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1

Water storage tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention relates to a cylindrical water storage tank for a solar water heater which tank is entirely surrounded by a layer of insulating material, said cylindrical tank being arranged to be horizontally disposed in use and having water outlet means in an upper region thereof and water inlet means in a lower region thereof, wherein the portion of

Riley

1983-01-01

2

Organic tank safety project: Effect of water partial pressure on the equilibrium water contents of waste samples from Hanford Tank 241BY108  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water content plays a crucial role in the strategy developed by Webb et al. to prevent propagating or sustainable chemical reactions in the organic-bearing wastes stored in the 20 Organic Tank Watch List tanks at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. Because of water`s importance in ensuring that the organic-bearing wastes continue to be stored safely, Duke Engineering and

R. D. Scheele; P. R. Bredt; R. L. Sell

1997-01-01

3

Organic Tank Safety Project: Effect of water partial pressure on the equilibrium water content of waste samples from Hanford Tank 241-U-105  

SciTech Connect

Water content plays a crucial role in the strategy developed by Webb et al. to prevent propagating or sustainable chemical reactions in the organic-bearing wastes stored in the 20 Organic Tank Watch List tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. Because of water`s importance in ensuring that the organic-bearing wastes continue to be stored safely, Duke Engineering and Services Hanford commissioned the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to investigate the effect of water partial pressure (P{sub H2O}) on the water content of organic-bearing or representative wastes. Of the various interrelated controlling factors affecting the water content in wastes, P{sub H2O} is the most susceptible to being controlled by the and Hanford Site`s environmental conditions and, if necessary, could be managed to maintain the water content at an acceptable level or could be used to adjust the water content back to an acceptable level. Of the various waste types resulting from weapons production and waste-management operations at the Hanford Site, determined that saltcake wastes are the most likely to require active management to maintain the wastes in a Conditionally Safe condition. Webb et al. identified Tank U-105 as a Conditionally Safe saltcake tank. A Conditionally Safe waste is one that is currently safe based on waste classification criteria but could, if dried, be classified as {open_quotes}Unsafe.{close_quotes} To provide information on the behavior of organic-bearing wastes, the Westinghouse Hanford Company provided us with four waste samples taken from Tank 241-U-105 (U-105) to determine the effect of P{sub H2O} on their equilibrium water content.

Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

1997-09-01

4

Sizing and Quantity Estimation for Desilting Tank of Small Hydropower Projects – an Analytical Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In small hydropower projects, desilting tank is an important component which protect the mechanical equipment specially turbine from the silt carried by the water conductor system. Desilting tanks are used in water treatment plants and hydropower channels to remove objectionable sediment of a specified size and quantity. Design of desilting tank requires evaluation of sediment removal efficiency over the range

Sachin Mishra; S. K. Singal; D. K. Khatod

2012-01-01

5

Dryout modeling in support of the organic tank safety project  

SciTech Connect

This work was performed for the Organic Tank Safety Project to evaluate the moisture condition of the waste surface organic-nitrate bearing tanks that are classified as being conditionally safe because sufficient water is present. This report describes the predictive modeling procedure used to predict the moisture content of waste in the future, after it has been subjected to dryout caused by water vapor loss through passive ventilation. This report describes a simplified procedure for modeling the drying out of tank waste. Dryout occurs as moisture evaporates from the waste into the headspace and then exits the tank through ventilation. The water vapor concentration within the waste of the headspace is determined by the vapor-liquid equilibrium, which depends on the waste`s moisture content and temperature. This equilibrium has been measured experimentally for a variety of waste samples and is described by a curve called the water vapor partial pressure isotherm. This curve describes the lowering of the partial pressure of water vapor in equilibrium with the waste relative to pure water due to the waste`s chemical composition and hygroscopic nature. Saltcake and sludge are described by two distinct calculations that emphasize the particular physical behavior or each. A simple, steady-state model is devised for each type to obtain the approximate drying behavior. The report shows the application of the model to Tanks AX-102, C-104, and U-105.

Simmons, C.S.

1998-08-01

6

Hot Water Storage Tank for Solar Collectors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A baffled hot storage tank for solar collector systems is provided. The tank includes a concentric of the baffle and another circulation part at the top of the baffle. This configuration restricts the mixing of water allowing both a vertical temperature g...

J. S. Roehl

1992-01-01

7

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS & RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double-shell waste tanks (DSTs), which is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information on tank integrity that specifically responds to concerns raised by the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Oversight (EH-22) during a review of work performed on the double-shell tank farms and the operation of the aging waste facility (AWF) primary tank ventilation system. The current buckling review focuses on the following tasks: (1) Evaluate the potential for progressive I-bolt failure and the appropriateness of the safety factors that were used for evaluating local and global buckling. The analysis will specifically answer the following questions: (a) Can the EH-22 scenario develop if the vacuum is limited to -6.6-inch water gage (w.g.) by a relief valve? (b) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario can develop? (c) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario cannot develop? (2) Develop influence functions to estimate the axial stresses in the primary tanks for all reasonable combinations of tank loads, based on detailed finite element analysis. The analysis must account for the variation in design details and operating conditions between the different DSTs. The analysis must also address the imperfection sensitivity of the primary tank to buckling. (3) Perform a detailed buckling analysis to determine the maximum allowable differential pressure for each of the DST primary tanks at the current specified limits on waste temperature, height, and specific gravity. Based on the I-bolt loads analysis and the small deformations that are predicted at the unfactored limits on vacuum and axial loads, it is very unlikely that the EH-22 scenario (i.e., progressive I-bolt failure leading to global buckling of the tank under increased vacuum) could occur.

MACKEY TC; JOHNSON KI; DEIBLER JE; PILLI SP; RINKER MW; KARRI NK

2007-02-14

8

49 CFR 230.115 - Feed water tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Feed water tanks. 230.115 Section 230.115...Steam Locomotive Tanks § 230.115 Feed water tanks. (a) General provisions. ...manner that allows the unobstructed flow of water. Feed water tanks shall be equipped...

2012-10-01

9

Single Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval Project Plan for Tank 241-C-104 Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

In support of the SST Interim Closure Project, Project W-523 ''Tank 241-C-104 Waste Retrieval System'' will provide systems for retrieval and transfer of radioactive waste from tank 241-C-104 (C-104) to the DST staging tank 241-AY-101 (AY-101). At the conclusion of Project W-523, a retrieval system will have been designed and tested to meet the requirements for Acceptance of Beneficial Use

DEFIGH PRICE

2000-01-01

10

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS & RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double shell waste tanks. The analysis is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information on tank integrity that specifically responds to concerns raise by the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Oversight (EH-22) during a review (in April and May 2001) of work being performed on the double-shell tank farms, and the operation of the aging waste facility (AWF) primary tank ventilation system.

MACKEY, T.C.

2006-03-17

11

Experimental study of thermally stratified hot water storage tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is determined experimentally for removing hot water from a storage tank and adding cold water to the tank while maintaining steep thermoclines. Results of experiments performed with two vertical plexiglass cylinders are reported which show that thermal stratification can be maintained in cylindrical water tanks even at very large flow rates; that stratification improves with increasing tank height\\/diameter

Z. Lavan; J. Thompson

1977-01-01

12

RAW WATER STORAGE TANK ON NORTH SIDE OF WATER PUMP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

RAW WATER STORAGE TANK ON NORTH SIDE OF WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-619. INTERIOR. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2489. Unknown Photographer, 6/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

13

The Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project Tank Waste Retrieval Performance and Lessons Learned, vol. 1 [of 2  

SciTech Connect

The Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Remediation Project was the first of its kind performed in the United States. Robotics and remotely operated equipment were used to successfully transfer almost 94,000 gal of remote-handled transuranic sludge containing over 81,000 Ci of radioactive contamination from nine large underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The sludge was transferred with over 439,000 gal of radioactive waste supernatant and {approx}420,500 gal of fresh water that was used in sluicing operations. The GAATs are located in a high-traffic area of ORNL near a main thoroughfare. A phased and integrated approach to waste retrieval operations was used for the GAAT Remediation Project. The project promoted safety by obtaining experience from low-risk operations in the North Tank Farm before moving to higher-risk operations in the South Tank Farm. This approach allowed project personnel to become familiar with the tanks and waste, as well as the equipment, processes, procedures, and operations required to perform successful waste retrieval. By using an integrated approach to tank waste retrieval and tank waste management, the project was completed years ahead of the original baseline schedule, which resulted in avoiding millions of dollars in associated costs. This report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1 provides information on the various phases of the GAAT Remediation Project. It also describes the different types of equipment and how they were used. The emphasis of Volume 1 is on the description of the tank waste retrieval performance and the lessons learned during the GAAT Remediation Project. Volume 2 provides the appendixes for the report, which include the following information: (A) Background Information for the Gunite and Associated Tanks Operable Unit; (B) Annotated Bibliography; (C) Comprehensive Listing of the Sample Analysis Data from the GAAT Remediation Project; (D) GAAT Equipment Matrix; and (E) Vendor List for the GAAT Remediation Project. The remediation of the GAATs was completed {approx}5.5 years ahead of schedule and {approx}$120,435,000 below the cost estimated in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for the project. These schedule and cost savings were a direct result of the selection and use of state-of-the-art technologies and the dedication and drive of the engineers, technicians, managers, craft workers, and support personnel that made up the GAAT Remediation Project Team.

Lewis, BE

2003-10-07

14

Evaluation of commercial fuel tank water absorbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes the laboratory evaluation of three types of commercial fuel tank water absorber cartridges and a limited field test of one type. Evaluation included absorbance effectiveness, possible deleterious effects on the fuel, and design integrity. Results are discussed together with the potential for use by the Army.

Williams, William R.

1994-11-01

15

HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK CLOSURE PROJECT AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is in the process of closing two underground high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations and Department of Energy orders. Closure of these two tanks is scheduled for 2004 as the first phase in closure of the eleven 1.14 million liter (300,000 gallon) tanks currently in service at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). The INTEC Tank Farm Facility (TFF) Closure sequence consists of multiple steps to be accomplished through the existing tank riser access points. Currently, the tank risers contain steam and process waste lines associated with the steam jets, corrosion coupons, and liquid level indicators. As necessary, this equipment will be removed from the risers to allow adequate space for closure equipment and activities. The basic tank closure sequence is as follows: Empty the tank to the residual heel using the existing jets; Video and sample the heel; Replace steam jets with new jet at a lower position in the tank, and remove additional material; Flush tank, piping and secondary containment with demineralized water; Video and sample the heel; Evaluate decontamination effectiveness; Displace the residual heel with multiple placements of grout; and Grout piping, vaults and remaining tank volume. Design, development, and deployment of a remotely operated tank cleaning system were completed in June 2002. The system incorporates many commercially available components, which have been adapted for application in cleaning high-level waste tanks. The system is cost-effective since it also utilizes existing waste transfer technology (steam jets), to remove tank heel solids from the tank bottoms during the cleaning operations. Remotely operated directional spray nozzles, automatic rotating wash balls, video monitoring equipment, decontamination spray-rings, and tank -specific access interface devices have been integrated to provide a system that efficiently cleans tank walls and heel solids in an acidic, radioactive environment. Through the deployment of the tank cleaning system, the INEEL High Level Waste Program has cleaned tanks to meet RCRA clean closure standards and DOE closure performance measures. Design, development, and testing of tank grouting delivery equipment were completed in October 2002. The system incorporates lessons learned from closures at other DOE facilities. The grout will be used to displace the tank residuals remaining after the cleaning is complete. To maximize heel displacement to the discharge pump, grout was placed in a sequence of five positions utilizing two riser locations. The project is evaluating the use of six positions to optimize the residuals removed. After the heel has been removed and the residuals stabilized, the tank, piping, and secondary containment will be grouted.

Quigley, K.D.; Wessman, D

2003-02-27

16

Vadose zone characterization project at the Hanford Tank Farms: U Tank Farm Report  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy Grand Junction Office (DOE-GJO) was tasked by the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) to perform a baseline characterization of the gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides that are distributed in the vadose zone sediments beneath and around the single-shell tanks (SSTs) at the Hanford Site. The intent of this characterization is to determine the nature and extent of the contamination, to identify contamination sources when possible, and to develop a baseline of the contamination distribution that will permit future data comparisons. This characterization work also allows an initial assessment of the impacts of the vadose zone contamination as required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This characterization project involves acquiring information regarding vadose zone contamination with borehole geophysical logging methods and documenting that information in a series of reports. This information is presently limited to detection of gamma-emitting radionuclides from both natural and man-made sources. Data from boreholes surrounding each tank are compiled into individual Tank Summary Data Reports. The data from each tank in a tank farm are then compiled and summarized in a Tank Farm Report. This document is the Tank Farm Report for the U Tank Farm. Logging operations used high-purity germanium detection systems to acquire laboratory-quality assays of the gamma-emitting radionuclides in the sediments around and below the tanks. These assays were acquired in 59 boreholes that surround the U Tank Farm tanks. Logging of all boreholes was completed in December 1995, and the last Tank Summary Data Report for the U Tank Farm was issued in September 1996.

NONE

1997-05-01

17

A coefficient to characterize mixing in solar water storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

A dimensionless coefficient is developed to characterize the level of mixing in solar water storage tanks. The MIX number, based on the height weighted energy, or moment of energy, in the tank, ranges from 0 to 1, with 0 representing a perfectly stratified (unmixed) tank and 1 representing a fully mixed tank. Limiting values are based on theoretical determinations of the maximum and minimum values of the moment of energy in a tank without mixing and a tank with complete mixing, respectively. Use of the new MIX number is illustrated by experimental data obtained in a 372-liter storage tank operated with both a conventional drop-tube inlet and a rigid, porous stratification manifold. The initial tank temperature profile, the temperature of the water entering the tank, and test duration are varied in three testing schemes. Fluid mixing is quantified by measured vertical temperature profiles and the dimensionless MIX number.

Davidson, J.H. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.); Adams, D.A.; Miller, J.A. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Solar Energy Applications Lab.)

1994-05-01

18

Single-shell tank interim stabilization project plan  

SciTech Connect

Solid and liquid radioactive waste continues to be stored in 149 single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. To date, 119 tanks have had most of the pumpable liquid removed by interim stabilization. Thirty tanks remain to be stabilized. One of these tanks (C-106) will be stabilized by retrieval of the tank contents. The remaining 29 tanks will be interim stabilized by saltwell pumping. In the summer of 1997, the US Department of Energy (DOE) placed a moratorium on the startup of additional saltwell pumping systems because of funding constraints and proposed modifications to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestones to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). In a letter dated February 10, 1998, Final Determination Pursuant to Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in the Matter of the Disapproval of the DOE`s Change Control Form M-41-97-01 (Fitzsimmons 1998), Ecology disapproved the DOE Change Control Form M-41-97-01. In response, Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) directed Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LNMC) to initiate development of a project plan in a letter dated February 25, 1998, Direction for Development of an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan in Support of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In a letter dated March 2, 1998, Request for an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan, the DOE reaffirmed the need for an aggressive SST interim stabilization completion project plan to support a finalized Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-41 recovery plan. This project plan establishes the management framework for conduct of the TWRS Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organizational structure, roles, responsibilities, and interfaces; and operational methods. The plan is based on realistic assumptions and addresses three separate funding scenarios.

Ross, W.E.

1998-03-27

19

Energy conservation system for hot water heaters and storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

In combination with a furnace for heating a building and a water heater, an energy conservation system is described comprising a first coil of water pipe disposed within a chamber or duct of said furnace for absorbing heat from said furnace to heat water in said first coil, said pipe being connected between a pressurized source of cold water for said building and a cold water inlet of said heater, said system further comprising a spurge tank for storing a quantity of water therein selectively connectable across said first coil, means for diverting water flowing between said first coil and heater inlet to said spurge tank when the presure of the water flowing between said first coil and heater increases to a first pre-selected maximum pressure value, means for diverting water flowing between said first coil and heater inlet to said spurge tank when the temperature of the water flowing betwen said first coil and heater inlet increases to a first pre-selected maximu temperature value, first check valve means for restraining the back-filling of said spurge tank with water flowing from said source and from the upstream end of said forst coil, second check valve means for restraining the back flow of water to said source from said spurge tank and said first coil, means for venting water and steam from said spurge tank to a sewer line when the pressure of water in said spurge tank reaches a second pre-selected pressure valve, and means for venting water and steam from said spurge tank to a sewer line when the pressure of water in said spurge tank reaches a second pre-selected pressure valve, and means for venting water and steam from said spurge tank when the water temperature in said spurge tank reaches a second pre-selected temperature value.

Farris, W.

1980-07-08

20

Project Weather and Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces Project Weather and Water with the goal of developing and testing ideas of how to implement weather topics and water physics in an integrated way. Discusses teacher preparation, implementation, and evaluation of this project. (ASK)

Hansen, Pal J. Kirkeby

2000-01-01

21

Quality Assurance Project Plan for waste tank vapor characterization  

SciTech Connect

This Quality Assurance Project Plan, WHC-SD-WM-QAPP-013, applies to four separate vapor sampling tasks associated with Phases 1 and 2 of the Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program and support of the Rotary Mode Core Drilling Portable Exhauster Permit. These tasks focus on employee safety concerns and tank ventilation emission control design requirements. Previous characterization efforts and studies are of insufficient accuracy to adequately define the problem. It is believed that the technology and maturity of sampling and analytical methods can be sufficiently developed to allow the characterization of the constituents of the tank vapor space.

Suydam, C.D. Jr.

1993-12-01

22

Quality Assurance Project Plan for waste tank vapor characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Quality Assurance Project Plan, WHC-SD-WM-QAPP-013, applies to four separate vapor sampling tasks associated with Phases 1 and 2 of the Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program and support of the Rotary Mode Core Drilling Portable Exhauster Permit. These tasks focus on employee safety concerns and tank ventilation emission control design requirements. Previous characterization efforts and studies are of insufficient accuracy

Suydam; C. D. Jr

1993-01-01

23

Single Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Project Plan  

SciTech Connect

This project plan establishes the management framework for the conduct of the CHG Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organization structure, roles, responsibilities, and interfaces; and operational methods. This plan serves as the project executional baseline.

VLADIMIROFF, D.T.; BOYLES, V.C.

2000-05-22

24

Vadose zone characterization project at the Hanford Tank Farms: BY Tank Farm report  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy Grand Junction Office (GJO) was tasked by the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) to perform a baseline characterization of the contamination distributed in the vadoze zone sediment beneath and around the single-shell tanks (SSTs) at the Hanford Site. The intent of this characterization is to determine the nature and extent of the contamination, to identify contamination sources, and to develop a baseline of the contamination distribution that will permit future data comparisons. This characterization work also allows an initial assessment of the impacts of the vadose zone contamination as required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This characterization project involves acquiring information about the vadose zone contamination with borehole geophysical logging methods and documenting that information in a series of reports. Data from boreholes surrounding each tank are compiled into individual Tank Summary Data Reports. The data from each tank farm are then compiled and summarized in a Tank Farm Report. This document is the Tank Farm Report for the BY Tank Farm.

Kos, S.E.

1997-02-01

25

Project W-320 Tank 106-C waste retrieval study analysis session report  

SciTech Connect

This supporting document has been prepared to make the Kaiser Engineers Hanford Company Project W-320 Tank 106-C Waste Retrieval Study Analysis Session Report readily retrievable. This facilitated session was requested by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to review the characterization data and select the best alternatives for a double-shell receiver tank and for a sluicing medium for Tank 106-C waste retrieval. The team was composed of WHC and Kaiser Engineers Hanford Company (KEH) personnel knowledgeable about tank farm operations, tank 106-C requirements, tank waste characterization and analysis, and chemical processing. This team was assembled to perform a structured decision analysis evaluation and recommend the best alternative-destination double-shell tank between tanks 101-AY and 102-AY, and the best alternative sluicing medium among dilute complexant (DC), dilute noncomplexant (DNC), and water. The session was facilitated by Richard Harrington and Steve Bork of KEH and was conducted at the Bookwalter Winery in Richland from 7:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. from July 27 through July 29, 1993. Attachment 1 (Scope Statement Sheet) identifies the team members, scope, objectives, and deliverables for the session.

Bailey, J.W.

1998-03-25

26

Single Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval Project Plan for Tank 241-C-104 Retrieval  

SciTech Connect

In support of the SST Interim Closure Project, Project W-523 ''Tank 241-C-104 Waste Retrieval System'' will provide systems for retrieval and transfer of radioactive waste from tank 241-C-104 (C-104) to the DST staging tank 241-AY-101 (AY-101). At the conclusion of Project W-523, a retrieval system will have been designed and tested to meet the requirements for Acceptance of Beneficial Use and been turned over to operations. Completion of construction and operations of the C-104 retrieval system will meet the recently proposed near-term Tri-Party Agreement milestone, M-45-03F (Proposed Tri-Party Agreement change request M-45-00-01A, August, 30 2000) for demonstrating limits of retrieval technologies on sludge and hard heels in SSTs, reduce near-term storage risks associated with aging SSTs, and provide feed for the tank waste treatment plant. This Project Plan documents the methodology for managing Project W-523; formalizes responsibilities; identifies key interfaces required to complete the retrieval action; establishes the technical, cost, and schedule baselines; and identifies project organizational requirements pertaining to the engineering process such as environmental, safety, quality assurance, change control, design verification, testing, and operational turnover.

DEFIGH PRICE, C.

2000-09-20

27

The Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project Tank Waste Retrieval Performance and Lessons Learned, vol. 2 [of 2  

SciTech Connect

The Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Remediation Project was the first of its kind performed in the United States. Robotics and remotely operated equipment were used to successfully transfer almost 94,000 gal of remote-handled transuranic sludge containing over 81,000 Ci of radioactive contamination from nine large underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The sludge was transferred with over 439,000 gal of radioactive waste supernatant and {approx}420,500 gal of fresh water that was used in sluicing operations. The GAATs are located in a high-traffic area of ORNL near a main thoroughfare. Volume 1 provides information on the various phases of the project and describes the types of equipment used. Volume 1 also discusses the tank waste retrieval performance and the lessons learned during the remediation effort. Volume 2 consists of the following appendixes, which are referenced in Vol. 1: A--Background Information for the Gunite and Associated Tanks Operable Unit; B--Annotated Bibliography; C--GAAT Equipment Matrix; D--Comprehensive Listing of the Sample Analysis Data from the GAAT Remediation Project; and E--Vendor List for the GAAT Remediation Project. The remediation of the GAATs was completed {approx}5.5 years ahead of schedule and {approx}$120,435K below the cost estimated in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for the project. These schedule and cost savings were a direct result of the selection and use of state-of-the-art technologies and the dedication and drive of the engineers, technicians, managers, craft workers, and support personnel that made up the GAAT Remediation Project Team.

Lewis, BE

2003-10-07

28

AX tank farm waste inventory study for the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) project  

SciTech Connect

In May of 1996, the US Department of Energy implemented a four-year demonstration project identified as the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI). The HTI mission is to minimize technical uncertainties and programmatic risks by conducting demonstrations to characterize and remove tank waste using technologies and methods that will be needed in the future to carry out tank waste remediation and tank farm closure at the Hanford Site. Included in the HTI scope is the development of retrieval performance evaluation criteria supporting readiness to close single-shell tanks in the future. A path forward that includes evaluation of closure basis alternatives has been outlined to support the development of retrieval performance evaluation criteria for the AX Farm, and eventual preparation of the SEIS for AX Farm closure. This report documents the results of the Task 4, Waste Inventory study performed to establish the best-basis inventory of waste contaminants for the AX Farm, provides a means of estimating future soil inventories, and provides data for estimating the nature and extent of contamination (radionuclide and chemical) resulting from residual tank waste subsequent to retrieval. Included in the report are a best-basis estimate of the existing radionuclide and chemical inventory in the AX Farm Tanks, an estimate of the nature and extent of existing radiological and chemical contamination from past leaks, a best-basis estimate of the radionuclide and chemical inventory in the AX Farm Tanks after retrieval of 90 percent, 99 percent, and 99.9 percent of the waste, and an estimate of the nature and extent of radionuclide and chemical contamination resulting from retrieval of waste for an assumed leakage from the tanks during retrieval.

Becker, D.L.

1997-12-22

29

Heat exchanger and water tank arrangement for passive cooling system  

DOEpatents

A water storage tank in the coolant water loop of a nuclear reactor contains a tubular heat exchanger. The heat exchanger has tubesheets mounted to the tank connections so that the tubesheets and tubes may be readily inspected and repaired. Preferably, the tubes extend from the tubesheets on a square pitch and then on a rectangular pitch therebetween. Also, the heat exchanger is supported by a frame so that the tank wall is not required to support all of its weight.

Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA); Johnson, F. Thomas (Baldwin Boro, PA); Orr, Richard S. (Pittsburgh, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

1993-01-01

30

3. VIEW OF WATER TANKS FROM ACCESS ROAD TO HATCH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW OF WATER TANKS FROM ACCESS ROAD TO HATCH ADIT. VIEW NORTH. LUCKY TIGER MILL OFFICE (FEATURE B-I) IN DISTANCE. (OCTOBER, 1995) - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, Water Tanks, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

31

Oblique view of Sector Five Compound, looking southwest. Water Tank ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Oblique view of Sector Five Compound, looking southwest. Water Tank to right, Receiver Building to left, antenna array in background - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Five Water Storage Tank, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

32

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANKS  

SciTech Connect

M&D Professional Services, Inc. (M&D) is under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to perform seismic analysis of the Hanford Site double-shell tanks (DSTs) in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank (DSV Integrity Project--DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses)''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST system at Hanford in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14, The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The work statement provided to M&D (PNNL 2003) required that the seismic analysis of the DSTs assess the impacts of potentially non-conservative assumptions in previous analyses and account for the additional soil mass due to the as-found soil density increase, the effects of material degradation, additional thermal profiles applied to the full structure including the soil-structure response with the footings, the non-rigid (low frequency) response of the tank roof, the asymmetric seismic-induced soil loading, the structural discontinuity between the concrete tank wall and the support footing and the sloshing of the tank waste. The seismic analysis considers the interaction of the tank with the surrounding soil and the effects of the primary tank contents. The DSTs and the surrounding soil are modeled as a system of finite elements. The depth and width of the soil incorporated into the analysis model are sufficient to obtain appropriately accurate analytical results. The analyses required to support the work statement differ from previous analysis of the DSTs in that the soil-structure interaction (SSI) model includes several (nonlinear) contact surfaces in the tank structure, and the contained waste must be modeled explicitly in order to capture the fluid-structure interaction behavior between the primary tank and contained waste.

MACKEY, T.C.

2006-03-17

33

8. SETTLING TANK, WEST SIDE; WATER PIPE FROM INTAKE STRUCTURE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. SETTLING TANK, WEST SIDE; WATER PIPE FROM INTAKE STRUCTURE IN FOREGROUND. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

34

13. Water treatment plant interior view of tanks in control ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Water treatment plant interior view of tanks in control room. View to SW - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

35

INTERIOR OF BUILDING, SHOWING DEMINERALIZED WATER STORAGE TANK. view TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR OF BUILDING, SHOWING DEMINERALIZED WATER STORAGE TANK. view TO WEST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Demineralized Water Storage Building, Off LeMay Road, outside SAC Alert Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

36

Project Execution Plan for Project W-211 Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS)  

SciTech Connect

This Project Execution Plan documents the methodology for managing Project W-211. Project W-211, Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS), is a fiscal year 1994 Major Systems Acquisition that will provide systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes from selected double-shell tanks (DST). The contents of these tanks are a combination of supernatant liquids and settled solids. To retrieve waste from the tanks, it is first necessary to mix the liquid and solids prior to transferring the slurry to alternative storage or treatment facilities. The ITRS will provide systems to mobilize the settled solids and transfer the wastes out of the tanks. In so doing, ITRS provides feed for the future waste treatment plant, allows for consolidation of tank solids to manage space within existing DST storage capacity, and supports continued safe storage of tank waste. The ITRS scope has been revised to include waste retrieval systems for tanks AP-102, AP-104, AN-102, AN-103, AN-104, AN-105, AY-102, AZ-102, and SY-102. This current tank selection and sequence provides retrieval systems supporting the River Protection Project (RF'P) Waste Treatment Facility and sustains the ability to provide final remediation of several watch list DSTs via treatment. The ITRS is configured to support changing program needs, as constrained by available budget, by maintaining the flexibility for exchanging tanks requiring mixer pump-based retrieval systems and shifting the retrieval sequence. Preliminary design was configured such that an adequate basis exists for initiating Title II design of a mixer pump-based retrieval system for any DST. This Project Execution Plan (PEP), derived from the predecessor Project Management Plan, documents the methodology for managing the ITRS, formalizes organizational responsibilities and interfaces, and identifies project requirements such as change control, design verification, systems engineering, and human factors engineering.

VAN BEEK, J.E.

2000-04-19

37

Where Did the Water Go?: Boyle's Law and Pressurized Diaphragm Water Tanks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many homes use pressurized diaphragm tanks for storage of water pumped from an underground well. These tanks are very carefully constructed to have separate internal chambers for the storage of water and for the air that provides the pressure. One might expect that the amount of water available for use from, for example, a 50-gallon tank would be…

Brimhall, James; Naga, Sundar

2007-01-01

38

Gunite tanks cleaned out at Oak Ridge Reservation: TFA and other partners streamlined project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article was prepared for the Environmental Management Quarterly Newsletter, Initiatives. It summarizes the accomplishments of the Gunite Tank Remediation Project at Oak Ridge Reservation, and the Tanks Focus Area and Robotics technologies used to complete the project.

Roeder-Smith; Lynne

2001-01-01

39

Contingency plan for the Old Hydrofracture Facility Tanks Sluicing Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This revised contingency plan addresses potential scenarios involving the release of radioactively contaminated waste from the Old Hydrofracture Facility Tanks Contents Removal project to the environment. The tanks are located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The project involves sluicing the contents of the five underground tanks to mix the sludge and supernatant layers, and pumping the mixture to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) for future processing. The sluicing system to be used for the project consists of a spray nozzle designated the {open_quotes}Borehole Miner,{close_quotes} with an associated pump; in-tank submersible pumps to transfer tank contents from the sluice tanks to the recycle tank; high-pressure pumps providing slurry circulation and slurry transport to the MVST; piping; a ventilation system; a process water system; an instrumentation and control system centered around a programmable logic controller; a video monitoring system; and auxiliary equipment. The earlier version of this plan, which was developed during the preliminary design phase of the project, identified eight scenarios in which waste from the tanks might be released to the environment as a result of unanticipated equipment failure or an accident (e.g., vehicular accident). One of those scenarios, nuclear criticality, is no longer addressed by this plan because the tank waste will be isotopically diluted before sluicing begins. The other seven scenarios have been combined into three, and a fourth, Borehole Miner Failure, has been added as follows: (1) underground release from the tanks; (2) aboveground release or spill from the sluicing system, a tank riser, or the transfer pipeline; (3) release of unfiltered air through the ventilation system; and (4) Borehole Miner arm retraction failure. Methods for preventing, detecting, and responding to each release scenario are set out in the plan.

NONE

1998-06-01

40

9. Water Purification System and Instrument Air Receiver Tank, view ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Water Purification System and Instrument Air Receiver Tank, view to the south. The water purification system is visible in the right foreground of the photograph and the instrument air receiver tank is visible in the right background of the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

41

Project management plan for Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 sluicing. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

A major mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the permanent disposal of Hanford Site defense wastes by utilizing safe, environmentally acceptable, and cost-effective disposal methods that meet applicable regulations. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program was established at the Hanford Site to manage and control activities specific to the remediation of safety watch list tanks, including high-heat-producing tanks, and for the ultimate characterization, retrieval, pretreatment, and disposal of the low- and high-level fractions of the tank waste. Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 Sluicing, provides the methodology, equipment, utilities, and facilities necessary for retrieving the high-heat waste from single-shell tank (SST) 24-C-106. Project W-320 is a fiscal year (FY) 1993 expense-funded major project, and has a design life of 2 years. Retrieval of the waste in tank 241-C-106 will be accomplished through mobilization of the sludge into a pumpable slurry using past-practice sluicing. The waste is then transferred directly to a double-shell tank for interim storage, subsequent pretreatment, and eventual disposal. A detailed description of the management organization and responsibilities of all participants is presented in this document.

Phillips, D.R.

1994-07-01

42

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS AND RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double-shell waste tanks (DSTs), which is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information on tank integrity that specifically responds to concerns raised by the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Oversight (EH-22) during a review of work performed on the double-shell tank farms and the operation of the aging waste facility (AWF) primary tank ventilation system. The current buckling review focuses on the following tasks: (1) Evaluate the potential for progressive anchor bolt failure and the appropriateness of the safety factors that were used for evaluating local and global buckling. The analysis will specifically answer the following questions: (a) Can the EH-22 scenario develop if the vacuum is limited to -6.6-inch water gage (w.g.) by a relief valve? (b) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario can develop? (c) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario cannot develop? (2) Develop influence functions to estimate the axial stresses in the primary tanks for all reasonable combinations of tank loads based on detailed finite element analysis. The analysis must account for the variation in design details and operating conditions between the different DSTs. The analysis must also address the imperfection sensitivity of the primary tank to buckling. (3) Perform a detailed buckling analysis to determine the maximum allowable differential pressure for each of the DST primary tanks at the current specified limits on waste temperature, height, and specific gravity. Based on the concrete anchor bolt loads analysis and the small deformations that are predicted at the unfactored limits on vacuum and axial loads, it is very unlikely that the EH-22 scenario (i.e., progressive anchor bolt failure leading to global buckling of the tank under increased vacuum) could occur. After releasing Revision 0 of this report, an independent review of the Double Shell Tanks (DST) Thermal and Operating Loads Analysis (TaLA) combined with the Seismic Analysis was conducted by Dr. Robert P. Kennedy of RPK Structural Mechanics Consulting and Dr. Anestis S. Veletsos of Rice University. Revision I was then issued to address their review comments (included in Appendix D). Additional concerns involving the evaluation of concrete anchor loads and allowables were found during a second review by Drs. Kennedy and Veletsos (see Appendix G). Extensive additional analysis was performed on the anchors, which is detailed by Deibler et al. (2008a, 2008b). The current report (Revision 2) references this recent work, and additional analysis is presented to show that anchor loads do not concentrate significantly in the presence of a local buckle.

MACKEY TC; JOHNSON KI; DEIBLER JE; PILLI SP; RINKER MW; KARRI NK

2009-01-14

43

Continuous flushing of contaminants from ballast water tanks.  

PubMed

The transport of non-indigenous species (NIS) with ship ballast water is a major environmental problem. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) have recommended that ballast tanks are flushed through with sea water to remove NIS contaminants. The flushing efficiency is studied using mathematical models and a scaled experimental model of a ballast tank. The density contrast between the ballast water and water used for flushing is important when the Froude number Fr(w)=U(w)/sqr rt|g(')|H < 1 (defined in terms of average horizontal flow U(w), reduced buoyancy g', and H the vertical dimension in the tank). When denser water is used to flush a ballast tank, from below, it efficiently displaces lighter ballast water; but flushing through with light water creates a buoyant gravity current which effectively short circuits part of the tank. When Fr(w)>1, the density contrast between the ballast water and water used for flushing is not important and flushing is controlled by a bulk Péclet number, Pe(w). For Pe(w)<1 perfect mixing occurs, while for Pe(w)>1 displacement flushing occurs. Laboratory experiments of flushing were performed using a model two-dimensional ballast tank employing dye attenuation to measure the whole concentration field and these experiments confirm the essential features of the mathematical models. The results of this study are discussed in the context of current IMO flushing protocols. PMID:18086479

Eames, I; Landeryou, M; Greig, A; Snellings, J

2007-12-20

44

Project management plan for project W-320, tank 241-C-106 sluicing  

SciTech Connect

This Project Management Plan establishes the organization, plans, and systems for management of Project W-320 as defined in DOE Order 4700.1, Project Management System (DOE 1987). The sluicing is for retrieving high-heat waste from single shell tank 241-C-106.

Leliefeld, K.W.

1996-02-02

45

Stirring system for radioactive waste water storage tank  

SciTech Connect

A stirring system for 100-m[sup 3] radioactive liquid waste tanks was constructed to unify radioactive concentrations in the tank. The stirring system is effective in certifying that the radioactive concentrations in the tanks are less than the legal limits before they are drained away as waste liquid. This system is composed of discharge units, pipe lines, and a controller. The performance of the system was assessed by comparing the calculated red ink and [sup 32]P concentrations with those monitored at six locations in the tanks. The concentration reached equilibrium after stirring 60 o 120 min with discharge units equipped with six fixed openings configured in differing directions. Residual chlorine in city water used for dilution occasionally bleached the red ink and reduced its concentration. The adsorption of [sup 32]P by slime on the walls of the tanks storing actual waste water lowered the equilibrium concentration.

Ogata, Yoshimune; Nishizawa, Kunihide (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Radioisotope Research Center)

1999-07-01

46

Where Did the Water Go? Boyle's Law and Pressurized Diaphragm Water Tanks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many homes use pressurized diaphragm tanks for storage of water pumped from an underground well. These tanks are very carefully constructed to have separate internal chambers for the storage of water and for the air that provides the pressure. One might expect that the amount of water available for use from, for example, a 50-gallon tank would be close to 50 gallons. However, only a surprisingly small percentage of the total tank volume is available to provide water that can be drawn from the tank before the pump must cycle back on. Boyle's law ( PV is constant) provides mathematical insight into the workings of this type of tank, including predictions of the quantities of available water resulting from different initial conditions of the water tank system.

Brimhall, James; Naga, Sundar

2007-03-01

47

Water development projects map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new map showing major water development projects across the United States has been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The map shows the location, size, and ownership of approximately 2800 of the nation's major multipurpose and flood control dams and virtually all of the reservoir storage and flood control capacity of the country. Other features illustrated on the map include U.S. Bureau of Reclamation surface water irrigation projects; watershed protection projects of the U.S. Soil Conservation Service; hydroelectric power facilities, including both federal plants and nonfederal plants leased by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers navigation and flood damage reduction projects; and the federal systems of wild and scenic rivers. The map also delineates major rivers and the 21 USGS water resources region boundaries so that users of the map can locate development projects with respect to drainage basins.

