Sample records for water-moderated water-cooled power

  1. Studying helium accumulation in austenitic steels for evaluating radiation damage in internals of water-moderated water-cooled power reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belozerov, S. V.; Neustroyev, V. S.; Shamardin, V. K.

    2008-11-01

    The accumulation of helium in austenitic steels upon the irradiation in research and power reactors has been studied. It has been shown that the application of a high-sensitive mass-spectrometric method of determining integral accumulation of helium makes it possible to obtain reliable correlation dependences between the content of helium in the irradiated steel and the damaging dose.

  2. Neutronics analyses of natural uranium fueled, light water cooled, heavy water moderated and graphite reflected nuclear reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J Khan; Aslam; N Ahmad

    2004-01-01

    The work presented in this paper was conducted to validate the computer codes such as WIMS-D\\/4 and CITATION for the criticality analyses of natural uranium fueled, light water cooled, heavy water moderated and graphite reflected reactors such as National Experimental Reactor (NRX) and Canadian Indian Reactor (CIR). These codes are then used to search a proliferation resistant reactor core. It

  3. Decommissioning the Romanian Water-Cooled Water-Moderated Research Reactor: New Environmental Perspective on the Management of Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barariu, G.; Giumanca, R. [Romanian Authority for Nuclear Activity (RAAN), Subsidiary of Technology and Engineering for Nuclear Objectives (SITON), 111 Atomistilor St., Bucuresti-Magurele, Ilfov (Romania)

    2006-07-01

    Pre-feasibility and feasibility studies were performed for decommissioning of the water-cooled water-moderated research reactor (WWER) located in Bucharest - Magurele, Romania. Using these studies as a starting point, the preferred safe management strategy for radioactive wastes produced by reactor decommissioning is outlined. The strategy must account for reactor decommissioning, as well as for the rehabilitation of the existing Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant and for the upgrade of the Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility at Baita-Bihor. Furthermore, the final rehabilitation of the laboratories and ecological reconstruction of the grounds need to be provided for, in accordance with national and international regulations. In accordance with IAEA recommendations at the time, the pre-feasibility study proposed three stages of decommissioning. However, since then new ideas have surfaced with regard to decommissioning. Thus, taking into account the current IAEA ideology, the feasibility study proposes that decommissioning of the WWER be done in one stage to an unrestricted clearance level of the reactor building in an Immediate Dismantling option. Different options and the corresponding derived preferred option for waste management are discussed taking into account safety measures, but also considering technical, logistical and economic factors. For this purpose, possible types of waste created during each decommissioning stage are reviewed. An approximate inventory of each type of radioactive waste is presented. The proposed waste management strategy is selected in accordance with the recommended international basic safety standards identified in the previous phase of the project. The existing Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant (RWTP) from the Horia Hulubei Institute for Nuclear Physics and Engineering (IFIN-HH), which has been in service with no significant upgrade since 1974, will need refurbishing due to deterioration, as well as upgrading in order to ensure the plant complies with current safety standards. This plant will also need to be adapted to treat wastes generated by WWER dismantling. The Baita-Bihor National Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility consists of two galleries in an abandoned uranium mine located in the central-western part of the Bihor Mountains in Transylvania. The galleries lie at a depth of 840 m. The facility requires a considerable overhaul. Several steps recommended for the upgrade of the facility are explored. Environmental concerns have lately become a crucial part of the radioactive waste management strategy. As such, all decisions must be made with great regard for land utilization around nuclear objectives. (authors)

  4. 78 FR 35330 - Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ...Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide describes...water cooled nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please...series. This series was developed to describe and make...water cooled nuclear power plants. This RG is being...

  5. Department of Energy's team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs (water-cooled water-moderated atomic energy reactors)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    This document contains apprendices A through P of this report. Topics discussed are: a cronyms and technical terms, accident analyses reactivity control; Soviet safety regulations; radionuclide inventory; decay heat; operations and maintenance; steam supply system; concrete and concrete structures; seismicity; site information; neutronic parameters; loss of electric power; diesel generator reliability; Soviet codes and standards; and comparisons of PWR and VVER features. (FI)

  6. 77 FR 73056 - Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ...Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide...cooled nuclear power plants. DATES: Submit...currently being developed or improvements...This series was developed to describe and...Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants,'' is...

  7. DIII-D water-cooling system upgrades through modeling and power saving projects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. H. Yip; P. S. Mauzey; P. M. Anderson; T. Le; T. Hegstad; A. Thomas; D. Leung

    2009-01-01

    The DIII-D water-cooling system for the fusion facility at General Atomics consists of the vessel and coil cooling water systems (DIII-D water), components cooling water systems (power supplies, ion-sources, diagnostics and gyrotrons), and heat rejection system (cooling tower and heat exchanger) for the operation of the fusion facility. Since 2005 the water-cooling systems have undergone major upgrades, resulting in average

  8. Reliability of water-cooled high-power diode laser modules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georg Treusch; Raman Srinivasan; Dennis Brown; Robert Miller; Jim Harrison

    2005-01-01

    High power diode lasers have demonstrated reliable output power of more than 50W per diode far beyond 10,000 hours. Record output power of more than 300W per diode laser bar has been reported. The improved reliability of the semiconductor material demands a review of the performance of the actively water cooled heatsink with regards to the expected lifetime. Results from

  9. 78 FR 64029 - Cost-Benefit Analysis for Radwaste Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ...Cost-Benefit Analysis for Radwaste Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors...Cost-Benefit Analysis for Radwaste Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors...gaseous radwaste system components for light water nuclear power reactors....

  10. Design of de-ionised water cooling of power converters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Ramchy; B. Malinowska; M. Cassir

    1998-01-01

    Power electronics converters need cooling devices. High thermal performances allows decrease of converter volume and cost, and have a major impact on long-term reliability. Semiconductors encapsulation structure have to combine two opposite requirements, namely low thermal resistance and electrical insulation capabilities. Among numbers of designs (ceramics, diamond, polymers etc.), dielectric fluid cooling has been used for high voltage applications (oil,

  11. Optimization of power-cycle arrangements for Supercritical Water cooled Reactors (SCWRs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizon-A-Lugrin, Laure

    The world energy demand is continuously rising due to the increase of both the world population and the standard of life quality. Further, to assure both a healthy world economy as well as adequate social standards, in a relatively short term, new energy-conversion technologies are mandatory. Within this framework, a Generation IV International Forum (GIF) was established by the participation of 10 countries to collaborate for developing nuclear power reactors that will replace the present technology by 2030. The main goals of these nuclear-power reactors are: economic competitiveness, sustainability, safety, reliability and resistance to proliferation. As a member of the GIF, Canada has decided to orient its efforts towards the design of a CANDU-type Super Critical Water-cooled Reactor (SCWR). Such a system must run at a coolant outlet temperature of about 625°C and at a pressure of 25 MPa. It is obvious that at such conditions the overall efficiency of this kind of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) will compete with actual supercritical water-power boilers. In addition, from a heat-transfer viewpoint, the use of a supercritical fluid allows the limitation imposed by Critical Heat Flux (CHF) conditions, which characterize actual technologies, to be removed. Furthermore, it will be also possible to use direct thermodynamic cycles where the supercritical fluid expands right away in a turbine without the necessity of using intermediate steam generators and/or separators. This work presents several thermodynamic cycles that could be appropriate to run SCWR power plants. Improving both thermal efficiency and mechanical power constitutes a multi-objective optimization problem and requires specific tools. To this aim, an efficient and robust evolutionary algorithm, based on genetic algorithm, is used and coupled to an appropriate power plant thermodynamic simulation model. The results provide numerous combinations to achieve a thermal efficiency higher than 50% with a mechanical power of 1200 MW. It is observed that in most cases the landscape of Pareto's front is mostly controlled only by few key parameters. These results may be very useful for future plant design engineers. Furthermore, some calculations for pipe sizing and temperature variation between coolant and fuel have been carried out to provide an idea on their order of magnitude.

  12. Natural Circulation in Water Cooled Nuclear Power Plants Phenomena, models, and methodology for system reliability assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Jose Reyes

    2005-02-14

    In recent years it has been recognized that the application of passive safety systems (i.e., those whose operation takes advantage of natural forces such as convection and gravity), can contribute to simplification and potentially to improved economics of new nuclear power plant designs. In 1991 the IAEA Conference on ''The Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future'' noted that for new plants the use of passive safety features is a desirable method of achieving simplification and increasing the reliability of the performance of essential safety functions, and should be used wherever appropriate''.

  13. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electric Power Production, Progress Report for Work Through September 2003, 2nd Annual/8th Quarterly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Philip E. MacDonald

    2003-09-01

    The supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) is one of the six reactor technologies selected for research and development under the Generation-IV program. SCWRs are promising advanced nuclear systems because of their high thermal efficiency (i.e., about 45% vs. about 33% efficiency for current Light Water Reactors, LWRs) and considerable plant simplification. SCWRs are basically LWRs operating at higher pressure and temperatures with a direct once-through cycle. Operation above the critical pressure eliminates coolant boiling, so the coolant remains single-phase throughout the system. Thus the need for recirculation and jet pumps, a pressurizer, steam generators, steam separators and dryers is eliminated. The main mission of the SCWR is generation of low-cost electricity. It is built upon two proven technologies, LWRs, which are the most commonly deployed power generating reactors in the world, and supercritical fossil-fired boilers, a large number of which is also in use around the world.

  14. Evaluation of fuel fabrication and the back end of the fuel cycle for light-water- and heavy-water-cooled nuclear power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, W.L.; Olsen, A.R.

    1979-06-01

    The classification of water-cooled nuclear reactors offers a number of fuel cycles that present inherently low risk of weapons proliferation while making power available to the international community. Eight fuel cycles in light water reactor (LWR), heavy water reactor (HWR), and the spectral shift controlled reactor (SSCR) systems have been proposed to promote these objectives in the International Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) program. Each was examined in an effort to provide technical and economic data to INFCE on fuel fabrication, refabrication, and reprocessing for an initial comparison of alternate cycles. The fuel cycles include three once-through cycles that require only fresh fuel fabrication, shipping, and spent fuel storage; four cycles that utilize denatured uranium--thorium and require all recycle operations; and one cycle that considers the LWR--HWR tandem operation requiring refabrication but no reprocessing.

  15. Water cooled steam jet

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Jr., Edward P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

  16. Water cooled steam jet

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, E.P. Jr.

    1999-01-12

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed there between. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock. 2 figs.

  17. The thermal circuit of a nuclear power station's unit built around a supercritical-pressure water-cooled reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silin, V. A.; Zorin, V. M.; Tagirov, A. M.; Tregubova, O. I.; Belov, I. V.; Povarov, P. V.

    2010-12-01

    Main results obtained from calculations of the steam generator and thermal circuit of the steam turbine unit for a nuclear power unit with supercritical-pressure water coolant and integral layout are presented. The obtained characteristics point to the advisability of carrying out further developments of this promising nuclear power technology.

  18. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...for the 10-year plant inservice inspections...periods when the plant facility is non-operational...the administrative control and in accordance...not required by the plant's Technical Specifications...request, at the nuclear power plant. The...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...for the 10-year plant inservice inspections...periods when the plant facility is non-operational...the administrative control and in accordance...not required by the plant's Technical Specifications...request, at the nuclear power plant. The...

  20. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...for the 10-year plant inservice inspections...periods when the plant facility is non-operational...the administrative control and in accordance...not required by the plant's Technical Specifications...request, at the nuclear power plant. The...

  1. Development of a high-power water cooled beryllium target for use in accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, B W; Yanch, J C; Klinkowstein, R E

    1998-10-01

    In order for ABNCT (accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy) to be successful, 10-16 kW or more must be dissipated from a target. Beryllium is well suited as a high-power target material. Beryllium has a thermal conductivity of 200 W/mK at 300 K which is comparable to aluminum, and it has one of the highest strength to weight ratios of any metal even at high temperatures (100 MPa at 600 degrees C). Submerged jet impingement cooling has been investigated as an effective means to remove averaged power densities on the order of 2 x 10(7) W/m2 with local power densities as high as 6 x 10(7) W/m2. Water velocities required to remove these power levels are in excess of 24 m/s with volumetric flow rates of nearly 100 GPM. Tests on a prototype target revealed that the heat transfer coefficient scaled as Re0.6. With jet-Reynolds numbers as high as 5.5 x 10(5) heat transfer coefficients of 2.6 x 10(5) W/m2K were achieved. With this type of cooling configuration 30 kW of power could be effectively removed from a beryllium target placed on the end of an accelerator. A beryllium target utilizing a proton beam of 3.7 MeV and cooled by submerged jet impingement could be used to deliver a dose of 13 RBE cGy/min mA to a tumor at a depth of 4 cm. With a beam power of 30 kW, 1500 cGy could be delivered in 14.2 min. PMID:9800705

  2. Water cooled garments: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah A. Nunneley

    1970-01-01

    Water cooled garments have found a variety of applications in aerospace and industrial settings since 1962 and the pertinent literature is widely scattered. This review includes a brief look at human thermoregulation followed by a history of water cooled garment (WCG) development and a description of current suits in the U.S. and U.K. Discussion includes variables affecting WCG design and

  3. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Fast Reactors for Actinide Burning and Electric Power Production, 3rd Quarterly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

    2002-06-01

    The use of light water at supercritical pressures as the coolant in a nuclear reactor offers the potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies of the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to about 45%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type re-circulation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel and smaller containment building than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed.

  4. The impact of water use fees on dispatching and water requirements for water-cooled power plants in Texas.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Kelly T; Blackhurst, Michael F; King, Carey W; Webber, Michael E

    2014-06-17

    We utilize a unit commitment and dispatch model to estimate how water use fees on power generators would affect dispatching and water requirements by the power sector in the Electric Reliability Council of Texas' (ERCOT) electric grid. Fees ranging from 10 to 1000 USD per acre-foot were separately applied to water withdrawals and consumption. Fees were chosen to be comparable in cost to a range of water supply projects proposed in the Texas Water Development Board's State Water Plan to meet demand through 2050. We found that these fees can reduce water withdrawals and consumption for cooling thermoelectric power plants in ERCOT by as much as 75% and 23%, respectively. To achieve these water savings, wholesale electricity generation costs might increase as much as 120% based on 2011 fuel costs and generation characteristics. We estimate that water saved through these fees is not as cost-effective as conventional long-term water supply projects. However, the electric grid offers short-term flexibility that conventional water supply projects do not. Furthermore, this manuscript discusses conditions under which the grid could be effective at "supplying" water, particularly during emergency drought conditions, by changing its operational conditions. PMID:24832169

  5. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Fast Reactors for Actinide Burning and Electric Power Production, Progress Report for Work Through September 2002, 4th Quarterly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

    2002-09-01

    The use of light water at supercritical pressures as the coolant in a nuclear reactor offers the potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies of the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to about 45%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type re-circulation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel and smaller containment building than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed. If no additional moderator is added to the fuel rod lattice, it is possible to attain fast neutron energy spectrum conditions in a supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR). This type of core can make use of either fertile or fertile-free fuel and retain a hard spectrum to effectively burn plutonium and minor actinides from LWR spent fuel while efficiently generating electricity. One can also add moderation and design a thermal spectrum SCWR. The Generation IV Roadmap effort has identified the thermal spectrum SCWR (followed by the fast spectrum SCWR) as one of the advanced concepts that should be developed for future use. Therefore, the work in this NERI project is addressing both types of SCWRs.

  6. Wetland Water Cooling Partnership: The Use of Constructed Wetlands to Enhance Thermoelectric Power Plant Cooling and Mitigate the Demand of Surface Water Use

    SciTech Connect

    Apfelbaum, Steven; Duvall, Kenneth; Nelson, Theresa; Mensing, Douglas; Bengtson, Harlan; Eppich, John; Penhallegon, Clayton; Thompson, Ry

    2013-09-30

    Through the Phase I study segment of contract #DE-NT0006644 with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, Applied Ecological Services, Inc. and Sterling Energy Services, LLC (the AES/SES Team) explored the use of constructed wetlands to help address stresses on surface water and groundwater resources from thermoelectric power plant cooling and makeup water requirements. The project objectives were crafted to explore and develop implementable water conservation and cooling strategies using constructed wetlands (not existing, naturally occurring wetlands), with the goal of determining if this strategy has the potential to reduce surface water and groundwater withdrawals of thermoelectric power plants throughout the country. Our team’s exploratory work has documented what appears to be a significant and practical potential for augmenting power plant cooling water resources for makeup supply at many, but not all, thermoelectric power plant sites. The intent is to help alleviate stress on existing surface water and groundwater resources through harvesting, storing, polishing and beneficially re-using critical water resources. Through literature review, development of conceptual created wetland plans, and STELLA-based modeling, the AES/SES team has developed heat and water balances for conventional thermoelectric power plants to evaluate wetland size requirements, water use, and comparative cooling technology costs. The ecological literature on organism tolerances to heated waters was used to understand the range of ecological outcomes achievable in created wetlands. This study suggests that wetlands and water harvesting can provide a practical and cost-effective strategy to augment cooling waters for thermoelectric power plants in many geographic settings of the United States, particularly east of the 100th meridian, and in coastal and riverine locations. The study concluded that constructed wetlands can have significant positive ancillary socio-economic, ecosystem, and water treatment/polishing benefits when used to complement water resources at thermoelectric power plants. Through the Phase II pilot study segment of the contract, the project team partnered with Progress Energy Florida (now Duke Energy Florida) to quantify the wetland water cooling benefits at their Hines Energy Complex in Bartow, Florida. The project was designed to test the wetland’s ability to cool and cleanse power plant cooling pond water while providing wildlife habitat and water harvesting benefits. Data collected during the monitoring period was used to calibrate a STELLA model developed for the site. It was also used to inform management recommendations for the demonstration site, and to provide guidance on the use of cooling wetlands for other power plants around the country. As a part of the pilot study, Duke Energy is scaling up the demonstration project to a larger, commercial scale wetland instrumented with monitoring equipment. Construction is expected to be finalized in early 2014.

  7. Water-Cooled Optical Thermometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menna, A. A.

    1987-01-01

    Water-cooled optical probe measures temperature of nearby radiating object. Intended primarily for use in silicon-growing furnace for measuring and controlling temperatures of silicon ribbon, meniscus, cartridge surfaces, heaters, or other parts. Cooling water and flushing gas cool fiber-optic probe and keep it clean. Fiber passes thermal radiation from observed surface to measuring instrument.

  8. Neutron leakage benchmarks for water moderators

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliam, D.M. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Physics Lab.; Briesmeister, J.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Radiation Transport Group

    1994-12-31

    Fission reaction rates for four nuclides were measured in the leakage spectrum outside spherical water moderators of various radii surrounding a {sup 252}Cf neutron source. Using the MCNP transport code, matching calculations were made with highly detailed modeling of the measurement apparatus. The calculations predicted significantly higher leakage of neutrons in the epicadmium energy range than was found in the measurements. A discrepancy of the same sign but weaker magnitude was found for thermal neutrons. These discrepancies may be relevant to problems with criticality calculations in special cases.

  9. Water cooled rolling grate incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Ettehadieh, B.

    1991-08-27

    This patent describes a water cooled roller grate incinerator cooperatively associated with a boiler. It comprises cylindrical shaped roller grates, each having a plurality of circular arrays of spaced apart cooling tubes separated by perforated webs and connected at each end to a ring header; a rotary joint associated with each cylindrical roller grate for supplying cooling fluid to the circular array of tubes to keep them cool and returning heated fluid to the boiler; each roller grate being disposed to rotate about a centrally disposed axis; the axes of the roller grates being disposed in an inclined plane generally parallel to each other so as to form an undulating surface; a waster hopper with a waste feed ram disposed on the lower end of the hopper for feeding waste to the undulating surface; a combustion air system for supplying combustion air through the perforated webs to the waste pushed on the undulating surface by the waste feed ram to burn the waste; a separate drive system for each grate, the drive system regulating the rate at which the burning waste progresses across the undulating surface portion of each grate as the grates rotate transferring the waste from one roller grate to the next lower roller grate as the waste burns.

  10. Electrochemistry of Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, Dgiby; Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna; Pitt, Jonathan

    2006-08-08

    This project developed a comprehensive mathematical and simulation model for calculating thermal hydraulic, electrochemical, and corrosion parameters, viz. temperature, fluid flow velocity, pH, corrosion potential, hydrogen injection, oxygen contamination, stress corrosion cracking, crack growth rate, and other important quantities in the coolant circuits of water-cooled nuclear power plants, including both Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). The model is being used to assess the three major operational problems in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR), which include mass transport, activity transport, and the axial offset anomaly, and provide a powerful tool for predicting the accumulation of SCC damage in BWR primary coolant circuits as a function of operating history. Another achievement of the project is the development of a simulation tool to serve both as a training tool for plant operators and as an engineering test-bed to evaluate new equipment and operating strategies (normal operation, cold shut down and others). The development and implementation of the model allows us to estimate the activity transport or "radiation fields" around the primary loop and the vessel, as a function of the operating parameters and the water chemistry.

  11. Stability analysis of supercritical water cooled reactors

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Jiyun, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2005-01-01

    The Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) is a concept for an advanced reactor that will operate at high pressure (25MPa) and high temperature (500°C average core exit). The high coolant temperature as it leaves the ...

  12. Heat dissipation in water-cooled reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozai, Toyoki

    1994-01-01

    The energy balance of a lamp varies with the thermal and optical characteristics of the reflector. The photosynthetic radiation efficiency of lamps, defined as input power divided by photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) emitted from the lamp ranges between 0.17 and 0.26. The rest of the energy input is wasted as longwave (3000 nm and over) and non-PAR shortwave radiation (from 700 nm to 3000 nm), convective, and conductive heat from the lamp, reflector, and ballast, and simply for increasing the cooling load. Furthermore, some portion of the PAR is uselessly absorbed by the inner walls, shelves, vessels, etc. and some portion of the PAR received by the plantlets is converted into sensible and latent heat. More than 98% of the energy input is probably converted into heat, with only less than 2% of the energy input being converted into chemical energy as carbohydrates by photosynthesis. Therefore, it is essential to reduce the generation of heat in the culture room in order to reduce the cooling load. Through use of a water-cooled reflector, the generation of convective and conductive heat and longwave radiation from the reflector can be reduced, without reduction of PAR.

  13. Preliminary studies on the heat exchanger option for S-CO{sub 2} power conversion cycle coupled to water cooled SMR

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Y.; Lee, J. [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J. I. [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Khalifa Univ. of Science, Technology and Research (KUSTAR), P.O.Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2012-07-01

    For more than a half century, the steam Rankine cycle had been the major power conversion cycle for a nuclear power plant. However, as the interest on the next generation reactors grows, a variety of alternative power conversion systems have been studied. Among them, the S-CO{sub 2} cycle (Supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle) is considered as a promising candidate due to several benefits such as 1) Relatively high thermal efficiency at relatively low turbine inlet temperature, 2) High efficiency with simple lay-out 3) Compactness of turbo-machineries. 4) Compactness of total cycle combined with PCHE (Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger). According to the conventional classification of heat exchangers (HE), there are three kind of HE, 1) Tubular HEs, 2) Plate-type HEs, 3) Extended surface HEs. So far, the researcher has mostly assumed PCHE type HE for the S-CO{sub 2} cycle due to its compactness with reasonably low pressure drop. However, PCHE is currently one of the most expensive components in the cycle, which can have a negative effect on the economics of the cycle. Therefore, an alternative for the HE should be seriously investigated. By comparing the operating condition (pressure and temperature) there are three kind of HE in the S-CO{sub 2} cycle, 1) IHX (Intermediate Heat exchanger) 2) Recuperator and 3) Pre-cooler. In each heat exchanger, hot side and cold side coolants are different, i.e. reactor coolant to S-CO{sub 2} (IHX), S-CO{sub 2} to S-CO{sub 2}(Recuperator), S-CO{sub 2} to water (Pre-cooler). By considering all the attributes mentioned above, all existing types of heat exchangers are compared to find a possible alternative to PCHE. The comparing factors are 1) Size(volume), 2) Cost. Plate fin type HEs are considered to be the most competitive heat exchanger regarding the size and the cost after some improvements on the design limit are made. (authors)

  14. Air and water cooled modulator

    DOEpatents

    Birx, D.L.; Arnold, P.A.; Ball, D.G.; Cook, E.G.

    1995-09-05

    A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method are disclosed for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air. 9 figs.

  15. Air and water cooled modulator

    DOEpatents

    Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Arnold, Phillip A. (Livermore, CA); Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air.

  16. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electric Power Production, Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Project 2001-001, Westinghouse Electric Co. Grant Number: DE-FG07-02SF22533, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Philip E. MacDonald

    2005-01-01

    The supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) is one of the six reactor technologies selected for research and development under the Generation IV program. SCWRs are promising advanced nuclear systems because of their high thermal efficiency (i.e., about 45% versus about 33% efficiency for current Light Water Reactors [LWRs]) and considerable plant simplification. SCWRs are basically LWRs operating at higher pressure and temperatures with a direct once-through cycle. Operation above the critical pressure eliminates coolant boiling, so the coolant remains single-phase throughout the system. Thus, the need for a pressurizer, steam generators, steam separators, and dryers is eliminated. The main mission of the SCWR is generation of low-cost electricity. It is built upon two proven technologies: LWRs, which are the most commonly deployed power generating reactors in the world, and supercritical fossil-fired boilers, a large number of which are also in use around the world. The reference SCWR design for the U.S. program is a direct cycle system operating at 25.0 MPa, with core inlet and outlet temperatures of 280 and 500 C, respectively. The coolant density decreases from about 760 kg/m3 at the core inlet to about 90 kg/m3 at the core outlet. The inlet flow splits with about 10% of the inlet flow going down the space between the core barrel and the reactor pressure vessel (the downcomer) and about 90% of the inlet flow going to the plenum at the top of the rector pressure vessel, to then flow down through the core in special water rods to the inlet plenum. Here it mixes with the feedwater from the downcomer and flows upward to remove the heat in the fuel channels. This strategy is employed to provide good moderation at the top of the core. The coolant is heated to about 500 C and delivered to the turbine. The purpose of this NERI project was to assess the reference U.S. Generation IV SCWR design and explore alternatives to determine feasibility. The project was organized into three tasks: Task 1. Fuel-cycle Neutronic Analysis and Reactor Core Design Task 2. Fuel Cladding and Structural Material Corrosion and Stress Corrosion Cracking Task 3. Plant Engineering and Reactor Safety Analysis. moderator rods. materials.

  17. 345 MVA Fully Water-Cooled Synchronous Condenser for Dumont Station Part I. Application Considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Oliver; B. J. Ware; R. C. Carruth

    1971-01-01

    A brief historical review of the use of static capacitors and synchronous condensers for regulating power system voltage is made. Comparative costs are shown which demonstrate that the large synchronous condenser has a place on the large EHV power system. Application of the 345 mva fully water-cooled synchronous condenser on the American Electric Power System is described.

  18. Microchannel water cooling of silicon x-ray monochromator crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, J.; Tompkins, W. H.; Troxel, C., Jr.; Contolini, R. J.; Schmitt, E.; Bilderback, D. H.; Henderson, C.; White, J.; Settersten, T.

    1992-01-01

    The use in silicon x-ray monochromator crystals of water cooling channels with dimensions optimized for efficient heat transfer from silicon to water has been investigated. Such channels are typically about 40 ?m wide and 400 ?m deep. Procedures have been found for reliably producing microchannel-cooled crystals with very small amounts of residual strain. These crystals have been tested at a high-power wiggler beam line at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, using an x-ray beam having total power in excess of 250 W and normal-incidence power density greater than 5 W/mm2. Under these conditions, the surface-temperature rise of a typical microchannel-cooled crystal was less than 5 °C, and degradation of the (111) rocking curve at 12 keV was very slight. The cooling efficiency is consistent with analytic calculations.

  19. Water Cooled TJ Dense Array Modules for Parabolic Dishes

    SciTech Connect

    Loeckenhoff, Ruediger; Kubera, Tim; Rasch, Klaus Dieter [AZUR SPACE Solar Power GmbH, Theresienstr. 2, 74072 Heilbronn (Germany)

    2010-10-14

    AZUR SPACE Solar Power GmbH has developed a novel type of dense array module for use in parabolic dishes. Such dishes never produce a perfectly homogeneous, rectangular light spot but an inhomogeneous light distribution. A regular module would use this light distribution very inefficiently. Therefore AZUR SPACE developed a dense array module concept which can be adapted to inhomogeneous light spots. It is populated with state of the art triple junction solar cells.The modules are designed for light intensities in the range of 50-100 W/cm{sup 2} and are actively water cooled. Prototypes are installed in 11 m{sup 2} parabolic dishes produced by Zenith Solar. A peak output of 2.3 kW electrical and 5.5 kW thermal power could be demonstrated. The thermal power may be used for solar heating, solar cooling or warm water.

  20. The use of deep water cooling systems: Two Canadian examples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lenore Newman; Yuill Herbert

    2009-01-01

    Deep water cooling involves using naturally cold water as a heat sink in a heat exchange system, eliminating the need for conventional air conditioning. The cold water is drawn from near the bottom or below the thermocline of a nearby water body. In this study Canadian deep water cooling systems in Halifax, Nova Scotia and Toronto, Ontario were documented. The

  1. Prospects for development of an innovative water-cooled nuclear reactor for supercritical parameters of coolant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyakin, S. G.; Kirillov, P. L.; Baranaev, Yu. D.; Glebov, A. P.; Bogoslovskaya, G. P.; Nikitenko, M. P.; Makhin, V. M.; Churkin, A. N.

