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1

Accelerated Tank Closure Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

Among the highest priorities for action under the ''Hanford Federal Facility and Agreement and Consent Order'', hereafter referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement, is the retrieval, treatment and disposal of Hanford Site tank waste. Tank waste is recognized as one of the primary threats to the Columbia River and one of the most complex technical challenges. Progress has been made in resolving safety issues, characterizing tank waste and past tank leaks, enhancing double-shell tank waste transfer and operations systems, retrieving single-shell tank waste, deploying waste treatment facilities, and planning for the disposal of immobilized waste product. However, limited progress has been made in developing technologies and providing a sound technical basis for tank system closure. To address this limitation the Accelerated Tank Closure Demonstration Project was created to develop information through technology demonstrations in support of waste retrieval and closure decisions. To complete its mission the Accelerated Tank Closure Demonstration Project has adopted performance objectives that include: protecting human health and the environment; minimizing/eliminating potential waste releases to the soil and groundwater; preventing water infiltration into the tank; maintaining accessibility of surrounding tanks for future closure; maintaining tank structural integrity; complying with applicable waste retrieval, disposal, and closure regulations; and maintaining flexibility for final closure options in the future.

SAMS, T.L.

2003-02-01

2

Project W-519 CDR supplement: Raw water and electrical services for privatization contractor, AP tank farm operations  

SciTech Connect

This supplement to the Project W-519 Conceptual Design will identify a means to provide RW and Electrical services to serve the needs of the TWRS Privatization Contractor (PC) at AP Tank Farm as directed by DOE-RL. The RW will serve the fire suppression and untreated process water requirements for the PC. The purpose of this CDR supplement is to identify Raw Water (RW) and Electrical service line routes to the TWRS Privatization Contractor (PC) feed delivery tanks, AP-106 and/or AP-108, and establish associated cost impacts to the Project W-519 baseline.

Parazin, R.J.

1998-07-31

3

Organic Tank Safety Project: Effect of water partial pressure on the equilibrium water content of waste samples from Hanford Tank 241-U-105  

SciTech Connect

Water content plays a crucial role in the strategy developed by Webb et al. to prevent propagating or sustainable chemical reactions in the organic-bearing wastes stored in the 20 Organic Tank Watch List tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. Because of water`s importance in ensuring that the organic-bearing wastes continue to be stored safely, Duke Engineering and Services Hanford commissioned the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to investigate the effect of water partial pressure (P{sub H2O}) on the water content of organic-bearing or representative wastes. Of the various interrelated controlling factors affecting the water content in wastes, P{sub H2O} is the most susceptible to being controlled by the and Hanford Site`s environmental conditions and, if necessary, could be managed to maintain the water content at an acceptable level or could be used to adjust the water content back to an acceptable level. Of the various waste types resulting from weapons production and waste-management operations at the Hanford Site, determined that saltcake wastes are the most likely to require active management to maintain the wastes in a Conditionally Safe condition. Webb et al. identified Tank U-105 as a Conditionally Safe saltcake tank. A Conditionally Safe waste is one that is currently safe based on waste classification criteria but could, if dried, be classified as {open_quotes}Unsafe.{close_quotes} To provide information on the behavior of organic-bearing wastes, the Westinghouse Hanford Company provided us with four waste samples taken from Tank 241-U-105 (U-105) to determine the effect of P{sub H2O} on their equilibrium water content.

Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

1997-09-01

4

Organic tank safety project: Effect of water partial pressure on the equilibrium water contents of waste samples from Hanford Tank 241-BY-108  

SciTech Connect

Water content plays a crucial role in the strategy developed by Webb et al. to prevent propagating or sustainable chemical reactions in the organic-bearing wastes stored in the 20 Organic Tank Watch List tanks at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. Because of water`s importance in ensuring that the organic-bearing wastes continue to be stored safely, Duke Engineering and Services Hanford commissioned the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to investigate the effect of water partial pressure (P{sub H2O}) on the water content of organic-bearing or representative wastes. Of the various interrelated controlling factors affecting the water content in wastes, P{sub H2O} is the most susceptible to being controlled by the and Hanford Site`s environmental conditions and, if necessary, could be managed to maintain the water content at an acceptable level or could be used to adjust the water content back to an acceptable level. Of the various waste types resulting from weapons production and waste-management operations at the Hanford Site, Webb et al. determined that saltcake wastes are the most likely to require active management to maintain the wastes in a Conditionally Safe condition. A Conditionally Safe waste is one that satisfies the waste classification criteria based on water content alone or a combination of water content and either total organic carbon (TOC) content or waste energetics. To provide information on the behavior of saltcake wastes, two waste samples taken from Tank 241-BY-108 (BY-108) were selected for study, even though BY-108 is not on the Organic Tanks Watch List because of their ready availability and their similarity to some of the organic-bearing saltcakes.

Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

1997-02-01

5

Organic Tank Safety Project: development of a method to measure the equilibrium water content of Hanford organic tank wastes and demonstration of method on actual waste  

SciTech Connect

Some of Hanford`s underground waste storage tanks contain Organic- bearing high level wastes that are high priority safety issues because of potentially hazardous chemical reactions of organics with inorganic oxidants in these wastes such as nitrates and nitrites. To ensure continued safe storage of these wastes, Westinghouse Hanford Company has placed affected tanks on the Organic Watch List and manages them under special rules. Because water content has been identified as the most efficient agent for preventing a propagating reaction and is an integral part of the criteria developed to ensure continued safe storage of Hanford`s organic-bearing radioactive tank wastes, as part of the Organic Tank Safety Program the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a simple and easily implemented procedure to determine the equilibrium water content of these potentially reactive wastes exposed to the range of water vapor pressures that might be experienced during the wastes` future storage. This work focused on the equilibrium water content and did not investigate the various factors such as @ ventilation, tank surface area, and waste porosity that control the rate that the waste would come into equilibrium, with either the average Hanford water partial pressure 5.5 torr or other possible water partial pressures.

Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

1996-09-01

6

Ferrocement Water Tanks and Their Construction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication describes in detail, methods of constructing water storage tanks from wire-reinforced cement-mortar. These tanks are widely used in many parts of the world to collect and store water for domestic, stock, irrigation, and also for industria...

S. B. Watt

1978-01-01

7

Tank waste remediation system characterization project quality policies. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

These Quality Policies (QPs) describe the Quality Management System of the Tank Waste Characterization Project (hereafter referred to as the Characterization Project), Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The Quality Policies and quality requirements described herein are binding on all Characterization Project organizations. To achieve quality, the Characterization Project management team shall implement this Characterization Project Quality Management System.

Trimble, D.J.

1995-10-02

8

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS & RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double shell waste tanks. The analysis is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information on tank integrity that specifically responds to concerns raise by the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Oversight (EH-22) during a review (in April and May 2001) of work being performed on the double-shell tank farms, and the operation of the aging waste facility (AWF) primary tank ventilation system.

MACKEY, T.C.

2006-03-17

9

Experimental study of thermally stratified hot water storage tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is determined experimentally for removing hot water from a storage tank and adding cold water to the tank while maintaining steep thermoclines. Results of experiments performed with two vertical plexiglass cylinders are reported which show that thermal stratification can be maintained in cylindrical water tanks even at very large flow rates; that stratification improves with increasing tank height\\/diameter

Z. Lavan; J. Thompson

1977-01-01

10

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS & RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double-shell waste tanks (DSTs), which is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information on tank integrity that specifically responds to concerns raised by the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Oversight (EH-22) during a review

MACKEY TC; JOHNSON KI; DEIBLER JE; PILLI SP; RINKER MW; KARRI NK

2007-01-01

11

RAW WATER STORAGE TANK ON NORTH SIDE OF WATER PUMP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

RAW WATER STORAGE TANK ON NORTH SIDE OF WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-619. INTERIOR. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2489. Unknown Photographer, 6/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

12

DETAIL VIEW OF WATER TANKS AND PIPELINE TO WATER SOURCE. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF WATER TANKS AND PIPELINE TO WATER SOURCE. LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM LARGE TAILINGS PILE. THE TANK ON THE LEFT IS A WATER TANK, POSSIBLY ASSOCIATED WITH A WATER SHAFT THAT IS SEEN AS A RAISED SPOT ON THE GROUND JUST TO THE RIGHT OF IT. THE TANK ON THE RIGHT IS IN DIRECT CONNECTION WITH THE PIPELINE CARRYING WATER FROM A NEARBY SPRING IN THE DISTANCE AT CENTER. THE WATER WAS THEN PUMPED UP TO ALL PARTS OF THE MINING OPERATION, INCLUDING THE UPPER MINES ONE MILE NORTH, THE MILL, AND THE CYANIDE PLANT. THE PIPELINE ITSELF IS DISMANTLED, WITH PARTS OF IT MISSING OR SCATTERED ALONG THE GROUND, AS SEEN IN THE CENTER DISTANCE. THE SPRING IS APPROX. A QUARTER MILE DISTANT, AND IS NOT PROMINENT IN THIS PHOTOGRAPH. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

13

The Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project Tank Waste Retrieval Performance and Lessons Learned, vol. 1 [of 2  

SciTech Connect

The Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Remediation Project was the first of its kind performed in the United States. Robotics and remotely operated equipment were used to successfully transfer almost 94,000 gal of remote-handled transuranic sludge containing over 81,000 Ci of radioactive contamination from nine large underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The sludge was transferred with over 439,000 gal of radioactive waste supernatant and {approx}420,500 gal of fresh water that was used in sluicing operations. The GAATs are located in a high-traffic area of ORNL near a main thoroughfare. A phased and integrated approach to waste retrieval operations was used for the GAAT Remediation Project. The project promoted safety by obtaining experience from low-risk operations in the North Tank Farm before moving to higher-risk operations in the South Tank Farm. This approach allowed project personnel to become familiar with the tanks and waste, as well as the equipment, processes, procedures, and operations required to perform successful waste retrieval. By using an integrated approach to tank waste retrieval and tank waste management, the project was completed years ahead of the original baseline schedule, which resulted in avoiding millions of dollars in associated costs. This report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1 provides information on the various phases of the GAAT Remediation Project. It also describes the different types of equipment and how they were used. The emphasis of Volume 1 is on the description of the tank waste retrieval performance and the lessons learned during the GAAT Remediation Project. Volume 2 provides the appendixes for the report, which include the following information: (A) Background Information for the Gunite and Associated Tanks Operable Unit; (B) Annotated Bibliography; (C) Comprehensive Listing of the Sample Analysis Data from the GAAT Remediation Project; (D) GAAT Equipment Matrix; and (E) Vendor List for the GAAT Remediation Project. The remediation of the GAATs was completed {approx}5.5 years ahead of schedule and {approx}$120,435,000 below the cost estimated in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for the project. These schedule and cost savings were a direct result of the selection and use of state-of-the-art technologies and the dedication and drive of the engineers, technicians, managers, craft workers, and support personnel that made up the GAAT Remediation Project Team.

Lewis, BE

2003-10-07

14

Project W-236A multi-function waste tank facility waste feed projections  

SciTech Connect

A review of Hanford Underground Waste Storage Tank Chemistry, coupled with planned remediation actions and retrieval sequences was conducted in order to predict the chemistry of the waste to be stored in the MWTF tanks. All projected waste solutions to be transferred to the MWTF tanks were found to be in compliance with current tank chemistry specifications; therefore, the waste and the tank materials of construction are expected to be compatible.

Larrick, A.P.

1994-12-22

15

Above-Ground Storage Tank Design Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this point in the unit, students have learned about Pascal's law, Archimedes' principle, Bernoulli's principle, and why above-ground storage tanks are of major concern in the Houston Ship Channel and other coastal areas. In this culminating activity, student groups act as engineering design teams to derive equations to determine the stability of specific above-ground storage tank scenarios with given tank specifications and liquid contents. With their floatation analyses completed and the stability determined, students analyze the tank stability in specific storm conditions. Then, teams are challenged to come up with improved storage tank designs to make them less vulnerable to uplift, displacement and buckling in storm conditions. Teams present their analyses and design ideas in short class presentations.

National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

16

Vadose zone characterization project at the Hanford Tank Farms: U Tank Farm Report  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy Grand Junction Office (DOE-GJO) was tasked by the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) to perform a baseline characterization of the gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides that are distributed in the vadose zone sediments beneath and around the single-shell tanks (SSTs) at the Hanford Site. The intent of this characterization is to determine the nature and extent of the contamination, to identify contamination sources when possible, and to develop a baseline of the contamination distribution that will permit future data comparisons. This characterization work also allows an initial assessment of the impacts of the vadose zone contamination as required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This characterization project involves acquiring information regarding vadose zone contamination with borehole geophysical logging methods and documenting that information in a series of reports. This information is presently limited to detection of gamma-emitting radionuclides from both natural and man-made sources. Data from boreholes surrounding each tank are compiled into individual Tank Summary Data Reports. The data from each tank in a tank farm are then compiled and summarized in a Tank Farm Report. This document is the Tank Farm Report for the U Tank Farm. Logging operations used high-purity germanium detection systems to acquire laboratory-quality assays of the gamma-emitting radionuclides in the sediments around and below the tanks. These assays were acquired in 59 boreholes that surround the U Tank Farm tanks. Logging of all boreholes was completed in December 1995, and the last Tank Summary Data Report for the U Tank Farm was issued in September 1996.

NONE

1997-05-01

17

Vandose Zone Characterization Project at the Hanford Tank Farms: SX Tank Farm Report  

SciTech Connect

The SX Tank Farm is located in the southwest portion of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This tank farm consists of 15 single-shell tanks (SSTs), each with an individual capacity of 1 million gallons (gal). These tanks currently store high-level nuclear waste that was primarily generated from what was called the oxidation-reduction or {open_quotes}REDOX{close_quotes} process at the S-Plant facility. Ten of the 15 tanks are listed in Hanlon as {open_quotes}assumed leakers{close_quotes} and are known to have leaked various amounts of high-level radioactive liquid to the vadose zone sediment. The current liquid content of each tank varies, but the liquid from known leaking tanks has been removed to the extent possible. In 1994, the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Office (DOE-RL) requested the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO), Grand Junction, Colorado, to perform a baseline characterization of contamination in the vadose zone at all the SST farms with spectral gamma-ray logging of boreholes surrounding the tanks. The SX Tank Farm geophysical logging was completed, and the results of this baseline characterization are presented in this report.

Brodeur, J.R.; Koizumi, C.J.; Bertsch, J.F.

1996-09-01

18

Single-shell tank interim stabilization project plan  

SciTech Connect

Solid and liquid radioactive waste continues to be stored in 149 single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. To date, 119 tanks have had most of the pumpable liquid removed by interim stabilization. Thirty tanks remain to be stabilized. One of these tanks (C-106) will be stabilized by retrieval of the tank contents. The remaining 29 tanks will be interim stabilized by saltwell pumping. In the summer of 1997, the US Department of Energy (DOE) placed a moratorium on the startup of additional saltwell pumping systems because of funding constraints and proposed modifications to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestones to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). In a letter dated February 10, 1998, Final Determination Pursuant to Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in the Matter of the Disapproval of the DOE`s Change Control Form M-41-97-01 (Fitzsimmons 1998), Ecology disapproved the DOE Change Control Form M-41-97-01. In response, Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) directed Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LNMC) to initiate development of a project plan in a letter dated February 25, 1998, Direction for Development of an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan in Support of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In a letter dated March 2, 1998, Request for an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan, the DOE reaffirmed the need for an aggressive SST interim stabilization completion project plan to support a finalized Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-41 recovery plan. This project plan establishes the management framework for conduct of the TWRS Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organizational structure, roles, responsibilities, and interfaces; and operational methods. The plan is based on realistic assumptions and addresses three separate funding scenarios.

Ross, W.E.

1998-03-27

19

Quality Assurance Project Plan for waste tank vapor characterization  

SciTech Connect

This Quality Assurance Project Plan, WHC-SD-WM-QAPP-013, applies to four separate vapor sampling tasks associated with Phases 1 and 2 of the Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program and support of the Rotary Mode Core Drilling Portable Exhauster Permit. These tasks focus on employee safety concerns and tank ventilation emission control design requirements. Previous characterization efforts and studies are of insufficient accuracy to adequately define the problem. It is believed that the technology and maturity of sampling and analytical methods can be sufficiently developed to allow the characterization of the constituents of the tank vapor space.

Suydam, C.D. Jr.

1993-12-01

20

Detail of gauge on side of eastiron water tank that ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail of gauge on side of east-iron water tank that indicates water level - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Combination Smokestack, Water Tank & Privies, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

21

Single Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Project Plan  

SciTech Connect

This project plan establishes the management framework for the conduct of the CHG Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organization structure, roles, responsibilities, and interfaces; and operational methods. This plan serves as the project executional baseline.

VLADIMIROFF, D.T.; BOYLES, V.C.

2000-05-22

22

Single Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval Project Plan for Tank 241-C-104 Retrieval  

SciTech Connect

In support of the SST Interim Closure Project, Project W-523 ''Tank 241-C-104 Waste Retrieval System'' will provide systems for retrieval and transfer of radioactive waste from tank 241-C-104 (C-104) to the DST staging tank 241-AY-101 (AY-101). At the conclusion of Project W-523, a retrieval system will have been designed and tested to meet the requirements for Acceptance of Beneficial Use and been turned over to operations. Completion of construction and operations of the C-104 retrieval system will meet the recently proposed near-term Tri-Party Agreement milestone, M-45-03F (Proposed Tri-Party Agreement change request M-45-00-01A, August, 30 2000) for demonstrating limits of retrieval technologies on sludge and hard heels in SSTs, reduce near-term storage risks associated with aging SSTs, and provide feed for the tank waste treatment plant. This Project Plan documents the methodology for managing Project W-523; formalizes responsibilities; identifies key interfaces required to complete the retrieval action; establishes the technical, cost, and schedule baselines; and identifies project organizational requirements pertaining to the engineering process such as environmental, safety, quality assurance, change control, design verification, testing, and operational turnover.

DEFIGH PRICE, C.

2000-09-20

23

The Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project Tank Waste Retrieval Performance and Lessons Learned, vol. 2 [of 2  

SciTech Connect

The Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Remediation Project was the first of its kind performed in the United States. Robotics and remotely operated equipment were used to successfully transfer almost 94,000 gal of remote-handled transuranic sludge containing over 81,000 Ci of radioactive contamination from nine large underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The sludge was transferred with over 439,000 gal of radioactive waste supernatant and {approx}420,500 gal of fresh water that was used in sluicing operations. The GAATs are located in a high-traffic area of ORNL near a main thoroughfare. Volume 1 provides information on the various phases of the project and describes the types of equipment used. Volume 1 also discusses the tank waste retrieval performance and the lessons learned during the remediation effort. Volume 2 consists of the following appendixes, which are referenced in Vol. 1: A--Background Information for the Gunite and Associated Tanks Operable Unit; B--Annotated Bibliography; C--GAAT Equipment Matrix; D--Comprehensive Listing of the Sample Analysis Data from the GAAT Remediation Project; and E--Vendor List for the GAAT Remediation Project. The remediation of the GAATs was completed {approx}5.5 years ahead of schedule and {approx}$120,435K below the cost estimated in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for the project. These schedule and cost savings were a direct result of the selection and use of state-of-the-art technologies and the dedication and drive of the engineers, technicians, managers, craft workers, and support personnel that made up the GAAT Remediation Project Team.

Lewis, BE

2003-10-07

24

Heat exchanger and water tank arrangement for passive cooling system  

DOEpatents

A water storage tank in the coolant water loop of a nuclear reactor contains a tubular heat exchanger. The heat exchanger has tubesheets mounted to the tank connections so that the tubesheets and tubes may be readily inspected and repaired. Preferably, the tubes extend from the tubesheets on a square pitch and then on a rectangular pitch therebetween. Also, the heat exchanger is supported by a frame so that the tank wall is not required to support all of its weight.

Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA) [Greensburg, PA; Johnson, F. Thomas (Baldwin Boro, PA) [Baldwin Boro, PA; Orr, Richard S. (Pittsburgh, PA) [Pittsburgh, PA; Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA) [Murrysville Boro, PA

1993-01-01

25

Water Tank with Capillary Air/Liquid Separation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bladderless water tank (see figure) has been developed that contains capillary devices that allow it to be filled and emptied, as needed, in microgravity. When filled with water, the tank shields human occupants of a spacecraft against cosmic radiation. A membrane that is permeable by air but is hydrophobic (neither wettable nor permeable by liquid water) covers one inside surface of the tank. Grooves between the surface and the membrane allow air to flow through vent holes in the surface as the tank is filled or drained. A margin of wettable surface surrounds the edges of the membrane, and all the other inside tank surfaces are also wettable. A fill/drain port is located in one corner of the tank and is covered with a hydrophilic membrane. As filling begins, water runs from the hydrophilic membrane into the corner fillets of the tank walls. Continued filling in the absence of gravity will result in a single contiguous air bubble that will be vented through the hydrophobic membrane. The bubble will be reduced in size until it becomes spherical and smaller than the tank thickness. Draining the tank reverses the process. Air is introduced through the hydrophobic membrane, and liquid continuity is maintained with the fill/drain port through the corner fillets. Even after the tank is emptied, as long as the suction pressure on the hydrophilic membrane does not exceed its bubble point, no air will be drawn into the liquid line.

Ungar, Eugene K.; Smith, Frederick; Edeen, Gregg; Almlie, Jay C.

2010-01-01

26

Hanford Double-Shell Tank Thermal and Seismic Project Buckling Evaluation Methods and Results for the Primary Tanks. Revision 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double-shell waste tanks (DSTs), which is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information o...

J. E. Deibler K. I. Johson M. W. Rinker N. K. Karri S. P. Pilli

2008-01-01

27

Oblique view of Sector Five Compound, looking southwest. Water Tank ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Oblique view of Sector Five Compound, looking southwest. Water Tank to right, Receiver Building to left, antenna array in background - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Five Water Storage Tank, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

28

General view looking eastsoutheast, water storage tank on right, receiver ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view looking east-southeast, water storage tank on right, receiver building in center, antenna array in rear - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Columbia Falls Radar Site Receive Sector Three Water Storage Tank, At the end of Shadagee Ridge Road, Columbia Falls, Washington County, ME

29

Global Water Sampling Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students from around the globe will team up to test fresh water. With this collaborative project, students will compare the water quality of their local river, stream, lake or pond with other fresh water sources around the world. The focus of the project is to assess the quality of water based on physical characteristics and chemical substances, and to look for relationships and trends among the data collected by all project participants.

2009-01-01

30

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS AND RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double-shell waste tanks (DSTs), which is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information on tank integrity that specifically responds to concerns raised by the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Oversight (EH-22) during a review

MACKEY TC; JOHNSON KI; DEIBLER JE; PILLI SP; RINKER MW; KARRI NK

2009-01-01

31

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANKS  

SciTech Connect

M&D Professional Services, Inc. (M&D) is under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to perform seismic analysis of the Hanford Site double-shell tanks (DSTs) in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank (DSV Integrity Project--DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses)''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST system at Hanford in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14, The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The work statement provided to M&D (PNNL 2003) required that the seismic analysis of the DSTs assess the impacts of potentially non-conservative assumptions in previous analyses and account for the additional soil mass due to the as-found soil density increase, the effects of material degradation, additional thermal profiles applied to the full structure including the soil-structure response with the footings, the non-rigid (low frequency) response of the tank roof, the asymmetric seismic-induced soil loading, the structural discontinuity between the concrete tank wall and the support footing and the sloshing of the tank waste. The seismic analysis considers the interaction of the tank with the surrounding soil and the effects of the primary tank contents. The DSTs and the surrounding soil are modeled as a system of finite elements. The depth and width of the soil incorporated into the analysis model are sufficient to obtain appropriately accurate analytical results. The analyses required to support the work statement differ from previous analysis of the DSTs in that the soil-structure interaction (SSI) model includes several (nonlinear) contact surfaces in the tank structure, and the contained waste must be modeled explicitly in order to capture the fluid-structure interaction behavior between the primary tank and contained waste.

MACKEY, T.C.

2006-03-17

32

Uranium in hot water tanks: a source of TENORM.  

PubMed

Uranium deposits were detected inside hot water tanks using gamma-ray spectroscopic techniques and corroborated by the difference in the uranium concentration of the groundwater entering and leaving the hot water tanks. In-situ gamma-ray spectroscopy was performed using a transportable high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometer to estimate the mass of uranium in the hot water tanks. Gamma-ray spectroscopic analyses of hot water tanks in four residences with groundwater uranium concentration between 732 and 7,667 mug L revealed an estimated 3.5 to 69 g of uranium in each hot water tank. The uranium deposit within the tanks was indicated by the 143.8, 163.4, and 185.7 keV gamma rays of U and confirmed with the 63.3, 92.3, and 92.8 keV gamma rays of Th as well as the 1,001 keV peak of Pa. An average decrease in uranium concentration of 23% was observed in the groundwater that passed through the hot water tanks. Additionally, once "uranium free" water entered the hot water tanks, the uranium deposits within the tanks resulted in an increase in the uranium concentration in the effluent water. The groundwater had an alkalinity in the range of 46-96 mg L as CaCO3 and a pH range of 7.3-8.1. The accumulation of uranium in these hot water tanks results in them being classified as technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM). PMID:15545773

DeVol, T A; Woodruff, R L

2004-12-01

33

INTERIOR OF BUILDING, SHOWING DEMINERALIZED WATER STORAGE TANK. view TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR OF BUILDING, SHOWING DEMINERALIZED WATER STORAGE TANK. view TO WEST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Demineralized Water Storage Building, Off LeMay Road, outside SAC Alert Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

34

Project Execution Plan for Project W-211 Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS)  

SciTech Connect

This Project Execution Plan documents the methodology for managing Project W-211. Project W-211, Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS), is a fiscal year 1994 Major Systems Acquisition that will provide systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes from selected double-shell tanks (DST). The contents of these tanks are a combination of supernatant liquids and settled solids. To retrieve waste from the tanks, it is first necessary to mix the liquid and solids prior to transferring the slurry to alternative storage or treatment facilities. The ITRS will provide systems to mobilize the settled solids and transfer the wastes out of the tanks. In so doing, ITRS provides feed for the future waste treatment plant, allows for consolidation of tank solids to manage space within existing DST storage capacity, and supports continued safe storage of tank waste. The ITRS scope has been revised to include waste retrieval systems for tanks AP-102, AP-104, AN-102, AN-103, AN-104, AN-105, AY-102, AZ-102, and SY-102. This current tank selection and sequence provides retrieval systems supporting the River Protection Project (RF'P) Waste Treatment Facility and sustains the ability to provide final remediation of several watch list DSTs via treatment. The ITRS is configured to support changing program needs, as constrained by available budget, by maintaining the flexibility for exchanging tanks requiring mixer pump-based retrieval systems and shifting the retrieval sequence. Preliminary design was configured such that an adequate basis exists for initiating Title II design of a mixer pump-based retrieval system for any DST. This Project Execution Plan (PEP), derived from the predecessor Project Management Plan, documents the methodology for managing the ITRS, formalizes organizational responsibilities and interfaces, and identifies project requirements such as change control, design verification, systems engineering, and human factors engineering.

VAN BEEK, J.E.

2000-04-19

35

Tunisia: CARE Water Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report evaluates a series of projects conducted by Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere, with partial funding by AID and assistance from the Peace Corps, in which 600 existing Tunisian water sources were renovated. To control water contaminatio...

R. E. Bigelow L. Chiles C. S. Ayad B. Cavanagh K. Manzer

1980-01-01

36

Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California  

SciTech Connect

Residential water heating is a large source of energy use in California homes. This project took a life cycle approach to comparing tank and tankless water heaters in Northern and Southern California. Information about the life cycle phases was calculated using the European Union?s Methodology study for EcoDesign of Energy-using Products (MEEUP) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory?s Life Cycle Inventory (NREL LCI) database. In a unit-to-unit comparison, it was found that tankless water heaters would lessen impacts of water heating by reducing annual energy use by 2800 MJ/year (16% compared to tank), and reducing global warming emissions by 175 kg CO2 eqv./year (18% reduction). Overall, the production and combustion of natural gas in the use phase had the largest impact. Total waste, VOCs, PAHs, particulate matter, and heavy-metals-to-air categories were also affected relatively strongly by manufacturing processes. It was estimated that tankless water heater users would have to use 10 more gallons of hot water a day (an increased usage of approximately 20%) to have the same impact as tank water heaters. The project results suggest that if a higher percentage of Californians used tankless water heaters, environmental impacts caused by water heating would be smaller.

Lu, Alison; McMahon, James; Masanet, Eric; Lutz, Jim

2008-08-13

37

Hot Water Management of DHW Storage Tank: Supply Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study is directed to analyze the mixing nature of cold and hot water inside storage tank, and the corresponding effects on the total usable and delivered energy to consumers. The analyses are done for two different supply features bottom and side supply of cold water. An experimental rig consisting of hot water reservoir, cold water reservoir, water pump,

N. Beithou; Abu Hilal

38

9. Water Purification System and Instrument Air Receiver Tank, view ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Water Purification System and Instrument Air Receiver Tank, view to the south. The water purification system is visible in the right foreground of the photograph and the instrument air receiver tank is visible in the right background of the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

39

MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS  

EPA Science Inventory

The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. Equations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reation rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. An analytical solution for ...

40

MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS  

EPA Science Inventory

The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. quations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reaction rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. n analytical solution for the...

41

DEGRADATION EVALUATION OF HEAVY WATER DRUMS AND TANKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy water with varying chemistries is currently being stored in over 6700 drums in L- and K-areas and in seven tanks in L-, K-, and C-areas. A detailed evaluation of the potential degradation of the drums and tanks, specific to their design and service conditions, has been performed to support the demonstration of their integrity throughout the desired storage period.

J. Mickalonis; P. Vormelker

2009-01-01

42

Conceptual design report for tank farm restoration and safe operations, project W-314  

SciTech Connect

This Conceptual Design Report (CDR) presents the conceptual level design approach that satisfies the established technical requirements for Project W-314, `Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations.` The CDR also addresses the initial cost and schedule baselines for performing the proposed Tank Farm infrastructure upgrades. The scope of this project includes capital improvements to Hanford`s existing tank farm facilities(primarily focused on Double- Shell Tank Farms) in the areas of instrumentation/control, tank ventilation, waste transfer, and electrical systems.

Briggs, S.R., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-05-02

43

STATUS OF CHEMICAL CLEANING OF WASTE TANKS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT - 9114  

SciTech Connect

Chemical Cleaning is currently in progress for Tanks 5 and 6 at the Savannah River Site. The Chemical Cleaning process is being utilized to remove the residual waste heel remaining after completion of Mechanical Sludge Removal. This work is required to prepare the tanks for closure. Tanks 5 and 6 are 1950s vintage carbon steel waste tanks that do not meet current containment standards. These tanks are 22.9 meters (75 feet) in diameter, 7.5 meters (24.5 feet) in height, and have a capacity of 2.84E+6 liters (750,000 gallons). Chemical Cleaning adds 8 wt % oxalic acid to the carbon steel tank to dissolve the remaining sludge heel. The resulting acidic waste solution is transferred to Tank 7 where it is pH adjusted to minimize corrosion of the carbon steel tank. The Chemical Cleaning flowsheet includes multiple strikes of acid in each tank. Acid is delivered by tanker truck and is added to the tanks through a hose assembly connected to a pipe penetration through the tank top. The flowsheet also includes spray washing with acid and water. This paper includes an overview of the configuration required for Chemical Cleaning, the planned flowsheet, and an overview of technical concerns associated with the process. In addition, the current status of the Chemical Cleaning process in Tanks 5 and 6, lessons learned from the execution of the process, and the path forward for completion of cleaning in Tanks 5 and 6 will also be discussed.

Thaxton, D; Geoff Clendenen, G; Willie Gordon, W; Samuel Fink, S; Michael Poirier, M

2008-12-31

44

Stirring system for radioactive waste water storage tank  

SciTech Connect

A stirring system for 100-m[sup 3] radioactive liquid waste tanks was constructed to unify radioactive concentrations in the tank. The stirring system is effective in certifying that the radioactive concentrations in the tanks are less than the legal limits before they are drained away as waste liquid. This system is composed of discharge units, pipe lines, and a controller. The performance of the system was assessed by comparing the calculated red ink and [sup 32]P concentrations with those monitored at six locations in the tanks. The concentration reached equilibrium after stirring 60 o 120 min with discharge units equipped with six fixed openings configured in differing directions. Residual chlorine in city water used for dilution occasionally bleached the red ink and reduced its concentration. The adsorption of [sup 32]P by slime on the walls of the tanks storing actual waste water lowered the equilibrium concentration.

Ogata, Yoshimune; Nishizawa, Kunihide (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Radioisotope Research Center)

1999-07-01

45

Where Did the Water Go? Boyle's Law and Pressurized Diaphragm Water Tanks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many homes use pressurized diaphragm tanks for storage of water pumped from an underground well. These tanks are very carefully constructed to have separate internal chambers for the storage of water and for the air that provides the pressure. One might expect that the amount of water available for use from, for example, a 50-gallon tank would be close to 50 gallons. However, only a surprisingly small percentage of the total tank volume is available to provide water that can be drawn from the tank before the pump must cycle back on. Boyle's law ( PV is constant) provides mathematical insight into the workings of this type of tank, including predictions of the quantities of available water resulting from different initial conditions of the water tank system.

Brimhall, James; Naga, Sundar

2007-03-01

46

73. Base of water tank located in setback at southeast ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

73. Base of water tank located in setback at southeast corner of blowing engine house. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

47

Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 WATER TANK, LOOKING SOUTHEAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 WATER TANK, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Boyd Tenant House, Southeast of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

48

1. SHOWING RELATION OF FIRE CONTROL BUILDING, WATER TANK, AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. SHOWING RELATION OF FIRE CONTROL BUILDING, WATER TANK, AND TOWER, LOOKING SOUTH - Boswell Bay White Alice Site, Fire Control Building, Chugach National Forest, Cordova, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

49

Looking east at the boiler water treatment tank located off ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking east at the boiler water treatment tank located off the west wall of the boiler house. - Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation, Allenport Works, Boiler House, Route 88 on West bank of Monongahela River, Allenport, Washington County, PA

50

Water heaters, storage tank, and electrical panels in the boiler ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Water heaters, storage tank, and electrical panels in the boiler room, south corner of the ground floor - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Guard House & Barracks, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

51

VIEW ALONG SUPPORT ROAD, LOOKING TOWARD ELEVATED WATER STORAGE TANK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW ALONG SUPPORT ROAD, LOOKING TOWARD ELEVATED WATER STORAGE TANK (BUILDING 2824), WITH EDUCATION CENTER (BUILDING 2670) AT LEFT BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, U.S. Route 9, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

52

A simple water balance modelling approach for determining water availability in an irrigation tank cascade system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a water balance model Cascade formulated to account for the dynamic hydrologic components of an irrigation tank cascade system in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. The model is designed to estimate tank water availability on a daily basis, for the purpose of improving productive use of water resources in the tank cascade system. It represents the physical system using a node-link system configuration, and incorporates water balance components of different types of irrigation tanks including rainfall runoff, rainfall on tank, evaporation of tank water, tank seepage and percolation, irrigation water release, spillway discharge and return flow from upstream tanks. An important feature of Cascade is that it employs a modified runoff coefficient method for estimating runoff from rainfall, which incorporates a modified Antecedent Precipitation Index as an indicator of catchment wetness. This provided a simplified method for representing the non-linear runoff generation process. The model calculates tank seepage and percolation based on functions derived from an analysis of the observed tank water reduction during time periods without rainfall. The model was calibrated using field data collected at four tanks over a period of 21 months, which represented different agrometeorologic conditions encountered under both Maha and Yala growing seasons at the Thirappane tank cascade system in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. The model results agreed well with the measured data particularly in the two tail end tanks of the cascade, and clearly manifested the relative magnitudes of the tank water balance components and their temporal variations. An independent validation of the model could not be performed with the available data and thus the predictive capability of the model is not evaluated. The results of this study suggests that, with further improvements, the simple water balance modelling approach used in the model could potentially provide a basis for the development of a useful tool in the process of optimising usage of the limited water resources in similar tank cascade systems.

Jayatilaka, C. J.; Sakthivadivel, R.; Shinogi, Y.; Makin, I. W.; Witharana, P.

2003-03-01

53

Heat exchanger and water tank arrangement for passive cooling system  

DOEpatents

A water storage tank in the coolant water loop of a nuclear reactor contains a tubular heat exchanger. The heat exchanger has tube sheets mounted to the tank connections so that the tube sheets and tubes may be readily inspected and repaired. Preferably, the tubes extend from the tube sheets on a square pitch and then on a rectangular pitch there between. Also, the heat exchanger is supported by a frame so that the tank wall is not required to support all of its weight. 6 figures.

Gillett, J.E.; Johnson, F.T.; Orr, R.S.; Schulz, T.L.

1993-11-30

54

Project Specific Quality Assurance Plan Project (QAPP) W-211 Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS)  

SciTech Connect

This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) provides information on how the Project Hanford Quality Assurance Program is implemented by CH2M HILL Hanford Group Inc (CHG) for managing the Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS), Project W-211. This QAPP is responsive to the CHG Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD) (LMH-MP-599) which provides direction for compliance to 10 CFR 830 120, ''Nuclear Safety Management, Quality Assurance Requirements'', and DOE Order 5700 6C, ''Quality Assurance'' Project W-211 modifies existing facilities and provides systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes from selected double-shell tanks (DST). The contents of these tanks are a combination of supernatant liquids and settled solids. To retrieve waste from the tanks, it is first necessary to mix the liquid and solids prior to transferring the slurry to alternative storage or treatment facilities. The ITRS will provide systems to mobilize the settled solids and transfer the wastes out of the tanks. In so doing, ITRS provides feed for future processing plants, allows for consolidation of tank solids to manage space within existing DST storage capacity, and supports continued safe storage of tank waste. This project includes the design, procurement, construction, startup and turnover of these retrieval systems This QAPP identifies organizational structures and responsibilities. Implementing procedures used by CHG project management can be found in the CHG Quality Assurance Program (CHG QAP) Implementation Matrix located in HNF-IP-0842, Volume XI, Attachment Proposed verification and inspection activities for critical items within the scope of project W-211 are identified in Attachment 1 W-211. Project participants will identify the implementing procedures used by their organization within their QAF'Ps. This project specific QAPP is used to identify requirements in addition to the QAPD and provide, by reference, additional information to other project documents.

HALL, L.R.

2000-02-01

55

Global Water Sampling Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stevens Institute of Technology's Center for Improved Engineering and Science Education (CIESE) has developed this project for middle school and high school students around the world to team up and test fresh water. Educators may use this project to demonstrate the dynamics of scientific collaboration. Students will be required to identify organisms, assess water quality, and look for larger relationships and trends based on overall global findings. Over the course of the project, participating classes are required to submit a letter of introduction, data, and a final report. The project will run every spring and fall with the next run occurring between March 6 and May 26, 2000.

