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Sample records for water tank project

  1. Project W-519 CDR supplement: Raw water and electrical services for privatization contractor, AP tank farm operations

    SciTech Connect

    Parazin, R.J.

    1998-07-31

    This supplement to the Project W-519 Conceptual Design will identify a means to provide RW and Electrical services to serve the needs of the TWRS Privatization Contractor (PC) at AP Tank Farm as directed by DOE-RL. The RW will serve the fire suppression and untreated process water requirements for the PC. The purpose of this CDR supplement is to identify Raw Water (RW) and Electrical service line routes to the TWRS Privatization Contractor (PC) feed delivery tanks, AP-106 and/or AP-108, and establish associated cost impacts to the Project W-519 baseline.

  2. Organic Tank Safety Project: development of a method to measure the equilibrium water content of Hanford organic tank wastes and demonstration of method on actual waste

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Some of Hanford`s underground waste storage tanks contain Organic- bearing high level wastes that are high priority safety issues because of potentially hazardous chemical reactions of organics with inorganic oxidants in these wastes such as nitrates and nitrites. To ensure continued safe storage of these wastes, Westinghouse Hanford Company has placed affected tanks on the Organic Watch List and manages them under special rules. Because water content has been identified as the most efficient agent for preventing a propagating reaction and is an integral part of the criteria developed to ensure continued safe storage of Hanford`s organic-bearing radioactive tank wastes, as part of the Organic Tank Safety Program the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a simple and easily implemented procedure to determine the equilibrium water content of these potentially reactive wastes exposed to the range of water vapor pressures that might be experienced during the wastes` future storage. This work focused on the equilibrium water content and did not investigate the various factors such as @ ventilation, tank surface area, and waste porosity that control the rate that the waste would come into equilibrium, with either the average Hanford water partial pressure 5.5 torr or other possible water partial pressures.

  3. Novel livestock water tank. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wegman, S.

    1982-01-01

    Novel photovoltaic system provides freeze protection for livestock tanks. Ranchers and farmers living in northern climates traditionally use electric resistance heaters to prevent there stock tanks from freezing in the winter. This traditional method has two distinct drawbacks, it is expensive and it uses large quantities of electrical power each year. This project is to design to keep water tanks ice free without either of those two drawbacks. In this project a small photovoltaic under 100 watts powered an air bubbling system similar to ice prevention systems currently used to keep year round harbors open. This project is designed so that water from the bottom of the stock tank flows to the bottom of heat exchange barrier box 6 feet underground. Heat from the surrounding earth will flow into the heat exchanger and the incoming cool water from the stock tank above. An airbubbler similar to that found in many aquariums will push the warm water up and will discharge the warm water into livestock tanks.

  4. Space Shuttle External Tank Project status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The External Tank Project is reviewed with emphasis on the DDT&E and production phases and the lightweight tank development. It is noted that the DDT&E phase is progressing well with the structural and ground vibration test article programs complete, the propulsion test article program progressing well, and the component qualification and verification testing 92% complete. New tools and facilities are being brought on line to support the increased build rate for the production phase. The lightweight tank, which will provide additional payload in orbit, is progressing to schedule with first delivery in early 1982.

  5. 49 CFR 230.115 - Feed water tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Feed water tanks. 230.115 Section 230.115... Tenders Steam Locomotive Tanks § 230.115 Feed water tanks. (a) General provisions. Tanks shall be... water. Feed water tanks shall be equipped with a device that permits the measurement of the quantity...

  6. 49 CFR 230.115 - Feed water tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Feed water tanks. 230.115 Section 230.115... Tenders Steam Locomotive Tanks § 230.115 Feed water tanks. (a) General provisions. Tanks shall be... water. Feed water tanks shall be equipped with a device that permits the measurement of the quantity...

  7. 49 CFR 230.115 - Feed water tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Feed water tanks. 230.115 Section 230.115... Tenders Steam Locomotive Tanks § 230.115 Feed water tanks. (a) General provisions. Tanks shall be... water. Feed water tanks shall be equipped with a device that permits the measurement of the quantity...

  8. 49 CFR 230.115 - Feed water tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Feed water tanks. 230.115 Section 230.115... Tenders Steam Locomotive Tanks § 230.115 Feed water tanks. (a) General provisions. Tanks shall be... water. Feed water tanks shall be equipped with a device that permits the measurement of the quantity...

  9. 49 CFR 230.115 - Feed water tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Feed water tanks. 230.115 Section 230.115... Tenders Steam Locomotive Tanks § 230.115 Feed water tanks. (a) General provisions. Tanks shall be... water. Feed water tanks shall be equipped with a device that permits the measurement of the quantity...

  10. Waste Tank Vapor Project: Tank vapor database development

    SciTech Connect

    Seesing, P.R.; Birn, M.B.; Manke, K.L.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of the Tank Vapor Database (TVD) Development task in FY 1994 was to create a database to store, retrieve, and analyze data collected from the vapor phase of Hanford waste tanks. The data needed to be accessible over the Hanford Local Area Network to users at both Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The data were restricted to results published in cleared reports from the laboratories analyzing vapor samples. Emphasis was placed on ease of access and flexibility of data formatting and reporting mechanisms. Because of time and budget constraints, a Rapid Application Development strategy was adopted by the database development team. An extensive data modeling exercise was conducted to determine the scope of information contained in the database. a A SUN Sparcstation 1000 was procured as the database file server. A multi-user relational database management system, Sybase{reg_sign}, was chosen to provide the basic data storage and retrieval capabilities. Two packages were chosen for the user interface to the database: DataPrism{reg_sign} and Business Objects{trademark}. A prototype database was constructed to provide the Waste Tank Vapor Project`s Toxicology task with summarized and detailed information presented at Vapor Conference 4 by WHC, PNL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Oregon Graduate Institute. The prototype was used to develop a list of reported compounds, and the range of values for compounds reported by the analytical laboratories using different sample containers and analysis methodologies. The prototype allowed a panel of toxicology experts to identify carcinogens and compounds whose concentrations were within the reach of regulatory limits. The database and user documentation was made available for general access in September 1994.

  11. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS & RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    MACKEY TC; JOHNSON KI; DEIBLER JE; PILLI SP; RINKER MW; KARRI NK

    2007-02-14

    This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double-shell waste tanks (DSTs), which is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information on tank integrity that specifically responds to concerns raised by the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Oversight (EH-22) during a review of work performed on the double-shell tank farms and the operation of the aging waste facility (AWF) primary tank ventilation system. The current buckling review focuses on the following tasks: (1) Evaluate the potential for progressive I-bolt failure and the appropriateness of the safety factors that were used for evaluating local and global buckling. The analysis will specifically answer the following questions: (a) Can the EH-22 scenario develop if the vacuum is limited to -6.6-inch water gage (w.g.) by a relief valve? (b) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario can develop? (c) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario cannot develop? (2) Develop influence functions to estimate the axial stresses in the primary tanks for all reasonable combinations of tank loads, based on detailed finite element analysis. The analysis must account for the variation in design details and operating conditions between the different DSTs. The analysis must also address the imperfection sensitivity of the primary tank to buckling. (3) Perform a detailed buckling analysis to determine the maximum allowable differential pressure for each of the DST primary tanks at the current specified limits on waste temperature, height, and specific gravity. Based on the I-bolt loads analysis and the small deformations that are predicted at the unfactored limits on vacuum and axial loads, it is very unlikely that the EH-22 scenario (i.e., progressive I-bolt failure leading to global

  12. Tank waste remediation system characterization project quality policies. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Trimble, D.J.

    1995-10-02

    These Quality Policies (QPs) describe the Quality Management System of the Tank Waste Characterization Project (hereafter referred to as the Characterization Project), Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The Quality Policies and quality requirements described herein are binding on all Characterization Project organizations. To achieve quality, the Characterization Project management team shall implement this Characterization Project Quality Management System.

  13. RAW WATER STORAGE TANK ON NORTH SIDE OF WATER PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RAW WATER STORAGE TANK ON NORTH SIDE OF WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-619. INTERIOR. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2489. Unknown Photographer, 6/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS & RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2006-03-17

    This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double shell waste tanks. The analysis is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information on tank integrity that specifically responds to concerns raise by the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Oversight (EH-22) during a review (in April and May 2001) of work being performed on the double-shell tank farms, and the operation of the aging waste facility (AWF) primary tank ventilation system.

  15. DETAIL VIEW OF WATER TANKS AND PIPELINE TO WATER SOURCE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF WATER TANKS AND PIPELINE TO WATER SOURCE. LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM LARGE TAILINGS PILE. THE TANK ON THE LEFT IS A WATER TANK, POSSIBLY ASSOCIATED WITH A WATER SHAFT THAT IS SEEN AS A RAISED SPOT ON THE GROUND JUST TO THE RIGHT OF IT. THE TANK ON THE RIGHT IS IN DIRECT CONNECTION WITH THE PIPELINE CARRYING WATER FROM A NEARBY SPRING IN THE DISTANCE AT CENTER. THE WATER WAS THEN PUMPED UP TO ALL PARTS OF THE MINING OPERATION, INCLUDING THE UPPER MINES ONE MILE NORTH, THE MILL, AND THE CYANIDE PLANT. THE PIPELINE ITSELF IS DISMANTLED, WITH PARTS OF IT MISSING OR SCATTERED ALONG THE GROUND, AS SEEN IN THE CENTER DISTANCE. THE SPRING IS APPROX. A QUARTER MILE DISTANT, AND IS NOT PROMINENT IN THIS PHOTOGRAPH. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  16. Ground Water in a Fish Tank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayshark, Robin K.

    1992-01-01

    Describes creating a Model Aquatic/Terrestrial Ecosystem for use in helping students understand how water moves beneath the ground's surface. The model is constructed from a fish tank using rocks, soil, gravel, clay, and organic materials. Author describes possible cooperative-learning and problem-solving activities that can be done with this…

  17. Calibrated water tank facilitates proof- loading of cranes and derricks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koppi, R. K.

    1969-01-01

    Calibrated steel water tank provides the weight loads required for proof-testing of cranes and derricks. The use of the water tank provides a safe, fast, economical method of proof-loading cranes and derricks.

  18. The Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project Tank Waste Retrieval Performance and Lessons Learned, vol. 1 [of 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, BE

    2003-10-07

    The Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Remediation Project was the first of its kind performed in the United States. Robotics and remotely operated equipment were used to successfully transfer almost 94,000 gal of remote-handled transuranic sludge containing over 81,000 Ci of radioactive contamination from nine large underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The sludge was transferred with over 439,000 gal of radioactive waste supernatant and {approx}420,500 gal of fresh water that was used in sluicing operations. The GAATs are located in a high-traffic area of ORNL near a main thoroughfare. A phased and integrated approach to waste retrieval operations was used for the GAAT Remediation Project. The project promoted safety by obtaining experience from low-risk operations in the North Tank Farm before moving to higher-risk operations in the South Tank Farm. This approach allowed project personnel to become familiar with the tanks and waste, as well as the equipment, processes, procedures, and operations required to perform successful waste retrieval. By using an integrated approach to tank waste retrieval and tank waste management, the project was completed years ahead of the original baseline schedule, which resulted in avoiding millions of dollars in associated costs. This report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1 provides information on the various phases of the GAAT Remediation Project. It also describes the different types of equipment and how they were used. The emphasis of Volume 1 is on the description of the tank waste retrieval performance and the lessons learned during the GAAT Remediation Project. Volume 2 provides the appendixes for the report, which include the following information: (A) Background Information for the Gunite and Associated Tanks Operable Unit; (B) Annotated Bibliography; (C) Comprehensive Listing of the Sample Analysis Data from the GAAT Remediation Project; (D) GAAT Equipment Matrix; and (E) Vendor List

  19. Nonradioactive air emissions notice of construction, Project W-320, 241-C-106 tank sluicing

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, C.B.

    1998-01-28

    This document serves as a Notice of Construction for the Phase 2 activities of Project W-320, 241-C-106 Tank Sluicing, pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Codes (WAC) 173-400 and 173-460. Phased permitting for Project W-320 was discussed with the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) on November 2, 1993. In April 1994, it was deemed unnecessary because the Phase 1 activities did not constitute a new source of emissions and therefore did not require approval from Ecology. The 241-C-106 tank is a 2-million liter capacity, single-shell tank (SST) used for radioactive waste storage since 1947. Between mid-1963 and mid-1969, 241-C-106 tank received high-heat waste, PUREX (plutonium-uranium extraction) Facility high-level waste, and strontium-bearing solids from the strontium and cesium recovery activities. In 1971, temperatures exceeding 99 C were observed in the tank, and therefore, a ventilation system was installed to cool the tank. In addition, approximately 22,712 liters of cooling water are added to the tank each month to prevent the sludge from drying out and overheating. Excessive drying of the sludge could result in possible structural damage. The current radiolytic heat generation rate has been calculated at 32 kilowatts (kW) plus or minus 6 kW. The 241-C-106 tank was withdrawn from service in 1979 and currently is categorized as not leaking. The heat generation in 241-C-106 tank has been identified as a key safety issue on the Hanford Site. The evaporative cooling provided by the added water during operation and/or sluicing maintains the 241-C-106 tank within its specified operating temperature limits. Project W-320, 241-C-106 Tank Sluicing, will mobilize and remove the heat-generating sludge, allowing the water additions to cease. Following sludge removal, the 241-C-106 tank could be placed in a safe, interim stabilized condition. Tank-to-tank sluicing, an existing, proven technology, will provide the earliest possible

  20. Project W-236A multi-function waste tank facility waste feed projections

    SciTech Connect

    Larrick, A.P.

    1994-12-22

    A review of Hanford Underground Waste Storage Tank Chemistry, coupled with planned remediation actions and retrieval sequences was conducted in order to predict the chemistry of the waste to be stored in the MWTF tanks. All projected waste solutions to be transferred to the MWTF tanks were found to be in compliance with current tank chemistry specifications; therefore, the waste and the tank materials of construction are expected to be compatible.

  1. Vadose zone characterization project at the Hanford Tank Farms: U Tank Farm Report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Grand Junction Office (DOE-GJO) was tasked by the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) to perform a baseline characterization of the gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides that are distributed in the vadose zone sediments beneath and around the single-shell tanks (SSTs) at the Hanford Site. The intent of this characterization is to determine the nature and extent of the contamination, to identify contamination sources when possible, and to develop a baseline of the contamination distribution that will permit future data comparisons. This characterization work also allows an initial assessment of the impacts of the vadose zone contamination as required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This characterization project involves acquiring information regarding vadose zone contamination with borehole geophysical logging methods and documenting that information in a series of reports. This information is presently limited to detection of gamma-emitting radionuclides from both natural and man-made sources. Data from boreholes surrounding each tank are compiled into individual Tank Summary Data Reports. The data from each tank in a tank farm are then compiled and summarized in a Tank Farm Report. This document is the Tank Farm Report for the U Tank Farm. Logging operations used high-purity germanium detection systems to acquire laboratory-quality assays of the gamma-emitting radionuclides in the sediments around and below the tanks. These assays were acquired in 59 boreholes that surround the U Tank Farm tanks. Logging of all boreholes was completed in December 1995, and the last Tank Summary Data Report for the U Tank Farm was issued in September 1996.

  2. Vandose Zone Characterization Project at the Hanford Tank Farms: SX Tank Farm Report

    SciTech Connect

    Brodeur, J.R.; Koizumi, C.J.; Bertsch, J.F.

    1996-09-01

    The SX Tank Farm is located in the southwest portion of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This tank farm consists of 15 single-shell tanks (SSTs), each with an individual capacity of 1 million gallons (gal). These tanks currently store high-level nuclear waste that was primarily generated from what was called the oxidation-reduction or {open_quotes}REDOX{close_quotes} process at the S-Plant facility. Ten of the 15 tanks are listed in Hanlon as {open_quotes}assumed leakers{close_quotes} and are known to have leaked various amounts of high-level radioactive liquid to the vadose zone sediment. The current liquid content of each tank varies, but the liquid from known leaking tanks has been removed to the extent possible. In 1994, the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Office (DOE-RL) requested the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO), Grand Junction, Colorado, to perform a baseline characterization of contamination in the vadose zone at all the SST farms with spectral gamma-ray logging of boreholes surrounding the tanks. The SX Tank Farm geophysical logging was completed, and the results of this baseline characterization are presented in this report.

  3. 7 CFR 3201.12 - Water tank coatings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water tank coatings. 3201.12 Section 3201.12... Designated Items § 3201.12 Water tank coatings. (a) Definition. Coatings formulated for use in potable water... agencies, in accordance with this part, will give a procurement preference for qualifying biobased...

  4. 7 CFR 3201.12 - Water tank coatings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water tank coatings. 3201.12 Section 3201.12... Designated Items § 3201.12 Water tank coatings. (a) Definition. Coatings formulated for use in potable water... agencies, in accordance with this part, will give a procurement preference for qualifying biobased...

  5. 7 CFR 3201.12 - Water tank coatings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water tank coatings. 3201.12 Section 3201.12... Designated Items § 3201.12 Water tank coatings. (a) Definition. Coatings formulated for use in potable water... agencies, in accordance with this part, will give a procurement preference for qualifying biobased...

  6. 7 CFR 2902.12 - Water tank coatings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water tank coatings. 2902.12 Section 2902.12... Items § 2902.12 Water tank coatings. (a) Definition. Coatings formulated for use in potable water... agencies, in accordance with this part, will give a procurement preference for qualifying biobased...

  7. 7 CFR 2902.12 - Water tank coatings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water tank coatings. 2902.12 Section 2902.12... Items § 2902.12 Water tank coatings. (a) Definition. Coatings formulated for use in potable water... agencies, in accordance with this part, will give a procurement preference for qualifying biobased...

  8. Single-shell tank interim stabilization project plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.E.

    1998-03-27

    Solid and liquid radioactive waste continues to be stored in 149 single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. To date, 119 tanks have had most of the pumpable liquid removed by interim stabilization. Thirty tanks remain to be stabilized. One of these tanks (C-106) will be stabilized by retrieval of the tank contents. The remaining 29 tanks will be interim stabilized by saltwell pumping. In the summer of 1997, the US Department of Energy (DOE) placed a moratorium on the startup of additional saltwell pumping systems because of funding constraints and proposed modifications to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestones to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). In a letter dated February 10, 1998, Final Determination Pursuant to Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in the Matter of the Disapproval of the DOE`s Change Control Form M-41-97-01 (Fitzsimmons 1998), Ecology disapproved the DOE Change Control Form M-41-97-01. In response, Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) directed Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LNMC) to initiate development of a project plan in a letter dated February 25, 1998, Direction for Development of an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan in Support of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In a letter dated March 2, 1998, Request for an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan, the DOE reaffirmed the need for an aggressive SST interim stabilization completion project plan to support a finalized Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-41 recovery plan. This project plan establishes the management framework for conduct of the TWRS Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organizational structure, roles, responsibilities

  9. Heat exchanger and water tank arrangement for passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Gillett, James E.; Johnson, F. Thomas; Orr, Richard S.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    A water storage tank in the coolant water loop of a nuclear reactor contains a tubular heat exchanger. The heat exchanger has tubesheets mounted to the tank connections so that the tubesheets and tubes may be readily inspected and repaired. Preferably, the tubes extend from the tubesheets on a square pitch and then on a rectangular pitch therebetween. Also, the heat exchanger is supported by a frame so that the tank wall is not required to support all of its weight.

  10. Water Tank with Capillary Air/Liquid Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Smith, Frederick; Edeen, Gregg; Almlie, Jay C.

    2010-01-01

    A bladderless water tank (see figure) has been developed that contains capillary devices that allow it to be filled and emptied, as needed, in microgravity. When filled with water, the tank shields human occupants of a spacecraft against cosmic radiation. A membrane that is permeable by air but is hydrophobic (neither wettable nor permeable by liquid water) covers one inside surface of the tank. Grooves between the surface and the membrane allow air to flow through vent holes in the surface as the tank is filled or drained. A margin of wettable surface surrounds the edges of the membrane, and all the other inside tank surfaces are also wettable. A fill/drain port is located in one corner of the tank and is covered with a hydrophilic membrane. As filling begins, water runs from the hydrophilic membrane into the corner fillets of the tank walls. Continued filling in the absence of gravity will result in a single contiguous air bubble that will be vented through the hydrophobic membrane. The bubble will be reduced in size until it becomes spherical and smaller than the tank thickness. Draining the tank reverses the process. Air is introduced through the hydrophobic membrane, and liquid continuity is maintained with the fill/drain port through the corner fillets. Even after the tank is emptied, as long as the suction pressure on the hydrophilic membrane does not exceed its bubble point, no air will be drawn into the liquid line.

  11. 3. VIEW OF WATER TANKS FROM ACCESS ROAD TO HATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF WATER TANKS FROM ACCESS ROAD TO HATCH ADIT. VIEW NORTH. LUCKY TIGER MILL OFFICE (FEATURE B-I) IN DISTANCE. (OCTOBER, 1995) - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, Water Tanks, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  12. Oblique view of Sector Five Compound, looking southwest. Water Tank ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of Sector Five Compound, looking southwest. Water Tank to right, Receiver Building to left, antenna array in background - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Five Water Storage Tank, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  13. Vadose zone characterization project at the Hanford Tank Farms: BY Tank Farm report

    SciTech Connect

    Kos, S.E.

    1997-02-01

    The US Department of Energy Grand Junction Office (GJO) was tasked by the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) to perform a baseline characterization of the contamination distributed in the vadoze zone sediment beneath and around the single-shell tanks (SSTs) at the Hanford Site. The intent of this characterization is to determine the nature and extent of the contamination, to identify contamination sources, and to develop a baseline of the contamination distribution that will permit future data comparisons. This characterization work also allows an initial assessment of the impacts of the vadose zone contamination as required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This characterization project involves acquiring information about the vadose zone contamination with borehole geophysical logging methods and documenting that information in a series of reports. Data from boreholes surrounding each tank are compiled into individual Tank Summary Data Reports. The data from each tank farm are then compiled and summarized in a Tank Farm Report. This document is the Tank Farm Report for the BY Tank Farm.

  14. 8. SETTLING TANK, WEST SIDE; WATER PIPE FROM INTAKE STRUCTURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. SETTLING TANK, WEST SIDE; WATER PIPE FROM INTAKE STRUCTURE IN FOREGROUND. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  15. 13. Water treatment plant interior view of tanks in control ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Water treatment plant interior view of tanks in control room. View to SW - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  16. 41. PATTERN STORAGE, GRIND STONE, WATER TANK, SHAFTING, AND TABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. PATTERN STORAGE, GRIND STONE, WATER TANK, SHAFTING, AND TABLE SAW (L TO R)-LOOKING WEST. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

  17. Quality Assurance Project Plan for waste tank vapor characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Suydam, C.D. Jr.

    1993-12-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan, WHC-SD-WM-QAPP-013, applies to four separate vapor sampling tasks associated with Phases 1 and 2 of the Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program and support of the Rotary Mode Core Drilling Portable Exhauster Permit. These tasks focus on employee safety concerns and tank ventilation emission control design requirements. Previous characterization efforts and studies are of insufficient accuracy to adequately define the problem. It is believed that the technology and maturity of sampling and analytical methods can be sufficiently developed to allow the characterization of the constituents of the tank vapor space.

  18. Project W-320 Tank 106-C waste retrieval study analysis session report

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-03-25

    This supporting document has been prepared to make the Kaiser Engineers Hanford Company Project W-320 Tank 106-C Waste Retrieval Study Analysis Session Report readily retrievable. This facilitated session was requested by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to review the characterization data and select the best alternatives for a double-shell receiver tank and for a sluicing medium for Tank 106-C waste retrieval. The team was composed of WHC and Kaiser Engineers Hanford Company (KEH) personnel knowledgeable about tank farm operations, tank 106-C requirements, tank waste characterization and analysis, and chemical processing. This team was assembled to perform a structured decision analysis evaluation and recommend the best alternative-destination double-shell tank between tanks 101-AY and 102-AY, and the best alternative sluicing medium among dilute complexant (DC), dilute noncomplexant (DNC), and water. The session was facilitated by Richard Harrington and Steve Bork of KEH and was conducted at the Bookwalter Winery in Richland from 7:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. from July 27 through July 29, 1993. Attachment 1 (Scope Statement Sheet) identifies the team members, scope, objectives, and deliverables for the session.

  19. Where Did the Water Go?: Boyle's Law and Pressurized Diaphragm Water Tanks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brimhall, James; Naga, Sundar

    2007-01-01

    Many homes use pressurized diaphragm tanks for storage of water pumped from an underground well. These tanks are very carefully constructed to have separate internal chambers for the storage of water and for the air that provides the pressure. One might expect that the amount of water available for use from, for example, a 50-gallon tank would be…

  20. AX tank farm waste inventory study for the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) project

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, D.L.