    2014-08-01

    The state of nuclear power engineering as of February 1, 2014 and the accomplished elaborations of a supercritical-pressure water-cooled reactor are briefly reviewed, and the prospects of this new project are discussed based on this review. The new project rests on the experience gained from the development and operation of stationary water-cooled reactor plants, including VVERs, PWRs, BWRs, and RBMKs (their combined service life totals more than 15 000 reactor-years), and long-term experience gained around the world with operation of thermal power plants the turbines of which are driven by steam with supercritical and ultrasupercritical parameters. The advantages of such reactor are pointed out together with the scientific-technical problems that need to be solved during further development of such installations. The knowledge gained for the last decade makes it possible to refine the concept and to commence the work on designing an experimental small-capacity reactor.

  2. Supercritical-pressure, light-water-cooled reactors for improving economy, safety, plutonium utilization and environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y Oka; S Koshizuka; T Jevremovic; Y Okano

    1995-01-01

    The concepts of a direct-cycle supercritical-pressure, light-water-cooled reactors were developed. The conceptual design of the thermal and fast reactors was carried out. The plant system is identical among them. Breeding is possible in the tight lattice core. Waste problems are improved due to the high thermal efficiency. Power generation cost will be greatly reduced from the current LAIR.

  3. Advanced water-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This program was conducted to improve the performance and minimize the cost of existing water-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell stacks for electric utility and on-site applications. The goals for the electric utility stack technology were a power density of at least 175 watts per square foot over a 40,000-hour useful life and a projected one-of-a-kind, full-scale manufactured cost of less than $400 per kilowatt. The program adapted the existing on-site Configuration-B cell design to electric utility operating conditions and introduced additional new design features. Task 1 consisted of the conceptual design of a full-scale electric utility cell stack that meets program objectives. The conceptual design was updated to incorporate the results of material and process developments in Tasks 2 and 3, as well as results of stack tests conducted in Task 6. Tasks 2 and 3 developed the materials and processes required to fabricate the components that meet the program objectives. The design of the small area and 10-ft{sup 2} stacks was conducted in Task 4. Fabrication and assembly of the short stacks were conducted in Task 5 and subsequent tests were conducted in Task 6. The management and reporting functions of Task 7 provided DOE/METC with program visibility through required documentation and program reviews. This report describes the cell design and development effort that was conducted to demonstrate, by subscale stack test, the technical achievements made toward the above program objectives.

  4. Water-cooled solid-breeder concept for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Baker, C.C.; Attaya, H.; Billone, M.; Clemmer, R.C.; Finn, P.A.; Hassanein, A.; Johnson, C.E.; Majumdar, S.; Mattas, R.F.

    1988-08-01

    A water-cooled solid-breeder blanket concept was developed for ITER. The main function of this blanket is to produce the necessary tritium for the ITER operation. Several design features are incorporated in this blanket concept to increase its attractiveness. It is assumed that the blanket operation at commercial power reactor conditions can be sacrificed to achieve a high tritium breeding ratio with minimum additional research and development, and minimal impact on reactor design and operation. Operating temperature limits are enforced for each material to insure a satisfactory blanket performance. In fact, the design was iterated to maximize the tritium breeding ratio and satisfy these temperature limits. The other design constraint is to permit a large increase in the neutron wall loading without exceeding the temperature limits for the different blanket materials. The blanket concept contains 1.8 cm of Li/sub 2/O and 22.5 cm of beryllium both with a 0.8 density factor. The water coolant is isolated from the breeder material by several zones which reduces the tritium buildup in the water by permeation, reduces the chance for water-breeder interaction, and permits the breeder to operate at high temperature with a low temperature coolant. This improves the safety and environmental aspects of the blanket and eliminates the costly process of the tritium recovery from the water. The key features and design analysis of this blanket are summarized in this paper. 11 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Steam-Reheat Option for Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltanov, Eugene

    SuperCritical-Water-cooled Reactors (SCWRs) are being developed as one of the Generation-IV nuclear-reactor concepts. Main objectives of the development are to increase thermal efficiency of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) and to decrease capital and operational costs. The first objective can be achieved by introducing nuclear steam reheat inside a reactor and utilizing regenerative feedwater heaters. The second objective can be achieved by designing a steam cycle that closely matches that of the mature supercritical fossil-fuelled power plants. The feasibility of these objectives is discussed. As a part of this discussion, heat-transfer calculations have been performed and analyzed for SuperCritical-Water (SCW) and SuperHeated-Steam (SHS) channels of the proposed reactor concept. In the calculations a uniform and three non-uniform Axial Heat Flux Profiles (AHFPs) were considered for six different fuels (UO2, ThO 2, MOX, UC2, UC, and UN) and at average and maximum channel power. Bulk-fluid, sheath, and fuel centerline temperatures as well as the Heat Transfer Coefficient (HTC) profiles were obtained along the fuel-channel length. The HTC values are within a range of 4.7--20 kW/m2·K and 9.7--10 kW/m2·K for the SCW and SHS channels respectively. The main conclusion is that while all the mentioned fuels may be used for the SHS channel, only UC2, UC, or UN are suitable for a SCW channel, because their fuel centerline temperatures are at least 1000°C below melting point, while that of UO2, ThO2 , and MOX may reach melting point.

  6. Experience with microchannel and pin-post water cooling of silicon monochromator crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, John

    1995-02-01

    Using special channel geometries, the efficiency of water cooling of silicon crystals at room temperature can be improved to the point where it becomes very attractive for use with x-ray monochromators at high-power synchrotron radiation beamlines. Prototype monochromators using two different geometries have been built and tested. The micro-channel geometry uses long, parallel channels approximately 50 micrometers in width. The pin-post geometry creates a two-dimensional network of submillimeter water passages. Both geometries have excellent thermal performance, though preparing strain-free crystal assemblies containing such small features remains problematic. When perfected, water cooling using microchannel or pin-post geometries should be particularly suited to monochromator crystals used at wiggler beamlines.

  7. Iterative algorithm for optimization of the energy distribution in high-powered water-cooled channel reactors (RBMK) with the help of measurement of the insertion depth of the safety and control rods (SCR)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Shkurpelov; V. V. Postnikov; N. V. Isaev; V. G. Nazaryan; Yu. V. Shmonin; A. S. Nemirov; G. V. Yurkin

    1983-01-01

    The problem of profiling the energy distribution arises in the solution of problems of the ongoing operation of a reactor and is associated with providing the initial computational information for the centralized control system (CCS) of the reactor, which is based on the use of a computer. The power Wj of all the heat-generating assemblies (HGA) in a reactor is

  8. 345 MVA Fully Water-Cooled Synchronous Condenser for Dumont Station Part II. Design, Construction and Testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. Landhult; B. Nordberg

    1971-01-01

    The paper describes the development of synchronous condensers using air and hydrogen as cooling mediums and the factors which led to the adoption of direct water cooling for the 345 MVA synchronous condenser for the Dumont Station of the American Electric Power System. Technical data, design and construction details and testing methods and results are presented.

  9. Water-cooled beam line components at LAMPF

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, D.L.; Lambert, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    The beam line components that comprise the main experimental beam at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) have been operating since February 1976. This paper will define the functions of the primary water-cooled elements, their design evolution, and our operating experience to the present time.

  10. Computational Simulation of a Water-Cooled Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozarth, Duane

    2008-01-01

    A Fortran-language computer program for simulating the operation of a water-cooled vapor-compression heat pump in any orientation with respect to gravity has been developed by modifying a prior general-purpose heat-pump design code used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  11. Water-cooled units in ultrapower electric arc furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuz'min, M. G.; Cherednichenko, V. S.; Bikeev, R. A.; Cherednichenko, M. V.

    2014-12-01

    The thermophysical processes that occur in the skull-metallic pipe-water system under quasistationary and dynamic conditions, when shock heat flows appear, are analyzed. The limiting conditions of water cooling of panels, which are accompanied by the appearance of boiling crisis and pre-emergency and emergency thermophysical processes, are considered.

  12. Deployment Scenario of Heavy Water Cooled Thorium Breeder Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Mardiansah, Deby; Takaki, Naoyuki [Course of Applied Science, School of Engineering, Tokai University (Japan)

    2010-06-22

    Deployment scenario of heavy water cooled thorium breeder reactor has been studied. We have assumed to use plutonium and thorium oxide fuel in water cooled reactor to produce {sup 233}U which will be used in thorium breeder reactor. The objective is to analysis the potential of water cooled Th-Pu reactor for replacing all of current LWRs especially in Japan. In this paper, the standard Pressurize Water Reactor (PWR) has been designed to produce 3423 MWt; (i) Th-Pu PWR, (ii) Th-Pu HWR (MFR = 1.0) and (iii) Th-Pu HWR (MFR 1.2). The properties and performance of the core were investigated by using cell and core calculation code. Th-Pu PWR or HWR produces {sup 233}U to introduce thorium breeder reactor. The result showed that to replace all (60 GWe) LWR by thorium breeder reactor within a period of one century, Th-Pu oxide fueled PWR has insufficient capability to produce necessary amount of {sup 233}U and Th-Pu oxide fueled HWR has almost enough potential to produce {sup 233}U but shows positive void reactivity coefficient.

  13. Deployment Scenario of Heavy Water Cooled Thorium Breeder Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardiansah, Deby; Takaki, Naoyuki

    2010-06-01

    Deployment scenario of heavy water cooled thorium breeder reactor has been studied. We have assumed to use plutonium and thorium oxide fuel in water cooled reactor to produce 233U which will be used in thorium breeder reactor. The objective is to analysis the potential of water cooled Th-Pu reactor for replacing all of current LWRs especially in Japan. In this paper, the standard Pressurize Water Reactor (PWR) has been designed to produce 3423 MWt; (i) Th-Pu PWR, (ii) Th-Pu HWR (MFR = 1.0) and (iii) Th-Pu HWR (MFR = 1.2). The properties and performance of the core were investigated by using cell and core calculation code. Th-Pu PWR or HWR produces 233U to introduce thorium breeder reactor. The result showed that to replace all (60 GWe) LWR by thorium breeder reactor within a period of one century, Th-Pu oxide fueled PWR has insufficient capability to produce necessary amount of 233U and Th-Pu oxide fueled HWR has almost enough potential to produce 233U but shows positive void reactivity coefficient.

  14. Pink-Beam, Highly-Accurate Compact Water Cooled Slits

    SciTech Connect

    Lyndaker, Aaron; Deyhim, Alex; Jayne, Richard; Waterman, Dave; Caletka, Dave [Advanced Design Consulting USA, 126 Ridge Road, P.O. Box 187, Lansing, NY 14882 (United States); Steadman, Paul; Dhesi, Sarnjeet [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Rutherford Apple ton Laboratory (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-19

    Advanced Design Consulting, Inc. (ADC) has designed accurate compact slits for applications where high precision is required. The system consists of vertical and horizontal slit mechanisms, a vacuum vessel which houses them, water cooling lines with vacuum guards connected to the individual blades, stepper motors with linear encoders, limit (home position) switches and electrical connections including internal wiring for a drain current measurement system. The total slit size is adjustable from 0 to 15 mm both vertically and horizontally. Each of the four blades are individually controlled and motorized. In this paper, a summary of the design and Finite Element Analysis of the system are presented.

  15. Numerical analysis of thermal effects in semiconductor disk laser with water cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Renjiang; Pan, Yingjun; Jiang, Maohua; Zhang, Peng

    2014-11-01

    This paper has established a thermal model of Vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor laser (VECSELs) with water-cooled heatsink, calculated the distribution of temperature field with finite element method, and studied the effects of pumping light, heat transfer coefficient, and heatsink characteristics on the maximum temperature of the quantum well. Calculations show that there is an optimal heat transfer coefficient value interval, thermal conductivity of the VECSELs heatsink will have a significant impact on the maximum temperature of the quantum well, and increasing area of cooler heatsink would help to improve heat dissipation performance. It also shows that the maximum temperature of the quantum well has a linear relationship with pump power, and a nearly inverse relationship with the spot size. Due to thermal diffusion of water-cooled heatsink for VECSELs point heat source, the maximum temperature of quantum well is not sensitive to thickness and area of the heatsink, heat dissipation performance which uses a diamond heatsink is about 1.7 times the oxygen-free copper heatsink.

  16. Water cooled vibrating grate stoker for proven, efficient and reliable combustion of biomass fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Giaier, T.A.

    1996-12-31

    Bioenergy from waste sources and dedicated crops can provide substantial contributions for energy production. Together, these energy technologies are the wave of the future as they offer a localized, decentralized way of meeting electricity and process steam needs. The biomass industry accounts for about 15% of energy production worldwide, according to the National Wood Energy Association. For developing countries, the percentage is much higher. Currently, many types of combustible solid waste products like bark, wood waste, wood chips, sawdust, municipal and industrial refuse, agricultural wastes such as bagasse, spent coffee, etc.; are profitably utilized as excellent fuel sources. Many of these produce less acid gas than the fossil fuels they replace. Additionally, biomass feed stocks can reduce the quantity of carbon dioxide CO{sub 2} over fossil fuel burning since CO{sub 2} is used in the growth cycle of biomass feed stocks. Water cooled grates, both vibrating and stationary, have been used for many years for the combustion of biomass fuels. Both grates have relatively low maintenance and operating costs, thus making each grate a popular choice for a wide variety of applications. This paper chronicles combustion technologies for biomass fuels and the development of the water cooled grate followed by two case histories. The first case describes the conversion of an existing black liquor recovery boiler to wood firing and the second is the installation of the largest biomass fired Independent Power Producing plant in North America.

  17. Hot ion plasma production in HIP-1 using water-cooled hollow cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, J. J.; Lauver, M. R.; Patch, R. W.; Layman, R. W.; Snyder, A.

    1975-01-01

    A steady-state ExB plasma was formed by applying a strong radially inward dc electric field near the mirror throats. Most of the results were for hydrogen, but deuterium and helium plasmas were also studied. Three water-cooled hollow cathodes were operated in the hot-ion plasma mode with the following results: (1) thermally emitting cathodes were not required to achieve the hot-ion mode; (2) steady-state operation (several minutes) was attained; (3) input powers greater than 40 kW were achieved; (4) cathode outside diameters were increased from 1.2 cm (uncooled) to 4.4 cm (water-cooled); (5) steady-state hydrogen plasma with ion temperatures from 185 to 770 eV and electron temperatures from 5 to 21 eV were produced. Scaling relations were empirically obtained for discharge current, ion temperature, electron temperature, and relative ion density as a function of hydrogen gas feed rate, magnetic field, and cathode voltage. Neutrons were produced from deuterium plasma, but it was not established whether thay came from the plasma volume or from the electrode surfaces.

  18. Water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, W.R.; Irick, S.C. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Lunt, D.L.J. [Tucson Optical Research Corp., AZ (United States)

    1991-10-28

    The program for providing water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source at Berkeley is reviewed with respect to fabrication and metrology of the surfaces. Materials choices, surface figure and smoothness specifications, and metrology systems for measuring the plated metal surfaces are discussed. Results from prototype mirrors and grating blanks will be presented, which show exceptionally low microroughness and mid-period error. We will briefly describe out improved version of the Long Trace Profiler, and its importance to out metrology program. We have completely redesigned the mechanical, optical and computational parts of the profiler system with the cooperation of Peter Takacs of Brookhaven, Continental Optical, and Baker Manufacturing. Most important is that one of our profilers is in use at the vendor to allow testing during fabrication. Metrology from the first water cooled mirror for an ALS beamline is presented as an example. The preplating processing and grinding and polishing were done by Tucson Optical. We will show significantly better surface microroughness on electroless nickel, over large areas, than has been reported previously.

  19. Technical developments for cerebral thermal treatment: water-cooled diffusing laser fibre tips and temperature-sensitive MRI using intersecting image planes.

    PubMed

    McNichols, R J; Kangasniemi, M; Gowda, A; Bankson, J A; Price, R E; Hazle, J D

    2004-02-01

    The aim was to determine if water-cooled diffusing tips could produce larger and safer (better controlled) thermal lesions than non-cooled diffusing tips at 980 nm. Thermal lesions were induced in beef myocardium in vitro with and without water cooling using a 980 nm diode laser at various power levels. Seven intracerebral treatments were performed in six canines using water-cooled diffusing tips with four animals having intracerebral transmissible venereal tumours grown from inoculate. Magnetic resonance thermal imaging (MRTI)-based feedback software using a fast, radio frequency-spoiled gradient echo acquisition with two intersecting image planes was used for on-line monitoring and control of treatment and for the evaluation of in vivo laser lesion production. In cases where two-plane MRTI was employed, the maximum calculated temperature was compared in each plane. Using water-cooled tips and 400 micro m core diameter laser diffusing fibres in in vitro beef myocardium, power of up to 9.5 W was applied for 8 min without tip failure. Without cooling, tip failure occurred in under 4 min at 6 W, in under 2 min at 7 W and instantaneously at 8 W. Additionally, char accompanied lesions made with uncooled tips while cooled application resulted in only minimal char at only the highest thermal dose. Achieved lesion cross-sectional diameters in in vitro samples were up to 26.5 x 23.3 mm when water cooling was used. In canine brain and transmissible venereal tumours, up to 18.1 x 21.4 mm lesions were achieved. It is concluded that water cooling allows safe application of higher power to small core diameter diffusing tip fibres, which results in larger thermal lesions than can be achieved without cooling. Two-plane MRTI enhances on-line monitoring and feedback of thermal treatment. PMID:14612313

  20. Water-cooled hard-soldered kilowatt laser diode arrays operating at high duty cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumel, Genady; Karni, Yoram; Oppenhaim, Jacob; Berk, Yuri; Shamay, Moshe; Tessler, Renana; Cohen, Shalom; Risemberg, Shlomo

    2010-04-01

    High brightness laser diode arrays are increasingly found in defense applications either as efficient optical pumps or as direct energy sources. In many instances, duty cycles of 10- 20 % are required, together with precise optical collimation. System requirements are not always compatible with the use of microchannel based cooling, notwithstanding their remarkable efficiency. Simpler but effective solutions, which will not involve high fluid pressure drops as well as deionized water, are needed. The designer is faced with a number of challenges: effective heat removal, minimization of the built- in and operational stresses as well as precise and accurate fast axis collimation. In this article, we report on a novel laser diode array which includes an integral tap water cooling system. Robustness is achieved by all around hard solder bonding of passivated 940nm laser bars. Far field mapping of the beam, after accurate fast axis collimation will be presented. It will be shown that the design of water cooling channels , proper selection of package materials, careful design of fatigue sensitive parts and active collimation technique allow for long life time and reliability, while not compromising the laser diode array efficiency, optical power density ,brightness and compactness. Main performance characteristics are 150W/bar peak optical power, 10% duty cycle and more than 50% wall plug efficiency with less than 1° fast axis divergence. Lifetime of 0.5 Gshots with less than 10% power degradation has been proved. Additionally, the devices have successfully survived harsh environmental conditions such as thermal cycling of the coolant temperature and mechanical shocks.

  1. Research of a Supercritical Pressure Water Cooled Reactor in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Yoon-Yeong; Joo, Hyung-Kook; Jang, Jinsung; Jeong, Yong-Hwan; Song, Jin-ho; Yoon, Han-Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jung-Yul [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1 Shinlim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    In this paper the activities on the supercritical pressure water-cooled reactor (SCWR) in Korea are briefly introduced. Four projects on a SCWR are being conducted in Korea. Three of them are supported by the I-NERI program while one is by KAERI. Two of the I-NERI-supported projects concern suitable materials for supercritical pressure and temperature, and radiation environment. The other I-NERI-supported project surveys numerically and experimentally the proper turbulence modeling for the numerical calculation of heat transfer phenomena at a supercritical condition. Heat transfer at a supercritical condition is being studied at KAERI experimentally using carbon dioxide as a coolant. The test loop is to be completed by the end of 2004. (authors)

  2. Water-cooled solid-breeder blanket concept for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Baker, C.C.; Attaya, H.; Billone, M.; Clemmer, R.C.; Finn, P.A.; Hassanein, A.; Johnson, C.E.; Majumdar, S.; Mattas, R.F.

    1989-03-01

    A water cooled solid-breeder blanket concept was developed for ITER. The main function of this blanket is to produce the necessary tritium for the ITER operation. Several design features are incorporated in this blanket concept to increase its attractiveness. The main features are the following: (a) a multilayer concept which reduces fabrication cost; (b) a simple blanket configuration which results in reliability advantages; (c) a very small breeder volume is employed to reduce the tritium inventory and the blanket cost; (d) a high tritium breeding ratio eliminates the need for an outside tritium supply; (e) a low-pressure system decreases the required steel fraction for structural purposes; (f) a low-temperature operation reduces the swelling concerns for beryllium; and (g) the small fractions of structure and breeder materials used in the blanket reduce the decay heat source. The key features and design analyses of this blanket are summarized in this paper.

  3. "Hot" for Warm Water Cooling Henry Coles, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Design, Economics, Standardization Keywords direct liquid cooling, dry cooler, cooling tower 1LBNL-5128E "Hot" for Warm Water Cooling Henry Coles, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Michael thereof or The Regents of the University of California. #12;"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling Henry Coles

  4. A dynamic mathematical model of a direct expansion (DX) water-cooled air-conditioning plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deng Shiming

    2000-01-01

    A dynamic mathematical model for a direct expansion water-cooled air-conditioning plant typical to many actual installations in buildings has been developed. The system components modelled are a compressor, a thermostatic expansion valve, a water cooled condenser and a direct expansion evaporator which is also the cooling and dehumidifying coil in the air side. The evaporator (cooling coil) model consists of

  5. 10 CFR 50.63 - Loss of all alternating current power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...light-water-cooled nuclear power plant licensed under subpart C of 10...design for a light-water-cooled nuclear power plant approved under a standard design...reactor core and associated coolant, control, and protection...

  6. 10 CFR 50.63 - Loss of all alternating current power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...light-water-cooled nuclear power plant licensed under subpart C of 10...design for a light-water-cooled nuclear power plant approved under a standard design...reactor core and associated coolant, control, and protection...

  7. 10 CFR 50.63 - Loss of all alternating current power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...light-water-cooled nuclear power plant licensed under subpart C of 10...design for a light-water-cooled nuclear power plant approved under a standard design...reactor core and associated coolant, control, and protection...

  8. 10 CFR 50.63 - Loss of all alternating current power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...light-water-cooled nuclear power plant licensed under subpart C of 10...design for a light-water-cooled nuclear power plant approved under a standard design...reactor core and associated coolant, control, and protection...

  9. 10 CFR 50.63 - Loss of all alternating current power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...light-water-cooled nuclear power plant licensed under subpart C of 10...design for a light-water-cooled nuclear power plant approved under a standard design...reactor core and associated coolant, control, and protection...

  10. Note: High turn density magnetic coils with improved low pressure water cooling for use in atom optics

    SciTech Connect

    McKay Parry, Nicholas, E-mail: n.mckayparry@uq.net.au; Neely, Tyler; Carey, Thomas; Bell, Thomas; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, St Lucia 4072 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, University of Queensland, St Lucia 4072 (Australia); Baker, Mark [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, St Lucia 4072 (Australia)

    2014-08-15

    We describe a magnetic coil design utilizing concentrically wound electro-magnetic insulating (EMI) foil (25.4 ?m Kapton backing and 127 ?m thick layers). The magnetic coils are easily configurable for different coil sizes, while providing large surfaces for low-pressure (0.12 bar) water cooling. The coils have turn densities of ?5 mm{sup ?1} and achieve a maximum of 377 G at 2.1 kW driving power, measured at a distance 37.9 mm from the axial center of the coil. The coils achieve a steady-state temperature increase of 36.7°C/kW.

  11. Note: High turn density magnetic coils with improved low pressure water cooling for use in atom optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay Parry, Nicholas; Baker, Mark; Neely, Tyler; Carey, Thomas; Bell, Thomas; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina

    2014-08-01

    We describe a magnetic coil design utilizing concentrically wound electro-magnetic insulating (EMI) foil (25.4 ?m Kapton backing and 127 ?m thick layers). The magnetic coils are easily configurable for different coil sizes, while providing large surfaces for low-pressure (0.12 bar) water cooling. The coils have turn densities of ˜5 mm-1 and achieve a maximum of 377 G at 2.1 kW driving power, measured at a distance 37.9 mm from the axial center of the coil. The coils achieve a steady-state temperature increase of 36.7°C/kW.

  12. Note: High turn density magnetic coils with improved low pressure water cooling for use in atom optics.

    PubMed

    McKay Parry, Nicholas; Baker, Mark; Neely, Tyler; Carey, Thomas; Bell, Thomas; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina

    2014-08-01

    We describe a magnetic coil design utilizing concentrically wound electro-magnetic insulating (EMI) foil (25.4 ?m Kapton backing and 127 ?m thick layers). The magnetic coils are easily configurable for different coil sizes, while providing large surfaces for low-pressure (0.12 bar) water cooling. The coils have turn densities of ~5 mm(-1) and achieve a maximum of 377 G at 2.1 kW driving power, measured at a distance 37.9 mm from the axial center of the coil. The coils achieve a steady-state temperature increase of 36.7°C/kW. PMID:25173328

  13. Passive cooling means for water cooled nuclear reactor plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gluntz, D.M.; Oosterkamp, W.J.; van Kuijk, R.M.

    1992-04-07

    This patent describes a water cooled, nuclear fission reactor plant having an improved auxiliary passive cooling system for dissipating heat produced during periods of other than normal operation, the nuclear fission reactor plant. It comprises the combination of: a reactor pressure vessel containing a core of heat producing fissionable fuel material provided with reciprocally removable fission control rods and having external steam and hot coolant water conduits extending out therefrom including a circulation loop passing through a heat exchanger comprising a steam driven turbine, the reactor pressure vessel and adjacent components being housed within an enclosing, substantially gas impermeable containment structure for retaining a gaseous atmosphere enveloping the reactor pressure vessel and adjacent components; a container retaining a pool of cooling water isolated from the atmosphere of the containment structure and positioned at a level within the containment structure above the reactor pressure vessel, the isolation container including a heat exchanger unit submerged in the retained pool of cooling water having an inlet which is in optional fluid communication with the interior of the reactor pressure vessel and with the atmosphere of the containment structure enveloping the pressure vessel; a suppression pool chamber containing a pool of cooling water for condensing steam positioned adjacent to the reactor pressure vessel and having a horizontal vent passing to an adjoining area which is in open communication to the atmosphere of the containment structure; a vent duct extending from an outlet of the heat exchanger unit submerged in the isolation container pool downward into the suppression pool chamber with its open end terminating below the surface of the cooling water pool and above the level of the horizontal vent passing an adjoining area.

  14. An economic analysis of a light and heavy water moderated reactor synergy: burning americium using recycled uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtaszek, D.; Edwards, G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    An economic analysis is presented for a proposed synergistic system between 2 nuclear utilities, one operating light water reactors (LWR) and another running a fleet of heavy water moderated reactors (HWR). Americium is partitioned from LWR spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to be transmuted in HWRs, with a consequent averted disposal cost to the LWR operator. In return, reprocessed uranium (RU) is supplied to the HWRs in sufficient quantities to support their operation both as power generators and americium burners. Two simplifying assumptions have been made. First, the economic value of RU is a linear function of the cost of fresh natural uranium (NU), and secondly, plutonium recycling for a third utility running a mixed oxide (MOX) fuelled reactor fleet has been already taking place, so that the extra cost of americium recycling is manageable. We conclude that, in order for this scenario to be economically attractive to the LWR operator, the averted disposal cost due to partitioning americium from LWR spent fuel must exceed 214 dollars per kg, comparable to estimates of the permanent disposal cost of the high level waste (HLW) from reprocessing spent LWR fuel. (authors)

  15. Applying a Domestic Water-cooled Air-conditioner in Subtropical Cities

    E-print Network

    Lee, W.; Chen, H.

    2006-01-01

    Water-cooled air-conditioning systems (WACS) are in general more energy efficient than air-cooled air-conditioning systems (AACS), especially in subtropical climates where the outdoor air is hot and humid. Related studies focused on evaluating...

  16. Experimental study of the decrease in the temperature of an air\\/water-cooled turbine blade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Ryzhov; A. V. Sereda; V. F. Shaiakberov; K. M. Iskakov; Iu. S. Shatalov

    1992-01-01

    Results of the full-scale testing of an air\\/water-cooled deflector-type turbine blade are reported. Data on the decrease in the temperature of the cooling air and of the blade are presented and compared with the calculated values. An analysis of the results indicates that the use of air\\/water cooling makes it possible to significantly reduce the temperature of the cooling air

  17. Adequacy of the 123-group cross-section library for criticality analyses of water-moderated uranium systems

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C.V.; Wright, R.Q.; Jordan, W.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-08-01

    In a recent criticality analysis for an array of water-moderated packages containing highly enriched uranium, the 123-group cross-section library in the SCALE system was observed to have a nonconservative discrepancy of approximately 3 to 3.5% when compared with more recently developed libraries. A simple representative system of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O was used to identify that the problem results from a lack of resonance data for {sup 235}U. Only a single set of self-shielded cross sections, most likely corresponding to a water-moderated infinite dilute system, was provided with the original data. The UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O study indicates that this limitation may cause nonconservative discrepancies as high as 5.5% for some water-moderated, highly enriched uranium systems. Characteristics of the systems where the discrepancy is evident are identified and discussed.