56

DEGRADATION EVALUATION OF HEAVY WATER DRUMS AND TANKS  

SciTech Connect

Heavy water with varying chemistries is currently being stored in over 6700 drums in L- and K-areas and in seven tanks in L-, K-, and C-areas. A detailed evaluation of the potential degradation of the drums and tanks, specific to their design and service conditions, has been performed to support the demonstration of their integrity throughout the desired storage period. The 55-gallon drums are of several designs with Type 304 stainless steel as the material of construction. The tanks have capacities ranging from 8000 to 45600 gallons and are made of Type 304 stainless steel. The drums and tanks were designed and fabricated to national regulations, codes and standards per procurement specifications for the Savannah River Site. The drums have had approximately 25 leakage failures over their 50+ years of use with the last drum failure occurring in 2003. The tanks have experienced no leaks to date. The failures in the drums have occurred principally near the bottom weld, which attaches the bottom to the drum sidewall. Failures have occurred by pitting, crevice and stress corrosion cracking and are attributable, in part, to the presence of chloride ions in the heavy water. Probable degradation mechanisms for the continued storage of heavy water were evaluated that could lead to future failures in the drum or tanks. This evaluation will be used to support establishment of an inspection plan which will include susceptible locations, methods, and frequencies for the drums and tanks to avoid future leakage failures.

Mickalonis, J.; Vormelker, P.

2009-07-31

57

45. STEEL RESERVOIR TANKS FOR NEW SPRINGFED WATER SYSTEM INSTALLED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

45. STEEL RESERVOIR TANKS FOR NEW SPRING-FED WATER SYSTEM INSTALLED IN 1982. LOCATED IN WAIHANAU VALLEY, THIS REPLACED THE WAIKOLU SYSTEM AND PROVIDES A MORE CONSISTENT AND CLEAN WATER SUPPLY FOR KALAUPAPA. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

58

Efficacy of water spray protection against propane and butane jet fires impinging on LPG storage tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage tanks are often provided with water sprays to protect them in the event of a fire. This protection has been shown to be effective in a hydrocarbon pool fire but uncertainties remained regarding the degree of protection afforded in a jet fire resulting from a liquid or two-phase release of LPG. Two projects, sponsored by

L. C Shirvill

2004-01-01

59

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANKS  

SciTech Connect

M&D Professional Services, Inc. (M&D) is under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to perform seismic analysis of the Hanford Site Double-Shell Tanks (DSTs) in support of a project entitled Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Project - DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses. The original scope of the project was to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14. The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). Although Milestone M-48-14 has been met, Revision I is being issued to address external review comments with emphasis on changes in the modeling of anchor bolts connecting the concrete dome and the steel primary tank. The work statement provided to M&D (PNNL 2003) required that a nonlinear soil structure interaction (SSI) analysis be performed on the DSTs. The analysis is required to include the effects of sliding interfaces and fluid sloshing (fluid-structure interaction). SSI analysis has traditionally been treated by frequency domain computer codes such as SHAKE (Schnabel, et al. 1972) and SASSI (Lysmer et al. 1999a). Such frequency domain programs are limited to the analysis of linear systems. Because of the contact surfaces, the response of the DSTs to a seismic event is inherently nonlinear and consequently outside the range of applicability of the linear frequency domain programs. That is, the nonlinear response of the DSTs to seismic excitation requires the use of a time domain code. The capabilities and limitations of the commercial time domain codes ANSYS{reg_sign} and MSC Dytran{reg_sign} for performing seismic SSI analysis of the DSTs and the methodology required to perform the detailed seismic analysis of the DSTs has been addressed in Rinker et al (2006a). On the basis of the results reported in Rinker et al. (2006a), it is concluded that time-domain SSI analysis using ANSYS{reg_sign} is justified for predicting the global response of the DSTs. The most significant difference between the current revision (Revision 1) of this report and the original issue (Revision 0) is the treatment of the anchor bolts that tie the steel dome of the primary tank to the concrete tank dome.

MACKEY TC; RINKER MW; CARPENTER BG; HENDRIX C; ABATT FG

2009-01-15

60

Safety evaluation for adding water to tank 101-SY  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a new water limit for Tank 241-SY-101. The original limit was set at 9600 gallons. The new limit is now 20,000 gallons. There are various activities that require the use of additional water to the tank. The main activity is the removal of the temporary mixer pump. This requires a large amount of water which will exceed the original limit. Also, other activities such as flushing, adding a viscometer, and adding a void fraction meter requires additional water. The new limit safely incorporates these activities and allows room for more future activities.

Clinton, R.

1994-12-09

61

Observation of EAS using a large water tank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a large water tank (30 m in diameter, 4.5 m in depth) transition of extensive air showers (EAS) was investigated at Taro (200 m above sea level). There are set 150,0.4 sq m proportional counters on the bottom of the water tank. A conventional EAS array of 25 plastic scintillation detectors was arranged within several tens meter from the water tank. A proportional counter (10x10x200 cc x2) is made of a square shaped pipe of iron. Tungsten wire (100 mu m phi) is stretched tight in the center of the counter. A gas mixture of 90% argon and 10% methane is used at 760 mmHg. About 3000 EAS were obtained through 1 m of water since 1984.

Inoue, K.; Sakuyama, H.; Suzuki, N.; Suzuki, T.

1985-08-01

62

ONE MILLION GALLON WATER TANK, PUMP HEADER PIPE (AT LEFT), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ONE MILLION GALLON WATER TANK, PUMP HEADER PIPE (AT LEFT), HEADER BYPASS PIPE (AT RIGHT), AND PUMPHOUSE FOUNDATIONS. Looking northeast - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Flame Deflector Water System, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

63

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT INCREASED LIQUID LEVEL ANALYSIS FOR 241-AP TANK FARMS  

SciTech Connect

The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the SDT System at Hanford. The "Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Project - DST Thermal and Seismic Project" is in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14.

MACKEY TC; DEIBLER JE; JOHNSON KI; PILLI SP; KARRI NK; RINKER MW; ABATT FG; CARPENTER BG

2007-02-16

64

Lesotho Highlands Water Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Kingdom of Lesotho is a tiny landlocked country, about the size of the state of Maryland, and it is completely surrounded by South Africa. Its most significant natural resource is water, and thus the majority of its economy is based on providing water and electricity to South Africa. The Lesotho Highlands Water Project website is a window into the effects such a large water project can have on a community, arguably some of them negative. For instance, visitors should check out the "FAQs" section to read some of the issues that have come up with the project, including loss of property and livelihood. The "Documents & Reports" link has dozens of documents, including ones about "IFR" (which stands for Instream Flow Requirement), "Hydrology" and "Studies & Special Reports". Visitors shouldn't miss the "Villages of the Dammed Response", under "Studies & Special Reports", which is an excellent letter to the editor at the Globe and Mail that highlights the debate surrounding the Water Project and what it promises.

65

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-BY-108: Results from samples collected January 23, 1996. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) with and without particulate prefiltration. Samples were collected from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-108 (Tank BY-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for water, ammonia, permanent gases, total nonmethane hydrocarbons (TNMHCs, also known as TO-12), and organic analytes in samples collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs) from the tank headspace. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sampling and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Sampling and Analysis Plan for Tank Vapor Sampling Comparison Test{close_quotes}, and the sample jobs were designated S6004, S6005, and S6006. Samples were collected by WHC on January 23, 1996, using the VSS, a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe; and the ISVS with and without particulate prefiltration.

Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B. [and others

1996-07-01

66

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-102: Results from samples collected on January 26, 1996. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) with and without particulate prefiltration. Samples were collected from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for water, ammonia, permanent gases, total nonmethane hydrocarbons (TNMHCs, also known as TO-12), and organic analytes in samples collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs) from the tank headspace. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sampling and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Sampling and Analysis Plan for Tank Vapor Sampling Comparison Test{close_quote}, and the sample jobs were designated S6007, S6008, and S6009. Samples were collected by WHC on January 26, 1996, using the VSS, a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe; and the ISVS with and without particulate prefiltration.

Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Pool, K.H. [and others

1996-07-01

67

Water tank installed at A-3 Test Stand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A water tank is lifted into place at the A-3 Test Stand being built at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center. Fourteen water, liquid oxygen (LOX) and isopropyl alcohol (IPA) tanks are being installed to support the chemical steam generators to be used on the A-3 Test Stand. The IPA and LOX tanks will provide fuel for the generators. The water will allow the generators to produce steam that will be used to reduce pressure inside the stand's test cell diffuser, enabling operators to simulate altitudes up to 100,000 feet. In that way, operators can perform the tests needed on rocket engines being built to carry humans back to the moon and possibly beyond. The A-3 Test Stand is set for completion and activation in 2011.

2009-01-01

68

Combination of Tank Model and Reservoir Routing for predicting water level at Wonogiri Dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water level predicting model is one of model to support the reservoir operation. This paper, discusses the results of research on the use of tank model combined with reservoir routing to predict the water level of Wonogiri Dam. Tank model was constructed consisting of 2 tank model structured the series, parallel, and parallel-series and 3 models composed tank series and

Umboro Lasminto; Yuddi Yudhistira

2010-01-01

69

International Water Law Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As clean water has increasingly become a resource subject to scarcity, international politics and law have become involved with the issues of access to and maintenance of water sources. This site provides comprehensive information on the subject, featuring full texts of the major diplomatic documents, including rules on international groundwaters and rivers agreed upon at UN conferences in Helsinki and Seoul, treaty drafts, regional agreements as well as international case law, an extensive bibliography, and links to related sites. The site was conceived and developed by Gabriel Eckstein in conjunction with The World's Water project of the Pacific Institute.

Eckstein, Gabriel.

70

The water towing tank as an experimental facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind tunnels and flumes have become standard laboratory tools for modeling a variety of aerodynamic and hydrodynamic flow problems. Less available, although by no means less useful, are facilities in which a model can be towed (or propelled) through air or water. This article emphasizes the use of the water towing tank as an experimental tool for aerodynamic and hydrodynamic studies. Its advantages and disadvantages over other flow rigs are discussed, and its usefulness is illustrated through many examples of research results obtained over the past few years in a typical towing tank facility.

Gad-El-hak, M.

1987-01-01

71

Use of water towing tanks for aerodynamics and hydrodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind tunnels and flumes have become standard laboratory tools for modeling a variety of aerodynamic and hydrodynamic flow problems. Less available, although by no means less useful, are facilities in which a model can be towed (or propelled) through air or water. This article emphasizes the use of the water towing tank as an experimental tool for aerodynamic and hydrodynamic studies. Its advantages and disadvantages over other flow rigs are discussed, and its usefullness is illustrated through many examples of research results obtained over the past few years in a typical towing tank facility.

Gadelhak, Mohamed

1987-01-01

72

View of Water Storage Tank off entrance tunnel. Tunnel at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of Water Storage Tank off entrance tunnel. Tunnel at left of image to Launch Silos - Titan One Missile Complex 2A, .3 miles west of 129 Road and 1.5 miles north of County Line Road, Aurora, Adams County, CO

73

Fault Detection and Isolation in the Water Tank World  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flexible, model based fault detection and isolation (FDI) system for an arbitrary configuration of a water tank world has been designed and implemented in MATLAB, SIMULINK and dSPACE. The fault detection is performed with local change detection algorithms, and the fault isolation is performed with residual patterns automatically generated from the total configuration.

Niclas Bergman; Magnus Larsson

74

Determination of worst case projected source term in tank 241-SY-102  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the methodology used to determine the worst case projected source term that could be in double-shell tank 241-SY-102 for the cross-site waste transfer to tank 241-AP-107. The worst case projected source term given in Table 4-1 is the weighted average of the tank waste sources with the addition of sufficient waste from a defined worst source tank to fill the tank to 416 inches. The projected source term in this document is not intended to represent what will be in tank 241-SY-102. Rather, it is a conservative bounding composition considering that the volume of waste that will be added from each current source is unknown.

FOWLER, K.D.

1999-05-19

75

Project W-320, tank 241-C-106 sluicing acceptance for beneficial use  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to identify the Project W-320 Chiller Documentation required to be turned over from the Projects Organization to Tank Farm Operations as part of the acceptance of the new equipment for beneficial use.

BAILEY, J.W.

1999-05-18

76

33 CFR 165.1313 - Security zone regulations, tank ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Security zone regulations, tank ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters...1313 Security zone regulations, tank ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters...suspension of enforcement. The tank ship security zone established by this...

2012-07-01

77

33 CFR 165.1313 - Security zone regulations, tank ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Security zone regulations, tank ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters...1313 Security zone regulations, tank ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters...suspension of enforcement. The tank ship security zone established by this...

2011-07-01

78

33 CFR 165.1313 - Security zone regulations, tank ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Security zone regulations, tank ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters...1313 Security zone regulations, tank ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters...suspension of enforcement. The tank ship security zone established by this...

2013-07-01

79

Experimental investigation of the behavior of a solar still coupled with hot water storage tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of the solar still-storage tank system, designed and installed in Solar & other Energy Laboratory of NCSR “Demokritos”, is investigated through its operation under real conditions by keeping tank water temperature constant in different levels. The solar still is of greenhouse asymmetric type, the basin of which is in direct contact with a hot water storage tank as

K. Voropoulos; E. Mathioulakis; V. Belessiotis

2003-01-01

80

Tank SY-102 remediation project: Flowsheet and conceptual design report  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to safely manage and dispose of radioactive waste stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Site. A major program in TWRS is pretreatment which was established to process the waste prior to disposal. Pretreatment is needed to resolve tank safety issues and to separate wastes into high-level and low-level fractions for subsequent immobilization and disposal. There is a fixed inventory of actinides and fission products in the tank which must be prepared for disposal. By segregating the actinides and fission products from the bulk of the waste, the tank`s contents can be effectively managed. Due to the high public visibility and environmental sensitivity of this problem, real progress and demonstrated efforts toward addressing it must begin as soon as possible. As a part of this program, personnel at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have developed and demonstrated a flowsheet to remediate tank SY-102 which is located in the 200 West Area and contains high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of the flowsheet demonstrations performed with simulated, but radioactive, wastes using an existing glovebox line at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The tank waste was characterized using both a tank history approach and an exhaustive evaluation of the available core sample analyses. This report also presents a conceptual design complete with a working material flow model, a major equipment list, and cost estimates.

Yarbro, S.L.; Punjak, W.A.; Schreiber, S.B.; Dunn, S.L.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Marsh, S.F.; Pope, N.G.; Agnew, S.; Birnbaum, E.R.; Thomas, K.W.; Ortic, E.A.

1994-01-01

81

Project plan for resolution of the organic waste tank safety issues at the Hanford Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-year project plan for the Organic Safety Project has been developed with the objective of resolving the organic safety issues associated with the High Level Waste (HLW) in Hanford`s single-shell tanks (SSTS) and double-shell tanks (DSTs). The objective of the Organic Safety Project is to ensure safe interim storage until retrieval for pretreatment and disposal operations begins, and to

Meacham

1996-01-01

82

HANFORD SITE RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT (RPP) TANK FARM CLOSURE  

SciTech Connect

The U. S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection and the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. are responsible for the operations, cleanup, and closure activities at the Hanford Tank Farms. There are 177 tanks overall in the tank farms, 149 single-shell tanks (see Figure 1), and 28 double-shell tanks (see Figure 2). The single-shell tanks were constructed 40 to 60 years ago and all have exceeded their design life. The single-shell tanks do not meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 [1] requirements. Accordingly, radioactive waste is being retrieved from the single-shell tanks and transferred to double-shell tanks for storage prior to treatment through vitrification and disposal. Following retrieval of as much waste as is technically possible from the single-shell tanks, the Office of River Protection plans to close the single-shell tanks in accordance with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order [2] and the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [3] requirements. The double-shell tanks will remain in operation through much of the cleanup mission until sufficient waste has been treated such that the Office of River Protection can commence closing the double-shell tanks. At the current time, however, the focus is on retrieving waste and closing the single-shell tanks. The single-shell tanks are being managed and will be closed in accordance with the pertinent requirements in: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and its Washington State-authorized Dangerous Waste Regulations [4], US DOE Order 435.1 Radioactive Waste Management [5], the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 [6], and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 [7]. The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, which is commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement or TPA, was originally signed by Department of Energy, the State of Washington, and the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1989. Meanwhile, the retrieval of the waste is under way and is being conducted to achieve the completion criteria established in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order.

JARAYSI, M.N.; SMITH, Z.; QUINTERO, R.; BURANDT, M.B.; HEWITT, W.

2006-01-30

83

Hanford Site organic waste tanks: History, waste properties, and scientific issues. Hanford Tank Safety Project  

SciTech Connect

Eight Hanford single-shell waste tanks are included on a safety watch list because they are thought to contain significant concentrations of various organic chemical. Potential dangers associated with the waste in these tanks include exothermic reaction, combustion, and release of hazardous vapors. In all eight tanks the measured waste temperatures are in the range 16 to 46{degree}C, far below the 250 to 380{degree}C temperatures necessary for onset of rapid exothermic reactions and initiation of deflagration. Investigation of the possibility of vapor release from Tank C-103 has been elevated to a top safety priority. There is a need to obtain an adequate number of truly representative vapor samples and for highly sensitive and capable methods and instruments to analyze these samples. Remaining scientific issues include: an understanding of the behavior and reaction of organic compounds in existing underground tank environments knowledge of the types and amounts of organic compounds in the tanks knowledge of selected physical and chemical properties of organic compounds source, composition, quality, and properties of the presently unidentified volatile organic compound(s) apparently evolving from Tank C-103.

Strachan, D.M.; Schulz, W.W.; Reynolds, D.A.

1993-01-01

84

Determination of worst case projected source term in tank 241-SY-102  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the methodology used to determine the worst case projected source term that could be in double-shell tank 241-SY-102 for the upcoming cross-site waste transfer. The worst case projected source term is given in Table 4-1 is the weighted average of the tank waste sources with the addition of sufficient waste from a defined worst source tank to fill the tank to 416 inches. The projected source term in this document is not intended to represent what will be in tank 241-SY-102. Rather, it is a conservative bounding composition considering that the volume of waste that will be added from each current source is unknown.

FOWLER, K.D.

1999-05-24

85

PROGRESS IN HANFORDS DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) INTEGRITY PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection has an extensive integrity assessment program for the Hanford Site Double-Shell Tank System. The DOE Orders and environmental protection regulations provide the guidelines for the activities used to inspect and maintain 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs), the waste evaporator, and ancillary equipment that compose this system. This program has been reviewed by oversight and regulatory bodies and found to comply with the established guidelines. The basis for the DOE Order 435.1-1 for tank integrity comes from the Tank Structural Integrity Paneled by Brookhaven National Laboratory during the late 1990s. These guidelines established criteria for performing Non-Destructive Examination (NDE), for acceptance of the NDE results, for waste chemistry control, and for monitoring the tanks. The environmental regulations mirror these requirements and allow for the tank integrity program to provide compliant storage of the tanks. Both sets of requirements provide additional guidance for the protection of ancillary equipment. CH2M HILL uses two methods of NDE: visual inspection and Ultrasonic Testing (UT). The visual inspection program examines the primary tank and secondary liner of the DST. The primary tank is examined both on the interior surface above the waste in the tank and on the exterior surface facing the annulus of the DST. The interior surface of the tank liner is examined at the same time as the outer surface of the primary tank. The UT program examines representative areas of the primary tank and secondary liner by deploying equipment in the annulus of the tank. Both programs have led to the development of new equipment for remote inspection of the tanks. Compact camera and enhanced lighting systems have been designed and deployed through narrow access ports (called risers) into the tanks. The UT program has designed two generations of crawlers and equipment for deployment through risers into the thermally hot and radioactive environment. Also extensions were developed to allow inspection of the tank's curve upper (haunch) and lower (knuckle) surfaces. CH2M HILL primarily maintains chemistry control of the DST by ensuring that the concentrations of hydroxide and nitrite ions are favorable with respect to the nitrate ion concentration in the waste. This control program is supported by an extensive sampling program that obtains samples from the supernatant and solid layers in the tank to ensure compliance with the chemical specification. At DOE direction, CH2M HILL has embarked on a waste chemistry optimization program to enhance the protection of the tank surface and the understanding of the parameters that affect general and localized corrosion in the tanks. Over the past decade, DOE has deployed Electrochemical Noise corrosion probes in the DST to monitor localized corrosion. From the information gathered as part of the chemistry control, new information has been identified about the parameters requiring control to ensure tank integrity. CH2M HILL is deploying a series of corrosion probes to test and employ these parameters to provide real time corrosion monitoring of the DSTs.

BERMAN HS

2008-01-22

86

Progress in Hanford's Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection has an extensive integrity assessment program for the Hanford Site Double-Shell Tank System. The DOE Orders and environmental protection regulations provide the guidelines for the activities used to inspect and maintain 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs), the waste evaporator, and ancillary equipment that compose this system. This program has been reviewed by oversight and regulatory bodies and found to comply with the established guidelines. The basis for the DOE Order 435.1-1 for tank integrity comes from the Tank Structural Integrity Panel led by Brookhaven National Laboratory during the late 1990's. These guidelines established criteria for performing Non-Destructive Examination (NDE), for acceptance of the NDE results, for waste chemistry control, and for monitoring the tanks. The environmental regulations mirror these requirements and allow for the tank integrity program to provide compliant storage of the tanks. Both sets of requirements provide additional guidance for the protection of ancillary equipment. CH2M HILL uses two methods of NDE: visual inspection and Ultrasonic Testing (UT). The visual inspection program examines the primary tank and secondary liner of the DST. The primary tank is examined both on the interior surface above the waste in the tank and on the exterior surface facing the annulus of the DST. The interior surface of the tank liner is examined at the same time as the outer surface of the primary tank. The UT program examines representative areas of the primary tank and secondary liner by deploying equipment in the annulus of the tank. Both programs have led to the development of new equipment for remote inspection of the tanks. Compact camera and enhanced lighting systems have been designed and deployed through narrow access ports (called risers) into the tanks. The UT program has designed two generations of crawlers and equipment for deployment through risers into the thermally hot and radioactive environment. Also extensions were developed to allow inspection of the tank's curve upper (haunch) and lower (knuckle) surfaces. CH2M HILL primarily maintains chemistry control of the DST by ensuring that the concentrations of hydroxide and nitrite ions are favorable with respect to the nitrate ion concentration in the waste. This control program is supported by an extensive sampling program that obtains samples from the supernatant and solid layers in the tank to ensure compliance with the chemical specification. At DOE direction, CH2M HILL has embarked on a waste chemistry optimization program to enhance the protection of the tank surface and the understanding of the parameters that affect general and localized corrosion in the tanks. Over the past decade, DOE has deployed Electrochemical Noise corrosion probes in the DST to monitor localized corrosion. From the information gathered as part of the chemistry control, new information has been identified about the parameters requiring control to ensure tank integrity. CH2M HILL is deploying a series of corrosion probes to test and employ these parameters to provide real time corrosion monitoring of the DSTs. (authors)

Bryson, D.C. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States); Washenfelder, D.J.; Boomer, K.D. [CH2M HILL, Hanford Group, Inc., Richland, Washington (United States)

2008-07-01

87

Project plan for resolution of the organic waste tank safety issues at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

A multi-year project plan for the Organic Safety Project has been developed with the objective of resolving the organic safety issues associated with the High Level Waste (HLW) in Hanford`s single-shell tanks (SSTS) and double-shell tanks (DSTs). The objective of the Organic Safety Project is to ensure safe interim storage until retrieval for pretreatment and disposal operations begins, and to resolve the organic safety issues by September 2001. Since the initial identification of organics as a tank waste safety issue, progress has been made in understanding the specific aspects of organic waste combustibility, and in developing and implementing activities to resolve the organic safety issues.

Meacham, J.E.

1996-10-03

88

Cesium uptake capacity of simulated ferrocyanide tank waste. Interim report FY 1994, Ferrocyanide Safety Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project is to determine the capacity for (sup 137)CS uptake by mixed metal ferrocyanides present in Hanford waste tanks, and to assess the potential for aggregation of these (sup 137)CS exchanged materials to form tank ''hot-spots.''...

I. E. Burgeson, S. A. Bryan, L. E. Burger

1994-01-01

89

Laboratory Experiments on Convective Entrainment Using a Saline Water Tank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entrainment fluxes in a shear-free convective boundary layer have been measured with a saline water tank set-up. The experiments were targeted towards measuring the entrainment behaviour for medium to high Richardson numbers and use a two-layer design, i.e. two stacked non-stratified (neutral) layers with different densities. With laser induced fluorescence (LIF), the entrainment flux of a fluorescent dye is measured for bulk Richardson numbers in the range 30-260. It is proposed that a carefully chosen combination of top-down and bottom-up processes improves the accuracy of LIF-based entrainment observations. The observed entrainment fluxes are about an order of magnitude lower than reported for thermal water tanks: the derived buoyancy entrainment ratio, , is found to be , which is to be compared with for a thermal convection tank (Deardorff et al., J Fluid Mech 100:41-64, 1980). An extensive discussion is devoted to the influence of the Reynolds and Prandtl numbers in laboratory experiments on entrainment.

Jonker, Harmen J. J.; Jiménez, Maria A.

2014-06-01

90

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Gunite and Associated Tanks Stabilization Project-Low-Tech Approach with High-Tech Results  

SciTech Connect

Environmental restoration of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was a priority to the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) because of their age and deteriorating structure. These eight tanks ranging up to 170,000 gallons in capacity were constructed in 1943 of a Gunite or ''sprayed concrete material'' as part of the Manhattan Project. The tanks initially received highly radioactive waste from the Graphite Reactor and associated chemical processing facilities. The waste was temporarily stored in these tanks to allow for radioactive decay prior to dilution and release into surface waters. Over time, additional wastes from ongoing ORNL operations (e.g., isotope separation and materials research) were discharged to the tanks for storage and treatment. These tanks were taken out of service in the 1970s. Based on the structure integrity of GAAT evaluated in 1995, the worst-case scenario for the tanks, even assuming they are in good condition, is to remain empty. A recently completed interim action conducted from April 1997 through September 2000 removed the tank liquids and residual solids to the extent practical. Interior video surveys of the tanks indicated signs of degradation of the Gunite material. The tanks continued to receive inleakage, which generated a relatively high volume waste stream that required periodic removal, treatment, and disposal. For these reasons, DOE chose in-place stabilization of Tanks W-3 through W-10 as a non-timecritical removal action under Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Tank stabilization activities involved removal of liquid from inleakage and placement of a grout mixture or ''flowable fill'' into the tanks to within 3-ft of the ground surface. Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC (BJC) awarded Safety and Ecology Corporation (SEC) a subcontract in March 2001 to complete the documentation and fieldwork necessary to achieve tank stabilization in accordance with the Action Memorandum. Tank stabilization activities began on April 23, 2001, and were completed one month ahead of schedule on August 31, 2001. Over 7400 cubic yards of grout were placed in these tanks stabilizing over 4,000 Ci of radioactive material in place. This schedule acceleration was the result of good pre-planning during pre-mobilization by working with BJC, grout vendor, and pumping company, and other subcontractors. This planning allowed refinement of the pump and hose system used to convey the grout and the formulation of the grout mixture. Because of expediting the work, additional activities could be accomplished at the GAAT site that resulted in complete site restoration to a paved area for future parking, which was completed by September 30, 2001. This paper will focus on the following items associated with this successful environmental restoration project: regulatory process; integrated safety management systems used to achieve zero accident performance while expediting the schedule; tank stabilization design and implementation; and implementation strategies involving partnering of multiple subcontractors, DOE, and regulators.

Brill, A.; Alsup, T.; Bolling, D.

2002-02-26

91

Hanford Tank Safety Project: Minutes of the Tank Waste Science Panel meeting, February 7--8, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Tank Waste Science Panel met February 7--8, 1991, to review the latest data from the analyses of the October 24, 1990, gas release from Tank 241-SY-101 (101-SY) at Hanford; discuss the results of work being performed in support of the Hanford Tank Safety Project; and be briefed on the ferrocyanide issues included in the expanded scope of the Science Panel. The shapes of the gas release curves from the past three events are similar and correlate well with changes in waste level, but the correlation between the released volume of gas and the waste height is not as good. An analysis of the kinetics of gas generation from waste height measurements in Tank 101-SY suggests that the reaction giving rise to the gases in the tank is independent of the gas pressure and independent of the physical processes that give rise to the episodic release of the gases. Tank waste height data were also used to suggest that a floating crust formed early in the history of the tank and that the current crust is being made thicker in the eastern sector of the tank by repeated upheaval of waste slurry onto the surface. The correlation between the N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2} generated in the October release appears to be 1:1, suggesting a single mechanistic pathway. Analysis of other gas generation ratios, however, suggests that H{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O are evolved together, whereas N{sub 2} is from the air. If similar ratios are observed in planned radiolysis experiments are Argonne National Laboratory, radiolysis would appear to be generating most of the gases in Tank 101-SY. Data from analysis of synthetic waste crust using a dynamic x-ray diffractometer suggest that, in air, organics are being oxidized and liberating CO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Experiments at Savannah River Laboratory indicate that irradiation of solutions containing NO{sub 3} and organics can produce N{sub 2}O.

Strachan, D.M. [comp.

1991-06-01

92

Performance of a lab-scale bio-electrochemical assisted septic tank for the anaerobic treatment of black water.  

PubMed

Septic tanks are used for the removal of organic particulates in wastewaters by physical accumulation instead of through the biological production of biogas. Improved biogas production in septic tanks is crucial to increase the potential of this system for both energy generation and organic matter removal. In this study, the effect on the biogas production and biogas quality of coupling a 20 L lab-scale septic tank with a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) was investigated and compared with a standard septic tank. Both reactors were operated at a volumetric organic loading rate of 0.5gCOD/Ld and a hydraulic retention time between 20 and 40 days using black water as an input under mesophilic conditions for a period of 3 months. The MEC-septic tank was operated at an applied voltage of 2.0±0.1V and the current experienced ranged from 40 mA (0.9A/m(2) projected electrode area) to 180 mA (5A/m(2) projected electrode area). The COD removal was of the order of 85% and the concentration of residual COD was not different between both reactors. Yet, the total phosphorous in the output was on average 39% lower in the MEC-septic tank. Moreover, the biogas production rate in the MEC-septic tank was a factor of 5 higher than in the control reactor and the H2S concentration in the biogas was a factor of 2.5 lower. The extra electricity supplied to the MEC-septic tank was recovered as extra biogas produced. Overall, it appears that the combination of MEC and a septic tank offers perspectives in terms of lower discharge of phosphorus and H2S, nutrient recuperation and a more reliable supply of biogas. PMID:23403217

Zamalloa, Carlos; Arends, Jan B A; Boon, Nico; Verstraete, Willy

2013-06-25

93

Contingency plan for the Old Hydrofracture Facility Tanks Sluicing Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This revised contingency plan addresses potential scenarios involving the release of radioactively contaminated waste from the Old Hydrofracture Facility Tanks Contents Removal project to the environment. The tanks are located at the Oak Ridge National La...

1998-01-01

94

Development study of a novel tower-style tank for simultaneous storing warm water and ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In February 1999, a unitary tower-style thermal storage tank was constructed in a building in Fukuoka City (1). This storage tank is designed such that the upper part is used as a warm water storage tank, while the lower part is used as an ice thermal storage tank. A piece of equipment called "Duo Stable" (which has two stabilizing functions) is installed in the middle of this storage tank. "Duo Stable", which is shaped as a "trap", is newly devised for keeping warm and cold water from mixing.

Kitamura, Kunihiko; Kurokawa, Keiji; Inatomi, Yasutoshi; Fukushima, Itsunari; Miyatake, Osamu

95

Waste Tank Organic Safety Project organic concentration mechanisms task. FY 1994 progress report  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Waste Tank Organic Safety Project is conducting research to support Westinghouse Hanford Company`s (WHC) Waste Tank Safety Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Tank Farm Project Office. The goal of PNL`s program is to provide a scientific basis for analyzing organics in Hanford`s underground storage tanks (USTs) and for determining whether they are at concentrations that pose a potentially unsafe condition. Part of this research is directed toward determining what organic concentrations are safe by conducting research on organic aging mechanisms and waste energetics to assess the conditions necessary to produce an uncontrolled energy release in tanks due to reactions between the organics and the nitrate and nitrate salts in the tank wastes. The objective of the Organic Concentration Mechanisms Task is to assess the degree of localized enrichment of organics to be expected in the USTs due to concentration mechanisms. This report describes the progress of research conducted in FY 1994 on two concentration mechanisms of interest to the tank safety project: (1) permeation of a separate organic liquid phase into the interstitial spaces of the tank solids during the draining of free liquid from the tanks; and (2) concentration of organics on the surfaces of the solids due to adsorption. Three experiments were conducted to investigate permeation of air and solvent into a sludge simulant that is representative of single-shell tank sludge. The permeation behavior of air and solvent into the sludge simulant can be explained by the properties of the fluid pairs (air/supernate and solvent supernate) and the sludge. One important fluid property is the interfacial tension between the supernate and either the solvent or air. In general, the greater the interfacial tension between two fluids, the more difficult it will be for the air or solvent to displace the supernate during dewatering of the sludge.

Gerber, M.A.

1994-09-01

96

External tank project new technology plan. [development of space shuttle external tank system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A production plan for the space shuttle external tank configuration is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) the thermal protection system, (2) thermal coating application techniques, (3) manufacturing and tooling, (4) propulsion system configurations and components, (5) low temperature rotating and sliding joint seals, (6) lightning protection, and (7) nondestructive testing technology.

1973-01-01

97

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Annual status report for FY 1996  

SciTech Connect

In Fiscal Year 1996, staff at the Vapor Analytical Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory performed work in support of characterizing the vapor composition of the headspaces of radioactive waste tanks at the Hanford Site. Work performed included support for technical issues and sampling methodologies, upgrades for analytical equipment, analytical method development, preparation of unexposed samples, analyses of tank headspaces samples, preparation of data reports, and operation of the tank vapor database. Progress made in FY 1996 included completion and issuance of 50 analytical data reports. A sampling system comparison study was initiated and completed during the fiscal year. The comparison study involved the vapor sampling system (VSS), a truck-based system, and the in situ vapor sampling system (ISVS), a cart-based system. Samples collected during the study were characterized for inorganic, permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds and organic speciation by SUMMA{trademark} and TST methods. The study showed comparable sampling results between the systems resulting in the program switching from the VSS to the less expensive ISVS methodology in late May 1996. A temporal study was initiated in January 1996 in order to understand the influences seasonal temperatures changes have on the vapors in the headspace of Hanford waste tanks. A holding time study was initiated in the fourth quarter of FY 1996. Samples were collected from tank S-102 and rushed to the laboratory for time zero analysis. Additional samples will be analyzed at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 weeks.

Silvers, K.L.; Fruchter, J.S.; Huckaby, J.L.; Almeida, T.L.; Evans, J.C. Jr.; Pool, K.H.; Simonen, C.A.; Thornton, B.M.

1997-01-01

98

The optimization of tank-volume-to-collector-area ratio for a thermosyphon solar water heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the use of the TRNSYS simulation program, the performance of a domestic solar water heating system operating with natural circulation (thermosyphon) and a daily hot water load has been analysed. The effect of tank height on the annual solar fraction of the system has been investigated for different hot water load temperatures and storage tank volumes. Optimum values (values

G. O. G. Löf

1996-01-01

99

The Gunite Tanks Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Successful Integration & Deployment of Technologies Results in Remediated Underground Storage Tanks  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an overview of the underground technologies deployed during the cleanup of nine large underground storage tanks (USTs) that contained residual radioactive sludge, liquid low-level waste (LLLW), and other debris. The Gunite Tanks Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was successfully completed in 2001, ending with the stabilization of the USTs and the cleanup of the South Tank Farm. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project was the first of its kind completed in the United States of America. The Project integrated robotic and remotely operated technologies into an effective tank waste retrieval system that safely retrieved more than 348 m3 (92,000 gal) of radioactive sludge and 3.15E+15 Bq (85,000 Ci) of radioactive contamination from the tanks. The Project successfully transferred over 2,385 m3 (630,000 gal) of waste slurry to ORNL's active tank waste management system. The project team avoided over $120 Million in costs and shortened the original baseline schedule by over 10 years. Completing the Gunite Tanks Remediation Project eliminated the risks posed by the aging USTs and the waste they contained, and avoid the $400,000 annual costs associated with maintaining and monitoring the tanks.

Billingsley, K.; Bolling, D.

2002-02-27

100

A water tank Cherenkov detector for very high-energy astroparticles.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive airshower detection is an important issue in current astrophysics endeavours. Surface arrays detectors are a common practice since they are easy to handle and have a 100% duty cycle. The authors present an experimental study of the parameters relevant to the design of a water Cherenkov detector for high-energy air-showers. This detector is conceived as part of the surface array of the Pierre Auger project, which is expected to be sensitive to ultra high-energy cosmic rays. The authors focus their attention in the geometry of the tank and its inner liner material, discussing pulse shapes and charge collections.

Bauleo, P.; Etchegoyen, A.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.; Ferrero, A. M. J.; Filevich, A.; Guerard, C. K.; Hasenbalg, F.; Mostafa, M. A.; Ravignani, D.; Rodriguez Martino, J.

1998-03-01

101

Heat pump water heater and storage tank assembly  

DOEpatents

A water heater and storage tank assembly comprises a housing defining a chamber, an inlet for admitting cold water to the chamber, and an outlet for permitting flow of hot water from the chamber. A compressor is mounted on the housing and is removed from the chamber. A condenser comprises a tube adapted to receive refrigerant from the compressor, and winding around the chamber to impart heat to water in the chamber. An evaporator is mounted on the housing and removed from the chamber, the evaporator being adapted to receive refrigerant from the condenser and to discharge refrigerant to conduits in communication with the compressor. An electric resistance element extends into the chamber, and a thermostat is disposed in the chamber and is operative to sense water temperature and to actuate the resistance element upon the water temperature dropping to a selected level. The assembly includes a first connection at an external end of the inlet, a second connection at an external end of the outlet, and a third connection for connecting the resistance element, compressor and evaporator to an electrical power source.

Dieckmann, John T. (Belmont, MA); Nowicki, Brian J. (Watertown, MA); Teagan, W. Peter (Acton, MA); Zogg, Robert (Belmont, MA)

1999-09-07

102

Project Delivery Acquisition and Contracting Plan for the Tank Farm Contractor  

SciTech Connect

This document is a plan presenting the process, strategies and approaches for vendor contracting by the Tank Farm Contractor. The plan focuses on contracting structures, practices, methods, and desired approaches in contracting. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) has contracted with the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG), as the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC), to support vitrification of Hanford Site tank waste by the Privatization Contractor. During Waste Feed Delivery Phase 1, waste will be retrieved from certain double-shell tanks and delivered to the Privatization Contractor to meet contract feed delivery requirements. Near-term project goals include upgrading infrastructure systems; retrieving and delivering the waste; and accepting the waste packages for interim onsite storage and disposal. Project Delivery includes individual projects assigned to provide the infrastructure and systems responsible to provide engineering, design, procurement, installation/construction, and testing/turnover of systems for retrieval of waste from Hanford double-shell tanks. This plan sets the requirements for projects work scope, contracting practices, structures, methods, and performance measurements. The plan is designed to integrate Life-Cycle Projects acquisitions and provide a consistent contracting approach. This effort will serve as a step improvement in contract reform implementing commercial practices into DOE projects.