    1997-12-22

    In May of 1996, the US Department of Energy implemented a four-year demonstration project identified as the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI). The HTI mission is to minimize technical uncertainties and programmatic risks by conducting demonstrations to characterize and remove tank waste using technologies and methods that will be needed in the future to carry out tank waste remediation and tank farm closure at the Hanford Site. Included in the HTI scope is the development of retrieval performance evaluation criteria supporting readiness to close single-shell tanks in the future. A path forward that includes evaluation of closure basis alternatives has been outlined to support the development of retrieval performance evaluation criteria for the AX Farm, and eventual preparation of the SEIS for AX Farm closure. This report documents the results of the Task 4, Waste Inventory study performed to establish the best-basis inventory of waste contaminants for the AX Farm, provides a means of estimating future soil inventories, and provides data for estimating the nature and extent of contamination (radionuclide and chemical) resulting from residual tank waste subsequent to retrieval. Included in the report are a best-basis estimate of the existing radionuclide and chemical inventory in the AX Farm Tanks, an estimate of the nature and extent of existing radiological and chemical contamination from past leaks, a best-basis estimate of the radionuclide and chemical inventory in the AX Farm Tanks after retrieval of 90 percent, 99 percent, and 99.9 percent of the waste, and an estimate of the nature and extent of radionuclide and chemical contamination resulting from retrieval of waste for an assumed leakage from the tanks during retrieval.

  1. The Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project Tank Waste Retrieval Performance and Lessons Learned, vol. 2 [of 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, BE

    2003-10-07

    The Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Remediation Project was the first of its kind performed in the United States. Robotics and remotely operated equipment were used to successfully transfer almost 94,000 gal of remote-handled transuranic sludge containing over 81,000 Ci of radioactive contamination from nine large underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The sludge was transferred with over 439,000 gal of radioactive waste supernatant and {approx}420,500 gal of fresh water that was used in sluicing operations. The GAATs are located in a high-traffic area of ORNL near a main thoroughfare. Volume 1 provides information on the various phases of the project and describes the types of equipment used. Volume 1 also discusses the tank waste retrieval performance and the lessons learned during the remediation effort. Volume 2 consists of the following appendixes, which are referenced in Vol. 1: A--Background Information for the Gunite and Associated Tanks Operable Unit; B--Annotated Bibliography; C--GAAT Equipment Matrix; D--Comprehensive Listing of the Sample Analysis Data from the GAAT Remediation Project; and E--Vendor List for the GAAT Remediation Project. The remediation of the GAATs was completed {approx}5.5 years ahead of schedule and {approx}$120,435K below the cost estimated in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for the project. These schedule and cost savings were a direct result of the selection and use of state-of-the-art technologies and the dedication and drive of the engineers, technicians, managers, craft workers, and support personnel that made up the GAAT Remediation Project Team.

  2. Single-shell tank interim stabilization project plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.E.

    1998-05-11

    This project plan establishes the management framework for conduct of the TWRS Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organizational structure, roles, responsibilities, and interfaces; and operational methods. This plan serves as the project executional baseline.

  3. Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Alison; McMahon, James; Masanet, Eric; Lutz, Jim

    2008-08-13

    Residential water heating is a large source of energy use in California homes. This project took a life cycle approach to comparing tank and tankless water heaters in Northern and Southern California. Information about the life cycle phases was calculated using the European Union's Methodology study for EcoDesign of Energy-using Products (MEEUP) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Life Cycle Inventory (NREL LCI) database. In a unit-to-unit comparison, it was found that tankless water heaters would lessen impacts of water heating by reducing annual energy use by 2800 MJ/year (16% compared to tank), and reducing global warming emissions by 175 kg CO2 eqv./year (18% reduction). Overall, the production and combustion of natural gas in the use phase had the largest impact. Total waste, VOCs, PAHs, particulate matter, and heavy-metals-to-air categories were also affected relatively strongly by manufacturing processes. It was estimated that tankless water heater users would have to use 10 more gallons of hot water a day (an increased usage of approximately 20%) to have the same impact as tank water heaters. The project results suggest that if a higher percentage of Californians used tankless water heaters, environmental impacts caused by water heating would be smaller.

  4. Nitrogen sparging and blanketing of water storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Jonas, O.

    2000-04-01

    In many industrial processes, including most utility and industrial steam systems, good deaerated makeup and condensate water is stored in open-to-air storage tanks where it is contaminated by oxygen, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and dirt before it is used. This contamination can be prevented by nitrogen sparging and blanketing of storage tanks.

  5. MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. quations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reaction rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. n analytical solution for the...

  6. MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. Equations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reation rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. An analytical solution for ...

  7. 9. Water Purification System and Instrument Air Receiver Tank, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Water Purification System and Instrument Air Receiver Tank, view to the south. The water purification system is visible in the right foreground of the photograph and the instrument air receiver tank is visible in the right background of the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  8. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2006-03-17

    M&D Professional Services, Inc. (M&D) is under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to perform seismic analysis of the Hanford Site double-shell tanks (DSTs) in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank (DSV Integrity Project--DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses)''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST system at Hanford in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14, The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The work statement provided to M&D (PNNL 2003) required that the seismic analysis of the DSTs assess the impacts of potentially non-conservative assumptions in previous analyses and account for the additional soil mass due to the as-found soil density increase, the effects of material degradation, additional thermal profiles applied to the full structure including the soil-structure response with the footings, the non-rigid (low frequency) response of the tank roof, the asymmetric seismic-induced soil loading, the structural discontinuity between the concrete tank wall and the support footing and the sloshing of the tank waste. The seismic analysis considers the interaction of the tank with the surrounding soil and the effects of the primary tank contents. The DSTs and the surrounding soil are modeled as a system of finite elements. The depth and width of the soil incorporated into the analysis model are sufficient to obtain appropriately accurate analytical results. The analyses required to support the work statement differ from previous analysis of the DSTs in that the soil-structure interaction (SSI) model includes several (nonlinear) contact surfaces in the tank structure, and the contained waste must be modeled explicitly in order to capture the fluid-structure interaction behavior between the primary tank and contained

  9. Where Did the Water Go? Boyle's Law and Pressurized Diaphragm Water Tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimhall, James; Naga, Sundar

    2007-03-01

    Many homes use pressurized diaphragm tanks for storage of water pumped from an underground well. These tanks are very carefully constructed to have separate internal chambers for the storage of water and for the air that provides the pressure. One might expect that the amount of water available for use from, for example, a 50-gallon tank would be close to 50 gallons. However, only a surprisingly small percentage of the total tank volume is available to provide water that can be drawn from the tank before the pump must cycle back on. Boyle's law ( PV is constant) provides mathematical insight into the workings of this type of tank, including predictions of the quantities of available water resulting from different initial conditions of the water tank system.

  10. 2. October 1993 VIEW OF WATER TANK STAIRWAY AND OBSERVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. October 1993 VIEW OF WATER TANK STAIRWAY AND OBSERVATION TOWER, BUILDING S84 FACING SOUTH - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Operations Building, Ford Island, Enterprise Street near Intrepid Boulevard, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. 12. SETTLING TANK EXTENSION, SOUTHEAST SIDE. Hondius Water Line, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. SETTLING TANK EXTENSION, SOUTHEAST SIDE. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  12. 11. SETTLING TANK OVERFLOW CHANNEL, NORTH SIDE. Hondius Water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. SETTLING TANK OVERFLOW CHANNEL, NORTH SIDE. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  13. Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 WATER TANK, LOOKING SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 WATER TANK, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Boyd Tenant House, Southeast of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  14. 27. View within machine room showing water tank, tool chest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. View within machine room showing water tank, tool chest and oil/grease cans used for maintenance. (Nov. 25, 1988) - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York County, NY

  15. 1. SHOWING RELATION OF FIRE CONTROL BUILDING, WATER TANK, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SHOWING RELATION OF FIRE CONTROL BUILDING, WATER TANK, AND TOWER, LOOKING SOUTH - Boswell Bay White Alice Site, Fire Control Building, Chugach National Forest, Cordova, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  16. 13. Building 202 exhaust scrubber water detention tank, looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Building 202 exhaust scrubber water detention tank, looking southeast from bed of Abram Creek. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 202, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  17. VIEW OF SOUTHERNMOST OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS, LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTHERN-MOST OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS, LOCATED BEHIND SUPPORT COLUMN, WITH ADJACENT PIPING, LEVEL -27’, LOOKING WEST - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  18. VIEW OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS (BEHIND SUPPORT COLUMNS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS (BEHIND SUPPORT COLUMNS AND STEEL BEAMS), SUB-BASEMENT LEVEL -27’, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  19. Looking east at the boiler water treatment tank located off ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking east at the boiler water treatment tank located off the west wall of the boiler house. - Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation, Allenport Works, Boiler House, Route 88 on West bank of Monongahela River, Allenport, Washington County, PA

  20. Heat exchanger and water tank arrangement for passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Gillett, J.E.; Johnson, F.T.; Orr, R.S.; Schulz, T.L.

    1993-11-30

    A water storage tank in the coolant water loop of a nuclear reactor contains a tubular heat exchanger. The heat exchanger has tube sheets mounted to the tank connections so that the tube sheets and tubes may be readily inspected and repaired. Preferably, the tubes extend from the tube sheets on a square pitch and then on a rectangular pitch there between. Also, the heat exchanger is supported by a frame so that the tank wall is not required to support all of its weight. 6 figures.

  1. Environmental Assessment for the Accelerated Tank Closure Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-06-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) needs to collect engineering and technical information on (1) the physical response and behavior of a Phase I grout fill in an actual tank, (2) field deployment of grout production equipment and (3) the conduct of component closure activities for single-shell tank (SST) 241-C-106 (C-106). Activities associated with this Accelerated Tank Closure Demonstration (ATCD) project include placement of grout in C-106 following retrieval, and associated component closure activities. The activities will provide information that will be used in determining future closure actions for the remaining SSTs and tank farms at the Hanford Site. This information may also support preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Retrieval, Treatment, and Disposal of Tank Waste and Closure of Single-Shell Tanks at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington (Tank Closure EIS). Information will be obtained from the various activities associated with the component closure activities for C-106 located in the 241-C tank farm (C tank farm) under the ''Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976'' (RCRA) and the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1989). The impacts of retrieving waste from C-106 are bounded by the analysis in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) EIS (DOE/EIS-0189), hereinafter referred to as the TWRS EIS. DOE has conducted and continues to conduct retrieval activities at C-106 in preparation for the ATCD Project. For major federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, the ''National Environmental Policy Act of 1969'' (NEPA) requires that federal agencies evaluate the environmental effects of their proposed and alternative actions before making decisions to take action. The President's Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) has developed regulations for implementing NEPA. These regulations are found in Title 40 of the Code

  2. Gunite tanks cleaned out at Oak Ridge Reservation: TFA and other partners streamlined project.

    SciTech Connect

    Roeder-Smith, Lynne

    2001-04-30

    This article was prepared for the Environmental Management Quarterly Newsletter, Initiatives. It summarizes the accomplishments of the Gunite Tank Remediation Project at Oak Ridge Reservation, and the Tanks Focus Area and Robotics technologies used to complete the project.

  3. DEGRADATION EVALUATION OF HEAVY WATER DRUMS AND TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.; Vormelker, P.

    2009-07-31

    Heavy water with varying chemistries is currently being stored in over 6700 drums in L- and K-areas and in seven tanks in L-, K-, and C-areas. A detailed evaluation of the potential degradation of the drums and tanks, specific to their design and service conditions, has been performed to support the demonstration of their integrity throughout the desired storage period. The 55-gallon drums are of several designs with Type 304 stainless steel as the material of construction. The tanks have capacities ranging from 8000 to 45600 gallons and are made of Type 304 stainless steel. The drums and tanks were designed and fabricated to national regulations, codes and standards per procurement specifications for the Savannah River Site. The drums have had approximately 25 leakage failures over their 50+ years of use with the last drum failure occurring in 2003. The tanks have experienced no leaks to date. The failures in the drums have occurred principally near the bottom weld, which attaches the bottom to the drum sidewall. Failures have occurred by pitting, crevice and stress corrosion cracking and are attributable, in part, to the presence of chloride ions in the heavy water. Probable degradation mechanisms for the continued storage of heavy water were evaluated that could lead to future failures in the drum or tanks. This evaluation will be used to support establishment of an inspection plan which will include susceptible locations, methods, and frequencies for the drums and tanks to avoid future leakage failures.

  4. STATUS OF CHEMICAL CLEANING OF WASTE TANKS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT - 9114

    SciTech Connect

    Thaxton, D; Geoff Clendenen, G; Willie Gordon, W; Samuel Fink, S; Michael Poirier, M

    2008-12-31

    Chemical Cleaning is currently in progress for Tanks 5 and 6 at the Savannah River Site. The Chemical Cleaning process is being utilized to remove the residual waste heel remaining after completion of Mechanical Sludge Removal. This work is required to prepare the tanks for closure. Tanks 5 and 6 are 1950s vintage carbon steel waste tanks that do not meet current containment standards. These tanks are 22.9 meters (75 feet) in diameter, 7.5 meters (24.5 feet) in height, and have a capacity of 2.84E+6 liters (750,000 gallons). Chemical Cleaning adds 8 wt % oxalic acid to the carbon steel tank to dissolve the remaining sludge heel. The resulting acidic waste solution is transferred to Tank 7 where it is pH adjusted to minimize corrosion of the carbon steel tank. The Chemical Cleaning flowsheet includes multiple strikes of acid in each tank. Acid is delivered by tanker truck and is added to the tanks through a hose assembly connected to a pipe penetration through the tank top. The flowsheet also includes spray washing with acid and water. This paper includes an overview of the configuration required for Chemical Cleaning, the planned flowsheet, and an overview of technical concerns associated with the process. In addition, the current status of the Chemical Cleaning process in Tanks 5 and 6, lessons learned from the execution of the process, and the path forward for completion of cleaning in Tanks 5 and 6 will also be discussed.

  5. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS AND RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    MACKEY TC; JOHNSON KI; DEIBLER JE; PILLI SP; RINKER MW; KARRI NK

    2009-01-14

    This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double-shell waste tanks (DSTs), which is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information on tank integrity that specifically responds to concerns raised by the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Oversight (EH-22) during a review of work performed on the double-shell tank farms and the operation of the aging waste facility (AWF) primary tank ventilation system. The current buckling review focuses on the following tasks: (1) Evaluate the potential for progressive anchor bolt failure and the appropriateness of the safety factors that were used for evaluating local and global buckling. The analysis will specifically answer the following questions: (a) Can the EH-22 scenario develop if the vacuum is limited to -6.6-inch water gage (w.g.) by a relief valve? (b) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario can develop? (c) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario cannot develop? (2) Develop influence functions to estimate the axial stresses in the primary tanks for all reasonable combinations of tank loads based on detailed finite element analysis. The analysis must account for the variation in design details and operating conditions between the different DSTs. The analysis must also address the imperfection sensitivity of the primary tank to buckling. (3) Perform a detailed buckling analysis to determine the maximum allowable differential pressure for each of the DST primary tanks at the current specified limits on waste temperature, height, and specific gravity. Based on the concrete anchor bolt loads analysis and the small deformations that are predicted at the unfactored limits on vacuum and axial loads, it is very unlikely that the EH-22 scenario (i.e., progressive anchor bolt

  6. Conceptual design report for tank farm restoration and safe operations, project W-314

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, S.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-02

    This Conceptual Design Report (CDR) presents the conceptual level design approach that satisfies the established technical requirements for Project W-314, `Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations.` The CDR also addresses the initial cost and schedule baselines for performing the proposed Tank Farm infrastructure upgrades. The scope of this project includes capital improvements to Hanford`s existing tank farm facilities(primarily focused on Double- Shell Tank Farms) in the areas of instrumentation/control, tank ventilation, waste transfer, and electrical systems.

  7. 45. STEEL RESERVOIR TANKS FOR NEW SPRINGFED WATER SYSTEM INSTALLED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. STEEL RESERVOIR TANKS FOR NEW SPRING-FED WATER SYSTEM INSTALLED IN 1982. LOCATED IN WAIHANAU VALLEY, THIS REPLACED THE WAIKOLU SYSTEM AND PROVIDES A MORE CONSISTENT AND CLEAN WATER SUPPLY FOR KALAUPAPA. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  8. Safety evaluation for adding water to tank 101-SY

    SciTech Connect

    Clinton, R.

    1994-12-09

    This document provides a new water limit for Tank 241-SY-101. The original limit was set at 9600 gallons. The new limit is now 20,000 gallons. There are various activities that require the use of additional water to the tank. The main activity is the removal of the temporary mixer pump. This requires a large amount of water which will exceed the original limit. Also, other activities such as flushing, adding a viscometer, and adding a void fraction meter requires additional water. The new limit safely incorporates these activities and allows room for more future activities.

  9. Project management plan for Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 sluicing. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, D.R.

    1994-07-01

    A major mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the permanent disposal of Hanford Site defense wastes by utilizing safe, environmentally acceptable, and cost-effective disposal methods that meet applicable regulations. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program was established at the Hanford Site to manage and control activities specific to the remediation of safety watch list tanks, including high-heat-producing tanks, and for the ultimate characterization, retrieval, pretreatment, and disposal of the low- and high-level fractions of the tank waste. Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 Sluicing, provides the methodology, equipment, utilities, and facilities necessary for retrieving the high-heat waste from single-shell tank (SST) 24-C-106. Project W-320 is a fiscal year (FY) 1993 expense-funded major project, and has a design life of 2 years. Retrieval of the waste in tank 241-C-106 will be accomplished through mobilization of the sludge into a pumpable slurry using past-practice sluicing. The waste is then transferred directly to a double-shell tank for interim storage, subsequent pretreatment, and eventual disposal. A detailed description of the management organization and responsibilities of all participants is presented in this document.

  10. Observation of EAS using a large water tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inoue, K.; Sakuyama, H.; Suzuki, N.; Suzuki, T.

    1985-01-01

    Using a large water tank (30 m in diameter, 4.5 m in depth) transition of extensive air showers (EAS) was investigated at Taro (200 m above sea level). There are set 150,0.4 sq m proportional counters on the bottom of the water tank. A conventional EAS array of 25 plastic scintillation detectors was arranged within several tens meter from the water tank. A proportional counter (10x10x200 cc x2) is made of a square shaped pipe of iron. Tungsten wire (100 mu m phi) is stretched tight in the center of the counter. A gas mixture of 90% argon and 10% methane is used at 760 mmHg. About 3000 EAS were obtained through 1 m of water since 1984.

  11. Observation of EAS using a large water tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, K.; Sakuyama, H.; Suzuki, N.; Suzuki, T.

    1985-08-01

    Using a large water tank (30 m in diameter, 4.5 m in depth) transition of extensive air showers (EAS) was investigated at Taro (200 m above sea level). There are set 150,0.4 sq m proportional counters on the bottom of the water tank. A conventional EAS array of 25 plastic scintillation detectors was arranged within several tens meter from the water tank. A proportional counter (10x10x200 cc x2) is made of a square shaped pipe of iron. Tungsten wire (100 mu m phi) is stretched tight in the center of the counter. A gas mixture of 90% argon and 10% methane is used at 760 mmHg. About 3000 EAS were obtained through 1 m of water since 1984.

  12. ONE MILLION GALLON WATER TANK, PUMP HEADER PIPE (AT LEFT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ONE MILLION GALLON WATER TANK, PUMP HEADER PIPE (AT LEFT), HEADER BYPASS PIPE (AT RIGHT), AND PUMPHOUSE FOUNDATIONS. Looking northeast - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Flame Deflector Water System, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  13. Project Execution Plan for Project W-211 Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS)

    SciTech Connect

    VAN BEEK, J.E.

    1999-09-02

    Project W-211, Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS), is a fiscal year 1994 Major Systems Acquisition that will provide systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes from selected double-shell tanks (DST). The contents of these tanks are a combination of supernatant liquids and settled solids. To retrieve waste from the tanks, it is first necessary to mix the liquid and solids prior to transferring the slurry to alternative storage or treatment facilities. The ITRS will provide systems to mobilize the settled solids and transfer the wastes out of the tanks. In so doing, ITRS provides feed for future processing plants, allows for consolidation of tank solids to manage space within existing DST storage capacity, and supports continued safe storage of tank waste. The ITRS scope has been revised to include waste retrieval systems for tanks AP-102, AP-104, AP-108, AN-103, AN-104, AN-105, AY-102, AZ-102, and SY-102. This current tank selection and sequence provides retrieval systems supporting the Privatized waste processing plant and sustains the ability to provide final remediation of several watch list DSTs via treatment. The ITRS is configured to support changing program needs, as constrained by available budget, by maintaining the flexibility for exchanging tanks requiring mixer pump-based retrieval systems and shifting the retrieval sequence. Preliminary design was configured such that an adequate basis exists for initiating Title II design of a mixer pump based retrieval system for any DST. This Project Management Plan (PMP) documents the methodology for managing the ITRS, formalizes organizational responsibilities and interfaces, and identifies project requirements such as change control, design verification, systems engineering, and human factors engineering.

  14. Water tank installed at A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    A water tank is lifted into place at the A-3 Test Stand being built at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center. Fourteen water, liquid oxygen (LOX) and isopropyl alcohol (IPA) tanks are being installed to support the chemical steam generators to be used on the A-3 Test Stand. The IPA and LOX tanks will provide fuel for the generators. The water will allow the generators to produce steam that will be used to reduce pressure inside the stand's test cell diffuser, enabling operators to simulate altitudes up to 100,000 feet. In that way, operators can perform the tests needed on rocket engines being built to carry humans back to the moon and possibly beyond. The A-3 Test Stand is set for completion and activation in 2011.

  15. Interface control document for tank waste remediation system privatization phase 1 infrastructure support Project W-519

    SciTech Connect

    Parazin, R.J.

    1998-04-23

    This document describes the functional and physical interfaces between the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization Phase 1 Infrastructure Project W-519 and the various other projects (i.e., Projects W-314, W-464, W-465, and W-520) supporting Phase 1 that will require the allocation of land in and about the Privatization Phase 1 Site and/or interface with the utilities extended by Project W-519. Project W-519 will identify land use allocations and upgrade/extend several utilities in the 200-East Area into the Privatization Phase 1 Site (formerly the Grout Disposal Compound) in preparation for the Privatization Contractors (PC) to construct treatment facilities. The project will upgrade/extend: Roads, Electrical Power, Raw Water (for process and fire suppression), Potable Water, and Liquid Effluent collection. The replacement of an existing Sanitary Sewage treatment system that may be displaced by Phase 1 site preparation activities may also be included.

  16. Waste Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Annual status report for FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Ligotke, M.W.; Fruchter, J.S.; Huckaby, J.L.; Birn, M.B.; McVeety, B.D.; Evans, J.C. Jr.; Pool, K.H.; Silvers, K.L.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    This report compiles information collected during the Fiscal Year 1995 pertaining to the waste tank vapor characterization project. Information covers the following topics: project management; organic sampling and analysis; inorganic sampling and analysis; waste tank vapor data reports; and the waste tanks vapor database.

  17. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    MACKEY TC; RINKER MW; CARPENTER BG; HENDRIX C; ABATT FG

    2009-01-15

    M&D Professional Services, Inc. (M&D) is under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to perform seismic analysis of the Hanford Site Double-Shell Tanks (DSTs) in support of a project entitled Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Project - DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses. The original scope of the project was to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14. The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). Although Milestone M-48-14 has been met, Revision I is being issued to address external review comments with emphasis on changes in the modeling of anchor bolts connecting the concrete dome and the steel primary tank. The work statement provided to M&D (PNNL 2003) required that a nonlinear soil structure interaction (SSI) analysis be performed on the DSTs. The analysis is required to include the effects of sliding interfaces and fluid sloshing (fluid-structure interaction). SSI analysis has traditionally been treated by frequency domain computer codes such as SHAKE (Schnabel, et al. 1972) and SASSI (Lysmer et al. 1999a). Such frequency domain programs are limited to the analysis of linear systems. Because of the contact surfaces, the response of the DSTs to a seismic event is inherently nonlinear and consequently outside the range of applicability of the linear frequency domain programs. That is, the nonlinear response of the DSTs to seismic excitation requires the use of a time domain code. The capabilities and limitations of the commercial time domain codes ANSYS{reg_sign} and MSC Dytran{reg_sign} for performing seismic SSI analysis of the DSTs and the methodology required to perform the detailed seismic analysis of the DSTs has been addressed in Rinker et al (2006a). On the basis of the results reported in Rinker et al

  18. EBR-II Primary Tank Wash-Water Alternatives Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Demmer, R. L.; Heintzelman, J. B.; Merservey, R. H.; Squires, L. N.

