, and hardness of most of the surface waters prevent the use of these waters for most industrial purposes unless the quality is improved by treatment. Classified for irrigation use according to its specific conductance and sodium-adsorption-ratio, the water stored in Shadehill Reservoir has a high salinity hazard and a medium sodium hazard. The water can be used safely for sustained irrigation on soils of the proposed irrigation unit if adequate leaching is practiced and if gypsum or some other calcium compound is added to the water or land during the high sodium cycle. Suspended-sediment discharges of the Grand River at Shadehill from March 1946 through July 1950 averaged 700,000 tons per year. Suspended-sediment discharges of the South Fork Grand River near Cash for 1947-50, estimated from periodic measurements, averaged 270,000 tons per year. Sediment discharges during these periods were much greater than normal. Suspended-sediment discharges of the North Fork Grand River for 1947-60, estimated from periodic measurements, averaged 31,000 tons per year at Haley and 140,000 tons per year near White Butte. Suspended sediment is predominantly clay ; some silt and a little sand are transported. The probable specific weights of sediment deposits are about 42 pounds per cubic foot for the North and South Forks and 56 pounds per cubic foot for the Grand River at Shadehill. These speci

Hembree, Charles Herbert; Krieger, Robert A.; Jordan, Paul Robert

1964-01-01

260

Parameterization of biogeochemical sediment-water fluxes using in-situ measurements and a steady-state diagenetic model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment biogeochemical processes are important drivers of water column biogeochemistry in coastal areas. For example, sediment oxygen consumption can be an important driver of bottom water oxygen depletion in hypoxic systems, and sediment-water nutrient fluxes support primary productivity in the overlying water column. Yet, biogeochemical sediment-water fluxes are often parameterized crudely and only poorly constrained in coupled physical-biogeochemical models. Here, we present a method for parameterizing biogeochemical sediment-water fluxes realistically and efficiently, using in-situ measurements and a steady state diagenetic model. We apply this method to the Louisiana Shelf where high primary production induced by excess nutrient loads from the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River system promotes the development of hypoxic bottom waters in summer. The implementation of the parameterizations in a coupled circulation-biogeochemical model of the northern Gulf of Mexico results in realistic sediment-water fluxes that enable a sediment-water column feedback at low bottom oxygen concentrations.

Laurent, Arnaud; Fennel, Katja; Wilson, Robin; Lehrter, John; Devereux, Richard

2014-05-01

261

Nitrogen dynamics in sediment during water level manipulation on the Upper Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nitrogen (N) has been linked to increasing eutrophication in the Gulf of Mexico and as a result there is increased interest in managing and improving water quality in the Mississippi River system. Water level reductions, or 'drawdowns', are being used more frequently in large river impoundments to improve vegetation growth and sediment compaction. We selected two areas of the Upper Mississippi River system (Navigation Pool 8 and Swan Lake) to examine the effects of water level drawdown on N dynamics. Navigation Pool 8 experienced summer drawdowns in 2001 and 2002. Certain areas of Swan Lake have been drawn down annually since the early 1970s where as other areas have remained inundated. In the 2002 Pool 8 study we determined the effects of sediment drying and rewetting resulting from water level drawdown on (1) patterns of sediment nitrification and denitrification and (2) concentrations of sediment and surface water total N (TN), nitrate, and ammonium (NH4+). In 2001, we only examined sediment NH4+ and TN. In the Swan Lake study, we determined the long-term effects of water level drawdowns on concentrations of sediment NH4+ and TN in sediments that dried annually and those that remained inundated. Sediment NH4+ decreased significantly in the Pool 8 studies during periods of desiccation, although there were no consistent trends in nitrification and denitrification or a reduction in total sediment N. Ammonium in sediments that have dried annually in Swan Lake appeared lower but was not significantly different from sediments that remain wet. The reduction in sediment NH4+ in parts of Pool 8 was likely a result of increased plant growth and N assimilation, which is then redeposited back to the sediment surface upon plant senescence. Similarly, the Swan Lake study suggested that drawdowns do not result in long term reduction in sediment N. Water level drawdowns may actually reduce water retention time and river-floodplain connectivity, while promoting significant accumulation of organic N. These results indicate that water level drawdowns are probably not an effective means of removing N from the Upper Mississippi River system.

Cavanaugh, Jennifer C.; Richardson, William B.; Strauss, Eric A.; Bartsch, Lynn A.

2006-01-01

262

Impact of Persistent Degassing of Kilauea Volcano on Domestic Water Supplies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In March, 2008, a small explosive eruption in the summit crater of Kilauea Volcano marked the initiation of a new, persistently degassing vent at Kilauea. Emission rates of sulfur dioxide initially exceeded 1000 tons per day but declined to a longer term rate of ~800 tons per day. Because of its location farther inland, the plume from this vent generated more severe and more frequent adverse air quality impacts on the surrounding and downwind communities than has the longer lived degassing vents at Pu'u O'o. Because many residents on Hawaii Island derive their domestic water supply from roof catchment systems, deposition of aerosols produced in the volcanic plume could pose a significant health threat to the community. In order to quantify that risk, a program of screening of water catchment systems was undertaken in three communities: Lower Puna, upwind of the vent; Volcano Village, immediately adjacent to the Kilauea summit; and Hawaiian Ocean View Estates, located ~65 km downwind from the vent. An aggregate of 439 samples were collected and analyzed for pH, and fluoride, chloride and sulfate ion concentrations; the median values and extrema are shown in Table I below. The pH values for the catchments proved not to be a good indicator of plume influence: the Volcano and Ocean View communities showed a bimodal distribution of values reflecting residents managing their water systems (median pH = 6.2 and 7.2 respectively) and those that didn't (median pH = 4.5 and 4.3 respectively); however, the lower extremes for pH gave values of 2.9 and 3.3 respectively. Chloride values were also variable due to the use of sodium hypochlorite to treat for biological contaminants. The median values for fluoride and sulfate show a progressive increase from the Puna catchments to Volcano and Ocean View. We believe that these values are consistent with the relative exposure of the communities to the volcanic plume: although the Volcano community is closer to the source, wind conditions conducive to exposure are infrequent whereas the more distant Ocean View community is exposed to a more dilute plume but at a much higher frequency. Even though the median values are within accepted limits for drinking water, the extreme values observed are cause for concern: the pH values are well below those recommended for drinking water and the fluoride values are approaching WHO recommended drinking water levels. With even modest increases in plume output or exposure times, some of the community catchment systems can accumulate sufficient acid or fluoride ion concentrations to pose a significant health threat if drinking water is drawn from those catchments. Continued monitoring of catchment water quality is recommended.Table I. Catchment Water Supply Analytical Results Concentrations in parts per million

Thomas, D. M.; Macomber, T.

2010-12-01

263

ECO: A Generic Eutrophication Model Including Comprehensive Sediment-Water Interaction  

PubMed Central

The content and calibration of the comprehensive generic 3D eutrophication model ECO for water and sediment quality is presented. Based on a computational grid for water and sediment, ECO is used as a tool for water quality management to simulate concentrations and mass fluxes of nutrients (N, P, Si), phytoplankton species, detrital organic matter, electron acceptors and related substances. ECO combines integral simulation of water and sediment quality with sediment diagenesis and closed mass balances. Its advanced process formulations for substances in the water column and the bed sediment were developed to allow for a much more dynamic calculation of the sediment-water exchange fluxes of nutrients as resulting from steep concentration gradients across the sediment-water interface than is possible with other eutrophication models. ECO is to more accurately calculate the accumulation of organic matter and nutrients in the sediment, and to allow for more accurate prediction of phytoplankton biomass and water quality in response to mitigative measures such as nutrient load reduction. ECO was calibrated for shallow Lake Veluwe (The Netherlands). Due to restoration measures this lake underwent a transition from hypertrophic conditions to moderately eutrophic conditions, leading to the extensive colonization by submerged macrophytes. ECO reproduces observed water quality well for the transition period of ten years. The values of its process coefficients are in line with ranges derived from literature. ECO’s calculation results underline the importance of redox processes and phosphate speciation for the nutrient return fluxes. Among other things, the results suggest that authigenic formation of a stable apatite-like mineral in the sediment can contribute significantly to oligotrophication of a lake after a phosphorus load reduction.

Smits, Johannes G. C.; van Beek, Jan K. L.

2013-01-01

264

Contamination of nonylphenolic compounds in creek water, wastewater treatment plant effluents, and sediments from Lake Shihwa and vicinity, Korea: comparison with fecal pollution.  

PubMed

Nonylphenolic compounds (NPs), coprostanol (COP), and cholestanol, major contaminants in industrial and domestic wastewaters, were analyzed in creek water, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, and sediment samples from artificial Lake Shihwa and its vicinity, one of the most industrialized regions in Korea. We also determined mass discharge of NPs and COP, a fecal sterol, into the lake, to understand the linkage between discharge and sediment contamination. Total NP (the sum of nonylphenol, and nonylphenol mono- and di-ethoxylates) were 0.32-875 ?g L(-1) in creeks, 0.61-87.0 ?g L(-1) in WWTP effluents, and 29.3-230 ?g g(-1) TOC in sediments. Concentrations of COP were 0.09-19.0 ?g L(-1) in creeks, 0.11-44.0 ?g L(-1) in WWTP effluents, and 2.51-438 ?g g(-1) TOC in sediments. The spatial distributions of NPs in creeks and sediments from the inshore region were different from those of COP, suggesting that Lake Shihwa contamination patterns from industrial effluents differ from those from domestic effluents. The mass discharge from the combined outfall of the WWTPs, located in the offshore region, was 2.27 kg d(-1) for NPs and 1.00 kg d(-1) for COP, accounting for 91% and 95% of the total discharge into Lake Shihwa, respectively. The highest concentrations of NPs and COP in sediments were found in samples at sites near the submarine outfall of the WWTPs, indicating that the submarine outfall is an important point source of wastewater pollution in Lake Shihwa. PMID:21890169

Choi, Minkyu; Furlong, Edward T; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Yu, Jun; Choi, Hee-Gu

2011-11-01

265

Contamination of nonylphenolic compounds in creek water, wastewater treatment plant effluents, and sediments from Lake Shihwa and vicinity, Korea: Comparison with fecal pollution  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nonylphenolic compounds (NPs), coprostanol (COP), and cholestanol, major contaminants in industrial and domestic wastewaters, were analyzed in creek water, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, and sediment samples from artificial Lake Shihwa and its vicinity, one of the most industrialized regions in Korea. We also determined mass discharge of NPs and COP, a fecal sterol, into the lake, to understand the linkage between discharge and sediment contamination. Total NP (the sum of nonylphenol, and nonylphenol mono- and di-ethoxylates) were 0.32–875 ?g L-1 in creeks, 0.61–87.0 ?g L-1 in WWTP effluents, and 29.3–230 ?g g-1 TOC in sediments. Concentrations of COP were 0.09–19.0 ?g L-1 in creeks, 0.11–44.0 ?g L-1 in WWTP effluents, and 2.51–438 ?g g-1 TOC in sediments. The spatial distributions of NPs in creeks and sediments from the inshore region were different from those of COP, suggesting that Lake Shihwa contamination patterns from industrial effluents differ from those from domestic effluents. The mass discharge from the combined outfall of the WWTPs, located in the offshore region, was 2.27 kg d-1 for NPs and 1.00 kg d-1 for COP, accounting for 91% and 95% of the total discharge into Lake Shihwa, respectively. The highest concentrations of NPs and COP in sediments were found in samples at sites near the submarine outfall of the WWTPs, indicating that the submarine outfall is an important point source of wastewater pollution in Lake Shihwa.

Choi, Minkyu; Furlong, Edward T.; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Yu, Jun; Choi, Hee-Gu

2011-01-01

266

Relief peels in the study of palaeoflood slack-water sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of slack-water sediments as palaeostage indicators in palaeoflood hydrological analysis requires detailed sedimentological description. Conventional descriptions have relied mainly on field descriptions of slack-water profiles. However, this method often fails to reveal important detail. By employing the well-established technique of relief peels, modified for use in slack-water sediment studies, the problem of insufficient data recovery from slack-water deposits was successfully overcome during a palaeoflood hydrological investigation of South African rivers. The use of relief peels showed that this technique is a useful, and in some cases, indispensable aid in the description and interpretation of palaeoflood deposits. For example, relief peels have shown that slack-water sediments are for the most part not massive exhibiting mainly flat lamination. This indicates that slack-water sedimentation was characterised by moderate rates of deposition rather than sudden or rapid rates. Relief peels have also shown that the base of tributary back-flooded slack-water sediments often contain intraformational rip-up clasts. This indicates that reworking of the existing slack-water sediments is a common process during tributary back-flooding. The technique was particularly effective in enhancing sedimentary structure and in differentiating between interpalaeoflood, non-palaeoflood and intraflood pulses. Relief peels can also be stored permanently as a surface sample of the slack-water sequence to be retrieved for later study.

Hattingh, J.; Zawada, P. K.

1996-06-01

267

Evaluation of natural radioactivity in soil, sediment and water samples of Niger Delta (Biseni) flood plain lakes, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This paper presents the findings of a baseline study undertaken to evaluate the natural radioactivity levels in soil, sediment and water samples in four flood plain lakes of the Niger Delta using a hyper pure germanium (HPGe) detector. The activity profile of radionuclides shows low activity across the study area. The mean activity level of the natural radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K is 20 ± 3, 20 ± 3 and 180 ± 50 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These values are well within values reported elsewhere in the country and in other countries with similar environments. The study also examined some radiation hazard indices. The mean values obtained are, 76 ± 14 Bq kg(-1), 30 ± 5.5 ?Gy h(-1), 37 ± 6.8 ?Sv y(-1), 0.17 and 0.23 for Radium Equivalent Activity (Ra(eq)), Absorbed Dose Rates (D), Annual Effective Dose Rates (E(ff) Dose), External Hazard Index (H(ex)) and Internal Hazard Index (H(in)) respectively. All the health hazard indices are well below their recommended limits. The soil and sediments from the study area provide no excessive exposures for inhabitants and can be used as construction materials without posing any significant radiological threat to the population. The water is radiologically safe for domestic and industrial use. The paper recommends further studies to estimate internal and external doses from other suspected radiological sources to the population of the Biseni kingdom. PMID:21514983

Agbalagba, E O; Onoja, R A

2011-07-01

268

Phosphorus Sources for Aquatic Weeds: Water or Sediments?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine common species of aquatic macrophytes took all their phosphorus from the sediments when grown in situ in both a mesotrophic and a mildly eutrophic bay. Even under hypertrophic conditions, the sediments contributed an average of 72 percent of all the phosphorus taken up during growth. These experiments unambiguously demonstrate for the first time that submergent macrophytes in nature overwhelmingly

R. Carignan; J. Kalff

1980-01-01

269

Enhancing the start-up of a UASB reactor treating domestic wastewater by adding a water extract of Moringa oleifera seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water extract of Moringa oleifera seeds (WEMOS) was used to enhance the start-up of a self-inoculated upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating raw domestic wastewater. Two reactors labelled control (RC) and WEMOS addition (RM) were started without special inoculum. Both reactors were fed continuously for 22 weeks with domestic wastewater containing an average total chemical oxygen demand (COD) of

Y. Kalogo; A. M'Bassiguié Séka; W. Verstraete

2001-01-01

270

A multi-level pore-water sampler for permeable sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The construction and operation of a multi-level piezometer (multisampler) designed to collect pore water from permeable sediments up to 230 cm below the sediment-water interface is described. Multisamplers are constructed from 1 1/2 inch schedule 80 PVC pipe. One-quarter-inch flexible PVC tubing leads from eight ports at variable depths to a 1 1/2 inch tee fitting at the top of the PVC pipe. Multisamplers are driven into the sediments using standard fence-post drivers. Water is pumped from the PVC tubing with a peristaltic pump. Field tests in Banana River Lagoon, Florida, demonstrate the utility of multisamplers. These tests include collection of multiple samples from the permeable sediments and reveal mixing between shallow pore water and overlying lagoon water.

Martin, J. B.; Hartl, K. M.; Corbett, D. R.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Cable, J. E.

2003-01-01

271

A vacuum-operated pore-water extractor for estuarine and freshwater sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A vacuum-operated pore-water extractor for estuarine and freshwater sediments was developed and constructed from a fused-glass air stone attached with aquarium airline tubing to a 30 or 60 cc polypropylene syringe. Pore water is extracted by inserting the air stone into the sediment and creating a vacuum by retracting and bracing the syringe plunger. A hand-operated vacuum pump attached to a filtration flask was also evaluated as an alternative vacuum source. The volume and time to extract pore water varies with the number of devices and the sediment particle size. Extraction time is longer for fine sediments than for sandy sediments. Four liters of sediment generally yield between 500 and 1,500 mL of pore water. The sediment that surrounds and accumulates on the air stone acts as a filter, and, except for the first few milliliters, the collected pore water is clear. Because there is no exposure to air or avenue for escape, volatile compounds andin situ characteristics are retained in the extracted pore water.

Winger, P. V.; Lasier, P. J.

1991-01-01

272

Influence of the water content on X-ray fluorescence core-scanning measurements in soft marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanner provides bulk-sediment chemistry data measured nondestructively at the split core sediment surface. Although this method is widely accepted, there is little known about the effects of physical properties such as density and water content on XRF core scanner data. Comparison of XRF scanner measurements from the sediment surface and dry powder samples of sediment

Rik Tjallingii; Ursula Röhl; Martin Kölling; Torsten Bickert

2007-01-01

273

Mathematical simulation of sediment and radionuclide transport in coastal waters. Volume 2. User's manual and computer program listing for FETRA  

Microsoft Academic Search

FETRA is a finite element model for simulating the sediment and contaminant transport to surface water. The model was applied to a test site in the Irish Sea and modified to account for wave mechanisms that effect sediment suspension. The model consists of three submodels that are coupled to simulate sediment\\/contaminant interactions. The submodels simulate 1) sediment transport, 2) dissolved

Y Onishi; F. L. Thompson

1984-01-01

274

Rhizon sampling of porewaters near the sediment-water interface of aquatic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhizon samplers were originally designed as micro-tensiometers for soil science to sample seepage water in the unsaturated zone. This study shows applications of Rhizons for porewater sampling from sediments in aquatic systems and presents a newly developed Rhizon in situ sampler (RISS). With the inexpensive Rhizon sampling technique, porewater profiles can be sampled with minimum disturbance of both the sediment

Jens Seeberg-Elverfeldt; Michael Schlüter; Tomas Feseker; Martin Kölling

2005-01-01

275

AUTOMATED LONG-TERM REMOTE MONITORING OF SEDIMENT-WATER INTERFACIAL FLUX  

EPA Science Inventory

Advective flux across the sediment-water interface is temporally and spatially heterogeneous in nature. For contaminated sediment sites, monitoring spatial as well as temporal variation of advective flux is of importance to proper risk management. This project was conducted to ...

276

Phosphorus in sediments and pore waters of selected Polish dam reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to examine and explain the spatial distribution of total phosphorus in sediments and orthophosphates in interstitial water in four Polish dam reservoirs with varying hydrological and geochemical characteristics. The results are linked to physicochemical parameters of sediments: organic matter and calcium carbonates content, pH, redox potential and conductivity. In two of the studied reservoirs hydrological dynamics were

Adriana Trojanowska; Piotr Jezierski

2011-01-01

277

Degration of Selected Halogenated Ethanes in Anoxic Sediment-Water Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The degradation of selected halogenated ethanes was studied in anoxic sediment-water suspensions at 1 to 20% sediment concentrations. Batch kinetic experiments were used to quantify decay. Eh measurements of all suspensions were below -100mV (vs SHE), ind...