48

Water heaters, storage tank, and electrical panels in the boiler ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Water heaters, storage tank, and electrical panels in the boiler room, south corner of the ground floor - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Guard House & Barracks, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

49

11. Roofscape, looking west above railroad court, showing water tanks ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Roofscape, looking west above railroad court, showing water tanks for sprinkler system and representative penthouse for elevator machinery. - U.S. Navy Fleet Supply Base, Storehouse No. 1, 830 Third Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

50

VIEW ALONG SUPPORT ROAD, LOOKING TOWARD ELEVATED WATER STORAGE TANK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW ALONG SUPPORT ROAD, LOOKING TOWARD ELEVATED WATER STORAGE TANK (BUILDING 2824), WITH EDUCATION CENTER (BUILDING 2670) AT LEFT BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, U.S. Route 9, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

51

13. Building 202 exhaust scrubber water detention tank, looking southeast ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Building 202 exhaust scrubber water detention tank, looking southeast from bed of Abram Creek. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 202, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

52

1. VIEW EAST, TANK POND, OIL HOUSE, WATER TOWER, BOILER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW EAST, TANK POND, OIL HOUSE, WATER TOWER, BOILER HOUSE AND ASSEMBLY PLANT WITH MANHATTAN IN BACKGROUND - Ford Motor Company Edgewater Assembly Plant, 309 River Road, Edgewater, Bergen County, NJ

53

27. View within machine room showing water tank, tool chest ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. View within machine room showing water tank, tool chest and oil/grease cans used for maintenance. (Nov. 25, 1988) - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York, New York County, NY

54

Project Execution Plan for Project W-211 Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS)  

SciTech Connect

Project W-211, Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS), is a fiscal year 1994 Major Systems Acquisition that will provide systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes from selected double-shell tanks (DST). The contents of these tanks are a combination of supernatant liquids and settled solids. To retrieve waste from the tanks, it is first necessary to mix the liquid and solids prior to transferring the slurry to alternative storage or treatment facilities. The ITRS will provide systems to mobilize the settled solids and transfer the wastes out of the tanks. In so doing, ITRS provides feed for future processing plants, allows for consolidation of tank solids to manage space within existing DST storage capacity, and supports continued safe storage of tank waste. The ITRS scope has been revised to include waste retrieval systems for tanks AP-102, AP-104, AP-108, AN-103, AN-104, AN-105, AY-102, AZ-102, and SY-102. This current tank selection and sequence provides retrieval systems supporting the Privatized waste processing plant and sustains the ability to provide final remediation of several watch list DSTs via treatment. The ITRS is configured to support changing program needs, as constrained by available budget, by maintaining the flexibility for exchanging tanks requiring mixer pump-based retrieval systems and shifting the retrieval sequence. Preliminary design was configured such that an adequate basis exists for initiating Title II design of a mixer pump based retrieval system for any DST. This Project Management Plan (PMP) documents the methodology for managing the ITRS, formalizes organizational responsibilities and interfaces, and identifies project requirements such as change control, design verification, systems engineering, and human factors engineering.

VAN BEEK, J.E.

1999-09-02

55

Heat exchanger and water tank arrangement for passive cooling system  

DOEpatents

A water storage tank in the coolant water loop of a nuclear reactor contains a tubular heat exchanger. The heat exchanger has tube sheets mounted to the tank connections so that the tube sheets and tubes may be readily inspected and repaired. Preferably, the tubes extend from the tube sheets on a square pitch and then on a rectangular pitch there between. Also, the heat exchanger is supported by a frame so that the tank wall is not required to support all of its weight. 6 figures.

Gillett, J.E.; Johnson, F.T.; Orr, R.S.; Schulz, T.L.

1993-11-30

56

Interface control document for tank waste remediation system privatization phase 1 infrastructure support Project W-519  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the functional and physical interfaces between the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization Phase 1 Infrastructure Project W-519 and the various other projects (i.e., Projects W-314, W-464, W-465, and W-520) supporting Phase 1 that will require the allocation of land in and about the Privatization Phase 1 Site and/or interface with the utilities extended by Project W-519. Project W-519 will identify land use allocations and upgrade/extend several utilities in the 200-East Area into the Privatization Phase 1 Site (formerly the Grout Disposal Compound) in preparation for the Privatization Contractors (PC) to construct treatment facilities. The project will upgrade/extend: Roads, Electrical Power, Raw Water (for process and fire suppression), Potable Water, and Liquid Effluent collection. The replacement of an existing Sanitary Sewage treatment system that may be displaced by Phase 1 site preparation activities may also be included.

Parazin, R.J.

1998-04-23

57

Nuclear criticality project plan for the Hanford Site tank farms  

SciTech Connect

The mission of this project is to provide a defensible technical basis report in support of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). This technical basis report will also be used to resolve technical issues associated with the nuclear criticality safety issue. The strategy presented in this project plan includes an integrated programmatic and organizational approach. The scope of this project plan includes the provision of a criticality technical basis supporting document (CTBSD) to support the FSAR as well as for resolution of the nuclear criticality safety issue. Specifically, the CTBSD provides the requisite technical analysis to support the FSAR hazard and accident analysis as well as for the determination of the required FSAR limits and controls. The scope of The CTBSD will provide a baseline for understanding waste partitioning and distribution phenomena and mechanistics for current operational activities inclusive of single-shell tanks, double-shell tanks, double-contained receiver tanks, and miscellaneous underground storage tanks.. Although the FSAR does not include future operational activities, the waste partitioning and distribution phenomena and mechanistics work scope identified in this project plan provide a sound technical basis as a point of departure to support independent safety analyses for future activities. The CTBSD also provides the technical basis for resolution of the technical issues associated with the nuclear criticality safety issue. In addition to the CTBSD, additional documentation will be required to fully resolve U.S. Department of Energy-Headquarters administrative and programmatic issues. The strategy and activities defined in this project plan provide a CTBSD for the FSAR and for accelerated resolution of the safety issue in FY 1996. On April 30, 1992, a plant review committee reviewed the Final Safety Analysis Reports for the single-shell, double-shell, and aging waste tanks in light of the conclusions of the inadequate waste characterization with respect to fissile material. The review indicated that the conclusion in the FSARS, that a criticality is not credible, cannot be supported for a full range of potential tank constituents. Therefore, a USQ was declared. Development of a credible scenario leading to a criticality proved to be extremely difficult, given the paucity of data on the quantity and distribution of fissile material in the tanks. The objective of this project plan is to develop a strategy and technical approach to provide a CTBSD for the FSAR and for resolution of the nuclear criticality safety issue pertaining to tank farm waste storage and transfer operations. The strategy and technical approach identified in this project plan include definition of administrative and technical tasks. Technical analyses will include mechanistic studies, historical data review, and additional limited neutronics analysis. Completion of these studies will be documented in a CTBSD to support the existing criticality technical basis. The CTBSD will be incorporated in the criticality portion of the FSAR.

Bratzel, D.R., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-08-06

58

Single-shell tank interim stabilization project plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid and liquid radioactive waste continues to be stored in 149 single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. To date, 119 tanks have had most of the pumpable liquid removed by interim stabilization. Thirty tanks remain to be stabilized. One of these tanks (C-106) will be stabilized by retrieval of the tank contents. The remaining 29 tanks will be interim stabilized

1998-01-01

59

Waste Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Annual status report for FY 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report compiles information collected during the Fiscal Year 1995 pertaining to the waste tank vapor characterization project. Information covers the following topics: project management; organic sampling and analysis; inorganic sampling and analysis; waste tank vapor data reports; and the waste tanks vapor database.

Ligotke, M.W.; Fruchter, J.S.; Huckaby, J.L.; Birn, M.B.; McVeety, B.D.; Evans, J.C. Jr.; Pool, K.H.; Silvers, K.L.; Goheen, S.C.

1995-11-01

60

DEGRADATION EVALUATION OF HEAVY WATER DRUMS AND TANKS  

SciTech Connect

Heavy water with varying chemistries is currently being stored in over 6700 drums in L- and K-areas and in seven tanks in L-, K-, and C-areas. A detailed evaluation of the potential degradation of the drums and tanks, specific to their design and service conditions, has been performed to support the demonstration of their integrity throughout the desired storage period. The 55-gallon drums are of several designs with Type 304 stainless steel as the material of construction. The tanks have capacities ranging from 8000 to 45600 gallons and are made of Type 304 stainless steel. The drums and tanks were designed and fabricated to national regulations, codes and standards per procurement specifications for the Savannah River Site. The drums have had approximately 25 leakage failures over their 50+ years of use with the last drum failure occurring in 2003. The tanks have experienced no leaks to date. The failures in the drums have occurred principally near the bottom weld, which attaches the bottom to the drum sidewall. Failures have occurred by pitting, crevice and stress corrosion cracking and are attributable, in part, to the presence of chloride ions in the heavy water. Probable degradation mechanisms for the continued storage of heavy water were evaluated that could lead to future failures in the drum or tanks. This evaluation will be used to support establishment of an inspection plan which will include susceptible locations, methods, and frequencies for the drums and tanks to avoid future leakage failures.

Mickalonis, J.; Vormelker, P.

2009-07-31

61

Efficacy of water spray protection against propane and butane jet fires impinging on LPG storage tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage tanks are often provided with water sprays to protect them in the event of a fire. This protection has been shown to be effective in a hydrocarbon pool fire but uncertainties remained regarding the degree of protection afforded in a jet fire resulting from a liquid or two-phase release of LPG. Two projects, sponsored by

L. C Shirvill

2004-01-01

62

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANKS  

SciTech Connect

M&D Professional Services, Inc. (M&D) is under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to perform seismic analysis of the Hanford Site Double-Shell Tanks (DSTs) in support of a project entitled Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Project - DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses. The original scope of the project was to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14. The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). Although Milestone M-48-14 has been met, Revision I is being issued to address external review comments with emphasis on changes in the modeling of anchor bolts connecting the concrete dome and the steel primary tank. The work statement provided to M&D (PNNL 2003) required that a nonlinear soil structure interaction (SSI) analysis be performed on the DSTs. The analysis is required to include the effects of sliding interfaces and fluid sloshing (fluid-structure interaction). SSI analysis has traditionally been treated by frequency domain computer codes such as SHAKE (Schnabel, et al. 1972) and SASSI (Lysmer et al. 1999a). Such frequency domain programs are limited to the analysis of linear systems. Because of the contact surfaces, the response of the DSTs to a seismic event is inherently nonlinear and consequently outside the range of applicability of the linear frequency domain programs. That is, the nonlinear response of the DSTs to seismic excitation requires the use of a time domain code. The capabilities and limitations of the commercial time domain codes ANSYS{reg_sign} and MSC Dytran{reg_sign} for performing seismic SSI analysis of the DSTs and the methodology required to perform the detailed seismic analysis of the DSTs has been addressed in Rinker et al (2006a). On the basis of the results reported in Rinker et al. (2006a), it is concluded that time-domain SSI analysis using ANSYS{reg_sign} is justified for predicting the global response of the DSTs. The most significant difference between the current revision (Revision 1) of this report and the original issue (Revision 0) is the treatment of the anchor bolts that tie the steel dome of the primary tank to the concrete tank dome.

MACKEY TC; RINKER MW; CARPENTER BG; HENDRIX C; ABATT FG

2009-01-15

63

TANK FARM REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT AN EXERCISE IN TECHNICAL & REGULATORY COLLABORATION  

SciTech Connect

The Tank Farm Remediation Technology Development Project at the Hanford Site focuses on waste storage tanks, pipelines and associated ancillary equipment that are part of the C-200 single-shell tank (SST) farm system located in the C Tank Farm. The purpose of the project is to obtain information on the implementation of a variety of closure activities and to answer questions on technical, operational and regulatory issues associated with closure.

JARAYSI, M.N.

2007-01-08

64

Tank waste remediation system privatization phase 1 infrastructure project, systems engineering implementation plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Systems Engineering Implementation Plan (SEIP) describes the processes, products, and organizational responsibilities implemented by Project W-519 to further define how the project`s mission, defined initially by the Tank Waste Remediation System Phase 1 Privatization Infrastructure Project W-503 Mission Analysis Report (Hoertkorn 1997), will be accomplished using guidance provided by the Tank Waste Remediation System Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP)

Schaus

1998-01-01

65

Lesotho Highlands Water Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Kingdom of Lesotho is a tiny landlocked country, about the size of the state of Maryland, and it is completely surrounded by South Africa. Its most significant natural resource is water, and thus the majority of its economy is based on providing water and electricity to South Africa. The Lesotho Highlands Water Project website is a window into the effects such a large water project can have on a community, arguably some of them negative. For instance, visitors should check out the "FAQs" section to read some of the issues that have come up with the project, including loss of property and livelihood. The "Documents & Reports" link has dozens of documents, including ones about "IFR" (which stands for Instream Flow Requirement), "Hydrology" and "Studies & Special Reports". Visitors shouldn't miss the "Villages of the Dammed Response", under "Studies & Special Reports", which is an excellent letter to the editor at the Globe and Mail that highlights the debate surrounding the Water Project and what it promises.

66

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT INCREASED LIQUID LEVEL ANALYSIS FOR 241-AP TANK FARMS  

SciTech Connect

The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the SDT System at Hanford. The "Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Project - DST Thermal and Seismic Project" is in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14.

MACKEY TC; DEIBLER JE; JOHNSON KI; PILLI SP; KARRI NK; RINKER MW; ABATT FG; CARPENTER BG

2007-02-16

67

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-102: Results from samples collected on January 26, 1996. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) with and without particulate prefiltration. Samples were collected from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for water, ammonia, permanent gases, total nonmethane hydrocarbons (TNMHCs, also known as TO-12), and organic analytes in samples collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs) from the tank headspace. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sampling and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Sampling and Analysis Plan for Tank Vapor Sampling Comparison Test{close_quote}, and the sample jobs were designated S6007, S6008, and S6009. Samples were collected by WHC on January 26, 1996, using the VSS, a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe; and the ISVS with and without particulate prefiltration.

Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Pool, K.H. [and others

1996-07-01

68

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-BY-108: Results from samples collected January 23, 1996. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) with and without particulate prefiltration. Samples were collected from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-108 (Tank BY-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for water, ammonia, permanent gases, total nonmethane hydrocarbons (TNMHCs, also known as TO-12), and organic analytes in samples collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs) from the tank headspace. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sampling and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Sampling and Analysis Plan for Tank Vapor Sampling Comparison Test{close_quotes}, and the sample jobs were designated S6004, S6005, and S6006. Samples were collected by WHC on January 23, 1996, using the VSS, a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe; and the ISVS with and without particulate prefiltration.

Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B. [and others

1996-07-01

69

Systems Engineering Management Plan for Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations, Project W-314.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Project W-314 is a fiscal year 1997 project within the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) (recently re-named River Protection Project (RPP)) strategic system. This Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) has been prepared within the guidelines of the...

D. L. McGraw

2002-01-01

70

HIGH LEVEL WASTE MECHANCIAL SLUDGE REMOVAL AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Savannah River Site F-Tank Farm Closure project has successfully performed Mechanical Sludge Removal (MSR) using the Waste on Wheels (WOW) system for the first time within one of its storage tanks. The WOW system is designed to be relatively mobile with the ability for many components to be redeployed to multiple waste tanks. It is primarily comprised of Submersible

Rudy C. Jolly; B Bruce Martin

2008-01-01

71

Rotating Cylinders in a Water Tank: Vortex Diffraction Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffraction effects between fluid vortices are studied using two rotating cylinders a fixed distance apart in a large water tank. Interference patterns induced in the overlapping circulating fluid velocity profiles by the presence of a partition with a vertical open slit placed between the cylinders are investigated as a function of relative cylinder rotation speeds and slit widths. A large water tank (2’ x 4’), containing two cylinders attached to dc motors on the bottom of the tank is partially filled with a rheoscopic fluid, containing bouyancy matched metal flakes, so that the velocity streamlines are readily imaged. A laser beam is split, with one beam passing perpendicular to the tank bottom, through the water between the rotating cylinders, with the other beam used as a reference passing near the far end of the tank, and the resulting signals are Fourier transformed. A partition containing a long vertical opening is then placed midway between the cylinders. When both cylinders rotate at 15 rpm in the same direction, and a slit opening of 5 cm is employed, the two circulating velocity profiles interfere, and a spatially localized vortex appears in the slit opening, rotating opposite to the orientation of the two cylinders. For wider or narrower slit openings no such anti-vortex is observed. The critical slit width and rotation speed for maximum interference between the two fluid whirlpools and the mechanisms governing this interaction are discussed.

Grundstrom, E.; Pinnick, E.; Kakalios, J.

2001-03-01

72

Project W-211 initial tank retrieval systems year 2000 compliance assessment project plan  

SciTech Connect

This assessment describes the potential Year 2000 (Y2K) problems and describes the methods for achieving Y2K Compliance for Project W-211, Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS). The purpose of this assessment is to give an overview of the project. This document will not be updated and any dates contained in this document are estimates and may change. The scope of project W-211 is to provide systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes from ten double-shell tanks (DST). systems will be installed in tanks 102-AP, 104-AP, 105-AN, 104-AN, 102-AZ, 101-AW, 103-AN, 107-AN, 102-AY, and 102-SY. The current tank selection and sequence supports phase I feed delivery to privatized processing plants. A detailed description of system dates, functions, interfaces, potential Y2K problems, and date resolutions can not be described since the project is in the definitive design phase. This assessment will describe the methods, protocols, and practices to assure that equipment and systems do not have Y2K problems.

BUSSELL, J.H.

1999-08-24

73

Analysis of first flush to improve the water quality in rainwater tanks.  

PubMed

Although most Australians receive their domestic supply from reticulated mains or town water, there are vast areas with very low population densities and few reticulated supplies. In many of these areas rainwater collected in tanks is the primary source of drinking water. Heavy metals have recently become a concern as their concentration in rain water tanks was found to exceed recommended levels suitable for human consumption. Rainwater storage tanks also accumulate contaminants and sediments that settle to the bottom. Although not widely acknowledged, small amounts of contaminants such as lead found in rain water (used as drinking water) may have a cumulative and poisonous effect on human health over a life time. This is true for certain factors that underlie many of the chronic illnesses that are becoming increasingly common in contemporary society. The paper reports on a study which is part of a project that aims to develop a cost effective in-line filtration system to improve water quality in rainwater tanks. To enable this, the characteristics of rainwater need to be known. One component of this characterization is to observe the effects of the first flush on a rainwater tank. Samples of the roof runoff collected from an urban residential roof located in the Sydney Metropolitan Area in the initial first few millimetres of rain were analysed. The results show that bypassing the first 2 mm of rainfall gives water with most water quality parameters compliant with the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (ADWG) standards. The parameters that did not comply were lead and turbidity, which required bypassing approximately the first 5 mm of rainfall to meet ADWG standards. Molecular weight distribution (MWD) analysis showed that the concentration of rainwater organic matter (RWOM) decreased with increasing amount of roof runoff. PMID:20107269

Kus, B; Kandasamy, J; Vigneswaran, S; Shon, H K

2010-01-01

74

Project Specific Quality Assurance Plan Project (QAPP) W-211 Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) provides information on how the Project Hanford Quality Assurance Program is implemented by CH2M HILL Hanford Group Inc (CHG) for managing the Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS), Project W-211. This QAPP is responsive to the CHG Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD) (LMH-MP-599) which provides direction for compliance to 10 CFR 830 120, ''Nuclear Safety

2000-01-01

75

The Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project Tank Waste Retrieval Performance and Lessons Learned, vol. 1 [of 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Remediation Project was the first of its kind performed in the United States. Robotics and remotely operated equipment were used to successfully transfer almost 94,000 gal of remote-handled transuranic sludge containing over 81,000 Ci of radioactive contamination from nine large underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The sludge was transferred

2003-01-01

76

Fault Detection and Isolation in the Water Tank World  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flexible, model based fault detection and isolation (FDI) system for an arbitrary configuration of a water tank world has been designed and implemented in MATLAB, SIMULINK and dSPACE. The fault detection is performed with local change detection algorithms, and the fault isolation is performed with residual patterns automatically generated from the total configuration.

Niclas Bergman; Magnus Larsson

77

2. VIEW OF NORTHERN WATER TANK (FEATURE B2), FACING SOUTH. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW OF NORTHERN WATER TANK (FEATURE B-2), FACING SOUTH. THE ADIT ROAD IS SHOWN IN THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE PHOTO. - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, Water Tanks, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

78

Hanford tank waste operation simulator operational waste volume projection verification and validation procedure  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Tank Waste Operation Simulator is tested to determine if it can replace the FORTRAN-based Operational Waste Volume Projection computer simulation that has traditionally served to project double-shell tank utilization. Three Test Cases are used to compare the results of the two simulators; one incorporates the cleanup schedule of the Tri Party Agreement.

HARMSEN, R.W.

1999-10-28

79

Research project description: Numerical investigation of sorption type hydrogen storage tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This writing contains the research project description of the present doctoral work. The project is concerned with the analysis of hydrogen storage tanks that incorporates sorption processes to store hydrogen. Previously, much research in the field has been directed towards the storage material at the microscopic level. In this work we consider the macroscopic level, i.e. the whole storage tank,

Stian Jensen

80

Experimental study on mixing efficiency in water supply rectangular tanks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenomenon of mixing in drinking water storage tanks and reservoirs has a direct effect on the quality of water. Creation of poor mixing zones and volume stratification can have negative effects in public health. The design of a storage tank must consider the conditions of the inlet and outlets, and also their orientation (vertical or horizontal) to prevent the formation of these zones. Experiments done in a reduced scaled-model with a rectangular base and three different inlets (two waterfalls and a pipe inlet) had the objective to decide which of these inlets achieved the best mixing efficiency. Four situations were considered while three entrances, two unsteady: filling and drawing, and two steady with different outlets. Moreover the effects of columns that support the roof of the tank were studied by running the three entrances with and without columns in the four situations. Neglecting the viscous scale effects, the time taken to mix the volume stored depends on the distance between the inlet and the opposite wall as though as its orientation. Taking into account the whole tank columns have a negative effect on mixing efficiency although they divide the flux and create local zones of turbulence around them, increasing local mixing. Using a digital treating image technique the results are found in a quantitative way.

Bateman, A.; Medina, V.; Mujal, A.

2009-04-01

81

Technical safety requirements for the South Tank Farm remediation project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The South Tank Farm (STF) is a series of six, 170,000-gal underground, domed storage tanks that were placed into service in 1943. The tanks were constructed of a concrete mixture known as gunite. They were used as a portion of the Liquid LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW) System for the collection, neutralization, storage, and transfer of the aqueous portion of the radioactive and/or hazardous chemical wastes produced as part of normal facility operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Although the last of the tanks was taken out of service in 1986, they have been shown by structural analysis to continue to be structurally sound. An attempt was made in 1983 to empty the tanks; however, removal of all the sludge from the tanks was not possible with the equipment and schedule available. Since removal of the liquid waste in 1983, liquid continues to accumulate within the tanks. The in-leakage is believed to be the result of groundwater dripping into the tanks around penetrations in the domes. The tanks are currently being maintained under a Surveillance and Maintenance Program, which includes activities such as level monitoring, vegetation control, High Efficiency Particulate Air filter leakage requirement testing/replacement, sign erection/repair, pump-out of excess liquids, and instrument calibration/maintenance. A technique known as confined sluicing, which uses a high-pressure, low-volume water jet integrated with a jet pump, will be used to remove the sludge. The Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) are those operational requirements that specify the operating limits and surveillance requirements, the basis thereof, safety boundaries, and the management of administrative controls necessary to ensure the safe operation of the STF remediation project. Effective implementation of TSRs will limit to acceptable levels the risks to the public and workers from uncontrolled releases of radioactive or other hazardous material.

Platfoot, J.H.

1999-01-01

82

Project W-151 Tank 101-AZ Waste Retrieval System Year 2000 Compliance Assessment Project Plan  

SciTech Connect

This assessment describes the potential Year 2000 (Y2K) problems and describes the methods for achieving Y2K compliance for Project W-151, Tank 101-AZ Waste Retrieval System. The purpose of this assessment is to give an overview of the project. This document will not be updated and any dates contained in this document are estimates and may change. Two mixer pumps and instrumentation have been or are planned to be installed in waste tank 101-AZ to demonstrate solids mobilization. The information and experience gained during this process test will provide data for comparison with sludge mobilization prediction models and provide indication of the effects of mixer pump operation on an Aging Waste Facility tank. A limited description of system dates, functions, interfaces, potential Y2K problems, and date resolutions is presented. The project is presently on hold, and definitive design and procurement have been completed. This assessment will describe the methods, protocols, and practices to ensure that equipment and systems do not have Y2K problems.

BUSSELL, J.H.

1999-08-02

83

Klebsielleae in drinking water emanating from redwood tanks.  

PubMed Central

A survey was made of the bacteriological quality and chlorine content of 33 public and private water systems that utilize redwood storage tanks. Coliforms of the genera Klebsiella and Enterobacter were isolated from 9 of 10 private drinking water systems and from 11 of 23 water systems in state and federal parks. Total coliform counts in the private systems exceeded federal membrane filter guidelines by as much as 10-to 40-fold. Coliform counts were highest in the newer reservoirs. Factors contributing to poor water quality are: lack of automated chlorination equipment or an insufficient supply to maintain a residual, common inlet/outlet plumbing design, and lengthy average retention periods. The latter two factors contribute to improper mixing and stagnation of the water, whereas the former allows microbes to multiply on the water-soluble nutrients that leach from the wood. Wooden reservoirs exert a high chlorine demand, and 0.4 ppm of chlorine residual in the incoming tank water proves inadequate. It is suggested that specific water-soluble nutrients in redwood (and in numerous other types of botanical material) induce a natural nutritional selection for coliforms of the tribe Klebsielleae. Images

Seidler, R J; Morrow, J E; Bagley, S T

1977-01-01

84

A simulation study on schooling behaviour of fish in a water tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the schooling behaviour of fish in a water tank is investigated. A mathematical model is presented for the schooling mechanism offish. A water tank experiment is carried out by leaving five small fish in a small tank which is only a few centimetres deep. By using this observation data, the unknown parameters of the model are estimated.

MOHAMMAD ALI DOUSTARI; NOBUO SANNOMIYA

1995-01-01

85

Electrostatic hazards from water slugs formed during the washing of ships tanks: spark energy calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electronic charges induced on grounded conductors in a tank containing a charged mist have been calculated and used to investigate the circumstances under which incendive sparks can occur during the water washing of ships tanks. The calculations include the influence of nearby earthed structures or water jets, and have been carried out for conductors located both at the tank

H. L. Walmsley

1987-01-01

86

Flammable gas project: Criteria for flammable gas watch list tanks  

SciTech Connect

The Flammable Gas Watch List is the listing of tanks that are subject to the provisions of Public Law 101-510, Section 3137, ``Safety Measures for Waste Tanks at Hanford Nuclear Reservation`` (Appendix A). Tanks on the Flammable Gas Watch List are judged to have a serious potential for release of high-level waste due to the ignition of flammable gases released from the waste in the tank. The purpose of this document is to provide criteria for identifying and categorizing the Hanford Site high4evel waste tanks to be included on the Flammable Gas Watch List. This document also provides criteria on which to base a recommendation to remove tanks from the Flammable Gas Watch List.

Cash, R.J.

1997-01-29

87

The Water-Cooled Steel-Tank Rectifier Corrosion Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first mercury-are rectifiers utilized glass tubes and consequently the physical size and electrical capacity was limited. The efforts to increase the available output led to the development of water-cooled steel-tank vacuum chambers after many years of research and the solution of many problems. This paper is primarily concerned with the solution of the problem presented by corrosion. Corrosion is

Emil J. Remscheid

1941-01-01

88

HANFORD SITE RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT (RPP) TANK FARM CLOSURE  

SciTech Connect

The U. S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection and the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. are responsible for the operations, cleanup, and closure activities at the Hanford Tank Farms. There are 177 tanks overall in the tank farms, 149 single-shell tanks (see Figure 1), and 28 double-shell tanks (see Figure 2). The single-shell tanks were constructed 40 to 60 years ago and all have exceeded their design life. The single-shell tanks do not meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 [1] requirements. Accordingly, radioactive waste is being retrieved from the single-shell tanks and transferred to double-shell tanks for storage prior to treatment through vitrification and disposal. Following retrieval of as much waste as is technically possible from the single-shell tanks, the Office of River Protection plans to close the single-shell tanks in accordance with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order [2] and the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [3] requirements. The double-shell tanks will remain in operation through much of the cleanup mission until sufficient waste has been treated such that the Office of River Protection can commence closing the double-shell tanks. At the current time, however, the focus is on retrieving waste and closing the single-shell tanks. The single-shell tanks are being managed and will be closed in accordance with the pertinent requirements in: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and its Washington State-authorized Dangerous Waste Regulations [4], US DOE Order 435.1 Radioactive Waste Management [5], the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 [6], and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 [7]. The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, which is commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement or TPA, was originally signed by Department of Energy, the State of Washington, and the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1989. Meanwhile, the retrieval of the waste is under way and is being conducted to achieve the completion criteria established in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order.

JARAYSI, M.N.; SMITH, Z.; QUINTERO, R.; BURANDT, M.B.; HEWITT, W.

2006-01-30

89

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT SUMMARY OF COMBINED THERMAL AND OPERATING LOADS WITH SEISMIC ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of the Double-Shell Tank Thermal and Operating Loads Analysis (TaLA) combined with the Seismic Analysis. This combined analysis provides a thorough, defensible, and documented analysis that will become a part of the overall analysis of record for the Hanford double-shell tanks (DSTs). The bases of the analytical work presented herein are two ANSYS{reg_sign} finite element models that were developed to represent a bounding-case tank. The TaLA model includes the effects of temperature on material properties, creep, concrete cracking, and various waste and annulus pressure-loading conditions. The seismic model considers the interaction of the tanks with the surrounding soil including a range of soil properties, and the effects of the waste contents during a seismic event. The structural evaluations completed with the representative tank models do not reveal any structural deficiencies with the integrity of the DSTs. The analyses represent 60 years of use, which extends well beyond the current date. In addition, the temperature loads imposed on the model are significantly more severe than any service to date or proposed for the future. Bounding material properties were also selected to provide the most severe combinations. While the focus of the analyses was a bounding-case tank, it was necessary during various evaluations to conduct tank-specific analyses. The primary tank buckling evaluation was carried out on a tank-specific basis because of the sensitivity to waste height, specific gravity, tank wall thickness, and primary tank vapor space vacuum limit. For this analysis, the occurrence of maximum tank vacuum was classified as a service level C, emergency load condition. The only area of potential concern in the analysis was with the buckling evaluation of the AP tank, which showed the current limit on demand of l2-inch water gauge vacuum to exceed the allowable of 10.4 inches. This determination was based on analysis at the design waste temperature of 350 F and the full 60-year corrosion allowance on the tank wall of 0.060 inch. However, analysis at a more realistic temperature of 250 F or corrosion allowance of 0.025 inch results in an acceptable demand/capacity ratio according to the ASME code criteria. Thus, buckling of the primary tank is judged to be unlikely for the current lack of corrosion in the tanks, and the expectation that the maximum waste temperature will not exceed 210 F. The reinforced concrete structure was evaluated as specified by the American Concrete Institute (ACI) code requirements for nuclear safety-related structures (ACI-349). The demand was demonstrated to be lower than the capacity at all locations. Revision 1 is being issued to document changes to the anchor bolt evaluation. RPP-RPT-32237 Rev. 1, Hanford Double-Shell Tank Thermal and Seismic Project-Increased Liquid Level Analysis for 241AP Tank Farms, described changes to the anchor bolt modeling and evaluation which were implemented in response to the independent reviewer's comments. Similar changes have been made in the bounding tank analysis and are documented in RPP-RPT-28968 Rev. 1. The conclusions of the previous releases of this report remain unchanged.

MACKEY TC; DEIBLER JE; RINKER MW; JOHNSON KI; ABATT FG; KARRI NK; PILLI SP; STOOPS KL

2009-01-15

90

Rogue waves in a water tank: Experiments and modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently many rogue waves have been reported as the main cause of ship incidents on the sea. One of the main characteristics of rogue waves is its elusiveness: they present unexpectedly and disappear in the same wave. Some authors (Zakharov and al.2010) are attempting to find the probability of their appearances apart from studyingthe mechanism of the formation. As an effort on this topic we tried the generation of rogue waves in a water wave tank using a symmetric spectrum(Akhmediev et al. 2011) as input on the wave maker. The produced waves were clearly rogue waves with a rate (maximum wave height/ Significant wave height) of 2.33 and a kurtosis of 4.77 (Janssen 2003, Onorato 2006). These results were already presented (Lechuga 2012). Similar waves (in pattern aspect, but without being extreme waves) were described as crossing waves in a water tank(Shemer and Lichter1988). To go on further the next step has been to apply a theoretical model to the envelope of these waves. After some considerations the best model has been an analogue of the Ginzburg-Landau equation. This apparently amazing result is easily explained: We know that the Ginzburg-Landau model is related to some regular structures on the surface of a liquid and also in plasmas, electric and magnetic fields and other media. Another important characteristic of the model is that their solutions are invariants with respectto the translation group. The main aim of this presentation is to extract conclusions of the model and the comparison with the measured waves in the water tank.The nonlinear structure of waves and their regularity make suitable the use of the Ginzburg-Landau model to the envelope of generated waves in the tank,so giving us a powerful tool to cope with the results of our experiment.

Lechuga, Antonio

2013-04-01

91

PROGRESS IN HANFORDS DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) INTEGRITY PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection has an extensive integrity assessment program for the Hanford Site Double-Shell Tank System. The DOE Orders and environmental protection regulations provide the guidelines for the activities used to inspect and maintain 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs), the waste evaporator, and ancillary equipment that compose this system. This program has been reviewed by oversight and regulatory bodies and found to comply with the established guidelines. The basis for the DOE Order 435.1-1 for tank integrity comes from the Tank Structural Integrity Paneled by Brookhaven National Laboratory during the late 1990s. These guidelines established criteria for performing Non-Destructive Examination (NDE), for acceptance of the NDE results, for waste chemistry control, and for monitoring the tanks. The environmental regulations mirror these requirements and allow for the tank integrity program to provide compliant storage of the tanks. Both sets of requirements provide additional guidance for the protection of ancillary equipment. CH2M HILL uses two methods of NDE: visual inspection and Ultrasonic Testing (UT). The visual inspection program examines the primary tank and secondary liner of the DST. The primary tank is examined both on the interior surface above the waste in the tank and on the exterior surface facing the annulus of the DST. The interior surface of the tank liner is examined at the same time as the outer surface of the primary tank. The UT program examines representative areas of the primary tank and secondary liner by deploying equipment in the annulus of the tank. Both programs have led to the development of new equipment for remote inspection of the tanks. Compact camera and enhanced lighting systems have been designed and deployed through narrow access ports (called risers) into the tanks. The UT program has designed two generations of crawlers and equipment for deployment through risers into the thermally hot and radioactive environment. Also extensions were developed to allow inspection of the tank's curve upper (haunch) and lower (knuckle) surfaces. CH2M HILL primarily maintains chemistry control of the DST by ensuring that the concentrations of hydroxide and nitrite ions are favorable with respect to the nitrate ion concentration in the waste. This control program is supported by an extensive sampling program that obtains samples from the supernatant and solid layers in the tank to ensure compliance with the chemical specification. At DOE direction, CH2M HILL has embarked on a waste chemistry optimization program to enhance the protection of the tank surface and the understanding of the parameters that affect general and localized corrosion in the tanks. Over the past decade, DOE has deployed Electrochemical Noise corrosion probes in the DST to monitor localized corrosion. From the information gathered as part of the chemistry control, new information has been identified about the parameters requiring control to ensure tank integrity. CH2M HILL is deploying a series of corrosion probes to test and employ these parameters to provide real time corrosion monitoring of the DSTs.

BERMAN HS

2008-01-22

92

Cesium uptake capacity of simulated ferrocyanide tank waste. Interim report FY 1994, Ferrocyanide Safety Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project is to determine the capacity for (sup 137)CS uptake by mixed metal ferrocyanides present in Hanford waste tanks, and to assess the potential for aggregation of these (sup 137)CS exchanged materials to form tank ''hot-spots.''...

I. E. Burgeson S. A. Bryan L. E. Burger

1994-01-01

93

Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

Lantz, H. B., Jr.

94

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Gunite and Associated Tanks Stabilization Project-Low-Tech Approach with High-Tech Results  

SciTech Connect

Environmental restoration of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was a priority to the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) because of their age and deteriorating structure. These eight tanks ranging up to 170,000 gallons in capacity were constructed in 1943 of a Gunite or ''sprayed concrete material'' as part of the Manhattan Project. The tanks initially received highly radioactive waste from the Graphite Reactor and associated chemical processing facilities. The waste was temporarily stored in these tanks to allow for radioactive decay prior to dilution and release into surface waters. Over time, additional wastes from ongoing ORNL operations (e.g., isotope separation and materials research) were discharged to the tanks for storage and treatment. These tanks were taken out of service in the 1970s. Based on the structure integrity of GAAT evaluated in 1995, the worst-case scenario for the tanks, even assuming they are in good condition, is to remain empty. A recently completed interim action conducted from April 1997 through September 2000 removed the tank liquids and residual solids to the extent practical. Interior video surveys of the tanks indicated signs of degradation of the Gunite material. The tanks continued to receive inleakage, which generated a relatively high volume waste stream that required periodic removal, treatment, and disposal. For these reasons, DOE chose in-place stabilization of Tanks W-3 through W-10 as a non-timecritical removal action under Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Tank stabilization activities involved removal of liquid from inleakage and placement of a grout mixture or ''flowable fill'' into the tanks to within 3-ft of the ground surface. Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC (BJC) awarded Safety and Ecology Corporation (SEC) a subcontract in March 2001 to complete the documentation and fieldwork necessary to achieve tank stabilization in accordance with the Action Memorandum. Tank stabilization activities began on April 23, 2001, and were completed one month ahead of schedule on August 31, 2001. Over 7400 cubic yards of grout were placed in these tanks stabilizing over 4,000 Ci of radioactive material in place. This schedule acceleration was the result of good pre-planning during pre-mobilization by working with BJC, grout vendor, and pumping company, and other subcontractors. This planning allowed refinement of the pump and hose system used to convey the grout and the formulation of the grout mixture. Because of expediting the work, additional activities could be accomplished at the GAAT site that resulted in complete site restoration to a paved area for future parking, which was completed by September 30, 2001. This paper will focus on the following items associated with this successful environmental restoration project: regulatory process; integrated safety management systems used to achieve zero accident performance while expediting the schedule; tank stabilization design and implementation; and implementation strategies involving partnering of multiple subcontractors, DOE, and regulators.

