These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Novel livestock water tank. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Novel photovoltaic system provides freeze protection for livestock tanks. Ranchers and farmers living in northern climates traditionally use electric resistance heaters to prevent there stock tanks from freezing in the winter. This traditional method has two distinct drawbacks, it is expensive and it uses large quantities of electrical power each year. This project is to design to keep water tanks ice free without either of those two drawbacks. In this project a small photovoltaic under 100 watts powered an air bubbling system similar to ice prevention systems currently used to keep year round harbors open. This project is designed so that water from the bottom of the stock tank flows to the bottom of heat exchange barrier box 6 feet underground. Heat from the surrounding earth will flow into the heat exchanger and the incoming cool water from the stock tank above. An airbubbler similar to that found in many aquariums will push the warm water up and will discharge the warm water into livestock tanks.

Wegman, S.

1982-01-01

2

water tank 9/13/2007 1 4.1 Water tank  

E-print Network

water tank 9/13/2007 1 4.1 Water tank (a) A cylindrical tank contains 800 ml of water. At t=0 (min- utes) a hole is punched in the bottom, and water begins to flow out. It takes exactly 100 seconds for the tank to empty. Draw the graph of the amount z of water in the tank against time t. Explain the shape

Taylor, Peter

3

Dryout modeling in support of the organic tank safety project  

SciTech Connect

This work was performed for the Organic Tank Safety Project to evaluate the moisture condition of the waste surface organic-nitrate bearing tanks that are classified as being conditionally safe because sufficient water is present. This report describes the predictive modeling procedure used to predict the moisture content of waste in the future, after it has been subjected to dryout caused by water vapor loss through passive ventilation. This report describes a simplified procedure for modeling the drying out of tank waste. Dryout occurs as moisture evaporates from the waste into the headspace and then exits the tank through ventilation. The water vapor concentration within the waste of the headspace is determined by the vapor-liquid equilibrium, which depends on the waste`s moisture content and temperature. This equilibrium has been measured experimentally for a variety of waste samples and is described by a curve called the water vapor partial pressure isotherm. This curve describes the lowering of the partial pressure of water vapor in equilibrium with the waste relative to pure water due to the waste`s chemical composition and hygroscopic nature. Saltcake and sludge are described by two distinct calculations that emphasize the particular physical behavior or each. A simple, steady-state model is devised for each type to obtain the approximate drying behavior. The report shows the application of the model to Tanks AX-102, C-104, and U-105.

Simmons, C.S.

1998-08-01

4

A Thermally Stratified Solar Water Storage Tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal stratification and fluid motion in solar water storage tanks have been investigated theoretically and experimentally. Transparent glass test sections were used in the experiment to permit visual observation of the flow fields. An electric water heater was used to simulate solar collectors. Experiments were conducted under different conditions in which a solar system is likely to operate. Altogether, about

M. N. A. HAWLADER; T. Y. BONG; T. S. LEE

1988-01-01

5

Ground Water in a Fish Tank.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes creating a Model Aquatic/Terrestrial Ecosystem for use in helping students understand how water moves beneath the ground's surface. The model is constructed from a fish tank using rocks, soil, gravel, clay, and organic materials. Author describes possible cooperative-learning and problem-solving activities that can be done with this…

Mayshark, Robin K.

1992-01-01

6

The Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project Tank Waste Retrieval Performance and Lessons Learned, vol. 1 [of 2  

SciTech Connect

The Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Remediation Project was the first of its kind performed in the United States. Robotics and remotely operated equipment were used to successfully transfer almost 94,000 gal of remote-handled transuranic sludge containing over 81,000 Ci of radioactive contamination from nine large underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The sludge was transferred with over 439,000 gal of radioactive waste supernatant and {approx}420,500 gal of fresh water that was used in sluicing operations. The GAATs are located in a high-traffic area of ORNL near a main thoroughfare. A phased and integrated approach to waste retrieval operations was used for the GAAT Remediation Project. The project promoted safety by obtaining experience from low-risk operations in the North Tank Farm before moving to higher-risk operations in the South Tank Farm. This approach allowed project personnel to become familiar with the tanks and waste, as well as the equipment, processes, procedures, and operations required to perform successful waste retrieval. By using an integrated approach to tank waste retrieval and tank waste management, the project was completed years ahead of the original baseline schedule, which resulted in avoiding millions of dollars in associated costs. This report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1 provides information on the various phases of the GAAT Remediation Project. It also describes the different types of equipment and how they were used. The emphasis of Volume 1 is on the description of the tank waste retrieval performance and the lessons learned during the GAAT Remediation Project. Volume 2 provides the appendixes for the report, which include the following information: (A) Background Information for the Gunite and Associated Tanks Operable Unit; (B) Annotated Bibliography; (C) Comprehensive Listing of the Sample Analysis Data from the GAAT Remediation Project; (D) GAAT Equipment Matrix; and (E) Vendor List for the GAAT Remediation Project. The remediation of the GAATs was completed {approx}5.5 years ahead of schedule and {approx}$120,435,000 below the cost estimated in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for the project. These schedule and cost savings were a direct result of the selection and use of state-of-the-art technologies and the dedication and drive of the engineers, technicians, managers, craft workers, and support personnel that made up the GAAT Remediation Project Team.

Lewis, BE

2003-10-07

7

HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK CLOSURE PROJECT AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is in the process of closing two underground high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations and Department of Energy orders. Closure of these two tanks is scheduled for 2004 as the first phase in closure of the eleven 1.14 million liter (300,000 gallon) tanks currently in service at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). The INTEC Tank Farm Facility (TFF) Closure sequence consists of multiple steps to be accomplished through the existing tank riser access points. Currently, the tank risers contain steam and process waste lines associated with the steam jets, corrosion coupons, and liquid level indicators. As necessary, this equipment will be removed from the risers to allow adequate space for closure equipment and activities. The basic tank closure sequence is as follows: Empty the tank to the residual heel using the existing jets; Video and sample the heel; Replace steam jets with new jet at a lower position in the tank, and remove additional material; Flush tank, piping and secondary containment with demineralized water; Video and sample the heel; Evaluate decontamination effectiveness; Displace the residual heel with multiple placements of grout; and Grout piping, vaults and remaining tank volume. Design, development, and deployment of a remotely operated tank cleaning system were completed in June 2002. The system incorporates many commercially available components, which have been adapted for application in cleaning high-level waste tanks. The system is cost-effective since it also utilizes existing waste transfer technology (steam jets), to remove tank heel solids from the tank bottoms during the cleaning operations. Remotely operated directional spray nozzles, automatic rotating wash balls, video monitoring equipment, decontamination spray-rings, and tank -specific access interface devices have been integrated to provide a system that efficiently cleans tank walls and heel solids in an acidic, radioactive environment. Through the deployment of the tank cleaning system, the INEEL High Level Waste Program has cleaned tanks to meet RCRA clean closure standards and DOE closure performance measures. Design, development, and testing of tank grouting delivery equipment were completed in October 2002. The system incorporates lessons learned from closures at other DOE facilities. The grout will be used to displace the tank residuals remaining after the cleaning is complete. To maximize heel displacement to the discharge pump, grout was placed in a sequence of five positions utilizing two riser locations. The project is evaluating the use of six positions to optimize the residuals removed. After the heel has been removed and the residuals stabilized, the tank, piping, and secondary containment will be grouted.

Quigley, K.D.; Wessman, D

2003-02-27

8

Vandose Zone Characterization Project at the Hanford Tank Farms: SX Tank Farm Report  

SciTech Connect

The SX Tank Farm is located in the southwest portion of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This tank farm consists of 15 single-shell tanks (SSTs), each with an individual capacity of 1 million gallons (gal). These tanks currently store high-level nuclear waste that was primarily generated from what was called the oxidation-reduction or {open_quotes}REDOX{close_quotes} process at the S-Plant facility. Ten of the 15 tanks are listed in Hanlon as {open_quotes}assumed leakers{close_quotes} and are known to have leaked various amounts of high-level radioactive liquid to the vadose zone sediment. The current liquid content of each tank varies, but the liquid from known leaking tanks has been removed to the extent possible. In 1994, the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Office (DOE-RL) requested the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO), Grand Junction, Colorado, to perform a baseline characterization of contamination in the vadose zone at all the SST farms with spectral gamma-ray logging of boreholes surrounding the tanks. The SX Tank Farm geophysical logging was completed, and the results of this baseline characterization are presented in this report.

Brodeur, J.R.; Koizumi, C.J.; Bertsch, J.F.

1996-09-01

9

Continuous flushing of contaminants from ballast water tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transport of non-indigenous species (NIS) with ship ballast water is a major environmental problem. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) have recommended that ballast tanks are flushed through with sea water to remove NIS contaminants. The flushing efficiency is studied using mathematical models and a scaled experimental model of a ballast tank.The density contrast between the ballast water and water

I. Eames; M. Landeryou; A. Greig; J. Snellings

2008-01-01

10

Energy conservation system for hot water heaters and storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

In combination with a furnace for heating a building and a water heater, an energy conservation system is described comprising a first coil of water pipe disposed within a chamber or duct of said furnace for absorbing heat from said furnace to heat water in said first coil, said pipe being connected between a pressurized source of cold water for said building and a cold water inlet of said heater, said system further comprising a spurge tank for storing a quantity of water therein selectively connectable across said first coil, means for diverting water flowing between said first coil and heater inlet to said spurge tank when the presure of the water flowing between said first coil and heater increases to a first pre-selected maximum pressure value, means for diverting water flowing between said first coil and heater inlet to said spurge tank when the temperature of the water flowing betwen said first coil and heater inlet increases to a first pre-selected maximu temperature value, first check valve means for restraining the back-filling of said spurge tank with water flowing from said source and from the upstream end of said forst coil, second check valve means for restraining the back flow of water to said source from said spurge tank and said first coil, means for venting water and steam from said spurge tank to a sewer line when the pressure of water in said spurge tank reaches a second pre-selected pressure valve, and means for venting water and steam from said spurge tank to a sewer line when the pressure of water in said spurge tank reaches a second pre-selected pressure valve, and means for venting water and steam from said spurge tank when the water temperature in said spurge tank reaches a second pre-selected temperature value.

Farris, W.

1980-07-08

11

Single-shell tank interim stabilization project plan  

SciTech Connect

Solid and liquid radioactive waste continues to be stored in 149 single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. To date, 119 tanks have had most of the pumpable liquid removed by interim stabilization. Thirty tanks remain to be stabilized. One of these tanks (C-106) will be stabilized by retrieval of the tank contents. The remaining 29 tanks will be interim stabilized by saltwell pumping. In the summer of 1997, the US Department of Energy (DOE) placed a moratorium on the startup of additional saltwell pumping systems because of funding constraints and proposed modifications to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestones to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). In a letter dated February 10, 1998, Final Determination Pursuant to Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in the Matter of the Disapproval of the DOE`s Change Control Form M-41-97-01 (Fitzsimmons 1998), Ecology disapproved the DOE Change Control Form M-41-97-01. In response, Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) directed Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LNMC) to initiate development of a project plan in a letter dated February 25, 1998, Direction for Development of an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan in Support of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In a letter dated March 2, 1998, Request for an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan, the DOE reaffirmed the need for an aggressive SST interim stabilization completion project plan to support a finalized Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-41 recovery plan. This project plan establishes the management framework for conduct of the TWRS Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organizational structure, roles, responsibilities, and interfaces; and operational methods. The plan is based on realistic assumptions and addresses three separate funding scenarios.

Ross, W.E.

1998-03-27

12

Detail of gauge on side of eastiron water tank that ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail of gauge on side of east-iron water tank that indicates water level - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Combination Smokestack, Water Tank & Privies, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

13

Optimal sizing of rain water tanks for domestic water conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryMelbourne is facing a severe drought having its 12th consecutive below average rainfall year. Water authorities have been forced to impose rigorous water restrictions including voluntary per capita water use targets after more than 20 years of unrestricted water supply. The current severe drought and dwindling water resources have accelerated the use of alternative water sources including domestic rainwater. There is a large variation in average annual rainfall in the Greater Melbourne area ranging from 1050 mm in the east to 450 mm in the west. Hence, there is a significant difference in the tank size required in the west and the east of Melbourne to meet a similar demand and to provide the same supply reliability. The paper presents a novel methodology and a relationship for optimal sizing of rainwater tanks considering the annual rainfall at the geographic location, the demand for rainwater, the roof area (catchment area) and the desired supply reliability. The characteristic of the developed dimensionless curve reflects these variables and paves the way for developing a web based interactive tool for selecting the optimum rainwater tank size.

Khastagir, Anirban; Jayasuriya, Niranjali

2010-02-01

14

Vadose zone characterization project at the Hanford Tank Farms: BY Tank Farm report  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy Grand Junction Office (GJO) was tasked by the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) to perform a baseline characterization of the contamination distributed in the vadoze zone sediment beneath and around the single-shell tanks (SSTs) at the Hanford Site. The intent of this characterization is to determine the nature and extent of the contamination, to identify contamination sources, and to develop a baseline of the contamination distribution that will permit future data comparisons. This characterization work also allows an initial assessment of the impacts of the vadose zone contamination as required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This characterization project involves acquiring information about the vadose zone contamination with borehole geophysical logging methods and documenting that information in a series of reports. Data from boreholes surrounding each tank are compiled into individual Tank Summary Data Reports. The data from each tank farm are then compiled and summarized in a Tank Farm Report. This document is the Tank Farm Report for the BY Tank Farm.

Kos, S.E.

1997-02-01

15

Single-shell tank interim stabilization project plan  

SciTech Connect

This project plan establishes the management framework for conduct of the TWRS Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organizational structure, roles, responsibilities, and interfaces; and operational methods. This plan serves as the project executional baseline.

Ross, W.E.

1998-05-11

16

Water Tank with Capillary Air/Liquid Separation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bladderless water tank (see figure) has been developed that contains capillary devices that allow it to be filled and emptied, as needed, in microgravity. When filled with water, the tank shields human occupants of a spacecraft against cosmic radiation. A membrane that is permeable by air but is hydrophobic (neither wettable nor permeable by liquid water) covers one inside surface of the tank. Grooves between the surface and the membrane allow air to flow through vent holes in the surface as the tank is filled or drained. A margin of wettable surface surrounds the edges of the membrane, and all the other inside tank surfaces are also wettable. A fill/drain port is located in one corner of the tank and is covered with a hydrophilic membrane. As filling begins, water runs from the hydrophilic membrane into the corner fillets of the tank walls. Continued filling in the absence of gravity will result in a single contiguous air bubble that will be vented through the hydrophobic membrane. The bubble will be reduced in size until it becomes spherical and smaller than the tank thickness. Draining the tank reverses the process. Air is introduced through the hydrophobic membrane, and liquid continuity is maintained with the fill/drain port through the corner fillets. Even after the tank is emptied, as long as the suction pressure on the hydrophilic membrane does not exceed its bubble point, no air will be drawn into the liquid line.

Ungar, Eugene K.; Smith, Frederick; Edeen, Gregg; Almlie, Jay C.

2010-01-01

17

Single Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval Project Plan for Tank 241-C-104 Retrieval  

SciTech Connect

In support of the SST Interim Closure Project, Project W-523 ''Tank 241-C-104 Waste Retrieval System'' will provide systems for retrieval and transfer of radioactive waste from tank 241-C-104 (C-104) to the DST staging tank 241-AY-101 (AY-101). At the conclusion of Project W-523, a retrieval system will have been designed and tested to meet the requirements for Acceptance of Beneficial Use and been turned over to operations. Completion of construction and operations of the C-104 retrieval system will meet the recently proposed near-term Tri-Party Agreement milestone, M-45-03F (Proposed Tri-Party Agreement change request M-45-00-01A, August, 30 2000) for demonstrating limits of retrieval technologies on sludge and hard heels in SSTs, reduce near-term storage risks associated with aging SSTs, and provide feed for the tank waste treatment plant. This Project Plan documents the methodology for managing Project W-523; formalizes responsibilities; identifies key interfaces required to complete the retrieval action; establishes the technical, cost, and schedule baselines; and identifies project organizational requirements pertaining to the engineering process such as environmental, safety, quality assurance, change control, design verification, testing, and operational turnover.

DEFIGH PRICE, C.

2000-09-20

18

The Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project Tank Waste Retrieval Performance and Lessons Learned, vol. 2 [of 2  

SciTech Connect

The Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Remediation Project was the first of its kind performed in the United States. Robotics and remotely operated equipment were used to successfully transfer almost 94,000 gal of remote-handled transuranic sludge containing over 81,000 Ci of radioactive contamination from nine large underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The sludge was transferred with over 439,000 gal of radioactive waste supernatant and {approx}420,500 gal of fresh water that was used in sluicing operations. The GAATs are located in a high-traffic area of ORNL near a main thoroughfare. Volume 1 provides information on the various phases of the project and describes the types of equipment used. Volume 1 also discusses the tank waste retrieval performance and the lessons learned during the remediation effort. Volume 2 consists of the following appendixes, which are referenced in Vol. 1: A--Background Information for the Gunite and Associated Tanks Operable Unit; B--Annotated Bibliography; C--GAAT Equipment Matrix; D--Comprehensive Listing of the Sample Analysis Data from the GAAT Remediation Project; and E--Vendor List for the GAAT Remediation Project. The remediation of the GAATs was completed {approx}5.5 years ahead of schedule and {approx}$120,435K below the cost estimated in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for the project. These schedule and cost savings were a direct result of the selection and use of state-of-the-art technologies and the dedication and drive of the engineers, technicians, managers, craft workers, and support personnel that made up the GAAT Remediation Project Team.

Lewis, BE

2003-10-07

19

3. VIEW OF WATER TANKS FROM ACCESS ROAD TO HATCH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW OF WATER TANKS FROM ACCESS ROAD TO HATCH ADIT. VIEW NORTH. LUCKY TIGER MILL OFFICE (FEATURE B-I) IN DISTANCE. (OCTOBER, 1995) - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, Water Tanks, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

20

13. Water treatment plant interior view of tanks in control ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Water treatment plant interior view of tanks in control room. View to SW - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

21

Uranium in hot water tanks: a source of TENORM.  

PubMed

Uranium deposits were detected inside hot water tanks using gamma-ray spectroscopic techniques and corroborated by the difference in the uranium concentration of the groundwater entering and leaving the hot water tanks. In-situ gamma-ray spectroscopy was performed using a transportable high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometer to estimate the mass of uranium in the hot water tanks. Gamma-ray spectroscopic analyses of hot water tanks in four residences with groundwater uranium concentration between 732 and 7,667 mug L revealed an estimated 3.5 to 69 g of uranium in each hot water tank. The uranium deposit within the tanks was indicated by the 143.8, 163.4, and 185.7 keV gamma rays of U and confirmed with the 63.3, 92.3, and 92.8 keV gamma rays of Th as well as the 1,001 keV peak of Pa. An average decrease in uranium concentration of 23% was observed in the groundwater that passed through the hot water tanks. Additionally, once "uranium free" water entered the hot water tanks, the uranium deposits within the tanks resulted in an increase in the uranium concentration in the effluent water. The groundwater had an alkalinity in the range of 46-96 mg L as CaCO3 and a pH range of 7.3-8.1. The accumulation of uranium in these hot water tanks results in them being classified as technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM). PMID:15545773

DeVol, T A; Woodruff, R L

2004-12-01

22

Where Did the Water Go?: Boyle's Law and Pressurized Diaphragm Water Tanks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many homes use pressurized diaphragm tanks for storage of water pumped from an underground well. These tanks are very carefully constructed to have separate internal chambers for the storage of water and for the air that provides the pressure. One might expect that the amount of water available for use from, for example, a 50-gallon tank would be…

Brimhall, James; Naga, Sundar

2007-01-01

23

Global Water Sampling Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students from around the globe will team up to test fresh water. With this collaborative project, students will compare the water quality of their local river, stream, lake or pond with other fresh water sources around the world. The focus of the project is to assess the quality of water based on physical characteristics and chemical substances, and to look for relationships and trends among the data collected by all project participants.

2009-01-01

24

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANKS  

SciTech Connect

M&D Professional Services, Inc. (M&D) is under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to perform seismic analysis of the Hanford Site double-shell tanks (DSTs) in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank (DSV Integrity Project--DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses)''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST system at Hanford in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14, The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The work statement provided to M&D (PNNL 2003) required that the seismic analysis of the DSTs assess the impacts of potentially non-conservative assumptions in previous analyses and account for the additional soil mass due to the as-found soil density increase, the effects of material degradation, additional thermal profiles applied to the full structure including the soil-structure response with the footings, the non-rigid (low frequency) response of the tank roof, the asymmetric seismic-induced soil loading, the structural discontinuity between the concrete tank wall and the support footing and the sloshing of the tank waste. The seismic analysis considers the interaction of the tank with the surrounding soil and the effects of the primary tank contents. The DSTs and the surrounding soil are modeled as a system of finite elements. The depth and width of the soil incorporated into the analysis model are sufficient to obtain appropriately accurate analytical results. The analyses required to support the work statement differ from previous analysis of the DSTs in that the soil-structure interaction (SSI) model includes several (nonlinear) contact surfaces in the tank structure, and the contained waste must be modeled explicitly in order to capture the fluid-structure interaction behavior between the primary tank and contained waste.

MACKEY, T.C.

2006-03-17

25

Laminar flow efficiency of stratified chilled-water storage tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results for the efficiency of a stratified chilled-water storage tank with one inlet and one outlet. Numerical solutions for the two-dimensional, unsteady, laminar flow during stably stratified tank filling are compared with a one-dimensional model involving only conductive heat transfer across the thermocline separating the entering cold water and the exiting warm water. This one-dimensional model represents

K. O. Homan; S. L. Soo

1998-01-01

26

MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS  

EPA Science Inventory

The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. Equations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reation rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. An analytical solution for ...

27

MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS  

EPA Science Inventory

The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. quations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reaction rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. n analytical solution for the...

28

Environmental Assessment for the Accelerated Tank Closure Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) needs to collect engineering and technical information on (1) the physical response and behavior of a Phase I grout fill in an actual tank, (2) field deployment of grout production equipment and (3) the conduct of component closure activities for single-shell tank (SST) 241-C-106 (C-106). Activities associated with this Accelerated Tank Closure Demonstration (ATCD) project include placement of grout in C-106 following retrieval, and associated component closure activities. The activities will provide information that will be used in determining future closure actions for the remaining SSTs and tank farms at the Hanford Site. This information may also support preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Retrieval, Treatment, and Disposal of Tank Waste and Closure of Single-Shell Tanks at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington (Tank Closure EIS). Information will be obtained from the various activities associated with the component closure activities for C-106 located in the 241-C tank farm (C tank farm) under the ''Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976'' (RCRA) and the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1989). The impacts of retrieving waste from C-106 are bounded by the analysis in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) EIS (DOE/EIS-0189), hereinafter referred to as the TWRS EIS. DOE has conducted and continues to conduct retrieval activities at C-106 in preparation for the ATCD Project. For major federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, the ''National Environmental Policy Act of 1969'' (NEPA) requires that federal agencies evaluate the environmental effects of their proposed and alternative actions before making decisions to take action. The President's Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) has developed regulations for implementing NEPA. These regulations are found in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Parts 1500-1508. They require the preparation of an Environmental Assessment (EA) that includes an evaluation of alternative means of addressing the problem and a discussion of the potential environmental impacts of a proposed federal action. An EA provides analysis to determine whether an EIS or a finding of no significant impact should be prepared.

N /A

2003-06-16

29

Water detection in fuel tanks using the microwave reflection technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is often present in fuel tanks due to night and day temperature changes, resulting in a build-up of condensed water within the inner surface of the tank. The expectancy of water infiltration in fuel tanks is even higher in flooding prone areas. Water settlement at the bottom of the tank causes internal corrosion. In this work, a simple, low cost and accurate microwave reflection type system for detection of water in fuel tanks has been developed. A module consisting of a microwave generator and a detecting diode is used to measure the microwave reflection coefficient at various positions through the fuel tank. In the course of the study, a motion control and data acquisition system has been developed. Software written using the LabVIEW programming language is used to control the movement of the sensor and for the data acquisition. Theoretical and experimental results show the ability of the system to detect the presence of a water level down to approximately 1 mm. A simple theoretical model for power prediction of the reflected signal at various positions of the sensor in the tank is also presented.

Khalid, Kaida; Valeriu Grozescu, Ionel; Keng Tiong, Lim; Teck Sim, Lee; Mohd, Roslim

2003-11-01

30

The design and construction of an open channel recirculating water tank for the study of biological hydrocarbons  

E-print Network

This project chronicles the design and construction of a small scale recirculating water tank for the purpose of studying biological hydrodynamics. Currently available systems were analyzed and studied prior to developing ...

Hennessey, Thomas V. (Thomas Vincent), III

2005-01-01

31

UVA Virtual Lab: Capacitor Water Tank Analogy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These pages provide a water model of an electrical circuit. In this case, the gerbil running in its wheel and the bucket pump are the equivalent of a battery. The water represents the flowing electrons. The membrane in the middle is the circuitâs capacitor. The spinning waterwheel represents the resistor which powers the light bulb. This model is part of the UVA Virtual Lab collection. This project is supported by grants from the National Science Foundation, the University of Virginia, IBM, and Discreet Corporation.

Bean, John

2010-12-23

32

Conceptual design report for tank farm restoration and safe operations, project W-314  

SciTech Connect

This Conceptual Design Report (CDR) presents the conceptual level design approach that satisfies the established technical requirements for Project W-314, `Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations.` The CDR also addresses the initial cost and schedule baselines for performing the proposed Tank Farm infrastructure upgrades. The scope of this project includes capital improvements to Hanford`s existing tank farm facilities(primarily focused on Double- Shell Tank Farms) in the areas of instrumentation/control, tank ventilation, waste transfer, and electrical systems.

Briggs, S.R., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-05-02

33

Looking east at the boiler water treatment tank located off ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking east at the boiler water treatment tank located off the west wall of the boiler house. - Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation, Allenport Works, Boiler House, Route 88 on West bank of Monongahela River, Allenport, Washington County, PA

34

VIEW OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS (BEHIND SUPPORT COLUMNS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS (BEHIND SUPPORT COLUMNS AND STEEL BEAMS), SUB-BASEMENT LEVEL -27?, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

35

VIEW OF SOUTHERNMOST OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS, LOCATED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF SOUTHERN-MOST OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS, LOCATED BEHIND SUPPORT COLUMN, WITH ADJACENT PIPING, LEVEL -27?, LOOKING WEST - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

36

Atmospheric methyl chloroform: a leaky water tank example  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Atmospheric methyl chloroform concentration is modeled as an extension of the generic water tank structure. Simulated and observed concentrations are used to estimate the global atmospheric lifetime of methyl chloroform and its 1989 to 2009 emission history.

Mackay, Bob

37

1. SHOWING RELATION OF FIRE CONTROL BUILDING, WATER TANK, AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. SHOWING RELATION OF FIRE CONTROL BUILDING, WATER TANK, AND TOWER, LOOKING SOUTH - Boswell Bay White Alice Site, Fire Control Building, Chugach National Forest, Cordova, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

38

Water heaters, storage tank, and electrical panels in the boiler ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Water heaters, storage tank, and electrical panels in the boiler room, south corner of the ground floor - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Guard House & Barracks, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

39

Project management plan for Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 sluicing. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

A major mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the permanent disposal of Hanford Site defense wastes by utilizing safe, environmentally acceptable, and cost-effective disposal methods that meet applicable regulations. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program was established at the Hanford Site to manage and control activities specific to the remediation of safety watch list tanks, including high-heat-producing tanks, and for the ultimate characterization, retrieval, pretreatment, and disposal of the low- and high-level fractions of the tank waste. Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 Sluicing, provides the methodology, equipment, utilities, and facilities necessary for retrieving the high-heat waste from single-shell tank (SST) 24-C-106. Project W-320 is a fiscal year (FY) 1993 expense-funded major project, and has a design life of 2 years. Retrieval of the waste in tank 241-C-106 will be accomplished through mobilization of the sludge into a pumpable slurry using past-practice sluicing. The waste is then transferred directly to a double-shell tank for interim storage, subsequent pretreatment, and eventual disposal. A detailed description of the management organization and responsibilities of all participants is presented in this document.

Phillips, D.R.

1994-07-01

40

DEGRADATION EVALUATION OF HEAVY WATER DRUMS AND TANKS  

SciTech Connect

Heavy water with varying chemistries is currently being stored in over 6700 drums in L- and K-areas and in seven tanks in L-, K-, and C-areas. A detailed evaluation of the potential degradation of the drums and tanks, specific to their design and service conditions, has been performed to support the demonstration of their integrity throughout the desired storage period. The 55-gallon drums are of several designs with Type 304 stainless steel as the material of construction. The tanks have capacities ranging from 8000 to 45600 gallons and are made of Type 304 stainless steel. The drums and tanks were designed and fabricated to national regulations, codes and standards per procurement specifications for the Savannah River Site. The drums have had approximately 25 leakage failures over their 50+ years of use with the last drum failure occurring in 2003. The tanks have experienced no leaks to date. The failures in the drums have occurred principally near the bottom weld, which attaches the bottom to the drum sidewall. Failures have occurred by pitting, crevice and stress corrosion cracking and are attributable, in part, to the presence of chloride ions in the heavy water. Probable degradation mechanisms for the continued storage of heavy water were evaluated that could lead to future failures in the drum or tanks. This evaluation will be used to support establishment of an inspection plan which will include susceptible locations, methods, and frequencies for the drums and tanks to avoid future leakage failures.

Mickalonis, J.; Vormelker, P.

2009-07-31

41

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANKS  

SciTech Connect

M&D Professional Services, Inc. (M&D) is under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to perform seismic analysis of the Hanford Site Double-Shell Tanks (DSTs) in support of a project entitled Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Project - DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses. The original scope of the project was to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14. The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). Although Milestone M-48-14 has been met, Revision I is being issued to address external review comments with emphasis on changes in the modeling of anchor bolts connecting the concrete dome and the steel primary tank. The work statement provided to M&D (PNNL 2003) required that a nonlinear soil structure interaction (SSI) analysis be performed on the DSTs. The analysis is required to include the effects of sliding interfaces and fluid sloshing (fluid-structure interaction). SSI analysis has traditionally been treated by frequency domain computer codes such as SHAKE (Schnabel, et al. 1972) and SASSI (Lysmer et al. 1999a). Such frequency domain programs are limited to the analysis of linear systems. Because of the contact surfaces, the response of the DSTs to a seismic event is inherently nonlinear and consequently outside the range of applicability of the linear frequency domain programs. That is, the nonlinear response of the DSTs to seismic excitation requires the use of a time domain code. The capabilities and limitations of the commercial time domain codes ANSYS{reg_sign} and MSC Dytran{reg_sign} for performing seismic SSI analysis of the DSTs and the methodology required to perform the detailed seismic analysis of the DSTs has been addressed in Rinker et al (2006a). On the basis of the results reported in Rinker et al. (2006a), it is concluded that time-domain SSI analysis using ANSYS{reg_sign} is justified for predicting the global response of the DSTs. The most significant difference between the current revision (Revision 1) of this report and the original issue (Revision 0) is the treatment of the anchor bolts that tie the steel dome of the primary tank to the concrete tank dome.

MACKEY TC; RINKER MW; CARPENTER BG; HENDRIX C; ABATT FG

2009-01-15

42

TANK FARM REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT AN EXERCISE IN TECHNICAL & REGULATORY COLLABORATION  

SciTech Connect

The Tank Farm Remediation Technology Development Project at the Hanford Site focuses on waste storage tanks, pipelines and associated ancillary equipment that are part of the C-200 single-shell tank (SST) farm system located in the C Tank Farm. The purpose of the project is to obtain information on the implementation of a variety of closure activities and to answer questions on technical, operational and regulatory issues associated with closure.

JARAYSI, M.N.

2007-01-08

43

ONE MILLION GALLON WATER TANK, PUMP HEADER PIPE (AT LEFT), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ONE MILLION GALLON WATER TANK, PUMP HEADER PIPE (AT LEFT), HEADER BYPASS PIPE (AT RIGHT), AND PUMPHOUSE FOUNDATIONS. Looking northeast - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Flame Deflector Water System, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

44

EBR-II Primary Tank Wash-Water Alternatives Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The EBR-II reactor at Idaho National Laboratory was a liquid sodium metal cooled reactor that operated for 30 years. It was shut down in 1994; the fuel was removed by 1996; and the bulk of sodium metal coolant was removed from the reactor by 2001. Approximately 1100 kg of residual sodium remained in the primary system after draining the bulk sodium. To stabilize the remaining sodium, both the primary and secondary systems were treated with a purge of moist carbon dioxide. Most of the residual sodium reacted with the carbon dioxide and water vapor to form a passivation layer of primarily sodium bicarbonate. The passivation treatment was stopped in 2005 and the primary system is maintained under a blanket of dry carbon dioxide. Approximately 670 kg of sodium metal remains in the primary system in locations that were inaccessible to passivation treatment or in pools of sodium that were too deep for complete penetration of the passivation treatment. The EBR-II reactor was permitted by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) in 2002 under a RCRA permit that requires removal of all remaining sodium in the primary and secondary systems by 2022. The proposed baseline closure method would remove the large components from the primary tank, fill the primary system with water, react the remaining sodium with the water and dissolve the reaction products in the wash water. This method would generate a minimum of 100,000 gallons of caustic, liquid, low level radioactive, hazardous waste water that must be disposed of in a permitted facility. On February 19-20, 2008, a workshop was held in Idaho Falls, Idaho, to look at alternatives that could meet the RCRA permit clean closure requirements and minimize the quantity of hazardous waste generated by the cleanup process. The workshop convened a panel of national and international sodium cleanup specialists, subject matter experts from the INL, and the EBR-II Wash Water Project team that organized the workshop. The workshop was conducted by a trained facilitator using Value Engineering techniques to elicit the most technically sound solutions from the workshop participants. The path forward includes developing the OBA into a well engineered solution for achieving RCRA clean closure of the EBR-II Primary Reactor Tank system. Several high level tasks are also part of the path forward such as reassigning responsibility of the cleanup project to a dedicated project team that is funded by the DOE Office of Environmental Management, and making it a priority so that adequate funding is available to complete the project. Based on the experience of the sodium cleanup specialists, negotiations with the DEQ will be necessary to determine a risk-based de minimus quantity for acceptable amount of sodium that can be left in the reactor systems after cleanup has been completed.

Demmer, R. L.; Heintzelman, J. B.; Merservey, R. H.; Squires, L. N.

2008-05-01

45

Bus water storage tank as a reservoir of Legionella pneumophila.  

PubMed

Health concerns associated with Legionnaires' disease have been identified as an area of the increasing public and professional interest. Any natural water or man-made water systems worldwide might be reservoirs of Legionellae. We presented a sporadic, community-acquired case of Legionnaires' disease caused by Legionellapneumophila serogroup 1 in a bus driver who used water for hand and face washing from a bus water storage tank. The history of any other usual place of exposure to Legionellae was negative. The water from the tank was dirty, filled with sediment and leaves, at the temperature of 22 degrees C. The water was heavily contaminated with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolated from each sample with the concentration of 66,000, 16,000, 42,000, 56,000 and 34,000 CFU/L. The disinfection of the bus water storage tank was made using hyperclorination with 50 mg/L of free residual chlorine. The control sampling one week after the disinfection yielded negative results. So far, there are no recommendations on regular management or disinfection of water in bus storage tanks, but it seems to be reasonable to assume that passengers as well as bus drivers may be exposed to Legionella and therefore at risk of acquiring the infection. These recommendations should include regular empting, rinsing and filling the tank with fresh tap water, at least once a week. Finally, we have to be aware that Legionella bacteria are ubiquitous and any potential mode of producing contaminated aerosol should not be overlooked during an epidemiological field investigation and proposed appropriate measures. PMID:25507374

Jur?ev-Savi?evi?, Anamarija; Bradari?, Nikola; Pai?, Vlado Ozic; Muli?, Rosanda; Puntari?, Dinko; Miše, Kornelija

2014-09-01

46

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT INCREASED LIQUID LEVEL ANALYSIS FOR 241-AP TANK FARMS  

SciTech Connect

The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the SDT System at Hanford. The "Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Project - DST Thermal and Seismic Project" is in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14.

MACKEY TC; DEIBLER JE; JOHNSON KI; PILLI SP; KARRI NK; RINKER MW; ABATT FG; CARPENTER BG

2007-02-16

47

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-BY-108: Results from samples collected January 23, 1996. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) with and without particulate prefiltration. Samples were collected from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-108 (Tank BY-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for water, ammonia, permanent gases, total nonmethane hydrocarbons (TNMHCs, also known as TO-12), and organic analytes in samples collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs) from the tank headspace. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sampling and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Sampling and Analysis Plan for Tank Vapor Sampling Comparison Test{close_quotes}, and the sample jobs were designated S6004, S6005, and S6006. Samples were collected by WHC on January 23, 1996, using the VSS, a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe; and the ISVS with and without particulate prefiltration.

Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B. [and others

1996-07-01

48

Preliminary Study on Water Filled Tank Perforation by Rod Projectiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of fluid structure interactions resulting from the impact of a fluid filled tank is of the interests for engineers from both the military and civilian field, where hydrodynamic-ram (HRAM) phenomena is well known. And it is believed HRAM is responsible for the vulnerability and the possible catastrophic failure of the whole tank. Thus HRAM is related to the majority concerns on this topic, where the targets were usually assumed to be thin. In order to investigate the influence of water on the crashworthiness of a tank with relatively thick walls, 3 ballistic shots on the water filled tank with two 3 mm 2A12 aluminum plates as front and back target and 4 shots on the tank without any water by 12.7 mm rods were conducted. The failure patterns were indentified from the tests and the difference in the failure mechanism was further studied by a series of detailed numerical simulations on the corresponding tests in hydro-code AUTODYN-2D by using both the coupled Lagrange-Euler technology and the SPH method. And also, the challenge of numerical simulation in this field is addressed.

Xiao, Xin-Ke; Guo, Zi-Tao; Mu, Zhong-Cheng; Zhang, Wei

2009-06-01

49

Analysis of first flush to improve the water quality in rainwater tanks.  

PubMed

Although most Australians receive their domestic supply from reticulated mains or town water, there are vast areas with very low population densities and few reticulated supplies. In many of these areas rainwater collected in tanks is the primary source of drinking water. Heavy metals have recently become a concern as their concentration in rain water tanks was found to exceed recommended levels suitable for human consumption. Rainwater storage tanks also accumulate contaminants and sediments that settle to the bottom. Although not widely acknowledged, small amounts of contaminants such as lead found in rain water (used as drinking water) may have a cumulative and poisonous effect on human health over a life time. This is true for certain factors that underlie many of the chronic illnesses that are becoming increasingly common in contemporary society. The paper reports on a study which is part of a project that aims to develop a cost effective in-line filtration system to improve water quality in rainwater tanks. To enable this, the characteristics of rainwater need to be known. One component of this characterization is to observe the effects of the first flush on a rainwater tank. Samples of the roof runoff collected from an urban residential roof located in the Sydney Metropolitan Area in the initial first few millimetres of rain were analysed. The results show that bypassing the first 2 mm of rainfall gives water with most water quality parameters compliant with the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (ADWG) standards. The parameters that did not comply were lead and turbidity, which required bypassing approximately the first 5 mm of rainfall to meet ADWG standards. Molecular weight distribution (MWD) analysis showed that the concentration of rainwater organic matter (RWOM) decreased with increasing amount of roof runoff. PMID:20107269

Kus, B; Kandasamy, J; Vigneswaran, S; Shon, H K

2010-01-01

50

2. VIEW OF NORTHERN WATER TANK (FEATURE B2), FACING SOUTH. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW OF NORTHERN WATER TANK (FEATURE B-2), FACING SOUTH. THE ADIT ROAD IS SHOWN IN THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE PHOTO. - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, Water Tanks, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

51

Dynamics and solutions to some control problems for water-tank systems  

E-print Network

tanks filled with liquid are to be moved to different steady-state workbenches as fast as possible1 Dynamics and solutions to some control problems for water-tank systems Nicolas Petit , Pierre Rouchon Abstract We consider a tank containing a fluid. The tank is subjected to directly controlled

52

Functional design criteria, Project W-211, Initial Tank Retrieval Systems. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the technical baseline for retrieval of waste from ten double-shell tanks in the SY, AN, AP, AW, AY, and AZ tank farms. In order to retrieve waste from these tanks, systems are needed to mix the sludge with the supernate and pump the waste mixture from the tank. For 101-SY, the existing mitigation pump will be used to mix the waste and Project W-211 will provide for waste removal. The retrieval scope for the other nine tanks includes both the waste mixing and removal functions.

Rieck, C.A.

1995-02-07

53

Rogue waves in a water tank: Experiments and modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently many rogue waves have been reported as the main cause of ship incidents on the sea. One of the main characteristics of rogue waves is its elusiveness: they present unexpectedly and disappear in the same wave. Some authors (Zakharov and al.2010) are attempting to find the probability of their appearances apart from studyingthe mechanism of the formation. As an effort on this topic we tried the generation of rogue waves in a water wave tank using a symmetric spectrum(Akhmediev et al. 2011) as input on the wave maker. The produced waves were clearly rogue waves with a rate (maximum wave height/ Significant wave height) of 2.33 and a kurtosis of 4.77 (Janssen 2003, Onorato 2006). These results were already presented (Lechuga 2012). Similar waves (in pattern aspect, but without being extreme waves) were described as crossing waves in a water tank(Shemer and Lichter1988). To go on further the next step has been to apply a theoretical model to the envelope of these waves. After some considerations the best model has been an analogue of the Ginzburg-Landau equation. This apparently amazing result is easily explained: We know that the Ginzburg-Landau model is related to some regular structures on the surface of a liquid and also in plasmas, electric and magnetic fields and other media. Another important characteristic of the model is that their solutions are invariants with respectto the translation group. The main aim of this presentation is to extract conclusions of the model and the comparison with the measured waves in the water tank.The nonlinear structure of waves and their regularity make suitable the use of the Ginzburg-Landau model to the envelope of generated waves in the tank,so giving us a powerful tool to cope with the results of our experiment.