    2008-05-01

    The EBR-II reactor at Idaho National Laboratory was a liquid sodium metal cooled reactor that operated for 30 years. It was shut down in 1994; the fuel was removed by 1996; and the bulk of sodium metal coolant was removed from the reactor by 2001. Approximately 1100 kg of residual sodium remained in the primary system after draining the bulk sodium. To stabilize the remaining sodium, both the primary and secondary systems were treated with a purge of moist carbon dioxide. Most of the residual sodium reacted with the carbon dioxide and water vapor to form a passivation layer of primarily sodium bicarbonate. The passivation treatment was stopped in 2005 and the primary system is maintained under a blanket of dry carbon dioxide. Approximately 670 kg of sodium metal remains in the primary system in locations that were inaccessible to passivation treatment or in pools of sodium that were too deep for complete penetration of the passivation treatment. The EBR-II reactor was permitted by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) in 2002 under a RCRA permit that requires removal of all remaining sodium in the primary and secondary systems by 2022. The proposed baseline closure method would remove the large components from the primary tank, fill the primary system with water, react the remaining sodium with the water and dissolve the reaction products in the wash water. This method would generate a minimum of 100,000 gallons of caustic, liquid, low level radioactive, hazardous waste water that must be disposed of in a permitted facility. On February 19-20, 2008, a workshop was held in Idaho Falls, Idaho, to look at alternatives that could meet the RCRA permit clean closure requirements and minimize the quantity of hazardous waste generated by the cleanup process. The workshop convened a panel of national and international sodium cleanup specialists, subject matter experts from the INL, and the EBR-II Wash Water Project team that organized the workshop. The

  19. Preliminary Study on Water Filled Tank Perforation by Rod Projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xin-Ke; Guo, Zi-Tao; Mu, Zhong-Cheng; Zhang, Wei

    2009-06-01

    The effects of fluid structure interactions resulting from the impact of a fluid filled tank is of the interests for engineers from both the military and civilian field, where hydrodynamic-ram (HRAM) phenomena is well known. And it is believed HRAM is responsible for the vulnerability and the possible catastrophic failure of the whole tank. Thus HRAM is related to the majority concerns on this topic, where the targets were usually assumed to be thin. In order to investigate the influence of water on the crashworthiness of a tank with relatively thick walls, 3 ballistic shots on the water filled tank with two 3 mm 2A12 aluminum plates as front and back target and 4 shots on the tank without any water by 12.7 mm rods were conducted. The failure patterns were indentified from the tests and the difference in the failure mechanism was further studied by a series of detailed numerical simulations on the corresponding tests in hydro-code AUTODYN-2D by using both the coupled Lagrange-Euler technology and the SPH method. And also, the challenge of numerical simulation in this field is addressed.

  20. TANK FARM REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT AN EXERCISE IN TECHNICAL & REGULATORY COLLABORATION

    SciTech Connect

    JARAYSI, M.N.

    2007-01-08

    The Tank Farm Remediation Technology Development Project at the Hanford Site focuses on waste storage tanks, pipelines and associated ancillary equipment that are part of the C-200 single-shell tank (SST) farm system located in the C Tank Farm. The purpose of the project is to obtain information on the implementation of a variety of closure activities and to answer questions on technical, operational and regulatory issues associated with closure.

  1. 19. EMPTY SEDIMENTATION TANKS. TOP LAYER OF WATER FLOWS OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. EMPTY SEDIMENTATION TANKS. TOP LAYER OF WATER FLOWS OVER TRIANGULATED CHANNELS AND OUT THE RAISED DUCTS TO FILTRATION PLANT. MOVEABLE BOARDS ON BOTTOM ASSIST IN REMOVING SLUDGE. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST. FILTER CONTROL BUILDING AT REAR. - F. E. Weymouth Filtration Plant, 700 North Moreno Avenue, La Verne, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. View of Water Storage Tank off entrance tunnel. Tunnel at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Water Storage Tank off entrance tunnel. Tunnel at left of image to Launch Silos - Titan One Missile Complex 2A, .3 miles west of 129 Road and 1.5 miles north of County Line Road, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  3. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-BY-108: Results from samples collected January 23, 1996. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.

    1996-07-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) with and without particulate prefiltration. Samples were collected from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-108 (Tank BY-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for water, ammonia, permanent gases, total nonmethane hydrocarbons (TNMHCs, also known as TO-12), and organic analytes in samples collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs) from the tank headspace. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sampling and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Sampling and Analysis Plan for Tank Vapor Sampling Comparison Test{close_quotes}, and the sample jobs were designated S6004, S6005, and S6006. Samples were collected by WHC on January 23, 1996, using the VSS, a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe; and the ISVS with and without particulate prefiltration.

  4. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-102: Results from samples collected on January 26, 1996. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Pool, K.H.

    1996-07-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) with and without particulate prefiltration. Samples were collected from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for water, ammonia, permanent gases, total nonmethane hydrocarbons (TNMHCs, also known as TO-12), and organic analytes in samples collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs) from the tank headspace. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sampling and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Sampling and Analysis Plan for Tank Vapor Sampling Comparison Test{close_quote}, and the sample jobs were designated S6007, S6008, and S6009. Samples were collected by WHC on January 26, 1996, using the VSS, a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe; and the ISVS with and without particulate prefiltration.

  5. 2. VIEW OF NORTHERN WATER TANK (FEATURE B2), FACING SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF NORTHERN WATER TANK (FEATURE B-2), FACING SOUTH. THE ADIT ROAD IS SHOWN IN THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE PHOTO. - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, Water Tanks, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  6. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT INCREASED LIQUID LEVEL ANALYSIS FOR 241-AP TANK FARMS

    SciTech Connect

    MACKEY TC; DEIBLER JE; JOHNSON KI; PILLI SP; KARRI NK; RINKER MW; ABATT FG; CARPENTER BG

    2007-02-16

    The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the SDT System at Hanford. The "Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Project - DST Thermal and Seismic Project" is in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14.

  7. Gunite and associated tanks remediation project recycling and waste minimization effort

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Saunders, A.D.

    1998-05-01

    The Department of Energy`s Environmental Management Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has initiated clean up of legacy waste resulting from the Manhattan Project. The gunite and associated tanks project has taken an active pollution prevention role by successfully recycling eight tons of scrap metal, reusing contaminated soil in the Area of Contamination, using existing water (supernate) to aid in sludge transfer, and by minimizing and reusing personal protective equipment (PPE) and on-site equipment as much as possible. Total cost savings for Fiscal Year 1997 activities from these efforts are estimated at $4.2 million dollars.

  8. Experimental study on mixing efficiency in water supply rectangular tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateman, A.; Medina, V.; Mujal, A.

    2009-04-01

    Phenomenon of mixing in drinking water storage tanks and reservoirs has a direct effect on the quality of water. Creation of poor mixing zones and volume stratification can have negative effects in public health. The design of a storage tank must consider the conditions of the inlet and outlets, and also their orientation (vertical or horizontal) to prevent the formation of these zones. Experiments done in a reduced scaled-model with a rectangular base and three different inlets (two waterfalls and a pipe inlet) had the objective to decide which of these inlets achieved the best mixing efficiency. Four situations were considered while three entrances, two unsteady: filling and drawing, and two steady with different outlets. Moreover the effects of columns that support the roof of the tank were studied by running the three entrances with and without columns in the four situations. Neglecting the viscous scale effects, the time taken to mix the volume stored depends on the distance between the inlet and the opposite wall as though as its orientation. Taking into account the whole tank columns have a negative effect on mixing efficiency although they divide the flux and create local zones of turbulence around them, increasing local mixing. Using a digital treating image technique the results are found in a quantitative way.

  9. Klebsielleae in drinking water emanating from redwood tanks.

    PubMed Central

    Seidler, R J; Morrow, J E; Bagley, S T

    1977-01-01

    A survey was made of the bacteriological quality and chlorine content of 33 public and private water systems that utilize redwood storage tanks. Coliforms of the genera Klebsiella and Enterobacter were isolated from 9 of 10 private drinking water systems and from 11 of 23 water systems in state and federal parks. Total coliform counts in the private systems exceeded federal membrane filter guidelines by as much as 10-to 40-fold. Coliform counts were highest in the newer reservoirs. Factors contributing to poor water quality are: lack of automated chlorination equipment or an insufficient supply to maintain a residual, common inlet/outlet plumbing design, and lengthy average retention periods. The latter two factors contribute to improper mixing and stagnation of the water, whereas the former allows microbes to multiply on the water-soluble nutrients that leach from the wood. Wooden reservoirs exert a high chlorine demand, and 0.4 ppm of chlorine residual in the incoming tank water proves inadequate. It is suggested that specific water-soluble nutrients in redwood (and in numerous other types of botanical material) induce a natural nutritional selection for coliforms of the tribe Klebsielleae. Images PMID:326189

  10. Functional design criteria, Project W-211, Initial Tank Retrieval Systems. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Rieck, C.A.

    1995-02-07

    This document provides the technical baseline for retrieval of waste from ten double-shell tanks in the SY, AN, AP, AW, AY, and AZ tank farms. In order to retrieve waste from these tanks, systems are needed to mix the sludge with the supernate and pump the waste mixture from the tank. For 101-SY, the existing mitigation pump will be used to mix the waste and Project W-211 will provide for waste removal. The retrieval scope for the other nine tanks includes both the waste mixing and removal functions.

  11. Hanford tank waste operation simulator operational waste volume projection verification and validation procedure

    SciTech Connect

    HARMSEN, R.W.

    1999-10-28

    The Hanford Tank Waste Operation Simulator is tested to determine if it can replace the FORTRAN-based Operational Waste Volume Projection computer simulation that has traditionally served to project double-shell tank utilization. Three Test Cases are used to compare the results of the two simulators; one incorporates the cleanup schedule of the Tri Party Agreement.

  12. Laboratory Experiments on Convective Entrainment Using a Saline Water Tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonker, Harmen J. J.; Jiménez, Maria A.

    2014-06-01

    Entrainment fluxes in a shear-free convective boundary layer have been measured with a saline water tank set-up. The experiments were targeted towards measuring the entrainment behaviour for medium to high Richardson numbers and use a two-layer design, i.e. two stacked non-stratified (neutral) layers with different densities. With laser induced fluorescence (LIF), the entrainment flux of a fluorescent dye is measured for bulk Richardson numbers in the range 30-260. It is proposed that a carefully chosen combination of top-down and bottom-up processes improves the accuracy of LIF-based entrainment observations. The observed entrainment fluxes are about an order of magnitude lower than reported for thermal water tanks: the derived buoyancy entrainment ratio, , is found to be , which is to be compared with for a thermal convection tank (Deardorff et al., J Fluid Mech 100:41-64, 1980). An extensive discussion is devoted to the influence of the Reynolds and Prandtl numbers in laboratory experiments on entrainment.

  13. Demonstration and study of the dispersion of water waves with a computer-controlled ripple tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ströbel, Bernhard

    2011-06-01

    The design of a ripple tank built in an undergraduate student project is described. Water waves are excited acoustically using computer programmable wave shapes. The projected wave patterns are recorded with a video camera and analyzed quantitatively. From the propagation of wave packets in distilled water at three different depths, the phase and group velocities are measured in the frequency range from 2 to 50 Hz. Good agreement with theory is found. The propagation of wave trains of different shapes is recorded and explained on the basis of the stationary phase approximation. Various types of precursors are detected. For a depth slightly above the critical depth and thus nearly dispersion-free, the solitary-like propagation of a single pulse is observed. In shallow water, the compression of a chirped pulse is demonstrated. Circular waves produced by falling water drops are recorded and analyzed.

  14. 33 CFR 157.33 - Water ballast in fuel oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water ballast in fuel oil tanks. 157.33 Section 157.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.33 Water ballast in fuel oil tanks. A new vessel may not...

  15. 33 CFR 157.33 - Water ballast in fuel oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water ballast in fuel oil tanks. 157.33 Section 157.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.33 Water ballast in fuel oil tanks. A new vessel may not...

  16. Learning about water resources issues in Bangladesh using interactive sand tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stute, M.

    2010-12-01

    Poor drinking water quality, e.g. elevated levels of pathogens and arsenic, is a big issue in developing countries, such as Bangladesh. Discussion of the causes and potential solutions of these problems tend to successfully motivate students to engage in an active learning process. Commercially available interactive sand tanks have been used for many years to explore groundwater flow and transport processes by experiential learning, typically in a qualitative way (e.g. Groundwater Model Project, 2010). We have adapted the application of these tanks to help students learn about water resources issues in Bangladesh in qualitative and quantitative ways. The developed learning modules include visualization of groundwater recharge and discharge in a monsoon controlled climate, contamination of groundwater by pathogens, discussion of various theories of arsenic mobilization, the effects of irrigation pumping on arsenic distributions and the benefits and potential pitfalls of using deeper low arsenic aquifers as sources of domestic, industrial and agricultural water. Many of the techniques used in characterizing aquifers in Bangladesh such as slug and pumping tests, push/pull and forced gradient experiments can be explored by the students using the sand tanks. Learning modules have also been developed that address quantitative uses of the sand tanks, e.g. the determination of hydraulic conductivity using Darcy’s law or slug tests, porosity by comparing Darcy and transport velocity and dispersivity by measuring dye breakthrough curves. Groundwater Model Project, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, http://www.uwsp.edu/stuorg/awra/h2omodel.html, accessed 8/20/2010

  17. Hanford Site organic waste tanks: History, waste properties, and scientific issues. Hanford Tank Safety Project

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, D.M.; Schulz, W.W.; Reynolds, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Eight Hanford single-shell waste tanks are included on a safety watch list because they are thought to contain significant concentrations of various organic chemical. Potential dangers associated with the waste in these tanks include exothermic reaction, combustion, and release of hazardous vapors. In all eight tanks the measured waste temperatures are in the range 16 to 46{degree}C, far below the 250 to 380{degree}C temperatures necessary for onset of rapid exothermic reactions and initiation of deflagration. Investigation of the possibility of vapor release from Tank C-103 has been elevated to a top safety priority. There is a need to obtain an adequate number of truly representative vapor samples and for highly sensitive and capable methods and instruments to analyze these samples. Remaining scientific issues include: an understanding of the behavior and reaction of organic compounds in existing underground tank environments knowledge of the types and amounts of organic compounds in the tanks knowledge of selected physical and chemical properties of organic compounds source, composition, quality, and properties of the presently unidentified volatile organic compound(s) apparently evolving from Tank C-103.

  18. Project W-151 Tank 101-AZ Waste Retrieval System Year 2000 Compliance Assessment Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    BUSSELL, J.H.

    1999-08-02

    This assessment describes the potential Year 2000 (Y2K) problems and describes the methods for achieving Y2K compliance for Project W-151, Tank 101-AZ Waste Retrieval System. The purpose of this assessment is to give an overview of the project. This document will not be updated and any dates contained in this document are estimates and may change. Two mixer pumps and instrumentation have been or are planned to be installed in waste tank 101-AZ to demonstrate solids mobilization. The information and experience gained during this process test will provide data for comparison with sludge mobilization prediction models and provide indication of the effects of mixer pump operation on an Aging Waste Facility tank. A limited description of system dates, functions, interfaces, potential Y2K problems, and date resolutions is presented. The project is presently on hold, and definitive design and procurement have been completed. This assessment will describe the methods, protocols, and practices to ensure that equipment and systems do not have Y2K problems.

  19. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT SUMMARY OF COMBINED THERMAL AND OPERATING LOADS WITH SEISMIC ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    MACKEY TC; DEIBLER JE; RINKER MW; JOHNSON KI; ABATT FG; KARRI NK; PILLI SP; STOOPS KL

    2009-01-15

    This report summarizes the results of the Double-Shell Tank Thermal and Operating Loads Analysis (TaLA) combined with the Seismic Analysis. This combined analysis provides a thorough, defensible, and documented analysis that will become a part of the overall analysis of record for the Hanford double-shell tanks (DSTs). The bases of the analytical work presented herein are two ANSYS{reg_sign} finite element models that were developed to represent a bounding-case tank. The TaLA model includes the effects of temperature on material properties, creep, concrete cracking, and various waste and annulus pressure-loading conditions. The seismic model considers the interaction of the tanks with the surrounding soil including a range of soil properties, and the effects of the waste contents during a seismic event. The structural evaluations completed with the representative tank models do not reveal any structural deficiencies with the integrity of the DSTs. The analyses represent 60 years of use, which extends well beyond the current date. In addition, the temperature loads imposed on the model are significantly more severe than any service to date or proposed for the future. Bounding material properties were also selected to provide the most severe combinations. While the focus of the analyses was a bounding-case tank, it was necessary during various evaluations to conduct tank-specific analyses. The primary tank buckling evaluation was carried out on a tank-specific basis because of the sensitivity to waste height, specific gravity, tank wall thickness, and primary tank vapor space vacuum limit. For this analysis, the occurrence of maximum tank vacuum was classified as a service level C, emergency load condition. The only area of potential concern in the analysis was with the buckling evaluation of the AP tank, which showed the current limit on demand of l2-inch water gauge vacuum to exceed the allowable of 10.4 inches. This determination was based on analysis at the

  20. Regrowth in ship's ballast water tanks: Think again!

    PubMed

    Grob, Carolina; Pollet, Bruno G

    2016-08-15

    With the imminent ratification of the International Maritime Organisation's Ballast Water Management Convention, ship owners and operators will have to choose among a myriad of different Ballast Water Treatment Systems (BWTS) and technologies to comply with established discharge standards. However, it has come to our attention that decision-makers seem to be unaware of the problem of regrowth occurring in ballast water tanks after treatment. Furthermore, the information available on the subject in the literature is surprisingly and unfortunately very limited. Herein we summarise previous research findings that suggest that regrowth of bacteria and phytoplankton could occur 18h to 7days and 4 to 20days after treatment, respectively. By highlighting the problem of regrowth, we would like to encourage scientists and engineers to further investigate this issue and to urge ship owners and ship operators to inform themselves on the risks of regrowth associated with the implementation of different BWTS. PMID:27184126

  1. Performance of a lab-scale bio-electrochemical assisted septic tank for the anaerobic treatment of black water.

    PubMed

    Zamalloa, Carlos; Arends, Jan B A; Boon, Nico; Verstraete, Willy

    2013-06-25

    Septic tanks are used for the removal of organic particulates in wastewaters by physical accumulation instead of through the biological production of biogas. Improved biogas production in septic tanks is crucial to increase the potential of this system for both energy generation and organic matter removal. In this study, the effect on the biogas production and biogas quality of coupling a 20 L lab-scale septic tank with a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) was investigated and compared with a standard septic tank. Both reactors were operated at a volumetric organic loading rate of 0.5gCOD/Ld and a hydraulic retention time between 20 and 40 days using black water as an input under mesophilic conditions for a period of 3 months. The MEC-septic tank was operated at an applied voltage of 2.0±0.1V and the current experienced ranged from 40 mA (0.9A/m(2) projected electrode area) to 180 mA (5A/m(2) projected electrode area). The COD removal was of the order of 85% and the concentration of residual COD was not different between both reactors. Yet, the total phosphorous in the output was on average 39% lower in the MEC-septic tank. Moreover, the biogas production rate in the MEC-septic tank was a factor of 5 higher than in the control reactor and the H2S concentration in the biogas was a factor of 2.5 lower. The extra electricity supplied to the MEC-septic tank was recovered as extra biogas produced. Overall, it appears that the combination of MEC and a septic tank offers perspectives in terms of lower discharge of phosphorus and H2S, nutrient recuperation and a more reliable supply of biogas. PMID:23403217

  2. HANFORD SITE RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT (RPP) TANK FARM CLOSURE

    SciTech Connect

    JARAYSI, M.N.; SMITH, Z.; QUINTERO, R.; BURANDT, M.B.; HEWITT, W.

    2006-01-30

    The U. S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection and the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. are responsible for the operations, cleanup, and closure activities at the Hanford Tank Farms. There are 177 tanks overall in the tank farms, 149 single-shell tanks (see Figure 1), and 28 double-shell tanks (see Figure 2). The single-shell tanks were constructed 40 to 60 years ago and all have exceeded their design life. The single-shell tanks do not meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 [1] requirements. Accordingly, radioactive waste is being retrieved from the single-shell tanks and transferred to double-shell tanks for storage prior to treatment through vitrification and disposal. Following retrieval of as much waste as is technically possible from the single-shell tanks, the Office of River Protection plans to close the single-shell tanks in accordance with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order [2] and the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [3] requirements. The double-shell tanks will remain in operation through much of the cleanup mission until sufficient waste has been treated such that the Office of River Protection can commence closing the double-shell tanks. At the current time, however, the focus is on retrieving waste and closing the single-shell tanks. The single-shell tanks are being managed and will be closed in accordance with the pertinent requirements in: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and its Washington State-authorized Dangerous Waste Regulations [4], US DOE Order 435.1 Radioactive Waste Management [5], the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 [6], and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 [7]. The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, which is commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement or TPA, was originally signed by Department of Energy, the State of Washington, and the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1989. Meanwhile, the

  3. PROGRESS IN HANFORDS DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) INTEGRITY PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    BERMAN HS

    2008-01-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection has an extensive integrity assessment program for the Hanford Site Double-Shell Tank System. The DOE Orders and environmental protection regulations provide the guidelines for the activities used to inspect and maintain 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs), the waste evaporator, and ancillary equipment that compose this system. This program has been reviewed by oversight and regulatory bodies and found to comply with the established guidelines. The basis for the DOE Order 435.1-1 for tank integrity comes from the Tank Structural Integrity Paneled by Brookhaven National Laboratory during the late 1990s. These guidelines established criteria for performing Non-Destructive Examination (NDE), for acceptance of the NDE results, for waste chemistry control, and for monitoring the tanks. The environmental regulations mirror these requirements and allow for the tank integrity program to provide compliant storage of the tanks. Both sets of requirements provide additional guidance for the protection of ancillary equipment. CH2M HILL uses two methods of NDE: visual inspection and Ultrasonic Testing (UT). The visual inspection program examines the primary tank and secondary liner of the DST. The primary tank is examined both on the interior surface above the waste in the tank and on the exterior surface facing the annulus of the DST. The interior surface of the tank liner is examined at the same time as the outer surface of the primary tank. The UT program examines representative areas of the primary tank and secondary liner by deploying equipment in the annulus of the tank. Both programs have led to the development of new equipment for remote inspection of the tanks. Compact camera and enhanced lighting systems have been designed and deployed through narrow access ports (called risers) into the tanks. The UT program has designed two generations of crawlers and equipment for deployment through risers into the thermally hot and

  4. Project plan for resolution of the organic waste tank safety issues at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Meacham, J.E.

    1996-10-03

    A multi-year project plan for the Organic Safety Project has been developed with the objective of resolving the organic safety issues associated with the High Level Waste (HLW) in Hanford`s single-shell tanks (SSTS) and double-shell tanks (DSTs). The objective of the Organic Safety Project is to ensure safe interim storage until retrieval for pretreatment and disposal operations begins, and to resolve the organic safety issues by September 2001. Since the initial identification of organics as a tank waste safety issue, progress has been made in understanding the specific aspects of organic waste combustibility, and in developing and implementing activities to resolve the organic safety issues.

  5. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Gunite and Associated Tanks Stabilization Project-Low-Tech Approach with High-Tech Results

    SciTech Connect

    Brill, A.; Alsup, T.; Bolling, D.

    2002-02-26

    Environmental restoration of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was a priority to the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) because of their age and deteriorating structure. These eight tanks ranging up to 170,000 gallons in capacity were constructed in 1943 of a Gunite or ''sprayed concrete material'' as part of the Manhattan Project. The tanks initially received highly radioactive waste from the Graphite Reactor and associated chemical processing facilities. The waste was temporarily stored in these tanks to allow for radioactive decay prior to dilution and release into surface waters. Over time, additional wastes from ongoing ORNL operations (e.g., isotope separation and materials research) were discharged to the tanks for storage and treatment. These tanks were taken out of service in the 1970s. Based on the structure integrity of GAAT evaluated in 1995, the worst-case scenario for the tanks, even assuming they are in good condition, is to remain empty. A recently completed interim action conducted from April 1997 through September 2000 removed the tank liquids and residual solids to the extent practical. Interior video surveys of the tanks indicated signs of degradation of the Gunite material. The tanks continued to receive inleakage, which generated a relatively high volume waste stream that required periodic removal, treatment, and disposal. For these reasons, DOE chose in-place stabilization of Tanks W-3 through W-10 as a non-timecritical removal action under Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Tank stabilization activities involved removal of liquid from inleakage and placement of a grout mixture or ''flowable fill'' into the tanks to within 3-ft of the ground surface. Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC (BJC) awarded Safety and Ecology Corporation (SEC) a subcontract in March 2001 to complete the documentation and fieldwork necessary to achieve tank stabilization in

  6. 33 CFR 157.33 - Water ballast in fuel oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water ballast in fuel oil tanks. 157.33 Section 157.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.33...

  7. 33 CFR 157.33 - Water ballast in fuel oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water ballast in fuel oil tanks. 157.33 Section 157.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.33...

  8. 33 CFR 157.33 - Water ballast in fuel oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water ballast in fuel oil tanks. 157.33 Section 157.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.33...

  9. Modeling needs assessment for Hanford Tank Farm Operations. Vadose Zone Characterization Project at the Hanford Tank Farms

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This report presents the results of a modeling-needs assessment conducted for Tank Farm Operations at the Hanford Site. The goal of this project is to integrate geophysical logging and subsurface transport modeling into a broader decision-based framework that will be made available to guide Tank Farm Operations in implementing future modeling studies. In support of this goal, previous subsurface transport modeling studies were reviewed, and stakeholder surveys and interviews were completed (1) to identify regulatory, stakeholder, and Native American concerns and the impacts of these concerns on Tank Farm Operations, (2) to identify technical constraints that impact site characterization and modeling efforts, and (3) to assess how subsurface transport modeling can best be used to support regulatory, stakeholder, Native American, and Tank Farm Operations needs. This report is organized into six sections. Following an introduction, Section 2.0 discusses background issues that relate to Tank Farm Operations. Section 3.0 summarizes the technical approach used to appraise the status of modeling and supporting characterization. Section 4.0 presents a detailed description of how the technical approach was implemented. Section 5.0 identifies findings and observations that relate to implementation of numerical modeling, and Section 6.0 presents recommendations for future activities.