Brill, A.; Alsup, T.; Bolling, D.

2002-02-26

95

HIGH LEVEL WASTE MECHANCIAL SLUDGE REMOVAL AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site F-Tank Farm Closure project has successfully performed Mechanical Sludge Removal (MSR) using the Waste on Wheels (WOW) system for the first time within one of its storage tanks. The WOW system is designed to be relatively mobile with the ability for many components to be redeployed to multiple waste tanks. It is primarily comprised of Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), Submersible Transfer Pumps (STPs), and a mobile control room with a control panel and variable speed drives. In addition, the project is currently preparing another waste tank for MSR utilizing lessons learned from this previous operational activity. These tanks, designated as Tank 6 and Tank 5 respectively, are Type I waste tanks located in F-Tank Farm (FTF) with a capacity of 2,840 cubic meters (750,000 gallons) each. The construction of these tanks was completed in 1953, and they were placed into waste storage service in 1959. The tank's primary shell is 23 meters (75 feet) in diameter, and 7.5 meters (24.5 feet) in height. Type I tanks have 34 vertically oriented cooling coils and two horizontal cooling coil circuits along the tank floor. Both Tank 5 and Tank 6 received and stored F-PUREX waste during their operating service time before sludge removal was performed. DOE intends to remove from service and operationally close (fill with grout) Tank 5 and Tank 6 and other HLW tanks that do not meet current containment standards. Mechanical Sludge Removal, the first step in the tank closure process, will be followed by chemical cleaning. After obtaining regulatory approval, the tanks will be isolated and filled with grout for long-term stabilization. Mechanical Sludge Removal operations within Tank 6 removed approximately 75% of the original 95,000 liters (25,000 gallons). This sludge material was transferred in batches to an interim storage tank to prepare for vitrification. This operation consisted of eleven (11) Submersible Mixer Pump(s) mixing campaigns and multiple intraarea transfers utilizing STPs from July 2006 to August 2007. This operation and successful removal of sludge material meets requirement of approximately 19,000 to 28,000 liters (5,000 to 7,500 gallons) remaining prior to the Chemical Cleaning process. Removal of the last 35% of sludge was exponentially more difficult, as less and less sludge was available to mobilize and the lighter sludge particles were likely removed during the early mixing campaigns. The removal of the 72,000 liters (19,000 gallons) of sludge was challenging due to a number factors. One primary factor was the complex internal cooling coil array within Tank 6 that obstructed mixer discharge jets and impacted the Effective Cleaning Radius (ECR) of the Submersible Mixer Pumps. Minimal access locations into the tank through tank openings (risers) presented a challenge because the available options for equipment locations were very limited. Mechanical Sludge Removal activities using SMPs caused the sludge to migrate to areas of the tank that were outside of the SMP ECR. Various SMP operational strategies were used to address the challenge of moving sludge from remote areas of the tank to the transfer pump. This paper describes in detail the Mechanical Sludge Removal activities and mitigative solutions to cooling coil obstructions and other challenges. The performance of the WOW system and SMP operational strategies were evaluated and the resulting lessons learned are described for application to future Mechanical Sludge Removal operations.

Jolly, R; Bruce Martin, B

2008-01-15

96

Modeling needs assessment for Hanford Tank Farm Operations. Vadose Zone Characterization Project at the Hanford Tank Farms  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a modeling-needs assessment conducted for Tank Farm Operations at the Hanford Site. The goal of this project is to integrate geophysical logging and subsurface transport modeling into a broader decision-based framework that will be made available to guide Tank Farm Operations in implementing future modeling studies. In support of this goal, previous subsurface transport modeling studies were reviewed, and stakeholder surveys and interviews were completed (1) to identify regulatory, stakeholder, and Native American concerns and the impacts of these concerns on Tank Farm Operations, (2) to identify technical constraints that impact site characterization and modeling efforts, and (3) to assess how subsurface transport modeling can best be used to support regulatory, stakeholder, Native American, and Tank Farm Operations needs. This report is organized into six sections. Following an introduction, Section 2.0 discusses background issues that relate to Tank Farm Operations. Section 3.0 summarizes the technical approach used to appraise the status of modeling and supporting characterization. Section 4.0 presents a detailed description of how the technical approach was implemented. Section 5.0 identifies findings and observations that relate to implementation of numerical modeling, and Section 6.0 presents recommendations for future activities.

NONE

1996-04-01

97

Systems Engineering Implementation Plan for Single Shell Tanks (SST) Retrieval Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document communicates the planned implementation of the Systems Engineering processes and products for the SST retrieval projects as defined in the Systems Engineering Management Plan for the Tank Farm Contractor.

M. W. LEONARD; G. A. HOFFERBER

2000-01-01

98

Systems Engineering Implementation Plan for Single Shell Tanks (SST) Retrieval Projects  

SciTech Connect

This document communicates the planned implementation of the Systems Engineering processes and products for the SST retrieval projects as defined in the Systems Engineering Management Plan for the Tank Farm Contractor.

LEONARD, M.W.; HOFFERBER, G.A.

2000-11-30

99

Initial single shell tank retrieval system project system engineering management plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This System Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) describes the Systems Engineering approach that will be used to manage the retrieval of waste from the first single shell tank farm using past practice sluicing techniques. This Project SEMP is used to supple...

S. A. Krieg

1996-01-01

100

Learning about water resources issues in Bangladesh using interactive sand tanks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poor drinking water quality, e.g. elevated levels of pathogens and arsenic, is a big issue in developing countries, such as Bangladesh. Discussion of the causes and potential solutions of these problems tend to successfully motivate students to engage in an active learning process. Commercially available interactive sand tanks have been used for many years to explore groundwater flow and transport processes by experiential learning, typically in a qualitative way (e.g. Groundwater Model Project, 2010). We have adapted the application of these tanks to help students learn about water resources issues in Bangladesh in qualitative and quantitative ways. The developed learning modules include visualization of groundwater recharge and discharge in a monsoon controlled climate, contamination of groundwater by pathogens, discussion of various theories of arsenic mobilization, the effects of irrigation pumping on arsenic distributions and the benefits and potential pitfalls of using deeper low arsenic aquifers as sources of domestic, industrial and agricultural water. Many of the techniques used in characterizing aquifers in Bangladesh such as slug and pumping tests, push/pull and forced gradient experiments can be explored by the students using the sand tanks. Learning modules have also been developed that address quantitative uses of the sand tanks, e.g. the determination of hydraulic conductivity using Darcy’s law or slug tests, porosity by comparing Darcy and transport velocity and dispersivity by measuring dye breakthrough curves. Groundwater Model Project, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, http://www.uwsp.edu/stuorg/awra/h2omodel.html, accessed 8/20/2010

Stute, M.

2010-12-01

101

Organic Tank Safety Project: Equilibrium moisture determination task fiscal year 1997. Annual progress report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twenty waste storage tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site are included in the Organic Tank Watch List. The water content in the wastes plays a significant role in preventing propagating or sustainable chemical reactions, and the fuel and ...

R. D. Scheele P. R. Bredt R. L. Sell

1997-01-01

102

Chemical Research Projects Office Fuel Tank Sealants Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The status of high-temperature fuel tank sealants for military and potentially commercial supersonic aircraft is examined. The interrelationships of NASA's sealants program comprise synthesis and development of new fluoroether elastomers, sealant predicti...

R. W. Rosser J. A. Parker

1974-01-01

103

Performance of a lab-scale bio-electrochemical assisted septic tank for the anaerobic treatment of black water.  

PubMed

Septic tanks are used for the removal of organic particulates in wastewaters by physical accumulation instead of through the biological production of biogas. Improved biogas production in septic tanks is crucial to increase the potential of this system for both energy generation and organic matter removal. In this study, the effect on the biogas production and biogas quality of coupling a 20 L lab-scale septic tank with a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) was investigated and compared with a standard septic tank. Both reactors were operated at a volumetric organic loading rate of 0.5gCOD/Ld and a hydraulic retention time between 20 and 40 days using black water as an input under mesophilic conditions for a period of 3 months. The MEC-septic tank was operated at an applied voltage of 2.0±0.1V and the current experienced ranged from 40 mA (0.9A/m(2) projected electrode area) to 180 mA (5A/m(2) projected electrode area). The COD removal was of the order of 85% and the concentration of residual COD was not different between both reactors. Yet, the total phosphorous in the output was on average 39% lower in the MEC-septic tank. Moreover, the biogas production rate in the MEC-septic tank was a factor of 5 higher than in the control reactor and the H2S concentration in the biogas was a factor of 2.5 lower. The extra electricity supplied to the MEC-septic tank was recovered as extra biogas produced. Overall, it appears that the combination of MEC and a septic tank offers perspectives in terms of lower discharge of phosphorus and H2S, nutrient recuperation and a more reliable supply of biogas. PMID:23403217

Zamalloa, Carlos; Arends, Jan B A; Boon, Nico; Verstraete, Willy

2013-02-09

104

Experimental study of temperature stratification in an integrated collector–storage solar water heater with two horizontal tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of tank-interconnection geometry on temperature stratification in an integrated collector–storage solar water (ICSSW) heater with two horizontal cylindrical tanks has been studied. The tanks were parallel to each other, and separated horizontally and vertically, with the lower tank fitted directly below a glass cover, and half of the upper tank insulated. In addition, a truncated parabolic concentrator was

A. Madhlopa; R. Mgawi; J. Taulo

2006-01-01

105

Development study of a novel tower-style tank for simultaneous storing warm water and ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In February 1999, a unitary tower-style thermal storage tank was constructed in a building in Fukuoka City (1). This storage\\u000a tank is designed such that the upper part is used as a warm water storage tank, while the lower part is used as an ice thermal\\u000a storage tank. A piece of equipment called “Duo Stable” (which has two stabilizing functions)

Kunihiko Kitamura; Keiji Kurokawa; Yasutoshi Inatomi; Itsunari Fukushima; Osamu Miyatake

1999-01-01

106

Rogue wave observation in a water wave tank.  

PubMed

The conventional definition of rogue waves in the ocean is that their heights, from crest to trough, are more than about twice the significant wave height, which is the average wave height of the largest one-third of nearby waves. When modeling deep water waves using the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, the most likely candidate satisfying this criterion is the so-called Peregrine solution. It is localized in both space and time, thus describing a unique wave event. Until now, experiments specifically designed for observation of breather states in the evolution of deep water waves have never been made in this double limit. In the present work, we present the first experimental results with observations of the Peregrine soliton in a water wave tank. PMID:21668234

Chabchoub, A; Hoffmann, N P; Akhmediev, N

2011-05-16

107

The Gunite Tanks Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Successful Integration & Deployment of Technologies Results in Remediated Underground Storage Tanks  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an overview of the underground technologies deployed during the cleanup of nine large underground storage tanks (USTs) that contained residual radioactive sludge, liquid low-level waste (LLLW), and other debris. The Gunite Tanks Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was successfully completed in 2001, ending with the stabilization of the USTs and the cleanup of the South Tank Farm. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project was the first of its kind completed in the United States of America. The Project integrated robotic and remotely operated technologies into an effective tank waste retrieval system that safely retrieved more than 348 m3 (92,000 gal) of radioactive sludge and 3.15E+15 Bq (85,000 Ci) of radioactive contamination from the tanks. The Project successfully transferred over 2,385 m3 (630,000 gal) of waste slurry to ORNL's active tank waste management system. The project team avoided over $120 Million in costs and shortened the original baseline schedule by over 10 years. Completing the Gunite Tanks Remediation Project eliminated the risks posed by the aging USTs and the waste they contained, and avoid the $400,000 annual costs associated with maintaining and monitoring the tanks.

Billingsley, K.; Bolling, D.

2002-02-27

108

Life Cycle Costing of Rainwater Tank as a Component of Water Sensitive Urban Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water conservation has become a major issue in Australia in recent times. Additional fresh water supplies are constantly being sought after and rainwater tanks are emerging as a possible solution. Studies have previously focussed on water saving potential of rainwater tanks used in domestic applications but little research has been undertaken on larger multi-storey applications. This paper presents an investigation

A Rahman; P Ronaldson; S Shrestha

109

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Annual status report for FY 1996  

SciTech Connect

In Fiscal Year 1996, staff at the Vapor Analytical Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory performed work in support of characterizing the vapor composition of the headspaces of radioactive waste tanks at the Hanford Site. Work performed included support for technical issues and sampling methodologies, upgrades for analytical equipment, analytical method development, preparation of unexposed samples, analyses of tank headspaces samples, preparation of data reports, and operation of the tank vapor database. Progress made in FY 1996 included completion and issuance of 50 analytical data reports. A sampling system comparison study was initiated and completed during the fiscal year. The comparison study involved the vapor sampling system (VSS), a truck-based system, and the in situ vapor sampling system (ISVS), a cart-based system. Samples collected during the study were characterized for inorganic, permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds and organic speciation by SUMMA{trademark} and TST methods. The study showed comparable sampling results between the systems resulting in the program switching from the VSS to the less expensive ISVS methodology in late May 1996. A temporal study was initiated in January 1996 in order to understand the influences seasonal temperatures changes have on the vapors in the headspace of Hanford waste tanks. A holding time study was initiated in the fourth quarter of FY 1996. Samples were collected from tank S-102 and rushed to the laboratory for time zero analysis. Additional samples will be analyzed at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 weeks.

Silvers, K.L.; Fruchter, J.S.; Huckaby, J.L.; Almeida, T.L.; Evans, J.C. Jr.; Pool, K.H.; Simonen, C.A.; Thornton, B.M.

1997-01-01

110

33 CFR 157.33 - Water ballast in fuel oil tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Water ballast in fuel oil tanks... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION...Vessel Operation § 157.33 Water ballast in fuel oil...

2013-07-01

111

Organic tank safety project: Equilibrium moisture determination task, FY 1998 annual progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

During fiscal year 1998, PNNL investigated the effect of P{sub HâO} at or near maximum tank waste surface temperatures on the equilibrium water content of selected Hanford waste samples. These studies were performed to determine how dry organic-bearing wastes will become if exposed to environmental Hanford water partial pressures. The samples tested were obtained from Organic Watch List Tanks. At

R. D. Scheele; P. R. Bredt; R. L. Sell

1998-01-01

112

A water tank Cherenkov detector for very high-energy astroparticles.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive airshower detection is an important issue in current astrophysics endeavours. Surface arrays detectors are a common practice since they are easy to handle and have a 100% duty cycle. The authors present an experimental study of the parameters relevant to the design of a water Cherenkov detector for high-energy air-showers. This detector is conceived as part of the surface array of the Pierre Auger project, which is expected to be sensitive to ultra high-energy cosmic rays. The authors focus their attention in the geometry of the tank and its inner liner material, discussing pulse shapes and charge collections.

Bauleo, P.; Etchegoyen, A.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.; Ferrero, A. M. J.; Filevich, A.; Guerard, C. K.; Hasenbalg, F.; Mostafa, M. A.; Ravignani, D.; Rodriguez Martino, J.

1998-03-01

113

Project W-211 Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) Description of Operations for 241-AZ-102  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of the Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is to provide systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes stored in underground double-shell tanks (DSTs) for transfer to alternate storage, evaporation, pretreatment or treatment, while concurrently reducing risks associated with safety watch list and other DSTs. This Description of Operation (DOO) defines the control philosophy for the waste retrieval system for Tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102). This DOO provides a basis for the detailed design of the Project W-211 Retrieval Control System (RCS) for AZ-102 and also establishes test criteria for the RCS.

BRIGGS, S.R.

2000-02-25

114

Corrosion analysis of decommissioned carbon steel waste water tanks at Brookhaven National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

A corrosion analysis was carried out on available sections of carbon steels taken from two decommissioned radioactive waste water tanks at Brookhaven National Laboratory. One of the 100,000 gallon tanks suffered from a pinhole failure in the wall which was subsequently patched. From the analysis it was shown that this leak, and two adjacent leaks were initiated by a discarded copper heating coil that had been dropped into the tank during service. The failure mechanism is postulated to have been galvanic attack at points of contact between the tank structure and the coil. Other leaks in the two tanks are also described in this report.

Soo, P.; Roberts, T.C.

1995-07-01

115

System Engineering Management and Implementation Plan for Project W-211 Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This systems Engineering Management and Implementation Plan (SEMIP) describes the Project W-211 implementation of the Tank Farm Contractor Systems Engineering Management Plan (TFC SEMP). The SEMIP defines the systems engineering products and processes used by the project to comply with the TFC SEMP, and provides the basis for tailoring systems engineering processes by applying a graded approach to identify appropriate

VAN BEEK

2000-01-01

116

NON-LINEAR VIBRATIONS OF A STRUCTURE CAUSED BY WATER SLOSHING IN A RECTANGULAR TANK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non-linear vibrations of a structure coupled with water sloshing in a rectangular tank are theoretically and experimentally studied. The water tank is attached to a structure to suppress the horizontal vibrations of the structure caused by a sinusoidal excitation. In the theoretical analysis, considering the only source of non-linearity of the liquid inertia to be due to a large

T. Ikeda; N. Nakagawa

1997-01-01

117

Improved fuzzy control method for temperature in water tank of intelligent viscometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy and stability of temperature in water tank of viscometer is one of the key factors of fluid viscosity measurement. An improved fuzzy control (IFC) method with PWM control for water tank temperature is proposed, which combines basic fuzzy control, improved Bang-Bang control with human-simulated intelligent control (HSIC), and is implemented by DSP, When the temperature error e between

Haijun Lin; Zhaosheng Teng; Tao Chen; Shengjie Yang; Hongchuan Zhang; Hai Chi

2008-01-01

118

Stirring system for radioactive waste water storage tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stirring system for 100-m[sup 3] radioactive liquid waste tanks was constructed to unify radioactive concentrations in the tank. The stirring system is effective in certifying that the radioactive concentrations in the tanks are less than the legal limits before they are drained away as waste liquid. This system is composed of discharge units, pipe lines, and a controller. The

Yoshimune Ogata; Kunihide Nishizawa

1999-01-01

119

Melton Valley Storage Tanks Capacity Increase Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and maintain additional storage capacity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW). New capacity would be provided by a facility partitioned into six individual tank vaults containing one 100,000 gallon LLLW storage tank each. The storage tanks would be located within the existing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility. This action would require the extension of a potable water line approximately one mile from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) area to the proposed site to provide the necessary potable water for the facility including fire protection. Alternatives considered include no-action, cease generation, storage at other ORR storage facilities, source treatment, pretreatment, and storage at other DOE facilities.

NONE

1995-04-01

120

Hydrogen Tank Project Q2 Report - FY 11  

SciTech Connect

Quarterly report that represents PNNL's results of HDPE, LDPE, and industrial polymer materials testing. ASTM D638 type 3 samples were subjected to a high pressure hydrogen environment between 3000 and 4000 PSI. These samples were tested using an instron load frame and were analyzed using a proprietary set of excel macros to determine trends in data. The development of an in-situ high pressure hydrogen tensile testing apparatus is discussed as is the stress modeling of the carbon fiber tank exterior.

Johnson, Kenneth I.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Skorski, Daniel C.; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kafentzis, Tyler A.; Dahl, Michael E.; Pitman, Stan G.

2011-05-15

121

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-A-103: Results from samples collected on November 9, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-A-103 (Tank A-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5073. Samples were collected by WHC on November 9, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B. [and others

1996-06-01

122

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-BX-107: Results from samples collected on November 17, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-107 (Tank BX-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5080. Samples were collected by WHC on November 17, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Pool, K.H. [and others

1996-06-01

123

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-SX-109: Results from samples collected on August 1, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-109 (Tank SX-109) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5048. Samples were collected by WHC on August 1, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C. [and others

1996-05-01

124

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-SX-105: Results from samples collected on July 26, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-105 (Tank SX-105) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5047. Samples were collected by WHC on July 26, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C. [and others

1996-05-01

125

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-SX-104: Results from samples collected on July 25, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-104 (Tank SX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5049. Samples were collected by WHC on July 25, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

Thomas, B.L.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C. [and others

1996-05-01

126

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank AX-103: Results from samples collected on June 21, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-AX-103 (Tank AX-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5029. Samples were collected by WHC on June 21, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W. [and others

1996-05-01

127

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-112: Results from samples collected on July 11, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage Tank 241-S-112 (Tank S-112) at the Hanford. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5044. Samples were collected by WHC on July 11, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C. [and others

1996-05-01

128

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank SX-102: Results from samples collected on July 19, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-102 (Tank SX-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed under the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5046. Samples were collected by WHC on July 19, 1995, using the vapor sampling system (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

McVeety, B.D.; Evans, J.C.; Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H. [and others

1996-05-01

129

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-T-110: Results from samples collected on August 31, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-T-110 (Tank T-110) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5056. Samples were collected by WHC on August 31, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

McVeety, B.D.; Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C. [and others

1996-05-01

130

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-TX-111: Results from samples collected on October 12, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-TX-111 (Tank TX-111) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5069. Samples were collected by WHC on October 12, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C. [and others

1996-06-01

131

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank AX-101: Results from samples collected on June 15, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-AX-101 (Tank AX-101) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) under the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5028. Samples were collected by WHC on June 15, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D. [and others

1996-05-01

132

Experimental investigation of wake vortex in a water towing tank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wake vortex behind an aircraft would introduce great hazard to the following aircraft and threaten to the flight safety. Generic model using two rectangular airfoils was employed for generating wake vortex system to investigate the method of wake vortex alliviation. The investigation was carried out in a water towing tank equipt with Particle Image Velocimetry system. Characteristics of double-vortex flow were analyzed for selected cases, proving that the intensity of the vortex is reduced with respect to the interaction between the wake vortices. The study exhibited that the R-L instability was most effectively triggered with parameter combinations of ?1=10°, ?2=8°and b=50mm respectively. As a result, the circulation of the wake vortices was alleviated by nearly 40% accordingly.

Liu, Yue; Wang, Junwei; Liu, Zhirong; Bao, Feng

2012-10-01

133

Health Significance of Klebsiella Pneumoniae in Drinking Water Emanating from Redwood Tanks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is divided into four sections dealing with different ramifications of the presence of Klebsiella coliforms in drinking water emanating from redwood tanks. The first section documents the results of a field survey of 33 public and private water ...

R. J. Seidler

1977-01-01

134

33 CFR 165.1313 - Security zone regulations, tank ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...regulations, tank ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington...regulations, tank ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington...notice by the Captain of the Port Puget Sound. Captain of the Port...

2009-07-01

135

33 CFR 165.1313 - Security zone regulations, tank ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...regulations, tank ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington...regulations, tank ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington...notice by the Captain of the Port Puget Sound. Captain of the Port...

2010-07-01

136

Method of forming a solar collector or hot water storage tank and solar water heating apparatus using same  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention relates to a method of forming a solar collector, or absorber, panels or a heat storage tank, suitable for heating water using solar energy. It also relates to articles of manufacture so formed and to solar water heating apparatus using said articles. Three methods of forming the panel or tank from two sheets of uncured elastic material,

H. M. Anderson; M. E. Negley

1984-01-01

137

Organic corrosion inhibitors for low-carbon steel in oil-tank-farm waste waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study has been made of the protective properties of oil-soluble inhibitors IKB-2-2, IKB-4''N'', TsIZP-41, and water-soluble inhibitors IKB-4-1, IBK-4''V'', IKB-6, and IKB-8 in relation to low-carbon steel in tank farm waste waters. River waste water was taken from the settling pond of one of the tank farms in the Lower Volga region. Sea waste water was prepared by dissolving

A. S. Groisman; N. E. Khomutov

1987-01-01

138

Upgrade of 400,000 gallon water storage tank at Argonne National Laboratory-West to UCRL-15910 high hazard seismic requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Project at Argonne National Laboratory West (ANL-W), it was necessary to strengthen an existing 400,000 gallon flat-bottom water storage tank to meet UCRL-15910 (currently formulated as DOE Standard DOE-STD-1020-92, Draft) high hazard natural phenomena requirements. The tank was constructed in 1988 and preliminary calculations indicated that the existing base anchorage was insufficient

M. J. Griffin; B. G. Harris

1993-01-01

139

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT SEISMIC ANALYSIS IN SUPPORT OF INCREASED LIQUID LEVEL IN 241-AP TANK FARMS  

SciTech Connect

The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford. The "Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Project - DST Thermal and Seismic Project" is in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14.

MACKEY TC; ABBOTT FG; CARPENTER BG; RINKER MW

2007-02-16

140

Self-adaptive fuzzy PID control for three-tank water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-tank water represents a typical plant with non-linearity and large time delay. By combining the linearization method for non-linear plant, PID control structure and fuzzy control based on T-S model, the self-adaptive fuzzy PID control of the three-tank water is devised. The strategy aims at improving the control performance of the three-tank water by weighing the membership function to produce PID parameters and making parameters vary steadily with the variation of water level . Simulation results show that the control strategy proposed in this paper is correct and effective.

Ke, Zhao

2013-03-01

141

Waste Tank Organic Safety Project: Analysis of liquid samples from Hanford waste tank 241-C-103  

SciTech Connect

A suite of physical and chemical analyses has been performed in support of activities directed toward the resolution of an Unreviewed Safety Question concerning the potential for a floating organic layer in Hanford waste tank 241-C-103 to sustain a pool fire. The analysis program was the result of a Data Quality Objectives exercise conducted jointly with staff from Westinghouse Hanford Company and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The organic layer has been analyzed for flash point, organic composition including volatile organics, inorganic anions and cations, radionuclides, and other physical and chemical parameters needed for a safety assessment leading to the resolution of the Unreviewed Safety Question. The aqueous layer underlying the floating organic material was also analyzed for inorganic, organic, and radionuclide composition, as well as other physical and chemical properties. This work was conducted to PNL Quality Assurance impact level III standards (Good Laboratory Practices).

Pool, K.H.; Bean, R.M.

1994-03-01

142

Nuclear criticality project plan for the Hanford Site tank farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mission of this project is to provide a defensible technical basis report in support of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). This technical basis report will also be used to resolve technical issues associated with the nuclear criticality safety issue. The strategy presented in this project plan includes an integrated programmatic and organizational approach. The scope of this project

Bratzel; Westinghouse Hanford

1996-01-01

143

Organic Tank Safety Project: Equilibrium moisture determination task fiscal year 1997. Annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

Twenty waste storage tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site are included in the Organic Tank Watch List. The water content in the wastes plays a significant role in preventing propagating or sustainable chemical reactions, and the fuel and energetics independent safety criterion has been determined to be 20 wt % water. To ensure that the organic-bearing wastes continue to be stored safely, Duke Engineering and Services Hanford commissioned the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to investigate the effect of water partial pressure (P{sub H2O}) on the water content of organic-bearing or representative wastes. If necessary, the P{sub H2O} could be managed to maintain the water content at an acceptable level or adjust the water content back to an acceptable level. During fiscal year 1997, the effect of P{sub H2O} was tested to determine how organic-bearing wastes will respond if exposed to environmental Hanford water partial pressures or other potential water partial pressures. The samples tested were obtained from Organic Watch List Tanks, tanks that D.A. Reynolds of Lockheed Martin Hanford suspects may contain wastes having significant organic content, or wastes characteristic of organic-bearing wastes. Temperatures at or near maximum tank waste surface temperatures were used in the tests. At 26{degrees}C, the lowest temperature used, the water partial pressures used in the tests ranged from 2 to 22 torr. At 41{degrees}C, the highest temperature used, the water partial pressures used ran ed from 3.5 to 48 torr.

Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

1997-09-01

144

Test and evaluation plan for Project W-314 tank farm restoration and safe operations  

SciTech Connect

The ``Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations`` (TFRSO), Project W-314 will restore and/or upgrade existing Hanford Tank Farm facilities and systems to ensure that the Tank Farm infrastructure will be able to support near term TWRS Privatization`s waste feed delivery and disposal system and continue safe management of tank waste. The capital improvements provided by this project will increase the margin of safety for Tank Farms operations, and will aid in aligning affected Tank Farm systems with compliance requirements from applicable state, Federal, and local regulations. Secondary benefits will be realized subsequent to project completion in the form of reduced equipment down-time, reduced health and safety risks to workers, reduced operating and maintenance costs, and minimization of radioactive and/or hazardous material releases to the environment. The original regulatory (e.g., Executive Orders, WACS, CFRS, permit requirements, required engineering standards, etc.) and institutional (e.g., DOE Orders, Hanford procedures, etc.) requirements for Project W-314 were extracted from the TWRS S/RIDs during the development of the Functions and Requirements (F and Rs). The entire family of requirements were then validated for TWRS and Project W-314. This information was contained in the RDD-100 database and used to establish the original CDR. The Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team recognizes that safety, quality, and cost effectiveness in the Test and Evaluation (T and E) program is achieved through a planned systematic approach to T and E activities. It is to this end that the Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP) is created. The TEP for the TFRSO Project, was developed based on the guidance in HNF-IP-0842, and the Good Practice Guide GPG-FM-005, ``Test and Evaluation,`` which is derived from DOE Order 430.1, ``Life Cycle Asset Management.`` It describes the Test and Evaluation program for the TFRSO project starting with the definitive design phase and ending with operational testing and turn-over of the upgraded systems to Tank Farm Operations. The TEP will be updated as required to reflect the appropriate test acceptance and startup requirements to support design, construction, turnover and initial operations.

Hays, W.H.

1998-06-25

145

Comparison of biofilm formation and water quality when water from different sources was stored in large commercial water storage tanks.  

PubMed

Rain-, ground- and municipal potable water were stored in low density polyethylene storage tanks for a period of 90 days to determine the effects of long-term storage on the deterioration in the microbial quality of the water. Total viable bacteria present in the stored water and the resultant biofilms were enumerated using heterotrophic plate counts. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Colilert-18(®) tests were performed to determine if the faecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli was present in the water and in the biofilm samples collected throughout the study. The municipal potable water at the start of the study was the only water source that conformed to the South African Water Quality Guidelines for Domestic Use. After 15 days of storage, this water source had deteriorated microbiologically to levels considered unfit for human consumption. E. coli was detected in the ground- and potable water and ground- and potable biofilms periodically, whereas it was detected in the rainwater and associated biofilms at every sampling point. Imperfections in the UV resistant inner lining of the tanks were shown to be ecological niches for microbial colonisation and biofilm development. The results from the current study confirmed that long-term storage can influence water quality and increase the number of microbial cells associated with biofilms on the interior surfaces of water storage tanks. PMID:23428547

van der Merwe, Venessa; Duvenage, Stacey; Korsten, Lise

2013-03-01

146

Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Cylindrical Water Tanks in Base Isolated Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results obtained from an experimental study of two similar cylindrical water tanks, and a corresponding theoretical solution. One of the tanks was directly fixed to the earthquake simulator, the other was mounted on the base of a s...

J. M. Kelly M. S. Chalhoub

1988-01-01

147

SPERTI Control Area. Water storage tank with Well House (PER602) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SPERT-I Control Area. Water storage tank with Well House (PER-602) under construction to its right. Control Building (PER-601) in background to right of tank. Photographer: Jack L. Anderson. Date: December 20, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-3575 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

148

Initial single shell tank retrieval system project system engineering management plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This System Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) describes the Systems Engineering approach that will be used to manage the retrieval of waste from the first single shell tank farm using past practice sluicing techniques. This Project SEMP is used to supplement the requirements of the TWRS SEMP, WHC-SD-WM-SEMP-002.

Krieg; Westinghouse Hanford

1996-01-01

149

Initial single shell tank retrieval system project system engineering management plan  

SciTech Connect

This System Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) describes the Systems Engineering approach that will be used to manage the retrieval of waste from the first single shell tank farm using past practice sluicing techniques. This Project SEMP is used to supplement the requirements of the TWRS SEMP, WHC-SD-WM-SEMP-002.

Krieg, S.A., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-31

150

The California State Water Project: A Reassessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a California State water project intended to transport water from the northern half of the state to the southern half. Assesses major features of the project, explains agricultural uses of the water, identifies other project activities, and surveys problems affecting the project. Explains the stances of various environmental groups,…

Cantor, Leonard M.

1980-01-01

151

OVERVIEW OF ENHANCED HANFORD SINGLE-SHELL TANK (SST) INTEGRITY PROJECT - 12128  

SciTech Connect

To improve the understanding of the single-shell tanks integrity, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, the USDOE Hanford Site tank contractor, developed an enhanced Single-Shell Tank (SST) Integrity Project in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity, consisting of various subject matters experts in industry and academia, was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. This panel developed 33 recommendations in four main areas of interest: structural integrity, liner degradation, leak integrity and prevention, and mitigation of contamination migration, Seventeen of these recommendations were used to develop the basis for the M-45-10-1 Change Package for the Hanford Federal Agreement and Compliance Order, which is also known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The change package identified two phases of work for SST integrity. The initial phase has been focused on efforts to envelope the integrity of the tanks. The initial phase was divided into two primary areas of investigation: structural integrity and leak integrity. If necessary based on the outcome from the initial work, a second phase would be focused on further definition of the integrity of the concrete and liners. Combined these two phases are designed to support the formal integrity assessment of the Hanford SSTs in 2018 by Independent Qualified Registered Engineer. The work to further define the DOE's understanding of the structural integrity SSTs involves preparing a modern Analysis of Record using a finite element analysis program. Structural analyses of the SSTs have been conducted since 1957, but these analyses used analog calculation, less rigorous models, or focused on individual structures. As such, an integrated understanding of all of the SSTs has not been developed to modern expectations. In support of this effort, other milestones will address the visual inspection of the tank concrete and the collection of concrete core samples from the tanks for analysis of current mechanics properties. The work on the liner leak integrity has examined the leaks from 23 tanks with liner failures. Individual leak assessments are being developed for each tank to identify the leak cause and location. Also a common cause study is being performed to take the data from individual tanks to look for trends in the failure. Supporting this work is an assessment of the leak rate from tanks at both Hanford and the Savannah River Site and a new method to locate leak sites in tank liner using ionic conductivity. A separate activity is being conducted to examine the propensity for corrosion in select single shell tanks with aggressive waste layers. The work for these two main efforts will provide the basis for the phase two planning. If the margins identified aren't sufficient to ensure the integrity through the life of the mission, phase two would focus on activities to further enhance the understanding of tank integrity. Also coincident with any phase-two work would be the integrity analysis for the tanks, which would be complete in 2018. With delays in the completion of waste treatment facilities at Hanford, greater reliance on safe, continued storage of waste in the single shell tanks is increased in importance. The goal of integrity assessment would provide basis to continue SST activities till the end of the treatment mission.

VENETZ TJ; BOOMER KD; WASHENFELDER DJ; JOHNSON JB

2012-01-25

152

Project W-211, initial tank retrieval systems, retrieval control system software configuration management plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) provides the instructions for change control of the W-211 Project, Retrieval Control System (RCS) software after initial approval\\/release but prior to the transfer of custody to the waste tank operations contractor. This plan applies to the W-211 system software developed by the project, consisting of the computer human-machine interface (HMI) and programmable logic controller

1999-01-01

153

SPRINGS AND WATER TANKS ON GILA RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION IN ARIZONA  

EPA Science Inventory

This point coverage shows springs and water tanks on Gila River Indian Reservation in Arizona. This coverage was digitized off of USGS 7.5 minute quad maps by the Phoenix office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. ...

154

PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA605. SUMP TANK PUMP. COMPARE WITH ID33G247. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA-605. SUMP TANK PUMP. COMPARE WITH ID-33-G-247. INL NEGATIVE NO. 4378. Unknown Photographer, 3/5/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

155

SPRINGS AND WATER TANKS ON THE COLORADO RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION IN ARIZONA  

EPA Science Inventory

This point coverage shows springs and water tanks on Colorado River Indian Reservation in Arizona. This coverage was digitized off of USGS 7.5 minute quad maps by the Phoenix office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. ...

156

43. ARAIII Water storage tank ARA709. Camera facing northwest. Shadow ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

43. ARA-III Water storage tank ARA-709. Camera facing northwest. Shadow of ARA-611 at lower right corner of view. Ineel photo no. 3-18. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

157

Organic tank safety project: Equilibrium moisture determination task, FY 1998 annual progress report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During fiscal year 1998, PNNL investigated the effect of P(sub H(sub 2)O) at or near maximum tank waste surface temperatures on the equilibrium water content of selected Hanford waste samples. These studies were performed to determine how dry organic-bear...

R. D. Scheele P. R. Bredt R. L. Sell

1998-01-01

158

Design review report: 200 East upgrades for Project W-314, tank farm restoration and safe operations  

SciTech Connect

This Design Review Report (DRR) documents the contractor design verification methodology and records associated with project W-314`s 200 East (200E) Upgrades design package. The DRR includes the documented comments and their respective dispositions for this design. Acceptance of the comment dispositions and closure of the review comments is indicated by the signatures of the participating reviewers. Project W-314 is a project within the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Tank Waste Retrieval Program. This project provides capital upgrades for the existing Hanford tank farm waste transfer, instrumentation, ventilation, and electrical infrastructure systems. To support established TWRS programmatic objectives, the project is organized into two distinct phases. The initial focus of the project (i.e., Phase 1) is on waste transfer system upgrades needed to support the TWRS Privatization waste feed delivery system. Phase 2 of the project will provide upgrades to support resolution of regulatory compliance issues, improve tank infrastructure reliability, and reduce overall plant operating/maintenance costs. Within Phase 1 of the W-314 project, the waste transfer system upgrades are further broken down into six major packages which align with the project`s work breakdown structure. Each of these six sub-elements includes the design, procurement, and construction activities necessary to accomplish the specific tank farm upgrades contained within the package. The first design package (AN Valve Pit Upgrades) was completed in November 1997, and the associated design verification activities are documented in HNF-1893. The second design package, 200 East (200E) Upgrades, was completed in March 1998. This design package identifies modifications to existing valve pits 241-AX-B and 241-A-B, as well as several new waste transfer pipelines to be constructed within the A Farm Complex of the 200E Area. The scope of the valve pit modifications includes new pit cover blocks, valve manifolds, leak detectors, and special protective coatings similar to those previously approved for the AN Valve Pit Upgrades design package. The new transfer lines included in this package (with official line number designations) are described within.