Lechuga, Antonio

2013-04-01

54

Project W-151 Tank 101-AZ Waste Retrieval System Year 2000 Compliance Assessment Project Plan  

SciTech Connect

This assessment describes the potential Year 2000 (Y2K) problems and describes the methods for achieving Y2K compliance for Project W-151, Tank 101-AZ Waste Retrieval System. The purpose of this assessment is to give an overview of the project. This document will not be updated and any dates contained in this document are estimates and may change. Two mixer pumps and instrumentation have been or are planned to be installed in waste tank 101-AZ to demonstrate solids mobilization. The information and experience gained during this process test will provide data for comparison with sludge mobilization prediction models and provide indication of the effects of mixer pump operation on an Aging Waste Facility tank. A limited description of system dates, functions, interfaces, potential Y2K problems, and date resolutions is presented. The project is presently on hold, and definitive design and procurement have been completed. This assessment will describe the methods, protocols, and practices to ensure that equipment and systems do not have Y2K problems.

BUSSELL, J.H.

1999-08-02

55

Tank SY-102 remediation project: Flowsheet and conceptual design report  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to safely manage and dispose of radioactive waste stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Site. A major program in TWRS is pretreatment which was established to process the waste prior to disposal. Pretreatment is needed to resolve tank safety issues and to separate wastes into high-level and low-level fractions for subsequent immobilization and disposal. There is a fixed inventory of actinides and fission products in the tank which must be prepared for disposal. By segregating the actinides and fission products from the bulk of the waste, the tank`s contents can be effectively managed. Due to the high public visibility and environmental sensitivity of this problem, real progress and demonstrated efforts toward addressing it must begin as soon as possible. As a part of this program, personnel at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have developed and demonstrated a flowsheet to remediate tank SY-102 which is located in the 200 West Area and contains high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of the flowsheet demonstrations performed with simulated, but radioactive, wastes using an existing glovebox line at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The tank waste was characterized using both a tank history approach and an exhaustive evaluation of the available core sample analyses. This report also presents a conceptual design complete with a working material flow model, a major equipment list, and cost estimates.

Yarbro, S.L.; Punjak, W.A.; Schreiber, S.B.; Dunn, S.L.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Marsh, S.F.; Pope, N.G.; Agnew, S.; Birnbaum, E.R.; Thomas, K.W.; Ortic, E.A.

1994-01-01

56

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT SUMMARY OF COMBINED THERMAL AND OPERATING LOADS WITH SEISMIC ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of the Double-Shell Tank Thermal and Operating Loads Analysis (TaLA) combined with the Seismic Analysis. This combined analysis provides a thorough, defensible, and documented analysis that will become a part of the overall analysis of record for the Hanford double-shell tanks (DSTs). The bases of the analytical work presented herein are two ANSYS{reg_sign} finite element models that were developed to represent a bounding-case tank. The TaLA model includes the effects of temperature on material properties, creep, concrete cracking, and various waste and annulus pressure-loading conditions. The seismic model considers the interaction of the tanks with the surrounding soil including a range of soil properties, and the effects of the waste contents during a seismic event. The structural evaluations completed with the representative tank models do not reveal any structural deficiencies with the integrity of the DSTs. The analyses represent 60 years of use, which extends well beyond the current date. In addition, the temperature loads imposed on the model are significantly more severe than any service to date or proposed for the future. Bounding material properties were also selected to provide the most severe combinations. While the focus of the analyses was a bounding-case tank, it was necessary during various evaluations to conduct tank-specific analyses. The primary tank buckling evaluation was carried out on a tank-specific basis because of the sensitivity to waste height, specific gravity, tank wall thickness, and primary tank vapor space vacuum limit. For this analysis, the occurrence of maximum tank vacuum was classified as a service level C, emergency load condition. The only area of potential concern in the analysis was with the buckling evaluation of the AP tank, which showed the current limit on demand of l2-inch water gauge vacuum to exceed the allowable of 10.4 inches. This determination was based on analysis at the design waste temperature of 350 F and the full 60-year corrosion allowance on the tank wall of 0.060 inch. However, analysis at a more realistic temperature of 250 F or corrosion allowance of 0.025 inch results in an acceptable demand/capacity ratio according to the ASME code criteria. Thus, buckling of the primary tank is judged to be unlikely for the current lack of corrosion in the tanks, and the expectation that the maximum waste temperature will not exceed 210 F. The reinforced concrete structure was evaluated as specified by the American Concrete Institute (ACI) code requirements for nuclear safety-related structures (ACI-349). The demand was demonstrated to be lower than the capacity at all locations. Revision 1 is being issued to document changes to the anchor bolt evaluation. RPP-RPT-32237 Rev. 1, Hanford Double-Shell Tank Thermal and Seismic Project-Increased Liquid Level Analysis for 241AP Tank Farms, described changes to the anchor bolt modeling and evaluation which were implemented in response to the independent reviewer's comments. Similar changes have been made in the bounding tank analysis and are documented in RPP-RPT-28968 Rev. 1. The conclusions of the previous releases of this report remain unchanged.

MACKEY TC; DEIBLER JE; RINKER MW; JOHNSON KI; ABATT FG; KARRI NK; PILLI SP; STOOPS KL

2009-01-15

57

HANFORD SITE RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT (RPP) TANK FARM CLOSURE  

SciTech Connect

The U. S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection and the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. are responsible for the operations, cleanup, and closure activities at the Hanford Tank Farms. There are 177 tanks overall in the tank farms, 149 single-shell tanks (see Figure 1), and 28 double-shell tanks (see Figure 2). The single-shell tanks were constructed 40 to 60 years ago and all have exceeded their design life. The single-shell tanks do not meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 [1] requirements. Accordingly, radioactive waste is being retrieved from the single-shell tanks and transferred to double-shell tanks for storage prior to treatment through vitrification and disposal. Following retrieval of as much waste as is technically possible from the single-shell tanks, the Office of River Protection plans to close the single-shell tanks in accordance with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order [2] and the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [3] requirements. The double-shell tanks will remain in operation through much of the cleanup mission until sufficient waste has been treated such that the Office of River Protection can commence closing the double-shell tanks. At the current time, however, the focus is on retrieving waste and closing the single-shell tanks. The single-shell tanks are being managed and will be closed in accordance with the pertinent requirements in: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and its Washington State-authorized Dangerous Waste Regulations [4], US DOE Order 435.1 Radioactive Waste Management [5], the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 [6], and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 [7]. The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, which is commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement or TPA, was originally signed by Department of Energy, the State of Washington, and the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1989. Meanwhile, the retrieval of the waste is under way and is being conducted to achieve the completion criteria established in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order.

JARAYSI, M.N.; SMITH, Z.; QUINTERO, R.; BURANDT, M.B.; HEWITT, W.

2006-01-30

58

Effect of an in-containment refueling water storage tank on station blackout accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new generation of advanced light water reactors (ALWRs) that includes two advanced pressurized water reactors (APWRs) and one advanced boiling water reactor is under development by US reactor manufacturers. One of the safety features of the APWRs is the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST). The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of this tank on

Carbajo

1991-01-01

59

Learning about water resources issues in Bangladesh using interactive sand tanks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poor drinking water quality, e.g. elevated levels of pathogens and arsenic, is a big issue in developing countries, such as Bangladesh. Discussion of the causes and potential solutions of these problems tend to successfully motivate students to engage in an active learning process. Commercially available interactive sand tanks have been used for many years to explore groundwater flow and transport processes by experiential learning, typically in a qualitative way (e.g. Groundwater Model Project, 2010). We have adapted the application of these tanks to help students learn about water resources issues in Bangladesh in qualitative and quantitative ways. The developed learning modules include visualization of groundwater recharge and discharge in a monsoon controlled climate, contamination of groundwater by pathogens, discussion of various theories of arsenic mobilization, the effects of irrigation pumping on arsenic distributions and the benefits and potential pitfalls of using deeper low arsenic aquifers as sources of domestic, industrial and agricultural water. Many of the techniques used in characterizing aquifers in Bangladesh such as slug and pumping tests, push/pull and forced gradient experiments can be explored by the students using the sand tanks. Learning modules have also been developed that address quantitative uses of the sand tanks, e.g. the determination of hydraulic conductivity using Darcy’s law or slug tests, porosity by comparing Darcy and transport velocity and dispersivity by measuring dye breakthrough curves. Groundwater Model Project, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, http://www.uwsp.edu/stuorg/awra/h2omodel.html, accessed 8/20/2010

Stute, M.

2010-12-01

60

Modeling needs assessment for Hanford Tank Farm Operations. Vadose Zone Characterization Project at the Hanford Tank Farms  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a modeling-needs assessment conducted for Tank Farm Operations at the Hanford Site. The goal of this project is to integrate geophysical logging and subsurface transport modeling into a broader decision-based framework that will be made available to guide Tank Farm Operations in implementing future modeling studies. In support of this goal, previous subsurface transport modeling studies were reviewed, and stakeholder surveys and interviews were completed (1) to identify regulatory, stakeholder, and Native American concerns and the impacts of these concerns on Tank Farm Operations, (2) to identify technical constraints that impact site characterization and modeling efforts, and (3) to assess how subsurface transport modeling can best be used to support regulatory, stakeholder, Native American, and Tank Farm Operations needs. This report is organized into six sections. Following an introduction, Section 2.0 discusses background issues that relate to Tank Farm Operations. Section 3.0 summarizes the technical approach used to appraise the status of modeling and supporting characterization. Section 4.0 presents a detailed description of how the technical approach was implemented. Section 5.0 identifies findings and observations that relate to implementation of numerical modeling, and Section 6.0 presents recommendations for future activities.

NONE

1996-04-01

61

HIGH LEVEL WASTE MECHANCIAL SLUDGE REMOVAL AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site F-Tank Farm Closure project has successfully performed Mechanical Sludge Removal (MSR) using the Waste on Wheels (WOW) system for the first time within one of its storage tanks. The WOW system is designed to be relatively mobile with the ability for many components to be redeployed to multiple waste tanks. It is primarily comprised of Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), Submersible Transfer Pumps (STPs), and a mobile control room with a control panel and variable speed drives. In addition, the project is currently preparing another waste tank for MSR utilizing lessons learned from this previous operational activity. These tanks, designated as Tank 6 and Tank 5 respectively, are Type I waste tanks located in F-Tank Farm (FTF) with a capacity of 2,840 cubic meters (750,000 gallons) each. The construction of these tanks was completed in 1953, and they were placed into waste storage service in 1959. The tank's primary shell is 23 meters (75 feet) in diameter, and 7.5 meters (24.5 feet) in height. Type I tanks have 34 vertically oriented cooling coils and two horizontal cooling coil circuits along the tank floor. Both Tank 5 and Tank 6 received and stored F-PUREX waste during their operating service time before sludge removal was performed. DOE intends to remove from service and operationally close (fill with grout) Tank 5 and Tank 6 and other HLW tanks that do not meet current containment standards. Mechanical Sludge Removal, the first step in the tank closure process, will be followed by chemical cleaning. After obtaining regulatory approval, the tanks will be isolated and filled with grout for long-term stabilization. Mechanical Sludge Removal operations within Tank 6 removed approximately 75% of the original 95,000 liters (25,000 gallons). This sludge material was transferred in batches to an interim storage tank to prepare for vitrification. This operation consisted of eleven (11) Submersible Mixer Pump(s) mixing campaigns and multiple intraarea transfers utilizing STPs from July 2006 to August 2007. This operation and successful removal of sludge material meets requirement of approximately 19,000 to 28,000 liters (5,000 to 7,500 gallons) remaining prior to the Chemical Cleaning process. Removal of the last 35% of sludge was exponentially more difficult, as less and less sludge was available to mobilize and the lighter sludge particles were likely removed during the early mixing campaigns. The removal of the 72,000 liters (19,000 gallons) of sludge was challenging due to a number factors. One primary factor was the complex internal cooling coil array within Tank 6 that obstructed mixer discharge jets and impacted the Effective Cleaning Radius (ECR) of the Submersible Mixer Pumps. Minimal access locations into the tank through tank openings (risers) presented a challenge because the available options for equipment locations were very limited. Mechanical Sludge Removal activities using SMPs caused the sludge to migrate to areas of the tank that were outside of the SMP ECR. Various SMP operational strategies were used to address the challenge of moving sludge from remote areas of the tank to the transfer pump. This paper describes in detail the Mechanical Sludge Removal activities and mitigative solutions to cooling coil obstructions and other challenges. The performance of the WOW system and SMP operational strategies were evaluated and the resulting lessons learned are described for application to future Mechanical Sludge Removal operations.

Jolly, R; Bruce Martin, B

2008-01-15

62

Technical Notes: Multiple-Tank Aquarium System with Recirculating Water for Laboratory Studies of Freshwater Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recirculating-water aquarium system for laboratory studies of freshwater fishes is described. The system consists of 216 glass tanks (3.5 gal each), two particle filters, a multistage biofilter, two ultraviolet-light sterilizers, and a regenerative blower for auxiliary aeration. Each tank is connected separately to the recirculating-water supply through inflow and outflow manifold pipes. Water flow to individual tanks is adjustable

Roger W. Rottmann; Donald E. Campton

1989-01-01

63

Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

Lantz, H. B., Jr.

64

33 CFR 157.33 - Water ballast in fuel oil tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Water ballast in fuel oil tanks... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION...Vessel Operation § 157.33 Water ballast in fuel oil...

2012-07-01

65

33 CFR 157.33 - Water ballast in fuel oil tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Water ballast in fuel oil tanks... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION...Vessel Operation § 157.33 Water ballast in fuel oil...

2013-07-01

66

33 CFR 157.33 - Water ballast in fuel oil tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Water ballast in fuel oil tanks... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION...Vessel Operation § 157.33 Water ballast in fuel oil...

2011-07-01

67

33 CFR 157.33 - Water ballast in fuel oil tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Water ballast in fuel oil tanks... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION...Vessel Operation § 157.33 Water ballast in fuel oil...

2014-07-01

68

33 CFR 157.33 - Water ballast in fuel oil tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Water ballast in fuel oil tanks... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION...Vessel Operation § 157.33 Water ballast in fuel oil...

2010-07-01

69

The Gunite Tanks Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Successful Integration & Deployment of Technologies Results in Remediated Underground Storage Tanks  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an overview of the underground technologies deployed during the cleanup of nine large underground storage tanks (USTs) that contained residual radioactive sludge, liquid low-level waste (LLLW), and other debris. The Gunite Tanks Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was successfully completed in 2001, ending with the stabilization of the USTs and the cleanup of the South Tank Farm. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project was the first of its kind completed in the United States of America. The Project integrated robotic and remotely operated technologies into an effective tank waste retrieval system that safely retrieved more than 348 m3 (92,000 gal) of radioactive sludge and 3.15E+15 Bq (85,000 Ci) of radioactive contamination from the tanks. The Project successfully transferred over 2,385 m3 (630,000 gal) of waste slurry to ORNL's active tank waste management system. The project team avoided over $120 Million in costs and shortened the original baseline schedule by over 10 years. Completing the Gunite Tanks Remediation Project eliminated the risks posed by the aging USTs and the waste they contained, and avoid the $400,000 annual costs associated with maintaining and monitoring the tanks.

Billingsley, K.; Bolling, D.

2002-02-27

70

Heat pump water heater and storage tank assembly  

DOEpatents

A water heater and storage tank assembly comprises a housing defining a chamber, an inlet for admitting cold water to the chamber, and an outlet for permitting flow of hot water from the chamber. A compressor is mounted on the housing and is removed from the chamber. A condenser comprises a tube adapted to receive refrigerant from the compressor, and winding around the chamber to impart heat to water in the chamber. An evaporator is mounted on the housing and removed from the chamber, the evaporator being adapted to receive refrigerant from the condenser and to discharge refrigerant to conduits in communication with the compressor. An electric resistance element extends into the chamber, and a thermostat is disposed in the chamber and is operative to sense water temperature and to actuate the resistance element upon the water temperature dropping to a selected level. The assembly includes a first connection at an external end of the inlet, a second connection at an external end of the outlet, and a third connection for connecting the resistance element, compressor and evaporator to an electrical power source.

Dieckmann, John T. (Belmont, MA); Nowicki, Brian J. (Watertown, MA); Teagan, W. Peter (Acton, MA); Zogg, Robert (Belmont, MA)

1999-09-07

71

Functions and requirements for tank farm restoration and safe operations, Project W-314. Revision 3  

SciTech Connect

This Functions and Requirements document (FRD) establishes the basic performance criteria for Project W-314, in accordance with the guidance outlined in the letter from R.W. Brown, RL, to President, WHC, ``Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Documentation Methodology,`` 94-PRJ-018, dated 3/18/94. The FRD replaces the Functional Design Criteria (FDC) as the project technical baseline documentation. Project W-314 will improve the reliability of safety related systems, minimize onsite health and safety hazards, and support waste retrieval and disposal activities by restoring and/or upgrading existing Tank Farm facilities and systems. The scope of Project W-314 encompasses the necessary restoration upgrades of the Tank Farms` instrumentation, ventilation, electrical distribution, and waste transfer systems.

Garrison, R.C.

1995-02-01

72

SEPTIC TANK SETBACK DISTANCES: A WAY TO MINIMIZE VIRUS CONTAMINATION OF DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Septic tanks are the most frequently reported causes of contamination in ground-water disease outbreaks associated with the consumption of untreated ground water in the United States. The placement of septic tanks is generally controlled by county-wide or state-wide regulations, ...

73

Testing of Alternative Abrasives for Water-Jet Cutting at C Tank Farm  

SciTech Connect

Legacy waste from defense-related activities at the Hanford Site has predominantly been stored in underground tanks, some of which have leaked; others may be at risk to do so. The U.S. Department of Energy’s goal is to empty the tanks and transform their contents into more stable waste forms. To do so requires breaking up, and creating a slurry from, solid wastes in the bottoms of the tanks. A technology developed for this purpose is the Mobile Arm Retrieval System. This system is being used at some of the older single shell tanks at C tank farm. As originally planned, access ports for the Mobile Arm Retrieval System were to be cut using a high- pressure water-jet cutter. However, water alone was found to be insufficient to allow effective cutting of the steel-reinforced tank lids, especially when cutting the steel reinforcing bar (“rebar”). The abrasive added in cutting the hole in Tank C-107 was garnet, a complex natural aluminosilicate. The hardness of garnet (Mohs hardness ranging from H 6.5 to 7.5) exceeds that of solids currently in the tanks, and was regarded to be a threat to Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant systems. Olivine, an iron-magnesium silicate that is nearly as hard as garnet (H 6.5 to 7), has been proposed as an alternative to garnet. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory proposed to test pyrite (FeS2), whose hardness is slightly less (H 6 to 6.5) for 1) cutting effectiveness, and 2) propensity to dissolve (or disintegrate by chemical reaction) in chemical conditions similar to those of tank waste solutions. Cutting experiments were conducted using an air abrader system and a National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material (SRM 1767 Low Alloy Steel), which was used as a surrogate for rebar. The cutting efficacy of pyrite was compared with that of garnet and olivine in identical size fractions. Garnet was found to be most effective in removing steel from the target; olivine and pyrite were less effective, but about equal to each other. The reactivity of pyrite, compared to olivine and garnet, was studied in high-pH, simulated tank waste solutions in a series of bench-top experiments. Variations in temperature, degree of agitation, grain size, exposure to air, and presence of nitrate and nitrite were also studied. Olivine and garnet showed no sign of dissolution or other reaction. Pyrite was shown to react with the fluids in even its coarsest variation (150?1000 ?m). Projected times to total dissolution for most experiments range from months to ca. 12 years, and the strongest control on reaction rate is the grain size.

Krogstad, Eirik J.

2013-08-01

74

Project W-211 Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) Description of Operations for 241-AZ-102  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of the Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is to provide systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes stored in underground double-shell tanks (DSTs) for transfer to alternate storage, evaporation, pretreatment or treatment, while concurrently reducing risks associated with safety watch list and other DSTs. This Description of Operation (DOO) defines the control philosophy for the waste retrieval system for Tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102). This DOO provides a basis for the detailed design of the Project W-211 Retrieval Control System (RCS) for AZ-102 and also establishes test criteria for the RCS.

BRIGGS, S.R.

2000-02-25

75

Numerical Analysis of Water Temperature Distribution in the Tank of ASHPWH it ha Cylindrical Condenser  

E-print Network

Air source heat pump water heaters (ASHPWH) are becoming increasingly popular for saving energy, protecting the environment and security purposes. The water temperature distribution in the tank is an important parameter for an ASHPWH. This paper...

Wang, D.; Shan, S.; Wang, R.

2006-01-01

76

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-T-110: Results from samples collected on August 31, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-T-110 (Tank T-110) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5056. Samples were collected by WHC on August 31, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

McVeety, B.D.; Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C. [and others

1996-05-01

77

Western water law project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students read one of two articles (the "cases") from High Country News, a bi-weekly periodical that covers environmental issues in the western North America. Both articles are about situations in which the use of ground water by irrigators has decreased the amount of surface water available for users with senior water rights. I divide the class into groups representing 1) surface water users, 2) ground water users, and 3) a regulatory board. The groups read and discuss each article and prepare a case to present to the regulatory board. After each group has prepared their case, we gather for a hearing, where groups of consultants present their cases and are questioned by the regulatory board. At the end, the regulatory board makes "decisions" on each "case". The decision isn't the focus of the exercise. The most valuable part is the subsequent discussion about the cases and the common issues in them that get the students to recognize the connection between surface and ground water and how humans have come up with confusing and sometimes scientifically conflicting sets of laws to regulate each.

Todd Rayne

78

Benchmarking in water project analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The with/without principle of cost-benefit analysis is examined for the possible bias that it brings to water resource planning. Theory and examples for this question are established. Because benchmarking against the demonstrably low without-project hurdle can detract from economic welfare and can fail to promote efficient policy, improvement opportunities are investigated. In lieu of the traditional, without-project benchmark, a second-best-based "difference-making benchmark" is proposed. The project authorizations and modified review processes instituted by the U.S. Water Resources Development Act of 2007 may provide for renewed interest in these findings.

Griffin, Ronald C.

2008-11-01

79

Classification of heart valve sounds from experiments in an anechoic water tank  

SciTech Connect

In vivo studies in both sheep and humans were plagued by a number of problems including movement artifacts, biological noise, low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), chest-wall reverberation, and limited bandwidth recordings as discussed by [1]. To overcome these problems it was decided to record heart valve sounds under controlled conditions deep in an anechoic water tank, free from reverberation noise, including surface reflections. Experiments were conducted in a deep water tank at the Transdec facility in San Diego, which satisfies these requirements. The Transdec measurements are free of reverberations, but not totally free of acoustic and electrical noise. We used a high quality hydrophone together with a wide-band data acquisition system [2]. We recorded sounds from 100 repetitions of the opening-closing cycles on each of 50 different heart valves, including 21 SLS valves and 29 intact valves. The power spectrum of the opening and closing phases of each cycle were calculated and outlier spectra removed as described by Candy [2]. In this report, we discuss the results of our classification of the heart valve sound measurements. The goal of this classification task was to apply the fundamental classification algorithms developed for the clinical data in 1994 and 1996 to the measurements from the anechoic water tank. From the beginning of this project, LLNL's responsibility has been to process and classify the heart valve opening sounds. For this experiment, however, we processed both the opening sounds and closing sounds for comparison purposes. The results of this experiment show that the classifier did not perform well. We believe this is because of low signal-to-noise ratio and excessive variability in signal power from beat-to-beat for a given valve.

Axelrod, M C; Clark, G A; Scott, D

1999-06-01

80

SURFACE WATER EMAP PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

The surface water component of the EPA Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) Western Pilot is a five-year effort to assess the ecological condition of rivers and streams across 12 states in the western United States. EMAP is designed to monitor indicators of poll...

81

Project W.A.T.E.R.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces networking projects for studying rivers and water quality. Describes two projects in South Africa (Project W.A.T.E.R and SWAP) associated with the international network, Global Rivers Environmental Education Network. Discusses water test kits and educational material developed through Project W.A.T.E.R. (Water Awareness through…

EnviroTeach, 1992

1992-01-01

82

Waste Tank Organic Safety Project: Analysis of liquid samples from Hanford waste tank 241-C-103  

SciTech Connect

A suite of physical and chemical analyses has been performed in support of activities directed toward the resolution of an Unreviewed Safety Question concerning the potential for a floating organic layer in Hanford waste tank 241-C-103 to sustain a pool fire. The analysis program was the result of a Data Quality Objectives exercise conducted jointly with staff from Westinghouse Hanford Company and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The organic layer has been analyzed for flash point, organic composition including volatile organics, inorganic anions and cations, radionuclides, and other physical and chemical parameters needed for a safety assessment leading to the resolution of the Unreviewed Safety Question. The aqueous layer underlying the floating organic material was also analyzed for inorganic, organic, and radionuclide composition, as well as other physical and chemical properties. This work was conducted to PNL Quality Assurance impact level III standards (Good Laboratory Practices).

Pool, K.H.; Bean, R.M.

1994-03-01

83

Supplement analysis for the proposed upgrades to the tank farm ventilation, instrumentation, and electrical systems under Project W-314 in support of tank farm restoration and safe operations  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the TWRS program is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive tank waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. Within this program, Project W-314, Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations, has been established to provide upgrades in the areas of instrumentation and control, tank ventilation, waste transfer, and electrical distribution for existing tank farm facilities. Requirements for tank farm infrastructure upgrades to support safe storage were being developed under Project W-314 at the same time that the TWRS EIS alternative analysis was being performed. Project W-314 provides essential tank farm infrastructure upgrades to support continued safe storage of existing tank wastes until the wastes can be retrieved and disposed of through follow-on TWRS program efforts. Section4.0 provides a description of actions associated with Project W-314. The TWRS EIS analyzes the environmental consequences form the entire TWRS program, including actions similar to those described for Project W-314 as a part of continued tank farm operations. The TWRS EIS preferred alternative was developed to a conceptual level of detail to assess bounding impact areas. For this Supplement Analysis, in each of the potential impact areas for Project W-314, the proposed action was evaluated and compared to the TWRS EIS evaluation of the preferred alternative (Section 5.0). Qualitative and/or quantitative comparisons are then provided in this Supplement Analysis to support a determination on the need for additional National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis. Based on this Supplement Analysis, the potential impacts for Project W-314 would be small in comparison to and are bounded by the impacts assessed for the TWRS EIS preferred alternative, and therefore no additional NEPA analysis is required (Section 7.0).

NONE

1997-05-01

84

Comparison of biofilm formation and water quality when water from different sources was stored in large commercial water storage tanks.  

PubMed

Rain-, ground- and municipal potable water were stored in low density polyethylene storage tanks for a period of 90 days to determine the effects of long-term storage on the deterioration in the microbial quality of the water. Total viable bacteria present in the stored water and the resultant biofilms were enumerated using heterotrophic plate counts. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Colilert-18(®) tests were performed to determine if the faecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli was present in the water and in the biofilm samples collected throughout the study. The municipal potable water at the start of the study was the only water source that conformed to the South African Water Quality Guidelines for Domestic Use. After 15 days of storage, this water source had deteriorated microbiologically to levels considered unfit for human consumption. E. coli was detected in the ground- and potable water and ground- and potable biofilms periodically, whereas it was detected in the rainwater and associated biofilms at every sampling point. Imperfections in the UV resistant inner lining of the tanks were shown to be ecological niches for microbial colonisation and biofilm development. The results from the current study confirmed that long-term storage can influence water quality and increase the number of microbial cells associated with biofilms on the interior surfaces of water storage tanks. PMID:23428547

van der Merwe, Venessa; Duvenage, Stacey; Korsten, Lise

2013-03-01

85

Comparative analysis of flow patterns in aquaculture rectangular tanks with different water inlet characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the work is to improve the design rules of rectangular aquaculture tanks in order to achieve better culture conditions and improve water use efficiency. Particle tracking velocimetry techniques (PTV) are used to evaluate the flow pattern in the tanks. PTV is a non-intrusive experimental method for investigating fluid flows using tracer particles and measuring a full velocity

Joan Oca; Ingrid Masaló; Lourdes Reig

2004-01-01

86

SEPTIC TANK SETBACK DISTANCES: A WAY TO MINIMIZE VIRUS CONTAMINATION OF DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Septic tanks are the most frequently reported causes of contamination in groundwater disease outbreaks associated with the consumption of untreated ground water in the United States. he placement of septic tanks is generally controlled by country-wide or state-wide regulations wi...

87

Elemental Water Impact Test: Phase 2 36-Inch Aluminum Tank Head  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft are being designed based on LS-DYNA simulations of water landing impacts. The Elemental Water Impact Test (EWIT) series was undertaken to assess the accuracy of LS-DYNA water impact simulations. EWIT Phase 2 featured a 36-inch aluminum tank head. The tank head was outfitted with one accelerometer, twelve pressure transducers, three string potentiometers, and four strain gages. The tank head was dropped from heights of 1 foot and 2 feet. The focus of this report is the correlation of analytical models against test data. As a measure of prediction accuracy, peak responses from the baseline LS-DYNA model were compared to peak responses from the tests.

Vassilakos, Gregory J.

2014-01-01

88

Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating  

DOEpatents

A water heater or system which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

Andrews, John W. (Sag Harbor, NY)

1983-06-28

89

Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating  

DOEpatents

A water heater or system is described which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

Andrews, J.W.

1980-06-25

90

STATUS OF MECHANICAL SLUDGE REMOVAL AND COOLING COILS CLOSURE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT - 9225  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site F-Tank Farm Closure project has successfully performed Mechanical Sludge Removal using the Waste on Wheels (WOW) system within two of its storage tanks. The Waste on Wheels (WOW) system is designed to be relatively mobile with the ability for many components to be redeployed to multiple tanks. It is primarily comprised of Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), Submersible Transfer Pumps (STPs), and a mobile control room with a control panel and variable speed drives. These tanks, designated as Tank 6 and Tank 5 respectively, are Type I waste tanks located in F-Tank Farm (FTF) with a capacity of 2839 cubic meters (750,000 gallons) each. In addition, Type I tanks have 34 vertically oriented cooling coils and two horizontal cooling coil circuits along the tank floor. DOE intends to remove from service and operationally close Tank 5 and Tank 6 and other HLW tanks that do not meet current containment standards. After obtaining regulatory approval, the tanks and cooling coils will be isolated and filled with grout for long term stabilization. Mechanical Sludge Removal of the remaining sludge waste within Tank 6 removed {approx} 75% of the original 25,000 gallons in August 2007. Utilizing lessons learned from Tank 6, Tank 5 Mechanical Sludge Removal completed removal of {approx} 90% of the original 125 cubic meters (33,000 gallons) of sludge material in May 2008. The successful removal of sludge material meets the requirement of approximately 19 to 28 cubic meters (5,000 to 7,500 gallons) remaining prior to the Chemical Cleaning process. The Chemical Cleaning Process will utilize 8 wt% oxalic acid to dissolve the remaining sludge heel. The flow sheet for Chemical Cleaning planned a 20:1 volume ratio of acid to sludge for the first strike with mixing provided by the submersible mixer pumps. The subsequent strikes will utilize a 13:1 volume ratio of acid to sludge with no mixing. The results of the Chemical Cleaning Process are detailed in the 'Status of Chemical Cleaning of Waste Tanks at the Savannah River Site--F Tank Farm Closure Project--Abstract 9114'. To support Tank 5 and Tank 6 cooling coil closure, cooling coil isolation and full scale cooling coil grout testing was completed to develop a strategy for grouting the horizontal and vertical cooling coils. This paper describes in detail the performance of the Mechanical Sludge Removal activities and SMP operational strategies within Tank 5. In addition, it will discuss the current status of Tank 5 & 6 cooling coil isolation activities and the results from the cooling coil grout fill tests.

Jolly, R

2009-01-06

91

Dose rate analysis for Tank 101 AZ (Project W151)  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the expected dose rates for modification to tank 101 AZ including modifications to the steam coil, mixer pump, and temperature probes. The thrust of the effort is to determine dose rates from: modification of a steam coil and caisson; the installation of mixer pumps; the installation of temperature probes; and estimates of dose rates that will be encountered while making these changes. Because the dose rates for all of these configurations depend upon the photon source within the supernate and sludge, comparisons were also made between measured dose rates within a drywell and the corresponding calculated dose rates. The calculational tool used is a Monte Carlo (MCNP{sub 2}) code since complicated three dimensional geometries are involved. A summary of the most important results of the entire study is given in Section 2. The basic calculational geometry model of the tank is discussed in Section 3, along with a tabulation of the photon sources that were used within the supernate and the sludge, and a discussion of uncertainties. The calculated dose rates around the steam coil and caisson before and after modification are discussed in Section 4. The configuration for the installation of the mixer pumps and the resulting dose rates are given in Section 5. The predicted changes in dose rates due to a possible dilution of the supernate source are given in Section 6. The calculational configuration used to model the installation of temperature probes and the resulting predicted dose rates are discussed in Section 7. Finally, comparisons of measured to calculated dose rates within a drywell are summarized in Section 8. Extended discussions of calculational models and Monte Carlo optimization techniques used are included in Appendix A.

Schwarz, R.A.; Hillesland, K.E.; Carter, L.L.

1994-11-01

92

Chemical research projects office fuel tank sealants review. [flight testing of fluorosilicone sealants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The status of high-temperature fuel tank sealants for military and potentially commercial supersonic aircraft is examined. The interrelationships of NASA's sealants program comprise synthesis and development of new fluoroether elastomers, sealant prediction studies, flight simulation and actual flight testing of best state-of-the-art fluorosilicone sealants. The technical accomplishments of these projects are reviewed.

Rosser, R. W.; Parker, J. A.

1974-01-01

93

SAMPLING OIL-WATER MIXTURES AT OHMSETT (OIL AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SIMULATED ENVIRONMENTAL TEST TANK)  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes procedures developed at the Oil and Hazardous Material Simulated Environmental Test Tank (OHMSETT) for sampling oil and water mixtures. Two procedures for sampling in containers are discussed: grab and stratified sampling. Both of these techniques require str...

94

OVERVIEW OF ENHANCED HANFORD SINGLE-SHELL TANK (SST) INTEGRITY PROJECT - 12128  

SciTech Connect

To improve the understanding of the single-shell tanks integrity, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, the USDOE Hanford Site tank contractor, developed an enhanced Single-Shell Tank (SST) Integrity Project in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity, consisting of various subject matters experts in industry and academia, was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. This panel developed 33 recommendations in four main areas of interest: structural integrity, liner degradation, leak integrity and prevention, and mitigation of contamination migration, Seventeen of these recommendations were used to develop the basis for the M-45-10-1 Change Package for the Hanford Federal Agreement and Compliance Order, which is also known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The change package identified two phases of work for SST integrity. The initial phase has been focused on efforts to envelope the integrity of the tanks. The initial phase was divided into two primary areas of investigation: structural integrity and leak integrity. If necessary based on the outcome from the initial work, a second phase would be focused on further definition of the integrity of the concrete and liners. Combined these two phases are designed to support the formal integrity assessment of the Hanford SSTs in 2018 by Independent Qualified Registered Engineer. The work to further define the DOE's understanding of the structural integrity SSTs involves preparing a modern Analysis of Record using a finite element analysis program. Structural analyses of the SSTs have been conducted since 1957, but these analyses used analog calculation, less rigorous models, or focused on individual structures. As such, an integrated understanding of all of the SSTs has not been developed to modern expectations. In support of this effort, other milestones will address the visual inspection of the tank concrete and the collection of concrete core samples from the tanks for analysis of current mechanics properties. The work on the liner leak integrity has examined the leaks from 23 tanks with liner failures. Individual leak assessments are being developed for each tank to identify the leak cause and location. Also a common cause study is being performed to take the data from individual tanks to look for trends in the failure. Supporting this work is an assessment of the leak rate from tanks at both Hanford and the Savannah River Site and a new method to locate leak sites in tank liner using ionic conductivity. A separate activity is being conducted to examine the propensity for corrosion in select single shell tanks with aggressive waste layers. The work for these two main efforts will provide the basis for the phase two planning. If the margins identified aren't sufficient to ensure the integrity through the life of the mission, phase two would focus on activities to further enhance the understanding of tank integrity. Also coincident with any phase-two work would be the integrity analysis for the tanks, which would be complete in 2018. With delays in the completion of waste treatment facilities at Hanford, greater reliance on safe, continued storage of waste in the single shell tanks is increased in importance. The goal of integrity assessment would provide basis to continue SST activities till the end of the treatment mission.

VENETZ TJ; BOOMER KD; WASHENFELDER DJ; JOHNSON JB

2012-01-25

95

OVERVIEW OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL AND RELATIONSHIP TO WATER TANK,LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERVIEW OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL AND RELATIONSHIP TO WATER TANK,LOOKING NORTH FROM MAIN ACCESS ROAD. THIS IS HOW THE TERMINAL AND MILL SITE FIRST APPEAR TO VISITORS WHEN APPROACHING FROM THE ROAD FROM THE SITE'S PARKING LOT. THIS IS CONSIDERED THE FRONT END OF THE TERMINAL. ORIGINALLY THERE WAS A SECOND WATER TANK NEAR THE ONE IN UPPER LEFT. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

96

Pecos River Water Management Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandia National Laboratories is providing technical assistance to farmer members of the Carlsbad Irrigation District (CID) to better plan the storage, delivery, and application of water to the Carlsbad Project. The surface waters along the Pecos River are allocated by the State of New Mexico to three major entities: 1) The State of Texas - each year a percentage of water from the natural river flow must be delivered to Texas as governed by the Interstate Streams Commission; 2) CID farmer members - a fixed portion of water must be delivered to the farming members of the CID; and 3) wildlife - an amount of water must be allocated to support the wildlife habitat in the Pecos River, most notably, the endangered Pecos Bluntnose Shiner Minnow. The Pecos Bluntnose Shiner Minnow habitat preference is under investigation by other state and national agencies and preliminary work has established that water depth, water velocity, and sediment activity (dunes, ripples, etc.) are the key parameters influencing minnow habitat preference. The amount of water (river flow rate) necessary to maintain a preferable habitat to support this species has yet to be determined. With a limited amount of water in the Pecos River and its reservoirs, it is critical to allocate water efficiently such that habitat is maintained, the farmers of the CID are supported, and New Mexico meets its commitments to the State of Texas. This study investigates the relationship between flow rate in the river and water depth, water velocity, and sediment activity. The goal is to establish a predictive tool that supports informed decisions about water management practices along the Pecos River that will maximize water available for agriculture and the State of Texas while maintaining the aquatic habitat.

Roberts, J. D.; James, S. C.

2003-12-01

97

Minutes of the Tank Waste Science Panel meeting, November 11--13, 1991. Hanford Tank Safety Project  

SciTech Connect

The sixth meeting of the Tank Waste Science Panel was held November 11--13, 1991, in Pasco and Richland, Washington. Participating scientists presented the results of recent work on various aspects of issues relating to the generation and release of gases from Tank 241-SY-101 and the presence of ferrocyanide in other tanks at Hanford. Results are discussed.

Strachan, D.M. [comp.

1992-04-01

98

Tank bromeliad water: Similar or distinct environments for research of bacterial bioactives?  

PubMed Central

The Atlantic Rainforest does not have a uniform physiognomy, its relief determines different environmental conditions that define the composition of its flora and fauna. Within this ecosystem, bromeliads that form tanks with their leaves hold water reservoirs throughout the year, maintaining complex food chains, based mainly on autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria. Some works concluded that the water held by tank bromeliads concentrate the microbial diversity of their ecosystem. To investigate the bacterial diversity and the potential biotechnology of these ecosystems, tank bromeliads of the Neoregelia cruenta species from the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil were used as models for this research. Bacteria isolated from these models were tested for production of bioactive compounds. DGGE of the water held by tank bromeliads was performed in different seasons, locations and sun exposure to verify whether these environmental factors affect bacterial communities. The DGGE bands profile showed no grouping of bacterial community by the environmental factors tested. Most of the isolates demonstrated promising activities in the tests performed. Collectively, these results suggest that tank bromeliads of the N. cruenta species provide important habitats for a diverse microbial community, suggesting that each tank forms a distinct micro-habitat. These tanks can be considered excellent sources for the search for new enzymes and/or new bioactive composites of microbial origin. PMID:24948929

Carmo, F.L.; Santos, H.F.; Peixoto, R.S.; Rosado, A.S.; Araujo, F.V.

2014-01-01

99

Building Rain Water Tanks and Building Skills: A Case Study of a Women's Organization in Uganda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water collection in rural areas of Uganda is left primarily to women and children. Katosi Women Development Trust, an NGO based in rural Uganda has focused on addressing the gender-linked issue of increased water sources near the home through the construction of rain water collection tanks. In an effort to improve the income of members as well as…

Payne, Deborah; Nakato, Margaret; Nabalango, Caroline

2008-01-01

100

The free bending vibration of cylindrical tank partially filled with liquid and submerged in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the free bending vibration of cylindrical tank partially filled with liquid and submerged in water. The depths of liquid and water may be completely arbitrary. The exact calculating formulae of mode shape functions and inherent frequencies are deduced. The results can be gained by means of computer. The analysis shows that the effect of liquid and water

Zhou Ding

1990-01-01

101

High-Level Waste Tank Cleaning and Field Characterization at the West Valley Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is nearing completion of radioactive high-level waste (HLW) retrieval from its storage tanks and subsequent vitrification of the HLW into borosilicate glass. Currently, 99.5% of the sludge radioactivity has been recovered from the storage tanks and vitrified. Waste recovery of cesium-137 (Cs-137) adsorbed on a zeolite media during waste pretreatment has resulted in 97% of this radioactivity being vitrified. Approximately 84% of the original 1.1 x 1018 becquerels (30 million curies) of radioactivity was efficiently vitrified from July 1996 to June 1998 during Phase I processing. The recovery of the last 16% of the waste has been challenging due to a number of factors, primarily the complex internal structural support system within the main 2.8 million liter (750,000 gallon) HLW tank designated 8D-2. Recovery of this last waste has become exponentially more challenging as less and less HLW is available to mobilize and transfer to the Vitrification Facility. This paper describes the progressively more complex techniques being utilized to remove the final small percentage of radioactivity from the HLW tanks, and the multiple characterization technologies deployed to determine the quantity of Cs-137, strontium-90 (Sr-90), and alpha-transuranic (alpha-TRU) radioactivity remaining in the tanks.

Drake, J. L.; McMahon, C. L.; Meess, D. C.