MERCADO, L.C.

2000-04-22

103

Project W-211 Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) Description of Operations for 241-AZ-102  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of the Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is to provide systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes stored in underground double-shell tanks (DSTs) for transfer to alternate storage, evaporation, pretreatment or treatment, while concurrently reducing risks associated with safety watch list and other DSTs. This Description of Operation (DOO) defines the control philosophy for the waste retrieval system for Tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102). This DOO provides a basis for the detailed design of the Project W-211 Retrieval Control System (RCS) for AZ-102 and also establishes test criteria for the RCS.

BRIGGS, S.R.

2000-02-25

104

High-Level Waste Tank Cleaning and Field Characterization at the West Valley Demonstration Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is nearing completion of radioactive high-level waste (HLW) retrieval from its storage tanks and subsequent vitrification of the HLW into borosilicate glass. Currently, 99.5% of the sludge radioactivity has been recovered from the storage tanks and vitrified. Waste recovery of cesium-137 (Cs-137) adsorbed on a zeolite media during waste pretreatment has resulted in 97%

J. L. Drake; C. L. McMahon; D. C. Meess

2002-01-01

105

Cesium uptake capacity of simulated ferrocyanide tank waste. Interim report FY 1994, Ferrocyanide Safety Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this project is to determine the capacity for ¹³⁷CS uptake by mixed metal ferrocyanides present in Hanford waste tanks, and to assess the potential for aggregation of these ¹³⁷CS exchanged materials to form tank ``hot-spots.`` This research, performed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), stems from concerns of possible localized radiolytic

I. E. Burgeson; S. A. Bryan; L. E. Burger

1994-01-01

106

Solid-water interaction in liquid storage tanks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is concerned with ground-supported cylindrical storage tanks vibrating in an axisymmetric manner. A study has been made of the significance of horizontal excitations on the dynamic pressure distributions associated with the sloshing and bulging modes. These pressures have been calculated by using a previously obtained functional. Steel, aluminium and concrete tanks are included to study the effect of these typical tank materials. Only linear, elastic behaviour of the tank materials has been considered. The principal conclusions of the study are that reinforced concrete tanks are more susceptible to higher dynamic pressures than steel or aluminium tanks, and that the maximum dynamic pressure developed in partially filled tanks may be more critical than those for the same tank at maximum capacity.

Gupta, R. K.; Hutchinson, G. L.

1989-12-01

107

Heavy metals content in water, water hyacinth and sediments of Lalbagh tank, Bangalore (India).  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken for assessing the level of heavy metals such as iron, zinc, copper, nickel, chromium, lead and cadmium in water, water hyacinth and sediment samples of Lalbagh tank, Bangalore. Metals were detected using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results revealed that by and large all metals are present in all the samples, except cadmium in the sediment samples. The average concentrations of iron in water and sediment samples, and lead in water hyacinth were found exceeding the limits of Indian Standards. In general, the concentrations of iron and zinc were found more, followed by lead, chromium, copper, nickel and cadmium cancentration was low. Bioaccumulation factor for water hyacinth was found maximum for chromium. Geoaccumulation index results revealed that there is moderate input of copper and lead from anthropogenic sources to the tank basin. PMID:17915781

Lokeshwari, H; Chandrappa, G T

2006-07-01

108

SEPTIC TANK SETBACK DISTANCES: A WAY TO MINIMIZE VIRUS CONTAMINATION OF DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Septic tanks are the most frequently reported causes of contamination in ground-water disease outbreaks associated with the consumption of untreated ground water in the United States. The placement of septic tanks is generally controlled by county-wide or state-wide regulations, ...

109

Melton Valley Storage Tanks Capacity Increase Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and maintain additional storage capacity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW). New capacity would be provided by a facility partitioned into six individual tank vaults containing one 100,000 gallon LLLW storage tank each. The storage tanks would be located within the existing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility. This action would require the extension of a potable water line approximately one mile from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) area to the proposed site to provide the necessary potable water for the facility including fire protection. Alternatives considered include no-action, cease generation, storage at other ORR storage facilities, source treatment, pretreatment, and storage at other DOE facilities.

NONE

1995-04-01

110

Headspace vapor charterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-110: Results from samples collected on December 5, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-110 (Tank S-110) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5085. Samples were collected by WHC on December 5, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D. [and others

1996-06-01

111

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-SX-104: Results from samples collected on July 25, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-104 (Tank SX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5049. Samples were collected by WHC on July 25, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

Thomas, B.L.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C. [and others

1996-05-01

112

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank SX-102: Results from samples collected on July 19, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-102 (Tank SX-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed under the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5046. Samples were collected by WHC on July 19, 1995, using the vapor sampling system (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

McVeety, B.D.; Evans, J.C.; Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H. [and others

1996-05-01

113

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank AX-103: Results from samples collected on June 21, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-AX-103 (Tank AX-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5029. Samples were collected by WHC on June 21, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W. [and others

1996-05-01

114

HOt Water SavEr (HOWSE) Project. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dishwasher effluent is pumped into the flue of the exchange tank by the normal dishwasher pump (or auxiliary pump). The effluent is stored in this tank until next operation of the dishwasher. Thus, thermal equilibrium can be reached between the tank and the effluent, promoting high efficiency. The output from the exchange tank feeds the household normal hot water

1981-01-01

115

Environmental projects. Volume 2: Underground storage tanks compliance program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Six large parabolic dish antennas are located at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex north of Barstow, California. As a large-scale facility located in a remote, isolated desert region, the GDSCC operations require numerous on-site storage facilities for gasoline, diesel and hydraulic oil. These essential fluids are stored in underground storage tanks (USTs). Because USTs may develop leaks with the resultant seepage of their hazardous contents into the surrounding soil, local, State and Federal authorities have adopted stringent regulations for the testing and maintenance of USTs. Under the supervision of JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition, a year-long program has brought 27 USTs at the Goldstone Complex into compliance with Federal, State of California and County of San Bernadino regulations. Of these 27 USTs, 15 are operating today, 11 have been temporary closed down, and 1 abandoned in place. In 1989, the 15 USTs now operating at the Goldstone DSCC will be replaced either by modern, double-walled USTs equipped with automatic sensors for leak detection, or by above ground storage tanks. The 11 inactivated USTs are to be excavated, removed and disposed of according to regulation.

Kushner, L.

1987-01-01

116

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT SEISMIC ANALYSIS IN SUPPORT OF INCREASED LIQUID LEVEL IN 241-AP TANK FARMS  

SciTech Connect

The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford. The "Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Project - DST Thermal and Seismic Project" is in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14.

MACKEY TC; ABBOTT FG; CARPENTER BG; RINKER MW

2007-02-16

117

Pore Water Extraction Test Near 241-SX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site, Washington, USA - 14168  

SciTech Connect

A proof-of-principle test is underway near the Hanford Site 241-SX Tank Farm. The test will evaluate a potential remediation technology that will use tank farm-deployable equipment to remove contaminated pore water from vadose zone soils. The test system was designed and built to address the constraints of working within a tank farm. Due to radioactive soil contamination and limitations in drilling near tanks, small-diameter direct push drilling techniques applicable to tank farms are being utilized for well placement. To address space and weight limitations in working around tanks and obstacles within tank farms, the aboveground portions of the test system have been constructed to allow deployment flexibility. The test system utilizes low vacuum over a sealed well screen to establish flow into an extraction well. Extracted pore water is collected in a well sump,and then pumped to the surface using a small-diameter bladder pump.If pore water extraction using this system can be successfully demonstrated, it may be possible to target local contamination in the vadose zone around underground storage tanks. It is anticipated that the results of this proof-of-principle test will support future decision making regarding interim and final actions for soil contamination within the tank farms.

Eberlein, Susan J.; Parker, Danny L.; Tabor, Cynthia L.; Holm, Melissa J.

2013-11-11

118

Geodesic-dome tank roof cuts water contamination, vapor losses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonial Pipeline Co. has established an ongoing program for using geodesic-dome roofs on tanks in liquid petroleum-product service. As its standard, Colonial adopted geodesicodone roofs, in conjunction with internal floating decks, to replace worn external floating roofs on existing tanks used in gasoline service and for use on new tanks in all types of product service. Geodesic domes are clear-span

Barrett

1989-01-01

119

STATUS OF MECHANICAL SLUDGE REMOVAL AND COOLING COILS CLOSURE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT - 9225  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site F-Tank Farm Closure project has successfully performed Mechanical Sludge Removal using the Waste on Wheels (WOW) system within two of its storage tanks. The Waste on Wheels (WOW) system is designed to be relatively mobile with the ability for many components to be redeployed to multiple tanks. It is primarily comprised of Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), Submersible Transfer Pumps (STPs), and a mobile control room with a control panel and variable speed drives. These tanks, designated as Tank 6 and Tank 5 respectively, are Type I waste tanks located in F-Tank Farm (FTF) with a capacity of 2839 cubic meters (750,000 gallons) each. In addition, Type I tanks have 34 vertically oriented cooling coils and two horizontal cooling coil circuits along the tank floor. DOE intends to remove from service and operationally close Tank 5 and Tank 6 and other HLW tanks that do not meet current containment standards. After obtaining regulatory approval, the tanks and cooling coils will be isolated and filled with grout for long term stabilization. Mechanical Sludge Removal of the remaining sludge waste within Tank 6 removed {approx} 75% of the original 25,000 gallons in August 2007. Utilizing lessons learned from Tank 6, Tank 5 Mechanical Sludge Removal completed removal of {approx} 90% of the original 125 cubic meters (33,000 gallons) of sludge material in May 2008. The successful removal of sludge material meets the requirement of approximately 19 to 28 cubic meters (5,000 to 7,500 gallons) remaining prior to the Chemical Cleaning process. The Chemical Cleaning Process will utilize 8 wt% oxalic acid to dissolve the remaining sludge heel. The flow sheet for Chemical Cleaning planned a 20:1 volume ratio of acid to sludge for the first strike with mixing provided by the submersible mixer pumps. The subsequent strikes will utilize a 13:1 volume ratio of acid to sludge with no mixing. The results of the Chemical Cleaning Process are detailed in the 'Status of Chemical Cleaning of Waste Tanks at the Savannah River Site--F Tank Farm Closure Project--Abstract 9114'. To support Tank 5 and Tank 6 cooling coil closure, cooling coil isolation and full scale cooling coil grout testing was completed to develop a strategy for grouting the horizontal and vertical cooling coils. This paper describes in detail the performance of the Mechanical Sludge Removal activities and SMP operational strategies within Tank 5. In addition, it will discuss the current status of Tank 5 & 6 cooling coil isolation activities and the results from the cooling coil grout fill tests.

Jolly, R

2009-01-06

120

SPERTI Control Area. Water storage tank with Well House (PER602) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SPERT-I Control Area. Water storage tank with Well House (PER-602) under construction to its right. Control Building (PER-601) in background to right of tank. Photographer: Jack L. Anderson. Date: December 20, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-3575 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

121

MIXING IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM STORAGE TANKS: ITS EFFECT ON WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Nearly all distribution systems in the US include storage tanks and reservoirs. They are the most visible components of a wate distribution system but are generally the least understood in terms of their impact on water quality. Long residence times in storage tanks can have nega...

122

SEPTIC TANK SETBACK DISTANCES: A WAY TO MINIMIZE VIRUS CONTAMINATION OF DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Septic tanks are the most frequently reported causes of contamination in groundwater disease outbreaks associated with the consumption of untreated ground water in the United States. he placement of septic tanks is generally controlled by country-wide or state-wide regulations wi...

123

Initial single shell tank retrieval system project system engineering management plan  

SciTech Connect

This System Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) describes the Systems Engineering approach that will be used to manage the retrieval of waste from the first single shell tank farm using past practice sluicing techniques. This Project SEMP is used to supplement the requirements of the TWRS SEMP, WHC-SD-WM-SEMP-002.

Krieg, S.A., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-31

124

Chemical research projects office fuel tank sealants review. [flight testing of fluorosilicone sealants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The status of high-temperature fuel tank sealants for military and potentially commercial supersonic aircraft is examined. The interrelationships of NASA's sealants program comprise synthesis and development of new fluoroether elastomers, sealant prediction studies, flight simulation and actual flight testing of best state-of-the-art fluorosilicone sealants. The technical accomplishments of these projects are reviewed.

Rosser, R. W.; Parker, J. A.

1974-01-01

125

Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating  

DOEpatents

A water heater or system which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

Andrews, John W. (Sag Harbor, NY)

1983-06-28

126

Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating  

DOEpatents

A water heater or system is described which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

Andrews, J.W.

1980-06-25

127

OVERVIEW OF ENHANCED HANFORD SINGLE-SHELL TANK (SST) INTEGRITY PROJECT - 12128  

SciTech Connect

To improve the understanding of the single-shell tanks integrity, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, the USDOE Hanford Site tank contractor, developed an enhanced Single-Shell Tank (SST) Integrity Project in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity, consisting of various subject matters experts in industry and academia, was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. This panel developed 33 recommendations in four main areas of interest: structural integrity, liner degradation, leak integrity and prevention, and mitigation of contamination migration, Seventeen of these recommendations were used to develop the basis for the M-45-10-1 Change Package for the Hanford Federal Agreement and Compliance Order, which is also known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The change package identified two phases of work for SST integrity. The initial phase has been focused on efforts to envelope the integrity of the tanks. The initial phase was divided into two primary areas of investigation: structural integrity and leak integrity. If necessary based on the outcome from the initial work, a second phase would be focused on further definition of the integrity of the concrete and liners. Combined these two phases are designed to support the formal integrity assessment of the Hanford SSTs in 2018 by Independent Qualified Registered Engineer. The work to further define the DOE's understanding of the structural integrity SSTs involves preparing a modern Analysis of Record using a finite element analysis program. Structural analyses of the SSTs have been conducted since 1957, but these analyses used analog calculation, less rigorous models, or focused on individual structures. As such, an integrated understanding of all of the SSTs has not been developed to modern expectations. In support of this effort, other milestones will address the visual inspection of the tank concrete and the collection of concrete core samples from the tanks for analysis of current mechanics properties. The work on the liner leak integrity has examined the leaks from 23 tanks with liner failures. Individual leak assessments are being developed for each tank to identify the leak cause and location. Also a common cause study is being performed to take the data from individual tanks to look for trends in the failure. Supporting this work is an assessment of the leak rate from tanks at both Hanford and the Savannah River Site and a new method to locate leak sites in tank liner using ionic conductivity. A separate activity is being conducted to examine the propensity for corrosion in select single shell tanks with aggressive waste layers. The work for these two main efforts will provide the basis for the phase two planning. If the margins identified aren't sufficient to ensure the integrity through the life of the mission, phase two would focus on activities to further enhance the understanding of tank integrity. Also coincident with any phase-two work would be the integrity analysis for the tanks, which would be complete in 2018. With delays in the completion of waste treatment facilities at Hanford, greater reliance on safe, continued storage of waste in the single shell tanks is increased in importance. The goal of integrity assessment would provide basis to continue SST activities till the end of the treatment mission.

VENETZ TJ; BOOMER KD; WASHENFELDER DJ; JOHNSON JB

2012-01-25

128

Facility assessment summary report for project W-314, tank farm restoration and safe operations  

SciTech Connect

The Facility Assessment Summary Report (FSAR) is a key element in the systems engineering document hierarchy, and provides an evaluation overview of the physical conditions and requirements for upgrading facility systems, subsystems, and/or components (SSC). This Project W- 314 FASR was prepared to address the evaluations, inspections, and assessments conducted on the Tank Farm facilities associated with the preliminary Project W-314 scope, and to provide requirements for specifying necessary upgrades.

Jacobson, R.W.

1996-06-13

129

Effect of domestic storage tanks on the quality of drinking waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation covering 12 districts of Baghdad city was conducted over 2 yr to monitor the effect of domestic storage practice on the quality of drinking water. Water storage tanks are widely used in Iraq as an additional water source. Tap and stored waters were tested for their chemical constituents i.e. Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, Zn, Fe, Pb, Cd,

I. M. Jawad; M. R. Al-Ghazali; M. S. H. Khorshid

1988-01-01

130

SPRINGS AND WATER TANKS ON GILA RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION IN ARIZONA  

EPA Science Inventory

This point coverage shows springs and water tanks on Gila River Indian Reservation in Arizona. This coverage was digitized off of USGS 7.5 minute quad maps by the Phoenix office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. ...

131

SPRINGS AND WATER TANKS ON THE COLORADO RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION IN ARIZONA  

EPA Science Inventory

This point coverage shows springs and water tanks on Colorado River Indian Reservation in Arizona. This coverage was digitized off of USGS 7.5 minute quad maps by the Phoenix office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. ...

132

43. ARAIII Water storage tank ARA709. Camera facing northwest. Shadow ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

43. ARA-III Water storage tank ARA-709. Camera facing northwest. Shadow of ARA-611 at lower right corner of view. Ineel photo no. 3-18. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

133

Hanford Tank Safety Project: Minutes of the Tank Waste Science Panel meeting, February 7--8, 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Tank Waste Science Panel met February 7--8, 1991, to review the latest data from the analyses of the October 24, 1990, gas release from Tank 241-SY-101 (101-SY) at Hanford; discuss the results of work being performed in support of the Hanford Tank Saf...

D. M. Strachan

1991-01-01

134

Tank waste remediation system characterization project quality policies  

SciTech Connect

This quality plan describes the system used by Characterization Project management to achieve quality. This plan is comprised of eleven quality policies which, when taken together, form a management system deployed to achieve quality. This quality management system is based on the customer`s quality requirements known as the `RULE`, 10 CFR 830.120, Quality Assurance.

Board, D.C.

1997-09-24

135

Tank waste remediation system characterization project quality policies  

SciTech Connect

This quality plan describes the system used by Characterization Project management to achieve quality. This plan is comprised on eleven quality policies which, when taken together, form a management system deployed to achieve quality. This quality management system is based on the customer`s quality requirements known as the `RULE`, 10 CFR 830.120, Quality Assurance.

Trible, T.C., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-31

136

Design review report: 200 East upgrades for Project W-314, tank farm restoration and safe operations  

SciTech Connect

This Design Review Report (DRR) documents the contractor design verification methodology and records associated with project W-314`s 200 East (200E) Upgrades design package. The DRR includes the documented comments and their respective dispositions for this design. Acceptance of the comment dispositions and closure of the review comments is indicated by the signatures of the participating reviewers. Project W-314 is a project within the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Tank Waste Retrieval Program. This project provides capital upgrades for the existing Hanford tank farm waste transfer, instrumentation, ventilation, and electrical infrastructure systems. To support established TWRS programmatic objectives, the project is organized into two distinct phases. The initial focus of the project (i.e., Phase 1) is on waste transfer system upgrades needed to support the TWRS Privatization waste feed delivery system. Phase 2 of the project will provide upgrades to support resolution of regulatory compliance issues, improve tank infrastructure reliability, and reduce overall plant operating/maintenance costs. Within Phase 1 of the W-314 project, the waste transfer system upgrades are further broken down into six major packages which align with the project`s work breakdown structure. Each of these six sub-elements includes the design, procurement, and construction activities necessary to accomplish the specific tank farm upgrades contained within the package. The first design package (AN Valve Pit Upgrades) was completed in November 1997, and the associated design verification activities are documented in HNF-1893. The second design package, 200 East (200E) Upgrades, was completed in March 1998. This design package identifies modifications to existing valve pits 241-AX-B and 241-A-B, as well as several new waste transfer pipelines to be constructed within the A Farm Complex of the 200E Area. The scope of the valve pit modifications includes new pit cover blocks, valve manifolds, leak detectors, and special protective coatings similar to those previously approved for the AN Valve Pit Upgrades design package. The new transfer lines included in this package (with official line number designations) are described within.

Boes, K.A.

1998-04-15

137

EMSP Project 70070: Reactivity of Primary Soil Minerals and Secondary Precipitates Beneath Leaking Hanford Waste Tanks - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Since the late 1950s, leaks from 67 single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site have released about 1 million curies to the underlying sediments. The radioactive material was contained in water-based solutions generally characterized as having high pH values (basic solutions), high nitrate and nitrite concentrations, and high aluminum concentrations. The solutions were also hot, in some cases at or near boiling, as well as complex and highly variable in composition reflecting solutions obtained from multiple methods of reprocessing spent nuclear fuel. In order to understand the observed and probable distribution of radionuclides in the ground at Hanford, major reactions that likely occurred between the leaked fluids and the sediment minerals were investigated in laboratory experiments simulating environmental conditions. Reactions involving the dissolution of quartz and biotite and the simultaneous formation of new minerals were quantified at controlled pH values and temperature. Result s show that the dissolution of quartz and formation of new zeolite-like minerals could have altered the flow path of ground water and contaminant plumes and provided an uptake mechanism for positively-charged soluble radionuclides, such as cesium. The dissolution of biotite, a layered-iron-aluminum-silicate mineral, provided iron in a reduced form that could have reacted with negatively-charged soluble chromium, a toxic component of the wastes, to cause its reduction and precipitation as a new reduced-chromium mineral. The quantity of iron released in the experiments is sufficient to explain observations of reductions in dissolved chromium concentration in a plume beneath one Hanford tank. Fundamental data obtained in the project are the rates of the reactions at variable temperatures and pHs. Fundamental data were also obtained on aspects of the surface reactivity of clay or layered-silicate minerals, a small proportion of the total mass of the sediment minerals, but a large proportion of the number of sites where reactions can occur. Results were also finalized on a component of a previous project related to the Hanford waste tanks that had the goal of measuring the incorporation of rhenium, an analogue of radioactive technetium, in iron and aluminum-oxides minerals as they aged in tank sludges at higher temperatures. Small amounts of rhenium were occluded in the iron-rich solids and the amount increased with aging time. Results from the quartz and biotite experiments are in a form that can be used in models of fluid flow in the Hanford subsurface. Results from the rhenium experiments can be used to understand aspects of closing certain of the Hanford tanks.

Kathryn L. Nagy

2004-04-22

138

Tank bromeliad water: Similar or distinct environments for research of bacterial bioactives?  

PubMed Central

The Atlantic Rainforest does not have a uniform physiognomy, its relief determines different environmental conditions that define the composition of its flora and fauna. Within this ecosystem, bromeliads that form tanks with their leaves hold water reservoirs throughout the year, maintaining complex food chains, based mainly on autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria. Some works concluded that the water held by tank bromeliads concentrate the microbial diversity of their ecosystem. To investigate the bacterial diversity and the potential biotechnology of these ecosystems, tank bromeliads of the Neoregelia cruenta species from the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil were used as models for this research. Bacteria isolated from these models were tested for production of bioactive compounds. DGGE of the water held by tank bromeliads was performed in different seasons, locations and sun exposure to verify whether these environmental factors affect bacterial communities. The DGGE bands profile showed no grouping of bacterial community by the environmental factors tested. Most of the isolates demonstrated promising activities in the tests performed. Collectively, these results suggest that tank bromeliads of the N. cruenta species provide important habitats for a diverse microbial community, suggesting that each tank forms a distinct micro-habitat. These tanks can be considered excellent sources for the search for new enzymes and/or new bioactive composites of microbial origin.

Carmo, F.L.; Santos, H.F.; Peixoto, R.S.; Rosado, A.S.; Araujo, F.V.

2014-01-01

139

Recreational Vehicle Water Tanks as a Possible Source for Legionella Infections  

PubMed Central

We investigated recreational vehicle (RV) water reservoirs in response to a case of pneumonia in which Legionella pneumophila was cultured both from the patient and a RV reservoir in which he travelled. Water samples processed and cultured at the CDC according to standard protocol were positive for Legionella spp. in 4/17 (24%) faucets, 1/11 (9%) water tanks from 4/20 (20%) RVs from three different campsites. Legionella spp. that were isolated included L. pneumophila (serogroups 1 and 6), L. anisa, L. feeleii, and L. quateriensis. Environmental controls from the potable water of the three campsites were culture-negative. A survey of maintenance practices by the RV users at the campsites revealed that chlorine disinfection of the water tanks was rarely performed. To prevent the possibility of Legionella infections, RV owners should implement regular chlorine disinfection of their water tanks and follow the recommended maintenance guidelines according to their owner's manuals.

Litwin, Christine M.; Asebiomo, Bankole; Wilson, Katherine; Hafez, Michael; Stevens, Valerie; Fliermans, Carl B.; Fields, Barry S.; Fisher, John F.

2013-01-01

140

SCALE-MODEL STUDIES OF MIXING IN DRINKING WATER STORAGE TANKS  

EPA Science Inventory

Storage tanks and reservoirs are commonly used in drinking water distribution systems to equalize pumping requirements and operating pressures, and to provide emergency water for fire-fighting and pumping outages. Poor mixing in these structures can create pockets of older water...

141

Phase 2 Rebaseline Report for Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations Project W-314  

SciTech Connect

Project W-314, (97-D-402) Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations is a multi-year, multiphase project established to upgrade selected 200 East and West Area Tank Farms to support the long-term mission of waste storage, retrieval, and transfer for vitrification. Key drivers for these upgrades include the planned timetable for transfer of waste to the privatized vitrification facility, regulatory compliance requirements (i.e., Washington State and Federal Regulations), and the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA). The previous baseline scope for Project W-314 was established based upon tank farm system assessments performed five to six years ago and was reflected in the previous baseline cost estimate, the Accelerated Replanning Estimate, completed in July 1997. The Accelerated Replanning Estimate splits the project into two phases: Phase 1 provides upgrades necessary to assure reliable waste retrieval and transfer to the anticipated vitrification plant. Phase 2 provides upgrades to selected primary and annulus tank farm ventilation systems that are required for compliant waste transfer, as well as other compliance-based upgrades to existing River Protection Project (WP) facilities and systems. The Accelerated Replanning Estimate provided the basis for Baseline Change Request TWR 97-066, which identified Phases 1 and 2 as $95 million and $206.5 million, respectively. Following completion of the Accelerated Replanning Estimate, several changes occurred that prompted a decision to rebaseline Phase 1, and subsequently Phase 2. Paramount among these was the delay in the Privatization schedule (90% case), lessons learned (in the year since the Accelerated Planning Report had been completed), and the adoption of an alternate waste transfer system route. The rebaselined cost of phase 1, $157 million, was substantially higher than the Accelerated Replanning Estimate for a number of reasons more thoroughly discussed in the Phase 1 Rebaseline Report, HNF-3781, January 1999. Since the July 1997 Accelerated Replanning Estimate there have also been changes to the tank farm authorization basis and Programmatic needs. For example, Tank Farm Operations has been installing new Continuous Air Monitors (CAMS) and liquid level measuring devices in order to achieve desired monitoring improvements years earlier than provided by Phase 2. In summary, the decision to rebaseline Phase 2 was prompted by: (1) the shifting of selected Phase 2 scope to Phase 1 during the Phase 1 rebaselining, (2) changes in the authorization basis, (3) programmatic needs, and (4) the dated nature of the existing scope definition. Figure 1.1 presents a summary of the key changes born the previous baseline and their collective impact on the cost of Phase 2.

LENTSCH, J.W.

2000-03-27

142

Geodesic-dome tank roof cuts water contamination, vapor losses  

SciTech Connect

Colonial Pipeline Co. has established an ongoing program for using geodesic-dome roofs on tanks in liquid petroleum-product service. As its standard, Colonial adopted geodesicodone roofs, in conjunction with internal floating decks, to replace worn external floating roofs on existing tanks used in gasoline service and for use on new tanks in all types of product service. Geodesic domes are clear-span structures requiring no internal-support columns. This feature allows the associated use of a floating deck that is as vapor tight as is possible to construct. Further, geodesic domes can practically eliminate rainwater contamination, eliminate wind-generated vapor losses, and greatly reduce filling losses associated with conventional external floating roofs.

Barrett, A.E. (Colonial Pipeline Co., Atlanta, GA (US))

1989-07-10

143

Project WET (Water Education for Teachers)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Project WET (Water Education for Teachers) is an international, interdisciplinary, water education program for formal and informal educators of students ages 5 to 18. This project site provides opportunities to order high quality educational material, samples of Project WET activities, information on Make a Splash Festivals, education standards, information on events, Project Wet reports and water related links. There is also a link to all of the state coordinators for this project.

144

Cesium uptake capacity of simulated ferrocyanide tank waste. Interim report FY 1994, Ferrocyanide Safety Project  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to determine the capacity for {sup 137}CS uptake by mixed metal ferrocyanides present in Hanford waste tanks, and to assess the potential for aggregation of these {sup 137}CS exchanged materials to form tank ``hot-spots.`` This research, performed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), stems from concerns of possible localized radiolytic heating within the tanks. If radioactive cesium is exchanged and concentrated by the remaining nickel ferrocyanide present in the tanks, this heating could cause temperatures to rise above the safety limits specified for the ferrocyanide tanks. For the purposes of this study, two simulants, In-Farm-2 and U-Plant-2, were chosen to represent the wastes generated by the scavenging processes. These simulants were formulated using protocols from the original cesium scavenging campaign. Later additions of cesium-rich wastes from various processes also were considered. The simulants were prepared and centrifuged to obtain a moist ferrocyanide sludge. The centrifuged sludges were treated with the original supernate spiked with a known amount of cesium nitrate. After analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry, distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) were calculated. The capacity of solid waste simulants to exchange radioactive cesium from solution was examined. Initial results showed that the greater the molar ratio of cesium to cesium nickel ferrocyanide, the less effective the exchange of cesium from solution. The theoretical capacity of 2 mol cesium per mol of nickel ferrocyanide was not observed. The maximum capacity under experimental conditions was 0.35 mol cesium per mol nickel ferrocyanide. Future work on this project will examine the layering tendency of the cesium nickel ferrocyanide species.

Burgeson, I.E.; Bryan, S.A.; Burger, L.E.

1994-09-01

145

Releases from the cooling water system in the Waste Tank Farm  

SciTech Connect

On September 12, 1991, a cooling-water header broke in the H-Area Waste Tank farm, at the Savannah River Site, releasing contaminated water down a storm sewer that drains to the creek. A copy of the Occurrence Report is attached. As part of the follow-up on this incident, the NPSR Section was asked by Waste Management Technology to perform a probabilistic analysis of the following cases: (1) A large break in the header combined with a large break in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (2) A large break in the header combined with a leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (3) A large break in the header combined with a very small leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. This report documents the results of the analysis of these cases.

Perkins, W.C.; Lux, C.R.

1991-01-01

146

Releases from the cooling water system in the Waste Tank Farm  

SciTech Connect

On September 12, 1991, a cooling-water header broke in the H-Area Waste Tank farm, at the Savannah River Site, releasing contaminated water down a storm sewer that drains to the creek. A copy of the Occurrence Report is attached. As part of the follow-up on this incident, the NPSR Section was asked by Waste Management Technology to perform a probabilistic analysis of the following cases: (1) A large break in the header combined with a large break in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (2) A large break in the header combined with a leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (3) A large break in the header combined with a very small leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. This report documents the results of the analysis of these cases.

Perkins, W.C.; Lux, C.R.

1991-12-31

147

Water quality index to determine the surface water quality of Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake, Bangalore urban district, Karnataka, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work aims at assessing the water quality index (WQI) in the surface water of Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake situated in Bangalore Urban district by monitoring three sampling locations within Sankey tank (viz., A, B and C) and Mallathahalli lake (viz., Inlet, Centre and outlet) for a period of 3 months from March to May 2012. The surface water samples were subjected to comprehensive physico-chemical analysis involving major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Fe2+), anions (HCO3 -, Cl-, SO4 2-, NO3 -, F-, PO4 3-) besides general parameters (pH, EC, TDS, alkalinity, total hardness, DO, BOD, COD, CO2, SiO2, colour, turbidity). For calculating the WQI, 14 parameters namely, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, fluorides and iron were considered. SAR values indicated that both Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake waters are excellent (S1) for irrigation, while electrical conductivity values classified these lake water, respectively under medium salinity (C2) and high (C3) salinity category. Correlation between SAR and electrical conductivity revealed that Sankey tank water is C2S1 (medium salinity-low sodium) type while Mallathahalli lake water is C3S1 (high salinity-low sodium) type. Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake water were, respectively hard and very hard in nature. Further, it is apparent from WQI values that Sankey tank water belongs to good water class with WQI values ranging from 50.34 to 63.38. The Mallathahalli lake water with WQI value ranging from 111.69 to 137.09, fall under poor water category.

Ravikumar, P.; Aneesul Mehmood, Mohammad; Somashekar, R. K.

2013-03-01

148

Pseudospectral solution of three-dimensional nonlinear sloshing in a shallow water rectangular tank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a pseudospectral ?-transformation model is developed to simulate fully nonlinear sloshing waves in a three-dimensional shallow water rectangular tank. The ?-transformation maps the physical domain including the water free surface onto a fixed rectangular computational domain. Chebyshev collocation formulae are used to discretize the governing equation and boundary conditions in the computational domain. The numerical model is validated for three well known analytical and numerical sloshing problems. An extensive study is then made of sloshing in a shallow water tank, and the effects of excitation frequency, base aspect ratio, and amplitude of excitation on the wave motions and patterns are considered. Wave regimes and patterns are considerably influenced by the base aspect ratio. In a shallow water tank with a non-square base, different wave regimes are observed during small-amplitude resonant excitation. Also, bores develop during large amplitude resonance excitation. The present study demonstrates that a pseudospectral ?-transformation can accurately model nonlinear sloshing waves in a rectangular tank. Also, results show that contrary to the situation in deeper water tanks, sloshing in shallow water strongly depends on the base aspect ratio.

Chern, Ming-Jyh; Vaziri, Nima; Syamsuri, Sam; Borthwick, Alistair G. L.

2012-11-01

149

Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility Quality Assurance Program Plan, Project W-236A. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the Quality Assurance (QA) program for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) Project. The purpose of this QA program is to control project activities in such a manner as to achieve the mission of the MWTF Project in a safe and reliable manner. The QA program for the MWTF Project is founded on DOE Order 5700.6C, Quality Assurance, and implemented through the use of ASME NQA-1, Quality Assurance Program Requirements for Nuclear Facilities (ASME 1989 with addenda la-1989, lb-1991 and lc-1992). This document describes the program and planned actions which the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) will implement to demonstrate and ensure that the project meets the requirements of DOE Order 5700.6C through the interpretive guidance of ASME NQA-1.

Hall, L.R.

1995-05-30

150

Fire hazard analysis for Project W-320 Tank 241-C-106 waste retrieval  

SciTech Connect

This Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) for Project W-320, `Tank 241-C-106 Waste Retrieval` addresses fire hazards or fire related concerns in accordance with DOE 5480.7A (DOE 1998), resulting from or related to the processes and equipment to be installed or modified under Project W-320 to ensure that there are no undue fire hazards to site personnel and the public; the potential for the occurrence of a fire is minimized, process control and safety systems are not damaged by fire or related perils; and property damage from fire and related perils does not exceed an acceptable level.

Conner, J.C.

1995-09-12

151

Combination of Tank Model and Reservoir Routing for predicting water level at Wonogiri Dam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water level predicting model is one of model to support the reservoir operation. This paper, discusses the results of research on the use of tank model combined with reservoir routing to predict the water level of Wonogiri Dam. Tank model was constructed consisting of 2 tank model structured the series, parallel, and parallel-series and 3 models composed tank series and parallel. The objective of this modeling is to obtain the values of tank model parameters are calibrated with measurement data to predict the reservoir water level. Water level measurement at Wonogiri Dam is only done in spillway location and no water level measurement in the cross-section of the rivers before entering the reservoir. Therefore, combining equations of tanks model and reservoir routing is needed so that the hydrograph outflow generated by the tank model become an input of the routing reservoir and will produce an output of the reservoir water level. The data used in this modeling is the daily rainfall data, climatology, elevation-storage curve, daily average water level in reservoir and daily average discharge outflow from reservoir. Genetic Algorithm is used to optimize the parameters of the model to generate predictions of water level close to the measurement during the calibration process. The results of the model are evaluated by calculating the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Coefficient of Efficiency (COE) between the predictions and observations. Calibration results obtained that the best model is the model of the architecture comprises a series of 3 tanks and the parameters k1 = 8,340, k2 = 1.006, k3 = 0.158, k4 = 2.275, k5 = 3.887, k6 = 0.063, d1 = 176.387, d2 = 81.445, d3 = 21.973, s1 = 46.631, s2 = 7.095 , s3 = 5.708, which generate RMSE = 1.260 m and COE = 0.669. While the verification, is obtained the RMSE = 0.878 m and COE = 0.599. The parameter of k4 is the most sensitive parameter that will affect to the performance of the model. Keywords: tank model, reservoir routing, water level predicting, Wonogiri Dam

Lasminto, Umboro; Yudhistira, Yuddi

2010-05-01

152

Minutes of the Tank Waste Science Panel meeting July 9--1, 1991. Hanford Tank Safety Project  

SciTech Connect

The fifth meeting of the Tank Waste Science Panel was held July 9--11, 1991, in Atlanta, Georgia. The subject areas included the generation, retention, and release of gases from Tank 241-SY-101 and the chemistry of ferrocyanide wastes.

Strachan, D.M. [comp.

1992-04-01

153

Modelling the operation of a solar hot water installation with a storage tank containing two thermal energy storage media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a solar hot water installation may be dramatically improved by placing elements with substances which undergo phase changes accompanied by significant heat effects in the water tank. In this article the authors provide a mathematical description of a hot water installation with two storage media. The authors experimentally verified a mathematical model of a tank for a

Zbyslaw Pluta; Ryszard Wnuk; Maciej Jaworski

1993-01-01

154

Occurrence of Bacteria in Water and in Vendace (Coregonus Albula) during Rearing in Tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative and qualitative bacteriological studies were carried out on vendace larvae and fry, in tank water in the course of fish rearing, and in fish feeds. Quantitative studies comprised bacteria indicatory of water pollution and sanitary state. Qualitative analyses paid attention to bacteria belonging to the different genera and to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The highest number of bacteria was observed

I. Zmys?owska; D. Lewandowska; T. Nowakowski; J. Koz?owski

155

Localized weld metal corrosion in stainless steel water tanks  

SciTech Connect

The rapidly developed leaks within the TFC and TFD tanks (LLNL groundwater treatment facilities) were caused by localized corrosion within the resolidified weld metal. The corrosion was initiated by the severe oxidation of the backsides of the welds which left the exposed surfaces in a condition highly susceptible to aqueous corrosion. The propagation of surface corrosion through the thickness of the welds occurred by localized corrosive attack. This localized attack was promoted by the presence of shielded aqueous environments provided by crevices at the root of the partial penetration welds. In addition to rapid corrosion of oxidized surfaces, calcium carbonate precipitation provided an additional source of physical shielding from the bulk tank environment. Qualification testing of alternate weld procedures showed that corrosion damage can be prevented in 304L stainless steel GTA welds by welding from both sides while preventing oxidation of the tank interior through the use of an inert backing gas such as argon. Corrosion resistance was also satisfactory in GMA welds in which oxidized surfaces were postweld cleaned by wire brushing and chemically passivated in nitric acid. Further improvements in corrosion resistance are expected from a Mo-containing grade of stainless steel such as type 316L, although test results were similar for type 304L sheet welded with type 308L filler metal and type 316L sheet welded with type 316L filler metal.