C. T. Jafvert N. L. Wolfe

1987-01-01

278

SURVIVAL OF 'DAPHNIA MAGNA' AND 'HYALELLA AZTECA' IN CADMIUM-SPIKED WATER AND SEDIMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Freshwater sediments and water were spiked with cadmium (Cd) in the laboratory, and toxicity tests were conducted with the cladoceran Daphnia magna and the amphipod Hyalella azteca to determine if Cd in the sediment would cause increased toxicity. The 48-h LC50 values for Daphnia...

279

Water Velocity and Bioturbation Alter Sediment Resuspension and Biogeochemistry in an Experimental Freshwater Mesocosm System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Processes such as bioturbation and resuspension can affect organic matter decomposition by altering sediment redox conditions. Increased oxygen availability may, in turn, affect remineralization rates and larger scale processes such as benthic-pelagic coupling. However, relatively few studies have explicitly tested the simultaneous effects of bioturbation and water velocity on benthic biogeochemistry and sediment resuspension. Using a mesocosm system we conducted

A. Spivak; M. J. Vanni

2010-01-01

280

A reservoir operating method for riverine ecosystem protection, reservoir sedimentation control and water supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riverine ecosystem protection requires the maintenance of natural flow and sediment regimes downstream from dams. In reservoir management schedules this requirement should be integrated with sedimentation control and human water supply. However, traditional eco-friendly reservoir operating methods have usually only considered the natural flow regime. This paper seeks to develop a reservoir operating method that accounts for both the natural flow and sediment regimes as well as optimizing the water supply allocations. Herein, reservoir water level (RWL), sediment-occupied ratio of reservoir volume (SOR) and rate of change of SOR (RCSOR) are adopted as three triggers of a drawdown-flushing-based sediment management policy. Two different groups of reservoir operating rule curves (RORCs) are designed for sediment-flushing and non-sediment-flushing years, and the three triggers, RWL, SOR and RCSOR, are used to change the “static” RORCs to “dynamic” ones. The approach is applied to the Wangkuai Reservoir, China to test its effectiveness. This shows that the approach can improve the flexibility of reservoir operators to balance the reservoir management, water supply management and the flow and sediment needs of the downstream riverine ecosystem.

Yin, Xin-An; Yang, Zhi-Feng; Petts, Geoffrey E.; Kondolf, G. Mathias

2014-05-01

281

A probe for sampling interstitial waters of stream sediments and bog soils  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A probe for sampling interstitial waters of stream sediments and bog soils is described. Samples can be obtained within a stratigraphic interval of 2-3 cm, to a depth of 60-80 cm, and with little or no contamination of the samples by sediment or air. ?? 1974.

Nowlan, G. A.; Carollo, C.

1974-01-01

282

Diverted Mississippi River sediment as a potential phosphorus source affecting coastal Louisiana water quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mississippi River water and associated sediment are seasonally diverted into Louisiana coastal basins to restore historic hydrologic and salinity regimes and to slow or reverse the widespread wetland loss. More river diversions are planned; however, very little research has been conducted on the potential source of phosphorous (P) of these sediments transported by the Mississippi River into the coastal areas

Wen Zhang; J. R. White; R. D. DeLaune

2012-01-01

283

Organic pollutants in mussels and sediments of the coastal waters off Perth, Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a survey of organic pollutants in the marine sediments and the common mussel, Mytilus edulis, from the southern metropolitan coastal waters off Perth are presented. Organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organotin compounds were analysed in surficial (top 20 mm) sediments from 175 sites and in mussel tissue from 35 sites

James S. Burt; Geoff F. Ebell

1995-01-01

284

Towards the development of a combined Norovirus and sediment transport model for coastal waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sewage effluent in coastal waters used for oyster culture poses a risk to human health. The primary pathogen in outbreaks of gastroenteritis following consumption of raw oysters is the Norovirus or "winter vomiting bug". The Norovirus is a highly infectious RNA virus of the Caliciviridae taxonomic family. It has a long survival time in coastal waters (T90 = 30 days in winter). Oysters selectively concentrate Norovirus in their digestive ducts. The virus cannot be removed by conventional depuration. The primary goal of the research is to quantify the risk of Norovirus infection in coastal waters through physically-based high-resolution numerical modelling. Cork Harbour and Clew Bay in Ireland provide case studies for the research. The models simulate a number of complex physical, chemical and biological processes which influence the transport and decay of the virus as well as its bioaccumulation in oyster tissue. The current phase of the research is concerned with the adsorption of the virus to suspended sediment in the water column. Adsorbed viruses may be taken out of the water column when sedimentation occurs and, subsequently, be added to it with resuspension of the bed sediment. Preliminary simulations of the Norovirus-sediment model indicate that suspended sediment can influence the transport of the virus in coastal waters when a high sediment-water partitioning coefficient is used and the model is run under calm environmental conditions. In this instance a certain fraction of the adsorbed viruses are taken out of the water column by sedimentation and end up locked in the bed sediment. Subsequently, under storm conditions, a large number of viruses in the bed are released into the water column by erosion of the bed and a risk of contamination occurs at a time different to when the viruses were initially released into the body of water.

Barry, K.; O'Kane, J. P. J.

2009-04-01

285

Probabilistic analysis of risks to US drinking water intakes from 1,4-dioxane in domestic wastewater treatment plant effluents.  

PubMed

The risks of 1,4-dioxane (dioxane) concentrations in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, receiving primarily domestic wastewater, to downstream drinking water intakes was estimated using distributions of measured dioxane concentrations in effluents from 40 WWTPs and surface water dilution factors of 1323 drinking water intakes across the United States. Effluent samples were spiked with a d8 -1,4-dioxane internal standard in the field immediately after sample collection. Dioxane was extracted with ENVI-CARB-Plus solid phase columns and analyzed by GC/MS/MS, with a limit of quantification of 0.30??g/L. Measured dioxane concentrations in domestic wastewater effluents ranged from <0.30 to 3.30??g/L, with a mean concentration of 1.11?±?0.60??g/L. Dilution of upstream inputs of effluent were estimated for US drinking water intakes using the iSTREEM model at mean flow conditions, assuming no in-stream loss of dioxane. Dilution factors ranged from 2.6 to 48?113, with a mean of 875. The distributions of dilution factors and dioxane concentration in effluent were then combined using Monte Carlo analysis to estimate dioxane concentrations at drinking water intakes. This analysis showed the probability was negligible (p?=?0.0031) that dioxane inputs from upstream WWTPs could result in intake concentrations exceeding the USEPA drinking water advisory concentration of 0.35??g/L, before any treatment of the water for drinking use. PMID:23713009

Simonich, Staci Massey; Sun, Ping; Casteel, Ken; Dyer, Scott; Wernery, Dave; Garber, Kevin; Carr, Gregory; Federle, Thomas

2013-10-01

286

Distributions of pesticides and organic contaminants between water and suspended sediment, San Francisco Bay, California  

SciTech Connect

Suspended-sediment and water samples were collected from San Francisco Bay in 1991 during low river discharge and after spring rains. All samples were analyzed for organophosphate, carbamate, and organochlorine pesticides; petroleum hydrocarbons; biomarkers; and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. The objective were to determine the concentrations of these contaminants in water and suspended sediment during two different hydrologic conditions and to determine partition coefficients of the contaminants between water and sediment. Concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants, such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, varied with location of sample collection, riverine discharge, and tidal cycle. Concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants in suspended sediments were highest during low river discharge but became diluted as agricultural soils entered the bay after spring rains. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons defined as dissolved in the water column were not detected. The concentrations sorbed on suspended sediments were variable and were dependent on sediment transport patterns in the bay. In contrast, the relatively hydrophilic organophosphate pesticides, such as chlorpyrifos and diazinon, had a ore uniform concentration in suspended sediment. These pesticides were detected only after spring rains. Most of the measured diazinon, at least 98% for all samples, was in the dissolved phase. Measured partition coefficients for diazinon generally were uniform, which suggest that suspended-sediment concentrations were close to equilibrium with dissolved concentrations. The concentration of diazinon sorbed to suspended sediments, at any given sampling site, was driven primarily by the more abundant solution concentration. The concentrations of diazinon sorbed to suspended sediments, therefore, were independent of the patterns of sediment movement. 27 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Domagalski, J.L.; Kuivila, K.M. (Department of the Interior, Sacramento, CA (United States))

1993-12-01

287

Application of multi-objective technique in modeling water and sediment flow in river reaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Usually water resources problems consist of multiple objectives that may be conflicting and competing in nature. To evaluate optimal water resources system performances often it is required to obtain a compromise solution satisfying several goals and objectives. For example, in the case of multipurpose reservoir operations, a number of conflicting and competing purposes such as supply of water for conservation uses, downstream flood control, hydropower generation and related environmental objectives are to be optimally satisfied. It may be noted that for deriving maximum benefit from conservation uses reservoir storage should be as high as possible; on the other hand to achieve maximum flood control benefits the storage should be kept as low as possible. Since flood control and conservation objectives are conflicting in nature, higher achievement in flood control objective results in lower attainment of the conservation objectives. In other areas of water resources such as, rainfall runoff modeling, water quality problems, watershed management etc often a number of objectives are required to be satisfied to derive optimal system performances. It is known that one prominent cause of soil erosion and runoff generation from a catchment is related to the effect of rainfall over the catchment and thus water and the sediment discharge at a river station are mainly depended on rainfall and the catchment characteristics. Water and sediment discharge for a river section can be considered as two outputs due to a rainfall input over the catchment. To describe sediment and water flow through river reaches usually separate models are used and the model parameters are estimated using single/multiple optimization routines. Since water and sediment flow are effects with a common cause, a new model can be obtained that can quantify and explain both the effects that is, flow of sediment and water in a river course. In the present study, application of multiple objective optimization technique has described in obtaining parameters of the integrated water-sediment flow model. The integrated model needs to be calibrated using both water and sediment data for a river reach and requires separate objective functions to independently match water and sediment flow variations for a station. The integrated model describing two hydrological variables is highly nonlinear with exponential model form and requires efficient algorithm to identify model parameters. Multiple objectives were framed to calibrate the model using water and sediment data and the model parameters were estimated applying non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II). The proposed model formulations are demonstrated for simulating suspended sediment load and water discharge in the Mississippi River Basin, USA. Results obtained show that an integrated model having multiple objectives can be developed to describe two hydrological variables with satisfactory performances.

Sil, Briti Sundar; Choudhury, Parthasarathi

2010-10-01

288

Mercury cycling between the water column and surface sediments in a contaminated area.  

PubMed

Mercury cycling in the water column and upper sediments of a contaminated area, the Largo do Laranjo, Aveiro (Portugal), was evaluated after determination of reactive and non-reactive mercury concentrations in the water column and pore waters of sediments, collected in several places of this bay. In the water column, reactive mercury concentrations varied between 10 and 37 pmol dm(-3), the highest values being observed near the mercury anthropogenic source. However, reactive mercury was a narrowly constrained fraction of the total mercury, making up only 4-16% of the total, showing evidence of the importance of dissolved organic matter on mercury transport. In sediments, higher concentrations of mercury were also determined near industrial discharges. Results indicate the existence of an equilibrium between solid and liquid phases, determined by solid sediment/pore water distribution coefficients. Much of the mercury present in the solid fraction is associated with organic matter (r=0.837) and iron oxyhydroxides (r=0.919), but as oxides begin to dissolve in reduced sediments and organic matter decays, the adsorbed mercury is released. In fact, the mercury concentrations in pore waters of those contaminated sediments largely exceeded the values determined in the water column. As molecular diffusion may contribute to the dissolved mercury distribution in the overlying water column, this phenomenon was evaluated. However, the pore waters of Largo do Laranjo do not enrich the water column substantially in terms of reactive and non-reactive mercury. In fact, pore waters can contribute only to 0.2% and 0.5% of the reactive and non-reactive mercury present in the water column, respectively, showing that as long as mercury is being incorporated in sediments, it stays in stable forms. PMID:16854448

Ramalhosa, Elsa; Segade, Susana Río; Pereira, Eduarda; Vale, Carlos; Duarte, Armando

2006-08-01

289

Spatial Variability of Metals in Surface Water and Sediment in the Langat River and Geochemical Factors That Influence Their Water-Sediment Interactions  

PubMed Central

This paper determines the controlling factors that influence the metals' behavior water-sediment interaction facies and distribution of elemental content (75As, 111Cd, 59Co, 52Cr, 60Ni, and 208Pb) in water and sediment samples in order to assess the metal pollution status in the Langat River. A total of 90 water and sediment samples were collected simultaneously in triplicate at 30 sampling stations. Selected metals were analyzed using ICP-MS, and the metals' concentration varied among stations. Metal concentrations of water ranged between 0.08–24.71??g/L for As, <0.01–0.53??g/L for Cd, 0.06–6.22??g/L for Co, 0.32–4.67??g/L for Cr, 0.80–24.72??g/L for Ni, and <0.005–6.99??g/L for Pb. Meanwhile, for sediment, it ranged between 4.47–30.04?mg/kg for As, 0.02–0.18?mg/kg for Cd, 0.87–4.66?mg/kg for Co, 4.31–29.04?mg/kg for Cr, 2.33–8.25?mg/kg for Ni and 5.57–55.71?mg/kg for Pb. The average concentration of studied metals in the water was lower than the Malaysian National Standard for Drinking Water Quality proposed by the Ministry of Health. The average concentration for As in sediment was exceeding ISQG standards as proposed by the Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines. Statistical analyses revealed that certain metals (As, Co, Ni, and Pb) were generally influenced by pH and conductivity. These results are important when making crucial decisions in determining potential hazardous levels of these metals toward humans.

Lim, Wan Ying; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi

2012-01-01

290

The transport of fine-grained sediments in shallow waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical model of the resuspension, deposition, and transport of fine-grained, cohesive sediments has been developed and applied. An essential part of this model is an accurate and physically realistic description of the sediment bed and the resuspension of the bottom sediments due to physical processes. The description is based on data from recent experimental and field work on fine-grained sediments. Pertinent results from this work have been incorporated into the present model, and as part of the calculation, changes in the resuspension properties of the sediment bed with time due to resuspension, deposition, and compaction can be approximately determined. Vertically integrated differential equations were used to approximate the hydrodynamic and sediment transport equations. A volume integral method was used to derive finite difference equations which are second-order accurate, explicit, and locally conservative. A unique feature of the numerical model is that it can successfully treat conditions at open boundaries where both incoming and outgoing waves or disturbances may be present. The model has been applied to the resuspension, deposition, and transport of fine-grained sediments in (1) the Raisin River, a small polluted stream flowing into Lake Erie; (2) a river flowing into a lake or ocean with a cross-flow; and (3) a time-dependent flow in a simple estuary as affected by tidal currents. The formation of erosional and depositional areas under various conditions is demonstrated.

Ziegler, Carl Kirk; Lick, Wilbert

1988-02-01

291

Harvesting energy from the marine sediment--water interface.  

PubMed

Pairs of platinum mesh or graphite fiber-based electrodes, one embedded in marine sediment (anode), the other in proximal seawater (cathode), have been used to harvest low-level power from natural, microbe established, voltage gradients at marine sediment-seawater interfaces in laboratory aquaria. The sustained power harvested thus far has been on the order of 0.01 W/m2 of electrode geometric area but is dependent on electrode design, sediment composition, and temperature. It is proposed that the sediment/anode-seawater/cathode configuration constitutes a microbial fuel cell in which power results from the net oxidation of sediment organic matter by dissolved seawater oxygen. Considering typical sediment organic carbon contents, typical fluxes of additional reduced carbon by sedimentation to sea floors < 1,000 m deep, and the proven viability of dissolved seawater oxygen as an oxidant for power generation by seawater batteries, it is calculated that optimized power supplies based on the phenomenon demonstrated here could power oceanographic instruments deployed for routine long-term monitoring operations in the coastal ocean. PMID:11352010

Reimers, C E; Tender, L M; Fertig, S; Wang, W

2001-01-01

292

Radium, thorium, uranium, and ²¹°Pb in deep-sea sediments and sediment pore waters from the North Equatorial Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of radium, thorium, uranium isotopes, and ²¹°Pb in sediments and sediment pore waters from North Equatorial Pacific deep-sea clay-silicous oozes shows that the radium and uranium isotopes are mobile in the pore water. The concentration-depth profiles of radium can be understood in terms of a diagenetic model which takes into account mixing of sediment particles by bioturbation, molecular diffusion

J. K. Cochran; S. Krishnaswami

1980-01-01

293

Sediment load from major rivers into Puget Sound and its adjacent waters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Each year, an estimated load of 6.5 million tons of sediment is transported by rivers to Puget Sound and its adjacent waters—enough to cover a football field to the height of six Space Needles. This estimated load is highly uncertain because sediment studies and available sediment-load data are sparse and historically limited to specific rivers, short time frames, and a narrow range of hydrologic conditions. The largest sediment loads are carried by rivers with glaciated volcanoes in their headwaters. Research suggests 70 percent of the sediment load delivered to Puget Sound is from rivers and 30 percent is from shoreline erosion, but the magnitude of specific contributions is highly uncertain. Most of a river's sediment load occurs during floods.

Czuba, Jonathan A.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Grossman, Eric E.; Curran, Christopher A.; Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Dinicola, Richard S.

2011-01-01

294

Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish, water and sediment from Shing Mun River  

SciTech Connect

The level and pattern of contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters), sediment, and water from the Shing Mun River. The range of total PCBs was 12.9 ng/g to 181.6 ng/g wet weight in tilapia, 12.7 ng/g to 46.0 ng/g freeze-dried weight in sediment, and 3.8 ng/L to 13.6 ng/L in water. The effect of biomagnification was also observed, PCB concentrations increased from water to sediment to tilapia. PCB congeners occurred in such a way that lower chlorinated PCBs comprised a higher fraction of the total PCBs in water, sediment, and tilapia muscle, whereas higher chlorinated PCBs were more commonly found only in tilapia.

Chui, V.W.; Lam-Leung, S.Y.; Chan, T.C. (Department of Bioogy, Hong Kong Baptist College, Kowloon (Hong Kong))

1991-12-01

295

METAL SPECIATION IN SOIL, SEDIMENT, AND WATER SYSTEMS VIA SYNCHROTRON RADIATION RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

Metal contaminated environmental systems (soils, sediments, and water) have challenged researchers for many years. Traditional methods of analysis have employed extraction methods to determine total metal content and define risk based on the premise that as metal concentration in...

296

TOXICITY TESTS OF EFFLUENTS WITH MARSH PLANTS IN WATER AND SEDIMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Methods are described for toxicity testing of water and sediment with the rooted marsh plants, Echinochloa crusgalli var. crusgalli and var. zelavensis (freshwater) and Spartina alterniflora (estuarine). ive industrial effluents, a sewage treatment plant effluent and a herbicide ...

297

30 CFR 77.216-5 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

This plan shall provide for major slope stability, include a schedule for the plan's implementation and, except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, contain provisions to preclude the probability of future impoundment of water, sediment, or...