2002-02-26

102

TANK 241-AN-102 MULTI-PROBE CORROSION MONITORING SYSTEM PROJECT LESSONS LEARNED  

SciTech Connect

During 2007 and 2008, a new Multi-Probe Corrosion Monitoring System (MPCMS) was designed and fabricated for use in double-shell tank 241-AN-102. The system was successfully installed in the tank on May 1, 2008. The 241-AN-102 MPCMS consists of one 'fixed' in-tank probe containing primary and secondary reference electrodes, tank material electrodes, Electrical Resistance (ER) sensors, and stressed and unstressed corrosion coupons. In addition to the fixed probe, the 241-AN-102 MPCMS also contains four standalone coupon racks, or 'removable' probes. Each rack contains stressed and unstressed coupons made of American Society of Testing and Materials A537 CL1 steel, heat-treated to closely match the chemical and mechanical characteristics of the 241-AN-102 tank wall. These coupon racks can be removed periodically to facilitate examination of the attached coupons for corrosion damage. Along the way to successful system deployment and operation, the system design, fabrication, and testing activities presented a number of challenges. This document discusses these challenges and lessons learned, which when applied to future efforts, should improve overall project efficiency.

TAYLOR T; HAGENSEN A; KIRCH NW

2008-07-07

103

EMSP Project 70070: Reactivity of Primary Soil Minerals and Secondary Precipitates Beneath Leaking Hanford Waste Tanks - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Since the late 1950s, leaks from 67 single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site have released about 1 million curies to the underlying sediments. The radioactive material was contained in water-based solutions generally characterized as having high pH values (basic solutions), high nitrate and nitrite concentrations, and high aluminum concentrations. The solutions were also hot, in some cases at or near boiling, as well as complex and highly variable in composition reflecting solutions obtained from multiple methods of reprocessing spent nuclear fuel. In order to understand the observed and probable distribution of radionuclides in the ground at Hanford, major reactions that likely occurred between the leaked fluids and the sediment minerals were investigated in laboratory experiments simulating environmental conditions. Reactions involving the dissolution of quartz and biotite and the simultaneous formation of new minerals were quantified at controlled pH values and temperature. Result s show that the dissolution of quartz and formation of new zeolite-like minerals could have altered the flow path of ground water and contaminant plumes and provided an uptake mechanism for positively-charged soluble radionuclides, such as cesium. The dissolution of biotite, a layered-iron-aluminum-silicate mineral, provided iron in a reduced form that could have reacted with negatively-charged soluble chromium, a toxic component of the wastes, to cause its reduction and precipitation as a new reduced-chromium mineral. The quantity of iron released in the experiments is sufficient to explain observations of reductions in dissolved chromium concentration in a plume beneath one Hanford tank. Fundamental data obtained in the project are the rates of the reactions at variable temperatures and pHs. Fundamental data were also obtained on aspects of the surface reactivity of clay or layered-silicate minerals, a small proportion of the total mass of the sediment minerals, but a large proportion of the number of sites where reactions can occur. Results were also finalized on a component of a previous project related to the Hanford waste tanks that had the goal of measuring the incorporation of rhenium, an analogue of radioactive technetium, in iron and aluminum-oxides minerals as they aged in tank sludges at higher temperatures. Small amounts of rhenium were occluded in the iron-rich solids and the amount increased with aging time. Results from the quartz and biotite experiments are in a form that can be used in models of fluid flow in the Hanford subsurface. Results from the rhenium experiments can be used to understand aspects of closing certain of the Hanford tanks.

Kathryn L. Nagy

2004-04-22

104

Modeling water retention of sludge simulants and actual saltcake tank wastes  

SciTech Connect

The Ferrocyanide Tanks Safety Program managed by Westinghouse hanford Company has been concerned with the potential combustion hazard of dry tank wastes containing ferrocyanide chemical in combination with nitrate salts. Pervious studies have shown that tank waste containing greater than 20 percent of weight as water could not be accidentally ignited. Moreover, a sustained combustion could not be propagated in such a wet waste even if it contained enough ferrocyanide to burn. Because moisture content is a key critical factor determining the safety of ferrocyanide-containing tank wastes, physical modeling was performed by Pacific Northwest National laboratory to evaluate the moisture-retaining behavior of typical tank wastes. The physical modeling reported here has quantified the mechanisms by which two main types of tank waste, sludge and saltcake, retain moisture in a tank profile under static conditions. Static conditions usually prevail after a tank profile has been stabilized by pumping out any excess interstitial liquid, which is not naturally retained by the waste as a result of physical forces such as capillarity.

Simmons, C.S.

1996-07-01

105

Langerhans Lab Protocols Fish tank water changing protocol.docx written 11/26/12 by JW Page 1 of 1  

E-print Network

Langerhans Lab Protocols Fish tank water changing protocol.docx written 11/26/12 by JW Page 1 of 1 Fish Tank Water Changing Fry and tanks: 1. Remove air stone & lid, then take tank from shelf and place on stable surface. 2. Remove plants/ structure. Let debris settle out of water for a few minutes. 3. Count

Langerhans, Brian

106

Releases from the cooling water system in the Waste Tank Farm  

SciTech Connect

On September 12, 1991, a cooling-water header broke in the H-Area Waste Tank farm, at the Savannah River Site, releasing contaminated water down a storm sewer that drains to the creek. A copy of the Occurrence Report is attached. As part of the follow-up on this incident, the NPSR Section was asked by Waste Management Technology to perform a probabilistic analysis of the following cases: (1) A large break in the header combined with a large break in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (2) A large break in the header combined with a leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (3) A large break in the header combined with a very small leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. This report documents the results of the analysis of these cases.

Perkins, W.C.; Lux, C.R.

1991-12-31

107

Releases from the cooling water system in the Waste Tank Farm  

SciTech Connect

On September 12, 1991, a cooling-water header broke in the H-Area Waste Tank farm, at the Savannah River Site, releasing contaminated water down a storm sewer that drains to the creek. A copy of the Occurrence Report is attached. As part of the follow-up on this incident, the NPSR Section was asked by Waste Management Technology to perform a probabilistic analysis of the following cases: (1) A large break in the header combined with a large break in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (2) A large break in the header combined with a leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (3) A large break in the header combined with a very small leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. This report documents the results of the analysis of these cases.

Perkins, W.C.; Lux, C.R.

1991-01-01

108

Water quality index to determine the surface water quality of Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake, Bangalore urban district, Karnataka, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work aims at assessing the water quality index (WQI) in the surface water of Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake situated in Bangalore Urban district by monitoring three sampling locations within Sankey tank (viz., A, B and C) and Mallathahalli lake (viz., Inlet, Centre and outlet) for a period of 3 months from March to May 2012. The surface water samples were subjected to comprehensive physico-chemical analysis involving major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Fe2+), anions (HCO3 -, Cl-, SO4 2-, NO3 -, F-, PO4 3-) besides general parameters (pH, EC, TDS, alkalinity, total hardness, DO, BOD, COD, CO2, SiO2, colour, turbidity). For calculating the WQI, 14 parameters namely, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, fluorides and iron were considered. SAR values indicated that both Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake waters are excellent (S1) for irrigation, while electrical conductivity values classified these lake water, respectively under medium salinity (C2) and high (C3) salinity category. Correlation between SAR and electrical conductivity revealed that Sankey tank water is C2S1 (medium salinity-low sodium) type while Mallathahalli lake water is C3S1 (high salinity-low sodium) type. Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake water were, respectively hard and very hard in nature. Further, it is apparent from WQI values that Sankey tank water belongs to good water class with WQI values ranging from 50.34 to 63.38. The Mallathahalli lake water with WQI value ranging from 111.69 to 137.09, fall under poor water category.

Ravikumar, P.; Aneesul Mehmood, Mohammad; Somashekar, R. K.

2013-03-01

109

Phase 2 Rebaseline Report for Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations Project W-314  

SciTech Connect

Project W-314, (97-D-402) Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations is a multi-year, multiphase project established to upgrade selected 200 East and West Area Tank Farms to support the long-term mission of waste storage, retrieval, and transfer for vitrification. Key drivers for these upgrades include the planned timetable for transfer of waste to the privatized vitrification facility, regulatory compliance requirements (i.e., Washington State and Federal Regulations), and the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA). The previous baseline scope for Project W-314 was established based upon tank farm system assessments performed five to six years ago and was reflected in the previous baseline cost estimate, the Accelerated Replanning Estimate, completed in July 1997. The Accelerated Replanning Estimate splits the project into two phases: Phase 1 provides upgrades necessary to assure reliable waste retrieval and transfer to the anticipated vitrification plant. Phase 2 provides upgrades to selected primary and annulus tank farm ventilation systems that are required for compliant waste transfer, as well as other compliance-based upgrades to existing River Protection Project (WP) facilities and systems. The Accelerated Replanning Estimate provided the basis for Baseline Change Request TWR 97-066, which identified Phases 1 and 2 as $95 million and $206.5 million, respectively. Following completion of the Accelerated Replanning Estimate, several changes occurred that prompted a decision to rebaseline Phase 1, and subsequently Phase 2. Paramount among these was the delay in the Privatization schedule (90% case), lessons learned (in the year since the Accelerated Planning Report had been completed), and the adoption of an alternate waste transfer system route. The rebaselined cost of phase 1, $157 million, was substantially higher than the Accelerated Replanning Estimate for a number of reasons more thoroughly discussed in the Phase 1 Rebaseline Report, HNF-3781, January 1999. Since the July 1997 Accelerated Replanning Estimate there have also been changes to the tank farm authorization basis and Programmatic needs. For example, Tank Farm Operations has been installing new Continuous Air Monitors (CAMS) and liquid level measuring devices in order to achieve desired monitoring improvements years earlier than provided by Phase 2. In summary, the decision to rebaseline Phase 2 was prompted by: (1) the shifting of selected Phase 2 scope to Phase 1 during the Phase 1 rebaselining, (2) changes in the authorization basis, (3) programmatic needs, and (4) the dated nature of the existing scope definition. Figure 1.1 presents a summary of the key changes born the previous baseline and their collective impact on the cost of Phase 2.

LENTSCH, J.W.

2000-03-27

110

Experimental studies on a solar powered air conditioning system with partitioned hot water storage tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the performance of a solar powered absorption air conditioning system with a partitioned hot water storage tank. The system employs a flat-plate collector array with a surface area of 38 m2 to drive a LiBr–H2O absorption chiller of 4.7 kW cooling capacity. The system is provided with a storage tank (2.75 m3) which is partitioned into

Z. F Li; K Sumathy

2001-01-01

111

Design review plan for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (Project W-236A)  

SciTech Connect

This plan describes how the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) Project conducts reviews of design media; describes actions required by Project participants; and provides the methodology to ensure that the design is complete, meets the technical baseline of the Project, is operable and maintainable, and is constructable. Project W-236A is an integrated project wherein the relationship between the operating contractor and architect-engineer is somewhat different than that of a conventional project. Working together, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and ICF Karser Hanford (ICF KH) have developed a relationship whereby ICF KH performs extensive design reviews and design verification. WHC actively participates in over-the-shoulder reviews during design development, performs a final review of the completed design, and conducts a formal design review of the Safety Class I, ASME boiler and Pressure Vessel Code items in accordance with WHC-CM-6-1, Standard Engineering Practices.

Renfro, G.G.

1994-12-20

112

High-Level Waste Mechanical Sludge Removal at the Savannah River Site - F Tank Farm Closure Project  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site F-Tank Farm Closure project has successfully performed Mechanical Sludge Removal (MSR) using the Waste on Wheels (WOW) system for the first time within one of its storage tanks. The WOW system is designed to be relatively mobile with the ability for many components to be redeployed to multiple waste tanks. It is primarily comprised of Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), Submersible Transfer Pumps (STPs), and a mobile control room with a control panel and variable speed drives. In addition, the project is currently preparing another waste tank for MSR utilizing lessons learned from this previous operational activity. These tanks, designated as Tank 6 and Tank 5 respectively, are Type I waste tanks located in F-Tank Farm (FTF) with a capacity of 2,840 cubic meters (750,000 gallons) each. The construction of these tanks was completed in 1953, and they were placed into waste storage service in 1959. The tank's primary shell is 23 meters (75 feet) in diameter, and 7.5 meters (24.5 feet) in height. Type I tanks have 34 vertically oriented cooling coils and two horizontal cooling coil circuits along the tank floor. Both Tank 5 and Tank 6 received and stored F-PUREX waste during their operating service time before sludge removal was performed. DOE intends to remove from service and operationally close (fill with grout) Tank 5 and Tank 6 and other HLW tanks that do not meet current containment standards. Mechanical Sludge Removal, the first step in the tank closure process, will be followed by chemical cleaning. After obtaining regulatory approval, the tanks will be isolated and filled with grout for long-term stabilization. Mechanical Sludge Removal operations within Tank 6 removed approximately 75% of the original 95,000 liters (25,000 gallons). This sludge material was transferred in batches to an interim storage tank to prepare for vitrification. This operation consisted of eleven (11) Submersible Mixer Pump(s) mixing campaigns and multiple intra-area transfers utilizing STPs from July 2006 to August 2007. This operation and successful removal of sludge material meets requirement of approximately 19,000 to 28,000 liters (5,000 to 7,500 gallons) remaining prior to the Chemical Cleaning process. Removal of the last 35% of sludge was exponentially more difficult, as less and less sludge was available to mobilize and the lighter sludge particles were likely removed during the early mixing campaigns. The removal of the 72,000 liters (19,000 gallons) of sludge was challenging due to a number factors. One primary factor was the complex internal cooling coil array within Tank 6 that obstructed mixer discharge jets and impacted the Effective Cleaning Radius (ECR) of the Submersible Mixer Pumps. Minimal access locations into the tank through tank openings (risers) presented a challenge because the available options for equipment locations were very limited. Mechanical Sludge Removal activities using SMPs caused the sludge to migrate to areas of the tank that were outside of the SMP ECR. Various SMP operational strategies were used to address the challenge of moving sludge from remote areas of the tank to the transfer pump. This paper describes in detail the Mechanical Sludge Removal activities and mitigative solutions to cooling coil obstructions and other challenges. The performance of the WOW system and SMP operational strategies were evaluated and the resulting lessons learned are described for application to future Mechanical Sludge Removal operations. (authors)

Jolly, R.C.Jr. [Washington Savannah River Company (United States); Martin, B. [Washington Savannah River Company, A Washington Group International Company (United States)

2008-07-01

113

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT INCREASED LIQUID LEVEL ANALYSIS FOR 241-AP TANK FARMS  

SciTech Connect

The essential difference between Revision 1 and the original issue of this report is the analysis of the anchor bolts that tie the steel dome of the primary tank to the concrete tank dome. The reevaluation of the AP anchor bolts showed that (for a given temperature increase) the anchor shear load distribution did not change significantly from the initially higher stiffness to the new secant shear stiffness. Therefore, the forces and displacements of the other tank components such as the primary tanks stresses, secondary liner strains, and concrete tank forces and moments also did not change significantly. Consequently, the revised work in Revision 1 focused on the changes in the anchor bolt responses and a full reevaluation of all tank components was judged to be unnecessary.

TC MACKEY; JE DEIBLER; MW RINKER; KI JOHNSON; SP PILLI; NK KARRI; FG ABATT; KL STOOPS

2009-01-14

114

Classification of heart valve sounds from experiments in an anechoic water tank  

SciTech Connect

In vivo studies in both sheep and humans were plagued by a number of problems including movement artifacts, biological noise, low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), chest-wall reverberation, and limited bandwidth recordings as discussed by [1]. To overcome these problems it was decided to record heart valve sounds under controlled conditions deep in an anechoic water tank, free from reverberation noise. The main goal of this experiment was to obtain measurements of ''pure'' heart valve sounds free of the scattering effects of the body. Experiments were conducted at the Transdec facility in San Diego [2]. We used a high quality hydrophone together with a wide-band data acquisition system [2]. We recorded sounds from 100 repetitions of the opening-closing cycles on each of 50 different heart valves, including 21 SLS valves and 29 intact valves. The power spectrum of the opening and closing phases of each cycle were calculated and outlier spectra removed as described by Candy [2]. In this report, we discuss the results of our classification of the heart valve sound measurements. The goal of this classification task was to apply the fundamental classification algorithms developed for the clinical data in 1994 and 1996 to the measurements from the anechoic water tank. From the beginning of this project, LLNL's responsibility has been to process and classify the heart valve sounds. For this experiment, however, we processed both the opening sounds and closing sounds for comparison purposes. The results of this experiment show that the classifier did not perform well because of low signal-to-noise ratio and excessive variability in signal power from beat-to-beat for a given valve.

Axelrod, M C; Clark, G A; Scott, D

1999-06-01

115

Project WET (Water Education for Teachers)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Project WET (Water Education for Teachers) is an international, interdisciplinary, water education program for formal and informal educators of students ages 5 to 18. This project site provides opportunities to order high quality educational material, samples of Project WET activities, information on Make a Splash Festivals, education standards, information on events, Project Wet reports and water related links. There is also a link to all of the state coordinators for this project.

116

Pore-Water Extraction Scale-Up Study for the SX Tank Farm  

SciTech Connect

The phenomena related to pore-water extraction from unsaturated sediments have been previously examined with limited laboratory experiments and numerical modeling. However, key scale-up issues have not yet been addressed. Laboratory experiments and numerical modeling were conducted to specifically examine pore-water extraction for sediment conditions relevant to the vadose zone beneath the SX Tank Farm at Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Available SX Tank Farm data were evaluated to generate a conceptual model of the subsurface for a targeted pore-water extraction application in areas with elevated moisture and Tc-99 concentration. The hydraulic properties of the types of porous media representative of the SX Tank Farm target application were determined using sediment mixtures prepared in the laboratory based on available borehole sediment particle size data. Numerical modeling was used as an evaluation tool for scale-up of pore-water extraction for targeted field applications.

Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Last, George V.; Lanigan, David C.

2013-01-15

117

Combination of Tank Model and Reservoir Routing for predicting water level at Wonogiri Dam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water level predicting model is one of model to support the reservoir operation. This paper, discusses the results of research on the use of tank model combined with reservoir routing to predict the water level of Wonogiri Dam. Tank model was constructed consisting of 2 tank model structured the series, parallel, and parallel-series and 3 models composed tank series and parallel. The objective of this modeling is to obtain the values of tank model parameters are calibrated with measurement data to predict the reservoir water level. Water level measurement at Wonogiri Dam is only done in spillway location and no water level measurement in the cross-section of the rivers before entering the reservoir. Therefore, combining equations of tanks model and reservoir routing is needed so that the hydrograph outflow generated by the tank model become an input of the routing reservoir and will produce an output of the reservoir water level. The data used in this modeling is the daily rainfall data, climatology, elevation-storage curve, daily average water level in reservoir and daily average discharge outflow from reservoir. Genetic Algorithm is used to optimize the parameters of the model to generate predictions of water level close to the measurement during the calibration process. The results of the model are evaluated by calculating the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Coefficient of Efficiency (COE) between the predictions and observations. Calibration results obtained that the best model is the model of the architecture comprises a series of 3 tanks and the parameters k1 = 8,340, k2 = 1.006, k3 = 0.158, k4 = 2.275, k5 = 3.887, k6 = 0.063, d1 = 176.387, d2 = 81.445, d3 = 21.973, s1 = 46.631, s2 = 7.095 , s3 = 5.708, which generate RMSE = 1.260 m and COE = 0.669. While the verification, is obtained the RMSE = 0.878 m and COE = 0.599. The parameter of k4 is the most sensitive parameter that will affect to the performance of the model. Keywords: tank model, reservoir routing, water level predicting, Wonogiri Dam

Lasminto, Umboro; Yudhistira, Yuddi

2010-05-01

118

Cesium uptake capacity of simulated ferrocyanide tank waste. Interim report FY 1994, Ferrocyanide Safety Project  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to determine the capacity for {sup 137}CS uptake by mixed metal ferrocyanides present in Hanford waste tanks, and to assess the potential for aggregation of these {sup 137}CS exchanged materials to form tank ``hot-spots.`` This research, performed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), stems from concerns of possible localized radiolytic heating within the tanks. If radioactive cesium is exchanged and concentrated by the remaining nickel ferrocyanide present in the tanks, this heating could cause temperatures to rise above the safety limits specified for the ferrocyanide tanks. For the purposes of this study, two simulants, In-Farm-2 and U-Plant-2, were chosen to represent the wastes generated by the scavenging processes. These simulants were formulated using protocols from the original cesium scavenging campaign. Later additions of cesium-rich wastes from various processes also were considered. The simulants were prepared and centrifuged to obtain a moist ferrocyanide sludge. The centrifuged sludges were treated with the original supernate spiked with a known amount of cesium nitrate. After analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry, distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) were calculated. The capacity of solid waste simulants to exchange radioactive cesium from solution was examined. Initial results showed that the greater the molar ratio of cesium to cesium nickel ferrocyanide, the less effective the exchange of cesium from solution. The theoretical capacity of 2 mol cesium per mol of nickel ferrocyanide was not observed. The maximum capacity under experimental conditions was 0.35 mol cesium per mol nickel ferrocyanide. Future work on this project will examine the layering tendency of the cesium nickel ferrocyanide species.

Burgeson, I.E.; Bryan, S.A.; Burger, L.E.

1994-09-01

119

Diversion tanks will prevent field shutdown: design-build project is 80% alaskan  

SciTech Connect

The nation's second largest oil field is nearing peak production of 250,000 bbl per day. The Kuparuk River field on Alaska's North Slope put a second central processing facility (CPF-2) on line this year and a third will arrive on the 1986 sea lift. By 1990, the field will hold 400 producing wells and 400 water injection wells. Considering this investment, field operator Arco Alaska Inc., wanted to find a way to avoid costly field shutdowns that could be caused by oil-gas-water separation system problems or a temporary shutdown of the trans-Alaska pipeline or Alyeska terminal. The answer was a system of diversion tanks through which 220,000 bbl of crude could be kept circulating until problems could be corrected. The design and construction of these tanks are described.

Harris, M.

1985-12-01

120

Thermal stratification of chilled-water slot flows into storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

A numerical model was used to simulate the two dimensional flow of chilled water into a storage tank initially filled with warm water. The inlet flow is from a small slot in one vertical wall at the bottom of the tank. The numerical model employs a transient stream function-vorticity formulation to predict the streamline and temperature distributions in the tank as a function of time. Turbulence was modeled using the turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent length scale equations. The model results for a side-slot inlet to the tank reveal that the Archimedes number should be greater than 5 and the Reynolds number should be smaller than 1,000 to ensure thermal stratification of the hot and cold water. When stratification is achieved, the temperature distribution varies only in the vertical direction of the tank, where the water temperature is approximately uniform in the horizontal direction. The numerical results are in reasonably good agreement with some experimental data available in the literature.

Stewart, W.E. Jr.; Cai, L. [Univ. of Missouri, Kansas City, MO (United States); Sohn, C.W. [Army Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States). Construction Engineering Research Lab.

1994-12-31

121

Minutes of the Tank Waste Science Panel meeting July 9--1, 1991. Hanford Tank Safety Project  

SciTech Connect

The fifth meeting of the Tank Waste Science Panel was held July 9--11, 1991, in Atlanta, Georgia. The subject areas included the generation, retention, and release of gases from Tank 241-SY-101 and the chemistry of ferrocyanide wastes.

Strachan, D.M. [comp.

1992-04-01

122

Waste Characterization Plan for the Hanford Site single-shell tanks. Appendix D, Quality Assurance Project Plan for characterization of single-shell tanks: Revision 3  

SciTech Connect

This section of the single-shell tank (SST) Waste Characterization Plan describes the quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA) procedures and information used to support data that is collected in the characterization of SST wastes. The section addresses many of the same topics discussed in laboratory QA project plans (QAPjP) (WHC 1989, PNL 1989) and is responsive to the requirements of QA program plans (QAPP) (WHC 1990) associated with the characterization of the waste in the SSTs. The level of QC for the project depends on how the data is used. Data quality objectives (DQOs) are being developed to support decisions made using this data. It must be recognized that the decisions and information related to this part of the SST program deal with the materials contained within the tank only and not what may be in the environment/area surrounding the tanks. The information derived from this activity will be used to determine what risks may be incurred by the environment but are not used to define what actual constituents are contained within the soil surrounding the tanks. The phases defined within the DQOs on this Waste Characterization Plan follow the general guidance of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) yet are pertinent to analysis of the contents of the tanks and not the environment.

Hill, J.G.; Winters, W.I.; Simpson, B.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Buck, J.W.; Chamberlain, P.J.; Hunter, V.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1991-09-01

123

Assessment of microbiological quality of drinking water from household tanks in Bermuda.  

PubMed

Bermuda residents collect rainwater from rooftops to fulfil their freshwater needs. The objective of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of drinking water in household tanks throughout Bermuda. The tanks surveyed were selected randomly from the electoral register. Governmental officers visited the selected household (n = 102) to collect water samples and administer a short questionnaire about the tank characteristics, the residents' habits in terms of water use, and general information on the water collecting system and its maintenance. At the same time, water samples were collected for analysis and total coliforms and Escherichia coli were determined by 2 methods (membrane filtration and culture on chromogenic media, Colilert kit). Results from the 2 methods were highly correlated and showed that approximately 90% of the samples analysed were contaminated with total coliforms in concentrations exceeding 10 CFU/100 mL, and approximately 66% of samples showed contamination with E. coli. Tank cleaning in the year prior to sampling seems to protect against water contamination. If rainwater collection from roofs is the most efficient mean for providing freshwater to Bermudians, it must not be considered a source of high quality drinking water because of the high levels of microbial contamination. PMID:18535637

Lévesque, B; Pereg, D; Watkinson, E; Maguire, J S; Bissonnette, L; Gingras, S; Rouja, P; Bergeron, M G; Dewailly, E

2008-06-01

124

Cherenkov radiation dosimetry in water tanks – video rate imaging, tomography and IMRT & VMAT plan verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a survey of three types of imaging of radiation beams in water tanks for comparison to dose maps. The first was simple depth and lateral profile verification, showing excellent agreement between Cherenkov and planned dose, as predicted by the treatment planning system for a square 5cm beam. The second approach was 3D tomography of such beams, using a rotating water tank with camera attached, and using filtered backprojection for the recovery of the 3D volume. The final presentation was real time 2D imaging of IMRT or VMAT treatments in a water tank. In all cases the match to the treatment planning system was within what would be considered acceptable for clinical medical physics acceptance.

Pogue, Brian W.; Glaser, Adam K.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Gladstone, David J.

2015-01-01

125

The global water systems project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Water System (GWS) plays a central and integrative role in the dynamics of the Earth system. It is a regulator of biogeophysical and biogeochemical processes, and it is also is essential for sustenance of human societies. The GWS is increasingly modified by humans and through climate effects (facets of it have moved well outside the range of natural variability), without adequate understanding of how the system works. For understanding the changes, feedbacks and potentially critical thresholds within the Earth system, and eventually for better managing the GWS, new synthetic knowledge is required. The Global Water System Project (GWSP) is a new activity being undertaken jointly by the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), International Geophshere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), International Human Dimensions Program (IHP), and Diversitas. It will address the GWS in a comprehensive fashion at the global scale, building upon the emerging new consolidated Earth systems data sets, global monitoring tools, and predictive and coupled modeling capabilities. The central scientific question that motivates the GWSP is: "How are humans changing the global water cycle, the associated biogeochemical cycles, and the biological components of the GWS, and what are the social feedbacks arising from these changes?" GWSP will be structured around three "framing questions": a) What are the relative magnitudes of global-scale changes in the global water system that are attributable to changing human activities, and to environmental factors such as climate variability and change?; b) What are the main mechanisms by which human activities are affecting the global water system; and c) To what extent is the global water system resilient to global change? Examples of issues that might be addressed under each of these questions are provided.

Hoff, H.; Jaeger, C.; Leveque, C.; Lettenmaier, D.; Lins, H.; Meybeck, M.; Niasse, M.; Vorosmarty, C.

2003-04-01

126

Position paper: Live load design criteria for Project W-236A Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the live loads applied to the underground storage tanks of the Multi Function Waste Tank Facility, and to provide the basis for Project W-236A live load criteria. Project 236A provides encompasses building a Weather Enclosure over the two underground storage tanks at the 200-West area. According to the Material Handling Study, the Groves AT 1100 crane used within the Weather Enclosure will have a gross vehicle weight of 66.5 tons. Therefore, a 100-ton concentrated live load is being used for the planning of the construction of the Weather Enclosure.

Giller, R.A.

1995-06-09

127

One System Integrated Project Team Progress in Coordinating Hanford Tank Farms and the Waste Treatment Plant  

SciTech Connect

The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed at the Hanford Site in late 2011 as a way to improve coordination and itegration between the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) on interfaces between the two projects, and to eliminate duplication and exploit opportunities for synergy. The IPT is composed of jointly staffed groups that work on technical issues of mutal interest, front-end design and project definition, nuclear safety, plant engineering system integration, commissioning, planning and scheduling, and environmental, safety, health and quality (ESH&Q) areas. In the past year important progress has been made in a number of areas as the organization has matured and additional opportunities have been identified. Areas covered in this paper include: Support for development of the Office of Envirnmental Management (EM) framework document to progress the Office of River Protection's (ORP) River Protection Project (RPP) mission; Stewardship of the RPP flowsheet; Collaboration with Savannah River Site (SRS), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Operations programs integration; and, Further development of the waste acceptance criteria.

Skwarek, Raymond J. [Washington River Protection Systems, Richland, WA (United States); Harp, Ben J. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Duncan, Garth M. [Bechtel National, Inc. (United States)

2013-12-18

128

Effects of plumbing attachments on heat losses from solar domestic hot water storage tanks. Final report, Part 2  

SciTech Connect

The Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC) has established a standardized methodology for determining the performance rating of the Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) systems it certifies under OG-300. Measured performance data for the solar collector component(s) of the system are used along with numerical models for the balance of the system to calculate the system`s thermal performance under a standard set of rating conditions. SRCC uses TRNSYS to model each of the components that comprise the system. The majority of the SRCC certified systems include a thermal storage tank with an auxiliary electrical heater. The most common being a conventional fifty gallon electric tank water heater. Presently, the thermal losses from these tanks are calculated using Q = U {center_dot} A {center_dot} {Delta}T. Unfortunately, this generalized formula does not adequately address temperature stratification both within the tank as well as in the ambient air surrounding the tank, non-uniform insulation jacket, thermal siphoning in the fluid lines attached to the tank, and plumbing fittings attached to the tank. This study is intended to address only that part of the problem that deals with the plumbing fittings attached to the tank. Heat losses from a storage tank and its plumbing fittings involve three different operating modes: charging, discharging and standby. In the charging mode, the tank receives energy from the solar collector. In the discharge mode, water flows from the storage tank through the distribution pipes to the faucets and cold city water enters the tank. In the standby mode, there is no forced water flow into or out of the tank. In this experimental study, only the standby mode was considered.

Song, J.; Wood, B.D. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Ji, L.J. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

1998-03-01

129

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Vapor space characterization of waste Tank A-101, Results from samples collected on June 8, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-A-101 (Tank A-101) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the results is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the text.

Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Ligotke, M.W.

1995-11-01

130

Combined Opportunities in Energy & Water Conservation Projects  

E-print Network

Combined Opportunities in Energy & Water Conservation Projects A.Keller, S. Hughes, S. Bennett, M, the Metropolitan Water District, the California Urban Water Conservation Council, Santa Clara Valley Water District) as a result of energy and water conservation; ~ Determined total cost of implementing the conservation

Keller, Arturo A.

131

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT DYTRAN BENCHMARK ANALYSIS OF SEISMICALLY INDUCED FLUID STRUCTURE INTERACTION IN FLAT TOP TANKS  

SciTech Connect

The work reported in this document was performed in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Project - DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford. The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The work herein was motivated by review comments from a Project Review Meeting held on March 20-21, 2006. One of the recommendations from that meeting was that the effects of the interaction between the tank liquid and the roof be further studied (Rinker, Deibler, Johnson, Karri, Pilli, Abatt, Carpenter, and Hendrix - Appendix E of RPP-RPT-28968, Rev. 1). The reviewers recommended that solutions be obtained for seismic excitation of flat roof tanks containing liquid with varying headspace between the top of the liquid and the tank roof. It was recommended that the solutions be compared with simple, approximate procedures described in BNL (1995) and Malhotra (2005). This report documents the results of the requested studies and compares the predictions of Dytran simulations to the approximate procedures in BNL (1995) and Malhotra (2005) for flat roof tanks. The four cases analyzed all employed a rigid circular cylindrical flat top tank with a radius of 450 in. and a height of 500 in. The initial liquid levels in the tank were 460,480,490, and 500 in. For the given tank geometry and the selected seismic input, the maximum unconstrained slosh height of the liquid is slightly greater than 25 in. Thus, the initial liquid level of 460 in. represents an effectively roofless tank, the two intermediate liquid levels lead to intermittent interaction between the liquid and tank roof, and the 500 in. liquid level represents a completely full tank with no sloshing. Although this work was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the Hanford DSTs, the tank models in this study are for an idealized flat top configuration. Moreover, the liquid levels used in the present models are for study purposes only and are independent of the actual operating levels of the DSTs. The response parameters that are evaluated in this study are the total hydrodynamic reaction forces, the peak convective hydrodynamic forces, the fundamental convective frequencies, the liquid pressures, and peak slosh heights. The results show that the Dytran solutions agree well with the known solutions for the roofless tank and completely full tank. At the two intermediate liquid levels, there are some significant differences between the Dytran results and the approximate estimates. The results show that the estimates of peak hydrodynamic reaction forces appearing in BNL (1995) and Malhotra (2005) are reasonable and generally conservative relative to the Dytran solutions. At the 460 and 480 in. liquid levels, Dytran underestimates the convective component of the reaction force compared to the estimated in BNL (1995) and Malhotra (2005), but the convective component of the reaction force is small relative to the total reaction force. At the 490 in. liquid levels, the peak convective reaction force is more than twice as large as predicted by the approximate methods in BNL (1995) and Malhotra (2005). All three methods give similar answers for the fundamental convective frequency at the 460 and 480 in. liquid levels, but the Dytran solution indicates a significant increase in the apparent convective frequency at the 490 in. liquid level that is caused by the interaction with the roof. The peak wall pressures in the tank at the two intermediate liquid levels are essentially the same as for a roofless tank in the lower two-thirds of the tank wall, but diverge from that solution in the upper third of the tank wall. The estimates of peak wall pressures appearing in BNL (1995) are quite conservative lower in the tank, but may underestimate the peak wall pressures closer to the tank roof. Finally, the peak roof pre

MACKEY, T.C.

2007-02-16

132

Tank Vapor Characterization Project -- Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste Tank 241-C-107: Results from samples collected on 01/17/96  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 (Tank C-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system with and without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H{sub 2}O) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}), permanent gases, total non-methane hydrocarbons (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC.

Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

1996-07-01

133

Tank vapor characterization project - headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-C-107: Second comparison study results from samples collected on 3/26/96  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 (Tank C-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report is the second in a series comparing vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H{sub 2}O) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}), permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC.

Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L. [and others

1997-01-01

134

Processes to improve energy efficiency during pumping and aeration of recirculating water in circular tank systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conventional gas transfer technologies for aquaculture systems occupy a large amount of space, require considerable capital investment, and can contribute to high electricity demand. In addition, diffused aeration in a circular tank can interfere with the hydrodynamics of water rotation and the spee...

135

A review of low-flow, stratified-tank solar water heating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have discovered that by using low collector flow rates (roughly one-seventh of those that have been generally used) and by taking measures to ensure the water in the storage tank remains stratified, the energy delivered by a forced-flow solar system can be increased substantially. In addition, the lower collector flow rates permit substantial savings in system cost, mainly through

K. G. T. Hollands; M. F. Lightstone

1989-01-01

136

Minutes of the Tank Waste Science Panel Meeting March 25--27, 1992. Hanford Tank Safety Project  

SciTech Connect

Discussions from the seventh meeting of the Tank Waste Science are presented in Colorado. The subject areas included the generation of gases in Tank 241-SY-101, the possible use of sonication as a mitigation method, and analysis for organic constituents in core samples. Results presented and discussed include: Ferrocyanides appear to be rapidly dissolved in 1M NaOH; upon standing in the laboratory at ambient conditions oxalate precipitates from simulated wastes containing HEDTA. This suggests that one of the main components in the solids in Tank 241-SY-101 is oxalate; hydrogen evolved from waste samples from Tank 241-SY-101 is five times that observed in the off gas from the tank; data suggest that mitigation of Tank 241-SY-101 will not cause a high release of dissolved N{sub 2}O; when using a slurry for radiation studies, a portion of the generated gases is very difficult to remove. To totally recover the generated gases, the solids must first be dissolved. This result may have an impact on mitigation by mixing if the gases are not released. Using {sup 13}C-labeled organics in thermal degradation studies has allowed researchers to illucidate much of the kinetic mechanism for the degradation of HEDTA and glycolate. In addition to some of the intermediate, more complex organic species, oxalate, formate, and CO{sub 2} were identified; and analytic methods for organics in radioactive complex solutions such as that found in Tank 241-SY-101 have been developed and others continue to be developed.

Schutz, W W [comp.; Consultant, Wellington, Delaware (United States); Strachan, D M [comp.; Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1992-08-01

137

Stabilization of In-Tank Residual Wastes and External-Tank Soil Contamination for the Hanford Tank Closure Program: Applications to the AX Tank Farm  

SciTech Connect

Technical support for the Hanford Tank Closure Program focused on evaluation of concepts for immobilization of residual contaminants in the Hanford AX tanks and underlying soils, and identification of cost-effective approaches to improve long-term performance of AX tank farm cIosure systems. Project objectives are to develop materials or engineered systems that would significantly reduce the radionuclide transport to the groundwater from AX tanks containing residual waste. We pursued several studies that, if implemented, would help achieve these goals. They include: (1) tank fill design to reduce water inilltration and potential interaction with residual waste; (2) development of in-tank getter materials that would specifically sorb or sequester radionuclides; (3) evaluation of grout emplacement under and around the tanks to prevent waste leakage during waste retrieval or to minimize water infiltration beneath the tanks; (4) development of getters that will chemically fix specific radionuclides in soils under tanks; and (5) geochemical and hydrologic modeling of waste-water-soil-grout interactions. These studies differ in scope from the reducing grout tank fill employed at the Savannah River Site in that our strategy improves upon tank fill design by providing redundancy in the barriers to radionuclide migration and by modification the hydrogeochemistry external to the tanks.

Anderson, H.L.; Dwyer, B.P.; Ho, C.; Krumhansl, J.L.; McKeen, G.; Molecke, M.A.; Westrich, H.R.; Zhang, P.

1998-11-01

138

Tank waste remediation system privatization phase 1 infrastructure project W-519, project execution plan  

SciTech Connect

This Project Execution Plan (PEP) defines the overall strategy, objectives, and contractor management requirements for the execution phase of Project W-519 (98-D403), Privatization Phase 1 Infrastructure Support, whose mission is to effect the required Hanford site infrastructure physical changes to accommodate the Privatization Contractor facilities. This plan provides the project scope, project objectives and method of performing the work scope and achieving objectives. The plan establishes the work definitions, the cost goals, schedule constraints and roles and responsibilities for project execution. The plan also defines how the project will be controlled and documented.

Parazin, R.J.

1998-08-28

139

ALARACT Demonstration for Primary Ventilation Systems at the DST Tank Farms for the Interim Stabilization Project (Saltwell Pumping) [SEC 1 Thru 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

A demonstration of As Low As Reasonably Achievable Control Technology (ALARACT) was performed for the existing Double Shell Tank (DST) farm primary ventilation systems in support of the Single Shell Tanks (SSTs) Interim Stabilization Project. The primary ventilation systems evaluated in this ALARACT are located at the 241-AW, AN, AP, and SY tank farms. Of these farms, only the AP

2002-01-01

140

Upgrade of 400,000 gallon water storage tank at Argonne National Laboratory-West to UCRL-15910 high hazard seismic requirements  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Project at Argonne National Laboratory West (ANL-W), it was necessary to strengthen an existing 400,000 gallon flat-bottom water storage tank to meet UCRL-15910 (currently formulated as DOE Standard DOE-STD-1020-92, Draft) high hazard natural phenomena requirements. The tank was constructed in 1988 and preliminary calculations indicated that the existing base anchorage was insufficient to prevent buckling and potential failure during a high hazard seismic event. General design criteria, including ground motion input, load combinations, etc., were based upon the requirements of UCRL-15910 for high hazard facilities. The analysis and capacity assessment criteria were based on the Generic Implementation Procedure developed by the Seismic Qualification Utilities Group (SQUG). Upgrade modifications, consisting of increasing the size of the Generic Implementation Procedure developed by the Seismic Qualification Utilities Group (SQUG). Upgrade modifications, consisting of increasing the size of the foundation and installing additional anchor bolts and chairs, were necessary to increase the capacity of the tank anchorage/support system. The construction of the upgrades took place in 1992 while the tank remained in service to allow continued operation of the EBR-II reactor. The major phases of construction included the installation and testing of 144 1/14in. {times} 15in., and 366 1in. {times} 16in. epoxied concrete anchors, placement of 220 cubic yards of concrete heavily reinforced, and installation of 24 1-1/2in. {times} 60in. tank anchor bolts and chairs. A follow-up inspection of the tank interior by a diver was conducted to determine if the interior tank coating had been damaged by the chair welding. The project was completed on schedule and within budget.

Griffin, M.J. [EQE International, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Harris, B.G. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1993-10-01

141

Lightweight concrete materials and structural systems for water tanks for thermal storage. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Thermally efficient hot water storage tanks were designed, fabricated and evaluated. The tanks were made using cellular concrete at a nominal density of 100 lb/ft/sup 3/ for the structural elements and at a 30 lb/ft/sup 3/ density for the insulating elements. Thermal performance testing of the tanks was done using a static decay test since the test procedure specified in ASHRAE 94-77 was not experimentally practical. A series of composition modifications to the cellular concrete mix were investigated and the addition of alkaline resistant glass fibers was found to enhance the mechanical properties at no sacrifice in thermal behavior. Economic analysis indicated that cellular concrete provides a cost-effective insulating material. The total portability of the plant for producing cellular concrete makes cellular concrete amenable to on-site fabrication and uniquely adaptable to retrofit applications.

Buckman, R.W. Jr.; Elia, G.G.; Ichikawa, Y.

1980-12-01

142

River Protection Project (RPP) Tank Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission Technical Baseline Summary Description  

SciTech Connect

This document is one of the several documents prepared by Lockheed Martin Hanford Corp. to support the U. S. Department of Energy's Tank Waste Retrieval and Disposal mission at Hanford. The Tank Waste Retrieval and Disposal mission includes the programs necessary to support tank waste retrieval; waste feed, delivery, storage, and disposal of immobilized waste; and closure of the tank farms.

DOVALLE, O.R.