  18. Occupational Exposure: The Role of Circuit Chemistry and Tube Coatings in Reducing the ORE of Advanced Water Cooled Fusion Plants and the Potential Effects of Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustoe, J.; Ali, S. M.; Di Pace, L.; Forty, C. B. A.; Friedrich, B.-C.; Sandri, S.; Thompson, H. M.

    1997-09-01

    On a conservative calculation for a nonoptimized design, the Safety and Environmental Assessment of Fusion Power (SEAFP) water cooled design (Model 2) was found to have an Occupational Radiological Exposure (ORE) which would be too high by today's standards. This paper describes the investigations which have been undertaken to reduce the expected ORE to acceptable levels. In addition, an investigation on allowable exposure to magnetic fields was carried out.

  19. Advanced water-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This program was conducted to improve the performance and minimize the cost of existing water-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell stacks for electric utility and on-site applications. The goals for the electric utility stack technology were a power density of at least 175 watts per square foot over a 40,000-hour useful life and a projected one-of-a-kind, full-scale manufactured cost of less than $400 per kilowatt. The program adapted the existing on-site Configuration-B cell design to electric utility operating conditions and introduced additional new design features. Task 1 consisted of the conceptual design of a full-scale electric utility cell stack that meets program objectives. The conceptual design was updated to incorporate the results of material and process developments in Tasks 2 and 3, as well as results of stack tests conducted in Task 6. Tasks 2 and 3 developed the materials and processes required to fabricate the components that meet the program objectives. The design of the small area and 10-ft{sup 2} stacks was conducted in Task 4. Fabrication and assembly of the short stacks were conducted in Task 5 and subsequent tests were conducted in Task 6. The management and reporting functions of Task 7 provided DOE/METC with program visibility through required documentation and program reviews. This report describes the cell design and development effort that was conducted to demonstrate, by subscale stack test, the technical achievements made toward the above program objectives.

  20. Thermal Aspects of Using Alternative Nuclear Fuels in Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grande, Lisa Christine

    A SuperCritical Water-cooled Nuclear Reactor (SCWR) is a Generation IV concept currently being developed worldwide. Unique to this reactor type is the use of light-water coolant above its critical point. The current research presents a thermal-hydraulic analysis of a single fuel channel within a Pressure Tube (PT)-type SCWR with a single-reheat cycle. Since this reactor is in its early design phase many fuel-channel components are being investigated in various combinations. Analysis inputs are: steam cycle, Axial Heat Flux Profile (AHFP), fuel-bundle geometry, and thermophysical properties of reactor coolant, fuel sheath and fuel. Uniform and non-uniform AHFPs for average channel power were applied to a variety of alternative fuels (mixed oxide, thorium dioxide, uranium dicarbide, uranium nitride and uranium carbide) enclosed in an Inconel-600 43-element bundle. The results depict bulk-fluid, outer-sheath and fuel-centreline temperature profiles together with the Heat Transfer Coefficient (HTC) profiles along the heated length of fuel channel. The objective is to identify the best options in terms of fuel, sheath material and AHFPS in which the outer-sheath and fuel-centreline temperatures will be below the accepted temperature limits of 850°C and 1850°C respectively. The 43-element Inconel-600 fuel bundle is suitable for SCWR use as the sheath-temperature design limit of 850°C was maintained for all analyzed cases at average channel power. Thoria, UC2, UN and UC fuels for all AHFPs are acceptable since the maximum fuel-centreline temperature does not exceed the industry accepted limit of 1850°C. Conversely, the fuel-centreline temperature limit was exceeded for MOX at all AHFPs, and UO2 for both cosine and downstream-skewed cosine AHFPs. Therefore, fuel-bundle modifications are required for UO2 and MOX to be feasible nuclear fuels for SCWRs.

  1. Fluidized bed heat exchanger with water cooled air distributor and dust hopper

    DOEpatents

    Jukkola, Walfred W. (Westport, CT); Leon, Albert M. (Mamaroneck, NY); Van Dyk, Jr., Garritt C. (Bethel, CT); McCoy, Daniel E. (Williamsport, PA); Fisher, Barry L. (Montgomery, PA); Saiers, Timothy L. (Williamsport, PA); Karstetter, Marlin E. (Loganton, PA)

    1981-11-24

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger is provided in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel. A steam-water natural circulation system is provided for heat exchange and the housing of the heat exchanger has a water-wall type construction. Vertical in-bed heat exchange tubes are provided and the air distributor is water-cooled. A water-cooled dust hopper is provided in the housing to collect particulates from the combustion gases and separate the combustion zone from a volume within said housing in which convection heat exchange tubes are provided to extract heat from the exiting combustion gases.

  2. Minor actinide transmutation in thorium and uranium matrices in heavy water moderated reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatti, Zaki; Hyland, B.; Edwards, G.W.R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, 1 Plant Road, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The irradiation of Th{sup 232} breeds fewer of the problematic minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) than the irradiation of U{sup 238}. This characteristic makes thorium an attractive potential matrix for the transmutation of these minor actinides, as these species can be transmuted without the creation of new actinides as is the case with a uranium fuel matrix. Minor actinides are the main contributors to long term decay heat and radiotoxicity of spent fuel, so reducing their concentration can greatly increase the capacity of a long term deep geological repository. Mixing minor actinides with thorium, three times more common in the Earth's crust than natural uranium, has the additional advantage of improving the sustainability of the fuel cycle. In this work, lattice cell calculations have been performed to determine the results of transmuting minor actinides from light water reactor spent fuel in a thorium matrix. 15-year-cooled group-extracted transuranic elements (Np, Pu, Am, Cm) from light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel were used as the fissile component in a thorium-based fuel in a heavy water moderated reactor (HWR). The minor actinide (MA) transmutation rates, spent fuel activity, decay heat and radiotoxicity, are compared with those obtained when the MA were mixed instead with natural uranium and taken to the same burnup. Each bundle contained a central pin containing a burnable neutron absorber whose initial concentration was adjusted to have the same reactivity response (in units of the delayed neutron fraction ?) for coolant voiding as standard NU fuel. (authors)

  3. Solidification behaviour of water-cooled and subzero chilled cast iron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. H. W. Seah; J. Hemanth; S. C. Sharma; K. V. S. Rao

    1999-01-01

    Hypereutectic cast iron specimens cast using chills that were water-cooled and liquid-nitrogen-cooled were compared with specimens of the same chemical composition which were sand cast without any chill. The solidification behaviour, number of eutectic cells, grain size and the effects of these on the mechanical properties like strength and fracture toughness were recorded and analysed in this paper.

  4. Elements of Design Consideration of Once-Through Cycle, Supercritical-Pressure Light Water Cooled Reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiaki Oka; Sei-ichi Koshizuka; Yuki Ishiwatari; Akifumi Yamaji

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes elements of design consideration of supercritical-pressure, light water cooled reactors as well as the status and prospects of the research and development. It summarizes the results of the conceptual design study at the University of Tokyo from 1989. The research and development started in Japan, Europe and USA. The major advantages of the reactors are 1. Compact

  5. The Use of Water Cooling during the Continuous Casting of Steel and Aluminum Alloys

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Brian G.

    The Use of Water Cooling during the Continuous Casting of Steel and Aluminum Alloys J. SENGUPTA, B.G. THOMAS, and M.A. WELLS In both continuous casting of steel slabs and direct chill (DC) casting, until cooling is complete. I. INTRODUCTION CONTINUOUS casting processes for both steel and alu- minum

  6. Understanding the Role Water-cooling Plays during Continuous Casting of Steel and Aluminum Alloys

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Brian G.

    Understanding the Role Water-cooling Plays during Continuous Casting of Steel and Aluminum Alloys J Keywords: Steel, continuous casting, aluminum, Direct Chill casting, primary cooling, water the mold and solidifying metal during the continuous casting of steel and aluminum alloys

  7. TRITIUM ANALYSIS OF A WATER-COOLED SOLID BREEDER BLANKET FOR ITER*

    E-print Network

    Abdou, Mohamed

    TRITIUM ANALYSIS OF A WATER-COOLED SOLID BREEDER BLANKET FOR ITER* G. Federici, A.R. Raffray, M.A. Abdou Mechanical,Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering Department University of California, Los Angeles Los Angeles, CA 90024-1597. Mass,(lo6g) Volume, (m3) Thickness, (cm) T. Gen. Rate, (g/day) Abstract

  8. Design Feasible Area on Water Cooled Thorium Breeder Reactor in Equilibrium States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sidik Permana; Naoyuki Takaki; Hiroshi Sekimoto

    2006-01-01

    Thorium as supplied fuel has good candidate for fuel material if it is converted into fissile material ²³³U which shows superior characteristics in the thermal region. The Shippingport reactor used ²³³U-Th fuel system, and the molten salt breeder reactor (MSBR) project showed that breeding is possible in a thermal spectrum. In the present study, feasibility of water cooled thorium breeder

  9. Thermal and hydraulic accommodation of water cooled payloads in the Columbus APM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele Trichilo; Elena Brach Prever; Charles Dodd

    1993-01-01

    The Attached Pressure Module (APM) is the European orbiting laboratory which willbe permanently attached to the International Space Station Freedom (SSF). It is designed to provide a range of laboratory facilities in a microgravity environment for payload experimaents originating from the international payload-user community. The APM design provides a water cooling capability by means of moderate temperature (MT) and low

  10. The use of water cooling during the continuous casting of steel and aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, J.; Thomas, B. G.; Wells, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    In both continuous casting of steel slabs and direct chill (DC) casting of aluminum alloy ingots, water is used to cool the mold in the initial stages of solidification, and then below the mold, where it is in direct contact with the newly solidified surface of the metal. Water cooling affects the product quality by (1) controlling the heat removal rate that creates and cools the solid shell and (2) generating thermal stresses and strains inside the solidified metal. This work reviews the current state-of-the-art in water cooling for both processes, and draws insights by comparing and contrasting the different practices used in each process. The heat extraction coefficient during secondary cooling depends greatly on the surface temperature of the ingot, as represented by boiling water-cooling curves. Thus, the heat extraction rate varies dramatically with time, as the slab/ingot surface temperature changes. Sudden fluctuations in the temperature gradients within the solidifying metal cause thermal stresses, which often lead to cracks, especially near the solidification front, where even small tensile stresses can form hot tears. Hence, a tight control of spray cooling for steel, and practices such as CO2 injection/pulse water cooling for aluminum, are now used to avoid sudden changes in the strand surface temperature. The goal in each process is to match the rate of heat removal at the surface with the internal supply of latent and sensible heat, in order to lower the metal surface temperature monotonically, until cooling is complete.

  11. Modifications to MELCOR for the analysis of heavy-water moderated, U-A1 fuel reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Church, J.P. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (USA)); Leonard, M.T.; Williams, K.A. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The MELCOR computer code is being used as the point of departure to develop an integrated severe accident analysis computer code for the heavy-water moderated U-Al fuel reactors. The resulting computer code (MELCOR/SR) provides a practical and comprehensive analytical tool for evaluating severe accident behavior in the Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactors. The technical scope of this development effort is summarized in this paper. Other companion papers are cited that provide additional details regarding particular models.

  12. Solidification of aluminium alloys under ultrasonic irradiation using water-cooled resonator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V Abramov; O Abramov; V Bulgakov; F Sommer

    1998-01-01

    The present investigation attempts to evaluate the effect of ultrasonic treatment using water-cooled resonator on the microstructure and properties of different commercial Al-based alloys. The effect of ultrasonic treatment on the as-cast alloy microstructure can be summarized as follows: reduction of mean grain size, variation of phase distribution and better material homogeneity and segregation control. Ultrasonically treated samples have elongation

  13. Safety system consideration of a supercritical-water cooled fast reactor with simplified PSA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H Lee; Y Oka; S Koshizuka

    1999-01-01

    The probabilistic safety of the supercritical-water cooled fast reactor (SCFR) is evaluated with the simplified probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methodology. SCFR has a once-through direct cycle where all feedwater flows through the core to the turbine at supercritical pressure. There are no recirculation loops in the once-through direct cycle system, which is the most important difference from the current light

  14. RELAP5-3D Code for Supercritical-Pressure Light-Water-Cooled Reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Allan Riemke; Cliff Bybee Davis; Richard Raphael Schultz

    2003-01-01

    The RELAP5-3D computer program has been improved for analysis of supercritical-pressure, light-water-cooled reactors. Several code modifications were implemented to correct code execution failures. Changes were made to the steam table generation, steam table interpolation, metastable states, interfacial heat transfer coefficients, and transport properties (viscosity and thermal conductivity). The code modifications now allow the code to run slow transients above the

  15. Water-cooled pyrolytic graphite targets at LAMPF: design and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.D.; Grisham, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Design considerations and actual operating experience are reported for water-cooled pyrolytic graphite targets at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). Emphasis is placed on the use of finite element computer calculations to determine target temperatures and stresses, which can then be evaluated to judge the usefulness of a particular design. Consideration is also given to the swelling of the target following irradiation, and to the measures taken to prolong target lifetime.

  16. Thermal and hydraulic accommodation of water cooled payloads in the Columbus APM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trichilo, Michele; Prever, Elena Brach; Dodd, Charles

    The Attached Pressure Module (APM) is the European orbiting laboratory which willbe permanently attached to the International Space Station Freedom (SSF). It is designed to provide a range of laboratory facilities in a microgravity environment for payload experimaents originating from the international payload-user community. The APM design provides a water cooling capability by means of moderate temperature (MT) and low temperature (LT) pumped fluid loops. The cooling loops serve both the APM essential subsystem equipment as well as the payload users. This paper describes the architecture of the APM water cooling loops and the water cooling capability offered to payload users. Thermal and hydraulic requirements applicable to the payloads are identified. A number of rack internal cooling options are examined. These options ensure the necessary heat removal while avioding any possible failure propagation or contamination of the subsystem loops. The resulting constraints and limitations on the payload design needed to ensure compatibility of the payload with the fluid loops and their operational conditions are identified.

  17. Water cooling system for an air-breathing hypersonic test vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petley, Dennis H.; Dziedzic, William M.

    1993-01-01

    This study provides concepts for hypersonic experimental scramjet test vehicles which have low cost and low risk. Cryogenic hydrogen is used as the fuel and coolant. Secondary water cooling systems were designed. Three concepts are shown: an all hydrogen cooling system, a secondary open loop water cooled system, and a secondary closed loop water cooled system. The open loop concept uses high pressure helium (15,000 psi) to drive water through the cooling system while maintaining the pressure in the water tank. The water flows through the turbine side of the turbopump to pump hydrogen fuel. The water is then allowed to vent. In the closed loop concept high pressure, room temperature, compressed liquid water is circulated. In flight water pressure is limited to 6000 psi by venting some of the water. Water is circulated through cooling channels via an ejector which uses high pressure gas to drive a water jet. The cooling systems are presented along with finite difference steady-state and transient analysis results. The results from this study indicate that water used as a secondary coolant can be designed to increase experimental test time, produce minimum venting of fluid and reduce overall development cost.

  18. Re-Engineering Control Systems using Automatic Generation Tools and Process Simulation: the LHC Water Cooling Case

    E-print Network

    Booth, W; Bradu, B; Gomez Palacin, L; Quilichini, M; Willeman, D

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the approach used at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) to perform the re-engineering of the control systems dedicated to the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) water cooling systems.

  19. Modeling and energy simulation of the variable refrigerant flow air conditioning system with water-cooled condenser under cooling conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yueming Li; Jingyi Wu; Sumio Shiochi

    2009-01-01

    As a new system, variable refrigerant flow system with water-cooled condenser (water-cooled VRF) can offer several interesting characteristics for potential users. However, at present, its dynamic simulation simultaneously in association with building and other equipments is not yet included in the energy simulation programs. Based on the EnergyPlus's codes, and using manufacturer's performance parameters and data, the special simulation module

  20. Effect of thermal barrier coatings on the performance of steam and water-cooled gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nainiger, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical study was made of the performance of air, steam, and water-cooled gas-turbine/steam turbine combined-cycle systems with and without thermal-barrier coatings. For steam cooling, thermal barrier coatings permit an increase in the turbine inlet temperature from 1205 C (2200 F), resulting in an efficiency improvement of 1.9 percentage points. The maximum specific power improvement with thermal barriers is 32.4 percent, when the turbine inlet temperature is increased from 1425 C (2600 F) to 1675 C (3050 F) and the airfoil temperature is kept the same. For water cooling, the maximum efficiency improvement is 2.2 percentage points at a turbine inlet temperature of 1683 C (3062 F) and the maximum specific power improvement is 36.6 percent by increasing the turbine inlet temperature from 1425 C (2600 F) to 1730 C (3150 F) and keeping the airfoil temperatures the same. These improvements are greater than that obtained with combined cycles using air cooling at a turbine inlet temperature of 1205 C (2200 F). The large temperature differences across the thermal barriers at these high temperatures, however, indicate that thermal stresses may present obstacles to the use of coatings at high turbine inlet temperatures.

  1. Annular seed-blanket thorium fuel core concepts for heavy water moderated reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Bromley, B.P.; Hyland, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, 1 Plant Road, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    New reactor concepts to implement thorium-based fuel cycles have been explored to achieve maximum resource utilization. Pressure tube heavy water reactors (PT-HWR) are highly advantageous for implementing the use of thorium-based fuels because of their high neutron economy and on-line re-fuelling capability. The use of heterogeneous seed-blanket core concepts in a PT-HWR where higher-fissile-content seed fuel bundles are physically separate from lower-fissile-content blanket bundles allows more flexibility and control in fuel management to maximize the fissile utilization and conversion of fertile fuel. The lattice concept chosen is a 35-element bundle made with a homogeneous mixture of reactor grade Pu and Th, and with a central zirconia rod to help reduce coolant void reactivity. Several annular heterogeneous seed-blanket core concepts with plutonium-thorium-based fuels in a 700-MWe-class PT-HWR were analyzed, using a once-through thorium (OTT) cycle. Different combinations of seed and blanket fuel were tested to determine the impact on core-average burnup, fissile utilization, power distributions, and other performance parameters. It was found that the various core concepts can achieve a fissile utilization that is up to 30% higher than is currently achieved in a PT-HWR using conventional natural uranium fuel bundles. Up to 67% of the Pu is consumed; up to 43% of the energy is produced from thorium, and up to 363 kg/year of U-233 is produced. Seed-blanket cores with ?50% content of low-power blanket bundles may require power de-rating (?58% to 65%) to avoid exceeding maximum limits for peak channel power, bundle power and linear element ratings. (authors)

  2. Checkerboard seed-blanket thorium fuel core concepts for heavy water moderated reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Bromley, B.P.; Hyland, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, 1 Plant Road, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    New reactor concepts to implement thorium-based fuel cycles have been explored to achieve maximum resource utilization. Pressure tube heavy water reactors (PT-HWR) are highly advantageous for implementing the use of thorium-based fuels because of their high neutron economy and on-line re-fuelling capability. The use of heterogeneous seed-blanket core concepts in a PT-HWR where higher-fissile-content seed fuel bundles are physically separate from lower-fissile-content blanket bundles allows more flexibility and control in fuel management to maximize the fissile utilization and conversion of fertile fuel. The lattice concept chosen was a 35-element bundle made with a homogeneous mixture of reactor grade Pu (about 67 wt% fissile) and Th, and with a central zirconia rod to help reduce coolant void reactivity. Several checkerboard heterogeneous seed-blanket core concepts with plutonium-thorium-based fuels in a 700-MWe-class PT-HWR were analyzed, using a once-through thorium (OTT) cycle. Different combinations of seed and blanket fuel were tested to determine the impact on core-average burnup, fissile utilization, power distributions, and other performance parameters. It was found that various checkerboard core concepts can achieve a fissile utilization that is up to 26% higher than that achieved in a PT-HWR using more conventional natural uranium fuel bundles. Up to 60% of the Pu is consumed; up to 43% of the energy is produced from thorium, and up to 303 kg/year of Pa-233/U-233/U-235 are produced. Checkerboard cores with about 50% of low-power blanket bundles may require power de-rating (65% to 74%) to avoid exceeding maximum limits for channel and bundle powers and linear element ratings. (authors)

  3. Soy-Based, Water-Cooled, TC W-III Two Cycle Engine Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Scharf, Curtis R.; Miller, Mark E.

    2003-08-30

    The objective of this project was to achieve technical approval and commercial launch for a biodegradable soy oil-based, environmentally safe, TC W-III performance, water-cooled, two cycle engine oil. To do so would: (1) develop a new use for RBD soybean oil; (2) increase soybean utilization in North America in the range of 500 K-3.0 MM bushels; and (3) open up supply opportunities of 1.5-5.0 MM bushels worldwide. These goals have been successfully obtained.

  4. Fuel Breeding and Core Behavior Analyses on In Core Fuel Management of Water Cooled Thorium Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Permana, Sidik [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-N1-17, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Department of Physics, Bandung Institute of Technology, Gedung Fisika, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Sekimoto, Hiroshi [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-N1-17, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Waris, Abdul; Subhki, Muhamad Nurul [Department of Physics, Bandung Institute of Technology, Gedung Fisika, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Ismail, [BAPETEN (Indonesia)

    2010-12-23

    Thorium fuel cycle with recycled U-233 has been widely recognized having some contributions to improve the water-cooled breeder reactor program which has been shown by a feasible area of breeding and negative void reactivity which confirms that fissile of 233U contributes to better fuel breeding and effective for obtaining negative void reactivity coefficient as the main fissile material. The present study has the objective to estimate the effect of whole core configuration as well as burnup effects to the reactor core profile by adopting two dimensional model of fuel core management. About more than 40 months of cycle period has been employed for one cycle fuel irradiation of three batches fuel system for large water cooled thorium reactors. All position of fuel arrangement contributes to the total core conversion ratio which gives conversion ratio less than unity of at the BOC and it contributes to higher than unity (1.01) at the EOC after some irradiation process. Inner part and central part give the important part of breeding contribution with increasing burnup process, while criticality is reduced with increasing the irradiation time. Feasibility of breeding capability of water-cooled thorium reactors for whole core fuel arrangement has confirmed from the obtained conversion ratio which shows higher than unity. Whole core analysis on evaluating reactivity change which is caused by the change of voided condition has been employed for conservative assumption that 100% coolant and moderator are voided. It obtained always a negative void reactivity coefficient during reactor operation which shows relatively more negative void coefficient at BOC (fresh fuel composition), and it becomes less negative void coefficient with increasing the operation time. Negative value of void reactivity coefficient shows the reactor has good safety properties in relation to the reactivity profile which is the main parameter in term of criticality safety analysis. Therefore, this evaluation has confirmed that breeding condition and negative coefficient can be obtained simultaneously for water-cooled thorium reactor obtains based on the whole core fuel arrangement.

  5. RELAP5-3D Code for Supercritical-Pressure Light-Water-Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Riemke, Richard Allan; Davis, Cliff Bybee; Schultz, Richard Raphael

    2003-04-01

    The RELAP5-3D computer program has been improved for analysis of supercritical-pressure, light-water-cooled reactors. Several code modifications were implemented to correct code execution failures. Changes were made to the steam table generation, steam table interpolation, metastable states, interfacial heat transfer coefficients, and transport properties (viscosity and thermal conductivity). The code modifications now allow the code to run slow transients above the critical pressure as well as blowdown transients (modified Edwards pipe and modified existing pressurized water reactor model) that pass near the critical point.

  6. Lattice cell and full core physics of internally cooled annular fuel in heavy water moderated reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, J.; Hamilton, H.; Hyland, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    A program is underway at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to develop a new fuel bundle concept to enable greater burnups for PT-HWR (pressure tube heavy water reactor) cores. One option that AECL is investigating is an internally cooled annular fuel (ICAF) element concept. ICAF contains annular cylindrical pellets with cladding on the inner and outer diameters. Coolant flows along the outside of the element and through the centre. With such a concept, the maximum fuel temperature as a function of linear element rating is significantly reduced compared to conventional, solid-rod type fuel. The preliminary ICAF bundle concept considered in this study contains 24 half-metre long internally cooled annular fuel elements and one non-fuelled centre pin. The introduction of the non-fuelled centre pin reduces the coolant void reactivity (CVR), which is the increase in reactivity that occurs on voiding the coolant in accident scenarios. Lattice cell and full core physics calculations of the preliminary ICAF fuel bundle concept have been performed for medium burnups of approximately 18 GWd/tU using WIMS-AECL and reactor fuel simulation program (RFSP). The results will be used to assist in concept configuration optimization. The effects of radial and axial core power distributions, linear element power ratings, refuelling rates and operational power ramps have been analyzed. The results suggest that burnups of greater than 18 GWd/tU can be achieved in current reactor designs. At approximately 18 GWd/tU, expected maximum linear element ratings in a PT-HWR with online-refuelling are approximately 90 kW/m. These conditions would be prohibitive for solid-rod fuel, but may be possible in ICAF fuel given the reduced maximum fuel temperature as a function of linear element rating. (authors)

  7. Characterization of neutron fields from bare and heavy water moderated (252)Cf spontaneous fission source using Bonner Sphere Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Atanackovic, Jovica; Yonkeu, Andre; Dubeau, Jacques; Witharana, Sampath Hakmana; Priest, Nicholas

    2015-05-01

    In this work a calibrated Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (BSS), together with ISO shadow cones, was used to quantify the total and scattered components of bare and heavy water moderated (252)Cf neutron fields. All measurements were performed with a BSS that was calibrated at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Teddington, UK, which is a global primary standard laboratory and world-leading facility for neutron metrology and neutron instruments calibration. The fields were characterized for source-spectrometer distances of 80, 100, 150 and 200cm; and at heights of 103 and 200cm from the facility floor. As expected, the scattered contribution was greatest at the farthest distance from the source and closer to the floor. Hence, at a distance of 200cm and a height of 103cm, the scatter added to the direct field up to 162% of the total neutron fluence and up to 61% of the ambient dose equivalent, while at the same distance and height of 200cm above the floor, these values were up to 146% and 52%, respectively. In the case of heavy water moderated (252)Cf neutron fields, a shadow cone subtraction technique could not be implemented, however Monte Carlo simulations were utilized in order to differentiate between the direct and scatter components of the neutron fields. In this case, at a source-detector distance of 200cm and a height of 103cm, the scatter added to the direct field up to 148% of the total neutron fluence and up to 45% of the ambient dose equivalent, while at the same distance and a height of 200cm above the floor, these values were up to 134% and 42%, respectively. PMID:25752569

  8. Water cooling system using a piezoelectrically actuated flow pump for a medical headlight system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, Rogério F.; Vatanabe, Sandro L.; de Oliveira, Amaury R.; Nakasone, Paulo H.; Silva, Emílio C.

    2007-04-01

    The microchips inside modern electronic equipment generate heat and demand, each day, the use of more advanced cooling techniques as water cooling systems, for instance. These systems combined with piezoelectric flow pumps present some advantages such as higher thermal capacity, lower noise generation and miniaturization potential. The present work aims at the development of a water cooling system based on a piezoelectric flow pump for a head light system based on LEDs. The cooling system development consists in design, manufacturing and experimental characterization steps. In the design step, computational models of the pump, as well as the heat exchanger were built to perform sensitivity studies using ANSYS finite element software. This allowed us to achieve desired flow and heat exchange rates by varying the frequency and amplitude of the applied voltage. Other activities included the design of the heat exchanger and the dissipation module. The experimental tests of the cooling system consisted in measuring the temperature difference between the heat exchanger inlet and outlet to evaluate its thermal cooling capacity for different values of the flow rate. Comparisons between numerical and experimental results were also made.

  9. IAEA coordinated research project on thermal-hydraulics of Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactors (SCWRs)

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, K. [Vienna International Centre, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Aksan, S. N. [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-07-01

    The Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) is an innovative water-cooled reactor concept, which uses supercritical pressure water as reactor coolant. It has been attracting interest of many researchers in various countries mainly due to its benefits of high thermal efficiency and simple primary systems, resulting in low capital cost. The IAEA started in 2008 a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Thermal-Hydraulics of SCWRs as a forum to foster the exchange of technical information and international collaboration in research and development. This paper summarizes the activities and current status of the CRP, as well as major progress achieved to date. At present, 15 institutions closely collaborate in several tasks. Some organizations have been conducting thermal-hydraulics experiments and analysing the data, and others have been participating in code-to-test and/or code-to-code benchmark exercises. The expected outputs of the CRP are also discussed. Finally, the paper introduces several IAEA activities relating to or arising from the CRP. (authors)

  10. Water-Cooled Data Center Packs More Power Per Rack | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The network racks in the foreground house all of the Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network hardware. The fiber cables from the 17 ATRF LAN closets, the storage systems, and the servers are fed through the overhead cable trays into the network racks and connected. The racks in the background contain 2 petabytes of tier-two and -three disk storage.