Strum, M.J.

1995-05-25

156

Permitting plan for project W-320 tank 241-C-106 waste retrievalsluicing system (WRSS)  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the permitting plan for Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (WRSS). A comprehensive review of environmental regulations have indicated that several environmental reviews [e.g. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA)], permits, and approvals are required prior to construction or operation of the facility. The environmental reviews, permits and approvals, as well the regulatory authority, potentially applicable to the Tank 241-C-106 WRSS include the following: for NEPA - U.S. Department of Energy-Headquarters: Action Description Memorandum, Environmental Assessment, Categorical Exclusion, and Environmental Impact Statement; and for SEPA - State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) Determination of Nonsignificance, Mitigated Determination of Nonsignificance, Determination of Significance, and SEPA Environmental Checklist.

Symons, G.A.

1997-02-21

157

Water washes and caustic leaches of sludge from Hanford Tank S-101 and water washes of sludge from Hanford Tank C-103  

SciTech Connect

In 1993, the Department of Energy (DOE) selected the enhanced sludge washing (ESW) process as the baseline for pretreatment of Hanford tank sludges. The ESW process uses a series of water washes and caustic leaches to separate nonradioactive components such as aluminum, chromium, and phosphate from the high-level waste sludges. If the ESW process is successful, the volume of immobilized high-level waste will be significantly reduced. The tests on the sludge from Hanford Tank S-101 focused on the effects of process variables such as sodium hydroxide concentration (1 and 3 M), temperature (70 and 95 C), and leaching time (5, 24, 72, and 168 h) on the efficacy of the ESW process with realistic liquid-to-solid ratios. Another goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of water washes on a sludge sample from hanford Tank C-103. The final objective of this study was to test potential process control monitors during the water washes and caustic leaches with actual sludge. Both {sup 137}Cs activity and conductance were measured for each of the water washes and caustic leaches. Experimental procedures, a discussion of results, conclusions and recommendations are included in this report.

Hunt, R.D.; Collins, J.L.; Chase, C.W.

1998-07-01

158

Assessment of microbiological quality of drinking water from household tanks in Bermuda.  

PubMed

Bermuda residents collect rainwater from rooftops to fulfil their freshwater needs. The objective of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of drinking water in household tanks throughout Bermuda. The tanks surveyed were selected randomly from the electoral register. Governmental officers visited the selected household (n = 102) to collect water samples and administer a short questionnaire about the tank characteristics, the residents' habits in terms of water use, and general information on the water collecting system and its maintenance. At the same time, water samples were collected for analysis and total coliforms and Escherichia coli were determined by 2 methods (membrane filtration and culture on chromogenic media, Colilert kit). Results from the 2 methods were highly correlated and showed that approximately 90% of the samples analysed were contaminated with total coliforms in concentrations exceeding 10 CFU/100 mL, and approximately 66% of samples showed contamination with E. coli. Tank cleaning in the year prior to sampling seems to protect against water contamination. If rainwater collection from roofs is the most efficient mean for providing freshwater to Bermudians, it must not be considered a source of high quality drinking water because of the high levels of microbial contamination. PMID:18535637

Lévesque, B; Pereg, D; Watkinson, E; Maguire, J S; Bissonnette, L; Gingras, S; Rouja, P; Bergeron, M G; Dewailly, E

2008-06-01

159

Central Arizona Project, (Irrigation Water and Water Supplies).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The statement concerns a project to furnish irrigation water and municipal water supplies to the water-deficient areas of Arizona (particularly Yuma, Maricopa, Pinal, Pima, and Cochise Counties) and western New Mexico (particularly Grant County) through d...

1971-01-01

160

Waste Tank Vapor Project: Enhancements to the PNL SUMMA{trademark} analytical laboratory tank organic vapor support task  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the status, as of the end of FY 1994, on the individual components of the SUMMA{trademark} Canister Analytical Laboratory that Pacific Northwest Laboratory has assembled to support the Hanford Tank Safety Issues Program.

McVeety, B.D.; Lucke, R.B.; Clauss, T.R.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

1994-12-01

161

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT DYTRAN BENCHMARK ANALYSIS OF SEISMICALLY INDUCED FLUID STRUCTURE INTERACTION IN FLAT TOP TANKS  

SciTech Connect

The work reported in this document was performed in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Project - DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford. The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The work herein was motivated by review comments from a Project Review Meeting held on March 20-21, 2006. One of the recommendations from that meeting was that the effects of the interaction between the tank liquid and the roof be further studied (Rinker, Deibler, Johnson, Karri, Pilli, Abatt, Carpenter, and Hendrix - Appendix E of RPP-RPT-28968, Rev. 1). The reviewers recommended that solutions be obtained for seismic excitation of flat roof tanks containing liquid with varying headspace between the top of the liquid and the tank roof. It was recommended that the solutions be compared with simple, approximate procedures described in BNL (1995) and Malhotra (2005). This report documents the results of the requested studies and compares the predictions of Dytran simulations to the approximate procedures in BNL (1995) and Malhotra (2005) for flat roof tanks. The four cases analyzed all employed a rigid circular cylindrical flat top tank with a radius of 450 in. and a height of 500 in. The initial liquid levels in the tank were 460,480,490, and 500 in. For the given tank geometry and the selected seismic input, the maximum unconstrained slosh height of the liquid is slightly greater than 25 in. Thus, the initial liquid level of 460 in. represents an effectively roofless tank, the two intermediate liquid levels lead to intermittent interaction between the liquid and tank roof, and the 500 in. liquid level represents a completely full tank with no sloshing. Although this work was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the Hanford DSTs, the tank models in this study are for an idealized flat top configuration. Moreover, the liquid levels used in the present models are for study purposes only and are independent of the actual operating levels of the DSTs. The response parameters that are evaluated in this study are the total hydrodynamic reaction forces, the peak convective hydrodynamic forces, the fundamental convective frequencies, the liquid pressures, and peak slosh heights. The results show that the Dytran solutions agree well with the known solutions for the roofless tank and completely full tank. At the two intermediate liquid levels, there are some significant differences between the Dytran results and the approximate estimates. The results show that the estimates of peak hydrodynamic reaction forces appearing in BNL (1995) and Malhotra (2005) are reasonable and generally conservative relative to the Dytran solutions. At the 460 and 480 in. liquid levels, Dytran underestimates the convective component of the reaction force compared to the estimated in BNL (1995) and Malhotra (2005), but the convective component of the reaction force is small relative to the total reaction force. At the 490 in. liquid levels, the peak convective reaction force is more than twice as large as predicted by the approximate methods in BNL (1995) and Malhotra (2005). All three methods give similar answers for the fundamental convective frequency at the 460 and 480 in. liquid levels, but the Dytran solution indicates a significant increase in the apparent convective frequency at the 490 in. liquid level that is caused by the interaction with the roof. The peak wall pressures in the tank at the two intermediate liquid levels are essentially the same as for a roofless tank in the lower two-thirds of the tank wall, but diverge from that solution in the upper third of the tank wall. The estimates of peak wall pressures appearing in BNL (1995) are quite conservative lower in the tank, but may underestimate the peak wall pressures closer to the tank roof. Finally, the peak roof pre

MACKEY, T.C.

2007-02-16

162

Tank vapor characterization project - headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-C-107: Second comparison study results from samples collected on 3/26/96  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 (Tank C-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report is the second in a series comparing vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H{sub 2}O) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}), permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC.

Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L. [and others

1997-01-01

163

Tank vapor characterization project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-102: Second comparison study results from samples collected on 04/04/96  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report is the second in a series comparing vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H{sub 2}O) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}), permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC.

Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.J. [and others

1997-01-01

164

Tank vapor characterization project. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-BY-108: Second comparison study results from samples collected on 3/28/96  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-108 (Tank BY-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report is the second in a series comparing vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H{sub 2}O) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}), permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC.

Thomas, B.L.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C. [and others

1997-01-01

165

Tank Vapor Characterization Project -- Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste Tank 241-C-107: Results from samples collected on 01/17/96  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 (Tank C-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system with and without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H{sub 2}O) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}), permanent gases, total non-methane hydrocarbons (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC.

Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

1996-07-01

166

Project W-211, initial tank retrieval systems, retrieval control system software configuration management plan  

SciTech Connect

This Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) provides the instructions for change control of the W-211 Project, Retrieval Control System (RCS) software after initial approval/release but prior to the transfer of custody to the waste tank operations contractor. This plan applies to the W-211 system software developed by the project, consisting of the computer human-machine interface (HMI) and programmable logic controller (PLC) software source and executable code, for production use by the waste tank operations contractor. The plan encompasses that portion of the W-211 RCS software represented on project-specific AUTOCAD drawings that are released as part of the C1 definitive design package (these drawings are identified on the drawing list associated with each C-1 package), and the associated software code. Implementation of the plan is required for formal acceptance testing and production release. The software configuration management plan does not apply to reports and data generated by the software except where specifically identified. Control of information produced by the software once it has been transferred for operation is the responsibility of the receiving organization.

RIECK, C.A.

1999-02-23

167

Water quality and zooplankton in tanks with larvae of Brycon Orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1949).  

PubMed

Due to the importance of water variables conditions and available food in the development and survival of fish larvae, the current research evaluates the effects of two different food treatments (ration + zooplankton and only zooplankton) and water quality in tanks with Brycon orbignyanus larvae. Total water transparency (45 cm) has been mainly associated with short residence time, continuous water flow and shallowness. Dissolved oxygen ranged between 1.32 and 7.00 mg.L(-1) in tanks with ration + zooplankton and between 1.82 and 7.60 mg.L(-1) in tanks with only zooplankton treatments. Nutrients were directly affected by the addition of ration in water, with the exception of nitrite. Ten Rotifera species were found represented by high densities, ranging between 8.7 x 10(5) and 1.3 x 10(6) org.m(-3), throughout the experimental period (January to March/1996). Cladocera had the lowest density in the four tanks under analysis and ranged between 4.7 x 10(4) and 2.1 x 10(5) org.m(-3) for the six species. Diaphanosoma birgei has been classified as the most frequent species. Since ration + zooplankton produced better larvae yield, this treatment is recommended for Brycon orbignyanus larvae. PMID:18470380

Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Alvarez, E J da S; Braga, F M de S

2008-02-01

168

Minutes of the Tank Waste Science Panel Meeting March 25--27, 1992. Hanford Tank Safety Project  

SciTech Connect

Discussions from the seventh meeting of the Tank Waste Science are presented in Colorado. The subject areas included the generation of gases in Tank 241-SY-101, the possible use of sonication as a mitigation method, and analysis for organic constituents in core samples. Results presented and discussed include: Ferrocyanides appear to be rapidly dissolved in 1M NaOH; upon standing in the laboratory at ambient conditions oxalate precipitates from simulated wastes containing HEDTA. This suggests that one of the main components in the solids in Tank 241-SY-101 is oxalate; hydrogen evolved from waste samples from Tank 241-SY-101 is five times that observed in the off gas from the tank; data suggest that mitigation of Tank 241-SY-101 will not cause a high release of dissolved N{sub 2}O; when using a slurry for radiation studies, a portion of the generated gases is very difficult to remove. To totally recover the generated gases, the solids must first be dissolved. This result may have an impact on mitigation by mixing if the gases are not released. Using {sup 13}C-labeled organics in thermal degradation studies has allowed researchers to illucidate much of the kinetic mechanism for the degradation of HEDTA and glycolate. In addition to some of the intermediate, more complex organic species, oxalate, formate, and CO{sub 2} were identified; and analytic methods for organics in radioactive complex solutions such as that found in Tank 241-SY-101 have been developed and others continue to be developed.

Schutz, W W [comp.; Consultant, Wellington, Delaware (United States); Strachan, D M [comp.; Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1992-08-01

169

Specific leaf areas of the tank bromeliad Guzmania monostachia perform distinct functions in response to water shortage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaves comprise most of the vegetative body of tank bromeliads and are usually subjected to strong longitudinal gradients. For instance, while the leaf base is in contact with the water accumulated in the tank, the more light-exposed middle and upper leaf sections have no direct access to this water reservoir. Therefore, the present study attempted to investigate whether different leaf

Luciano Freschi; Cassia Ayumi Takahashi; Camila Aguetoni Cambui; Thais Ribeiro Semprebom; Aline Bertinatto Cruz; Paulo Tamoso Mioto; Leonardo de Melo Versieux; Alice Calvente; Sabrina Ribeiro Latansio-Aidar; Marcos Pereira Marinho Aidar; Helenice Mercier

2010-01-01

170

Tank waste remediation system privatization phase 1 infrastructure project W-519, project execution plan  

SciTech Connect

This Project Execution Plan (PEP) defines the overall strategy, objectives, and contractor management requirements for the execution phase of Project W-519 (98-D403), Privatization Phase 1 Infrastructure Support, whose mission is to effect the required Hanford site infrastructure physical changes to accommodate the Privatization Contractor facilities. This plan provides the project scope, project objectives and method of performing the work scope and achieving objectives. The plan establishes the work definitions, the cost goals, schedule constraints and roles and responsibilities for project execution. The plan also defines how the project will be controlled and documented.

Parazin, R.J.

1998-08-28

171

Design of Intelligent Washout Filtering Algorithm for Water and Land Tank Motion Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aiming at the matter of incompatible problem between workspace limiting and motion simulation fidelity, based on BP neural network theory, a kind of intelligent washout filter algorithm was designed, and simulation research was done combining water and land tank typical motion condition of working. Research results showed that intelligent washout filtering algorithm improved the simulator workspace using efficiency and motion

Bo Wu; Xiaodong Yu; Jianying Li; Guihua Han

2009-01-01

172

Learning about water resources issues in Bangladesh using interactive sand tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poor drinking water quality, e.g. elevated levels of pathogens and arsenic, is a big issue in developing countries, such as Bangladesh. Discussion of the causes and potential solutions of these problems tend to successfully motivate students to engage in an active learning process. Commercially available interactive sand tanks have been used for many years to explore groundwater flow and transport

M. Stute

2010-01-01

173

A review of low-flow, stratified-tank solar water heating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have discovered that by using low collector flow rates (roughly one-seventh of those that have been generally used) and by taking measures to ensure the water in the storage tank remains stratified, the energy delivered by a forced-flow solar system can be increased substantially. In addition, the lower collector flow rates permit substantial savings in system cost, mainly through

K. G. T. Hollands; M. F. Lightstone

1989-01-01

174

Water tank studies of atmospheric boundary layer structure and air pollution transport in upslope flow systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heated mountain slopes sometimes vent air pollutants out of the boundary layer over the slope top and at other times trap pollutants in closed circulations. Field, numerical, and water tank studies of fair weather atmospheric conditions over complex terrain have shown more complicated vertical distributions of temperature, moisture, and aerosols than over horizontal terrain. To study these phenomena, we analyze

C. Reuten; D. G. Steyn; S. E. Allen

2007-01-01

175

Long Term Solar Heat Storage through Water Tanks for the Heating of Housing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report concerning a research on solar plants fitted with buried water tanks for the interseasonal storage of solar heat. Computer codes for the design of such plants are described, as well as the design and the construction of a prototype solar plant ...

M. Cucumo, V. Marinelli, V. Marinelli, G. Oliveti, A. Sabato

1985-01-01

176

33 CFR 155.350 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of less...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of less than 400 gross tons...Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of less than 400 gross...

2009-07-01

177

Conceptual design report for project W-457, AW tank farm monitoring and controls system  

SciTech Connect

The 241-AW Tank Farm, located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site, contains six 1.16 Mgal double-shell tanks. The tanks are used primarily for storage of waste from facilities such as PUREX and B Plant. Tanks 102-AW and 106-AW commonly are used for staging waste concentrated by the evaporator.

Mattichak, R.W.

1996-10-10

178

Upgrade of 400,000 gallon water storage tank at Argonne National Laboratory-West to UCRL-15910 high hazard seismic requirements  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Project at Argonne National Laboratory West (ANL-W), it was necessary to strengthen an existing 400,000 gallon flat-bottom water storage tank to meet UCRL-15910 (currently formulated as DOE Standard DOE-STD-1020-92, Draft) high hazard natural phenomena requirements. The tank was constructed in 1988 and preliminary calculations indicated that the existing base anchorage was insufficient to prevent buckling and potential failure during a high hazard seismic event. General design criteria, including ground motion input, load combinations, etc., were based upon the requirements of UCRL-15910 for high hazard facilities. The analysis and capacity assessment criteria were based on the Generic Implementation Procedure developed by the Seismic Qualification Utilities Group (SQUG). Upgrade modifications, consisting of increasing the size of the Generic Implementation Procedure developed by the Seismic Qualification Utilities Group (SQUG). Upgrade modifications, consisting of increasing the size of the foundation and installing additional anchor bolts and chairs, were necessary to increase the capacity of the tank anchorage/support system. The construction of the upgrades took place in 1992 while the tank remained in service to allow continued operation of the EBR-II reactor. The major phases of construction included the installation and testing of 144 1/14in. {times} 15in., and 366 1in. {times} 16in. epoxied concrete anchors, placement of 220 cubic yards of concrete heavily reinforced, and installation of 24 1-1/2in. {times} 60in. tank anchor bolts and chairs. A follow-up inspection of the tank interior by a diver was conducted to determine if the interior tank coating had been damaged by the chair welding. The project was completed on schedule and within budget.

Griffin, M.J. [EQE International, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Harris, B.G. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1993-10-01

179

Development of a water quality tank model classified by land use for nitrogen load reduction scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality in the watershed mainly used for agriculture is degraded by nutrients from fertilizers and animal wastes. These diffuse (non-point) sources have accumulated in soils and been released into the river system for the long-term. In this paper, a water quality tank model classified by land use is modified for the accumulation, and total nitrogen (T-N) is simulated over

Tasuku Kato

2005-01-01

180

Effect of temperature on anaerobic treatment of black water in UASB-septic tank systems.  

PubMed

The effect of northern European seasonal temperature changes and low temperature on the performance of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-septic tanks treating black water was studied. Three UASB-septic tanks were monitored with different operational parameters and at different temperatures. The results indicated the feasibility of the UASB-septic tank for (pre)treatment of black water at low temperatures with respect to removal of suspended solids and dissolved organic material. Inoculum sludge had little effect on COD(ss) removal, though in the start-up phase some poorly adapted inoculum disintegrated and washed out, thus requiring consideration when designing the process. Removal of COD(dis) was at first negative, but improved as the sludge adapted to low temperature. The UASB-septic tank alone did not comply with Finnish or Dutch treatment requirements and should therefore be considered mainly as a pre-treatment method. However, measuring the requirements as mgCOD l(-1) may not always be the best method, as the volume of the effluent discharged is also an important factor in the final amount of COD entering the receiving water bodies. PMID:16765592

Luostarinen, Sari; Sanders, Wendy; Kujawa-Roeleveld, Katarzyna; Zeeman, Grietje

2007-03-01

181

Multidimensional modal analysis of nonlinear sloshing in a rectangular tank with finite water depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discrete infinite-dimensional modal system describing nonlinear sloshing of an incompressible fluid with irrotational flow partially occupying a tank performing an arbitrary three-dimensional motion is derived in general form. The tank has vertical walls near the free surface and overturning waves are excluded. The derivation is based on the Bateman Luke variational principle. The free surface motion and velocity potential are expanded in generalized Fourier series. The derived infinite-dimensional modal system couples generalized time-dependent coordinates of free surface elevation and the velocity potential. The procedure is not restricted by any order of smallness. The general multidimensional structure of the equations is approximated to analyse sloshing in a rectangular tank with finite water depth. The amplitude frequency response is consistent with the fifth-order steady-state solutions by Waterhouse (1994). The theory is validated by new experimental results. It is shown that transients and associated nonlinear beating are important. An initial variation of excitation periods is more important than initial conditions. The theory is invalid when either the water depth is small or water impacts heavily on the tank ceiling. Alternative expressions for hydrodynamic loads are presented. The procedure facilitates simulations of a coupled vehicle fluid system.

Faltinsen, Odd M.; Rognebakke, Olav F.; Lukovsky, Ivan A.; Timokha, Alexander N.

2000-03-01

182

Instrumented Water Tanks can Improve Air Shower Detector Sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous works have shown that water Cherenkov detectors have superior sensitivity to those of scintillation counters as applied to detecting extensive air showers (EAS). This is in large part due to their much higher sensitivity to EAS photons which are more than five times more numerous than EAS electrons. Large area water Cherenkov detectors can be constructed relatively cheaply and

R. Atkins; W. Benbow; D. Berley; M.-L. Chen; D. G. Coyne; R. S. Delay; B. L. Dingus; D. E. Dorfan; R. W. Ellsworth; D. Evans; A. Falcone; L. Fleysher; R. Fleysher; G. Gisler; J. A. Goodman; T. J. Haines; C. M. Hoffman; S. Hugenberger; L. A. Kelley; I. Leonor; J. Macri; M. McConnell; J. F. McCullough; J. E. McEnery; R. S. Miller; A. I. Mincer; M. F. Morales; P. Nemethy; J. M. Ryan; M. Schneider; B. Shen; A. Shoup; G. Sinnis; A. J. Smith; G. W. Sullivan; T. N. Thompson; O. T. Tumer; K. Wang; M. O. Wascko; S. Westerhoff; D. A. Williams; T. Yang; G. B. Yodh

1999-01-01

183

Effect of surface waves on radiotherapy dosimetric measurements in water tanks  

PubMed Central

The effect of surface waves, generated by moving the scanning arms in water phantoms, on radiation dosimetry is studied. It is shown that in large water tanks, high arm speeds can result in dosimetric errors of up to 5%. The measurements that are started after damping the water waves can result in about a 50% improvement in accuracy of measurements. It is shown that the water surfaces at the start of the measurements have high fluctuations that transform to a steady phase by elapsing time.

Bakhtiari, Mohammad

2011-01-01

184

Tank waste remediation system year 2000 dedicated file server project HNF-3418 project plan  

SciTech Connect

The Server Project is to ensure that all TWRS supporting hardware (fileservers and workstations) will not cause a system failure because of the BIOS or Operating Systems cannot process Year 2000 dates.

SPENCER, S.G.

1999-04-26

185

Uranium in Hot Water Tanks: A Source of Tenorm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Elevated concentrations of uranium have been detected in private drinking water wells of residents near Simpsonville, South Carolina. Elevated levels of uranium were first detected by private sampling at one home in Simpsonville in January 2001. A member ...

R. L. Woodruff

2002-01-01

186

Non-Linear Vibrations of a Structure Caused by Water Sloshing in a Rectangular Tank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The non-linear vibrations of a structure coupled with water sloshing in a rectangular tank are theoretically and experimentally studied. The water tank is attached to a structure to suppress the horizontal vibrations of the structure caused by a sinusoidal excitation. In the theoretical analysis, considering the only source of non-linearity of the liquid inertia to be due to a large sloshing amplitude, the modal equations for sloshing are presented. Secondly, the solutions for the harmonic oscillations of the structure and the water surface are determined, including their stability analyses. Then, the resonance curves for this system are shown. As a result, the resonance curves are found to change from the soft spring type to the hard spring type as the water depth decreases. The resonance curves also show that a super-summed-and-differential harmonic oscillation can occur at the tuning frequency when the magnitude of excitation is comparatively large. This is a kind of non-linear forced oscillation due to the non-linearity of the fluid force. The appearance of this oscillation reduces the efficacy of vibration suppression by using the water tank. In conclusion, it was ascertained that these results agreed qualitatively well with the experimental results.

Ikeda, T.; Nakagawa, N.

1997-03-01

187

Separation projects within the US Department of Energy`s Underground Storage Tank: Integrated Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The greatest challenge facing the US Department of Energy is the remediation of the 1 {times} 10{sup 8} gal of high-level and low-level radioactive waste in the underground storage tanks (USTs) at its Hanford, Savannah River, Oak Ridge, Idaho, and Fernald sites. With current technologies, this remediation will cost at least 100 billion dollars. In an effort to reduce costs, improve safety, and minimize delays, the Underground Storage Tank--Integrated Demonstration was created for demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT&E) of promising new technologies that can be used for UST remediation. These demonstrations, which are typically at the pilot-plant scale, will determine which processes will be used in the full-scale remediation of the USTs. These DT&E studies are performed by the Characterization and Waste Retrieval Program or by the Waste Processing and Disposal Program (WPDP). This paper presents the technical progress and future plans of the WPDP projects. The 11 WPDP programs in FY 1993 focused on three problem areas, which involve the treatment of supernate, the treatment of sludge, and nitrate destruction and subsequent waste forms. In addition, a planned Request for Expression of Interest on organic destruction techniques from private industries and universities and the WPDP`s future direction and programmatic issues are discussed.

McGinnis, C.P.; Hunt, R.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Gibson, S.M. [USDOE, Germantown, MD (United States); Gilchrist, R.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-12-01

188

Implementation of an Integrated Information Management System for the US DOE Hanford Tank Farms Project - 14224  

SciTech Connect

In its role as the Tank Operations Contractor at the U.S. Department of Energy?s site in Hanford, WA, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC is implementing an integrated document control and configuration management system. This system will combine equipment data with technical document data that currently resides in separate disconnected databases. The new system will provide integrated information, enabling users to more readily identify the documents that relate to a structure, system, or component and vice-versa. Additionally, the new system will automate engineering work processes through electronic workflows, and where practical and feasible provide integration with design authoring tools. Implementation of this system will improve configuration management of the technical baseline, increase work process efficiencies, support the efficient design of future large projects, and provide a platform for the efficient future turnover of technical baseline data and information.

Joyner, William Scott; Knight, Mark A.

2013-11-14

189

Water quality control using Spirulina platensis in shrimp culture tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cyanobacterium (Spirulina platensis) was co-cultured with black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) for water quality control. We evaluated the effects of: (1) three S. platensis trial conditions on inorganic nitrogen concentrations at one shrimp density (S. platensis trial conditions included: absent, nonharvested and semicontinuous harvesting) and (2) two shrimp densities on inorganic nitrogen concentrations, with and without S. platensis. Semicontinuous

Benjamas Chuntapa; Sorawit Powtongsook; Piamsak Menasveta

2003-01-01

190

Robotic systems for the high level waste tank farm replacement project at INEL  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) is specifying and designing a new high level waste tank farm at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The farm consists of four underground storage tanks, which replace the existing tanks. The new facility includes provisions for remote operations. One of the planned remote operations is robotic inspection of the tank from the interior and exterior. This paper describes the process used to design the robotic system for the inspection tasks.

Berger, A.; White, D.; Thompson, B. [Redzone Robotics, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Christensen, M. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1993-06-01

191

ICPP water inventory study project summary report  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) Water inventory Study was initiated in September 1993 with the formation of a joint working group consisting of representatives from DOE-ID, State of Idaho INEL Oversight Program, US Geological Survey, and INEL employees to investigate three issues that had been identified by the INEL Oversight Program at ICPP: (1) the water inventory imbalance at ICPP, (2) the source of water infiltrating into the Tank Farm vault sumps, and (3) the source of water providing potential recharge to perched water bodies underlying ICPP. These issues suggested that water was being lost from the ICPP distribution system. The INEL Oversight Program was concerned that the unaccounted for water at ICPP could be spreading contaminants that have been released over the past 40 years of operations of ICPP, possibly to the Snake River Plain Aquifer. This report summarizes the findings of each of the component investigations that were undertaken to resolve each of the three issues. Concerns about the risk of spreading contaminants will be resolved as part of the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study being undertaken at ICPP in compliance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order between DOE-H), EPA, and the State of Idaho. This report will be a key input to that study.

Richards, B.T.

1994-01-01

192

Structural evaluation of mixer pump installed in Tank 241-AN-107 for caustic addition project  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the structural analysis and evaluation of a mixer pump and caustic addition system to be used in Tank 107-AN. This pump will be installed in the central pump pit of this double- shell tank for the purpose of bringing the hydroxide ion concentration into compliance with Tank Farm operating specifications.

Leshikar, G.A.

1995-06-16

193

GEWEX Water Vapor Project (GVaP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Water Vapor Project (GVaP) is to improve the understanding of water vapor in meteorological, hydrological, and climatological processes through improving knowledge of water vapor and its variability on all scales. This goal clearly requires a multiscale observing strategy. A pilot project was deemed the most appropriate first step toward achieving this goal. An implementation plan was developed for this pilot phase. The four research components of the pilot phase are presented here.

Starr, David

1993-01-01

194

One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval and Delivery of Hanford Tank Wastes for Vitrification in the Waste Treatment Plant - 13234  

SciTech Connect

The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed in late 2011 as a way for improving the efficiency of delivery and treatment of highly radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The purpose of the One System IPT is to improve coordination and integration between the Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) contractor and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC). The vision statement is: One System is a WTP and TOC safety-conscious team that, through integrated management and implementation of risk-informed decision and mission-based solutions, will enable the earliest start of safe and efficient treatment of Hanford's tank waste, to protect the Columbia River, environment and public. The IPT is a formal collaboration between Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), which manages design and construction of the WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOEORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), which manages the TOC for ORP. More than fifty-six (56) million gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste are stored in one hundred seventy-seven (177) aging, underground tanks. Most of Hanford's waste tanks - one hundred forty-nine (149) of them - are of an old single-shell tank (SST) design built between 1944 and 1964. More than sixty (60) of these tanks have leaked in the past, releasing an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil and threatening the nearby Columbia River. There are another twenty-eight (28) new double-shelled tanks (DSTs), built from 1968 to 1986, that provide greater protection to the environment. In 1989, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed a landmark agreement that required Hanford to comply with federal and state environmental standards. It also paved the way for agreements that set deadlines for retrieving the tank wastes and for building and operating the WTP. The tank wastes are the result of Hanford's nearly fifty (50) years of plutonium production. In the intervening years, waste characteristics have been increasingly better understood. However, waste characteristics that are uncertain and will remain as such represent a significant technical challenge in terms of retrieval, transport, and treatment, as well as for design and construction of WTP. What also is clear is that the longer the waste remains in the tanks, the greater the risk to the environment and the people of the Pacific Northwest. The goal of both projects - tank operations and waste treatment - is to diminish the risks posed by the waste in the tanks at the earliest possible date. About two hundred (200) WTP and TOC employees comprise the IPT. Individual work groups within One System include Technical, Project Integration and Controls, Front-End Design and Project Definition, Commissioning, Nuclear Safety and Engineering Systems Integration, and Environmental Safety and Health and Quality Assurance (ESH and QA). Additional functions and team members will be added as the WTP approaches the operational phase. The team has undertaken several initiatives since its formation to collaborate on issues: (1) alternate scenarios for delivery of wastes from the tank farms to WTP; (2) improvements in managing Interface Control Documents; (3) coordination on various technical issues, including the Defense Nuclear Facilities Nuclear Safety Board's Recommendation 2010-2; (4) deployment of the SmartPlant{sup R} Foundation-Configuration Management System; and (5) preparation of the joint contract deliverable of the Operational Readiness Support Plan. (authors)

Harp, Benton J. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Post Office Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)] [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Post Office Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Kacich, Richard M. [Bechtel National, Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)] [Bechtel National, Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Skwarek, Raymond J. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Post Office Box 850, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)] [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Post Office Box 850, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

2013-07-01

195

Global Warming and Water Management: Water Allocation and Project Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the sensitivity of the benefits of alternative water allocation schemes and of project evaluation to global warming. If global warming shifts the mean of annual water supplies, there could be large impacts on the expected values of alternative water allocation schemes. The first section of the paper explores how well alternative schemes (such as market mechanisms, prior

Robert Mendelsohn; Lynne L. Bennett

1997-01-01

196

Effect of the storage tank thermal insulation on the thermal performance of an integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal behavior of an integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) is numerically studied using CFD simulations. Based on the good agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data from literature, we propose a geometrical change allowing limiting the main disadvantage of this solar system which is its high night losses due to the non-insulated storage tank surface. A second 3D CFD model of an ICSSWH in which the storage tank is partially insulated is developed and three values of this tank thermal insulated fraction are studied. Numerical results show that the partially insulated tank based ICSSWH presents lower thermal losses during the night and this night thermal losses coefficient is reduced from 14.6 to 11.64 W K-1 for the tank thermal insulation fraction ? = 1/4. Similarly, the modified system presents the advantage of its lower thermal losses even during the day. Regarding the thermal production, it is seen that the modified system presents higher water temperature at night and that for all the tank thermal insulation fractions. Concerning the operation of this modified system during the day, the water temperature is lower during the day and that up to 16 h but the water temperature which achieves 324 K for the storage tank thermal insulation fraction ? = 1/8 still sufficiently high to satisfy a family hot water needs.

Chaabane, Monia; Mhiri, Hatem; Bournot, Philippe

2014-04-01

197

FINAL REPORT. RAPID MIGRATION OF RADIONUCLIDES LEAKED FROM HIGH-LEVEL WATER TANKS: A STUDY OF SALINITY GRADIENTS, WETTED PATH GEOMETRY AND WATER VAPOR TRANSPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The basis of this study was the hypothesis that the physical and chemical properties of hypersaline tank waste could lead to wetting front instability and fingered flow following a tank leak. Thus, the goal of this project was to develop an understanding of the impacts of the pro...

198

Statements of work for FY 1996 to 2001 for the Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Performance Assessment Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The statements of work for each activity and task of the Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Performance Assessment project are given for the fiscal years 1996 through 2001. The end product of this program is approval of a final performance assessment by the Dep...

F. M. Mann

1995-01-01

199

How Much Water is in the Tank? Model Calculations for Two Epiphytic Bromeliads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-impounding foliage (=tank) characterizes many bromeliad species but, to date, a quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of these structures to bridge rainless periods is not available. We present a model that analyses the capacity of these phytotelmata to supply moisture to the bromeliad as a function of plant size, and parameterize it for two epiphyte species,Tillandsia fasciculataandGuzmania monostachya. All parameters

GERHARD ZOTZ; VERA THOMAS

1999-01-01

200

Nonlinear sloshing and passage through resonance in a shallow water tank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is concerned with the effect of slowly changing the length of a tank on the nonlinear standing waves (free vibrations) and resonant forced oscillations of shallow water in the tank. The analysis begins with the Boussinesq equations. These are reduced to a nonlinear differential-difference equation for the slow variation of a Riemann invariant on one end. Then a multiple scale expansion yields a KdV equation with slowly changing coefficients for the standing wave problem, which is reduced to a KdV equation with a variable dispersion coefficient. The effect of changing the tank length on the number of solitons in the tank is investigated through numerical solutions of the variable coefficient KdV equation. A KdV equation which is “periodically” forced and slowly detuned results for the passage through resonance problem. Then the amplitude-frequency curves for the fundamental resonance and the first overtone are given numerically, as well as solutions corresponding to multiple equilibria. The evolution between multiple equilibria is also examined.

Cox, E. A.; Gleeson, J. P.; Mortell, M. P.

2005-07-01

201

ANALYSIS OF THE LEACHING EFFICIENCY OF INHIBITED WATER AND TANK SIMULANT IN REMOVING RESIDUES ON THERMOWELL PIPES  

SciTech Connect

A key component for the accelerated implementation and operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) is the recovery of Tank 48H. Tank 48H is a type IIIA tank with a maximum capacity of 1.3 million gallons. Video inspection of the tank showed that a film of solid material adhered to the tank internal walls and structures between 69 inch and 150 inch levels. From the video inspection, the solid film thickness was estimated to be 1mm, which corresponds to {approx}33 kg of TPB salts (as 20 wt% insoluble solids) (1). This film material is expected to be easily removed by single-rinse, slurry pump operation during Tank 48H TPB disposition via aggregation processing. A similar success was achieved for Tank 49H TPB dispositioning, with slurry pumps operating almost continuously for approximately 6 months, after which time the tank was inspected and the film was found to be removed. The major components of the Tank 49H film were soluble solids - Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} (Hydrated Sodium Carbonate, aka: Trona), Al(OH){sub 3} (Aluminum Hydroxide, aka: Gibbsite), NaTPB (Sodium Tetraphenylborate), NaNO{sub 3} (Sodium Nitrate) and NaNO{sub 2} (Sodium Nitrite) (2). Although the Tank 48H film is expected to be primarily soluble solids, it may not behave the same as the Tank 49H film. There is a risk that material on the internal surfaces of Tank 48H could not be easily removed. As a risk mitigation activity, the chemical composition and leachability of the Tank 48H film are being evaluated prior to initiating tank aggregation. This task investigated the dissolution characteristics of Tank 48H solid film deposits in inhibited water and DWPF recycle. To this end, SRNL received four separate 23-inch long thermowell-conductivity pipe samples which were removed from the tank 48H D2 risers in order to determine: (1) the thickness of the solid film deposit, (2) the chemical composition of the film deposits, and (3) the leaching behavior of the solid film deposit in inhibited water (IW) and in DWPF recycle simulant (3).

Fondeur, F.; White, T.; Oji, L.; Martino, C.; Wilmarth, B.

2011-10-20

202

Fecal indicators and zoonotic pathogens in household drinking water taps fed from rainwater tanks in Southeast Queensland, Australia.  

PubMed

In this study, the microbiological quality of household tap water samples fed from rainwater tanks was assessed by monitoring the numbers of Escherichia coli bacteria and enterococci from 24 households in Southeast Queensland (SEQ), Australia. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was also used for the quantitative detection of zoonotic pathogens in water samples from rainwater tanks and connected household taps. The numbers of zoonotic pathogens were also estimated in fecal samples from possums and various species of birds by using qPCR, as possums and birds are considered to be the potential sources of fecal contamination in roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW). Among the 24 households, 63% of rainwater tank and 58% of connected household tap water (CHTW) samples contained E. coli and exceeded Australian drinking water guidelines of <1 CFU E. coli per 100 ml water. Similarly, 92% of rainwater tanks and 83% of CHTW samples also contained enterococci. In all, 21%, 4%, and 13% of rainwater tank samples contained Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Giardia lamblia, respectively. Similarly, 21% of rainwater tank and 13% of CHTW samples contained Campylobacter spp. and G. lamblia, respectively. The number of E. coli (P = 0.78), Enterococcus (P = 0.64), Campylobacter (P = 0.44), and G. lamblia (P = 0.50) cells in rainwater tanks did not differ significantly from the numbers observed in the CHTW samples. Among the 40 possum fecal samples tested, Campylobacter spp., Cryptosporidium parvum, and G. lamblia were detected in 60%, 13%, and 30% of samples, respectively. Among the 38 bird fecal samples tested, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., C. parvum, and G. lamblia were detected in 24%, 11%, 5%, and 13% of the samples, respectively. Household tap water samples fed from rainwater tanks tested in the study appeared to be highly variable. Regular cleaning of roofs and gutters, along with pruning of overhanging tree branches, might also prove effective in reducing animal fecal contamination of rainwater tanks. PMID:22020514

Ahmed, W; Hodgers, L; Sidhu, J P S; Toze, S

2012-01-01

203

75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY...Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal...Dakotas Area Office, Attention: Alicia Waters, P.O. Box 1017, Bismarck, ND...