1999-12-29

143

Non-Linear Vibrations of a Structure Caused by Water Sloshing in a Rectangular Tank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The non-linear vibrations of a structure coupled with water sloshing in a rectangular tank are theoretically and experimentally studied. The water tank is attached to a structure to suppress the horizontal vibrations of the structure caused by a sinusoidal excitation. In the theoretical analysis, considering the only source of non-linearity of the liquid inertia to be due to a large sloshing amplitude, the modal equations for sloshing are presented. Secondly, the solutions for the harmonic oscillations of the structure and the water surface are determined, including their stability analyses. Then, the resonance curves for this system are shown. As a result, the resonance curves are found to change from the soft spring type to the hard spring type as the water depth decreases. The resonance curves also show that a super-summed-and-differential harmonic oscillation can occur at the tuning frequency when the magnitude of excitation is comparatively large. This is a kind of non-linear forced oscillation due to the non-linearity of the fluid force. The appearance of this oscillation reduces the efficacy of vibration suppression by using the water tank. In conclusion, it was ascertained that these results agreed qualitatively well with the experimental results.

Ikeda, T.; Nakagawa, N.

1997-03-01

144

Tank waste remediation system year 2000 dedicated file server project HNF-3418 project plan  

SciTech Connect

The Server Project is to ensure that all TWRS supporting hardware (fileservers and workstations) will not cause a system failure because of the BIOS or Operating Systems cannot process Year 2000 dates.

SPENCER, S.G.

1999-04-26

145

FINAL REPORT. RAPID MIGRATION OF RADIONUCLIDES LEAKED FROM HIGH-LEVEL WATER TANKS: A STUDY OF SALINITY GRADIENTS, WETTED PATH GEOMETRY AND WATER VAPOR TRANSPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The basis of this study was the hypothesis that the physical and chemical properties of hypersaline tank waste could lead to wetting front instability and fingered flow following a tank leak. Thus, the goal of this project was to develop an understanding of the impacts of the pro...

146

The ancient Kamirian water storage tank: A proof of concrete technology and durability for three millenniums  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the research work conducted on a concrete specimen cut from a manmade underground hydraulic structure\\u000a with respect to a well-preserved water storage tank which was discovered from the archaeological excavations in the area of\\u000a the ancient city of Kamiros. During Antiquity, this city was the largest of the three most important cities of the Greek island\\u000a of

M. Koui; Ch. Ftikos

1998-01-01

147

Nonlinear sloshing and passage through resonance in a shallow water tank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is concerned with the effect of slowly changing the length of a tank on the nonlinear standing waves (free vibrations) and resonant forced oscillations of shallow water in the tank. The analysis begins with the Boussinesq equations. These are reduced to a nonlinear differential-difference equation for the slow variation of a Riemann invariant on one end. Then a multiple scale expansion yields a KdV equation with slowly changing coefficients for the standing wave problem, which is reduced to a KdV equation with a variable dispersion coefficient. The effect of changing the tank length on the number of solitons in the tank is investigated through numerical solutions of the variable coefficient KdV equation. A KdV equation which is “periodically” forced and slowly detuned results for the passage through resonance problem. Then the amplitude-frequency curves for the fundamental resonance and the first overtone are given numerically, as well as solutions corresponding to multiple equilibria. The evolution between multiple equilibria is also examined.

Cox, E. A.; Gleeson, J. P.; Mortell, M. P.

2005-07-01

148

Attenuation of standing waves in a large water tank using arrays of large tethered encapsulated bubbles.  

PubMed

The use of bubble resonance effects to attenuate low-frequency underwater sound was investigated experimentally in a large water tank. A compact electromechanical sound source was used to excite standing wave fields at frequencies ranging between 50 and 200 Hz in the tank. The source was then surrounded by a stationary array of tethered encapsulated air bubbles, and reduction in standing wave amplitude by as much as 26?dB was observed. The bubbles consisted of either thin-shelled latex balloons with approximately 5?cm radii or thicker-shelled vinyl boat fenders with 6.9?cm radii. The effects of changing the material and thickness of the bubble shells were found to be in qualitative agreement with predictions from Church's model for sound propagation in a liquid containing encapsulated bubbles [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 97, 1510-1521 (1995)]. Although demonstrated here for low frequency noise abatement within a tank, which is useful for quieting acoustic test facilities and large tanks used for marine life husbandry, the eventual aim of this work is to use stationary arrays of large tethered encapsulated bubbles to abate low frequency underwater noise from anthropogenic sources in the marine environment. PMID:25234970

Lee, Kevin M; Wilson, Preston S; Wochner, Mark S

2014-04-01

149

Efficiency Projects and Water Reuse  

E-print Network

Generation Cooling Towers ?Irrigation of 90-Acre Sports Complex ?Gas Well Frac Water ?8-Mile Dedicated Pipeline Looping Around East Side of City ?Global 210 Authorization / In-Direct Take Point ?Insures Flexibility ?Future Plans ?10-Mile West Loop... Line / Elevated Storage ?Wetlands / Outfall to Lake Pat Cleburne ?Automated Take Point (South) for Frac Water Sales ?Water Reuse Stretch your Supplies ESL-KT-11-11-36 ?Questions? bill.pannell@cleburne.net ESL-KT-11-11-36 ...

Pannell, B.

2011-01-01

150

Elemental Water Impact Test: Phase 3 Plunge Depth of a 36-Inch Aluminum Tank Head  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft are being designed based on LS-DYNA water landing simulations. The Elemental Water Impact Test (EWIT) series was undertaken to assess the accuracy of LS-DYNA water impact simulations. Phase 3 featured a composite tank head that was tested at a range of heights to verify the ability to predict structural failure of composites. To support planning for Phase 3, a test series was conducted with an aluminum tank head dropped from heights of 2, 6, 10, and 12 feet to verify that the test article would not impact the bottom of the test pool. This report focuses on the comparisons of the measured plunge depths to LS-DYNA predictions. The results for the tank head model demonstrated the following. 1. LS-DYNA provides accurate predictions for peak accelerations. 2. LS-DYNA consistently under-predicts plunge depth. An allowance of at least 20% should be added to the LS-DYNA predictions. 3. The LS-DYNA predictions for plunge depth are relatively insensitive to the fluid-structure coupling stiffness.

Vassilakos, Gregory J.

2014-01-01

151

Fecal indicators and zoonotic pathogens in household drinking water taps fed from rainwater tanks in Southeast Queensland, Australia.  

PubMed

In this study, the microbiological quality of household tap water samples fed from rainwater tanks was assessed by monitoring the numbers of Escherichia coli bacteria and enterococci from 24 households in Southeast Queensland (SEQ), Australia. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was also used for the quantitative detection of zoonotic pathogens in water samples from rainwater tanks and connected household taps. The numbers of zoonotic pathogens were also estimated in fecal samples from possums and various species of birds by using qPCR, as possums and birds are considered to be the potential sources of fecal contamination in roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW). Among the 24 households, 63% of rainwater tank and 58% of connected household tap water (CHTW) samples contained E. coli and exceeded Australian drinking water guidelines of <1 CFU E. coli per 100 ml water. Similarly, 92% of rainwater tanks and 83% of CHTW samples also contained enterococci. In all, 21%, 4%, and 13% of rainwater tank samples contained Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Giardia lamblia, respectively. Similarly, 21% of rainwater tank and 13% of CHTW samples contained Campylobacter spp. and G. lamblia, respectively. The number of E. coli (P = 0.78), Enterococcus (P = 0.64), Campylobacter (P = 0.44), and G. lamblia (P = 0.50) cells in rainwater tanks did not differ significantly from the numbers observed in the CHTW samples. Among the 40 possum fecal samples tested, Campylobacter spp., Cryptosporidium parvum, and G. lamblia were detected in 60%, 13%, and 30% of samples, respectively. Among the 38 bird fecal samples tested, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., C. parvum, and G. lamblia were detected in 24%, 11%, 5%, and 13% of the samples, respectively. Household tap water samples fed from rainwater tanks tested in the study appeared to be highly variable. Regular cleaning of roofs and gutters, along with pruning of overhanging tree branches, might also prove effective in reducing animal fecal contamination of rainwater tanks. PMID:22020514

Ahmed, W; Hodgers, L; Sidhu, J P S; Toze, S

2012-01-01

152

Structural evaluation of mixer pump installed in Tank 241-AN-107 for caustic addition project  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the structural analysis and evaluation of a mixer pump and caustic addition system to be used in Tank 107-AN. This pump will be installed in the central pump pit of this double- shell tank for the purpose of bringing the hydroxide ion concentration into compliance with Tank Farm operating specifications.

Leshikar, G.A.

1995-06-16

153

75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY...Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal...Dakotas Area Office, Attention: Alicia Waters, P.O. Box 1017, Bismarck, ND...

2010-08-13

154

75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY...Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal...Dakotas Area Office, Attention: Alicia Waters, P.O. Box 1017, Bismarck, ND...

2010-08-12

155

Uncertainties in the measured quantities of water leaving waste Tank 241-C-106 via the ventilation system  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to estimate the uncertainty in the measured quantity of water which typically leaves Tank 241-C-106 via the ventilation system each month. Such measurements are essential for heat removal estimation and tank liquid level verification purposes. The uncertainty associated with the current, infrequent, manual method of measurement (involves various psychrometric and pressure measurements) is suspected to be unreasonably high. Thus, the possible reduction of this uncertainty using a continuous, automated method of measurement will also be estimated. There are three major conclusions as a result of this analysis: (1) the uncertainties associated with the current (infrequent, manual) method of measuring the water which typically leaves Tank 241-C-106 per month via the ventilation system are indeed quite high (80% to 120%); (2) given the current psychrometric and pressure measurement methods and any tank which loses considerable moisture through active ventilation, such as Tank 241-C-106, significant quantities of liquid can actually leak from the tank before a leak can be positively identified via liquid level measurement; (3) using improved (continuous, automated) methods of taking the psychrometric and pressure measurements, the uncertainty in the measured quantity of water leaving Tank 241-C-106 via the ventilation system can be reduced by approximately an order of magnitude.

Minteer, D.J.

1995-01-23

156

Recent progress of the waste processing and disposal projects within the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Remediation has created the Office of Technology Development (OTD) to provide new and improved remediation technologies for the 1 {times} 10{sup 8} gal of radioactive waste in the underground storage tanks (USTs) at five DOE sites. The OTD established and the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) to perform demonstrations, tests, and evaluations on these new technologies before these processes are transferred to the tank sites for use in full-scale remediation of the USTs. The UST-ID projects are performed by the Characterization and Waste Retrieval Program or the Waste Processing and Disposal Program (WPDP). During FY 1994, the WPDP is funding 12 projects in the areas of supernate processing, sludge processing, nitrate destruction, and final waste forms. The supernate projects are primarily concerned with cesium removal. A mobile evaporator and concentrator for cesium-free supernate is also being demonstrated. The sludge projects are emphasizing sludge dissolution and the evaluation of the TRUEX and diamide solvent extraction processes for transuranic waste streams. One WPDP project is examining both supernate and sludge processes in an effort to develop a system-level plan for handling all UST waste. The other WPDP studies are concerned with nitrate and organic destruction as well as subsequent waste forms. The current status of these WPDP projects is presented.

Hunt, R.D.; McGinnis, C.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Cruse, J.M. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-06-01

157

78 FR 70076 - Aging Management of Internal Surfaces, Fire Water Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and Corrosion Under Insulation AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and Corrosion Under Insulation.'' This LR- ISG...systems, atmospheric storage tanks, and corrosion under insulation. ADDRESSES:...

2013-11-22

158

Heavy metal accumulation in hot water tanks in a region experiencing coal waste pollution and comparison between regional water systems  

SciTech Connect

In 2000, a coal slurry impoundment failure in Martin County, Kentucky, caused concerns about contaminants entering municipal water supplies. Water samples taken from impacted and reference area hot water tanks often exceeded US EPA drinking water guidelines. Concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Pb had maxima of 119; 51.9; 154; 170,000; 976,000; 8,710; and 12,700 {mu}g/L, respectively. Significantly different metal accumulation between counties indicated this procedure's utility for assessing long-term municipal water quality. Correlations between metal concentrations were strong and consistent for As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, and Fe indicating that some metals accumulate proportionally with others.

Wigginton, A.; McSpirit, S.; Sims, C.D. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Biology

2007-10-15

159

Leaf Hydraulic Conductance for a Tank Bromeliad: Axial and Radial Pathways for Moving and Conserving Water  

PubMed Central

Epiphytic plants in the Bromeliaceae known as tank bromeliads essentially lack stems and absorptive roots and instead take up water from reservoirs formed by their overlapping leaf bases. For such plants, leaf hydraulic conductance is plant hydraulic conductance. Their simple strap-shaped leaves and parallel venation make them suitable for modeling leaf hydraulic conductance based on vasculature and other anatomical and morphological traits. Plants of the tank bromeliad Guzmania lingulata were investigated in a lowland tropical forest in Costa Rica and a shaded glasshouse in Los Angeles, CA, USA. Stomatal conductance to water vapor and leaf anatomical variables related to hydraulic conductance were measured for both groups. Tracheid diameters and numbers of vascular bundles (veins) were used with the Hagen–Poiseuille equation to calculate axial hydraulic conductance. Measurements of leaf hydraulic conductance using the evaporative flux method were also made for glasshouse plants. Values for axial conductance and leaf hydraulic conductance were used in a model based on leaky cable theory to estimate the conductance of the radial pathway from the vein to the leaf surface and to assess the relative contributions of both axial and radial pathways. In keeping with low stomatal conductance, low stomatal density, low vein density, and narrow tracheid diameters, leaf hydraulic conductance for G. lingulata was quite low in comparison with most other angiosperms. Using the predicted axial conductance in the leaky cable model, the radial resistance across the leaf mesophyll was predicted to predominate; lower, more realistic values of axial conductance resulted in predicted radial resistances that were closer to axial resistance in their impact on total leaf resistance. Tracer dyes suggested that water uptake through the tank region of the leaf was not limiting. Both dye movement and the leaky cable model indicated that the leaf blade of G. lingulata was structurally and hydraulically well-suited to conserve water. PMID:23596446

North, Gretchen B.; Lynch, Frank H.; Maharaj, Franklin D. R.; Phillips, Carly A.; Woodside, Walter T.

2013-01-01

160

Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank  

DOEpatents

The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps.

Corletti, Michael M. (New Kensington, PA); Lau, Louis K. (Monroeville, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

1993-01-01

161

Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank  

DOEpatents

The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps. 1 figures.

Corletti, M.M.; Lau, L.K.; Schulz, T.L.

1993-12-14

162

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT SUMMARY OF COMBINED THERMAL & OPERATING LOADS  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of the Double-Shell Tank Thermal and Operating Loads Analysis (TOLA) combined with the Seismic Analysis. This combined analysis provides a thorough, defensible, and documented analysis that will become a part of the overall analysis of record for the Hanford double-shell tanks (DSTs).

MACKEY, T.C.

2006-03-17

163

Little Big Horn River Water Quality Project  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Water Quality Project on the Little Big horn River during the summer of 1995. The majority of the summer was spent collecting data on the Little Big Horn River, then testing the water samples for a number of different tests which was done at the Little Big Horn College in Crow Agency, Montana. The intention of this study is to preform stream quality analysis to gain an understanding of the quality of selected portion of the river, to assess any impact that the existing developments may be causing to the environment and to gather base-line data which will serve to provide information concerning the proposed development. Citizens of the reservation have expressed a concern of the quality of the water on the reservation; surface waters, ground water, and well waters.

Bad Bear, D.J.; Hooker, D. [Little Big Horn Coll., Crow Agency, MT (United States)

1995-10-01

164

ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 2: Engineering design files  

SciTech Connect

Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: Tank farm heel flushing/pH adjustment; Grouting experiments for immobilization of tank farm heel; Savannah River high level waste tank 20 closure; Tank farm closure information; Clean closure of tank farm; Remediation issues; Remote demolition techniques; Decision concerning EIS for debris treatment facility; CERCLA/RCRA issues; Area of contamination determination; Containment building of debris treatment facility; Double containment issues; Characterization costs; Packaging and disposal options for the waste resulting from the total removal of the tank farm; Take-off calculations for the total removal of soils and structures at the tank farm; Vessel off-gas systems; Jet-grouted polymer and subsurface walls; Exposure calculations for total removal of tank farm; Recommended instrumentation during retrieval operations; High level waste tank concrete encasement evaluation; Recommended heavy equipment and sizing equipment for total removal activities; Tank buoyancy constraints; Grout and concrete formulas for tank heel solidification; Tank heel pH requirements; Tank cooling water; Evaluation of conservatism of vehicle loading on vaults; Typical vault dimensions and approximately tank and vault void volumes; Radiological concerns for temporary vessel off-gas system; Flushing calculations for tank heels; Grout lift depth analysis; Decontamination solution for waste transfer piping; Grout lift determination for filling tank and vault voids; sprung structure vendor data; Grout flow properties through a 2--4 inch pipe; Tank farm load limitations; NRC low level waste grout; Project data sheet calculations; Dose rates for tank farm closure tasks; Exposure and shielding calculations for grout lines; TFF radionuclide release rates; Documentation of the clean closure of a system with listed waste discharge; and Documentation of the ORNL method of radionuclide concentrations in tanks.

NONE

1998-02-01

165

Thermal inactivation of Yersinia enterocolitica in pork slaughter plant scald tank water.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to establish the time-temperature combinations required to ensure the thermal inactivation of Yersinia enterocolitica during scalding of pork carcasses. A 2 strain cocktail of Y. enterocolitica (bioserotypes 2/O:5,27 and 1A/O:6,30) was heat treated at 50, 55 and 60°C in samples of scald tank water obtained from a commercial pork slaughter plant. Samples were removed at regular intervals and surviving cells enumerated using (i) Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin Agar (CIN) supplemented with ampicillin and arabinose and (ii) Tryptone Soya Agar (TSA), overlaid with CIN agar with ampicillin and arabinose. The data generated was used to estimate D- and z-values and the formula Dx=log(-1)(log D60-((t2-t1)/z)) was applied to calculate thermal death time-temperature combinations from 55 to 65°C. D50, D55 and D60-values of 45.9, 10.6 and 2.7min were calculated from the cell counts obtained on CIN agar, respectively. The corresponding D-values calculated from the TSA/CIN counts were 45.1, 11 and 2.5min, respectively. The z-value was 7.8. It was concluded that a time-temperature combination of 2.7min at 60°C is required to achieve a 1 log reduction in Y. enterocolitica in pork scald tank water. The predicted equivalent at 65°C was 0.6min. This study provides data and a model to enable pork processors to identify and apply parameters to limit the risk of carcass cross-contamination with Y. enterocolitica in pork carcass scald tanks. PMID:23279870

Bolton, Declan J; Ivory, Claire; McDowell, David

2013-11-01

166

An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards  

SciTech Connect

Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

2013-11-13

167

14 CFR 26.37 - Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...26.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Fuel Tank Flammability § 26.37 Pending...

2014-01-01

168

14 CFR 26.37 - Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...26.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Fuel Tank Flammability § 26.37 Pending...

2013-01-01

169

14 CFR 26.37 - Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...26.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Fuel Tank Flammability § 26.37 Pending...

2010-01-01

170

14 CFR 26.37 - Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...26.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Fuel Tank Flammability § 26.37 Pending...

2011-01-01

171

14 CFR 26.37 - Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...26.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Fuel Tank Flammability § 26.37 Pending...

2012-01-01

172

AX Tank Farm tank removal study  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the feasibility of remediating ancillary equipment associated with the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. Ancillary equipment includes surface structures and equipment, process waste piping, ventilation components, wells, and pits, boxes, sumps, and tanks used to make waste transfers to/from the AX tanks and adjoining tank farms. Two remedial alternatives are considered: (1) excavation and removal of all ancillary equipment items, and (2) in-situ stabilization by grout filling, the 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a strawman in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tanks. This is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

SKELLY, W.A.

1999-02-24

173

COSTING MODELS FOR WATER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION: PART III- PUMPS, TANKS, AND RESERVOIRS  

EPA Science Inventory

Distribution systems are generally designed to ensure hydraulic reliability. Storage tanks, reservoirs and pumps are critical in maintaining this reliability. Although storage tanks, reservoirs and pumps are necessary for maintaining adequate pressure, they may also have a negati...

174

HANFORD SITE RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT (RPP) TRANSURANIC (TRU) TANK WASTE IDENTIFICATION & PLANNING FOR REVRIEVAL TREATMENT & EVENTUAL DISPOSAL AT WIPP  

SciTech Connect

The CH2M HILL Manford Group, Inc. (CHG) conducts business to achieve the goals of the Office of River Protection (ORP) at Hanford. As an employee owned company, CHG employees have a strong motivation to develop innovative solutions to enhance project and company performance while ensuring protection of human health and the environment. CHG is responsible to manage and perform work required to safely store, enhance readiness for waste feed delivery, and prepare for treated waste receipts for the approximately 53 million gallons of legacy mixed radioactive waste currently at the Hanford Site tank farms. Safety and environmental awareness is integrated into all activities and work is accomplished in a manner that achieves high levels of quality while protecting the environment and the safety and health of workers and the public. This paper focuses on the innovative strategy to identify, retrieve, treat, and dispose of Hanford Transuranic (TRU) tank waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).

KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.; TEDESCHI, R.; JOHNSON, M.E.; JENNINGS, M

2006-01-18

175

Shroud tank and fill pipe for a boiling water nuclear reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for cooling a reactor core comprising the steps of: providing a shroud tank; disposing a shroud tank inside the reactor vessel overlying the reactor core and circumscribing the standpipes, the shroud tank having an open top, and a closed bottom; providing coolant inlet means communicated from the exterior of the reactor to the inside of the

Gluntz

1989-01-01

176

Comparative Assessment of Irrigation Water Quality in Sri Lanka's Tank-Cascade and Mahaweli Irrigation Schemes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two distinct irrigation systems dominate the landscape in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. The tank-cascade system, which originates from third century BC, is a small-scale system that has been the traditional method for communities to meet their farming water needs. The Mahaweli reservoir system, in contrast, is a large-scale irrigation scheme initiated in the 1970s that diverts water across hundreds of kilometers from the headwaters of the Mahaweli River to farmers. Although approximately equal amounts of paddy land are irrigated under these two systems, very little comparative analysis has been conducted on the spatial variation of irrigation water quality in Sri Lanka. An exploratory study was conducted in June 2013 in Anuradhapura district, an area that experiences the highest level of paddy production instability and has had long-standing irrigation water quality issues. A total of 30 water samples from both cascade systems and Mahaweli system H-7 were analyzed for pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, and chromatic dissolved organic matter using field instruments. A subset of these samples was further analyzed for nitrate and ammonia using colorimetric methods. While the sparse data from our study revealed some interesting trends, it is difficult to extrapolate in detail. Therefore, we compare inferences drawn about the Sri Lanka data to a more detailed analysis of chromatic dissolved organic matter in a Tennessee watershed. This comparison will provide insight into possible interpretations relative to the water quality data collected in Sri Lanka. As Sri Lanka continues to develop its irrigation resources, water quality assessments such as this one are critical for identifying factors limiting paddy production in the country.

Gunda, T.; Hornberger, G. M.

2013-12-01

177

Water storage tank for use in the fresh food compartment of a refrigerator  

SciTech Connect

A water storage tank for use in the fresh food compartment of a refrigerator is described comprising: a serpentine shaped hollow body having parallel first, second, third, and fourth straight sections serially connected and having their lateral cross-sections polygons in shape. The first section has an inlet at the top end and the fourth section has an outlet at the top end. The first sections connected to the second section by a U-shaped curved section at the bottom end. The second and third sections connected at the top by a U-shaped curved section. The third and fourth sections connected at the bottom by a U-shaped curved section, the four straight sections connected at the top thereof by air flow passageways and the U-shaped curved sections having an internal curvature in the shape of a teardrop.

True, H.D.F.

1988-04-26

178

Joint management of water and electricity in State Water Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the relationship between California's water and electrical power is important for improving the management and planning of these two vital resources to the state's economy development and people's well-being. It is often unclear for consumers, managers and decision-makers that water and electricity in California are inextricably connected. In the past, insufficient considerations of electricity production, consumption and cost in the State Water Project (SWP) - the world's largest publicly built and operated water and power development and conveyance system-has led to significant water rate and electricity rate increase. An innovative concept of this proposed study is developing new technology capable of managing and planning water and power jointly in SWP to promote its operation efficiency, sustainability and resilience to potential water shortage caused by climate change and population increase. To achieve this goal, a nonlinear, two-fold network model describing water delivery in company with power consumption and generation will be constructed, and a multi-objective optimization scheme is to be used to resolve this complex nonlinear network problem.

Yang, T.

2013-12-01

179

33 CFR 155.330 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S. non-oceangoing ships.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...155.330 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S....

2011-07-01

180

33 CFR 155.330 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S. non-oceangoing ships.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...155.330 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S....

2013-07-01

181

33 CFR 155.330 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S. non-oceangoing ships.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...155.330 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S....

2010-07-01

182

33 CFR 155.350 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of less...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...155.350 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships...

2014-07-01

183

33 CFR 155.350 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of less...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...155.350 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships...

2011-07-01

184

33 CFR 155.330 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S. non-oceangoing ships.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...155.330 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S....

2014-07-01

185

33 CFR 155.350 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of less...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...155.350 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships...

2013-07-01

186

33 CFR 155.370 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10,000...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...155.370 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships...

2014-07-01

187

33 CFR 155.370 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10,000...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...155.370 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships...

2013-07-01

188

33 CFR 155.370 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10,000...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...155.370 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships...

2011-07-01

189

33 CFR 155.370 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10,000...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...155.370 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships...

2010-07-01

190

33 CFR 155.370 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10,000...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...155.370 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships...

2012-07-01

191

33 CFR 155.350 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of less...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...155.350 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships...

2012-07-01

192

33 CFR 155.330 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S. non-oceangoing ships.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...155.330 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S....

2012-07-01

193

33 CFR 155.350 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of less...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...155.350 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships...

2010-07-01

194

Chiller Start/Stop Optimization for a Campus-wide Chilled Water System with a Thermal Storage Tank Under a Four-Period Electricity Rate Schedule  

E-print Network

The existence of a 1.4-million-gallon chilled water thermal storage tank greatly increases the operational flexibility of a campuswide chilled water system under a four-part electricity rate structure. While significant operational savings can...

Zhou, J.; Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Deng, S.; Claridge, D.; Contreras, O.

2002-01-01

195

ANALYSIS OF THE LEACHING EFFICIENCY OF INHIBITED WATER AND TANK 23H SIMULANT IN REMOVING RESIDUES ON TANK 48H WALLS  

SciTech Connect

Solid residues on two sets of thermowell pipe samples from the D2 riser in SRS Tank 48H were characterized. The residue thickness was determined using the ASTM standard D 3483-05 and was found to be three order of magnitudes below the 1mm thickness estimated from an earlier video of the tank cooling coil inspection. The actual estimated thickness ranged from 4 to 20.4 microns. The mass per unit area ranged from 1 to 5.3 milligrams per square inch. The residues appear to consist primarily of potassium tetraphenylborate (39.8 wt% KTPB) and dried salt solution (33.5 wt% total of nitrates, nitrites and oxalate salts), although {approx}30% of the solid mass was not accounted for in the mass balance. No evidence of residue buildup was found inside the pipe, as expected. The residue leaching characteristics were measured by placing one pipe in inhibited water and one pipe in DWPF Recycle simulant. After soaking for less than 4 weeks, the inhibited water was 95.4% effective at removing the residue and the DWPF Recycle simulant was 93.5% effective. The surface appearance of the pipes after leaching tests appeared close to the clean shiny appearance of a new pipe. Total gamma counts of leachates averaged 48.1 dpm/ml, or an equivalent of 2.35E-11 Ci/gm Cs-137 (dry solids basis), which is much lower than the 1.4 E-03 Ci/gm expected for Tank 48 dry slurry solids.

Fondeur, F; Thomas02 White, T; Lawrence Oji, L; Chris Martino, C; Bill Wilmarth, B

2006-07-31

196

Safety analysis report for the gunite and associated tanks project remediation of the South Tank Farm, facility 3507, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South Tank Farm (STF) is a series of six, 170,000-gal underground, domed storage tanks, which were placed into service in 1943. The tanks were constructed of a concrete mixture known as gunite. They were used as a portion of the Liquid Low-Level Waste System for the collection, neutralization, storage, and transfer of the aqueous portion of the radioactive and\\/or

Platfoot

1998-01-01

197

DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) INTEGRITY PROJECT HIGH LEVEL WASTE CHEMISTRY OPTIMIZATION  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Office (DOE) of River Protection (ORP) has a continuing program for chemical optimization to better characterize corrosion behavior of High-Level Waste (HLW). The DOE controls the chemistry in its HLW to minimize the propensity of localized corrosion, such as pitting, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in nitrate-containing solutions. By improving the control of localized corrosion and SCC, the ORP can increase the life of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) carbon steel structural components and reduce overall mission costs. The carbon steel tanks at the Hanford Site are critical to the mission of safely managing stored HLW until it can be treated for disposal. The DOE has historically used additions of sodium hydroxide to retard corrosion processes in HLW tanks. This also increases the amount of waste to be treated. The reactions with carbon dioxide from the air and solid chemical species in the tank continually deplete the hydroxide ion concentration, which then requires continued additions. The DOE can reduce overall costs for caustic addition and treatment of waste, and more effectively utilize waste storage capacity by minimizing these chemical additions. Hydroxide addition is a means to control localized and stress corrosion cracking in carbon steel by providing a passive environment. The exact mechanism that causes nitrate to drive the corrosion process is not yet clear. The SCC is less of a concern in the newer stress relieved double shell tanks due to reduced residual stress. The optimization of waste chemistry will further reduce the propensity for SCC. The corrosion testing performed to optimize waste chemistry included cyclic potentiodynamic volarization studies. slow strain rate tests. and stress intensity factor/crack growth rate determinations. Laboratory experimental evidence suggests that nitrite is a highly effective:inhibitor for pitting and SCC in alkaline nitrate environments. Revision of the corrosion control strategies to a nitrite-based control, where there is no constant depletion mechanism as with hydroxide, should greatly enhance tank lifetime, tank space availability, and reduce downstream reprocessing costs by reducing chemical addition to the tanks.

WASHENFELDER DJ

2008-01-22

198

Scaling and Parametric Studies of Condensation Oscillation in an In-Containment Refueling Water Storage Tank  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to study the condensation oscillation phenomena by steam-jetting into subcooled water through a multihole sparger, implementing a scaling methodology and the similarity correlation between the test facility and model prototype. To corroborate the scaling methodology, various experimental tests were conducted. The thickness of the boundary layer that encloses the steam cavity was found to be equal to the maximum length of the steam cavity formed. Three key scaling parameters were identified and correlated with the maximum amplitude of pressure oscillation: flow restriction coefficient, area ratio of discharge hole to steam cavity, and density ratio of water to steam. Variations of the oscillation amplitude were small when steam-jetting directions were altered. The concept of a reduction factor was introduced for estimating the oscillation amplitude of the multihole sparger with test data from a single-hole sparger. The results of this study can provide suitable guidelines for sparger design utilized in the in-containment refueling water storage tank for the Advanced Power Reactor 1400.

Lee, Jun Hyung [Korea Power Engineering Company (Korea, Republic of); No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)

2003-05-15

199

Project management plan for Waste Area Grouping 5 Old Hydrofracture Facility tanks contents removal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This revision (Rev. 1) updates the schedule and designation of responsibilities for the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) tanks contents removal project. Ongoing and planned future activities include: cold testing of the sluicing and pumping system; readiness assessment; equipment relocation and assembly; isotopic dilution of fissile radionuclides; sluicing and transfer of the tanks contents; and preparation of the Removal Action Completion Report. The most significant change is that the sluicing and pumping system has been configured by and will be operated by CDM Federal Programs Corporation. In addition, a new technical lead and a new project analyst have been designated within Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. and Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp. The schedule for tanks contents removal has been accelerated, with transfer of the final batch of tank slurry now scheduled for March 31, 1998 (instead of November 10, 1998). The OHF sluicing and pumping project is proceeding as a non-time-critical removal action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. The purpose of the project is to remove the contents from five inactive underground storage tanks, designated T-1, T-2, T-3, T-4, and T-9. The tanks contain an estimated 52,700 gal of liquid and sludge, together comprising a radioactive inventory of approximately 30,000 Ci.

NONE

1998-02-01

200

Completion report for the Inactive Liquid Low-Level Waste Tank Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of the Inactive Liquid Low-Level Waste Tank Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The work performed is compared with that proposed in the statement of work and the service contract specification for the maintenance action to remediate tanks 3013, 3004-B, T-30, and 3001-B. The Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) among the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires that all tanks, which have been removed from service and are designated in the FFA as Category D, must be remediated in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements. The Environmental Restoration Program`s inactive tank removal program strategy and plans for remediating the inactive LLLW tanks were documented in a report issued in January 1995 (Inactive Tanks Remediation Program Strategy and Plans for Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, ORNL/ER-297). The inactive (Category D) tanks were initially screened for remediation according to risk, remediation technology required, level of instrumentation available, interferences with other piping and equipment, location, and available sludge removal techniques and storage requirements. On the basis of this preliminary screening, the tanks were assigned to one of five batches (I through V) for consideration of remedial action alternatives, and these batches were tentatively scheduled for remedial actions. The eight links tentatively assigned to Batch I were divided into two groups (Series I and Series II).

NONE

1996-02-01

201

Support Provided to the External Tank (ET) Project on the Use of Statistical Analysis for ET Certification Consultation Position Paper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In June 2004, the June Space Flight Leadership Council (SFLC) assigned an action to the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) and External Tank (ET) project jointly to characterize the available dataset [of defect sizes from dissections of foam], identify resultant limitations to statistical treatment of ET as-built foam as part of the overall thermal protection system (TPS) certification, and report to the Program Requirements Change Board (PRCB) and SFLC in September 2004. The NESC statistics team was formed to assist the ET statistics group in August 2004. The NESC's conclusions are presented in this report.

Null, Cynthia H.

2009-01-01

202

W-030, AY/AZ tank farm cooling and miscellaneous instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

This is the acceptance test report for construction functional testing of Project W-030 cooling systems and related instrumentation. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The Tank Farm Cooling System consists of four forced draft cooling towers, a chilled water system, and associated controls.

Cole, D.B.

1996-04-29

203

AX Tank Farm tank removal study  

SciTech Connect

This report considers the feasibility of exposing, demolishing, and removing underground storage tanks from the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. For the study, it was assumed that the tanks would each contain 360 ft{sup 3} of residual waste (corresponding to the one percent residual Inventory target cited in the Tri-Party Agreement) at the time of demolition. The 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a ''strawman'' in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tank farms. The report is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

SKELLY, W.A.

1998-10-14

204

NEED Project: Energy of Moving Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource for middle school provides 13 complete lessons for teaching about hydropower and conversion of moving water to electrical energy. The unit crosses the curriculum to include physical science, engineering design, earth systems, language arts, social studies and math. As with all NEED educational materials, this resource includes every component required for immediate classroom use: lesson plans, illustrated lab procedures, rubric, pre and post-test assessments, age-appropriate background information, worksheets, graphics for classroom projection, and student guidebooks. Specific physical science objectives revolve around energy flow in systems and the concept that energy is never destroyed, but can be converted from one form to another. Each investigation requires students to first read about the topic in "infobooks" (included in the materials), then make predictions, complete the lab, record data, and write a conclusion. The NEED Project is a national initiative to bring innovative curriculum materials in energy education to K-12 teachers and learners.

2013-05-10

205

Solar hot water demonstration project at Red Star Industrial Laundry, Fresno, California  

SciTech Connect

The Final Report of the Solar Hot Water System located at the Red Star Industrial Laundry, 3333 Sabre Avenue, Fresno, California, is presented. The system was designed as an integrated wastewater heat recovery and solar preheating system to supply a part of the hot water requirements. It was estimated that the natural gas demand for hot water heating could be reduced by 56 percent (44 percent heat reclamation and 12 percent solar). The system consists of a 16,500 gallon tube-and-shell wastewater heat recovery subsystem combined with a pass-through 6,528 square foot flat plate Ying Manufacturing Company Model SP4120 solar collector subsystem, a 12,500 gallon fiber glass water storage tank subsystem, pumps, heat exchangers, controls, and associated plumbing. The design output of the solar subsystem is approximately 2.6 x 10/sup 9/ Btu/year. Auxiliary energy is provided by a gas fired low pressure boiler servicing a 4,000 gallon service tank. This project is part of the US Department of Energy's Solar Demonstration Program with DOE sharing $184,841 of the $260,693 construction cost. The system was turned on in July 1977, and acceptance tests completed in September 1977. The demonstration period for this project ends September 2, 1982.

None

1980-07-01

206

Comparing strategies: State funding of capital projects versus water conservation  

E-print Network

10 tx H2O Winter 2013 Column by Dr. Calvin Finch, Water Conservation and Technology Center director COMPARING STRATEGIES State funding of capital projects versus water conservation The Texas Legislature seems intent on helping local water...

Finch, Dr. Calvin

2013-01-01

207

Hanford Technology Development (Tank Farms) - 12509  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is to safely retrieve and treat the 56 million gallons of Hanford's tank waste and close the Tank Farms to protect the Columbia River. The millions of gallons of tank waste are a byproduct of decades of plutonium production. After irradiated fuel rods were taken from the nuclear reactors to the processing facilities at Hanford they were exposed to a series of chemicals designed to dissolve away the rod, which enabled workers to retrieve the plutonium. Once those chemicals were exposed to the fuel rods they became radioactive and extremely hot. They also couldn't be used in this process more than once. Because the chemicals are caustic and extremely hazardous to humans and the environment, underground storage tanks were built to hold these chemicals until a more permanent solution could be found. One key part of the ongoing work at Hanford is retrieving waste from the single-shell tanks, some of which have leaked in the past, and transferring that waste to the double-shell tanks - none of which have ever leaked. The 56 million gallons of radioactive tank waste is stored in 177 underground tanks, 149 of which are single-shell tanks built between 1943 and 1964. The tanks sit approximately 250 feet above the water table. Hanford's single-shell tanks are decades past their 20-year design life. In the past, up to 67 of the single-shell tanks are known or suspected to have leaked as much as one million gallons of waste to the surrounding soil. Starting in the late 1950's, waste leaks from dozens of the single-shell tanks were detected or suspected. Most of the waste is in the soil around the tanks, but some of this waste is thought to have reached groundwater. The Vadose Zone Project was established to understand the radioactive and chemical contamination in the soil beneath the tanks as the result of leaks and discharges from past plutonium-production operations. The vadose zone is the area of soil between the ground surface and the water table 200-to-300 feet below. The project tracks and monitors contamination in the soil. Technologies are being developed and deployed to detect and monitor contaminants. Interim surface barriers, which are barriers put over the single-shell tanks, prevent rain and snow from soaking into the ground and spreading contamination. The impermeable barrier placed over T Farm, which was the site of the largest tank waste leak in Hanford's history, is 60,000 square feet and sloped to drain moisture outside the tank farm. The barrier over TY Farm is constructed of asphalt and drains moisture to a nearby evaporation basin. Our discussion of technology will address the incredible challenge of removing waste from Hanford's single-shell tanks. Under the terms of the Tri-Party Agreement, ORP is required to remove 99 percent of the tank waste, or until the limits of technology have been reached. All pumpable liquids have been removed from the single-shell tanks, and work now focuses on removing the non-pumpable liquids. Waste retrieval was completed from the first single-shell tank in late 2003. Since then, another six single-shell tanks have been retrieved to regulatory standards. (authors)

Fletcher, Thomas; Charboneau, Stacy; Olds, Erik [US DOE (United States)

2012-07-01

208

Tank farm restoration and safe operation, Project W-314, upgrade scope summary report (USSR)  

SciTech Connect

The revision to the Project W-314 Upgrade Scope Summary Report (USSR), incorporates changes to the project scope from customer guidance. Included are incorporation of the recommendations from HNF-2500, agreements regarding interfaces with Project W-211, and assumption of scope previously assigned to Project W-454.

Gilbert, J.L.

1998-07-23

209

Tank vapor characterization project - Tank 241-TY-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization: Results for homogeneity samples collected on November 22, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-TY-103 (Tank TY-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Samples were collected to determine the homogeneity of selected inorganic and organic headspace constituents. Two risers (Riser 8 and Riser 18) were sampled at three different elevations (Top, Middle, and Bottom) within the tank. Tank headspace samples were collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) and were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. No analytes were determined to be above immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP).

Olsen, K.B.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Hayes, J.C. [and others] [and others

1997-07-01

210

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank U-204, Results from samples collected on August 8, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-U-204 (Tank U-204) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the results is listed. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the text.

Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Ligotke, M.W.

1995-11-01

211

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Tank 241-S-107: Results from samples collected on 06/18/96  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-S-107 (Tank S-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National. Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, on sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L. [and others

1997-01-01

212

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-BX-105: Results from samples collected on 04/24/96  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-BX-105 (Tank BX-105) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, on sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H. [and others

1997-01-01

213

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-109: Results from samples collected on 06/04/96  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-S-109 (Tank S-109) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, on sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C. [and others

1997-01-01

214

Development of a CFD Model for Secondary Final Settling Tanks in Water Pollution Control Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To assess performance and evaluate alternatives to improve efficiency of the New York City the Wards Island Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) FSTs at peak loads, a 3D CFD model has been developed. Fluent was utilized as the base platform, where sub-models of the Suspended Solids (SS), settling characteristics, density currents and SS flocculation were incorporated. This was supplemented by field and bench scale experiments to quantify the coefficients integral to the sub-models. Model calibration and validation have been carried out by using the extensive set of data collected. The model can be used to evaluate different modes of operation, alternate hydraulic and solids loading rates, as well as addition of auxiliary components such as baffles to improve process performance. The model is being used to compare potential benefits for different alternatives of design and operation of the existing FSTs. After comparing series of inlet baffles, a baffle with 4 horizontal and 7 vertical slots has been recommended for installation in the FSTs. Additional baffle type, configurations and locations within the tank are also being evaluated to improve the performance of the FSTs especially during periods of poor settling and peak flow conditions.