  11. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electric Power Production

    SciTech Connect

    Philip MacDonald; Jacopo Buongiorno; James Sterbentz; Cliff Davis; Robert Witt; Gary Was; J. McKinley; S. Teysseyre; Luca Oriani; Vefa Kucukboyaci; Lawrence Conway; N. Jonsson: Bin Liu

    2005-02-13

    The supercritical water reactor (SCWR) has been the object of interest throughout the nuclear Generation IV community because of its high potential: a simple, direct cycle, compact configuration; elimination of many traditional LWR components, operation at coolant temperatures much higher than traditional LWRs and thus high thermal efficiency. It could be said that the SWR was viewed as the water counterpart to the high temperature gas reactor.

  12. The effectiveness of power-generating complexes constructed on the basis of nuclear power plants combined with additional sources of energy determined taking risk factors into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Khrustalev, V. A.; Portyankin, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    The effectiveness of combining nuclear power plants equipped with water-cooled water-moderated power-generating reactors (VVER) with other sources of energy within unified power-generating complexes is analyzed. The use of such power-generating complexes makes it possible to achieve the necessary load pickup capability and flexibility in performing the mandatory selective primary and emergency control of load, as well as participation in passing the night minimums of electric load curves while retaining high values of the capacity utilization factor of the entire power-generating complex at higher levels of the steam-turbine part efficiency. Versions involving combined use of nuclear power plants with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units for generating electricity are considered. In view of the fact that hydrogen is an unsafe energy carrier, the use of which introduces additional elements of risk, a procedure for evaluating these risks under different conditions of implementing the fuel-and-hydrogen cycle at nuclear power plants is proposed. Risk accounting technique with the use of statistical data is considered, including the characteristics of hydrogen and gas pipelines, and the process pipelines equipment tightness loss occurrence rate. The expected intensities of fires and explosions at nuclear power plants fitted with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units are calculated. In estimating the damage inflicted by events (fires and explosions) occurred in nuclear power plant turbine buildings, the US statistical data were used. Conservative scenarios of fires and explosions of hydrogen-air mixtures in nuclear power plant turbine buildings are presented. Results from calculations of the introduced annual risk to the attained net annual profit ratio in commensurable versions are given. This ratio can be used in selecting projects characterized by the most technically attainable and socially acceptable safety.

  13. Sensitivity Analysis of Fuel Centerline Temperatures in SuperCritical Water-cooled Reactors (SCWRs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, Ayman

    SuperCritical Water-cooled Reactors (SCWRs) are one of the six nuclear-reactor concepts currently being developed under the Generation-IV International Forum (GIF). A main advantage of SCW Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) is that they offer higher thermal efficiencies compared to those of current conventional NPPs. Unlike today's conventional NPPs, which have thermal efficiencies between 30 - 35%, SCW NPPs will have thermal efficiencies within a range of 45 - 50%, owing to high operating temperatures and pressures (i.e., coolant temperatures as high as 625°C at 25 MPa pressure). The use of current fuel bundles with UO2 fuel at the high operating parameters of SCWRs may cause high fuel centerline temperatures, which could lead to fuel failure and fission gas release. Studies have shown that when the Variant-20 (43-element) fuel bundle was examined at SCW conditions, the fuel centerline temperature industry limit of 1850°C for UO2 and the sheath temperature design limit of 850°C might be exceeded. Therefore, new fuel-bundle designs, which comply with the design requirements, are required for future use in SCWRs. The main objective of this study to conduct a sensitivity analysis in order to identify the main factors that leads to fuel centerline temperature reduction. Therefore, a 54-element fuel bundle with smaller diameter of fuel elements compared to that of the 43-element bundle was designed and various nuclear fuels are examined for future use in a generic Pressure Tube (PT) SCWR. The 54-element bundle consists of 53 heated fuel elements with an outer diameter of 9.5 mm and one central unheated element of 20-mm outer diameter which contains burnable poison. The 54-element fuel bundle has an outer diameter of 103.45 mm, which is the same as the outer diameter of the 43-element fuel bundle. After developing the 54-element fuel bundle, one-dimensional heat-transfer analysis was conducted using MATLAB and NIST REFPROP programs. As a result, the Heat Transfer Coefficient (HTC), bulk-fluid, sheath and fuel centerline temperature profiles were generated along the heated length of 5.772 m for a generic fuel channel. The fuel centerline and sheath temperature profiles have been determined at four Axial Heat Flux Profiles (AHFPs) using an average thermal power per channel of 8.5 MWth. The four examined AHFPs are the uniform, cosine, upstream-skewed and downstream-skewed profiles. Additionally, this study focuses on investigating a possibility of using low, enhanced and high thermal-conductivity fuels. The low thermal-conductivity fuels, which have been examined in this study, are uranium dioxide (UO 2), Mixed Oxide (MOX) and Thoria (ThO2) fuels. The examined enhanced thermal-conductivity fuels are uranium dioxide - silicon carbide (UO2 - SiC) and uranium dioxide - beryllium oxide (UO2 - BeO). Lastly, uranium carbide (UC), uranium dicarbide (UC2) and uranium nitride (UN) are the selected high thermal-conductivity fuels, which have been proposed for use in SCWRs. A comparison has been made between the low, enhanced and high thermal-conductivity fuels in order to identify the fuel centerline temperature behaviour when different nuclear fuels are used. Also, in the process of conducting the sensitivity analysis, the HTC was calculated using the Mokry et al. correlation, which is the most accurate supercritical water heat-transfer correlation so far. The sheath and the fuel centerline temperature profiles were determined for two cases. In Case 1, the HTC was calculated based on the Mokry et al. correlation, while in Case 2, the HTC values calculated for Case 1 were multiplied by a factor of 2. This factor was used in order to identify the amount of decrease in temperatures if the heat transfer is enhanced with appendages. Results of this analysis indicate that the use of the newly developed 54-element fuel bundle along with the proposed fuels is promising when compared with the Variant-20 (43-element) fuel bundle. Overall, the fuel centerline and sheath temperatures were below the industry and design limits when most of the proposed fu

  14. Passive decay heat removal system for water-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1991-01-01

    A passive decay-heat removal system for a water-cooled nuclear reactor employs a closed heat transfer loop having heat-exchanging coils inside an open-topped, insulated box located inside the reactor vessel, below its normal water level, in communication with a condenser located outside of containment and exposed to the atmosphere. The heat transfer loop is located such that the evaporator is in a position where, when the water level drops in the reactor, it will become exposed to steam. Vapor produced in the evaporator passes upward to the condenser above the normal water level. In operation, condensation in the condenser removes heat from the system, and the condensed liquid is returned to the evaporator. The system is disposed such that during normal reactor operations where the water level is at its usual position, very little heat will be removed from the system, but during emergency, low water level conditions, substantial amounts of decay heat will be removed.

  15. Decoupled Modeling of Chilled Water Cooling Coils Using a Finite Element Method

    E-print Network

    Wang, G.; Liu, M.

    2005-01-01

    0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010 0.012 0.014 0.016 0123456789101 Node (air side) Hu m d i t y r a t i o Air Chilled w ater Surface Figure 6: Humidity ratio change due to latent heat transfer 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 012345678910 Element SH...&M University Abstract Chilled water cooling coils are important components in air handling unit systems. Generally the cooling coil removes both moisture and sensible heat from entering air. Since the sensible and latent heat transfer modes are coupled...

  16. Design Feasible Area on Water Cooled Thorium Breeder Reactor in Equilibrium States

    SciTech Connect

    Sidik Permana; Naoyuki Takaki; Hiroshi Sekimoto [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    Thorium as supplied fuel has good candidate for fuel material if it is converted into fissile material {sup 233}U which shows superior characteristics in the thermal region. The Shippingport reactor used {sup 233}U-Th fuel system, and the molten salt breeder reactor (MSBR) project showed that breeding is possible in a thermal spectrum. In the present study, feasibility of water cooled thorium breeder reactor is investigated. The key properties such as flux, {eta} value, criticality and breeding performances are evaluated for different moderator to fuel ratios (MFR) and burn-ups. The results show the feasibility of breeding for different MFR and burn-ups. The required {sup 233}U enrichment is about 2% - 9% as charge fuel. The lower MFR and the higher enrichment of {sup 233}U are preferable to improve the average burn-up; however the design feasible window is shrunk. This core shows the design feasible window especially in relation to MFR with negative void reactivity coefficient. (authors)

  17. Assessment of stress-corrosion cracking in a water-cooled ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.H.; Bruemmer, S.M.

    1989-04-01

    Water-cooled, near-term reactors will operate under conditions at which SCC is possible; however, control of material purity and processing and coolant chemistry can either eliminate or greatly reduce the probability of this type of structural failure. This evaluation has focused on an assessment of water impurity effects on SCC of austenitic stainless steel at temperatures below 100{degree}C and on the conditions controlling sensitization in the fusion heat of Type 316 SS and the fusion materials heat of modified Type 316 SS designated as PCA. This assessment identifies the dominant effect of small concentrations of impurities in high-purity water on SCC such that crack growth rates at 25--75{degree}C in water with as little as 5--15 ppM Cl{sup {minus}} are equal to the crack growth rates at 200--300{degree}C in high-purity water. These effects are primarily for sensitized Type 304 SS, so analysis of sensitization behavior of fusion austenitic alloys was also undertaken. An SSDOS model developed at PNL was used to make these assessments, and correlation to experimental results for Type 316 SS was very good. Both the fusion heat of Type 316 SS and PCA can be severely sensitized but with proper thermal treatment it should be possible to avoid sensitization. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Fabrication of gas turbine water-cooled composite nozzle and bucket hardware employing plasma spray process

    DOEpatents

    Schilke, Peter W. (4 Hempshire Ct., Scotia, NY 12302); Muth, Myron C. (R.D. #3, Western Ave., Amsterdam, NY 12010); Schilling, William F. (301 Garnsey Rd., Rexford, NY 12148); Rairden, III, John R. (6 Coronet Ct., Schenectady, NY 12309)

    1983-01-01

    In the method for fabrication of water-cooled composite nozzle and bucket hardware for high temperature gas turbines, a high thermal conductivity copper alloy is applied, employing a high velocity/low pressure (HV/LP) plasma arc spraying process, to an assembly comprising a structural framework of copper alloy or a nickel-based super alloy, or combination of the two, and overlying cooling tubes. The copper alloy is plamsa sprayed to a coating thickness sufficient to completely cover the cooling tubes, and to allow for machining back of the copper alloy to create a smooth surface having a thickness of from 0.010 inch (0.254 mm) to 0.150 inch (3.18 mm) or more. The layer of copper applied by the plasma spraying has no continuous porosity, and advantageously may readily be employed to sustain a pressure differential during hot isostatic pressing (HIP) bonding of the overall structure to enhance bonding by solid state diffusion between the component parts of the structure.

  19. Improvement in Stability of SPring-8 Standard X-Ray Monochromators with Water-Cooled Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Nobtaka; Kumasaka, Takashi; Koganezawa, Tomoyuki; Sato, Masugu; Hirosawa, Ichiro; Senba, Yasunori; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Goto, Shunji [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Miura, Takanori; Tanaka, Masayuki; Kishimoto, Hikaru; Matsuzaki, Yasuhisa [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); SPring-8 Service Co., Ltd., 2-23-1, Kouto, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1205 (Japan); Kawano, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Masaki; Ishikawa, Tetsuya [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2010-06-23

    SPring-8 standard double-crystal monochromators containing water-cooled crystals were stabilized to a sufficient level to function as a part of optics components to supply stable microfocused x-ray beams, by determining causes of the instability and then removing them. The instability was caused by two factors--thermal deformation of fine stepper stages in the monochromator, which resulted in reduction in beam intensity with time, and vibrations of coolant supply units and vacuum pumps, which resulted in fluctuation in beam intensity. We remodeled the crystal holders to maintain the stage temperatures constant with water, attached x-ray and electron shields to the stages in order to prevent their warming up, introduced accumulators in the water circuits to absorb pressure pulsation, used polyurethane tubes to stabilize water flow, and placed rubber cushions under scroll vacuum pumps. As a result, the intensity reduction rate of the beam decreased from 26% to 1% per hour and the intensity fluctuation from 13% to 1%. The monochromators were also modified to prevent radiation damage to the crystals, materials used as a water seal, and motor cables.

  20. 76 FR 82201 - General Site Suitability Criteria for Nuclear Power Stations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ...suitability requirements for nuclear power stations. DATES: Submit comments...Suitability Criteria for Nuclear Power Stations,'' is temporarily identified...suitability of sites for light-water- cooled nuclear power stations. Applicants may use...

  1. The Effects of Nonuniform Thermal Boundary Condition on Thermal Stress Calculation of Water-Cooled W/Cu Divertors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Le; Chang, Haiping; Zhang, Jingyang; Liu, Nan; Xu, Tiejun

    2014-10-01

    The thermal boundary condition has very important effects on the accuracy of thermal stress calculation of a water-cooled W/Cu divertor. In this paper, phase-change heat transfer was simulated based on the Euler homogeneous phase model, and local differences of liquid physical properties were considered under one-sided high heating conditions. The steady-state temperature field and thermal stress field under nonuniform thermal boundary conditions were obtained through numerical calculation. By comparison with the case of traditional uniform thermal boundary conditions, the results show that the distribution of thermal stress under nonuniform thermal boundary conditions exhibits the same trend as that under uniform thermal boundary conditions, but is larger in value. The maximum difference of maximum von Mises stress is up to 42% under the highest heating conditions. These results provide a valuable reference for the thermal stress calculation of water-cooled W/Cu divertors.

  2. Cell configuration effect on feasibility of water cooled thorium breeder reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Permana, S.; Takaki, N.; Sekimoto, H. [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Inst. of Technology, 2-12-1-N1-17, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    As a fuel candidate, thorium cycle shows some advantages such as good breeding capability, higher performance of burn-up and from proliferation point of view, thorium is more proliferation resistant. The shipping-port reactor and molten salt breeder reactor showed that breeding is possible with thorium in a thermal spectrum. Breeding is made possible by the high value of neutron regeneration ratio {eta} for {sup 233}U in thermal energy region. In the present study, feasibility of water cooled thorium breeder reactor is investigated. A calculation method by coupling the equilibrium fuel cycle burn-up calculation and cell calculation of PIJ module of SRAC2002 code have been performed. The reactor is fueled by {sup 233}U-Th Oxide and it has used the light water coolant and zircaloy-4 as moderator and cladding, respectively. The key properties such as flux, enrichment, criticality and breeding performances are evaluated for different moderator to fuel ratios (MFR) and burn-ups. The different pin cell types have been investigated in order to analyze the effect of different fuel pin diameter. The results show the feasibility of breeding for different fuel pin cell types. The required {sup 233}U enrichment is about 2% - 9% as initial fissile loading. The lower MFR and the higher enrichment of {sup 233}U are preferable to improve the average burn-up; however the design feasible window is shrunk. The thicker pin cell shows wider feasible areas and requires lower enrichment than thinner pin cell. It means that thicker fuel pin diameter obtains better performances for breeding and reducing the fissile material utilization. (authors)

  3. Prediction of critical heat flux in water-cooled plasma facing components using computational fluid dynamics.

    SciTech Connect

    Bullock, James H.; Youchison, Dennis Lee; Ulrickson, Michael Andrew

    2010-11-01

    Several commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes now have the capability to analyze Eulerian two-phase flow using the Rohsenow nucleate boiling model. Analysis of boiling due to one-sided heating in plasma facing components (pfcs) is now receiving attention during the design of water-cooled first wall panels for ITER that may encounter heat fluxes as high as 5 MW/m2. Empirical thermalhydraulic design correlations developed for long fission reactor channels are not reliable when applied to pfcs because fully developed flow conditions seldom exist. Star-CCM+ is one of the commercial CFD codes that can model two-phase flows. Like others, it implements the RPI model for nucleate boiling, but it also seamlessly transitions to a volume-of-fluid model for film boiling. By benchmarking the results of our 3d models against recent experiments on critical heat flux for both smooth rectangular channels and hypervapotrons, we determined the six unique input parameters that accurately characterize the boiling physics for ITER flow conditions under a wide range of absorbed heat flux. We can now exploit this capability to predict the onset of critical heat flux in these components. In addition, the results clearly illustrate the production and transport of vapor and its effect on heat transfer in pfcs from nucleate boiling through transition to film boiling. This article describes the boiling physics implemented in CCM+ and compares the computational results to the benchmark experiments carried out independently in the United States and Russia. Temperature distributions agreed to within 10 C for a wide range of heat fluxes from 3 MW/m2 to 10 MW/m2 and flow velocities from 1 m/s to 10 m/s in these devices. Although the analysis is incapable of capturing the stochastic nature of critical heat flux (i.e., time and location may depend on a local materials defect or turbulence phenomenon), it is highly reliable in determining the heat flux where boiling instabilities begin to dominate. Beyond this threshold, higher heat fluxes lead to the boiling crisis and eventual burnout. This predictive capability is essential in determining the critical heat flux margin for the design of complex 3d components.

  4. Design and testing of a phototype water-cooled vacuum interrupter for use in superconducting magnet protection circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    A water-cooled vacuum interrupter was designed and tested for use at 25 kA and 10 kV. This device is expected to have a lifetime approximately one order of magnitude greater than commercial dc circuit breakers. Testing showed that, although the device could successfully carry and interrupt 25 kA, interruption reliabililty was only about 95% with a 10 kV recovery voltage. In addition, a structural crack developed in one electrode from either thermal or mechanical stresses or a combination thereof. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Standardisation of water-moderated 241Am-Be neutron source using De Pangher neutron long counter: experimental and Monte Carlo modelling.

    PubMed

    Ghodke, Shobha; Kumari, Sujatha; Singh, Yashoda; Sathian, V; Mahant, A K; Sharma, D N

    2012-02-01

    A convenient neutron source is made for calibration of neutron survey instruments and personal dosimeters that are used in various nuclear installations such as fuel reprocessing, waste management, fuel fabrication and oil and well logging facilities, etc. This source consists of a bare (241)Am-Be neutron source placed at the centre of a 15-cm radius stainless steel spherical shell filled with distilled water. This paper describes the standardisation of the source at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, using De Pangher neutron long counter both experimentally and using the Monte Carlo simulation. The ratio of neutron yield of water moderated to the bare (241)Am-Be neutron source was found to be 0.573. From the simulation, the neutron-fluence-weighted average energy of water-moderated (241)Am-Be source (fluence-weighted average energy of 2.25 MeV, dose-weighted average energy of 3.55 MeV) was found to be nearly the same as that of a (252)Cf source (fluence-weighted average energy of 2.1 MeV, dose-weighted average energy of 2.3 MeV). This source can be used for calibration in addition to (252)Cf, to study the variation in response of neutron monitoring instruments. PMID:21498862

  6. Water-cooled non-thermal gliding arc for adhesion improvement of glass-fibre-reinforced polyester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Sørensen, Bent F.; Andersen, Tom L.; Toftegaard, Helmuth L.; Leipold, Frank; Salewski, Mirko; Sun, Zhiwei; Zhu, Jiajian; Li, Zhongshan; Alden, Marcus

    2013-04-01

    A non-equilibrium quenched plasma is prepared using a gliding-arc discharge generated between diverging electrodes and extended by a gas flow. It can be operated at atmospheric pressure and applied to plasma surface treatment to improve adhesion properties of material surfaces. In this work, glass-fibre-reinforced polyester plates were treated using an atmospheric pressure gliding-arc discharge with air flow to improve adhesion with a vinylester adhesive. The electrodes were water-cooled so as to operate the gliding arc continually. The treatment improved wettability and increased the density of oxygen-containing polar functional groups on the surfaces. Double cantilever beam specimens were prepared for fracture mechanic characterization of the laminate adhesive interface. It was found that gliding-arc treatment significantly increases the fracture resistance in comparison with a standard peel-ply treatment.

  7. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility tempered water and tempered water cooling system design description

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1998-11-30

    This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Tempered Water (TW) and Tempered Water Cooling (TWC) System . The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-O02, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the TW and TWC equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SOD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  8. A water-cooled mercury arc for continuous wave laser pumping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T B Read

    1967-01-01

    A d.c. discharge lamp is described which has been designed for optimum pumping efficiency of neodymium-doped lasers, and the spectral distribution of the emitted radiation is tabulated. The life is more than 100 hours at 2 kw or 20 hours at 4 kw input, and it can be operated for short periods at powers up to 6 kw.

  9. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...boundary, as defined in § 50.2(v), and serves as an essentially leak-tight barrier against the uncontrolled release of radioactivity to the environment. B. “Containment isolation valve” means any valve which is relied upon to perform a...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...boundary, as defined in § 50.2(v), and serves as an essentially leak-tight barrier against the uncontrolled release of radioactivity to the environment. B. “Containment isolation valve” means any valve which is relied upon to perform a...

  11. Nuclear characteristics of a fissioning uranium plasma test reactor with light-water cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmarsh, C. L., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical study was performed to determine a design configuration for a cavity test reactor. Test section criteria were that an average flux of 10 to the 15th power neutrons/sq cm/sec (E less than or equal to 0.12 eV) be supplied to a 61-cm-diameter spherical cavity at 200-atm pressure. Design objectives were to minimize required driver power, to use existing fuel-element technology, and to obtain fuel-element life of 10 to 100 full-power hours. Parameter calculations were made on moderator region size and material, driver fuel arrangement, control system, and structure in order to determine a feasible configuration. Although not optimized, a configuration was selected which would meet design criteria. The driver fuel region was a cylindrical annular region, one element thick, of 33 MTR-type H2O-cooled elements (Al-U fuel plate configuration), each 101 cm long. The region between the spherical test cavity and the cylindrical driver fuel region was Be (10 vol. % H2O coolant) with a midplane dimension of 8 cm. Exterior to the driver fuel, the 25-cm-thick cylindrical and axial reflectors were also Be with 10 vol. % H2O coolant. The entire reactor was contained in a 10-cm-thick steel pressure vessel, and the 200-atm cavity pressure was equalized throughout the driver reactor. Fuel-element life was 50 hr at the required driver power of 200 MW. Reactor control would be achieved with rotating poison drums located in the cylindrical reflector region. A control range of about 18 percent delta k/k was required for reactor operation.

  12. High-enthalpy, water-cooled and thin-walled ICP sources characterization and MHD optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herdrich, G.; Petkow, D.

    2008-06-01

    The development of the inductively driven plasma wind tunnel PWK3, which enables the electrodeless generation of high-enthalpy plasmas for the development of heat shield materials required for space vehicles performing entry manoeuvres in the atmospheres of Venus, Earth and Mars, is described. The facility with its modular inductive plasma generators allows operation with gases such as carbon dioxide, air, oxygen and nitrogen and was qualified for thermal plasma powers up to 60 kW. Previously developed models for determining plasma properties and plasma source related characteristics enable a maximum plasma power in combination with long operational periods using different operational gases and gas mixtures. This is achieved by an optimization using the optimum operational frequency, a minimization of field losses using very thin plasma tube wall thicknesses and the successful application of MHD effects. Based on the solved cylinder problem for ICPs, a one-dimensional model for radial Lorentz forces and magnetic pressure has been developed. Here, a synthesis of previously published data and works is made where the new algebraic model for the calculation of Lorentz forces and magnetic pressures in an ICP was used and applied to experimental data. In addition, results from the model using the experimental data are shown to be consistent and, in addition, a comparison with a simpler model based on the well-known exponential approach for ICPs showed that the simpler model is covered without fail by the new model. The new model also states that there is a maximum of the Lorentz forces over the damping parameter d/? (plasma diameter divided by skin depth) which almost corresponds with the position of the maximum plasma power of the cylindric model for ICPs. For the magnetic pressure the position of the maximum pressure is identical to the value for d/? for the maximum plasma power.

  13. Water-cooled, high-intensity ultrasound surgical applicators with frequency tracking.

    PubMed

    Martin, Roy W; Vaezy, Shahram; Proctor, Andrew; Myntti, Terrence; Lee, Janelle B J; Crum, Lawrence A

    2003-10-01

    High-intensity, focused ultrasound (HIFU) applicators have been developed for arresting bleeding with the ultimate intent of use in surgery. The design uses a tapered titanium component for transmission coupling of the ultrasound energy from a spherically curved transducer to biological tissues. The nominal operating frequency is 5.5 MHz, in a highly resonant mode (quality factor of 327 with water load). Liquid cooling is used to remove energy loss important at net applied power greater than 18 W/cm2 at the surface of the piezoelectric element. A downward resonance frequency shift (>20 kHz) occurs, even with cooling, as the applicator warms with normal operation. A feedback technique is used for maintaining the excitation near optimum resonance. Standing wave ratios of the applied power of 1.6 or less are thus sustained. The system and applicators have been found to be highly robust, effective in achieving hemostasis in the hemorrhaging liver, spleen, lung, or blood vessels in rabbit and pig experiments. One unit has been operated for over 1.7 hours in treating organ hemorrhage in blunt trauma experiments with nine swine with electrical net power of up to 158 W (31 W/cm2 across the transducer) and intensity of 2560 W/cm2 at focus. PMID:14609070

  14. Three core concepts for producing uranium-233 in commercial pressurized light water reactors for possible use in water-cooled breeder reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. H. Conley; G. K. Cowell; C. A. Detrick; J. Kusenko; E. G. Johnson; J. Dunyak; B. K. Flanery; M. S. Shinko; R. H. Giffen; D. S. Rampolla

    1979-01-01

    Selected prebreeder core concepts are described which could be backfit into a reference light water reactor similar to current commercial reactors, and produce uranium-233 for use in water-cooled breeder reactors. The prebreeder concepts were selected on the basis of minimizing fuel system development and reactor changes required to permit a backfit. The fuel assemblies for the prebreeder core concepts discussed

  15. Structure and Performance of a 600MWe Supercritical CFB Boiler with Water Cooled Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Nie, L.; Hu, X. K.; Yue, G. X.; Li, W. K.; We, Y. X.; Lu, J. F.; Che, D. F.

    The circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion technology is one of the approved clean combustion technologies, and the power supply efficiency can be improved combining with the supercritical technology. A 600MWe supercritical CFB boiler is introduced in this paper. This boiler is designed based on the success of 300 MWe CFB boilers, which has a single furnace with three cyclones without external heat exchangers. There are twin furnaces and twin air distributors in the boiler. The water walls of the twin furnace above dense bed combines to a common fence wall with some channels to balance the pressure of the two furnaces. The smooth tubes are adopted in membrane water wall with mixing header. Six cyclones are located beside the furnace as well as six loopseals and six external heat exchangers. The hydrodynamic characteristic of water wall is available with the modeling prediction. And the performance of the 600MWe supercritical CFB boiler is also investigated.

  16. Influence of the pulse frequency and water cooling on the femtosecond laser ablation of bovine cortical bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cangueiro, L. T.; Vilar, R.

    2013-10-01

    Ultrafast lasers are extremely promising tools for minimally-invasive orthopedic surgery, but the ablated volumes per pulse are low, so a high pulse frequency is necessary to reach practical ablation rates. The purpose of this work was to study in vitro the influence of the pulse repetition rate on the ablation rate, surface topography and surface composition of bone using of bovine cortical femur as a model. The tests were carried out by scanning the laser beam in relation to the sample, using pulse frequencies between 50 and 3000 Hz, scanning velocities from 0.5 to 10 mm/s and average pulse energy of 650 ?J. The experiments were performed in dry conditions and with water irrigation. The higher ablation rates were obtained at high scanning velocity without water irrigation but severe thermal effects such as resolidification, cracking and, eventually, carbonization occurred in these conditions due to heat accumulation in the tissue. Thermal damage was avoided for all the laser processing parameters ranges tested by using water cooling. The highest ablation rate achieved was 1.4 mm3/min for a scanning velocity of 10 mm/s at 2 kHz pulse repetition rate under water irrigation.

  17. RESONANCE CONTROL FOR THE COUPLED CAVITY LINAC AND DRIFT TUBE LINAC STRUCTURES OF THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE LINAC USING A CLOSED-LOOP WATER COOLING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardin, J. D. (John D.); Brown, R. L. (Richard L.); Brown, S. K. (Stanley K.); Bustos, G. R. (Gerald R.); Crow, M.L. (Martin L.); Gregory, W. S.; Hood, M. E. (Michael E.); Jurney, J. D. (James D.); Medalen, I. (Ivan); Owen, A. C. (Albert C.); Weiss, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a facility being designed for scientific and industrial research and development. SNS will generate and use neutrons as a diagnostic tool for medical purposes, material science, etc. The neutrons will be produced by bombarding a heavy metal target with a high-energy beam of protons, generated and accelerated with a linear particle accelerator, or linac. The low energy end of the linac consists of two room temperature copper structures, the drift tube linac (DTL), and the coupled cavity linac (CCL). Both of these accelerating structures use large amounts of electrical energy to accelerate the protons to an energy of 185 MeV. Approximately 60-80% of the electrical energy is dissipated in the copper structure and must be removed. This is done using specifically designed water cooling passages within the linac's copper structure. Cooling water is supplied to these cooling passages by specially designed resonance control and water cooling systems.

  18. Water-cooled grate

    SciTech Connect

    Lis, P.; Olausson, K.

