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1

Efficiency of producing additional power in units of nuclear power stations containing water-cooled-water-moderated reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors discuss the possibility of raising the maximum power output and fuel efficiency of nuclear power plants using WWER-type reactors by analyzing fuel burnup and reactor kinetics considerations and conclude that this can be achieved by lowering the coefficient of the energy-release nonuniformity in the reactor core. Calculations are presented which describe appropriate safety margins under various peak load

R. Z. Aminov; V. A. Khrustalev; A. A. Serdobintsev; A. S. Dukhovenskii; A. I. Osadchii

1987-01-01

2

Neutronics analyses of natural uranium fueled, light water cooled, heavy water moderated and graphite reflected nuclear reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work presented in this paper was conducted to validate the computer codes such as WIMS-D\\/4 and CITATION for the criticality analyses of natural uranium fueled, light water cooled, heavy water moderated and graphite reflected reactors such as National Experimental Reactor (NRX) and Canadian Indian Reactor (CIR). These codes are then used to search a proliferation resistant reactor core. It

M. J Khan; Aslam; N Ahmad

2004-01-01

3

78 FR 35330 - Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide describes...ITPs) for light water cooled nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please...

2013-06-12

4

77 FR 73056 - Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide describes...ITPs) for light water cooled nuclear power plants. DATES: Submit...

2012-12-07

5

78 FR 64029 - Cost-Benefit Analysis for Radwaste Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors,'' in which the NRC...system components for light water nuclear power reactors. ADDRESSES:...

2013-10-25

6

Studies on advanced water-cooled reactors beyond generation III for power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

China抯 ambitious nuclear power program motivates the country抯 nuclear community to develop advanced reactor concepts beyond\\u000a generation III to ensure a long-term, stable, and sustainable development of nuclear power. The paper discusses some main\\u000a criteria for the selection of future water-cooled reactors by considering the specific Chinese situation. Based on the suggested\\u000a selection criteria, two new types of water-cooled reactors

Xu Cheng

2007-01-01

7

DIII-D water-cooling system upgrades through modeling and power saving projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DIII-D water-cooling system for the fusion facility at General Atomics consists of the vessel and coil cooling water systems (DIII-D water), components cooling water systems (power supplies, ion-sources, diagnostics and gyrotrons), and heat rejection system (cooling tower and heat exchanger) for the operation of the fusion facility. Since 2005 the water-cooling systems have undergone major upgrades, resulting in average

H. H. Yip; P. S. Mauzey; P. M. Anderson; T. Le; T. Hegstad; A. Thomas; D. Leung

2009-01-01

8

Reliability of water-cooled high-power diode laser modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

High power diode lasers have demonstrated reliable output power of more than 50W per diode far beyond 10,000 hours. Record output power of more than 300W per diode laser bar has been reported. The improved reliability of the semiconductor material demands a review of the performance of the actively water cooled heatsink with regards to the expected lifetime. Results from

Georg Treusch; Raman Srinivasan; Dennis Brown; Robert Miller; Jim Harrison

2005-01-01

9

NUCLEAR POWER STATIONS WITH LIGHT-WATER COOLED OR GAS COOLED REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurements, weights, and plant costs of a nuclear power plant with ; water cooled and gas cooled reactors with a power of 100 Mw (el) are compared. ; The fuel supply, the enrichment, and the recovery of irradiated fuel elements are ; briefly described, and the analysis of the fuel costs as well as fuel efficiency ; is considered.

Schuller

1958-01-01

10

Occupational radiation exposure at light-water-cooled nuclear power reactors, 1969--1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article, which is adapted from a report by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (Report NUREG-0323), presents an updated compilation of occupational radiation exposures at commercial light-water-cooled nuclear power reactors for the years 1969 through 1976. The information in this document was derived from reports submitted annually to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in accordance with requirements of the Technical Specifications for

Johnson

1978-01-01

11

Design of de-ionised water cooling of power converters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power electronics converters need cooling devices. High thermal performances allows decrease of converter volume and cost, and have a major impact on long-term reliability. Semiconductors encapsulation structure have to combine two opposite requirements, namely low thermal resistance and electrical insulation capabilities. Among numbers of designs (ceramics, diamond, polymers etc.), dielectric fluid cooling has been used for high voltage applications (oil,

E. Ramchy; B. Malinowska; M. Cassir

1998-01-01

12

Survey of Remote Area Monitoring Systems at U.S. Light-Water-Cooled Power Reactors  

SciTech Connect

A study was made of the capabilities and operating practices, including calibration, of remote area monitoring (RAM) systems at light-water-cooled power reactors in the United States. The information was obtained by mail questionaire. Specific design capabilities, including range, readout and alarm features are documented along with the numbers and location of detectors, calibration and operational procedures. Comments of respondents regarding RAM systems are also included.

Kathren, R. L.; Mileham, A. P.

1982-04-01

13

Steam generator tube performance: world experience with water-cooled nuclear power reactors during 1979  

SciTech Connect

The performance of steam generator tubes in water-cooled nuclear power reactors is reviewed for 1979. Tube failures occurred at 38 of the 93 reactors surveyed. The causes of these failures and the procedures designed to deal with them are described. The defect rate, although higher than that in 1978, was still lower than the rates of the two previous years. Methods being employed to detect defects include the increased use of multifrequency eddy-current testing and a trend to full-length inspection of all tubes. To reduce the incidence of tube failure by corrosion, plant operators are turning to full-flow condensate demineralization and more leak-resistant condenser tubes. 10 tables.

Tatone, O.S.; Pathania, R.S.

1981-09-01

14

Heat transfer coefficient for water cooled heat sink: application for standard power modules cooling at high temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents an overview of water cooling methods used in the power electronic field. The first one uses the classical method with separated power module and cooling device. The second one deals with high reduction of conductive thermal resistance and could predominately be the final cooling solution in the near future. The last one, foreseen for future applications, consists

O. Karim; J.-C. Crebier; C. Gillot; C. Schaeffer; B. Mallet; E. Gimet

2001-01-01

15

Optimization of power-cycle arrangements for Supercritical Water cooled Reactors (SCWRs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world energy demand is continuously rising due to the increase of both the world population and the standard of life quality. Further, to assure both a healthy world economy as well as adequate social standards, in a relatively short term, new energy-conversion technologies are mandatory. Within this framework, a Generation IV International Forum (GIF) was established by the participation of 10 countries to collaborate for developing nuclear power reactors that will replace the present technology by 2030. The main goals of these nuclear-power reactors are: economic competitiveness, sustainability, safety, reliability and resistance to proliferation. As a member of the GIF, Canada has decided to orient its efforts towards the design of a CANDU-type Super Critical Water-cooled Reactor (SCWR). Such a system must run at a coolant outlet temperature of about 625癈 and at a pressure of 25 MPa. It is obvious that at such conditions the overall efficiency of this kind of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) will compete with actual supercritical water-power boilers. In addition, from a heat-transfer viewpoint, the use of a supercritical fluid allows the limitation imposed by Critical Heat Flux (CHF) conditions, which characterize actual technologies, to be removed. Furthermore, it will be also possible to use direct thermodynamic cycles where the supercritical fluid expands right away in a turbine without the necessity of using intermediate steam generators and/or separators. This work presents several thermodynamic cycles that could be appropriate to run SCWR power plants. Improving both thermal efficiency and mechanical power constitutes a multi-objective optimization problem and requires specific tools. To this aim, an efficient and robust evolutionary algorithm, based on genetic algorithm, is used and coupled to an appropriate power plant thermodynamic simulation model. The results provide numerous combinations to achieve a thermal efficiency higher than 50% with a mechanical power of 1200 MW. It is observed that in most cases the landscape of Pareto's front is mostly controlled only by few key parameters. These results may be very useful for future plant design engineers. Furthermore, some calculations for pipe sizing and temperature variation between coolant and fuel have been carried out to provide an idea on their order of magnitude.

Lizon-A-Lugrin, Laure

16

Development of a standard for calculation and measurement of the moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity in water-moderated power reactors  

SciTech Connect

The contents of ANS 19.11, the standard for ``Calculation and Measurement of the Moderator Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity in Water-Moderated Power Reactors,`` are described. The standard addresses the calculation of the moderator temperature coefficient (MTC) both at standby conditions and at power. In addition, it describes several methods for the measurement of the at-power MTC and assesses their relative advantages and disadvantages. Finally, it specifies a minimum set of documentation requirements for compliance with the standard.

Mosteller, R.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hall, R.A. [Virginia Power, Glen Allen, VA (United States). Innsbrook Technical Center; Apperson, C.E. Jr. [Westinghouse Safety Management Solutions, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States); Lancaster, D.B. [TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc., Vienna, VA (United States); Young, E.H. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Downers Grove, IL (United States); Gavin, P.H. [ABB Combustion Engineering, Windsor, CT (United States); Robertson, S.T. [Framatome/COGEMA Fuels, Lynchburg, VA (United States)

1998-12-01

17

Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electrical Power Production, 5th Quarterly Report, October - December 2002  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to evaluate the feasibility of supercritical light water cooled reactors for electric power production. The use of light water at supercritical pressures as the coolant in a nuclear reactor offers the potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies for the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to about 45%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type re-circulation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel and smaller containment building than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed. If no additional moderator is added to the fuel rod lattice, it is possible to attain fast neutron energy spectrum conditions in a supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR). This type of core can make use of either fertile or fertile-free fuel and retain a hard spectrum to effectively burn plutonium and minor actinides from LWR spent fuel while efficiently generating electricity. One can also add moderation and design a thermal spectrum SCWR that can also burn actinides. The project is organized into three tasks:

Philip MacDonald; Jacopo Buongiorno; Cliff Davis; J. Stephen Herring; Kevan Weaver; Ron Latanision; Bryce Mitton; Gary Was; Luca Oriani; Mario Carelli; Dmitry Paramonov; Lawrence Conway

2003-01-01

18

Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Fast Reactors for Actinide Burning and Electric Power Production  

SciTech Connect

The use of supercritical temperature and pressure light water as the coolant in a direct-cycle nuclear reactor offers potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies of the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to 46%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type recirculation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed. If a tight fuel rod lattice is adopted, it is possible to significantly reduce the neutron moderation and attain fast neutron energy spectrum conditions. In this project a supercritical water reactor concept with a simple, blanket-free, pancake-shaped core will be developed. This type of core can make use of either fertile or fertile-free fuel and retain the hard spectrum to effectively burn plutonium and minor actinides from LWR spent fuel while efficiently generating electricity.

Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Davis, Cliff Bybee; Weaver, Kevan Dean

2002-01-01

19

Development of a standard for calculation and measurement of the moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity in water-moderated power reactors  

SciTech Connect

The moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity (MTC) is an important parameter in safety analyses for thermal reactors. A positive MTC can exacerbate the severity of heatup transients, while a negative MTC can worsen the severity of cooldown transients. In particular, a strongly negative MTC is the major determinate of the severity of the steamline-break accident for pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Conversely, positive and negative MTCs can mitigate the severity of cooldown and heatup transients, respectively. Consequently, the accurate measurement and prediction of MTCs is an important factor in demonstrating that power reactors can be operated safely. ANS 19.11, the standard for ``Calculation and Measurement of the Moderator Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity in Water-Moderated Power Reactors,`` recently has been approved as a national standard by the American National Standards institute (ANSI) and the American Nuclear Society (ANS). At present, the scope of the standard is limited to PWRs, because that is the only type of power reactor currently sited in the US for which measurement of the MTC is required. The standard addresses the calculation and measurement of the MTC, and it also addresses the calculation of the ITC.

Mosteller, R.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Apperson, C.E. Jr. [Westinghouse Safety Management Solutions, Inc. (United States); Gavin, P.H. [ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Operations (United States); Hall, R.A. [Virginia Power Co., VA (United States); Lancaster, D.B. [TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc. (United States); Robertson, S.T. [Framatome Technologies (France); Young, E.H. [Commonwealth Edison Co., IL (United States)

1997-12-31

20

10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...associated bases for other types of nuclear power reactors. II. Explanation...inspection, upon request, at the nuclear power plant. The summary report...voluntary basis by an operating nuclear power reactor licensee as...

2013-01-01

21

10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...associated bases for other types of nuclear power reactors. II. Explanation...inspection, upon request, at the nuclear power plant. The summary report...voluntary basis by an operating nuclear power reactor licensee as...

2012-01-01

22

Water cooled steam jet  

DOEpatents

A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed there between. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock. 2 figs.

Wagner, E.P. Jr.

1999-01-12

23

Water cooled steam jet  

DOEpatents

A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

Wagner, Jr., Edward P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01

24

The impact of water use fees on dispatching and water requirements for water-cooled power plants in Texas.  

PubMed

We utilize a unit commitment and dispatch model to estimate how water use fees on power generators would affect dispatching and water requirements by the power sector in the Electric Reliability Council of Texas' (ERCOT) electric grid. Fees ranging from 10 to 1000 USD per acre-foot were separately applied to water withdrawals and consumption. Fees were chosen to be comparable in cost to a range of water supply projects proposed in the Texas Water Development Board's State Water Plan to meet demand through 2050. We found that these fees can reduce water withdrawals and consumption for cooling thermoelectric power plants in ERCOT by as much as 75% and 23%, respectively. To achieve these water savings, wholesale electricity generation costs might increase as much as 120% based on 2011 fuel costs and generation characteristics. We estimate that water saved through these fees is not as cost-effective as conventional long-term water supply projects. However, the electric grid offers short-term flexibility that conventional water supply projects do not. Furthermore, this manuscript discusses conditions under which the grid could be effective at "supplying" water, particularly during emergency drought conditions, by changing its operational conditions. PMID:24832169

Sanders, Kelly T; Blackhurst, Michael F; King, Carey W; Webber, Michael E

2014-06-17

25

Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Fast Reactors for Actinide Burning and Electric Power Production, Progress Report for Work Through September 2002, 4th Quarterly Report  

SciTech Connect

The use of light water at supercritical pressures as the coolant in a nuclear reactor offers the potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies of the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to about 45%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type re-circulation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel and smaller containment building than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed. If no additional moderator is added to the fuel rod lattice, it is possible to attain fast neutron energy spectrum conditions in a supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR). This type of core can make use of either fertile or fertile-free fuel and retain a hard spectrum to effectively burn plutonium and minor actinides from LWR spent fuel while efficiently generating electricity. One can also add moderation and design a thermal spectrum SCWR. The Generation IV Roadmap effort has identified the thermal spectrum SCWR (followed by the fast spectrum SCWR) as one of the advanced concepts that should be developed for future use. Therefore, the work in this NERI project is addressing both types of SCWRs.

Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

2002-09-01

26

Wetland Water Cooling Partnership: The Use of Constructed Wetlands to Enhance Thermoelectric Power Plant Cooling and Mitigate the Demand of Surface Water Use  

SciTech Connect

Through the Phase I study segment of contract #DE-NT0006644 with the U.S. Department of Energy抯 National Energy Technology Laboratory, Applied Ecological Services, Inc. and Sterling Energy Services, LLC (the AES/SES Team) explored the use of constructed wetlands to help address stresses on surface water and groundwater resources from thermoelectric power plant cooling and makeup water requirements. The project objectives were crafted to explore and develop implementable water conservation and cooling strategies using constructed wetlands (not existing, naturally occurring wetlands), with the goal of determining if this strategy has the potential to reduce surface water and groundwater withdrawals of thermoelectric power plants throughout the country. Our team抯 exploratory work has documented what appears to be a significant and practical potential for augmenting power plant cooling water resources for makeup supply at many, but not all, thermoelectric power plant sites. The intent is to help alleviate stress on existing surface water and groundwater resources through harvesting, storing, polishing and beneficially re-using critical water resources. Through literature review, development of conceptual created wetland plans, and STELLA-based modeling, the AES/SES team has developed heat and water balances for conventional thermoelectric power plants to evaluate wetland size requirements, water use, and comparative cooling technology costs. The ecological literature on organism tolerances to heated waters was used to understand the range of ecological outcomes achievable in created wetlands. This study suggests that wetlands and water harvesting can provide a practical and cost-effective strategy to augment cooling waters for thermoelectric power plants in many geographic settings of the United States, particularly east of the 100th meridian, and in coastal and riverine locations. The study concluded that constructed wetlands can have significant positive ancillary socio-economic, ecosystem, and water treatment/polishing benefits when used to complement water resources at thermoelectric power plants. Through the Phase II pilot study segment of the contract, the project team partnered with Progress Energy Florida (now Duke Energy Florida) to quantify the wetland water cooling benefits at their Hines Energy Complex in Bartow, Florida. The project was designed to test the wetland抯 ability to cool and cleanse power plant cooling pond water while providing wildlife habitat and water harvesting benefits. Data collected during the monitoring period was used to calibrate a STELLA model developed for the site. It was also used to inform management recommendations for the demonstration site, and to provide guidance on the use of cooling wetlands for other power plants around the country. As a part of the pilot study, Duke Energy is scaling up the demonstration project to a larger, commercial scale wetland instrumented with monitoring equipment. Construction is expected to be finalized in early 2014.

Apfelbaum, Steven; Duvall, Kenneth; Nelson, Theresa; Mensing, Douglas; Bengtson, Harlan; Eppich, John; Penhallegon, Clayton; Thompson, Ry

2013-09-30

27

Water-Cooled Optical Thermometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water-cooled optical probe measures temperature of nearby radiating object. Intended primarily for use in silicon-growing furnace for measuring and controlling temperatures of silicon ribbon, meniscus, cartridge surfaces, heaters, or other parts. Cooling water and flushing gas cool fiber-optic probe and keep it clean. Fiber passes thermal radiation from observed surface to measuring instrument.

Menna, A. A.

1987-01-01

28

The evolution of water cooling for IBM large server systems: Back to the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a technical perspective and review of water cooling technology as implemented through 5 generations of IBM's high performance computing systems from the S360\\/91 to the recently announced IBM Power 575 supercomputing system. The use of hybrid air-to-water cooling and then indirect (cold plate) water cooling in earlier IBM systems is described. Attention is given to how and

M. J. Ellsworth; L. A. Campbell; R. E. Simons; R. R. S. Iyengar

2008-01-01

29

Stability analysis of supercritical water cooled reactors  

E-print Network

The Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) is a concept for an advanced reactor that will operate at high pressure (25MPa) and high temperature (500癈 average core exit). The high coolant temperature as it leaves the ...

Zhao, Jiyun, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2005-01-01

30

Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Fast Reactors for Actinide Burning and Electric Power Production Progress Report for Year 1, Quarter 2 (January - March 2002)  

SciTech Connect

The use of light water at supercritical pressures as the coolant in a nuclear reactor offers the potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies of the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to about 45%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type re-circulation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel and smaller containment building than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed.

Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Davis, Cliff Bybee; Weaver, Kevan Dean

2002-03-01

31

Heat dissipation in water-cooled reflectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The energy balance of a lamp varies with the thermal and optical characteristics of the reflector. The photosynthetic radiation efficiency of lamps, defined as input power divided by photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) emitted from the lamp ranges between 0.17 and 0.26. The rest of the energy input is wasted as longwave (3000 nm and over) and non-PAR shortwave radiation (from 700 nm to 3000 nm), convective, and conductive heat from the lamp, reflector, and ballast, and simply for increasing the cooling load. Furthermore, some portion of the PAR is uselessly absorbed by the inner walls, shelves, vessels, etc. and some portion of the PAR received by the plantlets is converted into sensible and latent heat. More than 98% of the energy input is probably converted into heat, with only less than 2% of the energy input being converted into chemical energy as carbohydrates by photosynthesis. Therefore, it is essential to reduce the generation of heat in the culture room in order to reduce the cooling load. Through use of a water-cooled reflector, the generation of convective and conductive heat and longwave radiation from the reflector can be reduced, without reduction of PAR.

Kozai, Toyoki

1994-01-01

32

Preliminary studies on the heat exchanger option for S-CO{sub 2} power conversion cycle coupled to water cooled SMR  

SciTech Connect

For more than a half century, the steam Rankine cycle had been the major power conversion cycle for a nuclear power plant. However, as the interest on the next generation reactors grows, a variety of alternative power conversion systems have been studied. Among them, the S-CO{sub 2} cycle (Supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle) is considered as a promising candidate due to several benefits such as 1) Relatively high thermal efficiency at relatively low turbine inlet temperature, 2) High efficiency with simple lay-out 3) Compactness of turbo-machineries. 4) Compactness of total cycle combined with PCHE (Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger). According to the conventional classification of heat exchangers (HE), there are three kind of HE, 1) Tubular HEs, 2) Plate-type HEs, 3) Extended surface HEs. So far, the researcher has mostly assumed PCHE type HE for the S-CO{sub 2} cycle due to its compactness with reasonably low pressure drop. However, PCHE is currently one of the most expensive components in the cycle, which can have a negative effect on the economics of the cycle. Therefore, an alternative for the HE should be seriously investigated. By comparing the operating condition (pressure and temperature) there are three kind of HE in the S-CO{sub 2} cycle, 1) IHX (Intermediate Heat exchanger) 2) Recuperator and 3) Pre-cooler. In each heat exchanger, hot side and cold side coolants are different, i.e. reactor coolant to S-CO{sub 2} (IHX), S-CO{sub 2} to S-CO{sub 2}(Recuperator), S-CO{sub 2} to water (Pre-cooler). By considering all the attributes mentioned above, all existing types of heat exchangers are compared to find a possible alternative to PCHE. The comparing factors are 1) Size(volume), 2) Cost. Plate fin type HEs are considered to be the most competitive heat exchanger regarding the size and the cost after some improvements on the design limit are made. (authors)

Ahn, Y.; Lee, J. [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J. I. [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Khalifa Univ. of Science, Technology and Research (KUSTAR), P.O.Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

2012-07-01

33

Air and water cooled modulator  

SciTech Connect

A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air.

Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Arnold, Phillip A. (Livermore, CA); Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01

34

Air and water cooled modulator  

DOEpatents

A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method are disclosed for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air. 9 figs.

Birx, D.L.; Arnold, P.A.; Ball, D.G.; Cook, E.G.

1995-09-05

35

PoS(Nufact08)086 Simulations of pion production from water-cooled  

E-print Network

are not thermalised, most of the incoming power is radiated as the kinetic energy of secondaries, mostly protons, neu Brooks Proton accelerator Beam power Proton energy Heating power ISS baseline neutrino factory [3] 4 MWPoS(Nufact08)086 Simulations of pion production from water-cooled solid targets using MARS15

McDonald, Kirk

36

Corrosion behavior of Ni-base alloys for advanced high temperature water-cooled nuclear plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the projected requirement for highly enhanced efficiency in power generation, the environment in advanced high temperature water-cooled nuclear systems becomes more rigorous compared to conventional fossil and nuclear power plants. The corrosion behavior of candidate alloys Inconel 617, 625, and 718 exposed to supercritical water was studied by a variety of analytical techniques. Grain boundary engineering (GBE) was

L. Tan; X. Ren; K. Sridharan; T. R. Allen

2008-01-01

37

Advanced water-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Water Cooled Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Development program is being conducted by International Fuel Cells Corporation (IFC) to improve the performance and minimize the cost of water cooled, electric utility phosphoric acid fuel cell stacks. The program adapts the existing on-site Configuration B cell design to electric utility operating conditions and introduces additional new design features. Task 1 consists of the conceptual design of a full- scale electric utility cell stack that meets program objectives. Tasks 2 and 3 develop the materials and processes required to fabricate the components that meet the program objective. The design of the small area and two 10 sq ft short stack is conducted in Task 4. The conceptual design also is updated to incorporate the results of material and process developments, as well as results of stack tests conducted in Task 6. Fabrication and assembly of the short stacks are conducted in Task 5 and subsequent tests are conducted in Task 6. The Contractor expects to enter into a contract with The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to assemble and endurance test the second 10 sq ft short stack. This report describes the cell design and development effort that is being conducted to demonstrate by subscale stack test, the technical achievements made toward the above program objectives.

38

Water cooling tower and water level control system therefor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an improved water cooling tower system including a water cooling tower structure having a top portion, a bottom portion, an intermediate portion therebetween, a water-collecting basin operatively disposed in the bottom portion of the structure, a heat exchange means operatively disposed in the intermediate portion of the structure, means for recirculating the water from the water-collecting basin

Kinkead

1989-01-01

39

A model for calculating composition and density of the core melt in the water-moderated water-cooled reactor in case of severe accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermochemical behavior of the core melt in the VVER-type reactor at severe accident is discussed. Experimental information\\u000a gained made it possible to construct a thermodynamic model of the O-U-Zr-Fe system. The model describes the immiscibility\\u000a of the oxide and metal phases of the core melt and makes it possible to estimate their densities. Parameters of the model\\u000a were obtained by

V. D. Ozrin; O. V. Tarasov; V. F. Strizhov; A. S. Filippov

2010-01-01

40

A model for calculating composition and density of the core melt in the water-moderated water-cooled reactor in case of severe accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermochemical behavior of the core melt in the VVER-type reactor at severe accident is discussed. Experimental information gained made it possible to construct a thermodynamic model of the O-U-Zr-Fe system. The model describes the immiscibility of the oxide and metal phases of the core melt and makes it possible to estimate their densities. Parameters of the model were obtained by

V. D. Ozrin; O. V. Tarasov; V. F. Strizhov; A. S. Filippov

2010-01-01

41

10 CFR 50.63 - Loss of all alternating current power.  

...1) Each light-water-cooled nuclear power plant licensed to operate under...part, each light-water-cooled nuclear power plant licensed under subpart...design for a light-water-cooled nuclear power plant approved under a...

2014-01-01

42

10 CFR 50.63 - Loss of all alternating current power.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...1) Each light-water-cooled nuclear power plant licensed to operate under...part, each light-water-cooled nuclear power plant licensed under subpart...design for a light-water-cooled nuclear power plant approved under a...

2012-01-01

43

10 CFR 50.63 - Loss of all alternating current power.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1) Each light-water-cooled nuclear power plant licensed to operate under...part, each light-water-cooled nuclear power plant licensed under subpart...design for a light-water-cooled nuclear power plant approved under a...

2010-01-01

44

10 CFR 50.63 - Loss of all alternating current power.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1) Each light-water-cooled nuclear power plant licensed to operate under...part, each light-water-cooled nuclear power plant licensed under subpart...design for a light-water-cooled nuclear power plant approved under a...

2013-01-01

45

10 CFR 50.63 - Loss of all alternating current power.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...1) Each light-water-cooled nuclear power plant licensed to operate under...part, each light-water-cooled nuclear power plant licensed under subpart...design for a light-water-cooled nuclear power plant approved under a...

2011-01-01

46

Prospects for development of an innovative water-cooled nuclear reactor for supercritical parameters of coolant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The state of nuclear power engineering as of February 1, 2014 and the accomplished elaborations of a supercritical-pressure water-cooled reactor are briefly reviewed, and the prospects of this new project are discussed based on this review. The new project rests on the experience gained from the development and operation of stationary water-cooled reactor plants, including VVERs, PWRs, BWRs, and RBMKs (their combined service life totals more than 15 000 reactor-years), and long-term experience gained around the world with operation of thermal power plants the turbines of which are driven by steam with supercritical and ultrasupercritical parameters. The advantages of such reactor are pointed out together with the scientific-technical problems that need to be solved during further development of such installations. The knowledge gained for the last decade makes it possible to refine the concept and to commence the work on designing an experimental small-capacity reactor.

Kalyakin, S. G.; Kirillov, P. L.; Baranaev, Yu. D.; Glebov, A. P.; Bogoslovskaya, G. P.; Nikitenko, M. P.; Makhin, V. M.; Churkin, A. N.

2014-08-01

47

Advanced water-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program was conducted to improve the performance and minimize the cost of existing water-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell stacks for electric utility and on-site applications. The goals for the electric utility stack technology were a power density of at least 175 watts per square foot over a 40,000-hour useful life and a projected one-of-a-kind, full-scale manufactured cost of less than $400 per kilowatt. The program adapted the existing on-site Configuration-B cell design to electric utility operating conditions and introduced additional new design features. Task 1 consisted of the conceptual design of a full-scale electric utility cell stack that meets program objectives. The conceptual design was updated to incorporate the results of material and process developments in tasks 2 and 3, as well as results of stack tests conducted in task 6. Tasks 2 and 3 developed the materials and processes required to fabricate the components that meet the program objectives. The design of the small area and 10-sq. ft. stacks was conducted in task 4. Fabrication and assembly of the short stacks were conducted in task 5 and subsequent tests were conducted in task 6. The management and reporting functions of task 7 provided DOE/METC with program visibility through required documentation and program reviews. This report describes the cell design and development effort that was conducted to demonstrate, by subscale stack test, the technical achievements made toward the above program objectives.

1992-09-01

48

Advanced water-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program is being conducted to improve the performance and minimize the cost of water cooled, electric utility phosphoric acid fuel cell stacks. The program adapts the existing on-site Configuration B cell design to electric utility operating conditions and introduces additional new design features. Task 1 consists of the conceptual design of a full-scale electric utility cell stack that meets program objectives. Tasks 2 and 3 develop the materials and processes requested to fabricate the components that meet the program objective. The design of the small area and two 10-ft(exp 2) short stacks is conducted in Task 4. The conceptual design also is updated to incorporate the results of material and process developments, as well as results of stack tests conducted in Task 6. Fabrication and assembly of the short stacks are conducted in Task 5 and subsequent tests are conducted in Task 6. The Contractor expects to enter into a contract with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to assemble and endurance test the second 10-ft(exp 2) short stack. The management and reporting functions of Task 7 provide DOE/METC with program visibility through required documentation and program reviews. This report describes the cell design and development effort that is being conducted to demonstrate, by subscale stack test, the technical achievements made toward the above program objectives.

1992-05-01

49

A European proposal for an ITER water-cooled solid breeder blanket  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water-cooled solid breeder blanket concept proposed here aims to replace the shielding blanket for the enhanced performance phase of the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER). The nominal performances are as follows: an average neutron wall load of 1 MW m?2 which corresponds to a fusion power of about 1.5 GW, and an average neutron fluence of 1 MWy m?2.

P Lorenzetto; P Gierszewski; G Simbolotti

1995-01-01

50

Gamma Spectroscopy in Water Cooled Reactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gamma spectroscopy analysis of spent fuels in power reactors is described for two typical cases: determination of the power distribution by the mean of the activity of a low periodic element (Lanthanum 140) and determination of the burnup absolute rate by...

M. Persault

1977-01-01

51

Steam-Reheat Option for Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SuperCritical-Water-cooled Reactors (SCWRs) are being developed as one of the Generation-IV nuclear-reactor concepts. Main objectives of the development are to increase thermal efficiency of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) and to decrease capital and operational costs. The first objective can be achieved by introducing nuclear steam reheat inside a reactor and utilizing regenerative feedwater heaters. The second objective can be achieved by designing a steam cycle that closely matches that of the mature supercritical fossil-fuelled power plants. The feasibility of these objectives is discussed. As a part of this discussion, heat-transfer calculations have been performed and analyzed for SuperCritical-Water (SCW) and SuperHeated-Steam (SHS) channels of the proposed reactor concept. In the calculations a uniform and three non-uniform Axial Heat Flux Profiles (AHFPs) were considered for six different fuels (UO2, ThO 2, MOX, UC2, UC, and UN) and at average and maximum channel power. Bulk-fluid, sheath, and fuel centerline temperatures as well as the Heat Transfer Coefficient (HTC) profiles were obtained along the fuel-channel length. The HTC values are within a range of 4.7--20 kW/m2稫 and 9.7--10 kW/m2稫 for the SCW and SHS channels respectively. The main conclusion is that while all the mentioned fuels may be used for the SHS channel, only UC2, UC, or UN are suitable for a SCW channel, because their fuel centerline temperatures are at least 1000癈 below melting point, while that of UO2, ThO2 , and MOX may reach melting point.

Saltanov, Eugene

52

Water-cooled beam line components at LAMPF  

SciTech Connect

The beam line components that comprise the main experimental beam at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) have been operating since February 1976. This paper will define the functions of the primary water-cooled elements, their design evolution, and our operating experience to the present time.

Grisham, D.L.; Lambert, J.E.

1981-01-01

53

Cooling arrangement for water-cooled internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cooling arrangement is described for a water-cooled internal combustion engine. The cooling arrangement comprises a radiator, a water jacket of the internal combustion engine, a cooling water passage for circulating the cooling between the radiator and the water jacket, and a cooling water temperature detecting means for outputting signal related to the cooling water temperature detecting means for outputting

T. Taguchi; M. Nakano; N. Hiramoto; H. Tominaga

1986-01-01

54

Computational Simulation of a Water-Cooled Heat Pump  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Fortran-language computer program for simulating the operation of a water-cooled vapor-compression heat pump in any orientation with respect to gravity has been developed by modifying a prior general-purpose heat-pump design code used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

Bozarth, Duane

2008-01-01

55

Deployment Scenario of Heavy Water Cooled Thorium Breeder Reactor  

SciTech Connect

Deployment scenario of heavy water cooled thorium breeder reactor has been studied. We have assumed to use plutonium and thorium oxide fuel in water cooled reactor to produce {sup 233}U which will be used in thorium breeder reactor. The objective is to analysis the potential of water cooled Th-Pu reactor for replacing all of current LWRs especially in Japan. In this paper, the standard Pressurize Water Reactor (PWR) has been designed to produce 3423 MWt; (i) Th-Pu PWR, (ii) Th-Pu HWR (MFR = 1.0) and (iii) Th-Pu HWR (MFR 1.2). The properties and performance of the core were investigated by using cell and core calculation code. Th-Pu PWR or HWR produces {sup 233}U to introduce thorium breeder reactor. The result showed that to replace all (60 GWe) LWR by thorium breeder reactor within a period of one century, Th-Pu oxide fueled PWR has insufficient capability to produce necessary amount of {sup 233}U and Th-Pu oxide fueled HWR has almost enough potential to produce {sup 233}U but shows positive void reactivity coefficient.

Mardiansah, Deby; Takaki, Naoyuki [Course of Applied Science, School of Engineering, Tokai University (Japan)

2010-06-22

56

Pink-Beam, Highly-Accurate Compact Water Cooled Slits  

SciTech Connect

Advanced Design Consulting, Inc. (ADC) has designed accurate compact slits for applications where high precision is required. The system consists of vertical and horizontal slit mechanisms, a vacuum vessel which houses them, water cooling lines with vacuum guards connected to the individual blades, stepper motors with linear encoders, limit (home position) switches and electrical connections including internal wiring for a drain current measurement system. The total slit size is adjustable from 0 to 15 mm both vertically and horizontally. Each of the four blades are individually controlled and motorized. In this paper, a summary of the design and Finite Element Analysis of the system are presented.

Lyndaker, Aaron; Deyhim, Alex; Jayne, Richard; Waterman, Dave; Caletka, Dave [Advanced Design Consulting USA, 126 Ridge Road, P.O. Box 187, Lansing, NY 14882 (United States); Steadman, Paul; Dhesi, Sarnjeet [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Rutherford Apple ton Laboratory (United Kingdom)

2007-01-19

57

Water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source  

SciTech Connect

The program for providing water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source at Berkeley is reviewed with respect to fabrication and metrology of the surfaces. Materials choices, surface figure and smoothness specifications, and metrology systems for measuring the plated metal surfaces are discussed. Results from prototype mirrors and grating blanks will be presented, which show exceptionally low microroughness and mid-period error. We will briefly describe out improved version of the Long Trace Profiler, and its importance to out metrology program. We have completely redesigned the mechanical, optical and computational parts of the profiler system with the cooperation of Peter Takacs of Brookhaven, Continental Optical, and Baker Manufacturing. Most important is that one of our profilers is in use at the vendor to allow testing during fabrication. Metrology from the first water cooled mirror for an ALS beamline is presented as an example. The preplating processing and grinding and polishing were done by Tucson Optical. We will show significantly better surface microroughness on electroless nickel, over large areas, than has been reported previously.

McKinney, W.R.; Irick, S.C. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Lunt, D.L.J. (Tucson Optical Research Corp., AZ (United States))

1991-10-28

58

Hot ion plasma production in HIP-1 using water-cooled hollow cathodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A steady-state ExB plasma was formed by applying a strong radially inward dc electric field near the mirror throats. Most of the results were for hydrogen, but deuterium and helium plasmas were also studied. Three water-cooled hollow cathodes were operated in the hot-ion plasma mode with the following results: (1) thermally emitting cathodes were not required to achieve the hot-ion mode; (2) steady-state operation (several minutes) was attained; (3) input powers greater than 40 kW were achieved; (4) cathode outside diameters were increased from 1.2 cm (uncooled) to 4.4 cm (water-cooled); (5) steady-state hydrogen plasma with ion temperatures from 185 to 770 eV and electron temperatures from 5 to 21 eV were produced. Scaling relations were empirically obtained for discharge current, ion temperature, electron temperature, and relative ion density as a function of hydrogen gas feed rate, magnetic field, and cathode voltage. Neutrons were produced from deuterium plasma, but it was not established whether thay came from the plasma volume or from the electrode surfaces.

Reinmann, J. J.; Lauver, M. R.; Patch, R. W.; Layman, R. W.; Snyder, A.

1975-01-01

59

Characteristics of plutonium-topped thorium cycles in heavy-water-moderated pressure tube reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thorium cycles in heavy-water-moderated pressure tube reactors are expected to lead to much better nuclear fuel utilization than the current natural uranium once-through fuel cycle. The extent to which various parameters affect fuel cycle economics and uranium requirements during the approach to equilibrium conditions for first-generation plutonium-topped thorium cycle reactors has been studied. The results are compared with systems in

S. Banerjee; F. W. Barclay

1979-01-01

60

Water cooling system using a piezoelectrically actuated flow pump for a medical headlight system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microchips inside modern electronic equipment generate heat and demand, each day, the use of more advanced cooling techniques as water cooling systems, for instance. These systems combined with piezoelectric flow pumps present some advantages such as higher thermal capacity, lower noise generation and miniaturization potential. The present work aims at the development of a water cooling system based on

Rog閞io F. Pires; Sandro L. Vatanabe; Amaury R. de Oliveira; Paulo H. Nakasone; Em韑io C. Silva

2007-01-01

61

Energetics of semi-catalyzed-deuterium, light-water-moderated, fusion-fission toroidal reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The semi-catalyzed-deuterium Light-Water Hybrid Reactor (LWHR) comprises a lithium-free light-water-moderated blanket with USi fuel driven by a deuterium-based fusion-neutron source, with complete burn-up of the tritium but almost no burn-up of the helium-3 reaction product. A one-dimensional model for a neutral-beam-driven tokamak plasma is used to determine the operating modes under which the fusion energy multiplication Q\\/sub p\\/ can be

D. L. Jassby; H. H. Towner; E. Greenspan; A. Schneider; A. Misolovin; D. Gilai

1978-01-01

62

Note: High turn density magnetic coils with improved low pressure water cooling for use in atom optics.  