Gong, Minwei; Xanthos, Savvas; Ramalingam, Krish; Fillos, John

2007-11-01

215

Characterization of turbulent airflow over evolving water-waves in a wind-wave tank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of an experimental investigation of the turbulent boundary layer in airflow over evolving young wind-waves are presented. The experiments were conducted in a laboratory wind-wave flume consisting of a closed-loop wind tunnel capable of generating wind speed that may exceed 15 m/s, atop of a 5 m long wave tank. Simultaneous measurements of mean wind velocity and of instantaneous fluctuations of the horizontal and vertical air velocity components were carried out along the test section at different airflow rates and at numerous heights above the highest wave. Instantaneous surface elevation at the air sensors' location was simultaneously recorded. The friction velocities at all locations and for all airflow rates were determined by two independent methods: by fitting the logarithmic velocity profiles and by extrapolating the measured Reynolds shear stresses to mean water surface level. The variation with height and along the test section of the fluctuations of two velocity components, in the mean flow and in the vertical directions, was also studied and the results compared with flow behavior over rough and smooth plates. Wave-induced airflow parameters were then investigated by application of cross-spectral analysis. Results on the vertical extent of wave-induced boundary layer, on the phase relation between the wave-induced velocity fluctuations and the surface elevation, as well as on the wave-induced Reynolds shear stress are reported.

Zavadsky, Andrey; Shemer, Lev

2012-11-01

216

Numerical modelling of disintegration of basin-scale internal waves in a tank filled with stratified water  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of numerical experiments performed with the use of a fully non-linear non-hydrostatic numerical model to study the baroclinic response of a long narrow tank filled with stratified water to an initially tilted interface. Upon release, the system starts to oscillate with an eigen frequency corresponding to basin-scale baroclinic gravitational seiches. Field observations suggest that the disintegration

N. Stashchuk; V. Vlasenko; K. Hutter

2005-01-01

217

The Impact of Traditional Septic Tank Soakaway Systems and the Effects of Remediation on Water Quality in Ireland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Ireland the domestic wastewater of over 1/3 of the population is treated by on-site systems. These systems are based on a traditional design for disposal of domestic wastewater and rely on the surrounding subsoil for further treatment. Inefficient treatment is often associated with these systems and can cause pollution of local aquifers and waterways. The effluent nutrient load can contribute to eutrophication, depletion of dissolved oxygen and excessive algae growth in surface water bodies. Human enteric pathogens associated with faecal pollution of water sources may promote the outbreak of disease through contamination of drinking water supplies. The subsoil attenuation plays an important role in the protection of groundwater from effluent pollution. Therefore, as over 25% of the countries domestic water supplies are provided by groundwater, the protection of groundwater resources is crucial. This project involves both the assessment of traditional septic tank soakaway systems and the effects of remediation in low permeability subsoil settings on water quality in Ireland. The study aims to confirm by microbial source tracking (MST), the source (human and/or animal) of faecal microorganisms detected in groundwater, surface water and effluent samples, and to monitor the transport of pathogens specific to on-site wastewater outflows. In combination with MST, the evaluation of nitrification and denitrification in surrounding soil and effluent samples aims to assess nitrogen removal at specific intervals; pre-remediation and post-remediation. Two experimental sites have been routinely sampled for effluent, soil and groundwater samples as well as soil moisture samples using suction lysimeters located at various depths. A robust and reproducible DNA extraction method was developed, applicable to both sites. MST markers based on host-specific Bacteriodales bacteria for universal, human and cow-derived faecal matter are being employed to determine quantitative target occurrence using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) assays (Kildare et al., 2007). The abundance of both archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA and of several functional nitrification and denitrification genes (i.e., amoA, nirS, nirK, and nosZ) is also being determined and compared in both sites. Ultimately, this novel project aims to assess the effectiveness of remediation at reducing the risk of pathogen transport and nitrate loading to local ground and surface waters. Results from both sites suggest low permeability subsoil prevents the even distribution of effluent through the receiving subsoil, forcing it instead to flow laterally via distinct pathways such as sand lenses and nearby drainage routes. This affects the ability of the subsoil to sufficiently treat the percolating effluent. Initial results from the remediation of the existing systems to alternative low pressure systems indicate a positive impact towards the groundwater quality of both sites. This step towards a better understanding of the factors influencing microbial denitrification and the behaviour of pathogens in sensitive environments aids in identifying management options for reducing nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and nitrate (NO3-) leaching; and for enhanced protection of public health.

Kilroy, Kate; Keggan, Mary; Barrett, Maria; Dubber, Donata; Gill, Laurence W.; O'Flaherty, Vincent

2014-05-01

218

Quantification of the contribution of nitrogen from septic tanks to ground water in Spanish Springs Valley, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analysis of total dissolved nitrogen concentrations from soil water samples collected within the soil zone under septic tank leach fields in Spanish Springs Valley, Nevada, shows a median concentration of approximately 44 milligrams per liter (mg/L) from more than 300 measurements taken from four septic tank systems. Using two simple mass balance calculations, the concentration of total dissolved nitrogen potentially reaching the ground-water table ranges from 25 to 29 mg/L. This indicates that approximately 29 to 32 metric tons of nitrogen enters the aquifer every year from natural recharge and from the 2,070 houses that use septic tanks in the densely populated portion of Spanish Springs Valley. Natural recharge contributes only 0.25 metric tons because the total dissolved nitrogen concentration of natural recharge was estimated to be low (0.8 mg/L). Although there are many uncertainties in this estimate, the sensitivity of these uncertainties to the calculated load is relatively small, indicating that these values likely are accurate to within an order of magnitude. The nitrogen load calculation will be used as an input function for a ground-water flow and transport model that will be used to test management options for controlling nitrogen contamination in the basin.

Rosen, Michael R.; Kropf, Christian; Thomas, Karen A.

2006-01-01

219

Construction Progress of the S-IC Pump House Water Tanks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the stand itself, related facilities were constructed during this time. Built to the northeast of the stand was a newly constructed Pump House. Its function was to provide water to the stand to prevent melting damage during testing. The water was sprayed through small holes in the stand's 1900 ton flame deflector at the rate of 320,000 gallons per minute. This close up photograph, taken September 5, 1963, shows the ground level frame work for the Pump House and its massive round water storage tanks.

1963-01-01

220

A wave tank study of the dependence of X band cross sections on wind speed and water temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of varying the water temperature, wind speed, and wind stress on the values of backscatter were investigated using measurements of normalized radar cross sections of wind-generated waves, made at X band for both vertical and horizontal polarization for incidence angles 10, 28, 48, and 68 deg. The experiment was conducted using the Naval Research Laboratory wind-wave tank. Measurements made for a wide range of wind speeds and water temperatures are compared with results of backscattering models currently in use.

Keller, Mary Ruth; Keller, William C.; Plant, William J.

1992-01-01

221

Caribbean Water Initiative (CARIWIN) Project number S61268-583  

E-print Network

Caribbean Water Initiative (CARIWIN) Project number S61268-583 McGill University Caribbean CARICOM ­ Caribbean Commonwealth CARIWAND ­ Caribbean Water and Gender Network CARIWIN ­ Caribbean Water of Meteorology and Hydrology CWS ­ Community Water Strategies DCETO ­ Developing Country Educational and Training

Barthelat, Francois

222

IceCube Project Monthly Report November 2004  

E-print Network

filled with water with the degassing systems in operation. The remaining tanks will be filled before performance. Drill camp assembly, surface tank installation, and DOM acceptance tests at the South Pole FY07 FY08 FY09 FY10 FY11 24.4 % Complete Complete IceCube Project Baseline Initial Strings & Tanks

Saffman, Mark

223

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-BX-106 headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on August 15, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-106 (Tank BX-106) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan. Ammonia was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-106 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.031% of it lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.143% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Edwards, J.A.; Julya, J.L. [and others

1997-08-01

224

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-103: Results from samples collected on 06/12/96  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-S-103 (Tank S-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA{trademark} canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L. [and others

1997-01-01

225

46 CFR 119.435 - Integral fuel tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...fuel tanks. (a) Diesel fuel tanks may not be built integral with...certification of a vessel, integral fuel tanks must withstand a hydrostatic...feet) in height attached to the tank may be filled with water to accomplish the...

2012-10-01

226

46 CFR 119.435 - Integral fuel tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...fuel tanks. (a) Diesel fuel tanks may not be built integral with...certification of a vessel, integral fuel tanks must withstand a hydrostatic...feet) in height attached to the tank may be filled with water to accomplish the...

2011-10-01

227

46 CFR 119.435 - Integral fuel tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...fuel tanks. (a) Diesel fuel tanks may not be built integral with...certification of a vessel, integral fuel tanks must withstand a hydrostatic...feet) in height attached to the tank may be filled with water to accomplish the...

2010-10-01

228

46 CFR 119.435 - Integral fuel tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...fuel tanks. (a) Diesel fuel tanks may not be built integral with...certification of a vessel, integral fuel tanks must withstand a hydrostatic...feet) in height attached to the tank may be filled with water to accomplish the...

2013-10-01

229

Development Project of Supercritical-water Cooled Power Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Supercritical-water Cooled Power Reactor (SCPR) development project (Feb. 2001- Mar. 2005) is being performed by a joint team consisting of Japanese universities and nuclear venders with a national fund. The main objective of this project is to provide technical information essential to demonstration of SCPR technologies through concentrating three sub-themes: 'plant conceptual design', 'thermohydraulics', and 'material and water chemistry'.

K. Kataoka; S. Shiga; K. Moriya; Y. Oka; S. Yoshida; H. Takahashi

2002-01-01

230

Design review report: project development specifications for project W-314, tank farm resoration and safe operation, phase I  

SciTech Connect

This Design Review Report (DRR) documents the closure of all Review Cormnent Record sheets associated with the design reviews conducted for the Project W-314 Phase 1 Project Development Specification (PDS) Requirements Analysis. The DRR includes the documented comments and their respective dispositions for the W-314 PDS Requirements Analysis documents associated with Transfer Piping, Valve Pit Manifolds, Pit Leak Detection, Master Pump Shutdown, and Special Protective Coating. Acceptance of the comment dispositions and closure of the review comments is indicated by the Signatures of the participating reviewers.

Boes, K.A., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-02-27

231

Simulated nuclear multibursts conducted in a water tank. Technical report, 7 October 1983-30 January 1985  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneous multiple-cloud experiments were carried out in a water tank. Salt was used to achieve a linear density gradient in the tank to simulate the atmosphere. A nuclear fireball was simulated with a high-density bubble of saltwater dropped into the top of the tank. The bubble grew by turbulent entrainment as it fell into saltwater with an increasing density. The fall stops when the density inside the cloud reaches the density of its environment. Cloud dimensions were obtained for 5, 6, and 7 burst events. These cloud dimensions were compared with a model which is good fit to data from other multi-burst experiments. The model and the data from this program are in good agreement. These tests utilized existing hardware. Recommendations are made for a new facility which would be capable of simulating up to 70 bursts with an arbitrary time sequence. Instrumentation techniques to provide data other than cloud dimensions, e.g., velocity and density, are also recommended.

Colbert, R.G.; Zimmerman, A.W.

1985-01-30

232

Water governance within Kenya's Upper Ewaso Ng'iro Basin: Assessing the performance of water projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change processes are projected to change the availability and seasonality of streamflow with dramatic implications for irrigated agricultural systems. Within mountain environments, this alteration in water availability may be quite pronounced over a relatively short distance as upstream users with first access to river water directly impact the availability of water to downstream users. Livelihood systems that directly depend on river water for both domestic consumption and practices such as irrigated agriculture are particularly vulnerable. The Mount Kenya region is an exemplary case of a semi-arid upstream-downstream system in which water availability rapidly decreases and directly impacts the livelihoods of river water users existing across this steep environmental gradient. To effectively manage river water within these water-scarce environs, water projects have been established along the major rivers of the Mount Kenya region. These water projects are responsible for managing water within discrete sub-catchments of the region. While water projects develop rules that encourage the responsible use of water and maintenance of the project itself, the efficiency of water allocation to the projects' members remains unclear. This research analyzes water projects from five sub-catchments on the northwest slopes of Mount Kenya. It utilizes data from household surveys and water project management surveys as well as stream gauge data and flow measurements within individual water projects to assess the governance structure and performance of water projects. The performance of water projects is measured through a variety of household level metrics including: farm-level water flow and volume over time, mean and variability in maize yield, per capita crop productivity, household-level satisfaction with water availability, number of days where water volume was insufficient for irrigation, and quantity harvested compared with expected quantity harvested. We present results demonstrating the heterogeneity of these individual measures and discuss the influence of topography, network design, household behaviors and water governance on the overall performance of these water projects. This work is the foundation for an agent-based model of these water projects that investigates the impact of climate change and population pressure on sustained agricultural production in the region. Additionally, the study highlights the utility of pairing distinct fields of scholarship by utilizing both survey responses and hydrological data to study complex social-ecological systems. This pairing allows for insights regarding governance structures that are effectively managing river water in the present and helps to understand the structures that may be suitable for future water management.

McCord, P. F.; Evans, T. P.; Dell'Angelo, J.; Gower, D.; McBride, L.; Caylor, K. K.

2013-12-01

233

Preliminary engineering report waste area grouping 5, Old Hydrofracture Facility Tanks content removal project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requires a Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) for federal facilities placed on the National Priorities List. The Oak Ridge Reservation was placed on that list on December 21, 1989, and the agreement was signed in November 1991 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The effective date of the FFA is January 1, 1992. One objective of the FFA is to ensure that liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that are removed from service are evaluated and remediated through the CERCLA process. Five inactive LLLW tanks, designated T-1, T-2, T-3, T-4, and T-9, located at the Old Hydrofracture (OHF) Facility in the Melton Valley area of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been evaluated and are now entering the remediation phase. As a precursor to final remediation, this project will remove the current liquid and sludge contents of each of the five tanks (System Requirements Document, Appendix A). It was concluded in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis [EE/CA] for the Old Hydrofracture Facility Tanks (DOE 1996) that sluicing and pumping the contaminated liquid and sludge from the five OHF tanks was the preferred removal action. Evaluation indicated that this alternative meets the removal action objective and can be effective, implementable, and cost-effective. Sluicing and removing the tank contents was selected because this action uses (1) applicable experience, (2) the latest information about technologies and techniques for removing the wastes from the tanks, and (3) activities that are currently acceptable for storage of transuranic (TRU) mixed waste.

NONE

1996-06-01

234

Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for installation and operation of a waste retrieval system and tanks 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104 project  

SciTech Connect

This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC) pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246 247-060, and as a request for approval to modify pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61 07 for the installation and operation of one waste retrieval system in the 24 1 AP-102 Tank and one waste retrieval system in the 241 AP 104 Tank Pursuant to 40 CFR 61 09 (a)( 1) this application is also intended to provide anticipated initial start up notification Its is requested that EPA approval of this application will also constitute EPA acceptance of the initial start up notification Project W 211 Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is scoped to install a waste retrieval system in the following double-shell tanks 241-AP 102-AP 104 AN 102, AN 103, AN-104, AN 105, AY 102 AZ 102 and SY-102 between now and the year 2011. Because of the extended installation schedules and unknowns about specific activities/designs at each tank, it was decided to submit NOCs as that information became available This NOC covers the installation and operation of a waste retrieval system in tanks 241 AP-102 and 241 AP 104 Generally this includes removal of existing equipment installation of new equipment and construction of new ancillary equipment and buildings Tanks 241 AP 102 and 241 AP 104 will provide waste feed for immobilization into a low activity waste (LAW) product (i.e. glass logs) The total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) from the construction activities is 0 045 millirem per year The unabated TEDE to the offsite ME1 from operation of the mixer pumps is 0 042 millirem per year.

DEXTER, M.L.

1999-11-15

235

Experimental Wave Tank Test for Reference Model 3 Floating-Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter Project  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy established a reference model project to benchmark a set of marine and hydrokinetic technologies including current (tidal, open-ocean, and river) turbines and wave energy converters. The objectives of the project were to first evaluate the status of these technologies and their readiness for commercial applications. Second, to evaluate the potential cost of energy and identify cost-reduction pathways and areas where additional research could be best applied to accelerate technology development to market readiness.

Yu, Y. H.; Lawson, M.; Li, Y.; Previsic, M.; Epler, J.; Lou, J.

2015-01-01

236

Experimental Simulation of Supersonic Superboom in a Water Tank: Nonlinear Focusing of Weak Shock Waves at a Fold Caustic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An accelerating supersonic aircraft produces noisy superboom due to acoustical shock wave focusing at a fold caustic. This phenomenon is modeled by the mixed-type nonlinear Tricomi equation. An innovative experimental simulation in a water tank has been carried out, with perfect similitude to sonic boom in air. In the linear regime, the canonical Airy function is reproduced using the inverse filter technique. In the nonlinear regime (weak shock waves), the experiment demonstrates the key role of nonlinear effects: they limit the field amplitude, distort the sonic line, and strongly alter the phase of the signal, in agreement with numerical simulations.

Marchiano, Régis; Thomas, Jean-Louis; Coulouvrat, François

2003-10-01

237

Experimental simulation of supersonic superboom in a water tank: nonlinear focusing of weak shock waves at a fold caustic.  

PubMed

An accelerating supersonic aircraft produces noisy superboom due to acoustical shock wave focusing at a fold caustic. This phenomenon is modeled by the mixed-type nonlinear Tricomi equation. An innovative experimental simulation in a water tank has been carried out, with perfect similitude to sonic boom in air. In the linear regime, the canonical Airy function is reproduced using the inverse filter technique. In the nonlinear regime (weak shock waves), the experiment demonstrates the key role of nonlinear effects: they limit the field amplitude, distort the sonic line, and strongly alter the phase of the signal, in agreement with numerical simulations. PMID:14611285

Marchiano, Régis; Thomas, Jean-Louis; Coulouvrat, François

2003-10-31

238

Computational analysis of coupled fluid, heat, and mass transport in ferrocyanide single-shell tanks: FY 1994 interim report. Ferrocyanide Tank Safety Project  

SciTech Connect

A computer modeling study was conducted to determine whether natural convection processes in single-shell tanks containing ferrocyanide wastes could generate localized precipitation zones that significantly concentrate the major heat-generating radionuclide, {sup 137}Cs. A computer code was developed that simulates coupled fluid, heat, and single-species mass transport on a regular, orthogonal finite-difference grid. The analysis showed that development of a ``hot spot`` is critically dependent on the temperature dependence for the solubility of Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} or CsNaNiFe(CN){sub 6}. For the normal case, where solubility increases with increasing temperature, the net effect of fluid flow, heat, and mass transport is to disperse any local zones of high heat generation rate. As a result, hot spots cannot physically develop for this case. However, assuming a retrograde solubility dependence, the simulations indicate the formation of localized deposition zones that concentrate the {sup 137}Cs near the bottom center of the tank where the temperatures are highest. Recent experimental studies suggest that Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6}(c) does not exhibit retrograde solubility over the temperature range 25{degree}C to 90{degree}C and NaOH concentrations to 5 M. Assuming these preliminary results are confirmed, no natural mass transport process exists for generating a hot spot in the ferrocyanide single-shell tanks.

McGrail, B.P.

1994-11-01

239

Tank 241-C-106 sluicing project W-320 integrity assessment report  

SciTech Connect

This Integrity Assessment Report is prepared by ICF Kaiser Hanford Co. (ICFKH) for Westinqhouse Hanford Company (WHC), operations contractor and the Department of Energy (DOE), the system owner. It is a revision of the original report dated 10/26/94 (ICFKH Transmittal TR-W-320-295). The original project scope has been modified, necessitating with WAC-173-303-640.

Symons, G.A., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-02-11

240

Interior view, looking up toward project west at the heavy ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view, looking up toward project west at the heavy timber joists and center beam supporting the wood water tank. Note the iron compression bands around the perimeter of the tank. Note also the iron (steel?) water fill pipe for the tank, bent to fit between the joists and the tank wall. - East Broad Top Railroad & Company, Water Tank at Coles Station, East Broad Top Railroad & Company (at Milepost 24.3), 0.5 miles east of Coles Valley Road, Saltillo, Huntingdon County, PA

241

Technical safety requirments for the South Tank Farm Remediation Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South Tank Farm (STF) is a series of six, 170,000-gal underground, domed storage tanks that were placed into service in 1943. The tanks were constructed of a concrete mixture known as gunite. They were used as a portion of the Liquid LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLLW) System for the collection, neutralization, storage, and transfer of the aqueous portion of the radioactive

Platfoot

1998-01-01

242

Technical safety requirements for the South Tank Farm remediation project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South Tank Farm (STF) is a series of six, 170,000-gal underground, domed storage tanks that were placed into service in 1943. The tanks were constructed of a concrete mixture known as gunite. They were used as a portion of the Liquid LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW) System for the collection, neutralization, storage, and transfer of the aqueous portion of the radioactive

Platfoot

1999-01-01

243

TANK 21 AND TANK 24 BLEND AND FEED STUDY: BLENDING TIMES, SETTLING TIMES, AND TRANSFERS  

SciTech Connect

The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where salt solutions of up to 1.2 million gallons will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. In particular, Tanks 21 and 24 are planned to be used for blending and transferring to the SDI feed tank. These tanks were evaluated here to determine blending times, to determine a range of settling times for disturbed sludge, and to determine that the SWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria that less than 1200 mg/liter of solids will be entrained in salt solutions during transfers from the Tank 21 and Tank 24 will be met. Overall conclusions for Tank 21 and Tank 24 operations include: (1) Experimental correction factors were applied to CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models to establish blending times between approximately two and five hours. As shown in Phase 2 research, blending times may be as much as ten times greater, or more, if lighter fluids are added to heavier fluids (i.e., water added to salt solution). As the densities of two salt solutions converge this effect may be minimized, but additional confirmatory research was not performed. (2) At the current sludge levels and the presently planned operating heights of the transfer pumps, solids entrainment will be less than 1200 mg/liter, assuming a conservative, slow settling sludge simulant. (3) Based on theoretical calculations, particles in the density range of 2.5 to 5.0 g/mL must be greater than 2-4 {micro}m in diameter to ensure they settle adequately in 30-60 days to meet the SWPF feed criterion (<1200 mg/l). (4) Experimental tests with sludge batch 6 simulant and field turbidity data from a recent Tank 21 mixing evolution suggest the solid particles have higher density and/or larger size than indicated by previous analysis of SRS sludge and sludge simulants. (5) Tank 21 waste characterization, laboratory settling tests, and additional field turbidity measurements during mixing evolutions are recommended to better understand potential risk for extended (> 60 days) settling times in Tank 21.

Lee, S.; Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.

2012-05-31

244

El Dorado County Water Systems Energy Generation Project  

E-print Network

El Dorado County Water Systems Energy Generation Project RENEWABLE ENERGY RESEARCH www.energy.ca.gov/research/renewable/ May 2011 The Issue The water supply, conveyance, treatment, and hydroelectricity generation industry is technologically mature, using durable and proven equipment and methods. However, within most of these water

245

Regional Drinking Water Security District Level Pilot Project  

E-print Network

of western and central Maharashtra have had scanty rainfall this year. As a con- sequence, it is likely. This stress will create a composite set of demands: domestic water, water and fodder for cattle, livelihoods. The central objective of the project will be to ensure regional drinking water security for a district

Sohoni, Milind

246

Project W-314 specific test and evaluation plan for AZ tank farm upgrades  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made by the addition of the SN-631 transfer line from the AZ-O1A pit to the AZ-02A pit by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system`s performance to the established

Hays

1998-01-01

247

INL Bettis Water Treatment Project Report  

SciTech Connect

Bechtel Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory (Bettis), West Mifflin, PA, requested that the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) (Battelle Energy Alliance) perform tests using water simulants and three specified media to determine if those ion-exchange (IX) resins will be effective at removing the plutonium contamination from water. This report details the testing and results of the tests to determine the suitability of the media to treat plutonium contaminated water at near nuetral pH.

Not Available

2009-06-01

248

Project health and safety plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) policy is to provide a safe and healthful workplace for all employees and subcontractors. The accomplishment of this policy requires that operations at the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) in the North and South Tank Farms (NTF and STF) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory are guided by

Abston

1997-01-01

249

Best Practices: Restroom Water Efficiency Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Established in 2004, Best Practice Awards are designed to recognize campus groups who have demonstrated a “best practice” in achieving the goals set by the Governor’s Green Building Action Plan, the State Energy Action Plan, and the California Public Utilities Commission. For 2007, in the category of UC\\/CSU Water Efficiency and Site Water Quality Best Practice Award, San Francisco State

Fred Bockmiller

2008-01-01

250

Impact of rural water projects on hygienic behaviour in Swaziland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Swaziland, access to safe water supply and sanitation has improved significantly and was expected to result in improved health and, in particular, reduced infant mortality rates. On the contrary, mortality rates in the under 5 years age group are high and have doubled from 60 in 1996, to 120 deaths per 1000 in 2006. The main objective of the study was to assess whether the water projects permit, and are accompanied by, changes in hygienic behaviour to prevent transmission of diseases. The study area was Phonjwane, located in the dry Lowveld of Swaziland, where water projects play a significant role in meeting domestic water demands. Hygienic behaviour and sanitation facilities were analysed and compared before and after project. The results of the study show that domestic water supply projects have significantly reduced distances travelled and time taken to collect water, and that increased quantities of water are collected and used. While the majority of respondents (95.6%) used the domestic water project source, the quantities allowed per household (125 l which translates to an average of 20.8 l per person) were insufficient and therefore were supplemented with harvested rainwater (57.8%), water from a polluted river (17.8%), and water from a dam (2.2%). Increased water quantities have permitted more baths and washing of clothes and hands, but significant proportions of the population still skip hygienic practices such as keeping water for washing hands inside or near toilet facilities (40%) and washing hands (20%). The study concludes that the water supply project has permitted and improved hygienic practices but not sufficiently. The health benefits of safe domestic water supplies are hampered by insufficient quantities of water availed through the projects, possible contamination of the water in the house, poor hygienic behaviours and lack of appropriate sanitation measures by some households. There is a need to provide sufficient quantities of safe water to meet all domestic demands. Domestic water supply must be accompanied by appropriate sanitation and hygienic education.

Peter, Graciana

251

Handbook on the Economic Analysis of Water Supply Projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Handbook on the Economic Analysis of Water Supply Projects was written for non-economists working in the planning, implementation, and management of water supplies. Created by the Asian Development Bank, the handbook is a resource guide to help staff of government agencies, financing institutions, and water utilities understand the principles of economic analysis of water supply projects. Written in easy-to-understand language, the handbook consists of nine chapters, each with separate tables of contents, with titles such as "Least Cost Analysis," "Demand Analysis and Forecasting," and "Sensitivity and Risk Analysis." Each chapter is available only in .pdf format and must be downloaded separately. Also included are an appendix and glossary.

1999-01-01

252

CALIFORNIA LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS  

EPA Science Inventory

Points represent Leaking Underground Storage Tanks (LUST) for the State of California. This database was developed and is maintained by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). Point locations represent tanks where leak events have occurred. Tank latitude-long...

253

Water Resources Research Grant Program project descriptions, fiscal year 1986  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Information is presented on the 43 projects funded by the United States Geological Survey 's Water Resources Grant Program in fiscal year 1986. The report gives the grant number; project title; performing organization; principal investigator(s); dates; and a project description which includes (1) identification of the water related problems and problem-solution approach, (2) contribution to problem solution, (3) objectives, (4) approach, and (5) result users. The 43 projects include 14 in the area of groundwater management, 6 in surface-water management, 2 in systems-operating/planning, 3 in irrigation management, 8 in desalination/reuse, 6 in economic/institutional studies, and 4 in climate variability. The reports contain tables showing (1) funding according to research topic, (2) projects funded to type of submitting organization, (3) proposals received, research topic, and funding levels, and (4) submitting organization. A comparison is given to fiscal year 1985 in each case. (USGS)

Branch of Research Grants and Contracts

1986-01-01

254

NACA Tow Tank  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

L4695 shows the interior view of construction of the Tow Tank. In the late 1920s, the NACA decided to investigate the aero/hydro dynamics of floats for seaplanes. A Hydrodynamics Branch was established in 1929 and special towing basin was authorized in March of that same year. Starr Truscott (the first head of the new division) described the tank in NACA TR 470: 'The N.A.C.A. tank is of the Froude type; that is, the model which is being tested is towed through still water at successive constant speeds from a carriage spanning the tank. At each constant speed the towing pull is measured, the trim and the rise, or change of draft, are recorded and, if the model is being towed at a fixed trim, the moment required to hold it there is measured and recorded.' 'The reinforced concrete basin containing the water has the following dimensions: (1) Length on water, extreme, 2,020 feet; (2) Normal width of water surface, 24 feet; (3) Normal depth of water, 12 feet; (4) Length of 12 foot depth, 1,980 feet.' This picture shows the tank before the coving was added. This brought the rails for the carriage closer together and helped suppress waves produced by the models. The finished tank would be filled with approximately 4 million gallons of salt water pumped in from the Back River. The tank was covered by a shelter which protected the water surface. The tank was dedicated on May 27, 1931. In 1936 the tank was extended to a total length of 2,960 feet. In 1959 the facility was turned over to the U.S. Navy.

1930-01-01

255

Tow Tank #1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digging the channel for the Tow Tank. In the late 1920s, the NACA decided to investigate the aero/hydro dynamics of floats for seaplanes. A Hydrodynamics Branch was established in 1929 and special towing basin was authorized in March of that same year. Starr Truscott (the first head of the new division) described the tank in NACA TR 470: 'The N.A.C.A. tank is of the Froude type; that is, the model which is being tested is towed through still water at successive constant speeds from a carriage spanning the tank. At each constant speed the towing pull is measured, the trim and the rise, or change of draft, are recorded and, if the model is being towed at a fixed trim, the moment required to hold it there is measured and recorded.' 'The reinforced concrete basin containing the water has the following dimensions: (1) Length on water, extreme, 2,020 feet; (2) Normal width of water surface, 24 feet; (3) Normal depth of water, 12 feet; (4) Length of 12 foot depth, 1,980 feet.' The tank was dedicated on May 27, 1931. In 1936 the tank was extended to a total length of 2,960 feet. In 1959 the facility was turned over to the U.S. Navy.Published in NACA TR No. 470, 'The N.A.C.A. Tank: A High-Speed Towing Basin for Testing Models of Seaplane Floats,' by Starr Truscott, 1933.

1930-01-01

256

UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Slick Rock, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) provides the regulatory and technical basis for ground water and surface water sampling at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Union Carbide (UC) and North Continent (NC) processing sites and the proposed Burro Canyon disposal site near Slick Rock, Colorado for the upcoming year. It identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, and sampling frequencies. The WSAP bridges water quality characterization and data collection objectives for the surface remediation program (Subpart A) and the ground water compliance program (Subpart B) identified in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994).

Not Available

1994-08-01

257

Perched-Water Evaluation for the Deep Vadose Zone Beneath the B, BX, and BY Tank Farms Area of the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

Perched-water conditions have been observed in the vadose zone above a fine-grained zone that is located a few meters above the water table within the B, BX, and BY Tank Farms area. The perched water contains elevated concentrations of uranium and technetium-99. This perched-water zone is important to consider in evaluating the future flux of contaminated water into the groundwater. The study described in this report was conducted to examine the perched-water conditions and quantitatively evaluate 1) factors that control perching behavior, 2) contaminant flux toward groundwater, and 3) associated groundwater impact.

Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Carroll, KC; Chronister, Glen B.

2013-06-28

258

Native Waters: An American Indian Water Resource Education Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This community education initiative supports the efforts of Native American tribal leaders, educators, and students to develop contemporary, scientifically accurate, and culturally sensitive water education resources, programs, and networking opportunities. A traveling exhibit provides a Native American point of view on protection and conservation of water resources. A teachers' guide is provided to accompany the exhibit. Other materials include learning opportunities for students and educators, news articles, publications, scholarship information, and links to related information.

2004-01-01

259

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT ESTABLISHMENT OF METHODOLOGY FOR TIME DOMAIN SOIL STRUCTURE INTERACTION ANALYSIS OF HANFORD DST  

SciTech Connect

M&D Professional Services, Inc. (M&D) is under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to perform seismic analysis of the Hanford Site Double-Shell Tanks (DSTs) in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank DSV Integrity Project-DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The work statement provided to M&D (PNNL 2003) required that the seismic analysis of the DST assess the impacts of potentially non-conservative assumptions in previous analyses and account for the additional soil mass due to the as-found soil density increase, the effects of material degradation, additional thermal profiles applied to the full structure including the soil-structure response with the footings, the non-rigid (low frequency) response of the tank roof, the asymmetric seismic-induced soil loading, the structural discontinuity between the concrete tank wall and the support footing and the sloshing of the tank waste. The seismic analysis considers the interaction of the tank with the surrounding soil, and the effects of the primary tank contents. The DST and the surrounding soil are modeled as a system of finite elements. The depth and width of the soil incorporated into the analysis model are sufficient to obtain appropriately accurate analytical results. The analyses required to support the work statement differ from previous analysis of the DSTs in that the soil-structure interaction (SSI) model includes several (nonlinear) contact surfaces in the tank structure, and the contained waste must be modeled explicitly in order to capture the fluid-structure interaction behavior between the primary tank and contained waste. Soil-structure interaction analyses are traditionally solved in the frequency domain, but frequency domain analysis is limited to systems with linear responses. The nonlinear character of the coupled SSI model and tank structural model requires that the seismic analysis be solved in the time domain. However, time domain SSI analysis is somewhat nontraditional and requires that the appropriate methodology be developed and demonstrated. Moreover, the analysis of seismically induced fluid-structure interaction between the explicitly modeled waste and the primary tank must be benchmarked against known solutions to simpler problems before being applied to the more complex analysis of the DSTs. The objective of this investigation is to establish the methodology necessary to perform the required SSI analysis of the DSTs in the time domain. Specifically, the analysis establishes the capabilities and limitations of the time domain codes ANSYS and Dytran for performing seismic SSI analysis of the DSTs. The benchmarking of the codes Dytran and ANSYS for performing seismically induced fluid-structure interaction (FSI) between the contained waste and the DST primary tank are documented in Abatt (2006) and Carpenter and Abatt (2006), respectively. The results of those two studies show that both codes have the capability to analyze the fluid-structure interaction behavior of the primary tank and contained waste. As expected, Dytran appears to have more robust capabilities for FSI analysis. The ANSYS model used in that study captures much of the FSI behavior, but does have some limitations for predicting the convective response of the waste and possibly the response of the waste in the knuckle region of the primary tank. While Dytran appears to have somewhat stronger capabilities for the analysis of the FSI behavior in the primary tank, it is more practical for the overall analysis to use ANSYS. Thus, Dytran served the purpose of helping to identify limitations in the ANSYS FSI analysis so that those limitations can be addressed in the structural evaluation of the primary tank. The limitations of ANSYS for predicting the details of the convective

MACKEY, T.C.

2006-03-14

260

UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Tuba City, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Tuba City, Arizona, are described in the following sections of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP). This plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the stations routinely monitored at the site. The ground water data are used for site characterization and risk assessment. The regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and the final EPA standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), and the most effective technical approach for the site.

NONE

1996-02-01

261

Secondary containment large fertilizer storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

The large quantities of fertilizer and pesticide, which are handled by retail facilities, have made these operations the target of regulations aimed at protecting water supplies. These regulations and dealers` desire to protect water supplies have made environmental protection a primary concern. Currently, nine states have adopted regulations which require secondary containment of fertilizers and agrichemicals. An additional seven states are developing regulations. Volume requirements and performance specifications of secondary containment structures for fertilizer storage tanks are included in all regulations. Among the different containment problems presented by retail sites, the large tanks (tanks with capacities greater than 100,000 gallons) present the greatest challenge for design and cost evaluation to determine the most effective containment system. The objective of this paper is to provide secondary containment designs for large fertilizer tanks using readily available construction materials. These designs may be innovative to some extent, but they must incorporate field experience and knowledge from trials, errors, and successful installations for existing and newly constructed fertilizer storage tanks. Case studies are presented to indicate projected costs for these alternatives.

Waddell, E.L.; Broder, M.F.

1991-12-31

262

Secondary containment large fertilizer storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

The large quantities of fertilizer and pesticide, which are handled by retail facilities, have made these operations the target of regulations aimed at protecting water supplies. These regulations and dealers' desire to protect water supplies have made environmental protection a primary concern. Currently, nine states have adopted regulations which require secondary containment of fertilizers and agrichemicals. An additional seven states are developing regulations. Volume requirements and performance specifications of secondary containment structures for fertilizer storage tanks are included in all regulations. Among the different containment problems presented by retail sites, the large tanks (tanks with capacities greater than 100,000 gallons) present the greatest challenge for design and cost evaluation to determine the most effective containment system. The objective of this paper is to provide secondary containment designs for large fertilizer tanks using readily available construction materials. These designs may be innovative to some extent, but they must incorporate field experience and knowledge from trials, errors, and successful installations for existing and newly constructed fertilizer storage tanks. Case studies are presented to indicate projected costs for these alternatives.

Waddell, E.L.; Broder, M.F.

1991-01-01

263

Key Experiences in Developing a Sustainable Water Distribution and Filtration Project in Rural Honduras: A New Paradigm in "Service Learning"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Southern California chapter of Engineers Without Borders (EWBUSC) was formed in the fall of 2006. Within six months of its charter approval, the chapter obtained, assessed, and began raising funds for a water project in the village of La Estanzuela, Honduras. Since the village has no electricity, the design process began with a ram-pump to transport water from a nearby waterfall to a tank at the center of the village. A number of tasks were defined for the assessment trip, which was taken in March 2007. Technical measurements included terrain GPS samples, river flow rates and multiple water samplings and testing. A preliminary system design was formulated, and a community health survey was administered. The data are being analyzed to finalize system design and establish baseline health and water quality measurements. Planning for a final assessment trip in March of 2008 has also been finalized. EWB-USC is partnering this effort with a number of humanitarian organizations, and the International Rotary Organizations Decade of Water Improvement to provide some of the supplies and equipments for this project. This paper highlights the key experiences in organizational development, project funding, trip planning, assessment trip and lays out a five-year project plan for our future efforts. The hope is that through exposure to these experiences, other newly formed EWB student organizations will plan for their activities in a more efficient and responsive way.

John, Alex; Rahimi, Mansour

2009-09-11

264

Sidewall-box airlift pump provides large flows for aeration, CO2 stripping, and water rotation in large dual-drain circular tanks  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conventional gas transfer technologies for aquaculture systems occupy a large amount of space, require a considerable capital investment, and can contribute to high electricity demand. In addition, diffused aeration in a circular culture tank can interfere with the hydrodynamics of water rotation a...

265

Tow Tank #1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digging the channel for the Tow Tank. In the late 1920s, the NACA decided to investigate the aero/hydro dynamics of floats for seaplanes. A Hydrodynamics Branch was established in 1929 and special towing basin was authorized in March of that same year. Starr Truscott (the first head of the new division) described the tank in NACA TR 470: 'The N.A.C.A. tank is of the Froude type; that is, the model which is being tested is towed through still water at successive constant speeds from a carriage spanning the tank. At each constant speed the towing pull is measured, the trim and the rise, or change of draft, are recorded and, if the model is being towed at a fixed trim, the moment required to hold it there is measured and recorded.' 'The reinforced concrete basin containing the water has the following dimensions: (1) Length on water, extreme, 2,020 feet; (2) Normal width of water surface, 24 feet; (3) Normal depth of water, 12 feet; (4) Length of 12 foot depth, 1,980 feet.' The tank was dedicated on May 27, 1931. In 1936 the tank was extended to a total length of 2,960 feet. In 1959 the facility was turned over to the U.S. Navy.

1930-01-01

266

TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT  

SciTech Connect

Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

2009-08-11

267

UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Monument Valley, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

The Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Cane Valley is a former uranium mill that has undergone surface remediation in the form of tailings and contaminated materials removal. Contaminated materials from the Monument Valley (Arizona) UMTRA Project site have been transported to the Mexican Hat (Utah) UMTRA Project site for consolidation with the Mexican Hat tailings. Tailings removal was completed in February 1994. Three geologic units at the site contain water: the unconsolidated eolian and alluvial deposits (alluvial aquifer), the Shinarump Conglomerate (Shinarump Member), and the De Chelly Sandstone. Water quality analyses indicate the contaminant plume has migrated north of the site and is mainly in the alluvial aquifer. An upward hydraulic gradient in the De Chelly Sandstone provides some protection to that aquifer. This water sampling and analysis plan recommends sampling domestic wells, monitor wells, and surface water in April and September 1994. The purpose of sampling is to continue periodic monitoring for the surface program, evaluate changes to water quality for site characterization, and provide data for the baseline risk assessment. Samples taken in April will be representative of high ground water levels and samples taken in September will be representative of low ground water levels. Filtered and nonfiltered samples will be analyzed for plume indicator parameters and baseline risk assessment parameters.

Not Available

1994-04-01

268

Effects of heat exchanger tube geometries on nucleate pool boiling heat transfer in a scaled in-containment refueling water storage tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the combined effects of the heat exchanger tube geometries of advanced light water reactors (ALWRs) passive residual heat removal system (PRHRS) on the nucleate pool boiling heat transfer in a scaled in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST), a total of 1,966 data (1,076 with horizontal tubes and 890 with vertical tubes) for q? versus ?T has been obtained

Moon-Hyun Chun; Myeong-Gie Kang

1996-01-01

269

In-tank recirculating arsenic treatment system  

DOEpatents

A low-cost, water treatment system and method for reducing arsenic contamination in small community water storage tanks. Arsenic is removed by using a submersible pump, sitting at the bottom of the tank, which continuously recirculates (at a low flow rate) arsenic-contaminated water through an attached and enclosed filter bed containing arsenic-sorbing media. The pump and treatment column can be either placed inside the tank (In-Tank) by manually-lowering through an access hole, or attached to the outside of the tank (Out-of-Tank), for easy replacement of the sorption media.

Brady, Patrick V. (Albuquerque, NM); Dwyer, Brian P. (Albuquerque, NM); Krumhansl, James L. (Albuquerque, NM); Chwirka, Joseph D. (Tijeras, NM)

2009-04-07

270

Project W-211, initial tank retrieval systems, description of operations for 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of the Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is to provide systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes stored in underground double-shell tanks (DSTS) for transfer to alternate storage, evaporation, pretreatment or treatment, while concurrently reducing risks associated with safety watch list and other DSTs. This Description of Operations (DOO) defines the control philosophy for the waste retrieval system for tanks 241-AP-102 (AP-102) and 241-AP-104 (AP-104). This DOO will provide a basis for the detailed design of the Retrieval Control System (RCS) for AP-102 and AP-104 and establishes test criteria for the RCS. The test criteria will be used during qualification testing and acceptance testing to verify operability.