Boes, K.A.

1998-04-15

159

OVERVIEW OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL AND RELATIONSHIP TO WATER TANK,LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERVIEW OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL AND RELATIONSHIP TO WATER TANK,LOOKING NORTH FROM MAIN ACCESS ROAD. THIS IS HOW THE TERMINAL AND MILL SITE FIRST APPEAR TO VISITORS WHEN APPROACHING FROM THE ROAD FROM THE SITE'S PARKING LOT. THIS IS CONSIDERED THE FRONT END OF THE TERMINAL. ORIGINALLY THERE WAS A SECOND WATER TANK NEAR THE ONE IN UPPER LEFT. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

160

Minutes of the Tank Waste Science Panel meeting, November 11--13, 1991. Hanford Tank Safety Project  

SciTech Connect

The sixth meeting of the Tank Waste Science Panel was held November 11--13, 1991, in Pasco and Richland, Washington. Participating scientists presented the results of recent work on various aspects of issues relating to the generation and release of gases from Tank 241-SY-101 and the presence of ferrocyanide in other tanks at Hanford. Results are discussed.

Strachan, D.M. [comp.

1992-04-01

161

Modeling of thermal processes for internal melt ice-on-coil tank including ice-water density difference  

Microsoft Academic Search

The internal melt ice-on-coil tank with horizontal tubes is used widely for thermal storage. Its discharge process is greatly affected by the ice-water density different. The existing models developed for internal melt ice-on-coil tanks are concentric cylinder models which are applicable to tanks with vertical tubes or when all the water in the tank is frozen, but they do not

Yingxin Zhu; Yan Zhang

2001-01-01

162

TANK 241-AN-102 MULTI-PROBE CORROSION MONITORING SYSTEM PROJECT LESSONS LEARNED  

SciTech Connect

During 2007 and 2008, a new Multi-Probe Corrosion Monitoring System (MPCMS) was designed and fabricated for use in double-shell tank 241-AN-102. The system was successfully installed in the tank on May 1, 2008. The 241-AN-102 MPCMS consists of one 'fixed' in-tank probe containing primary and secondary reference electrodes, tank material electrodes, Electrical Resistance (ER) sensors, and stressed and unstressed corrosion coupons. In addition to the fixed probe, the 241-AN-102 MPCMS also contains four standalone coupon racks, or 'removable' probes. Each rack contains stressed and unstressed coupons made of American Society of Testing and Materials A537 CL1 steel, heat-treated to closely match the chemical and mechanical characteristics of the 241-AN-102 tank wall. These coupon racks can be removed periodically to facilitate examination of the attached coupons for corrosion damage. Along the way to successful system deployment and operation, the system design, fabrication, and testing activities presented a number of challenges. This document discusses these challenges and lessons learned, which when applied to future efforts, should improve overall project efficiency.

TAYLOR T; HAGENSEN A; KIRCH NW

2008-07-07

163

EMSP Project 70070: Reactivity of Primary Soil Minerals and Secondary Precipitates Beneath Leaking Hanford Waste Tanks - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Since the late 1950s, leaks from 67 single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site have released about 1 million curies to the underlying sediments. The radioactive material was contained in water-based solutions generally characterized as having high pH values (basic solutions), high nitrate and nitrite concentrations, and high aluminum concentrations. The solutions were also hot, in some cases at or near boiling, as well as complex and highly variable in composition reflecting solutions obtained from multiple methods of reprocessing spent nuclear fuel. In order to understand the observed and probable distribution of radionuclides in the ground at Hanford, major reactions that likely occurred between the leaked fluids and the sediment minerals were investigated in laboratory experiments simulating environmental conditions. Reactions involving the dissolution of quartz and biotite and the simultaneous formation of new minerals were quantified at controlled pH values and temperature. Result s show that the dissolution of quartz and formation of new zeolite-like minerals could have altered the flow path of ground water and contaminant plumes and provided an uptake mechanism for positively-charged soluble radionuclides, such as cesium. The dissolution of biotite, a layered-iron-aluminum-silicate mineral, provided iron in a reduced form that could have reacted with negatively-charged soluble chromium, a toxic component of the wastes, to cause its reduction and precipitation as a new reduced-chromium mineral. The quantity of iron released in the experiments is sufficient to explain observations of reductions in dissolved chromium concentration in a plume beneath one Hanford tank. Fundamental data obtained in the project are the rates of the reactions at variable temperatures and pHs. Fundamental data were also obtained on aspects of the surface reactivity of clay or layered-silicate minerals, a small proportion of the total mass of the sediment minerals, but a large proportion of the number of sites where reactions can occur. Results were also finalized on a component of a previous project related to the Hanford waste tanks that had the goal of measuring the incorporation of rhenium, an analogue of radioactive technetium, in iron and aluminum-oxides minerals as they aged in tank sludges at higher temperatures. Small amounts of rhenium were occluded in the iron-rich solids and the amount increased with aging time. Results from the quartz and biotite experiments are in a form that can be used in models of fluid flow in the Hanford subsurface. Results from the rhenium experiments can be used to understand aspects of closing certain of the Hanford tanks.

Kathryn L. Nagy

2004-04-22

164

Building Rain Water Tanks and Building Skills: A Case Study of a Women's Organization in Uganda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Water collection in rural areas of Uganda is left primarily to women and children. Katosi Women Development Trust, an NGO based in rural Uganda has focused on addressing the gender-linked issue of increased water sources near the home through the construction of rain water collection tanks. In an effort to improve the income of members as well as…

Payne, Deborah; Nakato, Margaret; Nabalango, Caroline

2008-01-01

165

Modeling water retention of sludge simulants and actual saltcake tank wastes  

SciTech Connect

The Ferrocyanide Tanks Safety Program managed by Westinghouse hanford Company has been concerned with the potential combustion hazard of dry tank wastes containing ferrocyanide chemical in combination with nitrate salts. Pervious studies have shown that tank waste containing greater than 20 percent of weight as water could not be accidentally ignited. Moreover, a sustained combustion could not be propagated in such a wet waste even if it contained enough ferrocyanide to burn. Because moisture content is a key critical factor determining the safety of ferrocyanide-containing tank wastes, physical modeling was performed by Pacific Northwest National laboratory to evaluate the moisture-retaining behavior of typical tank wastes. The physical modeling reported here has quantified the mechanisms by which two main types of tank waste, sludge and saltcake, retain moisture in a tank profile under static conditions. Static conditions usually prevail after a tank profile has been stabilized by pumping out any excess interstitial liquid, which is not naturally retained by the waste as a result of physical forces such as capillarity.

Simmons, C.S.

1996-07-01

166

The global water systems project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Water System (GWS) plays a central and integrative role in the dynamics of the Earth system. It is a regulator of biogeophysical and biogeochemical processes, and it is also is essential for sustenance of human societies. The GWS is increasingly modified by humans and through climate effects (facets of it have moved well outside the range of natural variability), without adequate understanding of how the system works. For understanding the changes, feedbacks and potentially critical thresholds within the Earth system, and eventually for better managing the GWS, new synthetic knowledge is required. The Global Water System Project (GWSP) is a new activity being undertaken jointly by the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), International Geophshere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), International Human Dimensions Program (IHP), and Diversitas. It will address the GWS in a comprehensive fashion at the global scale, building upon the emerging new consolidated Earth systems data sets, global monitoring tools, and predictive and coupled modeling capabilities. The central scientific question that motivates the GWSP is: "How are humans changing the global water cycle, the associated biogeochemical cycles, and the biological components of the GWS, and what are the social feedbacks arising from these changes?" GWSP will be structured around three "framing questions": a) What are the relative magnitudes of global-scale changes in the global water system that are attributable to changing human activities, and to environmental factors such as climate variability and change?; b) What are the main mechanisms by which human activities are affecting the global water system; and c) To what extent is the global water system resilient to global change? Examples of issues that might be addressed under each of these questions are provided.

Hoff, H.; Jaeger, C.; Leveque, C.; Lettenmaier, D.; Lins, H.; Meybeck, M.; Niasse, M.; Vorosmarty, C.

2003-04-01

167

Implementation Plan for Tank Farm Transition Projects Suspect and Counterfeit Items  

SciTech Connect

This plan is designed to provide an appropriate level of confidence that Tank Farm Transition Projects (TFTP) facilities will be evaluated to assess the presence of suspect/counterfeit items. It is intended to identify suspect/counterfeit items that are presently in inventory and provide for the reporting and disposition of those items. Items which have been installed will also receive appropriate evaluation using a graded approach to achieve optimum results balanced against safety considerations and cost effectiveness.

TRUE, R.R.

2000-03-16

168

Cesium uptake capacity of simulated ferrocyanide tank waste. Interim report FY 1994, Ferrocyanide Safety Project  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to determine the capacity for {sup 137}CS uptake by mixed metal ferrocyanides present in Hanford waste tanks, and to assess the potential for aggregation of these {sup 137}CS exchanged materials to form tank ``hot-spots.`` This research, performed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), stems from concerns of possible localized radiolytic heating within the tanks. If radioactive cesium is exchanged and concentrated by the remaining nickel ferrocyanide present in the tanks, this heating could cause temperatures to rise above the safety limits specified for the ferrocyanide tanks. For the purposes of this study, two simulants, In-Farm-2 and U-Plant-2, were chosen to represent the wastes generated by the scavenging processes. These simulants were formulated using protocols from the original cesium scavenging campaign. Later additions of cesium-rich wastes from various processes also were considered. The simulants were prepared and centrifuged to obtain a moist ferrocyanide sludge. The centrifuged sludges were treated with the original supernate spiked with a known amount of cesium nitrate. After analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry, distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) were calculated. The capacity of solid waste simulants to exchange radioactive cesium from solution was examined. Initial results showed that the greater the molar ratio of cesium to cesium nickel ferrocyanide, the less effective the exchange of cesium from solution. The theoretical capacity of 2 mol cesium per mol of nickel ferrocyanide was not observed. The maximum capacity under experimental conditions was 0.35 mol cesium per mol nickel ferrocyanide. Future work on this project will examine the layering tendency of the cesium nickel ferrocyanide species.

Burgeson, I.E.; Bryan, S.A.; Burger, L.E.

1994-09-01

169

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT INCREASED LIQUID LEVEL ANALYSIS FOR 241-AP TANK FARMS  

SciTech Connect

The essential difference between Revision 1 and the original issue of this report is the analysis of the anchor bolts that tie the steel dome of the primary tank to the concrete tank dome. The reevaluation of the AP anchor bolts showed that (for a given temperature increase) the anchor shear load distribution did not change significantly from the initially higher stiffness to the new secant shear stiffness. Therefore, the forces and displacements of the other tank components such as the primary tanks stresses, secondary liner strains, and concrete tank forces and moments also did not change significantly. Consequently, the revised work in Revision 1 focused on the changes in the anchor bolt responses and a full reevaluation of all tank components was judged to be unnecessary.

TC MACKEY; JE DEIBLER; MW RINKER; KI JOHNSON; SP PILLI; NK KARRI; FG ABATT; KL STOOPS

2009-01-14

170

Contingency plan for the Old Hydrofracture Facility tanks sluicing project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), plans to begin a sluicing (flushing) and pumping project to remove the contents from five inactive, underground storage tanks at the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The tank contents will be transferred to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks, which are part of the active waste treatment system at ORNL. The purpose of the project is to minimize the risk of leaking the highly radioactive material to the environment. The five OHF tanks each contain a layer of sludge and a layer of supernatant. Based on a sampling project undertaken in 1995, the sludge in the tanks has been characterized as transuranic and mixed waste and the supernatants have been characterized as mixed waste. The combined radioactivity of the contents of the five tanks is approximately 29,500 Ci. This contingency plan is based on the preliminary design for the project and describes a series of potential accident/release scenarios for the project. It outlines Energy Systems` preliminary plans for prevention, detection, and mitigation. Prevention/detection methods range from using doubly contained pipelines to alarmed sensors and automatic pump cutoff systems. Plans for mitigation range from pumping leaked fluids from the built-in tank drainage systems and cleaning up spilled liquids to personnel evacuation.

NONE

1996-10-01

171

Drinking water quality assessment of rain water harvested in ferrocement tanks in Alappuzha District, Kerala (India).  

PubMed

The study was conducted to assess the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of stored rain water in the ferrocement tanks of Alappuzha District, Kerala (India). Representative water samples were collected on random basis from ten stations (S1 to S10) with rain water harvesting facility during the periods January 2006 and April 2006. The present study revealed that the physico-chemical characteristics of stored rain water analysed during the winter and summer seasons were within the permissible drinking water standard limits prescribed by W.H.O. Microbiological analysis showed that most of the stored rainwater samples had microbial contamination in both winter and summer seasons and the bacterial count was above the permissible standards for drinking water. Faecal coliforms were also detected in the stored rain water samples collected from eight stations during the summer season. The present study revealed that the quality of stored rain water is suitable for drinking purpose in terms of physical and chemical characteristics. However, disinfection is necessary to make the water microbially safe for drinking purposes. PMID:19295094

Varghese, Jainy; Jaya, D S

2008-04-01

172

The effectiveness of a magnetic physical water treatment device on scaling in domestic hot-water storage tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the effectiveness of a permanent magnet for the prevention of scale was investigated. Experiments were conducted on two electrically heated domestic hot-water storage tanks. Ten experiments were conducted, each over a period of 28 d in which 8 000 l of water was heated to 75°C, while the quality of the feed water and mass precipitation of

C Smith; PP Coetzee

173

Releases from the cooling water system in the Waste Tank Farm  

SciTech Connect

On September 12, 1991, a cooling-water header broke in the H-Area Waste Tank farm, at the Savannah River Site, releasing contaminated water down a storm sewer that drains to the creek. A copy of the Occurrence Report is attached. As part of the follow-up on this incident, the NPSR Section was asked by Waste Management Technology to perform a probabilistic analysis of the following cases: (1) A large break in the header combined with a large break in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (2) A large break in the header combined with a leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (3) A large break in the header combined with a very small leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. This report documents the results of the analysis of these cases.

Perkins, W.C.; Lux, C.R.

1991-12-31

174

Releases from the cooling water system in the Waste Tank Farm  

SciTech Connect

On September 12, 1991, a cooling-water header broke in the H-Area Waste Tank farm, at the Savannah River Site, releasing contaminated water down a storm sewer that drains to the creek. A copy of the Occurrence Report is attached. As part of the follow-up on this incident, the NPSR Section was asked by Waste Management Technology to perform a probabilistic analysis of the following cases: (1) A large break in the header combined with a large break in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (2) A large break in the header combined with a leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (3) A large break in the header combined with a very small leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. This report documents the results of the analysis of these cases.

Perkins, W.C.; Lux, C.R.

1991-01-01

175

Water quality index to determine the surface water quality of Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake, Bangalore urban district, Karnataka, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work aims at assessing the water quality index (WQI) in the surface water of Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake situated in Bangalore Urban district by monitoring three sampling locations within Sankey tank (viz., A, B and C) and Mallathahalli lake (viz., Inlet, Centre and outlet) for a period of 3 months from March to May 2012. The surface water samples were subjected to comprehensive physico-chemical analysis involving major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Fe2+), anions (HCO3 -, Cl-, SO4 2-, NO3 -, F-, PO4 3-) besides general parameters (pH, EC, TDS, alkalinity, total hardness, DO, BOD, COD, CO2, SiO2, colour, turbidity). For calculating the WQI, 14 parameters namely, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, fluorides and iron were considered. SAR values indicated that both Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake waters are excellent (S1) for irrigation, while electrical conductivity values classified these lake water, respectively under medium salinity (C2) and high (C3) salinity category. Correlation between SAR and electrical conductivity revealed that Sankey tank water is C2S1 (medium salinity-low sodium) type while Mallathahalli lake water is C3S1 (high salinity-low sodium) type. Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake water were, respectively hard and very hard in nature. Further, it is apparent from WQI values that Sankey tank water belongs to good water class with WQI values ranging from 50.34 to 63.38. The Mallathahalli lake water with WQI value ranging from 111.69 to 137.09, fall under poor water category.

Ravikumar, P.; Aneesul Mehmood, Mohammad; Somashekar, R. K.

2013-03-01

176

Experimental studies on a solar powered air conditioning system with partitioned hot water storage tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the performance of a solar powered absorption air conditioning system with a partitioned hot water storage tank. The system employs a flat-plate collector array with a surface area of 38 m2 to drive a LiBr–H2O absorption chiller of 4.7 kW cooling capacity. The system is provided with a storage tank (2.75 m3) which is partitioned into

Z. F Li; K Sumathy

2001-01-01

177

124. ARAI Reservoir (ARA727), later named water storage tank. Shows ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

124. ARA-I Reservoir (ARA-727), later named water storage tank. Shows plan of 100,000-gallon tank, elevation, image of "danger radiation hazard" sign, and other details. Norman Engineering Company 961-area/SF-727-S-1. Date: January 1959. Ineel index code no. 068-0727-60-613-102779. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

178

SEPTIC TANK DISPOSAL SYSTEMS AS PHOSPHORUS SOURCES FOR SURFACE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

A 4-year groundwater monitoring study was conducted in the immediate vicinity of an active septic tank wastewater disposal system in the sandy substrate in Burnett County of northwestern Wisconsin to determine the potential for this method of wastewater disposal to contribute to ...

179

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT DYTRAN ANALYSIS OF SEISMICALLY INDUCED FLUID STRUCTURE INTERACTION IN A HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL PRIMARY TANK  

SciTech Connect

M&D Professional Services, Inc. (M&D) is under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to perform seismic analysis of the Hanford Site Double-Shell Tanks (DSTs) in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank (DSV Integrity Project-DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses)''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14. The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The overall seismic analysis of the DSTs is being performed with the general-purpose finite element code ANSYS'. The global model used for the seismic analysis of the DSTs includes the DST structure, the contained waste, and the surrounding soil. The seismic analysis of the DSTs must address the fluid-structure interaction behavior and sloshing response of the primary tank and contained liquid. ANSYS has demonstrated capabilities for structural analysis, but has more limited capabilities for fluid-structure interaction analysis. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the capabilities and investigate the limitations of the finite element code MSC.Dytranz for performing a dynamic fluid-structure interaction analysis of the primary tank and contained waste. To this end, the Dytran solutions are benchmarked against theoretical solutions appearing in BNL 1995, when such theoretical solutions exist. When theoretical solutions were not available, comparisons were made to theoretical solutions to similar problems, and to the results from ANSYS simulations. Both rigid tank and flexible tank configurations were analyzed with Dytran. The response parameters of interest that are evaluated in this study are the total hydrodynamic reaction forces, the impulsive and convective mode frequencies, the waste pressures, and slosh heights. To a limited extent, primary tank stresses are also reported. The capabilities and limitations of ANSYS for performing a fluid-structure interaction analysis of the primary tank and contained waste were explored in a parallel investigation and documented in a companion report (Carpenter and Abatt [2006]). The results of this study were used in conjunction with the results of the global ANSYS analysis reported in Carpenter et al. (2006) and the parallel ANSYS fluid-structure interaction analysis to help determine if a more refined sub-model of the primary tank is necessary to capture the important fluid-structure interaction effects in the tank and if so, how to best utilize a refined sub-model of the primary tank. The results of this study demonstrate that Dytran has the capability to perform fluid-structure interaction analysis of a primary tank subjected to seismic loading. With the exception of some isolated peak pressures and to a lesser extent peak stresses, the results agreed very well with theoretical solutions. The benchmarking study documented in Carpenter and Abatt (2006) showed that the ANSYS model used in that study captured much of the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) behavior, but did have limitations for predicting the convective response of the waste. While Dytran appears to have stronger capabilities for the analysis of the FSI behavior in the primary tank, it is more practical to use ANSYS for the global evaluation of the tank. Thus, Dytran served the purpose of helping to identify limitations in the ANSYS FSI analysis so that those limitations can be addressed in the structural evaluation of the primary tank.

MACKEY, T.C.

2006-03-14

180

Fire hazard analysis for Project W-320 Tank 241-C-106 waste retrieval  

SciTech Connect

This Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) for Project W-320, `Tank 241-C-106 Waste Retrieval` addresses fire hazards or fire related concerns in accordance with DOE 5480.7A (DOE 1998), resulting from or related to the processes and equipment to be installed or modified under Project W-320 to ensure that there are no undue fire hazards to site personnel and the public; the potential for the occurrence of a fire is minimized, process control and safety systems are not damaged by fire or related perils; and property damage from fire and related perils does not exceed an acceptable level.

Conner, J.C.

1995-09-12

181

Project management plan for the gunite and associated tanks treatability studies project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Treatability Studies Project satisfies the requirements of the program management plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program as established in the Program Management Plan for the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory Site Environmental Restoration Program. This plan is a subtier of several other ER documents designed to satisfy the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4700.1 requirement for major systems acquisitions. This project management plan identifies the major activities of the GAAT Treatability Studies Project; establishes performance criteria; discusses the roles and responsibilities of the organizations that will perform the work; and summarizes the work breakdown structure, schedule, milestones, and cost estimate for the project.

NONE

1995-12-01

182

Combination of Tank Model and Reservoir Routing for predicting water level at Wonogiri Dam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water level predicting model is one of model to support the reservoir operation. This paper, discusses the results of research on the use of tank model combined with reservoir routing to predict the water level of Wonogiri Dam. Tank model was constructed consisting of 2 tank model structured the series, parallel, and parallel-series and 3 models composed tank series and parallel. The objective of this modeling is to obtain the values of tank model parameters are calibrated with measurement data to predict the reservoir water level. Water level measurement at Wonogiri Dam is only done in spillway location and no water level measurement in the cross-section of the rivers before entering the reservoir. Therefore, combining equations of tanks model and reservoir routing is needed so that the hydrograph outflow generated by the tank model become an input of the routing reservoir and will produce an output of the reservoir water level. The data used in this modeling is the daily rainfall data, climatology, elevation-storage curve, daily average water level in reservoir and daily average discharge outflow from reservoir. Genetic Algorithm is used to optimize the parameters of the model to generate predictions of water level close to the measurement during the calibration process. The results of the model are evaluated by calculating the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Coefficient of Efficiency (COE) between the predictions and observations. Calibration results obtained that the best model is the model of the architecture comprises a series of 3 tanks and the parameters k1 = 8,340, k2 = 1.006, k3 = 0.158, k4 = 2.275, k5 = 3.887, k6 = 0.063, d1 = 176.387, d2 = 81.445, d3 = 21.973, s1 = 46.631, s2 = 7.095 , s3 = 5.708, which generate RMSE = 1.260 m and COE = 0.669. While the verification, is obtained the RMSE = 0.878 m and COE = 0.599. The parameter of k4 is the most sensitive parameter that will affect to the performance of the model. Keywords: tank model, reservoir routing, water level predicting, Wonogiri Dam

Lasminto, Umboro; Yudhistira, Yuddi

2010-05-01

183

Waste Characterization Plan for the Hanford Site single-shell tanks. Appendix D, Quality Assurance Project Plan for characterization of single-shell tanks: Revision 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

This section of the single-shell tank (SST) Waste Characterization Plan describes the quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA) procedures and information used to support data that is collected in the characterization of SST wastes. The section addresses many of the same topics discussed in laboratory QA project plans (QAPjP) (WHC 1989, PNL 1989) and is responsive to the requirements

J. G. Hill; W. I. Winters; B. C. Simpson; J. W. Buck; P. J. Chamberlain; V. L. Hunter

1991-01-01

184

Minutes of the Tank Waste Science Panel meeting July 9--1, 1991. Hanford Tank Safety Project  

SciTech Connect

The fifth meeting of the Tank Waste Science Panel was held July 9--11, 1991, in Atlanta, Georgia. The subject areas included the generation, retention, and release of gases from Tank 241-SY-101 and the chemistry of ferrocyanide wastes.

Strachan, D.M. [comp.

1992-04-01

185

Central Arizona Project, (Irrigation Water and Water Supplies).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The statement concerns a project to furnish irrigation water and municipal water supplies to the water-deficient areas of Arizona (particularly Yuma, Maricopa, Pinal, Pima, and Cochise Counties) and western New Mexico (particularly Grant County) through d...

1971-01-01

186

Environmental management of water projects  

SciTech Connect

This book is divided in three parts and contains the following: PART I: ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTS. Environmental conditions for water resource projects. Characteristics of some large scale reservoirs. Biological parameters of the TVA Eurasian watermilfoil management program. Ecological parameters influencing aquatic plant growth. Biological parameters influencing growth and reproduction of hydrilla. PART II: EVALUATION OF SELECTED AQUATIC HERBICIDES. Technical review of the factors affecting 2,4-D for aquatic use. Technical review of the factors affecting endothall for aquatic use. Technical review of factors affecting diquat for aquatic use. Technical review of the factors affecting use of dicamba. Technical review of the factors affecting aquatic use of dichlobenil. PART III: EVALUATION OF VEGETATION MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS. Strategies for aquatic vegetation management. (A) conversion of factors for U.S. and metric units. (B) Glossary of terms. Index.

Gangstad, E.O.; Stanley, R.A.

1987-01-01

187

Spectral properties of the Peregrine soliton observed in a water wave tank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Peregrine soliton, which is commonly considered to be a prototype of a rogue wave in deep water, is observed and measured in a wave tank. Using the measured data of water elevation, we calculated the spectra of the Peregrine soliton and confirmed that they have triangular shapes, in accordance with the theory.

Chabchoub, A.; Neumann, S.; Hoffmann, N. P.; Akhmediev, N.

2012-11-01

188

Pollution of ground water by nutrients and fecal coliforms from lakeshore septic tank systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fate of wastewater effluents discharged from 17 septic tank disposal systems located near the shores of eight lakes in northeastern and eastern New York State was investigated. Fecal coliforms chloride, conductivity, dissolved 02, phosphate and various forms of N in ground water samples were analyzed. Of 46 ground water samples, 23 were found to be highly contaminated and 16

Min Chen

1988-01-01

189

Low flow water quality in rivers; septic tank systems and high-resolution phosphorus signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural point sources of phosphorus (P), including septic tank systems, provide a small part of the overall phosphorus budget to surface waters in agricultural catchments but can have a disproportionate impact on the low flow P concentration of receiving rivers. This has particular importance as the discharges are approximately constant into receiving waters and these have restricted dilution capacity during

K. A. Macintosh; P. Jordan; R. Cassidy; J. Arnscheidt; C. Ward

190

A Novel Semi-Passive Actuator for Drinking Water Tank Washer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present paper is to develop an innovative washer for washing the accumulated sewage inside drinking water tank. This new washer was composed of a semi-passive control actuator and electronic control module. Many outstanding characteristics such as easy installation, cheap, water-saving and friendly associated with this new washer. Especially, it was able to continue to supply pure

Chieh-Tsung Chi

2008-01-01

191

Condenser-Tank Interaction in a Heat Pump Water Heater with a Wrap around Condenser  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study was conducted to determine the overall heat transfer coefficient of a wrap around coil condenser soldered to the exterior surface of a water tank in a heat pump water heater (HPWH). The experimental data showed that the heat transfer coefficient did not significantly vary during the heat pump's operation. Numerical and computational fluid dynamics models were developed

T. N. Anderson; G. L. Morrison

192

The characteristics of the thermal energy storage in a two-compartment water tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water storage tank consisting of two equal compartments of 35.56 cm i.d. and 50.8 cm height, used in a solar water-heating system, was designed and manufactured. The lower compartment, which contained the cold water inlet, was in a loop with a solar energy collector. The upper compartment, from which hot water could be drawn, was connected to the top

Sui Lin; C. C. K. Kwok; J. C. Y. Wang

1984-01-01

193

Localized weld metal corrosion in stainless steel water tanks  

SciTech Connect

The rapidly developed leaks within the TFC and TFD tanks (LLNL groundwater treatment facilities) were caused by localized corrosion within the resolidified weld metal. The corrosion was initiated by the severe oxidation of the backsides of the welds which left the exposed surfaces in a condition highly susceptible to aqueous corrosion. The propagation of surface corrosion through the thickness of the welds occurred by localized corrosive attack. This localized attack was promoted by the presence of shielded aqueous environments provided by crevices at the root of the partial penetration welds. In addition to rapid corrosion of oxidized surfaces, calcium carbonate precipitation provided an additional source of physical shielding from the bulk tank environment. Qualification testing of alternate weld procedures showed that corrosion damage can be prevented in 304L stainless steel GTA welds by welding from both sides while preventing oxidation of the tank interior through the use of an inert backing gas such as argon. Corrosion resistance was also satisfactory in GMA welds in which oxidized surfaces were postweld cleaned by wire brushing and chemically passivated in nitric acid. Further improvements in corrosion resistance are expected from a Mo-containing grade of stainless steel such as type 316L, although test results were similar for type 304L sheet welded with type 308L filler metal and type 316L sheet welded with type 316L filler metal.

Strum, M.J.

1995-05-25

194

Organic tank safety project: Equilibrium moisture determination task, FY 1998 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

During fiscal year 1998, PNNL investigated the effect of P{sub H{sub 2}O} at or near maximum tank waste surface temperatures on the equilibrium water content of selected Hanford waste samples. These studies were performed to determine how dry organic-bearing wastes will become if exposed to environmental Hanford water partial pressures. The samples tested were obtained from Organic Watch List Tanks. At 26 C, the lowest temperature used, the water partial pressures ranged from 2 to 22 torr. At 41 C, the highest temperature used, the water partial pressures ranged from 3.5 to 48 torr. When the aliquots exposed to the lowest and highest water partial pressures reached their equilibrium or near-equilibrium water contents, they were exchanged to determine if hysteresis occurred. In some experiments, once equilibrated, aliquots not used in the hysteresis experiments were allowed to equilibrate at room temperature (23 C) until the hysteresis experiments ended; this provides a measure of the effect of temperature.

Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

1998-08-01

195

Water washes and caustic leaches of sludge from Hanford Tank S-101 and water washes of sludge from Hanford Tank C-103  

SciTech Connect

In 1993, the Department of Energy (DOE) selected the enhanced sludge washing (ESW) process as the baseline for pretreatment of Hanford tank sludges. The ESW process uses a series of water washes and caustic leaches to separate nonradioactive components such as aluminum, chromium, and phosphate from the high-level waste sludges. If the ESW process is successful, the volume of immobilized high-level waste will be significantly reduced. The tests on the sludge from Hanford Tank S-101 focused on the effects of process variables such as sodium hydroxide concentration (1 and 3 M), temperature (70 and 95 C), and leaching time (5, 24, 72, and 168 h) on the efficacy of the ESW process with realistic liquid-to-solid ratios. Another goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of water washes on a sludge sample from hanford Tank C-103. The final objective of this study was to test potential process control monitors during the water washes and caustic leaches with actual sludge. Both {sup 137}Cs activity and conductance were measured for each of the water washes and caustic leaches. Experimental procedures, a discussion of results, conclusions and recommendations are included in this report.

Hunt, R.D.; Collins, J.L.; Chase, C.W.

1998-07-01

196

Assessment of microbiological quality of drinking water from household tanks in Bermuda.  

PubMed

Bermuda residents collect rainwater from rooftops to fulfil their freshwater needs. The objective of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of drinking water in household tanks throughout Bermuda. The tanks surveyed were selected randomly from the electoral register. Governmental officers visited the selected household (n = 102) to collect water samples and administer a short questionnaire about the tank characteristics, the residents' habits in terms of water use, and general information on the water collecting system and its maintenance. At the same time, water samples were collected for analysis and total coliforms and Escherichia coli were determined by 2 methods (membrane filtration and culture on chromogenic media, Colilert kit). Results from the 2 methods were highly correlated and showed that approximately 90% of the samples analysed were contaminated with total coliforms in concentrations exceeding 10 CFU/100 mL, and approximately 66% of samples showed contamination with E. coli. Tank cleaning in the year prior to sampling seems to protect against water contamination. If rainwater collection from roofs is the most efficient mean for providing freshwater to Bermudians, it must not be considered a source of high quality drinking water because of the high levels of microbial contamination. PMID:18535637

Lévesque, B; Pereg, D; Watkinson, E; Maguire, J S; Bissonnette, L; Gingras, S; Rouja, P; Bergeron, M G; Dewailly, E

2008-06-01

197

Evaluation of Water Quality for Two St. Johns River Tributaries Receiving Septic Tank Effluent, Duval County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tributary streamflow to the St. Johns River in Duval County is thought to be affected by septic tank leachate from residential areas adjacent to these tributaries. Water managers and the city of Jacksonville have committed to infrastructure improvements as part of a management plan to address the impairment of tributary water quality. In order to provide data to evaluate the effects of future remedial activities in selected tributaries, major ion and nutrient concentrations, fecal coliform concentrations, detection of wastewater compounds, and tracking of bacterial sources were used to document septic tank influences on the water quality of selected tributaries. The tributaries Fishing Creek and South Big Fishweir Creek were selected because they drain subdivisions identified as high priority locations for septic tank phase-out projects: the Pernecia and Murray Hill B subdivisions, respectively. Population, housing (number of residences), and septic tank densities for the Murray Hill B subdivision are greater than those for the Pernecia subdivision. Water-quality samples collected in the study basins indicate influences from ground water and septic tanks. Estimated concentrations of total nitrogen ranged from 0.33 to 2.86 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and ranged from less than laboratory reporting limit (0.02 mg/L) to 0.64 mg/L for total phosphorus. Major ion concentrations met the State of Florida Class III surface-water standards; total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Ecoregion XII nutrient criteria for rivers and streams 49 and 96 percent of the time, respectively. Organic wastewater compounds detected at study sites were categorized as detergents, antioxidants and flame retardants, manufactured polycarbonate resins, industrial solvents, and mosquito repellent. The most commonly detected compound was para-nonylphenol, a breakdown product of detergent. Results of wastewater sampling give evidence that stream water in the study basins is affected by septic tank effluent. Fecal coliform bacteria concentrations were measured on a monthly basis; of 115 samples, 63 percent exceeded the State of Florida fecal coliform bacteria standard for Class III surface waters of 800 colonies per 100 milliliters of water on any 1 day. Fecal coliform bacteria concentrations ranged from less than 20 colonies per 100 milliliters of sample to greater than or equal to 160,000 colonies per 100 milliliters of sample. Antibiotic resistance patterns of fecal coliform bacteria were used to identify the sources of fecal coliform bacteria. Significant sources of fecal coliform bacteria included wild animals, dogs, and humans. A majority of the fecal coliform bacteria were classified to be from human sources. Because the primary source of fecal coliform bacteria is from human sources, and most likely septic tank effluent, management of human sources may substantially improve microbiological water quality in both the Fishing Creek and South Branch Big Fishweir Creek basins.

Wicklein, Shaun M.

2004-01-01

198

The influence of return loop flow rate on stratification in a vertical hot water storage tank connected to a heat pump water heater  

SciTech Connect

A temperature-controlled hot water heat pump was simulated using heating in a vertical, domestic hot water storage tank. The influence of the return loop flow rate on stratification was investigated experimentally. The return loop is the water line that supplies a long line of consumers with hot water, and returns colder water to the middle of the hot water storage tank. The return temperature is a function of the length of the loop, insulation, and ambient conditions. Temperatures were measured as a function of time at different vertical locations on the centerline of the storage tank. The temperature distributions in the tank were compared for different return flow rates. A return flow rate of three tank volumes per day was identified as preferable, although good results were also obtained for less than three tank volumes per day.

Meyer, J.P.; Raubenheimer, P.J.A.; Krueger, E.

2000-04-01

199

Stress corrosion cracking in alumnium alloy AFNOR 7020-T6 water tank adaptor for liquid propulsion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A torroidal shaped tank in the liquid propulsion system provides water for initial run of the turbo pump and for cooling various components. This is made of high strength aluminium alloy Al–4.5Zn–1.5Mg designated as AFNOR 7020. Pressurisation adaptors are initially shrink fitted to the openings provided in the water tank and later TIG welded circumferentially to configure the tank assembly.

Abhay K. Jha; G. Naga Shiresha; K. Sreekumar; M. C. Mittal; K. N. Ninan

2008-01-01

200

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Vapor space characterization of waste Tank A-101, Results from samples collected on June 8, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-A-101 (Tank A-101) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the results is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the text.

Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Ligotke, M.W.