2010-08-13

204

75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY...Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal...Dakotas Area Office, Attention: Alicia Waters, P.O. Box 1017, Bismarck, ND...

2010-08-12

205

Project management plan for Waste Area Grouping 5 Old Hydrofracture Facility tanks content removal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) tanks content removal project is to transfer inventory from the five OHF tanks located in Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) liquid low-level (radioactive) waste (LLLW) storage facility, and remediate the remaining OHF tank shells. The major activities involved are identified in this document along with the organizations that will perform the required actions and their roles and responsibilities for managing the project.

NONE

1996-07-01

206

Peru: CARE OPG Water Health Services Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Where piped water is a local priority, A.I.D. should be willing to authorize projects aimed solely at improving the accessibility, quantity, and quality of water to the exclusion of other health interventions. This and other lessons found in this report w...

J. Haratani A. M. Viveros-Long A. M. B. M. de Gonzales

1981-01-01

207

Recent progress of the waste processing and disposal projects within the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Remediation has created the Office of Technology Development (OTD) to provide new and improved remediation technologies for the 1 {times} 10{sup 8} gal of radioactive waste in the underground storage tanks (USTs) at five DOE sites. The OTD established and the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) to perform demonstrations, tests, and evaluations on these new technologies before these processes are transferred to the tank sites for use in full-scale remediation of the USTs. The UST-ID projects are performed by the Characterization and Waste Retrieval Program or the Waste Processing and Disposal Program (WPDP). During FY 1994, the WPDP is funding 12 projects in the areas of supernate processing, sludge processing, nitrate destruction, and final waste forms. The supernate projects are primarily concerned with cesium removal. A mobile evaporator and concentrator for cesium-free supernate is also being demonstrated. The sludge projects are emphasizing sludge dissolution and the evaluation of the TRUEX and diamide solvent extraction processes for transuranic waste streams. One WPDP project is examining both supernate and sludge processes in an effort to develop a system-level plan for handling all UST waste. The other WPDP studies are concerned with nitrate and organic destruction as well as subsequent waste forms. The current status of these WPDP projects is presented.

Hunt, R.D.; McGinnis, C.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Cruse, J.M. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-06-01

208

How to choose capacity of storage tank to utilize water on windless days  

SciTech Connect

As wind flow is not constant throughout the month or year and varies from season to season and from time to time in a day, a storage tank (or reservoir) is essential to supplement water to the field on calm days. In this paper the storage capacity required at two places, namely, Veeraval and Jamnagar in Gujarat State is discussed. The first prerequisite to know the suitability of the windmill size at particular place is the diameter of the windmill which should match the monthly required energy for lifting water.

Jugadeesh, A.

1983-12-01

209

A new demulsifier device for oil-water separation in oil tanks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a new innovative closed-loop and autonomous electronic device for oil-water separation in the emulsion layer is presented. The device is designed for crude oil separation tanks and is sought to replace other traditional methods such as the ones using chemicals. It is modular and comprises three subsystems: sensing subsystem, actuating subsystem, and data communication/interfacing subsystem. The sensing subsystem is intrinsically safe and consists of a one dimensional level array of non intrusive ultrasonic transducers that monitor in real-time the low and high levels of the emulsion layer in a tank with a vertical resolution of 15 cm. The actuating system includes a microwave generator which stimulates the emulsion at a predefined position to breaks it out. A built-in feedback PID-based controller determines the optimal position of this generator based on the oil-water content which is provided by the sensor array and moves the generator accordingly. The data communication/interfacing system is responsible to transfer to the control room real-time data (e.g. the actual position of the emulsion layer and the actual temperature inside the tank) using field bus network protocol (RS485 protocol). This would help a continuous and effective monitoring by the operator using a dedicated GUI. In addition of being safe and environmentally friendly, the device provides faster and more efficient separation than the traditional techniques.

Meribout, Mahmoud

2011-05-01

210

Oil filaments produced by an impeller in a water stirred tank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil dispersions in aqueous media produced in stirred tanks are part of many industrial processes. The oil drops size and dispersion stability are determined by the impeller geometry, stirring velocity and the physicochemical properties of the mixture. A critical parameter is the total interfacial area which is increased as the drop size is decreased. The mechanism that disperses the oil and generates the drops has not been completely explained. In the present work, castor oil (1% v/v, viscosity 500mPa) and water are stirred with a Scaba impeller in a flat bottom cylindrical tank. The process was recorded with high-speed video and the Reynolds number was fixed to 24,000. Before the stirring, the oil is added at the air water interface. At the beginning of the stirring, the oil is suctioned at the impeller shaft and incorporated into the flow ejected by the impeller. In this region, the flow is turbulent and exhibits velocity gradients that elongate the oil phase. Viscous thin filaments are generated and expelled from the impeller. Thereafter, the filaments are elongated and break to form drops. This process is repeated in all the oil phase and drops are incorporated into the dispersion. Two main zones can be identified in the tank: the impeller discharge characterized by high turbulence and the rest of the flow where low velocity gradients appear. In this region surface forces dominate the inertial ones, and drops became spheroidal.

Sanjuan-Galindo, Rene; Soto, Enrique; Ascanio, Gabriel; Zenit, Roberto

2010-11-01

211

Dismantlement and removal of Old Hydrofracture Facility bulk storage bins and water tank, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF), located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), was constructed in 1963 to allow experimentation and operations with an integrated solid storage, mixing, and grout injection facility. During its operation, OHF blended liquid low-level waste with grout and used a hydrofracture process to pump the waste into a deep low-permeable shale formation. Since the OHF Facility was taken out of service in 1980, the four bulk storage bins located adjacent to Building 7852 had deteriorated to the point that they were a serious safety hazard. The ORNL Surveillance and Maintenance Program requested and received permission from the US Department of Energy to dismantle the bins as a maintenance action and send the free-released metal to an approved scrap metal vendor. A 25,000-gal stainless steel water tank located at the OHF site was included in the scope. A fixed-price subcontract was signed with Allied Technology Group, Inc., to remove the four bulk storage bins and water tank to a staging area where certified Health Physics personnel could survey, segregate, package, and send the radiologically clean scrap metal to an approved scrap metal vendor. All radiologically contaminated metal and metal that could not be surveyed was packaged and staged for later disposal. Permissible personnel exposure limits were not exceeded, no injuries were incurred, and no health and safety violations occurred throughout the duration of the project. Upon completion of the dismantlement, the project had generated 53,660 lb of clean scrap metal (see Appendix D). This resulted in $3,410 of revenue generated and a cost avoidance of an estimated $100,000 in waste disposal fees.

NONE

1998-03-01

212

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-TX-111: Results from samples collected on October 12, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-TX-111 (Tank TX-111) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank.

K. H. Pool; T. W. Clauss; J. C. Evans

1996-01-01

213

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241SX105: Results from samples collected on July 26, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-105 (Tank SX-105) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank.

K. H. Pool; T. W. Clauss; J. C. Evans

1996-01-01

214

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank SX102: Results from samples collected on July 19, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-102 (Tank SX-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank.

B. D. McVeety; J. C. Evans; T. W. Clauss; K. H. Pool

1996-01-01

215

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank AX101: Results from samples collected on June 15, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-AX-101 (Tank AX-101) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank.

K. H. Pool; T. W. Clauss; J. C. Evans; B. D. McVeety

1996-01-01

216

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241SX104: Results from samples collected on July 25, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-104 (Tank SX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank.

B. L. Thomas; T. W. Clauss; J. C. Evans

1996-01-01

217

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-T-110: Results from samples collected on August 31, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-T-110 (Tank T-110) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank.

B. D. McVeety; B. L. Thomas; J. C. Evans

1996-01-01

218

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-A-103: Results from samples collected on November 9, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-A-103 (Tank A-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank.

J. C. Evans; B. L. Thomas; K. H. Pool; K. B. Olsen

1996-01-01

219

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241SX109: Results from samples collected on August 1, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-109 (Tank SX-109) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank.

K. H. Pool; T. W. Clauss; J. C. Evans

1996-01-01

220

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241BY102: Results from samples collected on November 21, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-102 (Tank BY-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank.

B. L. Thomas; J. C. Evans; K. H. Pool

1996-01-01

221

Headspace vapor charterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-110: Results from samples collected on December 5, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-110 (Tank S-110) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank.

B. L. Thomas; J. C. Evans; B. D. McVeety

1996-01-01

222

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-112: Results from samples collected on July 11, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage Tank 241-S-112 (Tank S-112) at the Hanford. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work

T. W. Clauss; K. H. Pool; J. C. Evans

1996-01-01

223

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-108: Results from samples collected on December 6, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-108 (Tank S-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank.

B. L. Thomas; J. C. Evans; B. D. McVeety

1996-01-01

224

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241BX107: Results from samples collected on November 17, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-107 (Tank BX-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank.

J. C. Evans; B. L. Thomas; K. H. Pool

1996-01-01

225

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank AX103: Results from samples collected on June 21, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-AX-103 (Tank AX-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank.

M. W. Ligotke; K. H. Pool; T. W. Clauss

1996-01-01

226

Waste Tank Size Determination for the Hanford River Protection Project Cold Test, Training, and Mockup Facility  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the study was to determine the minimum tank size for the Cold Test Facility process testing of Hanford tank waste. This facility would support retrieval of waste in 75-ft-diameter DSTs with mixer pumps and SSTs with fluidic mixers. The cold test model will use full-scale mixer pumps, transfer pumps, and equipment with simulated waste. The study evaluated the acceptability of data for a range of tank diameters and depths and included identifying how the test data would be extrapolated to predict results for a full-size tank.

Onishi, Yasuo; Wells, Beric E.; Kuhn, William L.

2001-03-30

227

Illinois drainage water management demonstration project  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Due to naturally high water tables and flat topography, there are approximately 4 million ha (10 million ac) of farmland artificially drained with subsurface (tile) systems in Illinois. Subsurface drainage is practiced to insure trafficable field conditions for farm equipment and to reduce crop stress from excess water within the root zone. Although drainage is essential for economic crop production, there have been some significant environmental costs. Tile drainage systems tend to intercept nutrient (nitrate) rich soil-water and shunt it to surface water. Data from numerous monitoring studies have shown that a significant amount of the total nitrate load in Illinois is being delivered to surface water from tile drainage systems. In Illinois, these drainage systems are typically installed without control mechanisms and allow the soil to drain whenever the water table is above the elevation of the tile outlet. An assessment of water quality in the tile drained areas of Illinois showed that approximately 50 percent of the nitrate load was being delivered through the tile systems during the fallow period when there was no production need for drainage to occur. In 1998, a demonstration project to introduce drainage water management to producers in Illinois was initiated by NRCS4 An initial aspect of the project was to identify producers that were willing to manage their drainage system to create a raised water table during the fallow (November-March) period. Financial assistance from two federal programs was used to assist producers in retrofitting the existing drainage systems with control structures. Growers were also provided guidance on the management of the structures for both water quality and production benefits. Some of the retrofitted systems were monitored to determine the effect of the practice on water quality. This paper provides background on the water quality impacts of tile drainage in Illinois, the status of the demonstration project, preliminary monitoring results, and other observations.

Pitts, D. J.; Cooke, R.; Terrio, P. J.

2004-01-01

228

Leaf hydraulic conductance for a tank bromeliad: axial and radial pathways for moving and conserving water.  

PubMed

Epiphytic plants in the Bromeliaceae known as tank bromeliads essentially lack stems and absorptive roots and instead take up water from reservoirs formed by their overlapping leaf bases. For such plants, leaf hydraulic conductance is plant hydraulic conductance. Their simple strap-shaped leaves and parallel venation make them suitable for modeling leaf hydraulic conductance based on vasculature and other anatomical and morphological traits. Plants of the tank bromeliad Guzmania lingulata were investigated in a lowland tropical forest in Costa Rica and a shaded glasshouse in Los Angeles, CA, USA. Stomatal conductance to water vapor and leaf anatomical variables related to hydraulic conductance were measured for both groups. Tracheid diameters and numbers of vascular bundles (veins) were used with the Hagen-Poiseuille equation to calculate axial hydraulic conductance. Measurements of leaf hydraulic conductance using the evaporative flux method were also made for glasshouse plants. Values for axial conductance and leaf hydraulic conductance were used in a model based on leaky cable theory to estimate the conductance of the radial pathway from the vein to the leaf surface and to assess the relative contributions of both axial and radial pathways. In keeping with low stomatal conductance, low stomatal density, low vein density, and narrow tracheid diameters, leaf hydraulic conductance for G. lingulata was quite low in comparison with most other angiosperms. Using the predicted axial conductance in the leaky cable model, the radial resistance across the leaf mesophyll was predicted to predominate; lower, more realistic values of axial conductance resulted in predicted radial resistances that were closer to axial resistance in their impact on total leaf resistance. Tracer dyes suggested that water uptake through the tank region of the leaf was not limiting. Both dye movement and the leaky cable model indicated that the leaf blade of G. lingulata was structurally and hydraulically well-suited to conserve water. PMID:23596446

North, Gretchen B; Lynch, Frank H; Maharaj, Franklin D R; Phillips, Carly A; Woodside, Walter T

2013-01-01

229

Leaf Hydraulic Conductance for a Tank Bromeliad: Axial and Radial Pathways for Moving and Conserving Water  

PubMed Central

Epiphytic plants in the Bromeliaceae known as tank bromeliads essentially lack stems and absorptive roots and instead take up water from reservoirs formed by their overlapping leaf bases. For such plants, leaf hydraulic conductance is plant hydraulic conductance. Their simple strap-shaped leaves and parallel venation make them suitable for modeling leaf hydraulic conductance based on vasculature and other anatomical and morphological traits. Plants of the tank bromeliad Guzmania lingulata were investigated in a lowland tropical forest in Costa Rica and a shaded glasshouse in Los Angeles, CA, USA. Stomatal conductance to water vapor and leaf anatomical variables related to hydraulic conductance were measured for both groups. Tracheid diameters and numbers of vascular bundles (veins) were used with the Hagen–Poiseuille equation to calculate axial hydraulic conductance. Measurements of leaf hydraulic conductance using the evaporative flux method were also made for glasshouse plants. Values for axial conductance and leaf hydraulic conductance were used in a model based on leaky cable theory to estimate the conductance of the radial pathway from the vein to the leaf surface and to assess the relative contributions of both axial and radial pathways. In keeping with low stomatal conductance, low stomatal density, low vein density, and narrow tracheid diameters, leaf hydraulic conductance for G. lingulata was quite low in comparison with most other angiosperms. Using the predicted axial conductance in the leaky cable model, the radial resistance across the leaf mesophyll was predicted to predominate; lower, more realistic values of axial conductance resulted in predicted radial resistances that were closer to axial resistance in their impact on total leaf resistance. Tracer dyes suggested that water uptake through the tank region of the leaf was not limiting. Both dye movement and the leaky cable model indicated that the leaf blade of G. lingulata was structurally and hydraulically well-suited to conserve water.

North, Gretchen B.; Lynch, Frank H.; Maharaj, Franklin D. R.; Phillips, Carly A.; Woodside, Walter T.

2013-01-01

230

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT SUMMARY OF COMBINED THERMAL & OPERATING LOADS  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of the Double-Shell Tank Thermal and Operating Loads Analysis (TOLA) combined with the Seismic Analysis. This combined analysis provides a thorough, defensible, and documented analysis that will become a part of the overall analysis of record for the Hanford double-shell tanks (DSTs).

MACKEY, T.C.

2006-03-17

231

Chemical Sludge Heel Removal at the Savannah River Site F-Tank Farm Closure Project - 8183.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chemical Sludge Removal (CSR) is the final waste removal activity planned for some of the oldest nuclear waste tanks located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC. In 2008, CSR will be used to empty two of these waste tanks in preparation for fina...

G. D. Thaxton T. C. Baughman

2008-01-01

232

HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK CLOSURE PROJECT AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is in the process of closing two underground high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations and Department of Energy orders. Closure of these two tanks is scheduled for 2004 as the first phase in closure of

K. D. Quigley

2003-01-01

233

Reducing drinking water supply chemical contamination: risks from underground storage tanks.  

PubMed

Drinking water supplies are at risk of contamination from a variety of physical, chemical, and biological sources. Ranked among these threats are hazardous material releases from leaking or improperly managed underground storage tanks located at municipal, commercial, and industrial facilities. To reduce human health and environmental risks associated with the subsurface storage of hazardous materials, government agencies have taken a variety of legislative and regulatory actions--which date back more than 25 years and include the establishment of rigorous equipment/technology/operational requirements and facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs. Given a history of more than 470,000 underground storage tank releases nationwide, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency continues to report that 7,300 new leaks were found in federal fiscal year 2008, while nearly 103,000 old leaks remain to be cleaned up. In this article, we report on an alternate evidence-based intervention approach for reducing potential releases from the storage of petroleum products (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, heating/fuel oil, and waste oil) in underground tanks at commercial facilities located in Rhode Island. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a new regulatory model can be used as a cost-effective alternative to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs for underground storage tanks. We conclude that the alternative model, using an emphasis on technical assistance tools, can produce measurable improvements in compliance performance, is a cost-effective adjunct to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs, and has the potential to allow regulatory agencies to decrease their frequency of inspections among low risk facilities without sacrificing compliance performance or increasing public health risks. PMID:22642774

Enander, Richard T; Hanumara, R Choudary; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Gagnon, Ronald N; Park, Eugene; Vallot, Christopher; Genovesi, Richard

2012-12-01

234

Bacterioneuston control of air-water methane exchange determined with a laboratory gas exchange tank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The apparent transfer velocities (kw) of CH4, N2O, and SF6 were determined for gas invasion and evasion in a closed laboratory exchange tank. Tank water (pure Milli-RO® water or artificial seawater prepared in Milli-RO®) and/or tank air gas compositions were adjusted, with monitoring of subsequent gas transfer by gas chromatography. Derived kw was converted to "apparent k600," the value for CO2 in freshwater at 20°C. For CH4, analytical constraints precluded estimating apparent k600 based on tank air measurements. In some experiments we added strains of live methanotrophs. In others we added chemically deactivated methanotrophs, non-CH4 oxidizers (Vibrio), or bacterially associated surfactants, as controls. For all individual controls, apparent k600 estimated from CH4, N2O, or SF6 was indistinguishable. However, invasive estimates always exceeded evasive estimates, implying some control of gas invasion by bubbles. Estimates of apparent k600 differed significantly between methanotroph strains, possibly reflecting species-specific surfactant release. For individual strains during gas invasion, apparent k600 estimated from CH4, N2O, or SF6 was indistinguishable, whereas during gas evasion, k600-CH4 was significantly higher than either k600-N2O or k600-SF6, which were identical. Hence evasive k600-CH4/k600-SF6 was always significantly above unity, whereas invasive k600-CH4/k600-SF6 was not significantly different from unity. Similarly, k600-CH4/k600-SF6 for the controls and k600-N2O/k600-SF6 for all experiments did not differ significantly from unity. Our results are consistent with active metabolic control of CH4 exchange by added methanotrophs in the tank microlayer, giving enhancements of ˜12 ± 10% for k600-CH4. Hence reactive trace gas fluxes determined by conventional tracer methods at sea may be in error, prompting a need for detailed study of the role of the sea surface microlayer in gas exchange.

Upstill-Goddard, Robert C.; Frost, Thomas; Henry, Gordon R.; Franklin, Mark; Murrell, J. Colin; Owens, Nicholas J. P.

2003-12-01

235

Real-time slope water table forecasting by multi-tank model combined with dual ensemble Kalman filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multi-tank model is a helpful tool for rainfall–groundwater–runoff analysis since it can represent a nonlinear transport\\u000a behavior and give predictions very quickly. On one hand, because of its simple and quick calculation, the tank model is useful\\u000a in water table or stream flow prediction; on the other hand, by reason of its simplicity, its model error is relatively big,

Jun Xiong; Tomofumi Koyama; Satoshi Nisiyama; Yuzo Ohnishi; Kenji Takahashi

2011-01-01

236

Kazachstania rupicola sp. nov., a yeast species isolated from water tanks of a bromeliad in Brazil.  

PubMed

Two isolates of a novel yeast species were obtained from water tanks (phytotelmata) of the bromeliad Vriesea minarum collected in a tableland ('campo rupestre') ecosystem in Brazil. The sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the large-subunit rRNA gene showed that this species is related to Kazachstania exigua and others, from which it differs by 8-10 nucleotide substitutions. The novel species Kazachstania rupicola sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these isolates. The type strain is UFMG-BRO-80(T) (?=?CBS 12684(T) ?=?CBMAI 1466(T)). PMID:23159754

Safar, Silvana Vilas Boas; Gomes, Fátima C O; Marques, Andréa R; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

2013-03-01

237

HANFORD DST THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT DYTRAN ANALYSIS OF SEISMICALLY INDUCED FLUID STRUCTURE INTERACTION IN A HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL PRIMARY TANK  

SciTech Connect

Revision 0A of this document contains new Appendices C and D. Appendix C contains a re-analysis of the rigid and flexible tanks at the 460 in. liquid level and was motivated by recommendations from a Project Review held on March 20-21, 2006 (Rinker et al Appendix E of RPP-RPT-28968 Rev 1). Appendix D contains the benchmark solutions in support of the analyses in Appendix C.

MACKEY TC; RINKER MW; ABATT FG

2007-02-14

238

Effects of septic-tank effluent on ground-water quality in northern Williamson County and southern Davidson County, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An investigation of the potential contamination of ground water from septic tank systems blasted in bedrock in Williamson and Davidson Counties, Tennessee, was conducted during 1988-89. Water samples were collected from domestic and observation wells, springs, and surface-water sites in a residential subdivision in the northern part of Williamson County near Nashville. The subdivision has a high density of septic-tank field lines installed into blasted bedrock Water samples also were collected from a well located in an area of Davidson County where field lines were installed in 5 feet of soil. Samples were analyzed for major inorganic constituents, nutrients, total organic carbon, optical brighteners, and bacteria. Although results of analyses of water samples from wells indicate no effect of septic-tank effluent on ground-water quality at these sites, water from two springs located downgradient from the subdivision had slightly larger concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate (2.2 and 2.7 milligrams per liter N), and much larger concentrations of fecal coliform and fecal streptococci bacteria (2,000 to 3,200 and 700 to 900 colonies per 100 milliliters of sample, respectively), than other wells and springs sampled during 1988. Water from one of these springs contained optical brighteners, which indicates that septic-tank effluent is affecting ground-water quality.

Hanchar, D. W.

1991-01-01

239

Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank  

DOEpatents

The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps. 1 figures.

Corletti, M.M.; Lau, L.K.; Schulz, T.L.

1993-12-14

240

Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank  

DOEpatents

The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps.

Corletti, Michael M. (New Kensington, PA); Lau, Louis K. (Monroeville, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

1993-01-01

241

ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 2: Engineering design files  

SciTech Connect

Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: Tank farm heel flushing/pH adjustment; Grouting experiments for immobilization of tank farm heel; Savannah River high level waste tank 20 closure; Tank farm closure information; Clean closure of tank farm; Remediation issues; Remote demolition techniques; Decision concerning EIS for debris treatment facility; CERCLA/RCRA issues; Area of contamination determination; Containment building of debris treatment facility; Double containment issues; Characterization costs; Packaging and disposal options for the waste resulting from the total removal of the tank farm; Take-off calculations for the total removal of soils and structures at the tank farm; Vessel off-gas systems; Jet-grouted polymer and subsurface walls; Exposure calculations for total removal of tank farm; Recommended instrumentation during retrieval operations; High level waste tank concrete encasement evaluation; Recommended heavy equipment and sizing equipment for total removal activities; Tank buoyancy constraints; Grout and concrete formulas for tank heel solidification; Tank heel pH requirements; Tank cooling water; Evaluation of conservatism of vehicle loading on vaults; Typical vault dimensions and approximately tank and vault void volumes; Radiological concerns for temporary vessel off-gas system; Flushing calculations for tank heels; Grout lift depth analysis; Decontamination solution for waste transfer piping; Grout lift determination for filling tank and vault voids; sprung structure vendor data; Grout flow properties through a 2--4 inch pipe; Tank farm load limitations; NRC low level waste grout; Project data sheet calculations; Dose rates for tank farm closure tasks; Exposure and shielding calculations for grout lines; TFF radionuclide release rates; Documentation of the clean closure of a system with listed waste discharge; and Documentation of the ORNL method of radionuclide concentrations in tanks.

NONE

1998-02-01

242

Thermal inactivation of Yersinia enterocolitica in pork slaughter plant scald tank water.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to establish the time-temperature combinations required to ensure the thermal inactivation of Yersinia enterocolitica during scalding of pork carcasses. A 2 strain cocktail of Y. enterocolitica (bioserotypes 2/O:5,27 and 1A/O:6,30) was heat treated at 50, 55 and 60°C in samples of scald tank water obtained from a commercial pork slaughter plant. Samples were removed at regular intervals and surviving cells enumerated using (i) Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin Agar (CIN) supplemented with ampicillin and arabinose and (ii) Tryptone Soya Agar (TSA), overlaid with CIN agar with ampicillin and arabinose. The data generated was used to estimate D- and z-values and the formula Dx=log(-1)(log D60-((t2-t1)/z)) was applied to calculate thermal death time-temperature combinations from 55 to 65°C. D50, D55 and D60-values of 45.9, 10.6 and 2.7min were calculated from the cell counts obtained on CIN agar, respectively. The corresponding D-values calculated from the TSA/CIN counts were 45.1, 11 and 2.5min, respectively. The z-value was 7.8. It was concluded that a time-temperature combination of 2.7min at 60°C is required to achieve a 1 log reduction in Y. enterocolitica in pork scald tank water. The predicted equivalent at 65°C was 0.6min. This study provides data and a model to enable pork processors to identify and apply parameters to limit the risk of carcass cross-contamination with Y. enterocolitica in pork carcass scald tanks. PMID:23279870

Bolton, Declan J; Ivory, Claire; McDowell, David

2013-11-01

243

Utilization of aquatic plants: a method to enhance the productivity of water in seasonal tanks in the Anuradhapura District  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy infestations of aquatic plants in a water body cause considerable economic and ecological losses. Many seasonal tanks in the Anuradhapura District suffer from this problem and cannot be neglected in water resource development and management schemes. This study was focused on the uses of aquatic plants and the problems caused by huge manifestations of aquatic plants in the selected

J. U. Munasinghe; M. A. A. B. Dilhan; T. V. Sundarabarathy

2010-01-01

244

Uniform and non-uniform inlet temperature of a vertical hot water jet injected into a rectangular tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most of real-world applications, such as the case of heat stores, inlet is not kept at a constant temperature but it may vary with time during charging process. In this paper, a vertical water jet injected into a rectangular storage tank is measured experimentally and simulated numerically. Two cases of study are considered; one is a hot water jet

M. F. El-Amin; S. Sun

2010-01-01

245

Tank Vapor Characterization Project -- Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste Tank 241-C-107: Results from samples collected on 01\\/17\\/96  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 (Tank C-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system with and without high

B. L. Thomas; J. C. Evans; K. H. Pool; K. B. Olsen; J. S. Fruchter; K. L. Silvers

1996-01-01

246

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-102: Results from samples collected on January 26, 1996. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the results of vapor samples obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) with and without particulate prefiltration. Samples were collected from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

J. C. Evans; B. L. Thomas; K. H. Pool

1996-01-01

247

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241BY108: Results from samples collected January 23, 1996. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the results of vapor samples obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) with and without particulate prefiltration. Samples were collected from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-108 (Tank BY-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

K. H. Pool; J. C. Evans; B. L. Thomas; K. B. Olsen

1996-01-01

248

Headspace vapor characterization at Hanford Waste Tank 241-A-102: Results from samples collected on November 10, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-A-102 (Tank A-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) (a) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the

J. C. Evans; K. H. Pool; B. L. Thomas; K. B. Olsen; J. S. Fruchter; K. L. Silvers

1996-01-01

249

Evaluation of Ultrasonic Measurement Variation in the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project  

SciTech Connect

Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) under contract from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for assessing the condition of the double-shell tanks (DST) on the Hanford nuclear site. WRPS has contracted with AREVA Federal Services LLC (AFS) to perform ultrasonic testing (UT) inspections of the 28 DSTs to assess the condition of the tanks, judge the effects of past corrosion control practices, and satisfy a regulatory requirement to periodically assess the integrity of the tanks. Since measurement inception in 1997, nine waste tanks have been examined twice (at the time of this report) providing UT data that can now be compared over specific areas. During initial reviews of these two comparable data sets, average UT wall-thickness measurement reductions were noted in most of the tanks. This variation could be a result of actual wall thinning occurring on the waste-tanks walls, or some other unexplained anomaly resulting from measurement error due to causes such as the then-current measurement procedures, operator setup, or equipment differences. WRPS contracted with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to assist in understanding why this variation exists and where it stems from.

Pardini, Allan F.; Weier, Dennis R.; Crawford, Susan L.; Munley, John T.

2010-01-12

250

Kazachstania bromeliacearum sp. nov., a yeast species from water tanks of bromeliads.  

PubMed

Cultures of a novel nutritionally specialized, fermentative yeast species were isolated from 34 water tanks of five bromeliad species, two mangrove sediment samples and one swamp water sample in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene showed that the novel species belongs to the genus Kazachstania. The novel species differs from Kazachstania martiniae by 11 substitutions and 2 gaps in the sequence of the domains D1/D2 of the LSU rRNA gene. The name Kazachstania bromeliacearum sp. nov. is proposed for the novel species. The type strain is IMUFRJ 51496T (=CBS 7996T=DBVPG 6864T=UFMG BR-174T). PMID:21602361

Araújo, Fabio V; Rosa, Carlos A; Freitas, Larissa F D; Lachance, Marc-André; Vaughan-Martini, Ann; Mendonça-Hagler, Leda C; Hagler, Allen N

2012-04-01

251

Weather in a Tank (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

';Weather in a Tank' is an approach to teaching atmospheres, oceans and climate which uses rotating laboratory demonstrations and associated curriculum materials. Originating at MIT, the approach has been further developed and expanded through collaborations with many Professors in universities across the country and around the world. The aim of the project is to offer instructors a repertoire of rotating tank experiments and a curriculum in fluid dynamics to better assist students in making connections between phenomena in the real world and basic principles of rotating fluid dynamics. The approach also provides a context for interactive experiments in which data is collected in real-time and then analyzed. In this presentation we will illustrate the ideas behind ';Weather in a Tank' by performing (if possible) some live laboratory experiments using rotating tanks of water, dyes and ice buckets, emphasizing the kind of quantitative approach we use in our teaching.

Illari, L.

2013-12-01

252

Bacterial communities in an ultrapure water containing storage tank of a power plant.  

PubMed

Ultrapure waters (UPWs) containing low levels of organic and inorganic compounds provide extreme environment. On contrary to that microbes occur in such waters and form biofilms on surfaces, thus may induce corrosion processes in many industrial applications. In our study, refined saltless water (UPW) produced for the boiler of a Hungarian power plant was examined before and after storage (sampling the inlet [TKE] and outlet [TKU] waters of a storage tank) with cultivation and culture independent methods. Our results showed increased CFU and direct cell counts after the storage. Cultivation results showed the dominance of aerobic, chemoorganotrophic ?-Proteobacteria in both samples. In case of TKU sample, a more complex bacterial community structure could be detected. The applied molecular method (T-RFLP) indicated the presence of a complex microbial community structure with changes in the taxon composition: while in the inlet water sample (TKE) ?-Proteobacteria (Sphingomonas sp., Novosphingobium hassiacum) dominated, in the outlet water sample (TKU) the bacterial community shifted towards the dominance of ?-Proteobacteria (Rhodoferax sp., Polynucleobacter sp., Sterolibacter sp.), CFB (Bacteroidetes, formerly Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group) and Firmicutes. This shift to the direction of fermentative communities suggests that storage could help the development of communities with an increased tendency toward corrosion. PMID:22207294

Bohus, Veronika; Kéki, Zsuzsa; Márialigeti, Károly; Baranyi, Krisztián; Patek, Gábor; Schunk, János; Tóth, Erika M

2011-12-01

253

Behavior of energetic materials in ground water at an anti-tank range.  

PubMed

An environmental issue has arisen with M-72 malfunction on anti-tank ranges because many of these rockets break into pieces without exploding on impact, dispersing their energetic materials content on the ground surface and exposing them to transport by infiltration of rainfall and snowmelt. A case study (1998--2005) at Arnhem Anti-Tank Range (Garrison Valcartier, Canada, in operation since the 1970s) revealed octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) contamination and traces of 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in ground water at varying concentrations, with all detected HMX concentrations below the USEPA guideline for drinking water of 400 microg L(-1). An HMX mass balance on a transect perpendicular to ground water flow, about 300 m downgradient of the impact area, indicated an HMX flux of about 3 g d(-1) (0.7-1 kg yr(-1), 2005). The HMX mass in the impact area on the sand terrace was estimated at 7 to 10 kg (in 2005). The annual dissolved HMX flux represents about 10% of the source. The dissolved HMX plume in ground water consisted of a series of slugs, generated at each significant infiltration event. HMX is weakly retarded by sorption and is neither biotransformed nor mineralized under the aerobic conditions of the aquifer. TNT and RDX exceeded the USEPA guideline (2 microg L(-1) RDX and 1 microg L(-1) TNT) in three and two samples, respectively. The TNT plume was discontinuous because this compound was not always present at the ground surface. TNT is biotransformed, weakly sorbed, and not mineralized. In two wells, perchlorate associated with the propellant was found at concentrations above the Health Canada preliminary guideline of 6 microg L(-1) near the firing position. PMID:19141797

Martel, Richard; Mailloux, Michel; Gabriel, Uta; Lefebvre, René; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy

2009-01-01

254

Mobile X-ray imaging systems for the tank waste characterization project at the Hanford site  

SciTech Connect

Stored waste tank sampling of radioactive high-level nuclear waste is reilu ired for continued operations, waste characterization, and site safety. The Hanford site tank farms consist of 28 double- shell and 1.49 single-shell underground storage tanks. The ``full`` capacity of each of these tanks is approximately 1 million gallons. The waste stored in these tanks was generated as a result of defense materials production over the course of 4 decades. The single shell tanks are out-of-service and no longer receive liquid waste. Core samples of salt cake, liquid and sludge are remotely obtained using truck-mounted core drill platforms. Samples are recovered from the tanks through a 2.25-inch diameter drill pipe,, in segments contained in specially designed stainless steel samplers approximately 1.5-inch in outside diameter and 26-inches long. The sampled material in a given segment can include crystalline salt-cake, liquid, sludge and entrained gas. Drilling parameters will necessarily vary with different waste types, e.g., crystalline salt-cake versus sludge. At times, the core sample recovery has been marginal and inadequate for laboratory analysis needs. This necessitated a system to provide the drill-truck operators with ``real-time`` feedback about the physical condition of the sampled ``formation`` and the percent recovery, prior to receiving .,isual characterization information and nuclear assay measurements from the Hanford site 222-S Analytic!al laboratories, a process often requiring two week turn-around of data. This real- time information allows the drill-truck engineers to immediately vary the drilling parameters to maintain sample recovery.

Weber, J.R.

1996-09-25

255

Stratification of living organisms in ballast tanks: how do organism concentrations vary as ballast water is discharged?  

PubMed

Vertical migrations of living organisms and settling of particle-attached organisms lead to uneven distributions of biota at different depths in the water column. In ballast tanks, heterogeneity could lead to different population estimates depending on the portion of the discharge sampled. For example, concentrations of organisms exceeding a discharge standard may not be detected if sampling occurs during periods of the discharge when concentrations are low. To determine the degree of stratification, water from ballast tanks was sampled at two experimental facilities as the tanks were drained after water was held for 1 or 5 days. Living organisms ?50 ?m were counted in discrete segments of the drain (e.g., the first 20 min of the drain operation, the second 20 min interval, etc.), thus representing different strata in the tank. In 1 and 5 day trials at both facilities, concentrations of organisms varied among drain segments, and the patterns of stratification varied among replicate trials. From numerical simulations, the optimal sampling strategy for stratified tanks is to collect multiple time-integrated samples spaced relatively evenly throughout the discharge event. PMID:23614690

First, Matthew R; Robbins-Wamsley, Stephanie H; Riley, Scott C; Moser, Cameron S; Smith, George E; Tamburri, Mario N; Drake, Lisa A

2013-05-01

256

Safety analysis report for the gunite and associated tanks project remediation of the South Tank Farm, facility 3507, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The South Tank Farm (STF) is a series of six, 170,000-gal underground, domed storage tanks, which were placed into service in 1943. The tanks were constructed of a concrete mixture known as gunite. They were used as a portion of the Liquid Low-Level Waste System for the collection, neutralization, storage, and transfer of the aqueous portion of the radioactive and/or hazardous chemical wastes produced as part of normal facility operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The last of the tanks was taken out of service in 1986, but the tanks have been shown by structural analysis to continue to be structurally sound. An attempt was made in 1983 to empty the tanks; however, removal of all the sludge from the tanks was not possible with the equipment and schedule available. Since removal of the liquid waste in 1983, liquid continues to accumulate within the tanks. The in-leakage is believed to be the result of groundwater dripping into the tanks around penetrations in the domes. The tanks are currently being maintained under a Surveillance and Maintenance Program that includes activities such as level monitoring, vegetation control, High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter leakage requirement testing/replacement, sign erection/repair, pump-out of excessive liquids, and instrument calibration/maintenance. These activities are addressed in ORNL/ER-275.

Platfoot, J.H.

1998-02-01

257

One System Integreated Project Team Progress in Coordinating Hanford Tank Farms and the Waste Treatment Plant - 14214  

SciTech Connect

The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed at the Hanford Site in late 2011 as a way to improve coordination and itegration between the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) on interfaces between the two projects, and to eliminate duplication and exploit opportunities for synergy. The IPT is composed of jointly staffed groups that work on technical issues of mutal interest, front-end design and project definition, nuclear safety, plant engineering system integration, commissioning, planning and scheduling, and environmental, safety, health and quality (ESH&Q) areas. In the past year important progress has been made in a number of areas as the organization has matured and additional opportunities have been identified. Areas covered in this paper include: Support for development of the Office of Envirnmental Management (EM) framework document to progress the Office of River Protection's (ORP) River Protection Project (RPP) mission; Stewardship of the RPP flowsheet; Collaboration with Savannah River Site (SRS), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Operations programs integration, and; Further development of the waste acceptance criteria.