  10. HIGH LEVEL WASTE MECHANCIAL SLUDGE REMOVAL AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Jolly, R; Bruce Martin, B

    2008-01-15

    The Savannah River Site F-Tank Farm Closure project has successfully performed Mechanical Sludge Removal (MSR) using the Waste on Wheels (WOW) system for the first time within one of its storage tanks. The WOW system is designed to be relatively mobile with the ability for many components to be redeployed to multiple waste tanks. It is primarily comprised of Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), Submersible Transfer Pumps (STPs), and a mobile control room with a control panel and variable speed drives. In addition, the project is currently preparing another waste tank for MSR utilizing lessons learned from this previous operational activity. These tanks, designated as Tank 6 and Tank 5 respectively, are Type I waste tanks located in F-Tank Farm (FTF) with a capacity of 2,840 cubic meters (750,000 gallons) each. The construction of these tanks was completed in 1953, and they were placed into waste storage service in 1959. The tank's primary shell is 23 meters (75 feet) in diameter, and 7.5 meters (24.5 feet) in height. Type I tanks have 34 vertically oriented cooling coils and two horizontal cooling coil circuits along the tank floor. Both Tank 5 and Tank 6 received and stored F-PUREX waste during their operating service time before sludge removal was performed. DOE intends to remove from service and operationally close (fill with grout) Tank 5 and Tank 6 and other HLW tanks that do not meet current containment standards. Mechanical Sludge Removal, the first step in the tank closure process, will be followed by chemical cleaning. After obtaining regulatory approval, the tanks will be isolated and filled with grout for long-term stabilization. Mechanical Sludge Removal operations within Tank 6 removed approximately 75% of the original 95,000 liters (25,000 gallons). This sludge material was transferred in batches to an interim storage tank to prepare for vitrification. This operation consisted of eleven (11) Submersible Mixer Pump(s) mixing campaigns and multiple intraarea

  11. Rainwater Harvesting in South India: Understanding Water Storage and Release Dynamics at Tank and Catchment Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, N. B.; Van Meter, K. J.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Steiff, M.

    2015-12-01

    Rainwater harvesting, the small-scale collection and storage of runoff for irrigated agriculture, is recognized as a sustainable strategy for ensuring food security, especially in monsoonal landscapes in the developing world. In south India, these strategies have been used for millennia to mitigate problems of water scarcity. However, in the past 100 years many traditional rainwater harvesting systems have fallen into disrepair due to increasing dependence on groundwater. With elevated declines in groundwater resources, there is increased effort at the state and national levels to revive older systems. Critical to the success of such efforts is an improved understanding of how these ancient water-provisioning systems function in contemporary landscapes with extensive groundwater pumping and shifted climatic regimes. Knowledge is especially lacking regarding the water-exchange dynamics of these rainwater harvesting "tanks" at tank and catchment scales, and how these exchanges regulate tank performance and catchment water balances. Here, we use fine-scale water level variations to quantify daily fluxes of groundwater, evapotranspiration, and sluice outflows in four tanks over the 2013 northeast monsoon season in a tank cascade that covers a catchment area of 28.2 km2. Our results indicate a distinct spatial pattern in groundwater-exchange dynamics, with the frequency and magnitude of groundwater inflow events (as opposed to outflow) increasing down the cascade of tanks. The presence of tanks in the landscape dramatically alters the catchment water balance, with catchment-scale runoff:rainfall ratios decreasing from 0.29 without tanks to 0.04 - 0.09 with tanks. Recharge:rainfall ratios increase in the presence of tanks, from ~0.17 in catchments without tanks to ~ 0.26 in catchments with tanks. Finally, our results demonstrate how more efficient management of sluice outflows can lead to the tanks meeting a higher fraction of crop water requirements.

  12. Heat pump water heater and storage tank assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dieckmann, John T.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Teagan, W. Peter; Zogg, Robert

    1999-09-07

    A water heater and storage tank assembly comprises a housing defining a chamber, an inlet for admitting cold water to the chamber, and an outlet for permitting flow of hot water from the chamber. A compressor is mounted on the housing and is removed from the chamber. A condenser comprises a tube adapted to receive refrigerant from the compressor, and winding around the chamber to impart heat to water in the chamber. An evaporator is mounted on the housing and removed from the chamber, the evaporator being adapted to receive refrigerant from the condenser and to discharge refrigerant to conduits in communication with the compressor. An electric resistance element extends into the chamber, and a thermostat is disposed in the chamber and is operative to sense water temperature and to actuate the resistance element upon the water temperature dropping to a selected level. The assembly includes a first connection at an external end of the inlet, a second connection at an external end of the outlet, and a third connection for connecting the resistance element, compressor and evaporator to an electrical power source.

  13. Hanford Tank Safety Project: Minutes of the Tank Waste Science Panel meeting, February 7--8, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, D.M.

    1991-06-01

    The Tank Waste Science Panel met February 7--8, 1991, to review the latest data from the analyses of the October 24, 1990, gas release from Tank 241-SY-101 (101-SY) at Hanford; discuss the results of work being performed in support of the Hanford Tank Safety Project; and be briefed on the ferrocyanide issues included in the expanded scope of the Science Panel. The shapes of the gas release curves from the past three events are similar and correlate well with changes in waste level, but the correlation between the released volume of gas and the waste height is not as good. An analysis of the kinetics of gas generation from waste height measurements in Tank 101-SY suggests that the reaction giving rise to the gases in the tank is independent of the gas pressure and independent of the physical processes that give rise to the episodic release of the gases. Tank waste height data were also used to suggest that a floating crust formed early in the history of the tank and that the current crust is being made thicker in the eastern sector of the tank by repeated upheaval of waste slurry onto the surface. The correlation between the N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2} generated in the October release appears to be 1:1, suggesting a single mechanistic pathway. Analysis of other gas generation ratios, however, suggests that H{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O are evolved together, whereas N{sub 2} is from the air. If similar ratios are observed in planned radiolysis experiments are Argonne National Laboratory, radiolysis would appear to be generating most of the gases in Tank 101-SY. Data from analysis of synthetic waste crust using a dynamic x-ray diffractometer suggest that, in air, organics are being oxidized and liberating CO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Experiments at Savannah River Laboratory indicate that irradiation of solutions containing NO{sub 3} and organics can produce N{sub 2}O.

  14. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  15. SEPTIC TANK SETBACK DISTANCES: A WAY TO MINIMIZE VIRUS CONTAMINATION OF DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Septic tanks are the most frequently reported causes of contamination in ground-water disease outbreaks associated with the consumption of untreated ground water in the United States. The placement of septic tanks is generally controlled by county-wide or state-wide regulations, ...

  16. Testing of Alternative Abrasives for Water-Jet Cutting at C Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Krogstad, Eirik J.

    2013-08-01

    Legacy waste from defense-related activities at the Hanford Site has predominantly been stored in underground tanks, some of which have leaked; others may be at risk to do so. The U.S. Department of Energy’s goal is to empty the tanks and transform their contents into more stable waste forms. To do so requires breaking up, and creating a slurry from, solid wastes in the bottoms of the tanks. A technology developed for this purpose is the Mobile Arm Retrieval System. This system is being used at some of the older single shell tanks at C tank farm. As originally planned, access ports for the Mobile Arm Retrieval System were to be cut using a high- pressure water-jet cutter. However, water alone was found to be insufficient to allow effective cutting of the steel-reinforced tank lids, especially when cutting the steel reinforcing bar (“rebar”). The abrasive added in cutting the hole in Tank C-107 was garnet, a complex natural aluminosilicate. The hardness of garnet (Mohs hardness ranging from H 6.5 to 7.5) exceeds that of solids currently in the tanks, and was regarded to be a threat to Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant systems. Olivine, an iron-magnesium silicate that is nearly as hard as garnet (H 6.5 to 7), has been proposed as an alternative to garnet. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory proposed to test pyrite (FeS2), whose hardness is slightly less (H 6 to 6.5) for 1) cutting effectiveness, and 2) propensity to dissolve (or disintegrate by chemical reaction) in chemical conditions similar to those of tank waste solutions. Cutting experiments were conducted using an air abrader system and a National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material (SRM 1767 Low Alloy Steel), which was used as a surrogate for rebar. The cutting efficacy of pyrite was compared with that of garnet and olivine in identical size fractions. Garnet was found to be most effective in removing steel from the target; olivine and pyrite were less

  17. The Gunite Tanks Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Successful Integration & Deployment of Technologies Results in Remediated Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Billingsley, K.; Bolling, D.

    2002-02-27

    This paper presents an overview of the underground technologies deployed during the cleanup of nine large underground storage tanks (USTs) that contained residual radioactive sludge, liquid low-level waste (LLLW), and other debris. The Gunite Tanks Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was successfully completed in 2001, ending with the stabilization of the USTs and the cleanup of the South Tank Farm. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project was the first of its kind completed in the United States of America. The Project integrated robotic and remotely operated technologies into an effective tank waste retrieval system that safely retrieved more than 348 m3 (92,000 gal) of radioactive sludge and 3.15E+15 Bq (85,000 Ci) of radioactive contamination from the tanks. The Project successfully transferred over 2,385 m3 (630,000 gal) of waste slurry to ORNL's active tank waste management system. The project team avoided over $120 Million in costs and shortened the original baseline schedule by over 10 years. Completing the Gunite Tanks Remediation Project eliminated the risks posed by the aging USTs and the waste they contained, and avoid the $400,000 annual costs associated with maintaining and monitoring the tanks.

  18. External tank project new technology plan. [development of space shuttle external tank system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A production plan for the space shuttle external tank configuration is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) the thermal protection system, (2) thermal coating application techniques, (3) manufacturing and tooling, (4) propulsion system configurations and components, (5) low temperature rotating and sliding joint seals, (6) lightning protection, and (7) nondestructive testing technology.

  19. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Annual status report for FY 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Silvers, K.L.; Fruchter, J.S.; Huckaby, J.L.; Almeida, T.L.; Evans, J.C. Jr.; Pool, K.H.; Simonen, C.A.; Thornton, B.M.

    1997-01-01

    In Fiscal Year 1996, staff at the Vapor Analytical Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory performed work in support of characterizing the vapor composition of the headspaces of radioactive waste tanks at the Hanford Site. Work performed included support for technical issues and sampling methodologies, upgrades for analytical equipment, analytical method development, preparation of unexposed samples, analyses of tank headspaces samples, preparation of data reports, and operation of the tank vapor database. Progress made in FY 1996 included completion and issuance of 50 analytical data reports. A sampling system comparison study was initiated and completed during the fiscal year. The comparison study involved the vapor sampling system (VSS), a truck-based system, and the in situ vapor sampling system (ISVS), a cart-based system. Samples collected during the study were characterized for inorganic, permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds and organic speciation by SUMMA{trademark} and TST methods. The study showed comparable sampling results between the systems resulting in the program switching from the VSS to the less expensive ISVS methodology in late May 1996. A temporal study was initiated in January 1996 in order to understand the influences seasonal temperatures changes have on the vapors in the headspace of Hanford waste tanks. A holding time study was initiated in the fourth quarter of FY 1996. Samples were collected from tank S-102 and rushed to the laboratory for time zero analysis. Additional samples will be analyzed at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 weeks.

  20. Functions and requirements for tank farm restoration and safe operations, Project W-314. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, R.C.

    1995-02-01

    This Functions and Requirements document (FRD) establishes the basic performance criteria for Project W-314, in accordance with the guidance outlined in the letter from R.W. Brown, RL, to President, WHC, ``Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Documentation Methodology,`` 94-PRJ-018, dated 3/18/94. The FRD replaces the Functional Design Criteria (FDC) as the project technical baseline documentation. Project W-314 will improve the reliability of safety related systems, minimize onsite health and safety hazards, and support waste retrieval and disposal activities by restoring and/or upgrading existing Tank Farm facilities and systems. The scope of Project W-314 encompasses the necessary restoration upgrades of the Tank Farms` instrumentation, ventilation, electrical distribution, and waste transfer systems.

  1. Project Delivery Acquisition and Contracting Plan for the Tank Farm Contractor

    SciTech Connect

    MERCADO, L.C.

    2000-04-22

    This document is a plan presenting the process, strategies and approaches for vendor contracting by the Tank Farm Contractor. The plan focuses on contracting structures, practices, methods, and desired approaches in contracting. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) has contracted with the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG), as the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC), to support vitrification of Hanford Site tank waste by the Privatization Contractor. During Waste Feed Delivery Phase 1, waste will be retrieved from certain double-shell tanks and delivered to the Privatization Contractor to meet contract feed delivery requirements. Near-term project goals include upgrading infrastructure systems; retrieving and delivering the waste; and accepting the waste packages for interim onsite storage and disposal. Project Delivery includes individual projects assigned to provide the infrastructure and systems responsible to provide engineering, design, procurement, installation/construction, and testing/turnover of systems for retrieval of waste from Hanford double-shell tanks. This plan sets the requirements for projects work scope, contracting practices, structures, methods, and performance measurements. The plan is designed to integrate Life-Cycle Projects acquisitions and provide a consistent contracting approach. This effort will serve as a step improvement in contract reform implementing commercial practices into DOE projects.

  2. Project W-211 Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) Description of Operations for 241-AZ-102

    SciTech Connect

    BRIGGS, S.R.

    2000-02-25

    The primary purpose of the Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is to provide systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes stored in underground double-shell tanks (DSTs) for transfer to alternate storage, evaporation, pretreatment or treatment, while concurrently reducing risks associated with safety watch list and other DSTs. This Description of Operation (DOO) defines the control philosophy for the waste retrieval system for Tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102). This DOO provides a basis for the detailed design of the Project W-211 Retrieval Control System (RCS) for AZ-102 and also establishes test criteria for the RCS.

  3. Impact on Water Heater Performance of Heating Methods that Promote Tank Temperature Stratification

    SciTech Connect

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle R; BushPE, John D

    2016-01-01

    During heating of a water heater tank, the vertical temperature stratification of the water can be increased or decreased, depending on the method of heating. Methods that increase stratification during heating include (1) removing cold water from the tank bottom, heating it, and re-introducing it to the tank top at relatively low flow rate, (2) using a heat exchanger wrapped around the tank, through which heating fluid (with finite specific heat) flows from top to bottom, and (3) using an immersed heat element that is relatively high in the tank. Using such methods allows for improved heat pump water heater (HPWH) cycle efficiencies when the heat pump can take advantage of the lower temperatures that exist lower in the tank, and accommodate the resulting glide. Transcritical cycles are especially well-suited to capitalize on this opportunity, and other HPWH configurations (that have been proposed elsewhere) may benefit as well. This work provides several stratification categories of heat pump water heater tank configurations relevant to their stratification potential. To illustrate key differences among categories, it also compiles available experimental data for (a) single pass pumped flow, (b) multi-pass pumped flow, and (c) top-down wrapped tank with transcritical refrigerant.

  4. Pore Water Extraction Test Near 241-SX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site, Washington, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Eberlein, Susan J.; Parker, Danny L.; Tabor, Cynthia L.; Holm, Melissa J.

    2013-11-11

    A proof-of-principle test is underway near the Hanford Site 241-SX Tank Farm. The test will evaluate a potential remediation technology that will use tank farm-deployable equipment to remove contaminated pore water from vadose zone soils. The test system was designed and built to address the constraints of working within a tank farm. Due to radioactive soil contamination and limitations in drilling near tanks, small-diameter direct push drilling techniques applicable to tank farms are being utilized for well placement. To address space and weight limitations in working around tanks and obstacles within tank farms, the above ground portions of the test system have been constructed to allow deployment flexibility. The test system utilizes low vacuum over a sealed well screen to establish flow into an extraction well. Extracted pore water is collected in a well sump,and then pumped to the surface using a small-diameter bladder pump.If pore water extraction using this system can be successfully demonstrated, it may be possible to target local contamination in the vadose zone around underground storage tanks. It is anticipated that the results of this proof-of-principle test will support future decision making regarding interim and final actions for soil contamination within the tank farms.

  5. Classification of heart valve sounds from experiments in an anechoic water tank

    SciTech Connect

    Axelrod, M C; Clark, G A; Scott, D

    1999-06-01

    In vivo studies in both sheep and humans were plagued by a number of problems including movement artifacts, biological noise, low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), chest-wall reverberation, and limited bandwidth recordings as discussed by [1]. To overcome these problems it was decided to record heart valve sounds under controlled conditions deep in an anechoic water tank, free from reverberation noise, including surface reflections. Experiments were conducted in a deep water tank at the Transdec facility in San Diego, which satisfies these requirements. The Transdec measurements are free of reverberations, but not totally free of acoustic and electrical noise. We used a high quality hydrophone together with a wide-band data acquisition system [2]. We recorded sounds from 100 repetitions of the opening-closing cycles on each of 50 different heart valves, including 21 SLS valves and 29 intact valves. The power spectrum of the opening and closing phases of each cycle were calculated and outlier spectra removed as described by Candy [2]. In this report, we discuss the results of our classification of the heart valve sound measurements. The goal of this classification task was to apply the fundamental classification algorithms developed for the clinical data in 1994 and 1996 to the measurements from the anechoic water tank. From the beginning of this project, LLNL's responsibility has been to process and classify the heart valve opening sounds. For this experiment, however, we processed both the opening sounds and closing sounds for comparison purposes. The results of this experiment show that the classifier did not perform well. We believe this is because of low signal-to-noise ratio and excessive variability in signal power from beat-to-beat for a given valve.

  6. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-T-110: Results from samples collected on August 31, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    McVeety, B.D.; Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-T-110 (Tank T-110) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5056. Samples were collected by WHC on August 31, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

  7. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-108: Results from samples collected on December 6, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-108 (Tank S-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5086. Samples were collected by WHC on December 6, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

  8. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-A-103: Results from samples collected on November 9, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-A-103 (Tank A-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5073. Samples were collected by WHC on November 9, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

  9. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank SX-102: Results from samples collected on July 19, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    McVeety, B.D.; Evans, J.C.; Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-102 (Tank SX-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed under the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5046. Samples were collected by WHC on July 19, 1995, using the vapor sampling system (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

  10. Melton Valley Storage Tanks Capacity Increase Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and maintain additional storage capacity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW). New capacity would be provided by a facility partitioned into six individual tank vaults containing one 100,000 gallon LLLW storage tank each. The storage tanks would be located within the existing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility. This action would require the extension of a potable water line approximately one mile from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) area to the proposed site to provide the necessary potable water for the facility including fire protection. Alternatives considered include no-action, cease generation, storage at other ORR storage facilities, source treatment, pretreatment, and storage at other DOE facilities.

  11. MIXING IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM STORAGE TANKS: ITS EFFECT ON WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nearly all distribution systems in the US include storage tanks and reservoirs. They are the most visible components of a wate distribution system but are generally the least understood in terms of their impact on water quality. Long residence times in storage tanks can have nega...

  12. Elemental Water Impact Test: Phase 2 36-Inch Aluminum Tank Head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassilakos, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft are being designed based on LS-DYNA simulations of water landing impacts. The Elemental Water Impact Test (EWIT) series was undertaken to assess the accuracy of LS-DYNA water impact simulations. EWIT Phase 2 featured a 36-inch aluminum tank head. The tank head was outfitted with one accelerometer, twelve pressure transducers, three string potentiometers, and four strain gages. The tank head was dropped from heights of 1 foot and 2 feet. The focus of this report is the correlation of analytical models against test data. As a measure of prediction accuracy, peak responses from the baseline LS-DYNA model were compared to peak responses from the tests.

  13. Hydrogen Tank Project Q2 Report - FY 11

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Kenneth I.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Skorski, Daniel C.; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kafentzis, Tyler A.; Dahl, Michael E.; Pitman, Stan G.

    2011-05-15

    Quarterly report that represents PNNL's results of HDPE, LDPE, and industrial polymer materials testing. ASTM D638 type 3 samples were subjected to a high pressure hydrogen environment between 3000 and 4000 PSI. These samples were tested using an instron load frame and were analyzed using a proprietary set of excel macros to determine trends in data. The development of an in-situ high pressure hydrogen tensile testing apparatus is discussed as is the stress modeling of the carbon fiber tank exterior.

  14. External Tank (ET) Foam Thermal/Structural Analysis Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, David F.; Ungar, Eugene K.; Chang, Li C.; Malroy, Eric T.; Stephan, Ryan A.

    2008-01-01

    An independent study was performed to assess the pre-launch thermally induced stresses in the Space Shuttle External Tank Bipod closeout and Ice/Frost ramps (IFRs). Finite element models with various levels of detail were built that included the three types of foam (BX-265, NCFI 24-124, and PDL 1034) and the underlying structure and bracketry. Temperature profiles generated by the thermal analyses were input to the structural models to calculate the stress levels. An area of high stress in the Bipod closeout was found along the aluminum tank wall near the phenolic insulator and along the phenolic insulator itself. This area of high stress might be prone to cracking and possible delamination. There is a small region of slightly increased stress in the NCFI 24-124 foam near its joint with the Bipod closeout BX-265 foam. The calculated stresses in the NCFI 24-124 acreage foam are highest at the NCFI 24-124/PDL 1034/tank wall interface under the LO2 and LH2 IFRs. The highest calculated stresses in the LH2 NCFI 24-124 foam are higher than in similar locations in the LO2 IFR. This finding is consistent with the dissection results of IFRs on ET-120.

  15. SURFACE WATER EMAP PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The surface water component of the EPA Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) Western Pilot is a five-year effort to assess the ecological condition of rivers and streams across 12 states in the western United States. EMAP is designed to monitor indicators of poll...

  16. Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, John W.

    1983-06-28

    A water heater or system which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

  17. Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, J.W.

    1980-06-25

    A water heater or system is described which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

  18. Waste Tank Organic Safety Project: Analysis of liquid samples from Hanford waste tank 241-C-103

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Bean, R.M.

    1994-03-01

    A suite of physical and chemical analyses has been performed in support of activities directed toward the resolution of an Unreviewed Safety Question concerning the potential for a floating organic layer in Hanford waste tank 241-C-103 to sustain a pool fire. The analysis program was the result of a Data Quality Objectives exercise conducted jointly with staff from Westinghouse Hanford Company and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The organic layer has been analyzed for flash point, organic composition including volatile organics, inorganic anions and cations, radionuclides, and other physical and chemical parameters needed for a safety assessment leading to the resolution of the Unreviewed Safety Question. The aqueous layer underlying the floating organic material was also analyzed for inorganic, organic, and radionuclide composition, as well as other physical and chemical properties. This work was conducted to PNL Quality Assurance impact level III standards (Good Laboratory Practices).

  19. 43. ARAIII Water storage tank ARA709. Camera facing northwest. Shadow ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. ARA-III Water storage tank ARA-709. Camera facing northwest. Shadow of ARA-611 at lower right corner of view. Ineel photo no. 3-18. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. SPRINGS AND WATER TANKS ON GILA RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION IN ARIZONA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This point coverage shows springs and water tanks on Gila River Indian Reservation in Arizona. This coverage was digitized off of USGS 7.5 minute quad maps by the Phoenix office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

  1. SPRINGS AND WATER TANKS ON THE COLORADO RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION IN ARIZONA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This point coverage shows springs and water tanks on Colorado River Indian Reservation in Arizona. This coverage was digitized off of USGS 7.5 minute quad maps by the Phoenix office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

  2. SAMPLING OIL-WATER MIXTURES AT OHMSETT (OIL AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SIMULATED ENVIRONMENTAL TEST TANK)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes procedures developed at the Oil and Hazardous Material Simulated Environmental Test Tank (OHMSETT) for sampling oil and water mixtures. Two procedures for sampling in containers are discussed: grab and stratified sampling. Both of these techniques require str...

  3. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT SEISMIC ANALYSIS IN SUPPORT OF INCREASED LIQUID LEVEL IN 241-AP TANK FARMS

    SciTech Connect

    MACKEY TC; ABBOTT FG; CARPENTER BG; RINKER MW

    2007-02-16

    The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford. The "Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Project - DST Thermal and Seismic Project" is in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14.

  4. Project W.A.T.E.R.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EnviroTeach, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Introduces networking projects for studying rivers and water quality. Describes two projects in South Africa (Project W.A.T.E.R and SWAP) associated with the international network, Global Rivers Environmental Education Network. Discusses water test kits and educational material developed through Project W.A.T.E.R. (Water Awareness through…

  5. Analysis of nonlinear shallow water waves in a tank by concentrated mass model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Satoshi; Kondou, Takahiro; Matsuzaki, Kenichiro; Yamamura, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    The sloshing of liquid in a tank is an important engineering problem. For example, liquid storage tanks in industrial facilities can be damaged by earthquakes, and conversely liquid tanks, called tuned liquid damper, are often used as passive mechanical dampers. The water depth is less often than the horizontal length of the tank. In this case, shallow water wave theory can be applied, and the results indicate that the surface waveform in a shallow excited tank exhibits complex behavior caused by nonlinearity and dispersion of the liquid. This study aims to establish a practical analytical model for this phenomenon. A model is proposed that consists of masses, connecting nonlinear springs, connecting dampers, base support dampers, and base support springs. The characteristics of the connecting nonlinear springs are derived from the static and dynamic pressures. The advantages of the proposed model are that nonlinear dispersion is considered and that the problem of non-uniform water depth can be addressed. To confirm the validity of the model, numerical results obtained from the model are compared with theoretical values of the natural frequencies of rectangular and triangular tanks. Numerical results are also compared with experimental results for a rectangular tank. All computational results agree well with the theoretical and experimental results. Therefore, it is concluded that the proposed model is valid for the numerical analysis of nonlinear shallow water wave problems.