1995-11-01

201

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT DYTRAN BENCHMARK ANALYSIS OF SEISMICALLY INDUCED FLUID STRUCTURE INTERACTION IN FLAT TOP TANKS  

SciTech Connect

The work reported in this document was performed in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Project - DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford. The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The work herein was motivated by review comments from a Project Review Meeting held on March 20-21, 2006. One of the recommendations from that meeting was that the effects of the interaction between the tank liquid and the roof be further studied (Rinker, Deibler, Johnson, Karri, Pilli, Abatt, Carpenter, and Hendrix - Appendix E of RPP-RPT-28968, Rev. 1). The reviewers recommended that solutions be obtained for seismic excitation of flat roof tanks containing liquid with varying headspace between the top of the liquid and the tank roof. It was recommended that the solutions be compared with simple, approximate procedures described in BNL (1995) and Malhotra (2005). This report documents the results of the requested studies and compares the predictions of Dytran simulations to the approximate procedures in BNL (1995) and Malhotra (2005) for flat roof tanks. The four cases analyzed all employed a rigid circular cylindrical flat top tank with a radius of 450 in. and a height of 500 in. The initial liquid levels in the tank were 460,480,490, and 500 in. For the given tank geometry and the selected seismic input, the maximum unconstrained slosh height of the liquid is slightly greater than 25 in. Thus, the initial liquid level of 460 in. represents an effectively roofless tank, the two intermediate liquid levels lead to intermittent interaction between the liquid and tank roof, and the 500 in. liquid level represents a completely full tank with no sloshing. Although this work was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the Hanford DSTs, the tank models in this study are for an idealized flat top configuration. Moreover, the liquid levels used in the present models are for study purposes only and are independent of the actual operating levels of the DSTs. The response parameters that are evaluated in this study are the total hydrodynamic reaction forces, the peak convective hydrodynamic forces, the fundamental convective frequencies, the liquid pressures, and peak slosh heights. The results show that the Dytran solutions agree well with the known solutions for the roofless tank and completely full tank. At the two intermediate liquid levels, there are some significant differences between the Dytran results and the approximate estimates. The results show that the estimates of peak hydrodynamic reaction forces appearing in BNL (1995) and Malhotra (2005) are reasonable and generally conservative relative to the Dytran solutions. At the 460 and 480 in. liquid levels, Dytran underestimates the convective component of the reaction force compared to the estimated in BNL (1995) and Malhotra (2005), but the convective component of the reaction force is small relative to the total reaction force. At the 490 in. liquid levels, the peak convective reaction force is more than twice as large as predicted by the approximate methods in BNL (1995) and Malhotra (2005). All three methods give similar answers for the fundamental convective frequency at the 460 and 480 in. liquid levels, but the Dytran solution indicates a significant increase in the apparent convective frequency at the 490 in. liquid level that is caused by the interaction with the roof. The peak wall pressures in the tank at the two intermediate liquid levels are essentially the same as for a roofless tank in the lower two-thirds of the tank wall, but diverge from that solution in the upper third of the tank wall. The estimates of peak wall pressures appearing in BNL (1995) are quite conservative lower in the tank, but may underestimate the peak wall pressures closer to the tank roof. Finally, the peak roof pre

MACKEY, T.C.

2007-02-16

202

Engineer/constructor description of work for Tank 241-SY-102 retrieval system, project W-211, initial tank retrieval systems  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a description of work for the design and construction of a waste retrieval system for Tank 241-SY-102. The description of work includes a working estimate and schedule, as well as a narrative description and sketches of the waste retrieval system. The working estimate and schedule are within the established baselines for the Tank 241-SY-102 retrieval system. The technical baseline is provided in Functional Design Criteria, WHC-SD-W211-FDC-001, Revision 2.

Rieck, C.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-02-01

203

Technical safety requirements for the South Tank Farm remediation project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The South Tank Farm (STF) is a series of six, 170,000-gal underground, domed storage tanks that were placed into service in 1943. The tanks were constructed of a concrete mixture known as gunite. They were used as a portion of the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) system for the collection, neutralization, storage, and transfer of the aqueous portion of the radioactive and/or hazardous chemical wastes produced as part of normal facility operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Although the last of the tanks was taken out of service in 1986, they have been shown by structural analysis to continue to be structurally sound. An attempt was made in 1983 to empty the tanks; however, removal of all the sludge from the tanks was not possible with the equipment and schedule available. Since removal of the liquid waste in 1983, liquid continues to accumulate within the tanks. The in-leakage is believed to be the result of groundwater dripping into the tanks around penetrations in the domes. The tanks are currently being maintained under a Surveillance and Maintenance Program, which includes activities such as level monitoring, vegetation control, High Efficiency Particulate Air filter leakage requirement testing/replacement, sign erection/repair, pump-out of excessive liquids, and instrument calibration/maintenance. These tanks are to undergo remediation and clean-up using sludge removal techniques and equipment planned for use in other waste storage tanks throughout the US DOE complex. The technical safety requirements are those operational requirements that specify the operating limits and surveillance requirements, the basis thereof, safety boundaries, and the management or administrative controls necessary to ensure the safe operation of the STF remediation project.

NONE

1998-05-01

204

Intracellular multiplication of Legionella pneumophila in amoebae isolated from hospital hot water tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the ability ofLegionella to multiply in potable water samples obtained from investigations of nosocomial legionellosis. AutochthonousLegionella multiplied in three of 14 hospital water samples after incubation at 35°C and 42°C. All three samples were from hot water tanks. Multiplication did not occur when a selected sample was filtered through a 0.45-µm membrane and reinoculated with indigenousLegionella. We isolated

Barry S. Fields; Gary N. Sanden; James M. Barbaree; William E. Morrill; Robert M. Wadowsky; Elizabeth H. Whites; James C. Feeley

1989-01-01

205

Tank waste remediation system privatization phase 1 infrastructure project W-519, project execution plan  

SciTech Connect

This Project Execution Plan (PEP) defines the overall strategy, objectives, and contractor management requirements for the execution phase of Project W-519 (98-D403), Privatization Phase 1 Infrastructure Support, whose mission is to effect the required Hanford site infrastructure physical changes to accommodate the Privatization Contractor facilities. This plan provides the project scope, project objectives and method of performing the work scope and achieving objectives. The plan establishes the work definitions, the cost goals, schedule constraints and roles and responsibilities for project execution. The plan also defines how the project will be controlled and documented.

Parazin, R.J.

1998-08-28

206

Tank vapor characterization project. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-BY-108: Second comparison study results from samples collected on 3/28/96  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-108 (Tank BY-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report is the second in a series comparing vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H{sub 2}O) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}), permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC.

Thomas, B.L.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C. [and others

1997-01-01

207

Tank vapor characterization project - headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-C-107: Second comparison study results from samples collected on 3/26/96  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 (Tank C-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report is the second in a series comparing vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H{sub 2}O) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}), permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC.

Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L. [and others

1997-01-01

208

Tank vapor characterization project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-102: Second comparison study results from samples collected on 04/04/96  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report is the second in a series comparing vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H{sub 2}O) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}), permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC.

Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.J. [and others

1997-01-01

209

Tank Vapor Characterization Project -- Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste Tank 241-C-107: Results from samples collected on 01/17/96  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 (Tank C-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system with and without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H{sub 2}O) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}), permanent gases, total non-methane hydrocarbons (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC.

Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

1996-07-01

210

Specific leaf areas of the tank bromeliad Guzmania monostachia perform distinct functions in response to water shortage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaves comprise most of the vegetative body of tank bromeliads and are usually subjected to strong longitudinal gradients. For instance, while the leaf base is in contact with the water accumulated in the tank, the more light-exposed middle and upper leaf sections have no direct access to this water reservoir. Therefore, the present study attempted to investigate whether different leaf

Luciano Freschi; Cassia Ayumi Takahashi; Camila Aguetoni Cambui; Thais Ribeiro Semprebom; Aline Bertinatto Cruz; Paulo Tamoso Mioto; Leonardo de Melo Versieux; Alice Calvente; Sabrina Ribeiro Latansio-Aidar; Marcos Pereira Marinho Aidar; Helenice Mercier

2010-01-01

211

Sagebrush to Cropland. A Western Water Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Boise Irrigation project begun in Idaho in the early 1900's now spreads water through 1800 miles of canals to 340,000 acres or 530 square miles. The project, one of the first large Bureau of Reclamation projects, was analyzed during the 1970s to deter...

J. Francis R. Schermerhorn

1979-01-01

212

Isolation of the Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare-M. scrofulaceum complex from tank water in Queensland, Australia.  

PubMed Central

Disease-associated serotypes of Mycobacterium intracellulare and M. avium have been isolated from 32 of 141 rainwater tanks situated in the basin of the Fitzroy River and its tributaries in central Queensland, 7 of 32 tanks situated in the hinterland of the coastal city of Rockhampton, and 2 of 32 tanks sampled repetitively in the southeastern Queensland city of Toowoomba. M. gordonae was also isolated from 23 of the river basin tanks, from 9 in the Rockhampton hinterland, and from 5 in the city of Toowoomba. One half of these isolates came from tanks which also yielded M. intracellulare. Mycobacteria of the M. terrae-M. triviale-M. nonchromogenicum complex were found in 7 tanks, usually in conjunction with M. intracellulare. The humans who consume the contaminated tank water are free of symptoms but have not been medically examined. It is suggested that mycobacteria adhering to dust particles disturbed by mechanical cultivation may be the source of contamination.

Tuffley, R E; Holbeche, J D

1980-01-01

213

Processes to improve energy efficiency during pumping and aeration of recirculating water in circular tank systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conventional gas transfer technologies for aquaculture systems occupy a large amount of space, require considerable capital investment, and can contribute to high electricity demand. In addition, diffused aeration in a circular tank can interfere with the hydrodynamics of water rotation and the spee...

214

PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA605. SUMP TANK PUMPS AND THEIR MOTORS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA-605. SUMP TANK PUMPS AND THEIR MOTORS WERE SEPARATED FROM EACH OTHER BY SHIELDED WALL. THIS IS ONE OF THE MOTORS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 4370. Unknown Photographer, 3/5/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

215

Solar collector heat exchanger or hot water storage tank and method of forming same  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar collector, or absorber, panels or a heat storage tank, suitable for heating water using solar energy is formed from two sheets of uncured elastic material, such as EPDM rubber, by simultaneously bonding and curing the peripheral edges of the two sheets and at spaced apart, discrete areas over most of the interior areas of the sheets. In one

Buckley

1985-01-01

216

Water tank studies of atmospheric boundary layer structure and air pollution transport in upslope flow systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heated mountain slopes sometimes vent air pollutants out of the boundary layer over the slope top and at other times trap pollutants in closed circulations. Field, numerical, and water tank studies of fair weather atmospheric conditions over complex terrain have shown more complicated vertical distributions of temperature, moisture, and aerosols than over horizontal terrain. To study these phenomena, we analyze

C. Reuten; D. G. Steyn; S. E. Allen

2007-01-01

217

Results from the Water Flow Test of the Tank 37 Backflush Valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flow test was conducted in the Thermal Fluids Lab with the Tank 37 Backflush Valve to determine the pressure drop of water flow through the material transfer port. The flow rate was varied from 0 to 100 gpm. The pressure drop through the Backflush Valve for flow rates of 20 and 70 gpm was determined to be 0.18 and

Fowley

2002-01-01

218

River Protection Project (RPP) Tank Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission Technical Baseline Summary Description  

SciTech Connect

This document is one of the several documents prepared by Lockheed Martin Hanford Corp. to support the U. S. Department of Energy's Tank Waste Retrieval and Disposal mission at Hanford. The Tank Waste Retrieval and Disposal mission includes the programs necessary to support tank waste retrieval; waste feed, delivery, storage, and disposal of immobilized waste; and closure of the tank farms.

DOVALLE, O.R.

1999-12-29

219

Conceptual design report for project W-457, AW tank farm monitoring and controls system  

SciTech Connect

The 241-AW Tank Farm, located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site, contains six 1.16 Mgal double-shell tanks. The tanks are used primarily for storage of waste from facilities such as PUREX and B Plant. Tanks 102-AW and 106-AW commonly are used for staging waste concentrated by the evaporator.

Mattichak, R.W.

1996-10-10

220

Laboratory Class Project: Using a Cichlid Fish Display Tank to Teach Students about Complex Behavioral Systems  

PubMed Central

Laboratory activities serve several important functions in undergraduate science education. For neuroscience majors, an important and sometimes underemphasized tool is the use of behavioral observations to help inform us about the consequences of changes that are occurring on a neuronal level. To help address this concern, the following laboratory exercise is presented. The current project tested the prediction that the most dominant fish in a tank of cichlids will have gained the most benefits of its position resulting in the greatest growth and hence, become the largest fish. More specifically: (1) is there evidence that a social hierarchy exists among the fish in our tank based on the number of aggressive acts among the four largest fish; (2) if so, does the apparent rank correspond to the size of the fish as predicted by previous studies? Focal sampling and behavior sampling of aggressive acts between fish were utilized in the data collection. Collectively, the data suggest a social dominance hierarchy may be in place with the following rank order from highest to lowest: Fish A > Fish B > Fish D > Fish C. While the largest (Fish A) seems to be at the top, Fish C ended up being ranked lower than Fish D despite the fact that Fish C is larger. Overall, the project was considered a success by the instructor and students. The students offered several suggestions that could improve future versions of this type of project, in particular concerning the process of constructing a poster about the project. The implications of the data and student learning outcomes are discussed.

Nolan, Brian C.

2010-01-01

221

The use of ultra high pressure water for installation of instrumentation in ``assumed`` leaker tanks  

SciTech Connect

A technique using ultra high pressure water, using pressures up to 259,000 kPa (gage) (37,500 psig), was developed to install thermocouple trees. The technique will enable the use of water to be decreased by up to a factor of 30, thereby reducing the potential for leaks. Although the final design is specifically to install thermocouple trees, this concept also can be used for installation of many other types of equipment into waste storage tanks.

Dukelow, G.T.; Hertelendy, N.A.

1994-02-01

222

Multidimensional modal analysis of nonlinear sloshing in a rectangular tank with finite water depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discrete infinite-dimensional modal system describing nonlinear sloshing of an incompressible fluid with irrotational flow partially occupying a tank performing an arbitrary three-dimensional motion is derived in general form. The tank has vertical walls near the free surface and overturning waves are excluded. The derivation is based on the Bateman Luke variational principle. The free surface motion and velocity potential are expanded in generalized Fourier series. The derived infinite-dimensional modal system couples generalized time-dependent coordinates of free surface elevation and the velocity potential. The procedure is not restricted by any order of smallness. The general multidimensional structure of the equations is approximated to analyse sloshing in a rectangular tank with finite water depth. The amplitude frequency response is consistent with the fifth-order steady-state solutions by Waterhouse (1994). The theory is validated by new experimental results. It is shown that transients and associated nonlinear beating are important. An initial variation of excitation periods is more important than initial conditions. The theory is invalid when either the water depth is small or water impacts heavily on the tank ceiling. Alternative expressions for hydrodynamic loads are presented. The procedure facilitates simulations of a coupled vehicle fluid system.

Faltinsen, Odd M.; Rognebakke, Olav F.; Lukovsky, Ivan A.; Timokha, Alexander N.

2000-03-01

223

Lightweight concrete materials and structural systems for water tanks for thermal storage. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Thermally efficient hot water storage tanks were designed, fabricated and evaluated. The tanks were made using cellular concrete at a nominal density of 100 lb/ft/sup 3/ for the structural elements and at a 30 lb/ft/sup 3/ density for the insulating elements. Thermal performance testing of the tanks was done using a static decay test since the test procedure specified in ASHRAE 94-77 was not experimentally practical. A series of composition modifications to the cellular concrete mix were investigated and the addition of alkaline resistant glass fibers was found to enhance the mechanical properties at no sacrifice in thermal behavior. Economic analysis indicated that cellular concrete provides a cost-effective insulating material. The total portability of the plant for producing cellular concrete makes cellular concrete amenable to on-site fabrication and uniquely adaptable to retrofit applications.

Buckman, R.W. Jr.; Elia, G.G.; Ichikawa, Y.

1980-12-01

224

33 CFR 155.370 - Bilge slops/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10,000 gross tons and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and above that carry ballast water in their fuel oil tanks. 155.370 Section...and above that carry ballast water in their fuel oil tanks. (a) No person...and above that carries ballast water in its fuel oil tanks unless it has...

2001-07-01

225

33 CFR 155.370 - Bilge slops/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10,000 gross tons and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and above that carry ballast water in their fuel oil tanks. 155.370 Section...and above that carry ballast water in their fuel oil tanks. (a) No person...and above that carries ballast water in its fuel oil tanks unless it has...

1998-07-01

226

33 CFR 155.370 - Bilge slops/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10,000 gross tons and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and above that carry ballast water in their fuel oil tanks. 155.370 Section...and above that carry ballast water in their fuel oil tanks. (a) No person...and above that carries ballast water in its fuel oil tanks unless it has...

1999-07-01

227

Preventing livestock water from freezing. Forest Service project record  

SciTech Connect

Available equipment for, and approaches to, preventing livestock water from freezing were surveyed in terms of water circulation, mass insulation, heat pipes, and solar energy. Use of insulated covers and applying insulation to the sides of stock tanks should be considered for ice-free stock water tanks. The propane bubbler seems the most simple and cost-effective freeze-prevention technique in climates that are not extreme. Photovoltaic-powered, water-circulation pumps appear to be practical and, because of their low cost, should be further investigated. Mass-insulated tanks are probably one of the simplest and most certain of the approaches presented for preventing freezing in livestock watering tanks. Heat pipes are an alternative to the propane bubbler that do not require a nonrenewable energy source. Photovoltaic cells to power an electric coil heater for freeze prevention in livestock stock tanks is impractical because of the high cost of the photovoltaic cells. Solar-heated (greenhouse effect), water-immersed, insulated tanks within a stock tank are considered excellent.

McKenzie, D.W.; Kashuba, T.J.; Waddington, D.; Leboeuf, C.M.; May, E.K.

1983-11-01

228

SINGLE-SHELL TANK INTEGRITY PROJECT ANALYSIS OF RECORD-PRELIMINARY MODELING PLAN FOR THERMAL AND OPERATING LOADS  

SciTech Connect

This document is a Phase I deliverable for the Single-Shell Tank Analysis of Record effort. This document is not the Analysis of Record. The intent of this document is to guide the Phase II detailed modeling effort. Preliminary finite element models for each of the tank types were developed and different case studies were performed on one or more of these tank types. Case studies evaluated include thermal loading, waste level variation, the sensitivity of boundary effects (soil radial extent), excavation slope or run to rise ratio, soil stratigraphic (property and layer thickness) variation at different farm locations, and concrete material property variation and their degradation under thermal loads. The preliminary analysis document reviews and preliminary modeling analysis results are reported herein. In addition, this report provides recommendations for the next phase of the SST AOR project, SST detailed modeling. Efforts and results discussed in this report do not include seismic modeling as seismic modeling is covered by a separate report. The combined results of both static and seismic models are required to complete this effort. The SST AOR project supports the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) mission for obtaining a better understanding of the structural integrity of Hanford's SSTs. The 149 SSTs, with six different geometries, have experienced a range of operating histories which would require a large number of unique analyses to fully characterize their individual structural integrity. Preliminary modeling evaluations were conducted to determine the number of analyses required for adequate bounding of each of the SST tank types in the Detailed Modeling Phase of the SST AOR Project. The preliminary modeling was conducted in conjunction with the Evaluation Criteria report, Johnson et al. (2010). Reviews of existing documents were conducted at the initial stage of preliminary modeling. These reviews guided the topics that were explored in the SST preliminary modeling. The reviews determined the level of detail necessary to perform the analyses of the SSTs. To guide the Phase II detailed modeling effort, preliminary finite element models for each of the tank types were developed and different case studies were performed on one or more of these tank types. Case studies evaluated include thermal loading, waste level variation, the sensitivity of boundary effects (soil radial extent), excavation slope or run to rise ratio, soil stratigraphic (property and layer thickness) variation at different farm locations, and concrete material property variation and their degradation under thermal loads. Conclusions were derived from case studies on one of the tank types when no additional runs of similar cases on other types of tanks were found necessary to derive those conclusions. The document reviews provided relatively complete temperature histories for Type IV tanks. The temperature history data for Type I, II, and III tanks was almost nonexistent for years prior to 1975. Document reviews indicate that there might be additional useful data in the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) records in Seattle, WA, and these records need to be reviewed to extract data that might have been disregarded during previous reviews. Thermal stress analyses were conducted using different temperature distribution scenarios on Type IV tanks. Such studies could not be carried out for other tank types due to lack of temperature history data. The results from Type IV tank analyses indicate that factors such as temperature distribution in the tank waste and rate of rise in waste temperature have a significant impact on the thermal stresses in the tank structures. Overall, the conclusion that can drawn from the thermal stress analyses is that these studies should be carried out for all tank types during the detailed analysis phase with temperature values that are reasonably close to the typical temperature histories of the respective tank types. If and/or when additional waste temperature data

RAST RS; RINKER MW; BAPANAALLI SK; DEIBLER JE; GUZMAN-LEONG CE; JOHNSON KI; KARRI NK; PILLI SP; SANBORN SE

2010-10-22

229

Tank waste remediation system year 2000 dedicated file server project HNF-3418 project plan  

SciTech Connect

The Server Project is to ensure that all TWRS supporting hardware (fileservers and workstations) will not cause a system failure because of the BIOS or Operating Systems cannot process Year 2000 dates.

SPENCER, S.G.

1999-04-26

230

SELECTED WATER DECONTAMINATION RESEARCH PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

The Water Environment Federation (WEF), through funding from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Agency's Office of Research and Development (ORD), will host the first of three regional water sector stakeholder workshops March 15-17, 2005 at the Phoenix Marriot...

231

Water quality characterisation of rainwater in tanks at different times and locations.  

PubMed

Rainwater collected from ten domestic roofs in Sydney and from one in Wollongong, a town south of Sydney, Australia was analysed to determine the water quality and to compare against the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (ADWG) to determine its suitability as a potable water supply. The pollutants analysed were 13 heavy metals, 8 salts & minerals, pH, ammonia, orthophosphate, conductivity, water hardness, turbidity, total suspended solids, Total dissolved salts & Bicarbonate. The results indicate that the rainwater tested complied to most of the parameters specified in the ADWG. Molecular weight distribution of organic matter from one of the domestic rainwater tanks was analysed in terms of the effects of aging and roof contact. Molecular weight distribution of organic matter in rainwater showed prominent peaks at 37,500 daltons may be due to biopolymers, 850 Da to humic substances, 500 Da to building blocks, 220 Da to low MW acids, and less than 220 Da to amphiphilics. The findings also indicate that the first flush volumes that by-passed the tank can have a significant influence on the water quality in the rainwater tank. PMID:20107270

Kus, B; Kandasamy, Jaya; Vigneswaran, S; Shon, H K

2010-01-01

232

Water Integration Project Science Strategies White Paper  

SciTech Connect

This white paper has been prepared to document the approach to develop strategies to address Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) science and technology needs/uncertainties to support completion of INEEL Idaho Completion Project (Environmental Management [EM]) projects against the 2012 plan. Important Idaho Completion Project remediation and clean-up projects include the 2008 OU 10-08 Record of Decision, completion of EM by 2012, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tanks, INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility, and the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. The objective of this effort was to develop prioritized operational needs and uncertainties that would assist Operations in remediation and clean-up efforts at the INEEL and develop a proposed path forward for the development of science strategies to address these prioritized needs. Fifteen needs/uncertainties were selected to develop an initial approach to science strategies. For each of the 15 needs/uncertainties, a detailed definition was developed. This included extracting information from the past interviews with Operations personnel to provide a detailed description of the need/uncertainty. For each of the 15 prioritized research and development needs, a search was performed to identify the state of the associated knowledge. The knowledge search was performed primarily evaluating ongoing research. The ongoing research reviewed included Environmental Systems Research Analysis, Environmental Management Science Program, Laboratory Directed Research and Development, Inland Northwest Research Alliance, United States Geological Survey, and ongoing Operations supported projects. Results of the knowledge search are documented as part of this document.

Alan K. Yonk

2003-09-01

233

Results from the Water Flow Test of the Tank 37 Backflush Valve  

SciTech Connect

A flow test was conducted in the Thermal Fluids Lab with the Tank 37 Backflush Valve to determine the pressure drop of water flow through the material transfer port. The flow rate was varied from 0 to 100 gpm. The pressure drop through the Backflush Valve for flow rates of 20 and 70 gpm was determined to be 0.18 and 1.77 feet of H2O, respectively. An equivalent length of the Backflush Valve was derived from the flow test data. The equivalent length was used in a head loss calculation for the Tank 37 Gravity Drain Line. The calculation estimated the flow rate that would fill the line up to the Separator Tank, and the additional flow rate that would fill the Separator Tank. The viscosity of the fluid used in the calculation was 12 centipoise. Two specific gravities were investigated, 1.4 and 1.8. The Gravity Drain Line was assumed to be clean, unobstructed stainless steel pipe. The flow rate that would fill the line up to the Separator Tank was 73 and 75 gpm for the 1.4 or 1.8 specific gravity fluids, respectively. The flow rate that would fill the Separator Tank was 96 and 100 gpm for the 1.4 or 1.8 specific gravity fluids, respectively. These results indicate that concentrate will not back up into the Separator Tank during evaporator normal operation, 15-25 gpm, or pot liftout, 70 gpm. A noteworthy observation during the flow test was water pouring from the holes in the catheterization tube. Water poured from the holes at 25 gpm and above. Data from the water flow test indicates that at 25 gpm the pressure drop through the Backflush Valve is 0.26 ft of H2O. A concentrate with a specific gravity of 1.8 and a viscosity of 12 cp will produce the same pressure drop at 20 gpm. This implies that concentrate from the evaporator may spill out into the BFV riser during a transfer.

Fowley, M.D.

2002-11-01

234

Global Warming and Water Management: Water Allocation and Project Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the sensitivity of the benefits of alternative water allocation schemes and of project evaluation to global warming. If global warming shifts the mean of annual water supplies, there could be large impacts on the expected values of alternative water allocation schemes. The first section of the paper explores how well alternative schemes (such as market mechanisms, prior

Robert Mendelsohn; Lynne L. Bennett

1997-01-01

235

The Influence of Return Loop Flow Rate on Stratification in a Vertical Hot Water Storage Tank Connected to a Heat Pump Water Heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A temperature-controlled hot water heat pump was simulated using heating in a vertical, domestic hot water storage tank. The influence of the return loop flow rate on stratification was investigated experimentally. The return loop is the water line that supplies a long line of consumers with hot water, and returns colder water to the middle of the hot water storage

P. Meyer; P. J. A. Raubenheimer; E. Krueger

2000-01-01

236

High Level Waste Tank Closure Project at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Design, development, and deployment of a remotely operated tank cleaning system were completed in June 2002. The system incorporates many commercially available components, which have been adapted for application in cleaning high-level waste tanks. The sy...

K. D. Quigley D. Wessman

2003-01-01

237

Water Sloshing in Rectangular Tanks - An Experimental Investigation & Numerical Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the steps involved in designing a test rig to study water sloshing phenomenon in a 560 x 160 x 185 mm PVC rectangular container subjected to sudden (impulsive) impact. The design encompasses the construction of the testing facility and the development of a proper data acquisition system capable of capturing the behavior of pre- and post impact

L. Khezzar; A. C. Seibi; A. Goharzadeh

238

Water quality control using Spirulina platensis in shrimp culture tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cyanobacterium (Spirulina platensis) was co-cultured with black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) for water quality control. We evaluated the effects of: (1) three S. platensis trial conditions on inorganic nitrogen concentrations at one shrimp density (S. platensis trial conditions included: absent, nonharvested and semicontinuous harvesting) and (2) two shrimp densities on inorganic nitrogen concentrations, with and without S. platensis. Semicontinuous

Benjamas Chuntapa; Sorawit Powtongsook; Piamsak Menasveta

2003-01-01

239

Structural evaluation of mixer pump installed in Tank 241-AN-107 for caustic addition project  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the structural analysis and evaluation of a mixer pump and caustic addition system to be used in Tank 107-AN. This pump will be installed in the central pump pit of this double- shell tank for the purpose of bringing the hydroxide ion concentration into compliance with Tank Farm operating specifications.

Leshikar, G.A.

1995-06-16

240

Peru: CARE OPG Water Health Services Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Where piped water is a local priority, A.I.D. should be willing to authorize projects aimed solely at improving the accessibility, quantity, and quality of water to the exclusion of other health interventions. This and other lessons found in this report w...

J. Haratani A. M. Viveros-Long A. M. B. M. de Gonzales

1981-01-01

241

Concentration trends and water-level fluctuations at underground storage tank sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentration trends of monitor wells utilized in monitored natural attenuation at petroleum underground storage tank sites\\u000a can be used to predict achievement of regulatory standards if the data approximate a first-order decline trend. However, declining\\u000a concentration trends often display seasonal and other fluctuations that complicate trend interpretation. Seasonal correlations\\u000a between concentration and water-level elevation, including in-phase and inverse relationships, constitute

Alan E. KehewPatrick; Patrick M. Lynch

2011-01-01

242

Mixed convective flow and thermal stratification in hot water storage tanks during discharging mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of transient, two dimensional, mixed convection and thermal stratification in cylindrical hot water storage tanks\\u000a is presented. The governing equations together with inflow and outflow boundary conditions are written for laminar mixed convection\\u000a flow using a finite volume based computational code in the dynamic discharging mode based on Boussinesq approximations and\\u000a conjugate heat transfer. The equations are solved

N. Gopalakrishnan; S. Srinivasa Murthy

2009-01-01

243

ECONOMIC, WATER QUANTITY AND QUALITY RESULTS FROM A HOUSE WITH A RAINWATER TANK IN THE INNER CITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dual water supply system (rainwater and mains water) has been installed at an old house in Maryville a inner city suburb of Newcastle in New South Wales, Australia. A design was developed for the installation of a rainwater tank to supply rainwater for toilet, hot water and outdoor uses. The rainwater supply is supplemented with mains water via a

Peter J. Coombes; George Kuczera; Jetse D. Kalma

244

ECONOMIC, WATER QUANTITY AND QUALITY IMPACTS FROM THE USE OF A RAINWATER TANK IN THE INNER CITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dual water supply system (rainwater and mains water) has been installed at an old house in Maryville a inner city suburb of Newcastle in New South Wales, Australia. A design was developed for the installation of a rainwater tank to supply rainwater for toilet, hot water and outdoor uses. The rainwater supply is supplemented with mains water via a

Peter J. Coombes; George Kuczera; Jetse D. Kalma

245

Fecal indicators and zoonotic pathogens in household drinking water taps fed from rainwater tanks in Southeast Queensland, Australia.  

PubMed

In this study, the microbiological quality of household tap water samples fed from rainwater tanks was assessed by monitoring the numbers of Escherichia coli bacteria and enterococci from 24 households in Southeast Queensland (SEQ), Australia. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was also used for the quantitative detection of zoonotic pathogens in water samples from rainwater tanks and connected household taps. The numbers of zoonotic pathogens were also estimated in fecal samples from possums and various species of birds by using qPCR, as possums and birds are considered to be the potential sources of fecal contamination in roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW). Among the 24 households, 63% of rainwater tank and 58% of connected household tap water (CHTW) samples contained E. coli and exceeded Australian drinking water guidelines of <1 CFU E. coli per 100 ml water. Similarly, 92% of rainwater tanks and 83% of CHTW samples also contained enterococci. In all, 21%, 4%, and 13% of rainwater tank samples contained Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Giardia lamblia, respectively. Similarly, 21% of rainwater tank and 13% of CHTW samples contained Campylobacter spp. and G. lamblia, respectively. The number of E. coli (P = 0.78), Enterococcus (P = 0.64), Campylobacter (P = 0.44), and G. lamblia (P = 0.50) cells in rainwater tanks did not differ significantly from the numbers observed in the CHTW samples. Among the 40 possum fecal samples tested, Campylobacter spp., Cryptosporidium parvum, and G. lamblia were detected in 60%, 13%, and 30% of samples, respectively. Among the 38 bird fecal samples tested, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., C. parvum, and G. lamblia were detected in 24%, 11%, 5%, and 13% of the samples, respectively. Household tap water samples fed from rainwater tanks tested in the study appeared to be highly variable. Regular cleaning of roofs and gutters, along with pruning of overhanging tree branches, might also prove effective in reducing animal fecal contamination of rainwater tanks. PMID:22020514

Ahmed, W; Hodgers, L; Sidhu, J P S; Toze, S

2011-10-21

246

Project management plan for Waste Area Grouping 5 Old Hydrofracture Facility tanks content removal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) tanks content removal project is to transfer inventory from the five OHF tanks located in Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) liquid low-level (radioactive) waste (LLLW) storage facility, and remediate the remaining OHF tank shells. The major activities involved are identified in this document along with the organizations that will perform the required actions and their roles and responsibilities for managing the project.

NONE

1996-07-01

247

Cold test plan for the Old Hydrofracture Facility tank contents removal project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) Tanks Contents Removal Project Cold Test Plan describes the activities to be conducted during the cold test of the OHF sluicing and pumping system at the Tank Technology Cold Test Facility (TTCTF). The TTCTF is located at the Robotics and Process Systems Complex at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The cold test will demonstrate performance of the pumping and sluicing system, fine-tune operating instructions, and train the personnel in the actual work to be performed. After completion of the cold test a Technical Memorandum will be prepared documenting completion of the cold test, and the equipment will be relocated to the OHF site.

NONE

1997-11-01

248

Dismantlement and removal of Old Hydrofracture Facility bulk storage bins and water tank, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF), located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), was constructed in 1963 to allow experimentation and operations with an integrated solid storage, mixing, and grout injection facility. During its operation, OHF blended liquid low-level waste with grout and used a hydrofracture process to pump the waste into a deep low-permeable shale formation. Since the OHF Facility was taken out of service in 1980, the four bulk storage bins located adjacent to Building 7852 had deteriorated to the point that they were a serious safety hazard. The ORNL Surveillance and Maintenance Program requested and received permission from the US Department of Energy to dismantle the bins as a maintenance action and send the free-released metal to an approved scrap metal vendor. A 25,000-gal stainless steel water tank located at the OHF site was included in the scope. A fixed-price subcontract was signed with Allied Technology Group, Inc., to remove the four bulk storage bins and water tank to a staging area where certified Health Physics personnel could survey, segregate, package, and send the radiologically clean scrap metal to an approved scrap metal vendor. All radiologically contaminated metal and metal that could not be surveyed was packaged and staged for later disposal. Permissible personnel exposure limits were not exceeded, no injuries were incurred, and no health and safety violations occurred throughout the duration of the project. Upon completion of the dismantlement, the project had generated 53,660 lb of clean scrap metal (see Appendix D). This resulted in $3,410 of revenue generated and a cost avoidance of an estimated $100,000 in waste disposal fees.

NONE

1998-03-01

249

High level waste tank closure project: ALARA applications at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.  

PubMed

Bechtel BWXT Idaho, Maintenance and Operating Contractor for the Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, has emptied, cleaned, and sampled six of the eleven 1.135 x 10(6) L high level waste underground storage tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, well ahead of the State of Idaho Consent Order cleaning schedule. Cleaning of a seventh tank is expected to be complete by the end of calendar year 2004. The tanks, with associated vaults, valve boxes, and distribution systems, are being closed to meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulations and Department of Energy orders. The use of remotely operated equipment placed in the tanks through existing tank riser access points, sampling methods and application of as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) principles have proven effective in keeping personnel dose low during equipment removal, tank, vault, and valve box cleaning, and sampling activities, currently at 0.03 Sv. PMID:15824589

Aitken, Steven B; Butler, Richard; Butterworth, Steven W; Quigley, Keith D

2005-05-01

250

High Level Waste Tank Closure Project at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is making preparations to close two underground high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations and Department of Energy orders. Closure of these two tanks is scheduled for 2004 as the first phase in closure of the eleven 300,000 gallon tanks currently in service at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). The INTEC Tank Farm Facility (TFF) Closure sequence consists of multiple steps to be accomplished through the existing tank riser access points. Currently, the tank risers contain steam and process waste lines associated with the steam jets, corrosion coupons, and liquid level indicators. As necessary, this equipment will be removed from the risers to allow adequate space for closure equipment and activities.

Wessman, D. L.; Quigley, K. D.

2002-02-27

251

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank SX102: Results from samples collected on July 19, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-102 (Tank SX-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank.

B. D. McVeety; J. C. Evans; T. W. Clauss; K. H. Pool

1996-01-01

252

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241BY102: Results from samples collected on November 21, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-102 (Tank BY-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank.

B. L. Thomas; J. C. Evans; K. H. Pool

1996-01-01

253

Waste Tank Size Determination for the Hanford River Protection Project Cold Test, Training, and Mockup Facility  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the study was to determine the minimum tank size for the Cold Test Facility process testing of Hanford tank waste. This facility would support retrieval of waste in 75-ft-diameter DSTs with mixer pumps and SSTs with fluidic mixers. The cold test model will use full-scale mixer pumps, transfer pumps, and equipment with simulated waste. The study evaluated the acceptability of data for a range of tank diameters and depths and included identifying how the test data would be extrapolated to predict results for a full-size tank.

Onishi, Yasuo; Wells, Beric E.; Kuhn, William L.

2001-03-30

254

Little Big Horn River Water Quality Project  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Water Quality Project on the Little Big horn River during the summer of 1995. The majority of the summer was spent collecting data on the Little Big Horn River, then testing the water samples for a number of different tests which was done at the Little Big Horn College in Crow Agency, Montana. The intention of this study is to preform stream quality analysis to gain an understanding of the quality of selected portion of the river, to assess any impact that the existing developments may be causing to the environment and to gather base-line data which will serve to provide information concerning the proposed development. Citizens of the reservation have expressed a concern of the quality of the water on the reservation; surface waters, ground water, and well waters.

Bad Bear, D.J.; Hooker, D. [Little Big Horn Coll., Crow Agency, MT (United States)

1995-10-01

255

Heavy metal accumulation in hot water tanks in a region experiencing coal waste pollution and comparison between regional water systems  

SciTech Connect

In 2000, a coal slurry impoundment failure in Martin County, Kentucky, caused concerns about contaminants entering municipal water supplies. Water samples taken from impacted and reference area hot water tanks often exceeded US EPA drinking water guidelines. Concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Pb had maxima of 119; 51.9; 154; 170,000; 976,000; 8,710; and 12,700 {mu}g/L, respectively. Significantly different metal accumulation between counties indicated this procedure's utility for assessing long-term municipal water quality. Correlations between metal concentrations were strong and consistent for As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, and Fe indicating that some metals accumulate proportionally with others.

Wigginton, A.; McSpirit, S.; Sims, C.D. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Biology

2007-10-15

256

Leaf hydraulic conductance for a tank bromeliad: axial and radial pathways for moving and conserving water.  