    1980-07-22

    A description is given of a furnace for the combustion of solid fuel comprising: a first, inclined grate portion having an upper end and a lower end, the upper end adjacent to a side wall defining the furnace, said first grate portion extending outwardly below a combustion space; means for supplying fuel to the upper end of said inclined, first grate portion; an angular, second grate portion spaced apart from the lower end of said first grate portion and comprising a first, mainly upwardly part facing said first grate portion, and a second, mainly horizontal part extending backwards, below said first grate portion to receive fuel residues therefrom; means for suppyling combustion air to said first and said second grate portions; and a passageway for conducting combustion gases from said second part of said second portion to the upper end of said first grate portion.

  19. Water-cooled grate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Lis; K. Olausson

    1980-01-01

    A description is given of a furnace for the combustion of solid fuel comprising: a first, inclined grate portion having an upper end and a lower end, the upper end adjacent to a side wall defining the furnace, said first grate portion extending outwardly below a combustion space; means for supplying fuel to the upper end of said inclined, first

  20. Ground Water Cooling System

    E-print Network

    Greaves, K.; Chave, G. H.

    1984-01-01

    Based on a thorough study of products and anticipated growth, the Turbine and Generator Division of Westinghouse Canada Inc. concluded that a component feeder plant for fabrication and machining of turbine components was required. This facility now...

  1. Actively cooled plasma facing components for long pulse high power operation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Nygren

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of heat removal technology for plasma facing components (PFCs) and focuses on water-cooled PFCs for near term, high power applications and the use of the tungsten (W), carbon (C), and beryllium (Be) as the preferred armor materials. There are also brief summaries of developments in helium-cooled PFCs and applications of free liquid surfaces. Water-cooled PFCs

  2. Water Powered Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Space Spin-Offs, Inc. under a contract with Lewis Research Center and Marshall Space Flight Center produced a new water-powered saw that cuts through concrete and steel plate reducing danger of explosion or electric shock in rescue and other operations. In prototype unit efficient water-powered turbine drives an 8 inch diameter grinding disk at 6,600 rpm. Exhaust water cools disk and workpiece quenching any sparks produced by cutting head. At maximum power, tool easily cuts through quarter inch steel plate. Adapter heads for chain saws, impact wrenches, heavy duty drills, and power hack saws can be fitted.

  3. Subscale, hydrogen-burning, airframe-integrated-scramjet: Experimental and theoretical evaluation of a water cooled strut airframe-integrated-scramjet: Experimental leading edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinckney, S. Z.; Guy, R. W.; Beach, H. L., Jr.; Rogers, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    A water-cooled leading-edge design for an engine/airframe integrated scramjet model strut leading edge was evaluated. The cooling design employs a copper cooling tube brazed just downstream of the leading edge of a wedge-shaped strut which is constructed of oxygen-free copper. The survival of the strut leading edge during a series of tests at stagnation point heating rates confirms the practicality of the cooling design. A finite difference thermal model of the strut was also proven valid by the reasonable agreement of calculated and measured values of surface temperature and cooling-water heat transfer.

  4. Significance of scaling and root planing with and without adjunctive use of a water-cooled pulsed Nd:YAG laser for the treatment of periodontal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Talat; Tunér, Jan; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-02-01

    The aim was to assess the significance of scaling and root planing (SRP) with adjunctive use of a water-cooled pulsed neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser for the treatment of periodontal inflammation. Thirty-nine patients were equally divided into three groups. In group 1, the upper jaw was treated with Nd:YAG laser application; whereas in groups 2 and 3, the upper jaw was treated with SRP alone and Nd:YAG laser application immediately after SRP, respectively. In each group, probing pocket depth (PPD), plaque index (PI), and gingival index (GI) were measured and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) volume was determined after using at 1 week and after 3 months. Three-month follow-up results showed that PPD, PI, GI, and GCF volume were significantly reduced in group 3 compared to groups 1 and 2. In short term, SRP with a single application of a water-cooled pulsed Nd:YAG laser reduced PI, GI, PPD, and GCF volume more significantly compared to when Nd:YAG laser and SRP are used alone to treat periodontal inflammation. PMID:24036971

  5. 17.March.2005 C. A. Martins, CERN AB/PO 1 Power converter

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    system; · Forced air cooling (no need for water circuit) · Cast resin power transformers. Can be placed later) Inconveniences: · Water cooled. Needs water connection to the power converter; · Oil transformers infrastructures at building 193 (AD): · Water circuit in the vicinity of the power converter's location; · Pit

  6. Analysis of regularly perturbed lattices and reaction rate distributions from TIC experiments for X7 lattices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ramakrishna; V. Jagannathan; R. P. Jain

    2011-01-01

    Temporary International Collective (TIC) was established in 1972 by an agreement among seven countries, namely, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The main objective of TIC was to provide the experimental data for the reactor physics analysis of water cooled and water moderated power reactors (WWER). Extensive experimental work for different core configurations was

  7. Evaluation of coal-gasification - combustion-turbine power plants emphasizing low water consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Cavazo, R.; Clemmer, A.B.; de la Mora, J.A.; Grisso, J.R.; Klumpe, H.W.; Meissner, R.E.; Musso, A.; Roszkowski, T.R.

    1982-01-01

    A cost and performance study was made of several integrated power plants using coal gasification technology now in advanced development and combustion turbines for power generation. The principal emphasis was placed on studying plants using air cooling and comparing costs and performance of those plants with water-cooled coal gasification-combined-cycle (GCC) and conventional coal-fired power plants. The major objective was to determine whether cost and performance penalties would be prohibitive for air-cooled plants that use yet-to-be-developed coal gasifiers and commercially available combustion turbines for topping cycle power. The results indicate the following: air-cooled GCC plants using conceptual designs of either the Texaco or the British Gas Corporation (BGC) slaging gasifier could have coal-to-net electric power efficiencies equivalent to that of a water-cooled conventional coal-fired plant; the air-cooled GCC plants could produce electricity at busbar cost 1 to 3 mills per kWh (1980 dollars) less than busbar cost in a water-cooled conventional plant and only up to 2 mills per kWh higher than busbar cost in a water-cooled Texaco GCC plant; and even a simple-cycle regenerative combustion turbine plant fueled with gas from the BGC gasifier could have a coal-to-net electric power efficiency of over 30% and a busbar cost competitive with that in a water cooled conventional plant. The principal reason that air-cooled power plants using combustion turbines could be competitive with conventional water-cooled, coal-fired steam plants is that a majority of net power is produced by the combustion turbines, which require no cooling water. This, in turn, leads to a reduced cost and performance penalty when bottoming steam-cycle condensers are air-cooled.

  8. Installation and alignment of heavy reactor components in Unit 1 of Rajasthan Atomic Power Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. K. Chaturvedi; R. K. Khanna; A. Krishnan

    1973-01-01

    The Rajasthan Atomic Power Project has two nuclear power reactors, heavy ; water moderated and cooled, with uranium oxide fuel. The salient features of ; civil engineering construction for the reactor building are described. The ; special construction requirements and the actual construction procedures adopted ; in excavation, foundation grouting, contsinment building, building drainage, and ; reactor vault construction including

  9. MEDIUM POWER 352 MHZ SOLID STATE PULSED RF AMPLIFIERS FOR THE CERN LINAC4 PROJECT

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    MEDIUM POWER 352 MHZ SOLID STATE PULSED RF AMPLIFIERS FOR THE CERN LINAC4 PROJECT J. Broere, J linear pulsed RF amplifiers have recently been developed to be used for the three buncher cavities in the CERN Linac4. The amplifiers are water-cooled and can provide up to 33 kW pulsed RF Power, 1.5 ms pulse

  10. Feasibility study for use of the natural convection shutdown heat removal test facility (NSTF) for VHTR water-cooled RCCS shutdown.

    SciTech Connect

    Tzanos, C.P.; Farmer, M.T.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-08-31

    In summary, a scaling analysis of a water-cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) system was performed based on generic information on the RCCS design of PBMR. The analysis demonstrates that the water-cooled RCCS can be simulated at the ANL NSTF facility at a prototypic scale in the lateral direction and about half scale in the vertical direction. Because, by necessity, the scaling is based on a number of approximations, and because no analytical information is available on the performance of a reference water-cooled RCCS, the scaling analysis presented here needs to be 'validated' by analysis of the steady state and transient performance of a reference water-cooled RCCS design. The analysis of the RCCS performance by CFD and system codes presents a number of challenges including: strong 3-D effects in the cavity and the RCCS tubes; simulation of turbulence in flows characterized by natural circulation, high Rayleigh numbers and low Reynolds numbers; validity of heat transfer correlations for system codes for heat transfer in the cavity and the annulus of the RCCS tubes; the potential of nucleate boiling in the tubes; water flashing in the upper section of the RCCS return line (during limiting transient); and two-phase flow phenomena in the water tanks. The limited simulation of heat transfer in cavities presented in Section 4.0, strongly underscores the need of experimental work to validate CFD codes, and heat transfer correlations for system codes, and to support the analysis and design of the RCCS. Based on the conclusions of the scaling analysis, a schematic that illustrates key attributes of the experiment system is shown in Fig. 4. This system contains the same physical elements as the PBMR RCCS, plus additional equipment to facilitate data gathering to support code validation. In particular, the prototype consists of a series of oval standpipes surrounding the reactor vessel to provide cooling of the reactor cavity during both normal and off-normal operating conditions. The standpipes are headered (in groups of four in the prototype) to water supply (header) tanks that are situated well above the reactor vessel to facilitate natural convection cooling during a loss of forced flow event. During normal operations, the water is pumped from a heat sink located outside the containment to the headered inlets to the standpipes. The water is then delivered to each standpipe through a centrally located downcomer that passes the coolant to the bottom of each pipe. The water then turns 180{sup o} and rises up through the annular gap while extracting heat from the reactor cavity due to a combination of natural convection and radiation across the gap between the reactor vessel and standpipes. The water exits the standpipes at the top where it is headered (again in groups of four) into a return line that passes the coolant to the top of the header tank. Coolant is drawn from each tank through a fitting located near the top of the tank where it flows to the heat rejection system located outside the containment. This completes the flow circuit for normal operations. During off-normal conditions, forced convection water cooling in the RCCS is presumed to be lost, as well as the ultimate heat sink outside the containment. In this case, water is passively drawn from an open line located at the bottom of the header tank. This line is orificed so that flow bypass during normal operations is small, yet the line is large enough to provide adequate flow during passive operations to remove decay heat while maintaining acceptable fuel temperatures. In the passive operating mode, water flows by natural convection from the bottom of the supply tank to the standpipes, and returns through the normal pathway to the top of the tanks. After the water reaches saturation and boiling commences, steam will pass through the top of the tanks and be vented to atmosphere. In the experiment system shown in Fig. 4, a steam condensation and collection system is included to quantify the boiling rate, thereby providing additional validation data. This sys

  11. Conceptual design description for the tritium recovery system for the US ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) Li sub 2 O/Be water cooled blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, P.A.; Sze, D.K. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA). Fusion Power Program); Clemmer, R.G. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-11-01

    The tritium recovery system for the US ITER Li{sub 2}O/Be water cooled blanket processes two separate helium purge streams to recover tritium from the Li{sub 2}O zones and the Be zones of the blanket, to process the waste products, and to recirculate the helium back to the blanket. The components are selected to minimize the tritium inventory of the recovery system, and to minimize waste products. The system is robust to either an increase in the tritium release rate or to an in-leak of water in the purge system. Three major components were used to process these streams, first, 5A molecular sieves at {minus}196{degree}C separate hydrogen from the helium, second, a solid oxide electrolysis unit is used to reduce all molecular water, and third, a palladium/silver diffuser is used to ensure that only hydrogen (H{sub 2}, HT) species reach the cryogenic distillation unit. Other units are present to recover tritium from waste products but the three major components are the basis of the blanket tritium recovery system. 32 refs.

  12. Conceptual design description for the tritium recovery system for the US ITER Li sub 2 O/Be water cooled blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, P.A.; Sze, D.K. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Clemmer, R.G. (Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    The tritium recovery system for the US ITER Li{sub 2}O/Be water cooled blanket processes two separate helium purge streams to recovery tritium from the Li{sub 2}O zones and the Be zones of the blanket, to process the waste products, and to recirculate the helium back to the blanket. The components are selected to minimize the tritium inventory of the recovery system, and to minimize waste products. The system is robust to either an increase in the tritium release rate or to an in-leak of water in the purge system. Three major components were used to process these streams, first, 5A molecular sieves at {minus}196{degree}C separate hydrogen from the helium, second, a solid oxide electrolysis unit is used to reduce all molecular water, and third, a palladium/silver diffuser is used to ensure that only hydrogen (H{sub 2}, HT) species reach the cryogenic distillation unit. The total tritium process inventory is 20g. The total capital cost is {approximately}$14M. Technical advantages of a solid oxide electrolysis unit and a palladium/silver diffuser are presented. 5 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. "Hot" for Warm Water Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    IBM Corporation; Energy Efficient HPC Working Group; Hewlett Packard Corporation; SGI; Cray Inc.; Intel Corporation; U.S. Army Engineer Research Development Center; Coles, Henry; Ellsworth, Michael; Martinez, David J.; Bailey, Anna-Maria; Banisadr, Farhad; Bates, Natalie; Coghlan, Susan; Cowley, David E.; Dube, Nicholas; Fields, Parks; Greenberg, Steve; Iyengar, Madhusudan; Kulesza, Peter R.; Loncaric, Josip; McCann, Tim; Pautsch, Greg; Patterson, Michael K.; Rivera, Richard G.; Rottman, Greg K.; Sartor, Dale; Tschudi, William; Vinson, Wade; Wescott, Ralph

    2011-08-26

    Liquid cooling is key to reducing energy consumption for this generation of supercomputers and remains on the roadmap for the foreseeable future. This is because the heat capacity of liquids is orders of magnitude larger than that of air and once heat has been transferred to a liquid, it can be removed from the datacenter efficiently. The transition from air to liquid cooling is an inflection point providing an opportunity to work collectively to set guidelines for facilitating the energy efficiency of liquid-cooled High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities and systems. The vision is to use non-compressor-based cooling, to facilitate heat re-use, and thereby build solutions that are more energy-efficient, less carbon intensive and more cost effective than their air-cooled predecessors. The Energy Efficient HPC Working Group is developing guidelines for warmer liquid-cooling temperatures in order to standardize facility and HPC equipment, and provide more opportunity for reuse of waste heat. This report describes the development of those guidelines.

  14. Key achievements in elementary R&D on water-cooled solid breeder blanket for ITER test blanket module in JAERI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, S.; Enoeda, M.; Hatano, T.; Hirose, T.; Hayashi, K.; Tanigawa, H.; Ochiai, K.; Nishitani, T.; Tobita, K.; Akiba, M.

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents the significant progress made in the research and development (R&D) of key technologies on the water-cooled solid breeder blanket for the ITER test blanket modules in JAERI. Development of module fabrication technology, bonding technology of armours, measurement of thermo-mechanical properties of pebble beds, neutronics studies on a blanket module mockup and tritium release behaviour from a Li2TiO3 pebble bed under neutron-pulsed operation conditions are summarized. With the improvement of the heat treatment process for blanket module fabrication, a fine-grained microstructure of F82H can be obtained by homogenizing it at 1150 °C followed by normalizing it at 930 °C after the hot isostatic pressing process. Moreover, a promising bonding process for a tungsten armour and an F82H structural material was developed using a solid-state bonding method based on uniaxial hot compression without any artificial compliant layer. As a result of high heat flux tests of F82H first wall mockups, it has been confirmed that a fatigue lifetime correlation, which was developed for the ITER divertor, can be made applicable for the F82H first wall mockup. As for R&D on the breeder material, Li2TiO3, the effect of compression loads on effective thermal conductivity of pebble beds has been clarified for the Li2TiO3 pebble bed. The tritium breeding ratio of a simulated multi-layer blanket structure has successfully been measured using 14 MeV neutrons with an accuracy of 10%. The tritium release rate from the Li2TiO3 pebble has also been successfully measured with pulsed neutron irradiation, which simulates ITER operation.

  15. Reliable high-power diode lasers: thermo-mechanical fatigue aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Genady Klumel; Yaakov Gridish; Igor Szafranek; Yoram Karni

    2006-01-01

    High power water-cooled diode lasers are finding increasing demand in biomedical, cosmetic and industrial applications, where repetitive cw (continuous wave) and pulsed cw operation modes are required. When operating in such modes, the lasers experience numerous complete thermal cycles between \\

  16. Evaluation of coal-gasification - combustion-turbine power plants emphasizing low water consumption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Cavazo; A. B. Clemmer; J. A. de la Mora; J. R. Grisso; H. W. Klumpe; R. E. Meissner; A. Musso; T. R. Roszkowski

    1982-01-01

    A cost and performance study was made of several integrated power plants using coal gasification technology now in advanced development and combustion turbines for power generation. The principal emphasis was placed on studying plants using air cooling and comparing costs and performance of those plants with water-cooled coal gasification-combined-cycle (GCC) and conventional coal-fired power plants. The major objective was to

  17. Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbett, R.

    1984-01-01

    The space station requires an increase in power or energy of at least several orders of magnitude compared to previous space missions. With the requirement up in the range of 10 kilowatt hours, this obviiously requires the development of new technology. Although the power area is very well integrated in the spacecraft itself, it represents a diverse set of components necessary for energy conversion, electronics, and energy distribution. Considerable work is ongoing at NASA Lewis in the power devices development area, including transformers, large area solid-state chips, transistors, and fast recovery diodes. This work is oriented toward eventual application to both AC and DC power conversion approaches. In the energy storage area, there are many options available to fit into the space station representing various degrees of risk and leverage combination, such as the near-term integral-pressure-vessel nickel hydrogen battery, an advanced Ni-H2 battery concept, and the regenrative hydrogen-oxygen system utilizing essentially the Shuttle orbiter type of fuel cell.

  18. REVIEW: High-power CO lasers in Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrei A. Ionin

    1993-01-01

    The research-and-development effort on CO lasers and applications of these lasers in Russia are reviewed. Various types of cw, pulsed, and periodic-pulse CO lasers have been developed in various laboratories. Sealed-off, water-cooled cw CO lasers with an output power of 5-10 W, pumped by a self-sustained electric discharge, are being used successfully in the manufacture of electronic devices and in

  19. Magnetic Detection of Microstructure Change in Power Plant Steels

    E-print Network

    Yardley, Victoria Anne

    2003-07-12

    Pump Cooling water Cooling water Electrical output Condenser Reheat Coal Boiler Superheater Ash HP IP/LP Figure 2.1: Schematic of a power plant steam cycle. After Cole, 2000. towards further increases (Masuyama, 2001). Steam turbines may be expected... Brian Shaw and Mr Mohamed Blaow of Newcastle University in allowing me to use their Barkhausen noise measure- ment apparatus and to benefit from their expertise. I am also grateful to Dr Matthias Gester, Professor Brian Tanner, the late Dr Patrick Squire...

  20. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HâO AND DâO AS MODERATORS FOR HETEROGENEOUS PRESSURIZED REACTORS FOR PRODUCTION OF PLUTONIUM AND USEFUL POWER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weisner

    1952-01-01

    An attempt is made to compare the relative merits of light and heavy ; water as moderating materials for pressurized, uranium-fueled reactors which ; operate at temperatures high enough to enable useful power to be generated. ; Because of the inherent need for pressurization with water moderated reactors, in ; which the moderator operates above its atmospheric saturation temperature, and

  1. Optimization of the Materials Composition in External Core Catchers for Nuclear Reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. N. Mineev; F. A. Akopov; A. S. Vlasov; Yu. A. Zeigarnik; O. M. Traktuev

    2002-01-01

    Existing schemes of core melt retention apparatus for water-cooled water-moderated nuclear reactors are analyzed. In-shaft variants of melt catchers at nuclear power plants with VVÉR-1000 reactors are proposed. It is shown that TiO2- and Nd2O3-based materials increase the operational reliability of the retention apparatus by modifying the processes occurring in the melt and by preserving the integrity of refractory coatings

  2. Thrust stand for high-power electric propulsion devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, T. W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a new high-power thrust stand developed for use with high-power (up to 250 kW) magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters, which is installed in a high-vacuum MPD facility at Lewis Research Center. The design of the stand is based on inverted pendulum configuration, with the result of large displacements and high resolution. Calibration results showed that thrust measurements were linear and repeatable to within a fraction of 1 percent. The thrust stand was used for testing water-cooled MPD thrusters at power levels up to 125 kW. The thruster, however, is quite well suited for testing other types of electric propulsion devices.

  3. High power radio frequency attenuation device

    DOEpatents

    Kerns, Quentin A. (Bloomingdale, IL); Miller, Harold W. (Winfield, IL)

    1984-01-01

    A resistor device for attenuating radio frequency power includes a radio frequency conductor connected to a series of fins formed of high relative magnetic permeability material. The fins are dimensional to accommodate the skin depth of the current conduction therethrough, as well as an inner heat conducting portion where current does not travel. Thermal connections for air or water cooling are provided for the inner heat conducting portions of each fin. Also disclosed is a resistor device to selectively alternate unwanted radio frequency energy in a resonant cavity.

  4. Diversion assumptions for high-powered research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Binford, F.T.

    1984-01-01

    This study deals with diversion assumptions for high-powered research reactors -- specifically, MTR fuel; pool- or tank-type research reactors with light-water moderator; and water, beryllium, or graphite reflectors, and which have a power level of 25 MW(t) or more. The objective is to provide assistance to the IAEA in documentation of criteria and inspection observables related to undeclared plutonium production in the reactors described above, including: criteria for undeclared plutonium production, necessary design information for implementation of these criteria, verification guidelines including neutron physics and heat transfer, and safeguards measures to facilitate the detection of undeclared plutonium production at large research reactors.

  5. Thermodynamic Analysis of the Use a Chemical Heat Pump to Link a Supercritical Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactor and a Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycle for Hydrogen Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granovskii, Mikhail; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.; Pioro, Igor

    Increases in the power generation efficiency of nuclear power plants (NPPs) are mainly limited by the permissible temperatures in nuclear reactors and the corresponding temperatures and pressures of the coolants in reactors. Coolant parameters are limited by the corrosion rates of materials and nuclear-reactor safety constraints. The advanced construction materials for the next generation of CANDU reactors, which employ supercritical water (SCW) as a coolant and heat carrier, permit improved “steam” parameters (outlet temperatures up to 625°C and pressures of about 25 MPa). An increase in the temperature of steam allows it to be utilized in thermochemical water splitting cycles to produce hydrogen. These methods are considered by many to be among the most efficient ways to produce hydrogen from water and to have advantages over traditional low-temperature water electrolysis. However, even lower temperature water splitting cycles (Cu-Cl, UT-3, etc.) require an intensive heat supply at temperatures higher than 550-600°C. A sufficient increase in the heat transfer from the nuclear reactor to a thermochemical water splitting cycle, without jeopardizing nuclear reactor safety, might be effectively achieved by application of a heat pump, which increases the temperature of the heat supplied by virtue of a cyclic process driven by mechanical or electrical work. Here, a high-temperature chemical heat pump, which employs the reversible catalytic methane conversion reaction, is proposed. The reaction shift from exothermic to endothermic and back is achieved by a change of the steam concentration in the reaction mixture. This heat pump, coupled with the second steam cycle of a SCW nuclear power generation plant on one side and a thermochemical water splitting cycle on the other, increases the temperature of the “nuclear” heat and, consequently, the intensity of heat transfer into the water splitting cycle. A comparative preliminary thermodynamic analysis is conducted of the combined system comprising a SCW nuclear power generation plant and a chemical heat pump, which provides high-temperature heat to a thermochemical water splitting cycle for hydrogen production. It is concluded that the proposed chemical heat pump permits the utilization efficiency of nuclear energy to be improved by at least 2% without jeopardizing nuclear reactor safety. Based on this analysis, further research appears to be merited on the proposed advanced design of a nuclear power generation plant combined with a chemical heat pump, and implementation in appropriate applications seems worthwhile.

  6. Study of high power laser mirror shape maintenance technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Wang, Feng; Liu, Shunfu; Deng, Songwen; Sun, Tianxiang; Liu, Yushi; Zhang, Zengbao; Sun, Long; Jin, Yuqi

    2015-02-01

    With the laser power and operation time increasing, the surface distortion of the laser cavity mirrors has been a critical problem to be resolved. In order to maintain the mirror shape under intense laser irradiation, in this paper, a new type of micro channel silicon water cooled mirror is given. The water cooled mirror includes three layers, the first layer is mirror seat made of Invar materials with water inlet and outlet, the second layer is water manifold unit made of silicon with millimeter channels; the third layer is reflection plate with micro-channels. These three layers are bonded together by vacuum soldering. Then the thickness of the reflection plate is reduced to 0.5mm by grinding, and polished by traditional pitch polishing method. In order to reduce the coating stress, conventional all dielectric coating is replaced by a metal dielectric film stack. At last, a 100mm×100mm water cooled mirror is fabricated with surface figure 0.22?@632.8 nm. The mirror surface distortion is 0.12??0.24??0.33 ? respectively corresponding to 7.3w/cm2 ?11.9 w/cm2 ?17.6 w/cm2 heat load.

  7. Research on control strategy and integrated power-train system as shifting progress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sun Wentao; Chen Huiyan

    2008-01-01

    Based on BF6M1015CP electronic diesel engine (it is a supercharged, water-cooled engine. It has 6 cylinders and it is for heavy-duty vehicle) and HD4070PR electronic automatic transmission (it covers heavy-duty applications requiring high input horsepower and torque. It contains torque converter module, control module, planetary module and output module. It has 7 forward gears and a power-take -off (PTO) and

  8. Overview of the STARFIRE reference commercial Tokamak fusion power reactor design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, C. C.; Abdou, M. A.; Defreece, D. A.; Trachsel, C. A.; Graumann, D.; Barry, K.

    A design concept for a commercial Tokamak fusion electric power plant based on the deuterium/tritium/lithium fuel cycle is discussed. The major features include a steady-state operating mode based on a continuous RF lower-hybrid current drive and auxiliary heating, solid tritium breeder material, pressurized water cooling, limiter/vacuum system for impurity control and exhaust, high tritium burnup, superconducting poloidal coils outside the toroidal field superconducting coils, fully remote maintenance, and a low-activation shield.

  9. Assessment of Evaporative Cooling Enhancement Methods for Air-Cooled Geothermal Power Plants: Preprint

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Kutscher; D. Costenaro

    2002-01-01

    Many binary-cycle geothermal power plants are air cooled because insufficient water is available to provide year-round water cooling. The performance of air-cooled geothermal plants is highly dependent on the dry bulb temperature of the air (much more so than fossil fuel plants that operate at higher boiler temperatures), and plant electric output can drop by 50% or more on hot

  10. Modification of film structure by plasma potential control using triode high power pulsed magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Takeo; Umahashi, Takuya; Baba, Shigeru

    2014-02-01

    We have designed a new triode configuration in a magnetron sputtering apparatus to control the plasma potential of the discharge. An additional chimney electrode was introduced above the conventional sputter gun to apply a positive voltage. The discharge power was provided by a pulse power source to achieve high power pulsed magnetron sputtering operation. We confirmed that the plasma potential increased with increasing positive electrode voltage. Copper films with substantially flatter surfaces could be obtained on a water-cooled and electrically grounded substrate at an Ar gas pressure of 5 Pa.

  11. High-power radio-frequency attenuation device

    DOEpatents

    Kerns, Q.A.; Miller, H.W.

    1981-12-30

    A resistor device for attenuating radio frequency power includes a radio frequency conductor connected to a series of fins formed of high relative magnetic permeability material. The fins are dimensional to accommodate the skin depth of the current conduction therethrough, as well as an inner heat conducting portion where current does not travel. Thermal connections for air or water cooling are provided for the inner heat conducting portions of each fin. Also disclosed is a resistor device to selectively alternate unwanted radio frequency energy in a resonant cavity.

  12. Completely automated nuclear reactors for long-term operation II: toward a conceptual-level point design of a high-temperature, gas-cooled central power station system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Teller; M. Ishikawa; L. Wood; R. Hyde; J. Nuckolls

    1996-01-01

    We discuss a new type of nuclear fission power reactor optimized for the generation of heat for use in obviously safe, economic, and long- duration electricity production in large central power stations. These reactors are fundamentally different in design, implementation, and operation from conventional light-water-cooled and- moderated reactors (LWRs) currently in widespread use. they feature a low- average-enrichment initial fuel

  13. Improving Photovoltaic Module Efficiency Using Water Cooling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saad Odeh; Masud Behnia

    2009-01-01

    An effective way of improving efficiency and reducing the rate of thermal degradation of a photovoltaic (PV) module is by reducing the operating temperature of its surface. This can be achieved by cooling the module and reducing the heat stored inside the PV cells during operation. In this paper, long-term performance modeling of a proposed solar-water pumping system is carried

  14. Salt water cooling tower retrofit experience

    SciTech Connect

    Rittenhouse, R.C.