PubMed

We describe a magnetic coil design utilizing concentrically wound electro-magnetic insulating (EMI) foil (25.4 ?m Kapton backing and 127 ?m thick layers). The magnetic coils are easily configurable for different coil sizes, while providing large surfaces for low-pressure (0.12 bar) water cooling. The coils have turn densities of ~5 mm(-1) and achieve a maximum of 377 G at 2.1 kW driving power, measured at a distance 37.9 mm from the axial center of the coil. The coils achieve a steady-state temperature increase of 36.7癈/kW. PMID:25173328

McKay Parry, Nicholas; Baker, Mark; Neely, Tyler; Carey, Thomas; Bell, Thomas; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina

2014-08-01

63

Feasibility of Water Cooled Thorium Breeder Reactor Based on LWR Technology  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of Th-{sup 233}U fueled, homogenous breeder reactor based on matured conventional LWR technology was studied. The famous demonstration at Shipping-port showed that the Th-{sup 233}U fueled, heterogeneous PWR with four different lattice fuels was possible to breed fissile but its low averaged burn-up including blanket fuel and the complicated core configuration were not suitable for economically competitive reactor. The authors investigated the wide design range in terms of fuel cell design, power density, averaged discharge burn-up, etc. to determine the potential of water-cooled Th reactor as a competitive breeder. It is found that a low moderated (MFR=0.3) H{sub 2}O-cooled reactor with comparable burn-up with current LWR is feasible to breed fissile fuel but the core size is too large to be economical because of the low pellet power density. On the other hand, D{sub 2}O-cooled reactor shows relatively wider feasible design window, therefore it is possible to design a core having better neutronic and economic performance than H{sub 2}O-cooled. Both coolant-type cores show negative void reactivity coefficient while achieving breeding capability which is a distinguished characteristics of thorium based fuel breeder reactor. (authors)

Takaki, Naoyuki; Permana, Sidik; Sekimoto, Hiroshi [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

2007-07-01

64

Fluidized bed heat exchanger with water cooled air distributor and dust hopper  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fluidized bed heat exchanger is provided in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel. A steam-water natural circulation system is provided for heat exchange and the housing of the heat exchanger has a water-wall type construction. Vertical in-bed heat exchange tubes are provided and the air distributor is water-cooled. A water-cooled dust hopper is

W. W. Jukkola; A. M. Leon; G. C. Jr. Van Dyk; D. E. McCoy; B. L. Fisher; T. L. Saiers; M. E. Karstetter

1981-01-01

65

Fluidized bed heat exchanger with water cooled air distributor and dust hopper  

DOEpatents

A fluidized bed heat exchanger is provided in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel. A steam-water natural circulation system is provided for heat exchange and the housing of the heat exchanger has a water-wall type construction. Vertical in-bed heat exchange tubes are provided and the air distributor is water-cooled. A water-cooled dust hopper is provided in the housing to collect particulates from the combustion gases and separate the combustion zone from a volume within said housing in which convection heat exchange tubes are provided to extract heat from the exiting combustion gases.

Jukkola, Walfred W. (Westport, CT); Leon, Albert M. (Mamaroneck, NY); Van Dyk, Jr., Garritt C. (Bethel, CT); McCoy, Daniel E. (Williamsport, PA); Fisher, Barry L. (Montgomery, PA); Saiers, Timothy L. (Williamsport, PA); Karstetter, Marlin E. (Loganton, PA)

1981-11-24

66

Applying a Domestic Water-cooled Air-conditioner in Subtropical Cities  

E-print Network

the energy and environmental benefits of WACS over AACS applying to commercial buildings with central air-conditioning. This paper presents an experimental study on the performance of a 3.36 kW prototype water-cooled air conditioner. The prototype is a self...

Lee, W.; Chen, H.

2006-01-01

67

The Use of Water Cooling during the Continuous Casting of Steel and Aluminum Alloys  

E-print Network

The Use of Water Cooling during the Continuous Casting of Steel and Aluminum Alloys J. SENGUPTA, B.G. THOMAS, and M.A. WELLS In both continuous casting of steel slabs and direct chill (DC) casting, until cooling is complete. I. INTRODUCTION CONTINUOUS casting processes for both steel and alu- minum

Thomas, Brian G.

68

Understanding the Role Water-cooling Plays during Continuous Casting of Steel and Aluminum Alloys  

E-print Network

Understanding the Role Water-cooling Plays during Continuous Casting of Steel and Aluminum Alloys J Keywords: Steel, continuous casting, aluminum, Direct Chill casting, primary cooling, water the mold and solidifying metal during the continuous casting of steel and aluminum alloys

Thomas, Brian G.

69

"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling Henry Coles, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory  

E-print Network

LBNL-5128E "Hot" for Warm Water Cooling Henry Coles, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Michael Efficient HPC Working Group Susan Coghlan, Argonne National Laboratory David E. Cowley, Pacific Northwest in the Proceedings #12;DISCLAIMER This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States

70

A Qualitative Assessment of Thorium-Based Fuels in Supercritical Pressure Water Cooled Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The requirements for the next generation of reactors include better economics and safety, waste minimization (particularly of the long-lived isotopes), and better proliferation resistance (both intrinsic and extrinsic). A supercritical pressure water cooled reactor has been chosen as one of the lead contenders as a Generation IV reactor due to the high thermal efficiency and compact\\/simplified plant design. In addition,

Kevan Dean Weaver; Philip Elsworth Mac Donald

2002-01-01

71

Thermal Aspects of Using Alternative Nuclear Fuels in Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A SuperCritical Water-cooled Nuclear Reactor (SCWR) is a Generation IV concept currently being developed worldwide. Unique to this reactor type is the use of light-water coolant above its critical point. The current research presents a thermal-hydraulic analysis of a single fuel channel within a Pressure Tube (PT)-type SCWR with a single-reheat cycle. Since this reactor is in its early design

Lisa Christine Grande

2010-01-01

72

Passive decay heat removal system for water-cooled nuclear reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a passive decay-heat removal system for a water-cooled nuclear reactor having a reactor vessel and a reactor core disposed in the vessel for passage of coolant water through the core, the coolant water extending upward to a level substantially above the core in normal operation condition. It comprises: an open-topped box located above the core and immersed

1991-01-01

73

The use of helical heat exchanger for heat recovery domestic water-cooled air-conditioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study on the performance of a domestic water-cooled air-conditioner (WAC) using tube-in-tube helical heat exchanger for preheating of domestic hot water was carried out. The main aims are to identify the comprehensive energy performance (space cooling and hot water preheating) of the WAC and the optimum design of the helical heat exchanger taking into account the variation in

Yi Xiaowen; W. L. Lee

2009-01-01

74

Water cooling characteristics in an enclosed vacuum tank by water driven ejector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general cooling tower is a device for cooling water in industrial condensers or heat exchangers. The present cooling towers\\u000a have defects with noises, complicated structures and environmental problems. This paper focuses on a new water cooling system\\u000a using the latent heat of evaporation in an enclosed vacuum tank and a water driven ejector system. Several experiments were\\u000a carried out

Hyo Min Jeong; Han Shik Chung; Kang Youl Bae; Se Hyun Kim; You Sik Shin

2005-01-01

75

Thermogalvanic effects on the pitting corrosion of water-cooled heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermogalvanic corrosion of St3 steel in a temperature range from 25 to 50掳C with a 3.84掳C\\/cm gradient was studied in a neutral media flow. It is shown that the thermogalvanic effect on the pitting corrosion of water-cooled heat exchangers is decisive but dual. Depending on the composition of the cooling medium, thermogalvanic corrosion may either enhance (0.5 M NaCl) or

S. A. Kaluzhina; N. A. Zatsepina

1995-01-01

76

Drift data acquired on mechanical salt water cooling devices. Final report, Jul 1973Feb 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives test data from drift characterization and airborne salt monitoring studies conducted on and around a single-cell, mechanical-draft salt-water cooling tower and two spray modules at Turkey Point, Florida. Source measurements of drift droplet size distributions and mineral mass emissions were conducted for both devices during a winter test and for the tower alone during a summer test.

G. O. Schrecker; R. O. Webb; D. A. Rutherford; F. M. Shofner

1975-01-01

77

Thermal and hydraulic accommodation of water cooled payloads in the Columbus APM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Attached Pressure Module (APM) is the European orbiting laboratory which willbe permanently attached to the International Space Station Freedom (SSF). It is designed to provide a range of laboratory facilities in a microgravity environment for payload experimaents originating from the international payload-user community. The APM design provides a water cooling capability by means of moderate temperature (MT) and low temperature (LT) pumped fluid loops. The cooling loops serve both the APM essential subsystem equipment as well as the payload users. This paper describes the architecture of the APM water cooling loops and the water cooling capability offered to payload users. Thermal and hydraulic requirements applicable to the payloads are identified. A number of rack internal cooling options are examined. These options ensure the necessary heat removal while avioding any possible failure propagation or contamination of the subsystem loops. The resulting constraints and limitations on the payload design needed to ensure compatibility of the payload with the fluid loops and their operational conditions are identified.

Trichilo, Michele; Prever, Elena Brach; Dodd, Charles

78

Development of a LOCA analysis code for the supercritical-pressure, light-water-cooled reactors  

SciTech Connect

The supercritical-pressure, light-water-cooled reactors can achieve the cost reduction by system simplification and higher thermal efficiency, and has the flexibility for fuel cycle owing to the technical feasibility of various neutron spectrum reactors. Since the LOCA behavior of the reactor at supercritical pressure condition can not be analyzed with the developed codes for the current light water reactors (LWRs), the LOCA analysis code for the supercritical-pressure, light-water-cooled reactor is developed in this study. The presented code is composed of two parts; the blowdown and the reflood analysis module. The blowdown analysis code is designed based on the homogeneous equilibrium model and the reflood analysis code is modeled by the thermal equilibrium relative velocity model. The code is validated with the REFLA-TRAC code, which is developed in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute based on TRAC-PF1. The large break LOCA of the thermal neutron spectrum reactor (SCLWR) is analyzed. The result shows that the maximum peak cladding temperature (PCT) is nearly 980 C at about 60 sec after the break and the PCT position is started to be quenched at 170 sec. This means that the maximum PCT is sufficiently lower than the safety limit of fuel cladding temperature, 1,260 C. In conclusion, the developed code can conform the safety of SCLWR under the LOCA, and is expected to be usefully applied in the LOCA analysis of the other types of supercritical-pressure, light-water-cooled reactors.

Lee, J.H.; Koshizuka, S.; Oka, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.

1996-08-01

79

Re-Engineering Control Systems using Automatic Generation Tools and Process Simulation: the LHC Water Cooling Case  

E-print Network

This paper presents the approach used at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) to perform the re-engineering of the control systems dedicated to the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) water cooling systems.

Booth, W; Bradu, B; Gomez Palacin, L; Quilichini, M; Willeman, D

2014-01-01

80

Effect of thermal barrier coatings on the performance of steam and water-cooled gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical study was made of the performance of air, steam, and water-cooled gas-turbine/steam turbine combined-cycle systems with and without thermal-barrier coatings. For steam cooling, thermal barrier coatings permit an increase in the turbine inlet temperature from 1205 C (2200 F), resulting in an efficiency improvement of 1.9 percentage points. The maximum specific power improvement with thermal barriers is 32.4 percent, when the turbine inlet temperature is increased from 1425 C (2600 F) to 1675 C (3050 F) and the airfoil temperature is kept the same. For water cooling, the maximum efficiency improvement is 2.2 percentage points at a turbine inlet temperature of 1683 C (3062 F) and the maximum specific power improvement is 36.6 percent by increasing the turbine inlet temperature from 1425 C (2600 F) to 1730 C (3150 F) and keeping the airfoil temperatures the same. These improvements are greater than that obtained with combined cycles using air cooling at a turbine inlet temperature of 1205 C (2200 F). The large temperature differences across the thermal barriers at these high temperatures, however, indicate that thermal stresses may present obstacles to the use of coatings at high turbine inlet temperatures.

Nainiger, J. J.

1978-01-01

81

Soy-Based, Water-Cooled, TC W-III Two Cycle Engine Oil  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to achieve technical approval and commercial launch for a biodegradable soy oil-based, environmentally safe, TC W-III performance, water-cooled, two cycle engine oil. To do so would: (1) develop a new use for RBD soybean oil; (2) increase soybean utilization in North America in the range of 500 K-3.0 MM bushels; and (3) open up supply opportunities of 1.5-5.0 MM bushels worldwide. These goals have been successfully obtained.

Scharf, Curtis R.; Miller, Mark E.

2003-08-30

82

Lattice cell and full core physics of internally cooled annular fuel in heavy water moderated reactors  

SciTech Connect

A program is underway at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to develop a new fuel bundle concept to enable greater burnups for PT-HWR (pressure tube heavy water reactor) cores. One option that AECL is investigating is an internally cooled annular fuel (ICAF) element concept. ICAF contains annular cylindrical pellets with cladding on the inner and outer diameters. Coolant flows along the outside of the element and through the centre. With such a concept, the maximum fuel temperature as a function of linear element rating is significantly reduced compared to conventional, solid-rod type fuel. The preliminary ICAF bundle concept considered in this study contains 24 half-metre long internally cooled annular fuel elements and one non-fuelled centre pin. The introduction of the non-fuelled centre pin reduces the coolant void reactivity (CVR), which is the increase in reactivity that occurs on voiding the coolant in accident scenarios. Lattice cell and full core physics calculations of the preliminary ICAF fuel bundle concept have been performed for medium burnups of approximately 18 GWd/tU using WIMS-AECL and reactor fuel simulation program (RFSP). The results will be used to assist in concept configuration optimization. The effects of radial and axial core power distributions, linear element power ratings, refuelling rates and operational power ramps have been analyzed. The results suggest that burnups of greater than 18 GWd/tU can be achieved in current reactor designs. At approximately 18 GWd/tU, expected maximum linear element ratings in a PT-HWR with online-refuelling are approximately 90 kW/m. These conditions would be prohibitive for solid-rod fuel, but may be possible in ICAF fuel given the reduced maximum fuel temperature as a function of linear element rating. (authors)

Armstrong, J.; Hamilton, H.; Hyland, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

2013-07-01

83

IAEA coordinated research project on thermal-hydraulics of Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactors (SCWRs)  

SciTech Connect

The Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) is an innovative water-cooled reactor concept, which uses supercritical pressure water as reactor coolant. It has been attracting interest of many researchers in various countries mainly due to its benefits of high thermal efficiency and simple primary systems, resulting in low capital cost. The IAEA started in 2008 a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Thermal-Hydraulics of SCWRs as a forum to foster the exchange of technical information and international collaboration in research and development. This paper summarizes the activities and current status of the CRP, as well as major progress achieved to date. At present, 15 institutions closely collaborate in several tasks. Some organizations have been conducting thermal-hydraulics experiments and analysing the data, and others have been participating in code-to-test and/or code-to-code benchmark exercises. The expected outputs of the CRP are also discussed. Finally, the paper introduces several IAEA activities relating to or arising from the CRP. (authors)

Yamada, K. [Vienna International Centre, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Aksan, S. N. [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria)

2012-07-01

84

Water cooling system using a piezoelectrically actuated flow pump for a medical headlight system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microchips inside modern electronic equipment generate heat and demand, each day, the use of more advanced cooling techniques as water cooling systems, for instance. These systems combined with piezoelectric flow pumps present some advantages such as higher thermal capacity, lower noise generation and miniaturization potential. The present work aims at the development of a water cooling system based on a piezoelectric flow pump for a head light system based on LEDs. The cooling system development consists in design, manufacturing and experimental characterization steps. In the design step, computational models of the pump, as well as the heat exchanger were built to perform sensitivity studies using ANSYS finite element software. This allowed us to achieve desired flow and heat exchange rates by varying the frequency and amplitude of the applied voltage. Other activities included the design of the heat exchanger and the dissipation module. The experimental tests of the cooling system consisted in measuring the temperature difference between the heat exchanger inlet and outlet to evaluate its thermal cooling capacity for different values of the flow rate. Comparisons between numerical and experimental results were also made.

Pires, Rog閞io F.; Vatanabe, Sandro L.; de Oliveira, Amaury R.; Nakasone, Paulo H.; Silva, Em韑io C.

2007-04-01

85

Water-Cooled Data Center Packs More Power Per Rack | Poster  

Cancer.gov

The network racks in the foreground house all of the Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network hardware. The fiber cables from the 17 ATRF LAN closets, the storage systems, and the servers are fed through the overhead cable trays into the network racks and connected. The racks in the background contain 2 petabytes of tier-two and -three disk storage.

86

Sensitivity Analysis of Fuel Centerline Temperatures in SuperCritical Water-cooled Reactors (SCWRs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SuperCritical Water-cooled Reactors (SCWRs) are one of the six nuclear-reactor concepts currently being developed under the Generation-IV International Forum (GIF). A main advantage of SCW Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) is that they offer higher thermal efficiencies compared to those of current conventional NPPs. Unlike today's conventional NPPs, which have thermal efficiencies between 30 - 35%, SCW NPPs will have thermal efficiencies within a range of 45 - 50%, owing to high operating temperatures and pressures (i.e., coolant temperatures as high as 625癈 at 25 MPa pressure). The use of current fuel bundles with UO2 fuel at the high operating parameters of SCWRs may cause high fuel centerline temperatures, which could lead to fuel failure and fission gas release. Studies have shown that when the Variant-20 (43-element) fuel bundle was examined at SCW conditions, the fuel centerline temperature industry limit of 1850癈 for UO2 and the sheath temperature design limit of 850癈 might be exceeded. Therefore, new fuel-bundle designs, which comply with the design requirements, are required for future use in SCWRs. The main objective of this study to conduct a sensitivity analysis in order to identify the main factors that leads to fuel centerline temperature reduction. Therefore, a 54-element fuel bundle with smaller diameter of fuel elements compared to that of the 43-element bundle was designed and various nuclear fuels are examined for future use in a generic Pressure Tube (PT) SCWR. The 54-element bundle consists of 53 heated fuel elements with an outer diameter of 9.5 mm and one central unheated element of 20-mm outer diameter which contains burnable poison. The 54-element fuel bundle has an outer diameter of 103.45 mm, which is the same as the outer diameter of the 43-element fuel bundle. After developing the 54-element fuel bundle, one-dimensional heat-transfer analysis was conducted using MATLAB and NIST REFPROP programs. As a result, the Heat Transfer Coefficient (HTC), bulk-fluid, sheath and fuel centerline temperature profiles were generated along the heated length of 5.772 m for a generic fuel channel. The fuel centerline and sheath temperature profiles have been determined at four Axial Heat Flux Profiles (AHFPs) using an average thermal power per channel of 8.5 MWth. The four examined AHFPs are the uniform, cosine, upstream-skewed and downstream-skewed profiles. Additionally, this study focuses on investigating a possibility of using low, enhanced and high thermal-conductivity fuels. The low thermal-conductivity fuels, which have been examined in this study, are uranium dioxide (UO 2), Mixed Oxide (MOX) and Thoria (ThO2) fuels. The examined enhanced thermal-conductivity fuels are uranium dioxide - silicon carbide (UO2 - SiC) and uranium dioxide - beryllium oxide (UO2 - BeO). Lastly, uranium carbide (UC), uranium dicarbide (UC2) and uranium nitride (UN) are the selected high thermal-conductivity fuels, which have been proposed for use in SCWRs. A comparison has been made between the low, enhanced and high thermal-conductivity fuels in order to identify the fuel centerline temperature behaviour when different nuclear fuels are used. Also, in the process of conducting the sensitivity analysis, the HTC was calculated using the Mokry et al. correlation, which is the most accurate supercritical water heat-transfer correlation so far. The sheath and the fuel centerline temperature profiles were determined for two cases. In Case 1, the HTC was calculated based on the Mokry et al. correlation, while in Case 2, the HTC values calculated for Case 1 were multiplied by a factor of 2. This factor was used in order to identify the amount of decrease in temperatures if the heat transfer is enhanced with appendages. Results of this analysis indicate that the use of the newly developed 54-element fuel bundle along with the proposed fuels is promising when compared with the Variant-20 (43-element) fuel bundle. Overall, the fuel centerline and sheath temperatures were below the industry and design limits when most of the proposed fu

Abdalla, Ayman

87

Safety of a light water cooled reactor operating at supercritical pressure  

SciTech Connect

The concept of supercritical water cooled reactors is developed for the innovation toward cost reduction. Design and safety features of the reactor and the plant system are described. The reactor coolant system is the once-through direct-cycle. It is different from those of BWR and PWR. It is the simplest, but no natural circulation is established when main feedwater pumps are stopped. Safety system was designed based on the transient and accident analyses. Turbine driven auxiliary feedwater systems are provided for fast core cooling at LOSP. This reduces the capacity of emergency diesel generators in spite of the high system pressure. Accumulators are required for cooling the tight lattice core at LOCA. Safety of the reactor is evaluated by simplified PSA. The core damage frequency is maintained as the same level of Japanese conventional BWR due to the diversity of feedwater systems in the direct-cycle reactors. 13 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

Oka, Y.; Koshizuka, S.; Lee, J.H. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

1997-12-01

88

Design and analysis of the DII-D radiative divertor water-cooled structures  

SciTech Connect

The Radiative Divertor is a major modification to the divertor of DIII-D and is being designed and fabricated for installation in late 1996. The Radiative Divertor Program (RDP) will enhance the dissipative processes in the edge and divertor plasmas to reduce the heat flux and plasma erosion at the divertor target. This approach will have major implications for the heat removal methods used in future devices. The divertor is of slot-type configuration designed to minimize the flow of sputtered and injected impurities back to the core plasma. The new divertor will be composed of toroidally continuous, Inconel 625 water-cooled rings of sandwich construction with an internal water channel, incorporating seam welding to provide the water-to-vacuum seal as well as structural integrity. The divertor structure is designed to withstand electromagnetic loads as a result of halo currents and induced toroidal currents. It also accommodates the thermal differences experienced during the 400 {degrees}C bake used on DIII-D. A low Z plasma-facing surface is provided by mechanically attached graphite tiles. Water flow through the rings will inertially cool these tiles which will be subjected to 38 MW, 10 second pulses. Current schedules call for detailed design in 1996 with installation completed in March 1997. A full size prototype, one-quarter of one ring, is being built to validate manufacturing techniques, machining, roll-forming, and seam welding. The experience and knowledge gained through the fabrication of the prototype is discussed. The design of the electrically isolated (5 kV) vacuum-to-air water feedthroughs supplying the water-cooled rings is also discussed.

Hollerbach, M.A.; Smith, J.P.; Baxi, C.B.; Bozek; Chin, E.; Phelps, R.D.; Redler, K.M.; Reis, E.E.

1995-10-01

89

High-flux, UHV-compatible, water-cooled double crystal monochromator for beam line X9 at NSLS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A double crystal monochromator has been designed and constructed which is optimized for biological EXAFS-studies in fluorescence mode. The monochromator allows one to use the large horizontal width of the synchrotron radiation beam emitted from the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The device is UHV compatible and employs very efficient water cooling of the first crystal.

Rosenbaum, Gerd; Rock, Larry; Sullivan, Mike; Khalid, Syed

1988-04-01

90

Open air杤apor compression refrigeration system for air conditioning and hot water cooled by cool water  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an open air杤apor compression refrigeration system for air conditioning and hot water cooled by cool water and proves its feasibility through performance simulation. Pinch technology is used in analysis of heat exchange in the surface heat exchanger, and the temperature difference at the pinch point is selected as 6癈. Its refrigeration depends mainly on both air and

Shaobo Hou; Huacong Li; Hefei Zhang

2007-01-01

91

Experimental Study for Heat Transfer Characteristics of High Water-cooled Temperature Gas Pipe in Lignite Boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, there are some problems like complex system, large weight of pumping high-temperature pipe and easily damaged heat preservation on three media desiccation of large scale fan mill direct firing pulverizing system. Directed towards these problems, adopting water-cooled high temperature furnace gas pipe to adjustment high gas temperature is proposed, to change three media desiccation into two media desiccation. Heat

Tai Lv; Yang Guo; Kun Lu

2010-01-01

92

Comparative Study Between Air-Cooled and Water-Cooled Condensers of the Air-Conditioning Systems  

E-print Network

The weather in Kuwait is very dry where the dry-bulb temperature exceeds the wet-bulb temperature more than 20oC in most of the summer months. Thus, the air-conditioning (A/C) system with the water-cooled (WC) condensers is expected to perform more...

Maheshwari, G. P.; Mulla Ali, A. A.

2004-01-01

93

Feasibility study for use of the natural convection shutdown heat removal test facility (NSTF) for VHTR water-cooled RCCS shutdown  

Microsoft Academic Search

In summary, a scaling analysis of a water-cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) system was performed based on generic information on the RCCS design of PBMR. The analysis demonstrates that the water-cooled RCCS can be simulated at the ANL NSTF facility at a prototypic scale in the lateral direction and about half scale in the vertical direction. Because, by necessity,

C. P. Tzanos; M. T. Farmer

2007-01-01

94

Neutronic performance of high-density LEU fuels in water-moderated and water-reflected research reactors  

SciTech Connect

At the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) meeting in September 1994, Durand reported that the maximum uranium loading attainable with U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuel is about 6.0 g U/cm{sup 3}. The French Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique (CEA) plan to perform irradiation tests with 5 plates at this loading. Compagnie pour L`Etude et La Realisation de Combustibles Atomiques (CERCA) has also fabricated a few uranium nitride (UN) plates with a uranium density in the fuel meat of 7.0 g/cm{sup 3} and found that UN is compatible with the aluminum matrix at temperatures below 500 C. High density dispersion fuels proposed for development include U-Zr(4 wt%)-Nb(2 wt%), U-Mo(5 wt%), and U-Mo(9 wt%). The purpose of this note is to examine the relative neutronic behavior of these high density fuels in a typical light water-reflected and water-moderated MTR-type research reactor. The results show that a dispersion of the U-Zr-Nb alloy has the most favorable neutronic properties and offers the potential for uranium densities greater than 8.0 g/cm{sup 3}. On the other hand, UN is the least reactive fuel because of the relatively large {sup 14}N(n,p) cross section. For a fixed value of k{sub eff}, the required {sup 235}U loading per fuel element is least for the U-Zr-Nb fuel and steadily increases for the U-Mo(5%), U-Mo(9%), and UN fuels. Because of volume fraction limitations, the UO{sub 2} dispersions are only useful for uranium densities below 5.0 g/cm{sup 3}. In this density range, however, UO{sub 2} is more reactive than U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}.

Bretscher, M.M.; Matos, J.E.

1996-09-01

95

Fabrication of gas turbine water-cooled composite nozzle and bucket hardware employing plasma spray process  

DOEpatents

In the method for fabrication of water-cooled composite nozzle and bucket hardware for high temperature gas turbines, a high thermal conductivity copper alloy is applied, employing a high velocity/low pressure (HV/LP) plasma arc spraying process, to an assembly comprising a structural framework of copper alloy or a nickel-based super alloy, or combination of the two, and overlying cooling tubes. The copper alloy is plamsa sprayed to a coating thickness sufficient to completely cover the cooling tubes, and to allow for machining back of the copper alloy to create a smooth surface having a thickness of from 0.010 inch (0.254 mm) to 0.150 inch (3.18 mm) or more. The layer of copper applied by the plasma spraying has no continuous porosity, and advantageously may readily be employed to sustain a pressure differential during hot isostatic pressing (HIP) bonding of the overall structure to enhance bonding by solid state diffusion between the component parts of the structure.

Schilke, Peter W. (4 Hempshire Ct., Scotia, NY 12302); Muth, Myron C. (R.D. #3, Western Ave., Amsterdam, NY 12010); Schilling, William F. (301 Garnsey Rd., Rexford, NY 12148); Rairden, III, John R. (6 Coronet Ct., Schenectady, NY 12309)

1983-01-01

96

Mechanism for extreme heat transfer conditions in water-cooling of fusion reactor components  

SciTech Connect

Existing conceptual designs of some water-cooled fusion reactor components employ operating heat fluxes on the order of 15 MW/m{sup 2}, coolant velocities above 5 m/s, and pressures below 5 MPA. These conditions are quite different from most of those used to obtain existing correlations for subcooled nucleate boiling and critical heat flux. In addition, some available data in the range of interest shows that extrapolations of the correlations cannot be used. This paper deals with heat transfer mechanisms that must be incorporated in developing correlations for fusion reactor high heat flux components. Subcooled boiling is treated for smooth and finned heat transfer passages and for flows that are either straight or swirl. Two mechanism must be incorporated: suppression of nucleate boiling and critical heat flux caused by homogeneous nucleation. It is found out that for low pressures (<5 MPA) the subcooled nucleate boiling curves of smooth- and swirl-flows merge and show nucleation suppression (wall temperatures well above saturation without boiling occurrences). The suppression of nucleate boiling is observed for values of water pressure greater than 1 MPA for smooth, high velocity flows (water velocity >5 m/s). It is postulated that in these cases steam bubbles are destroyed by turbulent vortices.

Lekakh, B.M.; Meyer, J.E.; Kazimi, M.S. [Massachusettes of Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

1994-12-31

97

The Effects of Nonuniform Thermal Boundary Condition on Thermal Stress Calculation of Water-Cooled W/Cu Divertors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal boundary condition has very important effects on the accuracy of thermal stress calculation of a water-cooled W/Cu divertor. In this paper, phase-change heat transfer was simulated based on the Euler homogeneous phase model, and local differences of liquid physical properties were considered under one-sided high heating conditions. The steady-state temperature field and thermal stress field under nonuniform thermal boundary conditions were obtained through numerical calculation. By comparison with the case of traditional uniform thermal boundary conditions, the results show that the distribution of thermal stress under nonuniform thermal boundary conditions exhibits the same trend as that under uniform thermal boundary conditions, but is larger in value. The maximum difference of maximum von Mises stress is up to 42% under the highest heating conditions. These results provide a valuable reference for the thermal stress calculation of water-cooled W/Cu divertors.

Han, Le; Chang, Haiping; Zhang, Jingyang; Liu, Nan; Xu, Tiejun

2014-10-01

98

Design and operating considerations for a water-cooled close-spaced reactant injector in a production scale MOCVD reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous paper, we described experimental results of the growth of a wide range of III朧 materials using a water-cooled close-spaced injector that permits organometallic and hydride reactants to be injected ? 1 cm above the hot wafer. In this paper, we describe important design and operating considerations for this new metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) injector, including construction

David W. Weyburne; Brian S. Ahern

1997-01-01

99

Prediction of critical heat flux in water-cooled plasma facing components using computational fluid dynamics.  

SciTech Connect

Several commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes now have the capability to analyze Eulerian two-phase flow using the Rohsenow nucleate boiling model. Analysis of boiling due to one-sided heating in plasma facing components (pfcs) is now receiving attention during the design of water-cooled first wall panels for ITER that may encounter heat fluxes as high as 5 MW/m2. Empirical thermalhydraulic design correlations developed for long fission reactor channels are not reliable when applied to pfcs because fully developed flow conditions seldom exist. Star-CCM+ is one of the commercial CFD codes that can model two-phase flows. Like others, it implements the RPI model for nucleate boiling, but it also seamlessly transitions to a volume-of-fluid model for film boiling. By benchmarking the results of our 3d models against recent experiments on critical heat flux for both smooth rectangular channels and hypervapotrons, we determined the six unique input parameters that accurately characterize the boiling physics for ITER flow conditions under a wide range of absorbed heat flux. We can now exploit this capability to predict the onset of critical heat flux in these components. In addition, the results clearly illustrate the production and transport of vapor and its effect on heat transfer in pfcs from nucleate boiling through transition to film boiling. This article describes the boiling physics implemented in CCM+ and compares the computational results to the benchmark experiments carried out independently in the United States and Russia. Temperature distributions agreed to within 10 C for a wide range of heat fluxes from 3 MW/m2 to 10 MW/m2 and flow velocities from 1 m/s to 10 m/s in these devices. Although the analysis is incapable of capturing the stochastic nature of critical heat flux (i.e., time and location may depend on a local materials defect or turbulence phenomenon), it is highly reliable in determining the heat flux where boiling instabilities begin to dominate. Beyond this threshold, higher heat fluxes lead to the boiling crisis and eventual burnout. This predictive capability is essential in determining the critical heat flux margin for the design of complex 3d components.

Bullock, James H.; Youchison, Dennis Lee; Ulrickson, Michael Andrew

2010-11-01

100

Compatibility of water-cooled chromia-containing refractories with a high iron oxide acidic coal-ash slag at 1575/sup 0/C  

SciTech Connect

Sixteen water-cooled refractories were exposed to a synthetic high iron oxide acidic coal slag. The importance of high chromia content and density in minimizing corrosive attack was evident. The beneficial effect of water cooling was also demonstrated. All the refractories reacted with the slag to form complex intermediate spinel layers. Refractories high in chromia resist fluxing by iron oxide better than refractories high in alumina.

Kennedy, C.R.

1981-12-01

101

HIGH-POWER TARGETS R&D FOR LBNE: STATUS AND FUTURE PLANS  

E-print Network

issues 5/2/11P. Hurh: High-Power Targets R&D for LBNE 6 Hydraulic thermal shock in water ("water hammer segments pre-loaded in stainless steel sheath with annular water cooling #12;LBNE "default" target design to isolate from water cooling bath About 150 samples in total Tensile samples have gauge width of 3 mm

McDonald, Kirk

102

Nuclear and Thermal Analyses of Supercritical-water-cooled Solid Breeder Blanket for Fusion DEMO Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within a design study of a fusion DEMO reactor aiming at demonstrating technologies of fusion power plant, supercritical water is applied as a coolant of solid breeder blanket to attain high thermal efficiency. The blanket has multi-layer composed of solid breeder pebbles (Li2O) and neutron multiplier pebbles (Be) which are radially separated by cooling panels. The first wall and the

Yoshihiko YANAGI; Satoshi SATO; Mikio ENOEDA; Toshihisa HATANO; Shigeto KIKUCHI; Toshimasa KURODA; Yasuo KOSAKU; Yoshihiro OHARA

2001-01-01

103

A Cu-Cr alloy with nano and microscale Cr particles produced in a water-cooled copper mold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microstructures have profound effects on the hardness and strength of Cu-Cr alloys. The microstructures of a Cu-Cr alloy cast in a water-cooled copper mold were studied in the present work. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results show that there are the copper matrix saturated with chromium, spherical precipitates of chromium separated from liquid phase during cooling before the initiation of solidification, and a eutectic phase in grain boundary areas. To investigate the effect of age-hardening treatment on the microstructures and properties of the material, some samples were subsequently age-hardened in a salt bath and investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that coherent precipitates with the diameter of 11 nm are detectable in the samples before and after the age-hardening stage. Of course, the volume fraction of coherent precipitates is higher after the aging process.

Hejazi, Seyyed Mohammd Hossein; Majidi, Fatemeh; Akbari, Gholam Hossein

2010-10-01

104

Experimental Study of Using Emulsified Diesel Fuel on the Performance and Pollutants Emitted from Four Stroke Water Cooled Diesel Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A water-cooled, four stroke, four cylinder, direct injection diesel engine was used to study the effect of emulsified diesel fuel on the engine performance and on the main pollutant emissions. Emulsified diesel fuels of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% water by volume were used. The experiments were conducted in the speed range from 1000 to 3000 rpm. It was found that, in general, using emulsified fuel improves the engine performance and reduces emissions. While the BSFC has a minimum value at 5% water and 2000 rpm, the torque, the BMEP and efficiency are found to have maximum values under these conditions. CO2 was found to increase with engine speed and to decrease with water content. NOx produced from emulsified fuel is significantly less than that produced from pure diesel under the same conditions.

Sakhrieh, A.; Fouad, R. H.; Yamin, J. A.

2009-08-01

105

Magnetically Diffused Radial Electric-Arc Air Heater Employing Water-Cooled Copper Electrodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A magnetically rotated electric-arc air heater has been developed that is novel in that an intense magnetic field of the order of 10,000 to 25,000 gauss is employed. This field is supplied by a coil that is connected in series with the arc. Experimentation with this heater has shown that the presence of an intense magnetic field transverse to the arc results in diffusion of the arc and that the arc has a positive effective resistance. With the field coil in series with the arc, highly stable arc operation is obtained from a battery power supply. External ballast is not required to stabilize the arc when it is operating at maximum power level. The electrode erosion rate is so low that the airstream contamination is no more than 0.07 percent and may be substantially less.

Mayo, R. F.; Davis, D. D., Jr.

1962-01-01

106

Structure and Performance of a 600MWe Supercritical CFB Boiler with Water Cooled Panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion technology is one of the approved clean combustion technologies, and the power supply efficiency can be improved combining with the supercritical technology. A 600MWe supercritical CFB boiler is introduced in this paper. This boiler is designed based on the success of 300 MWe CFB boilers, which has a single furnace with three cyclones without external heat exchangers. There are twin furnaces and twin air distributors in the boiler. The water walls of the twin furnace above dense bed combines to a common fence wall with some channels to balance the pressure of the two furnaces. The smooth tubes are adopted in membrane water wall with mixing header. Six cyclones are located beside the furnace as well as six loopseals and six external heat exchangers. The hydrodynamic characteristic of water wall is available with the modeling prediction. And the performance of the 600MWe supercritical CFB boiler is also investigated.

Li, Y.; Nie, L.; Hu, X. K.; Yue, G. X.; Li, W. K.; We, Y. X.; Lu, J. F.; Che, D. F.

107

Influence of the pulse frequency and water cooling on the femtosecond laser ablation of bovine cortical bone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrafast lasers are extremely promising tools for minimally-invasive orthopedic surgery, but the ablated volumes per pulse are low, so a high pulse frequency is necessary to reach practical ablation rates. The purpose of this work was to study in vitro the influence of the pulse repetition rate on the ablation rate, surface topography and surface composition of bone using of bovine cortical femur as a model. The tests were carried out by scanning the laser beam in relation to the sample, using pulse frequencies between 50 and 3000 Hz, scanning velocities from 0.5 to 10 mm/s and average pulse energy of 650 ?J. The experiments were performed in dry conditions and with water irrigation. The higher ablation rates were obtained at high scanning velocity without water irrigation but severe thermal effects such as resolidification, cracking and, eventually, carbonization occurred in these conditions due to heat accumulation in the tissue. Thermal damage was avoided for all the laser processing parameters ranges tested by using water cooling. The highest ablation rate achieved was 1.4 mm3/min for a scanning velocity of 10 mm/s at 2 kHz pulse repetition rate under water irrigation.