PubMed

Epiphytic plants in the Bromeliaceae known as tank bromeliads essentially lack stems and absorptive roots and instead take up water from reservoirs formed by their overlapping leaf bases. For such plants, leaf hydraulic conductance is plant hydraulic conductance. Their simple strap-shaped leaves and parallel venation make them suitable for modeling leaf hydraulic conductance based on vasculature and other anatomical and morphological traits. Plants of the tank bromeliad Guzmania lingulata were investigated in a lowland tropical forest in Costa Rica and a shaded glasshouse in Los Angeles, CA, USA. Stomatal conductance to water vapor and leaf anatomical variables related to hydraulic conductance were measured for both groups. Tracheid diameters and numbers of vascular bundles (veins) were used with the Hagen-Poiseuille equation to calculate axial hydraulic conductance. Measurements of leaf hydraulic conductance using the evaporative flux method were also made for glasshouse plants. Values for axial conductance and leaf hydraulic conductance were used in a model based on leaky cable theory to estimate the conductance of the radial pathway from the vein to the leaf surface and to assess the relative contributions of both axial and radial pathways. In keeping with low stomatal conductance, low stomatal density, low vein density, and narrow tracheid diameters, leaf hydraulic conductance for G. lingulata was quite low in comparison with most other angiosperms. Using the predicted axial conductance in the leaky cable model, the radial resistance across the leaf mesophyll was predicted to predominate; lower, more realistic values of axial conductance resulted in predicted radial resistances that were closer to axial resistance in their impact on total leaf resistance. Tracer dyes suggested that water uptake through the tank region of the leaf was not limiting. Both dye movement and the leaky cable model indicated that the leaf blade of G. lingulata was structurally and hydraulically well-suited to conserve water. PMID:23596446

North, Gretchen B; Lynch, Frank H; Maharaj, Franklin D R; Phillips, Carly A; Woodside, Walter T

2013-04-10

257

ALARA plan for the Old Hydrofracture Facility tanks contents removal project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) Tanks Contents Removal Project is to remove the liquid low-level waste from the five underground storage tanks located at OHF and transfer the resulting slurry to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks facility for treatment and disposal. Among the technical objectives for the OHF Project, there is a specific provision to maintain personnel exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) during each activity of the project and to protect human health and the environment. The estimated doses and anticipated conditions for accomplishing this project are such that an ALARA Plan is necessary to facilitate formal radiological review of the campaign. This ALARA Plan describes the operational steps necessary for accomplishing the job together with the associated radiological impacts and planned controls. Individual and collective dose estimates are also provided for the various tasks. Any significant changes to this plan (i.e., planned exposures that are greater than 10% of original dose estimates) will require formal revision and concurrence from all parties listed on the approval page. Deviations from this plan (i.e., work outside the scope covered by this plan) also require the preparation of a task-specific ALARA Review that will be amended to this plan with concurrence from all parties listed on the approval page.

NONE

1998-04-01

258

Meren field water injection project offshore Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Meren Water Injection Project, which is one of the largest in West Africa in terms of injection volume, secondary reserves to be recovered and cost, is located in the Meren field offshore Nigeria. This study presents an updated comprehensive plan to deplete 7 reservoir units in sands that have been producing under solution gas drive and gravity segregation with

Adetoba

1984-01-01

259

Final report on EURAMET Project no. 1157: Inter-comparison of a 1000 L proving tank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EURAMET comparison no. 1157 is a supplementary comparison of European national volume laboratories. The comparison started in September 2010 and the measurements were finished in August 2012. Twelve laboratories took part in the comparison. The aim of this project was to compare results and method calibration of a 1000 L proving tank. The results were quite satisfactory. The majority of the laboratories present results that are consistent with the reference value, and with each other. The presented uncertainties for the volumetric method are in all cases larger than the uncertainties of the gravimetric method, as expected, because it is a secondary calibration method. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by EURAMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

Batista, Elsa; Smits, Erik

2013-01-01

260

Closeout of IE Bulletin 80-05: vacuum condition resulting in damage to low-pressure tanks which may contain primary-system water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In early 1977, low pressure tanks at the Trojan and Rancho Seco Nuclear Stations buckled because of accidental conditions resulting from a partial vacuum. Both of these damaged tanks released radioactive gases. IE Circular 77-10 was issued on July 15, 1977 to caution PWR facility personnel about providing adequate protection for low pressure tanks which may contain primary system water.

W. J. Foley; A. Hennick

1983-01-01

261

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT SUMMARY OF COMBINED THERMAL & OPERATING LOADS  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of the Double-Shell Tank Thermal and Operating Loads Analysis (TOLA) combined with the Seismic Analysis. This combined analysis provides a thorough, defensible, and documented analysis that will become a part of the overall analysis of record for the Hanford double-shell tanks (DSTs).

MACKEY, T.C.

2006-03-17

262

Chemical Sludge Heel Removal at the Savannah River Site F-Tank Farm Closure Project - 8183.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chemical Sludge Removal (CSR) is the final waste removal activity planned for some of the oldest nuclear waste tanks located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC. In 2008, CSR will be used to empty two of these waste tanks in preparation for fina...

G. D. Thaxton T. C. Baughman

2008-01-01

263

Cathodic Protection/Partial Coatings Versus Complete Coating in Ballast Tanks-A Project Update.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ship ballast tanks are one of the most costly items of new ship construction. In addition, ballast tanks are one of the most severe corrosion areas during ship operations. The 023-1 Panel of SNAME recognized these problems and selected a research and deve...

B. S. Fultz

1985-01-01

264

HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK CLOSURE PROJECT AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is in the process of closing two underground high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations and Department of Energy orders. Closure of these two tanks is scheduled for 2004 as the first phase in closure of

K. D. Quigley

2003-01-01

265

Scaling Characteristics of Developing Sea Breezes Simulated in a Water Tank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea-breeze circulations in a stably stratified environment have been simulated in a water tank. The floor of the tank was divided into two halves representing land and sea; the land side was heated from the bottom of the tank, and the sea side was insulated by an underlying sponge slab. The temperature profiles over both land and sea sides, the land-sea temperature difference, and the horizontal temperature distributions were measured. Particle tracking velocimetry was applied to obtain the two-dimensional velocity field orthogonal to the coastline. It was shown that the overall flow consists of a closed circulation caused by the horizontal temperature difference between land and sea, and a strong updraft occurring at the sea-breeze front. The dimensionless governing parameters are calculated from the measurements and used to characterize the developing sea breezes. The analysis confirms the scaling laws for sea-breeze velocity and depth. The results indicate that the scaling characteristics of the sea-breeze translation speed during the developing period are different to those during the following maintaining period. A criterion for the onset of the sea breeze is proposed based on these results.

Yuan, Renmin; Sun, Jianning; Luo, Tao; Wu, Xuping

2013-09-01

266

Kazachstania rupicola sp. nov., a yeast species isolated from water tanks of a bromeliad in Brazil.  

PubMed

Two isolates of a novel yeast species were obtained from water tanks (phytotelmata) of the bromeliad Vriesea minarum collected in a tableland ('campo rupestre') ecosystem in Brazil. The sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the large-subunit rRNA gene showed that this species is related to Kazachstania exigua and others, from which it differs by 8-10 nucleotide substitutions. The novel species Kazachstania rupicola sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these isolates. The type strain is UFMG-BRO-80(T) (?=?CBS 12684(T) ?=?CBMAI 1466(T)). PMID:23159754

Safar, Silvana Vilas Boas; Gomes, Fátima C O; Marques, Andréa R; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

2012-11-16

267

Dynamic remediation test of polluted river water by Eco-tank system.  

PubMed

Dynamic remediation of river water polluted by domestic sewage using an aquatic plants bed-based Eco-tank system was investigated. Over a period of 18 days, the test demonstrated that average effluent concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) and total phosphorus (TP) were as low as 17.28, 0.23 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively, under the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8.7 d. The average removal efficiencies in terms of COD, NH4(+)-N and TP could reach 71.95, 97.96 and 97.84%, respectively. The loss of both NH4(+)-N and TP was mainly ascribed to the uptake by plants. Hydrocotyle leucocephala was effective in promoting the dissolved oxygen (DO) level, while Pistia stratiotes with numerous fibrous roots was significantly effective for the removal of organic compounds. The net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and biomass accumulation rate of Myriophyllum aquaticum were the highest among all tested plants. Thus, the Eco-tank system could be considered as an alternative approach for the in situ remediation of polluted river water, especially nutrient-laden river water. PMID:23530371

Xiao, Jibo; Wang, Huiming; Chu, Shuyi; Wong, Ming-Hung

268

Effects of septic-tank effluent on ground-water quality in northern Williamson County and southern Davidson County, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An investigation of the potential contamination of ground water from septic tank systems blasted in bedrock in Williamson and Davidson Counties, Tennessee, was conducted during 1988-89. Water samples were collected from domestic and observation wells, springs, and surface-water sites in a residential subdivision in the northern part of Williamson County near Nashville. The subdivision has a high density of septic-tank field lines installed into blasted bedrock Water samples also were collected from a well located in an area of Davidson County where field lines were installed in 5 feet of soil. Samples were analyzed for major inorganic constituents, nutrients, total organic carbon, optical brighteners, and bacteria. Although results of analyses of water samples from wells indicate no effect of septic-tank effluent on ground-water quality at these sites, water from two springs located downgradient from the subdivision had slightly larger concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate (2.2 and 2.7 milligrams per liter N), and much larger concentrations of fecal coliform and fecal streptococci bacteria (2,000 to 3,200 and 700 to 900 colonies per 100 milliliters of sample, respectively), than other wells and springs sampled during 1988. Water from one of these springs contained optical brighteners, which indicates that septic-tank effluent is affecting ground-water quality.

Hanchar, D. W.

1991-01-01

269

CHEMICAL SLUDGE HEEL REMOVAL AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT 8183  

SciTech Connect

Chemical Sludge Removal (CSR) is the final waste removal activity planned for some of the oldest nuclear waste tanks located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC. In 2008, CSR will be used to empty two of these waste tanks in preparation for final closure. The two waste tanks chosen to undergo this process have previously leaked small amounts of nuclear waste from the primary tank into an underground secondary containment pan. CSR involves adding aqueous oxalic acid to the waste tank in order to dissolve the remaining sludge heel. The resultant acidic waste solution is then pumped to another waste tank where it will be neutralized and then stored awaiting further processing. The waste tanks to be cleaned have a storage capacity of 2.84E+06 liters (750,000 gallons) and a target sludge heel volume of 1.89E+04 liters (5,000 gallons) or less for the initiation of CSR. The purpose of this paper is to describe the CSR process and to discuss the most significant technical issues associated with the development of CSR.

Thaxton, D; Timothy Baughman, T

2008-01-16

270

Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank  

DOEpatents

The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps. 1 figures.

Corletti, M.M.; Lau, L.K.; Schulz, T.L.

1993-12-14

271

ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 2: Engineering design files  

SciTech Connect

Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: Tank farm heel flushing/pH adjustment; Grouting experiments for immobilization of tank farm heel; Savannah River high level waste tank 20 closure; Tank farm closure information; Clean closure of tank farm; Remediation issues; Remote demolition techniques; Decision concerning EIS for debris treatment facility; CERCLA/RCRA issues; Area of contamination determination; Containment building of debris treatment facility; Double containment issues; Characterization costs; Packaging and disposal options for the waste resulting from the total removal of the tank farm; Take-off calculations for the total removal of soils and structures at the tank farm; Vessel off-gas systems; Jet-grouted polymer and subsurface walls; Exposure calculations for total removal of tank farm; Recommended instrumentation during retrieval operations; High level waste tank concrete encasement evaluation; Recommended heavy equipment and sizing equipment for total removal activities; Tank buoyancy constraints; Grout and concrete formulas for tank heel solidification; Tank heel pH requirements; Tank cooling water; Evaluation of conservatism of vehicle loading on vaults; Typical vault dimensions and approximately tank and vault void volumes; Radiological concerns for temporary vessel off-gas system; Flushing calculations for tank heels; Grout lift depth analysis; Decontamination solution for waste transfer piping; Grout lift determination for filling tank and vault voids; sprung structure vendor data; Grout flow properties through a 2--4 inch pipe; Tank farm load limitations; NRC low level waste grout; Project data sheet calculations; Dose rates for tank farm closure tasks; Exposure and shielding calculations for grout lines; TFF radionuclide release rates; Documentation of the clean closure of a system with listed waste discharge; and Documentation of the ORNL method of radionuclide concentrations in tanks.

NONE

1998-02-01

272

Quality Assurance Project Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System - 1997 Notice of Violation Consent Order  

SciTech Connect

This Quality Assurance Project Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System is one of two documents that comprise the Sampling and Analysis Plan for the HWMA/RCRA closure certification of the TRA-731 caustic and acid storage tank system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This plan, which provides information about the project description, project organization, and quality assurance and quality control procedures, is to be used in conjunction with the Field Sampling Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System. This Quality Assurance Project Plan specifies the procedures for obtaining the data of known quality required by the closure activities for the TRA-731 caustic and acid storage tank system.

Evans, Susan Kay; Orchard, B. J.

2002-01-01

273

Quality Assurance Project Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System - 1997 Notice of Violation Consent Order  

SciTech Connect

This Quality Assurance Project Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA- 731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System is one of two documents that comprise the Sampling and Analysis Plan for the HWMA/RCRA closure certification of the TRA-731 caustic and acid storage tank system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This plan, which provides information about the project description, project organization, and quality assurance and quality control procedures, is to be used in conjunction with the Field Sampling Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System. This Quality Assurance Project Plan specifies the procedures for obtaining the data of known quality required by the closure activities for the TRA-731 caustic and acid storage tank system.

Evans, S.K.

2002-01-31

274

33 CFR 155.370 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10,000...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01...bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10...gross tons and above that carry ballast water in their fuel oil tanks. 155.370...

2013-07-01

275

Sampling and analysis of water from Upper Three Runs and its wetlands near Tank 16 and the Mixed Waste Management Facility  

SciTech Connect

In April and September 1993, sampling was conducted to characterize the Upper Three Runs (UTR) wetland waters near the Mixed Waste Management Facility to determine if contaminants migrating from MWMF are outcropping into the floodplain wetlands. For the spring sampling event, 37 wetlands and five stream water samples were collected. Thirty-six wetland and six stream water samples were collected for the fall sampling event. Background seepline and stream water samples were also collected for both sampling events. All samples were analyzed for RCRA Appendix IX volatiles, inorganics appearing on the Target Analyte List, tritium, gamma-emitting radionuclides, and gross radiological activity. Most of the analytical data for both the spring and fall sampling events were reported as below method detection limits. The primary exceptions were the routine water quality indicators (e.g., turbidity, alkalinity, total suspended solids, etc.), iron, manganese, and tritium. During the spring, cadmium, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, potassium-40, ruthenium-106, and trichloroethylene were also detected above the MCLs from at least one location. A secondary objective of this project was to identify any UTR wetland water quality impacts resulting from leaks from Tank 16 located at the H-Area Tank Farm.

Dixon, K.L.; Cummins, C.L.

1994-06-01

276

Headspace vapor characterization at Hanford Waste Tank 241-A-102: Results from samples collected on November 10, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-A-102 (Tank A-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) (a) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company...

J. C. Evans K. H. Pool B. L. Thomas K. B. Olsen J. S. Fruchter

1996-01-01

277

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank SX-102: Results from samples collected on July 19, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-102 (Tank SX-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (...

B. D. McVeety J. C. Evans T. W. Clauss K. H. Pool

1996-01-01

278

SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TANK 48H WASTE TREATMENT PROJECT TECHNOLOGY READINESS ASSESSMENT  

SciTech Connect

One of U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) primary missions at Savannah River Site (SRS) is to retrieve and treat the high level waste (HLW) remaining in SRS tanks and close the F&H tank farms. At present, a significant impediment to timely completion of this mission is the presence of significant organic chemical contamination in Tank 48H. Tank 48H is a 1.3 million gallon tank with full secondary containment, located and interconnected within the SRS tank system. However, the tank has been isolated from the system and unavailable for use since 1983, because its contents - approximately 250,000 gallons of salt solution containing Cs-137 and other radioisotopes - are contaminated with nearly 22,000 Kg of tetraphenylborate, a material which can release benzene vapor to the tank head space in potentially flammable concentrations. An important element of the DOE SRS mission is to remove, process, and dispose of the contents of Tank 48H, both to eliminate the hazard it presents to the SRS H-Tank Farm and to return Tank 48H to service. Tank 48H must be returned to service to support operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility, to free up HLW tank space, and to allow orderly tank closures per Federal Facility Agreement commitments. The Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC), the SRS prime contractor, has evaluated alternatives and selected two processes, Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) and Fluidized Steam Bed Reforming (FBSR) as candidates for Tank 48H processing. Over the past year, WSRC has been testing and evaluating these two processes, and DOE is nearing a final technology selection in late 2007. In parallel with WSRC's ongoing work, DOE convened a team of independent qualified experts to conduct a Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA). The purpose of the TRA was to determine the maturity level of the Tank 48H treatment technology candidates - WAO and FBSR. The methodology used for this TRA is based on detailed guidance for conducting TRAs contained in the Department of Defense (DoD), Technology Readiness Assessment Deskbook. The TRA consists of three parts: (1) Determination of the Critical Technology Elements (CTEs) for each of the candidate processes. (2) Evaluation of the Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) of each CTE for each process. (3) Defining of the technology testing or engineering work necessary to bring immature technologies to the appropriate maturity levels. The TRA methodology assigns a TRL to a technology based on the lowest TRL assigned to any CTE of that technology. Based on the assessment, the overall TRL for WAO was 2 and the TRL for FBSR was 3. WAO was limited by the current lack of definition for the off-gas treatment system (TRL of 2). The FBSR Product Handling had little or no test work and therefore received the lowest score (TRL of 3) for the FBSR CTEs. In summary, both FBSR and WAO appear to be viable technologies for treatment of Tank 48H legacy waste. FBSR has a higher degree of maturity than WAO, but additional technology development will be required for both technologies. However, the Assessment Team believes that sufficient information is available for DOE to select the preferred or primary technology. Limited testing of the backup technology should be conducted as a risk mitigation strategy.

Harmon, Harry D.; Young, Joan K.; Berkowitz, Joan B.; Devine, John C.; Sutter, Herbert G.

2008-03-18

279

SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TANK 48H WASTE TREATMENT PROJECT TECHNOLOGY READINESS ASSESSMENT  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT One of U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) primary missions at Savannah River Site (SRS) is to retrieve and treat the high level waste (HLW) remaining in SRS tanks and close the F&H tank farms. At present, a significant impediment to timely completion of this mission is the presence of significant organic chemical contamination in Tank 48H. Tank 48H is a 1.3 million gallon tank with full secondary containment, located and interconnected within the SRS tank system. However, the tank has been isolated from the system and unavailable for use since 1983, because its contents – approximately 250,000 gallons of salt solution containing Cs-137 and other radioisotopes – are contaminated with nearly 22,000 Kg of tetraphenylborate, a material which can release benzene vapor to the tank head space in potentially flammable concentrations. An important element of the DOE SRS mission is to remove, process, and dispose of the contents of Tank 48H, both to eliminate the hazard it presents to the SRS H-Tank Farm and to return Tank 48H to service. Tank 48H must be returned to service to support operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility, to free up HLW tank space, and to allow orderly tank closures per Federal Facility Agreement commitments. The Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC), the SRS prime contractor, has evaluated alternatives and selected two processes, Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) and Fluidized Steam Bed Reforming (FBSR) as candidates for Tank 48H processing. Over the past year, WSRC has been testing and evaluating these two processes, and DOE is nearing a final technology selection in late 2007. In parallel with WSRC’s ongoing work, DOE convened a team of independent qualified experts to conduct a Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA). The purpose of the TRA was to determine the maturity level of the Tank 48H treatment technology candidates – WAO and FBSR. The methodology used for this TRA is based on detailed guidance for conducting TRAs contained in the Department of Defense (DoD), Technology Readiness Assessment Deskbook. The TRA consists of three parts: • Determination of the Critical Technology Elements (CTEs) for each of the candidate processes. • Evaluation of the Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) of each CTE for each process. • Defining of the technology testing or engineering work necessary to bring immature technologies to the appropriate maturity levels. The TRA methodology assigns a TRL to a technology based on the lowest TRL assigned to any CTE of that technology. Based on the assessment, the overall TRL for WAO was 2 and the TRL for FBSR was 3. WAO was limited by the current lack of definition for the off-gas treatment system (TRL of 2). The FBSR Product Handling had little or no test work and therefore received the lowest score (TRL of 3) for the FBSR CTEs. In summary, both FBSR and WAO appear to be viable technologies for treatment of Tank 48H legacy waste. FBSR has a higher degree of maturity than WAO, but additional technology development will be required for both technologies. However, the Assessment Team believes that sufficient information is available for DOE to select the preferred or primary technology. Limited testing of the backup technology should be conducted as a risk mitigation strategy.

Harmon, Harry D.; Young, Joan K.; Berkowitz, Joan B.; Devine, John C.; Sutter, Herbert G.

2008-10-25

280

Sampling oil-water mixtures at OHMSETT (Oil and Hazardous Materials Simulated Environmental Test Tank). Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes procedures developed at the Oil and Hazardous Material Simulated Environmental Test Tank (OHMSETT) for sampling oil and water mixtures. Two procedures for sampling in containers are discussed: grab and stratified sampling. Both of these techniques require stripping free-standing water from the container bottom. The grab-sample technique requires that the remaining fluids be thoroughly mixed before immersing a

Borst

1987-01-01

281

Study on the level measurement for the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST) in the ALWR.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In previous designs using an refueling water tank(RWT) external to the containment, water level in the RWT could be measured by pressure/differential pressure instrumentation. Level taps covering any desired range of RWT level could easily be installed on...

K. S. Han S. H. Park

1996-01-01

282

Headspace vapor characterization at Hanford Waste Tank 241-A-102: Results from samples collected on November 10, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-A-102 (Tank A-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) (a) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the

J. C. Evans; K. H. Pool; B. L. Thomas; K. B. Olsen; J. S. Fruchter; K. L. Silvers

1996-01-01

283

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-102: Results from samples collected on January 26, 1996. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the results of vapor samples obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) with and without particulate prefiltration. Samples were collected from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

J. C. Evans; B. L. Thomas; K. H. Pool

1996-01-01

284

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-S-102 fourth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on December 19, 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyz...

K. H. Pool J. C. Evans K. B. Olsen J. C. Hayes

1997-01-01

285

How to justify water conservation projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

An easy-to-use five-step program simplifies decision making for water conservation projects. Operating companies can justify or nullify proposals using these action steps: (1) define objectives, specify detailed results; (2) gather information, find as much pertinent and critical data on the system(s) to be controlled; (3) generate and develop ideas, explore all possible solutions before deciding; (4) implement changes, formulate how

Goldblatt

1993-01-01

286

Evaluation of Ultrasonic Measurement Variation in the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project  

SciTech Connect

Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) under contract from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for assessing the condition of the double-shell tanks (DST) on the Hanford nuclear site. WRPS has contracted with AREVA Federal Services LLC (AFS) to perform ultrasonic testing (UT) inspections of the 28 DSTs to assess the condition of the tanks, judge the effects of past corrosion control practices, and satisfy a regulatory requirement to periodically assess the integrity of the tanks. Since measurement inception in 1997, nine waste tanks have been examined twice (at the time of this report) providing UT data that can now be compared over specific areas. During initial reviews of these two comparable data sets, average UT wall-thickness measurement reductions were noted in most of the tanks. This variation could be a result of actual wall thinning occurring on the waste-tanks walls, or some other unexplained anomaly resulting from measurement error due to causes such as the then-current measurement procedures, operator setup, or equipment differences. WRPS contracted with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to assist in understanding why this variation exists and where it stems from.

Pardini, Allan F.; Weier, Dennis R.; Crawford, Susan L.; Munley, John T.

2010-01-12

287

Deconvolution of gamma-ray spectra obtained with NAI(Tl) detector in a water tank.  

PubMed

Maximum-likelihood fitting by the expectation maximization deconvolution method is presented to analyse gamma-ray spectra recorded using an NaI(Tl) detector for a water monitoring system. The applicability of the method was tested by deconvolving measured spectra taken using an industry standard 3'' x 3'' cylindrical NaI(Tl) detector in a model water tank with several calibration sources. The results show significant removal of the Compton continuum counts and efficient transfer of the counts into the corresponding photo-peaks. The peak-to-total count ratio and the number of counts in the photo-peaks in the deconvolved spectra increased approximately 4.67 and 5.29 times, respectively, compared with those of measured spectra taken using an NaI(Tl) scintillation detector in the case of (137)Cs. PMID:19502359

Rahman, M Sohelur; Cho, Gyuseong; Kang, Bo-Sun

2009-06-05

288

Bacterial communities in an ultrapure water containing storage tank of a power plant.  

PubMed

Ultrapure waters (UPWs) containing low levels of organic and inorganic compounds provide extreme environment. On contrary to that microbes occur in such waters and form biofilms on surfaces, thus may induce corrosion processes in many industrial applications. In our study, refined saltless water (UPW) produced for the boiler of a Hungarian power plant was examined before and after storage (sampling the inlet [TKE] and outlet [TKU] waters of a storage tank) with cultivation and culture independent methods. Our results showed increased CFU and direct cell counts after the storage. Cultivation results showed the dominance of aerobic, chemoorganotrophic ?-Proteobacteria in both samples. In case of TKU sample, a more complex bacterial community structure could be detected. The applied molecular method (T-RFLP) indicated the presence of a complex microbial community structure with changes in the taxon composition: while in the inlet water sample (TKE) ?-Proteobacteria (Sphingomonas sp., Novosphingobium hassiacum) dominated, in the outlet water sample (TKU) the bacterial community shifted towards the dominance of ?-Proteobacteria (Rhodoferax sp., Polynucleobacter sp., Sterolibacter sp.), CFB (Bacteroidetes, formerly Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group) and Firmicutes. This shift to the direction of fermentative communities suggests that storage could help the development of communities with an increased tendency toward corrosion. PMID:22207294

Bohus, Veronika; Kéki, Zsuzsa; Márialigeti, Károly; Baranyi, Krisztián; Patek, Gábor; Schunk, János; Tóth, Erika M

2011-12-01

289

HANFORD SITE RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT (RPP) TRANSURANIC (TRU) TANK WASTE IDENTIFICATION & PLANNING FOR REVRIEVAL TREATMENT & EVENTUAL DISPOSAL AT WIPP  

SciTech Connect

The CH2M HILL Manford Group, Inc. (CHG) conducts business to achieve the goals of the Office of River Protection (ORP) at Hanford. As an employee owned company, CHG employees have a strong motivation to develop innovative solutions to enhance project and company performance while ensuring protection of human health and the environment. CHG is responsible to manage and perform work required to safely store, enhance readiness for waste feed delivery, and prepare for treated waste receipts for the approximately 53 million gallons of legacy mixed radioactive waste currently at the Hanford Site tank farms. Safety and environmental awareness is integrated into all activities and work is accomplished in a manner that achieves high levels of quality while protecting the environment and the safety and health of workers and the public. This paper focuses on the innovative strategy to identify, retrieve, treat, and dispose of Hanford Transuranic (TRU) tank waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).

KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.; TEDESCHI, R.; JOHNSON, M.E.; JENNINGS, M

2006-01-18

290

Mobile X-ray imaging systems for the tank waste characterization project at the Hanford site  

SciTech Connect

Stored waste tank sampling of radioactive high-level nuclear waste is reilu ired for continued operations, waste characterization, and site safety. The Hanford site tank farms consist of 28 double- shell and 1.49 single-shell underground storage tanks. The ``full`` capacity of each of these tanks is approximately 1 million gallons. The waste stored in these tanks was generated as a result of defense materials production over the course of 4 decades. The single shell tanks are out-of-service and no longer receive liquid waste. Core samples of salt cake, liquid and sludge are remotely obtained using truck-mounted core drill platforms. Samples are recovered from the tanks through a 2.25-inch diameter drill pipe,, in segments contained in specially designed stainless steel samplers approximately 1.5-inch in outside diameter and 26-inches long. The sampled material in a given segment can include crystalline salt-cake, liquid, sludge and entrained gas. Drilling parameters will necessarily vary with different waste types, e.g., crystalline salt-cake versus sludge. At times, the core sample recovery has been marginal and inadequate for laboratory analysis needs. This necessitated a system to provide the drill-truck operators with ``real-time`` feedback about the physical condition of the sampled ``formation`` and the percent recovery, prior to receiving .,isual characterization information and nuclear assay measurements from the Hanford site 222-S Analytic!al laboratories, a process often requiring two week turn-around of data. This real- time information allows the drill-truck engineers to immediately vary the drilling parameters to maintain sample recovery.

Weber, J.R.

1996-09-25

291

Stratification of living organisms in ballast tanks: how do organism concentrations vary as ballast water is discharged?  

PubMed

Vertical migrations of living organisms and settling of particle-attached organisms lead to uneven distributions of biota at different depths in the water column. In ballast tanks, heterogeneity could lead to different population estimates depending on the portion of the discharge sampled. For example, concentrations of organisms exceeding a discharge standard may not be detected if sampling occurs during periods of the discharge when concentrations are low. To determine the degree of stratification, water from ballast tanks was sampled at two experimental facilities as the tanks were drained after water was held for 1 or 5 days. Living organisms ?50 ?m were counted in discrete segments of the drain (e.g., the first 20 min of the drain operation, the second 20 min interval, etc.), thus representing different strata in the tank. In 1 and 5 day trials at both facilities, concentrations of organisms varied among drain segments, and the patterns of stratification varied among replicate trials. From numerical simulations, the optimal sampling strategy for stratified tanks is to collect multiple time-integrated samples spaced relatively evenly throughout the discharge event. PMID:23614690

First, Matthew R; Robbins-Wamsley, Stephanie H; Riley, Scott C; Moser, Cameron S; Smith, George E; Tamburri, Mario N; Drake, Lisa A

2013-04-24

292

Safety analysis report for the gunite and associated tanks project remediation of the South Tank Farm, facility 3507, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The South Tank Farm (STF) is a series of six, 170,000-gal underground, domed storage tanks, which were placed into service in 1943. The tanks were constructed of a concrete mixture known as gunite. They were used as a portion of the Liquid Low-Level Waste System for the collection, neutralization, storage, and transfer of the aqueous portion of the radioactive and/or hazardous chemical wastes produced as part of normal facility operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The last of the tanks was taken out of service in 1986, but the tanks have been shown by structural analysis to continue to be structurally sound. An attempt was made in 1983 to empty the tanks; however, removal of all the sludge from the tanks was not possible with the equipment and schedule available. Since removal of the liquid waste in 1983, liquid continues to accumulate within the tanks. The in-leakage is believed to be the result of groundwater dripping into the tanks around penetrations in the domes. The tanks are currently being maintained under a Surveillance and Maintenance Program that includes activities such as level monitoring, vegetation control, High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter leakage requirement testing/replacement, sign erection/repair, pump-out of excessive liquids, and instrument calibration/maintenance. These activities are addressed in ORNL/ER-275.

Platfoot, J.H.

1998-02-01

293

Exergetic modeling and assessment of solar assisted domestic hot water tank integrated ground-source heat pump systems for residences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study deals with the exergetic modeling and performance evaluation of solar assisted domestic hot water tank integrated ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems for residences for the first time to the best of the author's knowledge. The model is applied to a system, which mainly consists of (i) a water-to-water heat pump unit (ii) a ground heat exchanger system

Arif Hepbasli

2007-01-01

294

COSTING MODELS FOR WATER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION: PART III- PUMPS, TANKS, AND RESERVOIRS  

EPA Science Inventory

Distribution systems are generally designed to ensure hydraulic reliability. Storage tanks, reservoirs and pumps are critical in maintaining this reliability. Although storage tanks, reservoirs and pumps are necessary for maintaining adequate pressure, they may also have a negati...

295

DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) INTEGRITY PROJECT HIGH LEVEL WASTE CHEMISTRY OPTIMIZATION  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Office (DOE) of River Protection (ORP) has a continuing program for chemical optimization to better characterize corrosion behavior of High-Level Waste (HLW). The DOE controls the chemistry in its HLW to minimize the propensity of localized corrosion, such as pitting, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in nitrate-containing solutions. By improving the control of localized corrosion and SCC, the ORP can increase the life of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) carbon steel structural components and reduce overall mission costs. The carbon steel tanks at the Hanford Site are critical to the mission of safely managing stored HLW until it can be treated for disposal. The DOE has historically used additions of sodium hydroxide to retard corrosion processes in HLW tanks. This also increases the amount of waste to be treated. The reactions with carbon dioxide from the air and solid chemical species in the tank continually deplete the hydroxide ion concentration, which then requires continued additions. The DOE can reduce overall costs for caustic addition and treatment of waste, and more effectively utilize waste storage capacity by minimizing these chemical additions. Hydroxide addition is a means to control localized and stress corrosion cracking in carbon steel by providing a passive environment. The exact mechanism that causes nitrate to drive the corrosion process is not yet clear. The SCC is less of a concern in the newer stress relieved double shell tanks due to reduced residual stress. The optimization of waste chemistry will further reduce the propensity for SCC. The corrosion testing performed to optimize waste chemistry included cyclic potentiodynamic volarization studies. slow strain rate tests. and stress intensity factor/crack growth rate determinations. Laboratory experimental evidence suggests that nitrite is a highly effective:inhibitor for pitting and SCC in alkaline nitrate environments. Revision of the corrosion control strategies to a nitrite-based control, where there is no constant depletion mechanism as with hydroxide, should greatly enhance tank lifetime, tank space availability, and reduce downstream reprocessing costs by reducing chemical addition to the tanks.

WASHENFELDER DJ

2008-01-22

296

Project management plan for Waste Area Grouping 5 Old Hydrofracture Facility tanks contents removal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This revision (Rev. 1) updates the schedule and designation of responsibilities for the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) tanks contents removal project. Ongoing and planned future activities include: cold testing of the sluicing and pumping system; readiness assessment; equipment relocation and assembly; isotopic dilution of fissile radionuclides; sluicing and transfer of the tanks contents; and preparation of the Removal Action Completion Report. The most significant change is that the sluicing and pumping system has been configured by and will be operated by CDM Federal Programs Corporation. In addition, a new technical lead and a new project analyst have been designated within Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. and Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp. The schedule for tanks contents removal has been accelerated, with transfer of the final batch of tank slurry now scheduled for March 31, 1998 (instead of November 10, 1998). The OHF sluicing and pumping project is proceeding as a non-time-critical removal action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. The purpose of the project is to remove the contents from five inactive underground storage tanks, designated T-1, T-2, T-3, T-4, and T-9. The tanks contain an estimated 52,700 gal of liquid and sludge, together comprising a radioactive inventory of approximately 30,000 Ci.

NONE

1998-02-01

297

ADM. Tanks: from left to right: fuel oil tank, fuel ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ADM. Tanks: from left to right: fuel oil tank, fuel pump house (TAN-611), engine fuel tank, water pump house, water storage tank. Camera facing northwest. Not edge of shielding berm at left of view. Date: November 25, 1953. INEEL negative no. 9217 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

298

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-S-102 fourth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on December 19, 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical

K. H. Pool; J. C. Evans; K. B. Olsen; J. C. Hayes

1997-01-01

299

Tank 241-S-102 fifth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on February 11, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents tile results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurlsys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by tile Vapor Analytical

A. V. Mitroshkov; J. C. Evans; J. C. Hayes

1997-01-01

300

Tank vapor characterization project: Tank 241-S-102 temporal study headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on September 19, 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results from analysis of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory

J. C. Evans; K. H. Pool; B. L. Thomas; D. S. Sklarew

1997-01-01

301

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT SEISMIC ANALYSIS IN SUPPORT OF INCREASED LIQUID LEVEL IN 241-AP TANK FARMS  

SciTech Connect

The essential difference between Revision 1 and the original issue of this report is in the spring constants used to model the anchor bolt response for the anchor bolts that tie the steel dome of the primary tank to the concrete tank dome. Consequently, focus was placed on the changes in the anchor bolt responses, and a full reevaluation of all tank components was judged to be unnecessary. To confirm this judgement, primary tank stresses from the revised analysis of the BES-BEC case are compared to the original analysis and it was verified that the changes are small, as expected.

TC MACKEY; FG ABATT; MW RINKER

2009-01-14

302

Tank 241-B-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization: Results for homogeneity samples collected on October 16, 1996. Tank vapor characterization project  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-B-103 (Tank B-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Samples were collected to determine the homogeneity of selected inorganic and organic headspace constituents. Two risers (Riser 2 and Riser 7) were sampled at three different elevations (Bottom, Middle, and Top) within the tank. Tank headspace samples were collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) and were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL.

Olsen, K.B.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C. [and others

1997-06-01

303

Completion report for the Inactive Liquid Low-Level Waste Tank Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of the Inactive Liquid Low-Level Waste Tank Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The work performed is compared with that proposed in the statement of work and the service contract specification for the maintenance action to remediate tanks 3013, 3004-B, T-30, and 3001-B. The Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) among the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires that all tanks, which have been removed from service and are designated in the FFA as Category D, must be remediated in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements. The Environmental Restoration Program`s inactive tank removal program strategy and plans for remediating the inactive LLLW tanks were documented in a report issued in January 1995 (Inactive Tanks Remediation Program Strategy and Plans for Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, ORNL/ER-297). The inactive (Category D) tanks were initially screened for remediation according to risk, remediation technology required, level of instrumentation available, interferences with other piping and equipment, location, and available sludge removal techniques and storage requirements. On the basis of this preliminary screening, the tanks were assigned to one of five batches (I through V) for consideration of remedial action alternatives, and these batches were tentatively scheduled for remedial actions. The eight links tentatively assigned to Batch I were divided into two groups (Series I and Series II).

NONE

1996-02-01

304

Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Technology Development projects supporting tank waste processing and disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of nuclear materials has been a major mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and predecessor agencies for the last 50 years. The production processes such as PUREX, REDOX, and bismuth phosphate separations have generated 1 à 10⁸gal of radioactive waste. The waste is currently stored in more than 300 underground storage tanks (USTs) at Hanford, Savannah River,

C. P. McGinnis; R. D. Hunt; J. M. Cruse

1994-01-01

305

Experimental Simulation of Supersonic Superboom in a Water Tank: Nonlinear Focusing of Weak Shock Waves at a Fold Caustic  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accelerating supersonic aircraft produces noisy superboom due to acoustical shock wave focusing at a fold caustic. This phenomenon is modeled by the mixed-type nonlinear Tricomi equation. An innovative experimental simulation in a water tank has been carried out, with perfect similitude to sonic boom in air. In the linear regime, the canonical Airy function is reproduced using the inverse

Régis Marchiano; Jean-Louis Thomas; François Coulouvrat

2003-01-01

306

33 CFR 155.330 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S. non-oceangoing ships.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...155.330 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S....