    1994-06-01

    This article describes the experience of engineers at Atlantic Electric Co. with a recent cooling tower fill retrofit at the company's B.L. England Station, Unit 3. Note that this tower is unique. It is the first natural draft salt water tower to be built in the United States. Unit 3's closed-loop saltwater cooling system features a double condenser and two 50% capacity horizontal circulating water pumps. A natural draft cooling tower rejects heat to the atmosphere through evaporation and sensible heat transfer. The tower is 180 ft in diameter at the base and 208 ft high, and features a counterflow design. It was designed to cool 63,500 gpm of circulating salt water through a range of 26 F with an approach of 19.2 degrees at an ambient wet bulb temperature of 76 F and 60% relative humidity. A drift rate of 0.002% of circulating water flow was specified to avoid excessive salt water carryover.

  15. Salt water cooling tower retrofit experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rittenhouse

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the experience of engineers at Atlantic Electric Co. with a recent cooling tower fill retrofit at the company's B.L. England Station, Unit 3. Note that this tower is unique. It is the first natural draft salt water tower to be built in the United States. Unit 3's closed-loop saltwater cooling system features a double condenser and two

  16. Microchannel water cooling for LTCC based microsystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang-Fei Zhang; Jia-Qi Chen; Shu-Lin Bai; Yu-Feng Jin; Min Miao; Jing Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The heat dissipation of six different types of microchannel networks integrated in LTCC based microsystems has been investigated by experimental measurement and simulation analysis, including straight, serpentine, spiral and fractal-shaped microchannel networks of curve, I-shaped and parallel. The cross section of microchannel is 200 ¿m ?? 200 ¿m and the total length is about 200 mm. The water mass flow

  17. Diversion assumptions for high-powered research reactors. ISPO C-50 Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Binford, F.T.

    1984-01-01

    This study deals with diversion assumptions for high-powered research reactors -- specifically, MTR fuel; pool- or tank-type research reactors with light-water moderator; and water, beryllium, or graphite reflectors, and which have a power level of 25 MW(t) or more. The objective is to provide assistance to the IAEA in documentation of criteria and inspection observables related to undeclared plutonium production in the reactors described above, including: criteria for undeclared plutonium production, necessary design information for implementation of these criteria, verification guidelines including neutron physics and heat transfer, and safeguards measures to facilitate the detection of undeclared plutonium production at large research reactors.

  18. New Concepts For High Power ICRF Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosia, G.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents new concepts for Ion Cyclotron Heating antennas based on cascaded sequences of tuned radiating structures. It is shown that, in large arrays, such as the ones proposed for fusion reactors applications, these schemes offer, in principle, a number of desirable features, such as operation at power density significantly higher than currently adopted systems, at equal maximum voltage and array geometry, simple mechanical layout, suitable for water cooling, a compact impedance tuning system, passive decoupling of the array elements, single ended or balanced feed from two power sources. The antenna layout also allows the remote, real time measurement of the complex impedance of the radiating elements and the detection, location, and measurement of the complex admittance of arcs occurring anywhere in the structure, as discussed in [1].

  19. Spallator: a new option for nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.; Grand, P.; Takahashi, H.; Powell, J.R.; Kouts, H.J.

    1983-06-01

    The principles of the spallator reactor are reviewed. Advances in linear accelerator technology allow the design and construction of high current (hundreds of mA) continuous wave high energy (thousands of MeV) proton machines in the near term. Spallation neutronic calculations building on existing experimental results, indicate substantial neutron yields on uranium targets. Spallator target assembly designs based on water cooled reactor technology indicate operable efficient systems. Fuel cycles are presented which supply fissile material to thermal power reactors and reduce fission product waste. Preliminary comparative analysis indicates an economically competitive system in which a single purpose self-sufficient spallator supplies fuel to a number of LWRs. The spallator assures a long-term LWR power reactor economy. International interest in advancing the technology is indicated.

  20. New Concepts For High Power ICRF Antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Bosia, G. [Department of Physics University of Turin (Italy)

    2011-12-23

    This paper presents new concepts for Ion Cyclotron Heating antennas based on cascaded sequences of tuned radiating structures. It is shown that, in large arrays, such as the ones proposed for fusion reactors applications, these schemes offer, in principle, a number of desirable features, such as operation at power density significantly higher than currently adopted systems, at equal maximum voltage and array geometry, simple mechanical layout, suitable for water cooling, a compact impedance tuning system, passive decoupling of the array elements, single ended or balanced feed from two power sources. The antenna layout also allows the remote, real time measurement of the complex impedance of the radiating elements and the detection, location, and measurement of the complex admittance of arcs occurring anywhere in the structure, as discussed in [1].

  1. Advancements in high-power diode laser stacks for defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Rajiv; Merchen, David; Stapleton, Dean; Patterson, Steve; Kissel, Heiko; Fassbender, Wilhlem; Biesenbach, Jens

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports on the latest advancements in vertical high-power diode laser stacks using micro-channel coolers, which deliver the most compact footprint, power scalability and highest power/bar of any diode laser package. We present electro-optical (E-O) data on water-cooled stacks with wavelengths ranging from 7xx nm to 9xx nm and power levels of up to 5.8kW, delivered @ 200W/bar, CW mode, and a power-conversion efficiency of >60%, with both-axis collimation on a bar-to-bar pitch of 1.78mm. Also, presented is E-O data on a compact, conductively cooled, hardsoldered, stack package based on conventional CuW and AlN materials, with bar-to-bar pitch of 1.8mm, delivering average power/bar >15W operating up to 25% duty cycle, 10ms pulses @ 45C. The water-cooled stacks can be used as pump-sources for diode-pumped alkali lasers (DPALs) or for more traditional diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSL). which are power/brightness scaled for directed energy weapons applications and the conductively-cooled stacks as illuminators.

  2. High-power diode-side-pumped rod Tm:YAG laser at 2.07 ?m.

    PubMed

    Wang, Caili; Niu, Yanxiong; Du, Shifeng; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Zhichao; Li, Fangqin; Xu, Jialin; Bo, Yong; Peng, Qinjun; Cui, Dafu; Zhang, Jingyuan; Xu, Zuyan

    2013-11-01

    We report a high-power diode-laser (LD) side-pumped rod Tm:YAG laser of around 2 ?m. The laser was water-cooled at 8°C and yielded a maximum output power of 267 W at 2.07 ?m, which is the highest output power for an all solid-state cw 2.07 ?m rod Tm:YAG laser reported as far as we know. The corresponding optical-optical conversion efficiency was 20.7%, and the slope efficiency was about 29.8%, respectively. PMID:24216648

  3. Newly developed high-power laser diode bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, Nobuto; Morita, Takenori; Torii, Kousuke; Takauji, Motoki; Nagakura, Takehito; Maeda, Junya; Miyajima, Hirofumi; Yoshida, Harumasa

    2012-03-01

    High Power Laser Diode (LD) modules are widely used as high-brightness light sources for pumping solid-state lasers and for direct diode laser processing utilizing a compact feature. The LD bars installed in modules are required with higher output power, efficiency and beam quality. We have optimized the LD bar structure for high output power and efficient operation. The water-cooled heat sink has been designed for excellent thermal performance as well as long-term stable cooling performance. We have also developed the thermal expansion controlled assembly technique to suppress the "smile". As a result, we have achieved an output power of over 200 W and a conversion efficiency of 58% from 940 nm LD bars under continuous wave (CW) operation with very low smile of 0.8 ?m.

  4. Water-Moderated and -Reflected Slabs of Uranium Oxyfluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs; Clinton Gross

    2010-09-01

    A series of ten experiments were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiment Facility in December 1955, and January 1956, in an attempt to determine critical conditions for a slab of aqueous uranium oxyfluoride (UO2F2). These experiments were recorded in an Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Logbook and results were published in a journal of the American Nuclear Society, Nuclear Science and Engineering, by J. K. Fox, L. W. Gilley, and J. H. Marable (Reference 1). The purpose of these experiments was to obtain the minimum critical thickness of an effectively infinite slab of UO2F2 solution by extrapolation of experimental data. To do this the slab thickness was varied and critical solution and water-reflector heights were measured using two different fuel solutions. Of the ten conducted experiments eight of the experiments reached critical conditions but the results of only six of the experiments were published in Reference 1. All ten experiments were evaluated from which five critical configurations were judged as acceptable criticality safety benchmarks. The total uncertainty in the acceptable benchmarks is between 0.25 and 0.33 % ?k/keff. UO2F2 fuel is also evaluated in HEU-SOL-THERM-043, HEU-SOL-THERM-011, and HEU-SOL-THERM-012, but these those evaluation reports are for large reflected and unreflected spheres. Aluminum cylinders of UO2F2 are evaluated in HEU-SOL-THERM-050.

  5. Overview of the STARFIRE reference commercial tokamak fusion power reactor design

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, C.C.; Abdou, M.A.; DeFreece, D.A.; Trachsel, C.A.; Graumann, D.; Barry, K.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the STARFIRE study is to develop a design concept for a commercial tokamak fusion electric power plant based on the deuterium/tritium/lithium fuel cycle. The major features for STARFIRE include a steady-state operating mode based on a continuous rf lower-hybrid current drive and auxiliary heating, solid tritium breeder material, pressurized water cooling, limiter/vacuum system for impurity control and exhaust, high tritium burnup, superconducting EF coils outside the TF superconducting coils, fully remote maintenance, and a low-activation shield.

  6. Evolution of the core physics concept for the Canadian supercritical water reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Pencer, J.; Colton, A.; Wang, X.; Gaudet, M.; Hamilton, H.; Yetisir, M. [Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd., Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The supercritical water cooled reactor (SCWR) is one of the advanced reactor concepts chosen by the GEN-IV International Forum (GIF) for research and development efforts. Canada's contribution is the Canadian SCWR, a heavy water moderated, pressure tube supercritical light water cooled reactor. Recent developments in the SCWR lattice and core concepts, primarily the introduction of a large central flow tube filled with coolant combined with a two-ring fuel assembly, have enabled significant improvements compared to earlier concepts. These improvements include a reduction in coolant void reactivity (CVR) by more than 10 mk, and an almost 40% increase in fuel exit burnup, which is achieved via balanced power distribution between the fuel pins in the fuel assembly. In this paper the evolution of the physics concept is reviewed, and the present lattice and core physics concepts are presented.

  7. A novel power block for CSP systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mittelman, Gur [ASP Ltd., Advanced Solar Power, Industrial Zone, Be'er Tuviyya (Israel); Epstein, Michael [Solar Research Facilities Unit, Weizmann Institute of Science (Israel)

    2010-10-15

    Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) and in particular parabolic trough, is a proven large-scale solar power technology. However, CSP cost is not yet competitive with conventional alternatives unless subsidized. Current CSP plants typically include a condensing steam cycle power block which was preferably designed for a continuous operation and higher operating conditions and therefore, limits the overall plant cost effectiveness and deployment. The drawbacks of this power block are as follows: (i) no power generation during low insolation periods (ii) expensive, large condenser (typically water cooled) due to the poor extracted steam properties (high specific volume, sub-atmospheric pressure) and (iii) high installation and operation costs. In the current study, a different power block scheme is proposed to eliminate these obstacles. This power block includes a top Rankine cycle with a back pressure steam turbine and a bottoming Kalina cycle comprising another back pressure turbine and using ammonia-water mixture as a working fluid. The bottoming (moderate temperature) cycle allows power production during low insolation periods. Because of the superior ammonia-water vapor properties, the condensing system requirements are much less demanding and the operation costs are lowered. Accordingly, air cooled condensers can be used with lower economical penalty. Another advantage is that back pressure steam turbines have a less complex design than condensing steam turbines which make their costs lower. All of these improvements could make the combined cycle unit more cost effective. This unit can be applicable in both parabolic trough and central receiver (solar tower) plants. The potential advantage of the new power block is illustrated by a detailed techno-economical analysis of two 50 MW parabolic trough power plants, comparing between the standard and the novel power block. The results indicate that the proposed plant suggests a 4-11% electricity cost saving. (author)

  8. A high average power beam dump for an electron accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianghong; Bazarov, Ivan; Dunham, Bruce M.; Kostroun, Vaclav O.; Li, Yulin; Smolenski, Karl W.

    2013-05-01

    The electron beam dump for Cornell University's Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) prototype injector was designed and manufactured to absorb 600 kW of electron beam power at beam energies between 5 and 15 MeV. It is constructed from an aluminum alloy using a cylindrical/conical geometry, with water cooling channels between an inner vacuum chamber and an outer jacket. The electron beam is defocused and its centroid is rastered around the axis of the dump to dilute the power density. A flexible joint connects the inner body and the outer jacket to minimize thermal stress. A quadrant detector at the entrance to the dump monitors the electron beam position and rastering. Electron scattering calculations, thermal and thermomechanical stress analysis, and radiation calculations are presented.

  9. An improved method for stripping cladding light in high power fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tenglong; Wu, Juan; Sun, Yinghong; Wang, Yanshan; Ma, Yi

    2015-02-01

    In order to ensure the high power all-fiber laser reliability and excellent beam quality, it is necessary to strip the unwanted cladding light. The common method for stripping cladding light is to recoat the double cladding fiber with a high index gel, but localized heating and low thermal conductivity of the recoating gel are the prime factors limiting the power-handling capability of the cladding power stripper(CPS). An improved fabrication technique to manufacture the CPS is presented. Light stripping section of the fiber is fused with a transparent quartz tube, by applying different amount of etchant along the quartz tube, frosted surface is created and uniformly removal of the cladding light is achieved. The quartz tube is joined to water-cooled thermal enclosure tightly without the gel to avoid heat aggregation. The power-handling capability of the device is tested under 200W of cladding light, and attenuation of 20 dB is achieved.

  10. Final design of the control and auxiliary systems for the Balcones 60 MJ homopolar pulse power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildenbrand, D. J.; Pichot, M. A.; Price, J. H.

    1986-11-01

    Design criteria and features of a 60 MJ pulse power supply to be operated at the Center for Electromechanics at the University of Texas are described. The system is driven by six 10 MJ homopolar generators (HPG) which can be operated in series, in parallel, or in combination configurations. Component modularity, operational dependability, repetition rate, maintainability, drive train simplicity and failsafe operation criteria were met in the final design. The generators have removable brush assemblies and water cooled field coil assemblies and hydrostatic bearings. A block diagram is provided of the control I-O architecture and back-up systems and operational procedures are outlined.

  11. STARFIRE: a commercial tokamak fusion power plant study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    STARFIRE is a 1200 MWe central station fusion electric power plant that utilizes a deuterium-tritium fueled tokamak reactor as a heat source. Emphasis has been placed on developing design features which will provide for simpler assembly and maintenance, and improved safety and environmental characteristics. The major features of STARFIRE include a steady-state operating mode based on continuous rf lower-hybrid current drive and auxiliary heating, solid tritium breeder material, pressurized water cooling, limiter/vacuum system for impurity control and exhaust, high tritium burnup and low vulnerable tritium inventories, superconducting EF coils outside the superconducting TF coils, fully remote maintenance, and a low-activation shield. A comprehensive conceptual design has been developed including reactor features, support facilities and a complete balance of plant. A construction schedule and cost estimate are presented, as well as study conclusions and recommendations.

  12. Small-Scale Geothermal Power Plant Field Verification Projects: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.

    2001-07-03

    In the spring of 2000, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory issued a Request for Proposal for the construction of small-scale (300 kilowatt [kW] to 1 megawatt [MW]) geothermal power plants in the western United States. Five projects were selected for funding. Of these five, subcontracts have been completed for three, and preliminary design work is being conducted. The three projects currently under contract represent a variety of concepts and locations: a 1-MW evaporatively enhanced, air-cooled binary-cycle plant in Nevada; a 1-MW water-cooled Kalina-cycle plant in New Mexico; and a 750-kW low-temperature flash plant in Utah. All three also incorporate direct heating: onion dehydration, heating for a fish hatchery, and greenhouse heating, respectively. These projects are expected to begin operation between April 2002 and September 2003. In each case, detailed data on performance and costs will be taken over a 3-year period.

  13. A Solar Thermophotovoltaic Electric Generator for Remote Power Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fatemi, Navid S.

    1998-01-01

    We have successfully demonstrated that a solar thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system with a SiC graybody emitter and the monolithic interconnected module device technology can be realized. A custom-designed solar cavity was made to house the SiC emitter and the MIM strings for testing in a Stirling dish solar concentrator. Five 1x1-cm MIMs, with a bandgap of 0.74 eV,were mounted on a specially designed water-cooled heatsink and were electrically connected in series to form a string. Two such strings were fabricated and tested, as well as high-performance 2x2-cm MIMs with a bandgap of 0.74 eV. Very high output power density values between 0.82 and 0.90 W/sq cm were observed for an average emitter temperature of 1501 K.

  14. A Solar Thermophotovoltaic Electric Generator for Remote Power Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fatemi, Navid S.

    1998-01-01

    We have successfully demonstrated that a solar thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system with a SiC graybody emitter and the monolithic interconnected module device technology can be realized. A custom-designed solar cavity was made to house the SiC emitter and the Monolithic Integrated Module (MIM) strings for testing in a Stirling dish solar concentrator. Five 1x1-cm MIMs, with a bandgap of 0.74 eV, were mounted on a specially designed water-cooled heatsink and were electrically connected in series to form a string. Two such strings were fabricated and tested, as well as high-performance 2x2-cm MIMs with a bandgap of 0.74 eV. Very high output power density values between 0.82 and 0.90 W/ square cm were observed for an average emitter temperature of 1501 K.

  15. A new high current laboratory and pulsed homopolar generator power supply at the University of Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floyd, J. E.; Aanstoos, T. A.

    1984-03-01

    The University of Texas at Austin is constructing a facility for research in pulse power technology for the Center for Electromechanics at the Balcones Research Center. The facility, designed to support high-current experiments, will be powered by six homopolar generators, each rated at 10 MJ and arranged to allow matching the requirements of resistive and inductive loads at various voltage and current combinations. Topics covered include the high bay, the power supply configuration and parameters, the speed and field control, and the magnetic circuit. Also considered are the removable air-cooled brushes, the water-cooled field coils, the hydraulic motor sizing and direct coupling, the low-impedance removable field coils, and the hydrostatic bearing design.

  16. NASA Ames Research Center 60 MW Power Supply Modernization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choy, Yuen Ching; Ilinets, Boris V.; Miller, Ted; Nagel, Kirsten (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center 60 MW DC Power Supply was built in 1974 to provide controlled DC power for the Thermophysics Facility Arc Jet Laboratory. The Power Supply has gradually losing reliability due to outdated technology and component life limitation. NASA has decided to upgrade the existing rectifier modules with contemporary high-power electronics and control equipment. NASA plans to complete this project in 2001. This project includes a complete replacement of obsolete thyristor stacks in all six rectifier modules and rectifier bridge control system. High power water-cooled thyristors and freewheeling diodes will be used. The rating of each of the six modules will be 4000 A at 5500 V. The control firing angle signal will be sent from the Facility Control System to six modules via fiberoptic cable. The Power Supply control and monitoring system will include a Master PLC in the Facility building and a Slave PLC in each rectifier module. This system will also monitor each thyristor level in each stack and the auxiliary equipment.

  17. Physical model and experimental results of cathode erosion related to power supply ripple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, W. J.; O'Hair, E. A.; Hatfield, L. L.; Kristiansen, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the physical effects of power supply ripple on cathode erosion and cathode arc attachment in a water-cooled, 30 kW nitrogen arcjet. Experimental results are presented for 2 percent thoriated tungsten, which show that the long-term cathode erosion rate is a decreasing function of current ripple over the range 1-13 percent. Above this range, the cathode discharge becomes unstable, and the erosion rate rapidly increases. A qualitative model of this effect is given in terms of a magnetically induced radial motion of the arc column, and an overall increase in the cathode spot radius due to the higher peak current associated with higher ripple. The most important effect of power supply ripple is therefore shown to be its ability to collectively drive the cathode attachment away from the cathode center. This leads to an increase in the cathode attachment area, and a subsequent decrease in the cathode erosion rate.

  18. Design of a thrust stand for high power electric propulsion devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, Thomas W.

    1989-01-01

    A thrust stand for use with high power electric propulsion devices was designed and tested. The thrust stand was specifically tailored to the needs of a 100 to 250 kW magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster program currently in progress at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The thrust stand structure was built as an inverted pendulum arrangement, supported at the base by water-cooled electrical power flexures. Thrust stand tares due to thruster discharge current were demonstrated to be negligible. Tares due to an applied field magnet current, after considerable effort, were reduced to less than 3.0 percent of measured thrust. These tares, however, could be determined independently and subtracted from the indicated thrust measurement. A detailed description is given for the thrust stand design and operation with a 100 kW class MPD device. Other thrust stand tares due to vibration and thermal effects are discussed, along with issues of accuracy and repeatability.

  19. Design of a thrust stand for high power electric propulsion devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, Thomas W.

    1989-01-01

    A thrust stand for use with high power electric propulsion devices has been designed and tested. The thrust stand was specifically tailored to the needs of a 0.1 to 0.25 MW magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster program currently in progress at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The thrust stand structure was built as an inverted pendulum arrangement, supported at the base by water-cooled electrical power flexures. Thrust stand tares due to thruster discharge current were demonstrated to be negligible. Tares due to an applied field magnet current, after considerable effort, were reduced to less than 3.0 percent of measured thrust. These tares, however, could be determined independently and subtracted from the indicated thrust measurement. The paper gives a detailed description of the thrust stand design and operation with a 0.1 MW class MPD device. Other thrust stand tares due to vibration and thermal effects are discussed, along with issues of accuracy and repeatability.

  20. Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1995-09-01

    A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the risk of reservoir under-performance, and minimize or eliminate emission of pollutants and consumption of surface and ground water. Power plant concepts were analyzed using resource characteristics at ten different geothermal sites located in the western United States. Concepts were developed into viable power plant processes, capital costs were estimated and levelized busbar costs determined. Thus, the study results should be considered as useful indicators of the commercial viability of the various power plants concepts that were investigated. Broadly, the different power plant concepts that were analyzed in this study fall into the following categories: commercial binary and flash plants, advanced binary plants, advanced flash plants, flash/binary hybrid plants, and fossil/geothed hybrid plants. Commercial binary plants were evaluated using commercial isobutane as a working fluid; both air-cooling and water-cooling were considered. Advanced binary concepts included cycles using synchronous turbine-generators, cycles with metastable expansion, and cycles utilizing mixtures as working fluids. Dual flash steam plants were used as the model for the commercial flash cycle. The following advanced flash concepts were examined: dual flash with rotary separator turbine, dual flash with steam reheater, dual flash with hot water turbine, and subatmospheric flash. Both dual flash and binary cycles were combined with other cycles to develop a number of hybrid cycles: dual flash binary bottoming cycle, dual flash backpressure turbine binary cycle, dual flash gas turbine cycle, and binary gas turbine cycle. Results of this study indicate that dual flash type plants are preferred at resources with temperatures above 400 F. Closed loop (binary type) plants are preferred at resources with temperatures below 400 F. A rotary separator turbine upstream of a dual flash plant can be beneficial at Salton Sea, the hottest resource, or at high temperature resources where there is a significant variance in wellhead pressures from well to well. Full scale demonstration is required to verify cost and performance. Hot water turbines that recover energy from the spent brine in a dual flash cycle improve that cycle's brine efficiency. Prototype field tests of this technology have established its technical feasibility. If natural gas prices remain low, a combustion turbine/binary hybrid is an economic option for the lowest temperature sites. The use of mixed fluids appear to be an attractive low risk option. The synchronous turbine option as prepared by Barber-Nichols is attractive but requires a pilot test to prove cost and performance. Dual flash binary bottoming cycles appear promising provided that scaling of the brine/working fluid exchangers is controllable. Metastable expansion, reheater, Subatmospheric flash, dual flash backpressure turbine, and hot dry rock concepts do not seem to offer any cost advantage over the baseline technologies. If implemented, the next generation geothermal power plant concept may improve brine utilization but is unlikely to reduce the cost of power generation by much more than 10%. Colder resources will benefit more from the development of a next generation geothermal power plant than will hotter resources. All values presented in this study for plant cost and for busbar cost of power are relative numbers intended to allow an objective and meaningful comparison of technologies. The goal of this study is to assess various technologies on an common basis and, secondarily, to give an approximate idea of the current costs of the technologies at actual resource sites. Absolute costs at a given site will be determined by the specifics of a given pr

  1. Carbon-14 Source Terms and Generation in Fusion Power Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khripunov, V. I.; Kurbatov, D. K.; Subbotin, M. L.

    2008-12-01

    A consecutive study of the source terms of 14C as the major contributor to the external costs of fusion and its production rate was performed by system and neutron activation analysis. It shows that the specific 14C activity induced in the low activation structural materials, coolants and breeders suggested for future fusion power reactor cores is significantly dependent upon the assumption for nitrogen content. The determined range of the specific 14C activity ˜2-20 TBq/GW(e)a induced by the near-term water-cooled, gas-cooled and advanced liquid lithium and lithium-lead self-cooled fusion power reactors is given in the paper regarding the values for natural 14C background and artificial 14C sources as fission power reactors and nuclear tests. It is definitely recommended to minimize the nitrogen content below 0.01 wt.% in the beryllium multipliers and in the structural materials, SiC/SiC composite including. Then due to environmental and waste disposal reasons the 14C generation in fusion power blankets will have negligible impact on the cost.

  2. Klystron Cluster Scheme for ILC High Power RF Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Nantista, Christopher; Adolphsen, Chris; /SLAC

    2009-07-06

    We present a concept for powering the main linacs of the International Linear Collider (ILC) by delivering high power RF from the surface via overmoded, low-loss waveguides at widely spaced intervals. The baseline design employs a two-tunnel layout, with klystrons and modulators evenly distributed along a service tunnel running parallel to the accelerator tunnel. This new idea eliminates the need for the service tunnel. It also brings most of the warm heat load to the surface, dramatically reducing the tunnel water cooling and HVAC requirements. In the envisioned configuration, groups of 70 klystrons and modulators are clustered in surface buildings every 2.5 km. Their outputs are combined into two half-meter diameter circular TE{sub 01} mode evacuated waveguides. These are directed via special bends through a deep shaft and along the tunnel, one upstream and one downstream. Each feeds approximately 1.25 km of linac with power tapped off in 10 MW portions at 38 m intervals. The power is extracted through a novel coaxial tap-off (CTO), after which the local distribution is as it would be from a klystron. The tap-off design is also employed in reverse for the initial combining.

  3. Anode arc motion in high power arcjets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, W. J.; O'Hair, E. A.; Hatfield, L. L.; Kristiansen, M.; Mankins, J. S.

    1992-01-01

    The long-term operational lifetime of most medium to high power arcjets is currently limited by the rapid deterioration of the arcjet electrodes. To a large extent, the rate of this deterioration is related to the motion of the arc discharge on the electrode surfaces. This paper details a series of experiments aimed at studying the temporal behavior of dc arcs on a water-cooled radially-segmented 30 kW class arcjet anode. The experimental anode used for these tests was made of copper, and was divided into four equivalent radial segments which were electrically isolated with aluminum oxide gaskets. The current carried by each segment was measured independently using four calibrated resistive shunts, and was analyzed by digital computer. The tests were limited to nitrogen propellant over a current range of 100-250 A dc. Results show that for the range of total currents considered here, the current distribution in the segmented arcjet anode is generally asymmetric, exhibiting random fluctuations over a wide range of frequencies.

  4. Low-pressure water-cooled inductively coupled plasma torch

    DOEpatents

    Seliskar, C.J.; Warner, D.K.

    1984-02-16

    An inductively coupled plasma torch is provided which comprises an inner tube, including a sample injection port to which the sample to be tested is supplied and comprising an enlarged central portion in which the plasma flame is confined; an outer tube surrounding the inner tube and containing water therein for cooling the inner tube, the outer tube including a water inlet port to which water is supplied and a water outlet port spaced from the water inlet port and from which water is removed after flowing through the outer tube; and an rf induction coil for inducing the plasma in the gas passing into the tube through the sample injection port. The sample injection port comprises a capillary tube including a reduced diameter orifice, projecting into the lower end of the inner tube. The water inlet is located at the lower end of the outer tube and the rf heating coil is disposed around the outer tube above and adjacent to the water inlet.

  5. Low-pressure water-cooled inductively coupled plasma torch

    DOEpatents

    Seliskar, Carl J. (Cincinnati, OH); Warner, David K. (Centerville, OH)

    1988-12-27

    An inductively coupled plasma torch is provided which comprises an inner tube, including a sample injection port to which the sample to be tested is supplied and comprising an enlarged central portion in which the plasma flame is confined; an outer tube surrounding the inner tube and containing water therein for cooling the inner tube, the outer tube including a water inlet port to which water is supplied and a water outlet port spaced from the water inlet port and from which water is removed after flowing through the outer tube; and an r.f. induction coil for inducing the plasma in the gas passing into the tube through the sample injection port. The sample injection port comprises a capillary tube including a reduced diameter orifice, projecting into the lower end of the inner tube. The water inlet is located at the lower end of the outer tube and the r.f. heating coil is disposed around the outer tube above and adjacent to the water inlet.

  6. Heat Recovery From Arc Furnaces Using Water Cooled Panels

    E-print Network

    Darby, D. F.