Skwarek, Raymond J.; Harp, Ben J.; Duncan, Garth M.

2013-12-18

258

COSTING MODELS FOR WATER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION: PART III- PUMPS, TANKS, AND RESERVOIRS  

EPA Science Inventory

Distribution systems are generally designed to ensure hydraulic reliability. Storage tanks, reservoirs and pumps are critical in maintaining this reliability. Although storage tanks, reservoirs and pumps are necessary for maintaining adequate pressure, they may also have a negati...

259

Direct and indirect measurement of rain drop size distributions using an acoustic water tank disdrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several rain drop size distribution (DSD) point measurement technologies exist, but all are unable to sample either short timescales or the large drop tail of the DSD due to inherent instrumental limitations. The development of an acoustic water tank disdrometer (AWTD) is described, which improves the sampling statistics by increasing the catchment area. This is achieved by distinguishing individual drops, locating them on the surface of the tank then converting the impact pressure into a drop size. Wavelet decomposition is used to distinguish the broadband, short duration impact events and a fast multilateration method is used to position the drop. Issues relating to the different types of noise are also investigated and mitigated. Also, further work on inverting the measured acoustic intensity into a DSD, by fitting sampling distributions, is presented. Six months of data were collected in the Eastern UK. The AWTD then converted the data into DSDs and the results were compared to a commercially available co-located laser precipitation monitor. The sampling errors are far lower due to the increased catchment size, and hence the large drop sized tail of the DSD is greatly improved. DSD results compare favourably to other disdrometers for drop diameters greater than 1.8 mm. Below this size individual drops become increasingly difficult to detect and are underestimated.

Winder, P. N.; Paulson, K. S.

2013-06-01

260

Exergetic modeling and assessment of solar assisted domestic hot water tank integrated ground-source heat pump systems for residences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study deals with the exergetic modeling and performance evaluation of solar assisted domestic hot water tank integrated ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems for residences for the first time to the best of the author's knowledge. The model is applied to a system, which mainly consists of (i) a water-to-water heat pump unit (ii) a ground heat exchanger system

Arif Hepbasli

2007-01-01

261

33 CFR 155.370 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10,000...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10,000 gross tons and above...Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10,000 gross tons and...

2009-07-01

262

33 CFR 155.370 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10,000...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10,000 gross tons and above...Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10,000 gross tons and...

2010-07-01

263

33 CFR 155.370 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10,000...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10,000 gross tons and above and oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above that carry ballast...tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10,000 gross tons and above and...

2011-07-01

264

33 CFR 155.370 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10,000...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10,000 gross tons and above and oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above that carry ballast...tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10,000 gross tons and above and...

2012-07-01

265

33 CFR 155.370 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10,000...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10,000 gross tons and above and oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above that carry ballast...tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10,000 gross tons and above and...

2013-07-01

266

DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) INTEGRITY PROJECT HIGH LEVEL WASTE CHEMISTRY OPTIMIZATION  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Office (DOE) of River Protection (ORP) has a continuing program for chemical optimization to better characterize corrosion behavior of High-Level Waste (HLW). The DOE controls the chemistry in its HLW to minimize the propensity of localized corrosion, such as pitting, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in nitrate-containing solutions. By improving the control of localized corrosion and SCC, the ORP can increase the life of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) carbon steel structural components and reduce overall mission costs. The carbon steel tanks at the Hanford Site are critical to the mission of safely managing stored HLW until it can be treated for disposal. The DOE has historically used additions of sodium hydroxide to retard corrosion processes in HLW tanks. This also increases the amount of waste to be treated. The reactions with carbon dioxide from the air and solid chemical species in the tank continually deplete the hydroxide ion concentration, which then requires continued additions. The DOE can reduce overall costs for caustic addition and treatment of waste, and more effectively utilize waste storage capacity by minimizing these chemical additions. Hydroxide addition is a means to control localized and stress corrosion cracking in carbon steel by providing a passive environment. The exact mechanism that causes nitrate to drive the corrosion process is not yet clear. The SCC is less of a concern in the newer stress relieved double shell tanks due to reduced residual stress. The optimization of waste chemistry will further reduce the propensity for SCC. The corrosion testing performed to optimize waste chemistry included cyclic potentiodynamic volarization studies. slow strain rate tests. and stress intensity factor/crack growth rate determinations. Laboratory experimental evidence suggests that nitrite is a highly effective:inhibitor for pitting and SCC in alkaline nitrate environments. Revision of the corrosion control strategies to a nitrite-based control, where there is no constant depletion mechanism as with hydroxide, should greatly enhance tank lifetime, tank space availability, and reduce downstream reprocessing costs by reducing chemical addition to the tanks.

WASHENFELDER DJ

2008-01-22

267

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT SEISMIC ANALYSIS IN SUPPORT OF INCREASED LIQUID LEVEL IN 241-AP TANK FARMS  

SciTech Connect

The essential difference between Revision 1 and the original issue of this report is in the spring constants used to model the anchor bolt response for the anchor bolts that tie the steel dome of the primary tank to the concrete tank dome. Consequently, focus was placed on the changes in the anchor bolt responses, and a full reevaluation of all tank components was judged to be unnecessary. To confirm this judgement, primary tank stresses from the revised analysis of the BES-BEC case are compared to the original analysis and it was verified that the changes are small, as expected.

TC MACKEY; FG ABATT; MW RINKER

2009-01-14

268

Tank 241-B-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization: Results for homogeneity samples collected on October 16, 1996. Tank vapor characterization project  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-B-103 (Tank B-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Samples were collected to determine the homogeneity of selected inorganic and organic headspace constituents. Two risers (Riser 2 and Riser 7) were sampled at three different elevations (Bottom, Middle, and Top) within the tank. Tank headspace samples were collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) and were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL.

Olsen, K.B.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C. [and others

1997-06-01

269

Water Quality Evaluation of the Grand Mesa Project Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An evaluation of the Bureau of Reclamation's proposed Grand Mesa Project indicates that with adequate treatment municipal, industrial and other domestic waste loadings should not significantly affect water quality for present and projected water uses in t...

1971-01-01

270

Comparative Assessment of Irrigation Water Quality in Sri Lanka's Tank-Cascade and Mahaweli Irrigation Schemes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two distinct irrigation systems dominate the landscape in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. The tank-cascade system, which originates from third century BC, is a small-scale system that has been the traditional method for communities to meet their farming water needs. The Mahaweli reservoir system, in contrast, is a large-scale irrigation scheme initiated in the 1970s that diverts water across hundreds of kilometers from the headwaters of the Mahaweli River to farmers. Although approximately equal amounts of paddy land are irrigated under these two systems, very little comparative analysis has been conducted on the spatial variation of irrigation water quality in Sri Lanka. An exploratory study was conducted in June 2013 in Anuradhapura district, an area that experiences the highest level of paddy production instability and has had long-standing irrigation water quality issues. A total of 30 water samples from both cascade systems and Mahaweli system H-7 were analyzed for pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, and chromatic dissolved organic matter using field instruments. A subset of these samples was further analyzed for nitrate and ammonia using colorimetric methods. While the sparse data from our study revealed some interesting trends, it is difficult to extrapolate in detail. Therefore, we compare inferences drawn about the Sri Lanka data to a more detailed analysis of chromatic dissolved organic matter in a Tennessee watershed. This comparison will provide insight into possible interpretations relative to the water quality data collected in Sri Lanka. As Sri Lanka continues to develop its irrigation resources, water quality assessments such as this one are critical for identifying factors limiting paddy production in the country.

Gunda, T.; Hornberger, G. M.

2013-12-01

271

Support Provided to the External Tank (ET) Project on the Use of Statistical Analysis for ET Certification Consultation Position Paper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In June 2004, the June Space Flight Leadership Council (SFLC) assigned an action to the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) and External Tank (ET) project jointly to characterize the available dataset [of defect sizes from dissections of foam], identify resultant limitations to statistical treatment of ET as-built foam as part of the overall thermal protection system (TPS) certification, and report to the Program Requirements Change Board (PRCB) and SFLC in September 2004. The NESC statistics team was formed to assist the ET statistics group in August 2004. The NESC's conclusions are presented in this report.

Null, Cynthia H.

2009-01-01

272

AC STRENGTH TEST DATA OF UNAGED AND WATER TANK AGED XLPE COMPOUNDS FOR TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION POWER CABLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

AC dielectric strength tests are performed on both virgin and water filled tank aged cable model specimens insulated with four commercial XLPE compounds in order to investigate the behaviour of such material under harsh wet environments. The results are compared in terms of Weibull scale and shape parameters. The degree of deterioration of aged compounds - measured in terms of

Massimo MARZINOTTO; Carlo MAZZETTI; Massimo POMPILI Prospero SCHIAFFINO

2007-01-01

273

Thermodynamic study of the aeration kinetic in treatment of refinery waste water in bio-aeration tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intention of this article is the examination of effects of aeration regimes on the agreement between technical parameters measured in prior works, with calculations, in this article based on thermodynamic considerations. In the aeration tank with waste water, the technical characteristics of the air distributors based on volume transport coefficients of oxygen are dependent on variation of air flow

Mirjana Ševaljevic; Miroslav Stanojevi?; Stojan Simi?; Milan Pavlovi?

2009-01-01

274

Effect of nitrate injection on the bacterial community in a water-oil tank system analyzed by PCR-DGGE.  

PubMed

Sulfide production by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is a major concern for the petroleum industry since it is toxic and corrosive, and causes plugging due to the formation of insoluble iron sulfides (reservoir souring). In this study, PCR followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) using two sets of primers based on the 16S rRNA gene and on the aps gene (adenosine-5-phosphosulfate reductase) was used to track changes in the total bacterial and SRB communities, respectively, present in the water-oil tank system on an offshore platform in Brazil in which nitrate treatment was applied for 2 months (15 nitrate injections). PCR-DGGE analysis of the total bacterial community showed the existence of a dominant population in the water-oil tank, and that the appearance and/or the increase of intensity of some bands in the gels were not permanently affected by the introduction of nitrate. On the other hand, the SRB community was stimulated following nitrate treatment. Moreover, sulfide production did not exceed the permissible exposure limit in the water-oil separation tank studied treated with nitrate. Therefore, controlling sulfide production by treating the produced water tank with nitrate could reduce the quantity of chemical biocides required to control microbial activities. PMID:18180965

Jurelevicius, Diogo; von der Weid, Irene; Korenblum, Elisa; Valoni, Erika; Penna, Mônica; Seldin, Lucy

2008-04-01

275

Investigations on the Operational Reliability of the Pressurizer Safety Valves and the Relief Tank During Blowdown of Hot Pressurized Water. Status Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Operational reliability of the pressurizer (and relief tank) safety valves of the pressurized-water reactor (PWR) should be demonstrated by means of experimental and analytical investigations in blowing down hot pressurized water in failure cases. This de...

H. Helf B. Bernbach

1978-01-01

276

Meren field water injection project offshore Nigeria  

SciTech Connect

The Meren Water Injection Project, which is one of the largest in West Africa in terms of injection volume, secondary reserves to be recovered and cost, is located in the Meren field offshore Nigeria. This study presents an updated comprehensive plan to deplete 7 reservoir units in sands that have been producing under solution gas drive and gravity segregation with minimal water influx. The reservoir units contain ca 80% of the original oil-in-place in Meren field. Detailed studies have been undertaken to evaluate the performances of the 7 reservoirs with a view to developing a secondary recovery plan which has been brought into reality. Injection was to start in mid-1982 but was delayed until mid-1983. The effect of the delay and the changing of injector locations on recovery and cost is discussed.

Adetoba, L.A.

1984-04-01

277

Tank vapor characterization project. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste Tank SX101: Results from samples collected on 07\\/21\\/95  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. They include air concentrations of inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples. The vapor concentrations are based either on whole-volume samples or on sorbent traps exposed to sample flow. No immediate notifications were needed

J. C. Evans; T. W. Clauss; B. D. McVeety; K. H. Pool; K. B. Olsen; J. S. Fruchter; K. L. Silvers

1996-01-01

278

Biannual recalibration of two spectral gamma-ray logging systems used for baseline characterization measurements in the Hanford Tank Farms. Vadose Zone Characterization Project at the Hanford Tank Farms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) is engaged in establishing an initial, or baseline, characterization of the gamma-ray-emitting contaminants in the subsurface of the Tank Farms at the DOE Hanford site in the Stat...

C. J. Koizumi

1996-01-01

279

W-030, AY/AZ tank farm cooling and miscellaneous instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

This is the acceptance test report for construction functional testing of Project W-030 cooling systems and related instrumentation. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The Tank Farm Cooling System consists of four forced draft cooling towers, a chilled water system, and associated controls.

Cole, D.B.

1996-04-29

280

Specific leaf areas of the tank bromeliad Guzmania monostachia perform distinct functions in response to water shortage.  

PubMed

Leaves comprise most of the vegetative body of tank bromeliads and are usually subjected to strong longitudinal gradients. For instance, while the leaf base is in contact with the water accumulated in the tank, the more light-exposed middle and upper leaf sections have no direct access to this water reservoir. Therefore, the present study attempted to investigate whether different leaf portions of Guzmania monostachia, a tank-forming C(3)-CAM bromeliad, play distinct physiological roles in response to water shortage, which is a major abiotic constraint in the epiphytic habitat. Internal and external morphological features, relative water content, pigment composition and the degree of CAM expression were evaluated in basal, middle and apical leaf portions in order to allow the establishment of correlations between the structure and the functional importance of each leaf region. Results indicated that besides marked structural differences, a high level of functional specialization is also present along the leaves of this bromeliad. When the tank water was depleted, the abundant hydrenchyma of basal leaf portions was the main reservoir for maintaining a stable water status in the photosynthetic tissues of the apical region. In contrast, the CAM pathway was intensified specifically in the upper leaf section, which is in agreement with the presence of features more suitable for the occurrence of photosynthesis at this portion. Gas exchange data indicated that internal recycling of respiratory CO(2) accounted for virtually all nighttime acid accumulation, characterizing a typical CAM-idling pathway in the drought-exposed plants. Altogether, these data reveal a remarkable physiological complexity along the leaves of G. monostachia, which might be a key adaptation to the intermittent water supply of the epiphytic niche. PMID:19954859

Freschi, Luciano; Takahashi, Cassia Ayumi; Cambui, Camila Aguetoni; Semprebom, Thais Ribeiro; Cruz, Aline Bertinatto; Mioto, Paulo Tamoso; de Melo Versieux, Leonardo; Calvente, Alice; Latansio-Aidar, Sabrina Ribeiro; Aidar, Marcos Pereira Marinho; Mercier, Helenice

2010-05-01

281

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-S-101: Results from samples collected on 06/06/96  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-S-101. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed.

Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

1997-01-01

282

Various phenomena on a water vortex in a cylindrical tank over a rotating bottom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flows in a cylindrical tank over a rotating bottom are investigated by laboratory experiments. Despite the axisymmetry of the experimental setup, various anisotropic phenomena are observed. The slow rotation of the bottom disk induces a circular flow according to the axisymmetric environment, but polygonal vortices form under faster rotation. Between these two vortex flow states, the flow undergoes a transition with clear hysteresis during which the elliptical shape assumed under faster rotation is retained when the rotation is subsequently slowed to rates that previously supported axisymmetric flow. Sloshing is also observed; here, a calm circular flow state alternates with an oscillation of the water surface along the sidewall of the container. A phase diagram showing the phenomena observed under different combinations of the initial water depth at rest and the rotation rate of the bottom disk is developed following thorough experimental testing over a wide range of parameter values. The features of the dependences of the range for each phenomenon to occur on these parameters are also elucidated.

Iga, Keita; Yokota, Sho; Watanabe, Shunichi; Ikeda, Takashi; Niino, Hiroshi; Misawa, Nobuhiko

2014-06-01

283

Estimating the water budget for a peat filter treating septic tank effluent in the field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of peat as a filter medium for the treatment of a variety of liquid and gas waste streams has increased over the past decade. Peat has been used as an alternate treatment medium to treat septic tank effluent (STE) from domestic and small communal systems. Very little research has been completed to study the hydraulics and water budget of a peat filter operating in the field. This study evaluated the water budget of a peat filter operating at an elementary school near Ottawa, Canada. The peat filter was instrumented with tensiometers to measure the pore water pressures within the filter and a weather station to collect weather data required to estimate potential evapotranspiration. A one-dimensional unsaturated flow model, SoilCover, was calibrated using the pressure data and weather data collected in the field. The calibrated model was use to estimate the water budget for the filter operating with and without STE loading. The calibrated model predicted that the annual precipitation exceeded evapotranspiration for both scenarios. For the filter treating 50 mm/day of STE, there was a slight dilution due to the infiltration resulting in a net dilution factor of 0.97 (loading divided by the loading plus infiltration). The largest rainfall event of 49.9 mm resulted in a dilution factor of approximately 0.87, which corresponded to an approximate decrease in the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of between 12 and 33% depending on the calculation used to determine the HRT. When the filter does not receive STE, the precipitation exceeds evapotranspiration and hence the filter should not dry out when the filter is not in use.

Van Geel, Paul J.; Parker, Wayne J.

2003-02-01

284

Effect of water aeration and nutrient load level on biomass yield, N uptake and protein content of the seaweed Ulva lactuca cultured in seawater tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of 16 different combinations of nutrient load and agitation on yield, nutrient uptake and proximate chemical composition\\u000a of the seaweed Ulva lactuca cultured in tanks were evaluated. Intensive fishpond outflow passed through seaweed tanks at four nutrient loading levels\\u000a and four water agitation combinations of water exchange, bottom aeration and frequently changing water levels (an accelerated\\u000a tide regime).

Flower E. Msuya; Amir Neori

2008-01-01

285

Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank AX-102: Results from samples collected on June 27, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-AX-102 (Tank AX-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the text.

Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Ligotke, M.W.

1995-11-01

286

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank U-203, Results from samples collected on August 8, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-U-203 (Tank U-203) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the results is listed. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the text.

Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Ligotke, M.W.

1995-11-01

287

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Tank 241-S-107: Results from samples collected on 06/18/96  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-S-107 (Tank S-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National. Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, on sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L. [and others

1997-01-01

288

Water quality, biofilm production and growth of fringe-lipped carp (Labeo fimbriatus) in tanks provided with two solid substrates.  

PubMed

The effects of two substrates, sugarcane bagasse (T(1)) and paddy straw (T(2)) on water quality and growth of Labeo fimbriatus were studied in mud-bottomed, manured cement tanks, in triplicate; a set of three tanks without substrate served as control (T(3)). Addition of manure and substrate brought about a decrease in dissolved oxygen level, but it stabilized after 15 days, when the tanks were stocked with 30 fish each, fed at 3% body weight daily and reared for 90 days. Total ammonia content in substrate based treatments was relatively lower than in the control. Significantly higher nitrite-nitrogen was recorded in the control tanks. The total plate counts (TPC) of bacteria in water did not differ significantly between treatments and control. The overall mean value of TPC with substrate was higher in T(2) than in T(1). The mean phytoplankton density in water was the highest in T(1), followed by T(3) and T(2), whereas zooplankton density was the highest in T(1) followed by T(2) and T(3). The growth of fish was significantly (P<0.05) higher in substrate-based tanks, the percentage increases over control being 30.44 (T(1)) and 28.71 (T(2)) respectively. Higher RNA, DNA and RNA:DNA ratios were recorded under T(1), followed by T(2) and T(3). Higher enzyme activity was observed in fish from substrate treatments, which was attributable to the additional nutrients derived through the biofilm. The results demonstrated that production of L. fimbriatus can be significantly increased by the introduction of biodegradable substrates into culture systems where fertilization and feeding are employed. PMID:12507865

Mridula, R M; Manissery, J K; Keshavanath, P; Shankar, K M; Nandeesha, M C; Rajesh, K M

2003-05-01

289

Tank vapor characterization project. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-T-104: Results from samples collected on 02\\/07\\/96  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the analytical results, which were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds; the analyses were performed by PNNL`s Vapor Analytical Laboratory. Results are summarized as: NHâ 105{+-}3 ppmv, NOâ 0.3{+-}0.1 ppmv,

K. H. Pool; J. C. Evans; B. L. Thomas; K. B. Olsen; J. S. Fruchter; K. L. Silvers

1996-01-01

290

An integrated 6 MV linear accelerator model from electron gun to dose in a water tank  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The details of a full simulation of an inline side-coupled 6 MV linear accelerator (linac) from the electron gun to the target are presented. Commissioning of the above simulation was performed by using the derived electron phase space at the target as an input into Monte Carlo studies of dose distributions within a water tank and matching the simulation results to measurement data. This work is motivated by linac-MR studies, where a validated full linac simulation is first required in order to perform future studies on linac performance in the presence of an external magnetic field. Methods: An electron gun was initially designed and optimized with a 2D finite difference program using Child's law. The electron gun simulation served as an input to a 6 MV linac waveguide simulation, which consisted of a 3D finite element radio-frequency field solution within the waveguide and electron trajectories determined from particle dynamics modeling. The electron gun design was constrained to match the cathode potential and electron gun current of a Varian 600C, while the linac waveguide was optimized to match the measured target current. Commissioning of the full simulation was performed by matching the simulated Monte Carlo dose distributions in a water tank to measured distributions. Results: The full linac simulation matched all the electrical measurements taken from a Varian 600C and the commissioning process lead to excellent agreements in the dose profile measurements. Greater than 99% of all points met a 1%/1mm acceptance criterion for all field sizes analyzed, with the exception of the largest 40x40 cm{sup 2} field for which 98% of all points met the 1%/1mm acceptance criterion and the depth dose curves matched measurement to within 1% deeper than 1.5 cm depth. The optimized energy and spatial intensity distributions, as given by the commissioning process, were determined to be non-Gaussian in form for the inline side-coupled 6 MV linac simulated. Conclusions: An integrated simulation of an inline side-coupled 6 MV linac has been completed and benchmarked matching all electrical and dosimetric measurements to high accuracy. The results showed non-Gaussian spatial intensity and energy distributions for the linac modeled.

St Aubin, J.; Steciw, S.; Kirkby, C.; Fallone, B. G. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada)

2010-05-15

291

Tank monitor and control system (TMACS) year 2000 compliance project plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to describe tests performed to validate Revision 11 of the Tank Monitor and Control System (TMACS) and verify that the software functions as intended by design. This document is intended to test the software portion of TMACS. The tests will be performed on the development system. The software to be tested is the TMACS knowledge bases (KB) and the I/O driver/services. The development system will not be talking to field equipment; instead, the field equipment is simulated using emulators or multiplexers in the lab.

HOLM, M.J.

1999-06-24

292

Separation projects within the U.S. Department of Energy`s Underground Storage Tank - Integrated Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The greatest technical and financial challenge facing the U.S. Department of Energy is the remediation of the 1 x 10{sup 8} gal of high-level and low-level radioactive waste in the underground storage tanks (USTs) at its Hanford, Savannah River, Oak Ridge, Idaho, and Fernald sites. With current technologies, this remediation is estimated to cost at least 100 billion dollars. In an effort to reduce costs, improve safety, and minimize delays, the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration was created for demonstration, testing, and evaluation of promising new technologies that can be used for UST remediation. These UST-ID demonstrations, which are typically at the pilot-plant scale, are performed by the Characterization and Waste Retrieval Program or by the Waste Processing and Disposal Program (WPDP). The results from these demonstrations will help to determine which processes will be used in the full-scale remediation of the USTs. This paper presents the current technical status of the WPDP projects that utilize separation technologies. These WPDP programs focused on three areas, which are the treatments of supernate and sludge as well as the destruction of nitrates/organics.

McGinnis, C.P.; Hunt, R.D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); Gibson, S.M. [DOE, Germantown, MD (United States)] [and others

1995-04-01

293

Tank 241-T-110 tank characterization plan  

SciTech Connect

This Tank Characterization Plan (ICP) identifies the information needed to address issues related to short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of single shell tank 241-T-1,10 (T- 110). It should be understood that needs and issues surrounding tank T-110 are evolving as new information becomes available. As a result, this TCP addresses only issues that have been identified to date. It is expected that changes may be necessary as additional issues or needs arise which impact the management of tank T-110. As necessary, this TCP will be revised to reflect changes. This plan reflects the best information available as of August 1996. Tank T-110 entered into service in the first quarter of 1945. The tank began receiving second- cycle decontamination waste in the first quarter of 1945 (Agnew et al. 1995). The tank began to cascade overflow to Tank 241-T-111 in October 1945. In the second quarter of 1952, the tank began receiving 224 waste in addition to the second-cycle waste. The tank contained second-cycle and 224 waste until the first quarter of 1976. During the third quarter of 1974, the tank received waste water. The tank was removed from service in 1976. A level adjustment was made in April of 1982. The tank was primarily stabilized in 1978 and partially isolated in December 1982. The tank is classified as a sound, non-stabilized tank (Brevick et al. 1995). Tank T-110 currently contains a total volume of 14351789 kL. (379 kgal ) of waste, which is equivalent to 338.5 cm (133 in) of waste as measured from the baseline of the tank (Hanlon 1996). Tank T-110 is on the Flammable Gas Watch List. Near-term sampling and analysis activities are focused on verifying or changing the Watch List tank status, and identifying any new safety issues. If new safety issues are identified, analysis activities consistent with the identified issue will be performed. In addition to resolving safety issues, it is intended that all tank waste will be subject to pretreatment and retrieval to prepare it for final storage or disposal. Presently, these long-range plans are not yet fully identified and, therefore, are not included in this document.

Mccain, D.J.

1996-09-19

294

Development of a CFD Model for Secondary Final Settling Tanks in Water Pollution Control Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To assess performance and evaluate alternatives to improve efficiency of the New York City the Wards Island Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) FSTs at peak loads, a 3D CFD model has been developed. Fluent was utilized as the base platform, where sub-models of the Suspended Solids (SS), settling characteristics, density currents and SS flocculation were incorporated. This was supplemented by field and bench scale experiments to quantify the coefficients integral to the sub-models. Model calibration and validation have been carried out by using the extensive set of data collected. The model can be used to evaluate different modes of operation, alternate hydraulic and solids loading rates, as well as addition of auxiliary components such as baffles to improve process performance. The model is being used to compare potential benefits for different alternatives of design and operation of the existing FSTs. After comparing series of inlet baffles, a baffle with 4 horizontal and 7 vertical slots has been recommended for installation in the FSTs. Additional baffle type, configurations and locations within the tank are also being evaluated to improve the performance of the FSTs especially during periods of poor settling and peak flow conditions.

Gong, Minwei; Xanthos, Savvas; Ramalingam, Krish; Fillos, John

2007-11-01

295

FY 1996 Tank waste analysis plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Tank Waste Analysis Plan (TWAP) describes the activities of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Characterization Project to plan, schedule, obtain, and document characterization information on Hanford waste tanks. This information is required to...

C. S. Homi

1996-01-01

296

The Impact of Traditional Septic Tank Soakaway Systems and the Effects of Remediation on Water Quality in Ireland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Ireland the domestic wastewater of over 1/3 of the population is treated by on-site systems. These systems are based on a traditional design for disposal of domestic wastewater and rely on the surrounding subsoil for further treatment. Inefficient treatment is often associated with these systems and can cause pollution of local aquifers and waterways. The effluent nutrient load can contribute to eutrophication, depletion of dissolved oxygen and excessive algae growth in surface water bodies. Human enteric pathogens associated with faecal pollution of water sources may promote the outbreak of disease through contamination of drinking water supplies. The subsoil attenuation plays an important role in the protection of groundwater from effluent pollution. Therefore, as over 25% of the countries domestic water supplies are provided by groundwater, the protection of groundwater resources is crucial. This project involves both the assessment of traditional septic tank soakaway systems and the effects of remediation in low permeability subsoil settings on water quality in Ireland. The study aims to confirm by microbial source tracking (MST), the source (human and/or animal) of faecal microorganisms detected in groundwater, surface water and effluent samples, and to monitor the transport of pathogens specific to on-site wastewater outflows. In combination with MST, the evaluation of nitrification and denitrification in surrounding soil and effluent samples aims to assess nitrogen removal at specific intervals; pre-remediation and post-remediation. Two experimental sites have been routinely sampled for effluent, soil and groundwater samples as well as soil moisture samples using suction lysimeters located at various depths. A robust and reproducible DNA extraction method was developed, applicable to both sites. MST markers based on host-specific Bacteriodales bacteria for universal, human and cow-derived faecal matter are being employed to determine quantitative target occurrence using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) assays (Kildare et al., 2007). The abundance of both archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA and of several functional nitrification and denitrification genes (i.e., amoA, nirS, nirK, and nosZ) is also being determined and compared in both sites. Ultimately, this novel project aims to assess the effectiveness of remediation at reducing the risk of pathogen transport and nitrate loading to local ground and surface waters. Results from both sites suggest low permeability subsoil prevents the even distribution of effluent through the receiving subsoil, forcing it instead to flow laterally via distinct pathways such as sand lenses and nearby drainage routes. This affects the ability of the subsoil to sufficiently treat the percolating effluent. Initial results from the remediation of the existing systems to alternative low pressure systems indicate a positive impact towards the groundwater quality of both sites. This step towards a better understanding of the factors influencing microbial denitrification and the behaviour of pathogens in sensitive environments aids in identifying management options for reducing nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and nitrate (NO3-) leaching; and for enhanced protection of public health.

Kilroy, Kate; Keggan, Mary; Barrett, Maria; Dubber, Donata; Gill, Laurence W.; O'Flaherty, Vincent

2014-05-01

297

Quantification of the contribution of nitrogen from septic tanks to ground water in Spanish Springs Valley, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analysis of total dissolved nitrogen concentrations from soil water samples collected within the soil zone under septic tank leach fields in Spanish Springs Valley, Nevada, shows a median concentration of approximately 44 milligrams per liter (mg/L) from more than 300 measurements taken from four septic tank systems. Using two simple mass balance calculations, the concentration of total dissolved nitrogen potentially reaching the ground-water table ranges from 25 to 29 mg/L. This indicates that approximately 29 to 32 metric tons of nitrogen enters the aquifer every year from natural recharge and from the 2,070 houses that use septic tanks in the densely populated portion of Spanish Springs Valley. Natural recharge contributes only 0.25 metric tons because the total dissolved nitrogen concentration of natural recharge was estimated to be low (0.8 mg/L). Although there are many uncertainties in this estimate, the sensitivity of these uncertainties to the calculated load is relatively small, indicating that these values likely are accurate to within an order of magnitude. The nitrogen load calculation will be used as an input function for a ground-water flow and transport model that will be used to test management options for controlling nitrogen contamination in the basin.

Rosen, Michael R.; Kropf, Christian; Thomas, Karen A.

2006-01-01

298

Biological Assessment on the Continued Long-term Operations of the Central Valley Project and the State Water Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) propose to operate the Central Valley Project (CVP) and State Water Project (SWP) to divert, store, re-divert, and convey CVP and SWP (Project) water consistent...

2008-01-01

299

Tank farm restoration and safe operation, project W-314, upgrade scope summary report (USSR)  

SciTech Connect

This revision to the Project W-314 Upgrade Scope Summary Report (USSR), incorporates changes to the project scope from Alternative Generation Analysis (AGA), customer guidance, and changing requirements. It defines the actual upgrades currently in scope, and provides traceability to the requirements and/or drivers.

Jacobson, R.W.

1997-04-01

300

Tank 241-S-102 fifth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on February 11, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project  

SciTech Connect

This report presents tile results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurlsys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by tile Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based oil measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above tile immediate notification limit of 150 ppm as specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank S-102 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 1.150% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <1.624% of the LFL, Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of tile analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Mitroshkov, A.V.; Evans, J.C.; Hayes, J.C. [and others

1997-09-01

301

Hanford Double-Shell Tank Thermal and Seismic Project ANSYS Benchmark Analysis of Seismically Induced Fluid-Structure Interaction in a Hanford Double-Shell Primary Tank.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall seismic analysis of the Double Shell Tanks (DSTs) is being performed with the general-purpose finite element code ANSYS. The overall model used for the seismic analysis of the DSTs includes the DST structure, the contained waste, and the surro...

T. C. Mackey

2006-01-01

302

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Tank 241-B-105: Results from samples collected on 07/30/96  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-B-105 (Tank B-105) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA{trademark} canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L. [and others

1997-01-01

303

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-BX-102 headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on July 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-102 (Tank BX-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured volumes provided by WHC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and and analysis plan. Ammonia and TNMOCs were the principal flammable constituents of the Tank BX-102 headspace, each determined to be present at approximately 0.002% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.107% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B. Edwards, J.A. [and others

1997-08-01

304

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-C-204: Results from samples collected on 07/02/96  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-C-204 (Tank C-204) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA{trademark} canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H. [and others

1997-01-01

305

Tank 241-BY-108 fifth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on January 30, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from tile headspace of waste storage tank 241-B-108 (Tank BY - 108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Services Corporation (SESC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit of 150 ppm specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BY-108 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.888% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <1.979% of tile LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B. [and others

1997-09-01

306

Tank vapor characterization project: Tank 241-BY-101 headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on August 29, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-101 (Tank BY-101) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Total non-methane organic compounds (TNMOCs) were the principal flammable constituent of the Tank By-101 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.136% of the LFL. Averaged measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B. [and others

1997-08-01

307

Tank vapor characterization project: Tank 241-BX-104 fifth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on June 10, 1997  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-104 (Tank BX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-104 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.270% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.675% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Hayes, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B. [and others

1997-07-01

308

Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-BY-108: Results from in situ sample collected on March 24, 1994. Waste Tank Vapor Project  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the details of the organic analysis that was performed on samples from the headspace of Hanford waste tank 241-BY-108. The results described were obtained to support the safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for the organic analytes is included, as well as, a detailed description of the results which appears in the text.

McVeety, B.D.; Lucke, R.B.; Clauss, T.W.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

1995-06-01

309

Tank 241-BY-108 fourth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on November 14, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-108 (Tank BY-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected nonradioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit of 150 ppm specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BY-108 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 1.390% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <2.830% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B. [and others

1997-07-01

310

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-103: Results from samples collected on 06/12/96  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-S-103 (Tank S-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA{trademark} canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L. [and others

1997-01-01

311

Tank 241-BX-104 third temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on February 6, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-104 (Tank BX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-104 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.178 % of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.458% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Hayes, J.C. [and others

1997-09-01

312

Tank 241-C-107 fifth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on February 7, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 (Tank C-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Services Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank C-107 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 3.233% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <3.342% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Hayes, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C. [and others

1997-08-01

313

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-C-107 fourth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on December 17, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 (Tank C-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) and were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank C-107 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 2.825% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <2.935% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.; Hayes, J.C. [and others

1997-08-01

314

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-BX-104 headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on August 22, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-104 (Tank BX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analyses plan (SAP). Total non-methane organic compounds was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-104 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.310% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.784% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Julya, J.L. [and others

1997-08-01

315

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-BX-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on August 1, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-103 (Tank BX-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-103 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.385% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.633% if the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Sklarew, D.S.; Edwards, J.A. [and others] [and others

1997-08-01

316

Double Shell Tank (DST) Utilities Specification  

SciTech Connect

This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides the references to the requisite codes and standards to he applied during the design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Utilities Subsystems that support the first phase of waste feed delivery (WFD). The DST Utilities Subsystems provide electrical power, raw/potable water, and service/instrument air to the equipment and structures used to transfer low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) to designated DST staging tanks. The DST Utilities Subsystems also support the equipment and structures used to deliver blended LAW and HLW feed from these staging tanks to the River Protection Project (RPP) Privatization Contractor facility where the waste will be immobilized. This specification is intended to be the basis for new projects/installations. This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program.

SUSIENE, W.T.

2000-04-27

317

How Tank Bromeliads Respond to Changing Tank Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bromeliads, particularly those with a water-holding tank formed by leaves, act as amplifiers of biodiversity in their tropical forest ecosystem. The tanks play host to a wide diversity of life forms, and provide the bromeliad with almost all of its water and mineral nutrients. Bacteria, insects, amphibians, and other plants thrive in the conditions created by the tank. To investigate

Rebecca Tribelhorn

2010-01-01

318

Tank waste remediation system privatization phase I infrastructure and project W-519 and QA implementation plan  

SciTech Connect

This document has been prepared to identify the quality requirements for all products/activities developed by or for Project W-519. This plan is responsive to the Numatec Hanford Corporation, Quality Assurance Program Plan, NHC-MP-001.

HUSTON, J.J.

1999-08-19

319

Environmental projects. Volume 13: Underground storage tanks, removal and replacement. Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), located in the Mojave Desert about 40 miles north of Barstow, California, and about 160 miles northeast of Pasadena, is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Deep Space Network, one of the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. Activities at the GDSCC are carried out in support of six large parabolic dish antennas. As a large-scale facility located in a remote, isolated desert region, the GDSCC operations require numerous on-site storage facilities for gasoline, diesel oil, hydraulic oil, and waste oil. These fluids are stored in underground storage tanks (USTs). This present volume describes what happened to the 26 USTs that remained at the GDSCC. Twenty-four of these USTs were constructed of carbon steel without any coating for corrosion protection, and without secondary containment or leak detection. Two remaining USTs were constructed of fiberglass-coated carbon steel but without secondary containment or leak protection. Of the 26 USTs that remained at the GDSCC, 23 were cleaned, removed from the ground, cut up, and hauled away from the GDSCC for environmentally acceptable disposal. Three USTs were permanently closed (abandoned in place).

Bengelsdorf, Irv

1991-01-01

320

Preliminary engineering report waste area grouping 5, Old Hydrofracture Facility Tanks content removal project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requires a Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) for federal facilities placed on the National Priorities List. The Oak Ridge Reservation was placed on that list on December 21, 1989, and the agreement was signed in November 1991 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The effective date of the FFA is January 1, 1992. One objective of the FFA is to ensure that liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that are removed from service are evaluated and remediated through the CERCLA process. Five inactive LLLW tanks, designated T-1, T-2, T-3, T-4, and T-9, located at the Old Hydrofracture (OHF) Facility in the Melton Valley area of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been evaluated and are now entering the remediation phase. As a precursor to final remediation, this project will remove the current liquid and sludge contents of each of the five tanks (System Requirements Document, Appendix A). It was concluded in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis [EE/CA] for the Old Hydrofracture Facility Tanks (DOE 1996) that sluicing and pumping the contaminated liquid and sludge from the five OHF tanks was the preferred removal action. Evaluation indicated that this alternative meets the removal action objective and can be effective, implementable, and cost-effective. Sluicing and removing the tank contents was selected because this action uses (1) applicable experience, (2) the latest information about technologies and techniques for removing the wastes from the tanks, and (3) activities that are currently acceptable for storage of transuranic (TRU) mixed waste.