  6. STATUS OF MECHANICAL SLUDGE REMOVAL AND COOLING COILS CLOSURE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT - 9225

    SciTech Connect

    Jolly, R

    2009-01-06

    The Savannah River Site F-Tank Farm Closure project has successfully performed Mechanical Sludge Removal using the Waste on Wheels (WOW) system within two of its storage tanks. The Waste on Wheels (WOW) system is designed to be relatively mobile with the ability for many components to be redeployed to multiple tanks. It is primarily comprised of Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), Submersible Transfer Pumps (STPs), and a mobile control room with a control panel and variable speed drives. These tanks, designated as Tank 6 and Tank 5 respectively, are Type I waste tanks located in F-Tank Farm (FTF) with a capacity of 2839 cubic meters (750,000 gallons) each. In addition, Type I tanks have 34 vertically oriented cooling coils and two horizontal cooling coil circuits along the tank floor. DOE intends to remove from service and operationally close Tank 5 and Tank 6 and other HLW tanks that do not meet current containment standards. After obtaining regulatory approval, the tanks and cooling coils will be isolated and filled with grout for long term stabilization. Mechanical Sludge Removal of the remaining sludge waste within Tank 6 removed {approx} 75% of the original 25,000 gallons in August 2007. Utilizing lessons learned from Tank 6, Tank 5 Mechanical Sludge Removal completed removal of {approx} 90% of the original 125 cubic meters (33,000 gallons) of sludge material in May 2008. The successful removal of sludge material meets the requirement of approximately 19 to 28 cubic meters (5,000 to 7,500 gallons) remaining prior to the Chemical Cleaning process. The Chemical Cleaning Process will utilize 8 wt% oxalic acid to dissolve the remaining sludge heel. The flow sheet for Chemical Cleaning planned a 20:1 volume ratio of acid to sludge for the first strike with mixing provided by the submersible mixer pumps. The subsequent strikes will utilize a 13:1 volume ratio of acid to sludge with no mixing. The results of the Chemical Cleaning Process are detailed in the 'Status of

  7. Temperature distribution of a hot water storage tank in a simulated solar heating and cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A 2,300-liter hot water storage tank was studied under conditions simulating a solar heating and cooling system. The initial condition of the tank, ranging from 37 C at the bottom to 94 C at the top, represented a condition midway through the start-up period of the system. During the five-day test period, the water in the tank gradually rose in temperature but in a manner that diminished its temperature stratification. Stratification was found not to be an important factor in the operation of the particular solar system studied.

  8. STS-55 crewmembers repair waste water tank under OV-102's middeck subfloor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Pilot Terence T. Henricks uses a spotlight and pen to point out a possible problem area on a waste water tank in the bilge area below Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, middeck. Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross records the activity with a video camcorder. The crewmembers are participating in an inflight maintenance (IFM) exercise to counter problems experienced with the waste water tank.

  9. OVERVIEW OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL AND RELATIONSHIP TO WATER TANK,LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL AND RELATIONSHIP TO WATER TANK,LOOKING NORTH FROM MAIN ACCESS ROAD. THIS IS HOW THE TERMINAL AND MILL SITE FIRST APPEAR TO VISITORS WHEN APPROACHING FROM THE ROAD FROM THE SITE'S PARKING LOT. THIS IS CONSIDERED THE FRONT END OF THE TERMINAL. ORIGINALLY THERE WAS A SECOND WATER TANK NEAR THE ONE IN UPPER LEFT. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  10. Environmental projects. Volume 2: Underground storage tanks compliance program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushner, L.

    1987-01-01

    Six large parabolic dish antennas are located at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex north of Barstow, California. As a large-scale facility located in a remote, isolated desert region, the GDSCC operations require numerous on-site storage facilities for gasoline, diesel and hydraulic oil. These essential fluids are stored in underground storage tanks (USTs). Because USTs may develop leaks with the resultant seepage of their hazardous contents into the surrounding soil, local, State and Federal authorities have adopted stringent regulations for the testing and maintenance of USTs. Under the supervision of JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition, a year-long program has brought 27 USTs at the Goldstone Complex into compliance with Federal, State of California and County of San Bernadino regulations. Of these 27 USTs, 15 are operating today, 11 have been temporary closed down, and 1 abandoned in place. In 1989, the 15 USTs now operating at the Goldstone DSCC will be replaced either by modern, double-walled USTs equipped with automatic sensors for leak detection, or by above ground storage tanks. The 11 inactivated USTs are to be excavated, removed and disposed of according to regulation.

  11. Progress of the Enhanced Hanford Single Shell Tank (SST) Integrity Project

    SciTech Connect

    Venetz, Theodore J.; Washenfelder, Dennis J.; Boomer, Kayle D.; Johnson, Jeremy M.; Castleberry, Jim L.

    2015-01-07

    To improve the understanding of the single-shell tanks (SSTs) integrity, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS), the USDOE Hanford Site tank contractor, developed an enhanced Single-Shell Tank Integrity Project (SSTIP) in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity, consisting of various subject matters experts in industry and academia, was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. This panel developed 33 recommendations in four main areas of interest: structural integrity, liner degradation, leak integrity and prevention, and mitigation of contamination migration. In late 2010, seventeen of these recommendations were used to develop the basis for the M-45-10-1 Change Package for the Hanford Federal Agreement and Compliance Order, which is also known as the Tri-Party Agreement.

  12. Tank bromeliad water: similar or distinct environments for research of bacterial bioactives?

    PubMed

    Carmo, F L; Santos, H F; Peixoto, R S; Rosado, A S; Araujo, F V

    2014-01-01

    The Atlantic Rainforest does not have a uniform physiognomy, its relief determines different environmental conditions that define the composition of its flora and fauna. Within this ecosystem, bromeliads that form tanks with their leaves hold water reservoirs throughout the year, maintaining complex food chains, based mainly on autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria. Some works concluded that the water held by tank bromeliads concentrate the microbial diversity of their ecosystem. To investigate the bacterial diversity and the potential biotechnology of these ecosystems, tank bromeliads of the Neoregelia cruenta species from the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil were used as models for this research. Bacteria isolated from these models were tested for production of bioactive compounds. DGGE of the water held by tank bromeliads was performed in different seasons, locations and sun exposure to verify whether these environmental factors affect bacterial communities. The DGGE bands profile showed no grouping of bacterial community by the environmental factors tested. Most of the isolates demonstrated promising activities in the tests performed. Collectively, these results suggest that tank bromeliads of the N. cruenta species provide important habitats for a diverse microbial community, suggesting that each tank forms a distinct micro-habitat. These tanks can be considered excellent sources for the search for new enzymes and/or new bioactive composites of microbial origin. PMID:24948929

  13. Sludge accumulation and conversion to methane in a septic tank treating domestic wastewater or black water.

    PubMed

    Elmitwalli, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    Although the septic tank is the most applied on-site system for wastewater pre-treatment, limited research has been performed to determine sludge accumulation and biogas production in the tank. Therefore a dynamic mathematical model based on the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) was developed for anaerobic digestion of the accumulated sludge in a septic tank treating domestic wastewater or black water. The results showed that influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the tank mainly control the filling time with sludge, while operational temperature governs characteristics of the accumulated sludge and conversion to methane. For obtaining stable sludge and high conversion, the tank needs to be operated for a period more than a year without sludge wasting. Maximum conversion to methane in the tank is about 50 and 60% for domestic wastewater and black water, respectively. The required period for sludge wasting depends on the influent COD concentration and the HRT, while characteristics of the wasted sludge are affected by operational temperature followed by the influent COD concentration and the HRT. Sludge production from the tank ranges between 0.19 to 0.22 and 0.13 to 0.15 L/(person.d), for the domestic wastewater and black water, respectively. PMID:23985530

  14. Tank bromeliad water: Similar or distinct environments for research of bacterial bioactives?

    PubMed Central

    Carmo, F.L.; Santos, H.F.; Peixoto, R.S.; Rosado, A.S.; Araujo, F.V.

    2014-01-01

    The Atlantic Rainforest does not have a uniform physiognomy, its relief determines different environmental conditions that define the composition of its flora and fauna. Within this ecosystem, bromeliads that form tanks with their leaves hold water reservoirs throughout the year, maintaining complex food chains, based mainly on autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria. Some works concluded that the water held by tank bromeliads concentrate the microbial diversity of their ecosystem. To investigate the bacterial diversity and the potential biotechnology of these ecosystems, tank bromeliads of the Neoregelia cruenta species from the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil were used as models for this research. Bacteria isolated from these models were tested for production of bioactive compounds. DGGE of the water held by tank bromeliads was performed in different seasons, locations and sun exposure to verify whether these environmental factors affect bacterial communities. The DGGE bands profile showed no grouping of bacterial community by the environmental factors tested. Most of the isolates demonstrated promising activities in the tests performed. Collectively, these results suggest that tank bromeliads of the N. cruenta species provide important habitats for a diverse microbial community, suggesting that each tank forms a distinct micro-habitat. These tanks can be considered excellent sources for the search for new enzymes and/or new bioactive composites of microbial origin. PMID:24948929

  15. Dose rate analysis for Tank 101 AZ (Project W151)

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, R.A.; Hillesland, K.E.; Carter, L.L.

    1994-11-01

    This document describes the expected dose rates for modification to tank 101 AZ including modifications to the steam coil, mixer pump, and temperature probes. The thrust of the effort is to determine dose rates from: modification of a steam coil and caisson; the installation of mixer pumps; the installation of temperature probes; and estimates of dose rates that will be encountered while making these changes. Because the dose rates for all of these configurations depend upon the photon source within the supernate and sludge, comparisons were also made between measured dose rates within a drywell and the corresponding calculated dose rates. The calculational tool used is a Monte Carlo (MCNP{sub 2}) code since complicated three dimensional geometries are involved. A summary of the most important results of the entire study is given in Section 2. The basic calculational geometry model of the tank is discussed in Section 3, along with a tabulation of the photon sources that were used within the supernate and the sludge, and a discussion of uncertainties. The calculated dose rates around the steam coil and caisson before and after modification are discussed in Section 4. The configuration for the installation of the mixer pumps and the resulting dose rates are given in Section 5. The predicted changes in dose rates due to a possible dilution of the supernate source are given in Section 6. The calculational configuration used to model the installation of temperature probes and the resulting predicted dose rates are discussed in Section 7. Finally, comparisons of measured to calculated dose rates within a drywell are summarized in Section 8. Extended discussions of calculational models and Monte Carlo optimization techniques used are included in Appendix A.

  16. Project management plan for inactive tanks 3001-B, 3004-B, 3013, and T-30 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    *This document identifies the roles and responsibilities of the project team members and identifies the project scope, schedule, and cost reporting activities for a maintenance activity to remove and dispose of three inactive liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) system tanks and to isolate and fill one LLLW tank with grout. Tanks 3001-B, 3004-B, and T-30 are located in concrete vaults and tank 3013 is buried directly in the soil. The maintenance project consists of cutting the existing pipes attached to the tanks; capping the piping to be left in place; removing the tanks and filling the vaults with grout for tanks 3001-B, 3004-B, and T-30; and filling tank 3013 with grout. Because the LLLW line serving tank 3001-B will be needed for discharging the 3001 canal demineralizer back flush and regeneration waste to tank WC-19, tank 3001-B will be replaced with a section of piping.

  17. Recreational Vehicle Water Tanks as a Possible Source for Legionella Infections

    PubMed Central

    Litwin, Christine M.; Asebiomo, Bankole; Wilson, Katherine; Hafez, Michael; Stevens, Valerie; Fliermans, Carl B.; Fields, Barry S.; Fisher, John F.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated recreational vehicle (RV) water reservoirs in response to a case of pneumonia in which Legionella pneumophila was cultured both from the patient and a RV reservoir in which he travelled. Water samples processed and cultured at the CDC according to standard protocol were positive for Legionella spp. in 4/17 (24%) faucets, 1/11 (9%) water tanks from 4/20 (20%) RVs from three different campsites. Legionella spp. that were isolated included L. pneumophila (serogroups 1 and 6), L. anisa, L. feeleii, and L. quateriensis. Environmental controls from the potable water of the three campsites were culture-negative. A survey of maintenance practices by the RV users at the campsites revealed that chlorine disinfection of the water tanks was rarely performed. To prevent the possibility of Legionella infections, RV owners should implement regular chlorine disinfection of their water tanks and follow the recommended maintenance guidelines according to their owner's manuals. PMID:24371531

  18. Chemical research projects office fuel tank sealants review. [flight testing of fluorosilicone sealants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosser, R. W.; Parker, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The status of high-temperature fuel tank sealants for military and potentially commercial supersonic aircraft is examined. The interrelationships of NASA's sealants program comprise synthesis and development of new fluoroether elastomers, sealant prediction studies, flight simulation and actual flight testing of best state-of-the-art fluorosilicone sealants. The technical accomplishments of these projects are reviewed.

  19. Initial single shell tank retrieval system project system engineering management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Krieg, S.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-31

    This System Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) describes the Systems Engineering approach that will be used to manage the retrieval of waste from the first single shell tank farm using past practice sluicing techniques. This Project SEMP is used to supplement the requirements of the TWRS SEMP, WHC-SD-WM-SEMP-002.

  20. Building Rain Water Tanks and Building Skills: A Case Study of a Women's Organization in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Deborah; Nakato, Margaret; Nabalango, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Water collection in rural areas of Uganda is left primarily to women and children. Katosi Women Development Trust, an NGO based in rural Uganda has focused on addressing the gender-linked issue of increased water sources near the home through the construction of rain water collection tanks. In an effort to improve the income of members as well as…

  1. SCALE-MODEL STUDIES OF MIXING IN DRINKING WATER STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Storage tanks and reservoirs are commonly used in drinking water distribution systems to equalize pumping requirements and operating pressures, and to provide emergency water for fire-fighting and pumping outages. Poor mixing in these structures can create pockets of older water...

  2. OVERVIEW OF ENHANCED HANFORD SINGLE-SHELL TANK (SST) INTEGRITY PROJECT - 12128

    SciTech Connect

    VENETZ TJ; BOOMER KD; WASHENFELDER DJ; JOHNSON JB

    2012-01-25

    To improve the understanding of the single-shell tanks integrity, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, the USDOE Hanford Site tank contractor, developed an enhanced Single-Shell Tank (SST) Integrity Project in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity, consisting of various subject matters experts in industry and academia, was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. This panel developed 33 recommendations in four main areas of interest: structural integrity, liner degradation, leak integrity and prevention, and mitigation of contamination migration, Seventeen of these recommendations were used to develop the basis for the M-45-10-1 Change Package for the Hanford Federal Agreement and Compliance Order, which is also known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The change package identified two phases of work for SST integrity. The initial phase has been focused on efforts to envelope the integrity of the tanks. The initial phase was divided into two primary areas of investigation: structural integrity and leak integrity. If necessary based on the outcome from the initial work, a second phase would be focused on further definition of the integrity of the concrete and liners. Combined these two phases are designed to support the formal integrity assessment of the Hanford SSTs in 2018 by Independent Qualified Registered Engineer. The work to further define the DOE's understanding of the structural integrity SSTs involves preparing a modern Analysis of Record using a finite element analysis program. Structural analyses of the SSTs have been conducted since 1957, but these analyses used analog calculation, less rigorous models, or focused on individual structures. As such, an integrated understanding of all of the SSTs has not been developed to modern expectations. In support of this effort, other milestones will address the visual inspection of the tank concrete and the collection of concrete core samples from the tanks for analysis of

  3. Geodesic-dome tank roof cuts water contamination, vapor losses

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, A.E. )

    1989-07-10

    Colonial Pipeline Co. has established an ongoing program for using geodesic-dome roofs on tanks in liquid petroleum-product service. As its standard, Colonial adopted geodesicodone roofs, in conjunction with internal floating decks, to replace worn external floating roofs on existing tanks used in gasoline service and for use on new tanks in all types of product service. Geodesic domes are clear-span structures requiring no internal-support columns. This feature allows the associated use of a floating deck that is as vapor tight as is possible to construct. Further, geodesic domes can practically eliminate rainwater contamination, eliminate wind-generated vapor losses, and greatly reduce filling losses associated with conventional external floating roofs.

  4. Modeling water retention of sludge simulants and actual saltcake tank wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, C.S.

    1996-07-01

    The Ferrocyanide Tanks Safety Program managed by Westinghouse hanford Company has been concerned with the potential combustion hazard of dry tank wastes containing ferrocyanide chemical in combination with nitrate salts. Pervious studies have shown that tank waste containing greater than 20 percent of weight as water could not be accidentally ignited. Moreover, a sustained combustion could not be propagated in such a wet waste even if it contained enough ferrocyanide to burn. Because moisture content is a key critical factor determining the safety of ferrocyanide-containing tank wastes, physical modeling was performed by Pacific Northwest National laboratory to evaluate the moisture-retaining behavior of typical tank wastes. The physical modeling reported here has quantified the mechanisms by which two main types of tank waste, sludge and saltcake, retain moisture in a tank profile under static conditions. Static conditions usually prevail after a tank profile has been stabilized by pumping out any excess interstitial liquid, which is not naturally retained by the waste as a result of physical forces such as capillarity.

  5. System Engineering Management and Implementation Plan for Project W-211 Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS)

    SciTech Connect

    VAN BEEK, J.E.

    2000-05-05

    This systems Engineering Management and Implementation Plan (SEMIP) describes the Project W-211 implementation of the Tank Farm Contractor Systems Engineering Management Plan (TFC SEMP). The SEMIP defines the systems engineering products and processes used by the project to comply with the TFC SEMP, and provides the basis for tailoring systems engineering processes by applying a graded approach to identify appropriate systems engineering requirements for W-211.

  6. Pecos River Water Management Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, J. D.; James, S. C.

    2003-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is providing technical assistance to farmer members of the Carlsbad Irrigation District (CID) to better plan the storage, delivery, and application of water to the Carlsbad Project. The surface waters along the Pecos River are allocated by the State of New Mexico to three major entities: 1) The State of Texas - each year a percentage of water from the natural river flow must be delivered to Texas as governed by the Interstate Streams Commission; 2) CID farmer members - a fixed portion of water must be delivered to the farming members of the CID; and 3) wildlife - an amount of water must be allocated to support the wildlife habitat in the Pecos River, most notably, the endangered Pecos Bluntnose Shiner Minnow. The Pecos Bluntnose Shiner Minnow habitat preference is under investigation by other state and national agencies and preliminary work has established that water depth, water velocity, and sediment activity (dunes, ripples, etc.) are the key parameters influencing minnow habitat preference. The amount of water (river flow rate) necessary to maintain a preferable habitat to support this species has yet to be determined. With a limited amount of water in the Pecos River and its reservoirs, it is critical to allocate water efficiently such that habitat is maintained, the farmers of the CID are supported, and New Mexico meets its commitments to the State of Texas. This study investigates the relationship between flow rate in the river and water depth, water velocity, and sediment activity. The goal is to establish a predictive tool that supports informed decisions about water management practices along the Pecos River that will maximize water available for agriculture and the State of Texas while maintaining the aquatic habitat.

  7. Fifth Single-Shell Tank Integrity Project Expert Panel Meeting August 28-29, 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Todd M.; Gunter, Jason R.; Boomer, Kayle D.

    2015-01-07

    On August 28th and 29th, 2014 the Single-Shell Tank Integrity Project (SSTIP) Expert Panel (Panel) convened in Richland, Washington. This was the Panel’s first meeting since 2011 and, as a result, was focused primarily on updating the Panel on progress in response to the past recommendations (Single-Shell Tank Integrity Expert Panel Report, RPP-RPT-45921, Rev 0, May 2010). This letter documents the Panel’s discussions and feedback on Phase I activities and results.

  8. Minutes of the Tank Waste Science Panel meeting, November 11--13, 1991. Hanford Tank Safety Project

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, D.M.

    1992-04-01

    The sixth meeting of the Tank Waste Science Panel was held November 11--13, 1991, in Pasco and Richland, Washington. Participating scientists presented the results of recent work on various aspects of issues relating to the generation and release of gases from Tank 241-SY-101 and the presence of ferrocyanide in other tanks at Hanford. Results are discussed.

  9. Releases from the cooling water system in the Waste Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, W.C.; Lux, C.R.

    1991-12-31

    On September 12, 1991, a cooling-water header broke in the H-Area Waste Tank farm, at the Savannah River Site, releasing contaminated water down a storm sewer that drains to the creek. A copy of the Occurrence Report is attached. As part of the follow-up on this incident, the NPSR Section was asked by Waste Management Technology to perform a probabilistic analysis of the following cases: (1) A large break in the header combined with a large break in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (2) A large break in the header combined with a leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (3) A large break in the header combined with a very small leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. This report documents the results of the analysis of these cases.

  10. Releases from the cooling water system in the Waste Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, W.C.; Lux, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    On September 12, 1991, a cooling-water header broke in the H-Area Waste Tank farm, at the Savannah River Site, releasing contaminated water down a storm sewer that drains to the creek. A copy of the Occurrence Report is attached. As part of the follow-up on this incident, the NPSR Section was asked by Waste Management Technology to perform a probabilistic analysis of the following cases: (1) A large break in the header combined with a large break in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (2) A large break in the header combined with a leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (3) A large break in the header combined with a very small leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. This report documents the results of the analysis of these cases.

  11. Water quality index to determine the surface water quality of Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake, Bangalore urban district, Karnataka, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravikumar, P.; Aneesul Mehmood, Mohammad; Somashekar, R. K.

    2013-03-01

    The present work aims at assessing the water quality index (WQI) in the surface water of Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake situated in Bangalore Urban district by monitoring three sampling locations within Sankey tank (viz., A, B and C) and Mallathahalli lake (viz., Inlet, Centre and outlet) for a period of 3 months from March to May 2012. The surface water samples were subjected to comprehensive physico-chemical analysis involving major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Fe2+), anions (HCO3 -, Cl-, SO4 2-, NO3 -, F-, PO4 3-) besides general parameters (pH, EC, TDS, alkalinity, total hardness, DO, BOD, COD, CO2, SiO2, colour, turbidity). For calculating the WQI, 14 parameters namely, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, fluorides and iron were considered. SAR values indicated that both Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake waters are excellent (S1) for irrigation, while electrical conductivity values classified these lake water, respectively under medium salinity (C2) and high (C3) salinity category. Correlation between SAR and electrical conductivity revealed that Sankey tank water is C2S1 (medium salinity-low sodium) type while Mallathahalli lake water is C3S1 (high salinity-low sodium) type. Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake water were, respectively hard and very hard in nature. Further, it is apparent from WQI values that Sankey tank water belongs to good water class with WQI values ranging from 50.34 to 63.38. The Mallathahalli lake water with WQI value ranging from 111.69 to 137.09, fall under poor water category.

  12. 124. ARAI Reservoir (ARA727), later named water storage tank. Shows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. ARA-I Reservoir (ARA-727), later named water storage tank. Shows plan of 100,000-gallon tank, elevation, image of "danger radiation hazard" sign, and other details. Norman Engineering Company 961-area/SF-727-S-1. Date: January 1959. Ineel index code no. 068-0727-60-613-102779. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. TANK 241-AN-102 MULTI-PROBE CORROSION MONITORING SYSTEM PROJECT LESSONS LEARNED

    SciTech Connect

    TAYLOR T; HAGENSEN A; KIRCH NW

    2008-07-07

    During 2007 and 2008, a new Multi-Probe Corrosion Monitoring System (MPCMS) was designed and fabricated for use in double-shell tank 241-AN-102. The system was successfully installed in the tank on May 1, 2008. The 241-AN-102 MPCMS consists of one 'fixed' in-tank probe containing primary and secondary reference electrodes, tank material electrodes, Electrical Resistance (ER) sensors, and stressed and unstressed corrosion coupons. In addition to the fixed probe, the 241-AN-102 MPCMS also contains four standalone coupon racks, or 'removable' probes. Each rack contains stressed and unstressed coupons made of American Society of Testing and Materials A537 CL1 steel, heat-treated to closely match the chemical and mechanical characteristics of the 241-AN-102 tank wall. These coupon racks can be removed periodically to facilitate examination of the attached coupons for corrosion damage. Along the way to successful system deployment and operation, the system design, fabrication, and testing activities presented a number of challenges. This document discusses these challenges and lessons learned, which when applied to future efforts, should improve overall project efficiency.

  14. High-Level Waste Tank Cleaning and Field Characterization at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, J. L.; McMahon, C. L.; Meess, D. C.