    (Figure 10). UMPIIATUII D"nIlNTIAL ACIOSS PANIL 0,. WAnl PLOW IAU ca.IM. HIAT IICOVIIiD I.T.UJHIX10 6 DillON P,.IAMlTlas 10 412 2'1 UST NO 1 11 426 3" nn NO 2 25 343 4'3 nn NO 3 29 335 4" nn NO 4 22 307 3'3 TilT NO 5 , 27 264 3...

  7. PRECIPITATION-HARDENING STAINLESS STEELS IN WATER-COOLED REACTORS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Rowland; W. R. Sr. Smith

    1962-01-01

    A study is made of the stress corrosion susceptibiity of unirradiated ; precipitation-hardening stainless steels. This study is made because of the ; failures encouatered with these materials in the Dresden and Vallecltos boiling ; water reactors. Service experience, static steam autoclave tests, and dynamic ; water and steam corrosion loop tests have demonstrated that 17-4 PH in the high-;

  8. Advanced water-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    Fabrication of repeat parts for small area short stack is underway: 100 electrode substrates and 150 ERP substrates were graphitized, and 30 electrode substrates were run through each manufacturing step. Teflon content and compaction pressure of shop-made electrodes for the small area short stack was optimized based on single cell tests. A single cell with GSB-18P catalyst and 1 mg/cm[sup 2] loading is performing very well; performance is 0.66 V per cell after 1200 h at 300 ASF. 3 integral separator plate configurations have been selected for verification in the upcoming short stack. Bubble pressures over 7 psid have been demonstrated in filler bands applied with a production curtain and coating process. 5 full-size (small area) coolers were molded, and encapsulation development for molded and commercial graphite coolers continued.

  9. Advanced water-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Fabrication of repeat parts for the small area short stack is nearing completion and assembly activities are being initiated. Electrolyte reservoir plates (ERPs) were completed and processed into integral separator plates, and acid fill of parts was initiated. Fabrication of electrodes was also completed, including catalyzation and applications of seals and matrices.

  10. Terbium gallium garnet ceramic Faraday rotator for high-power laser application.

    PubMed

    Yasuhara, Ryo; Snetkov, Ilya; Starobor, Alexey; Zheleznov, Dmitry; Palashov, Oleg; Khazanov, Efim; Nozawa, Hoshiteru; Yanagitani, Takagimi

    2014-03-01

    A terbium gallium garnet (TGG) ceramic Faraday rotator (FR) with an isolation ratio of 33 dB was demonstrated at a laser radiation power of 257 W. This FR can be equipped with a large optical aperture by using ceramics technology to prevent laser damage at high-energy pulse operation. The thermal lens of a 257 W laser with a beam diameter of 2.6 mm had a focal length of 9.5 m, which is easily corrected using a spherical lens to suppress the undesirable effects of thermal lensing. The rotation angle of the FR was stabilized by water cooling. The results indicate that the TGG-ceramic-based FR is suitable for high-energy laser systems with high repetition rates. PMID:24690692

  11. An experimental study of energy loss mechanisms and efficiency consideration in the low power dc arcjet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, F. M.

    1985-01-01

    The potential utility of the low power dc arcjet in auxiliary propulsion was investigated. It was indicated that improvements in the areas of stability, energy efficiency, reliability, and electrode erosion are necessary to obtain a useful device. A water-cooled arcjet simulator was tested to investigate both the energy loss mechanisms at the electrodes and the stability of different conventional arcjet configurations in the presence of a vortex flow field. It is shown that in certain configurations only 25 to 30% of the input energy is lost to the electrodes. It is also shown that vortex stabilization is not difficult to obtain in many cases at the flow rates used and that a careful starting procedure is effective in minimizing electrode damage.

  12. An experimental study of energy loss mechanisms and efficiency considerations in the low power dc arcjet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, F. M.

    1985-01-01

    The potential utility of the low power dc arcjet in auxiliary propulsion was investigated. It was indicated that improvements in the areas of stability, energy efficiency, reliability, and electrode erosion are necessary to obtain a useful device. A water-cooled arcjet simulator was tested to investigate both the energy loss mechanisms at the electrodes and the stability of different conventional arcjet configurations in the presence of a vortex flow field. It is shown that in certain configurations only 25 to 30 percent of the input energy is lost to the electrodes. It is also shown that vortex stabilization is not difficult to obtain in many cases at the flow rates used and that a careful starting procedure is effective in minimizing electrode damage.

  13. Terbium gallium garnet ceramic-based Faraday isolator with compensation of thermally induced depolarization for high-energy pulsed lasers with kilowatt average power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuhara, Ryo; Snetkov, Ilya; Starobor, Alexey; Palashov, Oleg

    2014-12-01

    A scalable aperture Faraday isolator for high-energy pulsed lasers with kW-level average power was demonstrated using terbium gallium garnet ceramics with water cooling and compensation of thermally induced depolarization in a magnetic field. An isolation ratio of 35 dB (depolarization ratio ? of 3.4 × 10-4) was experimentally observed at a maximum laser power of 740 W. By using this result, we estimated that this isolator maintains an isolation ratio of 30 dB for laser powers of up to 2.7 kW. Our results provide the solution for achieving optical isolation in high-energy (100 J to kJ) laser systems with a repetition rate greater than 10 Hz.

  14. Development of a high temperature solar powered water chiller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, R. A.

    1982-03-01

    The objectives of this program are: to develop a high temperature solar powered air cooled 25 ton chiller utilizing 250 to 300 F solar hot water suitable for commercial and multi-family applications; to study, design, and build a prototype Rankine powered vapor compression cycle; and to demonstrate and evaluate performance through steady state and dynamic laboratory testing. Cycle studies and preliminary turbo machine studies were completed under Phase I establishing the final conceptual approach and anticipated cost/performance. The evaluation of the working fluid thermal stability has satisfactorily shown that R-113 has excellent life potential in an oil-free steel boiler at the maximum expected temperature, 320 F, for this application. The detailed design of the turbo machine and the chiller has been completed. The turbomachine has been completed and has successfully passed its qualification tests on air. The chiller has been built in the water cooled configuration, has been installed in a test facility, instrumented and charged. A two stage boiler feed pump has been developed and successfully tested on R-113 in a separate loop.

  15. Powering Smallsburg

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    In this activity, students act as power engineers by specifying the power plants to build for a community. They are given a budget, an expected power demand from the community, and different power plant options with corresponding environmental effects. They can work through this scenario as a class or on their own.

  16. Human Power

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Office of Educational Partnerships,

    Students do work by lifting a known mass over a period of time. The mass and measured distance and time is used to calculate force, work, energy and power in metric units. The students' power is then compared to horse power and the power required to light 60-watt light bulbs.

  17. Design of compressor ratio power tester with condition protection function based on virtual instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Qunfeng; Wang, Lia; Huang, Junren

    2008-12-01

    Ratio power is one of the important performance parameters of compressor. The paper researched the compressor automatic test technology based on Virtual Instrument and then designed a convenient and high efficiency compressor ratio power tester with additional condition protection function applied in industry field. In the paper, a test scheme with PXI bus hardware and LabVIEW software was proposed. Then, based on research of vibration signal process method, realization arithmetic of automatic computational parameters tables search and theory of wavelet packet frequency band divided energy, an intelligent ratio power tester was introduced in detail. The instrument can monitor compressor running condition before or in the process of testing the value of ratio power, obtain each relate tested parameter automatically and show change trend, compute values of multi-type compressor ratio powers with automatic tables search and also give the compressor performance estimate results. The testing field running results with a water-cooling two level compressor shows that the tester has exact and fast calculation and has virtues of high efficiency, reliable performance and convenient use.

  18. Medium power arcjet thruster experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glocker, Bernd; Auweter-Kurtz, Monika; Goelz, Thomas M.; Kurtz, Helmut L.; Schrade, Herbert O.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental results on the electrothermal behavior and operating performance of water-cooled laboratory model arcjet thrusters using a variety of propellants in the range of 5-50 kW are reported. The highest voltage and specific impulse are attained with hydrogen propellant and the lowest with argon propellant; intermediate results are obtained with nitrogen and a mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen. The highest cathode erosion rate is measured with argon while the lowest is associated with hydrogen.

  19. Fission Surface Power Systems (FSPS) Project Final Report for the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP): Fission Surface Power, Transition Face to Face

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palac, Donald T.

    2011-01-01

    The Fission Surface Power Systems Project became part of the ETDP on October 1, 2008. Its goal was to demonstrate fission power system technology readiness in an operationally relevant environment, while providing data on fission system characteristics pertinent to the use of a fission power system on planetary surfaces. During fiscal years 08 to 10, the FSPS project activities were dominated by hardware demonstrations of component technologies, to verify their readiness for inclusion in the fission surface power system. These Pathfinders demonstrated multi-kWe Stirling power conversion operating with heat delivered via liquid metal NaK, composite Ti/H2O heat pipe radiator panel operations at 400 K input water temperature, no-moving-part electromagnetic liquid metal pump operation with NaK at flight-like temperatures, and subscale performance of an electric resistance reactor simulator capable of reproducing characteristics of a nuclear reactor for the purpose of system-level testing, and a longer list of component technologies included in the attached report. Based on the successful conclusion of Pathfinder testing, work began in 2010 on design and development of the Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU), a full-scale 1/4 power system-level non-nuclear assembly of a reactor simulator, power conversion, heat rejection, instrumentation and controls, and power management and distribution. The TDU will be developed and fabricated during fiscal years 11 and 12, culminating in initial testing with water cooling replacing the heat rejection system in 2012, and complete testing of the full TDU by the end of 2014. Due to its importance for Mars exploration, potential applicability to missions preceding Mars missions, and readiness for an early system-level demonstration, the Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration program is currently planning to continue the project as the Fission Power Systems project, including emphasis on the TDU completion and testing.

  20. 75 FR 20868 - Notice of Issuance of Regulatory Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ...Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants,'' was issued with...staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...shutdown from outside the control room. This guide is applicable to water-cooled nuclear power plants. II. Further...

  1. High Power Flex-Propellant Arcjet Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.

    2011-01-01

    A MW-class electrothermal arcjet based on a water-cooled, wall-stabilized, constricted arc discharge configuration was subjected to extensive performance testing using hydrogen and simulated ammonia propellants with the deliberate aim of advancing technology readiness level for potential space propulsion applications. The breadboard design incorporates alternating conductor/insulator wafers to form a discharge barrel enclosure with a 2.5-cm internal bore diameter and an overall length of approximately 1 meter. Swirling propellant flow is introduced into the barrel, and a DC arc discharge mode is established between a backplate tungsten cathode button and a downstream ringanode/ spin-coil assembly. The arc-heated propellant then enters a short mixing plenum and is accelerated through a converging-diverging graphite nozzle. This innovative design configuration differs substantially from conventional arcjet thrusters, in which the throat functions as constrictor and the expansion nozzle serves as the anode, and permits the attainment of an equilibrium sonic throat (EST) condition. During the test program, applied electrical input power was varied between 0.5-1 MW with hydrogen and simulated ammonia flow rates in the range of 4-12 g/s and 15-35 g/s, respectively. The ranges of investigated specific input energy therefore fell between 50-250 MJ/kg for hydrogen and 10-60 MJ/kg for ammonia. In both cases, observed arc efficiencies were between 40-60 percent as determined via a simple heat balance method based on electrical input power and coolant water calorimeter measurements. These experimental results were found to be in excellent agreement with theoretical chemical equilibrium predictions, thereby validating the EST assumption and enabling the utilization of standard TDK nozzle expansion analyses to reliably infer baseline thruster performance characteristics. Inferred specific impulse performance accounting for recombination kinetics during the expansion process implied nearly frozen flow in the nozzle and yielded performance ranges of 800-1100 sec for hydrogen and 400-600 sec for ammonia. Inferred thrust-to-power ratios were in the range of 30-10 lbf/MWe for hydrogen and 60-20 lbf/MWe for ammonia. Successful completion of this test series represents a fundamental milestone in the progression of high power arcjet technology, and it is hoped that the results may serve as a reliable touchstone for the future development of MW-class regeneratively-cooled flex-propellant plasma rockets.

  2. From the first nuclear power plant to fourth-generation nuclear power installations [on the 60th anniversary of the World's First nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachkov, V. I.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Kukharchuk, O. F.; Orlov, Yu. I.; Sorokin, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    Successful commissioning in the 1954 of the World's First nuclear power plant constructed at the Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Obninsk signaled a turn from military programs to peaceful utilization of atomic energy. Up to the decommissioning of this plant, the AM reactor served as one of the main reactor bases on which neutron-physical investigations and investigations in solid state physics were carried out, fuel rods and electricity generating channels were tested, and isotope products were bred. The plant served as a center for training Soviet and foreign specialists on nuclear power plants, the personnel of the Lenin nuclear-powered icebreaker, and others. The IPPE development history is linked with the names of I.V. Kurchatov, A.I. Leipunskii, D.I. Blokhintsev, A.P. Aleksandrov, and E.P. Slavskii. More than 120 projects of various nuclear power installations were developed under the scientific leadership of the IPPE for submarine, terrestrial, and space applications, including two water-cooled power units at the Beloyarsk NPP in Ural, the Bilibino nuclear cogeneration station in Chukotka, crawler-mounted transportable TES-3 power station, the BN-350 reactor in Kazakhstan, and the BN-600 power unit at the Beloyarsk NPP. Owing to efforts taken on implementing the program for developing fast-neutron reactors, Russia occupied leading positions around the world in this field. All this time, IPPE specialists worked on elaborating the principles of energy supertechnologies of the 21st century. New large experimental installations have been put in operation, including the nuclear-laser setup B, the EGP-15 accelerator, the large physical setup BFS, the high-pressure setup SVD-2; scientific, engineering, and technological schools have been established in the field of high- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics, electrostatic accelerators of multicharge ions, plasma processes in thermionic converters and nuclear-pumped lasers, physics of compact nuclear reactors and radiation protection, thermal physics, physical chemistry and technology of liquid metal coolants, and physics of radiation-induced defects, and radiation materials science. The activity of the institute is aimed at solving matters concerned with technological development of large-scale nuclear power engineering on the basis of a closed nuclear fuel cycle with the use of fast-neutron reactors (referred to henceforth as fast reactors), development of innovative nuclear and conventional technologies, and extension of their application fields.

  3. Pulsed power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, David H.

    Pulsed power systems are critical elements for such prospective weapons technologies as high-power microwaves, electrothermal and electromagnetic projectile launchers, neutral particle beams, space-based FELs, ground-based lasers, and charged particle beams. Pulsed power will also be essential for the development of nonweapon military systems such as lidars and ultrawideband radars, and could serve as the bases for nuclear weapon effect simulators. The pulsed power generation requirements for each of these systems is considered.

  4. Solid state power amplifier as 805 MHz master source for the LANSCE coupled-cavity linac

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, J.; Davis, J.

    1998-12-31

    From 100 to 800 MeV, the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) proton linac receives RF power from forty-four 1.25 MW klystrons at 805 Megahertz (MHz). A single master RF source provides a continuous high level phase reference signal which drives the klystrons along the 731 meter-long linac through a coaxial transmission line. A single point failure of this system can deenergize the entire coupled-cavity linac (CCL) RF plant. The authors replaced a physically large air-cooled tetrode amplifier with a compact water-cooled unit based on modular amplifier pallets developed at LANSCE. Each 600 Watt pallet utilizes eight push-pull bipolar power transistor pairs operated in class AB. Four of these can easily provide the 2000 watt reference carrier from the stable master RF source. A radial splitter and combiner parallels the modules. This amplifier has proven to be completely reliable after two years of operation without failure. A second unit was constructed and installed for redundancy, and the old tetrode system was removed in 1998. The compact packaging for cooling, DC power, impedance matching, RF interconnection, and power combining met the electrical and mechanical requirements. CRT display of individual collector currents and RF levels is made possible with built-in samplers and a VXI data acquisition unit.

  5. Closed-cycle gas turbines for power generation and LNG vaporization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, D.

    1980-09-01

    Cooling by LNG (liquefied nitrogen gas) in closed-cycle gas turbines results in double the electrical output of water cooled turbines. A circuit scheme of the LNG turbine is presented with the temperatures and pressures of the cycle. The turbine inlet temperature is limited to 720 C. Pressure level control and bypass control are the two basic types of control applied. The power station has an output of 4 x 100 MW, with four heaters arranged in series. The basic design of the heater, turbine, compressor, recuperator, and vaporizer is given. A cost comparison is made between the closed cycle gas turbine and steam turbine power stations with open rack vaporizer, submerged combustion vaporizer, or both. Using an LNG terminal with a closed-cycle gas turbine for the generation of electric power and LNG vaporization would mean a potential world-wide saving of 2,350 MW thermal power or 4.2 x 10(6) kg of LNG/day by 1985.

  6. Power supply

    DOEpatents

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul (Seminole, FL); Hamilton, Pamela Jane (Seminole, FL); Brubaker, Michael Allen (Loveland, CO)

    2007-12-04

    A modular, low weight impedance dropping power supply with battery backup is disclosed that can be connected to a high voltage AC source and provide electrical power at a lower voltage. The design can be scaled over a wide range of input voltages and over a wide range of output voltages and delivered power.

  7. Space Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Appropriate directions for the applied research and technology programs that will develop space power systems for U.S. future space missions beyond 1995 are explored. Spacecraft power supplies; space stations, space power reactors, solar arrays, thermoelectric generators, energy storage, and communication satellites are among the topics discussed.

  8. Power Source

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Steven Semken

    In this short activity, students or groups are tasked to make concept sketches that track the source of electrical power as far back as they can conceive. The concept sketches reveal students' prior conceptions of the power grid and energy mix, and lead naturally into a lesson or discussion about energy resources and power production.

  9. Design and operating experience of a 40 MW, highly-stabilized power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boenig, Heinrich J.; Ferner, James A.; Bogdan, Ferenc; Morris, Gary C.; Rumrill, Ron S.

    Four 10 MW, highly-stabilized power supply modules have been installed at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, FL, to energize water-cooled, resistive, high-field research magnets. The power supply modules achieve a long term current stability if 10 ppM over a 12 h period with a short term ripple and noise variation of less than 10 ppM over a time period of one cycle. The power supply modules can operate independently, feeding four separate magnets, or two, three or four modules can operate in parallel. Each power supply module consists of a 12.5 kV vacuum circuit breaker, two three-winding, step-down transformers, a 24-pulse rectifier with interphase reactors, and a passive and an active filter. Two different transformer tap settings allow rated dc supply output voltages of 400 and 500 V. The rated current of a supply module is 17 kA and each supply module has a one-hour overload capability of 20 kA. The isolated output terminals of each power supply module are connected to a reversing switch. An extensive high-current bus system allows the modules to be connected to 16 magnet cells. This paper presents the detailed design of the power supply components. Various test results taken during the commissioning phase with a 10 MW resistive load and results taken with the research magnets are shown. The effects of the modules on the electrical supply system and the operational behavior of the power factor correction/harmonic filters are described. Included also are results of a power supply module feeding a superconducting magnet during quench propagation tests. Problems with the power supply design and solutions are presented. Some suggestions on how to improve the performance of these supplies are outlined.

  10. A quasi-optical resonant ring for high power millimeter-wave testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, T.S.

    1997-08-01

    Gyrotrons of > 1-MW cw power in the 110- to 160-GHz frequency range with HE{sub 11} output beams are being developed for electron cyclotron heating (ECH) of plasmas. Windows are required for gyrotrons and for waveguide transmission systems at the plasma device to provide vacuum isolation and containment. Windows ar difficult to build for these systems because the window dielectric losses increase with frequency and the centrally peaked output power beam concentrates the power deposition near the center. Development and testing of a window independent of gyrotron development is desirable since window failure on a cw gyrotron usually means an expensive reprocessing of the entire tube or possibly even total loss. A quasi-optical resonant ring is being developed for testing of millimeter wave components, windows and low-loss materials at very high power levels using medium power level sources. The resonant ring generates a traveling wave resonance of uniform amplitude along the waveguide that is ideal for testing components and materials. Both smooth-wall TE{sub 01} mode and a corrugated-wall HE{sub 11} mode versions have been constructed. These units use highly oversized waveguide and four miter bends to form a quasi-optical resonant ring. A perforated plate miter bend serves as the input directional coupler. A water-cooled tube array is being designed for a coupler capable high-power cw operation. A theoretical power gain of > 10 is possible using the 63.5 mm HE{sub 11} version at 53 GHz. Low power measurements have been performed to confirm the operation and > 1.5 MW high power tests using a 200 kW gyrotron are expected in the near future.

  11. 10 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Numerical Guides for Design Objectives and Limiting Conditions for Operation To Meet the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...specifications developed for the purpose...light-water-cooled nuclear power reactors A...light-water-cooled nuclear power reactor has proposed baseline in-plant control measures...water-cooled nuclear power reactor has proposed baseline in-plant control...

  12. Microstructural Evolution in Power Plant Steels

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    Steels Pump Cooling water Cooling water Electrical output Condenser Reheat Coal Boiler Superheater Ash HP, heat energy from fuel combustion or nuclear fission is used to produce jets of steam. The kinetic. It is therefore desirable from both economic and environ- mental points of view to use as high an operating

  13. The Reactor engineering of the MITR-II : construction and startup

    E-print Network

    Allen, G. C.

    1976-01-01

    The heavy water moderated and cooled research reactor, MITR-I, has been replaced with a light water cooled, heavy water reflected reactor called the MITR-II. The MITR-II is designed to operate at 5 thermal megawatts. The ...

  14. Component development for 500 watt diesel fueled portable thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBellis, Crispin L.; Scotto, Mark V.; Fraas, Lewis; Samaras, John; Watson, Ron C.; Scoles, Stephen W.

    1999-03-01

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) and JX Crystals have developed an innovative design for a compact, 500-watt, thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power supply using diesel fuel. Under a contract with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and managed by the U.S. Army Communications-Electronics Command (CECOM), this design is being reduced to hardware. Prototypes of the two main subsystems, the power converter assembly (PCA) and the burner/emitter/recuperator (BER), have been designed, fabricated, and tested. The PCA uses low-band-gap gallium antimonide (GaSb) photovoltaic (PV) cells for high efficiency and power density. The prototype PCA will be air cooled for system simplicity and portability. However, initial testing was performed on a water-cooled PCA. The BER uses a thermal vaporizer to produce a stable, high-intensity, low-emissions combustion zone inside an impervious emitter. A thermally integrated recuperator is utilized to boost system efficiency by transferring the unused energy in the exhaust stream to the incoming fuel and combustion air. This paper describes the design, testing and performance of the first-generation PCA and BER along with model predictions used for design and evaluation.

  15. Power Source

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schooley, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Principals are powerful: They are the primary catalysts for creating a lasting foundation for learning, driving school and student performance, and shaping the long-term impact of school improvement efforts. Yet few principals would characterize themselves as powerful. Rather, they're self-effacing, adaptable, pragmatic, and quick to share credit…

  16. Powerful Literacies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, Jim, Ed.; Hamilton, Mary, Ed.; Tett, Lyn, Ed.

    These 15 papers share a common theme: seeking to promote literacy as a powerful tool for challenging existing inequalities and dependencies. "Powerful Literacies" (Jim Crowther et al.) is an introduction. Section 1 establishes the theoretical and policy frameworks that underpin the book and shows how literacy is situated in different geographical…

  17. Tidal power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Hammons

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the physics of tidal power, considering the gravitational effects of the Moon and Sun; semidiurnal, diurnal, and mixed tides; and major periodic components that affect the tidal range. Shelving, funneling, reflection, and resonance phenomena that have a significant effect on tidal range are also discussed. Basic parameters that govern the design of tidal power schemes in terms of mean

  18. Diastatic power

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    diastatic power: Diastatic power, abbreviated DP, is the total activity of malt starch degrading enzymes that hydrolyze starch to fermentable sugars. The starch degrading enzymes contributing to this process are a-amylase, ß-amylase, limit dextrinase, and a-glucosidase. The driving force for DP a...

  19. Power system

    DOEpatents

    Hickam, Christopher Dale (Glasford, IL)

    2008-03-18

    A power system includes a prime mover, a transmission, and a fluid coupler having a selectively engageable lockup clutch. The fluid coupler may be drivingly connected between the prime mover and the transmission. Additionally, the power system may include a motor/generator drivingly connected to at least one of the prime mover and the transmission. The power-system may also include power-system controls configured to execute a control method. The control method may include selecting one of a plurality of modes of operation of the power system. Additionally, the control method may include controlling the operating state of the lockup clutch dependent upon the mode of operation selected. The control method may also include controlling the operating state of the motor/generator dependent upon the mode of operation selected.

  20. Power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, G.

    1982-01-01

    Significant events in current, prototype, and experimental utility power generating systems in 1981 are reviewed. The acceleration of licensing and the renewal of plans for reprocessing of fuel for nuclear power plants are discussed, including the rise of French reactor-produced electricity to over 40% of the country's electrical output. A 4.5 MW fuel cell neared completion in New York City, while three 2.5 MW NASA-designed windpowered generators began producing power in the state of Washington. Static bar compensators, nonflammable-liquid cooled power transformers, and ZnO surge arrestors were used by utilities for the first time, and the integration of a coal gasifier-combined cycle power plant approached the planning phase. An MHD generator was run for 1000 hours and produced 50-60 kWe, while a 20 MVA superconducting generator was readied for testing.

  1. Power Up!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science

    2009-01-01

    In this online game, learners must purchase power plants for their city. They must balance the need for adequate power against the environmental impact of different power plants and stay within their limited budget. The game introduces many kinds of power plants to choose from (oil, coal, nuclear, solar, wind, hydro). Since the game only shows a random selection of three of these power sources at a time, the game changes each time you play. When learners set up a free account at Kinetic City, they can answer bonus questions at the end of the activity as a quick assessment. As a larger assessment, learners can complete the Smart Attack game after they've completed several activities.

  2. Power load limits of the WENDELSTEIN 7-X target elements—comparison of experimental results and design values for power loads up to the critical heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greuner, H.; Boeswirth, B.; Boscary, J.; Leuprecht, A.; Plankensteiner, A.

    2007-03-01

    The power load limits of the WENDELSTEIN7-X divertor target elements were experimentally evaluated with heat loads considerably exceeding the expected operating conditions. The water-cooled elements are designed for steady-state heat flux of 10 MW m-2 and to remove a power load up to 100 kW. The elements must allow a limited operation time at 12 MW m-2 steady-state and should not fail for short pulses of up to 15 MW m-2 for cooling conditions in the subcooled nucleate boiling regime. In the framework of the qualification phase, pre-series target elements were loaded up to 24 MW m-2 without loss of CFC tiles. A critical heat flux at the target of 31 MW m-2 was achieved. The paper discusses the results of the tests performed at the high heat flux test facility GLADIS. The experimental results compared to transient nonlinear fine element method (FEM) calculations confirm a high thermal safety margin of the target design sufficient for plasma operation in W7-X.

  3. High power continuous wave microwave system at 3.7 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, D.; Dani, S.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Jadav, B.; Jha, M.; Kadia, B. R.; Khilar, P. L.; Kulkarni, S. V.; Kushwah, M.; Patel, A. P.; Parmar, K. G.; Parmar, K. M.; Parmar, P.; Rajnish, K.; Raghuraj, S.; Rao, S. L.; Samanta, K. K.; Sathyanarayana, K.; Shah, P.; Sharma, P. K.; Srinivas, Y. S. S.; Trivedi, R. G.; Verghese, G.

    2001-03-01

    The lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) system is an important system in superconducting steady state tokamak (SST-1). It is used to drive and maintain the plasma current for 1000 s with a duty cycle of 17%. The LHCD system is being designed to launch 1 MW of radio frequency (rf) power at 3.7 GHz. The rf source is comprised of two high power klystron amplifiers, each capable of delivering 500 kW rf power. In this article, the results obtained during installation and commissioning of these klystrons are presented. Two klystrons (model TH2103D) have been successfully installed and commissioned on dummy loads, delivering ˜200 kW power for more than 1000 s. The maximum output power that could be obtained is limited due to the available direct current (dc) power supply. The test system is comprised of a TH2103D klystron, a low power rf (3.7 GHz/25 W) source, two high power four port circulators, two high power dual directional couplers, two arc detector systems, and two dummy water loads. To avoid rf breakdown in the rf components of the transmission line, the system has been pressurized with dry air to 3 bar. To energize and operate the klystron, a high voltage dc power supply, a magnet power supply, an ion pump power supply, a -65 kV floating anode modulator power supply, and a filament power supply are used. An arc detector unit has been installed to detect and initiate action within a few microseconds to protect the klystron, waveguides, and other rf passive components during arcing. To protect the klystron in the event of an arc, a fast responding (<10 ?s), rail gap based pressurized crowbar unit has been used. The entire system is water cooled to avoid excess temperature rise during high power continuous wave operation of the klystron and other rf components. The tube requires initial conditioning. Thereafter, the output rf power is studied as a function of beam parameters such as cathode voltage and beam current.

  4. Power Recovery

    E-print Network

    Murray, F.

    .POWER RECOVERY Fletcher Mlirray Monsanto Chemical Company AB5'-:::0 p.p., will ??vi.w 'h. '.ohnnln,y nf 'h.::v,n. T:X:~~T ~ methods for estimating the power recovery potential from fluid streams. The ideal gas law formula for expanding gases..., will be the use of the ASTM Theoretical Steam Rate Tables. In addition, the author's experience regarding the minimum size for power recovery units that are economic in a Culf Coast plant will be presented. INTROD\\Jr.'rION When surveying an operation...