Cangueiro, L. T.; Vilar, R.

2013-10-01

108

Research and Development of High Temperature Light Water Cooled Reactor Operating at Supercritical-Pressure in Japan  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the status and future plans of research and development of the high temperature light water cooled reactor operating at supercritical-pressure in Japan. It includes; the concept development; material for the fuel cladding; water chemistry under supercritical pressure; thermal hydraulics of supercritical fluid; and the conceptual design of core and plant system. Elements of concept development of the once-through coolant cycle reactor are described, which consists of fuel, core, reactor and plant system, stability and safety. Material studies include corrosion tests with supercritical water loops and simulated irradiation tests using a high-energy transmission electron microscope. Possibilities of oxide dispersion strengthening steels for the cladding material are studied. The water chemistry research includes radiolysis and kinetics of supercritical pressure water, influence of radiolysis and radiation damage on corrosion and behavior on the interface between water and material. The thermal hydraulic research includes heat transfer tests of single tube, single rod and three-rod bundles with a supercritical Freon loop and numerical simulations. The conceptual designs include core design with a three-dimensional core simulator and sub-channel analysis, and balance of plant. (authors)

Yoshiaki Oka [Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 112-0006 (Japan); Katsumi Yamada [Isogo Nuclear Engineering Center, Toshiba Corporation, 8, Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, 235-8523 (Japan)

2004-07-01

109

Ground Water Cooling System  

E-print Network

has a total shop area of 128,000 square feet and the majority of the machine tools are equipped with computerized numerical controls. The cooling system was designed around five (5) floor mounted, 50,000 CFM, air handling units which had been...

Greaves, K.; Chave, G. H.

1984-01-01

110

Auxiliary cooling: comparison of air-cooled vs. water-cooled vests in hot-dry and hot-wet environments.  

PubMed

Water-cooled, air-cooled, and ambient air-ventilated auxiliary cooling vests were evaluated in a hot-wet climate (HW) (35 degrees C, 75% R.H.) and a hot-dry environment (HD) with additional infrared radiation (Ta = 49 degrees C, 20% R.H., 68 degrees C black globe temperature). Twelve subjects dressed in full chemical warfare combat uniforms underwent 120 min of heat exposure in each combination of climate and cooling vest, except for the hot-dry environment and ambient-air vest. During each exposure, total exercise time was 20 min and rest time 100 min. This resulted in a mean time weighted metabolic rate of 180 W. Both water-cooled and air-cooled vests were sufficient for cooling in the HW climate: heat storage (delta S) was 13 and 7 W, final rectal temperature (Tre) 37.4 and 37.3 degrees C, and heart rate (HR) 124 and 112 b . min-1, respectively. While using the ambient-air vest, all variables were significantly (p less than 0.05) higher (delta S, 25 W; Tre, 37.7 degrees C; HR, 139 b . min-1; respectively). In the HD climate, both water and air-cooled vests were insufficient with a delta S of 46 and 48 W, final Tre of 38.4 and 38.3 degrees C, and final HR of 151 and 147 b . min-1. However, both cooling vests improved the subjects' physiological status compared to these predicted variables without auxiliary cooling. No significant differences were found between the air or the water-cooled vests in either the HD or HW climates. It was concluded that an air-cooled vest can be used with the same efficiency as a water-cooled vest. In contrast, the ambient-air vest was shown to have a low effectiveness in HW and to be dangerous in a HD climate. PMID:7181810

Shapiro, Y; Pandolf, K B; Sawka, M N; Toner, M M; Winsmann, F R; Goldman, R F

1982-08-01

111

Conceptual design description for the tritium recovery system for the US ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) Li sub 2 O\\/Be water cooled blanket  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tritium recovery system for the US ITER Li釵\\/Be water cooled blanket processes two separate helium purge streams to recover tritium from the Li釵 zones and the Be zones of the blanket, to process the waste products, and to recirculate the helium back to the blanket. The components are selected to minimize the tritium inventory of the recovery system, and

P. A. Finn; D. K. Sze; R. G. Clemmer

1990-01-01

112

Conceptual design description for the tritium recovery system for the US ITER Li sub 2 O\\/Be water cooled blanket  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tritium recovery system for the US ITER Li釵\\/Be water cooled blanket processes two separate helium purge streams to recovery tritium from the Li釵 zones and the Be zones of the blanket, to process the waste products, and to recirculate the helium back to the blanket. The components are selected to minimize the tritium inventory of the recovery system, and

P. A. Finn; D. K. Sze; R. G. Clemmer

1990-01-01

113

Subscale, hydrogen-burning, airframe-integrated-scramjet: Experimental and theoretical evaluation of a water cooled strut airframe-integrated-scramjet: Experimental leading edge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A water-cooled leading-edge design for an engine/airframe integrated scramjet model strut leading edge was evaluated. The cooling design employs a copper cooling tube brazed just downstream of the leading edge of a wedge-shaped strut which is constructed of oxygen-free copper. The survival of the strut leading edge during a series of tests at stagnation point heating rates confirms the practicality of the cooling design. A finite difference thermal model of the strut was also proven valid by the reasonable agreement of calculated and measured values of surface temperature and cooling-water heat transfer.

Pinckney, S. Z.; Guy, R. W.; Beach, H. L., Jr.; Rogers, R. C.

1975-01-01

114

Theoretical analysis of transurethral laser-induced thermo-therapy for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Evaluation of a water-cooled applicator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mathematical model for predicting the temperature rise in transurethral laser-induced thermo-therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia was developed. In the model an optical line source emitting light from an Nd:YAG laser isotropically was placed in the urethra. Water cooling of the urethral epithelium was modelled using a two-tube system. The relationship between the difference in outlet and inlet water temperatures and the highest tissue temperature level reached was theoretically investigated. It was found that the water temperature difference was linearly dependent on the steady-state maximum tissue temperature. The theoretical calculations suggest that the water-cooled applicator can be used to measure the maximum tissue temperature. With temperature control, the prostatic tissue temperature can be prevented from exceeding the boiling point of water, excluding tissue carbonization. The model was also used to evaluate the influence of a number of different parameters on the damaged tissue volume. Increasing the urethral lumen radius by a factor of two by means of inserting different sized tubes was found to augment the tissue volume raised to therapeutic temperatures by up to 50%. The calculations showed that cooling of the urethral epithelium can result in an increase in the damaged volume by 80% as compared to not applying any cooling. The temperature of the cooling water was found to influence the tissue temperature only to a small extent.

Sturesson, C.; Andersson-Engels, S.

1996-03-01

115

Determination of blade-to-coolant heat-transfer coefficients on a forced-convection, water-cooled, single-stage turbine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blade-to-coolant convective heat-transfer coefficients were obtained on a forced-convection water-cooled single-stage turbine over a large laminar flow range and over a portion of the transition range between laminar and turbulent flow. The convective coefficients were correlated by the general relation for forced-convection heat transfer with laminar flow. Natural-convection heat transfer was negligible for this turbine over the Grashof number range investigated. Comparison of turbine data with stationary tube data for the laminar flow of heated liquids showed good agreement. Calculated average midspan blade temperatures using theoretical gas-to-blade coefficients and blade-to-coolant coefficients from stationary-tube data resulted in close agreement with experimental data.

Freche, John C; Schum, Eugene F

1951-01-01

116

Blade-to-coolant heat-transfer results and operating data from a natural-convection water-cooled single-stage turbine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blade-to-coolant heat-transfer data and operating data were obtained with a natural-convection water-cooled turbine over range of turbine speeds and inlet-gas temperatures. The convective coefficients were correlated by the general relation for natural-convection heat transfer. The turbine data were displaced from a theoretical equation for natural convection heat transfer in the turbulent region and from natural-convection data obtained with vertical cylinders and plates; possible disruption of natural convection circulation within the blade coolant passages was thus indicated. Comparison of non dimensional temperature-ratio parameters for the blade leading edge, midchord, and trailing edge indicated that the blade cooling effectiveness is greatest at the midchord and least at the trailing edge.

Diaguila, Anthony J; Freche, John C

1951-01-01

117

17.March.2005 C. A. Martins, CERN AB/PO 1 Power converter  

E-print Network

system; 路 Forced air cooling (no need for water circuit) 路 Cast resin power transformers. Can be placed later) Inconveniences: 路 Water cooled. Needs water connection to the power converter; 路 Oil transformers infrastructures at building 193 (AD): 路 Water circuit in the vicinity of the power converter's location; 路 Pit

McDonald, Kirk

118

Corrosion study of heat exchanger tubes in pressurized water cooled nuclear reactors by conversion electron M鰏sbauer spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

57Fe-conversion electron M鰏sbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) a sensitive tool to analyze the phase composition of corrosion products\\u000a on the surface of stainless steel was applied to study real specimens from the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary. The primary\\u000a circuit side of the heat exchanger tubes was studied on selected samples cut out from the steam generators during regular\\u000a maintenance.

Z. Homonnay; P. . Szil醙yi; E. Kuzmann; K. Varga; Z. N閙eth; A. Szab; K. Rad; J. Schunk; P. Tilky; G. Patek

2007-01-01

119

Feasibility study for use of the natural convection shutdown heat removal test facility (NSTF) for VHTR water-cooled RCCS shutdown.  

SciTech Connect

In summary, a scaling analysis of a water-cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) system was performed based on generic information on the RCCS design of PBMR. The analysis demonstrates that the water-cooled RCCS can be simulated at the ANL NSTF facility at a prototypic scale in the lateral direction and about half scale in the vertical direction. Because, by necessity, the scaling is based on a number of approximations, and because no analytical information is available on the performance of a reference water-cooled RCCS, the scaling analysis presented here needs to be 'validated' by analysis of the steady state and transient performance of a reference water-cooled RCCS design. The analysis of the RCCS performance by CFD and system codes presents a number of challenges including: strong 3-D effects in the cavity and the RCCS tubes; simulation of turbulence in flows characterized by natural circulation, high Rayleigh numbers and low Reynolds numbers; validity of heat transfer correlations for system codes for heat transfer in the cavity and the annulus of the RCCS tubes; the potential of nucleate boiling in the tubes; water flashing in the upper section of the RCCS return line (during limiting transient); and two-phase flow phenomena in the water tanks. The limited simulation of heat transfer in cavities presented in Section 4.0, strongly underscores the need of experimental work to validate CFD codes, and heat transfer correlations for system codes, and to support the analysis and design of the RCCS. Based on the conclusions of the scaling analysis, a schematic that illustrates key attributes of the experiment system is shown in Fig. 4. This system contains the same physical elements as the PBMR RCCS, plus additional equipment to facilitate data gathering to support code validation. In particular, the prototype consists of a series of oval standpipes surrounding the reactor vessel to provide cooling of the reactor cavity during both normal and off-normal operating conditions. The standpipes are headered (in groups of four in the prototype) to water supply (header) tanks that are situated well above the reactor vessel to facilitate natural convection cooling during a loss of forced flow event. During normal operations, the water is pumped from a heat sink located outside the containment to the headered inlets to the standpipes. The water is then delivered to each standpipe through a centrally located downcomer that passes the coolant to the bottom of each pipe. The water then turns 180{sup o} and rises up through the annular gap while extracting heat from the reactor cavity due to a combination of natural convection and radiation across the gap between the reactor vessel and standpipes. The water exits the standpipes at the top where it is headered (again in groups of four) into a return line that passes the coolant to the top of the header tank. Coolant is drawn from each tank through a fitting located near the top of the tank where it flows to the heat rejection system located outside the containment. This completes the flow circuit for normal operations. During off-normal conditions, forced convection water cooling in the RCCS is presumed to be lost, as well as the ultimate heat sink outside the containment. In this case, water is passively drawn from an open line located at the bottom of the header tank. This line is orificed so that flow bypass during normal operations is small, yet the line is large enough to provide adequate flow during passive operations to remove decay heat while maintaining acceptable fuel temperatures. In the passive operating mode, water flows by natural convection from the bottom of the supply tank to the standpipes, and returns through the normal pathway to the top of the tanks. After the water reaches saturation and boiling commences, steam will pass through the top of the tanks and be vented to atmosphere. In the experiment system shown in Fig. 4, a steam condensation and collection system is included to quantify the boiling rate, thereby providing additional validation data. This sys

Tzanos, C.P.; Farmer, M.T.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2007-08-31

120

Experimental and numerical of the thermal deformation of water-cooled laser mirror under high power density laser irradiation (withdrawal notice)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, experiments have been carried out to study the transient thermal deformation of laser mirror with minichannels having width of 1.3mm and interval of 2mm. Transient thermal deformation of mirror surface was simulated by coupling temperature field, obtained by solving the finite volume model of 3D laminar flow and heat transfer governing equations in FLUENT, to finite element model of thermoelastic equation in ANSYS WORKBENCH. Experiments corresponding to numerical simulations were conducted to validate the numerical results. Simulation experiments show its effectiveness according to the highest average mean error is 9.9%. The results show that the highest isotherm and isalloline look like crescents, which are located at the downstream zone according to flow direction. It implies that the distribution of fluid flow influences the distribution of temperature to change the maximum and distribution of thermal deformation of mirror surface.

Hu, Panpan; Zhu, Haihong; Zeng, Xiaoyan; He, Chongwen; Yin, Jie; Ke, Linda

2013-05-01

121

Achievements in the development of the Water Cooled Solid Breeder Test Blanket Module of Japan to the milestones for installation in ITER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the primary candidate of ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM) to be tested under the leadership of Japan, a water cooled solid breeder (WCSB) TBM is being developed. This paper shows the recent achievements towards the milestones of ITER TBMs prior to the installation, which consist of design integration in ITER, module qualification and safety assessment. With respect to the design integration, targeting the detailed design final report in 2012, structure designs of the WCSB TBM and the interfacing components (common frame and backside shielding) that are placed in a test port of ITER and the layout of the cooling system are presented. As for the module qualification, a real-scale first wall mock-up fabricated by using the hot isostatic pressing method by structural material of reduced activation martensitic ferritic steel, F82H, and flow and irradiation test of the mock-up are presented. As for safety milestones, the contents of the preliminary safety report in 2008 consisting of source term identification, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and identification of postulated initiating events (PIEs) and safety analyses are presented.

Tsuru, Daigo; Tanigawa, Hisashi; Hirose, Takanori; Mohri, Kensuke; Seki, Yohji; Enoeda, Mikio; Ezato, Koichiro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Nishi, Hiroshi; Akiba, Masato

2009-06-01

122

Conceptual design description for the tritium recovery system for the US ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) Li sub 2 O/Be water cooled blanket  

SciTech Connect

The tritium recovery system for the US ITER Li{sub 2}O/Be water cooled blanket processes two separate helium purge streams to recover tritium from the Li{sub 2}O zones and the Be zones of the blanket, to process the waste products, and to recirculate the helium back to the blanket. The components are selected to minimize the tritium inventory of the recovery system, and to minimize waste products. The system is robust to either an increase in the tritium release rate or to an in-leak of water in the purge system. Three major components were used to process these streams, first, 5A molecular sieves at {minus}196{degree}C separate hydrogen from the helium, second, a solid oxide electrolysis unit is used to reduce all molecular water, and third, a palladium/silver diffuser is used to ensure that only hydrogen (H{sub 2}, HT) species reach the cryogenic distillation unit. Other units are present to recover tritium from waste products but the three major components are the basis of the blanket tritium recovery system. 32 refs.

Finn, P.A.; Sze, D.K. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA). Fusion Power Program); Clemmer, R.G. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1990-11-01

123

"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling  

SciTech Connect

Liquid cooling is key to reducing energy consumption for this generation of supercomputers and remains on the roadmap for the foreseeable future. This is because the heat capacity of liquids is orders of magnitude larger than that of air and once heat has been transferred to a liquid, it can be removed from the datacenter efficiently. The transition from air to liquid cooling is an inflection point providing an opportunity to work collectively to set guidelines for facilitating the energy efficiency of liquid-cooled High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities and systems. The vision is to use non-compressor-based cooling, to facilitate heat re-use, and thereby build solutions that are more energy-efficient, less carbon intensive and more cost effective than their air-cooled predecessors. The Energy Efficient HPC Working Group is developing guidelines for warmer liquid-cooling temperatures in order to standardize facility and HPC equipment, and provide more opportunity for reuse of waste heat. This report describes the development of those guidelines.

IBM Corporation; Energy Efficient HPC Working Group; Hewlett Packard Corporation; SGI; Cray Inc.; Intel Corporation; U.S. Army Engineer Research Development Center; Coles, Henry; Ellsworth, Michael; Martinez, David J.; Bailey, Anna-Maria; Banisadr, Farhad; Bates, Natalie; Coghlan, Susan; Cowley, David E.; Dube, Nicholas; Fields, Parks; Greenberg, Steve; Iyengar, Madhusudan; Kulesza, Peter R.; Loncaric, Josip; McCann, Tim; Pautsch, Greg; Patterson, Michael K.; Rivera, Richard G.; Rottman, Greg K.; Sartor, Dale; Tschudi, William; Vinson, Wade; Wescott, Ralph

2011-08-26

124

A study of a desuperheater heat recovery system complete with a reversibly used water cooling tower (RUWCT) for hot water supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recovering heat rejected from the condenser in a refrigeration system to generate service hot water for buildings is commonly seen in both tropics and subtropics. This study included a critical literature review on heat recovery from air-conditioning/refrigeration systems, with particular emphasis on the direct condenser heat recovery and its related mathematical simulation models. The review identified many applications of desuperheaters to small-scaled residential air-conditioning or heat pump units. The heat and mass transfer characteristics of a RUWCT have been studied in detail, which is based on the theory of direct contact heat and mass transfer between moist air and water. The thesis reports on the differences in the heat and mass transfer process that takes place in a RUWCT, a standard water cooling tower and a spray room. A corrective factor that accounts for the change of chilled water mass flow rate is incorporated into the theoretical analysis of a RUWCT. The algorithms developed from the theoretical analysis are capable of predicting the heat exchange capacity of a RUWCT at any operating conditions. This theoretical analysis is the first of its kind. Extensive field experimental work on the heat and mass transfer characteristics of a RUWCT has been carried out in a hotel building in Haikou, Hainan province of China, where the RUWCT is installed. Results from the experimental work indicate that the theoretical analysis can represent the heat and mass transfer characteristics in a RUWCT with an acceptable accuracy. A numerical analysis for a RUWCT is undertaken to determine both air and water states at intermediate horizontal sections along the tower height. Field experimental data confirm that the predicted air and water conditions at the tower inlet and outlet are of acceptable accuracy. A steady-state mathematical model is developed to simulate the operational performance of a water chiller plant complete with a desuperheater heat recovery system and a RUWCT. This model will be useful in future studies on the optimum design of a water chiller complete with a desuperheater and a RUWCT for heat recovery. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Tan, Kunxiong

125

A combined photovoltaic\\/thermal electric central power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary design and performance evaluation of the subject power plant has been completed. DC energy is produced by boiling-water-cooled gallium arsenide solar cells covering a central receiver illuminated by a heliostat field with a concentration ratio of one thousand. The steam is used to power a low pressure turbine-generator, with the exhaust steam directly condensed in a dry air

D. F. Gluck

1979-01-01

126

Power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space station requires an increase in power or energy of at least several orders of magnitude compared to previous space missions. With the requirement up in the range of 10 kilowatt hours, this obviiously requires the development of new technology. Although the power area is very well integrated in the spacecraft itself, it represents a diverse set of components necessary for energy conversion, electronics, and energy distribution. Considerable work is ongoing at NASA Lewis in the power devices development area, including transformers, large area solid-state chips, transistors, and fast recovery diodes. This work is oriented toward eventual application to both AC and DC power conversion approaches. In the energy storage area, there are many options available to fit into the space station representing various degrees of risk and leverage combination, such as the near-term integral-pressure-vessel nickel hydrogen battery, an advanced Ni-H2 battery concept, and the regenrative hydrogen-oxygen system utilizing essentially the Shuttle orbiter type of fuel cell.

Corbett, R.

1984-01-01

127

Review of Demountable vs. Sealed-off Power Tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of demountable and sealed-off types of power tubes is reviewed. Both made their appearance in 1923 as a result of the demand for higher outputs from individual tubes in radio transmitters. The invention of the glass-to-metal seal by Housekeeper made it possible to construct sealed-off water-cooled tubes with copper anodes. Another solution was found by Holweck, in France,

I. E. Mouromtseff; H. J. Dailey; L. C. Werner

1944-01-01

128

Magnetic Detection of Microstructure Change in Power Plant Steels  

E-print Network

Pump Cooling water Cooling water Electrical output Condenser Reheat Coal Boiler Superheater Ash HP IP/LP Figure 2.1: Schematic of a power plant steam cycle. After Cole, 2000. towards further increases (Masuyama, 2001). Steam turbines may be expected... . . . . . . . . 40 3.4.1 Surface domain structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 3.4.2 Magnetisation process in a single crystal . . . . . . . . 43 3.4.3 Domain wall behaviour at grain boundaries . . . . . . 43 3.4.4 Effect of grain boundary misorientations...

Yardley, Victoria Anne

2003-07-12

129

A sequential trigger procedure for use in monitoring nuclear power plant emergency diesel generator reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reliability of onsite emergency alternating current (ac) power supplies is a major factor in assuring acceptable safety at light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. The NRC has determined that an amendment to 10 CFR 50.63, ``Station Blackout,`` is the appropriate means for imposing new requirements regarding electric diesel generators (EDG) reliability. The proposed rule and regulatory guide consists of the following

H. F. Martz; G. L. Tietjen; P. H. Kvam

1992-01-01

130

A sequential trigger procedure for use in monitoring nuclear power plant emergency diesel generator reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reliability of onsite emergency alternating current (ac) power supplies is a major factor in assuring acceptable safety at light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. The NRC has determined that an amendment to 10 CFR 50.63, Station Blackout,'' is the appropriate means for imposing new requirements regarding electric diesel generators (EDG) reliability. The proposed rule and regulatory guide consists of the following

H. F. Martz; G. L. Tietjen; P. H. Kvam

1992-01-01

131

High power radio frequency attenuation device  

DOEpatents

A resistor device for attenuating radio frequency power includes a radio frequency conductor connected to a series of fins formed of high relative magnetic permeability material. The fins are dimensional to accommodate the skin depth of the current conduction therethrough, as well as an inner heat conducting portion where current does not travel. Thermal connections for air or water cooling are provided for the inner heat conducting portions of each fin. Also disclosed is a resistor device to selectively alternate unwanted radio frequency energy in a resonant cavity.

Kerns, Quentin A. (Bloomingdale, IL); Miller, Harold W. (Winfield, IL)

1984-01-01

132

Modification of film structure by plasma potential control using triode high power pulsed magnetron sputtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed a new triode configuration in a magnetron sputtering apparatus to control the plasma potential of the discharge. An additional chimney electrode was introduced above the conventional sputter gun to apply a positive voltage. The discharge power was provided by a pulse power source to achieve high power pulsed magnetron sputtering operation. We confirmed that the plasma potential increased with increasing positive electrode voltage. Copper films with substantially flatter surfaces could be obtained on a water-cooled and electrically grounded substrate at an Ar gas pressure of 5 Pa.

Nakano, Takeo; Umahashi, Takuya; Baba, Shigeru

2014-02-01

133

High-power radio-frequency attenuation device  

DOEpatents

A resistor device for attenuating radio frequency power includes a radio frequency conductor connected to a series of fins formed of high relative magnetic permeability material. The fins are dimensional to accommodate the skin depth of the current conduction therethrough, as well as an inner heat conducting portion where current does not travel. Thermal connections for air or water cooling are provided for the inner heat conducting portions of each fin. Also disclosed is a resistor device to selectively alternate unwanted radio frequency energy in a resonant cavity.

Kerns, Q.A.; Miller, H.W.

1981-12-30

134

Water-Moderated and -Reflected Slabs of Uranium Oxyfluoride  

SciTech Connect

A series of ten experiments were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiment Facility in December 1955, and January 1956, in an attempt to determine critical conditions for a slab of aqueous uranium oxyfluoride (UO2F2). These experiments were recorded in an Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Logbook and results were published in a journal of the American Nuclear Society, Nuclear Science and Engineering, by J. K. Fox, L. W. Gilley, and J. H. Marable (Reference 1). The purpose of these experiments was to obtain the minimum critical thickness of an effectively infinite slab of UO2F2 solution by extrapolation of experimental data. To do this the slab thickness was varied and critical solution and water-reflector heights were measured using two different fuel solutions. Of the ten conducted experiments eight of the experiments reached critical conditions but the results of only six of the experiments were published in Reference 1. All ten experiments were evaluated from which five critical configurations were judged as acceptable criticality safety benchmarks. The total uncertainty in the acceptable benchmarks is between 0.25 and 0.33 % ?k/keff. UO2F2 fuel is also evaluated in HEU-SOL-THERM-043, HEU-SOL-THERM-011, and HEU-SOL-THERM-012, but these those evaluation reports are for large reflected and unreflected spheres. Aluminum cylinders of UO2F2 are evaluated in HEU-SOL-THERM-050.

Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs; Clinton Gross

2010-09-01

135

Design of Recycle Pressurized Water Reactor with Heavy Water Moderation  

SciTech Connect

This study presents the conceptual design of the recycle pressurized water reactor (RPWR), which is an innovative PWR fueled with mixed oxide, moderated by heavy water, and having breeding ratios around 1.1. Most of the systems of RPWR can employ those of PWRs. The RPWR has no boric acid systems and has a small tritium removal system. The construction and operation costs would be similar to those of current PWRs. Heavy water cost has decreased drastically with up-to-date producing methods. The reliability of the systems of the RPWR is high, and the research and development cost for RPWR is very low because the core design is fundamentally based on the current PWR technology.

Hibi, Koki [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (Japan); Uchita, Masato [Japan Atomic Power Company (Japan)

2004-03-15

136

A Thermoelectric Generator Using Engine Coolant for Light-Duty Internal Combustion Engine-Powered Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We proposed and fabricated a thermoelectric generator (TEG) using the engine water coolant of passenger vehicles. The experimental results revealed that the maximum output power from the proposed thermoelectric generator was ~75 W, the calculated thermoelectric module efficiency of the TEG was ~2.1%, and the overall efficiency of electric power generation from the waste heat of the engine coolant was ~0.3% in the driving mode at 80 km/h. The conventional radiator can thus be replaced by the proposed TEG without additional devices or redesign of the engine water cooling system of the existing radiator.

Kim, Shiho; Park, Soonseo; Kim, Sunkook; Rhi, Seok-Ho

2011-05-01

137

10 CFR 50.62 - Requirements for reduction of risk from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. 50.62 Section 50...events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. (a) Applicability...commercial light-water-cooled nuclear power plants, other than nuclear...

2013-01-01

138

10 CFR 50.62 - Requirements for reduction of risk from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. 50.62 Section 50...events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. (a) Applicability...commercial light-water-cooled nuclear power plants, other than nuclear...

2010-01-01

139

10 CFR 50.62 - Requirements for reduction of risk from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. 50.62 Section 50...events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. (a) Applicability...commercial light-water-cooled nuclear power plants, other than nuclear...

2011-01-01

140

10 CFR 50.62 - Requirements for reduction of risk from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. 50.62 Section 50...events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. (a) Applicability...commercial light-water-cooled nuclear power plants, other than nuclear...

2012-01-01

141

77 FR 60481 - Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Post-Accident...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Systems in Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...Systems in Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide applies...systems in light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please...

2012-10-03

142

10 CFR 50.62 - Requirements for reduction of risk from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for...  

...events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. 50.62 Section 50...events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. (a) Applicability...commercial light-water-cooled nuclear power plants, other than nuclear...

2014-01-01

143

A novel power block for CSP systems  

SciTech Connect

Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) and in particular parabolic trough, is a proven large-scale solar power technology. However, CSP cost is not yet competitive with conventional alternatives unless subsidized. Current CSP plants typically include a condensing steam cycle power block which was preferably designed for a continuous operation and higher operating conditions and therefore, limits the overall plant cost effectiveness and deployment. The drawbacks of this power block are as follows: (i) no power generation during low insolation periods (ii) expensive, large condenser (typically water cooled) due to the poor extracted steam properties (high specific volume, sub-atmospheric pressure) and (iii) high installation and operation costs. In the current study, a different power block scheme is proposed to eliminate these obstacles. This power block includes a top Rankine cycle with a back pressure steam turbine and a bottoming Kalina cycle comprising another back pressure turbine and using ammonia-water mixture as a working fluid. The bottoming (moderate temperature) cycle allows power production during low insolation periods. Because of the superior ammonia-water vapor properties, the condensing system requirements are much less demanding and the operation costs are lowered. Accordingly, air cooled condensers can be used with lower economical penalty. Another advantage is that back pressure steam turbines have a less complex design than condensing steam turbines which make their costs lower. All of these improvements could make the combined cycle unit more cost effective. This unit can be applicable in both parabolic trough and central receiver (solar tower) plants. The potential advantage of the new power block is illustrated by a detailed techno-economical analysis of two 50 MW parabolic trough power plants, comparing between the standard and the novel power block. The results indicate that the proposed plant suggests a 4-11% electricity cost saving. (author)

Mittelman, Gur [ASP Ltd., Advanced Solar Power, Industrial Zone, Be'er Tuviyya (Israel); Epstein, Michael [Solar Research Facilities Unit, Weizmann Institute of Science (Israel)

2010-10-15

144

A high average power beam dump for an electron accelerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electron beam dump for Cornell University's Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) prototype injector was designed and manufactured to absorb 600 kW of electron beam power at beam energies between 5 and 15 MeV. It is constructed from an aluminum alloy using a cylindrical/conical geometry, with water cooling channels between an inner vacuum chamber and an outer jacket. The electron beam is defocused and its centroid is rastered around the axis of the dump to dilute the power density. A flexible joint connects the inner body and the outer jacket to minimize thermal stress. A quadrant detector at the entrance to the dump monitors the electron beam position and rastering. Electron scattering calculations, thermal and thermomechanical stress analysis, and radiation calculations are presented.

Liu, Xianghong; Bazarov, Ivan; Dunham, Bruce M.; Kostroun, Vaclav O.; Li, Yulin; Smolenski, Karl W.

2013-05-01

145

Evolution of the core physics concept for the Canadian supercritical water reactor  

SciTech Connect

The supercritical water cooled reactor (SCWR) is one of the advanced reactor concepts chosen by the GEN-IV International Forum (GIF) for research and development efforts. Canada's contribution is the Canadian SCWR, a heavy water moderated, pressure tube supercritical light water cooled reactor. Recent developments in the SCWR lattice and core concepts, primarily the introduction of a large central flow tube filled with coolant combined with a two-ring fuel assembly, have enabled significant improvements compared to earlier concepts. These improvements include a reduction in coolant void reactivity (CVR) by more than 10 mk, and an almost 40% increase in fuel exit burnup, which is achieved via balanced power distribution between the fuel pins in the fuel assembly. In this paper the evolution of the physics concept is reviewed, and the present lattice and core physics concepts are presented.

Pencer, J.; Colton, A.; Wang, X.; Gaudet, M.; Hamilton, H.; Yetisir, M. [Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd., Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

2013-07-01

146

Power Plant Power Plant  

E-print Network

Stillwater Power Plant Wabuska Power Plant Casa Diablo Power Plant Glass Mountain Geothermal Area Lassen Geothermal Area Coso Hot Springs Power Plants Lake City Geothermal Area Thermo Geothermal Area Lakeview Geothermal Area Raft River Geothermal Area Cove Fort Power Plant Roosevelt Power Plant Borax Lake

Tingley, Joseph V.

147

STARFIRE: a commercial tokamak fusion power plant study  

SciTech Connect

STARFIRE is a 1200 MWe central station fusion electric power plant that utilizes a deuterium-tritium fueled tokamak reactor as a heat source. Emphasis has been placed on developing design features which will provide for simpler assembly and maintenance, and improved safety and environmental characteristics. The major features of STARFIRE include a steady-state operating mode based on continuous rf lower-hybrid current drive and auxiliary heating, solid tritium breeder material, pressurized water cooling, limiter/vacuum system for impurity control and exhaust, high tritium burnup and low vulnerable tritium inventories, superconducting EF coils outside the superconducting TF coils, fully remote maintenance, and a low-activation shield. A comprehensive conceptual design has been developed including reactor features, support facilities and a complete balance of plant. A construction schedule and cost estimate are presented, as well as study conclusions and recommendations.

Not Available

1980-09-01

148

NASA Ames Research Center 60 MW Power Supply Modernization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Ames Research Center 60 MW DC Power Supply was built in 1974 to provide controlled DC power for the Thermophysics Facility Arc Jet Laboratory. The Power Supply has gradually losing reliability due to outdated technology and component life limitation. NASA has decided to upgrade the existing rectifier modules with contemporary high-power electronics and control equipment. NASA plans to complete this project in 2001. This project includes a complete replacement of obsolete thyristor stacks in all six rectifier modules and rectifier bridge control system. High power water-cooled thyristors and freewheeling diodes will be used. The rating of each of the six modules will be 4000 A at 5500 V. The control firing angle signal will be sent from the Facility Control System to six modules via fiberoptic cable. The Power Supply control and monitoring system will include a Master PLC in the Facility building and a Slave PLC in each rectifier module. This system will also monitor each thyristor level in each stack and the auxiliary equipment.

Choy, Yuen Ching; Ilinets, Boris V.; Miller, Ted; Nagel, Kirsten (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

149

Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the risk of reservoir under-performance, and minimize or eliminate emission of pollutants and consumption of surface and ground water. Power plant concepts were analyzed using resource characteristics at ten different geothermal sites located in the western United States. Concepts were developed into viable power plant processes, capital costs were estimated and levelized busbar costs determined. Thus, the study results should be considered as useful indicators of the commercial viability of the various power plants concepts that were investigated. Broadly, the different power plant concepts that were analyzed in this study fall into the following categories: commercial binary and flash plants, advanced binary plants, advanced flash plants, flash/binary hybrid plants, and fossil/geothed hybrid plants. Commercial binary plants were evaluated using commercial isobutane as a working fluid; both air-cooling and water-cooling were considered. Advanced binary concepts included cycles using synchronous turbine-generators, cycles with metastable expansion, and cycles utilizing mixtures as working fluids. Dual flash steam plants were used as the model for the commercial flash cycle. The following advanced flash concepts were examined: dual flash with rotary separator turbine, dual flash with steam reheater, dual flash with hot water turbine, and subatmospheric flash. Both dual flash and binary cycles were combined with other cycles to develop a number of hybrid cycles: dual flash binary bottoming cycle, dual flash backpressure turbine binary cycle, dual flash gas turbine cycle, and binary gas turbine cycle. Results of this study indicate that dual flash type plants are preferred at resources with temperatures above 400 F. Closed loop (binary type) plants are preferred at resources with temperatures below 400 F. A rotary separator turbine upstream of a dual flash plant can be beneficial at Salton Sea, the hottest resource, or at high temperature resources where there is a significant variance in wellhead pressures from well to well. Full scale demonstration is required to verify cost and performance. Hot water turbines that recover energy from the spent brine in a dual flash cycle improve that cycle's brine efficiency. Prototype field tests of this technology have established its technical feasibility. If natural gas prices remain low, a combustion turbine/binary hybrid is an economic option for the lowest temperature sites. The use of mixed fluids appear to be an attractive low risk option. The synchronous turbine option as prepared by Barber-Nichols is attractive but requires a pilot test to prove cost and performance. Dual flash binary bottoming cycles appear promising provided that scaling of the brine/working fluid exchangers is controllable. Metastable expansion, reheater, Subatmospheric flash, dual flash backpressure turbine, and hot dry rock concepts do not seem to offer any cost advantage over the baseline technologies. If implemented, the next generation geothermal power plant concept may improve brine utilization but is unlikely to reduce the cost of power generation by much more than 10%. Colder resources will benefit more from the development of a next generation geothermal power plant than will hotter resources. All values presented in this study for plant cost and for busbar cost of power are relative numbers intended to allow an objective and meaningful comparison of technologies. The goal of this study is to assess various technologies on an common basis and, secondarily, to give an approximate idea of the current costs of the technologies at actual resource sites. Absolute costs at a given site will be determined by the specifics of a given pr

Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

1995-09-01

150

Rotation and penetrative convection in water cooled from below}  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has already been suggested that the outer core of the Earth might not be entirely in a convective regime [1], for instance in a region close to the CMB where the heat conducted along the adiabat could be larger than the net heat transfer and where compositional buoyancy vanishes. Radial dependence of thermal conductivity could also produce neighbouring stable and unstable regions. To what extent does convection spread into the stable region is then an important issue. Liquid water and its maximum density at 4癈 provides a convenient way to observe penetrative convection. We have performed experiments where a volume of water (of square cross-section 16 cm by 16 cm and height 20 cm) initially at room temperature (around 22癈) is then suddenly cooled around 0癈 at the bottom while the sides and top walls are (imperfectly) thermally insulated. Near the bottom, where temperature is below 4癈, unstable buoyancy conditions prevail and we observe convective cells. Above 4癈, quiescent stable stratification is observed. Temperature is close to 4癈 within the bulk of the convective zone, so that the flux of heat extracted from the bottom is used to change the temperature from 22癈 to 4癈 within the successive layers of water, while the height of the convective zone increases and eventually reaches the top of the volume. Temperatures have been measured on a array of 15 PT100 probes protruding 5 mm into water along a vertical side wall. the extreme probes are 1 cm away from the lower and upper boundaries respectively. The evolution of all 15 temperatures can be seen on left-hand side of Fig. 1. Another type of information was obtained from a synthetic schlieren technique, whereby pictures of a random pattern placed behind the transparent water-filled box (perspex walls) are taken every 5 s with a digital camera. The cross-correlation of the different images provides a dynamical visualization of the gradients of refraction index within the volume of water. A snapshot is displayed on the right-hand side of Fig. 1. In a second step, we will analyze the influence of rotation on the configuration described above. The experiments will be performed in October and the results will be available for discussion during the AGU fall meeting. When transposed to the conditions of the Earth's outer core, we expect to be able to assess how stable and unstable regions can exist next to each other. [1] Braginsky, S.I., Phys. Earth Planet. Int., vol. 111, 21--34, 1999; Temperatures on the left, time derivative of index horizontal gradient on the right

Alboussiere, T.; Labrosse, S.; Dubuffet, F.; Thibon, F.; Huguet, L.; Deguen, R.