2013-07-01

298

PRECISION OF DIALYSIS (PEEPER) SAMPLING OF CADMIUM IN MARINE SEDIMENT INTERSTITIAL WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Isolating and analyzing interstitial water (IW) during sediment toxicity tests enables researchers to relate concentrations of contaminants to responses of organisms, particularly when IW is a primary route of exposure to bioavailable contaminants by benthic dwelling organisms. W...

299

HEXACHLOROBENZENE UPTAKE BY FATHEAD MINNOWS AND MACRO INVERTEBRATES IN RECIRCULATING SEDIMENT/WATER SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), the worm, Lumbriculus variegatus, and the amphipods Hyalella azteca and Gammarus lacustris were exposed to hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in water with and without a bed of HCB-spiked sediment. ater HCB concentrations were maintained by recirculatio...

300

Characterization of bottom-sediment, water, and elutriate chemistry at selected stations at Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To better-understand and predict the potential effect of dredging on water quality at Reelfoot Lake, chemical analyses were conducted on samples of lake water, bottom sediment, and elutriate water. Chemical analyses were conducted on samples of lake water, bottom sediment, and elutriate water collected at five stations in the lake during November 1988. Lake water was of the calcium magnesium bicarbonate type with an average dissolved-solids concentration of 120 milligrams per liter. Trace constituents were present in bottom sediments at concentrations representative of their average relative abundance in the earth?s crust. Elutriate waters prepared by mixing bottom sediment and lake water had suspended-solids concentrations as high as 2,000 milligrams per liter which exerted significant oxygen demand Trace constituents in the unfiltered elutriate waters were elevated with respect to lake water; elevated concentrations were attributable to the increased suspended-solids concentrations. Concentrations of total-recoverable copper, lead., and zinc in many elutriate waters exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s water-quality criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. The toxicity of elutriate waters, as measured by a 48-hour bioassay with Ceriodaphnia dubia, was low.

Broshears, R. E.

1991-01-01

301

Hydrothermal sediments are a source of water column Fe and Mn in the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short sediment cores were collected from ?1100 m water depth at the top of Hook Ridge, a submarine volcanic edifice in the Central Basin of the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica, to assess Fe and Mn supply to the water column. Low-temperature hydrothermal fluids advect through these sediments and, in places, subsurface H2S is present at high enough concentrations to support abundant Sclerolinum sp., an infaunal tubeworm that hosts symbiotic thiotrophic bacteria. The water column is fully oxic, and oxygen penetration depths at all sites are 2-5 cmbsf. Pore water Fe and Mn content is high within the subsurface ferruginous zone (max. 565 ?mol Fe L-1, >3-7 cmbsf)-14-18 times higher than values measured at a nearby, background site of equivalent water depth. Diffusion and advection of pore waters supply significant Fe and Mn to the surface sediment. Sequential extraction of the sediment demonstrates that there is a significant enrichment in a suite of reactive, authigenic Fe minerals in the upper 0-5 cm of sediment at one site characterised by weathered crusts at the seafloor. At a site with only minor authigenic mineral surface enrichment we infer that leakage of pore water Fe and Mn from the sediment leads to enriched total dissolvable Fe and Mn in bottom waters. An Eh sensor mounted on a towed package mapped a distinct Eh signature above this coring site which is dispersed over several km at the depth of Hook Ridge. We hypothesise that the main mechanism for Fe and Mn efflux from the sediment is breach of the surface oxic layer by the abundant Sclerolinum sp., along with episodic enhancements by physical mixing and resuspension of sediment in this dynamic volcanic environment. We propose that Hook Ridge sediments are an important source of Fe and Mn to the deep waters of the Central Basin in the Bransfield Strait, where concentrations are sustained by the benthic flux, and Fe is stabilised in the water column as either colloidal phases or ligand-bound dissolved species. Entrainment of this water mass into the Drake Passage and thereby the Antarctic Circumpolar Current could provide a significant metal source to this HNLC region of the Southern Ocean if mixing and upwelling occurs before removal of this metal pool to underlying sediments. Sediment-covered volcanic ridges are common within rifted margins and may play a previously overlooked role in the global Fe cycle.

Aquilina, Alfred; Homoky, William B.; Hawkes, Jeffrey A.; Lyons, Timothy W.; Mills, Rachel A.

2014-07-01

302

Heavy metal profile of water, sediment and freshwater cat fish, Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Siluriformes: Bagridae), of Cross River, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Cross River serves as a major source of drinking water, transportation, agricultural activities and fishing in Cross River State, Nigeria. Since there is no formal control of effluents discharged into the river, it is important to monitor the levels of metals contaminants in it, thus assessing its suitability for domestic and agricultural use. In order to determine this, three sampling stations designated as Ikom (Station I), Obubra Ogada (Station II) and Calabar (Station III) were randomly selected to study. For this, ten samples of the freshwater Silver Catfish (Chryshchythys nigrogitatus) (29.4-39.5cm SL, 310-510g), sediment and water were collected from each sampling Station from June 2009-June 2010. The heavy metals profiles ofZn, Cu, Fe, Co, Pb, Cd and Cr, in water, sediments and fish muscle were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). In fish, the heavy metals concentration was found to be Cu>Fe>Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd>Co; the highest mean concentration of Copper (0.297 +/- 0.022 microg/g), Cadmium (0.011 +/- 0.007 microg/g), Iron (0.371 +/- 0.489 microg/g), Lead (0.008 +/- 0.008 microg/g), were determined for the fish. In water, the order was found to be Fe>Pb>Zn>Cu>Cr>Cd>Co; the highest mean concentration of Iron (0.009 +/- 0.00) microg/g), Copper (0.015 +/- 0.01 microg/g), Lead (0.0002 +/- 0.00 microg/g) Cadmium (0.0006 +/- 0.001 microg/g), Zinc (0.0036 +/- 0.003 microg/g), were observed in the surface water, respectively. The highest mean concentration of Copper (0.037 +/- 0.03 microg/g), Iron (0.053 +/- 0.04 microg/g), Lead (0.0002 +/- 0.00 microg/g), Cobalt (0.0002 +/- 0.00 microg/g), Cadmium (0.0006 +/- 0.001 microg/g) and Zinc (.009 +/- 0.0015 microg/g) was observed in the bottom water. In sediments, the concentration order found was Zn>Fe>Cu>Pb>Co>Cd; the highest mean concentration of 0.057 +/- 0.04 microg/g, 0.043 +/- 0.03 microg/g, 0.0006 +/- 0.00 microg/g, 0.0002 +/- 0.00 microg/g, 0.0009 +/- 0.00 microg/g, 0.099 +/- 0.00404 microg/g in Iron, Copper, Lead, Cobalt, Cadmium and Zinc were observed in the sediment, respectively; Chromium was not detected in the sediment for the whole sampling area. Most of the heavy metals were below the maximum allowable levels set by the WHO, FEPA and USEPA, except Zinc which mean concentration of 0.099 +/- 0.00404 microg/g was above the recommended limit of 0.0766 microg/g of USEPA in the sediment at Ikom. This implies that the waste assimilation capacity of the river is high, a phenomenon that could be ascribed to dilution, sedimentation and continuous water exchange. This is an indication that an urban and industrial waste discharged into the Cross River has a significant effect on the ecological balance of the river. Thus fish species from the Cross River harvested are safe for human consumption. PMID:23025098

Ayotunde, Ezekiel Olatunji; Offem, Benedict Obeten; Ada, Fidelis Bekeh

2012-09-01

303

Effects of sediment transport and seepage direction on hydraulic properties at the sediment-water interface of hyporheic settings  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Relations between seepage flux and hydraulic properties are difficult to quantify in fluvial settings because of the difficulty in measuring these variables in situ. Tests conducted in a 1.5-m diameter by 1.5-m tall sediment-filled tank indicate that hydraulic gradient increased and hydraulic conductivity (K) decreased following the onset of downward seepage but both parameters were little changed following the onset of upward seepage. Reductions in K during downward seepage were more pronounced when surface-water current was sufficient to mobilize sediment on the bed. Averaged ratios of K determined during upward seepage to K determined during downward seepage (Kup/Kdown) through a sand-and-gravel bed increased from 1.4 to 1.7 with increasing surface-water velocity, and decreased to slightly greater than 1 when the sediment bed became fully mobile. Kup/Kdown for tests conducted with a silt veneer on the bed surface was greater than 2 for all but the fastest surface-water velocities. Substantial reductions in K also were associated with a silt floc that formed on the bed surface during and following test runs. Although the silt floc was typically less than 0.5 mm in thickness, most of the hydraulic gradient was distributed across this thin layer. K of the thin silt floc was reduced by two to three orders of magnitude relative to the underlying sediment. Directional bias in K and relation between K and surface-water velocity require the presence or absence of a layer of lower-K sediment at or near the bed surface, without which no reduction in K and corresponding increase in hydraulic gradient can occur at the bed surface. The lack of prior observation of the consistent bias in K associated with seepage direction is somewhat surprising given the numerous studies where K has been measured in fluvial settings, but may be explained by the small value of the bias relative to the typical uncertainty associated with field determinations of K. If shown to exist in field settings, this bias and its relation to fluvial processes will be relevant to many studies conducted in hyporheic settings that require determination of fluxes across the sediment-water interface.

Rosenberry, D. O.; Pitlick, J.

2009-01-01

304

Effects of sediment transport and seepage direction on hydraulic properties at the sediment-water interface of hyporheic settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryRelations between seepage flux and hydraulic properties are difficult to quantify in fluvial settings because of the difficulty in measuring these variables in situ. Tests conducted in a 1.5-m diameter by 1.5-m tall sediment-filled tank indicate that hydraulic gradient increased and hydraulic conductivity ( K) decreased following the onset of downward seepage but both parameters were little changed following the onset of upward seepage. Reductions in K during downward seepage were more pronounced when surface-water current was sufficient to mobilize sediment on the bed. Averaged ratios of K determined during upward seepage to K determined during downward seepage ( K up/K down) through a sand-and-gravel bed increased from 1.4 to 1.7 with increasing surface-water velocity, and decreased to slightly greater than 1 when the sediment bed became fully mobile. K up/K down for tests conducted with a silt veneer on the bed surface was greater than 2 for all but the fastest surface-water velocities. Substantial reductions in K also were associated with a silt floc that formed on the bed surface during and following test runs. Although the silt floc was typically less than 0.5 mm in thickness, most of the hydraulic gradient was distributed across this thin layer. K of the thin silt floc was reduced by two to three orders of magnitude relative to the underlying sediment. Directional bias in K and relation between K and surface-water velocity require the presence or absence of a layer of lower- K sediment at or near the bed surface, without which no reduction in K and corresponding increase in hydraulic gradient can occur at the bed surface. The lack of prior observation of the consistent bias in K associated with seepage direction is somewhat surprising given the numerous studies where K has been measured in fluvial settings, but may be explained by the small value of the bias relative to the typical uncertainty associated with field determinations of K. If shown to exist in field settings, this bias and its relation to fluvial processes will be relevant to many studies conducted in hyporheic settings that require determination of fluxes across the sediment-water interface.

Rosenberry, Donald O.; Pitlick, John

2009-07-01

305

Occurrence of perfluorinated compounds in the aquatic environment as found in science park effluent, river water, rainwater, sediments, and biotissues.  

PubMed

The current article maps perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) contamination in the largest Science Park of Taiwan. The occurrence of ten target PFAAs in the effluent of an industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWWTP), its receiving rivers, rainwater, sediment, and the muscles and livers of fish was investigated. All target PFAAs were found in effluent of IWWTP, in which perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (6,930 ng/L), perfluorohexyl sulfonate (PFHxS) (2,662 ng/L) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (3,298 ng/L) were the major constituents. Concentrations of PFBS and PFOS in the IWWTP downstream areas have exceeded safe concentration levels of avian and aquatic life, indicating a potential risk to wildlife in those areas. In sediment samples, predominant contaminants were PFOS (1.5-78 ng/g), PFOA (0.5-5.6 ng/g), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA) (nd-5.4 ng/g). In biological tissue samples, concentrations as high as 28,933 ng/g of PFOS were detected in tilapia and catfish liver samples. A positive correlation for log (C sediment/C water) and log (C tissue/C water) was found. The concentration and proportion (percentage of all PFAAs) of PFOS found in biotissue samples from the Keya River (which receives industrial wastewater) were found to be much greater (200 times) than those of samples from the Keelung River (which receives mainly domestic wastewater). These findings suggest that the receiving aquatic environments and, in turn, the human food chain can be significantly influenced by industrial discharges. PMID:24464397

Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Tsai, Yu-Ting; Yu, Tsung-Hsien

2014-05-01

306

Determination of pentachlorophenol in water and aquifer sediments by high-performance liquid chromatography  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Methods for the determination of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in water and aquifer sediments are presented. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromotography employing ion suppression and gradient elution is used. PCP can be determined directly in water at a lower limit of detection Of 0.2 micrograms per liter. For extracts of sediment, PCP can be determined to a lower limit of 1.0 micrograms per kilogram.

Goerlitz, D. F.

1981-01-01

307

Geochemical mobility of arsenic in a flowthrough water?sediment system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural sediments from a highly polluted (x = 3200 ppm As d.w.) and an uncontaminated lake (x = 24 ppm d.w.) were subjected to a continuous flowthrough (0.5 Id) of lake water in 10 1 aquaria and adjusted to different pH, Eh, oxygen and phosphorus concentrations in the overlying water. The chemical association of arsenic in the sediment was characterised,

Rudolf Reuther

1992-01-01

308

Exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls between sediment and water in the Hudson River estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment-bound polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) measured at several sites in the lower Hudson River Estuary are above equilibrium\\u000a with the overlying water, providing a thermodynamic driving force for exchange from sediment to water. The fluxes of PCB congeners\\u000a are estimated for a number potential processes: diffusive release of dissolved and colloidal PCBs from the bed, resuspension\\u000a and subsequent desorption from resuspended

Diane R. Achman; Bruce J. Brownawell; Lianchu Zhang

1996-01-01

309

Distribution of heavy metals in water, particulate matter and sediments of Gediz River (Eastern Aegean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper is the first document of heavy metal levels in surficial sediment, water and particulate matter of the Gediz\\u000a River collected from five different sites in August, October 1998, February, June 1999. The present work attempts to establish\\u000a the status of distribution and environmental implications of metals in the sediment, water and particulate matter and their\\u000a possible sources

F. Kucuksezgin; E. Uluturhan; H. Batki

2008-01-01

310

Pilot Investigation of Perfluorinated Compounds in River Water, Sediment, Soil and Fish in Tianjin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detectable PFCs could be found in all samples. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the major PFC in river water, while perfluorooctane\\u000a sulfonate (PFOS) was dominant in sediment and were 17- to 153-fold higher than those in water. PFCs concentrations in soil\\u000a were little higher than those in sediment. In fish muscles PFOS showed the highest concentrations. Generally, PFC concentrations\\u000a in fish

Yuanyuan Pan; Yali Shi; Jieming Wang; Xinglong Jin; Yaqi Cai

2011-01-01

311

Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and bed sediments of the Gomti River, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial and temporal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated in Gomti River, a major\\u000a tributary of the Ganga river (India). A total of 96 samples (water and sediments) were collected from eight different sites\\u000a over a period of 2 years and analysed for 16 PAHs. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs in water and bed sediments ranged

Amrita Malik; Priyanka Verma; Arun K. Singh; Kunwar P. Singh

2011-01-01

312

Trace Organic Contaminants in Sediment and Water from Ulsan Bay and Its Vicinity, Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment and water samples collected from 32 locations in Ulsan Bay and adjacent inland areas were analyzed for polycyclic\\u000a aromatic hydrocabons (PAHs), nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), bisphenol A (BPA), organochlorine (OC) pesticides (HCB, HCHs,\\u000a CHLs, and DDTs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to characterize their spatial distribution and contamination status.\\u000a PAHs were detected in nearly all sediment and water extracts from

J. S. Khim; K. T. Lee; K. Kannan; D. L. Villeneuve; J. P. Giesy; C. H. Koh

2001-01-01

313

Differences between Betaproteobacterial Ammonia-Oxidizing Communities in Marine Sediments and Those in Overlying Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess links between betaproteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in marine sediment and in overlying water, communities in Loch Duich, Scotland, were characterized by analysis of clone libraries and denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene fragments. Nitrosospira cluster 1-like sequences were isolated from both environments, but different sequence types dominated water and sediment samples. De- tailed phylogenetic analysis of

Thomas E. Freitag; James I. Prosser

2004-01-01

314

Dissolved sulfide distributions in the water column and sediment pore waters of the Santa Barbara Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dissolved sulfide concentrations in the water column and in sediment pore waters were measured by square-wave voltammetry (nanomolar detection limit) during three cruises to the Santa Barbara Basin in February 1995, November-December 1995, and April 1997. In the water column, sulfide concentrations measured outside the basin averaged 3 ?? 1 nM (n = 28) in the 0 to 600 m depth range. Inside the basin, dissolved sulfides increased to reach values of up to 15 nM at depths >400 m. A suite of box cores and multicores collected at four sites along the northeastern flank of the basin showed considerable range in surficial (400 ??M at 10 cm. Decreases in water-column nitrate below the sill depth indicate nitrate consumption (-55 to -137 ??mole m-2 h-1) similar to nearby Santa Monica Basin. Peaks in pore-water iron concentrations were generally observed between 2 and 5 cm depth with shallowest peaks at the 590 m site. These observations, including observations of the benthic microfauna, suggest that the extent to which the sulfide flux, sustained by elevated pore-water concentrations, reaches the water column may be modulated by the abundance of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria in addition to iron redox and precipitation reactions.

Kuwabara, J. S.; Van Geen, A.; McCorkle, D. C.; Bernhard, J. M.

1999-01-01

315

Superficial deep-water sediments of the Eastern Marmara Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superficial sediments (top ? Im) of the Eastern Mediterranean Basin, Sea of Marmara, Turkey accumulated rapidly (0.087 ± 0.012 g\\/cm2 · y) by hemipelagic sedimentation with only limited amounts of gravity flow or bottom current action under low oxygenated but not anoxic conditions. They have restricted faunas, relatively higher organic carbon (1–1.8%) and lower calcium carbonate (14–20%) contents than other

G. Evans; H. Erten; S. N. Alavi; H. R. Von Gunten; M. Ergin

1989-01-01

316

Modelling Suspended Sediment Concentrations in Estuarine and Coastal Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a numerical model DIVAST (Depth Integrated Velocities And Solute Transport), which can predict two-dimensional depth-integrated tidal flows and solute transport, has been refined and set up to stimulate hydrodynamic and sediment transport processes. The highly accurate ULTIMATE QUICKEST scheme has been used to represent the advective terms in solving the advective-diffusion equation for suspended sediment transport. The

Guanghai Gao; Roger Falconer; Binliang Lin

2011-01-01

317

Microbial Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) in Fresh Water Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbially produced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) have been linked with many important ecological functions in\\u000a natural sediments; yet, most information has been derived from marine systems. The present paper is the first comprehensive\\u000a study on EPS (i.e., carbohydrates and proteins) dynamics in riverine sediments addressing spatial (six reservoirs and four\\u000a groyne fields across three European rivers), temporal (all seasons in

Sabine Ulrike Gerbersdorf; Bernhard Westrich; David M. Paterson

2009-01-01

318

Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum in Surface Waters: Interplay of Hydrodynamic Processes, Sediments, and Biofilms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the movement of pathogens in the environment is necessary to ensure the safety and protection of municipal water supply systems. Cryptosporidium parvum is a human pathogen of particular concern as it is common in surface waters of the United States, it can survive for long periods of time in the environment, and it is difficult to disinfect in water treatment plants. The transport of oocysts through watersheds can be mediated by interactions with the stream channel and suspended particles in the water column. For example, the association of C. parvum oocysts with suspended particles can alter the effective physical properties of the oocysts and increase their settling velocity. The hydrodynamic coupling of the overlying water with the pore water of the sediment bed can carry oocysts from the surface water into the sediment bed. Surface-attached communities of microorganisms, called biofilms, are ubiquitous in surface water systems and can capture C. parvum oocysts. Laboratory experiments were conducted at multiple scales (flowcell, batch, and flume) to determine the association of oocysts with sediments and biofilm communities and to assess the impact of this association on C. parvum transport. The effects of flow conditions, water chemistry, sediment composition, biofilm composition, and biofilm structure on these associations were all evaluated. The experimental results demonstrate that oocyst-sediment-biofilm interactions have significant implications for the propagation of C. parvum oocysts through watersheds and should generally be considered when predicting the fate of pathogens in the environment.