    2002-02-26

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is nearing completion of radioactive high-level waste (HLW) retrieval from its storage tanks and subsequent vitrification of the HLW into borosilicate glass. Currently, 99.5% of the sludge radioactivity has been recovered from the storage tanks and vitrified. Waste recovery of cesium-137 (Cs-137) adsorbed on a zeolite media during waste pretreatment has resulted in 97% of this radioactivity being vitrified. Approximately 84% of the original 1.1 x 1018 becquerels (30 million curies) of radioactivity was efficiently vitrified from July 1996 to June 1998 during Phase I processing. The recovery of the last 16% of the waste has been challenging due to a number of factors, primarily the complex internal structural support system within the main 2.8 million liter (750,000 gallon) HLW tank designated 8D-2. Recovery of this last waste has become exponentially more challenging as less and less HLW is available to mobilize and transfer to the Vitrification Facility. This paper describes the progressively more complex techniques being utilized to remove the final small percentage of radioactivity from the HLW tanks, and the multiple characterization technologies deployed to determine the quantity of Cs-137, strontium-90 (Sr-90), and alpha-transuranic (alpha-TRU) radioactivity remaining in the tanks.

  15. Pore-Water Extraction Scale-Up Study for the SX Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Last, George V.; Lanigan, David C.

    2013-01-15

    The phenomena related to pore-water extraction from unsaturated sediments have been previously examined with limited laboratory experiments and numerical modeling. However, key scale-up issues have not yet been addressed. Laboratory experiments and numerical modeling were conducted to specifically examine pore-water extraction for sediment conditions relevant to the vadose zone beneath the SX Tank Farm at Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Available SX Tank Farm data were evaluated to generate a conceptual model of the subsurface for a targeted pore-water extraction application in areas with elevated moisture and Tc-99 concentration. The hydraulic properties of the types of porous media representative of the SX Tank Farm target application were determined using sediment mixtures prepared in the laboratory based on available borehole sediment particle size data. Numerical modeling was used as an evaluation tool for scale-up of pore-water extraction for targeted field applications.

  16. Design review report: 200 East upgrades for Project W-314, tank farm restoration and safe operations

    SciTech Connect

    Boes, K.A.

    1998-04-15

    This Design Review Report (DRR) documents the contractor design verification methodology and records associated with project W-314`s 200 East (200E) Upgrades design package. The DRR includes the documented comments and their respective dispositions for this design. Acceptance of the comment dispositions and closure of the review comments is indicated by the signatures of the participating reviewers. Project W-314 is a project within the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Tank Waste Retrieval Program. This project provides capital upgrades for the existing Hanford tank farm waste transfer, instrumentation, ventilation, and electrical infrastructure systems. To support established TWRS programmatic objectives, the project is organized into two distinct phases. The initial focus of the project (i.e., Phase 1) is on waste transfer system upgrades needed to support the TWRS Privatization waste feed delivery system. Phase 2 of the project will provide upgrades to support resolution of regulatory compliance issues, improve tank infrastructure reliability, and reduce overall plant operating/maintenance costs. Within Phase 1 of the W-314 project, the waste transfer system upgrades are further broken down into six major packages which align with the project`s work breakdown structure. Each of these six sub-elements includes the design, procurement, and construction activities necessary to accomplish the specific tank farm upgrades contained within the package. The first design package (AN Valve Pit Upgrades) was completed in November 1997, and the associated design verification activities are documented in HNF-1893. The second design package, 200 East (200E) Upgrades, was completed in March 1998. This design package identifies modifications to existing valve pits 241-AX-B and 241-A-B, as well as several new waste transfer pipelines to be constructed within the A Farm Complex of the 200E Area. The scope of the valve pit modifications includes new pit cover blocks, valve

  17. Classification of heart valve sounds from experiments in an anechoic water tank

    SciTech Connect

    Axelrod, M C; Clark, G A; Scott, D

    1999-06-01

    In vivo studies in both sheep and humans were plagued by a number of problems including movement artifacts, biological noise, low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), chest-wall reverberation, and limited bandwidth recordings as discussed by [1]. To overcome these problems it was decided to record heart valve sounds under controlled conditions deep in an anechoic water tank, free from reverberation noise. The main goal of this experiment was to obtain measurements of ''pure'' heart valve sounds free of the scattering effects of the body. Experiments were conducted at the Transdec facility in San Diego [2]. We used a high quality hydrophone together with a wide-band data acquisition system [2]. We recorded sounds from 100 repetitions of the opening-closing cycles on each of 50 different heart valves, including 21 SLS valves and 29 intact valves. The power spectrum of the opening and closing phases of each cycle were calculated and outlier spectra removed as described by Candy [2]. In this report, we discuss the results of our classification of the heart valve sound measurements. The goal of this classification task was to apply the fundamental classification algorithms developed for the clinical data in 1994 and 1996 to the measurements from the anechoic water tank. From the beginning of this project, LLNL's responsibility has been to process and classify the heart valve sounds. For this experiment, however, we processed both the opening sounds and closing sounds for comparison purposes. The results of this experiment show that the classifier did not perform well because of low signal-to-noise ratio and excessive variability in signal power from beat-to-beat for a given valve.

  18. Tank waste remediation system characterization project quality policies

    SciTech Connect

    Trible, T.C., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-31

    This quality plan describes the system used by Characterization Project management to achieve quality. This plan is comprised on eleven quality policies which, when taken together, form a management system deployed to achieve quality. This quality management system is based on the customer`s quality requirements known as the `RULE`, 10 CFR 830.120, Quality Assurance.

  19. Tank waste remediation system characterization project quality policies

    SciTech Connect

    Board, D.C.

    1997-09-24

    This quality plan describes the system used by Characterization Project management to achieve quality. This plan is comprised of eleven quality policies which, when taken together, form a management system deployed to achieve quality. This quality management system is based on the customer`s quality requirements known as the `RULE`, 10 CFR 830.120, Quality Assurance.

  20. Localized weld metal corrosion in stainless steel water tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Strum, M.J.

    1995-05-25

    The rapidly developed leaks within the TFC and TFD tanks (LLNL groundwater treatment facilities) were caused by localized corrosion within the resolidified weld metal. The corrosion was initiated by the severe oxidation of the backsides of the welds which left the exposed surfaces in a condition highly susceptible to aqueous corrosion. The propagation of surface corrosion through the thickness of the welds occurred by localized corrosive attack. This localized attack was promoted by the presence of shielded aqueous environments provided by crevices at the root of the partial penetration welds. In addition to rapid corrosion of oxidized surfaces, calcium carbonate precipitation provided an additional source of physical shielding from the bulk tank environment. Qualification testing of alternate weld procedures showed that corrosion damage can be prevented in 304L stainless steel GTA welds by welding from both sides while preventing oxidation of the tank interior through the use of an inert backing gas such as argon. Corrosion resistance was also satisfactory in GMA welds in which oxidized surfaces were postweld cleaned by wire brushing and chemically passivated in nitric acid. Further improvements in corrosion resistance are expected from a Mo-containing grade of stainless steel such as type 316L, although test results were similar for type 304L sheet welded with type 308L filler metal and type 316L sheet welded with type 316L filler metal.

  1. Water washes and caustic leaches of sludge from Hanford Tank S-101 and water washes of sludge from Hanford Tank C-103

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, R.D.; Collins, J.L.; Chase, C.W.

    1998-07-01

    In 1993, the Department of Energy (DOE) selected the enhanced sludge washing (ESW) process as the baseline for pretreatment of Hanford tank sludges. The ESW process uses a series of water washes and caustic leaches to separate nonradioactive components such as aluminum, chromium, and phosphate from the high-level waste sludges. If the ESW process is successful, the volume of immobilized high-level waste will be significantly reduced. The tests on the sludge from Hanford Tank S-101 focused on the effects of process variables such as sodium hydroxide concentration (1 and 3 M), temperature (70 and 95 C), and leaching time (5, 24, 72, and 168 h) on the efficacy of the ESW process with realistic liquid-to-solid ratios. Another goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of water washes on a sludge sample from hanford Tank C-103. The final objective of this study was to test potential process control monitors during the water washes and caustic leaches with actual sludge. Both {sup 137}Cs activity and conductance were measured for each of the water washes and caustic leaches. Experimental procedures, a discussion of results, conclusions and recommendations are included in this report.

  2. Thermal stratification of chilled-water slot flows into storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, W.E. Jr.; Cai, L.; Sohn, C.W.

    1994-12-31

    A numerical model was used to simulate the two dimensional flow of chilled water into a storage tank initially filled with warm water. The inlet flow is from a small slot in one vertical wall at the bottom of the tank. The numerical model employs a transient stream function-vorticity formulation to predict the streamline and temperature distributions in the tank as a function of time. Turbulence was modeled using the turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent length scale equations. The model results for a side-slot inlet to the tank reveal that the Archimedes number should be greater than 5 and the Reynolds number should be smaller than 1,000 to ensure thermal stratification of the hot and cold water. When stratification is achieved, the temperature distribution varies only in the vertical direction of the tank, where the water temperature is approximately uniform in the horizontal direction. The numerical results are in reasonably good agreement with some experimental data available in the literature.

  3. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT INCREASED LIQUID LEVEL ANALYSIS FOR 241-AP TANK FARMS

    SciTech Connect

    TC MACKEY; JE DEIBLER; MW RINKER; KI JOHNSON; SP PILLI; NK KARRI; FG ABATT; KL STOOPS

    2009-01-14

    The essential difference between Revision 1 and the original issue of this report is the analysis of the anchor bolts that tie the steel dome of the primary tank to the concrete tank dome. The reevaluation of the AP anchor bolts showed that (for a given temperature increase) the anchor shear load distribution did not change significantly from the initially higher stiffness to the new secant shear stiffness. Therefore, the forces and displacements of the other tank components such as the primary tanks stresses, secondary liner strains, and concrete tank forces and moments also did not change significantly. Consequently, the revised work in Revision 1 focused on the changes in the anchor bolt responses and a full reevaluation of all tank components was judged to be unnecessary.

  4. High-Level Waste Mechanical Sludge Removal at the Savannah River Site - F Tank Farm Closure Project

    SciTech Connect

    Jolly, R.C.Jr.; Martin, B.

    2008-07-01

    The Savannah River Site F-Tank Farm Closure project has successfully performed Mechanical Sludge Removal (MSR) using the Waste on Wheels (WOW) system for the first time within one of its storage tanks. The WOW system is designed to be relatively mobile with the ability for many components to be redeployed to multiple waste tanks. It is primarily comprised of Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), Submersible Transfer Pumps (STPs), and a mobile control room with a control panel and variable speed drives. In addition, the project is currently preparing another waste tank for MSR utilizing lessons learned from this previous operational activity. These tanks, designated as Tank 6 and Tank 5 respectively, are Type I waste tanks located in F-Tank Farm (FTF) with a capacity of 2,840 cubic meters (750,000 gallons) each. The construction of these tanks was completed in 1953, and they were placed into waste storage service in 1959. The tank's primary shell is 23 meters (75 feet) in diameter, and 7.5 meters (24.5 feet) in height. Type I tanks have 34 vertically oriented cooling coils and two horizontal cooling coil circuits along the tank floor. Both Tank 5 and Tank 6 received and stored F-PUREX waste during their operating service time before sludge removal was performed. DOE intends to remove from service and operationally close (fill with grout) Tank 5 and Tank 6 and other HLW tanks that do not meet current containment standards. Mechanical Sludge Removal, the first step in the tank closure process, will be followed by chemical cleaning. After obtaining regulatory approval, the tanks will be isolated and filled with grout for long-term stabilization. Mechanical Sludge Removal operations within Tank 6 removed approximately 75% of the original 95,000 liters (25,000 gallons). This sludge material was transferred in batches to an interim storage tank to prepare for vitrification. This operation consisted of eleven (11) Submersible Mixer Pump(s) mixing campaigns and multiple intra

  5. Phase 2 Rebaseline Report for Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations Project W-314

    SciTech Connect

    LENTSCH, J.W.

    2000-03-27

    Project W-314, (97-D-402) Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations is a multi-year, multiphase project established to upgrade selected 200 East and West Area Tank Farms to support the long-term mission of waste storage, retrieval, and transfer for vitrification. Key drivers for these upgrades include the planned timetable for transfer of waste to the privatized vitrification facility, regulatory compliance requirements (i.e., Washington State and Federal Regulations), and the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA). The previous baseline scope for Project W-314 was established based upon tank farm system assessments performed five to six years ago and was reflected in the previous baseline cost estimate, the Accelerated Replanning Estimate, completed in July 1997. The Accelerated Replanning Estimate splits the project into two phases: Phase 1 provides upgrades necessary to assure reliable waste retrieval and transfer to the anticipated vitrification plant. Phase 2 provides upgrades to selected primary and annulus tank farm ventilation systems that are required for compliant waste transfer, as well as other compliance-based upgrades to existing River Protection Project (WP) facilities and systems. The Accelerated Replanning Estimate provided the basis for Baseline Change Request TWR 97-066, which identified Phases 1 and 2 as $95 million and $206.5 million, respectively. Following completion of the Accelerated Replanning Estimate, several changes occurred that prompted a decision to rebaseline Phase 1, and subsequently Phase 2. Paramount among these was the delay in the Privatization schedule (90% case), lessons learned (in the year since the Accelerated Planning Report had been completed), and the adoption of an alternate waste transfer system route. The rebaselined cost of phase 1, $157 million, was substantially higher than the Accelerated Replanning Estimate for a number of reasons more thoroughly discussed in the Phase 1 Rebaseline Report, HNF-3781, January 1999. Since the

  6. Cherenkov radiation dosimetry in water tanks - video rate imaging, tomography and IMRT & VMAT plan verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogue, Brian W.; Glaser, Adam K.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Gladstone, David J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of three types of imaging of radiation beams in water tanks for comparison to dose maps. The first was simple depth and lateral profile verification, showing excellent agreement between Cherenkov and planned dose, as predicted by the treatment planning system for a square 5cm beam. The second approach was 3D tomography of such beams, using a rotating water tank with camera attached, and using filtered backprojection for the recovery of the 3D volume. The final presentation was real time 2D imaging of IMRT or VMAT treatments in a water tank. In all cases the match to the treatment planning system was within what would be considered acceptable for clinical medical physics acceptance.

  7. Bidet toilet seats with warm-water tanks: residual chlorine, microbial community, and structural analyses.

    PubMed

    Iyo, Toru; Asakura, Keiko; Nakano, Makiko; Yamada, Mutsuko; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2016-02-01

    Despite the reported health-related advantages of the use of warm water in bidets, there are health-related disadvantages associated with the use of these toilet seats, and the bacterial research is sparse. We conducted a survey on the hygienic conditions of 127 warm-water bidet toilet seats in restrooms on a university campus. The spray water from the toilet seats had less residual chlorine than their tap water sources. However, the total viable microbial count was below the water-quality standard for tap water. In addition, the heat of the toilet seats' warm-water tanks caused heterotrophic bacteria in the source tap water to proliferate inside the nozzle pipes and the warm-water tanks. Escherichia coli was detected on the spray nozzles of about 5% of the toilet seats, indicating that the self-cleaning mechanism of the spray nozzles was largely functioning properly. However, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected on about 2% of the toilet seats. P. aeruginosa was found to remain for long durations in biofilms that formed inside warm-water tanks. Infection-prevention measures aimed at P. aeruginosa should receive full consideration when managing warm-water bidet toilet seats in hospitals in order to prevent opportunistic infections in intensive care units, hematology wards, and other hospital locations. PMID:26837831

  8. Design review plan for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (Project W-236A)

    SciTech Connect

    Renfro, G.G.

    1994-12-20

    This plan describes how the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) Project conducts reviews of design media; describes actions required by Project participants; and provides the methodology to ensure that the design is complete, meets the technical baseline of the Project, is operable and maintainable, and is constructable. Project W-236A is an integrated project wherein the relationship between the operating contractor and architect-engineer is somewhat different than that of a conventional project. Working together, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and ICF Karser Hanford (ICF KH) have developed a relationship whereby ICF KH performs extensive design reviews and design verification. WHC actively participates in over-the-shoulder reviews during design development, performs a final review of the completed design, and conducts a formal design review of the Safety Class I, ASME boiler and Pressure Vessel Code items in accordance with WHC-CM-6-1, Standard Engineering Practices.

  9. Contingency plan for the Old Hydrofracture Facility tanks sluicing project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), plans to begin a sluicing (flushing) and pumping project to remove the contents from five inactive, underground storage tanks at the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The tank contents will be transferred to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks, which are part of the active waste treatment system at ORNL. The purpose of the project is to minimize the risk of leaking the highly radioactive material to the environment. The five OHF tanks each contain a layer of sludge and a layer of supernatant. Based on a sampling project undertaken in 1995, the sludge in the tanks has been characterized as transuranic and mixed waste and the supernatants have been characterized as mixed waste. The combined radioactivity of the contents of the five tanks is approximately 29,500 Ci. This contingency plan is based on the preliminary design for the project and describes a series of potential accident/release scenarios for the project. It outlines Energy Systems` preliminary plans for prevention, detection, and mitigation. Prevention/detection methods range from using doubly contained pipelines to alarmed sensors and automatic pump cutoff systems. Plans for mitigation range from pumping leaked fluids from the built-in tank drainage systems and cleaning up spilled liquids to personnel evacuation.

  10. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT DYTRAN ANALYSIS OF SEISMICALLY INDUCED FLUID STRUCTURE INTERACTION IN A HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL PRIMARY TANK

    SciTech Connect

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2006-03-14

    M&D Professional Services, Inc. (M&D) is under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to perform seismic analysis of the Hanford Site Double-Shell Tanks (DSTs) in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank (DSV Integrity Project-DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses)''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14. The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The overall seismic analysis of the DSTs is being performed with the general-purpose finite element code ANSYS'. The global model used for the seismic analysis of the DSTs includes the DST structure, the contained waste, and the surrounding soil. The seismic analysis of the DSTs must address the fluid-structure interaction behavior and sloshing response of the primary tank and contained liquid. ANSYS has demonstrated capabilities for structural analysis, but has more limited capabilities for fluid-structure interaction analysis. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the capabilities and investigate the limitations of the finite element code MSC.Dytranz for performing a dynamic fluid-structure interaction analysis of the primary tank and contained waste. To this end, the Dytran solutions are benchmarked against theoretical solutions appearing in BNL 1995, when such theoretical solutions exist. When theoretical solutions were not available, comparisons were made to theoretical solutions to similar problems, and to the results from ANSYS simulations. Both rigid tank and flexible tank configurations were analyzed with Dytran. The response parameters of interest that are evaluated in this study are the total hydrodynamic reaction forces, the impulsive and convective mode frequencies, the waste pressures, and slosh heights

  11. Minutes of the Tank Waste Science Panel meeting July 9--1, 1991. Hanford Tank Safety Project

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, D.M.

    1992-04-01

    The fifth meeting of the Tank Waste Science Panel was held July 9--11, 1991, in Atlanta, Georgia. The subject areas included the generation, retention, and release of gases from Tank 241-SY-101 and the chemistry of ferrocyanide wastes.

  12. Diversion tanks will prevent field shutdown: design-build project is 80% alaskan

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, M.

    1985-12-01

    The nation's second largest oil field is nearing peak production of 250,000 bbl per day. The Kuparuk River field on Alaska's North Slope put a second central processing facility (CPF-2) on line this year and a third will arrive on the 1986 sea lift. By 1990, the field will hold 400 producing wells and 400 water injection wells. Considering this investment, field operator Arco Alaska Inc., wanted to find a way to avoid costly field shutdowns that could be caused by oil-gas-water separation system problems or a temporary shutdown of the trans-Alaska pipeline or Alyeska terminal. The answer was a system of diversion tanks through which 220,000 bbl of crude could be kept circulating until problems could be corrected. The design and construction of these tanks are described.

  13. Effects of plumbing attachments on heat losses from solar domestic hot water storage tanks. Final report, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Song, J.; Wood, B.D.; Ji, L.J.

    1998-03-01

    The Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC) has established a standardized methodology for determining the performance rating of the Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) systems it certifies under OG-300. Measured performance data for the solar collector component(s) of the system are used along with numerical models for the balance of the system to calculate the system`s thermal performance under a standard set of rating conditions. SRCC uses TRNSYS to model each of the components that comprise the system. The majority of the SRCC certified systems include a thermal storage tank with an auxiliary electrical heater. The most common being a conventional fifty gallon electric tank water heater. Presently, the thermal losses from these tanks are calculated using Q = U {center_dot} A {center_dot} {Delta}T. Unfortunately, this generalized formula does not adequately address temperature stratification both within the tank as well as in the ambient air surrounding the tank, non-uniform insulation jacket, thermal siphoning in the fluid lines attached to the tank, and plumbing fittings attached to the tank. This study is intended to address only that part of the problem that deals with the plumbing fittings attached to the tank. Heat losses from a storage tank and its plumbing fittings involve three different operating modes: charging, discharging and standby. In the charging mode, the tank receives energy from the solar collector. In the discharge mode, water flows from the storage tank through the distribution pipes to the faucets and cold city water enters the tank. In the standby mode, there is no forced water flow into or out of the tank. In this experimental study, only the standby mode was considered.

  14. Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility Quality Assurance Program Plan, Project W-236A. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.R.

    1995-05-30

    This document describes the Quality Assurance (QA) program for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) Project. The purpose of this QA program is to control project activities in such a manner as to achieve the mission of the MWTF Project in a safe and reliable manner. The QA program for the MWTF Project is founded on DOE Order 5700.6C, Quality Assurance, and implemented through the use of ASME NQA-1, Quality Assurance Program Requirements for Nuclear Facilities (ASME 1989 with addenda la-1989, lb-1991 and lc-1992). This document describes the program and planned actions which the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) will implement to demonstrate and ensure that the project meets the requirements of DOE Order 5700.6C through the interpretive guidance of ASME NQA-1.

  15. Fire hazard analysis for Project W-320 Tank 241-C-106 waste retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, J.C.

    1995-09-12

    This Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) for Project W-320, `Tank 241-C-106 Waste Retrieval` addresses fire hazards or fire related concerns in accordance with DOE 5480.7A (DOE 1998), resulting from or related to the processes and equipment to be installed or modified under Project W-320 to ensure that there are no undue fire hazards to site personnel and the public; the potential for the occurrence of a fire is minimized, process control and safety systems are not damaged by fire or related perils; and property damage from fire and related perils does not exceed an acceptable level.

  16. Evaluation of current industry practices for maintaining tomato dump tank water quality during packinghouse operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, chlorine is the mainstay disinfectant for produce wash water. In packinghouses, large amounts of accumulating organic matter in dump tanks can cause a dramatic decline in chlorine levels, leaving wash solutions vulnerable to becoming a reservoir for both plant and human pathog...

  17. Processes to improve energy efficiency during pumping and aeration of recirculating water in circular tank systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional gas transfer technologies for aquaculture systems occupy a large amount of space, require considerable capital investment, and can contribute to high electricity demand. In addition, diffused aeration in a circular tank can interfere with the hydrodynamics of water rotation and the spee...

  18. Permitting plan for project W-320 tank 241-C-106 waste retrievalsluicing system (WRSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Symons, G.A.

    1997-02-21

    This document describes the permitting plan for Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (WRSS). A comprehensive review of environmental regulations have indicated that several environmental reviews [e.g. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA)], permits, and approvals are required prior to construction or operation of the facility. The environmental reviews, permits and approvals, as well the regulatory authority, potentially applicable to the Tank 241-C-106 WRSS include the following: for NEPA - U.S. Department of Energy-Headquarters: Action Description Memorandum, Environmental Assessment, Categorical Exclusion, and Environmental Impact Statement; and for SEPA - State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) Determination of Nonsignificance, Mitigated Determination of Nonsignificance, Determination of Significance, and SEPA Environmental Checklist.

  19. Project management plan for the gunite and associated tanks treatability studies project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Treatability Studies Project satisfies the requirements of the program management plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program as established in the Program Management Plan for the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory Site Environmental Restoration Program. This plan is a subtier of several other ER documents designed to satisfy the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4700.1 requirement for major systems acquisitions. This project management plan identifies the major activities of the GAAT Treatability Studies Project; establishes performance criteria; discusses the roles and responsibilities of the organizations that will perform the work; and summarizes the work breakdown structure, schedule, milestones, and cost estimate for the project.

  20. Engineer/constructor description of work for Tank 241-SY-102 retrieval system, project W-211, initial tank retrieval systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rieck, C.A.

    1996-02-01

    This document provides a description of work for the design and construction of a waste retrieval system for Tank 241-SY-102. The description of work includes a working estimate and schedule, as well as a narrative description and sketches of the waste retrieval system. The working estimate and schedule are within the established baselines for the Tank 241-SY-102 retrieval system. The technical baseline is provided in Functional Design Criteria, WHC-SD-W211-FDC-001, Revision 2.