2012-12-01

151

Advanced water-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell development  

SciTech Connect

150 electrolyte reservoir plates (ERP's) were carbonized for the small area short stack. A process was developed which allows thin (1--2 mil) matrix to be applied to full-size electrodes using a curtain coater. Full-size cooler samples were molded with and without cooler tube arrays. Two alternative cooler hoses were evaluated and found to be acceptable based on 1400 h testing at simulated conditions.

Not Available

1989-01-01

152

Thermal-hydraulic limitations on water-cooled limiters  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of the cooling requirements for fusion reactor components, such as the first wall and limiter/divertor, was carried out using pressurized water as the coolant. In order to establish the coolant operating conditions, a survey of the literature on departure from nucleate boiling, critical heat flux, asymmetrical heating and heat transfer augmentation techniques was carried out. The experimental data and the empirical correlations indicate that thermal protection for the fusion reactor components based on current design concepts can be provided with an adequate margin of safety without resorting to either high coolant velocities, excessive coolant pressures, or heat transfer augmentation techniques. If, however, the future designs require heat transfer enhancement techniques, experimental verification would be necessary since no data on heat transfer augmentation techniques exist for complex geometries, especially under asymmetrically heated conditions. Since the data presented herein concern primarily thermal protection, the final design should consider other factors such as thermal stresses, temperature limits, and fatigue.

Cha, Y.S.; Misra, B.

1984-08-01

153

Heat Recovery From Arc Furnaces Using Water Cooled Panels  

E-print Network

. The refractories above the slag line take a lot of punishment because they are directly ex posed to the full "heat flux", which can range as high as 250,000 BTU!sq.ft.!hour (Figure 1). I-I..----l'..'------?..-llu' I- SLAG L1NI is l...--------''''--------i:o: ..GUll NO I This exposure, along with damage that may be caused by charging heavy scrap into the furnace, causes rapid deterioration of the refractories. Many furnaces must be shut down every 100 to 150 heats to reline the areas above the slag line...

Darby, D. F.

154

Reliability improvement project decision making : water cooling system redesign  

E-print Network

Deciding on which reliability & performance improvement projects to launch or to reject has historically been an extremely challenging responsibility of Teradyne management. Incorrect decisions can lead to major customer ...

Devine, Paul (Paul S.)

2006-01-01

155

Water-cooled insulated steam-injection wells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water is used as insulated coolant and heat-transfer medium for steam-injection oil wells. Approach is somewhat analogous to cooling system in liquid-propellant rocket. In addition to trapping and delivering heat to steam-injection point, water will also keep casing cooler, preventing or reducing casing failures caused by thermal stresses.

Back, L. H.; Jaffe, L. D.

1980-01-01

156

Water-cooled liquid and solid breeder blanket concepts  

SciTech Connect

Four concepts have been evaluated: (1) lithium oxide breeder (Li/sub 2/O) with and without beryllium neutron multiplier (Li/sub 2/O/H/sub 2/O, Li/sub 2/O/H/sub 2/O/Be); (2) ternary oxide ceramic breeder (..gamma..-LiA1O/sub 2/) with beryllium neutron multiplier (LiA1O/sub 2//H/sub 2/O/Be); (3) ..gamma..-LiA1O/sub 2/ with lead neutron multiplier (LiA1O/sub 2//H/sub 2/O/Pb); and (4) 17Li-83Pb breeder without a separate neutron multiplier (LiPb/H/sub 2/O). Candidate structural materials are austenitic stainless steel (PCA), ferritic steel (HT-9), and vanadium alloy (V-15Cr-5Ti). The pressurized water coolant is assumed to be at 280/sup 0/C inlet, 320/sup 0/C outlet, and 15.2 MPa design pressure.

Morgan, G.D.; Bowers, D.; Hellwig, T.; Ruester, D.; Sze, D.K.; Johnson, C.; Jung, J.; Liu, Y.Y.; Misra, B.; Gordon, J.

1984-01-01

157

PRECIPITATION-HARDENING STAINLESS STEELS IN WATER-COOLED REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study is made of the stress corrosion susceptibiity of unirradiated ; precipitation-hardening stainless steels. This study is made because of the ; failures encouatered with these materials in the Dresden and Vallecltos boiling ; water reactors. Service experience, static steam autoclave tests, and dynamic ; water and steam corrosion loop tests have demonstrated that 17-4 PH in the high-;

M. C. Rowland; W. R. Sr. Smith

1962-01-01

158

Methods for estimating water consumption for thermoelectric power plants in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water consumption at thermoelectric power plants represents a small but substantial share of total water consumption in the U.S. However, currently available thermoelectric water consumption data are inconsistent and incomplete, and coefficients used to estimate consumption are contradictory. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has resumed the estimation of thermoelectric water consumption, last done in 1995, based on the use of linked heat and water budgets to complement reported water consumption. This report presents the methods used to estimate freshwater consumption at a study set of 1,284 power plants based on 2010 plant characteristics and operations data. Power plants were categorized for estimation of water consumption in two tiers. First, generating units were assigned to categories based on the technology used to generate electricity. These generation-type categories are combustion steam, combined-cycle, nuclear, geothermal, and solar thermal. Second, cooling systems were separately categorized as either wet cooling towers or surface-water cooling systems, and the surface-water cooling systems were subcategorized as cooling ponds, lakes, and rivers. Heat budgets were constructed for the first four generation-type categories; data at solar thermal plants were insufficient for heat budgets. These heat budgets yielded estimates of the amount of heat transferred to the condenser. The ratio of evaporation to the heat discharged through the condenser was estimated using existing heat balance models that are sensitive to environmental data; this feature allows estimation of consumption under different climatic conditions. These two estimates were multiplied to yield an estimate of consumption at each power plant.

Diehl, Timothy H.; Harris, Melissa; Murphy, Jennifer C.; Hutson, Susan S.; Ladd, David E.

2013-01-01

159

Klystron Cluster Scheme for ILC High Power RF Distribution  

SciTech Connect

We present a concept for powering the main linacs of the International Linear Collider (ILC) by delivering high power RF from the surface via overmoded, low-loss waveguides at widely spaced intervals. The baseline design employs a two-tunnel layout, with klystrons and modulators evenly distributed along a service tunnel running parallel to the accelerator tunnel. This new idea eliminates the need for the service tunnel. It also brings most of the warm heat load to the surface, dramatically reducing the tunnel water cooling and HVAC requirements. In the envisioned configuration, groups of 70 klystrons and modulators are clustered in surface buildings every 2.5 km. Their outputs are combined into two half-meter diameter circular TE{sub 01} mode evacuated waveguides. These are directed via special bends through a deep shaft and along the tunnel, one upstream and one downstream. Each feeds approximately 1.25 km of linac with power tapped off in 10 MW portions at 38 m intervals. The power is extracted through a novel coaxial tap-off (CTO), after which the local distribution is as it would be from a klystron. The tap-off design is also employed in reverse for the initial combining.

Nantista, Christopher; Adolphsen, Chris; /SLAC

2009-07-06

160

An experimental study of energy loss mechanisms and efficiency consideration in the low power dc arcjet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential utility of the low power dc arcjet in auxiliary propulsion was investigated. It was indicated that improvements in the areas of stability, energy efficiency, reliability, and electrode erosion are necessary to obtain a useful device. A water-cooled arcjet simulator was tested to investigate both the energy loss mechanisms at the electrodes and the stability of different conventional arcjet configurations in the presence of a vortex flow field. It is shown that in certain configurations only 25 to 30% of the input energy is lost to the electrodes. It is also shown that vortex stabilization is not difficult to obtain in many cases at the flow rates used and that a careful starting procedure is effective in minimizing electrode damage.

Curran, F. M.

1985-01-01

161

10 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Numerical Guides for Design Objectives and Limiting Conditions for Operation To Meet the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Material in Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactor Effluents I Appendix...Material in Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactor Effluents SECTION I...releases of radioactive material from nuclear power reactors to unrestricted...

2011-01-01

162

10 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Numerical Guides for Design Objectives and Limiting Conditions for Operation To Meet the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Material in Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactor Effluents I Appendix...Material in Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactor Effluents SECTION I...releases of radioactive material from nuclear power reactors to unrestricted...

2013-01-01

163

10 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Numerical Guides for Design Objectives and Limiting Conditions for Operation To Meet the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Material in Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactor Effluents I Appendix...Material in Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactor Effluents SECTION I...releases of radioactive material from nuclear power reactors to unrestricted...

2010-01-01

164

77 FR 38857 - Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Normal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Systems in Light-Water- Cooled Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...Systems in Light-Water- Cooled Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide describes...guide applies to all types of nuclear power plants that use water as the...

2012-06-29

165

10 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Numerical Guides for Design Objectives and Limiting Conditions for Operation To Meet the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Material in Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactor Effluents I Appendix...Material in Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactor Effluents SECTION I...releases of radioactive material from nuclear power reactors to unrestricted...

2012-01-01

166

10 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Numerical Guides for Design Objectives and Limiting Conditions for Operation To Meet the...  

...Material in Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactor Effluents I Appendix...Material in Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactor Effluents SECTION I...releases of radioactive material from nuclear power reactors to unrestricted...

2014-01-01

167

Numerical investigation of mass transfer in the flow path of the experimental model of the PGV-1500 steam generator's steam receiving section with two steam nozzles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrodynamics of working medium in the steam volume model implemented in the experimental setup constructed at the Leipunskii Institute for Physics and Power Engineering was simulated for verifying the procedure of calculating the velocity field in the steam space of steam generators used as part of the reactor plants constructed on the basis of water-cooled water-moderated power-generating reactors (VVER). The numerical calculation was implemented in the environment of the STAR-CCM+ software system with its cross verification in the STAR-CD and ANSYS CFX software systems. The performed numerical investigation served as a basis for substantiating the selection of the computation code and parameters for constructing the computer model of the steam receiving device of the PGV-1500 steam generator experimental model, such as the quantization scheme, turbulence model, and mesh model.

Golibrodo, L. A.; Krutikov, A. A.; Nadinskii, Yu. N.; Nikolaeva, A. V.; Skibin, A. P.; Sotskov, V. V.

2014-10-01

168

Use of Cooling Thermal Storage as a Heat Sink for Steam Power Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper, a system is proposed for improving the performance of steam power plant with air-cooled condenser during peak loads. In this system, the power plant comprises two steam turbines, and the air-cooled condenser is replaced by two condensers. The first one is air-cooled (dry) and used for condensing the exhaust steam of the first turbine, while the second is water-cooled and serves to condense the steam outlet of the second turbine. The warm cooling water exiting the wet condenser is pumped to a cooling storage container, where it is cooled and re-circulated to the wet condenser. Cooling is produced by a refrigeration machine driven by the extra electric power generated by the two turbines during the time of the off-peak-loads (low electricity rates). Simple energy analyses have been developed to predict the energy characteristics of this system. The results of this paper showed that the proposed system leads to improving the plant power output at peak-loads. About 6, 16, 24 and 33% increase in generated plant power can be achieved at peak-loads (high electricity rates) when the ambient temperature is 20, 30, 40 and 50癈 respectively, and the whole steam exiting both turbines is cooled in a wet condenser to a design temperature of 20癈. The results showed also that choice of the capacity of each turbine is essentially affected by the quality of the refrigeration machine and ambient temperature.

Hegazy, Ahmed Sabry

169

THE A.W.R.E. 5 MW LIGHT WATER MODERATED RESEARCH REACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary function of the 5-Mw light water mederated reactor at AWRE, ; Aldermaston, is to provide intense neutron beams for physics research and small ; sample irradiation facilities for radiochemical studies. Fuel elements are ; similar to those used for the Merlin reactor but the U虏鲁鈦 content was ; increased from 10 to 11.5 gm per plate. The layout

F. J. Barclay; J. J. McEnhill; M. C. J. Todd

1959-01-01

170

Fission Surface Power Systems (FSPS) Project Final Report for the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP): Fission Surface Power, Transition Face to Face  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Fission Surface Power Systems Project became part of the ETDP on October 1, 2008. Its goal was to demonstrate fission power system technology readiness in an operationally relevant environment, while providing data on fission system characteristics pertinent to the use of a fission power system on planetary surfaces. During fiscal years 08 to 10, the FSPS project activities were dominated by hardware demonstrations of component technologies, to verify their readiness for inclusion in the fission surface power system. These Pathfinders demonstrated multi-kWe Stirling power conversion operating with heat delivered via liquid metal NaK, composite Ti/H2O heat pipe radiator panel operations at 400 K input water temperature, no-moving-part electromagnetic liquid metal pump operation with NaK at flight-like temperatures, and subscale performance of an electric resistance reactor simulator capable of reproducing characteristics of a nuclear reactor for the purpose of system-level testing, and a longer list of component technologies included in the attached report. Based on the successful conclusion of Pathfinder testing, work began in 2010 on design and development of the Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU), a full-scale 1/4 power system-level non-nuclear assembly of a reactor simulator, power conversion, heat rejection, instrumentation and controls, and power management and distribution. The TDU will be developed and fabricated during fiscal years 11 and 12, culminating in initial testing with water cooling replacing the heat rejection system in 2012, and complete testing of the full TDU by the end of 2014. Due to its importance for Mars exploration, potential applicability to missions preceding Mars missions, and readiness for an early system-level demonstration, the Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration program is currently planning to continue the project as the Fission Power Systems project, including emphasis on the TDU completion and testing.

Palac, Donald T.

2011-01-01

171

Power Play.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how to integrate technology into old buildings beginning with an evaluation of the electric power systems. A case study is highlighted showing the process in determining existing conditions, assessing electric power needs, and designing upgrades. (GR)

Aho, Timothy A.

1998-01-01

172

High Power Flex-Propellant Arcjet Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A MW-class electrothermal arcjet based on a water-cooled, wall-stabilized, constricted arc discharge configuration was subjected to extensive performance testing using hydrogen and simulated ammonia propellants with the deliberate aim of advancing technology readiness level for potential space propulsion applications. The breadboard design incorporates alternating conductor/insulator wafers to form a discharge barrel enclosure with a 2.5-cm internal bore diameter and an overall length of approximately 1 meter. Swirling propellant flow is introduced into the barrel, and a DC arc discharge mode is established between a backplate tungsten cathode button and a downstream ringanode/ spin-coil assembly. The arc-heated propellant then enters a short mixing plenum and is accelerated through a converging-diverging graphite nozzle. This innovative design configuration differs substantially from conventional arcjet thrusters, in which the throat functions as constrictor and the expansion nozzle serves as the anode, and permits the attainment of an equilibrium sonic throat (EST) condition. During the test program, applied electrical input power was varied between 0.5-1 MW with hydrogen and simulated ammonia flow rates in the range of 4-12 g/s and 15-35 g/s, respectively. The ranges of investigated specific input energy therefore fell between 50-250 MJ/kg for hydrogen and 10-60 MJ/kg for ammonia. In both cases, observed arc efficiencies were between 40-60 percent as determined via a simple heat balance method based on electrical input power and coolant water calorimeter measurements. These experimental results were found to be in excellent agreement with theoretical chemical equilibrium predictions, thereby validating the EST assumption and enabling the utilization of standard TDK nozzle expansion analyses to reliably infer baseline thruster performance characteristics. Inferred specific impulse performance accounting for recombination kinetics during the expansion process implied nearly frozen flow in the nozzle and yielded performance ranges of 800-1100 sec for hydrogen and 400-600 sec for ammonia. Inferred thrust-to-power ratios were in the range of 30-10 lbf/MWe for hydrogen and 60-20 lbf/MWe for ammonia. Successful completion of this test series represents a fundamental milestone in the progression of high power arcjet technology, and it is hoped that the results may serve as a reliable touchstone for the future development of MW-class regeneratively-cooled flex-propellant plasma rockets.

Litchford, Ron J.

2011-01-01

173

Power processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Processing of electric power has been presented as a discipline that draws on almost every field of electrical engineering, including system and control theory, communications theory, electronic network design, and power component technology. The cost of power processing equipment, which often equals that of expensive, sophisticated, and unconventional sources of electrical energy, such as solar batteries, is a significant consideration in the choice of electric power systems.

Schwarz, F. C.

1971-01-01

174

Power Source  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this short activity, students or groups are tasked to make concept sketches that track the source of electrical power as far back as they can conceive. The concept sketches reveal students' prior conceptions of the power grid and energy mix, and lead naturally into a lesson or discussion about energy resources and power production.

Semken, Steven; Collection, Serc -.

175

From the first nuclear power plant to fourth-generation nuclear power installations [on the 60th anniversary of the World's First nuclear power plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful commissioning in the 1954 of the World's First nuclear power plant constructed at the Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Obninsk signaled a turn from military programs to peaceful utilization of atomic energy. Up to the decommissioning of this plant, the AM reactor served as one of the main reactor bases on which neutron-physical investigations and investigations in solid state physics were carried out, fuel rods and electricity generating channels were tested, and isotope products were bred. The plant served as a center for training Soviet and foreign specialists on nuclear power plants, the personnel of the Lenin nuclear-powered icebreaker, and others. The IPPE development history is linked with the names of I.V. Kurchatov, A.I. Leipunskii, D.I. Blokhintsev, A.P. Aleksandrov, and E.P. Slavskii. More than 120 projects of various nuclear power installations were developed under the scientific leadership of the IPPE for submarine, terrestrial, and space applications, including two water-cooled power units at the Beloyarsk NPP in Ural, the Bilibino nuclear cogeneration station in Chukotka, crawler-mounted transportable TES-3 power station, the BN-350 reactor in Kazakhstan, and the BN-600 power unit at the Beloyarsk NPP. Owing to efforts taken on implementing the program for developing fast-neutron reactors, Russia occupied leading positions around the world in this field. All this time, IPPE specialists worked on elaborating the principles of energy supertechnologies of the 21st century. New large experimental installations have been put in operation, including the nuclear-laser setup B, the EGP-15 accelerator, the large physical setup BFS, the high-pressure setup SVD-2; scientific, engineering, and technological schools have been established in the field of high- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics, electrostatic accelerators of multicharge ions, plasma processes in thermionic converters and nuclear-pumped lasers, physics of compact nuclear reactors and radiation protection, thermal physics, physical chemistry and technology of liquid metal coolants, and physics of radiation-induced defects, and radiation materials science. The activity of the institute is aimed at solving matters concerned with technological development of large-scale nuclear power engineering on the basis of a closed nuclear fuel cycle with the use of fast-neutron reactors (referred to henceforth as fast reactors), development of innovative nuclear and conventional technologies, and extension of their application fields.

Rachkov, V. I.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Kukharchuk, O. F.; Orlov, Yu. I.; Sorokin, A. P.

2014-05-01

176

Power Electronics and Wind Power  

E-print Network

Renewable energy facilities will constitute a major contribution to electrical power in the future. The wind turbine will, together with biomass, form the major renewables parts up to year 2030 including erection of offshore wind farms. The wind is a non-storable energy source, whose electric energy needs priming into interchangeable energy to be competitive for large-scale power generation. An essential task is then to make wind power as commercially valuable and fungible as electric power produced by traditional, dispatched plants such as fossil fuel power plants, hydroelectric plants, nuclear plants and the like. Power electronics is a fundamental candidate when priming wind power. Another candidate is automation starting in the towers and ending in load management. Power electronics and automation shall be cost-effective and reliable. Power electronic hardware shall be common but in moderation because losses and investments must be paid back: by better trading on the power exchange, by availability, by reduced mechanical and/or civil engineering as well as by efficiency and reliability. An overview of wind power from different perspectives: collection & transmission (C&T), energy storage, R&D e.g. in EU and US, existing technology, wind抯 future(s) business, etc. is comprised. EPE should be challenged to exploit wind power opportunities.

Gertmar Lars; Lars Gertmar; Systems Power Transmission

177

74 FR 42667 - Big Stone II Power Plant and Transmission Project Final Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...turbine to electrical energy. A water-cooled steam condenser would accept the steam exhausted from the turbine and a circulating...from a wet cooling tower to the water-cooled steam condenser to dissipate the energy in the condensing...

2009-08-24

178

Tidal power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews the physics of tidal power, considering the gravitational effects of the Moon and Sun; semidiurnal, diurnal, and mixed tides; and major periodic components that affect the tidal range. Shelving, funneling, reflection, and resonance phenomena that have a significant effect on tidal range are also discussed. Basic parameters that govern the design of tidal power schemes in terms of mean

T. J. Hammons

1993-01-01

179

POWER SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low power output of other devices at this time dictates the use of ; nuclear-reactor systems for manned space explorations. Work up to the present is ; briefly reviewed, and progress and utilization of other power supplies are ; discussed. Pros and cons of solar cells, fuel cells, and thermoelectric and ; thermionic devices are included as well as consideration

1962-01-01

180

Power system  

DOEpatents

A power system includes a prime mover, a transmission, and a fluid coupler having a selectively engageable lockup clutch. The fluid coupler may be drivingly connected between the prime mover and the transmission. Additionally, the power system may include a motor/generator drivingly connected to at least one of the prime mover and the transmission. The power-system may also include power-system controls configured to execute a control method. The control method may include selecting one of a plurality of modes of operation of the power system. Additionally, the control method may include controlling the operating state of the lockup clutch dependent upon the mode of operation selected. The control method may also include controlling the operating state of the motor/generator dependent upon the mode of operation selected.

Hickam, Christopher Dale (Glasford, IL)

2008-03-18

181

Power Up!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online game, learners must purchase power plants for their city. They must balance the need for adequate power against the environmental impact of different power plants and stay within their limited budget. The game introduces many kinds of power plants to choose from (oil, coal, nuclear, solar, wind, hydro). Since the game only shows a random selection of three of these power sources at a time, the game changes each time you play. When learners set up a free account at Kinetic City, they can answer bonus questions at the end of the activity as a quick assessment. As a larger assessment, learners can complete the Smart Attack game after they've completed several activities.

Science, American A.

2009-01-01

182

Sensitivity analysis for AHWR fuel cluster parameters using different WIMS libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is presently engaged in the design of an advanced heavy water reactor (AHWR) which utilises thorium as fuel. The AHWR is a boiling light water cooled heavy water moderated reactor where the heat is removed through natural convection. Dysprosium is used as burnable absorber to get a reduction in void reactivity. The design needs to be well validated. The

Arvind Kumar; Umashankari Kannan; R. Srivenkatesan

2002-01-01

183

The Reactor engineering of the MITR-II : construction and startup  

E-print Network

The heavy water moderated and cooled research reactor, MITR-I, has been replaced with a light water cooled, heavy water reflected reactor called the MITR-II. The MITR-II is designed to operate at 5 thermal megawatts. The ...

Allen, G. C.

1976-01-01

184

Field tests of a vertical-fluted-tube condenser in the prototype power plant at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site  

SciTech Connect

A vertical-fluted-tube condenser was designed, fabricated, and tested with isobutane as the shell-side working fluid in a binary prototype power plant at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site. After shakedown and contamination removal operations were completed, the four-pass water-cooled unit (with 102 outside-fluted Admiralty tubes) achieved performance predictions while operating with the plant surface evaporator on-line. A sample comparison shows that use of this enhanced condenser concept offers the potential for a reduction of about 65% from the size suggested by corresponding designs using conventional horizontal-smooth-tube concepts. Subsequent substitution of a direct-contact evaporator for the surface evaporator brought drastic reductions in system performance, the apparent consequence of high concentrations of noncondensible gases introduced by the brine/working-fluid interaction.

Murphy, R.W.

1983-04-01

185

Power Recovery  

E-print Network

.POWER RECOVERY Fletcher Mlirray Monsanto Chemical Company AB5'-:::0 p.p., will ??vi.w 'h. '.ohnnln,y nf 'h.::v,n. T:X:~~T ~ methods for estimating the power recovery potential from fluid streams. The ideal gas law formula for expanding gases..., will be the use of the ASTM Theoretical Steam Rate Tables. In addition, the author's experience regarding the minimum size for power recovery units that are economic in a Culf Coast plant will be presented. INTROD\\Jr.'rION When surveying an operation...

Murray, F.

186

Nuclear Power  

E-print Network

be inherently safe and environmentally benign. These realities of today's world are among the reasons that lead to serious interest in deploying nuclear power as a sustainable energy source. Today's nuclear reactors are safe and highly efficient energy systems...

187

Power Factor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that 芒侣provides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.芒侣 Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Power Factor, is the eleventh chapter in Volume II 芒侣Alternating Current. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: True, Reactive, and Apparent power; Calculating power factor, and Practical power factor correction. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-10

188

Investigation of a Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler with 100 W-class cooling power at 77 K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High power Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers are considered as one of the ideal candidates for cooling high temperature superconducting devices for its high reliability and high efficiency. The inhomogeneity of flow in a large-diameter pulse tube is one of the main obstacles to develop an efficient cryocooler. In this paper, a Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler with 100 W-class cooling power at 77 K was developed and tested. A screen-filled secondary water-cooled heat exchanger is used at the hot end of the pulse tube to suppress the jet steaming. Then, attentions were focused on the influence of the pulse tube configurations on the cooling performance. Pulse tubes with different size and taper angle were investigated. With a 100 mm-long cylindrical pulse tube, a cooling power of more than 100 W at 77 K was obtained, and with a 75 mm-long tapered pulse tube of 2.8, the relative Carnot efficiency of the cryocooler from acoustic work to cooling power reached 29.8%. If the efficiency of the compressor is 80%, the relative Carnot efficiency of the whole system could reach about 24%, showing great attraction to HTS applications.

Zhang, L. M.; Hu, J. Y.; Chen, Y. Y.; Luo, E. C.; Dai, W.

2014-01-01

189

Water-Carbon Trade-off in China's Coal Power Industry.  

PubMed

The energy sector is increasingly facing water scarcity constraints in many regions around the globe, especially in China, where the unprecedented large-scale construction of coal-fired thermal power plants is taking place in its extremely arid northwest regions. As a response to water scarcity, air-cooled coal power plants have experienced dramatic diffusion in China since the middle 2000s. By the end of 2012, air-cooled coal-fired thermal power plants in China amounted to 112 GW, making up 14% of China's thermal power generation capacity. But the water conservation benefit of air-cooled units is achieved at the cost of lower thermal efficiency and consequently higher carbon emission intensity. We estimate that in 2012 the deployment of air-cooled units contributed an additional 24.3-31.9 million tonnes of CO2 emissions (equivalent to 0.7-1.0% of the total CO2 emissions by China's electric power sector), while saving 832-942 million m(3) of consumptive water use (about 60% of the total annual water use of Beijing) when compared to a scenario with water-cooled plants. Additional CO2 emissions from air-cooled plants largely offset the CO2 emissions reduction benefits from Chinese policies of retiring small and outdated coal plants. This water-carbon trade-off is poised to become even more significant by 2020, as air-cooled units are expected to grow by a factor of 2-260 GW, accounting for 22% of China's total coal-fired power generation capacity. PMID:25215622

Zhang, Chao; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Mo, Hongpin; Zhao, Zhongnan; Liu, Zhu

2014-10-01

190

Fuel cell power source for a cold region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric power generation at Maitri梩he Indian Antarctic station is based on a conventional diesel generator. In spite of the high reliability and simplicity of operation, the main disadvantages of this kind of power source are its pollution potential and fuel transportation costs. In a place like Antarctica environmental protection requirements are of prime importance. Apart from gas pollution, they also suffer from various other problems such as degradation of performance due to sub-zero temperature of operation, noise pollution, solidification of lubricants and mechanical wear and tear. Fuel cells find an ideal application for alternate energy solution, and can maintain the pristine nature of Antarctica. With this objective in mind, Research & Development Establishment (Engineers), Pune, Defence Research & Development Organisation, Ministry of Defence, Government of India joined hands with Centre for Electro-Chemical & Energy Research, SPIC Science Foundation, Chennai and developed three prototype 500 W, 12 V, PEMFC fuel cell power sources for this application. PEMFC has been chosen for study and experimentation at Antarctica because the solid electrolyte Nafion-117 is used in this cell and the electro-chemical reaction is exothermic so that the fuel cell can be activated at low temperature. PEMFC was first installed and successfully demonstrated during the XVII Indian Antarctic Expedition. Further studies continued during the XVIII Indian Antarctic Expedition and a series of scientific experiments were conducted in the areas of optimisation of humidification, temperature for reactants (hydrogen and oxygen), elimination of existing humidification system, feasibility of provision of air-cooling system in lieu of water cooling system, humidifcation of gases using membrane as a medium, charging/discharging characteristics of a metal hydride container for hydrogen storage, and performance of a dc-dc converter and static inverter under sub-zero temperature of operation. Based on the results of these experiments, the design of the fuel cell power source for cold region application has been finalised. The paper deals with the design criteria and design factors to be considered for the fuel cell power source for cold region application and details of tests and test results that led to the final design concept for such an application. The paper also deals with a proposed hybrid power plant taking into account the exploitation of wind energy with a fuel cell and generation of hydrogen by an electrolyser and provision of hydrogen storage.

Datta, B. K.; Velayutham, G.; Goud, A. Prasad

191

A sequential trigger procedure for use in monitoring nuclear power plant emergency diesel generator reliability  

SciTech Connect

The reliability of onsite emergency alternating current (ac) power supplies is a major factor in assuring acceptable safety at light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. The NRC has determined that an amendment to 10 CFR 50.63, Station Blackout,'' is the appropriate means for imposing new requirements regarding electric diesel generators (EDG) reliability. The proposed rule and regulatory guide consists of the following fundamental elements: (1) establishment of EDG target reliability levels that would comport with the reliability levels assumed in a licensee's coping analysis for station blackout; (2) trigger values with respect to EDG failures to start and loadrun which serve two purposes -- to provide a warning of EDG degradation, and to provide a basis for taking regulatory action when there is reasonable evidence from surveillance testing that EDG reliability has degraded below the selected target values; and (3) a reporting regime for EDG failures consistent with this performance-based approach. The purpose of this report is to assess the performance of the proposed triggers in a simulated operational environment and to describe and evaluate an alternative trigger procedure which improves the detection of EDG reliability degradation without increasing false alarms.

Martz, H.F.; Tietjen, G.L.; Kvam, P.H.

1992-01-01

192

A sequential trigger procedure for use in monitoring nuclear power plant emergency diesel generator reliability  

SciTech Connect

The reliability of onsite emergency alternating current (ac) power supplies is a major factor in assuring acceptable safety at light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. The NRC has determined that an amendment to 10 CFR 50.63, ``Station Blackout,`` is the appropriate means for imposing new requirements regarding electric diesel generators (EDG) reliability. The proposed rule and regulatory guide consists of the following fundamental elements: (1) establishment of EDG target reliability levels that would comport with the reliability levels assumed in a licensee`s coping analysis for station blackout; (2) trigger values with respect to EDG failures to start and loadrun which serve two purposes -- to provide a warning of EDG degradation, and to provide a basis for taking regulatory action when there is reasonable evidence from surveillance testing that EDG reliability has degraded below the selected target values; and (3) a reporting regime for EDG failures consistent with this performance-based approach. The purpose of this report is to assess the performance of the proposed triggers in a simulated operational environment and to describe and evaluate an alternative trigger procedure which improves the detection of EDG reliability degradation without increasing false alarms.

Martz, H.F.; Tietjen, G.L.; Kvam, P.H.

1992-12-01

193

73 FR 51440 - Brazos Electric Power Cooperative, Inc.; Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Texas. The project will consist of two combustion turbines and heat recovery steam generators and one steam turbine with a water-cooled steam surface condenser. Any final action by RUS related to the proposed project will be subject to,...

2008-09-03

194

73 FR 40285 - Brazos Electric Power Cooperative, Inc.: Notice of Availability of an Environmental Assessment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Texas. The project will consist of two combustion turbines and heat recovery steam generators and one steam turbine with a water-cooled steam surface condenser. PBS&J, an environmental consultant, prepared an EA for Rural Development...

2008-07-14

195

Tacoma Power Weatherization  

E-print Network

Tacoma Power Weatherization Specifications August 2009 KnowYourPower.com | #12;TACOMA POWER WEATHERIZATION SPECIFICATIONS 2009 edition Page 2 #12;TACOMA POWER WEATHERIZATION SPECIFICATIONS 2009 edition

196

Power sprouts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explains how a large number of sprouts were used as a battery of cells and connected together to power a set of LED Christmas lights. All relevant calculations to find the number of sprouts needed, their arrangement in series and parallel, the charge stored on the required capacitor and the capacitor charging time are illustrated.

French, M. M. J.

2014-05-01

197

Nuclear Power  

E-print Network

this report does not contain recommendations or solutions that the nuclear power community can adopt in order to deal effectively with electricity market deregulation, it is expected to be useful for policy makers and nuclear generators in identifying potential impacts on their particular situations and in planning for the future

In Competitive Electricity

198

Star Power  

ScienceCinema

The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

None

2014-11-18

199

Power, Revisited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Power is a core theoretical construct in the field with amazing utility across substantive areas, levels of analysis and methodologies. Yet, its use along with associated assumptions--assumptions surrounding constraint vs. action and specifically organizational structure and rationality--remain problematic. In this article, and following an

Roscigno, Vincent J.

2011-01-01

200

Stigma power.  

PubMed

When people have an interest in keeping other people down, in or away, stigma is a resource that allows them to obtain ends they desire. We call this resource "stigma power" and use the term to refer to instances in which stigma processes achieve the aims of stigmatizers with respect to the exploitation, control or exclusion of others. We draw on Bourdieu (1987, 1990) who notes that power is often most effectively deployed when it is hidden or "misrecognized." To explore the utility of the stigma-power concept we examine ways in which the goals of stigmatizers are achieved but hidden in the stigma coping efforts of people with mental illnesses. We developed new self-report measures and administered them to a sample of individuals who have experienced mental illness to test whether results are consistent with the possibility that, in response to negative societal conceptions, the attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of people with psychosis lead them to be concerned with staying in, propelled to stay away and induced to feel downwardly placed - precisely the outcomes stigmatizers might desire. Our introduction of the stigma-power concept carries the possibility of seeing stigmatizing circumstances in a new light. PMID:24507908

Link, Bruce G; Phelan, Jo

2014-02-01

201

Nuclear Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An introduction to nuclear fission, its controlled release in power stations, problems of nuclear waste, and nuclear accidents. A linked web page discusses nuclear weapons, their effect, their ban, and "dirty bombs". This material supplements a previous section on fission in the Sun and the curve of binding energy in "From Stargazers to Starships". A French translation also exists.

Stern, David

2004-11-28

202

Power Trains.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is part of a series designed to teach students about diesel engines. The materials in this power trains guide apply to both on-road and off-road vehicles and include information about chain and belt drives used in tractors and combines. These instructional materials, containing nine units, are written in terms of student

Kukuk, Marvin; Mathis, Joe

203

Power branding  

SciTech Connect

For most of its century-long history, electricity was a natural monopoly, due in part to the excessive cost of the necessary infrastructure. In the past decade, however, politics have pushed the industry toward competition and consumer choice. At the same time, technology has been developed that allows consumers to choose their electricity supplier and to track the flow of power through the various grids and lines. In her new book, Power Branding, author and industry expert Ann Chambers examines marketing and branding of electricity -- what it is, how it`s done, what its benefits are for electric utilities, marketers, and even natural gas companies allied with the utilities. She surveys industry leaders who have already taken a dive into the ocean of marketing and offers lessons drawn from their experiences. She also takes a look at other formerly regulated industries -- airlines, telephone, natural gas -- and describes how their rebirth as free-market industries may affect the course of the electric utility industry`s experience. The contents include: Introduction; Basics of branding: Brand image; Value-added services; Southern Company; Duke Energy; UtiliCorp/EnergyOne/Aquila--big and brand; Engage energy; Florida Power and Light Co.; Enron; Convergence; Lessons from the natural gas industry; Lessons from other industries; Conclusion; Resources; Glossary of branding, marketing and Btu convergence; and Major federal legislation affecting the electric power industry.

Chambers, A.

1998-12-31

204

Power Controller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The power factor controller (PFC) senses shifts in the relationship between voltage and current, and matches them with a motor's need. This prevents waste as motors do not need a high voltage when they are not operating at full load conditions. PFC is manufactured by Nordic Controls Company, among others, and has proved extremely cost effective.

1983-01-01

205

Power superconducting power transmission cable  

DOEpatents

The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

Ashworth, Stephen P. (Cambridge, GB)

2003-01-01

206

Parent power, not pester power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explores the reasons behind parents food purchases for their children, relating this to the part that advertising is alleged to play in the purchase of unhealthy food, and in particular the issue of 損ester power or the nag factor. Reports a study of 1530 families in the UK sponsored by the Food Advertising Unit, which explored the questions of whether

Pat Spungin

2004-01-01

207

Tidal power  

SciTech Connect

The paper reviews the physics of tidal power considering gravitational effects of moon and sun; semidiurnal, diurnal, and mixed tides; and major periodic components that affect the tidal range. Shelving, funneling, reflection, and resonance phenomena that have a significant effect on tidal range are also discussed. The paper then examines tidal energy resource for principal developments estimated from parametric modeling in Europe and worldwide. Basic parameters that govern the design of tidal power schemes in terms of mean tidal range and surface area of the enclosed basin are identified. While energy extracted is proportional to the tidal amplitude squared, requisite sluicing are is proportional to the square root of the tidal amplitude. Sites with large tidal amplitudes are therefore best suited for tidal power developments, whereas sites with low tidal amplitudes have sluicing that may be prohibitive. It is shown that 48% of the European tidal resource is in the United Kingdom, 42% in France and 8% in Ireland, other countries having negligible potential. Worldwide tidal resource is identified. Tidal barrage design and construction using caissons is examined, as are alternative operating modes (single-action generation, outflow generation, flood generation, two-way generation, twin basin generation, pumping, etc), development trends and possibilities, generation cost at the barrage boundary, sensitivity to discount rates, general economics, and markets. Environmental effects, and institutional constraints to the development of tidal barrage schemes are also discussed.