Searcy, K. E.; Packman, A. I.; Atwill, E. R.; Harter, T.

2005-05-01

319

Phosphorus and sediment loading to surface waters from liquid swine manure application under different drainage and tillage practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) and sediment can move from agricultural land to surface waters, deteriorating its quality. This study was undertaken to improve understanding of partitioning of P and sediment to surface water via overland runoff and underground drainage pathways, and identify control measures. Over two full years, and including important winter events, P and sediment load overland and through tile were

B. Ball Coelho; R. Murray; D. Lapen; E. Topp; A. Bruin

2012-01-01

320

The Determination of Metals in Sediment Pore Waters and in 1N HCl-Extracted Sediments by ICP-MS  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concentrations of metals in sediment interstitial water (pore water) and those extractable from sediment with weak acids can provide important information about the bioavailability and toxicological effects of such contaminants. The highly variable nature of metal concentrations in these matrices requires instrumentation with the detection limit capability of graphite furnace atomic absorption and the wide dynamic linear range capability of ICP-OES. These criteria are satisfied with ICP-MS instrumentation. We investigated the performance of ICP-MS in the determination of certain metals from these matrices. The results for three metals were compared to those determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. It was concluded that ICP-MS was an excellent instrumental approach for the determination of metals in these matrices.

May, T. W.; Wiedmeyer, R. H.; Brumbaugh, W. G.; Schmitt, C. J.

1997-01-01

321

LIQUID AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF DIETHYL PHTHALATE IN WATER AND SEDIMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Diethyl phthalate was determined in water and sediment by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and in water by gas-liquid chromatography with electron capture detection (GLC-ECD). Water samples were extracted with hexane, using a high-speed homogenizer-ultrasonic apparat...

322

Heavy metals in water, sediment and tissues of Leuciscus cephalus from a stream in southwestern Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) were measured in water, bottom sediment and tissues (muscle and gills) of Leuciscus cephalus from the Dipsiz stream in the Yatagan basin (southwestern Turkey), the site of a thermal power plant. Results for levels in water were compared with national and international water quality guidelines, as well as literature values

Ahmet Demirak; Fevzi Yilmaz; A. Levent Tuna; Nedim Ozdemir

2006-01-01

323

A new collector for in situ pore water sampling in wetland sediment.  

PubMed

Currently available pore water samplers generally do not allow continuous monitoring of temporal variations in pore water composition. Therefore, a new type of pore water collector was designed and constructed. These collectors were constructed of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) materials, including PVC tubing with one end sealed and another end topped with a removable PVC screw-cap. A row of holes was drilled 10 cm from the sealed end of each collector. These new collectors were deployed in different layers of the sediment in a constructed wetland in Lake Taihu, China, to reveal variations in the nutrient composition of pore water with high spatial and temporal resolution. Specifically, the collectors were driven into the sediment, and the pore water flowed into the tubing via gravity. The pore water was then sampled from the PVC tubing using a portable vacuum pump, and then was taken to the lab within 20 min for analysis of the dissolved oxygen (DO) and nutrient concentration. The DO concentration of the pore water was below the detection limit for all samples, indicating that the pore water was probably not influenced by the air and that the water in the collector tube was representative of the pore water. These findings suggest that the collector is capable of measuring the temporal and spatial variations in the nutrient concentrations in pore water. Furthermore, the inexpensive material, ease of construction, minimal disturbance to the sediment and applicability for wetland sediments are advantages of the collector presented here compared with traditional pore water sampling techniques. PMID:22519110

Gao, Feng; Deng, Jiancai; Li, Qinqin; Hu, Liuming; Zhu, Jinge; Hang, Hongjuan; Hu, Weiping

2012-01-01

324

COALBED METHANE DISCHARGE WATER INTERACTION WITH STREAM CHANNEL SEDIMENT IN THE POWDER RIVER BASIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of methane (natural gas) from coal deposits is facilitated by pumping of aquifer water. Coalbed methane (CBM) product water, produced from pumping groundwater, is discharged into associated unlined holding ponds or downstream channels. The objective of this study was to examine the chemistry of CBM discharge water reacting with an ephemeral stream channel sediment in the Powder River Basin,

Marji Pat; Katta J. Reddy; Quentin D. Skinner

325

Advective Mixing of Pore Waters and Ecology of Sandy Sediments of the Ocean Shelf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sand sediments are widely distributed in the shelf zone of the World Ocean. The main physical and ecological peculiarity of marine sands is the mobility of pore waters and their mixing with the near-bottom waters of the sea. The mixing is closely related to turbulent processes in the water column; the most important of these processes is wave mixing. This

M. V. Propp

2003-01-01

326

Analysis of national water pollution control policies: 2. Agricultural sediment control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of a national water network model permits an analysis of the likely affects of agricultural sediment control policies on the quality of the nation's waters. This analysis is believed superior to previous assessments based mainly on erosion estimates without accounting for the characteristics of the receiving water or the contribution of pollutants from nonagricultural activities. Specifically, while the earlier

Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin

1981-01-01

327

Analysis of national water-pollution-control policies. 2. Agricultural sediment control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A national water network model is used to analyze the likely effects of agricultural sediment-control policies on the quality of the nation's waters. This analysis is believed superior to previous assessments based mainly on erosion estimates without accounting for the characteristics of the receiving water or the contribution of pollutants from nonagricultural activities. Specifically, while the earlier assessments concluded that

Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin

1981-01-01

328

Fatty acid content and composition of sediments from Siberian eutrophic water bodies: implications for biodiesel production.  

PubMed

We studied lipids and fatty acids (FA) in bottom sediments from four Siberian water bodies, Bugach, Lesnoi and Krasnoyarsk freshwater reservoirs and brackish Shira lake, that differed in physico-chemical and biological conditions. We considered the potential of the bottom sediments as a feedstock for biodiesel production and estimated properties of the obtained biodiesel as a fuel on the basis of FA composition. Contents of lipids and FA in the sediments moderately varied and were generally close to the reported data from lacustrine and estuarine systems. We confirmed that long-term eutrophication of a water body resulted in the lipid-rich bottom sediments that make them a feedstock for biodiesel production. Each of the studied water bodies had specific FA composition of sediments likely due to different organic matter sources and transformation processes. Despite these differences in FA profiles, calculated key parameters (cetane number, iodine number and heat of combustion) of biodiesel produced from all the studied sediments met the limits established by current biodiesel standards. Thus, the variation in the sediment FA composition due to environmental characteristics of a water body likely has no principal significance for fuel properties of the obtained biodiesel. PMID:23561504

Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Kuchkina, Anna Yu; Gladyshev, Michail I

2013-06-01

329

Spatial variability of sediment ecotoxicity in a large storm water detention basin.  

PubMed

Detention basins are valuable facilities for urban storm water management, from both the standpoint of flood control and the trapping of pollutants. Studies performed on storm water have shown that suspended solids often constitute the main vector of pollutants (heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), etc.). In order to characterise the ecotoxicity of urban sediments from storm water detention basins, the sediments accumulated over a 6-year period were sampled at five different points through the surface of a large detention basin localised in the east of Lyon, France. A specific ecotoxicological test battery was implemented on the solid phase (raw sediment) and the liquid phase (interstitial water of sediments). The results of the study validated the method formulated for the ecotoxicological characterization of urban sediments. They show that the ecotoxicological effect of the sediments over the basin is heterogeneous and greater in areas often flooded. They also show the relationship between, on one hand, the physical and chemical characteristics of the sediments and, on the other hand, their ecotoxicity. Lastly, they contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics of the pollution close to the bottom of detention basins, which can be useful for improving their design. The results of this research raise particularly the issue of using oil separators on the surface of detention basins. PMID:24243265

Merchan, Carolina Gonzalez; Perrodin, Yves; Barraud, Sylvie; Sébastian, Christel; Becouze-Lareure, Céline; Bazin, Christine; Kouyi, Gislain Lipeme

2014-04-01

330

Measuring The Impact Of Localized Permafrost Disturbance On Downstream Sediment Erosion And Water Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents results of a multi-year study of the impact of permafrost slope disturbances on downstream water quality in the Canadian High Arctic. Localized slope disturbances such as active layer detachments (ALD) represent intense disruptions of the vegetation and soil that result in increased sediment erosion and solute release. To date, however, no comprehensive studies of ALD impacts on sediment and solute loads in surface waters have been undertaken in the High Arctic and predicting how these localized disturbances will affect basin-scale water quality remains uncertain. We report results from field studies of the sediment erosion associated with extensive ALD that occurred in 2007 at the Cape Bounty Arctic Watershed Observatory (CBAWO), Melville Island, Nunavut, Canada. Results from 2008 and 2009 indicate that hydrologically-connected ALD contribute a significant amount of sediment to the overall watershed, while hydrologically-isolated disturbances have minimal downstream effects. Changes in sediment load from pre-disturbance conditions are most apparent during the mid-summer baseflow period and in response to runoff from intense rainfall. Results indicate that the main factors over the contribution of sediment from a given ALD are hydrological connectivity, size of the disturbance and flow duration. By combining these factors, sediment load derived from disturbances can be estimated for the overall watershed and incorporated into hydrological models. This work contributes a framework to predict future permafrost changes, landscape stability, and downstream water quality in High Arctic watersheds in response to climate change and permafrost disturbance.

Lamoureux, S. F.; Lafreniere, M. J.; Lewis, T.

2009-12-01

331

Effect of sediment settling on controlling golden mussel invasion in water transfer project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inter-basin water transfer projects have been widely used to solve uneven distribution of water resources and water shortage in China. Along with the transferring of water resources, golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei), the filter-collector macro-invertebrate species originating from southern China has also been inadvertently transferred to new aquatic environment, resulting in quick and uncontrolled spread of the species. The golden mussels are invasive by nature and endowed with a strong byssus for attaching onto their habitat, allowing them to easily invade natural and artificial aquatic systems, which was resulted in high-density golden mussel attachment that causes serious bio-fouling. Invasion and bio-fouling by golden mussels in water transfer systems has drawn attention widely because it has resulted in high resistance to water flow, corrosion of pipe walls and even clogging of tunnels, as well as causing water pollution and ecological imbalance in the regions that receive water infested with golden mussels. Field investigation was conducted along the East River, which is the main drinking water resource for Cantong province and Hongkong, China, to study the natural habitats of golden mussels. Surveys of water transfer tunnels which carry water from the East River to several big cities in Cantong province were done to study golden mussel invasion and attachment in tunnels. It is found that in the natural habitat, golden mussels mainly attach to bedrock and bank stones and solid surfaces facing upstream, while no golden mussels are attached on the surfaces facing downstream and suffering sediment deposition. In the water transfer tunnels, golden mussel attachment densities of 40,000 individuals/m2 mainly occurred on the portion of tunnel walls which face downwards and thus avoid sedimentation. An experiment was designed to study the effect of sediment settling on golden mussel attachment. The results showed that settling of fine sediment particles affects golden mussels by preventing them from filtering food and oxygen from water, and in this way killing them. The attachment density decreased with increased sediment deposition. Golden mussel density decreased by about 70-90% when the sedimentation rate increased by 3-6 times. Therefore, spraying with fine sediment or creating hyper-concentration of sediment water to treat golden mussels before they enter tunnels is recommended as an effective strategy for controlling golden mussel invasion and high-density bio-fouling. Key words: golden mussel invasion; bio-fouling; sediment settling; habitat; controlling strategy

Xu, Mengzhen; Wang, Zhaoyin; Bogen, Jim; Pan, Baozhu

2013-04-01

332

[Influence of submerged macrophytes on phosphorus transference between sediment and overlying water in the growth period].  

PubMed

In order to study the process of phosphorus transfer between sediment and overlying water, Hydrilla verticillata and Vallisneria natans were cultured in spring, Potamogeton crispus was cultured in winter. Changes of environmental factors and phosphorus concentrations in water and sediment were investigated. The results indicated that: submerged macrophytes could reduce all phosphorus fractions in the overlying water. Phosphorus concentrations in overlying water maintained in a relative low level in the growth period of submerged macrophytes. The concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) in overlying water of H. verticillata, V. natans and P. crispus were 0.03-0.05, 0.04-0.12, 0.02-0.11 mg x L(-1), respectively. All phosphorus fractions in sediment were reduced. The maximum value between submerged macrophyte and control of H. verticillata, V. natans and P. crispus were 35.34, 60.67 and 25.92 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Dissolved oxygen (DO), redox potential (Eh) and pH in overlying water increased (DO 10.0-14.0 mg x L(-1), Eh 185-240 mV, pH 8.0-11.0) in the submerged macrophytes groups. Submerged macrophytes increased Eh( -140 - -23 mV) and maintained pH(7.2-8.0) in neutral range. The results indicated that submerged macrophytes affected phosphorus transferring between sediment and overlying water through increasing DO, Eh and pH in overlying water, and Eh in sediment. PMID:22509571

Wang, Li-Zhi; Wang, Guo-Xiang; Yu, Zhen-Fei; Zhou, Bei-Bei; Chen, Qiu-Min; Li, Zhen-Guo

2012-02-01

333

Impacts of ocean acidification on sediment processes in shallow waters of the arctic ocean.  

PubMed

Despite the important roles of shallow-water sediments in global biogeochemical cycling, the effects of ocean acidification on sedimentary processes have received relatively little attention. As high-latitude cold waters can absorb more CO2 and usually have a lower buffering capacity than warmer waters, acidification rates in these areas are faster than those in sub-tropical regions. The present study investigates the effects of ocean acidification on sediment composition, processes and sediment-water fluxes in an Arctic coastal system. Undisturbed sediment cores, exempt of large dwelling organisms, were collected, incubated for a period of 14 days, and subject to a gradient of pCO2 covering the range of values projected for the end of the century. On five occasions during the experimental period, the sediment cores were isolated for flux measurements (oxygen, alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon, ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and silicate). At the end of the experimental period, denitrification rates were measured and sediment samples were taken at several depth intervals for solid-phase analyses. Most of the parameters and processes (i.e. mineralization, denitrification) investigated showed no relationship with the overlying seawater pH, suggesting that ocean acidification will have limited impacts on the microbial activity and associated sediment-water fluxes on Arctic shelves, in the absence of active bio-irrigating organisms. Only following a pH decrease of 1 pH unit, not foreseen in the coming 300 years, significant enhancements of calcium carbonate dissolution and anammox rates were observed. Longer-term experiments on different sediment types are still required to confirm the limited impact of ocean acidification on shallow Arctic sediment processes as observed in this study. PMID:24718610

Gazeau, Frédéric; van Rijswijk, Pieter; Pozzato, Lara; Middelburg, Jack J

2014-01-01

334

Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Sediment Processes in Shallow Waters of the Arctic Ocean  

PubMed Central

Despite the important roles of shallow-water sediments in global biogeochemical cycling, the effects of ocean acidification on sedimentary processes have received relatively little attention. As high-latitude cold waters can absorb more CO2 and usually have a lower buffering capacity than warmer waters, acidification rates in these areas are faster than those in sub-tropical regions. The present study investigates the effects of ocean acidification on sediment composition, processes and sediment-water fluxes in an Arctic coastal system. Undisturbed sediment cores, exempt of large dwelling organisms, were collected, incubated for a period of 14 days, and subject to a gradient of pCO2 covering the range of values projected for the end of the century. On five occasions during the experimental period, the sediment cores were isolated for flux measurements (oxygen, alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon, ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and silicate). At the end of the experimental period, denitrification rates were measured and sediment samples were taken at several depth intervals for solid-phase analyses. Most of the parameters and processes (i.e. mineralization, denitrification) investigated showed no relationship with the overlying seawater pH, suggesting that ocean acidification will have limited impacts on the microbial activity and associated sediment-water fluxes on Arctic shelves, in the absence of active bio-irrigating organisms. Only following a pH decrease of 1 pH unit, not foreseen in the coming 300 years, significant enhancements of calcium carbonate dissolution and anammox rates were observed. Longer-term experiments on different sediment types are still required to confirm the limited impact of ocean acidification on shallow Arctic sediment processes as observed in this study.

Gazeau, Frederic; van Rijswijk, Pieter; Pozzato, Lara; Middelburg, Jack J.

2014-01-01

335

Sediment toxicity test results for the Urban Waters Study 2010, Bellingham Bay, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Washington Department of Ecology annually determines the quality of recently deposited sediments in Puget Sound as a part of Ecology's Urban Waters Initiative. The annual sediment quality studies use the Sediment Quality Triad (SQT) approach, thus relying on measures of chemical contamination, toxicity, and benthic in-faunal effects (Chapman, 1990). Since 2002, the studies followed a rotating sampling scheme, each year sampling a different region of the greater Puget Sound Basin. During the annual studies, samples are collected in locations selected with a stratified-random design, patterned after the designs previously used in baseline surveys completed during 1997-1999 (Long and others, 2003; Wilson and Partridge, 2007). Sediment samples were collected by personnel from the Washington Department of Ecology, in June of 2010 and shipped to the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) laboratory in Corpus Christi, Texas (not shown), where the tests were performed. Sediment pore water was extracted with a pneumatic apparatus and was stored frozen. Just before testing, water-quality measurements were made and salinity adjusted, if necessary. Tests were performed on a dilution series of each sample consisting of 100-, 50-, and 25-percent pore-water concentrations. The specific objectives of this study were to: * Extract sediment pore water from a total of 30 sediment samples from the Bellingham Bay, Washington area within a day of receipt of the samples. * Measure water-quality parameters (salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, sulfide, and ammonia) of thawed pore-water samples before testing and adjust salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen, if necessary, to obtain optimal ranges for the test species. * Conduct the fertilization toxicity test with pore water using sea urchin (Stronylocentrotus purpuratus) (S. purpuratus) gametes. * Perform quality control assays with reference pore water, dilution blanks and a positive control dilution series with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in conjunction with each test. * Determine which samples caused a significant decrease in percent fertilization success relative to the negative control.

Biedenbach, James M.

2011-01-01

336

CONTRIBUTION OF AMMONIA, METALS AND NONPOLAR ORGANIC COMPOUNDS TO THE TOXICITY OF SEDIMENT INTERSTITIAL WATER FROM AN ILLINOIS RIVER TRIBUTARY  

EPA Science Inventory

Toxicity of Illinois River bulk sediment, sediment interstitial (pore) water and elutriates to the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the amphipod Hyalella azteca was compared to determine the most representative aqueous fraction for toxi...