  1. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT DYTRAN BENCHMARK ANALYSIS OF SEISMICALLY INDUCED FLUID STRUCTURE INTERACTION IN FLAT TOP TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2007-02-16

    The work reported in this document was performed in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Project - DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford. The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The work herein was motivated by review comments from a Project Review Meeting held on March 20-21, 2006. One of the recommendations from that meeting was that the effects of the interaction between the tank liquid and the roof be further studied (Rinker, Deibler, Johnson, Karri, Pilli, Abatt, Carpenter, and Hendrix - Appendix E of RPP-RPT-28968, Rev. 1). The reviewers recommended that solutions be obtained for seismic excitation of flat roof tanks containing liquid with varying headspace between the top of the liquid and the tank roof. It was recommended that the solutions be compared with simple, approximate procedures described in BNL (1995) and Malhotra (2005). This report documents the results of the requested studies and compares the predictions of Dytran simulations to the approximate procedures in BNL (1995) and Malhotra (2005) for flat roof tanks. The four cases analyzed all employed a rigid circular cylindrical flat top tank with a radius of 450 in. and a height of 500 in. The initial liquid levels in the tank were 460,480,490, and 500 in. For the given tank geometry and the selected seismic input, the maximum unconstrained slosh height of the liquid is slightly greater than 25 in. Thus, the initial liquid level of 460 in. represents an effectively roofless tank, the two intermediate liquid levels lead to intermittent interaction between the liquid and tank roof, and the 500 in. liquid level represents a completely full tank with no sloshing. Although this work was performed in support of the

  2. One System Integrated Project Team Progress in Coordinating Hanford Tank Farms and the Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Skwarek, Raymond J.; Harp, Ben J.; Duncan, Garth M.

    2013-12-18

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed at the Hanford Site in late 2011 as a way to improve coordination and itegration between the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) on interfaces between the two projects, and to eliminate duplication and exploit opportunities for synergy. The IPT is composed of jointly staffed groups that work on technical issues of mutal interest, front-end design and project definition, nuclear safety, plant engineering system integration, commissioning, planning and scheduling, and environmental, safety, health and quality (ESH&Q) areas. In the past year important progress has been made in a number of areas as the organization has matured and additional opportunities have been identified. Areas covered in this paper include: Support for development of the Office of Envirnmental Management (EM) framework document to progress the Office of River Protection's (ORP) River Protection Project (RPP) mission; Stewardship of the RPP flowsheet; Collaboration with Savannah River Site (SRS), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Operations programs integration; and, Further development of the waste acceptance criteria.

  3. The socio-ecohydrology of rainwater harvesting in India: understanding water storage and release dynamics at tank and catchment scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Meter, K. J.; Basu, N. B.; McLaughlin, D. L.; Steiff, M.

    2015-11-01

    Rainwater harvesting (RWH), the small-scale collection and storage of runoff for irrigated agriculture, is recognized as a sustainable strategy for ensuring food security, especially in monsoonal landscapes in the developing world. In south India, these strategies have been used for millennia to mitigate problems of water scarcity. However, in the past 100 years many traditional RWH systems have fallen into disrepair due to increasing dependence on groundwater. This dependence has contributed to an accelerated decline in groundwater resources, which has in turn led to increased efforts at the state and national levels to revive older RWH systems. Critical to the success of such efforts is an improved understanding of how these ancient systems function in contemporary landscapes with extensive groundwater pumping and shifted climatic regimes. Knowledge is especially lacking regarding the water-exchange dynamics of these RWH "tanks" at tank and catchment scales, and how these exchanges regulate tank performance and catchment water balances. Here, we use fine-scale water-level variation to quantify daily fluxes of groundwater, evapotranspiration (ET), and sluice outflows in four tanks over the 2013 northeast monsoon season in a tank cascade that covers a catchment area of 28 km2. At the tank scale, our results indicate that groundwater recharge and irrigation outflows comprise the largest fractions of the tank water budget, with ET accounting for only 13-22 % of the outflows. At the scale of the cascade, we observe a distinct spatial pattern in groundwater-exchange dynamics, with the frequency and magnitude of groundwater inflows increasing down the cascade of tanks. The significant magnitude of return flows along the tank cascade leads to the most downgradient tank in the cascade having an outflow-to capacity ratio greater than 2. The presence of tanks in the landscape dramatically alters the catchment water balance, with runoff decreasing by nearly 75 %, and

  4. Multidimensional modal analysis of nonlinear sloshing in a rectangular tank with finite water depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faltinsen, Odd M.; Rognebakke, Olav F.; Lukovsky, Ivan A.; Timokha, Alexander N.

    2000-03-01

    The discrete infinite-dimensional modal system describing nonlinear sloshing of an incompressible fluid with irrotational flow partially occupying a tank performing an arbitrary three-dimensional motion is derived in general form. The tank has vertical walls near the free surface and overturning waves are excluded. The derivation is based on the Bateman Luke variational principle. The free surface motion and velocity potential are expanded in generalized Fourier series. The derived infinite-dimensional modal system couples generalized time-dependent coordinates of free surface elevation and the velocity potential. The procedure is not restricted by any order of smallness. The general multidimensional structure of the equations is approximated to analyse sloshing in a rectangular tank with finite water depth. The amplitude frequency response is consistent with the fifth-order steady-state solutions by Waterhouse (1994). The theory is validated by new experimental results. It is shown that transients and associated nonlinear beating are important. An initial variation of excitation periods is more important than initial conditions. The theory is invalid when either the water depth is small or water impacts heavily on the tank ceiling. Alternative expressions for hydrodynamic loads are presented. The procedure facilitates simulations of a coupled vehicle fluid system.

  5. Effect of temperature on anaerobic treatment of black water in UASB-septic tank systems.

    PubMed

    Luostarinen, Sari; Sanders, Wendy; Kujawa-Roeleveld, Katarzyna; Zeeman, Grietje

    2007-03-01

    The effect of northern European seasonal temperature changes and low temperature on the performance of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-septic tanks treating black water was studied. Three UASB-septic tanks were monitored with different operational parameters and at different temperatures. The results indicated the feasibility of the UASB-septic tank for (pre)treatment of black water at low temperatures with respect to removal of suspended solids and dissolved organic material. Inoculum sludge had little effect on COD(ss) removal, though in the start-up phase some poorly adapted inoculum disintegrated and washed out, thus requiring consideration when designing the process. Removal of COD(dis) was at first negative, but improved as the sludge adapted to low temperature. The UASB-septic tank alone did not comply with Finnish or Dutch treatment requirements and should therefore be considered mainly as a pre-treatment method. However, measuring the requirements as mgCOD l(-1) may not always be the best method, as the volume of the effluent discharged is also an important factor in the final amount of COD entering the receiving water bodies. PMID:16765592

  6. Stabilization of In-Tank Residual Wastes and External-Tank Soil Contamination for the Hanford Tank Closure Program: Applications to the AX Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, H.L.; Dwyer, B.P.; Ho, C.; Krumhansl, J.L.; McKeen, G.; Molecke, M.A.; Westrich, H.R.; Zhang, P.

    1998-11-01

    Technical support for the Hanford Tank Closure Program focused on evaluation of concepts for immobilization of residual contaminants in the Hanford AX tanks and underlying soils, and identification of cost-effective approaches to improve long-term performance of AX tank farm cIosure systems. Project objectives are to develop materials or engineered systems that would significantly reduce the radionuclide transport to the groundwater from AX tanks containing residual waste. We pursued several studies that, if implemented, would help achieve these goals. They include: (1) tank fill design to reduce water inilltration and potential interaction with residual waste; (2) development of in-tank getter materials that would specifically sorb or sequester radionuclides; (3) evaluation of grout emplacement under and around the tanks to prevent waste leakage during waste retrieval or to minimize water infiltration beneath the tanks; (4) development of getters that will chemically fix specific radionuclides in soils under tanks; and (5) geochemical and hydrologic modeling of waste-water-soil-grout interactions. These studies differ in scope from the reducing grout tank fill employed at the Savannah River Site in that our strategy improves upon tank fill design by providing redundancy in the barriers to radionuclide migration and by modification the hydrogeochemistry external to the tanks.

  7. Tank vapor characterization project. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-BY-108: Second comparison study results from samples collected on 3/28/96

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.L.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-108 (Tank BY-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report is the second in a series comparing vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H{sub 2}O) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}), permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC.

  8. Tank vapor characterization project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-102: Second comparison study results from samples collected on 04/04/96

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report is the second in a series comparing vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H{sub 2}O) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}), permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC.

  9. Tank vapor characterization project - headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-C-107: Second comparison study results from samples collected on 3/26/96

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 (Tank C-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report is the second in a series comparing vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H{sub 2}O) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}), permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC.

  10. Tank Vapor Characterization Project -- Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste Tank 241-C-107: Results from samples collected on 01/17/96

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1996-07-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 (Tank C-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system with and without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H{sub 2}O) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}), permanent gases, total non-methane hydrocarbons (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC.

  11. Upgrade of 400,000 gallon water storage tank at Argonne National Laboratory-West to UCRL-15910 high hazard seismic requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, M.J.; Harris, B.G.

    1993-10-01

    As part of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Project at Argonne National Laboratory West (ANL-W), it was necessary to strengthen an existing 400,000 gallon flat-bottom water storage tank to meet UCRL-15910 (currently formulated as DOE Standard DOE-STD-1020-92, Draft) high hazard natural phenomena requirements. The tank was constructed in 1988 and preliminary calculations indicated that the existing base anchorage was insufficient to prevent buckling and potential failure during a high hazard seismic event. General design criteria, including ground motion input, load combinations, etc., were based upon the requirements of UCRL-15910 for high hazard facilities. The analysis and capacity assessment criteria were based on the Generic Implementation Procedure developed by the Seismic Qualification Utilities Group (SQUG). Upgrade modifications, consisting of increasing the size of the Generic Implementation Procedure developed by the Seismic Qualification Utilities Group (SQUG). Upgrade modifications, consisting of increasing the size of the foundation and installing additional anchor bolts and chairs, were necessary to increase the capacity of the tank anchorage/support system. The construction of the upgrades took place in 1992 while the tank remained in service to allow continued operation of the EBR-II reactor. The major phases of construction included the installation and testing of 144 1/14in. {times} 15in., and 366 1in. {times} 16in. epoxied concrete anchors, placement of 220 cubic yards of concrete heavily reinforced, and installation of 24 1-1/2in. {times} 60in. tank anchor bolts and chairs. A follow-up inspection of the tank interior by a diver was conducted to determine if the interior tank coating had been damaged by the chair welding. The project was completed on schedule and within budget.

  12. Design review report: AN valve pit upgrades for Project W-314, tank farm restoration and safe operations

    SciTech Connect

    Boes, K.A.

    1998-01-13

    This Design Review Report (DRR) documents the contractor design verification methodology and records associated with project W-314`s AN Valve Pit Upgrades design package. The DRR includes the documented comments and their respective dispositions for this design. Acceptance of the comment dispositions and closure of the review comments is indicated by the signatures of the participating reviewers. Project W-314, Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations, is a project within the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Tank Waste Retrieval Program. This project provides capital upgrades for the existing Hanford tank farms` waste transfer, instrumentation, ventilation, and electrical infrastructure systems. To support established TWRS programmatic objectives, the project is organized into two distinct phases. The initial focus of the project (i.e., Phase 1) is on waste transfer system upgrades needed to support the TWRS Privatization waste feed delivery system. Phase 2 of the project will provide upgrades to support resolution of regulatory compliance issues, improve tank infrastructure reliability, and reduce overall plant operating/maintenance costs. Within Phase 1 of the W-314 project, the waste transfer system upgrades are further broken down into six major packages which align with the project`s work breakdown structure. Each of these six sub-elements includes the design, procurement, and construction activities necessary to accomplish the specific tank farm upgrades contained within the package. The first package to be performed is the AN Valve Pit Upgrades package. The scope of the modifications includes new pit cover blocks, valve manifolds, leak detectors, transfer line connections (for future planned transfer lines), and special protective coating for the 241-AN-A and 241-AN-B valve pits.

  13. Minutes of the Tank Waste Science Panel Meeting March 25--27, 1992. Hanford Tank Safety Project

    SciTech Connect

    Schutz, W W; Strachan, D M

    1992-08-01

    Discussions from the seventh meeting of the Tank Waste Science are presented in Colorado. The subject areas included the generation of gases in Tank 241-SY-101, the possible use of sonication as a mitigation method, and analysis for organic constituents in core samples. Results presented and discussed include: Ferrocyanides appear to be rapidly dissolved in 1M NaOH; upon standing in the laboratory at ambient conditions oxalate precipitates from simulated wastes containing HEDTA. This suggests that one of the main components in the solids in Tank 241-SY-101 is oxalate; hydrogen evolved from waste samples from Tank 241-SY-101 is five times that observed in the off gas from the tank; data suggest that mitigation of Tank 241-SY-101 will not cause a high release of dissolved N{sub 2}O; when using a slurry for radiation studies, a portion of the generated gases is very difficult to remove. To totally recover the generated gases, the solids must first be dissolved. This result may have an impact on mitigation by mixing if the gases are not released. Using {sup 13}C-labeled organics in thermal degradation studies has allowed researchers to illucidate much of the kinetic mechanism for the degradation of HEDTA and glycolate. In addition to some of the intermediate, more complex organic species, oxalate, formate, and CO{sub 2} were identified; and analytic methods for organics in radioactive complex solutions such as that found in Tank 241-SY-101 have been developed and others continue to be developed.

  14. Project W-211, initial tank retrieval systems, retrieval control system software configuration management plan

    SciTech Connect

    RIECK, C.A.

    1999-02-23

    This Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) provides the instructions for change control of the W-211 Project, Retrieval Control System (RCS) software after initial approval/release but prior to the transfer of custody to the waste tank operations contractor. This plan applies to the W-211 system software developed by the project, consisting of the computer human-machine interface (HMI) and programmable logic controller (PLC) software source and executable code, for production use by the waste tank operations contractor. The plan encompasses that portion of the W-211 RCS software represented on project-specific AUTOCAD drawings that are released as part of the C1 definitive design package (these drawings are identified on the drawing list associated with each C-1 package), and the associated software code. Implementation of the plan is required for formal acceptance testing and production release. The software configuration management plan does not apply to reports and data generated by the software except where specifically identified. Control of information produced by the software once it has been transferred for operation is the responsibility of the receiving organization.

  15. Performance Assessment of the Waste Dislodging Conveyance System During the Gunite And Associated Tanks Remediation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, P.D.

    2001-02-21

    The Waste Dislodging and Conveyance System (WD and CS) and other components of the Tank Waste Retrieval System (TWRS) were developed to address the need for removal of hazardous wastes from underground storage tanks (USTs) in which radiation levels and access limitations make traditional waste retrieval methods impractical. Specifically, these systems were developed for cleanup of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Operable Unit (OU) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The WD and CS is comprised of a number of different components. The three primary hardware subsystems are the Hose Management System (HMS), the Confined Sluicing End-Effector (CSEE), and the Flow Control Equipment and Containment Box (FCE/CB). In addition, a Decontamination Spray Ring (DSR) and a control system were developed for the system. The WD and CS is not a stand-alone system; rather, it is designed for deployment with either a long-reach manipulator like the Modified Light Duty Utility Arm (MLDUA) or a remotely operated vehicle system such as the Houdini{trademark}. The HMS was designed to act as a pipeline for the transfer of dislodged waste; as a hose-positioning and tether-management system; and as a housing for process equipment such as the water-powered jet pump that provides the necessary suction to vacuum slurried waste from the UST. The HMS was designed to facilitate positioning of an end-effector at any point within the 25-ft- or 50-ft-diameter USTs in the GAAT OU.

  16. Method of forming a solar collector or hot water storage tank and solar water heating apparatus using same

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, H.M.; Negley, M.E.

    1984-09-18

    The present invention relates to a method of forming a solar collector, or absorber, panels or a heat storage tank, suitable for heating water using solar energy. It also relates to articles of manufacture so formed and to solar water heating apparatus using said articles. Three methods of forming the panel or tank from two sheets of uncured elastic material, such as EPDM rubber, by simultaneously bonding and curing such material around the peripheral edges of the two sheets and at spaced apart, discrete areas over most of the interior areas of the sheets. In one form of the method, one of the sheets is coated with a layer of release agent, over all areas except the discrete areas and the peripheral areas so that only such uncoated areas will bond during cure. In another form, a sheet of non-adherent plastic slightly smaller than the two sheets and having holes or holidays to form the discrete areas is bonded between the two sheets. In a third form, the peripheral edges are first sealed to form a chamber, then the chamber is inflated and a forming die presses together the discrete areas only. Preferably, but not necessarily, reinforcing fibers may be employed or molded, into at least one of the uncured sheets. As articles of manufacture the absorber, or tank, each includes at least one inlet and one outlet at opposed edges of the so formed chamber. Further, the storage tank has a portion of the enclosed volume adapted to receive a heat exchanger. This is made possible by omission of the discrete bonded areas over about one-fourth of the area to the two sheets. In apparatus form, a solar absorption panel and a storage tank so formed (and interconnected inlet to outlet) are mounted back-to-back by an enclosing structure suitable for roof-top or ground-pad mounting and connection into a water system for solar heating of domestic water.

  17. Evaporation reduction in stock tanks for increasing water supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. A.; Issac, V. C.

    1990-11-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of shading and floating materials in reducing evaporation from a free water surface. White polyethene sheet used for shading the water surface reduced evaporation by 91% and cost Rs.2.54 (US0.15) per 10001. Floating materials evaluated were polyethene sheet, foam rubber sheet, polystyrene sheet, bamboo, and Sacchrum munja. Evaporation reduction for a 19-month test period ranged from 37% for S. munja to 82% for polystyrene sheet. Foam rubber sheet, polyethene sheet and bamboo reduced evaporation by 74, 66 and 53%, respectively. The polystyrene sheet and polyethene sheet covers were the most economical, saving water at a cost of Rs.3.07 (US0.19) and Rs.4.44 (US$0.27) per 10001, respectively.

  18. River Protection Project (RPP) Tank Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission Technical Baseline Summary Description

    SciTech Connect

    DOVALLE, O.R.

    1999-12-29

    This document is one of the several documents prepared by Lockheed Martin Hanford Corp. to support the U. S. Department of Energy's Tank Waste Retrieval and Disposal mission at Hanford. The Tank Waste Retrieval and Disposal mission includes the programs necessary to support tank waste retrieval; waste feed, delivery, storage, and disposal of immobilized waste; and closure of the tank farms.

  19. Conceptual design report for project W-457, AW tank farm monitoring and controls system

    SciTech Connect

    Mattichak, R.W.

    1996-10-10

    The 241-AW Tank Farm, located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site, contains six 1.16 Mgal double-shell tanks. The tanks are used primarily for storage of waste from facilities such as PUREX and B Plant. Tanks 102-AW and 106-AW commonly are used for staging waste concentrated by the evaporator.

  20. Tank waste remediation system privatization phase 1 infrastructure project W-519, project execution plan

    SciTech Connect

    Parazin, R.J.

    1998-08-28

    This Project Execution Plan (PEP) defines the overall strategy, objectives, and contractor management requirements for the execution phase of Project W-519 (98-D403), Privatization Phase 1 Infrastructure Support, whose mission is to effect the required Hanford site infrastructure physical changes to accommodate the Privatization Contractor facilities. This plan provides the project scope, project objectives and method of performing the work scope and achieving objectives. The plan establishes the work definitions, the cost goals, schedule constraints and roles and responsibilities for project execution. The plan also defines how the project will be controlled and documented.

  1. Experimental, Numerical, and Analytical Slosh Dynamics of Water and Liquid Nitrogen in a Spherical Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storey, Jedediah Morse

    2016-01-01

    Understanding, predicting, and controlling fluid slosh dynamics is critical to safety and improving performance of space missions when a significant percentage of the spacecraft's mass is a liquid. Computational fluid dynamics simulations can be used to predict the dynamics of slosh, but these programs require extensive validation. Many experimental and numerical studies of water slosh have been conducted. However, slosh data for cryogenic liquids is lacking. Water and cryogenic liquid nitrogen are used in various ground-based tests with a spherical tank to characterize damping, slosh mode frequencies, and slosh forces. A single ring baffle is installed in the tank for some of the tests. Analytical models for slosh modes, slosh forces, and baffle damping are constructed based on prior work. Select experiments are simulated using a commercial CFD software, and the numerical results are compared to the analytical and experimental results for the purposes of validation and methodology-improvement.

  2. [Increase in the colony count in drinking water tanks caused by solvents from the coating material].

    PubMed

    Frensch, K; Hahn, J U; Levsen, K; Niessen, J; Schöler, H F; Schoenen, D

    1987-08-01

    As a freshly coated storage tank was put into operation a permanent colony increase in the drinking water (up to 7400 cfu/ml) could be detected. By chlorine dosage (30 mg/l) colony counts were reduced. From a second storage tank which had been coated at the same time bituminous coating material and air samples could be taken. After the exposure of the bituminous coating material in aqua bidest. 48 organic compounds were found by GC/MS-analysis. The main compounds were xylene, ethylbenzene and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene. These compounds were also found by GC-investigations of the air-samples. The dependence between the used organic solvents and the colony increase could be demonstrated by biodegradation tests of solvent compounds. It was found that about 50 per cent of the identified compounds could be degraded by microorganisms and therefore caused a colony increase in drinking water. PMID:3118617

  3. FINAL REPORT. RAPID MIGRATION OF RADIONUCLIDES LEAKED FROM HIGH-LEVEL WATER TANKS: A STUDY OF SALINITY GRADIENTS, WETTED PATH GEOMETRY AND WATER VAPOR TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The basis of this study was the hypothesis that the physical and chemical properties of hypersaline tank waste could lead to wetting front instability and fingered flow following a tank leak. Thus, the goal of this project was to develop an understanding of the impacts of the pro...

  4. STS-55 crewmembers repair waste water tank on OV-102's middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Three STS-55 crewmembers participate in an inflight maintenance (IFM) exercise to counter problems experienced with a waste water tank below Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, middeck. Mission Specialist 3 (MS3) Bernard A. Harris, Jr, inside the airlock, holds middeck floor access panel MD54G and looks below at Pilot Terence T. Henricks who is in the bilge area. Commander Steven R. Nagel is lying on middeck floor at the left.

  5. Laboratory Class Project: Using a Cichlid Fish Display Tank to Teach Students about Complex Behavioral Systems

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory activities serve several important functions in undergraduate science education. For neuroscience majors, an important and sometimes underemphasized tool is the use of behavioral observations to help inform us about the consequences of changes that are occurring on a neuronal level. To help address this concern, the following laboratory exercise is presented. The current project tested the prediction that the most dominant fish in a tank of cichlids will have gained the most benefits of its position resulting in the greatest growth and hence, become the largest fish. More specifically: (1) is there evidence that a social hierarchy exists among the fish in our tank based on the number of aggressive acts among the four largest fish; (2) if so, does the apparent rank correspond to the size of the fish as predicted by previous studies? Focal sampling and behavior sampling of aggressive acts between fish were utilized in the data collection. Collectively, the data suggest a social dominance hierarchy may be in place with the following rank order from highest to lowest: Fish A > Fish B > Fish D > Fish C. While the largest (Fish A) seems to be at the top, Fish C ended up being ranked lower than Fish D despite the fact that Fish C is larger. Overall, the project was considered a success by the instructor and students. The students offered several suggestions that could improve future versions of this type of project, in particular concerning the process of constructing a poster about the project. The implications of the data and student learning outcomes are discussed. PMID:23493462

  6. Effects of inlet momentum and orientation on the hydraulic performance of water storage tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, Manoel Lucas Machado; Janzen, Johannes Gérson

    2016-07-01

    The influence of inlet momentum and inlet orientation on hydraulic performance of cylindrical water process tanks were investigated using a factorial design strategy. The hydraulic performance of the tanks was assessed with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, which calculated the flow fields and the residence time distribution (RTD). RTDs were used to quantify the tanks hydraulic performance using hydraulic indexes that represent short-circuiting, mixing, and moment. These indexes were later associated with the effluent fraction of disinfectant (inlet and outlet disinfectant ratio). For small depth-to-diameter ratios, the inlet orientation and the inlet momentum were the most important factors regarding the hydraulic indexes and the effluent fraction of disinfectant, respectively. A poor correlation was obtained between the hydraulic indexes and the effluent fraction of disinfectant, indicating that they are not good predictors for water quality. For large depth-to-diameter ratios, the inlet orientation had the most significant effect on both the hydraulic indexes and effluent fraction of disinfectant. The short-circuiting and mixing indexes presented a good correlation with water quality for this case.

  7. Elemental Water Impact Test: Phase 3 Plunge Depth of a 36-Inch Aluminum Tank Head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassilakos, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft are being designed based on LS-DYNA water landing simulations. The Elemental Water Impact Test (EWIT) series was undertaken to assess the accuracy of LS-DYNA water impact simulations. Phase 3 featured a composite tank head that was tested at a range of heights to verify the ability to predict structural failure of composites. To support planning for Phase 3, a test series was conducted with an aluminum tank head dropped from heights of 2, 6, 10, and 12 feet to verify that the test article would not impact the bottom of the test pool. This report focuses on the comparisons of the measured plunge depths to LS-DYNA predictions. The results for the tank head model demonstrated the following. 1. LS-DYNA provides accurate predictions for peak accelerations. 2. LS-DYNA consistently under-predicts plunge depth. An allowance of at least 20% should be added to the LS-DYNA predictions. 3. The LS-DYNA predictions for plunge depth are relatively insensitive to the fluid-structure coupling stiffness.