Hammons, T.J. (Glasgow Univ., Scotland (United Kingdom))

1993-03-01

208

Wireless Power Transmission Technology State-Of-The-Art  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This first Bill Brown SSP La Crescenta, CA 91214 technology , including microwave and laser systems for the transfer of electric , as related to eventually developing Space Solar Power (SSP) systems. Current and past technology accomplishments in ground based and air and space applied energy conversion devices, systems and modeling performance and cost information is presented, where such data are known to the author. The purpose of the presentation is to discuss and present data to encourage documenting and breaking the current technology records, so as to advance the SOA in WPT for SSP . For example, regarding DC to RF and laser converters, 83% efficient 2.45 GHz cooker-tube magnetrons with 800W CW output have been jointly developed by Russia and US. Over 50% wa11-plug efficient 1.5 kW/cm2 CW, water cooled, multibeam, solid state laser diode bar-arrays have been developed by LLNL at 808 nm wavelength. The Gennans have developed a 36% efficient, kW level, sing1e coherent beam, lateral pumped semiconductor laser. The record for end-to-end DC input to DC output power overall WPT link conversion efficiency is 54% during the Raytheon-JPL experiments in 1975 for 495.6 W recovered at 1.7-mrange at 2.4469 GAz. The record for usefully recovered electric power output ( as contrasted with thennally induced power in structures) is 34 kW OC output at a range of 1.55 km, using 2.388 GHz microwaves, during the JPL- Raytheon experiments by Bill Brown and the author at Goldstone, CA in 1975. The GaAs-diode rectenna array had an average collection-conversion efficiency of 82.5%. A single rectenna element operating a 6W RF input, developed by Bill Brown demonstrated 91.4% efficiency. The comparable record for laser light to OC output power conversion efficiency of photovoltaics is 590/0. for AlGaAs at 1.7 Wand 826nm wavelength. Russian cyclotron-wave converters have demonstrated 80% rectification efficiency at S-band. Concerning WPT technology equipment costs, magnetron conversion devices for microwave ovens are approximately O.O25/W, due to the large manufacturing quantities. Comparable, remanufactured lasers for industrial applications at the 4 kW CW level are of order 25/W. Industrial klystrons cost over 1/W and solid state power amplifiers cost over 3/W. Model tethered helicopters, model airplanes, a smal1 airship and several small rovers have been powered with microwave beams at 2.45, 5.8 and 35 GHz. Smal1 rovers have been powered with laser beams. Two space-to-space microwave power link experiments have been conducted by the Japanese and with Texas A&M assistance in one case. International records for WPT link electric power delivered, range, 1ink efficiency and other salient parameters for both wireless-laser and -microwave power demonstrations win be reviewed. Also, costing models for WPT -system figure- of-merit (FOM) in terms of capital costs, in /MW -km, as a fonction of range and power level are reviewed. Records in Japan. France, Korea, Russia, Canada and the US will be reviewed for various land based WPT demonstrations. SSP applicable elements of technology in fiber and wireless links, cell phones and base stations, aircraft, and spacecraft phased arrays, industrial and scientific klystrons and lasers, military equipment (where information is available in open literature) microwave heating, and other telecommunication activities win be presented, concerning power handling, frequency or wavelength, conversion efficiency, specific mass, specific cost, etc. Previously studied and proposed applications of WPT technology will be presented to show the range of WPT technology being considered for commercial and other applications that will lead to advancing the SOA of WPT technology that win benefit SSP .

Dickinson, R. M. T.

2002-01-01

209

Proceedings of the 2006 international congress on advances in nuclear power plants - ICAPP'06  

SciTech Connect

Following the highly successful ICAPP'05 meeting held in Seoul Korea, the 2006 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants brought together international experts of the nuclear industry involved in the operation, development, building, regulation and research related to Nuclear Power Plants. The program covers the full spectrum of Nuclear Power Plant issues from design, deployment and construction of plants to research and development of future designs and advanced systems. The program covers lessons learned from power, research and demonstration reactors from over 50 years of experience with operation and maintenance, structures, materials, technical specifications, human factors, system design and reliability. The program by technical track deals with: - 1. Water-Cooled Reactor Programs and Issues Evolutionary designs, innovative, passive, light and heavy water cooled reactors; issues related to meeting medium term utility needs; design and regulatory issues; business, political and economic challenges; infrastructure limitations and improved construction techniques including modularization. - 2. High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors Design and development issues, components and materials, safety, reliability, economics, demonstration plants and environmental issues, fuel design and reliability, power conversion technology, hydrogen production and other industrial uses; advanced thermal and fast reactors. - 3. Long Term Reactor Programs and Strategies Reactor technology with enhanced fuel cycle features for improved resource utilization, waste characteristics, and power conversion capabilities. Potential reactor designs with longer development times such as, super critical water reactors, liquid metal reactors, gaseous and liquid fuel reactors, Gen IV, INPRO, EUR and other programs. - 4. Operation, Performance and Reliability Management Training, O and M costs, life cycle management, risk based maintenance, operational experiences, performance and reliability improvements, outage optimization, human factors, plant staffing, outage reduction features, major component reliability, repair and replacement, in-service inspection, and codes and standards. - 5. Plant Safety Assessment and Regulatory Issues Transient and accident performance including LOCA and non-LOCA, severe accident analysis, impact of risk informed changes, accident management, assessment and management of aging, degradation and damage, life extension lessons from plant operations, probabilistic safety assessment, plant safety analysis, reliability engineering, operating and future plants. - 6. Thermal Hydraulic Analysis and Testing Phenomena identification and ranking, computer code scaling applicability and uncertainty, containment thermal hydraulics, component and integral system tests, improved code development and qualification, single and two phase flow; advanced computational thermal hydraulic methods. - 7. Core and Fuel Cycle Concepts and Experiments Core physics, advances in computational reactor analysis, in-core fuel management, mixed-oxide fuel, thorium fuel cycle, low moderation cores, high conversion reactor designs, particle and pebble bed fuel design, testing and reliability; fuel cycle waste minimization, recycle, storage and disposal. - 8. Materials and Structural Issues Fuel, core, RPV and internals structures, advanced materials issues and fracture mechanics, concrete and steel containments, space structures, analysis, design and monitoring for seismic, dynamic and extreme accidents; irradiation issues and materials for new plants. - 9. Nuclear Energy and Sustainability including Hydrogen, Desalination and Other Applications Environmental impact of nuclear and alternative systems, spent fuel dispositions and transmutation systems, fully integrated fuel cycle and symbiotic nuclear power systems, application of advanced designs to non-power applications such as the production of hydrogen, sea water desalination, heating and other co-generation applications. - 10. Near Term Issues (New) Applies to plants that have a significa

NONE

2006-07-01

210

Chapter 12. Power Electronics Power Electronics  

E-print Network

Chapter 12. Power Electronics 12-1 Power Electronics Academic and Research Staff Prof. David Technical and Support Staff Mr. David Otten, Ms. Makiko Wada, Ms. Denise Stewart Power Electronics Research Overview The focus of our group is on advancing power electronics technology, and in applying power

211

Wind power and Wind power and  

E-print Network

Wind power and the CDM #12; Wind power and the CDM Emerging practices in developing wind power 2005 Jyoti P. Painuly, Niels-Erik Clausen, J酶rgen Fenhann, Sami Kamel and Romeo Pacudan #12; WIND POWER AND THE CDM Emerging practices in developing wind power projects for the Clean Development Mechanism Energy

212

Power Electronic Devices in Modern Power Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two main trends in present development of power systems. First is a wide utilization of renewable power resources. The second is decentralization of power generation. Hence, small power sources, very often RES sources, called dissipated power generators are developed. They are usually in range of megawatts starting form kilowatts. They operate automatically and are remotely controlled. In fact

P. Biczel; A. Jasinski; J. Lachecki

2007-01-01

213

Power Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Providing power quality (PQ) for 21st-century needs is one of the widely accepted principal characteristics of the envisioned\\u000a Smart Grid because we will have more and more PQ-sensitive loads such as microprocessor-based devices, critical manufacturing\\u000a processes, and data centers [1]. Our future global competitiveness demands disturbance-free operation of the digital devices\\u000a that empower the productivity of our economy. It is

Kyeon Hur; Surya Santoso

214

Powerful Poetry!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In our classroom, we have been working hard with poetry. Now it is your turn to be a powerful poet! Read the information below and follow directions carefully! At the end of this adventure, you will be a published poet! Your Goal or Objective: You will be able to write 3 poems inspired by the poets you read on the Internet throughout this project. After visiting the web sites of Jack Prelutsky, Bruce Lansky, and Shel Silverstein, you will write poems inspired by these poets. You will ...

Tyler, Miss

2008-09-13

215

Knowledges and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactors  

SciTech Connect

The Knowledges and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operations: Savannah River Site (SRS) Production Reactors, provides the basis for the development of content-valid certification examinations for Senior Reactor Operators (SROs) and Central Control Room Supervisors (SUP). The position of Shift Technical Engineer (STE) has been included in the catalog for completeness. This new SRS reactor operating shift crew position is held by an individual holding a CCR Supervisor Certification who has received special engineering and technical training. Also, the STE has a Bachelor of Science degree in engineering or a related technical field. The SRS catalog contains approximately 2500 knowledge and ability (K/A) statements for SROs and SUPs at heavy water moderated production reactors. Each K/A statement has been rated for its importance to the safe operation of the plant in a manner ensuring the health and safety of the public. The SRS K/A catalog is presently organized into five major sections: Plant Systems grouped by Safety Function, Plant Wide Generic K/As, Emergency Plant Evolutions, Theory and Components (to be developed).

Not Available

1990-06-20

216

Free electron laser with small period wiggler and sheet electron beam: A study of the feasibility of operation at 300 GHz with 1 MW CW output power  

SciTech Connect

The use of a small period wiggler (/ell//sub ..omega../ < 1 cm) together with a sheet electron beam has been proposed as a low cost source of power for electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in magnetic fusion plasmas. Other potential applications include space-based radar systems. We have experimentally demonstrated stable propagation of a sheet beam (18 A. 1 mm /times/ 20 mm) through a ten-period wiggler electromagnet with peak field of 1.2 kG. Calculation of microwave wall heating and pressurized water cooling have also been carried out, and indicate the feasibility of operating a near-millimeter, sheet beam FEL with an output power of 1 MW CW (corresponding to power density into the walls of 2 kW/cm/sup 2/). Based on these encouraging results, a proof-of-principle experiment is being assembled, and is aimed at demonstrating FEL operating at 120 GHz with 300 kW output power in 1 ..mu..s pulses: electron energy would be 410 keV. Preliminary design of a 300 GHz 1 MW FEL with an untapered wiggler is also presented. 10 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Booske, J.H.; Granatstein, V.L.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Destler, W.W.; Finn, J.; Latham, P.E.; Levush, B.; Mayergoyz, I.D.; Radack, D.; Rodgers, J.

1988-01-01

217

Girl Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Launched in 1996 by former US Department of Health and Human Services Secretary Donna Shalala, the Girl Power! Program seeks to encourage 9 to 13 year-old girls to make the most of their lives, and "to support and nurture girls in order for them to be confident, fulfilled, and true to themselves." With that in mind, this Web site is designed to be a clearinghouse of information, press releases, and activities for both parents and young women alike. The section for parents contains information about ongoing activities sponsored and endorsed by Girl Power, along with current cultural quizzes that will help keep parents in touch with their children. The area for young women features an interactive school locker that contains a "talk-back" section, fun games and activities, and information on healthy eating habits and maintaining a balanced body image. The last section on the site provides links to external sites dealing with surveys and studies on young women, such as ones dealing with substance abuse, perceived threats, and gender roles.

218

Power optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using the theory we developed in the early 1970s, a broad range of phenomena is considered for an optical surface of a solid body that is exposed to radiation arbitrarily varying in time and producing temperature fields, thermoelastic stresses and thermal deformations on the surface layer. The examination is based on the relations (which are similar to Duhamel's integral formula from the theory of heat conduction) between the quantities characterising the thermal stress state in any nonstationary regimes of energy input into a solid. A peculiar feature of the analysis of the thermal stress state in this case consists in the fact that this relation comprises time as a parameter, which in turn is a consequence of incoherence of the quasi-stationary problem of thermoelasticity. This phenomenon is particularly important for the optics of high-power, high-pulse repetition rate lasers, which are being actively developed. In the review, we have recently published in Laser Physics, the thermal stress state of a solid is analysed. In this state, time is treated as an independent variable used in differentiation. Such an approach greatly reduces the applicability of the method. The review published contains data on the use of capillary porous structures made of various materials with different degrees of the surface development. Moreover, such structures can be efficiently employed to increase the heat exchange at a temperature below the boiling point of the coolant. In the present review we discuss the dependences of the limiting laser intensities on the duration of a pulse or a pulse train, corresponding to the three stages of the state of the reflecting surface and leading to unacceptable elastic deformations of the surface, to the plastic yield of the material accompanied by the formation of residual stresses and to the melting of the surface layer. We also analyse the problem of heat exchange in the surface layer with a liquid metal coolant pumped through it. The theoretical estimates are compared with the experimental data. We discuss the issues related to the technology of fabrication of power optics elements based on materials with a porous structure, of lightweight highly stable large optics based on highly porous materials, multi-layer honeycomb structures and silicon carbide, as well as problems of application of physical and technical fundamentals of power optics in modern cutting-edge technology.

Apollonov, V. V.

2014-02-01

219

Power oscillator  

DOEpatents

An oscillator includes an amplifier having an input and an output, and an impedance transformation network connected between the input of the amplifier and the output of the amplifier, wherein the impedance transformation network is configured to provide suitable positive feedback from the output of the amplifier to the input of the amplifier to initiate and sustain an oscillating condition, and wherein the impedance transformation network is configured to protect the input of the amplifier from a destructive feedback signal. One example of the oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to match the driving frequency of the oscillator to a plurality of tuning states of the lamp.

Gitsevich, Aleksandr (Montgomery Village, MD)

2001-01-01

220

68 FR 62051 - Brazos Electric Power Cooperative, Inc.; Notice of Availability of a Finding of No Significant...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Texas. The project will consist of two combustion turbines and heat recovery steam generators and one steam turbine with a water- cooled steam surface condenser. Associated facilities include the construction of a gas pipeline, water and...

2003-10-31

221

Residential Wind Power  

E-print Network

, 2011) This is roughly equivalent to the amount of power produced by the aforementioned SkyStream system. 34 Most power companies offer a home inspection that assists in power usage. Often power companies or heating and cooling contractors...

Willis, Gary

2011-12-16

222

ESBWR response to an extended station blackout/loss of all AC power  

SciTech Connect

U.S. federal regulations require light water cooled nuclear power plants to cope with Station Blackouts for a predetermined amount of time based on design factors for the plant. U.S. regulations define Station Blackout (SBO) as a loss of the offsite electric power system concurrent with turbine trip and unavailability of the onsite emergency AC power system. According to U.S. regulations, typically the coping period for an SBO is 4 hours and can be as long as 16 hours for currently operating BWR plants. Being able to cope with an SBO and loss of all AC power is required by international regulators as well. The U.S. licensing basis for the ESBWR is a coping period of 72 hours for an SBO based on U.S. NRC requirements for passive safety plants. In the event of an extended SBO (viz., greater than 72 hours), the ESBWR response shows that the design is able to cope with the event for at least 7 days without AC electrical power or operator action. ESBWR is a Generation III+ reactor design with an array of passive safety systems. The ESBWR primary success path for mitigation of an SBO event is the Isolation Condenser System (ICS). The ICS is a passive, closed loop, safety system that initiates automatically on a loss of power. Upon Station Blackout or loss of all AC power, the ICS begins removing decay heat from the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) by (i) condensing the steam into water in heat exchangers located in pools of water above the containment, and (ii) transferring the decay heat to the atmosphere. The condensed water is then returned by gravity to cool the reactor again. The ICS alone is capable of maintaining the ESBWR in a safe shutdown condition after an SBO for an extended period. The fuel remains covered throughout the SBO event. The ICS is able to remove decay heat from the RPV for at least 7 days and maintains the reactor in a safe shutdown condition. The water level in the RPV remains well above the top of active fuel for the duration of the SBO event. Beyond 7 days, only a few simple actions are needed to cope with the SBO for an indefinite amount of time. The operation of the ICS as the primary success path for mitigation of an SBO, allows for near immediate plant restart once power is restored. (authors)

Barrett, A. J.; Marquino, W. [New Plants Engineering, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy, M/CA 75, 3901 Castle Hayne Road, Wilmington, NC 28402 (United States)

2012-07-01

223

Electric power 2007  

SciTech Connect

Subjects covered include: power industry trends - near term fuel strategies - price/quality/delivery/opportunity; generating fleet optimization and plant optimization; power plant safety and security; coal power plants - upgrades and new capacity; IGCC, advanced combustion and CO{sub 2} capture technologies; gas turbine and combined cycle power plants; nuclear power; renewable power; plant operations and maintenance; power plant components - design and operation; environmental; regulatory issues, strategies and technologies; and advanced energy strategies and technologies. The presentations are in pdf format.

NONE

2007-07-01

224

Electrical power generating system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An alternating current power generation system adopted to inject power in an already powered power line is discussed. The power generating system solves to adjustably coup an induction motor, as a generator, to an ac power line wherein the motor and power line are connected through a triac. The triac is regulated to normally turn on at a relatively late point in each half cycle of its operation, whereby at less than operating speed, and thus when the induction motor functions as a motor rather than as a generator, power consumption from the line is substantially reduced. The principal application will be for windmill powered generation.

Nola, F. J.

1981-03-01

225

Proceedings of the 2004 international congress on advances in nuclear power plants - ICAPP'04  

SciTech Connect

The 2004 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP'04) provides a forum for the industry to exchange the latest ideas and research findings on nuclear plants from all perspectives. This conference builds on the success of last year's meeting held in Cordoba, Spain, and on the 2002 inaugural meeting held in Hollywood, Florida. Because of the hard work of many volunteers from around the world, ICAPP'04 has been successful in achieving its goal. More than 325 invited and contributed papers/presentations are part of this ICAPP. There are 5 invited plenary sessions and 70 technical sessions with contributed papers. The ICAPP'04 Proceedings contain almost 275 papers prepared by authors from 25 countries covering topics related to advances in nuclear power plant technology. The program by technical track deals with: 1 - Water-Cooled Reactor Programs and Issues (Status of All New Water-Cooled Reactor Programs; Advanced PWRs: Developmental Stage I; Advanced PWRs: Developmental Stage II; Advanced PWRs: Basic Design Stage; Advanced BWRs; Economics, Regulation, Licensing, and Construction; AP1000); 2 - High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (Pebble Bed Modular Reactors; Very High Temperature Reactors; HTR Fuels and Materials; Innovative HTRs and Fuel Cycles); 3 - Long Term Reactor Programs and Strategies (Supercritical Pressure Water Reactors; Lead-Alloy Fast Reactors; Sodium and Gas Fast Reactors; Status of Advanced Reactor Programs; Non-classical Reactor Concepts); 4 - Operation, Performance, and Reliability Management (Information Technology Effect on Plant Operation; Operation, Maintenance and Reliability; Improving Performance and Reducing O and M Costs; Plant Modernization and Retrofits); 5 - Plant Safety Assessment and Regulatory Issues (LOCA and non-LOCA Analysis Methodologies; LOCA and non-LOCA Plant Analyses; In-Vessel Retention; Containment Performance and Hydrogen Control; Advances in Severe Accident Analysis; Advances in Severe Accident Management; Ex-Vessel Debris Coolability and Steam Explosion: Theory and Modeling; Ex-Vessel Debris Coolability and Steam Explosion: Experiments and Supporting Analysis; PRA and Risk-informed Decision Making: Methodology; PRA and Risk-informed Decision Making: Advances in Practice; Use of CFD in Plant Safety Assessment and Related Regulatory Issues; Development and Application of Severe Accident Analysis Code); 6 - Thermal Hydraulic Analysis and Testing (Advances in Two-Phase Flow and Heat Transfer; Advances in CHF and Rod Bundle Thermal Hydraulics; CFD Applications to Water, Liquid Metal, and Gas Reactors; Separate Effects Thermal Hydraulic Experiments and Analysis; Integral Systems Thermal Hydraulic Experiments; Benchmark Analysis and Assessment; Natural Circulation Thermal Hydraulics; Thermal Striping and Thermal Stratification Studies); 7 - Core and Fuel Cycle Concepts and Experiments (Innovations in Core Designs; Advances in Core Design Methodology and Experimental Benchmarking; Advanced Fuel Cycles, Recycling, and Actinide Transmutation; Out of Core Fuel Cycle Issues); 8 - Material and Structural Issues (Structural and Materials Modeling and Analysis; Testing and Analysis of Structures and Materials; Advanced Issues in Welding and Materials; Fuel Design and Irradiation Issues for Next Generation Plants; Materials' Issues for Next Generation Plants); 9 - Nuclear Energy and Sustainability Including Hydrogen, Desalination, and Other Applications (Nuclear Energy Sustainability and Desalination; Nuclear Energy Application - Hydrogen); 10 - Space Power and Propulsion (Space Nuclear Power and Propulsion Systems; Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Concepts; Test and Design Methods; Instrumentation for Space Nuclear Reactors; Materials for Space Reactor Concepts)

NONE

2004-07-01

226

Power of TDT The Power of Transmission  

E-print Network

Power of TDT The Power of Transmission Disequilibrium Tests for Quantitative Traits Jinming Li propose to group haplotypes on the basis of haplotype similarity before performing transmission words: transmission/disequilibrium test, quantitative trait, haplotype INTRODUCTION The transmission

Sun, Fengzhu - Sun, Fengzhu

227

Power electronics for low power arcjets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In anticipation of the needs of future light-weight low-power spacecraft, arcjet power electronics in the 100- to 400-W operating range were developed. Power topologies similar to those in the higher 2-kW and 5- to 30-kW power range were implemented, including a four-transistor bridge-switching circuit, current-mode pulse-width modulated control, and an output current averaging inductor with an integral pulse generation winding. Reduction of switching transients was accomplished using a low inductance power distribution network, and no passive snubber circuits were necessary for power switch protection. Phase shift control of the power bridge was accomplished using an improved pulse width modulation to phase shift converter circuit. These features, along with conservative magnetics designs, allowed power conversion efficiencies of greater than 92.5 percent to be achieved into resistive loads over the entire operating range of the converter.

Hamley, John A.; Hill, Gerald M.

1991-01-01

228

Wireless power transmission technology state of the art the first Bill Brown lecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This first Bill Brown SSP Technology Lecture covers the state-of-the-art (SOA) in wireless power transmission (WPT) technology including microwave and laser systems for the transfer of CW electric power, as related to eventually developing Space Solar Power (SSP) systems. Current and past technology accomplishments in ground based and air and space applied energy conversion devices, systems and modeling information is presented, where such data are known to the author. The purpose of the presentation is to discuss and present data to encourage documenting and breaking the current records, so as to advance the SOA in WPT for SSP. For example, regarding DC to RF and laser converters, 83% efficient 2.45 GHz cooker-tube magnetrons with 800 W CW output have been developed by CPII and the Russians. Over 50% wall-plug efficient 1.5 kW/cm 2 CW, water-cooled, multibeam, solid state laser diode bar-arrays have been developed by LLNL at 808 nm wavelength. The Germans have developed a 36% efficient, kW level, single coherent beam, lateral pumped semiconductor laser. The record for end-to-end DC input to DC output power overall WPT link conversion efficiency is 54% achieved during the Raytheon-JPL experiments in 1975 for 495.6 W recovered at 1.7 -m range, at 2.4469 GHz The record for usefully recovered electric power output (as contrasted with thermally induced power in structures) is 34 kW DC output at a range of 1.55 km, using 2.388 GHz microwaves, during the JPL-Raytheon experiments by Bill Brown and the author at Goldstone, CA in 1975. The GaAs-diode rectenna array had an average collection-conversion efficiency of 82.5%. A single rectenna element developed by Bill Brown demonstrated 91.4% efficiency. The comparable record for laser light to DC output power conversion efficiency of photovoltaics is 59%, for AlGaAs at 1.7 W and 826-nm wavelength.

Dickinson, Richard M.

2003-08-01

229

Power tong torque control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Torque controlled powered pipe tongs, are described the apparatus comprises: (a) a power tong powered by a fluid motor; (b) a fluid power source connected to the motor; (c) a force conducting element attached to the power tong, situated to oppose reaction torque from the tongs when torque is applied to pipe; (d) force sensing means operatively associated with the

D. A. Buck; R. N. James

1987-01-01

230

Design of 95 GHz gyrotron based on continuous operation copper solenoid with water cooling.  

PubMed

The design work for 2nd harmonic 95 GHz, 50 kW gyrotron based on continuous operation copper solenoid is presented. Thermionic magnetron injection gun specifications were calculated according to the linear trade off equation, and simulated with CST program. Numerical code is used for cavity design using the non-uniform string equation as well as particle motion in the "cold" cavity field. The mode TE02 with low Ohmic losses in the cavity walls was chosen as the operating mode. The Solenoid is designed to induce magnetic field of 1.8 T over a length of 40 mm in the interaction region with homogeneity of 0.34%. The solenoid has six concentric cylindrical segments (and two correction segments) of copper foil windings separated by water channels for cooling. The predicted temperature in continuous operation is below 93?癈. The parameters of the design together with simulation results of the electromagnetic cavity field, magnetic field, electron trajectories, and thermal analyses are presented. PMID:25085157

Borodin, Dmitri; Ben-Moshe, Roey; Einat, Moshe

2014-07-01

231

Effect of Water Cooling on the Performances of Friction Stir Welding Heat-Affected Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heat-affected zone (HAZ) is generally the intrinsic weakest location of the normal friction stir welded precipitate hardened aluminum alloys. In order to improve the mechanical properties of the HAZ by controlling the temperature level, underwater friction stir welding (FSW) of an Al-Cu aluminum alloy was conducted in the present study. The results indicate that the hardness of the HAZ can be improved through underwater FSW. Microstructural analysis reveals that the hardness improvement is attributed to the lowering of precipitate coarsening level and the narrowing of precipitate free zone, which are essentially induced by the variations of welding thermal cycles under the cooling effect of water.

Zhang, H. J.; Liu, H. J.; Yu, L.

2012-07-01

232

NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY OF WATER-COOLED FUSION REACTORS: ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS  

SciTech Connect

ITER is an experimental Tokamak fusion energy reactor that is being built in Cadarache, France, in collaboration with seven agencies representing China, the European Union, India, Japan, Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, and the United States. The main objective of ITER is to demonstrate the scientific and technical feasibility of a controlled fusion reaction An important U.S. contribution is the design, fabrication, and delivery of the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS). This paper describes the main sources of radioactivity in TCWS water, which are the nitrogen isotopes 16N and 17N, tritium, activated corrosion products, and the carbon isotope 14C; the relative contribution of each of these sources to the total radioactive contamination of water; issues related to excess accumulation of these species; and methods to control TCWS radioactivity within acceptable limits. Among these methods are: (1) water purification to minimize corrosion of materials in contact with TCWS water; (2) monitoring of vital chemistry parameters and control of water chemistry; (3) design of proper building structure and/or TCWS loop/geometry configuration; and (4) design of an ITER liquid radwaste facility tailored to TCWS operational requirements. Design of TCWS nuclear chemistry control is crucial to ensuring that the inventory of radioactive species is consistent with the principle of 'As Low as Reasonably Achievable.'

Petrov, Andrei Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01

233

Decoupled Modeling of Chilled Water Cooling Coils Using a Finite Element Method  

E-print Network

(from moist air to coil surface) and water side heat transfer (from coil surface to chilled water). The governing equations were discussed in detailed by Mirth and Ramadhyani (1993) and by Khan (1994). Since the sensible and latent heat transfer... 1: Saturation specific heat of moist air The numerical method does not use these assumptions. Khan (1994) used a numerical model to analyze the cooling coil performance at partial load conditions. A cooling coil is divided into a number...

Wang, G.; Liu, M.

2005-01-01

234

Water-cooled ion-milled diffraction gratings for the synchrotron radiation community  

SciTech Connect

Key technical and strategic choices are reviewed, leading to the fabrication method of ion-milled grating grooves for the monochromators at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), and for other synchrotrons. Several laboratories and their industrial partners have joined to manufacture gratings with essentially theoretical performance. Metrology -data and theoretical comparisons are given for square wave profile grating samples ion-milled into electroless nickel surfaces. The extensive capabilities of Hughes Aircraft in grating manufacture are reviewed.

McKinney, W.R.; Shannon, C.L.; Shults, E.N.

1993-08-01

235

The efficiency index of mechanical-draft and chimney-type water cooling towers operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that the water temperature ranges in cooling towers given in the regulatory documents are not consistent with the standardized heat loads. It is also demonstrated that the existing criteria for estimating the effect from retrofitting of cooling towers are far from being perfect. The notions of cooling tower efficiency index and their operating characteristics with the nominal values of the main parameters are introduced. A procedure for determining these quantities is developed. An algorithm for directly calculating the economic effect from reconstruction of cooling towers is proposed.

Sosnovskii, S. K.; Kravchenko, V. P.

2014-09-01

236

CT-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation of Pediatric Osteoid Osteoma Utilizing a Water-Cooled Tip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background牋Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has a success rate of 70% to 90% in the treatment of osteoid osteoma (OO). Failures are due\\u000a to malpositioning of probes or incomplete ablation, possibly related to conventional probes small heating diameter (range,\\u000a .5.8燾m). Cooled-tip probes have a larger heating distance, ablating up to 3燾m, affecting a larger volume, and improving\\u000a success rate in adults. Concerns

Amos Peyser; Yaakov Applbaum; Naum Simanovsky; Ori Safran; Ron Lamdan

2009-01-01

237

Topical report : NSTF facilities plan for water-cooled VHTR RCCS : normal operational tests.  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Generation IV roadmapping activity, the gas-cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) has been selected as the principal concept for hydrogen production and other process-heat applications such as district heating and potable water production. On this basis, the DOE has selected the VHTR for additional R&D with the ultimate goal of demonstrating emission-free electricity and hydrogen production with this advanced reactor concept.

Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Tzanos, C. P.; Lomperski, S.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2006-09-01

238

Numerical Simulation of Macrosegregation in Water-Cooled Heavy Flat Ingot During Solidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on a volume-averaged two-phase approach, a coupled concentration, temperature, and velocity fields model has been established to predict the formation of macrosegregation during solidification. Because of the significant influence of velocity field on solute transfer and distribution during solidification process, the density of liquid steel was set as a function of temperature and concentration to accurately calculate the velocity field. Therefore, the influence of gravity, temperature gradient, concentration gradient, and volume shrinkage on velocity field distribution was comprehensively considered. The calculation result showed good agreement with previous reports. Thereafter, the current model was applied to simulate the solidification of 12Cr2Mo1R (ASTM standard 2.25Cr1Mo) heavy ingot, and the influence of surface cooling intensity on the final carbon macrosegregation was investigated. The results showed that with the increase of cooling intensity, the solidification time, flow velocity, and mushy zone width decrease, and as a result, macrosegregation is alleviated. When the heat-transfer coefficient is less than 1000 W m-2 K-1, macrosegregation dramatically decreases with the rise of cooling intensity. In contrast, when heat-transfer coefficient is greater than 1000 W m-2 K-1, the effect of reducing the central carbon segregation by increasing cooling is weakened.

Meng, Qingyong; Wang, Fuming; Li, Changrong; Li, Menglong; Zhang, Jing; Cui, Guanjun

2014-07-01

239

Nuclear analyses of supercritical water cooled reactor with carbon nano-tube cladding  

SciTech Connect

The authors have confirmed the feasibility of the dual layer clad comprised of iron and carbon nano-tube to problems of Super Critical Water Reactor cores. Continuous energy Monte Carlo method was applied. The difference between JENDL-3.3 and ENDF-6 was confirmed. Depletion was carried out. (authors)

Uenohara, Y. [Independent and Personal Activity, 1-15-H106, Higashi-Terao, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0077 (Japan); Yamano, N. [Research Inst. of Nuclear Engineering, Univ. of Fukui, 3-9-1, Bunkyo, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan)

2012-07-01

240

TRITIUM ANALYSIS OF A WATER-COOLED SOLID BREEDER BLANKET FOR ITER*  

E-print Network

the temperature drop bet,ween the high temperature breeder and the low temperature coolant. The blanket, (%) IGrain Size. (um) 13 (20) BET Area'SBET: (m2/Kg) Density p (TD),( g/cm3) Grain Diffusion Pre

Abdou, Mohamed

241

Dynamic power systems for power generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of dynamic power systems have considerable potential value, especially for the space station. The base of technology that makes these dynamic power systems practical is reviewed. The following types of power-generating systems are examined herein: organic Rankine cycle, potassium Rankine cycle, Brayton cycle, and Stirling cycle.

English, R. E.

1984-04-01

242

INCREASING SCIENTIFIC POWER WITH STATISTICAL POWER  

EPA Science Inventory

A brief survey of basic ideas in statistical power analysis demonstrates the advantages and ease of using power analysis throughout the design, analysis, and interpretation of research. he power of a statistical test is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis of the test...

243

Power Optimization With Power Islands Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the migration to deep sub-micron process technologies, the power consumption of a circuit has come to the forefront of concerns, and as a result, the power has become a critical design parameter. This paper presents a novel high-level synthesis methodology, called Power Islands Synthesis, that eliminates the spurious switching activity and the leakage in a great portion of the

Deniz Dal; Nazanin Mansouri

2009-01-01

244

LIFE Power Plant Fusion Power Associates  

E-print Network

LIFE Power Plant Fusion Power Associates December 14, 2011 Mike Dunne LLNL #12;NIf-1111-23714.ppt LIFE power plant 2 #12;LIFE delivery timescale NIf-1111-23714.ppt 3 #12;Timely delivery is enabled fusion options exist. NIF/LIFE allows timely integrated demonstration. 路 Fusion performance based

245

Nuclear Power Plant Accidents  

MedlinePLUS

NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENTS Nuclear power plants have safety and security procedures in place and are closely monitored ... a plume). What are the main dangers of nuclear power plant accidents? Radioactive materials in the plume from ...

246

Power control circuit  

SciTech Connect

An electronic power control circuit used in recording seismic data at unmanned remote locations is disclosed wherein the power requirements are minimized by segregating power distribution between continuous and non-continuous requirements.

Bowden, E.A.

1985-05-21

247

Flow Components in a NaK Test Loop Designed to Simulate Conditions in a Nuclear Surface Power Reactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A test loop using NaK as the working fluid is presently in use to study material compatibility effects on various components that comprise a possible nuclear reactor design for use on the lunar surface. A DC electromagnetic (EM) pump has been designed and implemented as a means of actively controlling the NaK flow rate through the system and an EM flow sensor is employed to monitor the developed flow rate. These components allow for the matching of the flow rate conditions in test loops with those that would be found in a full-scale surface-power reactor. The design and operating characteristics of the EM pump and flow sensor are presented. In the EM pump, current is applied to a set of electrodes to produce a Lorentz body force in the fluid. A measurement of the induced voltage (back-EMF) in the flow sensor provides the means of monitoring flow rate. Both components are compact, employing high magnetic field strength neodymium magnets thermally coupled to a water-cooled housing. A vacuum gap limits the heat transferred from the high temperature NaK tube to the magnets and a magnetically-permeable material completes the magnetic circuit. The pump is designed to produce a pressure rise of 5 psi, and the flow sensor's predicted output is roughly 20 mV at the loop's nominal flow rate of 0.5 GPM.

Polzin, Kurt A.; Godfroy, Thomas J.

2008-01-01

248

Flow Components in a NaK Test Loop Designed to Simulate Conditions in a Nuclear Surface Power Reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A test loop using NaK as the working fluid is presently in use to study material compatibility effects on various components that comprise a possible nuclear reactor design for use on the lunar surface. A DC electromagnetic (EM) pump has been designed and implemented as a means of actively controlling the NaK flow rate through the system and an EM flow sensor is employed to monitor the developed flow rate. These components allow for the matching of the flow rate conditions in test loops with those that would be found in a full-scale surface-power reactor. The design and operating characteristics of the EM pump and flow sensor are presented. In the EM pump, current is applied to a set of electrodes to produce a Lorentz body force in the fluid. A measurement of the induced voltage (back-EMF) in the flow sensor provides the means of monitoring flow rate. Both components are compact, employing high magnetic field strength neodymium magnets thermally coupled to a water-cooled housing. A vacuum gap limits the heat transferred from the high temperature NaK tube to the magnets and a magnetically-permeable material completes the magnetic circuit. The pump is designed to produce a pressure rise of 34.5 kPa, and the flow sensor's predicted output is roughly 20 mV at the loop's nominal flow rate of 0.114 m3/hr.

Polzin, Kurt A.; Godfroy, Thomas J.

2008-01-01

249

The Green Power Network: Buying Green Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Green Power Network (GPN), operated and maintained by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy, provides news and information on green power markets and related activities. Here, they supply a great tool for discovering green power availability throughout the United States. Clicking on any state will provide visitors with any green power including utility green pricing programs, retail green power products offered in competitive utility markets, and renewable energy certificate products (REC) sold separate from electricity. This will be a useful tool for instructors or students interested in renewable energy technologies.

2008-10-21

250

Solar powered multipurpose remotely powered aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increase in energy demands coupled with rapid depletion of natural energy resources have deemed solar energy as an attractive alternative source of power. The focus was to design and construct a solar powered, remotely piloted vehicle to demonstrate the feasibility of solar energy as an effective, alternate source of power. The final design included minimizing the power requirements and maximizing the strength-to-weight and lift-to-drag ratios. Given the design constraints, Surya (the code-name given to the aircraft), is a lightweight aircraft primarily built using composite materials and capable of achieving level flight powered entirely by solar energy.

Alexandrou, A. N.; Durgin, W. W.; Cohn, R. F.; Olinger, D. J.; Cody, Charlotte K.; Chan, Agnes; Cheung, Kwok-Hung; Conley, Kristin; Crivelli, Paul M.; Javorski, Christian T.

1992-01-01

251

Performance of the 10kV, 100-kA pulsed-power modules for the FRX-C magnetic compression experiment  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we present detailed performance data collected from over a year's operation of the 25 and 50-kJoule pulsed-power capacitor-bank modules developed for the Los Alamos magnetic fusion facility FRX-C. These modules supply the 5-MA magnet current needed for the compressional heating of compact toroid plasmoids. To date, 54 modules have been built and successfully tested at their full design rating: 100-kA peak output current at 10-kV charge, {tau}{sub 1/4} = 60 {mu}s (25-kJ module), or 110 {mu}s (50-kJ module), crowbar L/R {le} 1 ms. Modules are compact, cost about $5000 each, and though designed for 25 or 50 kJ, they can be easily modified for other pulsed-power applications. Energy is stored in 25-kJ capacitors. Start and crowbar switching is performed with a pair of water-cooled, size-D ignitrons. As an alternative to an ignitron, crowbar switching by solid-state rectifiers has been successfully demonstrated. Current is conducted between components and to the load by parallel-plate transmission lines and by a parallel array of commercially-available coaxial cable. 4 refs., 8 figs.