337

Estimating Water Fluxes Across the Sediment-Water Interface in the Lower Merced River, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The lower Merced River Basin was chosen by the U.S. Geological Survey?s (USGS) National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) to be included in a national study on how hydrological processes and agricultural practices interact to affect the transport and fate of agricultural chemicals. As part of this effort, surface-water?ground-water (sw?gw) interactions were studied in an instrumented 100-m reach on the lower Merced River. This study focused on estimating vertical rates of exchange across the sediment?water interface by direct measurement using seepage meters and by using temperature as a tracer coupled with numerical modeling. Temperature loggers and pressure transducers were placed in monitoring wells within the streambed and in the river to continuously monitor temperature and hydraulic head every 15 minutes from March 2004 to October 2005. One-dimensional modeling of heat and water flow was used to interpret the temperature and head observations and deduce the sw?gw fluxes using the USGS numerical model, VS2DH, which simulates variably saturated water flow and solves the energy transport equation. Results of the modeling effort indicate that the Merced River at the study reach is generally a slightly gaining stream with small head differences (cm) between the surface water and ground water, with flow reversals occurring during high streamflow events. The average vertical flux across the sediment?water interface was 0.4?2.2 cm/day, and the range of hydraulic conductivities was 1?10 m/day. Seepage meters generally failed to provide accurate data in this high-energy system because of slow seepage rates and a moving streambed resulting in scour or burial of the seepage meters. Estimates of streambed hydraulic conductivity were also made using grain-size analysis and slug tests. Estimated hydraulic conductivity for the upstream transect determined using slug tests ranged from 40 to 250 m/day, whereas the downstream transect ranged from 10 to 100 m/day. The range in variability was a result of position along each transect. A relative percent difference was used to describe the variability in estimates of hydraulic conductivity by grain-size analysis and slug test. Variability in applied methods at the upstream transect ranged from 0 to 9 percent, whereas the downstream transect showed greater variability, with a range of 80 to 133 percent.

Zamora, Celia

2008-01-01

338

Element transformation rates and fluxes across the sediment-water interface of the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic matter is mineralized in brackish-marine sediments by microbial activity using predominantly oxygen, sulfate, and metal oxides as electron acceptors. This leads to a reflux of carbon dioxide into the bottom waters. Under anoxic bottom water conditions, sulfate reduction dominates. Under specific conditions, shallow methane may be oxidized. Pore water profiles reflect biogeochemical processes, transformation rates and fluxes of dissolved species across the sediment-water interface. They are controlled by different factors like microbial activity, bottom water redox conditions, and availability of electron acceptors/donors. Microbial activity in the sediment leads to changes in redox conditions, formation of metabolites and may lead to the formation of authigenic minerals. As an example, organic matter mineralization and reduction of iron oxyhydroxides both may lead to the liberation of dissolved phosphate thereby leading to a reflux into the bottom waters. Hypoxic conditions will enhance this process. We present the results of a detailed biogeochemical investigation of interstitial waters from shallow sediments to study the biogeochemical processes in recent sediments and associated element fluxes at the sediment-water-interface in different areas of the Baltic Sea. Pore water and sediment samples were retrieved from short sediment cores that were collected with multicoring devices in key regions of the Baltic Sea. Pore waters were taken in sufficient depth resolution and analyzed for main and trace element concentrations (e.g., Mn, SO4, HS, PO4, DIC) to allow a modelling of steady-state transformation volumetric rates and element fluxes. A quantitative interpretation of vertical concentration profiles in the pore waters was performed using a diffusion-based modelling approach. Element fluxes across the sediment-water interface show for the Baltic Sea a dependence from bottom water redox conditions, sedimentology, organic contents, and formation conditions (e.g., accumulation rates). In selected anoxic basins, gross anaerobic mineralization rates were additionally obtained from core incubations using a S-35 radiotracer. Highest SRR were found here in the top 5-10 cm. Recent support comes from BMBF during FONA-SECOS project.

Lipka, Marko; Wegwerth, Antje; Dellwig, Olaf; Al-Raei, Abdul M.; Schoster, Frank; Böttcher, Michael E.

2014-05-01

339

Contamination of estuarine water, biota, and sediment by halogenated organic compounds: A field study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Studies conducted in the vicinity of an industrial outfall in the Calcasieu River estuary, Louisiana, have shown that water, bottom and suspended sediment, and four different species of biota are contaminated with halogenated organic compounds (HOC) including haloarenes. A "salting-out" effect in the estuary moderately enhanced the partitioning tendency of the contaminants into biota and sediments. Contaminant concentrations in water, suspended sediments, and biota were found to be far below the values predicted on the basis of the assumption of phase equilibria with respect to concentrations in bottom sediment. Relative concentration factors of HOC between biota (catfish) and bottom sediment increased with increasing octanol/estuarine water partition coefficients (Kow*), maximizing at log Kow* of about 5, although these ratios were considerably less than equilibrium values. In contrast, contaminant concentrations in water, biota, and suspended sediments were much closer to equilibrium values. Bioconcentration factors of HOC determined on the basis of lipid content for four different biotic species correlated reasonably well with equilibrium triolein/water partition coefficients (Ktw).

Pereira, W. E.; Rostad, C. E.; Chiou, C. T.; Brinton, T. I.; Barber, II, L. B.; Demcheck, D. K.; Demas, C. R.

1988-01-01

340

Soil, Groundwater, Surface Water, and Sediments of Kennedy Space Center, Florida: Background Chemical and Physical Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study documented background chemical composition of soils, groundwater, surface; water, and sediments of Kennedy Space Center. Two hundred soil samples were collected, 20 each in 10 soil classes. Fifty-one groundwater wells were installed in 4 subaquifers of the Surficial Aquifer and sampled; there were 24 shallow, 16 intermediate, and 11 deep wells. Forty surface water and sediment samples were collected in major watershed basins. All samples were away from sites of known contamination. Samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, aroclors, chlorinated herbicides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), total metals, and other parameters. All aroclors (6) were below detection in all media. Some organochlorine pesticides were detected at very low frequencies in soil, sediment, and surface water. Chlorinated herbicides were detected at very low frequencies in soil and sediments. PAH occurred in low frequencies in soiL, shallow groundwater, surface water, and sediments. Concentrations of some metals differed among soil classes, with subaquifers and depths, and among watershed basins for surface water but not sediments. Most of the variation in metal concentrations was natural, but agriculture had increased Cr, Cu, Mn, and Zn.

Shmalzer, Paul A.; Hensley, Melissa A.; Mota, Mario; Hall, Carlton R.; Dunlevy, Colleen A.

2000-01-01

341

Modeling Hydrodynamics, Water Temperature, and Suspended Sediment in Detroit Lake, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Detroit Lake is a large reservoir on the North Santiam River in west-central Oregon. Water temperature and suspended sediment are issues of concern in the river downstream of the reservoir. A CE-QUAL-W2 model was constructed to simulate hydrodynamics, water temperature, total dissolved solids, and suspended sediment in Detroit Lake. The model was calibrated for calendar years 2002 and 2003, and for a period of storm runoff from December 1, 2005, to February 1, 2006. Input data included lake bathymetry, meteorology, reservoir outflows, and tributary inflows, water temperatures, total dissolved solids, and suspended sediment concentrations. Two suspended sediment size groups were modeled: one for suspended sand and silt with particle diameters larger than 2 micrometers, and another for suspended clay with particle diameters less than or equal to 2 micrometers. The model was calibrated using lake stage data, lake profile data, and data from a continuous water-quality monitor on the North Santiam River near Niagara, about 6 kilometers downstream of Detroit Dam. The calibrated model was used to estimate sediment deposition in the reservoir, examine the sources of suspended sediment exiting the reservoir, and examine the effect of the reservoir on downstream water temperatures.

Sullivan, Annett B.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Sobieszczyk, Steven; Bragg, Heather M.

2007-01-01

342

Dynamic existence of waterborne pathogens within river sediment compartments. Implications for water quality regulatory affairs.  

PubMed

The transport and fate of indicator E. coli and Salmonella are shown to be highly influenced by their relationship with flocculated suspended and bed sediment particles. Flocs were found to dominate the suspended sediment load and have the effect of increasing the downward flux of the sediment to the river bed. Bacteria counts were consistently higher within sediment compartments (suspended and bed) than for the water alone, with the bed sediment found to represent a possible reservoir of pathogens for subsequent remobilization and transport to potentially high risk areas. The mechanism of microbial attachment and entrapment within the sediment was strongly linked to the EPS fibrils secreted by the biological consortium of the aquatic system. It is suggested that the sediment/pathogen relationship should be of concern to public health officials because of its potential effects on pathogen source fate and effect with implications on public health risk assessment. Current standard sampling strategies, however, are based on an assumption that bacteria are entirely planktonic and do not account for the potentially significant concentration of bacteria from the sediment compartments. The lack of understanding around pathogen/sediment associations may lead to an inaccurate estimate of public health risk, and, as such, possible modification of sampling strategies to reflect this association may be warranted. PMID:19368165

Droppo, Ian G; Liss, Steven N; Williams, Declan; Nelson, Tara; Jaskot, Chris; Trapp, Brian

2009-03-15

343

A conceptual model for river water and sediment dispersal in the Santa Barbara Channel, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ephemeral Santa Clara River delivers large amounts of freshwater and sediment to the eastern Santa Barbara Channel during brief, episodic discharge events. This discharge into the channel was characterized here with shipboard measurements during floods of 1997 and 1998. Within approximately 1-km of the river mouth, the river discharge quickly stratifies into a freshened, turbid surface plume and a bottom nephloid layer. Observations immediately off the Santa Clara River mouth on a peak day of river discharge revealed that sediment rapidly settled from the freshened surface waters, as suspended sediment in the freshened surface plume contained only ???6% of the sediment mass expected if the sediment mixed conservatively. On the two subsequent days the reduction of sediment mass in the surface plume continued at ???50% per day. These observations suggest that river sediment undergoes rapid initial settling within ???1-km of the river mouth, followed by somewhat slower rates of settling. Although we did not measure sedimentation or bottom boundary layer processes, our mass balance results suggest that almost all of the river sediment either escapes along or deposits upon the inner shelf seabed.

Warrick, J. A.; A. k. , Mertes, L.; Washburn, L.; A. , Siegel, D.

2004-01-01

344

Screening toxicity evaluation of Wheeler Reservoir sediments using juvenile freshwater mussels (Anodonta imbecillis say) exposed to sediment interstitial water  

SciTech Connect

Reservoir sediments (porewater) near several wastewater outfalls at Decatur, Alabama, were screened for acute (9-day) toxicity to 8-day old freshwater mussels. Sampling locations corresponded to four of five sites previously surveyed by the Alabama Wildlife Federation and Alabama mussel divers. A site located on the opposite (north) overbank where mussels are abundant was chosen as the study control. Reference sediments from an outdoor channel at TVA's Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL) with flow-through Wheeler Reservoir water and from a downstream (Kentucky) reservoir were included in the study for comparative purposes. Toxicity was observed at two of the Decatur sites, and in the ARL channel. Sediments from the other two Decatur sites, the north overbank (control), and Kentucky Reservoir were not toxic to the test animals. Toxicity at station Alpha and from the ARL channel was correlated with un-ionized ammonia present in porewater during the test. Toxicity at station Delta was above the level explained by the regression model examined for ammonia. The site at Decatur having the greatest toxicity and ammonia concentration (Alpha) was located in the Dry Branch Embayment. Elevated ammonia in sediment collected from ARL was attributed to natural events. 13 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Wade, D.C.

1990-12-01

345

Effect of salinity and sediment characteristics on the sorption and desorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate at sediment-water interface.  

PubMed

This study investigated the influence of solution salinity, pH and the sediment characteristics on the sorption and desorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). The results showed that the sorption of PFOS onto sediment increased by a factor of 3 as the CaCl(2) concentration increased from 0.005 to 0.5 mol L(-1) at pH 7.0, and nearly 6 at pH 8.0. Desorption hysteresis occurred over all salinity. The thermodynamic index of irreversibility (TII) values increased with increasing concentration of CaCl(2). Maximum irreversibility was found in the sorption systems with CaCl(2) in the concentration of 0.5 mol L(-1). The results suggested that PFOS can be largely removed from the water with increasing salinity, and get trapped onto sediments irreversibly. These phenomena could be explained by salting-out effect and Ca-bridging effect. Studies also suggested that the content of total organic carbon is the dominant psychochemical properties of sediment controlling the sorption of PFOS. PMID:20181418

You, Chun; Jia, Chengxia; Pan, Gang

2010-05-01

346

Assessment of Water Systems for Contaminants from Domestic and Industrial Sewages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The State of Minas Gerais represents one of Brazil's most outstanding mining resources. The contamination of river waterfrom kaolin processing activities may be harmful to people inthe way of slow but chronic poisoning. On the other hand, the discharge of untreated or inadequately treated domestic sewage into aquatic environments can also cause deleterious effects to the health. However, no reliable

C. P. Jordão; M. G. Pereira; C. R. Bellato; J. L. Pereira; A. T. Matos

2002-01-01

347

Water Velocity and Bioturbation Alter Sediment Resuspension and Biogeochemistry in an Experimental Freshwater Mesocosm System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Processes such as bioturbation and resuspension can affect organic matter decomposition by altering sediment redox conditions. Increased oxygen availability may, in turn, affect remineralization rates and larger scale processes such as benthic-pelagic coupling. However, relatively few studies have explicitly tested the simultaneous effects of bioturbation and water velocity on benthic biogeochemistry and sediment resuspension. Using a mesocosm system we conducted two experiments testing the effects of bioturbator identity on particulate and dissolved nutrient dynamics before and after a resuspension event (i.e. water velocity held constant at 0.12 m s-1 for 2 hr; Expt. 1) and rates of sediment resuspension with increasing water velocity (0.00 - 0.20 m s-1; Expt. 2). We manipulated bioturbator identity across four levels as sediments were undisturbed (control), manually punctured (2% of surface area), or disturbed by one of two fish species, either bluegill or catfish. For Expt. 1, the bioturbation treatments were applied for several days and measurements were made before and after the resuspension event. Initially, water column chlorophyll and total suspended sediment (TSS) concentrations were highest in the catfish treatments. Bioturbator identity did not affect the stoichiometry of TSS as strongly; C:N was unaffected by our treatments while N:P was lowest in the disturbed treatments. After the resuspension event, there was no difference in TSS concentrations or stoichiometric ratios across the bioturbation treatments. Dissolved nutrient flux rates were insensitive to the bioturbation treatments and were more strongly influenced by the resuspension event. For instance, sediment NO3- fluxes were negative (i.e. net flux into sediments) until after the resuspension event when they became positive. In Expt. 2, we gradually increased water velocity from 0.00 - 0.20 m s-1 and measured TSS concentrations only. TSS was initially highest in catfish treatments and lowest in the control treatments. However, once the water velocity was greater than 0.08 m s-1 there was no difference in TSS concentrations across the bioturbation treatments. Sediment resuspension rates were highest in control and manually disturbed treatments, possibly because these treatments had the lowest initial TSS concentrations. Overall, our results indicate that bioturbation and water velocity affect sediment nutrient dynamics and resuspension. By extension, disturbances that affect surficial sediments may also impact algal growth rates by altering nutrient and light levels. Thus it is important to consider how benthic animal communities and species identity interact with water velocity to influence sediment biogeochemical processes.

Spivak, A.; Vanni, M. J.

2010-12-01

348

Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy was used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system had an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water was the transfer medium that delivered solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivered solar heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy was insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provided auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are presented.

1980-01-01

349

Analytical Methods for Measuring Mercury in Water, Sediment and Biota  

SciTech Connect

Mercury (Hg) exists in a large number of physical and chemical forms with a wide range of properties. Conversion between these different forms provides the basis for mercury's complex distribution pattern in local and global cycles and for its biological enrichment and effects. Since the 1960’s, the growing awareness of environmental mercury pollution has stimulated the development of more accurate, precise and efficient methods of determining mercury and its compounds in a wide variety of matrices. During recent years new analytical techniques have become available that have contributed significantly to the understanding of mercury chemistry in natural systems. In particular, these include ultra sensitive and specific analytical equipment and contamination-free methodologies. These improvements allow for the determination of total mercury as well as major species of mercury to be made in water, sediments and soils, and biota. Analytical methods are selected depending on the nature of the sample, the concentration levels of mercury, and what species or fraction is to be quantified. The terms “speciation” and “fractionation” in analytical chemistry were addressed by the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) which published guidelines (Templeton et al., 2000) or recommendations for the definition of speciation analysis. "Speciation analysis is the analytical activity of identifying and/or measuring the quantities of one or more individual chemical species in a sample. The chemical species are specific forms of an element defined as to isotopic composition, electronic or oxidation state, and/or complex or molecular structure. The speciation of an element is the distribution of an element amongst defined chemical species in a system. In case that it is not possible to determine the concentration of the different individual chemical species that sum up the total concentration of an element in a given matrix, meaning it is impossible to determine the speciation, it is a useful practice to do fractionation instead. Fractionation is the process of classification of an analyte or a group of analytes from a certain sample according to physical (e.g. size, solubility) or chemical (e.g. bonding, reactivity) properties."

Lasorsa, Brenda K.; Gill, Gary A.; Horvat, Milena

2012-06-07

350

Presence of pyrethroid pesticides in water and sediments of Ebro River Delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe distribution of pyrethroid insecticides of the Ebro River Delta (NE Spain) was assessed by measuring concentrations in surface water and sediment samples. Pyrethroid extraction from water was carried out by ultrasound-assisted emulsification-extraction (UAEE), while the sediment was sonicated and cleaned up using Florisil cartridge. Method detection of limits (MLODs) for the 12 pyrethroids analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer in negative chemical ionization (GC-NCI-MS) ranged from 0.03 to 35.8 ng L -1 for water and 2.6 to 62.4 pg g -1 for sediment. Recoveries values were in the range of 47-105% for water and 51-105% for sediments, showing satisfactory robustness of the method for analyzing pyrethroids in water and sediment samples. Cypermethrin was detected in 22 water samples collected from Ebro River Delta, while deltamethrin was present only in three water samples at concentrations ranging from 0.73 ng L -1 to 57.2 ng L -1 and 2 ng L -1 to 58.8 ng L -1 for cypermethrin and deltamethrin, respectively. These concentration levels were higher than median lethal concentration (LC50) values found for deltamethrin and lower than LC50 values found for cypermethrin when short time toxic effects are considered. In sediment samples only cypermethrin was detected at concentration levels ranged from 8.27 ng g -1 to 71.9 ng g -1. These levels were higher than its LC50 values. Environmental dynamic behaviour and fate were also evaluated for cypermethrin measuring the sediment/water partition coefficient (ranging from 5.0 to 6.3) and kinetic data (half-life ranging between 13 and 50 days). Results were in good agreement to those reported in literature

Feo, M. L.; Ginebreda, A.; Eljarrat, E.; Barceló, D.

2010-11-01

351

Pesticides in water and sediment from littoral area of Lake Biwa.  