  8. ANALYSIS OF THE LEACHING EFFICIENCY OF INHIBITED WATER AND TANK SIMULANT IN REMOVING RESIDUES ON THERMOWELL PIPES

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F.; White, T.; Oji, L.; Martino, C.; Wilmarth, B.

    2011-10-20

    A key component for the accelerated implementation and operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) is the recovery of Tank 48H. Tank 48H is a type IIIA tank with a maximum capacity of 1.3 million gallons. Video inspection of the tank showed that a film of solid material adhered to the tank internal walls and structures between 69 inch and 150 inch levels. From the video inspection, the solid film thickness was estimated to be 1mm, which corresponds to {approx}33 kg of TPB salts (as 20 wt% insoluble solids) (1). This film material is expected to be easily removed by single-rinse, slurry pump operation during Tank 48H TPB disposition via aggregation processing. A similar success was achieved for Tank 49H TPB dispositioning, with slurry pumps operating almost continuously for approximately 6 months, after which time the tank was inspected and the film was found to be removed. The major components of the Tank 49H film were soluble solids - Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} (Hydrated Sodium Carbonate, aka: Trona), Al(OH){sub 3} (Aluminum Hydroxide, aka: Gibbsite), NaTPB (Sodium Tetraphenylborate), NaNO{sub 3} (Sodium Nitrate) and NaNO{sub 2} (Sodium Nitrite) (2). Although the Tank 48H film is expected to be primarily soluble solids, it may not behave the same as the Tank 49H film. There is a risk that material on the internal surfaces of Tank 48H could not be easily removed. As a risk mitigation activity, the chemical composition and leachability of the Tank 48H film are being evaluated prior to initiating tank aggregation. This task investigated the dissolution characteristics of Tank 48H solid film deposits in inhibited water and DWPF recycle. To this end, SRNL received four separate 23-inch long thermowell-conductivity pipe samples which were removed from the tank 48H D2 risers in order to determine: (1) the thickness of the solid film deposit, (2) the chemical composition of the film deposits, and (3) the leaching behavior of the solid film deposit in

  9. SINGLE-SHELL TANK INTEGRITY PROJECT ANALYSIS OF RECORD-PRELIMINARY MODELING PLAN FOR THERMAL AND OPERATING LOADS

    SciTech Connect

    RAST RS; RINKER MW; BAPANAALLI SK; DEIBLER JE; GUZMAN-LEONG CE; JOHNSON KI; KARRI NK; PILLI SP; SANBORN SE

    2010-10-22

    This document is a Phase I deliverable for the Single-Shell Tank Analysis of Record effort. This document is not the Analysis of Record. The intent of this document is to guide the Phase II detailed modeling effort. Preliminary finite element models for each of the tank types were developed and different case studies were performed on one or more of these tank types. Case studies evaluated include thermal loading, waste level variation, the sensitivity of boundary effects (soil radial extent), excavation slope or run to rise ratio, soil stratigraphic (property and layer thickness) variation at different farm locations, and concrete material property variation and their degradation under thermal loads. The preliminary analysis document reviews and preliminary modeling analysis results are reported herein. In addition, this report provides recommendations for the next phase of the SST AOR project, SST detailed modeling. Efforts and results discussed in this report do not include seismic modeling as seismic modeling is covered by a separate report. The combined results of both static and seismic models are required to complete this effort. The SST AOR project supports the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) mission for obtaining a better understanding of the structural integrity of Hanford's SSTs. The 149 SSTs, with six different geometries, have experienced a range of operating histories which would require a large number of unique analyses to fully characterize their individual structural integrity. Preliminary modeling evaluations were conducted to determine the number of analyses required for adequate bounding of each of the SST tank types in the Detailed Modeling Phase of the SST AOR Project. The preliminary modeling was conducted in conjunction with the Evaluation Criteria report, Johnson et al. (2010). Reviews of existing documents were conducted at the initial stage of preliminary modeling. These reviews guided the topics that were

  10. Fecal indicators and zoonotic pathogens in household drinking water taps fed from rainwater tanks in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W; Hodgers, L; Sidhu, J P S; Toze, S

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the microbiological quality of household tap water samples fed from rainwater tanks was assessed by monitoring the numbers of Escherichia coli bacteria and enterococci from 24 households in Southeast Queensland (SEQ), Australia. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was also used for the quantitative detection of zoonotic pathogens in water samples from rainwater tanks and connected household taps. The numbers of zoonotic pathogens were also estimated in fecal samples from possums and various species of birds by using qPCR, as possums and birds are considered to be the potential sources of fecal contamination in roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW). Among the 24 households, 63% of rainwater tank and 58% of connected household tap water (CHTW) samples contained E. coli and exceeded Australian drinking water guidelines of <1 CFU E. coli per 100 ml water. Similarly, 92% of rainwater tanks and 83% of CHTW samples also contained enterococci. In all, 21%, 4%, and 13% of rainwater tank samples contained Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Giardia lamblia, respectively. Similarly, 21% of rainwater tank and 13% of CHTW samples contained Campylobacter spp. and G. lamblia, respectively. The number of E. coli (P = 0.78), Enterococcus (P = 0.64), Campylobacter (P = 0.44), and G. lamblia (P = 0.50) cells in rainwater tanks did not differ significantly from the numbers observed in the CHTW samples. Among the 40 possum fecal samples tested, Campylobacter spp., Cryptosporidium parvum, and G. lamblia were detected in 60%, 13%, and 30% of samples, respectively. Among the 38 bird fecal samples tested, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., C. parvum, and G. lamblia were detected in 24%, 11%, 5%, and 13% of the samples, respectively. Household tap water samples fed from rainwater tanks tested in the study appeared to be highly variable. Regular cleaning of roofs and gutters, along with pruning of overhanging tree branches, might also prove effective in reducing animal fecal

  11. Fecal Indicators and Zoonotic Pathogens in Household Drinking Water Taps Fed from Rainwater Tanks in Southeast Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Hodgers, L.; Sidhu, J. P. S.; Toze, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the microbiological quality of household tap water samples fed from rainwater tanks was assessed by monitoring the numbers of Escherichia coli bacteria and enterococci from 24 households in Southeast Queensland (SEQ), Australia. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was also used for the quantitative detection of zoonotic pathogens in water samples from rainwater tanks and connected household taps. The numbers of zoonotic pathogens were also estimated in fecal samples from possums and various species of birds by using qPCR, as possums and birds are considered to be the potential sources of fecal contamination in roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW). Among the 24 households, 63% of rainwater tank and 58% of connected household tap water (CHTW) samples contained E. coli and exceeded Australian drinking water guidelines of <1 CFU E. coli per 100 ml water. Similarly, 92% of rainwater tanks and 83% of CHTW samples also contained enterococci. In all, 21%, 4%, and 13% of rainwater tank samples contained Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Giardia lamblia, respectively. Similarly, 21% of rainwater tank and 13% of CHTW samples contained Campylobacter spp. and G. lamblia, respectively. The number of E. coli (P = 0.78), Enterococcus (P = 0.64), Campylobacter (P = 0.44), and G. lamblia (P = 0.50) cells in rainwater tanks did not differ significantly from the numbers observed in the CHTW samples. Among the 40 possum fecal samples tested, Campylobacter spp., Cryptosporidium parvum, and G. lamblia were detected in 60%, 13%, and 30% of samples, respectively. Among the 38 bird fecal samples tested, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., C. parvum, and G. lamblia were detected in 24%, 11%, 5%, and 13% of the samples, respectively. Household tap water samples fed from rainwater tanks tested in the study appeared to be highly variable. Regular cleaning of roofs and gutters, along with pruning of overhanging tree branches, might also prove effective in reducing animal fecal

  12. How to choose capacity of storage tank to utilize water on windless days

    SciTech Connect

    Jugadeesh, A.

    1983-12-01

    As wind flow is not constant throughout the month or year and varies from season to season and from time to time in a day, a storage tank (or reservoir) is essential to supplement water to the field on calm days. In this paper the storage capacity required at two places, namely, Veeraval and Jamnagar in Gujarat State is discussed. The first prerequisite to know the suitability of the windmill size at particular place is the diameter of the windmill which should match the monthly required energy for lifting water.

  13. Oil filaments produced by an impeller in a water stirred tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanjuan-Galindo, Rene; Soto, Enrique; Ascanio, Gabriel; Zenit, Roberto

    2010-11-01

    Oil dispersions in aqueous media produced in stirred tanks are part of many industrial processes. The oil drops size and dispersion stability are determined by the impeller geometry, stirring velocity and the physicochemical properties of the mixture. A critical parameter is the total interfacial area which is increased as the drop size is decreased. The mechanism that disperses the oil and generates the drops has not been completely explained. In the present work, castor oil (1% v/v, viscosity 500mPa) and water are stirred with a Scaba impeller in a flat bottom cylindrical tank. The process was recorded with high-speed video and the Reynolds number was fixed to 24,000. Before the stirring, the oil is added at the air water interface. At the beginning of the stirring, the oil is suctioned at the impeller shaft and incorporated into the flow ejected by the impeller. In this region, the flow is turbulent and exhibits velocity gradients that elongate the oil phase. Viscous thin filaments are generated and expelled from the impeller. Thereafter, the filaments are elongated and break to form drops. This process is repeated in all the oil phase and drops are incorporated into the dispersion. Two main zones can be identified in the tank: the impeller discharge characterized by high turbulence and the rest of the flow where low velocity gradients appear. In this region surface forces dominate the inertial ones, and drops became spheroidal.

  14. A new demulsifier device for oil-water separation in oil tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meribout, Mahmoud

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, a new innovative closed-loop and autonomous electronic device for oil-water separation in the emulsion layer is presented. The device is designed for crude oil separation tanks and is sought to replace other traditional methods such as the ones using chemicals. It is modular and comprises three subsystems: sensing subsystem, actuating subsystem, and data communication/interfacing subsystem. The sensing subsystem is intrinsically safe and consists of a one dimensional level array of non intrusive ultrasonic transducers that monitor in real-time the low and high levels of the emulsion layer in a tank with a vertical resolution of 15 cm. The actuating system includes a microwave generator which stimulates the emulsion at a predefined position to breaks it out. A built-in feedback PID-based controller determines the optimal position of this generator based on the oil-water content which is provided by the sensor array and moves the generator accordingly. The data communication/interfacing system is responsible to transfer to the control room real-time data (e.g. the actual position of the emulsion layer and the actual temperature inside the tank) using field bus network protocol (RS485 protocol). This would help a continuous and effective monitoring by the operator using a dedicated GUI. In addition of being safe and environmentally friendly, the device provides faster and more efficient separation than the traditional techniques.

  15. Field Test Design Simulations of Pore-Water Extraction for the SX Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus

    2013-09-01

    A proof of principle test of pore water extraction is being performed by Washington River Protection Solutions for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection. This test is being conducted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1989) Milestone M 045-20, and is described in RPP-PLAN-53808, 200 West Area Tank Farms Interim Measures Investigation Work Plan. To support design of this test, numerical simulations were conducted to help define equipment and operational parameters. The modeling effort builds from information collected in laboratory studies and from field characterization information collected at the test site near the Hanford Site 241-SX Tank Farm. Numerical simulations were used to evaluate pore-water extraction performance as a function of the test site properties and for the type of extraction well configuration that can be constructed using the direct-push installation technique. Output of simulations included rates of water and soil-gas production as a function of operational conditions for use in supporting field equipment design. The simulations also investigated the impact of subsurface heterogeneities in sediment properties and moisture distribution on pore-water extraction performance. Phenomena near the extraction well were also investigated because of their importance for pore-water extraction performance.

  16. Tank waste remediation system year 2000 dedicated file server project HNF-3418 project plan

    SciTech Connect

    SPENCER, S.G.

    1999-04-26

    The Server Project is to ensure that all TWRS supporting hardware (fileservers and workstations) will not cause a system failure because of the BIOS or Operating Systems cannot process Year 2000 dates.

  17. Dismantlement and removal of Old Hydrofracture Facility bulk storage bins and water tank, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF), located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), was constructed in 1963 to allow experimentation and operations with an integrated solid storage, mixing, and grout injection facility. During its operation, OHF blended liquid low-level waste with grout and used a hydrofracture process to pump the waste into a deep low-permeable shale formation. Since the OHF Facility was taken out of service in 1980, the four bulk storage bins located adjacent to Building 7852 had deteriorated to the point that they were a serious safety hazard. The ORNL Surveillance and Maintenance Program requested and received permission from the US Department of Energy to dismantle the bins as a maintenance action and send the free-released metal to an approved scrap metal vendor. A 25,000-gal stainless steel water tank located at the OHF site was included in the scope. A fixed-price subcontract was signed with Allied Technology Group, Inc., to remove the four bulk storage bins and water tank to a staging area where certified Health Physics personnel could survey, segregate, package, and send the radiologically clean scrap metal to an approved scrap metal vendor. All radiologically contaminated metal and metal that could not be surveyed was packaged and staged for later disposal. Permissible personnel exposure limits were not exceeded, no injuries were incurred, and no health and safety violations occurred throughout the duration of the project. Upon completion of the dismantlement, the project had generated 53,660 lb of clean scrap metal (see Appendix D). This resulted in $3,410 of revenue generated and a cost avoidance of an estimated $100,000 in waste disposal fees.

  18. Composite Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A composite tank for containing liquid oxygen and the method of making the same Wherein a water-soluble mandrel having ing the desired tank configuration and a cylindrical protuberance on at least one end is fitted with an inner boss conformance, to the configuration of the mandrel and in outer boss conforming to the configuration of the inner boss, the bosses each having a tubular portion for receiving the protuberance on the mandrel and a spherical portion. The mandrel and the bosses are first coated with a nickel coating. The mandrel is then wrapped with graphite fibers wetted with an epoxy resin and this resin is cured. A layer of insulating foam is then applied to the tank and cured. The insulating foam is machined to a desired concentration and a layer of aramid fibers wetted with a second epoxy resin is wrapped around the tank. The second resin is cured and the water soluble mandrel is washed from inside the tank.

  19. Robotic systems for the high level waste tank farm replacement project at INEL

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, A.; White, D.; Thompson, B.; Christensen, M.

    1993-06-01

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) is specifying and designing a new high level waste tank farm at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The farm consists of four underground storage tanks, which replace the existing tanks. The new facility includes provisions for remote operations. One of the planned remote operations is robotic inspection of the tank from the interior and exterior. This paper describes the process used to design the robotic system for the inspection tasks.

  20. Supplemental design requirements document, Multifunction Waste Tank Facility, Project W-236A. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Groth, B.D.

    1995-01-11

    The Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) consists of four, nominal 1 million gallon, underground double-shell tanks, located in the 200-East area, and two tanks of the same capacity in the 200-West area. MWTF will provide environmentally safe storage capacity for wastes generated during remediation/retrieval activities of existing waste storage tanks. This document delineates in detail the information to be used for effective implementation of the Functional Design Criteria requirements.

  1. SELECTED WATER DECONTAMINATION RESEARCH PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Environment Federation (WEF), through funding from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Agency's Office of Research and Development (ORD), will host the first of three regional water sector stakeholder workshops March 15-17, 2005 at the Phoenix Marriot...

  2. Implementation of an Integrated Information Management System for the US DOE Hanford Tank Farms Project

    SciTech Connect

    Joyner, William Scott; Knight, Mark A.

    2013-11-14

    In its role as the Tank Operations Contractor at the U.S. Department of Energy's site in Hanford, WA, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC is implementing an integrated document control and configuration management system. This system will combine equipment data with technical document data that currently resides in separate disconnected databases. The new system will provide integrated information, enabling users to more readily identify the documents that relate to a structure, system, or component and vice-versa. Additionally, the new system will automate engineering work processes through electronic workflows, and where practical and feasible provide integration with design authoring tools. Implementation of this system will improve configuration management of the technical baseline, increase work process efficiencies, support the efficient design of future large projects, and provide a platform for the efficient future turnover of technical baseline data and information.

  3. Home tank water versus novel water differentially affect alcohol-induced locomotor activity and anxiety related behaviours in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Tran, Steven; Facciol, Amanda; Gerlai, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The zebrafish may be uniquely well suited for studying alcohol's mechanisms of action in vivo, since alcohol can be administered via immersion in a non-invasive manner. Despite the robust behavioural effects of alcohol administration in mammals, studies reporting the locomotor stimulant and anxiolytic effects of alcohol in zebrafish have been inconsistent. In the current study, we examined whether differences in the type of water used for alcohol exposure and behavioural testing contribute to these inconsistencies. To answer this question, we exposed zebrafish to either home water from their housing tanks or novel water from an isolated reservoir (i.e. water lacking zebrafish chemosensory and olfactory cues) with 0% or 1% v/v alcohol for 30min, a 2×2 between subject experimental designs. Behavioural responses were quantified throughout the 30-minute exposure session via a video tracking system. Although control zebrafish exposed to home water and novel water were virtually indistinguishable in their behavioural responses, alcohol's effect on locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavioural responses were dependent on the type of water used for testing. Alcohol exposure in home tank water produced a mild anxiolytic and locomotor stimulant effect, whereas alcohol exposure in novel water produced an anxiogenic effect without altering locomotor activity. These results represent a dissociation between alcohol's effects on locomotor and anxiety related responses, and also illustrate how environmental factors, in this case familiarity with the water, may interact with such effects. In light of these findings, we urge researchers to explicitly state the type of water used. PMID:26921455

  4. Structural evaluation of mixer pump installed in Tank 241-AN-107 for caustic addition project

    SciTech Connect

    Leshikar, G.A.

    1995-06-16

    This report documents the structural analysis and evaluation of a mixer pump and caustic addition system to be used in Tank 107-AN. This pump will be installed in the central pump pit of this double- shell tank for the purpose of bringing the hydroxide ion concentration into compliance with Tank Farm operating specifications.

  5. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval And Delivery Of The Hanford Tank Wastes For Vitrification In The Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Harp, Benton J.; Kacich, Richard M.; Skwarek, Raymond J.

    2012-12-20

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed in late 2011 as a way for improving the efficiency of delivery and treatment of highly radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The purpose of the One System IPT is to improve coordination and integration between the Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) contractor and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC). The vision statement is: One System is a WTP and TOC safety conscious team that, through integrated management and implementation of risk-informed decision and mission-based solutions, will enable the earliest start of safe and efficient treatment of Hanford's tank waste, to protect the Columbia River, environment and public. The IPT is a formal collaboration between Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), which manages design and construction of the WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOEORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), which manages the TOC for ORP. More than fifty-six (56) million gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste are stored in one hundred seventy-seven (177) aging, underground tanks. Most of Hanford's waste tanks - one hundred forty-nine (149) of them - are of an old single-shell tank (SST) design built between 1944 and 1964. More than sixty (60) of these tanks have leaked in the past, releasing an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil and threatening the nearby Columbia River. There are another twenty-eight (28) new double-shelled tanks (DSTs), built from 1968 to 1986, that provide greater protection to the environment. In 1989, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed a landmark agreement that required Hanford to comply with federal and state environmental standards. It also paved the way for agreements that set deadlines for retrieving the tank

  6. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval and Delivery of Hanford Tank Wastes for Vitrification in the Waste Treatment Plant - 13234

    SciTech Connect

    Harp, Benton J.; Kacich, Richard M.; Skwarek, Raymond J.

    2013-07-01

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed in late 2011 as a way for improving the efficiency of delivery and treatment of highly radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The purpose of the One System IPT is to improve coordination and integration between the Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) contractor and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC). The vision statement is: One System is a WTP and TOC safety-conscious team that, through integrated management and implementation of risk-informed decision and mission-based solutions, will enable the earliest start of safe and efficient treatment of Hanford's tank waste, to protect the Columbia River, environment and public. The IPT is a formal collaboration between Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), which manages design and construction of the WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOEORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), which manages the TOC for ORP. More than fifty-six (56) million gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste are stored in one hundred seventy-seven (177) aging, underground tanks. Most of Hanford's waste tanks - one hundred forty-nine (149) of them - are of an old single-shell tank (SST) design built between 1944 and 1964. More than sixty (60) of these tanks have leaked in the past, releasing an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil and threatening the nearby Columbia River. There are another twenty-eight (28) new double-shelled tanks (DSTs), built from 1968 to 1986, that provide greater protection to the environment. In 1989, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed a landmark agreement that required Hanford to comply with federal and state environmental standards. It also paved the way for agreements that set deadlines for retrieving the tank

  7. ICPP water inventory study project summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, B.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) Water inventory Study was initiated in September 1993 with the formation of a joint working group consisting of representatives from DOE-ID, State of Idaho INEL Oversight Program, US Geological Survey, and INEL employees to investigate three issues that had been identified by the INEL Oversight Program at ICPP: (1) the water inventory imbalance at ICPP, (2) the source of water infiltrating into the Tank Farm vault sumps, and (3) the source of water providing potential recharge to perched water bodies underlying ICPP. These issues suggested that water was being lost from the ICPP distribution system. The INEL Oversight Program was concerned that the unaccounted for water at ICPP could be spreading contaminants that have been released over the past 40 years of operations of ICPP, possibly to the Snake River Plain Aquifer. This report summarizes the findings of each of the component investigations that were undertaken to resolve each of the three issues. Concerns about the risk of spreading contaminants will be resolved as part of the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study being undertaken at ICPP in compliance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order between DOE-H), EPA, and the State of Idaho. This report will be a key input to that study.

  8. Heavy metal accumulation in hot water tanks in a region experiencing coal waste pollution and comparison between regional water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wigginton, A.; McSpirit, S.; Sims, C.D.

    2007-10-15

    In 2000, a coal slurry impoundment failure in Martin County, Kentucky, caused concerns about contaminants entering municipal water supplies. Water samples taken from impacted and reference area hot water tanks often exceeded US EPA drinking water guidelines. Concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Pb had maxima of 119; 51.9; 154; 170,000; 976,000; 8,710; and 12,700 {mu}g/L, respectively. Significantly different metal accumulation between counties indicated this procedure's utility for assessing long-term municipal water quality. Correlations between metal concentrations were strong and consistent for As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, and Fe indicating that some metals accumulate proportionally with others.

  9. Water Integration Project Science Strategies White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Alan K. Yonk

    2003-09-01

    This white paper has been prepared to document the approach to develop strategies to address Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) science and technology needs/uncertainties to support completion of INEEL Idaho Completion Project (Environmental Management [EM]) projects against the 2012 plan. Important Idaho Completion Project remediation and clean-up projects include the 2008 OU 10-08 Record of Decision, completion of EM by 2012, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tanks, INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility, and the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. The objective of this effort was to develop prioritized operational needs and uncertainties that would assist Operations in remediation and clean-up efforts at the INEEL and develop a proposed path forward for the development of science strategies to address these prioritized needs. Fifteen needs/uncertainties were selected to develop an initial approach to science strategies. For each of the 15 needs/uncertainties, a detailed definition was developed. This included extracting information from the past interviews with Operations personnel to provide a detailed description of the need/uncertainty. For each of the 15 prioritized research and development needs, a search was performed to identify the state of the associated knowledge. The knowledge search was performed primarily evaluating ongoing research. The ongoing research reviewed included Environmental Systems Research Analysis, Environmental Management Science Program, Laboratory Directed Research and Development, Inland Northwest Research Alliance, United States Geological Survey, and ongoing Operations supported projects. Results of the knowledge search are documented as part of this document.

  10. Leaf hydraulic conductance for a tank bromeliad: axial and radial pathways for moving and conserving water.

    PubMed

    North, Gretchen B; Lynch, Frank H; Maharaj, Franklin D R; Phillips, Carly A; Woodside, Walter T

    2013-01-01

    Epiphytic plants in the Bromeliaceae known as tank bromeliads essentially lack stems and absorptive roots and instead take up water from reservoirs formed by their overlapping leaf bases. For such plants, leaf hydraulic conductance is plant hydraulic conductance. Their simple strap-shaped leaves and parallel venation make them suitable for modeling leaf hydraulic conductance based on vasculature and other anatomical and morphological traits. Plants of the tank bromeliad Guzmania lingulata were investigated in a lowland tropical forest in Costa Rica and a shaded glasshouse in Los Angeles, CA, USA. Stomatal conductance to water vapor and leaf anatomical variables related to hydraulic conductance were measured for both groups. Tracheid diameters and numbers of vascular bundles (veins) were used with the Hagen-Poiseuille equation to calculate axial hydraulic conductance. Measurements of leaf hydraulic conductance using the evaporative flux method were also made for glasshouse plants. Values for axial conductance and leaf hydraulic conductance were used in a model based on leaky cable theory to estimate the conductance of the radial pathway from the vein to the leaf surface and to assess the relative contributions of both axial and radial pathways. In keeping with low stomatal conductance, low stomatal density, low vein density, and narrow tracheid diameters, leaf hydraulic conductance for G. lingulata was quite low in comparison with most other angiosperms. Using the predicted axial conductance in the leaky cable model, the radial resistance across the leaf mesophyll was predicted to predominate; lower, more realistic values of axial conductance resulted in predicted radial resistances that were closer to axial resistance in their impact on total leaf resistance. Tracer dyes suggested that water uptake through the tank region of the leaf was not limiting. Both dye movement and the leaky cable model indicated that the leaf blade of G. lingulata was structurally and