2013-07-01

307

33 CFR 155.350 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of less...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...155.350 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships...

2013-07-01

308

Investigations on the Operational Reliability of the Pressurizer Safety Valves and the Relief Tank During Blowdown of Hot Pressurized Water. Status Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Operational reliability of the pressurizer (and relief tank) safety valves of the pressurized-water reactor (PWR) should be demonstrated by means of experimental and analytical investigations in blowing down hot pressurized water in failure cases. This de...

H. Helf B. Bernbach

1978-01-01

309

Quality Assurance Project Plan for the HWMA\\/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System - 1997 Notice of Violation Consent Order  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Quality Assurance Project Plan for the HWMA\\/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA- 731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System is one of two documents that comprise the Sampling and Analysis Plan for the HWMA\\/RCRA closure certification of the TRA-731 caustic and acid storage tank system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This plan, which provides information about

2002-01-01

310

ANALYSIS OF THE LEACHING EFFICIENCY OF INHIBITED WATER AND TANK 23H SIMULANT IN REMOVING RESIDUES ON TANK 48H WALLS  

SciTech Connect

Solid residues on two sets of thermowell pipe samples from the D2 riser in SRS Tank 48H were characterized. The residue thickness was determined using the ASTM standard D 3483-05 and was found to be three order of magnitudes below the 1mm thickness estimated from an earlier video of the tank cooling coil inspection. The actual estimated thickness ranged from 4 to 20.4 microns. The mass per unit area ranged from 1 to 5.3 milligrams per square inch. The residues appear to consist primarily of potassium tetraphenylborate (39.8 wt% KTPB) and dried salt solution (33.5 wt% total of nitrates, nitrites and oxalate salts), although {approx}30% of the solid mass was not accounted for in the mass balance. No evidence of residue buildup was found inside the pipe, as expected. The residue leaching characteristics were measured by placing one pipe in inhibited water and one pipe in DWPF Recycle simulant. After soaking for less than 4 weeks, the inhibited water was 95.4% effective at removing the residue and the DWPF Recycle simulant was 93.5% effective. The surface appearance of the pipes after leaching tests appeared close to the clean shiny appearance of a new pipe. Total gamma counts of leachates averaged 48.1 dpm/ml, or an equivalent of 2.35E-11 Ci/gm Cs-137 (dry solids basis), which is much lower than the 1.4 E-03 Ci/gm expected for Tank 48 dry slurry solids.

Fondeur, F; Thomas02 White, T; Lawrence Oji, L; Chris Martino, C; Bill Wilmarth, B

2006-07-31

311

W-030, AY/AZ tank farm cooling and miscellaneous instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

This is the acceptance test report for construction functional testing of Project W-030 cooling systems and related instrumentation. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The Tank Farm Cooling System consists of four forced draft cooling towers, a chilled water system, and associated controls.

Cole, D.B.

1996-04-29

312

Scaling and Parametric Studies of Condensation Oscillation in an In-Containment Refueling Water Storage Tank  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to study the condensation oscillation phenomena by steam-jetting into subcooled water through a multihole sparger, implementing a scaling methodology and the similarity correlation between the test facility and model prototype. To corroborate the scaling methodology, various experimental tests were conducted. The thickness of the boundary layer that encloses the steam cavity was found to be equal to the maximum length of the steam cavity formed. Three key scaling parameters were identified and correlated with the maximum amplitude of pressure oscillation: flow restriction coefficient, area ratio of discharge hole to steam cavity, and density ratio of water to steam. Variations of the oscillation amplitude were small when steam-jetting directions were altered. The concept of a reduction factor was introduced for estimating the oscillation amplitude of the multihole sparger with test data from a single-hole sparger. The results of this study can provide suitable guidelines for sparger design utilized in the in-containment refueling water storage tank for the Advanced Power Reactor 1400.

Lee, Jun Hyung [Korea Power Engineering Company (Korea, Republic of); No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)

2003-05-15

313

Ground-water quality assessment of the central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma; project description  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In April 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began a pilot program to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. The program, known as the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program, is designed to acquire and interpret information about a variety of water-quality issues. The Central Oklahoma aquifer project is one of three ground-water pilot projects that have been started. The NAWQA program also incudes four surface-water pilot projects. The Central Oklahoma aquifer project, as part of the pilot NAWQA program, will develop and test methods for performing assessments of ground-water quality. The objectives of the Central Oklahoma aquifer assessment are: (1) To investigate regional ground-water quality throughout the aquifer in the manner consistent with the other pilot ground-water projects, emphasizing the occurrence and distribution of potentially toxic substances in ground water, including trace elements, organic compounds, and radioactive constituents; (2) to describe relations between ground-water quality, land use, hydrogeology, and other pertinent factors; and (3) to provide a general description of the location, nature, and possible causes of selected prevalent water-quality problems within the study unit; and (4) to describe the potential for water-quality degradation of ground-water zones within the study unit. The Central Oklahoma aquifer, which includes in descending order the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation, the Chase Group, the Council Grove Group, the Admire Group, and overlying alluvium and terrace deposits, underlies about 3,000 square miles of central Oklahoma and is used extensively for municipal, industrial, commercial, and domestic water supplies. The aquifer was selected for study by the NAWQA program because it is a major source for water supplies in central Oklahoma and because it has several known or suspected water-quality problems. Known problems include concentrations of arsenic, chromium, selenium, and gross-alpha activity that exceed drinking-water standards. Suspected problems include possible contamination of the aquifer by oil-field brines and drilling fluids, pesticides, industrial chemicals, septic-tank effluent, fertilizers, and leakage from sewage systems and underground tanks used for storage of hydrocarbons. There are four major components of the Central Oklahoma aquifer project. The first component is the collection and analysis of existing information, including chemical, hydrologic, and land-use data. The second component is the geohydrologic and geochemical investigations of the aquifer flow system. The third component is the sampling for a wide variety of inorganic, organic, and radioactive constituents as part a regional survey that will produce a consistent set of data among all ground-water pilot projects. These data can be used to: (1) Define regional ground-water quality within the Central Oklahoma aquifer, and (2) compare water quality in the Central Oklahoma aquifer to the water quality in the other ground-water study units of the NAWQA program. The fourth component is topical studies that will address, in more detail, some of the major water-quality issues pertaining to the aquifer.

Christenson, S. C.; Parkhurst, D. L.

1987-01-01

314

AX Tank Farm tank removal study  

SciTech Connect

This report considers the feasibility of exposing, demolishing, and removing underground storage tanks from the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. For the study, it was assumed that the tanks would each contain 360 ft{sup 3} of residual waste (corresponding to the one percent residual Inventory target cited in the Tri-Party Agreement) at the time of demolition. The 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a ''strawman'' in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tank farms. The report is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

SKELLY, W.A.

1998-10-14

315

Separation Projects Within the U.S. Department of Energy's Underground Storage Tank—Integrated Demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The greatest technical and financial challenge facing the U.S. Department of Energy is the remediation of the 1 × 10 gal of high-level and low-level radioactive waste in the underground storage tanks (USTs) at its Hanford, Savannah River, Oak Ridge, Idaho, and Fernald sites. With current technologies, this remediation is estimated to cost at least 100 billion dollars. In an

C. Phil McGinnis; Rodney D. Hunt; Sherry M. Gibson; Roger L. Gilchrist

1995-01-01

316

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-S-101: Results from samples collected on 06/06/96  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-S-101. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed.

Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

1997-01-01

317

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-102: Results from samples collected on January 26, 1996. Tank Vapor Characterization Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the results of vapor samples obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) with and without particulate prefiltration. Samples were collected f...

J. C. Evans B. L. Thomas K. H. Pool

1996-01-01

318

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank U-204, Results from samples collected on August 8, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-U-204 (Tank U-204) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the results is listed. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the text.

Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Ligotke, M.W.

1995-11-01

319

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank U-203, Results from samples collected on August 8, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-U-203 (Tank U-203) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the results is listed. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the text.

Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Ligotke, M.W.

1995-11-01

320

Biological Assessment on the Continued Long-term Operations of the Central Valley Project and the State Water Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) propose to operate the Central Valley Project (CVP) and State Water Project (SWP) to divert, store, re-divert, and convey CVP and SWP (Project) water consistent...

2008-01-01

321

78 FR 11947 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin...receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval...Tioga County, Pa.; Consumptive Use of Up to 4.000 mgd;...

2013-02-20

322

78 FR 27471 - Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...BASIN COMMISSION Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION...described below, being rescinded for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule...

2013-05-10

323

78 FR 15402 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin...receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval...Lycoming County, Pa.; Consumptive Use of Up to 0.060 mgd;...

2013-03-11

324

Characterization of turbulent airflow over evolving water-waves in a wind-wave tank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of an experimental investigation of the turbulent boundary layer in airflow over evolving young wind-waves are presented. The experiments were conducted in a laboratory wind-wave flume consisting of a closed-loop wind tunnel capable of generating wind speed that may exceed 15 m/s, atop of a 5 m long wave tank. Simultaneous measurements of mean wind velocity and of instantaneous fluctuations of the horizontal and vertical air velocity components were carried out along the test section at different airflow rates and at numerous heights above the highest wave. Instantaneous surface elevation at the air sensors' location was simultaneously recorded. The friction velocities at all locations and for all airflow rates were determined by two independent methods: by fitting the logarithmic velocity profiles and by extrapolating the measured Reynolds shear stresses to mean water surface level. The variation with height and along the test section of the fluctuations of two velocity components, in the mean flow and in the vertical directions, was also studied and the results compared with flow behavior over rough and smooth plates. Wave-induced airflow parameters were then investigated by application of cross-spectral analysis. Results on the vertical extent of wave-induced boundary layer, on the phase relation between the wave-induced velocity fluctuations and the surface elevation, as well as on the wave-induced Reynolds shear stress are reported.

Zavadsky, Andrey; Shemer, Lev

2012-11-01

325

Project management plan for Waste Area Grouping 5 Old Hydrofracture Facility tanks contents removal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

On January 1, 1992, the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) signed a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) concerning the Oak Ridge Reservation. The FFA requires that inactive liquid low-level (radioactive) waste (LLLW) tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) be remediated in accordance with requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). This revision is to update the schedule and designation of responsibilities for the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) tanks contents removal project. The scope of this project is to transfer inventory from the five inactive LLLW tanks at the OHF into the active LLLW system.

NONE

1998-06-01

326

Quantification of the contribution of nitrogen from septic tanks to ground water in Spanish Springs Valley, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analysis of total dissolved nitrogen concentrations from soil water samples collected within the soil zone under septic tank leach fields in Spanish Springs Valley, Nevada, shows a median concentration of approximately 44 milligrams per liter (mg/L) from more than 300 measurements taken from four septic tank systems. Using two simple mass balance calculations, the concentration of total dissolved nitrogen potentially reaching the ground-water table ranges from 25 to 29 mg/L. This indicates that approximately 29 to 32 metric tons of nitrogen enters the aquifer every year from natural recharge and from the 2,070 houses that use septic tanks in the densely populated portion of Spanish Springs Valley. Natural recharge contributes only 0.25 metric tons because the total dissolved nitrogen concentration of natural recharge was estimated to be low (0.8 mg/L). Although there are many uncertainties in this estimate, the sensitivity of these uncertainties to the calculated load is relatively small, indicating that these values likely are accurate to within an order of magnitude. The nitrogen load calculation will be used as an input function for a ground-water flow and transport model that will be used to test management options for controlling nitrogen contamination in the basin.

Rosen, Michael R.; Kropf, Christian; Thomas, Karen A.

2006-01-01

327

Hanford tanks initiative plan  

SciTech Connect

Abstract: The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) is a five-year project resulting from the technical and financial partnership of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Waste Management (EM-30) and Office of Science and Technology Development (EM-50). The HTI project accelerates activities to gain key technical, cost performance, and regulatory information on two high-level waste tanks. The HTI will provide a basis for design and regulatory decisions affecting the remainder of the Tank Waste Remediation System`s tank waste retrieval Program.

McKinney, K.E.

1997-07-01

328

Huambo Returnees Rural Water and Sanitation Project: Angola.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project planned to construct/rehabilitate 20 hand-dug wells and where this was not possible, to drill boreholes. Each of these 20 water points was to be maintained and managed by a water committee elected by the community. The project also aimed to c...

2005-01-01

329

Tank farm restoration and safe operation, project W-314, upgrade scope summary report (USSR)  

SciTech Connect

This revision to the Project W-314 Upgrade Scope Summary Report (USSR), incorporates changes to the project scope from Alternative Generation Analysis (AGA), customer guidance, and changing requirements. It defines the actual upgrades currently in scope, and provides traceability to the requirements and/or drivers.

Jacobson, R.W.

1997-04-01

330

Configuration Management Plan for Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations Project W-314  

SciTech Connect

The Configuration Management Plan for Project W-314 describes the systems, processes and procedures for implementation of applicable configuration management practices described in HNF-0842, Volume 111, Section 3.1, ''Configuration Management Implementation''. This plan is tailored specifically for use by Project W-314.

MCGREW, D.L.

2000-04-19

331

Systems Engineering Management Plan for Tank Farm Restoration and Safety Operations Project W-314  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Systems Engineering Management Plan for Project W-314 has been prepared within the guidelines of HNF-SD-WM-SEMP-002, TWRS Systems Engineering Management Plan. The activities within this SEMP have been tailored, in accordance with the TWRS SEMP and DOE Order 430.1, Life Cycle Asset Management, to meet the needs of the project.

2000-01-01

332

Design review report: 200 East upgrades for Project W-314, tank farm restoration and safe operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Design Review Report (DRR) documents the contractor design verification methodology and records associated with project W-314`s 200 East (200E) Upgrades design package. The DRR includes the documented comments and their respective dispositions for this design. Acceptance of the comment dispositions and closure of the review comments is indicated by the signatures of the participating reviewers. Project W-314 is a

Boes

1998-01-01

333

Project specific quality assurance plan, W-151, Tank 241-AZ-101 waste retrieval system. Revision 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project specific quality assurance program plan establishes the responsibility for the implementation of QA requirements, defines and documents the QA requirements associated with design, procurement, and construction, and defines and documents the degree of QA reviews and verifications on the design and construction necessary to assure compliance to project and DOE requirements. Revision 2 updates the QAPP to provide

Manthei

1994-01-01

334

Risk Management Plan for Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations Project W-314  

SciTech Connect

The Risk Management Plan for Project W-314 describes the systems, processes and procedures for implementation of applicable risk management practices described in HNF-0842, Volume IV, Section 2.6, ''Risk Management''. This plan is tailored specifically for use by Project W-314.

MCGREW, D.L.

2000-04-19

335

EE in Italy: Mantova's Water Analysis Project (WAP).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an account of Italy's environmental research project carried out by five high schools, titled the Water Analysis Project. Examines the historical and socioeconomic context in which it grew and developed; its objectives, processes, professional and pedagogical results. Discusses student and teacher benefits from the project. (MCO)

Sutti, Sandro

1990-01-01

336

Double Shell Tank (DST) Utilities Specification  

SciTech Connect

This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides the references to the requisite codes and standards to he applied during the design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Utilities Subsystems that support the first phase of waste feed delivery (WFD). The DST Utilities Subsystems provide electrical power, raw/potable water, and service/instrument air to the equipment and structures used to transfer low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) to designated DST staging tanks. The DST Utilities Subsystems also support the equipment and structures used to deliver blended LAW and HLW feed from these staging tanks to the River Protection Project (RPP) Privatization Contractor facility where the waste will be immobilized. This specification is intended to be the basis for new projects/installations. This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program.

SUSIENE, W.T.

2000-04-27

337

Can the pilot BOT Project provide a template for future projects? A case study of the Chengdu No. 6 Water Plant B Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chengdu No. 6 Water Plant B Project is a central government promoted pilot Build Operate Transfer (BOT) project in Chinese water sector, but the mode of the Chengdu project has not been well applied to the following BOT water supply projects. First hand data about the Chengdu project was collected focusing on project development process and organization, and lessons

Chuan Chen

2009-01-01

338

Cracking of AFNOR 7020 Aluminum Alloy Weld Joint of Water Tank for Satellite Launch Vehicle: A Metallurgical Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum alloys are frequently used as the preferred material for aerospace applications owing to their high-specific strength\\u000a and ease of fabrication. In one such application, a torroidal-shaped water tank made of AFNOR 7020 (Al–4.5Zn–1.5Mg) alloy\\u000a sheet and rings, stores water to provide for the initial run of a turbo pump and for the cooling of engine components. During\\u000a the stage

Abhay K. Jha; K. Sreekumar; P. P. Sinha

339

Design review report: 200 East upgrades for Project W-314, tank farm restoration and safe operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Design Review Report (DRR) documents the contractor design verification methodology and records associated with project W-314's 200 East (200E) Upgrades design package. The DRR includes the documented comments and their respective dispositions for th...

K. A. Boes

1998-01-01

340

Tank waste remediation system privatization phase I infrastructure and project W-519 and QA implementation plan  

SciTech Connect

This document has been prepared to identify the quality requirements for all products/activities developed by or for Project W-519. This plan is responsive to the Numatec Hanford Corporation, Quality Assurance Program Plan, NHC-MP-001.

HUSTON, J.J.

1999-08-19

341

Tank vapor characterization project: Tank 241-S-102 temporal study headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on September 19, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from analysis of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit of 150 ppm as specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank S-102 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 2.948% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <3.659% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Tables S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Sklarew, D.S. [and others

1997-08-01

342

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-BX-104 second temporal study headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on December 12, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-104 (Tank BX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-104 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.248% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.645% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Hayes, J.C.; Olsen, K.B. [and others

1997-08-01

343

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-S-102 fourth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on December 19, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit of 150 ppm as specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank S-102 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 2.410% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <2.973% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <2.973% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.; Hayes, J.C. [and others

1997-08-01

344

Tank 241-BY-108 fifth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on January 30, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from tile headspace of waste storage tank 241-B-108 (Tank BY - 108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Services Corporation (SESC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit of 150 ppm specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BY-108 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.888% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <1.979% of tile LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B. [and others

1997-09-01

345

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-C-107 fourth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on December 17, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 (Tank C-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) and were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank C-107 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 2.825% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <2.935% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.; Hayes, J.C. [and others

1997-08-01

346

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-103: Results from samples collected on 06/12/96  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-S-103 (Tank S-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA{trademark} canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L. [and others

1997-01-01

347

Tank 241-BX-104 fourth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on April 7, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-04 (Tank BX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-104 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.208% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.536% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Mitroshkov, A.V.; Hayes, J.C.; Evans, J.C. [and others

1997-09-01

348

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-C-204: Results from samples collected on 07/02/96  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-C-204 (Tank C-204) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA{trademark} canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H. [and others

1997-01-01

349

Tank 241-BY-108 fourth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on November 14, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-108 (Tank BY-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected nonradioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit of 150 ppm specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BY-108 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 1.390% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <2.830% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B. [and others

1997-07-01

350

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-BX-102 headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on July 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-102 (Tank BX-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured volumes provided by WHC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and and analysis plan. Ammonia and TNMOCs were the principal flammable constituents of the Tank BX-102 headspace, each determined to be present at approximately 0.002% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.107% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B. Edwards, J.A. [and others

1997-08-01

351

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Tank 241-TY-102: Results from samples collected on 04/12/96  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-TY-102 (Tank TY-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to`characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes, and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA{trademark} canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L. [and others

1997-01-01

352

Tank 241-S-102 fifth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on February 11, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project  

SciTech Connect

This report presents tile results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurlsys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by tile Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based oil measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above tile immediate notification limit of 150 ppm as specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank S-102 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 1.150% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <1.624% of the LFL, Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of tile analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Mitroshkov, A.V.; Evans, J.C.; Hayes, J.C. [and others

1997-09-01

353

Tank vapor characterization project: Tank 241-BX-104 fifth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on June 10, 1997  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-104 (Tank BX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-104 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.270% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.675% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Hayes, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B. [and others

1997-07-01

354

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-BX-104 headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on August 22, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-104 (Tank BX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analyses plan (SAP). Total non-methane organic compounds was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-104 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.310% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.784% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Julya, J.L. [and others

1997-08-01

355

Tank 241-BX-104 third temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on February 6, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-104 (Tank BX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-104 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.178 % of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.458% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Hayes, J.C. [and others

1997-09-01

356

Tank vapor characterization project: Tank 241-BY-101 headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on August 29, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-101 (Tank BY-101) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Total non-methane organic compounds (TNMOCs) were the principal flammable constituent of the Tank By-101 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.136% of the LFL. Averaged measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B. [and others

1997-08-01

357

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Tank 241-B-105: Results from samples collected on 07/30/96  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-B-105 (Tank B-105) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA{trademark} canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L. [and others

1997-01-01

358

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-BX-111 headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on August 27, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-111 (Tank BX-111) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Ammonia was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-111 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.042 of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.157% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Sklarew, D.S. Edwards, J.A. [and others

1997-08-01

359

Tank 241-C-107 fifth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on February 7, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 (Tank C-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Services Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank C-107 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 3.233% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <3.342% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Hayes, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C. [and others

1997-08-01

360

Hanford Double-Shell Tank Thermal and Seismic Project ANSYS Benchmark Analysis of Seismically Induced Fluid-Structure Interaction in a Hanford Double-Shell Primary Tank.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall seismic analysis of the Double Shell Tanks (DSTs) is being performed with the general-purpose finite element code ANSYS. The overall model used for the seismic analysis of the DSTs includes the DST structure, the contained waste, and the surro...

T. C. Mackey

2006-01-01

361

Design review report: project development specifications for project W-314, tank farm resoration and safe operation, phase I  

SciTech Connect

This Design Review Report (DRR) documents the closure of all Review Cormnent Record sheets associated with the design reviews conducted for the Project W-314 Phase 1 Project Development Specification (PDS) Requirements Analysis. The DRR includes the documented comments and their respective dispositions for the W-314 PDS Requirements Analysis documents associated with Transfer Piping, Valve Pit Manifolds, Pit Leak Detection, Master Pump Shutdown, and Special Protective Coating. Acceptance of the comment dispositions and closure of the review comments is indicated by the Signatures of the participating reviewers.

Boes, K.A., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-02-27

362

A Sustainable Waste Water Management Project: MEDAWARE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MEDAWARE Project was initiated by the collaboration of 7 Med countries in 2003. The main aim of the project was to develop tools and guidelines for the promotion of the urban wastewater treatment and reuse in the agricultural production in the Mediterranean countries for a sustainable environment and resources. Within this scope METU team undertook an inventory of the

Filiz Dilek; Celal F Gökçay

363

The Virginia Pipeline: Australia's largest water recycling project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need to conserve, reuse and recycle water is becoming increasingly important for both environmental and economic reasons. The Virginia Pipeline is Australia's largest water recycling project. More than half the output from (the capital of South Australia) Adelaide's largest wastewater treatment plant is further treated to achieve a product water quality fit for irrigation of vegetable crops with minimal

B. Kracman; R. Martin; P. Sztajnbok

364

Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for installation and operation of a waste retrieval system and tanks 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104 project  

SciTech Connect

This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC) pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246 247-060, and as a request for approval to modify pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61 07 for the installation and operation of one waste retrieval system in the 24 1 AP-102 Tank and one waste retrieval system in the 241 AP 104 Tank Pursuant to 40 CFR 61 09 (a)( 1) this application is also intended to provide anticipated initial start up notification Its is requested that EPA approval of this application will also constitute EPA acceptance of the initial start up notification Project W 211 Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is scoped to install a waste retrieval system in the following double-shell tanks 241-AP 102-AP 104 AN 102, AN 103, AN-104, AN 105, AY 102 AZ 102 and SY-102 between now and the year 2011. Because of the extended installation schedules and unknowns about specific activities/designs at each tank, it was decided to submit NOCs as that information became available This NOC covers the installation and operation of a waste retrieval system in tanks 241 AP-102 and 241 AP 104 Generally this includes removal of existing equipment installation of new equipment and construction of new ancillary equipment and buildings Tanks 241 AP 102 and 241 AP 104 will provide waste feed for immobilization into a low activity waste (LAW) product (i.e. glass logs) The total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) from the construction activities is 0 045 millirem per year The unabated TEDE to the offsite ME1 from operation of the mixer pumps is 0 042 millirem per year.

DEXTER, M.L.

1999-11-15

365

INL Bettis Water Treatment Project Report  

SciTech Connect

Bechtel Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory (Bettis), West Mifflin, PA, requested that the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) (Battelle Energy Alliance) perform tests using water simulants and three specified media to determine if those ion-exchange (IX) resins will be effective at removing the plutonium contamination from water. This report details the testing and results of the tests to determine the suitability of the media to treat plutonium contaminated water at near nuetral pH.

Not Available

2009-06-01

366

PBF (PER620) interior. Detail view across top of reactor tank. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PBF (PER-620) interior. Detail view across top of reactor tank. Camera facing northeast. Ait tubing is cleanup equipment. Note projections from reactor structure above water level in tank. Date: May 2004. INEEL negative no. HD-41-5-1 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

367

Tank 241-C-106 sluicing project W-320 integrity assessment report  

SciTech Connect

This Integrity Assessment Report is prepared by ICF Kaiser Hanford Co. (ICFKH) for Westinqhouse Hanford Company (WHC), operations contractor and the Department of Energy (DOE), the system owner. It is a revision of the original report dated 10/26/94 (ICFKH Transmittal TR-W-320-295). The original project scope has been modified, necessitating with WAC-173-303-640.

Symons, G.A., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-02-11

368

Tank vapor characterization project. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste Tank SX-101: Results from samples collected on 07/21/95  

SciTech Connect

Results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. They include air concentrations of inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples. The vapor concentrations are based either on whole-volume samples or on sorbent traps exposed to sample flow. No immediate notifications were needed because analytical results indicated no specific analytes exceeded notification levels. Summary of results: NH3, 3.8 ppmv; NO2, 0.10 ppmv; NO, 0.13 ppm; H2O, 11.8 mg/L; CO2, 338 ppmv; CO, <25 ppmv; CH4, <25 ppmv; H2, <25 ppmv; N20, <25 ppmv; hydrocarbons, 0.98 mg/m{sup 3}; methanol, 0.060 ppmv; acetone, 0.033 ppmv; trichlorofluoromethane, 0.023 ppmv; and acetone, 0.034 ppmv.

Evans, J.C.; Clauss, T.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

1996-05-01

369

Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-TX-105: Results from samples collected on December 20, 1994. Waste Tank Vapor Project  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the details of the inorganic and organic analysis that was performed on samples from the headspace of Hanford waste tank 241-TX-105. The results described were obtained to support the safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for the inorganic and organic analytes is included, as well as, a detailed description of the results which appears in the text.

Klinger, G.S.; Ligotke, M.W.; Lucke, R.B. [and others

1995-06-01

370

Water management in the arid west: the Cheyenne Water Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effect of energy-related growth in Wyoming has been increased competition for water. The 1982 Wyoming State Legislature authorized a large-scale water-development program using funds obtained through mineral severance taxes. A primary focus of the water-development program has been the Colorado River Basin, where Wyoming has an undeveloped water entitlement. An attitude evolved that Wyoming should hasten to develop this

Beiswenger

1983-01-01

371

Computational analysis of coupled fluid, heat, and mass transport in ferrocyanide single-shell tanks: FY 1994 interim report. Ferrocyanide Tank Safety Project  

SciTech Connect

A computer modeling study was conducted to determine whether natural convection processes in single-shell tanks containing ferrocyanide wastes could generate localized precipitation zones that significantly concentrate the major heat-generating radionuclide, {sup 137}Cs. A computer code was developed that simulates coupled fluid, heat, and single-species mass transport on a regular, orthogonal finite-difference grid. The analysis showed that development of a ``hot spot`` is critically dependent on the temperature dependence for the solubility of Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} or CsNaNiFe(CN){sub 6}. For the normal case, where solubility increases with increasing temperature, the net effect of fluid flow, heat, and mass transport is to disperse any local zones of high heat generation rate. As a result, hot spots cannot physically develop for this case. However, assuming a retrograde solubility dependence, the simulations indicate the formation of localized deposition zones that concentrate the {sup 137}Cs near the bottom center of the tank where the temperatures are highest. Recent experimental studies suggest that Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6}(c) does not exhibit retrograde solubility over the temperature range 25{degree}C to 90{degree}C and NaOH concentrations to 5 M. Assuming these preliminary results are confirmed, no natural mass transport process exists for generating a hot spot in the ferrocyanide single-shell tanks.

McGrail, B.P.

1994-11-01

372

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-C-107 temporal study headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on September 5, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank C-107 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 1.405% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <1.519% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Edwards, J.A.; Silvers, K.L. [and others

1997-08-01

373

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-BY-108 temporal study headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on September 10, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-108 (Tank BY-108) at the Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit of 150 ppm specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BY-108 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 1.463% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <2.940% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Sklarew, D.S. [and others

1997-08-01

374

Leaking underground storage tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remedial options for leaking underground storage tanks were investigated in a joint project of the Electric Power Research Institute and the Underground Storage Tank Committee of the Utility Solid Waste Activities Group. Both existing and emerging technologies were examined. Thirteen remedial techniques were identified and initially characterized as in situ or non-in situ. In situ methods include volatilization, biodegradation, leaching

M. E. McLearn; M. J. Miller; P. T. Kostecki; E. J. Calabrese; L. M. Presio; W. Suyama; W. A. Kucharski

1988-01-01

375

Enhancing Fish Tank VR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish tank VR systems provide head coupled perspective projected stereo images on a display device of limited di- mensions that resides at a fixed location. Therefore, fish tank VR systems provide only a limited virtual workspace. As a result, such systems are less suited for displaying vir- tual worlds that extend beyond the available workspace and depth perception problems arise

Jurriaan D. Mulder; Robert Van Liere

2000-01-01

376

Storage tank corrosion  

SciTech Connect

Knocking out corrosion in crude oil storage tanks has made a winner of Joe Lewis, a corrosion technician for Shell Pipeline Co. at Midland, Texas. ''I've been battling rust and decay for 21 years and I've never lost a fight yet,'' he explains. Lewis was recently matched against two heavyweight opponents - two crude oil storage tanks, one with a capacity of 122,000 bbl, the other with a capacity of 82,000 bbl. The tanks are located at the McCamey Tank Farm in West Texas. Again, Lewis was the winner. ''One tank was leaking, so we repaired it and replaced the bottom coating on the inside of the tank,'' he said. ''Fixing the other tank required replacing the bottom coating with a new one.'' Shell Pipelines's McCamey Tank Farm has been operating since 1928, growing over the years to include 32 storage tanks ranging in size from small to giant. Most of the tanks were erected in the 1930s and 1940s and have been storing oil since that time. Occasionally, water will seep in through cracks in a tank's bottom coating and eat away at the steel; small holes develop and these must be repaired to prevent oil from leaking into the ground below.

Not Available

1986-03-01

377

Project W-314 specific test and evaluation plan for AZ tank farm upgrades  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made by the addition of the SN-631 transfer line from the AZ-O1A pit to the AZ-02A pit by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system`s performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a lower tier document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation P1 an (TEP). Testing includes Validations and Verifications (e.g., Commercial Grade Item Dedication activities, etc), Factory Tests and Inspections (FTIs), installation tests and inspections, Construction Tests and Inspections (CTIs), Acceptance Test Procedures (ATPs), Pre-Operational Test Procedures (POTPs), and Operational Test Procedures (OTPs). The STEP will be utilized in conjunction with the TEP for verification and validation.

Hays, W.H.

1998-08-12

378

61. VIEW OF SALT RIVER PROJECT WELL DISCHARGING WATER INTO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

61. VIEW OF SALT RIVER PROJECT WELL DISCHARGING WATER INTO THE ARIZONA CANAL NEAR 47TH AVENUE, LOOKING SOUTH Photographer: James Eastwood, July 1990 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

379

Water Quality Evaluation of the Bluestone Project, Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The water quality evaluation has been prepared for the Bureau of Reclamation, Region 4, U. S. Department of the Interior, Salt Lake City, Utah, for inclusion in their feasibility report for the Bluestone Reservoir Project, Colorado. The primary purposes o...

1969-01-01

380

TANK 21 AND TANK 24 BLEND AND FEED STUDY: BLENDING TIMES, SETTLING TIMES, AND TRANSFERS  

SciTech Connect

The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where salt solutions of up to 1.2 million gallons will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. In particular, Tanks 21 and 24 are planned to be used for blending and transferring to the SDI feed tank. These tanks were evaluated here to determine blending times, to determine a range of settling times for disturbed sludge, and to determine that the SWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria that less than 1200 mg/liter of solids will be entrained in salt solutions during transfers from the Tank 21 and Tank 24 will be met. Overall conclusions for Tank 21 and Tank 24 operations include: (1) Experimental correction factors were applied to CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models to establish blending times between approximately two and five hours. As shown in Phase 2 research, blending times may be as much as ten times greater, or more, if lighter fluids are added to heavier fluids (i.e., water added to salt solution). As the densities of two salt solutions converge this effect may be minimized, but additional confirmatory research was not performed. (2) At the current sludge levels and the presently planned operating heights of the transfer pumps, solids entrainment will be less than 1200 mg/liter, assuming a conservative, slow settling sludge simulant. (3) Based on theoretical calculations, particles in the density range of 2.5 to 5.0 g/mL must be greater than 2-4 {micro}m in diameter to ensure they settle adequately in 30-60 days to meet the SWPF feed criterion (<1200 mg/l). (4) Experimental tests with sludge batch 6 simulant and field turbidity data from a recent Tank 21 mixing evolution suggest the solid particles have higher density and/or larger size than indicated by previous analysis of SRS sludge and sludge simulants. (5) Tank 21 waste characterization, laboratory settling tests, and additional field turbidity measurements during mixing evolutions are recommended to better understand potential risk for extended (> 60 days) settling times in Tank 21.

Lee, S.; Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.

2012-05-31

381

Experimental Simulation of Supersonic Superboom in a Water Tank: Nonlinear Focusing of Weak Shock Waves at a Fold Caustic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An accelerating supersonic aircraft produces noisy superboom due to acoustical shock wave focusing at a fold caustic. This phenomenon is modeled by the mixed-type nonlinear Tricomi equation. An innovative experimental simulation in a water tank has been carried out, with perfect similitude to sonic boom in air. In the linear regime, the canonical Airy function is reproduced using the inverse filter technique. In the nonlinear regime (weak shock waves), the experiment demonstrates the key role of nonlinear effects: they limit the field amplitude, distort the sonic line, and strongly alter the phase of the signal, in agreement with numerical simulations.

Marchiano, Régis; Thomas, Jean-Louis; Coulouvrat, François

2003-10-01

382

Experimental simulation of supersonic superboom in a water tank: nonlinear focusing of weak shock waves at a fold caustic.  

PubMed

An accelerating supersonic aircraft produces noisy superboom due to acoustical shock wave focusing at a fold caustic. This phenomenon is modeled by the mixed-type nonlinear Tricomi equation. An innovative experimental simulation in a water tank has been carried out, with perfect similitude to sonic boom in air. In the linear regime, the canonical Airy function is reproduced using the inverse filter technique. In the nonlinear regime (weak shock waves), the experiment demonstrates the key role of nonlinear effects: they limit the field amplitude, distort the sonic line, and strongly alter the phase of the signal, in agreement with numerical simulations. PMID:14611285

Marchiano, Régis; Thomas, Jean-Louis; Coulouvrat, François

2003-10-28

383

TA-2 Water Boiler Reactor Decommissioning Project  

SciTech Connect

This final report addresses the Phase 2 decommissioning of the Water Boiler Reactor, biological shield, other components within the biological shield, and piping pits in the floor of the reactor building. External structures and underground piping associated with the gaseous effluent (stack) line from Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Water Boiler Reactor were removed in 1985--1986 as Phase 1 of reactor decommissioning. The cost of Phase 2 was approximately $623K. The decommissioning operation produced 173 m{sup 3} of low-level solid radioactive waste and 35 m{sup 3} of mixed waste. 15 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.

Durbin, M.E. (ed.); Montoya, G.M.

1991-06-01

384

Influence of the South-North Water Diversion Project and the mitigation projects on the water quality of Han River.  

PubMed

Situated in the central part of China, the Han River Basin is undergoing rapid social and economic development with some human interventions to be made soon which will profoundly influence the water environment of the basin. The integrated MIKE 11 model system comprising of a rainfall-runoff model (NAM), a non-point load evaluation model (LOAD), a hydrodynamic model (MIKE 11 HD) and a water quality model (ECOLab) was applied to investigate the impact of the Middle Route of the South-North Water Diversion Project on the Han River and the effectiveness of the 2 proposed mitigation projects, the 22 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and the Yangtze-Han Water Diversion Project. The study concludes that business as usual will lead to a continuing rapid deterioration of the water quality of the Han River. Implementation of the Middle Route of the South-North Water Diversion Project in 2010 will bring disastrous consequence in the form of the remarkably elevated pollution level and high risk of algae bloom in the middle and lower reaches. The proposed WWTPs will merely lower the pollution level in the reach by around 10%, while the Yangtze-Han Water Diversion Project can significantly improve the water quality in the downstream 200-km reach. The results reveal that serious water quality problem will emerge in the middle reach between Xiangfan and Qianjiang in the future. Implementation of the South-North Water Diversion Project (phase II) in 2030 will further exacerbate the problem. In order to effectively improve the water quality of the Han River, it is suggested that nutrient removal processes should be adopted in the proposed WWTPs, and the pollution load from the non-point sources, especially the load from the upstream Henan Province, should be effectively controlled. PMID:18799199

Zhu, Y P; Zhang, H P; Chen, L; Zhao, J F

2008-09-16

385

ANALYSIS OF THE LEACHING EFFICIENCY OF INHIBITED WATER AND TANK 23H SIMULANT IN REMOVING RESIDUES ON TANK 48H WALLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid residues on two sets of thermowell pipe samples from the D2 riser in SRS Tank 48H were characterized. The residue thickness was determined using the ASTM standard D 3483-05 and was found to be three order of magnitudes below the 1mm thickness estimated from an earlier video of the tank cooling coil inspection. The actual estimated thickness ranged from

F Fondeur; L Lawrence Oji; C Chris Martino; B Bill Wilmarth

2006-01-01

386

WATER SYSTEM OPERATOR TRAINING FOR THE CENTRAL ARIZONA PROJECT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Central Arizona Project (CAP) is designed to bring about 1.5 million acre-feet of Colorado River water per year to Maricopa, Pima, and Pinal counties in Arizona. CAP carries water from Lake Havasu down to Tucson. The CAP canal system is a 336-mile long system of aqueducts, tunnels, pumping pla...