PubMed

A survey of 29 pesticides was performed for water and sediment from two littoral areas of Lake Biwa in 2007. Two insecticides, 5 fungicides and 13 herbicides in the water and an insecticide, 4 fungicides and 7 herbicides in the sediment were detected from the present survey. Pesticide accumulation potential in the sediment was calculated as "Pesticide concentration ratio" from the results of the survey on water and sediment in Lake Biwa. Correlation was investigated for each of the detected pesticides between sediment ignition loss and pesticide concentration ratio or between sediment particle size and pesticide concentration ratio. The ignition loss correlated well with the pesticide concentration ratio for pyrokiron, simetryn, and isoprothiolane (p < 0.01 to p < 0.001) but did not for molinate, bromobutide and pretilachlor. Further, the <0.025 mm particle size ratio correlated well with the pesticide concentration ratio for pyrokiron, simetryn, flutolanil, isoprothiolane and mefenacet (p < 0.01 to p < 0.001) but did not for bromobutide and pretilachlor. The correlation between <0.025 mm particle size ratio and pesticide concentration ratio had almost the same tendency as that between ignition loss and pesticide concentration ratio, suggesting sediment with higher <0.025 mm particle size ratio had higher weight (%) of ignition loss. PMID:19277443

Tsuda, T; Nakamura, T; Inoue, A; Tanaka, K

2009-06-01

352

Sequestration of priority pollutant PAHs from sediment pore water employing semipermeable membrane devices  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were employed to sample sediment pore water in static exposure studies under controlled laboratory conditions using (control pond and formulated) sediments fortified with 15 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPPAHs). The sediment fortification level of 750 ng/g was selected on the basis of what might be detected in a sediment sample from a contaminated area. The sampling interval consisted of 0, 4, 7, 14, and 28 days for each study. The analytical methodologies, as well as the extraction and sample cleanup procedures used in the isolation, characterization, and quantitation of 15 PPPAHs at different fortification levels in SPMDs, water, and sediment were reported previously (Williamson, M.S. Thesis, University of Missouri - Columbia, USA; Williamson et al., Chemosphere (This issue - PII: S0045-6535(02)00394-6)) and used for this project. Average (mean) extraction recoveries for each PPPAH congener in each matrix are reported and discussed. No procedural blank extracts (controls) were found to contain any PPPAH residues above the method quantitation limit, therefore, no matrix interferences were detected. The focus of this publication is to demonstrate the ability to sequester environmental contaminants, specifically PPPAHs, from sediment pore water using SPMDs and two different types of fortified sediment.

Williamson, K. S.; Petty, J. D.; Huckins, J. N.; Lebo, J. A.; Kaiser, E. M.

2002-01-01

353

Heat and dissolved oxygen exchanges between the sediment and water column in a shallow salty lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

oxygen (DO) and heat exchanges across the water-sediment interface (WSI) of a shallow lagoon are controlled by processes occurring on both sides of the WSI, particularly volumetric source and sink on the sediment side and turbulent transport on the waterside. This article presents and analyzes measurements of DO (Js) and heat (Hg) fluxes across the WSI in the extremely shallow lagoon of Salar del Huasco (20.274°S, 68.883°W, 3800 m above sea level), where volumetric source of DO and heat exists in the sediment layer, related to benthic primary production and absorption of solar radiation, respectively. Microprofiles of temperature and DO were measured, and they were used for measuring Js and Hg, and volumetric source/sink terms in the sediments. This information was used to propose and validate the simple theoretical framework to predict both the magnitude and direction of Js and Hg. On the one hand, Js can be predicted with a simple algebraic expression, where the diffusional mass transfer coefficient defines the magnitude of Js while the direction is controlled by the balance between DO production and consumption in the sediments. On the other hand, solar radiation is absorbed in the upper sediments, and this heat diffuses toward the water column and the sediments. The heat flux toward the water column also induces unstable convection that promotes vertical transport across the WSI. The theoretical framework proposed here will help to understand DO and heat budgets of shallow aquatic systems in which solar radiation reaches the WSI.

Fuente, Alberto

2014-04-01

354

A review of surface-water sediment fractions and their interactions with persistent manmade organic compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper reviews the suspended and surficial sediment fractions and their interactions with manmade organic compounds. The objective of this review is to isolate and describe those contaminant and sediment properties that contribute to the persistence of organic compounds in surface-water systems. Most persistent, nonionic organic contaminants, such as the chlorinated insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are characterized by low water solubilities and high octanol-water partition coefficients. Consequently, sorptive interactions are the primary transformation processes that control their environmental behavior. For nonionic organic compounds, sorption is primarily attributed to the partitioning of an organic contaminant between a water phase and an organic phase. Partitioning processes play a central role in the uptake and release of contaminants by sediment organic matter and in the bioconcentration of contaminants by aquatic organisms. Chemically isolated sediment fractions show that organic matter is the primary determinant of the sorptive capacity exhibited by sediment. Humic substances, as dissolved organic matter, contribute a number of functions to the processes cycling organic contaminants. They alter the rate of transformation of contaminants, enhance apparent water solubility, and increase the carrying capacity of the water column beyond the solubility limits of the contaminant. As a component of sediment particles, humic substances, through sorptive interactions, serve as vectors for the hydrodynamic transport of organic contaminants. The capabilities of the humic substances stem in part from their polyfunctional chemical composition and also from their ability to exist in solution as dissolved species, flocculated aggregates, surface coatings, and colloidal organomineral and organometal complexes. The transport properties of manmade organic compounds have been investigated by field studies and laboratory experiments that examine the sorption of contaminants by different sediment size fractions. Field studies indicate that organic contaminants tend to sorb more to fine-grained sediment, and this correlates significantly with sediment organic matter content. Laboratory experiments have extended the field studies to a wider spectrum of natural particulates and anthropogenic compounds. Quantitation of isotherm results allows the comparison of different sediment sorbents as well as the estimation of field partition coefficients from laboratory-measured sediment and contaminant properties. Detailed analyses made on the basis of particle-size classes show that all sediment fractions need to be considered in evaluating the fate and distribution of manmade organic compounds. This conclusion is based on observations from field studies and on the variety of natural organic sorbents that demonstrate sorptive capabilities in laboratory isotherm experiments.

Witkowski, P. J.; Smith, J. A.; Fusillo, T. V.; Chiou, C. T.

1987-01-01

355

Solar Preheating of Both Domestic Hot Water and Space. Final Technical Report for the Sea Loft Restaurant in Long Branch, New Jersey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Stephen Giddio's Sea Loft Restaurant in Long Branch, NJ is equipped with an active solar system for preheating water for both space heating and domestic hot water. Three pumped water loops, each a closed circuit, transfer heat from one major component to ...

1982-01-01

356

The Characterization of Organic Matter in Abyssal Sediments, Pore Waters and Sediment Traps  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Substantial information regarding the history, source and transfer of both carbon and nitrogen to and within the deep sea\\u000a lies in the chemical and isotopic signals of organic materials. Isotopic and chemical characterization of sediment trap samples\\u000a indicate that the captured particulate materials are an organic rich food source for abyssal organisms which become highly\\u000a altered at or just below

Stephen A. Macko

357

Sediment microbial communities in Great Boiling Spring are controlled by temperature and distinct from water communities  

PubMed Central

Great Boiling Spring is a large, circumneutral, geothermal spring in the US Great Basin. Twelve samples were collected from water and four different sediment sites on four different dates. Microbial community composition and diversity were assessed by PCR amplification of a portion of the small subunit rRNA gene using a universal primer set followed by pyrosequencing of the V8 region. Analysis of 164?178 quality-filtered pyrotags clearly distinguished sediment and water microbial communities. Water communities were extremely uneven and dominated by the bacterium Thermocrinis. Sediment microbial communities grouped according to temperature and sampling location, with a strong, negative, linear relationship between temperature and richness at all taxonomic levels. Two sediment locations, Site A (87–80?°C) and Site B (79?°C), were predominantly composed of single phylotypes of the bacterial lineage GAL35 (p?=36.1%), Aeropyrum (p?=16.6%), the archaeal lineage pSL4 (p?=15.9%), the archaeal lineage NAG1 (p?=10.6%) and Thermocrinis (p?=7.6%). The ammonia-oxidizing archaeon ‘Candidatus Nitrosocaldus' was relatively abundant in all sediment samples <82?°C (p?=9.51%), delineating the upper temperature limit for chemolithotrophic ammonia oxidation in this spring. This study underscores the distinctness of water and sediment communities in GBS and the importance of temperature in driving microbial diversity, composition and, ultimately, the functioning of biogeochemical cycles.

Cole, Jessica K; Peacock, Joseph P; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Williams, Amanda J; Thompson, Daniel B; Dong, Hailiang; Wu, Geng; Hedlund, Brian P

2013-01-01

358

BENTHIC INVERTEBRATE BIOASSAYS WITH TOXIC SEDIMENT AND PORE WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The relative sensitivities of bioassays to determine the toxicity of sediments were investigated and three methods of making the sample dilutions required to generate dose-response relationships were compared. he assays studied were: (a) Microtox, a 15-min assay of Photobacterium...

359

ATRAZINE DESORPTION KINETICS FROM A FRESH-WATER SEDIMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Research has shown that the sorption and desorption of neutral organic compounds to soils and sediments occurs in two stages, with an initial rapid sorption/desorption phase (usually less than an hour) followed by a slower phase that can last for several months to years for very ...

360

ABIOTIC TRANSFORMATIONS OF PESTICIDES IN NATURAL WATERS AND SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Selected organic compounds can undergo abiotic reduction in anaerobic sediment systems. he factors that govern these reactions are not well defined, but the chemistry and the biology are strongly coupled. o ideal methodology is now available to quantitatively separate the contrib...

361

Comparison of whole-sediment, elutriate and pore-water exposures for use in assessing sediment-associated organic contaminants in bioassays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioassays have frequently been used as tools to simulate exposure of benthos to sediment-associated contaminants in hazard assessments. Due to the problems involved with estimating bioavailability in whole-sediment bioassays, aqueous fractions such as elutriates and pore water have been substituted for whole-sediment exposures. The objective of this research was to compare and evaluate the bioavailability of representative neutral hydrophobic contaminants

Gail A. Harkey; Peter F. Landrum; Stephen J. Klaine

1994-01-01

362

Phytoremediation of mercury- and methyl mercury-contaminated sediments by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes).  

PubMed

Phytoremediation has the potential for implementation at mercury- (Hg) and methylHg (MeHg)-contaminated sites. Water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) were investigated for their ability to assimilate Hg and MeHg into plant biomass, in both aquatic and sediment-associated forms, over a 68-day hydroponic study. The suitability of E. crassipes to assimilate both Hg and MeHg was evaluated under differing phosphate (PO4) concentrations, light intensities, and sediment:aqueous phase contamination ratios. Because aquatic rhizospheres have the ability to enhance MeHg formation, the level of MeHg in water, sediment, and water hyacinth was also measured. Hg and MeHg were found to concentrate preferentially in the roots of E. crassipes with little translocation to the shoots or leaves of the plant, a result consistent with studies from similar macrophytes. Sediments were found to be the major sink for Hg as they were able to sequester Hg, making it non-bioavailable for water hyacinth uptake. An optimum PO4 concentration was observed for Hg and MeHg uptake. Increasing light intensity served to enhance the translocation of both Hg and MeHg from roots to shoots. Assimilation of Hg and MeHg into the biomass of water hyacinths represents a potential means for sustainable remediation of contaminated waters and sediments under the appropriate conditions. PMID:22567701

Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Fimmen, Ryan L; Yates, Brian J; Lal, Vivek; Randall, Paul

2012-02-01

363

Sedimentation on the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa: cleaning efficiency from natural sediments and drill cuttings.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic threats to cold-water coral reefs are trawling and hydrocarbon drilling, with both activities causing increased levels of suspended particles. The efficiency of Lophelia pertusa in rejecting local sediments and drill cuttings from the coral surface was evaluated and found not to differ between sediment types. Further results showed that the coral efficiently removed deposited material even after repeated exposures, indicating an efficient cleaning mechanism. In an experiment focusing on burial, fine-fraction drill cuttings were deposited on corals over time. Drill cutting covered coral area increased with repeated depositions, with accumulation mainly occurring on and adjacent to regions of the coral skeleton lacking tissue cover. Tissue was smothered and polyp mortality occurred where polyps became wholly covered by material. Burial of coral by drill cuttings to the current threshold level used in environmental risk assessment models by the offshore industry (6.3mm) may result in damage to L. pertusa colonies. PMID:21529851

Larsson, Ann I; Purser, Autun

2011-06-01

364

A sensitivity analysis of the parameters controlling water-sediment interactions in the coastal zone: Consequences to man and environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sensitivity analysis has been carried out on the basis of the local and global sensitivity indexes for selected radionuclides ( 3H, 137Cs, 238Pu, 241Am and 244Cm) and main parameters describing the water-sediment interaction (sediment reworking rate, pore-water turnover rate, sediment distribution coefficient, suspended sediment load in water column, sedimentation rate, molecular diffusion coefficient, surface sediment thickness, porosity of bottom sediment and density of sediment material). Sensitivity analysis has been carried out using a compartment model for dose assessment to man and biota, which includes the processes of advection of radioactivity between compartments, sedimentation, diffusion of radioactivity through pore water in sediments, particle mixing, pore water mixing and a burial process of radioactivity in deep sediment layers. The sensitivity analysis indicates that for the conditions in the Norwegian Current (the Norwegian Sea) particle mixing dominates the transfer of radioactivity between the bottom water and surface sediment compartments. For the conditions in the Ob Bay (the Kara Sea), the sedimentation process has also been found to be significant. The calculated dynamics of the sensitivity indexes demonstrate clearly the complexities encountered when modeling water-sediment interactions. It is also shown that the results can be strongly dependent on the time of analysis. For example, given a specific change of parameters the radionuclide concentration will be either increased or decreased, depending on the temporal interval. Information provided by the sensitivity analysis can contribute to a better understanding of experimental data and might further improve the parameterization process. The obtained results show that water-sediment interactions can play a key role in the marine coastal environment, thus demonstrating the need to further deepen our understanding of them, as well as improve the models describing them.

Iosjpe, M.

2011-10-01

365

Suspended sediment source areas and future climate impact on soil erosion and sediment yield in a New York City water supply watershed, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High suspended sediment loads and the resulting turbidity can impact the use of surface waters for water supply and other designated uses. Changes in fluvial sediment loads influence material fluxes, aquatic geochemistry, water quality, channel morphology, and aquatic habitats. Therefore, quantifying spatial and temporal patterns in sediment loads is important both for understanding and predicting soil erosion and sediment transport processes as well as watershed-scale management of sediment and associated pollutants. A case study from the 891 km2 Cannonsville watershed, one of the major watersheds in the New York City water supply system is presented. The objective of this study was to apply Soil and Water Assessment Tool-Water Balance (SWAT-WB), a physically based semi-distributed model to identify suspended sediment generating source areas under current conditions and to simulate potential climate change impacts on soil erosion and suspended sediment yield in the study watershed for a set of future climate scenarios representative of the period 2081-2100. Future scenarios developed using nine global climate model (GCM) simulations indicate a sharp increase in the annual rates of soil erosion although a similar result in sediment yield at the watershed outlet was not evident. Future climate related changes in soil erosion and sediment yield appeared more significant in the winter due to a shift in the timing of snowmelt and also due to a decrease in the proportion of precipitation received as snow. Although an increase in future summer precipitation was predicted, soil erosion and sediment yield appeared to decrease owing to an increase in soil moisture deficit and a decrease in water yield due to increased evapotranspiration.

Mukundan, Rajith; Pradhanang, Soni M.; Schneiderman, Elliot M.; Pierson, Donald C.; Anandhi, Aavudai; Zion, Mark S.; Matonse, Adão H.; Lounsbury, David G.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

2013-02-01

366

Analysis of pesticides in surface water and sediment from Yolo Bypass, California, 2004-2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Inputs to the Yolo Bypass are potential sources of pesticides that could impact critical life stages of native fish. To assess the direct inputs during inundation, pesticide concentrations were analyzed in water, in suspended and bed-sediment samples collected from six source watersheds to the Yolo Bypass, and from three sites within the Bypass in 2004 and 2005. Water samples were collected in February 2004 from the six input sites to the Bypass during the first flood event of the year representing pesticide inputs during high-flow events. Samples were also collected along a transect across the Bypass in early March 2004 and from three sites within the Bypass in the spring of 2004 under low-flow conditions. Low-flow data were used to understand potential pesticide contamination and its effects on native fish if water from these areas were used to flood the Bypass in dry years. To assess loads of pesticides to the Bypass associated with suspended sediments, large-volume water samples were collected during high flows in 2004 and 2005 from three sites, whereas bed sediments were collected from six sites in the fall of 2004 during the dry season. Thirteen current-use pesticides were detected in surface water samples collected during the study. The highest pesticide concentrations detected at the input sites to the Bypass corresponded to the first high-flow event of the year. The highest pesticide concentrations at the two sites sampled within the Bypass during the early spring were detected in mid-April following a major flood event as the water began to subside. The pesticides detected and their concentrations in the surface waters varied by site; however, hexazinone and simazine were detected at all sites and at some of the highest concentrations. Thirteen current-use pesticides and three organochlorine insecticides were detected in bed and suspended sediments collected in 2004 and 2005. The pesticides detected and their concentrations varied by site and sediment sample type. Trifluralin, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT were highest in the bed sediments, whereas oxyfluorfen and thiobencarb were highest in the suspended sediments. With the exception of the three organochlorine insecticides, suspended sediments had higher pesticide concentrations compared with bed sediments, indicating the potential for pesticide transport throughout the Bypass, especially during high-flow events. Understanding the distribution of pesticides between the water and sediment is needed to assess fate and transport within the Bypass and to evaluate the potential effects on native fish.

Smalling, Kelly L.; Orlando, James L.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.

2005-01-01

367

Field Evaluation Of Arsenic Transport Across The Ground Water/Surface Water Interface: Speciation In Sediment Material  

EPA Science Inventory

The solubility and mobility of arsenic in ground water are influenced by a variety of processes in the northeastern US subjective to geogenic and anthropogenic sources. This presentation will discuss the speciation of arsenic in sediment profiles resulting from ground water disc...

368

Eutrophication in the northern Adriatic Sea: Pore water and sediment studies  

SciTech Connect

The northern Adriatic Sea has been plagued by problems of eutrophication. This area is relatively shallow (maximum depth = 60m), becoming stratified during the summer months which inhibits oxygen transport to bottom waters. Anthropogenic nutrient loading in rivers entering the northern Adriatic (Po River being the largest) has increased nutrient input to this system and stimulated algal growth. Cores were collected for studies of pore water and solid phase chemistry at 6 stations in this region. [sup 210]Pb was used to constrain sediment accumulation rates and a range of 0-0.5 cm/yr was determined at different stations. Excess [sup 234]Th was only found in the upper 1-2 cm, suggesting that bioturbation is largely restricted to shallow depths. Pore water profiles show evidence of irrigation, and mean diffusive fluxes for oxygen, silica phosphate and ammonia are generally 20-90% of the fluxes obtained from benthic chamber measurements. This is consistent with previous work in this area in which studies of radon fluxes indicated that irrigation plays an important role in sediment-water exchange. Pore water profiles in the northern portion of the study area (near the Po River Delta) were markedly different than profiles in the south; sediments in the north are substantially more acidic and have high concentrations of dissolved iron and phosphate. From the alkalinity vs. TCO[sub 2] relationship in sediment pore waters it appears that differences in reactions involving the reduction of iron oxides and the exchange of magnesium for iron in clays are responsible for this regional difference in pore water properties. Sediments close to the Po apparently undergo more iron-magnesium exchange, while more distal sediments are limited in their ability to do so. Other pore water observations are limited in their ability to do so. Other pore water observations and trends regarding the shape of the silica profiles (which show shallow maxima) will be discussed.