RIECK, C.A.

1999-02-25

271

Evaluation of an ultra low-flow water delivery system for small experimental tanks  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An ultra low-flow water delivery system was developed and tested for use in research studies requiring low-flow in small water volumes. Small test systems save on the amount of fish, chemicals, and biologics needed in disease challenge and treatment experiments. The ultra low-flow system, comprise...

272

Topographic internal waves in the laboratory: two experiments carried in the CNRM-GAME stratified water tank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geophysical fluid dynamics laboratory of the French meteorological service research center ( CNRM-GAME, URA1357 Meteo-France and CNRS ) provides facilities for fundamental and applied study of homogeneous, stratified and/or rotating flows. The research activities of the team focus on atmospheric boundary layers and internal gravity waves. Two recent experiments related to topographic internal waves are presented here. The CNRM-GAME stratified water flume is a unique facility to study neutral or stratified flows ( e.g. [1] ). It has been specially designed to generate accurate and exhaustive datasets on flows similar to the atmospheric or oceanic ones under perfectly controlled conditions. It is thus a good extension of field experiments which are limited by the fact that data are scattered and conditions are not well controlled. This 30 m long, 3 m wide and 1.6 m deep density-stratified water flume can also be operated as a towing tank filled with water or with density-stratified brines. Experiments have been recently carried out in order to investigate internal solitary waves generated over an oceanic ridge in a configuration close to the one used by Dossmann et al. 2011 ( [2] ), but in a much larger tank. These waves are quite frequent in some areas, and can have a strong impact on sea structures. They also influence the oceanic dynamics and are difficult to parameterize. An extensive dataset has been collected on waves generated at a pycnocline by direct interaction of a barotropic tide with a ridge. Various flow regimes have been observed, including soliton and train of solitons. The case where these waves are generated by an internal wave beam impinging on a pycnocline has also been explored. Another recent set of experiments ( see [3] and [4] ) deals with two inter-related aspects of flow over orography in the atmosphere: the structure of the flow-field and the pressure drag exerted on the oncoming flow. The latter is of particular importance to oceanographers, climate modelers and researchers involved in the development of numerical weather prediction models, because of the need to parameterize the drag exerted by orography. These experiments have been inspired by a theoretical model which predicts the structure of internal waves and the drag exerted by a mountain on the atmosphere from a small set of parameters. A complementary numerical study is ongoing in order to better analyze the data.

Paci, A.; Dossmann, Y.; Auclair, F.; Johnson, E. R.; Lacaze, L.; Belleudy, A.; Colin, J.; Esler, J. G.

2012-04-01

273

UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Mexican Hat, Utah  

SciTech Connect

The Mexican Hat, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is a former uranium mill that is undergoing surface remediation in the form of on-site tailings stabilization. Contaminated surface materials from the Monument Valley, Arizona, UMTRA Project site have been transported to the Mexican Hat site and are being consolidated with the Mexican Hat tailings. The scheduled completion of the tailings disposal cell is August 1995. Water is found in two geologic units at the site: the Halgaito Shale Formation and the Honaker Trail Formation. The tailings rest on the Halgaito Shale, and water contained in that unit is a result of milling activities and, to a lesser extent, water released from the tailings from compaction during remedial action construction of the disposal cell. Water in the Halgaito Shale flows through fractures and discharges at seeps along nearby arroyos. Flow from the seeps will diminish as water drains from the unit. Ground water in the lower unit, the Honaker Trail Formation, is protected from contamination by an upward hydraulic gradient. There are no nearby water supply wells because of widespread poor background ground water quality and quantity, and the San Juan River shows no impacts from the site. This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) recommends sampling six seeps and one upgradient monitor well compared in the Honaker Trail Formation. Samples will be taken in April 1994 (representative of high group water levels) and September 1994 (representative of low ground water levels). Analyses will be performed on filtered samples for plume indicator parameters.

Not Available

1994-04-01

274

Geospatial application of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

At the hillslope profile and/or field scale, a simple Windows graphical user interface (GUI) is available to easily specify the slope, soil, and management inputs for application of the USDA Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model. Likewise, basic small watershed configurations of a few hillsl...

275

Water Resources Research Grant Program project descriptions, fiscal year 1985  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Information on each of the 24 projects funded by the U.S. Geological Survey in FY 1985 under section 105 of Public Law 93-242 (the Water Resources Research Act of 1984) is presented, including the grant number, organization, the period of performance, and a brief description of the work to be carried out. (Lantz-PTT)

U.S. Geological Survey Branch of Research Grants and Contracts

1985-01-01

276

46 CFR 58.50-10 - Diesel fuel tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (1) Prior to installation, tanks vented to the atmosphere shall... feet in height attached to the tank may be filled with water to accomplish the 5 pounds...test. Permanent deformation of the tank will not be cause for...

2011-10-01

277

46 CFR 58.50-10 - Diesel fuel tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (1) Prior to installation, tanks vented to the atmosphere shall... feet in height attached to the tank may be filled with water to accomplish the 5 pounds...test. Permanent deformation of the tank will not be cause for...

2012-10-01

278

46 CFR 58.50-10 - Diesel fuel tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (1) Prior to installation, tanks vented to the atmosphere shall... feet in height attached to the tank may be filled with water to accomplish the 5 pounds...test. Permanent deformation of the tank will not be cause for...

2013-10-01

279

Pandemic serotypes of Vibrio cholerae isolated from ships' ballast tanks and coastal waters: assessment of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes (tcpA and ctxA).  

PubMed

There is concern that ships' ballasting operations may disseminate Vibrio cholerae to ports throughout the world. Given evidence that the bacterium is indeed transported by ships, we isolated pandemic serotypes O1 and O139 from ballast tanks and characterized them with respect to antibiotic resistance and virulence genes ctxA and tcpA. We carried out concurrent studies with V. cholerae isolated from coastal waters. Of 284 isolates, 30 were serotype O1 and 59 were serotype O139. These serotypes were overrepresented in ballast tanks relative to the coastal waters sampled. All locations, whether coastal waters or ballast tanks, yielded samples from which serotype O1, O139, or both were isolated. There were three groups among the 62 isolates for which antibiotic characterization was conclusive: those exhibiting ?-lactamase activity and resistance to at least one of the 12 antibiotics tested; those negative for ?-lactamase but having antibiotic resistance; those negative for ?-lactamase and registering no antibiotic resistance. When present, antibiotic resistance in nearly all cases was to ampicillin; resistance to multiple antibiotics was uncommon. PCR assays revealed that none of the isolates contained the ctxA gene and only two isolates, one O139 and one O1, contained the tcpA gene; both isolates originated from ballast water. These results support the bacteriological regulations proposed by the International Maritime Association for discharged ballast water. PMID:23361528

Dobbs, Fred C; Goodrich, Amanda L; Thomson, Frank K; Hynes, Wayne

2013-05-01

280

Impact of water control projects on fisheries resources in Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bangladesh is a very flat delta built up by the Ganges—Brahmaputra—Meghna/Barak river systems. Because of its geographical location, floods cause huge destruction of lives and properties almost every year. Water control programs have been undertaken to enhance development through mitigating the threat of disasters. This structural approach to flood hazard has severely affected floodplain fisheries that supply the major share of protein to rural Bangladesh, as exemplified by the Chandpur Irrigation Project. Although the regulated environment of the Chandpur project has become favorable for closed-water cultured fish farming, the natural open-water fishery loss has been substantial. Results from research show that fish yields were better under preproject conditions. Under project conditions per capita fish consumption has dropped significantly, and the price of fish has risen beyond the means of the poor people, so that fish protein in the diet of poor people is gradually declining. Bangladesh is planning to expand water control facilities to the remaining flood-prone areas in the next 15 20 years. This will cause further loss of floodplain fisheries. If prices for closed-water fish remain beyond the buying power of the poor, alternative sources of cheap protein will be required.

Mirza, Monirul Qader; Ericksen, Neil J.

1996-07-01

281

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: RAIL TANK CAR, TANK TRUCK, AND DRUM CLEANING, STATE-OF-THE-ART  

EPA Science Inventory

This document reviews the state of the art of air emissions and water pollutants from cleaning rail tank cars, tank trucks, and drums. Composition, quantity, and rate of emissions and pollutants are described. Rail tank cars, tank trucks, and drums are used to transport chemical ...

282

Ensemble approach for projections of return periods of extreme water levels in Estonian waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of various drivers to the water level in the eastern Baltic Sea and the presence of outliers in the time series of observed and hindcast water level lead to large spreading of projections of future extreme water levels. We explore the options for using an ensemble of projections to more reliably evaluate return periods of extreme water levels. An example of such an ensemble is constructed by means of fitting several sets of block maxima (annual maxima and stormy season maxima) with a Generalised Extreme Value, Gumbel and Weibull distribution. The ensemble involves projections based on two data sets (resolution of 6 h and 1 h) hindcast by the Rossby Centre Ocean model (RCO; Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute) and observed data from four representative sites along the Estonian coast. The observed data are transferred into the grid cells of the RCO model using the HIROMB model and a linear regression. For coastal segments where the observations represent the offshore water level well, the overall appearance of the ensembles signals that the errors of single projections are randomly distributed and that the median of the ensemble provides a sensible projection. For locations where the observed water level involves local effects (e.g. wave set-up) the block maxima are split into clearly separated populations. The resulting ensemble consists of two distinct clusters, the difference between which can be interpreted as a measure of the impact of local features on the water level observations.

Eelsalu, Maris; Soomere, Tarmo; Pindsoo, Katri; Lagemaa, Priidik

2014-12-01

283

U.S. Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project: Project plan  

SciTech Connect

The scope of the Project is to develop and implement a ground water compliance strategy for all 24 UMTRA Project processing sites. The compliance strategy for the processing sites must satisfy the proposed EPA ground water cleanup standards in 40 CFR Part 192, Subparts B and C (1987). This scope of work will entail the following activities on a site-specific basis: Develop a compliance strategy based on modification of the UMTRA Surface Project RAPs or develop Ground Water Project RAPs with NRC concurrence on the RAP and full participation of the affected states and tribes. Implement the RAP to include institutional controls, where appropriate, as an interim measure until compliance with the standards is achieved. Institute long-term verification monitoring for transfer to a separate long-term surveillance program on or before the Project end date. Prepare certification or confirmation reports and modify the long-term surveillance plan (LTSP), where needed, on those sites completed prior to the Project end date.

Not Available

1994-09-01

284

Waste tank sample transport  

SciTech Connect

Since 1943, radioactive liquid waste has been stored in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The waste was the result of chemical separation processes for the production of fissile defense materials. Associated with the current environmental cleanup mission, waste characterization and processing programs are requiring the extraction of samples from the tanks. Approved onsite packaging are in place and in use for transfers of samples from the tanks to onsite laboratories. Initiatives are under way to develop and procure packaging for sample shipments to offsite laboratories. This paper will provide a current status of the tank sample packaging used at the Hanford Site, as well as the project status for new packaging to be used for offsite shipments.

Field, J.G.; Mercado, M.S.; Smith, R.J.; Thornton, J.W.

1994-08-01

285

Pressurizer tank upper support  

DOEpatents

A pressurizer tank in a pressurized water nuclear reactor is mounted between structural walls of the reactor on a substructure of the reactor, the tank extending upwardly from the substructure. For bearing lateral loads such as seismic shocks, a girder substantially encircles the pressurizer tank at a space above the substructure and is coupled to the structural walls via opposed sway struts. Each sway strut is attached at one end to the girder and at an opposite end to one of the structural walls, and the sway struts are oriented substantially horizontally in pairs aligned substantially along tangents to the wall of the circular tank. Preferably, eight sway struts attach to the girder at 90[degree] intervals. A compartment encloses the pressurizer tank and forms the structural wall. The sway struts attach to corners of the compartment for maximum stiffness and load bearing capacity. A valve support frame carrying the relief/discharge piping and valves of an automatic depressurization arrangement is fixed to the girder, whereby lateral loads on the relief/discharge piping are coupled directly to the compartment rather than through any portion of the pressurizer tank. Thermal insulation for the valve support frame prevents thermal loading of the piping and valves. The girder is shimmed to define a gap for reducing thermal transfer, and the girder is free to move vertically relative to the compartment walls, for accommodating dimensional variation of the pressurizer tank with changes in temperature and pressure. 10 figures.

Baker, T.H.; Ott, H.L.

1994-01-11

286

Pressurizer tank upper support  

DOEpatents

A pressurizer tank in a pressurized water nuclear reactor is mounted between structural walls of the reactor on a substructure of the reactor, the tank extending upwardly from the substructure. For bearing lateral loads such as seismic shocks, a girder substantially encircles the pressurizer tank at a space above the substructure and is coupled to the structural walls via opposed sway struts. Each sway strut is attached at one end to the girder and at an opposite end to one of the structural walls, and the sway struts are oriented substantially horizontally in pairs aligned substantially along tangents to the wall of the circular tank. Preferably, eight sway struts attach to the girder at 90.degree. intervals. A compartment encloses the pressurizer tank and forms the structural wall. The sway struts attach to corners of the compartment for maximum stiffness and load bearing capacity. A valve support frame carrying the relief/discharge piping and valves of an automatic depressurization arrangement is fixed to the girder, whereby lateral loads on the relief/discharge piping are coupled directly to the compartment rather than through any portion of the pressurizer tank. Thermal insulation for the valve support frame prevents thermal loading of the piping and valves. The girder is shimmed to define a gap for reducing thermal transfer, and the girder is free to move vertically relative to the compartment walls, for accommodating dimensional variation of the pressurizer tank with changes in temperature and pressure.

Baker, Tod H. (O'Hara Township, Allegheny County, PA); Ott, Howard L. (Kiski Township, Armstrong County, PA)

1994-01-01

287

Development of a CFD Model for Secondary Final Settling Tanks in Water Pollution Control Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess performance and evaluate alternatives to improve efficiency of the New York City the Wards Island Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) FSTs at peak loads, a 3D CFD model has been developed. Fluent was utilized as the base platform, where sub-models of the Suspended Solids (SS), settling characteristics, density currents and SS flocculation were incorporated. This was supplemented by

Minwei Gong; Savvas Xanthos; Krish Ramalingam; John Fillos

2007-01-01

288

STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN BUILDING B51 AND BEVATRON DEMOLITION PROJECT  

E-print Network

STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN FOR: BUILDING B51 AND BEVATRON DEMOLITION PROJECT PROJECT NO;Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) Building B51 and Bevatron Demolition Project Lawrence............................................................................................300-3 300.4 Project Schedule/Water Pollution Control Schedule

289

Three-Tank Level Control Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Three Tank Level Control Model simulates the use of a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller to to achieve a smooth control of the water level in tanks 1 and 2 of the coupled three-tank system. The three coupled tanks system consist in a series of three tanks which are connected in their base by valves. Tanks 1 and 2 are placed in the extremes and receive the water flow which can be controlled either manually or with the PID while tank 3 is placed in the middle and couples the two previous tanks. This EJS simulation is based on a real system running at the Spanish Open University for Distance Education (UNED).  The real three coupled tanks system is used as a remote laboratory for learning purposes and a different application created with EJS (visually identical to this simulation) serves as graphical user interface to operate the remote laboratory.

De La Torre, Luis; Oyarzun, Hector V.

2014-03-18

290

A home away from home: a meiobenthic assemblage in a ship's ballast water tank sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world-wide research on ship-aided dispersal of marine organisms and invasions of non-indigenous species focuses primarily on the plankters, which show the greatest potential for invading new areas and establishing viable populations in them, either in the water column (holoplankton) or on the bottom (meroplanktonic larvae of benthic species settling on the sea floor). As meiobenthic animals usually lack a

Teresa Radziejewska; Piotr Gruszka; Joanna Rokicka-Praxmajer

291

Reuse of drinking water treatment residuals in a continuous stirred tank reactor for phosphate removal from urban wastewater.  

PubMed

This work proposed a new approach of reusing drinking water treatment residuals (WTR) in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) to remove phosphate (P) from urban wastewater. The results revealed that the P removal efficiency of the WTR was more than 94% for urban wastewater, in the condition of initial P concentration (P0) of 10 mg L?¹, hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 h and WTR dosage (M0) of 10 g L?¹. The P mass transfer from the bulk to the solid-liquid interface in the CSTR system increased at lower P0, higher M0 and longer HRT. The P adsorption capacity of WTR from urban wastewater was comparable to that of the 201 × 4 resin and unaffected by ions competition. Moreover, WTR had a limited effect on the metals' (Fe, Al, Zn, Cu, Mn and Ni) concentrations of the urban wastewater. Based on the principle of waste recycling, the reuse of WTR in CSTR is a promising alternative technology for P removal from urban wastewater. PMID:25176310

Bai, Leilei; Wang, Changhui; Pei, Yuansheng; Zhao, Jinbo

2014-01-01

292

Large diameter, deep water pipelay Zeepipe IIA project  

SciTech Connect

The 300 km Zeepipe IIA offshore gas pipeline was installed by European marine Contractors Ltd. for Statoil between the Sleipner A Platform and the Kollsness Terminal tunnel exit in the 1994 and 1995 lay seasons. The route passes through the Norwegian Trench and the highly undulating nearshore area at Oygarden. While smaller pipes have been laid in deeper water, with a diameter of 40 inches and a maximum water depth of 365 meters this pipeline represents the most technically demanding combination of diameter and water depth laid in the world to date. The project faced specific challenges, including high lay tensions, heavily concrete coated pipe, pipeline laydown and recovery in deep water, subsea pockmark and boulder fields, stringent lay tolerances and low residual tension requirements. This paper details the planning, installation engineering, equipment modification and innovations required to achieve successful completion of the pipeline installation.

Farley, S.D.; Sykes, C.; Simons, P. [European Marine Contractors Ltd., Motspur Park (United Kingdom)

1996-12-01

293

Safe drinking water projects integrated information system for rural areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the water supply characteristics in rural areas, it designs a safe drinking water project in this paper. The whole system includes three parts. Those are communication part, automatic control and test part and video surveillance part. Communication part mainly realizes the data transfer between PLC controlled equipment, branch pipeline monitoring and control equipment in the water plant. Automatic control and test part adopts hierarchical, distributed, decentralized structure to remote control and dynamic detect the data on-site. Video Surveillance part can monitor the personnel and equipment condition to guarantee the safe of the whole system. The system takes Visual Studio .NET as the development platform and it entirely bases on the public network B/S structure. From the application, it can be seen that the whole system has the characters of using and maintaining easily, interface simple and friend and it can improve the drinking water condition in rural areas greatly.

Song, Xue-ling; Zhao, Ying-bao; Liu, Chao-ying; Song, Zhe-ying

2009-07-01

294

Tank characterization report for Single-Shell Tank T-102  

SciTech Connect

Tank 241-T-102 (hereafter referred to as T-102) is a 530,000 gallon single-shell waste tank located in the 200 West T Tank farm at the Hanford Site. In 1993, two cores were taken from this tank and analysis of the cores was conducted by Battelle`s 325-A Laboratory. Characterization of the waste in this tank was conducted to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-44-05. Tank T-102 was constructed in 1943 and put into service in 1945; it is the second tank in a cascade system with Tanks T-101 and T-103. During its process history, Tank T-102 received mostly Metal Waste (MW) from the Bismuth Phosphate Process and Coating Waste (CW) from the REDOX Process via the cascade from Tank T-101 and in transfers from Tank C-102. In 1956, the MW was removed from T-102 by pumping and sluicing`. This tank was declared inactive and retired from service in 1976. In 1981, intrusion prevention and stabilization measures were taken to isolate the waste in T-102. The tank presently contains approximately 121,100 liters (32,000 gallons) of liquid and sludge-like waste. Historically, there are no unreviewed safety issues associated with this tank and none were revealed after reviewing the data from the latest core sampling event in 1993. An extensive set of analytical measurements was performed on the core composites. The major constituents (>0.5 wt%) of the waste are water, aluminum, sodium, iron, and nitrate, ordered from the largest concentration to the smallest. The concentrations and inventories of these and other constituents are given. The results of the chemical analyses have been compared to the dangerous waste codes in the Washington Dangerous Waste Regulations (WAC 173-303).

Remund, K.M.; Hartley, S.A.; Toth, J.J.; Tingey, J.M.; Heasler, P.G.; Ryan, F.M.; Simpson, B.C.

1994-09-01

295

Kinetic study of defluoridation of drinking water by electrocoagulation\\/electroflotation in a stirred tank reactor and in an external-loop airlift reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A kinetic study of defluoridation of drinking water was carried out using the electrocoagulation\\/electroflotation process in two batch reactors of identical volume (20L): a stirred tank reactor (STR) and an external-loop airlift reactor (ELALR). When the evolution of fluoride content was independent of stirring speed, experimental results showed that the kinetics of fluoride removal could be modelled using a variable-order-kinetic

A. H. Essadki; B. Gourich; M. Azzi; Ch. Vial; H. Delmas

2010-01-01

296

Development of concept for concurrent biocide generation and water system purification. [with application to Skylab water tanks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attempt was made to construct an electrochemical system, using iodine, for water purification in Skylab. Data cover measurements of iodine production rates, effect of electrode size and geometry on iodine production rates, and feasibility of using stainless steels as reference electrodes.

1974-01-01

297

DEBRIS TRANSPORT ANALYSIS RELATED WITH GSI191 IN ADVANCED PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR EQUIPPED WITH INCONTAINMENT REFUELING WATER STORAGE TANK  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recirculation sump blockage issue is an important and urgent problem to be resolved for ensuring nuclear power plant safety. Through a series of intensive resolution activities, a new regulatory guide and an evaluation methodology were proposed. However, these were restricted to a conventional pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and the applicability of these methodologies to a new type or advanced

Jeong Ik Lee; Soon Joon Hong; Jonguk Kim; Byung Chul Lee; Young Seok Bang; Deog Yeon Oh; Byung Gil Huh

298

UMTRA Ground Water Project management action process document  

SciTech Connect

A critical U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission is to plan, implement, and complete DOE Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at facilities that were operated by or in support of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). These facilities include the 24 inactive processing sites the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.) identified as Title I sites, which had operated from the late 1940s through the 1970s. In UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings and directed the DOE to stabilize, dispose of, and control the tailings in a safe and environmentally sound manner. The UMTRA Surface Project deals with buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the processing sites and any associated vicinity properties (VP). Surface remediation at the processing sites will be completed in 1997 when the Naturita, Colorado, site is scheduled to be finished. The UMTRA Ground Water Project was authorized in an amendment to the UMTRCA (42 USC Section 7922(a)), when Congress directed DOE to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards. The UMTRA Ground Water Project addresses any contamination derived from the milling operation that is determined to be present at levels above the EPA standards.

NONE

1996-03-01

299

CHARACTERIZATION OF TANK 17 RESIDUAL WASTE  

SciTech Connect

Plans are to close Tank 17, a type IV waste tank in the F-area Tank Farm, by filling it with pumpable backfills. Most of the waste was removed from the tank in the late 1980s, and the remainder of the waste was removed in a short spray washing campaign that began on 11 April 1997. More details on the planned closure can be found in the Closure Plan for the High-Level Waste (HLW) Tanks and the specific closure module for Tank 17. To show that closure of the tank is environmentally sound, a performance evaluation has been performed for Tank 17. The performance evaluation projected the concentration of contaminants at various locations and times after closure. This report documents the basis for the inventories of contaminants that were used in the Tank 17 performance evaluation.

D'Entremont, P; Thomas Caldwell, T

1997-09-22

300

Fish tank virtual reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The defining characteristics of what we call “Fish Tank Virtual Reality” are a stereo image of a three dimensional (3D) scene viewed on a monitor using a perspective projection coupled to the head position of the observer. We discuss some of the relative merits of this mode of viewing as compared to head mounted stereo displays. In addition, we report

Colin Ware; Kevin Arthur; Kellogg S. Booth

1993-01-01

301

The NASA Energy and Water Cycle Extreme (NEWSE) Integration Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Skillful predictions of water and energy cycle extremes (flood and drought) are elusive. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for water and energy extremes, and to make decisive progress in predicting these extremes, the collaborative NASA Energy and Water cycle Extremes (NEWSE) Integration Project, is studying these extremes in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during 2006-2007, including their relationships with continental and global scale processes, and assessment of their predictability on multiple space and time scales. It is our hypothesis that an integrative analysis of observed extremes which reflects the current understanding of the role of SST and soil moisture variability influences on atmospheric heating and forcing of planetary waves, incorporating recently available global and regional hydro- meteorological datasets (i.e., precipitation, water vapor, clouds, etc.) in conjunction with advances in data assimilation, can lead to new insights into the factors that lead to persistent drought and flooding. We will show initial results of this project, whose goals are to provide an improved definition, attribution and prediction on sub-seasonal to interannual time scales, improved understanding of the mechanisms of decadal drought and its predictability, including the impacts of SST variability and deep soil moisture variability, and improved monitoring/attributions, with transition to applications; a bridging of the gap between hydrological forecasts and stakeholders (utilization of probabilistic forecasts, education, forecast interpretation for different sectors, assessment of uncertainties for different sectors, etc.).

House, P. R.; Lapenta, W.; Schiffer, R.

2008-01-01

302

Ballast Tank of Ocean-Going Ship  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The empty interior of an ocean-going ship's ballast tank. Such tanks are filled with water to balance a ship's loads. Unless the water is treated before it is emptied into foreign waters, it can introduce foreign organisms into the water that may become established and compe...

303

Science in an Integrated Primary School Project on Water: Part 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes water-related activities in an elementary school science project. These activities focus on electric generators, rainfall, erosion, floating, water conservation, and other areas. Brief comments on developing such a project are included. (JN)

Ward, Alan

1984-01-01

304

Project health and safety plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) policy is to provide a safe and healthful workplace for all employees and subcontractors. The accomplishment of this policy requires that operations at the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) in the North and South Tank Farms (NTF and STF) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory are guided by an overall plan and consistent proactive approach to health and safety (H and S) issues. The policy and procedures in this plan apply to all GAAT operations in the NTF and STF. The provisions of this plan are to be carried out whenever activities identifies s part of the GAAT are initiated that could be a threat to human health or the environment. This plan implements a policy and establishes criteria for the development of procedures for day-to-day operations to prevent or minimize any adverse impact to the environment and personnel safety and health and to meet standards that define acceptable management of hazardous and radioactive materials and wastes. The plan is written to utilize past experience and best management practices in order to minimize hazards to human health or the environment from events such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or any unplanned release of hazardous or radioactive materials to the air. This plan explains additional task-specific health and safety requirements such as the Site Safety and health Addendum and Activity Hazard Analysis, which should be used in concert with this plan and existing established procedures.

Abston, J.P.

1997-04-01

305

Kordiimonas lacus sp. nov., isolated from a ballast water tank, and emended description of the genus Kordiimonas.  

PubMed

A Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated S3-22(T), was isolated from a sediment sample collected from a ballast water tank of a commercial ship and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic characterization. The isolate formed small, light-yellow, semi-translucent and circular colonies on solid complex media. The strain was oxidase- and catalase-positive and metabolized a large number of carbon sources. Chemotaxonomic analysis showed ubiquinone Q-10 as predominant respiratory quinone, phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified glycolipid as major polar lipids and iso-C(17?:?1)?9c, iso-C(15?:?0), C(16?:?1)?7c and/or iso-C(15?:?0) 2-OH, C(16?:?0), iso-C(17?:?0) and C(18?:?1)?7c as major fatty acids and the hydroxy fatty acids iso-C(17?:?0) 3-OH and C(16?:?0) 3-OH. The genomic DNA G+C content was 54.9 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the isolate has 96.1?% similarity to the type strain of Kordiimonas gwangyangensis, the sole described species within the order Kordiimonadales, and less than 91.0?% similarity to other recognized species. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic data, strain S3-22(T) represents a novel species of the genus Kordiimonas, for which the name Kordiimonas lacus sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain S3-22(T) (=CGMCC 1.9109(T) =JCM 16261(T)). An emended description of the genus Kordiimonas is also presented. PMID:20348321

Xu, Xue-Wei; Huo, Ying-Yi; Bai, Xue-Dong; Wang, Chun-Sheng; Oren, Aharon; Li, Sui-Yan; Wu, Min

2011-02-01

306

24. Station Oil Tanks, view to the south. The four ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. Station Oil Tanks, view to the south. The four oil storage tanks located along the east wall (left side of photograph) are, from foreground to background: dirty transformer oil tank, clean transformer oil tank, dirty lubricating oil tank, and clean lubricating oil tank. An oil filter system is also visible in background along the far wall. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

307

Management of water extracted from carbon sequestration projects  

SciTech Connect

Throughout the past decade, frequent discussions and debates have centered on the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). For sequestration to have a reasonably positive impact on atmospheric carbon levels, the anticipated volume of CO{sub 2} that would need to be injected is very large (many millions of tons per year). Many stakeholders have expressed concern about elevated formation pressure following the extended injection of CO{sub 2}. The injected CO{sub 2} plume could potentially extend for many kilometers from the injection well. If not properly managed and monitored, the increased formation pressure could stimulate new fractures or enlarge existing natural cracks or faults, so the CO{sub 2} or the brine pushed ahead of the plume could migrate vertically. One possible tool for management of formation pressure would be to extract water already residing in the formation where CO{sub 2} is being stored. The concept is that by removing water from the receiving formations (referred to as 'extracted water' to distinguish it from 'oil and gas produced water'), the pressure gradients caused by injection could be reduced, and additional pore space could be freed up to sequester CO{sub 2}. Such water extraction would occur away from the CO{sub 2} plume to avoid extracting a portion of the sequestered CO{sub 2} along with the formation water. While water extraction would not be a mandatory component of large-scale carbon storage programs, it could provide many benefits, such as reduction of pressure, increased space for CO{sub 2} storage, and potentially, 'plume steering.' Argonne National Laboratory is developing information for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to evaluate management of extracted water. If water is extracted from geological formations designated to receive injected CO{sub 2} for sequestration, the project operator will need to identify methods for managing very large volumes of water most of which will contain large quantities of salt and other dissolved minerals. Produced water from oil and gas production also typically contains large quantities of dissolved solids. Therefore, many of the same practices that are established and used for managing produced water also may be applicable for extracted water. This report describes the probable composition of the extracted water that is removed from the formations, options for managing the extracted water, the pros and cons of those options, and some opportunities for beneficial use of the water. Following the introductory material in Chapter 1, the report is divided into chapters covering the following topics: (Chapter 2) examines the formations that are likely candidates for CO{sub 2} sequestration and provides a general evaluation of the geochemical characteristics of the formations; (Chapter 3) makes some preliminary estimates of the volume of water that could be extracted; (Chapter 4) provides a qualitative review of many potential technologies and practices for managing extracted water and for each technology or management practice, pros and cons are provided; (Chapter 5) explores the potential costs of water management; and (Chapter 6) presents the conclusions.

Harto, C. B.; Veil, J. A. (Environmental Science Division)

2011-03-11

308

Water banks and environmental water demands: Case of the Klamath Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Demand for water for environmental uses, such as to provide critical habitat for endangered species, has increased competition for agricultural water supplies. In the western United States, a significant portion of these water demands is to increase in-stream flows. Given that Endangered Species Act (ESA) requirements supersede prior appropriation rights, ESA water demands have the potential to reduce agricultural diversions, particularly in times of drought. This situation occurred in 2001 in the Klamath Basin of southern Oregon and northern California: an ESA-related judicial ruling on the needs of several endangered fish species resulted in a major reduction in water diversions to the Klamath Reclamation Project. Using the Klamath Basin as an empirical backdrop, this study examines the potential benefits and challenges of water banks to mitigate damages to appropriative water rights holders and to provide water for environmental purposes. Results from this case study indicate that water banks are a potentially cost effective way to meet environmental needs. This study, however, illustrated several of the challenges of implementing a water bank given that modifications to the proposed bank are needed to achieve cost efficiency. Specifically, expanded trading is needed, both intraproject and interproject, to achieve the objectives of providing environmental water at minimum cost to society.

Burke, Susan M.; Adams, Richard M.; Wallender, Wesley W.

2004-09-01

309

Ground-water resources of Riverton irrigation project area, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Riverton irrigation project area is in the northwestern part of the Wind River basin in west-central Wyoming. Because the annual precipitation is only about 9 inches, agriculture, which is the principal occupation in the area, is dependent upon irrigation. Irrigation by surface-water diversion was begum is 1906; water is now supplied to 77,716 acres and irrigation has been proposed for an additional 31,344 acres. This study of the geology and ground-water resources of the Riverton irrigation project, of adjacent irrigated land, and of nearby land proposed for irrigation was begun during the summer of 1948 and was completed in 1951. The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the ground-water resources of the area and to study the factors that should be considered in the solution of drainage and erosional problems within the area. The Riverton irrigation project area is characterized by flat to gently sloping stream terraces, which are flanked by a combination of badlands, pediment slopes, and broad valleys. These features were formed by long-continued erosion in an arid climate of the essentially horizontal, poorly consolidated beds of the Wind River formation. The principal streams of the area flow south-eastward. Wind River and Fivemile Creek are perennial streams and the others are intermittent. Ground-water discharge and irrigation return flow have created a major problem in erosion control along Fivemile Creek. Similar conditions might develop along Muddy and lower Cottonwood Creeks when land in their drainage basins is irrigated. The bedrock exposed in the area ranges in age from Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary (middle Eocene). The Wind River formation of early and middle Eocene age forms the uppermost bedrock formation in the greater part of the area. Unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age, which consist of terrace gravel, colluvium, eolian sand and silt. and alluvium, mantle the Wind River formation in much of the area. In the irrigated parts of the project, water from domestic use is obtained chiefly from the sandstone beds of the Wind River formation although some is obtained from the alluvium underlying the bottom land and from the unconsolidated deposits underlying the lower terraces along the Wind River. Although adequate quantities if water for domestic use are available from the Wind River formation, there quantities are not considered to be large enough to warrant pumping of ground water for irrigation. Only a few wells are in the nonirrigated part of the area. When this new land is irrigated, a body of ground water will gradually form in the terrace deposits and the alluvial and colluvial-alluvial deposits. Eventually, the terrace deposits may yield adequate quantities of water for domestic and stock use, but only locally are the alluvial and colluvial-alluvial deposits likely to become suitable aquifers. In the Riverton irrigation project area, ground water occurs under water-table conditions near the surface and under artesian conditions in certain strata at both shallow and greater depths. Irrigation is the principal source of recharge to the shallow aquifers; the water level in wells that tap these aquifers fluctuates with irrigation. The depth to water in the shallow wells ranges from less than 1 foot to about 30 feet below the land surface, depending on the season of the year and on the length of time the land has been irrigated. The water level in the wells that tap the deep confined aquifers , which receive recharge indirectly from surface sources, fluctuates only slightly because the recharge and discharge are more constant. In most places the depth to water in wells penetrating the deep confined aquifers is mush greater than that in shallow wells. but in certain low areas water from the deep aquifers flows at the surface from wells. Ground water moves from the area of recharge in the direction of the hydraulic gradient and is discharges either by evapotranspiration; by inflow into streams, drains, or lakes; by pumping or flow of wells; or by flow of springs. Waterlogging and the a

Morris, Donald Arthur; Hackett, O.M.; Vanlier, K.E.; Moulder, E.A.; Durum, W.H.

1959-01-01

310

Environmental fate of Ra in cation-exchange regeneration brine waste disposed to septic tanks, New Jersey Coastal Plain, USA: migration to the water table.  

PubMed

Fate of radium (Ra) in liquid regeneration brine wastes from water softeners disposed to septic tanks in the New Jersey Coastal Plain was studied. Before treatment, combined Ra ((226)Ra plus (228)Ra) concentrations (maximum, 1.54 Bq L(-1)) exceeded the 0.185 Bq L(-1) Maximum Contaminant Level in 4 of 10 studied domestic-well waters (median pH, 4.90). At the water table downgradient from leachfields, combined Ra concentrations were low (commonly < or =0.019 Bq L(-1)) when pH was >5.3, indicating sequestration; when pH was < or =5.3 (acidic), concentrations were elevated (maximum, 0.985 Bq L(-1) - greater than concentrations in corresponding discharged septic-tank effluents (maximum, 0.243 Bq L(-1))), indicating Ra mobilization from leachfield sediments. Confidence in quantification of Ra mass balance was reduced by study design limitations, including synoptic sampling of effluents and ground waters, and large uncertainties associated with analytical methods. The trend of Ra mobilization in acidic environments does match observations from regional water-quality assessments. PMID:19910087

Szabo, Zoltan; Jacobsen, Eric; Kraemer, Thomas F; Parsa, Bahman

2010-01-01

311

Turbulent characteristics in a baffled contact tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turbulence measurements were undertaken using a two-component laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) in a serpentine contact tank (CT) commonly used for water chlorination. A detailed examination of turbulent parameters was carried out and showed the significant effects of the baffle lee and the inlet and outlet of the tank on the CT's hydraulic efficiency. Turbulence levels were quantified along the tank

K. Shiono; E. C. Teixeira

2000-01-01

312

Reverse osmosis (RO) treatment of Tucson's share of Central Arizona Project (CAP) water is being con-  

E-print Network

Reverse osmosis (RO) treatment of Tucson's share of Central Arizona Project (CAP) water is being, are needed before large-scale production of treated CAP water can become cost-effective. Investigators Smith (UA) Umur Yenal (UA) PROJECT FUNDING CYCLE 2007 PROJECT GOALS This project had three main goals: 1

Fay, Noah

313

Project Zoom IN, Citizen Perspectives on Climate and Water Resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perspective on climate and water resources can come from the top, scientists sharing invaluable data and findings about how climate dynamics function or quantifications of systems in flux. However, citizens are endowed with an equally as powerful tool for insight: ground zero experience. Project Zoom In is a nascent project undertaken by Global Media Forge to empower youth, educators and scientists with tools to reach the media with locale-specific imagery and perspective of climate dynamics and evidence of anecdotal resource management of liquid gold: fresh water. Zoom In is taking root in Colorado but is designed for national/international scaling. This effort has three limbs: (1) student, scientist and educator workshops teaching invaluable video production skills (2) engaging Colorado school systems to stimulate submission of clips to full video productions to our database, and (3) embedding the findings on a taxonomic GIS interface on-line. The website will be invaluable in classrooms and link network media to individuals with firsthand viewpoints on change.; Climate and Water Resources

Glaser, J. P.

2012-12-01

314

Global Change adaptation in water resources management: the Water Change project.  

PubMed

In recent years, water resources management has been facing new challenges due to increasing changes and their associated uncertainties, such as changes in climate, water demand or land use, which can be grouped under the term Global Change. The Water Change project (LIFE+ funding) developed a methodology and a tool to assess the Global Change impacts on water resources, thus helping river basin agencies and water companies in their long term planning and in the definition of adaptation measures. The main result of the project was the creation of a step by step methodology to assess Global Change impacts and define strategies of adaptation. This methodology was tested in the Llobregat river basin (Spain) with the objective of being applicable to any water system. It includes several steps such as setting-up the problem with a DPSIR framework, developing Global Change scenarios, running river basin models and performing a cost-benefit analysis to define optimal strategies of adaptation. This methodology was supported by the creation of a flexible modelling system, which can link a wide range of models, such as hydrological, water quality, and water management models. The tool allows users to integrate their own models to the system, which can then exchange information among them automatically. This enables to simulate the interactions among multiple components of the water cycle, and run quickly a large number of Global Change scenarios. The outcomes of this project make possible to define and test different sets of adaptation measures for the basin that can be further evaluated through cost-benefit analysis. The integration of the results contributes to an efficient decision-making on how to adapt to Global Change impacts. PMID:22883209

Pouget, Laurent; Escaler, Isabel; Guiu, Roger; Mc Ennis, Suzy; Versini, Pierre-Antoine

2012-12-01

315

Florida River Project: Measuring discharge, sediment, and water chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the data collection portion of a semester-long project. Before this lab, students will have graphed discharge data for one previous water year, graphed similar data collected by classes during a previous year, written one-page explanations of the techniques that they will be using, and speculated about the results they expect to get. After this lab, their data will be shared with other lab sections, which will have collected similar data at other sites along the same river. Each research group will present their preliminary data to the class during a later lab meeting, and the class will discuss how the different types of data relate to one another. The project culminates in a final paper (one per research group).

Hannula, Kim

316

18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements...Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN...

2012-04-01

317

18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Water supply projects-Conservation requirements...Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN...

2013-04-01

318

18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements...Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN...

2014-04-01

319

18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements...Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN...

2011-04-01

320

18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements...Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN...

2010-04-01

321

36 CFR 328.5 - Guidelines for seaplane use of project waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...in, on, or affecting project waters, under the management of the Resource Manager, including waters under lease, license or other...and section 404 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (Pub....

2011-07-01

322

36 CFR 328.5 - Guidelines for seaplane use of project waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...in, on, or affecting project waters, under the management of the Resource Manager, including waters under lease, license or other...and section 404 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (Pub....

2014-07-01

323

36 CFR 328.5 - Guidelines for seaplane use of project waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...in, on, or affecting project waters, under the management of the Resource Manager, including waters under lease, license or other...and section 404 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (Pub....

2012-07-01

324

36 CFR 328.5 - Guidelines for seaplane use of project waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...in, on, or affecting project waters, under the management of the Resource Manager, including waters under lease, license or other...and section 404 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (Pub....

2013-07-01

325

36 CFR 328.5 - Guidelines for seaplane use of project waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in, on, or affecting project waters, under the management of the Resource Manager, including waters under lease, license or other...and section 404 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (Pub....

2010-07-01

326

Optimal water management and conflict resolution: The Middle East Water Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many situations, actual water markets will not allocate water resources optimally, largely because of the perceived social value of water. It is possible, however, to build optimizing models which, taking account of demand as well as supply considerations, can substitute for actual markets. Such models can assist the formation of water policies, taking into account user-supplied values and constraints. They provide powerful tools for the system-wide cost-benefit analysis of infrastructure; this is illustrated by an analysis of the need for desalination in Israel and the cost and benefits of adding a conveyance line. Further, the use of such models can facilitate cooperation in water, yielding gains that can be considerably greater than the value of the disputed water itself. This can turn what appear to be zero-sum games into win-win situations. The Middle East Water Project has built such a model for the Israeli-Jordanian-Palestinian region. We find that the value of the water in dispute in the region is very small and the possible gains from cooperation are relatively large. Analysis of the scarcity value of water is a crucial feature.