NONE

1996-06-01

321

Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for installation and operation of a waste retrieval system and tanks 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104 project  

SciTech Connect

This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC) pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246 247-060, and as a request for approval to modify pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61 07 for the installation and operation of one waste retrieval system in the 24 1 AP-102 Tank and one waste retrieval system in the 241 AP 104 Tank Pursuant to 40 CFR 61 09 (a)( 1) this application is also intended to provide anticipated initial start up notification Its is requested that EPA approval of this application will also constitute EPA acceptance of the initial start up notification Project W 211 Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is scoped to install a waste retrieval system in the following double-shell tanks 241-AP 102-AP 104 AN 102, AN 103, AN-104, AN 105, AY 102 AZ 102 and SY-102 between now and the year 2011. Because of the extended installation schedules and unknowns about specific activities/designs at each tank, it was decided to submit NOCs as that information became available This NOC covers the installation and operation of a waste retrieval system in tanks 241 AP-102 and 241 AP 104 Generally this includes removal of existing equipment installation of new equipment and construction of new ancillary equipment and buildings Tanks 241 AP 102 and 241 AP 104 will provide waste feed for immobilization into a low activity waste (LAW) product (i.e. glass logs) The total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) from the construction activities is 0 045 millirem per year The unabated TEDE to the offsite ME1 from operation of the mixer pumps is 0 042 millirem per year.

DEXTER, M.L.

1999-11-15

322

Water governance within Kenya's Upper Ewaso Ng'iro Basin: Assessing the performance of water projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change processes are projected to change the availability and seasonality of streamflow with dramatic implications for irrigated agricultural systems. Within mountain environments, this alteration in water availability may be quite pronounced over a relatively short distance as upstream users with first access to river water directly impact the availability of water to downstream users. Livelihood systems that directly depend on river water for both domestic consumption and practices such as irrigated agriculture are particularly vulnerable. The Mount Kenya region is an exemplary case of a semi-arid upstream-downstream system in which water availability rapidly decreases and directly impacts the livelihoods of river water users existing across this steep environmental gradient. To effectively manage river water within these water-scarce environs, water projects have been established along the major rivers of the Mount Kenya region. These water projects are responsible for managing water within discrete sub-catchments of the region. While water projects develop rules that encourage the responsible use of water and maintenance of the project itself, the efficiency of water allocation to the projects' members remains unclear. This research analyzes water projects from five sub-catchments on the northwest slopes of Mount Kenya. It utilizes data from household surveys and water project management surveys as well as stream gauge data and flow measurements within individual water projects to assess the governance structure and performance of water projects. The performance of water projects is measured through a variety of household level metrics including: farm-level water flow and volume over time, mean and variability in maize yield, per capita crop productivity, household-level satisfaction with water availability, number of days where water volume was insufficient for irrigation, and quantity harvested compared with expected quantity harvested. We present results demonstrating the heterogeneity of these individual measures and discuss the influence of topography, network design, household behaviors and water governance on the overall performance of these water projects. This work is the foundation for an agent-based model of these water projects that investigates the impact of climate change and population pressure on sustained agricultural production in the region. Additionally, the study highlights the utility of pairing distinct fields of scholarship by utilizing both survey responses and hydrological data to study complex social-ecological systems. This pairing allows for insights regarding governance structures that are effectively managing river water in the present and helps to understand the structures that may be suitable for future water management.

McCord, P. F.; Evans, T. P.; Dell'Angelo, J.; Gower, D.; McBride, L.; Caylor, K. K.

2013-12-01

323

Tank 241-C-106 sluicing project W-320 integrity assessment report  

SciTech Connect

This Integrity Assessment Report is prepared by ICF Kaiser Hanford Co. (ICFKH) for Westinqhouse Hanford Company (WHC), operations contractor and the Department of Energy (DOE), the system owner. It is a revision of the original report dated 10/26/94 (ICFKH Transmittal TR-W-320-295). The original project scope has been modified, necessitating with WAC-173-303-640.

Symons, G.A., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-02-11

324

Storage tank corrosion  

SciTech Connect

Knocking out corrosion in crude oil storage tanks has made a winner of Joe Lewis, a corrosion technician for Shell Pipeline Co. at Midland, Texas. ''I've been battling rust and decay for 21 years and I've never lost a fight yet,'' he explains. Lewis was recently matched against two heavyweight opponents - two crude oil storage tanks, one with a capacity of 122,000 bbl, the other with a capacity of 82,000 bbl. The tanks are located at the McCamey Tank Farm in West Texas. Again, Lewis was the winner. ''One tank was leaking, so we repaired it and replaced the bottom coating on the inside of the tank,'' he said. ''Fixing the other tank required replacing the bottom coating with a new one.'' Shell Pipelines's McCamey Tank Farm has been operating since 1928, growing over the years to include 32 storage tanks ranging in size from small to giant. Most of the tanks were erected in the 1930s and 1940s and have been storing oil since that time. Occasionally, water will seep in through cracks in a tank's bottom coating and eat away at the steel; small holes develop and these must be repaired to prevent oil from leaking into the ground below.

Not Available

1986-03-01

325

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-BY-108 temporal study headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on September 10, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-108 (Tank BY-108) at the Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit of 150 ppm specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BY-108 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 1.463% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <2.940% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Sklarew, D.S. [and others

1997-08-01

326

Simulated nuclear multibursts conducted in a water tank. Technical report, 7 October 1983-30 January 1985  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneous multiple-cloud experiments were carried out in a water tank. Salt was used to achieve a linear density gradient in the tank to simulate the atmosphere. A nuclear fireball was simulated with a high-density bubble of saltwater dropped into the top of the tank. The bubble grew by turbulent entrainment as it fell into saltwater with an increasing density. The fall stops when the density inside the cloud reaches the density of its environment. Cloud dimensions were obtained for 5, 6, and 7 burst events. These cloud dimensions were compared with a model which is good fit to data from other multi-burst experiments. The model and the data from this program are in good agreement. These tests utilized existing hardware. Recommendations are made for a new facility which would be capable of simulating up to 70 bursts with an arbitrary time sequence. Instrumentation techniques to provide data other than cloud dimensions, e.g., velocity and density, are also recommended.

Colbert, R.G.; Zimmerman, A.W.

1985-01-30

327

The NASA Energy and Water cycle Extreme (NEWSE) Integration Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skillful predictions of water and energy cycle extremes (flood and drought) are elusive. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for water and energy extremes, and to make decisive progress in predicting these extremes, the collaborative NASA Energy and Water cycle Extremes (NEWSE) Integration Project, is studying these extremes in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during 2006-2007, including their relationships

P. R. Houser; W. Lapenta; R. Schiffer

2008-01-01

328

14. PROJECT PLAN, INTAKE PIER, RAW WATER CONDUITS, PUMPING STATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. PROJECT PLAN, INTAKE PIER, RAW WATER CONDUITS, PUMPING STATION FORCE MAINS, TREATED WATER PIPELINES, AND FILTRATION PLANT, SHEET 1 OF 117, 1920. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

329

Interior view, looking up toward project west at the heavy ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view, looking up toward project west at the heavy timber joists and center beam supporting the wood water tank. Note the iron compression bands around the perimeter of the tank. Note also the iron (steel?) water fill pipe for the tank, bent to fit between the joists and the tank wall. - East Broad Top Railroad & Company, Water Tank at Coles Station, East Broad Top Railroad & Company (at Milepost 24.3), 0.5 miles east of Coles Valley Road, Saltillo, Huntingdon County, PA

330

Tank waste remediation system immobilized high-level waste storage project configuration management implementation plan  

SciTech Connect

This Configuration Management Implementation Plan was developed to assist in the management of systems, structures, and components, to facilitate the effective control and statusing of changes to systems, structures, and components; and to ensure technical consistency between design, performance, and operational requirements. Its purpose is to describe the approach Project W-464 will take in implementing a configuration management control, to determine the rigor of control, and to identify the mechanisms for imposing that control.This Configuration Management Implementation Plan was developed to assist in the management of systems, structures, and components, to facilitate the effective control and statusing of changes to systems, structures, and components; and to ensure technical consistency between design, performance, and operational requirements. Its purpose is to describe the approach Project W-464 will take in implementing a configuration management control, to determine the rigor of control, and to identify the mechanisms for imposing that control.

Burgard, K.G.

1998-09-24

331

Project W-314 specific test and evaluation plan for AZ tank farm upgrades  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made by the addition of the SN-631 transfer line from the AZ-O1A pit to the AZ-02A pit by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system`s performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a lower tier document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation P1 an (TEP). Testing includes Validations and Verifications (e.g., Commercial Grade Item Dedication activities, etc), Factory Tests and Inspections (FTIs), installation tests and inspections, Construction Tests and Inspections (CTIs), Acceptance Test Procedures (ATPs), Pre-Operational Test Procedures (POTPs), and Operational Test Procedures (OTPs). The STEP will be utilized in conjunction with the TEP for verification and validation.

Hays, W.H.

1998-08-12

332

INL Bettis Water Treatment Project Report  

SciTech Connect

Bechtel Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory (Bettis), West Mifflin, PA, requested that the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) (Battelle Energy Alliance) perform tests using water simulants and three specified media to determine if those ion-exchange (IX) resins will be effective at removing the plutonium contamination from water. This report details the testing and results of the tests to determine the suitability of the media to treat plutonium contaminated water at near nuetral pH.

Not Available

2009-06-01

333

Water Quality Demonstration Project, Allen County, Ohio.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project demonstrated to farmers throughout the county, on a voluntary basis, the effects and economics of conservation tillage. An intense educational program was provided, no-till equipment made available and technical assistance was also provided to...

B. A. Seibert D. M. Vigh

1986-01-01

334

Multiple lines of evidence shed light on the occurrence of paramecium (ciliophora, oligohymenophorea) in bromeliad tank water.  

PubMed

Phytotelmata are vegetal structures that hold water from the rain, and organic matter from the forest and the soil, resulting in small, compartmentalized bodies of water, which provide an essential environment for the establishment and development of many organisms. These microenvironments generally harbor endemic species, but many organisms that are found in lakes and rivers, are also present. Here, we report, for the first time, the occurrence of the ciliate genus Paramecium in the tank of the bromeliad species Aechmaea distichantha. The identification of the Paramecium species was performed based on live observations, protargol impregnation, scanning electronic microscopy, and sequencing of the 18s rRNA. The absence of Paramecium from bromeliad tank water was highlighted in several earlier investigations, and may be due to the fact that this species is unable to make cysts. The occurrence of Paramecium multimicronucleatum in our samples may be explained by the proximity between the bromeliads and the river, a potential source of the species. Further, we also believe that the counting methodology used in our study provides a more accurate analysis of the species diversity, since we investigated all samples within a maximum period of 6 h after sampling, allowing minimum loss of specimens. PMID:24011017

Buosi, Paulo R B; Cabral, Adalgisa F; Simão, Taiz L L; Utz, Laura R P; Velho, Luiz F M

2014-01-01

335

Tank 241-A-104 tank characterization plan  

SciTech Connect

This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of auger samples from tank 241-A-104. This Tank Characterization Plan will identify characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, hot cell sample isolation, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements in addition to reporting the current contents and status of the tank as projected from historical information.

Schreiber, R.D.

1994-10-01

336

Impact of rural water projects on hygienic behaviour in Swaziland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Swaziland, access to safe water supply and sanitation has improved significantly and was expected to result in improved health and, in particular, reduced infant mortality rates. On the contrary, mortality rates in the under 5 years age group are high and have doubled from 60 in 1996, to 120 deaths per 1000 in 2006. The main objective of the study was to assess whether the water projects permit, and are accompanied by, changes in hygienic behaviour to prevent transmission of diseases. The study area was Phonjwane, located in the dry Lowveld of Swaziland, where water projects play a significant role in meeting domestic water demands. Hygienic behaviour and sanitation facilities were analysed and compared before and after project. The results of the study show that domestic water supply projects have significantly reduced distances travelled and time taken to collect water, and that increased quantities of water are collected and used. While the majority of respondents (95.6%) used the domestic water project source, the quantities allowed per household (125 l which translates to an average of 20.8 l per person) were insufficient and therefore were supplemented with harvested rainwater (57.8%), water from a polluted river (17.8%), and water from a dam (2.2%). Increased water quantities have permitted more baths and washing of clothes and hands, but significant proportions of the population still skip hygienic practices such as keeping water for washing hands inside or near toilet facilities (40%) and washing hands (20%). The study concludes that the water supply project has permitted and improved hygienic practices but not sufficiently. The health benefits of safe domestic water supplies are hampered by insufficient quantities of water availed through the projects, possible contamination of the water in the house, poor hygienic behaviours and lack of appropriate sanitation measures by some households. There is a need to provide sufficient quantities of safe water to meet all domestic demands. Domestic water supply must be accompanied by appropriate sanitation and hygienic education.

Peter, Graciana

337

Robustness and uncertainties in global water scarcity projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water scarcity is both a natural and human-made phenomenon and defined as the condition where there are insufficient water resources to satisfy long-term average requirements. Many regions of the world are affected by this chronic imbalance between renewable water resources and water demand leading to depletion of surface water and groundwater stocks. Total freshwater abstraction today amounts to 3856 km³ of which 70% are withdrawn by the agricultural sector, followed by the industry (19%) and domestic sectors (11%) (FAO 2010). Population growth and consumption change have led to threefold increase in total water withdrawals in the last 60 years through a rising demand for electricity, industrial and agricultural products, and thus for water (Flörke et al. 2013). The newly developed "Shared Socio-Economic Pathways" (SSPs) project global population to increase up to 7.2 or even 14 billion people by 2100 (O'Neill et al. 2012); and meeting future water demand in sufficient quantity and quality is seen as one of the key challenges of the 21st century. So far, the assessment of regional and global water-scarcity patterns mostly focused on climate change impacts by driving global hydrological models with climate projections from different GCMs while little emphasis has been put on the water demand side. Changes in future water scarcity, however, are found to be mainly driven by changes in water withdrawals (Alcamo et al. 2007, Hanasaki et al. 2012), i.e. sensitivity to climate change outweighs exposure. Likewise, uncertainties have mainly been assessed in relation to the spread among climate scenarios and from global hydrological models (GHMs) (Haddeland et al. 2011, 2013; Schewe et al. 2013, Wada et al. 2013) while the contribution of water use modelling related to total uncertainty remains largely unstudied. The main objective of this study is to address the main uncertainties related to both climate and socio-economic impacts on global and regional water scarcity, and to provide robust and consistent conclusions to be used for decision making. The analysis is based on an ensemble of hydrological and water demand projections for the 21st century as simulated by three state-of-the-art global hydrological and water use models forced by climate projections of five global circulation models and socio-economic drivers corresponding to SSP2. The GHM-ensemble shows reasonable agreement in projected domestic and irrigation water withdrawals whilst there is a large discrepancy between the projections of industrial water withdrawals which translates into considerable uncertainty in temporal and spatial water-scarcity patterns. Consequently, impact assessments need to consider water demand as an additional dimension of uncertainty to assess both exposure and sensitivity to climate change.

Floerke, Martina; Eisner, Stephanie; Hanasaki, Naota; Wada, Yoshihide

2014-05-01

338

Handbook on the Economic Analysis of Water Supply Projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Handbook on the Economic Analysis of Water Supply Projects was written for non-economists working in the planning, implementation, and management of water supplies. Created by the Asian Development Bank, the handbook is a resource guide to help staff of government agencies, financing institutions, and water utilities understand the principles of economic analysis of water supply projects. Written in easy-to-understand language, the handbook consists of nine chapters, each with separate tables of contents, with titles such as "Least Cost Analysis," "Demand Analysis and Forecasting," and "Sensitivity and Risk Analysis." Each chapter is available only in .pdf format and must be downloaded separately. Also included are an appendix and glossary.

1999-01-01

339

61. VIEW OF SALT RIVER PROJECT WELL DISCHARGING WATER INTO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

61. VIEW OF SALT RIVER PROJECT WELL DISCHARGING WATER INTO THE ARIZONA CANAL NEAR 47TH AVENUE, LOOKING SOUTH Photographer: James Eastwood, July 1990 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

340

Storage Tanks-Marble Point  

NSF Publications Database

Background An Environmental Action Memorandum (EAM) for Placement of Steel Fuel Storage Tanks at Marble Point, Antarctica, was originally issued on January 28, 1991 by the Environmental Officer, NSF. Sidney Draggan Attachments 10 Percent Basis of Design Site Map Attachment 1 Marble Point Fuel Tank Design Marble Point, Antarctica 10% BASIS OF DESIGN I. Project Description and General Goals: Four, double-wall 25,000-gallon fuel tanks and three, single-wall 15,000-gallon tanks are to be ...

341

Construction Quality Control System of Key Water-Control Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of key water-control project is important to the improvement of national prosperity, stability and economic development. The quality control in the construction of the key water-control project is much a difficult work. So this paper tries to form a construction quality control system. It mainly contains construction quality pre-control system, construction quality process control system, optimization of the

Wang Qin; He Yabo

2010-01-01

342

UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan -- Shiprock, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is required for each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site to provide a basis for ground water and surface water sampling at disposal and former processing sites. This WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring stations at the Navaho Reservation in Shiprock, New Mexico, UMTRA Project site. The purposes of the water sampling at Shiprock for fiscal year (FY) 1994 are to (1) collect water quality data at new monitoring locations in order to build a defensible statistical data base, (2) monitor plume movement on the terrace and floodplain, and (3) monitor the impact of alluvial ground water discharge into the San Juan River. The third activity is important because the community of Shiprock withdraws water from the San Juan River directly across from the contaminated alluvial floodplain below the abandoned uranium mill tailings processing site.

Not Available

1994-02-01

343

UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Maybell, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) describes planned water sampling activities and provides the regulatory and technical basis for ground water sampling in 1994 at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Maybell, Colorado. The WSAP identifies and justifies sampling locations, analytical parameters, and sampling frequencies at the site. The ground water data will be used for site characterization and risk assessment. The regulatory basis for the ground water and surface water monitoring activities is derived from the EPA regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1993) and the proposed EPA standards of 1987 (52 FR 36000). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (TAD) (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site. This WSAP also includes a summary and the results of water sampling activities from 1989 through 1992 (no sampling was performed in 1993).

Not Available

1994-06-01

344

A collaborative design appraisal system for water treatment engineering projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water treatment projects usually involve large capital investment. Design appraisal is crucial to ensure project quality and cost effectiveness. The aim of design appraisal is to give the design team an opportunity to evaluate a proposed solution at the design stage when the benefits for change are high and cost is low. Design appraisal is a collaborative decision-making process that

M Sun; N Bakis; G Aouad

2003-01-01

345

Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Water Projects. Guidelines for Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is the second volume in a series of publications on community development programs. Guidelines are suggested for small-scale water projects that would benefit segments of the world's urban or rural poor. Strategies in project planning, implementation and evaluation are presented that emphasize environmental conservation and promote…

Tillman, Gus

346

Lessons Learned from a Third World Water and Sanitation Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The seven-step project cycle used in a water sanitation project in Belize from 1986-89 is described. The direct involvement of community organizations, village councils, family gatherings, parent-teacher organizations, political groups, Village Health Committees, and volunteer organizations is emphasized. (CW)

Jenkins-McLean, Terri

1991-01-01

347

Efficacy of diflubenzuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, against Culex pipiens larvae in septic tank water.  

PubMed

The mosquito Culex pipiens L. is an important pest in urban and suburban areas in many parts of the world. Septic tanks are the most important habitats supporting the production of this species in the city of Antalya, southwestern Turkey. Diflubenzuron, in a 25% wettable powder (Du-dim 25 WP), and a 4% granular formulation (Du-dim 4 G) was evaluated against late 2nd to early 3rd instars of Cx. pipiens in single-family septic tanks. Both formulations were tested at 0.01, 0.02, and 0.03 mg (AI)/liter. The results indicated that both formulations applied at the rate of 0.02 and 0.03 mg (AI)/liter achieved 100% adult inhibition, at intervals of 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after treatment. Septic tanks treated with 0.01 mg (AI)/liter WP formulation resulted in complete (100%) adult inhibition through 14 days, whereas the G formulation gave the same effect through 21 days posttreatment at this rate. PMID:16878422

Cetin, H; Yanikoglu, A; Cilek, J E

2006-06-01

348

TA-2 Water Boiler Reactor Decommissioning Project  

SciTech Connect

This final report addresses the Phase 2 decommissioning of the Water Boiler Reactor, biological shield, other components within the biological shield, and piping pits in the floor of the reactor building. External structures and underground piping associated with the gaseous effluent (stack) line from Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Water Boiler Reactor were removed in 1985--1986 as Phase 1 of reactor decommissioning. The cost of Phase 2 was approximately $623K. The decommissioning operation produced 173 m{sup 3} of low-level solid radioactive waste and 35 m{sup 3} of mixed waste. 15 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.

Durbin, M.E. (ed.); Montoya, G.M.

1991-06-01

349

CALIFORNIA LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS  

EPA Science Inventory

Points represent Leaking Underground Storage Tanks (LUST) for the State of California. This database was developed and is maintained by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). Point locations represent tanks where leak events have occurred. Tank latitude-long...

350

Influence of the South-North Water Diversion Project and the mitigation projects on the water quality of Han River.  

PubMed

Situated in the central part of China, the Han River Basin is undergoing rapid social and economic development with some human interventions to be made soon which will profoundly influence the water environment of the basin. The integrated MIKE 11 model system comprising of a rainfall-runoff model (NAM), a non-point load evaluation model (LOAD), a hydrodynamic model (MIKE 11 HD) and a water quality model (ECOLab) was applied to investigate the impact of the Middle Route of the South-North Water Diversion Project on the Han River and the effectiveness of the 2 proposed mitigation projects, the 22 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and the Yangtze-Han Water Diversion Project. The study concludes that business as usual will lead to a continuing rapid deterioration of the water quality of the Han River. Implementation of the Middle Route of the South-North Water Diversion Project in 2010 will bring disastrous consequence in the form of the remarkably elevated pollution level and high risk of algae bloom in the middle and lower reaches. The proposed WWTPs will merely lower the pollution level in the reach by around 10%, while the Yangtze-Han Water Diversion Project can significantly improve the water quality in the downstream 200-km reach. The results reveal that serious water quality problem will emerge in the middle reach between Xiangfan and Qianjiang in the future. Implementation of the South-North Water Diversion Project (phase II) in 2030 will further exacerbate the problem. In order to effectively improve the water quality of the Han River, it is suggested that nutrient removal processes should be adopted in the proposed WWTPs, and the pollution load from the non-point sources, especially the load from the upstream Henan Province, should be effectively controlled. PMID:18799199

Zhu, Y P; Zhang, H P; Chen, L; Zhao, J F

2008-11-15

351

8. VIEW FROM NORTHWEST OF CONDENSATE STORAGE TANK (LEFT), PRIMARY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW FROM NORTHWEST OF CONDENSATE STORAGE TANK (LEFT), PRIMARY WATER STORAGE TANK (CENTER), CANAL WATER STORAGE TANK (RIGHT) (LOCATIONS E,F,D) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

352

Integrated Surface and Ground Water modeling of a tank cascaded sub basin using physically based model in a semi-arid region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrological Modeling of tank (small reservoirs) cascaded sub-basin of a semi-arid region is a complex process. Physically based approach can simulate the various processes in surface, unsaturated and saturated ground water zones of such sub basin in an integrated manner. The objectives of the study are (i) to characterize the study area to replicate the physical conditions of surface and saturated zones (ii) to carryout overland flow routing of a tank cascaded basin using physically based modular approach (iii) To simulate the ground water levels in the unconfined aquifer (iv) to study the surface and groundwater dynamics on incorporation of tank cascades in the integrated model. An integrated, physically based model MIKE 11 & MIKE SHE was applied to study the hydrological processes of a tank cascaded semi-arid basin in which flow through tanks were modeled using MIKE 11 and coupled with MIKE SHE in-order to best represent the surface water dynamics in a distributed manner. Sindapalli Uppodai sub-basin, Southern Tamilnadu, India is chosen as study area. There are 15 tanks connected in series forming a tank cascade. Other tanks and depressions in the sub basin are also considered for the study and their effectiveness were analysed. DEM was obtained from SRTM data. The maps such as drainage network, land use and soil are prepared. Soil sampling was carried out. The time series data of rainfall and climate parameters are given as input. The characterization of unconfined aquifer formation was done by Geo-Resistivity survey. 71 observation and pumping wells are monitored within and periphery of sub basin which are used for calibration of the model. The flow routing over the land is done by MIKE SHE's Overland Flow Module, using the diffusive wave approximation of the Saint Venant equation. The hydrograph of routed runoff from the tank cascaded catchment was obtained. The spatial and temporal variation of hydraulic head of the saturated ground water zone is simulated mathematically by three dimensional Darcy equation through ground water solver of MIKE SHE. Comprehensive budgeting of surface and ground water was made which will help the planners towards conserving and managing the scarce resources on a micro watershed level.

Ilampooranan, I.; Muthiah, K.; Athikesavan, R.

2013-05-01

353

Native Waters: An American Indian Water Resource Education Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This community education initiative supports the efforts of Native American tribal leaders, educators, and students to develop contemporary, scientifically accurate, and culturally sensitive water education resources, programs, and networking opportunities. A traveling exhibit provides a Native American point of view on protection and conservation of water resources. A teachers' guide is provided to accompany the exhibit. Other materials include learning opportunities for students and educators, news articles, publications, scholarship information, and links to related information.

2004-01-01

354

FY2003 Visual examination of In Tank and Tank annuli at 241-SY tank farm  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the completion of the FY 2003 in-tank and annulus video inspections for the 241-SY tank farms. Representative photos of observed anomalies, water-streaks, corrosion deposits, pitting, and in-tank strains on the 241-SY-101, 102 & 103

AFTANAS, B.L.

2003-07-08

355

UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Tuba City, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Tuba City, Arizona, are described in the following sections of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP). This plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the stations routinely monitored at the site. The ground water data are used for site characterization and risk assessment. The regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and the final EPA standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), and the most effective technical approach for the site.

NONE

1996-02-01

356

BELTWAY 8 WETLAND WATER QUALITY PROJECT: CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS FOR STORM WATER POLISHING AND WETLAND MITIGATION BANKING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Harris County Flood Control District is implementing a wetland mitigation bank project that includes highway runoff as a significant water source. Part of this project is being implemented in cooperation with the Texas Department of Transportation through funding from the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act for water quality improvement. This collaborative effort includes treatment and final polishing of storm

Robert Knight; Robert Adams; C OBRIEN; Eduardo Davis

1998-01-01

357

SPRING_TANK  

EPA Science Inventory

This point coverage shows springs and water tanks on Salt River Indian Reservation in Arizona. This coverage was digitized off of USGS 7.5 minute quad maps by the Phoenix office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. ...

358

Measured performance of a solar augmented heat pump/chiller system with thermal storage in tanks of stratified water  

SciTech Connect

The performance of the heating and cooling system in a building designed to illustrate energy conservation, solar energy use and thermal storage for electric load management and energy conservation was monitored for a period of 20 months, beginning in January 1981. Solar energy was employed to augment the heating energy obtained by heat recovery using electric-driven reciprocating heat pump/chillers and an air-to-air heat exchanger. Solar energy was gathered by 289 m/sup 2/ (3110 ft/sup 2/) of evacuated tube collectors on the roof of the building, which has a gross floor area of 5330 m/sup 2/ (57,350 ft/sup 2/). The fractions of the total active heating load, including air-to-air heat recovery, supplied by solar energy for the one partial and one completed heating season for which results were obtained, were 50 and 42 percent, respectively. Stratified water tanks were used in the heating season to store excess solar energy and both heating and cooling capacity generated by the heat pump/chillers. During the cooling season, the tanks were used to store cooling capacity generated by the chillers. An economic analysis using the results for energy consumption obtained from this building indicated that the solar system was not economically attractive, despite its encouraging technical performance. Thermal storage for electric load management was attractive for moderate costs of capital.

Wildin, M.W.

1983-01-01

359

Perched-Water Evaluation for the Deep Vadose Zone Beneath the B, BX, and BY Tank Farms Area of the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

Perched-water conditions have been observed in the vadose zone above a fine-grained zone that is located a few meters above the water table within the B, BX, and BY Tank Farms area. The perched water contains elevated concentrations of uranium and technetium-99. This perched-water zone is important to consider in evaluating the future flux of contaminated water into the groundwater. The study described in this report was conducted to examine the perched-water conditions and quantitatively evaluate 1) factors that control perching behavior, 2) contaminant flux toward groundwater, and 3) associated groundwater impact.

Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Carroll, KC; Chronister, Glen B.

2013-06-28

360

Secondary containment large fertilizer storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

The large quantities of fertilizer and pesticide, which are handled by retail facilities, have made these operations the target of regulations aimed at protecting water supplies. These regulations and dealers' desire to protect water supplies have made environmental protection a primary concern. Currently, nine states have adopted regulations which require secondary containment of fertilizers and agrichemicals. An additional seven states are developing regulations. Volume requirements and performance specifications of secondary containment structures for fertilizer storage tanks are included in all regulations. Among the different containment problems presented by retail sites, the large tanks (tanks with capacities greater than 100,000 gallons) present the greatest challenge for design and cost evaluation to determine the most effective containment system. The objective of this paper is to provide secondary containment designs for large fertilizer tanks using readily available construction materials. These designs may be innovative to some extent, but they must incorporate field experience and knowledge from trials, errors, and successful installations for existing and newly constructed fertilizer storage tanks. Case studies are presented to indicate projected costs for these alternatives.

Waddell, E.L.; Broder, M.F.

1991-01-01

361

Secondary containment large fertilizer storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

The large quantities of fertilizer and pesticide, which are handled by retail facilities, have made these operations the target of regulations aimed at protecting water supplies. These regulations and dealers` desire to protect water supplies have made environmental protection a primary concern. Currently, nine states have adopted regulations which require secondary containment of fertilizers and agrichemicals. An additional seven states are developing regulations. Volume requirements and performance specifications of secondary containment structures for fertilizer storage tanks are included in all regulations. Among the different containment problems presented by retail sites, the large tanks (tanks with capacities greater than 100,000 gallons) present the greatest challenge for design and cost evaluation to determine the most effective containment system. The objective of this paper is to provide secondary containment designs for large fertilizer tanks using readily available construction materials. These designs may be innovative to some extent, but they must incorporate field experience and knowledge from trials, errors, and successful installations for existing and newly constructed fertilizer storage tanks. Case studies are presented to indicate projected costs for these alternatives.

Waddell, E.L.; Broder, M.F.

1991-12-31

362

UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Monument Valley, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

The Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Cane Valley is a former uranium mill that has undergone surface remediation in the form of tailings and contaminated materials removal. Contaminated materials from the Monument Valley (Arizona) UMTRA Project site have been transported to the Mexican Hat (Utah) UMTRA Project site for consolidation with the Mexican Hat tailings. Tailings removal was completed in February 1994. Three geologic units at the site contain water: the unconsolidated eolian and alluvial deposits (alluvial aquifer), the Shinarump Conglomerate (Shinarump Member), and the De Chelly Sandstone. Water quality analyses indicate the contaminant plume has migrated north of the site and is mainly in the alluvial aquifer. An upward hydraulic gradient in the De Chelly Sandstone provides some protection to that aquifer. This water sampling and analysis plan recommends sampling domestic wells, monitor wells, and surface water in April and September 1994. The purpose of sampling is to continue periodic monitoring for the surface program, evaluate changes to water quality for site characterization, and provide data for the baseline risk assessment. Samples taken in April will be representative of high ground water levels and samples taken in September will be representative of low ground water levels. Filtered and nonfiltered samples will be analyzed for plume indicator parameters and baseline risk assessment parameters.

Not Available

1994-04-01

363

Soil Management Plan For The Potable Water System Upgrades Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This plan describes and applies to the handling and management of soils excavated in support of the Y-12 Potable Water Systems Upgrades (PWSU) Project. The plan is specific to the PWSU Project and is intended as a working document that provides guidance consistent with the 'Soil Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex' (Y\\/SUB\\/92-28B99923C-Y05) and the 'Record

Field

2007-01-01

364

Environmental management plan (EMP) for Melamchi water supply project, Nepal.  

PubMed

More than 1.5 million people live in the Kathmandu valley. The valley is facing an extreme shortage of water supply. At the same time the demand is escalating rapidly. To address this issue of scarcity of water, the government of Nepal has proposed a project of inter-basin transfer of water from Melamchi River located 40 km north-east of the Kathmandu valley. The project will cover two districts and three municipalities and will potentially have significant impacts on the environment. In accordance with the Environmental Protection Regulation of Nepal (1997), the Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP) has undergone an EIA during the feasibility study stage of the proposed project. The recommendations contained in the EIA were integrated into the project design for implementation in 2006. This paper summarizes the background of MWSP, the environmental concerns described in the EIA and the status of Environmental Management Plan (EMP) developed to address environmental compliance and other issues involving participation and support of the local people. This paper also provides some lessons to learn on the modalities of addressing the demands and grievances of the local people concerning environmental management. PMID:18157611

Khadka, Ram B; Khanal, Anil B

2008-11-01

365

OHMSETT (Oil and Hazardous Materials Simulated Environmental Test Tank) skimmer test in ice-infested waters  

SciTech Connect

The increase in petroleum-development activities in the Arctic region has raised concerns over potential oil spills during the broken-ice season. Currently, exploratory drilling for oil and gas is restricted during this season due to the lack of oil-spill cleanup methods that have been proven effective in broken-ice fields. Test programs have been conducted at the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Oil and Hazardous Materials Simulated Environmental Test Tank to determine the feasibility of cold-weather testing; and to evaluate various oil spill cleanup methods that are being considered for use in the Arctic. This paper describes a test program conducted to determine the practicality of using a catamaran-mounted rope mop skimmer for spill cleanup in broken ice fields.

Shum, J.S.; Borst, M.

1984-11-01

366

Top-Down, Bottom-Up Diffusion Experiments in a Water Convection Tank.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-eddy simulation (LES) results indicate that turbulent scalar diffusion in the convective atmospheric boundary layer (CBL) has interesting properties. A scalar introduced into the bottom of the CBL with no flux through the top (bottom-up diffusion) has a radically different eddy diffusivity profile than a scalar introduced at the CBL top with zero flux through the surface (top-down diffusion).To test these LES results, a set of experiments was designed and carried out in a replica of the original Deardorff-Willis laboratory convection tank. The authors measured mean gradients and inferred flux profiles for two scalars, temperature, and dye concentration. Using these data, vertical profiles of the top-down, bottom-up gradient functions and eddy diffusivities are calculated. Experimental results for these profiles are in good agreement with the LES predictions.

Piper, M.; Wyngaard, J. C.; Snyder, W. H.; Lawson, R. E., Jr.

1995-10-01

367

Project W-211, initial tank retrieval systems, description of operations for 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of the Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is to provide systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes stored in underground double-shell tanks (DSTS) for transfer to alternate storage, evaporation, pretreatment or treatment, while concurrently reducing risks associated with safety watch list and other DSTs. This Description of Operations (DOO) defines the control philosophy for the waste retrieval system for tanks 241-AP-102 (AP-102) and 241-AP-104 (AP-104). This DOO will provide a basis for the detailed design of the Retrieval Control System (RCS) for AP-102 and AP-104 and establishes test criteria for the RCS. The test criteria will be used during qualification testing and acceptance testing to verify operability.

RIECK, C.A.

1999-02-25

368

Water development projects and marital violence: experiences from rural Bangladesh.  

PubMed

In this study, we explored the implications of a groundwater development project on women's workload and their experience of marital violence in a Bangladesh village. We believe that the project facilitated irrigation water but also that it resulted in seasonal domestic water shortages. Men used deep motorized pumps for irrigation, and women used shallow handpumps for domestic purposes. Many handpumps dried out, so women had to walk to distant wells. This increased their workload and challenged their possibilities of fulfilling household obligations, thereby increasing the risk of normative marital male violence against women as a punishment for their failure. PMID:22325022

Karim, K M Rabiul; Emmelin, Maria; Resurreccion, Bernadette P; Wamala, Sarah

2012-01-01

369

Measurements of the Three Components of the Water Flow Around a Hydrodynamic Model in a Towing Tank with a 2D Laser Doppler Velocimeter System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measuring the three components of a water flow in a towing tank can be done by using a two component Laser Doppler Velocimeter. This device is used to measure the velocity distribution and to study the boundary layer around the back half of a 1/12th scale...

C. Couchman D. R. Rajaona

1992-01-01

370

Results from use of thermally stratified water tanks to heat and cool the Mechanical Engineering Building at the University of New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results obtained over two cooling seasons and about one and two-thirds heating seasons in 1980, 1981 and 1982 from monitoring a heating and cooling system that employed thermal storage in stratified water tanks for heat recovery, solar energy storage and elecric load management are presented. This system, which is installed in the Mechanical Engineering Building at The University of New

Wildin

1983-01-01

371

TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT  

SciTech Connect

Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

2009-08-11

372

Technology Review of Nondestructive Methods for Examination of Water Intrusion Areas on Hanford’s Double-Shell Waste Tanks  

SciTech Connect

Under a contract with CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc., PNNL has performed a review of the NDE technology and methods for examination of the concrete dome structure of Hanford’s double-shell tanks. The objective was to provide a matrix of methodologies that could be evaluated based on applicability, ease of deployment, and results that could provide information that could be used in the ongoing structural analysis of the tank dome. PNNL performed a technology evaluation with the objective of providing a critical literature review for all applicable technologies based on constraints provided by CH2M HILL. These constraints were not mandatory, but were desired. These constraints included performing the evaluation without removing any soil from the top of the tank, or if necessary, requesting that the hole diameter needed to gain access to evaluate the top of the tank structure to be no greater than approximately 12-in. in diameter. PNNL did not address the details of statistical sampling requirements as they depend on an unspecified risk tolerance. PNNL considered these during the technology evaluation and have reported the results in the remainder of this document. Many of the basic approaches to concrete inspection that were reviewed in previous efforts are still in use. These include electromagnetic, acoustic, radiographic, etc. The primary improvements in these tools have focused on providing quantitative image reconstruction, thus providing inspectors and analysts with three-dimensional data sets that allow for operator visualization of relevant abnormalities and analytical integration into structural performance models. Available instruments, such as radar used for bridge deck inspections, rely on post-processing algorithms and do not provide real-time visualization. Commercially available equipment only provides qualitative indications of relative concrete damage. It cannot be used as direct input for structural analysis to assess fitness for use and if necessary to de-rate critical components. There are currently no tools that automatically convert the NDE data to formats compatible with structural analysis programs. While radiographic techniques still provide significant advantages in spatial resolution, non-ionizing techniques are still preferred. Radar imagining in the 1–5 GHz has become the most useful. Unfortunately the algorithms and underlying assumptions used in these reconstructions are proprietary, and it is not possible to assess the quality and limitations of the analytical methods used to generate the derived structural data. The hypothesis that water intrusion may contribute to potential rebar corrosion of the tank domes provided the primary guidance in reviewing and evaluating available NDE technologies. Of primary concern is the need to employ technologies that provide the best opportunity for visualizing the rebar and providing quantitative data that can be integrated into structural analysis efforts to better understand and quantify the structural capacity of the domes. The conclusion is that an imaging system capable of locating and quantifying the distribution and conditions of the cement, aggregate, and rebar will provide the most valuable baseline upon which to build a case for the integrity of the structure. If successful, such a system would fulfill the need to incorporate valuable data into current structural load capacity analysis.