Hammond, D.E.; Berelson, W.M. (Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States)); Giordani, P.; Langone, L.; Frignani, M.; Ravaioli, M. (Inst. di Geologia Marina, CNR, Bologna (Italy))

1990-01-09

369

Bottom-water Hypoxia Effects on Sediment–Water Interface Nitrogen Transformations in a Seasonally Hypoxic, Shallow Bay (Corpus Christi Bay, TX, USA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bottom-water hypoxia effects on sediment–water interface nitrogen (N) transformations in Corpus Christi Bay (TX, USA) were\\u000a examined using continuous-flow intact sediment core incubations. Sediment cores were collected from three sites in August\\u000a 2002 (summer hypoxia) and April 2003 (normoxia). Oxygen (O2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) depth profiles were generated with microelectrodes. Membrane inlet mass spectrometry was used to measure sediment

Mark J. McCarthy; Karen S. McNeal; John W. Morse; Wayne S. Gardner

2008-01-01

370

Enzyme activities in the water column and in shallow permeable sediments from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The activities of extracellular enzymes that initiate the microbial remineralization of high molecular weight organic matter were investigated in the water column and sandy surface sediments at two sites in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Six fluorescently labeled polysaccharides were hydrolyzed rapidly in the water column as well as in permeable sediments. This result contrasts with previous studies carried out in environments dominated by fine-grained muds, in which the spectrum of enzymes active in the water column is quite limited compared to that of the underlying sediments. Extracts of Spirulina, Isochrysis, and Thalassiosira were also used to measure hydrolysis rates in water from one of the sites. Rates of hydrolysis of the three plankton extracts were comparable to those of the purified polysaccharides. The broad spectrum and rapid rates of hydrolysis observed in the water column at both sites in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico may be due to the permeable nature of the sediments. Fluid flux through the sediments is sufficiently high that the entire 1.5 m deep water column could filter though the sediments on timescales of a few days to two weeks. Movement of water through sediments may also transport dissolved enzymes from the sediment into the water column, enhancing the spectrum as well as the rate of water column enzymatic activities. Such interaction between the sediments and water column would permit water column microbial communities to access high molecular weight substrates that might otherwise remain unavailable as substrates.

Arnosti, C.; Ziervogel, K.; Ocampo, L.; Ghobrial, S.

2009-09-01

371

Development of a gas backup heater for solar domestic hot-water systems. Final report, April 1978-April 1980  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive program was undertaken to develop a unique gas fired backup for solar domestic hot water systems. Detailed computer design tools were written. A series of heat transfer experiments were performed to characterize the performance of individual components. A full scale engineering prototype, including the solar preheat tank and solar heat exchanger, was designed, fabricated and subjected to limited testing. Firing efficiency for the backup system was found to be 81.4% at a firing rate of 50,000 Btu/h. Long term standby losses should be negligible.

Morrison, D.J.; Grunes, H.E.; de Winter, F.; Armstrong, P.R.

1980-06-01

372

Normalized rare earth elements in water, sediments, and wine: identifying sources and environmental redox conditions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The concentrations of the rare earth elements (REE) in surface waters and sediments, when normalized on an element-by-element basis to one of several rock standards and plotted versus atomic number, yield curves that reveal their partitioning between different sediment fractions and the sources of those fractions, for example, between terrestrial-derived lithogenous debris and seawater-derived biogenous detritus and hydrogenous metal oxides. The REE of ancient sediments support their partitioning into these same fractions and further contribute to the identification of the redox geochemistry of the sea water in which the sediments accumulated. The normalized curves of the REE that have been examined in several South American wine varietals can be interpreted to reflect the lithology of the bedrock on which the vines may have been grown, suggesting limited fractionation during soil development.

Piper, David Z.; Bau, Michael

2013-01-01

373

Human and climate impact on global riverine water and sediment fluxes - a distributed analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding riverine water and sediment dynamics is an important undertaking for both socially-relevant issues such as agriculture, water security and infrastructure management and for scientific analysis of climate, landscapes, river ecology, oceanography and other disciplines. Providing good quantitative and predictive tools in therefore timely particularly in light of predicted climate and landuse changes. The intensity and dynamics between man-made and climatic factors vary widely across the globe and are therefore hard to predict. Using sophisticated numerical models is therefore warranted. Here we use a distributed global riverine sediment and water discharge model (WBMsed) to simulate human and climate effect on our planet's large rivers.

Cohen, S.; Kettner, A.; Syvitski, J. P.

2013-05-01

374

Laboratory measurements of physical, chemical, and optical characteristics of Lake Chicot sediment waters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reflectance, chromaticity, diffuse attenuation, beam attenuation, and several other physical and chemical properties were measured for various water mixtures of lake bottom sediment. Mixture concentrations range from 5 ppm to 700 ppm by weight of total suspended solids in filtered deionized tap water. Upwelled reflectance is a nonlinear function of remote sensing wave lengths. Near-infrared wavelengths are useful for monitoring highly turbid waters with sediment concentrations above 100 ppm. It is found that both visible and near infrared wavelengths, beam attenuation correlates well with total suspended solids ranging over two orders of magnitude.

Witte, W. G.; Whitlock, C. H.; Usry, J. W.; Morris, W. D.; Gurganus, E. A.

1981-01-01

375

Analysis of national water pollution control policies: 2. Agricultural sediment control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of a national water network model permits an analysis of the likely affects of agricultural sediment control policies on the quality of the nation's waters. This analysis is believed superior to previous assessments based mainly on erosion estimates without accounting for the characteristics of the receiving water or the contribution of pollutants from nonagricultural activities. Specifically, while the earlier assessments concluded that agriculture-related pollution problems are widespread and ubiquitous, this analysis concludes that it is probably more efficient to focus sediment-related pollution control policies on about one third of the nation's agricultural regions.

Gianessi, Leonard P.; Peskin, Henry M.

1981-08-01

376

Shallow water hydrodynamic models for hyperconcentrated sediment-laden floods over erodible bed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of the huge annual sediment load of the Yellow River in China is transported by a few hyperconcentrated sediment-laden floods. Being hyperconcentrated, these floods are still so "starved" as to entrain enormous volumes of sediment from the bed, triggering quick and extensive bed-tearing scour. In the recession period of the floods, river blockage might occur as characterized by an abrupt halt of the flow. The physics of these fluvial processes has remained unclear for several decades. Previous hydrodynamic models were built upon simplified conservation laws and are applicable only for processes with weak sediment transport. A complete shallow water hydrodynamic model is deployed here to reveal new insights into the phenomena. A self-amplifying mechanism of the interaction between the flow and bed scour is identified, which explains how bed-tearing scour occurs. River blockage is ascribable to the longitudinally positive pressure gradient due to a non-uniform distribution of sediment concentration. The spatial and temporal development of the system of flow, sediment transport and morphology is far more complicated than represented by previous models that have evolved from fixed-bed, single-phase hydrodynamics or involved a capacity description of sediment transport. The present approach may facilitate a better understanding of active sediment transport by flash floods in ephemeral desert rivers and by subaqueous turbidity currents.

Cao, Zhixian; Pender, Gareth; Carling, Paul

2006-04-01

377

Concentration of arsenic in water, sediments and fish species from naturally contaminated rivers.  

PubMed

Arsenic (As) may occur in surface freshwater ecosystems as a consequence of both natural contamination and anthropogenic activities. In this paper, As concentrations in muscle samples of 10 fish species, sediments and surface water from three naturally contaminated rivers in a central region of Argentina are reported. The study area is one of the largest regions in the world with high As concentrations in groundwater. However, information of As in freshwater ecosystems and associated biota is scarce. An extensive spatial variability of As concentrations in water and sediments of sampled ecosystems was observed. Geochemical indices indicated that sediments ranged from mostly unpolluted to strongly polluted. The concentration of As in sediments averaged 6.58 ?g/g ranging from 0.23 to 59.53 ?g/g. Arsenic in sediments barely followed (r = 0.361; p = 0.118) the level of contamination of water. All rivers showed high concentrations of As in surface waters, ranging from 55 to 195 ?g/L. The average concentration of As in fish was 1.76 ?g/g. The level of contamination with As differed significantly between species. Moreover, the level of bioaccumulation of As in fish species related to the concentration of As in water and sediments also differed between species. Whilst some fish species seemed to be able to regulate the uptake of this metalloid, the concentration of As in the large catfish Rhamdia quelen mostly followed the concentration of As in abiotic compartments. The erratic pattern of As concentrations in fish and sediments regardless of the invariable high levels in surface waters suggests the existence of complex biogeochemical processes behind the distribution patterns of As in these naturally contaminated ecosystems. PMID:23179469

Rosso, Juan José; Schenone, Nahuel F; Pérez Carrera, Alejo; Fernández Cirelli, Alicia

2013-04-01

378

Concentrations and Distribution of Trace Metals in Water and Streambed Sediments of Orogodo River, Southern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, and Zn in sediment and surface water, and some physico-chemical characteristics of Orogodo river sediments, were evaluated. The sediment pH ranged from 5.1–7.3; conductivity values ranged from 34.5 to 389.0 ?Scm. Total nitrogen values ranged from 0.06–0.10%, NH3-N values ranged from 0.25–0.44 mgkg, percent total organic carbon ranged from 0.21–1.68%,

Chukwujindu M. A. Iwegbue; Francis O. Arimoro; Godwin E. Nwajei; Osayonmo I. Eguavoen

2012-01-01

379

Provision of safe domestic water for the promotion and protection of public health: a case study of the city of Beirut, Lebanon.  

PubMed

Securing adequate safe drinking water and proper sanitation is a major challenge facing the developing world. The "Water for Life Decade" emphasizes the importance of upgrading national water quality and sanitation services. This study assessed the domestic water profile in the city of Beirut. Samples were collected from three types of household water sources (municipality, private wells, and vended water bottles) and assessed for their physiochemical and microbiological profile. At the same time, a cross-sectional survey assessing water consumption patterns and the prevalence of water-borne diseases was conducted. The results showed a deficient water quality profile in all three water sources. The measured physiochemical and bacteriological parameters reflected the high frequency of water-borne diseases. Action to secure a safe domestic water supply is essential. The plan should guarantee the protection of water sources, ensure sufficient treatment of domestic water and upgrade the national program for potable water quality control. Periodic quality monitoring and legislating the chaotic water-vending sector are indispensable. Additionally, the deterioration of private well sources by sea and wastewater infiltration necessitates the enforcement of legislation associated with the use and management of private wells. Consumer awareness and active contributions to promote and protect public health are important. PMID:18958397

Korfali, Samira Ibrahim; Jurdi, Mey

2009-04-01

380

A theoretical study of diagenetic concentration fields near manganese nodules at the sediment-water interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of manganese nodules on concentration fields in adjacent pore waters and sediments are investigated theoretically with a three-dimensional (axisymmetric) diffusion-reaction model. The nodules are idealized as impermeable and poorly permeable disks and hemispheres. The first part of this paper examines the organic matter and coupled pore water oxygen fields in order to evaluate the local redox conditions under

Bernard P. Boudreau; Robert J. Taylor

1989-01-01

381

Metal Contamination of River Waters and Sediments from Effluents of Kaolin Processing in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the metal contamination from kaolin industry discharges into rivers in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, samples of river water and fluvial sediment were collected up- and down-river from the industries and analysed todetect metal inputs. The metal examined included zinc, iron, andaluminium among others, being selected due to their toxicity andoccurence in waste waters. Metal

C. P. Jordão; M. G. Pereira; J. L. Pereira

2002-01-01

382

Inverting for bottom parameters in shallow-water soft sediment environments using MBES backscatter strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shallow water naval operations require detailed knowledge of the environmental properties. In addition to parameters such as water depth, knowledge about the sediment properties is of high importance for a wide range of operations. In this context, the MREA BP'07 experiment was carried out in the Mediterranean Sea in 2007. Measurements employed a large set of sensors, thereby providing all

K. Siemes; M. Snellen; D. G. Simons; J. P. Hermand

2009-01-01

383

Mapping of accumulated nitrogen in the sediment pore water of a eutrophic lake in Iowa, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large pool of nitrogen in the sediment pore fluid of a eutrophic lake in Iowa, USA, was mapped in this study. Previously, the lake had supported fishing and boating, but today it no longer supports its designated uses as a recreational water body. In the top 5 cm of the lake bottom, the pore water nitrogen ranges between 3.1

M. Z. Iqbal; C. L. Fields

2009-01-01

384

Polychlorinated organic compounds (PCOCs) in waters, suspended solids and sediments of the Yangtse River  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contamination levels of polychlorinated organic compounds (PCOCs) in waters, suspended solids and sediments of the Yangtse River (Nanjing part) were analyzed in this paper. Their concentrations determined by GC\\/MS were very low in comparison with those in European River. The average concentration of total HCH (?-HCH, ?-HCH, ?-HCH) was much higher than that of other PCOCs in all waters,

X Jiang; D Martens; K.-W Schramm; A Kettrup; S. F Xu; L. S Wang

2000-01-01

385

ANALYSIS OF NATIONAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL POLICIES. 2. AGRICULTURAL SEDIMENT CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

Application of a national water network model permits an analysis of the likely effects of agricultural sediment control policies on the quality of the nation's waters. This analysis is believed superior to previous assessments based mainly on erosion estimates without accounting...

386

A modeling study of the dynamics of pore water seepage from intertidal marsh sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical boundary integral equation model has been used to simulate tidally driven transient variations in pore water seepage from salt marsh sediments into tidal channels and its subsequent recharge by tidal inundation. In general the results show that the maximum seepage discharge occurs at or near the intersection of the creek bank and the channel water surface. Over a

Leonard Robert Gardner

2005-01-01

387

Hypolimnetic Anoxia and Sediment Oxygen Demand in California Drinking Water Reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summertime hypolimnetic anoxia can occur in productive drinking water reservoirs as a result of the decay of phytoplankton. Anoxic conditions promote ecological processes that degrade water quality through the release of problem-causing compounds from anoxic sediments including phosphates, ammonia, sulfides, methyl-mercury, iron and manganese. Hypolimnetic aeration systems are commonly installed in reservoirs to prevent hypolimnetic anoxia, but these systems have

Marc W. Beutel

2003-01-01

388

DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF A BIDIRECTIONAL ADVECTIVE FLUX METER FOR SEDIMENT-WATER INTERFACE  

EPA Science Inventory

A bidirectional advective flux meter for measuring water transport across the sediment-water interface has been successfully developed and field tested. The flow sensor employs a heat-pulse technique combined with a flow collection funnel for the flow measurement. Because the dir...

389

Heavy Metal Concentrations in Water, Sediment, Fish and Some Benthic Organisms from Tigris River, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study concentrations of heavy metals, such as Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in water, sediment,\\u000a muscle, liver and gill of fish (Silurus triostegus, Mastacembelus simack, Mystus halepensis, Orthrias euphraticus) the muscle and liver of crab (Potamon fluviatilis), the internal organs of fresh water snail (Physa acuta), and mussel (Unio elongatulus), and in

Hülya Karadede-Akin; Erhan Ünlü

2007-01-01

390

Spatial and temporal trends in surface water and sediment contamination in the Laurentian Great Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from recent sediment and surface water surveys have been collated and mapped to illustrate the spatial distribution of contaminants across the entire Great Lakes basin. Information from historical surveys, together with data from surface water monitoring programs in three major connecting channels, has also been collated in order to evaluate temporal trends. In general, Lakes Superior and Michigan exhibited

Chris Marvin; Scott Painter; Donald Williams; Violeta Richardson; Ronald Rossmann; Patricia Van Hoof

2004-01-01

391

COSOLVENT EFFECTS ON PHENANTHRENE SORPTION-DESORPTION ON A FRESH-WATER SEDIMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This study evaluated the effects of the water-miscible cosolvent methanol on the sorption-desorption of phenanthrene by the natural organic matter (NOM) of a fresh-water sediment. A biphasic pattern was observed in the relationship between the log of the carbon-normalized sorpti...

392

Chromium distribution in waters and sediments of the eastern side of The Qatari Peninsula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coastal environment on the eastern side of the Qatari peninsula is subjected to several sources of pollution such as the leaching from a solid waste disposal site, the merchant and naval harbours of Doha and surface water discharge outlets. Chromium was measured in surface sea water and in surficial sediments by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GFAAS). Average Cr

O. Aboul Dahab; H. Al-Madfa

1997-01-01

393

Sediment biobarriers for chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons in groundwater reaching surface water (SEDBARCAH Project)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polluted groundwater in urban and industrial areas often represents a continuous source of diffuse contamination of surface waters. However, the fate of the infiltrating groundwater pollutants might be influenced by the sediment in eutrophic water bodies since they might possess characteristic biological and physicochemical properties influencing pollutant degradation. In a part of the eutrophic river Zenne (Vilvoorde, Belgium) we studied

Kelly Hamonts; Annemie Ryngaert; Miranda Maesen; Johan Vos; Daniel Wilzcek; Jan Bronders; Ludo Diels; Winnie Dejonghe; John Dijk; Dirk Springael; Mark Sturme; Hauke Smidt; Jan Kuklik; Petr Kozubek; Thomas Kuhn; Rainer Meckenstock; Andre Rieger; Thomas Lange; Harald Kalka; Niels-Holger Peters; Jörg Perner; Lutz Eckardt

394

Water harvesting and sediment trapping in exclosures - A gully diversion experiment in the Tigray Highlands, Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to rapid vegetation restoration, exclosures (i.e. areas protected from grazing) are an effective and efficient measure for soil and water conservation. As a result, exclosures have become a widespread measure to combat the severe soil erosion and to rehabilitate the degraded land in the Tigray highlands of northern Ethiopia. Given the high infiltration rates and sediment trapping capacity of exclosures, this study investigates to what extent these characteristics can be optimized through the diversion of runoff water from an eroding gully into a well-restored exclosure. A representative exclosure of 20 years old was selected for the gully diversion experiment. The exclosure was located on a steep limestone escarpment and was cut by a strongly eroding gully. The runoff from the gully was diverted into the exclosure by three diversion structures and canals, which led the runoff about 50 - 100 m into the exclosure and allowed it to infiltrate gradually. At the bottom of the exclosure, a cut-off drain served to evacuate the excess water back into the gully. The aim of the experimental set-up was (1) to supply additional water to the restoring vegetation in the exclosure so as to increase biomass production, (2) to decrease sediment and runoff output from the catchment, (3) to decrease gully erosion rates. The experiment was evaluated using a sediment budget and a water balance. The sediment budget of the gully diversion system was drawn up based on records of the sediment load in the runoff water of the gully and measurements of the volumes of sediment deposited in the exclosure. The water balance of the exclosure system was developed based on measurements of the additional runoff input at the three inlet canals and of the outflow of excess runoff water in the cut-off drain. Runoff discharge measurements were made using v-notches in the canals. Weekly soil water content measurements allowed for calibration and validation of the BUDGET soil water balance model. This model was then used to determine the contribution of the additional water input to groundwater recharge and to biomass production for different rainfall scenarios. The gully diversion experiment indicated that sediment deposition rates of 60 Mg ha-1 y-1 can be easily achieved in well-restored exclosures. Infiltration of runoff water from gullies in exclosures resulted in water harvesting, as 1100 mm extra water can infiltrate in normal rainfall years. This had important beneficial effects for the exclosure as fertile sediment was trapped and extra water infiltration resulted in water stress alleviation, increased transpiration and therefore a far higher biomass production. The gully diversion also resulted in a huge increase in deep percolation of water (up to 850 mm of water) and thus recharge of the groundwater, which is expected to result in spring formation downstream. Finally, the trapping of runoff and sediment from the gully in the exclosure decreased runoff and sediment discharges downstream of the exclosure, which resulted in smaller runoff erosivity and hence smaller sediment yield from the gully.