Fisher, Franklin M.; Arlosoroff, Shaul; Eckstein, Zvi; Haddadin, Munther; Hamati, Salem G.; Huber-Lee, Annette; Jarrar, Ammar; Jayyousi, Anan; Shamir, Uri; Wesseling, Hans

2002-11-01

327

Operational waste volume projection  

SciTech Connect

Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2015 are projected based on generation trends of the past 12 months. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement. Assumptions were current as of June 1996.

Koreski, G.M.

1996-09-20

328

Operational Waste Volume Projection  

SciTech Connect

Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2015 are projected based on generation trends of the past 12 months. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement. Assumptions were current as of June. 2000.

STRODE, J.N.

2000-08-28

329

Tank Riser Suspension System Conceptual Design  

SciTech Connect

A team of engineers from High Level Waste (HLW), the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), and Project Engineering and Construction Division (PE and CD) explored ways of more effectively utilizing the HLW tank's risers during waste removal and closure activities. Currently, some of the risers are being used to store failed and contaminated equipment. To make those risers available for tank operation, failed equipment must be moved out of the tank and relocated or disposed of appropriately. Disposing of contaminated equipment is a time consuming and expensive process. This report describes the Tank Riser Suspension System (TRSS). It will allow failed equipment to be stored inside of the tank while making riser space available for other tank process equipment. In addition, the TRSS will permit disposing of failed equipment in the tank as part of tank closure activities.

Fogle, R.

2002-10-29

330

Soil Management Plan For The Potable Water System Upgrades Project  

SciTech Connect

This plan describes and applies to the handling and management of soils excavated in support of the Y-12 Potable Water Systems Upgrades (PWSU) Project. The plan is specific to the PWSU Project and is intended as a working document that provides guidance consistent with the 'Soil Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex' (Y/SUB/92-28B99923C-Y05) and the 'Record of Decision for Phase II Interim Remedial Actions for Contaminated Soils and Scrapyard in Upper East Fork Popular Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee' (DOE/OR/01-2229&D2). The purpose of this plan is to prevent and/or limit the spread of contamination when moving soil within the Y-12 complex. The major feature of the soil management plan is the decision tree. The intent of the decision tree is to provide step-by-step guidance for the handling and management of soil from excavation of soil through final disposition. The decision tree provides a framework of decisions and actions to facilitate Y-12 or subcontractor decisions on the reuse of excavated soil on site and whether excavated soil can be reused on site or managed as waste. Soil characterization results from soil sampling in support of the project are also presented.

Field, S. M.

2007-04-01

331

Ripple Tank Model for Teachers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ripple Tank Model for Teachers allows instructors to simulate 2D wave interference. A ripple tank is a shallow glass tank of water used to demonstrate the basic properties of waves. The tank is usually illuminated from above, so that the light shines through the water. The ripples on the water show up as shadows on the screen underneath the tank. In the default visualization the wave crests and troughs are shown as red and blue. Users can change the number of sources, their amplitude and phase, and other parameters. Selecting student mode repackages the modified simulation into a stand-alone jar file with fewer options for classroom use. The Ripple Tank Model for Teachers was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_waves_teacher_RippleTank.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Christian, Wolfgang

2012-06-09

332

Ground water in the North Side Pumping Division, Minidoka Project, Minidoka County, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

nearby is being developed by private capital. Completion of the Federal reclamation project will more than double the irrigated acreage in the North Side Division of the Minidoka Project. The area to be irrigated with ground water is at the south-central edge of the Snake River Plain adjacent to project lands that have been irrigated for many years with Snake River water.

Crosthwaite, Emerson G.; Scott, R.C.

1956-01-01

333

The NASA Energy and Water cycle Extreme (NEWSE) Integration Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Skillful predictions of water and energy cycle extremes (flood and drought) are elusive. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for water and energy extremes, and to make decisive progress in predicting these extremes, the collaborative NASA Energy and Water cycle Extremes (NEWSE) Integration Project, is studying these extremes in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during 2006-2007, including their relationships with continental and global scale processes, and assessment of their predictability on multiple space and time scales. It is our hypothesis that an integrative analysis of observed extremes which reflects the current understanding of the role of SST and soil moisture variability influences on atmospheric heating and forcing of planetary waves, incorporating recently available global and regional hydro- meteorological datasets (i.e., precipitation, water vapor, clouds, etc.) in conjunction with advances in data assimilation, can lead to new insights into the factors that lead to persistent drought and flooding. We will show initial results of this project, whose goals are toprovide an improved definition, attribution and prediction on sub-seasonal to interannual time scales, improved understanding of the mechanisms of decadal drought and its predictability, including the impacts of SST variability and deep soil moisture variability, and improved monitoring/attributions, with transition to applications; a bridging of the gap between hydrological forecasts and stakeholders (utilization of probabilistic forecasts, education, forecast interpretation for different sectors, assessment of uncertainties for different sectors, etc.). *The NEWSE Team is: Romanou, Anastasiam, Columbia U.; Brian Soden, U. Miami; William Lapenta, NASA- MSFC; Megan Larko, CREW; Bing Lin, NASA-LaRC; Christa Peters-Lidard, NASA-GSFC; Xiquan Dong, U. North Dakota; Debbie Belvedere, CREW; Mathew Sapiano, U. Maryland; Duane Waliser, NASA-JPL; Eni Njoku, NASA/JPL; Eric Fetzer, NASA-JPL; Eyal Amitai, NASA-GSFC; Xiaogang Gao, U. California, Irvine; George Huffman, NASA-GSFC & SSAI; Jared Entin, NASA; Joseph Santanello, NASA-GSFC; John Roads, UCSD; W. Timothy Liu, NASA-JPL; Lixin Lu, Colorado State U.; Zhengzhao Luo, Colorado State U.; Michael Bosilovich, NASA-GSFC; Michael Jasinski, NASA-GSFC; William Olson, NASA-GSFC & UMBC-GEST; Pete Robertson, NASA-MSFC; Phil Arkin, U. Maryland; Paul Houser, CREW & GMU; Ralph Ferraro, NOAA; Pete Robertson, NASA-MSFC; Robert Schiffer; UMBC-GEST; Sujay Kumar, NASA-GSFC; Joseph A. Santanello, NASA-GSFC; Tristan L'Ecuyer, Colorado State U.; Wei-Kuo Tao; NASA-GSFC; Xia Feng; George Mason U.

Houser, P. R.; Lapenta, W.; Schiffer, R.

2008-05-01

334

View of tanks T18 and T19 with redwood tanks to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of tanks T18 and T19 with redwood tanks to right. Old rain shed (Building No. 43) can be seen behind the tanks. Ground catchment can be seen at left in background. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

335

Evaluation of waste temperatures in AWF tanks for bypass mode operation of the 702-AZ ventilation system, Project W-030  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the results of thermal hydraulic analysis performed to provide data in support of Project W-030 to startup new 702-AZ Primary Ventilation System. During the startup of W-030 system, the ventilation system will be operating in bypass mode. In bypass made of operation, the system is capable of supplying 1000 cfm total flow for all four AWF doubleshell

Sathyanarayana

1997-01-01

336

Tank Tests of a 1/7-Size Powered Dynamic Model of the Grumman XJR2F-1 Amphibian: Spray Characteristics, Take-Off and Landing Stability in Smooth Water - Langley Tank Model 212, TED No. NACA 2378  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests of a model of the XJR2F-Y amphibian were made in Langley tank no. to determine the spray characteristics and the take-off and landing stability. At a gross load of 22,000 pounds full size, spray entered the propeller disk only at a very narrow range of speeds. The spray striking the flaps was not excessive and no appreciable wetting of the tail surfaces was noted. The trim limits of stability appeared to be satisfactory and the upper-limit porpoising was not violent. The stable range of center-of-gravity locations with flaps set 20deg was well aft of the desired operating range. However, with flaps up, the forward limit was about 18 percent mean aerodynamic chord and the aft limit about 28.5 percent mean aerodynamic chord at a load of 26,000 pounds and with elevators deflected -10deg. Under these conditions the location of the step is considered satisfactory. Tests showed that the effect of water in the nose-wheel well would be to move the forward limit aft about 2-percent mean aerodynamic chord. Without ventilation of the main step, the model skipped during landing at most trims, but this skipping was not violent. With the ventilation, the model skipped lightly only at trims where the afterbody keel was approximately parallel to the water (around 7.5 deg).

Land, Norman S.; Zeck, Howrad

1946-01-01

337

Water Lamp and Pinwheels: Ambient Projection of Digital Information into Architectural Space  

E-print Network

Water Lamp and Pinwheels: Ambient Projection of Digital Information into Architectural Space Andrew Lamp and Pinwheels: a new approach to interfacing people with online digital information. The Water Lamp projects water ripple shadow created by a "rain of bits." The Pinwheels spin in a "bit wind

Ishii, Hiroshi

338

CFD Simulation of SDHW Storage Tank with and Without Heater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2D-Single Phase heat and fluid flow analysis of solar domestic hot water (SDHW) storage tank has been carried out by using CFD tools, ICEM for modelling & meshing and FLUENT for analysis. The tank fluid is in static mode. Heat diffusion and convective heat loss from the tank without heater and with the involvement of additional heater is studied. After heating water gets lighter and moves upward in the tank and cold denser water remains at the bottom of the tank. The movement of the water particles are also analysed to find the effect on heat transfer and heat loss. Time transient analysis is focused on for a constant fixed temperature of water inside the tank and the heat drop is captured. Investigation gives guidelines how long the water temperature can be maintain warmer within the tank while the tank is uninsulated. If it is required to maintain temperature constant then the involvement of heater can be useful in what extend.

Bhaumik, Mainak

2012-07-01

339

COMMIX-SA-1: a three-dimensional thermohydrodynamic computer program for solar applications. [Heat-storage water tanks  

SciTech Connect

COMMIX-SA-1 is a three-dimensional, transient, single-phase, compressible-flow, component computer program for thermohydrodynamic analysis. It was developed for solar applications in general, and for analysis of thermocline storage tanks in particular. The conservation equations (in cylindrical coordinates) for mass, momentum, and energy are solved as an initial-boundary-value problem. The detailed numerical-solution procedure based on a modified ICE (Implicit Continuous-Fluid Eulerian) technique is described. A method for treating the singularity problem arising at the origin of a cylindrical-coordinate system is presented. In addition, the thermal interactions between fluid and structures (tank walls, baffles, etc.) are explicitly accounted for. Finally, the COMMIX-SA-1 code structure is delineated, and an input description and sample problems are presented.

Sha, W.T.; Lin, E.I.H.; Schmitt, R.C.; Liu, K.V.; Hull, J.R.; Oras, J.J. Jr.; Domanus, H.M.

1980-11-01

340

Assessment of petroleum-hydrocarbon contamination in the surficial sediments and ground water at three former underground storage tank locations, Fort Jackson, South Carolina, 1995  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water and sediment contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons resulting from leaks and overfills was detected during tank removal activities at three former underground storage tank locations at Fort Jackson, near Columbia, South Carolina. Investigations were initiated to assess the effect of contamination to the surficial aquifer at Sites 1062, 2438, and 2444. These investigations involved the installation of permanent monitoring wells and the collection and analysis of sediment and ground-water samples at the three sites. Water-level data were collected at all sites to determine hydraulic gradients and the direction of ground-water flow. In addition, aquifer tests were made at Site 1062 to determine the hydraulic conductivity of the surficial aquifer at that site. Sediment borings were made at the three sites to collect subsurface-sediment samples for lithologic description and laboratory analyses, and for the installation of ground-water monitoring wells. Laboratory analyses of sediment samples collected from boreholes at Site 1062 indicated elevated concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons at three locations. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons - Diesel Range Organics were detected at one borehole at a concentration of 388,000 micrograms per kilogram. Total benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene concentrations in sediment from the site ranged from less than 350 to over 100,000 micrograms per kilogram. Total lead was detected at concentrations ranging from 2,900 to 5,900 micrograms per kilogram. Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected at Site 2438 in one borehole at a trace concentration of 112 micrograms per kilogram of para- and meta-xylenes. No concentrations exceeding the detection limits were reported for petroleum hydrocarbons in sediment samples collected from Site 2444; however, total lead was detected in sediment samples from two boreholes, each at concentrations of 600 micrograms per kilogram. Ground-water samples were collected from each site for laboratory analysis and field-property determinations. Petroleum hydrocarbons and lead were detected at concentrations exceeding regulatory limits for drinking water in ground water from Site 1062 only. Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected in ground water from three wells at Site 1062, with the highest concentrations occurring in the area of the former underground storage tanks. Benzene was detected at concentrations as much as 28 micrograms per liter; toluene as much as 558 micrograms per liter; para- and meta-xylenes as much as 993 micrograms per liter; and naphthalene as much as 236 micrograms per liter. Ethylbenzene and ortho-xylene were detected in one well at concentrations of 70 and 6 micrograms per liter, respectively. Dissolved lead was detected in ground water from four wells at concentrations from 5 to 152 micrograms per liter. Analysis of ground-water samples collected from Sites 2438 and 2444 showed little evidence of petroleum-hydrocarbon contamination. Petroleum hydrocarbons were not detected in any of the ground-water samples collected from Site 2438. With the exception of a low concentration of naphthalene (11 micrograms per liter) detected in ground water from one well, petroleum hydrocarbons and lead were not detected in ground water collected from Site 2444.

Robertson, J.F.

1996-01-01

341

Calico Tanks  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A view of the Calico Tanks, a sandstone formation in Red Rock Canyon. Red Rock Canyon is a National Conservation Area managed by the Bureau of Land Management, located just outside of Las Vegas, Nevada. It is part of the Mojave Desert....

342

Petroleum Tank  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Petroleum first saw widespread use in the transporation industry as a lubricant. It was refined into various products depending on which part of the engine they were meant to lubricate. Once transported by tanker car, it was stored in large tanks such as this one....

343

View of Stand Pipe (Surge Tank) from FS 502. Looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of Stand Pipe (Surge Tank) from FS 502. Looking northeast - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Stand Pipe (Surge Tank), Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

344

[Death in a relaxation tank].  

PubMed

Complete relaxation can be achieved by floating in a darkened, sound-proof relaxation tank filled with salinated water kept at body temperature. Under these conditions, meditation exercises up to self-hypnosis may lead to deep relaxation with physical and mental revitalization. A user manipulated his tank, presumably to completely cut off all optical and acoustic stimuli and accidentally also covered the ventilation hole. The man was found dead in his relaxation tank. The findings suggested lack of oxygen as the cause of death. PMID:20069775

Rupp, Wolf; Simon, Karl-Heinz; Bohnert, Michael

2009-01-01

345

Kaiser Engineers Hanford internal position paper -- Project W-236A, Multi-function Waste Tank Facility -- Peer reviews of selected activities  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to develop and document a proposed position on the performance of independent peer reviews on selected design and analysis components of the Title 1 [Preliminary] and Title 2 [Final] design phases of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility [MWTF] project. An independent, third-party peer review is defined as a documented critical review of documents, data, designs, design inputs, tests, calculations, or related materials. The peer review should be conducted by persons independent of those who performed the work, but who are technically qualified to perform the original work. The peer review is used to assess the validity of assumptions and functional requirements, to assess the appropriateness and logic of selected methodologies and design inputs, and to verify calculations, analyses and computer software. The peer review can be conducted at the end of the design activity, at specific stages of the design process, or continuously and concurrently with the design activity. This latter method is often referred to as ``Continuous Peer Review.``

Stine, M.D. [Kaiser Engineers Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-01-04

346

Social and cultural context of rural water and sanitation projects: case studies from Ghana   

E-print Network

The research underpinning this work took place in the context of two rural water and sanitation projects carried out in the Eastern Region of Ghana. The focus of study was on the way engineers can make water and sanitation ...

Furber, Alison Mary

2013-07-01

347

33 CFR 165.1313 - Security zone regulations, tank ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01...protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington 165.1313 Section 165.1313 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF...

2014-07-01

348

Catchment Area Treatment (CAT) Plan and Crop Area Optimization for Integrated Management in a Water Resource Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scientifically developed catchment area treatment (CAT) plan and optimized pattern of crop areas may be the key for sustainable development of water resource, profitability in agriculture and improvement of overall economy in drought affected Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh (India). In this study, an attempt has been made to develop a CAT plan using spatial variation of geology, geomorphology, soil, drainage, land use in geographical information system for selection of soil and water conservation measures and crop area optimization using linear programming for maximization of return considering water availability, area affinity, fertilizers, social and market constraints in Benisagar reservoir project of Chhatarpur district (M.P.). The scientifically developed CAT plan based on overlaying of spatial information consists of 58 mechanical measure (49 boulder bunds, 1 check dam, 7 cully plug and 1 percolation tank), 2.60 km2 land for agro forestry, 2.08 km2 land for afforestation in Benisagar dam and 67 mechanical measures (45 boulder bunds and 22 gully plugs), 7.79 km2 land for agro forestry, 5.24 km2 land for afforestation in Beniganj weir catchment with various agronomic measures for agriculture areas. The linear programming has been used for optimization of crop areas in Benisagar command for sustainable development considering various scenarios of water availability, efficiencies, affinity and fertilizers availability in the command. Considering present supply condition of water, fertilizers, area affinity and making command self sufficient in most of crops, the net benefit can be increase to Rs. 1.93 crores from 41.70 km2 irrigable area in Benisagar command by optimizing cropping pattern and reducing losses during conveyance and application of water.

Jaiswal, R. K.; Thomas, T.; Galkate, R. V.; Ghosh, N. C.; Singh, S.

2013-09-01

349

Projected Regime Shift in Arctic Cloud and Water Vapor Feedbacks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Arctic climate is changing faster than any other large-scale region on Earth. A variety of positive feedback mechanisms are responsible for the amplification, most of which are linked with changes in snow and ice cover, surface temperature (T(sub s)), atmospheric water vapor (WV), and cloud properties. As greenhouse gases continue to accumulate in the atmosphere, air temperature and water vapor content also increase, leading to a warmer surface and ice loss, which further enhance evaporation and WV. Many details of these interrelated feedbacks are poorly understood, yet are essential for understanding the pace and regional variations in future Arctic change. We use a global climate model (Goddard Institute for Space Studies, Atmosphere-Ocean Model) to examine several components of these feedbacks, how they vary by season, and how they are projected to change through the 21st century. One positive feedback begins with an increase in T(sub s) that produces an increase in WV, which in turn increases the downward longwave flux (DLF) and T(sub s), leading to further evaporation. Another associates the expected increases in cloud cover and optical thickness with increasing DLF and T(sub s). We examine the sensitivities between DLF and other climate variables in these feedbacks and find that they are strongest in the non-summer seasons, leading to the largest amplification in Ts during these months. Later in the 21st century, however, DLF becomes less sensitive to changes in WV and cloud optical thickness, as they cause the atmosphere to emit longwave radiation more nearly as a black body. This regime shift in sensitivity implies that the amplified pace of Arctic change relative to the northern hemisphere could relax in the future.

Chen, Yonghua; Miller, James R.; Francis, Jennifer; Russel, Gary L.

2011-01-01

350

Stabilization of In-Tank Residual Wastes and External-Tank Soil Contamination for the Hanford Tank Closure Program: Applications to the AX Tank Farm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical support for the Hanford Tank Closure Program focused on evaluation of concepts for immobilization of residual contaminants in the Hanford AX tanks and underlying soils, and identification of cost-effective approaches to improve long-term performance of AX tank farm cIosure systems. Project objectives are to develop materials or engineered systems that would significantly reduce the radionuclide transport to the groundwater

H. L. Anderson; B. P. Dwyer; C. Ho; J. L. Krumhansl; G. McKeen; M. A. Molecke; H. R. Westrich; P. Zhang

1998-01-01

351

Potential Ecological Benefits of the Middle Route for the South-North Water Diversion Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study of the middle route of the South-North Water Diversion Project. The middle route runs through the Northern China plain, where the water shortages are the most severe. There is not only a shortage of water for human usage, but also a shortage of ecological water. Although the current plan for the middle route is strictly

Han-Chu Chen; Pengfei Du

2008-01-01

352

UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This water sampling and analysis plan describes planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site in Salt Lake City, Utah. This plan identifies and justifies sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for routine monitoring of ground water, sediments, and surface waters at monitoring stations on the site.

NONE

1995-06-01

353

Project Water Science. General Science High School Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide presents 12 hands-on laboratory activities for high school science classes that cover the environmental issue of water resources in California. The activities are separated into three sections. Five activities in the section on water quality address the topics of groundwater, water hardness, bottled water, water purity, and…

Water Education Foundation, Sacramento, CA.

354

UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan: Canonsburg and Burrell, Pennsylvania  

SciTech Connect

Surface remedial action was completed at the Canonsburg and Burrell UMTRA Project sites in southwestern Pennsylvania in 1985 and 1987, respectively. Results of 1993 water sampling indicate ground water flow conditions and ground water quality at both sites have remained relatively consistent with time. Uranium concentrations in ground water continue to exceed the maximum concentration limit (MCL) at the Canonsburg site; no MCLs are exceeded in ground water at the Burrell site. Surface water quality shows no evidence of impact from the sites.

Not Available

1994-03-01

355

Scenarios of Global Municipal Water-Use Demand Projections over the 21st Century  

SciTech Connect

This paper establishes three future projections of global municipal water use to the end of the 21st century: A reference business-as usual (BAU) scenario, a High Technological Improvement (High Tech) scenario and a Low Technological Improvement (Low Tech) scenario. A global municipal water demand model is constructed using global water use statistics at the country-scale, calibrated to the base year of 2005, and simulated to the end of the 21st century. Since the constructed water demand model hinges on socioeconomic variables (population, income), water price, and end-use technology and efficiency improvement rates, projections of those input variables are adopted to characterize the uncertainty in future water demand estimates. The water demand model is linked to the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a global change integrated assessment model. Under the reference scenario, the global total water withdrawal increases from 466 km3/year in 2005 to 941 km3/year in 2100,while withdrawals in the high and low tech scenarios are 321 km3/ year and 2000 km3/ year, respectively. This wide range (321-2000 km3/ year) indicates the level of uncertainty associated with such projections. The simulated global municipal demand projections are most sensitive to population and income projections, then to end-use technology and efficiency projections, and finally to water price. Thus, using water price alone as a policy measure to reduce municipal water use may substantiate the share of municipal water price of people’s annual incomes.

Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Davies, Evan; Eom, Jiyong

2013-03-06

356

Tank Insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For NASA's Apollo program, McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company, Huntington Beach, California, developed and built the S-IVB, uppermost stage of the three-stage Saturn V moonbooster. An important part of the development task was fabrication of a tank to contain liquid hydrogen fuel for the stage's rocket engine. The liquid hydrogen had to be contained at the supercold temperature of 423 degrees below zero Fahrenheit. The tank had to be perfectly insulated to keep engine or solar heat from reaching the fuel; if the hydrogen were permitted to warm up, it would have boiled off, or converted to gaseous form, reducing the amount of fuel available to the engine. McDonnell Douglas' answer was a supereffective insulation called 3D, which consisted of a one-inch thickness of polyurethane foam reinforced in three dimensions with fiberglass threads. Over a 13-year development and construction period, the company built 30 tanks and never experienced a failure. Now, after years of additional development, an advanced version of 3D is finding application as part of a containment system for transporting Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) by ship.

1979-01-01

357

Data Report for Catch Tank Vapor Sampling  

SciTech Connect

CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) is responsible for developing and maintaining the authorization basis for River Protection Project (RPP) facilities and operations. This responsibility includes closure of the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) for waste tank ancillary equipment such as catch tanks, double-contained receiver tanks, 244-AR and 244-CR vaults, 242-S and 242-T Evaporators, and inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks. To support closure of the Flammable Gas USQ for catch tanks, an analysis of the flammable gas hazard was performed. This document provides a summary of flammable gas data obtained from RPP active catch tanks in FY 2000. Flammable gas level measurements for each catch tank (other than 241-AX-152) are discussed on a tank-by-tank basis in Section 3.0. Conclusions based on the data are provided in Section 4.0. This section also includes recommendations that would be useful when conducting vapor sampling for other miscellaneous tanks (e.g., inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks).

NGUYEN, D.M.

2000-09-28

358

ICPP Tank Farm planning through 2012  

SciTech Connect

Historically, liquid high-level waste (HLW) generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant has been stored in the Tank Farm after which it is calcined with the calcine being stored in stainless steel bins. Following the curtailment of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing in 1992, the HLW treatment methods were re-evaluated to establish a path forward for producing a final waste form from the liquid sodium bearing wastes (SBW) and the HLW calcine. Projections for significant improvements in waste generation, waste blending and evaporation, and calcination were incorporated into the Tank Farm modeling. This optimized modeling shows that all of the SBW can be calcined by the end of 2012 as required by the Idaho Settlement Agreement. This Tank Farm plan discusses the use of each of the eleven HLW tanks and shows that two tanks can be emptied, allowing them to be Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closed by 2006. In addition, it describes the construction of each tank and vault, gives the chemical concentrations of the contents of each tank, based on historical input and some sampling, and discusses the regulatory drivers important to Tank Farm operation. It also discusses new waste generation, the computer model used for the Tank Farm planning, the operating schedule for each tank, and the schedule for when each tank will be empty and closed.

Palmer, W.B.; Millet, C.B.; Staiger, M.D.; Ward, F.S.

1998-04-01

359

Redwood tanks in foreground with old rain shed (Building No. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Redwood tanks in foreground with old rain shed (Building No. 43) and steel tanks in background. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

360

Detail of redwood tank on lava rock platform. Trestle and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail of redwood tank on lava rock platform. Trestle and steel tanks can be see in right background. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

361

Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-AN-102  

SciTech Connect

This characterization report summarizes the available information on the historical uses, current status, and sampling and analysis results of waste stored in double-shell underground storage tank 241- AN-102. This report supports the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, Milestone M-44-09 (Ecology et al. 1996). Tank 241-AN-102 is one of seven double-shell tanks located in the AN Tank Farm in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The tank was hydrotested in 1981, and when the water was removed, a 6-inch heel was left. Tank 241-AN-102 began receiving waste from tank 241-SY-102 beginning in 1982. The tank was nearly emptied in the third quarter of 1983, leaving only 125 kL (33 kgal) of waste. Between the fourth quarter of 1983 and the first quarter of 1984, tank 241-AN-102 received waste from tanks 241-AY-102, 241-SY-102, 241-AW-105, and 241- AN-101. The tank was nearly emptied in the second quarter of 1984, leaving a heel of 129 kL (34 kgal). During the second and third quarters of 1984, the tank was filled with concentrated complexant waste from tank 241-AW-101. Since that time, only minor amounts of Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant miscellaneous waste and water have been received; there have been no waste transfer to or from the tank since 1992. Therefore, the waste currently in the tank is considered to be concentrated complexant waste. Tank 241-AN-102 is sound and is not included on any of the Watch Lists.

Jo, J., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-08-29

362

Enhanced source-water monitoring for New York City: historical framework, political context, and project design  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enhanced water-quality monitoring project was established in 2000 for streams providing drinking water to New York City (NYC). The project's design considered the history of the NYC source watersheds, and some of the broader issues facing freshwater supply systems in general. NYC's relationship with its watershed has historically been acrimonious and filled with mistrust, a situation that became critical

James G. Blaine; Bernard W. Sweeney; David B. Arscott

2006-01-01

363

The effects of the implementation of grey water reuse systems on construction cost and project schedule  

E-print Network

of the United States due to their effects on construction cost and project schedules. Even though a project could get one or multiple points upon successful implementation of a grey water reuse system and conserving potable water, the following factors may have...

Kaduvinal Varghese, Jeslin

2009-05-15

364

ICPP water inventory study progress report  

SciTech Connect

Recent data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) indicate that water is entering the sumps located in the bottom of Tank Firm Vaults in quantities that exceed expected levels. In addition, perched water body(s) exist beneath the northern portion of the ICPP. Questions have been raised concerning the origin of water entering the Tank Farm sumps and the recharge sources for the perched water bodies. Therefore, in an effort to determine the source of water, a project has been initiated to identify the source of water for Tank Farm sumps and the perched water bodies. In addition, an accurate water balance for the ICPP will be developed. The purpose of this report is to present the specific results and conclusions for the ICPP water balance portion of the study. In addition, the status of the other activities being conducted as part of study, along with the associated action plans, is provided.

Richards, B.T.

1993-05-01

365

49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331 Section 172.331 Transportation...packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a)...

2010-10-01

366

Tank 241-C-106 sluicing evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The Process Engineering Analyses group performed a Thermal evaluation of the Project W-320 retrieval process. The objective of this study was to characterize the thermal response of the tank 241-C-106 waste during the sluicing operation and to define operating limits (defined with measurable tank data), which will maintain the waste subcooling required by the operational controls.

Bander, T.J.; Crea, B.A.; Ogden, D.M., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-11

367

The challenge addressed by this project is water resource sustainability and drought planning in an  

E-print Network

The challenge addressed by this project is water resource sustainability and drought planning the storage and recovery of groundwater credits in the aquifer during prolonged or severe drought 2007 PROJECT GOALS The goals of the project included 1) developing sce- narios of drought conditions

Fay, Noah

368

Evolution of a water and power demand projection model for Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a demand projection effort that evolved over the course of a larger consulting project. The description will focus on the development of a computer simulation model which projects water and power demands for the different regions of Saudi Arabia. It will also be concerned with the development of the proper client\\/consultant relationship necessary to make the best

Alan Mc K. Shorb; Anthony C. Picardi

1978-01-01

369

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Constellation Pilot Project FY11 Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

Summary report for Fiscal Year 2011 activities associated with the Constellation Pilot Project. The project is a joint effor between Constellation Nuclear Energy Group (CENG), EPRI, and the DOE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. The project utilizes two CENG reactor stations: R.E. Ginna and Nine Point Unit 1. Included in the report are activities associate with reactor internals and concrete containments.

R. Johansen

2011-09-01

370

Tank Farms and Waste Feed Delivery - 12507  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is to safely retrieve and treat the 56 million gallons of Hanford's tank waste and close the Tank Farms to protect the Columbia River. Our discussion of the Tank Farms and Waste Feed Delivery will cover progress made to date with Base and Recovery Act funding in reducing the risk posed by tank waste and in preparing for the initiation of waste treatment at Hanford. The millions of gallons of waste are a by-product of decades of plutonium production. After irradiated fuel rods were taken from the nuclear reactors to the processing facilities at Hanford they were exposed to a series of chemicals designed to dissolve away the rod, which enabled workers to retrieve the plutonium. Once those chemicals were exposed to the fuel rods they became radioactive and extremely hot. They also couldn't be used in this process more than once. Because the chemicals are caustic and extremely hazardous to humans and the environment, underground storage tanks were built to hold these chemicals until a more permanent solution could be found. The underground storage tanks range in capacity from 55,000 gallons to more than 1 million gallons. The tanks were constructed with carbon steel and reinforced concrete. There are eighteen groups of tanks, called 'tank farms', some having as few as two tanks and others up to sixteen tanks. Between 1943 and 1964, 149 single-shell tanks were built at Hanford in the 200 West and East Areas. Heat generated by the waste and the composition of the waste caused an estimated 67 of these single-shell tanks to leak into the ground. Washington River Protection Solutions is the prime contractor responsible for the safe management of this waste. WRPS' mission is to reduce the risk to the environment that is posed by the waste. All of the pumpable liquids have been removed from the single-shell tanks and transferred to the double-shell tanks. What remains in the single-shell tanks are solid and semi-solid wastes. Known as salt-cakes, they have the consistency of wet beach sand. Some of the waste resembles small broken ice, or whitish crystals. Because the original pumps inside the tanks were designed to remove only liquid waste, other methods have been developed to reach the remaining waste. Access to the tank waste is through long, typically skinny pipes, called risers, extending out of the tanks. It is through these pipes that crews are forced to send machines and devices into the tanks that are used to break up the waste or push it toward a pump. These pipes range in size from just a few inches to just over a foot in diameter because they were never intended to be used in this manner. As part of the agreement regulating Hanford cleanup, crews must remove at least 99% of the material in every tank on the site, or at least as much waste that can be removed based on available technology. To date, seven single-shell tanks have been emptied, and work is underway in another 10 tanks in preparation for additional retrieval activities. Two barriers have been installed over single-shell tanks to prevent the intrusion of surface water down to the tanks, with additional barriers planned for the future. Single and double-shell tank integrity analyses are ongoing. Because the volume of the waste generated through plutonium production exceeded the capacity of the single-shell tanks, between 1968 and 1986 Hanford engineers built 28 double-shell tanks. These tanks were studied and made with a second shell to surround the carbon steel and reinforced concrete. The double-shell tanks have not leaked any of their waste. (authors)

Fletcher, Thomas; Charboneau, Stacy; Olds, Erik [US DOE (United States)

2012-07-01

371

The Navruz Project: Cooperative, Transboundary Monitoring, Data Sharing and Modeling of Water Resources in Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Navruz Project engages scientists from nuclear physics research institutes and water science institutions in the Central\\u000a Asia Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and Sandia National Laboratories. The project uses standardized\\u000a methods to monitor basic water quality parameters, radionuclides, and metals in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. Phase\\u000a I of the project was initiated in 2000

H. D. Passell; V. Solodukhin; S. Khazekhber; V. L. Pozniak; I. A. Vasiliev; V. M. Alekhina; A. Djuraev; R. I. Radyuk; D. Suozzi; D. S. Barber

372

Analysis of Questionnaire on Time and Cost of the China's South-to-North Water Diversion Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The China's South-to-North Water Diversion Project is the largest water transfer project in the world which was paid more attentions on by thousands of peoples. The important task of project manager is to control project cost and duration. It is the most concerned question with the project managers which factors seriously affect the duration and cost. In order to study

Liu Rui; Wang Xiaoya

2008-01-01

373

GIS Analysis of Available Data to Identify regions in the U.S. Where Shallow Ground Water Supplies are Particularly Vulnerable to Contamination by Releases to Biofuels from Underground Storage Tanks  

EPA Science Inventory

GIS analysis of available data to identify regions in the U.S. where shallow ground water supplies are particularly vulnerable to contamination by releases of biofuels from underground storage tanks. In this slide presentation, GIS was used to perform a simple numerical and ...

374

Farming in a fish tank.  

PubMed

Water, fish, and vegetables are all things that most developing countries do not have enough of. There is a method of food production called aquaculture that integrates fish and vegetable growing and conserves and purifies water at the same time. A working system that grows vegetables and fish for regional supermarkets in Massachusetts is a gravity fed system. At the top of the system is a 3,000 gallon fish rearing tank that measures 12 feet in diameter. Water trickles out of the tank and fish wastes are captured which can be composted and used in farm fields. The water goes into a bio filter that contains bacteria which convert harmful ammonia generated from fish waste into beneficial nitrate. Then the water flows into 100 foot long hydroponic tanks where lettuce grows. A 1/6 horsepower pump return the purified water to the fish tank and completes the cycle. The key to success is maintaining a balance between the fish nutrients and waste and the plants nutrients and waste. The system is estimated to produce 35,000 heads of lettuce and 2 tons of fish annually which translates into $23,500. The system could be adapted to developing countries with several modifications to reduce the start up cost. PMID:12317429

Youth, H

1992-01-01

375

Underground storage tank management  

SciTech Connect

In this third edition, sixteen new and revised chapters provide tank owners and operators with guidance in making engineering and management decisions: Regulatory Highlights, Inventory Control, Leak Prediction Through Inventory Analysis, Underground Tank Testing, Tank Design, Secondary Containment, Monitoring and Leak Protection, Overfill and Transfer Protection, Maintenance and Retrofit, Tank Removal, Remedial Action, Tank Installation, Tank Management Plan, Storing Hazardous Substances, Minimizing Your Liabilities, and Financial Responsibility.

Not Available

1988-01-01

376

Chapter 2 x Pressure Distribution in a Fluid 125 P2.90 The tank in Fig. P2.90 is 120 cm  

E-print Network

Chapter 2 x Pressure Distribution in a Fluid 125 P2.90 The tank in Fig. P2.90 is 120 cm long the vertical projection of panel AB: 2.91 The hemispherical dome in Fig. P2.91 weighs 30 kN and is filled bolts is 544088/6 or Fbolt | 90700 N Ans. 2.92 A 4-m-diameter water tank consists of two half

Bahrami, Majid

377

Mixer pump test plan for double shell tank AZ-101  

SciTech Connect

Mixer pump systems have been chosen as the method for retrieval of tank wastes contained in double shell tanks at Hanford. This document describes the plan for testing and demonstrating the ability of two 300 hp mixer pumps to mobilize waste in tank AZ-101. The mixer pumps, equipment and instrumentation to monitor the test were installed by Project W-151.

STAEHR, T.W.

1999-05-12

378

Secondary recovery method and system using solar energy and concentric tank separator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A secondary oil recovery method and system utilizing a concentric tank arrangement receiving crude oil from an oil well in the inner tank thereof with the crude oil being heated by a solar furnace to facilitate separation of water, oil and gas with the water being disposed within the outer tank for insulation of the inner tank and for use

D. Fuqua; F. W. Slater

1981-01-01

379

Tank Closure Progress at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Tank Farm Facility  

SciTech Connect

Significant progress has been made at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to empty, clean and close radioactive liquid waste storage tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Tank Farm Facility (TFF). The TFF includes eleven 1,135.6-kL (300,000-gal) underground stainless steel storage tanks and four smaller, 113.5-kL (30,000-gal) stainless steel tanks, along with tank vaults, interconnecting piping, and ancillary equipment. The TFF tanks have historically been used to store a variety of radioactive liquid waste, including wastes associated with past spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Although four of the large storage tanks remain in use for waste storage, the other seven 1,135.6-kL (300,000-gal) tanks and the four 113.5-kL (30,000-gal) tanks have been emptied of waste, cleaned and filled with grout. A water spray cleaning system was developed and deployed to clean internal tank surfaces and remove remaining tank wastes. The cleaning system was effective in removing all but a very small volume of solid residual waste particles. Recent issuance of an Amended Record of Decision (ROD) in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act, and a Waste Determination complying with Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2005, has allowed commencement of grouting activities on the cleaned tanks. The first three 113.5-kL (30,000-gal) tanks were grouted in the Fall of 2006 and the fourth tank and the seven 1,135.6-kL (300,000-gal) tanks were filled with grout in 2007 to provide long-term stability. It is currently planned that associated tank valve boxes and interconnecting piping, will be stabilized with grout as early as 2008. (authors)

Quigley, K.D. [CH2M..WG Idaho, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Butterworth, St.W. [CH2M..WG Idaho, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lockie, K.A. [U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

2008-07-01

380

Water lamp and pinwheels: ambient projection of digital information into architectural space  

Microsoft Academic Search

We envision that the architectural spaces we inhabit will be an interface between humans and online digital information. This paper introduces ambient fixtures called Water Lamp and Pinwheels: a new approach to interfacing people with online digital information. The Water Lamp projects water ripple shadow created by a \\

Andrew Dahley; Craig Wisneski; Hiroshi Ishii

1998-01-01

381

Investigating Social Conflicts Linked to Water Resources through Agent-Based  

E-print Network

takes place in a more general project named MAELIA for Multi-agent for Environmental Norms Impact tanks to a more heterogeneous one where natural tanks will tend to disappear at the same time as the heterogeneity in water availability over the world will tend to increase as well as its heterogeneity in time

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

382

Tanks 18 And 19-F Structural Flowable Grout Fill Material Evaluation And Recommendations  

SciTech Connect

Cementitious grout will be used to close Tanks 18-F and 19-F. The functions of the grout are to: 1) physically stabilize the final landfill by filling the empty volume in the tanks with a non-compressible material; 2) provide a barrier for inadvertent intrusion into the tank; 3) reduce contaminant mobility by a) limiting the hydraulic conductivity of the closed tank and b) reducing contact between the residual waste and infiltrating water; and 4) providing an alkaline, chemically reducing environment in the closed tank to control speciation and solubility of selected radionuclides. The objective of this work was to identify a single (all-in-one) grout to stabilize and isolate the residual radionuclides in the tank, provide structural stability of the closed tank and serve as an inadvertent intruder barrier. This work was requested by V. A. Chander, High Level Waste (HLW) Tank Engineering, in HLW-TTR-2011-008. The complete task scope is provided in the Task Technical and QA Plan, SRNL-RP-2011-00587 Revision 0. The specific objectives of this task were to: 1) Identify new admixtures and dosages for formulating a zero bleed flowable tank fill material selected by HLW Tank Closure Project personnel based on earlier tank fill studies performed in 2007. The chemical admixtures used for adjusting the flow properties needed to be updated because the original admixture products are no longer available. Also, the sources of cement and fly ash have changed, and Portland cements currently available contain up to 5 wt. % limestone (calcium carbonate). 2) Prepare and evaluate the placement, compressive strength, and thermal properties of the selected formulation with new admixture dosages. 3) Identify opportunities for improving the mix selected by HLW Closure Project personnel and prepare and evaluate two potentially improved zero bleed flowable fill design concepts; one based on the reactor fill grout and the other based on a shrinkage compensating flowable fill mix design. 4) Prepare samples for hydraulic property measurements for comparison to the values in the F and H- Tank Farm Performance Assessments (PAs). 5) Identify a grout mix for the Tanks 18-F and 19-F Grout Procurement Specification [Forty, 2011 a, b, c]. Results for two flowable zero bleed structural fill concepts containing 3/8 inch gravel (70070 Series and LP#8 Series) and a sand only mix (SO Series) are provided in this report. Tank Farm Engineering and SRNL Project Management selected the 70070 mix as the base case for inclusion in Revision 0 of the Tanks 18-F and 19-F grout procurement specification [Forty 2011 a] and requested admixture recommendations and property confirmation for this formulation [Forty, 2011 b]. Lower cementitious paste mixes were formulated because the 70070 mix is over designed with respect to strength and generates more heat from hydration reactions than is desirable for mass pour application. Work was also initiated on a modification of the recommended mix which included shrinkage compensation to mitigate fast pathways caused by shrinkage cracking and poor physical bonding to the tank and ancillary equipment. Testing of this option was postponed to FY12. Mix, LP#8-16 is recommended for inclusion in the specification for furnishing and delivering tank closure grout for Tanks 18-F and 19-F [Forty, 2011 c]. A shrinkage compensating variation of this mix, LP#16C, has not been fully developed and characterized at this time.

Langton, C. A.; Stefanko, D. B.

2013-04-23

383

Stabilization of in-tank residual wastes and external tank soil contamination for the Hanford tank closure program: application to the AX tank farm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixed high-level waste is currently stored in underground tanks at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site. The plan is to retrieve the waste, process the water, and dispose of the waste in a manner that will provide less long-term health risk. The AX Tank Farm has been identified for purposes of demonstration. Not all the waste can be

1998-01-01

384

[Sustainability of ecological water transfer and rehabilitation project based on participatory survey].  