Watkins, Michael L.; Pardini, Allan F.

2008-05-09

373

Tank 241-SX-115 tank characterization plan  

SciTech Connect

This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Project, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-SX-115.

Sasaki, L.M.

1995-04-24

374

Dynamic model for oil slick dispersion into a water column—A wind-driven wave tank experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dynamic experiment for oil dispersion into a water column was performed with a 21 m long, 0.5 m wide, and 1 m high wind-driven wave tank. At wind velocity between 6 12 m/s and with the oil slick kept constant (about 1 ?m), the rate of the oil content increase in the water column could be approximated from the difference between the dispersion rate ( R) of the oil slick and the coagulation rate ( R') of the dispersed oil slick. Assuming the coagulation rate is directly proportional to the concentration of the water dispersed oil slick (i. e. R'-K *C), the integral form of the dynamic model can be expressed as C=R * [1-exp(- K *t)]/ K and parameters R and K can be regressed with a computer. The relative deviation of model results from the experimental data was mainly less than 10%. The oil slick dispersion rate ( R) had exponential relationship with the wind velocity ( U), and can be fitted with a formula R=A * ( U+1) B . The fitted constant of the coagulation rate, K(0.8 3.0* 10-3 min-1) did not have significant relationship with the wind velocity.

Lu, Xiankun; Li, Jing; Chen, Shuzhu

1993-06-01

375

Water Demand Projection and Distribution Methodology of the St. Johns River Water Management District for the 2008 District Water Supply Assessment and the 2010 District Water Supply Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) developed water demand projections to satisfy the need to determine existing legal uses,anticipated future needs, and existing and reasonably anticipated sources of water and conservation efforts. Thi...

2009-01-01

376

In-tank recirculating arsenic treatment system  

DOEpatents

A low-cost, water treatment system and method for reducing arsenic contamination in small community water storage tanks. Arsenic is removed by using a submersible pump, sitting at the bottom of the tank, which continuously recirculates (at a low flow rate) arsenic-contaminated water through an attached and enclosed filter bed containing arsenic-sorbing media. The pump and treatment column can be either placed inside the tank (In-Tank) by manually-lowering through an access hole, or attached to the outside of the tank (Out-of-Tank), for easy replacement of the sorption media.

Brady, Patrick V. (Albuquerque, NM); Dwyer, Brian P. (Albuquerque, NM); Krumhansl, James L. (Albuquerque, NM); Chwirka, Joseph D. (Tijeras, NM)

2009-04-07

377

Record of Decision: Madera Irrigation District Water Supply Enhancement Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Madera Irrigation District (MID) approved a Water Supply Enhancement Project (WSEP) located on the property known as Madera Ranch, west of the city of Madera, in Madera County, California in September 2005. MID adopted a Notice of Determination based on t...

2011-01-01

378

Computing the Water Quality Index: The Hudson River Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a science project at Booker T. Washington Middle School #54 (New York City) where seventh and eighth graders computed the Hudson River's water quality using ClarisWorks spreadsheets and MicroWorlds software. Students gained technology skills and public recognition, as well as scientific and environmental information. Includes sample…

Mihich, Orlando

1996-01-01

379

Waste conditioning for tank heel transfer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the research carried out at Florida International University's Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (FIU-HCET) for the fiscal year 1998 (FY98) under the Tank Focus Area (TFA) project 'Waste Conditioning for Tank Slurry Tr...

M. A. Ebadian

1999-01-01

380

76 FR 18780 - Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Benton...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Enhancement Project. The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) will be a joint lead agency with Reclamation in the...uncertainties have been addressed. In 2003, Reclamation and Ecology initiated the Yakima River Basin Water Storage...

2011-04-05

381

Lining avoids tank bottom replacement  

SciTech Connect

Steel petroleum storage tanks are susceptible to corrosion. The average corrosion rate of a carbon steel storage tank in crude oil service (at ambient temperatures) is more than 1 mil per year. Corrosion rates can accelerate quickly when a layer of water containing corrosive compounds, such as salt and sediment, settle to the bottom of a crude oil tank. Chlorides and other soluble salts in the water also generate a strong electrolyte that can further speed corrosion. External corrosion is another problem. For example, the bottom plates of an above-ground storage tank are vulnerable, especially if the tank is located close to the ocean or exposed to stray electrical currents in the soil. Some tanks have developed leaks in as little as five years. Faced with a quickly corroding tank bottom, tank maintenance engineers have two choices: replace it or reline it. Replacing a tank bottom can be a costly and time-consuming process. Relining the tank with a fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) coating system is the least-cost alternative. A properly applied FRP lining is likely to prevent tank bottom corrosion for up to 20 years. This article describes how thick-film linings (ranging from 60 to 65 mils thick) can control internal corrosion and leaks. Such linings have sufficient strength to bridge over small perforations and are not sensitive to internal pits and other surface irregularities.

LeBleu, J.B.; Hummel, B.

1993-11-01

382

Anaerobic on-site black water and kitchen waste treatment using UASB-septic tanks at low temperatures.  

PubMed

Anaerobic on-site treatment of black water (BW) and a mixture of black water and kitchen waste (BWKW) was studied in a two-phased upflow anaerobic sludge blanket septic tank (UASBst) at 10-20 degrees C. The processes were fed either continuously or discontinuously (twice per weekday). Moreover, BWKW was post-treated for nitrogen removal in an intermittently aerated moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) at 20 degrees C. Removal of total chemical oxygen demand (COD1) was efficient at minimum 90% with all three UASBst at all temperatures. Removal of dissolved COD (CODdis) was also high at approx. 70% with continuously fed BW and discontinuously fed BWKW, while with discontinuous BW feeding it was 20%. Temperature decrease had little effect on COD removals, though the need for phase 2 increased with decreasing temperature, especially with BWKW. Post-treatment of BWKW in MBBR resulted in approx. 50% nitrogen removal, but suffered from lack of carbon for denitrification. With carbon addition, removal of ca. 83% was achieved. PMID:16939095

Luostarinen, S; Rintala, J

2006-01-01

383

UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Falls City, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Surface remedial action will be completed at the Falls City, Texas, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site in the spring of 1994. Results of water sampling activity from 1989 to 1993 indicate that ground water contamination occurs primarily in the Deweesville/Conquista aquifer (the uppermost aquifer) and that the contamination migrates along four distinct contaminant plumes. Contaminated ground water from some wells in these regions has significantly elevated levels of aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, sulfate, and uranium. Contamination in the Dilworth aquifer was identified in monitor well 977 and in monitor well 833 at the southern edge of former tailings pile 4. There is no evidence that surface water quality in Tordilla and Scared Dog Creeks is impacted by tailings seepage. The following water sampling activities are planned for calendar year 1994: (1) Ground water sampling from 15 monitor wells to monitor the migration of the four major contaminant plumes within the Deweesville/Conquista aquifer. (2) Ground water sampling from five monitor wells to monitor contaminated and background ground water quality conditions in the Dilworth aquifer. Because of disposal cell construction activities, all plume monitor wells screened in the Dilworth aquifer were abandoned. No surface water locations are proposed for sampling. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the Deweesville/Conquista aquifer downgradient of the disposal cell. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents currently related to uranium processing activities and natural uranium mineralization. Water sampling is normally conducted biannually in late summer and midwinter.

Not Available

1994-02-01

384

Engineering study of 50 miscellaneous inactive underground radioactive waste tanks located at the Hanford Site, Washington  

SciTech Connect

This engineering study addresses 50 inactive underground radioactive waste tanks. The tanks were formerly used for the following functions associated with plutonium and uranium separations and waste management activities in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Site: settling solids prior to disposal of supernatant in cribs and a reverse well; neutralizing acidic process wastes prior to crib disposal; receipt and processing of single-shell tank (SST) waste for uranium recovery operations; catch tanks to collect water that intruded into diversion boxes and transfer pipeline encasements and any leakage that occurred during waste transfer operations; and waste handling and process experimentation. Most of these tanks have not been in use for many years. Several projects have, been planned and implemented since the 1970`s and through 1985 to remove waste and interim isolate or interim stabilize many of the tanks. Some tanks have been filled with grout within the past several years. Responsibility for final closure and/or remediation of these tanks is currently assigned to several programs including Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS), Environmental Restoration and Remedial Action (ERRA), and Decommissioning and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure (D&RCP). Some are under facility landlord responsibility for maintenance and surveillance (i.e. Plutonium Uranium Extraction [PUREX]). However, most of the tanks are not currently included in any active monitoring or surveillance program.

Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

1994-03-02

385

Source Assessment: Rail Tank Car, Tank Truck, and Drum Cleaning, State-of-the-Art.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document reviews the state of the art of air emissions and water pollutants from cleaning rail tank cars, tank trucks, and drums. Composition, quantity, and rate of emissions and pollutants are described. Rail tank cars, tank trucks, and drums are us...

D. E. Earley K. M. Tackett T. R. Blackwood

1978-01-01

386

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: RAIL TANK CAR, TANK TRUCK, AND DRUM CLEANING, STATE-OF-THE-ART  

EPA Science Inventory

This document reviews the state of the art of air emissions and water pollutants from cleaning rail tank cars, tank trucks, and drums. Composition, quantity, and rate of emissions and pollutants are described. Rail tank cars, tank trucks, and drums are used to transport chemical ...

387

El Furrial field miscible gas and water injection enhanced oil recovery project  

SciTech Connect

El Furrial field in the North of Monagas state was discovered in 1987, and originally contained approximately 6.9 million stock tank barrels of off in place. The principal operator, Lagoven S.A., has devoted intensive engineering studies to define the optimum exploitation strategy and maximize final recovery. As a result of these studies, production mechanisms were early identified and a reservoir pressure maintenance program was defined to increase the recovery factor and maintain production rates. Simultaneously with the implementation of a 450,000 barrels of water per day waterflood project, engineering studies were continued to determine the feasibility of a gas injection alternative to complement the water injection program. Those studies demonstrated that a highly efficient miscible displacement could be attained by injecting dry gas at current operational reservoir conditions (6500 psi and 280{degrees}F). Consequently, extensive laboratory work, geostatistical and deterministic reservoir description, and black oil miscible and compositional simulation were performed to define a miscible gas injection implementation plan. As a result it was concluded that major increase in reserves could be obtained by injection of all the produced gas in the field plus some make up gas, together with an expansion of the waterflood. In this paper the methodology, procedures and results of this interdisciplinary effort will be described.

Herbas, P.J.; Diamond, L.; Pedroza, T. [and others

1996-08-01

388

Thermal performance of an integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) with a storage tank equipped with radial fins of rectangular profile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal behavior of an integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) is numerically studied using the package Fluent 6.3. Based on the good agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data of Chaouachi and Gabsi (Renew Energy Revue 9(2):75-82, 2006), an attempt to improve this solar system operating was made by equipping the storage tank with radial fins of rectangular profile. A second 3D CFD model was developed and a series of numerical simulations were conducted for various SWH designs which differ in the depth of this extended surface for heat exchange. As the modified surface presents a higher characteristic length for convective heat transfer from the storage tank to the water, the fins equipped storage tank based SWH is determined to have a higher water temperature and a reduced thermal losses coefficient during the day-time period. Regarding the night operating of this water heater, the results suggest that the modified system presents higher thermal losses.

Chaabane, Monia; Mhiri, Hatem; Bournot, Philippe

2013-01-01

389

Development of a CFD Model for Secondary Final Settling Tanks in Water Pollution Control Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess performance and evaluate alternatives to improve efficiency of the New York City the Wards Island Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) FSTs at peak loads, a 3D CFD model has been developed. Fluent was utilized as the base platform, where sub-models of the Suspended Solids (SS), settling characteristics, density currents and SS flocculation were incorporated. This was supplemented by

Minwei Gong; Savvas Xanthos; Krish Ramalingam; John Fillos

2007-01-01

390

UMTRA Ground Water Project management action process document  

SciTech Connect

A critical U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission is to plan, implement, and complete DOE Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at facilities that were operated by or in support of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). These facilities include the 24 inactive processing sites the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.) identified as Title I sites, which had operated from the late 1940s through the 1970s. In UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings and directed the DOE to stabilize, dispose of, and control the tailings in a safe and environmentally sound manner. The UMTRA Surface Project deals with buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the processing sites and any associated vicinity properties (VP). Surface remediation at the processing sites will be completed in 1997 when the Naturita, Colorado, site is scheduled to be finished. The UMTRA Ground Water Project was authorized in an amendment to the UMTRCA (42 USC Section 7922(a)), when Congress directed DOE to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards. The UMTRA Ground Water Project addresses any contamination derived from the milling operation that is determined to be present at levels above the EPA standards.

NONE

1996-03-01

391

Tank characterization report for Single-Shell Tank T-102  

SciTech Connect

Tank 241-T-102 (hereafter referred to as T-102) is a 530,000 gallon single-shell waste tank located in the 200 West T Tank farm at the Hanford Site. In 1993, two cores were taken from this tank and analysis of the cores was conducted by Battelle`s 325-A Laboratory. Characterization of the waste in this tank was conducted to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-44-05. Tank T-102 was constructed in 1943 and put into service in 1945; it is the second tank in a cascade system with Tanks T-101 and T-103. During its process history, Tank T-102 received mostly Metal Waste (MW) from the Bismuth Phosphate Process and Coating Waste (CW) from the REDOX Process via the cascade from Tank T-101 and in transfers from Tank C-102. In 1956, the MW was removed from T-102 by pumping and sluicing`. This tank was declared inactive and retired from service in 1976. In 1981, intrusion prevention and stabilization measures were taken to isolate the waste in T-102. The tank presently contains approximately 121,100 liters (32,000 gallons) of liquid and sludge-like waste. Historically, there are no unreviewed safety issues associated with this tank and none were revealed after reviewing the data from the latest core sampling event in 1993. An extensive set of analytical measurements was performed on the core composites. The major constituents (>0.5 wt%) of the waste are water, aluminum, sodium, iron, and nitrate, ordered from the largest concentration to the smallest. The concentrations and inventories of these and other constituents are given. The results of the chemical analyses have been compared to the dangerous waste codes in the Washington Dangerous Waste Regulations (WAC 173-303).

Remund, K.M.; Hartley, S.A.; Toth, J.J.; Tingey, J.M.; Heasler, P.G.; Ryan, F.M.; Simpson, B.C.

1994-09-01

392

Identification of single-shell tank in-tank hardware obstructions to retrieval at Hanford Site Tank Farms  

SciTech Connect

Two retrieval technologies, one of which uses robot-deployed end effectors, will be demonstrated on the first single-shell tank (SST) waste to be retrieved at the Hanford Site. A significant impediment to the success of this technology in completing the Hanford retrieval mission is the presence of unique tank contents called in-tank hardware (ITH). In-tank hardware includes installed and discarded equipment and various other materials introduced into the tank. This paper identifies those items of ITH that will most influence retrieval operations in the arm-based demonstration project and in follow-on tank operations within the SST farms.

Ballou, R.A.

1994-10-01

393

Tank-farm construction: Tank-soil interaction in tank-farm construction  

SciTech Connect

This article illustrates examples of tank-soil interaction as a result of utilization of the above concepts. The need to address tank-soil interaction arises due to concern for two phenomena, namely, stability and settlement. If adequate soil bearing is not available, soil will move out from under the tank causing the tank to fail. Settlement of soil can create stresses leading to rupture of tank bottom, shell buckling, or ovality of tank which can inhibit the movement of the roof in floating-roof tanks. This article surveyed the interaction of tank and soil as the result of soil-improvement approaches. The soil improvement is time dependent. Tank-soil interaction should be monitored by using geotechnical instrumentation and evaluation methods to fulfill two underlying objectives. One, the bearing capacity of soil at any time during the soil improvement program should be higher than applied load. Two, the magnitude and the rate of soil settlement should be such that it does not detrimentally affect the structural integrity of the tank. The soil behavior should be monitored with respect to pore water pressure, vertical settlement, and lateral movement. The tank behavior should be monitored with respect to bottom rupture, shell buckling, ovality, roof binding, and failure of ringwall foundation.

Ahmed, S.

1984-01-30

394

The NASA Energy and Water Cycle Extreme (NEWSE) Integration Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Skillful predictions of water and energy cycle extremes (flood and drought) are elusive. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for water and energy extremes, and to make decisive progress in predicting these extremes, the collaborative NASA Energy and Water cycle Extremes (NEWSE) Integration Project, is studying these extremes in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during 2006-2007, including their relationships with continental and global scale processes, and assessment of their predictability on multiple space and time scales. It is our hypothesis that an integrative analysis of observed extremes which reflects the current understanding of the role of SST and soil moisture variability influences on atmospheric heating and forcing of planetary waves, incorporating recently available global and regional hydro- meteorological datasets (i.e., precipitation, water vapor, clouds, etc.) in conjunction with advances in data assimilation, can lead to new insights into the factors that lead to persistent drought and flooding. We will show initial results of this project, whose goals are to provide an improved definition, attribution and prediction on sub-seasonal to interannual time scales, improved understanding of the mechanisms of decadal drought and its predictability, including the impacts of SST variability and deep soil moisture variability, and improved monitoring/attributions, with transition to applications; a bridging of the gap between hydrological forecasts and stakeholders (utilization of probabilistic forecasts, education, forecast interpretation for different sectors, assessment of uncertainties for different sectors, etc.).

House, P. R.; Lapenta, W.; Schiffer, R.

2008-01-01

395

11. Station Accumulator Tanks, view to the northeast. The tanks ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Station Accumulator Tanks, view to the northeast. The tanks are visible along the right side of photograph, opposite a wall of the Unit 1 turbine pit. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

396

Integrated water research in the GLOWA Volta Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Volta Basin covers 400,000 km2 of the West African savanna. The river feeds Lake Volta, that provides over 95% of the electricity in Ghana and has the largest surface of any man-made lake in the world. The rural population (per capita income US600/year) increasingly turns to small scale irrigation development to improve the returns on their agricultural activities and reduce dependence on the highly variable rainfall. The irrigation development stands in direct competition with the hydropower generation that drives development in the more urbanized South. The GLOWA Volta Projects seeks to develop a Decision Support System (DSS) for the management of water resources in the basin under changing global and regional conditions. The DSS is built upon a scientific analysis of all factors that affect water supply and demand. To understand all aspects of the hydrological cycle in the Volta Basin one needs to take physical (atmosphere, land, water) as well as social aspects (population, economic development, institutions) into account. The major scientific challenge of the GLOWA Volta Project is the integrated analysis of the bio- physical and socio-economic factors that affect the hydrological cycle in the Volta Basin. The presentation introduces the GLOWA Volta Project, focusing on activities that integrate different disciplines. Specifically, we present three sets of activities: (1) the coupling between meteorology and hydrology, (2) development of a Common Sampling Frame for the collection of socio-economic and bio-physical data, and (3) a water use optimization model that incorporates economy, hydrology, and institutional analysis. Finally, we look at recent initiatives in the basin that link science, stakeholders, and policy makers.

van de Giesen, N.; Andreini, M.; Berger, T.; Iskandarani, M.; Kunstmann, H.; Park, S.; Vlek, P.

2003-04-01

397

Development of concept for concurrent biocide generation and water system purification. [with application to Skylab water tanks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attempt was made to construct an electrochemical system, using iodine, for water purification in Skylab. Data cover measurements of iodine production rates, effect of electrode size and geometry on iodine production rates, and feasibility of using stainless steels as reference electrodes.

1974-01-01

398

Tank characterization data report: Tank 241-C-112  

SciTech Connect

Tank 241-C-112 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in March 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-112 were conducted to support the resolution of the Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. Analysis of core samples obtained from tank 241-C-112 strongly indicates that the fuel concentration in the tank waste will not support a propagating exothermic reaction. It is probable that tank 241-C-112 exceeds the 1,000 g-mol inventory criteria established for the Ferrocyanide USQ; however, extensive energetic analysis of the waste has determined a maximum exothermic value of -9 cal/g dry waste. This value is substantially below any levels of concern (-75 cal/g). In addition, an investigation of potential mechanisms to generate concentration levels of radionuclides high enough to be of concern was performed. No credible mechanism was postulated that could initiate the formation of such concentration levels in the tank. Tank 241-C-112 waste is a complex material made up primarily of water and inert salts. The insoluble solids are a mixture of phosphates, sulfates, and hydroxides in combination with aluminum, calcium, iron, nickel, and uranium. Disodium nickel ferrocyanide and sodium cesium nickel ferrocyanide probably exist in the tank; however, there appears to have been significant degradation of this material since the waste was initially settled in the tank.

Simpson, B.C.; Borsheim, G.L.; Jensen, L.

1993-04-01

399

Reviews Equipment: LabQuest 2 Equipment: Rubens' Tube Equipment: Ripple Strobe Tank Book: God and the Atom Book: Magnificent Principia, Exploring Isaac Newton's Masterpiece Book: Talking Science: Language, Learning, and Values Classroom Video: Maxwell's Equations Book: Exploring Quantum Physics Through Hands-on Projects Web Watch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

WE RECOMMEND LabQuest 2 New logger now includes mobile data sharing Rubens' Tube Sturdy Rubens' tube ramps up the beat Ripple Strobe Tank Portable ripple tank makes waves in and out of the lab God and the Atom Expertly told story of the influence of atomism Maxwell's Equations Video stands the test of time Exploring Quantum Physics Through Hands-on Projects Mixture of theory and experiment hits the spot WORTH A LOOK Magnificent Principia, Exploring Isaac Newton's Masterpiece The tricky task of summarizing Newton's iconic work Talking Science: Language, Learning, and Values Interesting book tackles communication in the classroom WEB WATCH Interactive website plans a trip to Mars ... documentary peers into telescopes ... films consider the density of water

2013-11-01

400

Safety valve and system for hydrocarbon storage tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A safety system is described for a hydrocarbon storage tank having a floating roof, a water drain in the roof, a drain opening from the tank, and a flexible line connecting the roof drain to the tank drain for carrying off rain water collected on the floating roof and preventing leakage of hydrocarbon liquid and through the tank drain. The

R. E. Kinghorn; M. Schulze

1986-01-01

401

CHARACTERIZATION OF TANK 17 RESIDUAL WASTE  

SciTech Connect

Plans are to close Tank 17, a type IV waste tank in the F-area Tank Farm, by filling it with pumpable backfills. Most of the waste was removed from the tank in the late 1980s, and the remainder of the waste was removed in a short spray washing campaign that began on 11 April 1997. More details on the planned closure can be found in the Closure Plan for the High-Level Waste (HLW) Tanks and the specific closure module for Tank 17. To show that closure of the tank is environmentally sound, a performance evaluation has been performed for Tank 17. The performance evaluation projected the concentration of contaminants at various locations and times after closure. This report documents the basis for the inventories of contaminants that were used in the Tank 17 performance evaluation.

D'Entremont, P; Thomas Caldwell, T

1997-09-22

402

Science in an Integrated Primary School Project on Water: Part 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes water-related activities in an elementary school science project. These activities focus on electric generators, rainfall, erosion, floating, water conservation, and other areas. Brief comments on developing such a project are included. (JN)

Ward, Alan

1984-01-01

403

Code check floating tank roofs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that both API 650 and BS 2654 contain criteria for design of single deck pontoon-type tank floating roofs. The codes states that the floating roof shall have sufficient buoyancy to remain afloat under the following conditions: tank content specific gravity is 0.7; the roof center deck is punctured; any two adjacent pontoon compartments are punctured; no water

Hassan

1992-01-01

404

Project Zoom IN, Citizen Perspectives on Climate and Water Resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perspective on climate and water resources can come from the top, scientists sharing invaluable data and findings about how climate dynamics function or quantifications of systems in flux. However, citizens are endowed with an equally as powerful tool for insight: ground zero experience. Project Zoom In is a nascent project undertaken by Global Media Forge to empower youth, educators and scientists with tools to reach the media with locale-specific imagery and perspective of climate dynamics and evidence of anecdotal resource management of liquid gold: fresh water. Zoom In is taking root in Colorado but is designed for national/international scaling. This effort has three limbs: (1) student, scientist and educator workshops teaching invaluable video production skills (2) engaging Colorado school systems to stimulate submission of clips to full video productions to our database, and (3) embedding the findings on a taxonomic GIS interface on-line. The website will be invaluable in classrooms and link network media to individuals with firsthand viewpoints on change.; Climate and Water Resources

Glaser, J. P.

2012-12-01

405

Water banks and environmental water demands: Case of the Klamath Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Demand for water for environmental uses, such as to provide critical habitat for endangered species, has increased competition for agricultural water supplies. In the western United States, a significant portion of these water demands is to increase in-stream flows. Given that Endangered Species Act (ESA) requirements supersede prior appropriation rights, ESA water demands have the potential to reduce agricultural diversions, particularly in times of drought. This situation occurred in 2001 in the Klamath Basin of southern Oregon and northern California: an ESA-related judicial ruling on the needs of several endangered fish species resulted in a major reduction in water diversions to the Klamath Reclamation Project. Using the Klamath Basin as an empirical backdrop, this study examines the potential benefits and challenges of water banks to mitigate damages to appropriative water rights holders and to provide water for environmental purposes. Results from this case study indicate that water banks are a potentially cost effective way to meet environmental needs. This study, however, illustrated several of the challenges of implementing a water bank given that modifications to the proposed bank are needed to achieve cost efficiency. Specifically, expanded trading is needed, both intraproject and interproject, to achieve the objectives of providing environmental water at minimum cost to society.

Burke, Susan M.; Adams, Richard M.; Wallender, Wesley W.

2004-09-01

406

Calculation note: project W-320 primary ventilation air flowrequirements for mitigation of steady state flammable gasconcentrations in the headspaces of tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This calculation note analyzes headspace concentrations of hydrogen dependent upon assumed ventilation flow rates provided for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102. The analyses are based on measured or estimated steady state hydrogen release rates. Tank 241-C-...

S. D. Estey

1997-01-01

407

Florida River Project: Measuring discharge, sediment, and water chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the data collection portion of a semester-long project. Before this lab, students will have graphed discharge data for one previous water year, graphed similar data collected by classes during a previous year, written one-page explanations of the techniques that they will be using, and speculated about the results they expect to get. After this lab, their data will be shared with other lab sections, which will have collected similar data at other sites along the same river. Each research group will present their preliminary data to the class during a later lab meeting, and the class will discuss how the different types of data relate to one another. The project culminates in a final paper (one per research group).

Hannula, Kim

408

Global Change adaptation in water resources management: the Water Change project.  

PubMed

In recent years, water resources management has been facing new challenges due to increasing changes and their associated uncertainties, such as changes in climate, water demand or land use, which can be grouped under the term Global Change. The Water Change project (LIFE+ funding) developed a methodology and a tool to assess the Global Change impacts on water resources, thus helping river basin agencies and water companies in their long term planning and in the definition of adaptation measures. The main result of the project was the creation of a step by step methodology to assess Global Change impacts and define strategies of adaptation. This methodology was tested in the Llobregat river basin (Spain) with the objective of being applicable to any water system. It includes several steps such as setting-up the problem with a DPSIR framework, developing Global Change scenarios, running river basin models and performing a cost-benefit analysis to define optimal strategies of adaptation. This methodology was supported by the creation of a flexible modelling system, which can link a wide range of models, such as hydrological, water quality, and water management models. The tool allows users to integrate their own models to the system, which can then exchange information among them automatically. This enables to simulate the interactions among multiple components of the water cycle, and run quickly a large number of Global Change scenarios. The outcomes of this project make possible to define and test different sets of adaptation measures for the basin that can be further evaluated through cost-benefit analysis. The integration of the results contributes to an efficient decision-making on how to adapt to Global Change impacts. PMID:22883209

Pouget, Laurent; Escaler, Isabel; Guiu, Roger; Mc Ennis, Suzy; Versini, Pierre-Antoine

2012-12-01

409

Projecting Future Water Levels of the Laurentian Great Lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laurentian Great Lakes are the largest freshwater system on Earth, containing 84% of North America's freshwater. The lakes are a valuable economic and recreational resource, valued at over 62 billion in annual wages and supporting a 7 billion fishery. Shipping, recreation, and coastal property values are significantly impacted by water level variability, with large economic consequences. Great Lakes water levels fluctuate both seasonally and long-term, responding to natural and anthropogenic climate changes. Due to the integrated nature of water levels, a prolonged small change in any one of the net basin supply components: over-lake precipitation, watershed runoff, or evaporation from the lake surface, may result in important trends in water levels. We utilize the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics's Regional Climate Model Version 4.5.6 to dynamically downscale three global global climate models that represent a spread of potential future climate change for the region to determine whether the climate models suggest a robust response of the Laurentian Great Lakes to anthropogenic climate change. The Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate Version 5 (MIROC5), the National Centre for Meteorological Research Earth system model (CNRM-CM5), and the Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4) project different regional temperature increases and precipitation change over the next century and are used as lateral boundary conditions. We simulate the historical (1980-2000) and late-century periods (2080-2100). Upon model evaluation we will present dynamically downscaled projections of net basin supply changes for each of the Laurentian Great Lakes.

Bennington, V.; Notaro, M.; Holman, K.

2013-12-01

410

ThinkTank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a free tool to help students develop and narrow research questions for project-based learning. ThinkTank allows students to create an outline of topics and subtopics, narrow their choices, and export topics to NoteStar, a related cost-free tool. ThinkTank is part of the collection of online tools available through 4Teachers.org, founded to support integration of technology in the K-12 classroom. ***PLEASE NOTE: Some of the pages within this resource are sponsored by commercial vendors.

2009-11-19

411

Environmental fate of Ra in cation-exchange regeneration brine waste disposed to septic tanks, New Jersey Coastal Plain, USA: migration to the water table.  

PubMed

Fate of radium (Ra) in liquid regeneration brine wastes from water softeners disposed to septic tanks in the New Jersey Coastal Plain was studied. Before treatment, combined Ra ((226)Ra plus (228)Ra) concentrations (maximum, 1.54 Bq L(-1)) exceeded the 0.185 Bq L(-1) Maximum Contaminant Level in 4 of 10 studied domestic-well waters (median pH, 4.90). At the water table downgradient from leachfields, combined Ra concentrations were low (commonly < or =0.019 Bq L(-1)) when pH was >5.3, indicating sequestration; when pH was < or =5.3 (acidic), concentrations were elevated (maximum, 0.985 Bq L(-1) - greater than concentrations in corresponding discharged septic-tank effluents (maximum, 0.243 Bq L(-1))), indicating Ra mobilization from leachfield sediments. Confidence in quantification of Ra mass balance was reduced by study design limitations, including synoptic sampling of effluents and ground waters, and large uncertainties associated with analytical methods. The trend of Ra mobilization in acidic environments does match observations from regional water-quality assessments. PMID:19910087

Szabo, Zoltan; Jacobsen, Eric; Kraemer, Thomas F; Parsa, Bahman

2010-01-01

412

Low-cost Batch Solar Water Heater research and development project. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a summary of the development and testing of Batch Solar Water Heaters. Batch Heaters tested include several kinds of tank-under-glass (Breadbox) models and several types of Inverted Batch Solar Water Heaters with both fixed and moveable reflector systems. Temperature graphs and tables of performance indices are presented for each water heater tested. An Inverted Batch Water Heater was developed based upon the test results called the Bottomgainer. Two prototypes of the Bottomgainer model were installed and monitored in use on residences. The Bottomgainer concept could be adapted to commercial production.

Stickney, B.L.

1983-06-01

413

Green River Formation water flood demonstration project. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the project were to understand the oil production mechanisms in the Monument Butte unit via reservoir characterization and reservoir simulations and to transfer the water flooding technology to similar units in the vicinity, particularly the Travis and the Boundary units. The reservoir characterization activity in the project basically consisted of extraction and analysis of a full diameter core, Formation Micro Imaging (FMI) logs from several wells and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) logs from two wells. In addition, several side-wall cores were drilled and analyzed, oil samples from a number of wells were physically and chemically characterized (using high-temperature gas chromatography), oil-water relative permeabilities were measured and pour points and cloud points of a few oil samples were determined. The reservoir modeling activity comprised of reservoir simulation of all the three units at different scales and near well-bore modeling of the wax precipitation effects. The reservoir simulation activities established the extent of pressurization of the sections of the reservoirs in the immediate vicinity of the Monument Butte unit. This resulted in a major expansion of the unit and the production from this expanded unit increased from about 300 barrels per day to about 2,000 barrels per day.

Pennington, B.I.; Dyer, J.E.; Lomax, J.D. [Inland Resources, Inc. (United States)]|[Lomax Exploration Co., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M.D. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Fuels Engineering

1996-11-01

414

Projected changes in water availability in the United Kingdom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is evidence for a change in the seasonality of UK rainfall consistent with projections from climate models, which could have a significant impact on water availability. This paper describes an analysis of seasonal mean runoff in the UK calculated directly within an ensemble of regional climate models. Both surface and subsurface runoff have been analyzed, and the times at which a climate change signal in the runoff could be detected have also been calculated. Runoff is projected to increase in winter in all regions of the UK, by 5-25% by the 2080s, but remain the same or decrease in the other seasons. We find that a climate change signal could be detected in runoff in winter in western parts of the UK as early as the 2020s, but much later in eastern areas of England. In summer, detection times (2040-2060 s) are generally later than those in winter (2020-2040 s). Our results imply water resources in the southeast of the UK could be reduced during the twenty-first century, and adaptation may be needed long before a formal detection of a climate change signal is made.

Sanderson, Michael G.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Betts, Richard A.

2012-08-01

415

18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements...Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN...

2012-04-01

416

18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements...Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN...

2011-04-01

417

18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements...Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN...

2010-04-01

418

18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements...Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN...

2014-04-01

419

76 FR 12756 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...are considered the same as Water Conservation Plans. The above entities...office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that...evaluating the adequacy of all water conservation plans developed by...

2011-03-08

420

75 FR 70020 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...are considered the same as Water Conservation Plans. The above entities...office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that...evaluating the adequacy of all water conservation plans developed by...

2010-11-16

421

77 FR 33240 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...are considered the same as Water Conservation Plans. The above entities...office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that...evaluating the adequacy of all water conservation plans developed by...

2012-06-05

422

76 FR 54251 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...District. Kaweah Delta Water Conservation District. To meet the requirements...are considered the same as Water Conservation Plans. The above entities...office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices...

2011-08-31

423

75 FR 38538 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...are considered the same as Water Conservation Plans. The above entities...office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that...evaluating the adequacy of all water conservation plans developed by...

2010-07-02

424

77 FR 64544 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...are considered the same as Water Conservation Plans. The above entities...office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that...evaluating the adequacy of all water conservation plans developed by...

2012-10-22

425

Development of an energy storage tank model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A linearized, one-dimensional finite difference model employing an implicit finite difference method for energy storage tanks is developed, programmed with MATLAB, and demonstrated for different applications. A set of nodal energy equations is developed by considering the energy interactions on a small control volume. The general method of solving these equations is described as are other features of the simulation program. Two modeling applications are presented: the first using a hot water storage tank with a solar collector and an absorption chiller to cool a building in the summer, the second using a molten salt storage system with a solar collector and steam power plant to generate electricity. Recommendations for further study as well as all of the source code generated in the project are also provided.

Buckley, Robert Christopher

426

Final Environmental Assessment: Community Water Company of Green Valley Central Arizona Project Water Delivery System Pima County, Arizona  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An initial draft Environmental Assessment (DEA) for the Community Water Company of Green Valleys (CWC) proposed construction and operation of its Central Arizona Project (CAP) Water Delivery System and Recharge Facility was made available for a public rev...

2010-01-01

427

Tank characterization report for Single-Shell Tank B-111  

SciTech Connect

Tank 241-B-111 (hereafter referred to as B-111) is a 2,006,300 liter (530,000 gallon) single-shell waste tank located in the 200 East B tank farm at Hanford. Two cores were taken from this tank in 1991 and analysis of the cores was conducted by Battelle`s 325-A Laboratory in 1993. Characterization of the waste in this tank is being done to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-44-05. Tank B-111 was constructed in 1943 and put into service in 1945; it is the second tank in a cascade system with Tanks B-110 and B-112. During its process history, B-111 received mostly second-decontamination-cycle waste and fission products waste via the cascade from Tank B-110. This tank was retired from service in 1976, and in 1978 the tank was assumed to have leaked 30,300 liters (8,000 gallons). The tank was interim stabilized and interim isolated in 1985. The tank presently contains approximately 893,400 liters (236,000 gallons) of sludge-like waste and approximately 3,800 liters (1,000 gallons) of supernate. Historically, there are no unreviewed safety issues associated with this tank and none were revealed after reviewing the data from the latest core sampling event in 1991. An extensive set of analytical measurements was performed on the core composites. The major constituents (> 0.5 wt%) measured in the waste are water, sodium, nitrate, phosphate, nitrite, bismuth, iron, sulfate and silicon, ordered from largest concentration to the smallest. The concentrations and inventories of these and other constituents are given. Since Tanks B-110 and B-111 have similar process histories, their sampling results were compared. The results of the chemical analyses have been compared to the dangerous waste codes in the Washington Dangerous Waste Regulations (WAC 173-303). This assessment was conducted by comparing tank analyses against dangerous waste characteristics `D` waste codes; and against state waste codes.

Remund, K.M.; Tingey, J.M.; Heasler, P.G.; Toth, J.J.; Ryan, F.M.; Hartley, S.A.; Simpson, D.B.; Simpson, B.C.

1994-09-01

428

Jordan Water Conservation Education Project Final Evaluation Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water scarcity is an increasingly serious problem in the desert country of Jordan. Currently, all known sources of water have been tapped. Management of existing water sources and promotion of water rationing programs are vital to ensuring adequate water ...

D. Evans, M. Grieser, O. Hernandez, R. Ledsky, S. Middlestadt, B. Rawlins, J. Sanchack

1996-01-01

429

Ferrocyanide tank safety program: Cesium uptake capacity of simulated ferrocyanide tank waste. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to determine the capacity for {sup 137}Cs uptake by mixed metal ferrocyanides present in Hanford Site waste tanks, and to assess the potential for aggregation of these {sup 137}Cs-exchanged materials to form ``hot-spots`` in the tanks. This research, performed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company, stems from concerns regarding possible localized radiolytic heating within the tanks. After ferrocyanide was added to 18 high-level waste tanks in the 1950s, some of the ferrocyanide tanks