387

Building water and sanitation projects in rural Guatemala  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nonprofit technical assistance organization has successfully developed rural water and sanitation projects in remote mountain villages in Guatemala. Essential parts of the program include appropriate technologies, village participation, selffinancing, village-managed operation and maintenance, and use of paraprofessional rural water technicians.

Andrew W. Karp; Stephen B. Cox

1982-01-01

388

A pilot study on water pollution and characterization of multidrug-resistant superbugs from Byramangala tank, Ramanagara district, Karnataka, India.  

PubMed

Urbanization and industrialization has increased the strength and qualities of municipal sewage in Bangalore, India. The disposal of sewage into natural water bodies became a serious issue. Byramangala reservoir is one such habitat enormously polluted in South India. The water samples were collected from four hotspots of Byramangala tank in 3 months. The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and bacterial counts were determined. The fecal coliforms were identified by morphological, physiological, and biochemical studies. The antibiotics sensitivity profiling of isolated bacteria were further carried out. We have noticed that a high content of BOD in the tank in all the 3 months. The total and fecal counts were found to be varied from 1.6?×?10(6) to 8.2?×?10(6)?colony forming unit/ml and >5,500/100 ml, respectively. The variations in BOD and total count were found to be statistically significant at p?>?0.05. Many pathogenic bacteria were characterized and most of them were found to be multidrug resistant. Salmonella showed resistance to cefoperazone, cefotaxime, cefixime, moxifloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, co-trimoxazole, levofloxacin, trimethoprim, and ceftazidime. Escherichia coli showed resistance to chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, co-trimoxazole, rifampicin, and nitrofurantoin while Enterobacter showed resistant to ampicillin, cefepime, ceftazidime, cefoperazone, and cefotaxime. Klebsiella and Shigella exhibited multiple drug resistance to conventional antibiotics. Staphylococcus showed resistance to vancomycin, methicillin, oxacillin, and tetracycline. Furthermore, Salmonella and Klebsiella are on the verge of acquiring resistance to even the strongest carbapenems-imipenem and entrapenem. Present study revealed that Byramanagala tank has become a cesspool of multidrug-resistant "superbugs" and will be major health concern in South Bangalore, India. PMID:23114918

Skariyachan, Sinosh; Lokesh, Priyanka; Rao, Reshma; Kumar, Arushi Umesh; Vasist, Kiran S; Narayanappa, Rajeswari

2012-11-01

389

BELTWAY 8 WETLAND WATER QUALITY PROJECT: CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS FOR STORM WATER POLISHING AND WETLAND MITIGATION BANKING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Harris County Flood Control District is implementing a wetland mitigation bank project that includes highway runoff as a significant water source. Part of this project is being implemented in cooperation with the Texas Department of Transportation through funding from the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act for water quality improvement. This collaborative effort includes treatment and final polishing of storm

Robert Knight; Robert Adams; C OBRIEN; Eduardo Davis

1998-01-01

390

Thermally stratified tanks  

SciTech Connect

This paper shows how tanks fail to stratify and describes a new solar collection strategy that allows stratification to be maintained. A theory that models thermally stratified tanks reasonably well is briefly summarized. Tests of tanks fitted with various internal baffle and diffuser configurations are described. Conclusions are: (1) the new collection strategy is essential for maintaining stratification; and (2) most tanks can remain stratified in diurnal cycling. Dip tubes and vertical baffles degrade stratification. Tank walls should have low heat capacity compared to that of water. Tanks with a height-to-diameter ratio of about four provide the best stratification without excessive thermal losses. Simple inlet and outlet diffusers provide the best thermal stratification.

Cole, R.L.; Bellinger, F.O.

1982-01-01

391

UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Tuba City, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Tuba City, Arizona, are described in the following sections of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP). This plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the stations routinely monitored at the site. The ground water data are used for site characterization and risk assessment. The regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and the final EPA standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), and the most effective technical approach for the site.

NONE

1996-02-01

392

Isothermal Oxidation of White Phosphorus Dispersed in Water in a Stirred-Tank Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A global, first-order kinetic model was found to fit the data for the isothermal wet oxidation of elemental white phosphorus (P4) in a batch, stirred-tank reactor. The initial concentration of white phosphorus solids was held constant at 1 g\\/L and an air flow of 2.0 standard liters per minute was used to supply the oxygen for the reaction. A CD6-like

Joseph B. Mathews; Irvin A. Jefcoat

1997-01-01

393

Phase II, Final Project Report, Paso del Norte Watershed Council, Coordinated Water Resources Database, and GIS Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Coordinated Water Resources Database and GIS Project was developed to provide improved access to regional water resources data in the Paso del Norte region for regional water stakeholders to make timely decisions in water operations and flood control....

C. Brown M. Bourdon Z. Sheng

2007-01-01

394

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT SENSITIVITY OF DOUBLE SHELL DYNAMIC RESPONSE TO THE WASTE ELASTIC PROPERTIES  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the dynamic response of the Hanford double-shell tanks (DSTs) to the assumptions regarding the constitutive properties of the contained waste. In all cases, the waste was modeled as a uniform linearly elastic material. The focus of the study was on the changes in the modal response of the tank and waste system as the extensional modulus (elastic modulus in tension and compression) and shear modulus of the waste were varied through six orders of magnitude. Time-history analyses were also performed for selected cases and peak horizontal reaction forces and axial stresses at the bottom of the primary tank were evaluated. Because the analysis focused on the differences in the responses between solid-filled and liquid-filled tanks, it is a comparative analysis rather than an analysis of record for a specific tank or set of tanks. The shear modulus was varied between 4 x 10{sup 3} Pa and 4.135 x 10{sup 9} Pa. The lowest value of shear modulus was sufficient to simulate the modal response of a liquid-containing tank, while the higher values are several orders of magnitude greater than the upper limit of expected properties for tank contents. The range of elastic properties used was sufficient to show liquid-like response at the lower values, followed by a transition range of semi-solid-like response to a clearly identifiable solid-like response. It was assumed that the mechanical properties of the tank contents were spatially uniform. Because sludge-like materials are expected only to exist in the lower part of the tanks, this assumption leads to an exaggeration of the effects of sludge-like materials in the tanks. The results of the study show that up to a waste shear modulus of at least 40,000 Pa, the modal properties of the tank and waste system are very nearly the same as for the equivalent liquid-containing tank. This suggests that the differences in critical tank responses between liquid-containing tanks and tanks containing sludge-like materials having a shear modulus not exceeding 40,000 Pa are unlikely to be greater than those due to the uncertainties involved in the definition of the design ground motion or in the properties of the tank-waste system. This is the fundamental conclusion of the study. The study also shows that increasing the waste extensional modulus and shear modulus does not lead to increased mass participation at the impulsive frequency of the liquid-containing system. Instead, increasing the waste stiffness eventually leads to fundamental changes in the modal properties including an increase in the fundamental system frequency.

MACKEY TC; ABATT FG; JOHNSON KI

2009-01-16

395

Tank characterization technical sampling basis  

SciTech Connect

Tank Characterization Technical Sampling Basis (this document) is the first step of an in place working process to plan characterization activities in an optimal manner. This document will be used to develop the revision of the Waste Information Requirements Document (WIRD) (Winkelman et al. 1997) and ultimately, to create sampling schedules. The revised WIRD will define all Characterization Project activities over the course of subsequent fiscal years 1999 through 2002. This document establishes priorities for sampling and characterization activities conducted under the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Tank Waste Characterization Project. The Tank Waste Characterization Project is designed to provide all TWRS programs with information describing the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of the contents of waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. These tanks contain radioactive waste generated from the production of nuclear weapons materials at the Hanford Site. The waste composition varies from tank to tank because of the large number of chemical processes that were used when producing nuclear weapons materials over the years and because the wastes were mixed during efforts to better use tank storage space. The Tank Waste Characterization Project mission is to provide information and waste sample material necessary for TWRS to define and maintain safe interim storage and to process waste fractions into stable forms for ultimate disposal. This document integrates the information needed to address safety issues, regulatory requirements, and retrieval, treatment, and immobilization requirements. Characterization sampling to support tank farm operational needs is also discussed.

Brown, T.M.

1998-04-28

396

8. VIEW FROM NORTHWEST OF CONDENSATE STORAGE TANK (LEFT), PRIMARY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW FROM NORTHWEST OF CONDENSATE STORAGE TANK (LEFT), PRIMARY WATER STORAGE TANK (CENTER), CANAL WATER STORAGE TANK (RIGHT) (LOCATIONS E,F,D) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

397

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT ESTABLISHMENT OF METHODOLOGY FOR TIME DOMAIN SOIL STRUCTURE INTERACTION ANALYSIS OF HANFORD DST  

SciTech Connect

M&D Professional Services, Inc. (M&D) is under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to perform seismic analysis of the Hanford Site Double-Shell Tanks (DSTs) in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank DSV Integrity Project-DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The work statement provided to M&D (PNNL 2003) required that the seismic analysis of the DST assess the impacts of potentially non-conservative assumptions in previous analyses and account for the additional soil mass due to the as-found soil density increase, the effects of material degradation, additional thermal profiles applied to the full structure including the soil-structure response with the footings, the non-rigid (low frequency) response of the tank roof, the asymmetric seismic-induced soil loading, the structural discontinuity between the concrete tank wall and the support footing and the sloshing of the tank waste. The seismic analysis considers the interaction of the tank with the surrounding soil, and the effects of the primary tank contents. The DST and the surrounding soil are modeled as a system of finite elements. The depth and width of the soil incorporated into the analysis model are sufficient to obtain appropriately accurate analytical results. The analyses required to support the work statement differ from previous analysis of the DSTs in that the soil-structure interaction (SSI) model includes several (nonlinear) contact surfaces in the tank structure, and the contained waste must be modeled explicitly in order to capture the fluid-structure interaction behavior between the primary tank and contained waste. Soil-structure interaction analyses are traditionally solved in the frequency domain, but frequency domain analysis is limited to systems with linear responses. The nonlinear character of the coupled SSI model and tank structural model requires that the seismic analysis be solved in the time domain. However, time domain SSI analysis is somewhat nontraditional and requires that the appropriate methodology be developed and demonstrated. Moreover, the analysis of seismically induced fluid-structure interaction between the explicitly modeled waste and the primary tank must be benchmarked against known solutions to simpler problems before being applied to the more complex analysis of the DSTs. The objective of this investigation is to establish the methodology necessary to perform the required SSI analysis of the DSTs in the time domain. Specifically, the analysis establishes the capabilities and limitations of the time domain codes ANSYS and Dytran for performing seismic SSI analysis of the DSTs. The benchmarking of the codes Dytran and ANSYS for performing seismically induced fluid-structure interaction (FSI) between the contained waste and the DST primary tank are documented in Abatt (2006) and Carpenter and Abatt (2006), respectively. The results of those two studies show that both codes have the capability to analyze the fluid-structure interaction behavior of the primary tank and contained waste. As expected, Dytran appears to have more robust capabilities for FSI analysis. The ANSYS model used in that study captures much of the FSI behavior, but does have some limitations for predicting the convective response of the waste and possibly the response of the waste in the knuckle region of the primary tank. While Dytran appears to have somewhat stronger capabilities for the analysis of the FSI behavior in the primary tank, it is more practical for the overall analysis to use ANSYS. Thus, Dytran served the purpose of helping to identify limitations in the ANSYS FSI analysis so that those limitations can be addressed in the structural evaluation of the primary tank. The limitations of ANSYS for predicting the details of the convective

MACKEY, T.C.

2006-03-14

398

Operation and maintenance manual for septic holding tank system for project W-519, two double-wide construction support trailers  

SciTech Connect

This manual was prepared to provide detailed information for the operation and maintenance of the sanitary wastewater holding system. This procedure sets forth system operations which include type and frequency of required maintenance as well as system failure response procedures. The system consists of a sanitary sewage holding tank, two alarms and appurtenances necessary to provide a functional system. The maximum daily design flow is 696 liters. The holding tank is located as shown on the site plan.

MORTIMER, C.S.

1999-08-25

399

Wind electric generator project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wind generator was installed and connected at Iowa Western Community College. It is heating water through four hot water tanks and proved to be an excellent demonstration project for the community. The college gets frequent inquiries about the windmill and has been very cooperative in informing the public about the success. The windmill generates more electricity than is needed to heat four hot water heaters and future plans are to hook up more. The project requires very little maintenance.

1983-09-01

400

Rapid Migration of Radionuclides Leaked from High-Level Water Tanks; A Study of Salinity Gradients, Wetted Path Geometry and Water Vapor Transport  

SciTech Connect

The basis of this study was the hypothesis that the physical and chemical properties of hypersaline tank waste could lead to wetting from instability and fingered flow following a tank leak. Thus, the goal of this project was to develop an understanding of the impacts of the properties of hypersaline fluids on transport through the unsaturated zone beneath Hanford's Tank Farms. There were three specific objectives (i) to develop an improved conceptualization of hypersaline fluid transport in laboratory (ii) to identify the degree to which field conditions mimic the flow processes observed in the laboratory and (iii) to provide a validation data set to establish the degree to which the conceptual models, embodied in a numerical simulator, could explain the observed field behavior. As hypothesized, high ionic strength solutions entering homogeneous pre-wetted porous media formed unstable wetting fronts atypical of low ionic strength infiltration. In the field, this mechanism could for ce flow in vertical flow paths, 5-15 cm in width, bypassing much of the media and leading to waste penetration to greater depths than would be predicted by current conceptual models. Preferential flow may lead to highly accelerated transport through large homogeneous units, and must be included in any conservative analysis of tank waste losses through coarse-textured units. However, numerical description of fingered flow using current techniques has been unreliable, thereby precluding tank-scale 3-D simulation of these processes. A new approach based on nonzero, hysteretic contract angles and fluid-dependent liquid entry has been developed for the continuum scale modeling of fingered flow. This approach has been coupled with and adaptive-grid finite-difference solver to permit the prediction of finger formation and persistence form sub centimeter scales to the filed scale using both scalar and vector processors. Although laboratory experiments demonstrated that elevated surface tens ion of imbibing solutions can enhance vertical fingered flow, this phenomenon was not observed in the field. Field tests showed that the fingered flow behavior was overwhelmed by the variability in texture resulting from differences in the depositional environment. Field plumes were characterized by lateral spreading with an average width to depth aspect ratio of 4. For both vertical fingers and lateral flow, the high ionic strength contributed to the vapor phase dilution of the waste, which increased waste volume and pushed the wetting from well beyond what would have occurred if the volume of material had remained unchanged from that initially released into the system. It was also observed that following significant vapor-phase dilution of this waste simulants that streams of colloids were ejected from the sediment surfaces. It was shown that due to the high-sodium content of the tank wastes the colloids were deflocculated below a critical salt concentration in Hanford sediments. Th e released colloids, which at the site would be expected to carry the bulk of the sorbed heavy metals and radioisotopes, were mobile though coarse Hanford sediments, but clogged finer layers. The developments resulting from this study are already being applied at Hanford in the nonisothermal prediction of the hypersaline, high pH waste migration in tank farms and in the development of inverse methods for history matching under DOE's Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project at Hanford.

Anderson l. Ward; Glendon W. Gee; John S. Selker; Clay Cooper

2002-04-24

401

Rapid Migration of Radionuclides Leaked from High-Level Water Tanks: A Study of Salinity Gradients, Wetted Path Geometry and Water Vapor Transport  

SciTech Connect

The basis of this study was the hypothesis that the physical and chemical properties of hypersaline tank waste could lead to wetting from instability and fingered flow following a tank leak. Thus, the goal of this project was to develop an understanding of the impacts of the properties of hypersaline fluids on transport through the unsaturated zone beneath Hanford's Tank Farms. There were three specific objectives (i) to develop an improved conceptualization of hypersaline fluid transport in laboratory (ii) to identify the degree to which field conditions mimic the flow processes observed in the laboratory and (iii) to provide a validation data set to establish the degree to which the conceptual models, embodied in a numerical simulator, could explain the observed field behavior. As hypothesized, high ionic strength solutions entering homogeneous pre-wetted porous media formed unstable wetting fronts a typical of low ionic strength infiltration. In the field, this mechanism could force flow in vertical flow paths, 5-15 cm in width, bypassing much of the media and leading to waste penetration to greater depths than would be predicted by current conceptual models. Preferential flow may lead to highly accelerated transport through large homogeneous units, and must be included in any conservative analysis of tank waste losses through coarse-textured units. However, numerical description of fingered flow using current techniques has been unreliable, thereby precluding tank-scale 3-D simulation of these processes. A new approach based on nonzero, hysteretic contact angles and fluid-dependent liquid entry has been developed for the continuum scale modeling of fingered flow. This approach has been coupled with and adaptive-grid finite-difference solver to permit the prediction of finger formation and persistence form sub centimeter scales to the filed scale using both scalar and vector processors. Although laboratory experiments demonstrated that elevated surface tension of imbibing solutions can enhance vertical fingered flow, this phenomenon was not observed in the field. Field tests of showed that the fingered flow behavior was overwhelmed by the variability in texture resulting from differences in the depositional environment. Field plumes were characterized by lateral spreading with an average width to depth aspect ratio of 4. For both vertical fingers and lateral flow, the high ionic strength contributed to the vapor phase dilution of the waste, which increased waste volume and pushed the wetting from well beyond what would have occurred if the volume of material had remained unchanged from that initially released into the system. It was also observed that following significant vapor-phase dilution of the waste simulants that streams of colloids were ejected from the sediment surfaces. It was shown that due to the high-sodium content of the tank wastes the colloids were deflocculated below a critical salt concentration in Hanford sediment s. The released colloids, which at the site would be expected to carry the bulk of the sorbed heavy metals and radioisotopes, were mobile though coarse Hanford sediments, but clogged finer layers. The developments resulting from this study are already being applied at Hanford in the nonisothermal prediction of the hypersaline, high pH waste migration in tank farms and in the development of inverse methods for history matching under DOE's Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project at Hanford.

Anderson L. Ward; Glendon W. Gee; John S. Selker; Caly Cooper

2002-04-24

402

SPRING_TANK  

EPA Science Inventory

This point coverage shows springs and water tanks on Salt River Indian Reservation in Arizona. This coverage was digitized off of USGS 7.5 minute quad maps by the Phoenix office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. ...

403

Single Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval Sequence & Double Shell Tank (DST) Space Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the baseline single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval sequence for the River Protection Project updated for Fiscal Year 2002. The double-shell tank (DST) space evaluation presents projected DST needs for Hanford for additional DSTs.

STRODE, J.N.

2002-09-23

404

Single Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval Sequence & Double Shell Tank (DST) Space Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the baseline single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval sequence for the River Protection Project updated for Fiscal Year 2002. The double-shell tank (DST) space evaluation presents projected DST needs for Hanford for additional DSTs.

HOHL, T.M.

2001-09-20

405

Single Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval Sequence and Double Shell Tank (DST) Space Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the baseline single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval sequence for the River Protection Project updated for Fiscal Year 2002. The double-shell tank (DST) space evaluation presents projected DST needs for Hanford for additional DSTs.

KIRCH, N.W.

2003-09-23

406

Development Project of Supercritical-water Cooled Power Reactor  

SciTech Connect

A Supercritical-water Cooled Power Reactor (SCPR) development project (Feb. 2001- Mar. 2005) is being performed by a joint team consisting of Japanese universities and nuclear venders with a national fund. The main objective of this project is to provide technical information essential to demonstration of SCPR technologies through concentrating three sub-themes: 'plant conceptual design', 'thermohydraulics', and 'material and water chemistry'. The target of the 'plant conceptual design sub-theme' is simplify the whole plant systems compared with the conventional LWRs while achieving high thermal efficiency of more than 40 % without sacrificing the level of safety. Under the 'thermohydraulics sub-theme', heat transfer characteristics of supercritical-water as a coolant of the SCPR are examined experimentally and analytically focusing on 'heat transfer deterioration'. The experiments are being performed using fron-22 for water at a fossil boiler test facility. The experimental results are being incorporated in LWR analytical tools together with an extended steam/R22 table. Under the 'material and water chemistry sub-theme', material candidates for fuel claddings and internals of the SCPR are being screened mainly through mechanical tests, corrosion tests, and simulated irradiation tests under the SCPR condition considering water chemistry. In particular, stress corrosion cracking sensitivity is being investigated as well as uniform corrosion and swelling characteristics. Influences of water chemistry on the corrosion product characteristics are also being examined to find preferable water condition as well as to develop rational water chemistry controlling methods. (authors)

Kataoka, K.; Shiga, S. [Toshiba Corporation, 8, Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, 235-8517 (Japan); Moriya, K. [Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan); Oka, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Yoshida, S. [Kyushu Univ. (Japan); Takahashi, H. [Hokkaido Univ. (Japan)

2002-07-01

407

Water development projects and marital violence: experiences from rural Bangladesh.  

PubMed

In this study, we explored the implications of a groundwater development project on women's workload and their experience of marital violence in a Bangladesh village. We believe that the project facilitated irrigation water but also that it resulted in seasonal domestic water shortages. Men used deep motorized pumps for irrigation, and women used shallow handpumps for domestic purposes. Many handpumps dried out, so women had to walk to distant wells. This increased their workload and challenged their possibilities of fulfilling household obligations, thereby increasing the risk of normative marital male violence against women as a punishment for their failure. PMID:22325022

Karim, K M Rabiul; Emmelin, Maria; Resurreccion, Bernadette P; Wamala, Sarah

2012-01-01

408

Analysis of the Leaching Efficiency of Inhibited Water and Tank Simulant in Removing Residues on Thermowell Pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cleaning protocol was determined and modeled, using the shrinking core model, for the removal of a solid residue coating thermowell pipes contained in the riser of a Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tank (Tank 48H). The solid residues on two sets of thermowell pipe samples removed from the D2 riser in SRS Tank 48H were characterized by high performance

F. F. FONDEUR; T. L. WHITE; L. N. OJI; C. J. MARTINOW; R. WILMARTH

2012-01-01

409

Water Recovery from Engine Exhaust.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center (TARDEC) and the Defense Advanced Project Agency (DARPA) are partnering to develop fundamentally new water technologies to reduce the logistics footprint and enable the developmen...

G. Kimber J. S. Dusenbury M. Jagtoyen T. H. Bagwell

2003-01-01

410

Natural Sloshing Frequencies in Truncated Conical Tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Conical-shaped or conical-bottom reservoirs are widely used as water containment for elevated tanks. After earthquakes water tanks play an important role, by making the water available needed for extinguishing fires which arise with such catastrophic events frequently. Therefore special care must be practiced with the construction of the tanks in order to assure their safety and functionality during a

I. Gavrilyuk; M. Hermann; I. Lukovsky; O. Solodun; A. Timokha

411

Applying Water-Level Difference Control to Central Arizona Project  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Central Arizona Project (CAP) has been supplying Colorado River water to Central Arizona for roughly 25 years. The CAP canal is operated remotely with a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) System. Gate position changes are made either manually or through the use of automatic control...

412

Project W-211, initial tank retrieval systems, description of operations for 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of the Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is to provide systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes stored in underground double-shell tanks (DSTS) for transfer to alternate storage, evaporation, pretreatment or treatment, while concurrently reducing risks associated with safety watch list and other DSTs. This Description of Operations (DOO) defines the control philosophy for the waste retrieval system for tanks 241-AP-102 (AP-102) and 241-AP-104 (AP-104). This DOO will provide a basis for the detailed design of the Retrieval Control System (RCS) for AP-102 and AP-104 and establishes test criteria for the RCS. The test criteria will be used during qualification testing and acceptance testing to verify operability.

RIECK, C.A.

1999-02-25

413

Measurements of the Three Components of the Water Flow Around a Hydrodynamic Model in a Towing Tank with a 2D Laser Doppler Velocimeter System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measuring the three components of a water flow in a towing tank can be done by using a two component Laser Doppler Velocimeter. This device is used to measure the velocity distribution and to study the boundary layer around the back half of a 1/12th scale...

C. Couchman D. R. Rajaona

1992-01-01

414

Sidewall-box airlift pump provides large flows for aeration, CO2 stripping, and water rotation in large dual-drain circular tanks  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conventional gas transfer technologies for aquaculture systems occupy a large amount of space, require a considerable capital investment, and can contribute to high electricity demand. In addition, diffused aeration in a circular culture tank can interfere with the hydrodynamics of water rotation a...

415

Study of the leaching behaviour of paving concretes: quantification of heavy metal content in leachates issued from tank test using demineralized water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaching behaviour of concretes made from porphyry aggregate, river sand and Portland cement or blast furnace slag cement has been studied by means of a tank test using demineralized water in accordance with NEN 7345. The results show that the amount of heavy metals leached is small, much lower than the parametric values specified by the European Directive defining

Anne-Marie Marion; Michel De Lanève; Alain De Grauw

2005-01-01

416

Uncertainties in Picking Climate Projections for Water Resources Impact Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of the impact of climate change on the water resources of the Colorado River Basin have been conducted for thirty years. Early hydrology and water resources studies were qualitatively informed by climate model results, whereas more recent studies have been based more directly on the meteorological or climate variable outputs of global climate models (GCMs). Partly due to the computational intensity of hydrologic modeling and partly due to the availability of GCM projections, a number of recent studies for water management have relied on relatively few climate projections (from three up to 22). The Bureau of Reclamation has now applied high-resolution hydrologic modeling to estimate future streamflows based on 112 downscaled projections of future climate by GCMs. These projections cover an overlap period with historical records from 1950 through 1999 and a projection period from 2000 through 2099. The resulting streamflow projections in the Colorado River basin reveal enormous model-to-model variability in estimates of future hydrologic conditions. Part of this uncertainty arises from sampling the low-frequency variability of the climate projections, thus the picture of future climate is highly influenced by which projections are selected and which time frames are sampled. Two runs of the same GCM and emissions scenario, but differing only by initial conditions, can provide very different estimates of future climate and hydrologic conditions. These results also suggest that for this region the influence of the SRES scenarios (b1, a1b, a2) is very much smaller than the variability introduced by the GCM codes and the initial and boundary conditions. These results also expose the difficulty in selecting an unbiased subset of projections for use in impact studies. A common approach is to select projections based on their coverage of the future temperature and precipitation anomaly space, but factors such as the seasonal pattern of precipitation can confound this process and lead to unexpected and misleading results. We describe findings and alternatives approaches for selecting GCM scenarios for hydrology and water resources management impact analyses.

Harding, B. L.; Wood, A. W.; Prairie, J. R.

2010-12-01

417

Impact of Water Projects on River Flow Regimes and Water Quality in Huai River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the impact of water projects (dams or floodgates) on river hydrology and the surrounding environment is important\\u000a in river basin management. However, it is a difficult scientific issue due to its complexity. Huai River Basin is a unique\\u000a region in China with high densities in both population and water projects and is experiencing a serious pollution problem.\\u000a Based

Yongyong Zhang; Jun Xia; Tao Liang; Quanxi Shao

2010-01-01

418

TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT  

SciTech Connect

Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

2009-08-11

419

Technology Review of Nondestructive Methods for Examination of Water Intrusion Areas on Hanford’s Double-Shell Waste Tanks  

SciTech Connect

Under a contract with CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc., PNNL has performed a review of the NDE technology and methods for examination of the concrete dome structure of Hanford’s double-shell tanks. The objective was to provide a matrix of methodologies that could be evaluated based on applicability, ease of deployment, and results that could provide information that could be used in the ongoing structural analysis of the tank dome. PNNL performed a technology evaluation with the objective of providing a critical literature review for all applicable technologies based on constraints provided by CH2M HILL. These constraints were not mandatory, but were desired. These constraints included performing the evaluation without removing any soil from the top of the tank, or if necessary, requesting that the hole diameter needed to gain access to evaluate the top of the tank structure to be no greater than approximately 12-in. in diameter. PNNL did not address the details of statistical sampling requirements as they depend on an unspecified risk tolerance. PNNL considered these during the technology evaluation and have reported the results in the remainder of this document. Many of the basic approaches to concrete inspection that were reviewed in previous efforts are still in use. These include electromagnetic, acoustic, radiographic, etc. The primary improvements in these tools have focused on providing quantitative image reconstruction, thus providing inspectors and analysts with three-dimensional data sets that allow for operator visualization of relevant abnormalities and analytical integration into structural performance models. Available instruments, such as radar used for bridge deck inspections, rely on post-processing algorithms and do not provide real-time visualization. Commercially available equipment only provides qualitative indications of relative concrete damage. It cannot be used as direct input for structural analysis to assess fitness for use and if necessary to de-rate critical components. There are currently no tools that automatically convert the NDE data to formats compatible with structural analysis programs. While radiographic techniques still provide significant advantages in spatial resolution, non-ionizing techniques are still preferred. Radar imagining in the 1–5 GHz has become the most useful. Unfortunately the algorithms and underlying assumptions used in these reconstructions are proprietary, and it is not possible to assess the quality and limitations of the analytical methods used to generate the derived structural data. The hypothesis that water intrusion may contribute to potential rebar corrosion of the tank domes provided the primary guidance in reviewing and evaluating available NDE technologies. Of primary concern is the need to employ technologies that provide the best opportunity for visualizing the rebar and providing quantitative data that can be integrated into structural analysis efforts to better understand and quantify the structural capacity of the domes. The conclusion is that an imaging system capable of locating and quantifying the distribution and conditions of the cement, aggregate, and rebar will provide the most valuable baseline upon which to build a case for the integrity of the structure. If successful, such a system would fulfill the need to incorporate valuable data into current structural load capacity analysis.

Watkins, Michael L.; Pardini, Allan F.

2008-05-09

420

N 2 O emissions from different cropping systems and from aerated, nitrifying and denitrifying tanks of a municipal waste water treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrous oxide emissions, nitrate, water-soluble carbon and biological O2 demand (BOD5) were quantified in different cropping systems fertilized with varying amounts of nitrogen (clayey loam, October 1991 to May 1992), in an aerated tank (March 1993 to March 1994), and in the nitrification-denitrification unit (March to July 1994) of a municipal waste water treatment plant. In addition, the N2O present

G. Benckiser; R. Eilts; A. Linn; H.-J. Lorch; E. Sümer; A. Weiske; F. Wenzhöfer

1996-01-01

421

Effects of heat exchanger tube geometries on nucleate pool boiling heat transfer in a scaled in-containment refueling water storage tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the combined effects of the heat exchanger tube geometries of advanced light water reactors (ALWRs) passive residual heat removal system (PRHRS) on the nucleate pool boiling heat transfer in a scaled in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST), a total of 1,966 data (1,076 with horizontal tubes and 890 with vertical tubes) for q? versus ?T has been obtained

Moon-Hyun Chun; Myeong-Gie Kang

1996-01-01

422

TANK FARM ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS  

SciTech Connect

Through regulations, permitting or binding negotiations, Regulators establish requirements, limits, permit conditions and Notice of Construction (NOC) conditions with which the Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) must comply. Operating Specifications are technical limits which are set on a process to prevent injury to personnel, or damage to the facility or environment, The main purpose of this document is to provide specification limits and recovery actions for the TFC Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site. Specification limits are given for monitoring frequencies and permissible variation of readings from an established baseline or previous reading. The requirements in this document are driven by environmental considerations and data analysis issues, rather than facility design or personnel safety issues. This document is applicable to all single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank (DST) waste tanks, and the associated catch tanks and receiver tanks, and transfer systems. This Tank Farm Environmental Specifications Document (ESD) implements environmental-regulatory limits on the configuration and operation of the Hanford Tank Farms facility that have been established by Regulators. This ESD contains specific field operational limits and recovery actions for compliance with airborne effluent regulations and agreements, liquid effluents regulations and agreements, and environmental tank system requirements. The scope of this ESD is limited to conditions that have direct impact on Operations/Projects or that Operations Projects have direct impact upon. This document does not supercede or replace any Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, regulatory permits, notices of construction, or Regulatory agency agreements binding on the ORP or the TFC. Refer to the appropriate regulation, permit, or Notice of Construction for an inclusive listing of requirements.

TIFFT, S.R.

2003-06-26

423

Burn injuries associated with the water tank of motorfarming tricycles in China.  

PubMed

Burns caused by hot coolant from the reservoir of motorfarming tricycles have not been reported previously. We performed retrospective studies of such cases in 126 patients with complete records in rural areas of China. The majority of victims were unmarried (59.5%), young (<40 years, >20, 55.6%), and male (male to female ratio 9:1). The burn accident occurred mostly during the busy seasons of spring and summer (66.7%). The mechanism of injury was usually the same. The drivers were trapped under the farming tricycle in a traffic accident and then hot coolant leaked from the mouth of the coolant, resulting in long contact with the hot fluid. The burn wounds were located mostly on the areas of the buttocks and lower extremities (especially on the thigh) (64.3%). The generally burned patients had moderate burn areas, about 20-50% total burn surface area (TBSA) of deep partial thickness or full thickness burn wound. For the purpose of decreasing the number of burns presenting, or at least making them less severe, the suggestions include: (1) the design of motorfarming tricycle should be changed; obviously separation of the coolant tank from the seat is the most important factor in reducing such burns. (2) Road conditions should be improved to reduce traffic accidents and loading regulations introduced. (3) Traffic control should be enhanced, especially in rural areas. PMID:14636757

Chen, Xin-long; Li, Yan-ping; Zhang, Dan-ping; Yu, Ming-xing; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Wei

2003-12-01

424

Denver Potable Water Reuse Demonstration Project: comprehensive chronic rat study.  

PubMed

The health effects testing program for the Denver Water Department's Potable Water Reuse Demonstration Project was designed to evaluate the relative health effects of highly treated reclaimed water derived from secondary wastewater in comparison with Denver's present high-quality drinking water. The 1 x 10(6) gal/day treatment plant provided 500-fold concentrates of water that had been treated by multiple processes to remove microbial and chemical contaminants. Fischer 344 rats were exposed to the complex mixture solutions for up to 2 yr to evaluate chronic toxicity and oncogenicity effects. The following parameters were evaluated: clinical observations, survival rate, growth, food and water consumption, haematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, organ weights, gross autopsy and histopathological examination of all lesions, major tissues and organs. Clinical pathology, gross pathology, and microscopic pathology conducted at wk 26 and 65 and at the end of the study did not reveal any findings that could be considered to be treatment related. Administration of drinking water concentrates at up to 500 times the original concentration in the original water samples to F344 rats for up to 104 wk did not result in any overt toxicological or carcinogenic effects. PMID:7959456

Condie, L W; Lauer, W C; Wolfe, G W; Czeh, E T; Burns, J M

1994-11-01

425

Safe drinking water projects integrated information system for rural areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the water supply characteristics in rural areas, it designs a safe drinking water project in this paper. The whole system includes three parts. Those are communication part, automatic control and test part and video surveillance part. Communication part mainly realizes the data transfer between PLC controlled equipment, branch pipeline monitoring and control equipment in the water plant. Automatic control and test part adopts hierarchical, distributed, decentralized structure to remote control and dynamic detect the data on-site. Video Surveillance part can monitor the personnel and equipment condition to guarantee the safe of the whole system. The system takes Visual Studio .NET as the development platform and it entirely bases on the public network B/S structure. From the application, it can be seen that the whole system has the characters of using and maintaining easily, interface simple and friend and it can improve the drinking water condition in rural areas greatly.

Song, Xue-Ling; Zhao, Ying-Bao; Liu, Chao-Ying; Song, Zhe-Ying

2009-07-01

426

43 CFR 418.2 - How Project water may be used.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How Project water may be used. 418.2 Section 418.2 Public...NEVADA General Provisions § 418.2 How Project water may be used. Project water may be delivered only to serve valid water...

2011-10-01

427

43 CFR 418.2 - How Project water may be used.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true How Project water may be used. 418.2 Section 418.2 Public...NEVADA General Provisions § 418.2 How Project water may be used. Project water may be delivered only to serve valid water...

2012-10-01

428

ALARACT Demonstration for Primary Ventilation Systems at the DST Tank Farms for the Interim Stabilization Project (Saltwell Pumping) [SEC 1 Thru 3  

SciTech Connect

A demonstration of As Low As Reasonably Achievable Control Technology (ALARACT) was performed for the existing Double Shell Tank (DST) farm primary ventilation systems in support of the Single Shell Tanks (SSTs) Interim Stabilization Project. The primary ventilation systems evaluated in this ALARACT are located at the 241-AW, AN, AP, and SY tank farms. Of these farms, only the AP and SY farms are scheduled to receive SST waste prior to new ventilation systems being installed at the farms. As a result, full evaluations were performed for the 241-AP and SY systems, whereas only partial evaluations were performed for the 241-AN and AW systems. The full evaluation included the evaluation of the stack sampling system, whereas the partial evaluation did not. Also, 241-AY and AZ are not scheduled to receive SST waste so they were both excluded completely from the evaluation. This ALARACT demonstration evaluated the ability of the abatement and control technologies in the DST ventilation systems identified above to function during SST waste transfers as part of the SST Interim Stabilization Project. Where available, field data (waste temperatures) gathered during actual saltwell pumping activities, were used to support this demonstration. Also used were other process data and equipment capacities associated with the system evaluation. Where actual field data were not available, conservative assumptions, based upon process knowledge and standard engineering calculation methodologies, were used. The DST ventilation systems were also evaluated for compliance against the technology standards identified in Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, Radioactive Air Emissions, as well as other governing codes and standards.

STAM, E.C.