Rej, D.J.; Waganaar, W.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

1989-01-01

252

Evolution of carbide precipitates in 2.25Cr-1Mo steel during long-term service in a power plant.  

SciTech Connect

Carbide precipitation from the steel matrix during long-term high-temperature exposure can adversely affect the fracture toughness and high-temperature creep resistance of materials with implications on the performance of power plant components. In the present work, carbide evolution in 2.25Cr-1Mo steel after long-term aging during service was investigated. Boiler pipe samples of this steel were removed from a supercritical water-cooled coal-fired power plant after service times of 17 and 28 years and a mean operational temperature of 810 K (537C). The carbide precipitation and coarsening effects were studied using the carbon extraction replica technique followed by analysis using transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The carbides extracted using an electrolytic technique were also analyzed using X-ray diffraction to evaluate phase transformations of the carbides during long-term service. Small ball punch and Vickers hardness were used to evaluate the changes in mechanical performance after long-term aging during service.

Yang, Y.; Chen, Y.; Sridharan, K.; Allen, T. R.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison

2010-06-01

253

Nuclear power: Fourth edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book describes the basics of nuclear power generation, explaining both the benefits and the real and imagined risks of nuclear power. It includes a discussion of the Three Mile Island accident and its effects. Nuclear Power has been used in the public information programs of more than 100 utilities. The contents discussed are: Nuclear Power and People; Why Nuclear

Deutsch

1986-01-01

254

Tidal power in Argentina  

SciTech Connect

This presentation describes the tidal power potential of Argentina and the current status of its utilization. The topics of the presentation include tidal power potential, electric production of the region and the Argentine share of production and consumption, conventional hydroelectric potential, economic feasibility of tidal power production, and the general design and feasibility of a tidal power plant planned for the San Jose Gulf.

Aisiks, E.G.

1993-03-01

255

Wind Power Now!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The government promotes and heavily subsidizes research in nuclear power plants. Federal development of wind power is slow in comparison even though much research with large wind-electric machines has already been conducted. Unless wind power programs are accelerated it will not become a major energy alternative to nuclear power. (MR)

Inglis, David Rittenhouse

1975-01-01

256

Solar power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various control methods and means are disclosed for varying the temperature of vaporization of a solar-powered system so that the instantaneous power delivered by the heat engine of this system, or by a device driven by this engine, is a maximum for given conditions external to the power system, or to the power system and the driven device, respectively, while

Molivadas

1982-01-01

257

Nuclear power revival  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has not been a nuclear power plant licensed since 1979 due to the radioactive releases at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant and an accident at Chernobyl. The public and federal government opinion regarding nuclear power has since changed because the nuclear power plants are operating with unprecedented reliability and economy. Nuclear has again become the focus of

Narinder K. Trehan; Rohit Saran

2003-01-01

258

Virginia Power tests PV  

Microsoft Academic Search

At a cost of $1 million, Virginia Power Company is converting the sun's rays directly into electricity at a 2-acre site near the utility's North Anna nuclear power station in central Virginia. Though Virginia Power engineers say that the cost of producing power from photovoltaic cells is nearly 15 times that of conventional sources, the company is committed to a

Clutter

2009-01-01

259

Ideological Power in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article agues that ideological power plays an important role in education and that it is part of a general trend in policy and social sciences to underestimate ideological and overestimate the role of political and economic power. The article sketches a concept of power in general and especially of ideological power based primarily on the

Laursen, Per F.

2006-01-01

260

Identification of powered parafoil-vehicle dynamics from modelling and flight test data  

E-print Network

gallons of fuel for fun flight. It has 65 hp water cooled Rotax 582 piston engine for powerplant, providing 600-800 fpm climb rate. (figure 1.2). As the Buckeye system is relatively simple to operate and flexible to modify, NASA and Southwest Research... gallons of fuel for fun flight. It has 65 hp water cooled Rotax 582 piston engine for powerplant, providing 600-800 fpm climb rate. (figure 1.2). As the Buckeye system is relatively simple to operate and flexible to modify, NASA and Southwest Research...

Hur, Gi-Bong

2006-08-16

261

Power Plant Systems Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three basic thermodynamic cycles of advanced nuclear MHD power plant systems are studied. The effect of reactor exit temperature and space radiator temperature on the overall thermal efficiency of a regenerative turbine compressor power plant system is shown. The effect of MHD pressure ratio on plant efficiency is also described, along with the dependence of MHD power output, compressor power requirement, turbine power output, mass flow rate of H2, and overall plant efficiency on the reactor exit temperature for a specific configuration.

Williams, J. R.; Yang, Y. Y.

1973-01-01

262

Development of sub-channel analysis code for CANDU-SCWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the development of a sub-channel thermal-hydraulic analysis code named SUBCHAN. The code was originally developed to analyze super critical CANDU type reactor which has such characters as horizontal fuel channels, heavy water moderated, super critical light water cooled, any type of fuel bundle with or without thorium rods. Thermal-hydraulic model of SUBCHAN is based on four partial

Yu Jiyang; Wang Songtao; Jia Baoshan

2007-01-01

263

Steps toward passively safe, proliferation-resistant nuclear power  

Microsoft Academic Search

After about a 30-year hiatus of construction in the US but not in all involved countries, the designs for an improved water-cooled nuclear reactor will hopefully be developed by a consortium of nuclear reactor builders and users under an agreement with the US Department of Energy (DOE) and review by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The construction of high-temperature, helium-cooled

S. S. Penner; R. Seiser; K. R. Schultz

2008-01-01

264

Power Quality Monitoring of Power System Based on Spectrum Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitor and analysis of power system is very important to guarantee power quality. Accidents often occur because of bad power supply quality. So power department and user of electric power all want to improve power quality. Monitor and analysis System of power quality is widely used. The paper monitored fluctuated condition of power quality index by means of method of

Li Penghui; Zhao Lijie; Bai Haijun; Zhang Yanhua

2010-01-01

265

Power the world's powers the world's economy.  

E-print Network

With a career in business, you can apply creativity, problem solving and leadership to support a strong economyPower the world's economy #12;powers the world's economy. Put yourself in the driver's seat. Business #12;Dreamofrunningyourown business?Climbingthecorporate ladder?Turningagreatideainto anewproduct

Escher, Christine

266

Dynamic power management in environmentally powered systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a framework for energy management in energy harvesting embedded systems is presented. As a possible example scenario, we focus on wireless sensor nodes which are powered by solar cells. We demonstrate that classical power management solutions have to be reconceived and\\/or new problems arise if perpetual operation of the system is required. In particular, we provide a

Clemens Moser; Jian-Jia Chen; Lothar Thiele

2010-01-01

267

Photoconductive power switches  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines the advantages and the potential of photoconductive switches applied to high-power systems. The photoconductive effect can be used to switch large amounts of energy by changing the conductivity of a solid-state circuit element many orders of magnitude with a high-power laser. The simplicity of these devices offers many advantages in high-power applications when combined with high-power pulsed lasers. The surge capability, the switched energy gain, and the maximum average power for photoconductive power switches are discussed. In addition, the results of a 100-kV, 100-MW photoconductive switch experiment transferring 20 J in 200 ns are presented.

Nunnally, W.C.; Hammond, R.B.

1983-01-01

268

Synchronizing redundant power oscillators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Outputs of oscillators are synchronized by summing the power transformer phase voltages, the summed voltages are applied to the frequency determining inductors of the individual voltage-controlled power oscillators. The beat frequency is eliminated when synchronization is achieved.

Jenson, K. J.

1969-01-01

269

High power fiber lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss fundamental aspects of high-power fiber lasers and describe their recent dramatic advances and prospects including our up-to-date experimental results with particular attention to kilowatt-class, refined power amplifier regimes.

Y. Jeong; J. Nilsson; J. K. Sahu; P. Dupriez; C. A. Codemard; D. B. S. Soh; C. Farrell; J. Kim; D. J. Richardson; D. N. Payne

2005-01-01

270

Body powered thermoelectric systems  

E-print Network

Great interest exists for and progress has be made in the effective utilization of the human body as a possible power supply in hopes of powering such applications as sensors and continuously monitoring medical devices ...

Settaluri, Krishna Tej

2012-01-01

271

Space Solar Power Program  

SciTech Connect

Information pertaining to the Space Solar Power Program is presented on energy analysis; markets; overall development plan; organizational plan; environmental and safety issues; power systems; space transportation; space manufacturing, construction, operations; design examples; and finance.

Arif, H.; Barbosa, H.; Bardet, C.; Baroud, M.; Behar, A.; Berrier, K.; Berthe, P.; Bertrand, R.; Bibyk, I.; Bisson, J.; Bloch, L.; Bobadilla, G.; Bourque, D.; Bush, L.; Carandang, R.; Chiku, T.; Crosby, N.; De Seixas, M.; De Vries, J.; Doll, S.; Dufour, F.; Eckart, P.; Fahey, M.; Fenot, F.; Foeckersperger, S.; Fontaine, J.E.; Fowler, R.; Frey, H.; Fujio, H.; Gasa, J.M.; Gleave, J.; Godoe, J.; Green, I.; Haeberli, R.; Hanada, T.; Ha

1992-08-01

272

An Innovative System for the Efficient and Effective Treatment of Non-Traditional Waters for Reuse in Thermoelectric Power Generation  

SciTech Connect

This study assessed opportunities for improving water quality associated with coal-fired power generation including the use of non-traditional waters for cooling, innovative technology for recovering and reusing water within power plants, novel approaches for the removal of trace inorganic compounds from ash pond effluents, and novel approaches for removing biocides from cooling tower blowdown. This research evaluated specifically designed pilot-scale constructed wetland systems for treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters for reuse in thermoelectric power generation and other purposes. The overall objective of this project was to decrease targeted constituents in non-traditional waters to achieve reuse criteria or discharge limitations established by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Clean Water Act (CWA). The six original project objectives were completed, and results are presented in this final technical report. These objectives included identification of targeted constituents for treatment in four non-traditional water sources, determination of reuse or discharge criteria for treatment, design of constructed wetland treatment systems for these non-traditional waters, and measurement of treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters, as well as determination of the suitability of the treated non-traditional waters for reuse or discharge to receiving aquatic systems. The four non-traditional waters used to accomplish these objectives were ash basin water, cooling water, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) water, and produced water. The contaminants of concern identified in ash basin waters were arsenic, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. Contaminants of concern in cooling waters included free oxidants (chlorine, bromine, and peroxides), copper, lead, zinc, pH, and total dissolved solids. FGD waters contained contaminants of concern including arsenic, boron, chlorides, selenium, mercury, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and zinc. Similar to FGD waters, produced waters contained contaminants of concern that are predominantly inorganic (arsenic, cadmium, chlorides, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, sulfide, zinc, total dissolved solids), but also contained some organics (benzene, PAHs, toluene, total organic carbon, total suspended solids, and oil and grease). Constituents of concern that may cause chemical scaling, biofouling and corrosion, such as pH, hardness and ionic strength, and nutrients (P, K, and N) may also be found in all four non-traditional waters. NPDES permits were obtained for these non-traditional waters and these permit limits are summarized in tabular format within this report. These limits were used to establish treatment goals for this research along with toxicity values for Ceriodaphnia dubia, water quality criteria established by the US EPA, irrigation standards established by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and reuse standards focused on minimization of damage to the power plant by treated waters. Constructed wetland treatment systems were designed for each non-traditional water source based on published literature reviews regarding remediation of the constituents of concern, biogeochemistry of the specific contaminants, and previous research. During this study, 4 non-traditional waters, which included ash basin water, cooling water, FGD water and produced water (PW) were obtained or simulated to measure constructed wetland treatment system performance. Based on data collected from FGD experiments, pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment systems can decrease aqueous concentrations of elements of concern (As, B, Hg, N, and Se). Percent removal was specific for each element, including ranges of 40.1% to 77.7% for As, 77.6% to 97.8% for Hg, 43.9% to 88.8% for N, and no measureable removal to 84.6% for Se. Other constituents of interest in final outflow samples should have aqueous characteristics sufficient for discharge, with the exception of chlorides (<2000 mg/L). Based on total dissolved solids, co-

John Rodgers; James Castle

2008-08-31

273

Power of Points  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This geometry lesson introduces the Power of Points theorem. While it is often taught in three parts (the Chord-Chord Power theorem, the Secant-Secant Power theorem, and the Tangent-secant Power theorem), this lesson demonstrates how the three theorems relate to one another. An interactive applet is included to help demonstrate the theorem. This activity is best for grades 9-12 and should require 1 class period to complete.

2011-01-17

274

Electrical power generating system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A power generating system for adjusting coupling an induction motor, as a generator, to an A.C. power line wherein the motor and power line are connected through a triac is described. The triac is regulated to normally turn on at a relatively late point in each half cycle of its operation, whereby at less than operating speed, and thus when the induction motor functions as a motor rather than as a generator, power consumption from the line is substantially reduced.

Nola, F. J.

1983-06-01

275

Electrical power generating system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A power generating system for adjusting coupling an induction motor, as a generator, to an A.C. power line wherein the motor and power line are connected through a triac is described. The triac is regulated to normally turn on at a relatively late point in each half cycle of its operation, whereby at less than operating speed, and thus when the induction motor functions as a motor rather than as a generator, power consumption from the line is substantially reduced.

Nola, F. J. (inventor)

1983-01-01

276

Power Factor Improvement  

E-print Network

Industrial Energy Management Program to explain power factor are described. POWER FACTOR RJNDAMENTALS The current required by induction motors, transformers, fluorescent lights, induction heating furnaces, resistance welders, etc., can be considered... industries almost everyday. Low or "poor" power factor is caused by the use of inductive (magnetic) devices. These include non-power factor corrected fluorescent and high-intensity discharge lighting fixture ballasts, arc welders, solenoid, induction...

Viljoen, T. A.

1979-01-01

277

Geothermal Power Plant Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make a model of a power plant that uses steam. Learners use simple materials like foil, a tin can, and a pot of water to model a geothermal power plant. Learners use a pinwheel to observe the power produced by the steam. SAFETY NOTE: Adult assistance required.

Commission, California E.

2006-01-01

278

Power quality following deregulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utility deregulation will have tangible and intangible effects on power quality requiring industry-wide action to maintain adequate standards. These effects are discussed in the first part of the paper. The increasing trend towards more extensive use of power electronic control at the generation, transmission and utilization systems following deregulation has power quality implications that will affect the standards, system simulation

JOS ARRILLAGA; MATH H. J. BOLLEN; NEVILLE R. WATSON

2000-01-01

279

Power conversion technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Power Conversion Technologies thrust area identifies and sponsors development activities that enhance the capabilities of engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the area of solid- state power electronics. Our primary objective is to be a resource to existing and emerging LLNL programs that require advanced solid-state power electronic technologies.. Our focus is on developing and integrating technologies

1997-01-01

280

The Power of Powerlessness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Power and the paradox of powerlessness are defined in terms of the resource exchange theory of Foa and Foa. Power is conceptualized as the possession of resources, e.g., love, status, and money. The Karpman triangle is used to illustrate the power behind the victim's powerlessness. (Author)

Weeks, Gerald; Johnson, Jackie

1980-01-01

281

Naval shipboard power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different naval shipboard power system architectures and their basic characteristics have been discussed in the paper. In addition the paper discusses about incorporation of platform management systems into the ship automation system that would enable monitoring and control of the shipboard power system, assessing and diagnosing system failures\\/damages and reconfiguring and restoring power to service loads with reduced manpower and

R. Jayabalan; B. Fahimi

2005-01-01

282

Power and habitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the relationship between habitus and social power. It is argued that legitimacy and violence constitute an alternative basis of social power. The former is based upon habitus, while the latter is an extension of natural power. The complex processes whereby the state抯 monopoly on violence and education are used to create habitus, thus legitimacy, are explored. The

Mark Haugaard

2008-01-01

283

Solar lunar power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current and projected technology is assessed for photovoltaic power for a lunar base. The following topics are discussed: requirements for power during the lunar day and night; solar cell efficiencies, specific power, temperature sensitivity, and availability; storage options for the lunar night; array and system integration; the potential for in situ production of photovoltaic arrays and storage medium.

Bailey, Sheila G.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

1994-01-01

284

Flexible Power Electronic Transformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new modular flexible power electronic transformer (FPET). The proposed FPET is flexible enough to meet future needs of power electronic centralized systems. The main feature of the FPET is the independent operation of modules each of which contains one port. Each port can be considered as input or output, because bidirectional power flow is provided. The

Mehran Sabahi; Ali Yazdanpanah Goharrizi; Seyed Hossein Hosseini; Mohammad Bagher Bana Sharifian; Gevorg B. Gharehpetian

2010-01-01

285

Magnetic propulsion power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnetically powered motor providing both mechanical and electrical power output is described which comprises in combination (a) housing means including a front cover means and a back cover means; (b) at least two peripheral frame members between the cover means and attached to the connected members; (c) a DC power source electrically connected to the electromagnetic drive means; (d)

Hutson; W. O. Jr

1988-01-01

286

The Administrative Power Grab  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Administrative power for some school teachers can be an aphrodisiac that can be applied negatively, especially when a leader has devastating instinct for the weaknesses of others. A leader's intellect and heart closes shop and ceases to function when drunk on power. In this article, the author describes how the use of administrative power can be

Sorenson, Richard D.

2007-01-01

287

Space laser power transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed laser transmission applications are reviewed. Technologies for laser power transmissions are assessed. Feasible laser mission systems are set out. Components by wavelength are summarized. Feasible space to space laser power transmission systems are summarized. Space laser transmitter masses for 1 MW and 100 KW output power are summarized.

1982-01-01

288

Power Plant Cycling Costs  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

2012-07-01

289

Switched power workshop. [Switched power electron guns  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the design of a switched power electron gun. Particular topics discussed are: vacuum photodiode switch; laser switched solid state diodes; gun performance; charging supply; and laser requirements. (LSP)

Palmer, R.B.

1988-01-01

290

Multimegawatt space power reactors  

SciTech Connect

In response to the need of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) and long range space exploration and extra-terrestrial basing by the National Air and Space Administration (NASA), concepts for nuclear power systems in the multi-megawatt levels are being designed and evaluated. The requirements for these power systems are being driven primarily by the need to minimize weight and maximize safety and reliability. This paper will discuss the present requirements for space based advanced power systems, technological issues associated with the development of these advanced nuclear power systems, and some of the concepts proposed for generating large amounts of power in space. 31 figs.

Dearien, J.A.; Whitbeck, J.F.

1989-01-01

291

International Space Station Power Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation gives a general overview of the International Space Station Power Systems. The topics include: 1) The Basics of Power; 2) Space Power Systems Design Constraints; 3) Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems; 4) Energy Storage for Space Power Systems; 5) Challenges of Operating Power Systems in Earth Orbit; 6) and International Space Station Electrical Power System.

Propp, Timothy William

2001-01-01

292

Evolution of space power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA planning for large power systems (tens to hundreds of kilowatts) in space for the next decade is summarized. Applications requiring large amounts of power, the selection of solar photovoltaic as the primary power conversion approach, and the power technology base are explained. Large power systems, beginning with a Space Shuttle/Spacelab power augmentation kit and an orbitally stored Power Module, are described.

Freitag, R. F.; Kisko, W. A.

1978-01-01

293

Multimode power processor  

DOEpatents

In one embodiment, a power processor which operates in three modes: an inverter mode wherein power is delivered from a battery to an AC power grid or load; a battery charger mode wherein the battery is charged by a generator; and a parallel mode wherein the generator supplies power to the AC power grid or load in parallel with the battery. In the parallel mode, the system adapts to arbitrary non-linear loads. The power processor may operate on a per-phase basis wherein the load may be synthetically transferred from one phase to another by way of a bumpless transfer which causes no interruption of power to the load when transferring energy sources. Voltage transients and frequency transients delivered to the load when switching between the generator and battery sources are minimized, thereby providing an uninterruptible power supply. The power processor may be used as part of a hybrid electrical power source system which may contain, in one embodiment, a photovoltaic array, diesel engine, and battery power sources.

O'Sullivan, George A. (Pottersville, NJ); O'Sullivan, Joseph A. (St. Louis, MO)

1999-01-01

294

Multimode power processor  

DOEpatents

In one embodiment, a power processor which operates in three modes: an inverter mode wherein power is delivered from a battery to an AC power grid or load; a battery charger mode wherein the battery is charged by a generator; and a parallel mode wherein the generator supplies power to the AC power grid or load in parallel with the battery. In the parallel mode, the system adapts to arbitrary non-linear loads. The power processor may operate on a per-phase basis wherein the load may be synthetically transferred from one phase to another by way of a bumpless transfer which causes no interruption of power to the load when transferring energy sources. Voltage transients and frequency transients delivered to the load when switching between the generator and battery sources are minimized, thereby providing an uninterruptible power supply. The power processor may be used as part of a hybrid electrical power source system which may contain, in one embodiment, a photovoltaic array, diesel engine, and battery power sources. 31 figs.

O'Sullivan, G.A.; O'Sullivan, J.A.

1999-07-27

295

Trace-element characterization of evidential cannabis sative samples using k{sub 0}-standardization methodology  

SciTech Connect

The University of Florida Training Reactor (UFTR) facilities including the analytical laboratory are used for a wide range of educational, research, training, and service functions. The UFTR is a 100-kW light-water-cooled, graphite-and-water-moderated modified Argonaut-type reactor. The UFTR utilizes high enriched plate-type fuel in a two-slab arrangement and operates at a 100-kW power level. Since first licensed to operate at 10 kW in 1959, this nonpower reactor facility has had an active but evolving record of continuous service to a wide range of academic, utility, and community users. The services of the UFTR have also been used by various state authorities in criminal investigations. Because of its relatively low power and careful laboratory analyses, the UFTR neutron flux characteristics in several ports are not only well characterized but they are also quite invariant with time. As a result, such a facility is well-suited to the application of the multielement analysis using the k{sub o}-standardization method of neutron activation analysis. The analysis of untreated evidential botanical samples presented a unique opportunity to demonstrate implementation of this method at the UFTR facilities.

Henderson, D.P. Jr.; Vernetson, W.G.; Ratner, R.T. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

296

Power Quality Aspects in a Wind Power Plant: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Although many operational aspects affect wind power plant operation, this paper focuses on power quality. Because a wind power plant is connected to the grid, it is very important to understand the sources of disturbances that affect the power quality.

Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Chacon, J.; Romanowitz, H.

2006-01-01

297

Power flow for spacecraft power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for constructing the generalized system-level admittance matrix for use with a Newton-Raphson power flow is presented. The network modeling technique presented does not use the standard pi-equivalent models, which assume a lossless return path, for the transmission line and transformer. If the return path cannot be assumed lossless, then the standard algorithms for constructing the system admittance matrix cannot be used. The method presented here uses concepts from linear graph theory to combine network modules to form the system-level admittance matrix. The modeling technique is presented, and the resulting matrix is used with a standard Newton-Raphson power flow to calculate all system voltages and current (power) flows.

Halpin, S. M.; Grigsby, L. L.; Sheble, G. B.; Nelms, R. M.

1989-01-01

298

Peak power ratio generator  

DOEpatents

A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

Moyer, Robert D. (Albuquerque, NM)

1985-01-01

299

Power Subscription Strategy.  

SciTech Connect

This document lays out the Bonneville Power Administration`s ``Power Subscription Strategy,`` a process that will enable the people of the Pacific Northwest to share the benefits of the Federal Columbia river Power System after 2001 while retaining those benefits within the region for future generations. The strategy also addresses how those who receive the benefits of the region`s low-cost federal power should share a corresponding measure of the risks. This strategy seeks to implement the subscription concept created by the Comprehensive Review in 1996 through contracts for the sale of power and the distribution of federal power benefits in the deregulated wholesale electricity market. The success of the subscription process is fundamental to BPA`s overall business purpose to provide public benefits to the Northwest through commercially successful businesses.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1998-12-21

300

Switching power supply filter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A filter for a switching power supply. The filter includes a common mode inductor with coil configurations allowing differential mode current from a dc source to pass through but attenuating common mode noise from the power supply so that the noise does not reach the dc source. The invention also includes the use of feed through capacitors at the switching power supply input terminals to provide further high-frequency noise attenuation.

Kumar, Prithvi R. (Inventor); Abare, Wayne (Inventor)

1989-01-01

301

Interleaved power converter  

DOEpatents

A power converter architecture interleaves full bridge converters to alleviate thermal management problems in high current applications, and may, for example, double the output power capability while reducing parts count and costs. For example, one phase of a three phase inverter is shared between two transformers, which provide power to a rectifier such as a current doubler rectifier to provide two full bridge DC/DC converters with three rather than four high voltage inverter legs.

Zhu, Lizhi (Canton, MI)

2007-11-13

302

NEP power subsystem modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system optimization code consists of a master module and various submodules. Each of the submodules represents a subsystem within the total NEP power system. The master module sends commands and input data to each of the submodules and receives output data back. Rocketdyne was responsible for preparing submodules for the power conversion (both K-Rankine and Brayton), heat rejection, and power management and distribution.

Harty, Richard B.

1993-01-01

303

Electric power annual 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a summary of electric power industry statistics at national, regional, and state levels: generating capability and additions, net generation, fossil-fuel statistics, retail sales and revenue, finanical statistics, environmental statistics, power transactions, demand side management, nonutility power producers. Purpose is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts, and the public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets.

Not Available

1994-12-08

304

Hydroelectric power in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydroelectric power potential of California was examined and the problems related to the development of that potential reviewed. The generating capacity of 173 existing conventional hydro power plants is 8500 MWe. Conventional hydroelectric power development is expected to add between 0.2 and 0.4 quads (20 x 10鈦 to 40 x 10鈦 kWh) per year to the current hydroelectric supply

1979-01-01

305

Space station power system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major requirements and guidelines that affect the space station configuration and power system are explained. The evolution of the space station power system from the NASA program development-feasibility phase through the current preliminary design phase is described. Several early station concepts are described and linked to the present concept. Trade study selections of photovoltaic system technologies are described in detail. A summary of present solar dynamic and power management and distribution systems is also given.

Baraona, Cosmo R.

1987-01-01

306

Betavoltaics Of Increased Power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Batteries of newly developed betavoltaic cells proposed as long-lived sources of power of order of watts. High-power betavoltaic cell resembles solar photo voltaic cell, except it includes layer of beta-emitting material. Betavoltaic battery cells are stacked as in chemical battery, and surrounded by material containing beta rays. Intended for use aboard spacecraft, batteries also used in surgically implanted devices requiring high power.

Pool, Frederick S.; Stella, Paul

1991-01-01

307

Power electronics' polluting effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In use far and wide for improved delivery and control of the electricity supply, power electronics systems are both the cause and remedy of the power system harmonic pollution problem. Here, the authors describe how an insidious side-effect of any solution involving power electronics converters is their generation of high-frequency pollution-namely, conducted and radiated noise in the 100 kHz to

R. Redl; P. Tenti; J. Daan van Wyk

1997-01-01

308

Foucault's Ethics of Power  

E-print Network

, Foucault performs genealogical critiques of the practices surrounding modern punishment and sex, and on the other hand, his genealogies alert us to the dangers of new forms ofpower. However, the exact nature of the relationship between his genealogical... the second and third parts of Foucault's account of power in an attempt to illuminate the notion of power at the heart of his genealogical cri tique of punishment and sex. Foucault's methodological concerns about his analytics of power are introduced...

Wolf, Kirk

2002-01-01

309

Nuclear power browning out  

SciTech Connect

When the sad history of nuclear power is written, April 26, 1986, will be recorded as the day the dream died. The explosion at the Chernobyl plant was a terrible human tragedy- and it delivered a stark verdict on the hope that nuclear power will one day replace fossil fuel-based energy systems. Nuclear advocates may soldier on, but a decade after Chernobyl it is clear that nuclear power is no longer a viable energy option for the twenty-first century.

Flavin, C.; Lenssen, N.

1996-05-01

310

Radarsat power plan  

NSF Publications Database

The proposed activity involves the construction of antenna and radome foundations, a 130 square meter support building to house electronic equipment, the construction of an access road from the main road to the RADARSAT site, the installation of a fiber optics line from the CSEC to the RADARSAT site, the installation of a power line from the station grid to the site, the installation of a boresight antenna, and an upgrade of the existing power plant to provide for the increase power demands. ...

311

Battery power source  

SciTech Connect

A low voltage DC power-supply is described for an electronic circuit load which comprises: at least one battery; means for regulating the voltage delivered from the battery to the load; and means for charging the battery from AC line power source comprising: means for controlling the charging voltage applied to the battery in function of the net current flowing in and out of the battery; switchable means for rectifying the AC line power; means for detecting the full-cycle zero-axis crossing time of the AC line power; and means for switching the means for rectifying at the zero-axis crossing time.

Ball, N.E.

1986-12-16

312

Critical pulse power components  

SciTech Connect

Critical components for pulsed power conditioning systems will be reviewed. Particular emphasis will be placed on those components requiring significant development efforts. Capacitors, for example, are one of the weakest elements in high-power pulsed systems, especially when operation at high-repetition frequencies for extended periods of time are necessary. Switches are by far the weakest active components of pulse power systems. In particular, opening switches are essentially nonexistent for most applications. Insulaton in all systems and components requires development and improvement. Efforts under way in technology base development of pulse power components will be discussed.

Sarjeant, W.J.; Rohwein, G.J.

1981-01-01

313

FUTURE POWER GRID INITIATIVE Future Power Grid  

E-print Network

DHRC with remedial action schemes (RAS) - Optimal voltage control for improved voltage stability - Use 禄 The proposed control paradigm will - Improve transient stability and restore system conditions (frequency & tie line power) after contingencies - Coordinate voltage resources to improve voltage security margin

314

On the Powers of Powerful Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this paper is to explore and clarify the idea of "powerful knowledge" as a sociological concept and as a curriculum principle. The paper seeks to clarify its conceptual basis and to make its meaning and the arguments it implies, less ambiguous and less open to misunderstanding. This will enable us to suggest some of the

Young, Michael; Muller, Johan

2014-01-01

315

Finding Market Power in Electric Power Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the regulatory review of electric utility mergers in the United States, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission requires utilities to submit market power studies. The Commission has specified a detailed method for calculating market concentration in these studies.This paper shows that one can simulate the actual price effects from the merger by using similar data and models. Using

John Morris

2000-01-01

316

Power system commonality study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this report along with a mass comparison. Other criteria such as life cycle cost (which includes transportation cost), reliability, safety, risk, and operability should be used in future, more detailed studies to select optimum power system architectures. Nineteen potential power system concepts were identified and evaluated for planetary surface applications including photovoltaic arrays with energy storage, isotope, and nuclear power systems. A top level environmental factors study was completed to assess environmental impacts on the identified power system concepts for both lunar and Mars applications. Potential power system design solutions for commonality between Mars and lunar applications were identified. Isotope, photovoltaic array (PVA), regenerative fuel cell (RFC), stainless steel liquid-metal cooled reactors (less than 1033 K maximum) with dynamic converters, and in-core thermionic reactor systems were found suitable for both lunar and Mars environments. The use of SP-100 thermoelectric (TE) and SP-100 dynamic power systems in a vacuum enclosure may also be possible for Mars applications although several issues need to be investigated further (potential single point failure of enclosure, mass penalty of enclosure and active pumping system, additional installation time and complexity). There are also technical issues involved with development of thermionic reactors (life, serviceability, and adaptability to other power conversion units). Additional studies are required to determine the optimum reactor concept for Mars applications. Various screening criteria (availability, environmental compatibility, mass competitiveness of energy storage, safety, and practicality for the application) were used to define concept applicability for each lunar and Mars application. A screening study resulted in 13 power systems for lunar applications and 15 for Mars applications. A commonality analysis showed several power systems with potentially high commonality (across both lunar and Mars applications). These high commonality systems include d PVA/RFC, dynamic isotope (1033 K Stirling, 1133 K Brayton, and 1300 K Brayton PCU's), SP-100 TE and dynamic derivatives (Mars systems required vacuum enclosure), in-core thermionic reactor, and liquid metal cooled reactor/Stirling cycle (1033 K). The generic commonality results were used to synthesize 3 high commonality power system architectures: (1) predominantly PV (limited nuclear and isotope), (2) predominantly in-core thermionic reactor/DIPS, and (3) predominantly SP-100 reactor/DIPS. The in-core thermionic reactor/DIPS power system architecture had the lowest total mass. Specific outputs from this study included lists of power system requirements, power system candidates, a power system application matrix, power system characteristics (mass), power system commonality ratings, example high commonality power system architectures, architecture masses, and issues/design solutions for lunar/Mars commonality.

Littman, Franklin D.

1992-07-01

317

Limits to Tidal Power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean tides have been proposed as a source of renewable energy, though the maximum available power may be shown to be only a fraction of the present dissipation rate of 3.5 TW, which is small compared with global insolation (nearly 105 TW), wind dissipation (103 TW), and even human power usage of 15 TW. Nonetheless, tidal power could be a useful contributor in some locations. Traditional use of tidal power, involving the trapping of water behind a barrage at high tide, can produce an average power proportional to the area of the headpond and the square of the tidal range; the power density is approximately 6 W per square meter for a tidal range of 10 m. Capital costs and fears of environmental damage have put barrage schemes in disfavor, with interest turning to the exploitation of strong tidal currents, using turbines in a manner similar to wind turbines. There is a limit to the available power, however, as adding turbines reduces the flow, ultimately reducing the power. For sinusoidal forcing of flow in a channel connecting two large open basins, the maximum available power may be shown to be given approximately by 0.2? g a Q_max, where ? is the water density, g gravity, a the amplitude of the tidal sea level difference along the channel, and Q_max is the maximum volume flux in the natural state. The same formula applies if the channel is the entrance to a semi-enclosed basin, with a now the amplitude of the external tide. A flow reduction of approximately 40% is typically associated with the maximum power extraction. The power would be reduced if only smaller environmental changes are acceptable, and reduced further by drag on supporting structures, dissipation in turbine wakes, and internal inefficiencies. It can be suggested that the best use of strong, cold, tidal currents is to provide cooling water for nuclear reactors.

Garrett, C.

2008-12-01

318

Miniature Radioisotope Power Source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed miniature power source generates electricity for years from heat developed in small radioisotope unit without addition of fuel or dependence on sunlight. Called powerstick, is relatively inexpensive, lightweight, and rugged. Supplies power to small vehicles or scientific instruments in remote locations on Earth or in outer space. Envisioned uses include Mars miniature rovers and monitoring equipment for toxic or nuclear storage sites.

Chmielewski, Artur B.

1995-01-01

319

Hydrothermal Power Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site by the Department of Energy (DOE) covers geothermal power plants by using text and diagrams. The website describes the three kinds of plants and provides photographs of each. The page also gives information on the future of geothermal energy and also provides links to geothermal power plants across the US.

2007-07-20

320

Work and Power: Waterwheel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Investigating a waterwheel illustrates to students the physical properties of energy. They learn that the concept of work, force acting over a distance, differs from power, which is defined as force acting over a distance over some period of time. Students create a model waterwheel and use it to calculate the amount of power produced and work done.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

321

Automating power supply checkout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power Supply checkout is a necessary, pre-beam, time-critical function. At odds are the desire to decrease the amount of time to perform the checkout while at the same time maximizing the number and types of checks that can be performed and analyzing the results quickly (in case any problems exist that must be addressed). Controls and Power Supply Group personnel

J. Laster; D. Bruno; T. DOttavio; J. Drozd; G. Marr; C. Mi

2011-01-01

322

Solar power-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the curriculum for an elementary school project on solar power arising from a cooperative effort between teachers and engineers working with utility companies. The student design and build photovoltaic-powered model cars in design teams of three. They must make group decisions about design problems, build the model and present details to students, teachers and parents.

1994-01-01

323

Remote hybrid power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of the emerging technology of remote, stand-alone electrical power systems featuring a renewable source (wind or photovoltaics [PV]) as well as a diesel generator, with or without an energy storage device. Other stand-alone power systems are discussed briefly, mainly to emphasize the domain of hybrid systems. The history of hybrid systems is reviewed, beginning with

C. D. Barley; C. B. Winn

1997-01-01

324

Power Technologies Data Book  

SciTech Connect

This report, prepared by NREL's Energy Analysis Office, includes up-to-date information on power technologies, including complete technology profiles. The data book also contains charts on electricity restructuring, power technology forecasts and comparisons, electricity supply, electricity capability, electricity generation, electricity demand, prices, economic indicators, environmental indicators, conversion factors, and selected congressional questions and answers.

Goldstein, L.

2002-09-01

325

Electric Power Annual, 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sharply lower petroleum prices in 1986 from 1985 led to increased net generation by petroleum-fired plants and less gas-fired generation. Nuclear-powered generation capability increased in 1986, resulting in increased nuclear-powered net generation. These...

1987-01-01

326

Solar Powered Refrigeration System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

2002-01-01

327

Talk About Nuclear Power  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of the relation of nuclear power to human health and the environment, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power as an energy source urging technical educators to inculcate an awareness of the problems associated with the production of energy. Describes the fission reaction process, the hazards of

Tremlett, Lewis

1976-01-01

328

NUCLEAR POWER in CALIFORNIA  

E-print Network

NUCLEAR POWER in CALIFORNIA: 2007 STATUS REPORT CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION October 2007 CEC-100 public workshops on nuclear power. The Integrated Energy Policy Report Committee, led by Commissioners, California Contract No. 700-05-002 Prepared For: California Energy Commission Barbara Byron, Senior Nuclear

329

Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign

Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

330

Explorations in Statistics: Power  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This fifth installment of "Explorations in Statistics" revisits power, a concept fundamental to the test of a null hypothesis. Power is the probability that we reject the null hypothesis when it is false. Four things affect

Curran-Everett, Douglas

2010-01-01

331

From Betrayal to Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance is the secret of joy! --Alice Walker Possessing the Secret of Joy What does it mean to love a daughter in a culture that is hostile to her integrity? In a culture where power equals dominance and superiority, men's control of public life--the world of political and economic power that shapes the desires of private life--places mothers in a

Elizabeth Debold; Marie Wilson; Idelisse Malave

1994-01-01

332

Space nuclear power  

SciTech Connect

This volume considers the major aspects of space nuclear power. It includes treatments of radioactivity, radiation interaction with matter, nuclear reactor principles, thermodynamic power conversion systems, and heat transfer and heat rejection systems. Applications of nuclear energy in space are introduced in the context of man's space exploits.