Descheemaeker, K.; Nyssen, J.; Poesen, J.; Raes, D.; Terryn, L.; Haile, M.; Muys, B.; Deckers, J.

2009-04-01

395

Natural and artificial radionuclides in the Suez Canal bottom sediments and stream water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentration of natural and artificial radionuclides in Suez Canal bottom sediments and stream water have been measured using gamma spectrometers based on a hyper-pure Ge detector. The activity concentrations of 238U series, 232Th series and 40K did not exceed 16.0, 15.5 and 500.0 Bq kg-1 dry weight for sediments. The activity concentration of 238U series and 40K did not exceed

M. S. El-Tahawy; M. A. Farouk; N. M. Ibrahiem; S. A. M. El-Mongey

1994-01-01

396

Impacts of soil-water conservation in Jialing River on sedimentation of the Three Gorges Reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Jialing River is one of the main tributaries of the Yangtze River. The average annual runoff accounts for 16% and the\\u000a sediment load 26% of the total at Yichang therefore it's one of the main contributors of sediment to the Three Gorges Reservoir.\\u000a Ever since 1989, our country has implemented “Yangtze River soil and water conservation” project, Till the

Lei Xiaozhang; Cao Shuyou; Jiang Xiaohua

2006-01-01

397

Degradation of selected halogenated ethanes in anoxic sediment-water systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of selected halogenated ethanes was studied in anoxic sediment-water suspensions at 1 to 20% sediment concentrations. Batch kinetic experiments were used to quantify decay. Eh measurements of all suspensions were below -100mV (vs SHE), indicating reduced environmental conditions. Hexachloroethane (HCA), 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (TTCA), 1,2-diiodoethane (DIA) and 1,2-dibromoethane (DBA) were degraded within minutes to days, but 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA) remained in

Chad T. Jafvert; N. Lee Wolfe

1987-01-01

398

Ecological risk of heavy metals in sediments of the Luan River source water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distribution and characteristics of heavy metals enrichment in sediment were surveyed including the bio-available form analyzed\\u000a for assessment of the Luan River source water quality. The approaches of sediment quality guidelines (SQG), risk assessment\\u000a code and Hakanson potential ecological risk index were used for the ecological risk assessment. According to SQG, The results\\u000a show that in animal bodies, Hg at

Jingling Liu; Yongli Li; Bao Zhang; Jinling Cao; Zhiguo Cao; Joseph Domagalski

2009-01-01

399

The Association of Cryptosporidium parvum With Suspended Sediments: Implications for Transport in Surface Waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the transport and fate of microorganisms in surface waters is of vital concern in protecting the integrity and safety of municipal water supply systems. The human pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum is a particular public health interest, as it is ubiquitous in the surface waters of the United States, it can persist for long periods in the environment, and it is difficult to disinfect in water treatment plants. Due to its small size (5 um), low specific gravity (1.05 g/cm3), and negative surface charge, C. parvum oocysts are generally considered to move through watersheds from their source to drinking water reservoirs with little attenuation. However, the transport of the oocysts in surface waters may be mediated by interactions with suspended sediments. Batch experiments were conducted to determine the extent of C. parvum oocyst attachment to several inorganic and organic sediments under varying water chemical conditions, and settling column experiments were performed to demonstrate how these associations influence the effective settling velocity of C. parvum oocysts. Results from these experiments showed that C. parvum oocysts do associate with inorganic and organic sediments and often settle at the rate of the suspended sediment. The size and surface charge of the host suspended sediment influenced the extent of oocyst attachment as oocysts preferentially associated with particles greater than 3 um, and fewer oocysts associated with particles having a highly negative surface charge. Background water chemical conditions including ionic strength, ion composition, and pH did not have a significant effect on oocyst attachment to suspended sediments.

Searcy, K. E.; Packman, A. I.; Atwill, E. R.; Harter, T.

2003-12-01

400

A comparison of solids collected in sediment traps and automated water samplers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sediment traps are being used in some pollution monitoring programs in the USA to sample suspended solids for contaminant analyses. This monitoring approach assumes that the characteristics of solids obtained in sediment traps are the same as those collected in whole-water sampling devices. We tested this assumption in the upper Mississippi River, based on the inorganic particle-size distribution (determined with a laser particle- analyzer) and volatile matter content of solids (a surrogate for organic matter). Cylindrical sediment traps (aspect ratio 3) were attached to a rigid mooring device and deployed in a flowing side channel in Navigation Pool 7 of the upper Mississippi River. On each side of the mooring device, a trap was situated adjacent to a port of an autosampler that collected raw water samples hourly to form 2-d composite samples. Paired samples (one trap and one raw water, composite sample) were removed from each end of the mooring device at 2-d intervals during the 30-d study period and compared. The relative particle collection efficiency of paired samplers did not vary temporally. Particle-size distributions of inorganic solids from sediment traps and water samples were not significantly different. The volatile matter content of solids was lesser in sediment traps (mean, 9.5%) than in corresponding water samples (mean, 22.7%). This bias may have been partly due to under-collection of phytoplankton (mainly cyanobacteria), which were abundant in the water column during the study. The positioning of water samplers and sediment traps in the mooring device did not influence the particle-size distribution or total solids of samples. We observed a small difference in the amount of organic matter collected by water samplers situated at opposite ends of the mooring device.

Bartsch, L. A.; Rada, R. G.; Sullivan, J. F.

1996-01-01

401

An Integrated Assessment of Sediment Remediation in a Midwestern U.S. Stream Using Sediment Chemistry, Water Quality, Bioassessment and Fish Biomarkers  

EPA Science Inventory

A comprehensive biological, sediment and water quality study of the lower Little Scioto River near Marion, Ohio, USA was undertaken in July 2007 to evaluate the effectiveness of removal of creosote-contaminated sediment. The study area covered 7.5 river miles (RMs) of the river, ...

402

Radium, thorium, uranium, and /sup 210/Pb in deep-sea sediments and sediment pore waters from the North Equatorial Pacific  

SciTech Connect

Determination of radium, thorium, uranium isotopes, and /sup 210/Pb in sediments and sediment pore waters from North Equatorial Pacific deep-sea clay-silicous oozes shows that the radium and uranium isotopes are mobile in the pore water. The concentration-depth profiles of radium can be understood in terms of a diagenetic model which takes into account mixing of sediment particles by bioturbation, molecular diffusion in the pore water, adsorption onto particle surfaces, as well as radioactive production and decay. The /sup 234/U//sup 238/U activity ratios in several samples are higher than the seawater value, indicating some enrichment of /sup 234/U in the pore water. However, the absolute concentrations of /sup 238/U and /sup 234/U are 25% lower than those in seawater, suggesting that the sediments form a sink for uranium isotopes. /sup 210/Pb is present in the pore water at concentrations approx. 20% that of /sup 226/Ra. The origin of /sup 210/Pb in the pore water is uncertain and could be due either to its in situ mobilization in the sediments or subsequent production in the laboratory from the decay of /sup 222/Rn. /sup 230/Th is present in measurable concentrations in the pore waters, but its distribution does not show any systematic trend with depth or other parameters. The most likely source of /sup 230/Th appears to be minute amounts of sediment particles collected in the pore waters during the squeezing operation.

Cochran, J.K.; Krishnaswami, S.

1980-11-01

403

Development of Layered Sediment Structure and its Effects on Pore Water Transport and Hyporheic Exchange  

SciTech Connect

Hyporheic exchange is known to provide an important control on nutrient and contaminant fluxes across the stream-subsurface interface. Similar processes also mediate interfacial transport in other permeable sediments. Recent research has focused on understanding the mechanics of these exchange processes and improving estimation of exchange rates in natural systems. While the structure of sediment beds obviously influences pore water flow rates and patterns, little is known about the interplay of typical sedimentary structures, hyporheic exchange, and other transport processes in fluvial/alluvial sediments. Here we discuss several processes that contribute to local-scale sediment heterogeneity and present results that illustrate the interaction of overlying flow conditions, the development of sediment structure, pore water transport, and stream-subsurface exchange. Layered structures are shown to develop at several scales within sediment beds. Surface sampling is used to analyze the development of an armor layer in a sand-and-gravel bed, while innovative synchrotron-based X-ray microtomography is used to observe patterns of grain sorting within sand bedforms. We show that layered bed structures involving coarsening of the bed surface increase interfacial solute flux but produce an effective anisotropy that favors horizontal pore water transport while limiting vertical penetration.

Packman, Aaron I.; Marion, Andrea; Zaramella, Mattia; Chen, Cheng; Gaillard, Jean-François; Keane, Denis T. (Padua); (NWU)

2008-04-15

404

Laboratory Experiments on the Transfer Dynamics of Plutonium from Marine Sediments to Sea Water and to Marine Organisms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The leachability of exp 239 exp 240 Pu from a fine contaminated calcareous sediment to aerated open sea water and to anoxic sea water was measured. The distribution coefficient for exp 239 exp 240 Pu from sediment to sea water was 6.1 x 10 exp -5 for aera...

T. Mo F. G. Lowman

1975-01-01

405

Factors controlling the silicon isotope distribution in waters and surface sediments of the Peruvian coastal upwelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first systematic study of the silicon isotope composition in the water column (?30Si) and in diatoms (?30Sidiatom) from the underlying surface sediments in a coastal upwelling region. The surface waters upwelling on the shelf off Peru are mainly fed by southward flowing subsurface waters along the coast, which show a mean ?30Si of +1.5‰. The concentration of dissolved silicic acid (Si(OH)4) increases towards the south in these waters and with increasing water depth, suggesting lateral mixing with water masses from the south and intense remineralisation of particulate biogenic silica (bSiO2) in the water column and in the surface sediments. Surface waters in the realm of the most intense upwelling between 5°S and 15°S have only marginally elevated ?30Si values (?30Si = +1.7‰) with respect to the source Si isotope composition, whereas further north and south, where upwelling is less pronounced, surface waters are more strongly fractionated (?30Si up to +2.8‰) due to the stronger utilisation of the smaller amounts of available Si(OH)4. The degree of Si(OH)4 utilisation in the surface waters along the shelf estimated from the Si(OH)4 concentration data ranges from 51% to 93%. The ?30Sidiatom values of hand-picked diatoms in the underlying surface sediments vary from +0.6‰ to +2.0‰, which is within the range of the expected fractionation between surface waters and diatoms. The fractionation signal in the surface waters produced during formation of the diatoms is reflected by the ?30Sidiatom values in the underlying sediments, with the lowest ?30Sidiatom values in the main upwelling region. The silicon isotope compositions of bSiO2 (?30Si) from the same surface sediment samples are generally much lower than the ?30Sidiatom signatures indicating a significant contamination of the bSiO2 with biogenic siliceous material other than diatoms, such as sponge spicules. This shift towards lighter ?30Si values by up to -1.3‰ compared to ?30Sidiatom signatures for the same surface sediment samples potentially biases the interpretation of ?30Si paleorecords from sediments with low bSiO2 concentrations, and thus the reconstruction of past Si(OH)4 utilisation in surface waters.

Ehlert, Claudia; Grasse, Patricia; Mollier-Vogel, Elfi; Böschen, Tebke; Franz, Jasmin; de Souza, Gregory F.; Reynolds, Ben C.; Stramma, Lothar; Frank, Martin

2012-12-01

406

Sediment desiccation as a driver of phosphate availability in the water column of Mediterranean wetlands.  

PubMed

Sediment desiccation is expected to drastically affect nutrient cycling in Mediterranean wetlands as global climate change models predict that many areas will become significantly drier than they currently are. In this study, we selected two Mediterranean wetlands that clearly differ in their water chemical composition (Honda and Hituelo wetlands) in order to determine the impact of sediment desiccation on phosphate (PO?(3-)) adsorption and desorption properties. A decrease in PO?(3-) sorption properties was observed in transects from the littoral zone to dry land in both lakes concomitantly with a reduction in organic matter content, revealing a critical role of organic matter for sequestering P in the lake sediment. Our experiments designed to determine if drying events would lead to an enhanced P release upon re-wetting have shown that, simulating natural conditions of re-flooding (that is without adding sodium azide), PO?(3-) concentrations were notably higher in the overlying water than those initially measured in the lake water. These results highlight the impact of drying sediment and the subsequent re-wetting on increasing P concentrations in lake water and accordingly, affecting to lake trophic state. Finally, we aimed on determining the overall effect of biotic versus abiotic activity on P release patterns observed upon re-wetting. Our results have evidenced that while in Honda, biotic processes upon re-wetting are crucial for increasing P retention in the sediment; P exchange across sediment and water upon dry sediment re-wetting is basically mediated by abiotic processes in Hituelo. PMID:23988744

Gilbert, Juan Diego; Guerrero, Francisco; de Vicente, Inmaculada

2014-01-01

407

Development of the DET technique for high-resolution determination of soluble reactive phosphate profiles in sediment pore waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DET (diffusive equilibrium in thin films) technique is developed to measure soluble reactive phosphate (SRP) profiles in sediment pore waters at a millimetre resolution. The analytical procedure includes equilibration of the gels in sediments, section of the gels after retrieval from the sediments, back elution of phosphorus in the gels, and analysis of SRP in the eluents. Recovery of

Shiming Ding; Qin Sun; Di Xu

2010-01-01

408

Suspended-sediment and fresh-water discharges in the Ob and Yenisey rivers, 1960-1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the world's great rivers, the Ob and Yenisey rank among the largest suppliers of fresh water and among the smallest suppliers of suspended sediment to the coastal ocean. Sediment in the middle reaches of the rivers is mobilized from bordering terraces and exchanged between channels and flood plains. Sediment in the lower reaches of these great rivers is deposited

R. H. Meade; N. N. Bobrovitskaya; V. I. Babkin

2000-01-01

409

Contribution of 222Rn in domestic water supplies to 222Rn in indoor air in Colorado homes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The contribution of 222Rn from domestic water wells to indoor air was investigated in a study of 28 houses near Conifer, CO. Air concentrations determined by alpha-track detectors (ATDs) and continuous radon monitors were compared with the predictions of a single-cell model. In many of the houses, the water supply was shown to contribute significantly to levels of indoor 222Rn. The data from the ATD study were augmented with a continuous monitoring study of a house near Lyons, CO. The well water in that house has the highest known concentration of 222Rn in water yet reported (93 MBq m-3). The temporal pattern in the indoor 222Rn concentration corresponds to water-use records. In general, it is difficult to quantify the proportion of indoor radon attributable to water use. Several lines of evidence suggest that the single-cell model underestimates this proportion. Continuous- monitoring data, although useful, are impractical due to the cost of the equipment. We propose a protocol for 222Rn measurement based on three simultaneous integrating radon detectors that may help estimate the proportion of indoor 222Rn derived from the water supply.

Lawrence, E. P.; Wanty, R. B.; Nyberg, P.

1992-01-01

410

Tributyltin distribution and producing androgenic activity in water, sediment, and fish muscle.  

PubMed

This study investigated the concentrations of Tributyltin (TBT) in water, sediment, and fish muscle samples taken from Kaohsiung Harbor and Kaoping River estuary, Taiwan. TBT concentrations in water and sediment samples ranged from less than 18.5 to 34.1 ng Sn L(-1) and from 2.44 to 29.7 ng Sn g(-1) weight per weight (w/w), respectively. Concentrations in the TBT-contaminated fish muscle samples ranged from 10.8 to 79.6 ng Sn g(-1) w/w. The TBT concentrations in fish muscle were higher than those in water and sediment samples. The fish muscle/water TBT bioconcentration factor (BCF) ranged from 590 to 3363 L kg(-1). Additionally, the water samples were assessed for androgenic activity with an MCF7-AR1 human breast cancer cell line. The androgenic activity ranged from 0.94 to 3.1 ng-dihydrotestosterone per litre water (ng-DHT L(-1)). Higher concentrations of TBT in water and sediment samples occurred in the dry season, but the androgenic activity had higher values in the rainy season. PMID:24762181

Shue, Meei-Fang; Chen, Ting-Chien; Bellotindos, Luzvisminda M; Lu, Ming-Chun

2014-06-01

411

Methods for determination of inorganic substances in water and fluvial sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chapter Al of the laboratory manual contains methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey to analyze samples of water, suspended sediments, and bottom material for their content of inorganic constituents. Included are methods for determining the concentration of dissolved constituents in water, the total recoverable and total of constituents in water-suspended sediment samples, and the recoverable and total concentrations of constituents in samples of bottom material. The introduction to the manual includes essential definitions and a brief discussion of the use of significant figures in calculating and reporting analytical results. Quality control in the water-analysis laboratory is discussed, including the accuracy and precision of analyses, the use of standard-reference water samples, and the operation of an effective quality-assurance program. Methods for sample preparation and pretreatment are given also. A brief discussion of the principles of the analytical techniques involved and their particular application to water and sediment analysis is presented. The analytical methods of these techniques are arranged alphabetically by constituent. For each method, the general topics covered are the application, the principle of the method, the interferences, the apparatus and reagents required, a detailed description of the analytical procedure, reporting results, units and significant figures, and analytical precision data, when available. More than 126 methods are given for the determination of 70 inorganic constituents and physical properties of water, suspended sediment, and bottom material.

Edited by Fishman, Marvin J.; Friedman, Linda C.

1989-01-01

412

Quality-assurance plan for the analysis of fluvial sediment by the U.S. Geological Survey Kentucky Water Science Center Sediment Laboratory  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes laboratory procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey Kentucky Water Science Center Sediment Laboratory for the processing and analysis of fluvial-sediment samples for concentration of sand and finer material. The report details the processing of a sediment sample through the laboratory from receiving the sediment sample, through the analytical process, to compiling results of the requested analysis. Procedures for preserving sample integrity, calibrating and maintaining of laboratory and field instruments and equipment, analyzing samples, internal quality assurance and quality control, and validity of the sediment-analysis results also are described. The report includes a list of references cited and a glossary of sediment and quality-assurance terms.

Shreve, Elizabeth A.; Downs, Aimee C.

2005-01-01

413

Water volume and sediment accumulation in Lake Linganore, Frederick County, Maryland, 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To assist in understanding sediment and phosphorus loadings and the management of water resources, a bathymetric survey was conducted at Lake Linganore in Frederick County, Maryland in June 2009 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Frederick and Frederick County, Maryland. Position data and water-depth data were collected using a survey grade echo sounder and a differentially corrected global positioning system. Data were compiled and edited using geographic information system software. A three-dimensional triangulated irregular network model of the lake bottom was created to calculate the volume of stored water in the reservoir. Large-scale topographic maps of the valley prior to inundation in 1972 were provided by the City of Frederick and digitized. The two s