PubMed

In the arid inland area of Northwest China, the ecological water transfer and rehabilitation project (EWTRP) is an important measure to restore the deteriorated ecosystem. However, the sustainability of the project is affected by many socio-economic factors. This research was based on results of the questionnaire from Ejina County's farmer households, which included the farmer households' attitude, livelihood and the efficiency of the water resource usage. The results showed that although the EWTRP had made great achievements in vegetation restoration, but the sustainability of the project was affected by the following factors: the ecologically-motivated relocated/resettled herdsmen mainly relied on the compensation from the project, causing them a hard living, and increasing the risk of maintaining the current achievement; the project didn't have a positive impact on water-saving agriculture, the efficiency of water usage was relatively low and had not yet reached the final goal; the compensation of the project only considered the loss of agriculture, but neglected the externality and publicity of eco-water. We suggest that developing education, offering job opportunity and training programs, improving the efficiency of water usage and establishing reasonable water resources compensation mechanisms are needed to be considered as main domain of environmental recovery as well as ecological water transfer and rehabilitation. PMID:24765863

Wang, Yu; Feng, Qi; Chen, Li-Juan; Yu, Teng-Fei

2014-01-01

385

Hanford waste tank bump accident analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a new evaluation of the Hanford tank bump accident analysis (HNF-SD-Wh4-SAR-067 2001). The purpose of the new evaluation is to consider new information and to support new recommendations for final safety controls. This evaluation considers historical data, industrial failure modes, plausible accident scenarios, and system responses. A tank bump is a postulated event in which gases, consisting mostly of water vapor, are suddenly emitted from the waste and cause tank headspace pressurization. A tank bump is distinguished from a gas release event in two respects: First, the physical mechanism for release involves vaporization of locally superheated liquid, and second, gases emitted to the head space are not flammable. For this reason, a tank bump is often called a steam bump. In this report, even though non-condensible gases may be considered in bump models, flammability and combustion of emitted gases are not. The analysis scope is safe storage of waste in its current configuration in single-shell tanks (SSTs) and double-shell tanks (DSTs). The analysis considers physical mechanisms for tank bump to formulate criteria for bump potential, application of the criteria to the tanks, and accident analysis of bump scenarios. The result of consequence analysis is the mass of waste released from tanks for specific scenarios where bumps are credible; conversion to health consequences is performed elsewhere using standard Hanford methods (Cowley et al. 2000). The analysis forms a baseline for future extension to consider waste retrieval.

MALINOVIC, B.

2003-03-21

386

Underground radioactive waste tank remote inspection and sampling  

SciTech Connect

Characterization is a critical step in the remediation of contaminated materials and facilities. Severe physical- and radiological-access restrictions made the task of characterizing the World War II-era underground radioactive storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) particularly challenging. The innovative and inexpensive tank characterization system (TCS) developed to meet this challenge at ORNL is worthy of consideration for use in similar remediation projects. The TCS is a floating system that uses the existing water in the tank as a platform that supports instruments and samplers mounted on a floating boom. TCS operators feed the unit into an existing port of the tank to be characterized. Once inserted, the system`s position is controlled by rotation and by insertion and withdrawal of the boom. The major components of the TCS system include the following: (1) boom support system that consists of a boom support structure and a floating boom, (2) video camera and lights, (3) sludge grab sampler, (4) wall chip sampler, and (5) sonar depth finder. This simple design allows access to all parts of a tank. Moreover, the use of off-the-shelf components keeps the system inexpensive and minimizes maintenance costs. The TCS proved invaluable in negotiating the hazards of ORNL`s Gunite and Associated Tanks, which typically contain a layer of radioactive sludge, have only one to three access ports that are usually only 12- or 24-in. in diameter, and range from 12 to 50 ft in diameter. This paper reviews both the successes and the difficulties encountered in using the TCS for treatability studies at ORNL and discusses the prospects for its wider application in remediation activities.

Bzorgi, F.M.; Kelsey, A.P.; Van Hoesen, S.D.; Wiles, C.O.

1996-04-01

387

UMTRA project technical assistance contractor quality assurance implementation plan for surface and ground water  

SciTech Connect

The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Quality Assurance Implementation Plan (QAIP) outlines the primary requirements for integrating quality functions for TAC technical activities applied to the surface and ground water phases of the UMTRA Project. The QAIP is subordinate to the latest issue of the UMTRA Project TAC Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). The QAIP addresses technical aspects of the TAC UMTRA Project surface and ground water programs. The QAIP is authorized and approved by the TAC Project Manager and QA manager. The QA program is designed to use monitoring, audit, and surveillance functions as management tools to ensure that all Project organization activities are carried out in a manner that will protect public health and safety, promote the success of the UMTRA Project and meet or exceed contract requirements.

Not Available

1994-09-01

388

PROGRESS & CHALLENGES IN CLEANUP OF HANFORDS TANK WASTES  

SciTech Connect

The River Protection Project (RPP), which is managed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP), is highly complex from technical, regulatory, legal, political, and logistical perspectives and is the largest ongoing environmental cleanup project in the world. Over the past three years, ORP has made significant advances in its planning and execution of the cleanup of the Hartford tank wastes. The 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs), 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs), and 60 miscellaneous underground storage tanks (MUSTs) at Hanford contain approximately 200,000 m{sup 3} (53 million gallons) of mixed radioactive wastes, some of which dates back to the first days of the Manhattan Project. The plan for treating and disposing of the waste stored in large underground tanks is to: (1) retrieve the waste, (2) treat the waste to separate it into high-level (sludge) and low-activity (supernatant) fractions, (3) remove key radionuclides (e.g., Cs-137, Sr-90, actinides) from the low-activity fraction to the maximum extent technically and economically practical, (4) immobilize both the high-level and low-activity waste fractions by vitrification, (5) interim store the high-level waste fraction for ultimate disposal off-site at the federal HLW repository, (6) dispose the low-activity fraction on-site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF), and (7) close the waste management areas consisting of tanks, ancillary equipment, soils, and facilities. Design and construction of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), the cornerstone of the RPP, has progressed substantially despite challenges arising from new seismic information for the WTP site. We have looked closely at the waste and aligned our treatment and disposal approaches with the waste characteristics. For example, approximately 11,000 m{sup 3} (2-3 million gallons) of metal sludges in twenty tanks were not created during spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and have low fission product concentrations. We plan to treat these wastes as transuranic waste (TRU) for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which will reduce the WTP system processing time by three years. We are also developing and testing bulk vitrification as a technology to supplement the WTP LAW vitrification facility for immobilizing the massive volume of LAW. We will conduct a full-scale demonstration of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System by immobilizing up to 1,100 m{sup 3} (300,000 gallons) of tank S-109 low-curie soluble waste from which Cs-137 had previously been removed. This past year has been marked by both progress and new challenges. The focus of our tank farm work has been retrieving waste from the old single-shell tanks (SSTs). We have completed waste retrieval from three SSTs and are conducting retrieval operations on an additional three SSTs. While most waste retrievals have gone about as expected, we have faced challenges with some recalcitrant tank heel wastes that required enhanced approaches. Those enhanced approaches ranged from oxalic acid additions to deploying a remote high-pressure water lance. As with all large, long-term projects that employ first of a kind technologies, we continue to be challenged to control costs and maintain schedule. However, it is most important to work safely and to provide facilities that will do the job they are intended to do.

HEWITT, W.M.; SCHEPENS, R.

2006-01-23

389

Functions and requirements for a waste dislodging and conveyance system for the gunite and associated tanks treatability study at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Since the mid 1940s, the Department of Defense (DOD) and the Department of Energy (DOE) have conducted research and development activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of urgent national interests in the fields of nuclear weaponry and nuclear energy. Some of these activities resulted in radiologically hazardous waste being temporarily deposited at ORNL, Waste Area Grouping 1. At this location, waste is stored in several underground storage tanks, awaiting ultimate final disposal. There are tanks of two basic categories. One category is referred to as the gunite tanks, the other category is associated tanks. The ORNL Gunite and Associated Tanks Treatability Study (GAAT TS) project was initiated in FY 1994 to support a record of decision in selecting from seven different options of technologies for retrieval and remediation of these tanks. As part of this decision process, new waste retrieval technologies will be evaluated at the 25-foot diameter gunite tanks in the North tank farm. Work is currently being conducted at Hanford and the University of Missouri-Rolla to evaluate and develop some technologies having high probability of being most practical and effective for the dislodging and conveying of waste from underground storage tanks. The findings of these efforts indicate that a system comprised of a dislodging end effector employing jets of high-pressure fluids, coupled to a water-jet conveyance system, all carried above the waste by a mechanical arm or other mechanism, is a viable retrieval technology for the GAAT TS tasks.

Potter, J.D.; Mullen, O.D.

1997-02-01

390

Analysis of dissolved benzene plumes and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) plumes in ground water at leaking underground fuel tank (LUFT) sites  

SciTech Connect

The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments mandate the addition of oxygenates to gasoline products to abate air pollution. Currently, many areas of the country utilize oxygenated or reformulated fuel containing 15- percent and I I-percent MTBE by volume, respectively. This increased use of MTBE in gasoline products has resulted in accidental point source releases of MTBE containing gasoline products to ground water. Recent studies have shown MTBE to be frequently detected in samples of shallow ground water from urban areas throughout the United States (Squillace et al., 1995). Knowledge of the subsurface fate and transport of MTBE in ground water at leaking underground fuel tank (LUFT) sites and the spatial extent of MTBE plumes is needed to address these releases. The goal of this research is to utilize data from a large number of LUFT sites to gain insights into the fate, transport, and spatial extent of MTBE plumes. Specific goals include defining the spatial configuration of dissolved MTBE plumes, evaluating plume stability or degradation over time, evaluating the impact of point source releases of MTBE to ground water, and attempting to identify the controlling factors influencing the magnitude and extent of the MTBE plumes. We are examining the relationships between dissolved TPH, BTEX, and MTBE plumes at LUFT sites using parallel approaches of best professional judgment and a computer-aided plume model fitting procedure to determine plume parameters. Here we present our initial results comparing dissolved benzene and MTBE plumes lengths, the statistical significance of these results, and configuration of benzene and MTBE plumes at individual LUFT sites.

Happel, A.M.; Rice, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Beckenbach, E. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Savalin, L.; Temko, H.; Rempel, R. [California State Water Resources Control Board, Sacramento, CA (United States); Dooher, B. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1996-11-01

391

Seymour Aquifer Water Quality Improvement Project Final Report  

E-print Network

to the underlying Seymour Aquifer, which supplies all the irrigation water and more than 90% of potable water to the area. The climate in the area is semi-arid with average annual precipitation of 610 mm and potential evapo-transpiration (PET) of approximately...

Sij, J.; Morgan, C.; Belew, M.; Jones, D.; Wagner, K.

392

2. VIEW OF WASH TANKS Skins are brought in through ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW OF WASH TANKS Skins are brought in through hatches, seen on rear wall, and washed of blood and flesh in redwood tanks, with wooden grates to hold skins down in water. Superstructure and screening on tanks are a later alteration, unrelated to this process. - Sealing Plant, St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Saint George, Aleutians West Census Area, AK

393

35. RESERVOIR TANKS ALONG DAMIEN ROAD NEAR KAUHAKO CRATER (282'). ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. RESERVOIR TANKS ALONG DAMIEN ROAD NEAR KAUHAKO CRATER (282'). WOOD TANK AT LEFT WAS ERECTED CA. 1969. CEMENT-LINED MASONRY TANKS WITH CORRUGATED METAL ROOF, CONSTRUCTED CA. 1894, ARE LOCATED AT RIGHT. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

394

ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY IRON REMOVAL. USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT CLIMAX, MN. PROJECT SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is an eight page summary of the final report on arsenic demonstration project at Climax, MN (EPA/600/R-06/152). The objectives of the project are to evaluate the effectiveness of the Kinetico iron removal system in removing arsenic to meet the new arsenic maximum co...

395

Automatic Control System of Water Conservancy Project Model Based on Multi Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve the precision of model test of the water conservancy project, accelerate the speed of experiment, through bringing in the theory of Multi-Agent, this paper has proposed a kind of new-type Automatic Control System of Water Project Model based on Multi-Agent. This automatic System is made up of Monitoring Agent Federation, namely System control Agent, Flow control

Junhu Yang; Lizhi Yang; Tinghong Zhao; Zhiqiang Jia

2009-01-01

396

Income-based projections of water footprint of food consumption in Uzbekistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessing future water requirements for feeding the growing population of Central Asia can improve understanding of the projected water supply scenarios in the region. Future water requirements will be partially determined by the dietary habits of the populations, and are thus responsive to significant variation of income levels. Using Uzbekistan as an example, this study projects the water footprints of income driven changes on the population's diet in Central Asia. To reveal the influence of large income changes on dietary habits a Normalized Quadratic-Quadratic Expenditure System was calibrated and applied to data from 2009. The national water footprints of food consumption in Uzbekistan were projected until 2034 by applying the parameterized demand system to estimate the respective water footprint values. The results showed that for Uzbekistan the projected increase in the food consumption water footprint would be primarily linked to income growth rather than population growth. Due to the high water footprint of common food products, the composition of the population's diet, and responsiveness to income, economic growth is expected to put greater pressure on water resources in Uzbekistan unless proper measures are undertaken.

Djanibekov, Nodir; Frohberg, Klaus; Djanibekov, Utkur

2013-11-01

397

Sustainable Hydro Assessment and Groundwater Recharge Projects (SHARP) in Germany - Water Balance Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SHARP is a European INTERREG IVc Program. It focuses on the exchange of innovative technologies to protect groundwater resources for future generations by considering the climate change and the different geological and geographical conditions. Regions involved are Austria, United Kingdom, Poland, Italy, Macedonia, Malta, Greece and Germany. They will exchange practical know-how and also determine know-how demands concerning SHARP’s key contents: general groundwater management tools, artificial groundwater recharge technologies, groundwater monitoring systems, strategic use of groundwater resources for drinking water, irrigation and industry, techniques to save water quality and quantity, drinking water safety plans, risk management tools and water balance models. SHARP Outputs & results will influence the regional policy in the frame of sustainable groundwater management to save and improve the quality and quantity of groundwater reservoirs for future generations. The main focus of the Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and Landscape in this project is the enhancement and purposive use of water balance models. Already since 1992 scientists compare different existing water balance models on different scales and coupled with groundwater models. For example in the KLIWEP (Assessment of Impacts of Climate Change Projections on Water and Matter Balance for the Catchment of River Parthe in Saxony) project the coupled model WaSiM-ETH - PCGEOFIM® has been used to study the impact of climate change on water balance and water supplies. The project KliWES (Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change Projections on Water and Matter Balance for Catchment Areas in Saxony) still running, comprises studies of fundamental effects of climate change on catchments in Saxony. Project objective is to assess Saxon catchments according to the vulnerability of their water resources towards climate change projections in order to derive region-specific recommendations for management actions. The model comparisons within reference areas showed significant differences in outcome. The values of water balance components calculated with different models partially fluctuate by a multiple of their value. The SHARP project was prepared in several previous projects that were testing suitable water balance models and is now able to assist the knowledge transfer.

Niemand, C.; Kuhn, K.; Schwarze, R.

2010-12-01

398

Expert Panel Recommendations for Hanford Double-Shell Tank Life Extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expert workshops were held in Richland in May 2001 to review the Hanford Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project and make recommendations to extend the life of Hanford's double-shell waste tanks. The workshop scope was limited to corrosion of the primary tank liner, and the main areas for review were waste chemistry control, tank inspection, and corrosion monitoring. Participants were corrosion experts

Charles W. Stewart; Spencer H. Bush; Herbert S. Berman; Carl J. Czajkowski; James R. Divine; Gerald J. Posakony; A. B. Johnson; Monte R. Elmore; D. A. Reynolds; Ramamohan P. Anantatmula; Robert L. Sindelar; Philip E. Zapp

2001-01-01

399

UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Durango, Colorado. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Durango, Colorado, are described in this water sampling and analysis plan. The plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the routine monitoring stations at the site. The ground water data are used to characterize the site ground water compliance strategies and to monitor contaminants of potential concern identified in the baseline risk assessment (DOE, 1995a). Regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the US EPA regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and EPA standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (TAD) (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site.

NONE

1995-09-01

400

Water Use Optimization Toolset Project: Development and Demonstration Phase Draft Report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of the development and demonstration phase of the Water Use Optimization Toolset (WUOT) project. It identifies the objective and goals that guided the project, as well as demonstrating potential benefits that could be obtained by applying the WUOT in different geo-hydrologic systems across the United States. A major challenge facing conventional hydropower plants is to operate more efficiently while dealing with an increasingly uncertain water-constrained environment and complex electricity markets. The goal of this 3-year WUOT project, which is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), is to improve water management, resulting in more energy, revenues, and grid services from available water, and to enhance environmental benefits from improved hydropower operations and planning while maintaining institutional water delivery requirements. The long-term goal is for the WUOT to be used by environmental analysts and deployed by hydropower schedulers and operators to assist in market, dispatch, and operational decisions.

Gasper, John R. [Argonne National Laboratory] [Argonne National Laboratory; Veselka, Thomas D. [Argonne National Laboratory] [Argonne National Laboratory; Mahalik, Matthew R. [Argonne National Laboratory] [Argonne National Laboratory; Hayse, John W. [Argonne National Laboratory] [Argonne National Laboratory; Saha, Samrat [Argonne National Laboratory] [Argonne National Laboratory; Wigmosta, Mark S. [PNNL] [PNNL; Voisin, Nathalie [PNNL] [PNNL; Rakowski, Cynthia [PNNL] [PNNL; Coleman, Andre [PNNL] [PNNL; Lowry, Thomas S. [SNL] [SNL

2014-05-19

401

Overhead Projection Cell for Streamline Flow  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the construction and operation of an overhead projection apparatus designed to demonstrate streamline flow of a liquid. The apparatus consists of a Plexiglass tank containing water in which plates forming the cell are submerged, a constant level reservoir, an overflow device and a system for marking the flow lines with a dye. (LC)

Waage, Harold M.

1969-01-01

402

Work plan, health and safety plan, and quality assurance project plan for hazardous waste removal at the CTF K-1654B underground collection tank  

SciTech Connect

The Central Training Facility (CTF), located on Bear Creek Road approximately two miles south of the K-25 Site, is utilized for training security personnel at Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, Tennessee. At the request of the CTF staff, this plan has been developed for the removal of the waste contents in the facility's 500-gal septic tank and associated distribution box. The septic tank and distribution box were historically located beneath the K-1654B trailer and adjacent to the K-1654A Indoor Firing Range. Recently, however, the K-1654B trailer was removed to accommodate the objectives of this work plan as well as future construction activities planned at CTF. The purpose of this plan is to develop and assign responsibilities, establish personnel protection requirements and mandatory safety procedures, and provide for contingencies that may arise while operations are being conducted by ORNL/MAD at the CTF K-1654B underground collection tank site. This document addresses requirements of 29 CFR 1910.120, Final Rule, with respect to aspects of health and safety applicable to an underground collection tank waste removal.

Panter, M.S.; Burman, S.N.; Landguth, D.C.; Uziel, M.S.

1991-10-01

403

Work plan, health and safety plan, and quality assurance project plan for hazardous waste removal at the CTF K-1654B underground collection tank  

SciTech Connect

The Central Training Facility (CTF), located on Bear Creek Road approximately two miles south of the K-25 Site, is utilized for training security personnel at Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, Tennessee. At the request of the CTF staff, this plan has been developed for the removal of the waste contents in the facility`s 500-gal septic tank and associated distribution box. The septic tank and distribution box were historically located beneath the K-1654B trailer and adjacent to the K-1654A Indoor Firing Range. Recently, however, the K-1654B trailer was removed to accommodate the objectives of this work plan as well as future construction activities planned at CTF. The purpose of this plan is to develop and assign responsibilities, establish personnel protection requirements and mandatory safety procedures, and provide for contingencies that may arise while operations are being conducted by ORNL/MAD at the CTF K-1654B underground collection tank site. This document addresses requirements of 29 CFR 1910.120, Final Rule, with respect to aspects of health and safety applicable to an underground collection tank waste removal.

Panter, M.S.; Burman, S.N.; Landguth, D.C.; Uziel, M.S.

1991-10-01

404

HANFORD TANK CLEANUP UPDATE  

SciTech Connect

Access to Hanford's single-shell radioactive waste storage tank C-107 was significantly improved when workers completed the cut of a 55-inch diameter hole in the top of the tank. The core and its associated cutting equipment were removed from the tank and encased in a plastic sleeve to prevent any potential spread of contamination. The larger tank opening allows use of a new more efficient robotic arm to complete tank retrieval.

BERRIOCHOA MV

2011-04-07

405

Idaho EPSCoR RII: Water Resources in a Changing Climate Project Summary  

E-print Network

Idaho EPSCoR RII: Water Resources in a Changing Climate Project Summary Context: Idaho has funding. Idaho's universities, via the ongoing RII Project (V), have built basic research expertise in hydrology and stream ecology. These strengths, combined with Idaho's natural field laboratories, provide

Walden, Von P.

406

Projecting Continental U.S. Water Stress Based on Global Datasets  

SciTech Connect

Human populations may be adversely impacted by water stress, a situation which is commonly defined as a per capita water availability of less than 1700 cubic meters of freshwater per person per year. Water stress may result from either overuse of available freshwater resources or a reduction in the amount of available water due to decreases in rainfall and stored water supplies. Analyzing the interrelationship between human populations and water availability is complicated by the uncertainties associated with climate change projections and population projections. We have developed a simple methodology to integrate disparate climate and population data sources and develop first-order per capita water availability projections at the global scale. Simulations from the coupled land-ocean-atmosphere Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3) forced with a range of hypothetical greenhouse gas emissions scenarios have been used to project grid-based changes in precipitation minus evapotranspiration as proxies for changes in runoff, or fresh water supply. Population growth changes, according to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) storylines, have been used as proxies for changes in fresh water demand by 2025, 2050 and 2100. These freshwater supply and demand projections have then been combined to yield estimates of per capita water availability aggregated by U.S. watershed. Results suggest that important insights might be extracted from the use of the process developed here, including the identification of potentially vulnerable areas in need of more detailed analysis. This high-level analysis also illustrates the relative importance of population growth versus climate change in in altering future freshwater supplies. However, these are only exemplary insights and, as such, could be considered hypotheses that should be rigorously tested with multiple climate models, multiple observational climate datasets, and more comprehensive population growth projections.

Parish, Esther S [ORNL; Kodra, Evan [Northeastern University; Steinhaeuser, Karsten [University of Minnesota; Ganguly, Auroop R [Northeastern University

2012-01-01

407

Tank waste concentration mechanism study  

SciTech Connect

This study determines whether the existing 242-A Evaporator should continue to be used to concentrate the Hanford Site radioactive liquid tank wastes or be replaced by an alternative waste concentration process. Using the same philosophy, the study also determines what the waste concentration mechanism should be for the future TWRS program. Excess water from liquid DST waste should be removed to reduce the volume of waste feed for pretreatment, immobilization, and to free up storage capacity in existing tanks to support interim stabilization of SSTS, terminal cleanout of excess facilities, and other site remediation activities.

Pan, L.C.; Johnson, L.J.

1994-09-01

408

Tank Mixing of Allelopathic Crop Water Extracts with Pendimethalin Helps in the Management of Weeds in Canola (Brassica napus) Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted to investigate the allelopathic effects of sorghum, sunflower, brassica and rice combined with low rates of pendimethalin for weed management in canola (Brassica napus L.) field. Crop water extracts at 15 L ha -1 each in combination with pendimethalin at 400 and 600 g active ingredient (a.i.) ha-1 were sprayed immediately after sowing. Full dose

K. JABRAN; Z. A. CHEEMA; M. FAROOQ; M. HUSSAIN BASRA; H. REHMAN

409

Compliance review for the UNH Storage Tank  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of Project S-4257, USF-UNH 150,000 Gallon Storage Tank, is to provide interim storage for the liquid uranyl nitrate (UNH) product from H-Canyon until the UNH can be processed in the new Uranium Solidification Facility (Project S-2052). NPSR was requested by Project Management and DOE-SR to perform a design compliance review for the UNH Storage Tank to support the Operational Readiness Review (ORR) and the Operational Readiness Evaluation (ORE), respectively. The project was reviewed against the design criteria contained in the DOE Order 6430.1A, General Design Criteria. This report documents the results of the compliance review.

Low, J.M.

1992-05-19

410

Viability report for the ByWater Lakes project.  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from the hydrological, ecological, and renewable energy assessments conducted by Sandia National Laboratories at the ByWater Lakes site in Espanola, New Mexico for ByWater Recreation LLC and Avanyu Energy Services through the New Mexico small business assistance (NMSBA) program. Sandia's role was to assess the viability and provide perspective for enhancing the site to take advantage of renewable energy resources, improve and sustain the natural systems, develop a profitable operation, and provide an asset for the local community. Integral to this work was the identification the pertinent data and data gaps as well as making general observations about the potential issues and concerns that may arise from further developing the site. This report is informational only with no consideration with regards to the business feasibility of the various options that ByWater and Avanyu may be pursuing.

Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Passell, Howard David; Peplinski, William J.

2013-10-01

411

PROJECTED GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON WATER TEMPERATURE IN FIVE NORTH CENTRAL U.S. STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The effect of projected global climate change due to a doubling of atmospheric CO2 on water temperatures in five streams in Minnesota was estimated using a deterministic heat transport model. he model calculates heat exchange between the atmosphere and the water and is driven by ...

412

Improving frost-simulation subroutines of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Erosion models play an important role in assessing the influence of human activities on the environment. For cold areas, adequate frost simulation is crucial for predicting surface runoff and water erosion. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model, physically-based erosion-prediction softwa...

413

Water requirements of some selected crops in Kampe dam irrigation project  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out to determine the crop water requirement of some selected crops for the area around Kampe (Omi) Dam Irrigation Project. These crops include rice, maize, tomato, vegetable amaranth, pepper, onion and cabbage. Crop water requirement for each of the crops was determined by using 25-year climatic data in CROPWAT. Reference crop evapo-transpiration (ETo) was determined using

Adeniran K. A; Amodu M. F; Amodu M. O; Adeniji F. A

2010-01-01

414

49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331...tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) Each...offers a hazardous material to a motor carrier for transportation in a bulk packaging shall provide the motor carrier with the...

2013-10-01

415

49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331...tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) Each...offers a hazardous material to a motor carrier for transportation in a bulk packaging shall provide the motor carrier with the...

2011-10-01

416

49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331...tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) Each...offers a hazardous material to a motor carrier for transportation in a bulk packaging shall provide the motor carrier with the...

2012-10-01

417

Effects of plumbing attachments on heat losses from solar domestic hot water storage tanks. Final report, Part 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC) has established a standardized methodology for determining the performance rating of the Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) systems it certifies under OG-300. Measured performance data for the solar collector component(s) of the system are used along with numerical models for the balance of the system to calculate the system`s thermal performance under a

J. Song; B. D. Wood; L. J. Ji

1998-01-01

418

From the waters of the empire to the tanks of Paris: the creation and early years of the Aquarium Tropical, Palais de la Porte Dorée.  

PubMed

From May to November 1931, the Exposition coloniale internationale was held in Paris. Publicized as a trip around the world in a single day, it was designed to stimulate investments and general enthusiasm for the colonies. Along with exotic temporary pavilions representing the various colonies, model villages inhabited by colonial natives, and pavilions representing commercial product brands and other colonial powers, the exposition included a zoo and an aquarium featuring animals from the colonies. Installing a large aquarium had been a costly and difficult process, and construction was plagued by many delays and problems. But when the aquarium finally opened a few months into the exposition, it quickly became a favorite of the public. With the double mission to provide a living synthesis of the products of the warm waters of the French empire and give visitors a sense of the diversity, beauty, and economic resources of their colonial possessions, the aquarium functioned as a panorama that presented a striking visual metaphor for the empire. This article follows the aquarium during the exposition and in the years that followed. We explore its place in the history of aquaria in general and pay particular attention to its role in the exposition and within the French colonial context of the 1930s and onward. Here, both the scientists in charge of the site and the aquatic animals living in its tanks and terrariums provide a window into the relationship of marine biology, public education, consumerism, and colonialism at mid-twentieth century. PMID:23820673

Lachapelle, Sofie; Mistry, Heena

2014-01-01

419

Defluoridation of drinking water by electrocoagulation/electroflotation in a stirred tank reactor with a comparative performance to an external-loop airlift reactor.  

PubMed

Defluoridation using batch electrocoagulation/electroflotation (EC/EF) was carried out in two reactors for comparison purpose: a stirred tank reactor (STR) close to a conventional EC cell and an external-loop airlift reactor (ELAR) that was recently described as an innovative reactor for EC. The respective influences of current density, initial concentration and initial pH on the efficiency of defluoridation were investigated. The same trends were observed in both reactors, but the efficiency was higher in the STR at the beginning of the electrolysis, whereas similar values were usually achieved after 15min operation. The influence of the initial pH was explained using the analyses of sludge composition and residual soluble aluminum species in the effluents, and it was related to the prevailing mechanisms of defluoridation. Fluoride removal and sludge reduction were both favored by an initial pH around 4, but this value required an additional pre-treatment for pH adjustment. Finally, electric energy consumption was similar in both reactors when current density was lower than 12mA/cm(2), but mixing and complete flotation of the pollutants were achieved without additional mechanical power in the ELAR, using only the overall liquid recirculation induced by H(2) microbubbles generated by water electrolysis, which makes subsequent treatments easier to carry out. PMID:19375221

Essadki, A H; Gourich, B; Vial, Ch; Delmas, H; Bennajah, M

2009-09-15

420

TANKS 18 AND 19-F STRUCTURAL FLOWABLE GROUT FILL MATERIAL EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Cementitious grout will be used to close Tanks 18-F and 19-F. The functions of the grout are to: (1) physically stabilize the final landfill by filling the empty volume in the tanks with a non compressible material; (2) provide a barrier for inadvertent intrusion into the tank; (3) reduce contaminant mobility by (a) limiting the hydraulic conductivity of the closed tank and (b) reducing contact between the residual waste and infiltrating water; and (4) providing an alkaline, chemically reducing environment in the closed tank to control speciation and solubility of selected radionuclides. The objective of this work was to identify a single (all-in-one) grout to stabilize and isolate the residual radionuclides in the tank, provide structural stability of the closed tank and serve as an inadvertent intruder barrier. This work was requested by V. A. Chander, High Level Waste (HLW) Tank Engineering, in HLW-TTR-2011-008. The complete task scope is provided in the Task Technical and QA Plan, SRNL-RP-2011-00587 Revision 0. The specific objectives of this task were to: (1) Identify new admixtures and dosages for formulating a zero bleed flowable tank fill material selected by HLW Tank Closure Project personnel based on earlier tank fill studies performed in 2007. The chemical admixtures used for adjusting the flow properties needed to be updated because the original admixture products are no longer available. Also, the sources of cement and fly ash have changed, and Portland cements currently available contain up to 5 wt. % limestone (calcium carbonate). (2) Prepare and evaluate the placement, compressive strength, and thermal properties of the selected formulation with new admixture dosages. (3) Identify opportunities for improving the mix selected by HLW Closure Project personnel and prepare and evaluate two potentially improved zero bleed flowable fill design concepts; one based on the reactor fill grout and the other based on a shrinkage compensating flowable fill mix design. (4) Prepare samples for hydraulic property measurements for comparison to the values in the F and H- Tank Farm Performance Assessments (PAs). (5) Identify a grout mix for the Tanks 18-F and 19-F Grout Procurement Specification [Forty, 2011 a, b, c]. Results for two flowable zero bleed structural fill concepts containing 3/8 inch gravel (70070 Series and LP-8 Series) and a sand only mix (SO Series) are provided in this report. Tank Farm Engineering and SRNL Project Management selected the 70070 mix as the base case for inclusion in Revision 0 of the Tanks 18-F and 19-F grout procurement specification [Forty 2011 a] and requested admixture recommendations and property confirmation for this formulation [Forty, 2011 b]. Lower cementitious paste mixes were formulated because the 70070 mix is over designed with respect to strength and generates more heat from hydration reactions than is desirable for mass pour application. Work was also initiated on a modification of the recommended mix which included shrinkage compensation to mitigate fast pathways caused by shrinkage cracking and poor physical bonding to the tank and ancillary equipment. Testing of this option was postponed to FY12.

Stefanko, D.; Langton, C.

2011-11-01

421

Surface water supply for the Clearlake, California Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Project  

SciTech Connect

It is proposed to construct a demonstration Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal plant in the vicinity of the City of Clearlake. An interim evaluation has been made of the availability of surface water to supply the plant. The evaluation has required consideration of the likely water consumption of such a plant. It has also required consideration of population, land, and water uses in the drainage basins adjacent to Clear Lake, where the HDR demonstration project is likely to be located. Five sources were identified that appear to be able to supply water of suitable quality in adequate quantity for initial filling of the reservoir, and on a continuing basis, as makeup for water losses during operation. Those sources are California Cities Water Company, a municipal supplier to the City of Clearlake; Clear Lake, controlled by Yolo County Flood Control and Water Conservation District; Borax Lake, controlled by a local developer; Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant, controlled by Lake County; and wells, ponds, and streams on private land. The evaluation involved the water uses, water rights, stream flows, precipitation, evaporation, a water balance, and water quality. In spite of California`s prolonged drought, the interim conclusion is that adequate water is available at a reasonable cost to supply the proposed HDR demonstration project.

Jager, A.R.

1996-03-01

422

Analysis of ICPP tank farm infiltration  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses water seeping into underground vaults which contain high-level liquid waste (HLLW) storage tanks at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Each of the vaults contains from one to three sumps. The original purpose of the sumps was to serve as a backup leak detection system for release of HLLW from the storage tanks. However, water seeps into most of the vaults, filling the sumps, and defeating their purpose as a leak detection system. Leak detection for the HLLW storage tanks is based on measuring the level of liquid inside the tank. The source of water leaking into the vaults was raised as a concern by the State of Idaho INEL Oversight Group because this source could also be leaching contaminants released to soil in the vicinity of the tank farm and transporting contaminants to the aquifer. This report evaluates information concerning patterns of seepage into vault sumps, the chemistry of water in sumps, and water balances for the tank farm to determine the sources of water seeping into the vaults.

Richards, B.T.

1993-10-01

423

PILOT PLANT PROJECT FOR REMOVING ORGANIC SUBSTANCES FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes research on the European practice of preozonation of water to modify naturally occurring organics, followed by bacteria activated carbon (BAC) adsorption to remove trihalomethane precursors. A 100-gal/min pilot plant was designed, constructed and operated to...

424

Centre Stage Project No. 1 GLISTENING WATERS STORYTELLING FESTIVAL  

E-print Network

were female, Pakeha/European, aged between 35-64, and from the southern North Island area · Most people, cultural event has run. The 1998 festival featured six New Zealand- and seven overseas storytellers The Glistening Waters Storytelling Festival has been running since 1992. Elizabeth Miller, President of the New

425

Tank characterization report: Tank 241-C-109  

SciTech Connect

Single-shell tank 241-C-109 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in September 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-109 were conducted to support the resolution of the ferrocyanide unreviewed safety question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and consent Order (Tri- Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. This report describes this analysis.

Simpson, B.C.; Borshiem, G.L.; Jensen, L.

1993-09-01

426

Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding project data  

SciTech Connect

Water-resources data for the 1991 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 131 gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and water levels at 431 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio.

Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

1992-03-01

427

Inefficiencies in water project design and operation in the third world: An economic perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water projects in less developed countries (LDCs) frequently are poorly operated and maintained. As a result, project benefits and development impacts fall short of plans. The problems begin in the project identification, design, and construction stages: donor and host country biases lead to inappropriate projects, unsustainable technologies, and shoddy construction. Later operation and maintenance are then difficult or impossible. Causal factors include donor desire to build monuments and sell technology, provision of excessive capital to favored sectors or institutions, and an unwillingness to require a reasonable quid pro quo from the host country. Host country factors include excessive administrative centralization, lack of rewards for good operation and maintenance, and widespread corruption in forms that seriously distort allocative efficiency. Until individual actors on both sides can be motivated to pursue the long-run good of the LDC, Third World water projects will continue to have low or negative net payoffs.

Howe, Charles W.; Dixon, John A.

1993-07-01

428

Mapping water availability, projected use and cost in the western United States  

SciTech Connect

New demands for water can be satisfied through a variety of source options. In some basins surface and/or groundwater may be available through permitting with the state water management agency (termed unappropriated water), alternatively water might be purchased and transferred out of its current use to another (termed appropriated water), or non-traditional water sources can be captured and treated (e.g., wastewater). The relative availability and cost of each source are key factors in the development decision. Unfortunately, these measures are location dependent with no consistent or comparable set of data available for evaluating competing water sources. With the help of western water managers, water availability was mapped for over 1200 watersheds throughout the western US. Five water sources were individually examined, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water, municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped was projected change in consumptive water use from 2010 to 2030. Associated costs to acquire, convey and treat the water, as necessary, for each of the five sources were estimated. These metrics were developed to support regional water planning and policy analysis with initial application to electric transmission planning in the western US.

Vincent C. Tidwell; Barbara D. Moreland; Katie M. Zemlick; Barry L. Roberts; Howard D. Passell; Daniel Jensen; Christopher Forsgren; Gerald Sehlke; Margaret A. Cook; Carey W. King

2014-06-01

429

Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 2, St. Lawrence River Basin: Statewide project data  

SciTech Connect

The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Ohio each water year. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for 131 streamflow-gaging stations, 95 miscellaneous sites; (2) stage and content records for 5 streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality for 40 streamflow-gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and (4) water levels for 431 observation wells.

Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

1992-03-01

430

Stabilization of in-tank residual wastes and external tank soil contamination for the Hanford tank closure program: application to the AX tank farm  

SciTech Connect

Mixed high-level waste is currently stored in underground tanks at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site. The plan is to retrieve the waste, process the water, and dispose of the waste in a manner that will provide less long-term health risk. The AX Tank Farm has been identified for purposes of demonstration. Not all the waste can be retrieved from the tanks and some waste has leaked from these tanks into the underlying soil. Retrieval of this waste could result in additional leakage. During FY1998, the Sandia National Laboratory was under contract to evaluate concepts for immobilizing the residual waste remaining in tanks and mitigating the migration of contaminants that exist in the soil column. Specifically, the scope of this evaluation included: development of a layered tank fill design for reducing water infiltration; development of in-tank getter technology; mitigation of soil contamination through grouting; sequestering of specific radionuclides in soil; and geochemical and hydrologic modeling of waste-water-soil interactions. A copy of the final report prepared by Sandia National Laboratory is attached.

SONNICHSEN, J.C.

1998-10-12

431

Influence of the South–North Water Diversion Project and the mitigation projects on the water quality of Han River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Situated in the central part of China, the Han River Basin is undergoing rapid social and economic development with some human interventions to be made soon which will profoundly influence the water environment of the basin. The integrated MIKE 11 model system comprising of a rainfall-runoff model (NAM), a non-point load evaluation model (LOAD), a hydrodynamic model (MIKE 11 HD)

Y. P. Zhu; H. P. Zhang; L. Chen; J. F. Zhao

2008-01-01

432

Assemblies of Conformal Tanks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assemblies of tanks having shapes that conform to each other and/or conform to other proximate objects have been investigated for use in storing fuels and oxidizers in small available spaces in upper stages of spacecraft. Such assemblies might also prove useful in aircraft, automobiles, boats, and other terrestrial vehicles in which space available for tanks is limited. The basic concept of using conformal tanks to maximize the utilization of limited space is not new in itself: for example, conformal tanks are used in some automobiles to store windshield -washer liquid and coolant that overflows from radiators. The novelty of the present development lies in the concept of an assembly of smaller conformal tanks, as distinguished from a single larger conformal tank. In an assembly of smaller tanks, it would be possible to store different liquids in different tanks. Even if the same liquid were stored in all the tanks, the assembly would offer an advantage by reducing the mechanical disturbance caused by sloshing of fuel in a single larger tank: indeed, the requirement to reduce sloshing is critical in some applications. The figure shows a prototype assembly of conformal tanks. Each tank was fabricated by (1) copper plating a wax tank mandrel to form a liner and (2) wrapping and curing layers of graphite/epoxy composite to form a shell supporting the liner. In this case, the conformal tank surfaces are flat ones where they come in contact with the adjacent tanks. A band of fibers around the outside binds the tanks together tightly in the assembly, which has a quasi-toroidal shape. For proper functioning, it would be necessary to maintain equal pressure in all the tanks.

DeLay, Tom

2009-01-01

433

ICPP Tank Farm systems analysis  

SciTech Connect

During the early years (1950--1965) of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) operations, eleven, 300,000-gallon waste storage tanks were constructed. A project was in progress to replace these aging tanks; however, since fuel reprocessing has been curtailed at ICPP, it is not clear that the new tanks are required. The Department of Energy (DOE) requested a systems engineering evaluation to determine the need for the new tanks. Over 100 alternatives were identified during a facilitated team meeting using Value Engineering techniques. After eliminating any ideas which clearly could not meet the requirements, the remaining ideas were combined into nine basic cases with five sub cases. These fourteen cases were then carefully defined using two methods. First, each case was drawn graphically to show waste processing equipment interfaces and time constraints where they existed or were imposed. Second, each case was analyzed using a time-dependent computer simulation of ICPP waste management activities to determine schedule interactions, liquid storage requirements, and solid waste quantities. Based on the evaluation data, the team developed the following recommendations: Install and operate the high-level liquid waste evaporator; minimize liquid waste generation as much as possible within the constraints of required ICPP operational, safety, and environmental commitments; bring a Waste Immobilization Facility on line by 2008 or earlier; operate NWCF as required to alleviate the need for new tank farm capacity; maximize the concentration of Na and K in the calcine to minimize the final amount of waste requiring immobilization; avoid using Bin Set 7 for calcine storage, if possible, to reduce future calcine retrieval and D&D costs; and use WM-190 for liquid waste storage and one of the pillar and panel vaulted tanks as the spare.

Palmer, W.B.; Beer, M.J.; Cukars, M.; Law, J.P.; Millet, C.B.; Murphy, J.A.; Nenni, J.A.; Park, C.V.; Pruitt, J.I.; Thiel, E.C.; Ward, F.S.; Wood