Angelo, J. Jr.; Buden, D.

1985-01-01

333

Laser power transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of previous studies related to laser power transmission is presented. Particular attention is given to the use of solar pumped lasers for space power applications. Three general laser mechanisms are addressed: photodissociation lasing driven by sunlight, photoexcitation lasing driven directly by sunlight, and photoexcitation lasing driven by thermal radiation.

Conway, Edmund J.

1992-01-01

334

Power of a Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the effects of electric power deregulation on an educational facility's planning and purchasing for future power needs. Highlights ways schools can take advantage of deregulation. Examines various chiller technologies and economically assessing these technologies on a life-cycle cost basis. (GR)

Mineo, Ronald W.; Stehn, John L.

1998-01-01

335

The power of words  

Microsoft Academic Search

Languag e is special, yet its power to facilitate communication may have distracted researchers from the power of another, potential precursor ability: the ability to label things, and the effect this can have in transforming or extending cognitive abilities. In this paper we present a simple robotic model, using the iCub robot, demonstrating the effects of spatial grouping, binding, and

Anthony F. Morse; Paul Baxter; Tony Belpaeme; Linda B. Smith; Angelo Cangelosi

2011-01-01

336

IEEE Power and Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

IIEEE presents Power and Energy magazine online. The latest issue as well as several previous issues are available online for free use. Columns of Power and Energy highlight history, industry news, standards, and opinion articles. The archives currently go back to 2009.

2003-01-01

337

Fusion Power Deployment  

SciTech Connect

Fusion power plants could be part of a future portfolio of non-carbon dioxide producing energy supplies such as wind, solar, biomass, advanced fission power, and fossil energy with carbon dioxide sequestration. In this paper, we discuss key issues that could impact fusion energy deployment during the last half of this century. These include geographic issues such as resource availability, scale issues, energy storage requirements, and waste issues. The resource needs and waste production associated with fusion deployment in the U.S. should not pose serious problems. One important feature of fusion power is the fact that a fusion power plant should be locatable within most local or regional electrical distribution systems. For this reason, fusion power plants should not increase the burden of long distance power transmission to our distribution system. In contrast to fusion power, regional factors could play an important role in the deployment of renewable resources such as wind, solar and biomass or fossil energy with CO2 sequestration. We examine the role of these regional factors and their implications for fusion power deployment.

J.A. Schmidt; J.M. Ogden

2002-02-06

338

Women in Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

The country is filled with powerful women, but women in power remain significantly underrepresented across a variety of professional fields, in business, academe, politics, and the media. With more women enrolled in colleges today than men, continued underrepresentation of women in leadership roles throughout society is not just morally unacceptable, it is economically damaging. The nation needs to maximize all

Margaret A. McKenna

2007-01-01

339

Power from Ocean Waves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is the utilization of surface ocean waves as a potential source of power. Simple and large-scale wave power devices and conversion systems are described. Alternative utilizations, environmental impacts, and future prospects of this alternative energy source are detailed. (BT)

Newman, J. N.

1979-01-01

340

Fusion power Bouillabaisse sushi  

E-print Network

liberating the so-called binding energy whose absence, paradoxically, helps to hold complicated atomic nuclei. ITER ITER Such a reactor would generate power by merging the nuclei of hydrogen atoms, and thus together. This is a process similar to the one that powers the sun. Moreover, unlike previous attempts

341

Nuclear power - some facts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale implementation of nuclear power cannot be the solution to the future energy and climate problems of the world. Costs, constraints on uranium supply and technological shortcoming, well known to the nuclear industry, undermine the case for a nuclear future. There are better and cheaper alternatives, starting with more efficient energy use, wind power and biomass. Some facts, technical dreams

Jan Willem; Storm van Leeuwen; Ceedata Consultancy

342

Remote-Controllable Power Outlet System for Home Power Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe the Wireless Power-Controlled Outlet Module (WPCOM) with a scalable mechanism for home power management which we have developed. The WPCOM integrates the multiple AC power sockets and a simple low-power microcontroller into a power outlet to switch the power of the sockets ON\\/OFF and to measure the power consumption of plugged electric home appliances. Our

Chia-Hung Lien; Ying-Wen Bai; Ming-Bo Lin

2007-01-01

343

Comparison and evaluation of power plant options for geosynchronous power stations. Part 1: Synchronous solar power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present state-of-the-art is described for the development of solar power generators in far out synchronous orbit for power generation. Concepts of geosynchronous solar power satellites are discussed including photovoltaic arrays for power satellites, solar-thermal power satellites, and power transmission to earth.

Williams, J. R.

1973-01-01

344

A high power density high voltage distributed power system for pulse power applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a high-density high-voltage distributed power system for pulse power applications is designed and implemented. Different topologies are evaluated for two power stages. According to pulse load condition, system power density is optimized through the tradeoff between power loss and magnetic component size. High power density and high efficiency are verified by the experimental result

Bing Lu; Yarig Qiu; Chuanyun Wang; Yonghan Kang; Juanjuan Sun; Wei Dong; Francisco Canales; Peter Barbosa; Ming Xu; Fred C. Lee; Richard Gean; Wesley C. Tipton; Damian Urciuoli

2005-01-01

345

Fluid Power Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the fundamental concepts important to fluid power, which includes both pneumatic (gas) and hydraulic (liquid) systems. Both systems contain four basic components: reservoir/receiver, pump/compressor, valve, cylinder. Students learn background information about fluid power鈈oth pneumatic and hydraulic systems鈏ncluding everyday applications in our world (bulldozers, front-end loaders, excavators, chair height lever adjustors, door closer dampers, dental drills, vehicle brakes) and related natural laws. After a few simple teacher demos, they learn about the four components in all fluid power systems, watch two 26-minute online videos about fluid power, complete a crossword puzzle of fluid power terms, and conduct a task card exercise. This prepares them to conduct the associated hands-on activity, using the Portable Fluid Power Demonstrator (teacher-prepared kits) to learn more about the properties of gases and liquids in addition to how forces are transmitted and multiplied within these systems.

Center for Compact and Efficient Fluid Power, College of Agriculture and Biological Engineering,

346

Space Nuclear Power Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fission power and propulsion systems can enable exciting space exploration missions. These include bases on the moon and Mars; and the exploration, development, and utilization of the solar system. In the near-term, fission surface power systems could provide abundant, constant, cost-effective power anywhere on the surface of the Moon or Mars, independent of available sunlight. Affordable access to Mars, the asteroid belt, or other destinations could be provided by nuclear thermal rockets. In the further term, high performance fission power supplies could enable both extremely high power levels on planetary surfaces and fission electric propulsion vehicles for rapid, efficient cargo and crew transfer. Advanced fission propulsion systems could eventually allow routine access to the entire solar system. Fission systems could also enable the utilization of resources within the solar system.

Houts, Michael G.

2012-01-01

347

High Power Hall Thrusters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of Hall thrusters with powers ranging from tens of kilowatts to in excess of one hundred kilowatts is considered based on renewed interest in high power. high thrust electric propulsion applications. An approach to develop such thrusters based on previous experience is discussed. It is shown that the previous experimental data taken with thrusters of 10 kW input power and less can be used. Potential mass savings due to the design of high power Hall thrusters are discussed. Both xenon and alternate thruster propellant are considered, as are technological issues that will challenge the design of high power Hall thrusters. Finally, the implications of such a development effort with regard to ground testing and spacecraft intecrati'on issues are discussed.

Jankovsky, Robert; Tverdokhlebov, Sergery; Manzella, David

1999-01-01

348

Power module assembly  

DOEpatents

A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.

Campbell, Jeremy B. (Torrance, CA); Newson, Steve (Redondo Beach, CA)

2011-11-15

349

TEP Power Partners Project [Tucson Electric Power  

SciTech Connect

The Arizona Governor抯 Office of Energy Policy, in partnership with Tucson Electric Power (TEP), Tendril, and Next Phase Energy (NPE), formed the TEP Power Partners pilot project to demonstrate how residential customers could access their energy usage data and third party applications using data obtained from an Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) network. The project applied for and was awarded a Smart Grid Data Access grant through the U.S. Department of Energy. The project participants goal for Phase I is to actively engage 1,700 residential customers to demonstrate sustained participation, reduction in energy usage (kWh) and cost ($), and measure related aspects of customer satisfaction. This Demonstration report presents a summary of the findings, effectiveness, and customer satisfaction with the 15-month TEP Power Partners pilot project. The objective of the program is to provide residential customers with energy consumption data from AMR metering and empower these participants to better manage their electricity use. The pilot recruitment goals included migrating 700 existing customers from the completed Power Partners Demand Response Load Control Project (DRLC), and enrolling 1,000 new participants. Upon conclusion of the project on November 19, 2013: ? 1,390 Home Area Networks (HANs) were registered. ? 797 new participants installed a HAN. ? Survey respondents are satisfied with the program and found value with a variety of specific program components. ? Survey respondents report feeling greater control over their energy usage and report taking energy savings actions in their homes after participating in the program. ? On average, 43 % of the participants returned to the web portal monthly and 15% returned weekly. ? An impact evaluation was completed by Opinion Dynamics and found average participant savings for the treatment period1 to be 2.3% of their household use during this period.2 In total, the program saved 163 MWh in the treatment period of 2013.

None

2013-11-19

350

Power transaction issues in deregulated power systems  

E-print Network

Regulatory Commission (FERC) issued orders 888 and 889 to specify the role of available transmission capability (ATC). Consecutively, the North American Reliability Council (NERC) established a framework for ATC definition and evaluation [I] with which we... Calculation Method We illustrate here all the previous definitions in an example of ATC calculation using the network response method presented by NERC in [1]. Utilized Software To go through the exercises, we will use the Power Education Toolbox (PET...

Roycourt, Henrik

2012-06-07

351

Inductive power transfer: Powering our future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to provide power without wires was imagined over a century ago, but assumed commercially impractical and impossible to realise. However for more than two decades the University of Auckland has been at the forefront of developing and commercialising this technology alongside its industrial partners. This research has proven that significant wireless power can be transferred over relatively large air-gaps efficiently and robustly. Early solutions were applied in industrial applications to power moving vehicles in clean room systems, industrial plants, and in theme parks, but more recently this research has helped develop technology that has the ability to impact us directly at home. The seminar will describe some of the early motivations behind this research, and introduce some of the solutions which have been developed by the team of researchers at Auckland over two decades, many of which have found their way into the market. It will also describe how the technology has recently been re-developed to enable battery charging of electric vehicles without the need to plug in, and alongside this how it has the potential to change the way we drive in the future.

Covic, Grant A.

2013-12-01

352

The Green Power Network: Green Power government information clearinghouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains Green Power information from the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Clearinghouse of the U.S. Department of Energy. The Green Power Network exists to provide "news and information on green power providers." The site's information is searchable by state and shows different markets for green power (utility green pricing, green power marketing, and renewable energy certificates).

2008-08-26

353

Power MOSFETs Paralleling Operation for High Power High Density Converters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In high power high density converters, the power MOSFETs can be used in parallel as the main switch to meet the current rating requirement, increase the switching frequency, and reduce the power loss. This paper investigates the possible benefits and problems associated with the power MOSFETs paralleling operation for higher power high frequency applications. The conduction state current sharing and

Hongfang Wang; Fred Wang

2006-01-01

354

Power quality load management for large spacecraft electrical power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In December, 1986, a Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) proposal was granted to study power system control techniques in large space electrical power systems. Presented are the accomplishments in the area of power system control by power quality load management. In addition, information concerning the distortion problems in a 20 kHz ac power system is presented.

Lollar, Louis F.

1988-01-01

355

Electric power annual 1992  

SciTech Connect

The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric utility statistics at national, regional and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. ``The US Electric Power Industry at a Glance`` section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; retail sales; revenue; financial statistics; environmental statistics; electric power transactions; demand-side management; and nonutility power producers. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences in US electricity power systems. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. Monetary values in this publication are expressed in nominal terms.

Not Available

1994-01-06

356

Rural power quality  

SciTech Connect

Very little published literature is available on the quality of power being delivered to rural industries. This paper will present the results of a detailed power quantity monitoring survey of 17 out of the 23 small rural industries surveyed (i.e., poultry broiler, poultry layer, beef feedlot, and pig (farrow to finish) rural industrial sites) and sponsored by the Canadian Electrical Association; the survey will provide a knowledge base on rural power quality and the possible origins of power supply anomalies. This paper will summarize the major power quality problems experienced at the various industrial sites and present some of the significant results of an across Canada questionnaire survey on On-farm Electrical Power Disturbances. The results of these surveys will provide a basis for mitigating actions by the utilities and their rural industrial customers by enhancing their ability to identify the possible origins of power supply disturbances affecting the performance of electronic and electrical equipment at the various farm industrial sites.

Koval, D.O. (Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Chang, J.C. (Alberta Agriculture Engineering Services Branch, Edmonton (CA)); Leonard, J. (Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering)

1992-07-01

357

Autonomous power expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the Autonomous Power System (APS) program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control technologies to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power Systems (SSF/EPS). The objectives of the program are to establish artificial intelligence/expert system technology paths, to create knowledge based tools with advanced human-operator interfaces, and to integrate and interface knowledge-based and conventional control schemes. This program is being developed at the NASA-Lewis. The APS Brassboard represents a subset of a 20 KHz Space Station Power Management And Distribution (PMAD) testbed. A distributed control scheme is used to manage multiple levels of computers and switchgear. The brassboard is comprised of a set of intelligent switchgear used to effectively switch power from the sources to the loads. The Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) portion of the APS program integrates a knowledge based fault diagnostic system, a power resource scheduler, and an interface to the APS Brassboard. The system includes knowledge bases for system diagnostics, fault detection and isolation, and recommended actions. The scheduler autonomously assigns start times to the attached loads based on temporal and power constraints. The scheduler is able to work in a near real time environment for both scheduling and dynamic replanning.

Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.

1990-01-01

358

High-power laser-mirror faceplate materials: figures of merit for optical distortion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-power/high-energy (HEL) systems include an optical train consisting of mirrors and windows, which must be capable of transporting and directing the beam without seriously degrading the nominal performance of the laser. Since catastrophic failure modes are not a major threat at beam-power levels of current interest, the system's performance as measured in terms of achievable target irradiances can degrade as a result of thermal lensing, that is, the wavefront distortion caused by thermally induced phase aberrations. The purpose of this paper is to present an analytical investigation that addresses the problem of evaluating the impact of laser-driven mirror distortions; in this context it is shown how to obtain simple figures of merit (FoM) for rating the thermal lensing performance of mirror-faceplate material candidates. The performance of cooled HEL mirrors reflects their ability to minimize irradiance-mapping wavefront distortions, which leads to defining a thermal distortion coefficient (Xi) equals (alpha) (1+v) that controls the out-of-plane growth of the faceplate. It is then straightforward to derive equations for characterizing the RMSsed surface deformation and to assess the merits of mirror-faceplate material candidates in a pulsed or a CW environment. Figures of merit for CW operation must take into account the requirement that the faceplate should be as thin as possible but still able to minimize coolant-induced pressure ripples; the modulus of elasticity, therefore, must be properly factored into FoM expressions. Since water-cooled HEL mirror heat-exchangers exhibit relatively modest Biot numbers (Bi < 1), the thermal conductivity of the faceplate is not a critical material parameter. Numerical evaluations demonstrate that the ranking of faceplate-material candidates does not depend on the laser mode of operation or the efficiency of the heat exchanger. It is the thermal expansion coefficient (alpha) that determines the performance if optical distortions are of concern. For this reason, diamond shows much promise, which will attract attention as CVD-diamond fabrication technologies mature.

Klein, Claude A.

1997-12-01

359

Fluid Power Textbook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A more detailed discussion of fluid power principles and how hydraulic and pneumatic devices operate, Integrated Publishing offers twelve chapters of material, complete with diagrams. The text was "intended as a basic reference for all Navy personnel whose duties require them to have a knowledge of the fundamentals of fluid power." Along with an introduction to fluid power, this text covers pneumatics, valves, and sealing devices, along with many other topics. Five assignments from the textbook are also offered here. While the chapters are free to view online, a subscription is required to download a copy of the textbook.

2012-09-11

360

Lifting BLS Power Supplies  

SciTech Connect

This note describes BLS power supplies lifting techniques and provides stress calculations for lifting plate and handles bolts. BLS power supply weight is about 120 Lbs, with the center of gravity shifted toward the right front side. A lifting plate is used to attach a power supply to a crane or a hoist. Stress calculations show that safety factors for lifting plate are 12.9 (vs. 5 required) for ultimate stress and 5.7 (vs. 3 required) for yield stress. Safety factor for shackle bolt thread shear load is 37, and safety factor for bolts that attach handles is 12.8.

Sarychev, Michael

2007-08-01

361

Fundamentals of Power Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site has information regarding the U.S. Army芒侣s requirements for the construction and performance of aircraft power plants, brought to you by GlobalSecurity.org. The basic requirements, including reliability, durability, and ease of maintenance are each clearly and succinctly defined. Along with labeled images of aircraft power plants, policy descriptions of the required fuels, combustion, lubrication, and bearings are provided. This would be a helpful tool for students studying aircraft power plant technology, especially those heading into government military service, to gain an understanding of the Army芒侣s requirements for this aircraft component.

2007-02-18

362

TROPIX power system architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document contains results obtained in the process of performing a power system definition study of the TROPIX power management and distribution system (PMAD). Requirements derived from the PMADs interaction with other spacecraft systems are discussed first. Since the design is dependent on the performance of the photovoltaics, there is a comprehensive discussion of the appropriate models for cells and arrays. A trade study of the array operating voltage and its effect on array bus mass is also presented. A system architecture is developed which makes use of a combination of high efficiency switching power convertors and analog regulators. Mass and volume estimates are presented for all subsystems.

Manner, David B.; Hickman, J. Mark

1995-01-01

363

Salazar on private power  

SciTech Connect

The Philipines power market, considered one of the more mature markets in Asia, continues to expand with economic growth. Independent power producers will find opportunities in the next few years as new additions are required. Currently, the government is encouraging private investment and is awaiting feedback from financiers as it considers eliminating its government guarantee. In a recent interview, the Honorable Mariano S. Salazar, secretary of energy, with the Philippines` Department of Energy, discussed the regulatory structure, encouragement of private power and his country`s capital needs.

Anderson, J.

1995-02-01

364

Rotorcraft contingency power study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Twin helicopter engines are often sized by the power requirement of a safe mission completion after the failure of one of the two engines. This study was undertaken for NASA Lewis by General Electric Co. to evaluate the merits of special design features to provide a 2-1/2 Contingency Power rating, permitting an engine size reduction. The merits of water injection, turbine cooling airflow modulation, throttle push, and a propellant auxiliary power plant were evaluated using military Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and commercial helicopter Direct Operating Cost (DOC) merit factors in a rubber engine and a rubber aircraft scenario.

Hirschkron, R.; Haynes, J. F.; Goldstein, D. N.; Davis, R. H.

1984-01-01

365

10 CFR 52.157 - Contents of applications; technical information in final safety analysis report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses...General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, establishes minimum...design criteria for water-cooled nuclear power plants similar in design...

2010-01-01

366

10 CFR 52.79 - Contents of applications; technical information in final safety analysis report.  

...CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses ...General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, establishes minimum...design criteria for water-cooled nuclear power plants similar in design...

2014-01-01

367

10 CFR 52.137 - Contents of applications; technical information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Standard Design Approvals...design criteria for water-cooled nuclear power plants similar in design and...design criteria for other types of nuclear power units; (ii) The design...

2013-01-01

368

10 CFR 52.157 - Contents of applications; technical information in final safety analysis report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses...General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, establishes minimum...design criteria for water-cooled nuclear power plants similar in design...

2011-01-01

369

10 CFR 52.137 - Contents of applications; technical information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Standard Design Approvals...design criteria for water-cooled nuclear power plants similar in design and...design criteria for other types of nuclear power units; (ii) The design...

2011-01-01

370

10 CFR 52.157 - Contents of applications; technical information in final safety analysis report.  

...CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses...General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, establishes minimum...design criteria for water-cooled nuclear power plants similar in design...

2014-01-01

371

10 CFR 52.79 - Contents of applications; technical information in final safety analysis report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses ...General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, establishes minimum...design criteria for water-cooled nuclear power plants similar in design...

2013-01-01

372

10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...  

...radioactive material in effluents-nuclear power reactors. 50.34a Section...radioactive material in effluents梟uclear power reactors. (a...objectives for light-water-cooled nuclear power reactors to meet the...

2014-01-01

373

10 CFR 52.79 - Contents of applications; technical information in final safety analysis report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses ...General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, establishes minimum...design criteria for water-cooled nuclear power plants similar in design...

2012-01-01

374

10 CFR 52.157 - Contents of applications; technical information in final safety analysis report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses...General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, establishes minimum...design criteria for water-cooled nuclear power plants similar in design...

2013-01-01

375

10 CFR 52.47 - Contents of applications; technical information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Standard Design Certifications...design criteria for water-cooled nuclear power plants similar in design and location...design criteria for other types of nuclear power units; (ii) The design...

2010-01-01

376

10 CFR 52.137 - Contents of applications; technical information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Standard Design Approvals...design criteria for water-cooled nuclear power plants similar in design and...design criteria for other types of nuclear power units; (ii) The design...

2012-01-01

377

10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...radioactive material in effluents-nuclear power reactors. 50.34a Section...radioactive material in effluents梟uclear power reactors. (a...objectives for light-water-cooled nuclear power reactors to meet the...

2013-01-01

378

10 CFR 52.79 - Contents of applications; technical information in final safety analysis report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses ...General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, establishes minimum...design criteria for water-cooled nuclear power plants similar in design...

2011-01-01

379

10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...radioactive material in effluents-nuclear power reactors. 50.34a Section...radioactive material in effluents梟uclear power reactors. (a...objectives for light-water-cooled nuclear power reactors to meet the...

2011-01-01

380

10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...radioactive material in effluents-nuclear power reactors. 50.34a Section...radioactive material in effluents梟uclear power reactors. (a...objectives for light-water-cooled nuclear power reactors to meet the...

2012-01-01

381

10 CFR 52.47 - Contents of applications; technical information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Standard Design Certifications...design criteria for water-cooled nuclear power plants similar in design and location...design criteria for other types of nuclear power units; (ii) The design...

2012-01-01

382

10 CFR 52.137 - Contents of applications; technical information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Standard Design Approvals...design criteria for water-cooled nuclear power plants similar in design and...design criteria for other types of nuclear power units; (ii) The design...

2010-01-01

383

40 CFR 190.02 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR NUCLEAR POWER OPERATIONS General Provisions...by a light-water-cooled nuclear power plant using uranium fuel...the production of electrical power for public use utilizing nuclear energy, but...

2013-07-01

384

10 CFR 52.47 - Contents of applications; technical information.  

...CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Standard Design Certifications...design criteria for water-cooled nuclear power plants similar in design and location...design criteria for other types of nuclear power units; (ii) The design...

2014-01-01

385

10 CFR 52.47 - Contents of applications; technical information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Standard Design Certifications...design criteria for water-cooled nuclear power plants similar in design and location...design criteria for other types of nuclear power units; (ii) The design...

2013-01-01

386

10 CFR 52.47 - Contents of applications; technical information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Standard Design Certifications...design criteria for water-cooled nuclear power plants similar in design and location...design criteria for other types of nuclear power units; (ii) The design...

2011-01-01

387

40 CFR 190.02 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR NUCLEAR POWER OPERATIONS General Provisions...by a light-water-cooled nuclear power plant using uranium fuel...the production of electrical power for public use utilizing nuclear energy, but...

2011-07-01

388

10 CFR 52.137 - Contents of applications; technical information.  

...CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Standard Design Approvals...design criteria for water-cooled nuclear power plants similar in design and...design criteria for other types of nuclear power units; (ii) The design...

2014-01-01

389

75 FR 13600 - Nine Mile Point Nuclear Station, LLC, Nine Mile Point Nuclear Station, Unit No. 2; Draft...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Radiation Shine, and Solid Waste Nuclear power plants use waste treatment systems...from One Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactor. Therefore, there would...Evaluating Design Basis Accidents at Nuclear Power Reactors.'' The...

2010-03-22

390

40 CFR 190.02 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR NUCLEAR POWER OPERATIONS General Provisions...by a light-water-cooled nuclear power plant using uranium fuel...the production of electrical power for public use utilizing nuclear energy, but...

2010-07-01

391

75 FR 17970 - Nine Mile Point Nuclear Station, LLC; Nine Mile Point Nuclear Station, Unit No. 2; Draft...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Radiation Shine, and Solid Waste Nuclear power plants use waste treatment systems...from One Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactor. Therefore, there would...Evaluating Design Basis Accidents at Nuclear Power Reactors.'' The...

2010-04-08

392

10 CFR 52.79 - Contents of applications; technical information in final safety analysis report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses ...General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, establishes minimum...design criteria for water-cooled nuclear power plants similar in design...

2010-01-01

393

40 CFR 190.02 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR NUCLEAR POWER OPERATIONS General Provisions...by a light-water-cooled nuclear power plant using uranium fuel...the production of electrical power for public use utilizing nuclear energy, but...

2012-07-01

394

75 FR 77010 - Nextera Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2, Draft Environmental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...increase the maximum thermal power at the Point Beach Nuclear Plant (PBNP), Units 1 and...One Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactor. Therefore, there...Evaluating Design Basis Accidents at Nuclear Power Reactors. The analyses...

2010-12-10

395

10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...radioactive material in effluents-nuclear power reactors. 50.34a Section...radioactive material in effluents梟uclear power reactors. (a...objectives for light-water-cooled nuclear power reactors to meet the...

2010-01-01

396

10 CFR 52.157 - Contents of applications; technical information in final safety analysis report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses...General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, establishes minimum...design criteria for water-cooled nuclear power plants similar in design...

2012-01-01

397

Power control system and method  

DOEpatents

A power system includes an energy harvesting device, a battery coupled to the energy harvesting device, and a circuit coupled to the energy harvesting device and the battery. The circuit is adapted to deliver power to a load by providing power generated by the energy harvesting device to the load without delivering excess power to the battery and to supplement the power generated by the energy harvesting device with power from the battery if the power generated by the energy harvesting device is insufficient to fully power the load. A method of operating the power system is also provided.

Steigerwald, Robert Louis (Burnt Hills, NY) [Burnt Hills, NY; Anderson, Todd Alan (Niskayuna, NY) [Niskayuna, NY

2008-02-19

398

Recent advances in power electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in several key areas of power electronics technology, such as power semiconductor devices, power converter circuits, and control of power electronics, are discussed. The structure and characteristics of IGBT, SIT, SITH, and MCT devices are reviewed. The principal converter types and their recent trends are described. A brief review of power integrated circuits is included. The features of

Bimal K. Bose

1992-01-01

399

SSP Power Management and Distribution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Solar Power is a NASA program sponsored by Marshall Space Flight Center. The Paper presented here represents the architectural study of a large power management and distribution (PMAD) system. The PMAD supplies power to a microwave array for power beaming to an earth rectenna (Rectifier Antenna). The power is in the GW level.

Lynch, Thomas H.; Roth, A. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

400

Wind power forecasting & prediction methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globally on-shore wind power has seen considerable growth in all grid systems. In the coming decade off-shore wind power is also expected to expand rapidly. Wind power is variable and intermittent over various time scales because it is weather dependent. Therefore wind power integration into traditional grids needs additional power system and electricity market planning and management for system balancing.

A. M. Foley; P. G. Leahy; E. J. McKeogh

2010-01-01

401

Solid State Power Transformer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Apparatus for providing the voltage transformation functions of a conventional electrical power transformer. An AC input signal is chopped in a solid state switching converter at a frequency very much larger than the frequency of the input signal and then...

J. L. Brooks, R. I. Staab, J. C. Bowers, H. A. Nienhaus

1980-01-01

402

MHD Power Generation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the operation of the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator and advantages of the system over coal, oil or nuclear powered generators. Details the development of MHD generators in the United States and Soviet Union. (CP)

Kantrowitz, Arthur; Rosa, Richard J.

1975-01-01

403

Cut Your Power Bills  

E-print Network

a day, seven days a week, all year. Profile characteristics of interest to your utility are maximum demand, load factor, time of demand peaks and valleys and power factor. After discussing each of these characteristics below, we will discuss how...

Greenwood, R. W.

1979-01-01

404

How Hydroelectric Power Works  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 2-minute YouTube video guides viewers through how hydroelectric power works with Niagara Falls as an example. Animations supplement an explanation for specifics of physical processes involved in energy generation.

Generation, Ontario P.; Youtube

405

PowerPC News  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PowerPC News: Full text of an independent electronic magazine published every two weeks for users and developers who want the latest news about the IBM/Motorola/Apple microprocessor family and the systems.

406

Air & Space Power Course  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While Alfred Thayer Mahan may have been obsessed with the role of naval power in warfare, the 20th century saw the rise of air and space power in a way that might have surprised even Mahan himself. Persons with an interest in the history of air and space power in the United States will definitely appreciate this interactive online course, which was created by the United States Air Force. After completing a free registration form, visitors can go through modules that deal with airpower theory, the foundations of airpower doctrine, and some of the deviations from airpower doctrine that occurred from 1947 to 1986. Some of the material offered here may be most relevant to those serving in the Air Force, but as the site notes "Air and space power enthusiasts of all persuasions are welcomed".

2007-07-15

407

Magnetohydrodynamic power generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Power Generation is a concise summary of MHD theory, history, and future trends. Results of the major international MHD research projects are discussed. Data from MHD research is included. Economics of initial and operating costs are considered.

Smith, J. L.

1984-01-01

408

Powering down quietly  

SciTech Connect

This article describes how the US Navy has quietly begun scuttling much of its nuclear-powered fleet. More than 50 submarines have been scrapped to date--half since 1990-and at least 43 more are scheduled for retirement before 1998. The first nuclear-powered surface ships are also being retired, with five of nine nuclear cruisers to be decommissioned before 1995. Some specific retirements of nuclear submarines and cruisers are also discussed. The ironic move toward an all nuclear-powered aircraft carrier fleet and the design of new nuclear submarines in discussed. As the nuclear-powered fleet dwindles, the base structure that supports it also contracts. The list of planned base closures is briefly reviewed.

Norris, R.S. (Natural Resources Defense Council, Washington, DC (United States)); Arkin, W.M.

1993-06-01

409

Power Harvesting from Rotation?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We show the impossibility of harvesting power from rotational motions by devices attached to the rotating object. The presentation is suitable for students who have studied Lagrangian mechanics. (Contains 2 figures.)

Chicone, Carmen; Feng, Z. C.

2008-01-01

410

Solar power roof shingle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silicon solar cell module provides both all-weather protection and electrical power. Module consists of array of circular silicon solar cells bonded to fiberglass substrate roof shingle with fluorinated ethylene propylene encapsulant.

Forestieri, A. F.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Sidorak, L. G.

1975-01-01

411

Mesofluidic magnetohydrodynamic power generation  

E-print Network

Much of the previous research into magnetohydrodynamics has involved large-scale systems. This thesis explores the miniaturization and use of devices to convert the power dissipated within an expanding gas flow into ...

Fucetola, Jay J

2012-01-01

412

Crowd-powered systems  

E-print Network

Crowd-powered systems combine computation with human intelligence, drawn from large groups of people connecting and coordinating online. These hybrid systems enable applications and experiences that neither crowds nor ...

Bernstein, Michael Scott

2012-01-01

413

NIOSH Power Tools Database  

MedlinePLUS

... Search Tool Type: Manufacturer: Technical Specifications: Power Tools Database Choose one of the tools below to view sound specifications. Disclaimer: The NIOSH database does not include a comprehensive list of manufacturers ...

414

PowerPoint Presentation  

Cancer.gov

However, after the first interim analysis, due to lower than expected incidence rates of grade 3 and above diarrhea, the primary endpoint was modified, without loss of statistical power, with DCP approval to include mild diarrhea (grade 2).

415

Glucose-powered neuroelectronics  

E-print Network

A holy grail of bioelectronics is to engineer biologically implantable systems that can be embedded without disturbing their local environments, while harvesting from their surroundings all of the power they require. As ...

Rapoport, Benjamin Isaac

2011-01-01

416

Authenticity and Power  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching behaviors prized by students as evidence of responsiveness--particularly making full disclosure of our agendas and having our words and actions be consistent--often bring us up against the contradictions and realities of power.

Brookfield, Stephen D.

2006-01-01

417

Contemporary Power Supplies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Work-Ready Electronics, a project of the Advanced Technological Education program, this module walks visitors through the basics of contemporary power supplies. The content of the site is divided into seven areas: contemporary power supply technology, SMPS technology, architecture and operation, discrete devices and SMPS performance, improving efficiency, power supply architectures, power management and digital control in SMPS. There is a quiz for each in the Knowledge Probe area, and the Learning Resources section contains two activities to help cement student understanding. There are also further resources - both print and Web based - for more information and two Questors, a Flash trivia game. The Notebook function allows visitors to take notes and review them at any time. This is an excellent resource students and educators in electronics technician programs.

2008-12-09

418

Power conditioning techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technological developments required to reduce the electrical power system component weights from the state-of-the-art 2.0 kg/kW to the range of 0.1 to 0.2 kg/kW are discussed. Power level requirements and their trends in aerospace applications are identified and presented. The projected weight and launch costs for a 1MW power converter built using state-of-the-art technology are established to illustrate the need for reliable, ultralightweight advanced power components. The key factors affecting converter weight are given and some of the tradeoffs between component ratings and circuit topology are identified. The weight and launch costs for a 1MW converter using 0.1 kg/kW technology are presented. Finally, the objectives and goals of the Multi-Megawatt Program at the NASA Lewis Research Center, which is funded by the SDIO through the Air Force, are given.

Baumann, E. D.

1989-01-01

419

IT Power Homepage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

IT Power is a sustainable energy consultancy that assists clients to meet their environmental challenges through strategic planning, resource assessments, feasibility studies, energy planning so as to facilitate the integration of sustainable energy.

2007-01-11

420

Linear Motor Powered Transportation  

E-print Network

This special issue on linear-motor powered transportation covers both supporting technologies and innovative transport systems in various parts of the World, as this technology moves from the lab to commercial operations. ...

Thornton, Richard D.

421

Advanced stellarator power plants  

SciTech Connect

The stellarator is a class of helical/toroidal magnetic fusion devices. Recent international progress in stellarator power plant conceptual design is reviewed and comparisons in the areas of physics, engineering, and economics are made with recent tokamak design studies.

Miller, R.L.

1994-07-01

422

Explorations in statistics: power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This fifth installment of Explorations in Statistics revisits power, a concept fundamental to the test of a null hypothesis. Power is the probability that we reject the null hypothesis when it is false. Four things affect power: the probability with which we are willing to reject寐by mistake寐a true null hypothesis, the magnitude of the difference we want to be able to detect, the variability of the underlying population, and the number of observations in our sample. In an application to an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee or to the National Institutes of Health, we define power to justify the sample size we propose.

Douglas Curran-Everett (University of Colorado Physiology and Biophysics)

2010-06-01

423

Structural power flow measurement  

SciTech Connect

Previous investigations of structural power flow through beam-like structures resulted in some unexplained anomalies in the calculated data. In order to develop structural power flow measurement as a viable technique for machine tool design, the causes of these anomalies needed to be found. Once found, techniques for eliminating the errors could be developed. Error sources were found in the experimental apparatus itself as well as in the instrumentation. Although flexural waves are the carriers of power in the experimental apparatus, at some frequencies longitudinal waves were excited which were picked up by the accelerometers and altered power measurements. Errors were found in the phase and gain response of the sensors and amplifiers used for measurement. A transfer function correction technique was employed to compensate for these instrumentation errors.

Falter, K.J.; Keltie, R.F.

1988-12-01

424

Power subsystem automation study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Generic power-system elements and their potential faults are identified. Automation functions and their resulting benefits are defined and automation functions between power subsystem, central spacecraft computer, and ground flight-support personnel are partitioned. All automation activities were categorized as data handling, monitoring, routine control, fault handling, planning and operations, or anomaly handling. Incorporation of all these classes of tasks, except for anomaly handling, in power subsystem hardware and software was concluded to be mandatory to meet the design and operational requirements of the space station. The key drivers are long mission lifetime, modular growth, high-performance flexibility, a need to accommodate different electrical user-load equipment, onorbit assembly/maintenance/servicing, and potentially large number of power subsystem components. A significant effort in algorithm development and validation is essential in meeting the 1987 technology readiness date for the space station.

Imamura, M. S.; Moser, R. L.; Veatch, M.

1983-01-01

425

Powers of Ten  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site by Charles and Ray Eames provides a series of multimedia resources that illustrate the scale of the universe. Visitors can view stills from the Charles and Ray Eames video "Powers of Ten," which zooms in and out, from a sleeping man to distant galaxies and then back in to the atomic nucleus. The site also contains related links for a Powers of 10 Day, a Nickelodeon game, a drawing challenge, a booklist, and more.

2006-11-17

426

Integrated Power Source Grant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Traditional spacecraft power systems incorporate a solar array energy source, an energy storage element (battery), and battery charge control and bus voltage regulation electronics to provide continuous electrical power for spacecraft systems and instruments. Dedicated power conditioning components provide limited fault isolation between systems and instruments, while a centralized power-switching unit provides spacecraft load control. Battery undervoltage conditions are detected by the spacecraft processor, which removes fault conditions and non-critical loads before permanent battery damage can occur. Cost effective operation of a micro-sat constellation requires a fault tolerant spacecraft architecture that minimizes on-orbit operational costs by permitting autonomous reconfiguration in response to unexpected fault conditions. A new micro-sat power system architecture that enhances spacecraft fault tolerance and improves power system survivability by continuously managing the battery charge and discharge processes on a cell-by-cell basis has been developed. This architecture is based on the Integrated Power Source (US patent 5644207), which integrates dual junction solar cells, Lithium Ion battery cells, and processor based charge control electronics into a structural panel that can be deployed or used to form a portion of the outer shell of a micro-spacecraft. The first generation Integrated Power Source is configured as a one inch thick panel in which prismatic Lithium Ion battery cells are arranged in a 3x7 matrix (26VDC) and a 3x1 matrix (3.7VDC) to provide the required output voltages and load currents. A multi-layer structure holds the battery cells, as well as the thermal insulators that are necessary to protect the Lithium Ion battery cells from the extreme temperatures of the solar cell layer. Independent thermal radiators, located on the back of the panel, are dedicated to the solar cell array, the electronics, and the battery cell array. In deployed panel applications, these radiators maintain the battery cells in an appropriate operational temperature range.

2001-01-01

427

Power electronic converter technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present state of the art in DC-DC, AC-DC, DC-AC, and AC-AC converter technology is presented along with their typical areas of applications. Advances made in the last decade that are finding use in industrial, commercial, and military applications are emphasized. Soft switching, in which power device switching stresses are reduced due to circuit resonances, has dominated DC-DC power conversion

ROBERT L. STEIGERWALD

2001-01-01

428

Nuclear Power Plant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to the basics of nuclear energy production. Topics include radioisotope thermoelectric generators, natural decay of radioactive isotopes, and chain reactions. There is also a discussion of how to control a chain reaction and some concepts of reactor design. The lesson includes an activity in which students operate an online simulation of a nuclear power plant, attempting to keep power output as high as possible without losing control of the reaction.

Pratte, John

429

Advanced betavoltaic power sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Betavoltaic batteries currently being manufactured utilize silicon junction devices coupled to Pm-147 beta sources. This technology can be characterized by a power density of approximately 1000 microwatts\\/cu cm, assuming no shielding. In order to achieve acceptable dose-rates, shielding must be added so that the power density is typically reduced to 50 microwatts\\/cu cm. Greater than 5 microwatts\\/cu cm is provided

L. C. Olsen

1974-01-01

430

Power factor controllers  

SciTech Connect

The power factor controller (PFC) is a solid state electronic device that reduces excessive energy waste in ac induction motors. The significance of the PFC lies in the fact that nearly a billion induction motors are used daily. The PFC is applicable to both single phase and three phase induction motors. Since it is connected to the power lines of the motor and requires no modification to the motor itself, it may be applied to existing motors as well as to new installations.

Not Available

1982-01-01

431

Unmanned powered balloons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the late 1960's several governmental agencies sponsored efforts to develop unmanned, powered balloon systems for scientific experimentation and military operations. Some of the programs resulted in hardware and limited flight tests; others, to date, have not progressed beyond the paper study stage. Balloon system designs, materials, propulsion units and capabilities are briefly described, and critical problem areas are pointed out which require further study in order to achieve operational powered balloon systems capable of long duration flight at high altitudes.

Korn, A. O.

1975-01-01

432

Spring Concert Power Points  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will be able to learn and better understand the lyrics of their concert songs by creating a visual representation of the song. This project is for you to pick 2 of our 6 concert songs and create a power point. Remember in this power point project to try not to use any words. You want to represent the lyrics using only pictures. You do not have to create a ...

Ribera, Mr.

2010-05-10

433

Reactive Power Compensator.  

DOEpatents

A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation. 26 figs.

El-Sharkawi, M.A.; Venkata, S.S.; Chen, M.; Andexler, G.; Huang, T.

1992-07-28

434

Reactive power compensator  

DOEpatents

A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation.

El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Venkata, Subrahmanyam S. (Woodinville, WA); Chen, Mingliang (Kirkland, WA); Andexler, George (Everett, WA); Huang, Tony (Seattle, WA)

1992-01-01

435

Prognostics of power MOSFET  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates how to apply prognostics to power MOSFETs (metal oxide field effect transistor). The methodology uses thermal cycling to age devices and Gaussian process regression to perform prognostics. The approach is validated with experiments on 100V power MOSFETs. The failure mechanism for the stress conditions is determined to be die-attachment degradation. Change in ON-state resistance is used as

Jose R. Celaya; Abhinav Saxena; Sankalita Saha; Vladislav Vashchenko; Kai Goebel

2011-01-01

436

NSTX Electrical Power Systems  

SciTech Connect

The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has been designed and installed in the existing facilities at Princeton Plasma Physic Laboratory (PPPL). Most of the hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary sub-systems, and power systems originally used for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have been used with suitable modifications to reflect NSTX needs. The design of the NSTX electrical power system was tailored to suit the available infrastructure and electrical equipment on site. Components were analyzed to verify their suitability for use in NSTX. The total number of circuits and the location of the NSTX device drove the major changes in the Power system hardware. The NSTX has eleven (11) circuits to be fed as compared to the basic three power loops for TFTR. This required changes in cabling to insure that each cable tray system has the positive and negative leg of cables in the same tray. Also additional power cabling had to be installed to the new location. The hardware had to b e modified to address the need for eleven power loops. Power converters had to be reconnected and controlled in anti-parallel mode for the Ohmic heating and two of the Poloidal Field circuits. The circuit for the Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) System had to be carefully developed to meet this special application. Additional Protection devices were designed and installed for the magnet coils and the CHI. The thrust was to making the changes in the most cost-effective manner without compromising technical requirements. This paper describes the changes and addition to the Electrical Power System components for the NSTX magnet systems.

A. Ilic; E. Baker; R. Hatcher; S. Ramakrishnan; et al

1999-12-16

437

Resisting Organizational Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normative ethical theory should provide us with guidance for how to live moral lives in a world filled with inequity and abuse\\u000a of power. In this essay, I address ways that features of resisting organizational power do and do not overlap with features\\u000a of resisting oppression more generally. I examine the potential for moral damage to individuals who resist organizational

Peggy DesAutels

438

eclipsePower : Watt daylightPower : Watt  

E-print Network

芦Unit禄 eclipsePower : Watt 芦Unit禄 daylightPower : Watt 芦Unit禄 eclipseTime : Second 芦Unit禄 daylightTime : Second arrayOutputPower : Watt eclipsePower : Watt daylightPower : Watt eclipseTime : Second daylightOutputPower : Watt 芦block禄 daylightEfficiency : Percent 芦block禄 eclipseEfficiency : Percent par [Block] Solar

de Weck, Olivier L.

439

Index Terms --Smart grid; power engineering education; power engineering curriculum; power engineering re-  

E-print Network

1 Index Terms -- Smart grid; power engineering education; power engineering curriculum; power engineering re- sources; power engineering workforce. Abstract -- A widely supported effort to modernize the United States power system has led to an engineering initiative va- riously known as `smart grid

440

Enhancing small signal power system stability by coordinating unified power flow controller with power system stabilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advancement of power electronic technologies makes ac systems to be more adaptive and flexible as new forms of power controller emerges in recent years. Though not yet well developed, underpinned research suggests that unified power flow controller (UPFC) is a promising power system controller. This paper proposes a method to coordinate UPFC with power system stabilizer (PSS) so as to

Wanliang Fang; H. W. Ngan

2003-01-01

441

GaN power electronics  

E-print Network

Between 5 and 10% of the world's electricity is wasted as dissipated heat in the power electronic circuits needed, for example, in computer power supplies, motor drives or the power inverters of photovoltaic systems. This ...

Lu, Bin

442

Autonomous power system brassboard  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Power System (APS) brassboard is a 20 kHz power distribution system which has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The brassboard exists to provide a realistic hardware platform capable of testing artificially intelligent (AI) software. The brassboard's power circuit topology is based upon a Power Distribution Control Unit (PDCU), which is a subset of an advanced development 20 kHz electrical power system (EPS) testbed, originally designed for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The APS program is designed to demonstrate the application of intelligent software as a fault detection, isolation, and recovery methodology for space power systems. This report discusses both the hardware and software elements used to construct the present configuration of the brassboard. The brassboard power components are described. These include the solid-state switches (herein referred to as switchgear), transformers, sources, and loads. Closely linked to this power portion of the brassboard is the first level of embedded control. Hardware used to implement this control and its associated software is discussed. An Ada software program, developed by Lewis Research Center's Space Station Freedom Directorate for their 20 kHz testbed, is used to control the brassboard's switchgear, as well as monitor key brassboard parameters through sensors located within these switches. The Ada code is downloaded from a PC/AT, and is resident within the 8086 microprocessor-based embedded controllers. The PC/AT is also used for smart terminal emulation, capable of controlling the switchgear as well as displaying data from them. Intelligent control is provided through use of a T1 Explorer and the Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) LISP software. Real-time load scheduling is implemented through use of a 'C' program-based scheduling engine. The methods of communication between these computers and the brassboard are explored. In order to evaluate the features of both the brassboard hardware and intelligent controlling software, fault circuits have been developed and integrated as part of the brassboard. A description of these fault circuits and their function is included. The brassboard has become an extremely useful test facility, promoting artificial intelligence (AI) applications for power distribution systems. However, there are elements of the brassboard which could be enhanced, thus improving system performance. Modifications and enhancements to improve the brassboard's operation are discussed.

Merolla, Anthony

1992-01-01

443

Power Colours: Easy power spectral comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low mass black hole binaries are transient X-ray sources, transitioning through several states during an outburst. These states are classified using both the energy spectral and temporal properties within each observation and show clear similarities from source to source, despite differences in mass, inclination angle and binary separation. We present a model independent method of characterising the variability properties throughout outburst, by comparing ratios of temporal power over different frequency ranges. This has distinct advantages over current simple methods of classifying source state using timing statistics, as it retains information on the power spectral shape and shows a single evolutionary path for all objects studied. We expand on how this method can be used to easily compare other properties (such as the energy spectral hardness) between observations of multiple objects in the same temporal state, using it to demonstrate that the correlation between system inclination angle and hardness recently found in the soft states (Munoz-Darias et. al. 2013) also extends into the hard-intermediate states.

Heil, L.; Uttley, P.; Klein-Wolt, M.

2014-07-01

444

S.Pole Power Upgrade  

NSF Publications Database

The specific purpose would be to provide for the expected power needs of the South Pole Station Summer Camp and to establish reliable emergency backup power to the Amundsen- Scott South Pole Station in the event of failure of the main station power plant. One vault would be located outside the existing power plant arch and the other would be located approximately 396 meters away from the power plant arch, in close proximity to the existing emergency power plant building.

445

Hybrid Power Management Program Continued  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hybrid Power Management (HPM) is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The advanced power devices include ultracapacitors and photovoltaics. HPM has extremely wide potential with applications including power-generation, transportation, biotechnology, and space power systems. It may significantly alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, and stimulate the economy.

Eichenberg, Dennis J.

2002-01-01

446

Energy, exergy and thermoeconomic analysis of the effects of fossil-fuel superheating in nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starting with information from Indian Point 1, a full size nuclear plant with fossil-fuel superheat which was built and operated, this paper examines the effect of superheat on both energy and exergy performance, as well as on the thermoeconomics of such plants. The study finds that adding superheat to the nearly saturated steam generated by water-cooled nuclear reactors increases the

Noam Lior

1997-01-01

447

Power Without Wires (POWOW)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electric propulsion has emerged as a cost-effective solution to a wide range of satellite applications. Deep Space 1 successfully demonstrated electric propulsion as the primary propulsion source for a satellite. The POWOW concept is a solar-electric propelled spacecraft capable of significant cargo and short trip times for traveling to Mars. There it would enter areosynchronous orbit (Mars GEO equivalent) and beam power to surface installations via lasers. The concept has been developed with industrial partner expertise in high efficiency solar cells, advanced concentrator modules, innovative arrays, and high power electric propulsion systems. The present baseline spacecraft design providing 898 kW using technologies expected to be available in 2003 will be described. Areal power densities approaching 350 W/sq m at 80 C operating temperatures and wing level specific powers of over 350 W/kg are projected. Details of trip times and payloads to Mars are presented. Electric propulsion options include Hall, MPD, and ion thrusters of various power levels and trade studies have been conducted to define the most advantageous options. Because the design is modular, learning curve methodology has been applied to determine expected cost reductions and is included.

Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.; Howell, Joe (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

448

Nuclear Power - Post Fukushima  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extreme events that led to the prolonged power outage at the Fukushima Daiicchi nuclear plant have highlighted the importance of assuring a means for stable long term cooling of the nuclear fuel and containment following a complete station blackout. Legislative bodies, regulatory agencies and industry are drawing lessons from those events and considering what changes, if any, are needed to nuclear power, post Fukushima. The enhanced safety of a new class of reactor designed by NuScale Power is drawing significant attention in light of the Fukushima events. During normal operation, each NuScale containment is fully immersed in a water-filled stainless steel lined concrete pool that resides underground. The pool, housed in a Seismic Category I building, is large enough to provided 30 days of core and containment cooling without adding water. After 30 days, the decay heat generations coupled with thermal radiation heat transfer is completely adequate to remove core decay heat for an unlimited period of time. These passive power systems can perform their function without requiring an external supply of water of power. An assessment of the NuScale passive systems is being performed through a comprehensive test program that includes the NuScale integral system test facility at Oregon State University

Reyes, Jose, Jr.

2011-10-01

449

Laser satellite power systems  

SciTech Connect

A laser satellite power system (SPS) converts solar power captured by earth-orbiting satellites into electrical power on the earth's surface, the satellite-to-ground transmission of power being effected by laser beam. The laser SPS may be an alternative to the microwave SPS. Microwaves easily penetrate clouds while laser radiation does not. Although there is this major disadvantage to a laser SPS, that system has four important advantages over the microwave alternative: (1) land requirements are much less, (2) radiation levels are low outside the laser ground stations, (3) laser beam sidelobes are not expected to interfere with electromagnetic systems, and (4) the laser system lends itself to small-scale demonstration. After describing lasers and how they work, the report discusses the five lasers that are candidates for application in a laser SPS: electric discharge lasers, direct and indirect solar pumped lasers, free electron lasers, and closed-cycle chemical lasers. The Lockheed laser SPS is examined in some detail. To determine whether a laser SPS will be worthy of future deployment, its capabilities need to be better understood and its attractiveness relative to other electric power options better assessed. First priority should be given to potential program stoppers, e.g., beam attenuation by clouds. If investigation shows these potential program stoppers to be resolvable, further research should investigate lasers that are particularly promising for SPS application.

Walbridge, E.W.

1980-01-01

450

Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) is located in Zarechny, approximately 60 km east of Ekaterinberg along the Trans-Siberian Highway. Zarechny, a small city of approximately 30,000 residents, was built to support BNPP operations. It is a closed city to unescorted visitors. Residents must show identification for entry. BNPP is one of the first and oldest commercial nuclear power plants in Russia and began operations in 1964. As for most nuclear power plants in the Russian Federation, BNPP is operated by Rosenergoatom, which is subordinated to the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (Minatom). BNPP is the site of three nuclear reactors, Units 1, 2, and 3. Units 1 and 2, which have been shut-down and defueled, were graphite moderated reactors. The units were shut-down in 1981 and 1989. Unit 3, a BN-600 reactor, is a 600 MW(electric) sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. Unit 3 went on-line in April 1980 and produces electric power which is fed into a distribution grid and thermal power which provides heat to Zarechny. The paper also discusses the SF NIKIET, the Sverdiovsk Branch of NIKIET, Moscow, which is the research and development branch of the parent NIKEIT and is primarily a design institute responsible for reactor design. Central to its operations is a 15 megawatt IVV research reactor. The paper discusses general security and fissile material control and accountability at these two facilities.

NONE

1997-08-01

451

Photonic-powered cable assembly  

DOEpatents

A photonic-cable assembly includes a power source cable connector ("PSCC") coupled to a power receive cable connector ("PRCC") via a fiber cable. The PSCC electrically connects to a first electronic device and houses a photonic power source and an optical data transmitter. The fiber cable includes an optical transmit data path coupled to the optical data transmitter, an optical power path coupled to the photonic power source, and an optical feedback path coupled to provide feedback control to the photonic power source. The PRCC electrically connects to a second electronic device and houses an optical data receiver coupled to the optical transmit data path, a feedback controller coupled to the optical feedback path to control the photonic power source, and a photonic power converter coupled to the optical power path to convert photonic energy received over the optical power path to electrical energy to power components of the PRCC.

Sanderson, Stephen N.; Appel, Titus James; Wrye, IV, Walter C.

2013-01-22

452

Solar powered multipurpose remotely powered aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Environmental problems such as the depletion of the ozone layer and air pollution demand a change in traditional means of propulsion that is sensitive to the ecology. Solar-powered propulsion is a favorable alternative that is both ecologically harmless as well as cost effective. Integration of solar energy into designs ranging from futuristic vehicles to heating is, therefore, beneficial to society. The design and construction of a Multipurpose Remotely Piloted Vehicle (MPRPV) seeks to verify the feasibility of using solar propulsion as a primary fuel source. This task has been a year-long effort by a group of eight students, divided into four teams, each dealing with different aspects of the design. The aircraft was designed to take off, climb to the design altitude, fly in a sustained figure-eight flight path, and cruise for approximately one hour. This mission requires flight at Reynolds numbers between 150,000 and 200,000 and demands special considerations in the aerodynamic design to achieve flight in this regime. Optimal performance requires a lightweight configuration with both structural integrity and maximum power availability. The structural design and choice of solar cells for the propulsion were governed by weight, efficiency, and cost considerations. The final design is an MPRPV weighing 35 N that cruises at 7 m/s at the design altitude of 50 m. The configuration includes a wing composed of balsa and foam NACA 6409 airfoil sections and carbon fiber spars, a tail of similar construction, and a truss structure fuselage. The propulsion system consists of 98 12.5 percent-efficient solar cells donated by Mobil Solar, a NiCad battery for energy storage, and a folding propeller regulated by a lightweight and efficient control system. The airfoils and propeller chosen for the design were researched and tested during the design process.

1991-01-01

453

Northwest Power and Conservation Council Fifth Northwest Power Plan  

E-print Network

Northwest Power and Conservation Council Fifth Northwest Power Plan Statement of Basis and Purpose is required by the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (Section 4.(d)(1)) to develop a regional conservation and electric power plan and to review it not less frequently than every

454

Power flow calculation for power system including offshore wind farm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a simplified steady-state equivalent model of asynchronous generators. With regard to the relationship between the wind velocity and generator's active power, terminal voltage, reactive power, as well as the slip ratio, a method to calculate the power flow for power system including large-scale offshore wind farm is then proposed, using the DLL files called by UPI of

Zhang Wei; Wei Zhinong; Sun Guoqiang

2009-01-01

455

Maximum power point tracking for low power photovoltaic solar panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A maximum power point tracker unit is developed for the optimum coupling of photovoltaic panels (PVP) to the batteries and load through a controlled DC-DC power converter (chopper). The system consists of three main units: (i) the photovoltaic panels that convert solar power to electricity; (ii) a chopper which couples the power of PVP to the load or batteries at

Mehmet BODUR; Mummer ERMIS

1994-01-01

456

It's all About Power and those Pesky Power Vampires  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this issue of New Products, the editors cover an energy source that provides power for emergency situations and a car that helps to train drivers to drive energy efficiently. They also examine a power strip that defeats so-called 'power vampires' and a solar-powered robotic lawnmower. Finally, they persent a green search engine that returns only links to green companies.

Maria Ebling; Mark D. Corner

2009-01-01

457

Symbiotic coupling of wind power and nuclear power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coupling of wind power production as an intermittent supply to nuclear power generation as a base load supply is discussed. Wind turbines on a standby operational mode are net importers of power for their control and yaw mechanisms. They need a supply of about 5 kW of power from an existing grid. They also require the vicinity of a

Kate Rogers; Magdi Ragheb

2010-01-01

458

Power Dissipation in Linear Audio Power Amplifiers Paul Nossaman  

E-print Network

, and is also dissipated in the IC itself in the form of heat, or in other words, lost power. Again, dependingPower Dissipation in Linear Audio Power Amplifiers Paul Nossaman Analog Field Specialist Texas and sales teams usually require that the music be louder and better sounding. The power supply designer

Paderborn, Universit盲t

459

Running Head: TESTOSTERONE AND POWER Testosterone and power  

E-print Network

Running Head: TESTOSTERONE AND POWER Testosterone and power Steven J. Stanton and Oliver C-647-9440, email: stantons@umich.edu #12;Testosterone and power 2 Across many studies in humans, two functional relationships between testosterone and power consistently emerge: First, high levels of testosterone prime

Schultheiss, Oliver C.

460

Vertical Power Dissipation Characteristics of Semiconductor Power Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major challenge in the semiconductor power device technology with continuing shrink in feature sizes and its circuit implementation is power density and heat build-up related problems. This paper discusses a significance of vertical power dissipation characteristics of LDMOS devices with investigating electrical and thermal behaviors under single- and multi-power pulse operations in terms of device substrate dimensions.

Y. S. Chung

2007-01-01

461

Concentrating Solar Power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) has the potential to contribute significantly to the generation of electricity by renewable energy resources in the U.S.. Thermal storage can extend the duty cycle of CSP beyond daytime hours to early evening where the value of electricity is often the highest. The potential solar resource for the southwest U.S. is identified, along with the need to add power lines to bring the power to consumers. CSP plants in the U.S. and abroad are described. The CSP cost of electricity at the busbar is discussed. With current incentives, CSP is approaching competiveness with conventional gas-fired systems during peak-demand hours when the price of electricity is the highest. It is projected that a mature CSP industry of over 4 GWe will be able to reduce the energy cost by about 50%, and that U.S. capacity could be 120 GW by 2050.

Mehos, Mark

2008-09-01

462

Powered protrusion cutter  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for clipping a protrusion of material is provided. The protrusion may, for example, be a bolt head, a nut, a rivet, a weld bead, or a temporary assembly alignment tab protruding from a substrate surface of assembled components. The apparatus typically includes a cleaver having a cleaving edge and a cutting blade having a cutting edge. Generally, a mounting structure configured to confine the cleaver and the cutting blade and permit a range of relative movement between the cleaving edge and the cutting edge is provided. Also typically included is a power device coupled to the cutting blade. The power device is configured to move the cutting edge toward the cleaving edge. In some embodiments the power device is activated by a momentary switch. A retraction device is also generally provided, where the retraction device is configured to move the cutting edge away from the cleaving edge.

Bzorgi, Fariborz M. (Knoxville, TN)

2010-03-09

463

Autonomous magnetocumulative power supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helical magnetocumulative generators (MCGs) fed from explosive piezo generators (EPGs) are the most compact power supplies with an output energy of 1-10 kJ. EPGs are successfully coupled with MCGs in the operation mode and in structural parameters; these generators are easy to operate and do not require transformers or commutators. We report on the results of designing an autonomous small-size power supply based on EPGs and MCGs. Owing to bidirectional impact loading of the piezoceramic block of an EPG, the energy at the piezo generator output attains values of 25 J and is transferred to the helical MCG with an initial inductance of 1000 ?H. The power supply is constructed in the form of a monoblock with a volume of 2 dm3 or in the form of two separate devices connected by a high-voltage cable.

Demidov, V. A.; Sadunov, V. D.; Kazakov, S. A.; Boriskin, A. S.; Golosov, S. N.; Vlasov, Yu. V.; Utenkov, A. A.; Antipov, M. V.; Blinov, A. V.

2013-08-01

464

Power electronics reliability.  

SciTech Connect

The project's goals are: (1) use experiments and modeling to investigate and characterize stress-related failure modes of post-silicon power electronic (PE) devices such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) switches; and (2) seek opportunities for condition monitoring (CM) and prognostics and health management (PHM) to further enhance the reliability of power electronics devices and equipment. CM - detect anomalies and diagnose problems that require maintenance. PHM - track damage growth, predict time to failure, and manage subsequent maintenance and operations in such a way to optimize overall system utility against cost. The benefits of CM/PHM are: (1) operate power conversion systems in ways that will preclude predicted failures; (2) reduce unscheduled downtime and thereby reduce costs; and (3) pioneering reliability in SiC and GaN.

Kaplar, Robert James; Brock, Reinhard C.; Marinella, Matthew; King, Michael Patrick; Stanley, James K.; Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

2010-10-01

465

Mobile electric power  

SciTech Connect

Analytic Power has proven the feasibility of a mobile electric power unit in the form of a hydride fueled ion-exchange membrane (IEM) fuel cell stack. We have over 5 years experience building and testing IEM fuel cells. The power section of a 350 watt fuel cell stack weighs 4.65 pounds based on our five cell sub-stack component weights. The composite stack structure is fabricated from two components; a unitized flow field and catalyzed membrane. The lightweight unitized flow field concept was proven in the first three months of the contract. A single unit flow field weighs 0.155 pounds and can seal to 60 psi. The single cell catalyzed Nafion membrane exceeded our performance goal of 0.6 volts at 100 ASF. Stack performance points were 0.42 volts at 113 ASF and .75 volts at 96 asf.

Bloomfield, V.J.; Bloomfield, D.P.; Johnson, B.Q.

1992-01-30

466

Power line detection system  

DOEpatents

A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard. 4 figs.

Latorre, V.R.; Watwood, D.B.

1994-09-27

467

Power line detection system  

DOEpatents

A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard.

Latorre, Victor R. (Tracy, CA); Watwood, Donald B. (Tracy, CA)

1994-01-01

468

Electric Power Annual  

EIA Publications

Presents 12 years (2001 - 2012) of national-level data on electricity generating capacity, electricity generation and useful thermal output, fuel receipts, consumption, and emissions. This year's Electric Power Annual has expanded to include several new table series. These include several new annual breakouts of renewable biomass energy sources including wood/wood waste, landfill gas, and biogenic municipal solid waste in Chapter 5 (Consumption of Fossil Fuels); state details of emissions from energy consumption at conventional power plants and combined-heat-and-power plants (Table 9.5); and monthly capacity factors for the past three years and annual capacity factors back to 2008 (Tables 4.8.A. and 4.8.B.)

2013-01-01

469

Qualification for PowerInsight accuracy of power measurements.  

SciTech Connect

Accuracy of component based power measuring devices forms a necessary basis for research in the area of power-e cient and power-aware computing. The accuracy of these devices must be quanti ed within a reasonable tolerance. This study focuses on PowerInsight, an out- of-band embedded measuring device which takes readings of power rails on compute nodes within a HPC system in realtime. We quantify how well the device performs in comparison to a digital oscilloscope as well as PowerMon2. We show that the accuracy is within a 6% deviation on measurements under reasonable load.

DeBonis, David; Laros, James H.,; Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke

2013-11-01

470

Solar powered actuator with continuously variable auxiliary power control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar powered system is disclosed in which a load such as a compressor is driven by a main induction motor powered by a solar array. An auxiliary motor shares the load with the solar powered motor in proportion to the amount of sunlight available, is provided with a power factor controller for controlling voltage applied to the auxiliary motor in accordance with the loading on that motor. In one embodiment, when sufficient power is available from the solar cell, the auxiliary motor is driven as a generator by excess power from the main motor so as to return electrical energy to the power company utility lines.

Nola, F. J. (inventor)

1984-01-01

471

Organic Fluids and Passive Cooling in a Supercritical Rankine Cycle for Power Generation from Low Grade Heat Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low grade heat sources have a large amount of thermal energy content. Due to low temperature, the conventional power generation technologies result in lower efficiency and hence cannot be used. In order to efficiently generate power, alternate methods need to be used. In this study, a supercritical organic Rankine cycle was used for heat source temperatures varying from 125癈 to 200癈. Organic refrigerants with zero ozone depletion potential and their mixtures were selected as working fluid for this study while the cooling water temperature was changed from 10-25癈. Operating pressure of the cycle has been optimized for each fluid at every heat source temperature to obtain the highest thermal efficiency. Energy and exergy efficiencies of the thermodynamic cycle have been obtained as a function of heat source temperature. Efficiency of a thermodynamic cycle depends significantly on the sink temperature. At areas where water cooling is not available and ambient air temperature is high, efficient power generation from low grade heat sources may be a challenge. Use of passive cooling systems coupled with the condenser was studied, so that lower sink temperatures could be obtained. Underground tunnels, buried at a depth of few meters, were used as earth-air-heat-exchanger (EAHE) through which hot ambient air was passed. It was observed that the air temperature could be lowered by 5-10癈 in the EAHE. Vertical pipes were used to lower the temperature of water by 5癈 by passing it underground. Nocturnal cooling of stored water has been studied that can be used to cool the working fluid in the thermodynamic cycle. It was observed that the water temperature can be lowered by 10-20癈 during the night when it is allowed to cool. The amount of water lost was calculated and was found to be approximately 0.1% over 10 days. The different passive cooling systems were studied separately and their effects on the efficiency of the thermodynamic cycle were investigated. They were then combined into a novel condenser design that uses passive cooling technology to cool the working fluid that was selected in the first part of the study. It was observed that the efficiency of the cycle improved by 2-2.5% when passive cooling system was used.

Vidhi, Rachana

472

MOSFET Power Controller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High current and voltage controlled remotely. Remote Power Conroller includes two series-connected banks of parallel-connected MOSFET's to withstand high current and voltage. Voltage sharing between switch banks, low-impedance, gate-drive circuits used. Provided controlled range for turn on. Individually trimmable to insure simultaneous switching within few nanoseconds during both turn on and turn off. Control circuit for each switch bank and over-current trip circuit float independently and supplied power via transformer T1 from inverter. Control of floating stages by optocouplers.

Mitchell, J.; Jones, K.

1986-01-01

473

Power electronics cooling apparatus  

DOEpatents

A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

Sanger, Philip Albert (Monroeville, PA); Lindberg, Frank A. (Baltimore, MD); Garcen, Walter (Glen Burnie, MD)

2000-01-01

474

Nuclear power after Chernobyl  

SciTech Connect

The causes and progress of the accident at Chernobyl are described, and a comparison between the Chernobyl accident and the 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power station is made. Significant similarities between Chernobyl and Three Mile Island include complacency of operators and industry, deliberate negation of safety systems, and a lack of understanding of their plant on the part of the operators, which shows the critical importance of the human element. The Chernobyl accident has implications for nuclear power in the United States; it will affect the research program of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, regulation of Department of Energy reactors, new reactor designs, and public attitudes.

Ahearne, J.F.

1987-05-08

475

Power Grid Issues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tampa Electric (1) offers animated illustrations that show how electricity is created and distributed. The first lets the user see the main components of a power plant, while the second outlines what is involved in transmission from the power plant to the destination. A less flashy but more detailed description of the electricity generation process is provided by the Energy Information Administration (2). This site goes more into different generation methods, such as coal, nuclear, and solar power. A few Energy Information Sheets and other resources are also available. Fuel cells are commonly discussed in terms of alternative fuel vehicles, but they might find their way into the power grid before they become standard in cars. This possibility is explored in an eight-page article (3) that highlights examples of hydrogen-powered energy systems. A similar topic is addressed in a February 2003 article in Popular Science (4). However, instead of dealing with large-scale fuel cell power plants, the article introduces fuel cells that can produce enough energy for a single family. Equipping every home with such a cell could make transmission lines obsolete, but the fact that this is currently infeasible is acknowledged. A research paper from Washington State University (5) identifies a number of risks to the power grid that could be exploited by terrorists. The authors propose specific research areas on which to focus in order to mitigate these risks, mainly dealing with communications and grid control. Related to this paper is an April 2003 article describing security measures that are being implemented to strengthen the computer systems used to operate generators and other grid components (6). The additional measures were necessary because of known weaknesses that made the systems vulnerable to intrusions. Since coal is one of the cheapest and widely available natural resources, Los Alamos National Laboratory is researching ways to make coal burning generators cleaner. The Clean Coal Technology project began several years ago, and this is one of several reports discussing a particular aspect of the project (7). The Integrated Energy and Communications System Architecture (8) is an initiative to combine the development of the power grid with advanced distributed computing technologies. The goal is to create a more efficient grid with capabilities of self-healing and intelligent management. An overview of the initiative is given on its Web site, as well as a more detailed white paper.

Leske, Cavin.

476

Exploring Solar Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore the methods engineers have devised for harnessing sunlight to generate power. First, they investigate heat transfer and heat storage through the construction, testing and use of a solar oven. With a lesson focused on photovoltaic cells, students learn the concepts of energy conversion, conservation of energy, current and voltage. By constructing model solar powered cars, students see these conceptual ideas manifested in modern technology. Furthermore, the solar car project provides opportunities to explore a number of other topics, such as gear ratios and simple mechanics. Both of these design and construction projects are examples of engineering design.

Techtronics Program

477

Power semiconductor controlled drives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book presents power semiconductor controlled drives employing dc motors, induction motors, and synchronous motors. The dynamics of motor and load systems are covered. Open-loop and closed-loop drives are considered, and thyristor, power transistor, and GTO converters are discussed. In-depth coverage is given to ac drives, particularly those fed by voltage and current source inverters and cycloconverters. Full coverage is given to brushless and commutatorless dc drives, including load-commuted synchronous motor drives. Rectifier-controlled dc drives are presented in detail.

Dubey, Gopal K.

478

Perspectives: Powers of Ten  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab and activity section, students learn to appreciate and understand the scope of science: from the very large and far away, to the very tiny and close-up. A video teaches students about exponential notation and how powers of ten work. The visual clip begins 10 million light years from Earth, moving through space to the Earth, and down to the subatomic world of protons and electrons in powers of 10. A Java activity demonstrates how various specimens appear at different magnifications. A teacher page contains materials, teaching ideas, and extension activities.

Davidson, Michael

479

Power To Go  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners observe an electrochemical cell constructed from a small jar containing zinc and copper strips immersed in separate solutions. The strips are connected to a motor that turns a small fan. Learners observe that chemical reactions can produce electricity. This is a one-cell battery, so only creates a small amount of power. Batteries are usually collections of many cells to produce greater amounts of power. This is written as a display, but can easily be adapted for learners to build their own electrochemical reactions.

Industry, Oregon M.

1997-01-01

480

Hybrid Power Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An engineering discipline denoted as hybrid power management (HPM) has emerged from continuing efforts to increase energy efficiency and reliability of hybrid power systems. HPM is oriented toward integration of diverse electric energy-generating, energy-storing, and energy-consuming devices in optimal configurations for both terrestrial and outer-space applications. The basic concepts of HPM are potentially applicable at power levels ranging from nanowatts to megawatts. Potential applications include terrestrial power-generation, terrestrial transportation, biotechnology, and outer-space power systems. Instances of this discipline at prior stages of development were reported (though not explicitly labeled as HPM) in three prior NASA Tech Briefs articles: "Ultracapacitors Store Energy in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle"(LEW-16876), Vol. 24, No. 4 (April 2000), page 63; "Photovoltaic Power Station With Ultracapacitors for Storage" (LEW-17177), Vol. 27, No. 8 (August 2003), page 38; and "Flasher Powered by Photovoltaic Cells and Ultracapacitors" (LEW-17246), Vol. 24, No. 10 (October 2003), page 37. As the titles of the cited articles indicate, the use of ultracapacitors as energy-storage devices lies at the heart of HPM. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy-storage device, but unlike in a conventional rechargeable electrochemical cell or battery, chemical reactions do not take place during operation. Instead, energy is stored electrostatically at an electrode/electrolyte interface. The capacitance per unit volume of an ultracapacitor is much greater than that of a conventional capacitor because its electrodes have much greater surface area per unit volume and the separation between the electrodes is much smaller. Power-control circuits for ultracapacitors can be simpler than those for batteries, for two reasons: (1) Because of the absence of chemical reactions, charge and discharge currents can be greater than those in batteries, limited only by the electrical resistances of conductors; and (2) whereas the charge level of a battery depends on voltage, temperature, age, and load condition, the charge level of an ultracapacitor, like that of a conventional capacitor, depends only on voltage.

Eichenberg, Dennis

2005-01-01

481

Multiplex Tokamak power plant  

SciTech Connect

The concept of multiplexing for a fusion power core as an option for producing power is explored. Superconducting, as well as normal magnet, coils in either first or second stability regimes are considered. The results show that multiplex plants with superconducting magnets operating in the second stability regime could be competitive with the single-unit plants in some unit sizes. The key issues that impact the expected benefits of multiplexing must be investigated further. These are factory fabrication, economy of scale, the extent of equipment sharing, inherent safety, maintainability, and utility load management.

Dabiri, A.E.

1988-01-01

482

Multiplex tokamak power plant  

SciTech Connect

The concept of multiplexing for a fusion power core as an option for producing power is explored. Superconducting, as well as normal magnet, coils in either first or second stability regimes are considered. The results show that multiplex plants with superconducting magnets operating in the second stability regime could be competitive with the single-unit plants in some unit sizes. The key issues that impact the expected benefits of multiplexing must be investigated further. These are factory fabrication, economy of scale, the extent of equipment sharing, inherent safety, maintainability, and utility load management.

Dabiri, A.E.

1986-07-01

483

Nuclear PowerNuclear PowerNuclear PowerNuclear PowerNuclear PowerNuclear PowerNuclear PowerNuclear Power''''''''s Dirty Littles Dirty Littles Dirty Littles Dirty Littles Dirty Littles Dirty Littles Dirty Littles Dirty Little Secret: Uranium MiningSecret:  

E-print Network

Nuclear PowerNuclear PowerNuclear PowerNuclear PowerNuclear PowerNuclear PowerNuclear PowerNuclear Power''''''''s Dirty Littles Dirty Littles Dirty Littles Dirty Littles Dirty Littles Dirty Littles Dirty Liquids[2] Petroleum Coke Natural Gas Other Gases[3] Nuclear Hydroelectric Conventional Other Renewables[4

Sheridan, Jennifer

484

Supercomputer UBiquitously  

E-print Network

. Water-cooled supercomputer TSUBAME2.0 uses a state-of-the-art enclosed water cooling system that incorporates heat exchangers within the racks. This system not only greatly lowers the power usage effectiveness (PUE)* , it also seals in the noise produced by the cooling fans in the rack, making the system

Furui, Sadaoki

485

MARKET POWER: A DYNAMIC DEFINITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Market power refers to conditions where the providers of a service can consistently charge prices above those that would be established by a competi- tive market. There are many well known denitions of market power, including indices intended to quantify the degree of market concentration of energy supplies. Market power assessment within electric power markets require the consideration of the

Fernando L. Alvarado

1998-01-01

486

Power and process control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book contains the following chapters: Introduction to process control: Instrumentation, Identification, and Control; Standard-Form PID Controller Tuning; Dynamic Energy and Optimization; Drum Level Control in High-Pressure Steam Boilers; Cogeneration Power Plant Dynamics and Control; Power System Control and Operation; Power-Frequency Control in Electrical Energy Systems; Power Plant Dynamic Control; and Stability and Synchronization.

Polonyi

1991-01-01

487

Market Power in Food Retailing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food retailers may enjoy market power by way of selling power (ability to control competitors and consumers) and\\/or buying power (ability to control suppliers). Selling power is reflected in the market share gains achieved by some distribution channels and groups of enterprises. The double effect of structural factors (consumer behaviour) and economies of scale and scope in terms of logistics,

Karl Aiginger; Robert Wieser; Michael W黦er

1999-01-01

488

Power optimization in thermionic devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional thermionic power generators and refrigerators utilize a barrier in the direction of transport to selectively transmit high-energy electrons, resulting in an ener