  5. Power pond

    SciTech Connect

    Volkov, G.K.; Lyagushin, S.F.; Polyakova, L.P.; Pryakhin, G.N.; Statsenko, I.N. [Dniepropetrovsk State Univ. (Ukraine). Research Inst. of Energetics

    1997-12-31

    Power pond analogues using salt solutions as a main heat-carrier are well known in world practice. In such ponds higher layers heated by solar radiation come down the reservoir being replaced by cold layers, so thermal energy is stored. Kabakov and Yantovsky proposed to equip a solar pond with a magnetohydrodynamic generator for obtaining electric power simultaneously. The authors propose an absolutely new concept of a power pond where electric and thermal generating modules (ETGM`s) are a main carrier of both electric and thermal energy.

  6. A study of cathode erosion in high power arcjets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, William Jackson, III

    Cathode erosion continues to be one of the predominant technology concerns for high power arcjets. This study will show that cathode erosion in these devices is significantly affected by several mitigating factors, including propellant composition, propellant flowrate, current level, cathode material, and power supply current ripple. In a series of 50-hour and 100-hour long duration experiments, using a water-cooled 30 kilowatt laboratory arcjet, variations in the steady-state cathode erosion rate were characterized for each of these factors using nitrogen propellant at a fixed arc current of 250 Amperes. A complementary series of measurements was made using hydrogen propellant at an arc current of 100 Amperes. The cold cathode erosion rate was also differentiated from the steady-state cathode erosion rate in a series of multi-start cathode erosion experiments. Results of these measurements are presented, along with an analysis of the significant effects of current ripple on arcjet cathode erosion. As part of this study, over a dozen refractory cathode materials were evaluated to measure their resistance to arcjet cathode erosion. Among the materials tested were W-ThO2(1%, 2%, 4%), poly and mono-crystalline W, W-LaB6, W-La2O3, W-BaO2, W-BaCaAl2O4, W-Y2O3, and ZrB2. Based on these measurements, several critical material properties were identified, such work function, density, porosity, melting point, and evaporation rate. While the majority of the materials failed to outperform traditional W-ThO2, these experimental results are used to develop a parametric model of the arcjet cathode physics. The results of this model, and the results of a finite-element thermal analysis of the arcjet cathode, are presented to better explain the relative performance of the materials tested.

  7. Fusion Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingee, David A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the extraordinary potential, the technical difficulties, and the financial problems that are associated with research and development of fusion power plants as a major source of energy. (GA)

  8. Nuclear Power

    E-print Network

    Plant on the Vltava River (Czech Republic) ?#1;#1; Eduard Hansl?k, Diana Ivanovov? Fatigue, sleep disorders, and excessive sleepiness: important factors for nuclear power shift workers ??? Marco T?lio de Mello Benchmark modeling and analysis...

  9. Fluid Power

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Leske, Cavin.

    2002-01-01

    Hydraulics and pneumatics are both forms of fluid power, a common means of driving and controlling mechanical motions. It is one of the three kinds of power, with the other two being mechanical and electrical. Fluid power systems are widely used in most machinery, such as automobiles and construction equipment.The National Fluid Power Association (1) has an excellent introduction to the topic, which includes a general overview and descriptions of over 20 practical applications. It also looks at the current state of fluid power technology and how it has progressed in recent years. For a more detailed discussion of fluid power principles and how hydraulic and pneumatic devices operate, Integrated Publishing (2) offers twelve chapters of material, complete with diagrams. Fluid Power Web (3) is a comprehensive source of information about components, vendors, and software. Ideas and Applications is an especially interesting section, as it periodically gives a new article about clever, innovative ways of using fluid power systems. Every two months, the Fluid Power Society (4) publishes a journal with a few articles about industry news and trends. Three specialized issues are offered each year, and there is an archive with issues that date back to 1998. A complete hydraulics system is broken down into its constituent parts and explained at this Web site (5). The author uses many drawings and animations to illustrate the physical processes involved in hydraulics. The Institute of Hydraulics and Automation (6), located at the University of Tampere in Finland, has a very active research program with many focus areas. Telerobotics, mobile hydraulics, cavitation, and virtual testing are all investigated at the institute, and project descriptions in each of these areas are given on the site. The Division of Fluid Power Technology (7) at a Swedish university has developed a digital simulation tool for fluid power system design. Called HOPSAN, the software can be freely downloaded from the Web site to run on the Windows operating system (a Fortran compiler is required for Windows 95 and newer). Students at Purdue University (8) have recently built "what is thought to be the first vehicle that uses water in all of its hydraulic systems." This article highlights the students' achievement and considers the rationale behind this original design.

  10. Power combiner

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Mobius; Ives, Robert Lawrence

    2006-09-05

    A power combiner for the combining of symmetric and asymmetric traveling wave energy comprises a feed waveguide having an input port and a launching port, a reflector for reflecting launched wave energy, and a final waveguide for the collection and transport of launched wave energy. The power combiner has a launching port for symmetrical waves which comprises a cylindrical section coaxial to the feed waveguide, and a launching port for asymmetric waves which comprises a sawtooth rotated about a central axis.

  11. Water-carbon trade-off in China's coal power industry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Mo, Hongpin; Zhao, Zhongnan; Liu, Zhu

    2014-10-01

    The energy sector is increasingly facing water scarcity constraints in many regions around the globe, especially in China, where the unprecedented large-scale construction of coal-fired thermal power plants is taking place in its extremely arid northwest regions. As a response to water scarcity, air-cooled coal power plants have experienced dramatic diffusion in China since the middle 2000s. By the end of 2012, air-cooled coal-fired thermal power plants in China amounted to 112 GW, making up 14% of China's thermal power generation capacity. But the water conservation benefit of air-cooled units is achieved at the cost of lower thermal efficiency and consequently higher carbon emission intensity. We estimate that in 2012 the deployment of air-cooled units contributed an additional 24.3-31.9 million tonnes of CO2 emissions (equivalent to 0.7-1.0% of the total CO2 emissions by China's electric power sector), while saving 832-942 million m(3) of consumptive water use (about 60% of the total annual water use of Beijing) when compared to a scenario with water-cooled plants. Additional CO2 emissions from air-cooled plants largely offset the CO2 emissions reduction benefits from Chinese policies of retiring small and outdated coal plants. This water-carbon trade-off is poised to become even more significant by 2020, as air-cooled units are expected to grow by a factor of 2-260 GW, accounting for 22% of China's total coal-fired power generation capacity. PMID:25215622

  12. Fuel cell power source for a cold region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, B. K.; Velayutham, G.; Goud, A. Prasad

    Electric power generation at Maitri—the Indian Antarctic station is based on a conventional diesel generator. In spite of the high reliability and simplicity of operation, the main disadvantages of this kind of power source are its pollution potential and fuel transportation costs. In a place like Antarctica environmental protection requirements are of prime importance. Apart from gas pollution, they also suffer from various other problems such as degradation of performance due to sub-zero temperature of operation, noise pollution, solidification of lubricants and mechanical wear and tear. Fuel cells find an ideal application for alternate energy solution, and can maintain the pristine nature of Antarctica. With this objective in mind, Research & Development Establishment (Engineers), Pune, Defence Research & Development Organisation, Ministry of Defence, Government of India joined hands with Centre for Electro-Chemical & Energy Research, SPIC Science Foundation, Chennai and developed three prototype 500 W, 12 V, PEMFC fuel cell power sources for this application. PEMFC has been chosen for study and experimentation at Antarctica because the solid electrolyte Nafion-117 is used in this cell and the electro-chemical reaction is exothermic so that the fuel cell can be activated at low temperature. PEMFC was first installed and successfully demonstrated during the XVII Indian Antarctic Expedition. Further studies continued during the XVIII Indian Antarctic Expedition and a series of scientific experiments were conducted in the areas of optimisation of humidification, temperature for reactants (hydrogen and oxygen), elimination of existing humidification system, feasibility of provision of air-cooling system in lieu of water cooling system, humidifcation of gases using membrane as a medium, charging/discharging characteristics of a metal hydride container for hydrogen storage, and performance of a dc-dc converter and static inverter under sub-zero temperature of operation. Based on the results of these experiments, the design of the fuel cell power source for cold region application has been finalised. The paper deals with the design criteria and design factors to be considered for the fuel cell power source for cold region application and details of tests and test results that led to the final design concept for such an application. The paper also deals with a proposed hybrid power plant taking into account the exploitation of wind energy with a fuel cell and generation of hydrogen by an electrolyser and provision of hydrogen storage.

  13. Development and extended operation of a high power radiation loaded heat pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Merrigan, M.A.; Keddy, E.S.; Runyan, J.R.; Martinez, H.E.

    1984-06-01

    A high temperature, high power molybdenum-lithium heat pipe has been fabricated and tested at 1500 K for 1700 hours with radiant heat rejection. Power throughput during the test was approximately 14 kW, corresponding to an axial flux density of 11 kW/cm/sup 2/ for the 1.59 cm diameter heat pipe. Radial flux density was 70 W/cm/sup 2/ over an evaporator length of 40.0 cm. Condenser length was approximately 150 cm with radiant heat rejection from the condenser to a coaxial water cooled radiation calorimeter. A plasma sprayed, high emissivity coating was used on the condenser surface to increase the radiant heat rejection during the tests. The heat pipe was operated for 514 hours at steady state conditions before being damaged during a planned shutdown for test equipment maintenance. The damage was repaired and the initial 1000 hour test period completed without further incident. After physical examination of the heat pipe at 1000 hours the test was resumed and the heat pipe operated at the same conditions for an additional 700 hours before conclusion of this test phase.

  14. Reliable high-power diode lasers: thermo-mechanical fatigue aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumel, Genady; Gridish, Yaakov; Szafranek, Igor; Karni, Yoram

    2006-02-01

    High power water-cooled diode lasers are finding increasing demand in biomedical, cosmetic and industrial applications, where repetitive cw (continuous wave) and pulsed cw operation modes are required. When operating in such modes, the lasers experience numerous complete thermal cycles between "cold" heat sink temperature and the "hot" temperature typical of thermally equilibrated cw operation. It is clearly demonstrated that the main failure mechanism directly linked to repetitive cw operation is thermo-mechanical fatigue of the solder joints adjacent to the laser bars, especially when "soft" solders are used. Analyses of the bonding interfaces were carried out using scanning electron microscopy. It was observed that intermetallic compounds, formed already during the bonding process, lead to the solders fatigue both on the p- and n-side of the laser bar. Fatigue failure of solder joints in repetitive cw operation reduces useful lifetime of the stacks to hundreds hours, in comparison with more than 10,000 hours lifetime typically demonstrated in commonly adopted non-stop cw reliability testing programs. It is shown, that proper selection of package materials and solders, careful design of fatigue sensitive parts and burn-in screening in the hard pulse operation mode allow considerable increase of lifetime and reliability, without compromising the device efficiency, optical power density and compactness.

  15. A sequential trigger procedure for use in monitoring nuclear power plant emergency diesel generator reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H.F.; Tietjen, G.L.; Kvam, P.H.

    1992-12-01

    The reliability of onsite emergency alternating current (ac) power supplies is a major factor in assuring acceptable safety at light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. The NRC has determined that an amendment to 10 CFR 50.63, ``Station Blackout,`` is the appropriate means for imposing new requirements regarding electric diesel generators (EDG) reliability. The proposed rule and regulatory guide consists of the following fundamental elements: (1) establishment of EDG target reliability levels that would comport with the reliability levels assumed in a licensee`s coping analysis for station blackout; (2) trigger values with respect to EDG failures to start and loadrun which serve two purposes -- to provide a warning of EDG degradation, and to provide a basis for taking regulatory action when there is reasonable evidence from surveillance testing that EDG reliability has degraded below the selected target values; and (3) a reporting regime for EDG failures consistent with this performance-based approach. The purpose of this report is to assess the performance of the proposed triggers in a simulated operational environment and to describe and evaluate an alternative trigger procedure which improves the detection of EDG reliability degradation without increasing false alarms.

  16. A sequential trigger procedure for use in monitoring nuclear power plant emergency diesel generator reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H.F.; Tietjen, G.L.; Kvam, P.H.

    1992-01-01

    The reliability of onsite emergency alternating current (ac) power supplies is a major factor in assuring acceptable safety at light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. The NRC has determined that an amendment to 10 CFR 50.63, Station Blackout,'' is the appropriate means for imposing new requirements regarding electric diesel generators (EDG) reliability. The proposed rule and regulatory guide consists of the following fundamental elements: (1) establishment of EDG target reliability levels that would comport with the reliability levels assumed in a licensee's coping analysis for station blackout; (2) trigger values with respect to EDG failures to start and loadrun which serve two purposes -- to provide a warning of EDG degradation, and to provide a basis for taking regulatory action when there is reasonable evidence from surveillance testing that EDG reliability has degraded below the selected target values; and (3) a reporting regime for EDG failures consistent with this performance-based approach. The purpose of this report is to assess the performance of the proposed triggers in a simulated operational environment and to describe and evaluate an alternative trigger procedure which improves the detection of EDG reliability degradation without increasing false alarms.

  17. Record Electricity-to-Gas Power Efficiency of a Silicon Solar Cell Based TPV System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitnar, Bernd; Mayor, Jean-Claude; Durisch, Wilhelm; Meyer, Andreas; Palfinger, Günther; von Roth, Fritz; Sigg, Hans

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we report on the development and characterisation of a small TPV prototype system, which uses silicon photocells and a rare earth selective emitter. A simulation model of this system was developed, which allows studying the system theoretically. The fabrication of the selective incandescent mantle emitter from Yb2O3 and detailed measurements of its radiation power and emissivity are presented. The maximum emissivity was 0.85 at 1.27 eV. An emitter temperature of 1735 K was obtained for an approximately 75 cm2 large emitter heated by a butane burner. A SnO2 filter tube was developed. The photocell generator is composed of monocrystalline silicon solar cells and a water-cooling circuit. The prototype system reached, without a selective filter and without preheating of the combustion air, a record electricity-to-gas power efficiency of 2.4 %. We compare the experimentally achieved system efficiency with simulations using our model. The possibilities to further increase the system efficiency are discussed.

  18. Power struggle

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H. [International Business Strategies, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Private power development in Mexico or at least the dream of it, can be characterized by three words - turmoil, tragedy and trauma. The saga continues for all parties concerned and there is little question that the worst suffering is being experienced by the Mexican people themselves. There are signs along the road that changing political, social, economic and market factors are laying the foundation for real, substantive support of a long-term private power development business sector in Mexico. Developers may still experience some potholes and wrong turns, but there is little doubt that private energy and power development will play a dominant role in Mexico`s future if for no other reason than it has to - to meet the needs of the Mexican people, the Mexican economy and the foreign investment community. There are three fundamental reasons for this guarded optimism: Basic energy/economic growth factors which originally attracted electric power investors have not changed; Legal, financial and regulatory frameworks necessary for private power investment are still in place, and are expected to grow even stronger; and, The Salinas administration`s handcuffs on the Mexican energy sector are slowly being removed, but Mexico`s economic restructuring may speed up the process.

  19. Power inverters

    DOEpatents

    Miller, David H. (Redondo Beach, CA); Korich, Mark D. (Chino Hills, CA); Smith, Gregory S. (Woodland Hills, CA)

    2011-11-15

    Power inverters include a frame and a power module. The frame has a sidewall including an opening and defining a fluid passageway. The power module is coupled to the frame over the opening and includes a substrate, die, and an encasement. The substrate includes a first side, a second side, a center, an outer periphery, and an outer edge, and the first side of the substrate comprises a first outer layer including a metal material. The die are positioned in the substrate center and are coupled to the substrate first side. The encasement is molded over the outer periphery on the substrate first side, the substrate second side, and the substrate outer edge and around the die. The encasement, coupled to the substrate, forms a seal with the metal material. The second side of the substrate is positioned to directly contact a fluid flowing through the fluid passageway.

  20. Developing powers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Three new reports commissioned by the Pew Center on Global Climate Change examine the electric power sectors in Argentina, Brazil, and China, and the potential impact that energy use in each country has on climate change.In 1999, Argentina voluntarily agreed to lower its greenhouse gas emissions to 2 10% below projected emissions for 2012. The report looks at additional steps that could further reduce emissions, including adopting policies that favor renewable energy sources and nuclear power, and increasing energy efficiency by end-users.

  1. Power Factor Compensation (PFC) Power Factor Compensation

    E-print Network

    Knobloch,Jürgen

    Power Factor Compensation (PFC) Power Factor Compensation The power factor (PF) is defined as the ratio between the active power and the apparent power of a system. If the current and voltage are periodic with period , and [ ), then the active power is defined by ( ) ( ) (their inner product

  2. Power Trains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukuk, Marvin; Mathis, Joe

    This curriculum guide is part of a series designed to teach students about diesel engines. The materials in this power trains guide apply to both on-road and off-road vehicles and include information about chain and belt drives used in tractors and combines. These instructional materials, containing nine units, are written in terms of student…

  3. Star Power

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2014-10-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  4. Power sprouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, M. M. J.

    2014-05-01

    This paper explains how a large number of sprouts were used as a battery of cells and connected together to power a set of LED Christmas lights. All relevant calculations to find the number of sprouts needed, their arrangement in series and parallel, the charge stored on the required capacitor and the capacitor charging time are illustrated.

  5. Power politics

    SciTech Connect

    Zorpette, G.

    1987-11-01

    The author reviews the political fighting that is keeping the Shoreham nuclear power plant from receiving its operating license. Meanwhile, LILCO is losing money because it has been unable to recover what it has already spent on the plant. Politicians, financial analysts and lawyers are deciding the fate of Shoreham and the U.S. nuclear industry as a whole.

  6. POWER SEWING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HILLINGER, YVONNE M.

    ALTHOUGH THE PRIMARY PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY GUIDE IS TO PROVIDE A TEXT IN POWER SEWING FOR DEAF PUPILS, IT CAN ALSO BE USED FOR STUDENTS WITH READING OR LEARNING DIFFICULTIES. DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTOR WITH FACULTY HELP, THE TEXT FOLLOWS A COURSE OF STUDY APPROVED BY THE BOARD OF EDUCATION AND HAS BEEN TESTED IN VARIOUS CLASSROOMS. UNITS ARE --…

  7. Star Power

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-11-18

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  8. Perpetual Power?

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, Alison L.

    2010-02-16

    This is a submission to Innovation Magazine for its January 2010 Clean-tech issue. The article discusses PNNL's award-winning Thermoelectric Ambient Energy Harvester technology, its license to Perpetua Power Source Technologies, Perpetua's subsequent product based on the PNNL technology, and where they're headed with it.

  9. Power Struggle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Glenn

    2001-01-01

    California's "power struggle" will probably not be replicated in the other 23 states that have deregulated electricity, but costs are rising everywhere. The Environmental Protection Agency/Department of Energy's new Energy Star online rating system should help school officials measure their buildings' efficiency and remove barriers to improvement.…

  10. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOEpatents

    Ashworth, Stephen P. (Cambridge, GB)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  11. Wireless Power Transmission Technology State-Of-The-Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, R. M. T.

    2002-01-01

    This first Bill Brown SSP La Crescenta, CA 91214 technology , including microwave and laser systems for the transfer of electric , as related to eventually developing Space Solar Power (SSP) systems. Current and past technology accomplishments in ground based and air and space applied energy conversion devices, systems and modeling performance and cost information is presented, where such data are known to the author. The purpose of the presentation is to discuss and present data to encourage documenting and breaking the current technology records, so as to advance the SOA in WPT for SSP . For example, regarding DC to RF and laser converters, 83% efficient 2.45 GHz cooker-tube magnetrons with 800W CW output have been jointly developed by Russia and US. Over 50% wa11-plug efficient 1.5 kW/cm2 CW, water cooled, multibeam, solid state laser diode bar-arrays have been developed by LLNL at 808 nm wavelength. The Gennans have developed a 36% efficient, kW level, sing1e coherent beam, lateral pumped semiconductor laser. The record for end-to-end DC input to DC output power overall WPT link conversion efficiency is 54% during the Raytheon-JPL experiments in 1975 for 495.6 W recovered at 1.7-mrange at 2.4469 GAz. The record for usefully recovered electric power output ( as contrasted with thennally induced power in structures) is 34 kW OC output at a range of 1.55 km, using 2.388 GHz microwaves, during the JPL- Raytheon experiments by Bill Brown and the author at Goldstone, CA in 1975. The GaAs-diode rectenna array had an average collection-conversion efficiency of 82.5%. A single rectenna element operating a 6W RF input, developed by Bill Brown demonstrated 91.4% efficiency. The comparable record for laser light to OC output power conversion efficiency of photovoltaics is 590/0. for AlGaAs at 1.7 Wand 826nm wavelength. Russian cyclotron-wave converters have demonstrated 80% rectification efficiency at S-band. Concerning WPT technology equipment costs, magnetron conversion devices for microwave ovens are approximately O.O25/W, due to the large manufacturing quantities. Comparable, remanufactured lasers for industrial applications at the 4 kW CW level are of order 25/W. Industrial klystrons cost over 1/W and solid state power amplifiers cost over 3/W. Model tethered helicopters, model airplanes, a smal1 airship and several small rovers have been powered with microwave beams at 2.45, 5.8 and 35 GHz. Smal1 rovers have been powered with laser beams. Two space-to-space microwave power link experiments have been conducted by the Japanese and with Texas A&M assistance in one case. International records for WPT link electric power delivered, range, 1ink efficiency and other salient parameters for both wireless-laser and -microwave power demonstrations win be reviewed. Also, costing models for WPT -system figure- of-merit (FOM) in terms of capital costs, in /MW -km, as a fonction of range and power level are reviewed. Records in Japan. France, Korea, Russia, Canada and the US will be reviewed for various land based WPT demonstrations. SSP applicable elements of technology in fiber and wireless links, cell phones and base stations, aircraft, and spacecraft phased arrays, industrial and scientific klystrons and lasers, military equipment (where information is available in open literature) microwave heating, and other telecommunication activities win be presented, concerning power handling, frequency or wavelength, conversion efficiency, specific mass, specific cost, etc. Previously studied and proposed applications of WPT technology will be presented to show the range of WPT technology being considered for commercial and other applications that will lead to advancing the SOA of WPT technology that win benefit SSP .

  12. Hydroelectric Power

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    USGS Science for Schools explains how electrical power is generated from a dam. A clear illustration labels the parts of a generator, from the stator to the turbine blades. A motion diagram shows the movement of water through the process for easy understanding. Visitors will also find links to a number of related topics, such as water use, from the USGS Science for Schools sites.

  13. Power Calculations

    Cancer.gov

    This program has been assembled through the combined efforts of the Biometry Branch (DCP) and Information Management Services, Inc. The program computes sample size or power for user specified null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis parameter values for a variety of experimental designs. The user is asked to select the appropriate experimental design from a menu of available options. After an option is selected, the user can specify parameter variations associated with that option only.

  14. Tidal power

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, T.J. (Glasgow Univ., Scotland (United Kingdom))

    1993-03-01

    The paper reviews the physics of tidal power considering gravitational effects of moon and sun; semidiurnal, diurnal, and mixed tides; and major periodic components that affect the tidal range. Shelving, funneling, reflection, and resonance phenomena that have a significant effect on tidal range are also discussed. The paper then examines tidal energy resource for principal developments estimated from parametric modeling in Europe and worldwide. Basic parameters that govern the design of tidal power schemes in terms of mean tidal range and surface area of the enclosed basin are identified. While energy extracted is proportional to the tidal amplitude squared, requisite sluicing are is proportional to the square root of the tidal amplitude. Sites with large tidal amplitudes are therefore best suited for tidal power developments, whereas sites with low tidal amplitudes have sluicing that may be prohibitive. It is shown that 48% of the European tidal resource is in the United Kingdom, 42% in France and 8% in Ireland, other countries having negligible potential. Worldwide tidal resource is identified. Tidal barrage design and construction using caissons is examined, as are alternative operating modes (single-action generation, outflow generation, flood generation, two-way generation, twin basin generation, pumping, etc), development trends and possibilities, generation cost at the barrage boundary, sensitivity to discount rates, general economics, and markets. Environmental effects, and institutional constraints to the development of tidal barrage schemes are also discussed.

  15. Lunar solar-power system: Commerical power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Criswell

    1995-01-01

    The proposed Lunar Solar-Power (LSP) System collects solar power on the moon. The power is converted to beams of microwaves and transmitted to fields of microwave receivers (rectennas) on Earth that provide electric power to local and regional power grids. LSP can provide abundant and low cost energy to Earth to sustain several centuries of economic development on Earth and

  16. Powerful Poetry!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Tyler

    2008-09-13

    In our classroom, we have been working hard with poetry. Now it is your turn to be a powerful poet! Read the information below and follow directions carefully! At the end of this adventure, you will be a published poet! Your Goal or Objective: You will be able to write 3 poems inspired by the poets you read on the Internet throughout this project. After visiting the web sites of Jack Prelutsky, Bruce Lansky, and Shel Silverstein, you will write poems inspired by these poets. You will ...

  17. Tidal power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammons, Thomas J.

    1993-03-01

    The factors involved in producing energy from variations in sea level due to tides are examined. The physics of tidal power is reviewed, considering gravitational effects of moon and sun; semidiurnal, diurnal, and mixed tides; and major periodic components that affect the tidal range. Attention is also given to shelving, funneling, reflection, and resonance phenomena that have a significant effect on tidal range. It is suggested that the best mechanism for exploiting tidal energy is to employ estuarine barrages as suitable sites with high tidal ranges. It is pointed out that the components for this technology are already commercially available.

  18. Power Play

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science

    2009-01-01

    In this online game, learners build complicated machines to complete simple tasks. The game starts with a power source on one side of the screen and the task on the other side. Learners select machine parts to link together and complete the task. The machine parts follow simple physics rules. When learners set up a free account at Kinetic City, they can answer bonus questions at the end of the activity as a quick assessment. As a larger assessment, learners can complete the Bug Blaster game after they've completed several activities.

  19. Girl Power

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Launched in 1996 by former US Department of Health and Human Services Secretary Donna Shalala, the Girl Power! Program seeks to encourage 9 to 13 year-old girls to make the most of their lives, and "to support and nurture girls in order for them to be confident, fulfilled, and true to themselves." With that in mind, this Web site is designed to be a clearinghouse of information, press releases, and activities for both parents and young women alike. The section for parents contains information about ongoing activities sponsored and endorsed by Girl Power, along with current cultural quizzes that will help keep parents in touch with their children. The area for young women features an interactive school locker that contains a "talk-back" section, fun games and activities, and information on healthy eating habits and maintaining a balanced body image. The last section on the site provides links to external sites dealing with surveys and studies on young women, such as ones dealing with substance abuse, perceived threats, and gender roles.

  20. Power Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The device called the Power Factor Controller (PFC) offers exceptional energy conservation potential by virtue of its ability to sense shifts in the relationship between voltage and current flow, and to match them with the motor's need. Originating from the solar heating/cooling program, the PFC senses a light load, it cuts the voltage level to the minimum needed which in turn reduces current flow and heat loss. Laboratory tests showed that the PFC could reduce power used by six to eight percent under normal motor loads, and as much as 65 percent when the motor was idling. Over 150 companies have been granted NASA licenses for commercial use of this technology. One system that utilizes this technology is the Vectrol Energy System, (VES) produced by Vectrol, Inc. a subsidiary of Westinghouse. The VES is being used at Woodward & Lothrop, on their escalators. Energy use is regulated according to how many people are on the escalator at any time. It is estimated that the energy savings are between 30 to 40 percent.

  1. Power management system

    DOEpatents

    Algrain, Marcelo C. (Peoria, IL); Johnson, Kris W. (Washington, IL); Akasam, Sivaprasad (Peoria, IL); Hoff, Brian D. (East Peoria, IL)

    2007-10-02

    A method of managing power resources for an electrical system of a vehicle may include identifying enabled power sources from among a plurality of power sources in electrical communication with the electrical system and calculating a threshold power value for the enabled power sources. A total power load placed on the electrical system by one or more power consumers may be measured. If the total power load exceeds the threshold power value, then a determination may be made as to whether one or more additional power sources is available from among the plurality of power sources. At least one of the one or more additional power sources may be enabled, if available.

  2. Power oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Gitsevich, Aleksandr (Montgomery Village, MD)

    2001-01-01

    An oscillator includes an amplifier having an input and an output, and an impedance transformation network connected between the input of the amplifier and the output of the amplifier, wherein the impedance transformation network is configured to provide suitable positive feedback from the output of the amplifier to the input of the amplifier to initiate and sustain an oscillating condition, and wherein the impedance transformation network is configured to protect the input of the amplifier from a destructive feedback signal. One example of the oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to match the driving frequency of the oscillator to a plurality of tuning states of the lamp.

  3. Powerful Pulleys

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students continue to explore the story of building a pyramid, learning about the simple machine called a pulley. They learn how a pulley can be used to change the direction of applied forces and move/lift extremely heavy objects, and the powerful mechanical advantages of using a multiple-pulley system. Students perform a simple demonstration to see the mechanical advantage of using a pulley, and they identify modern day engineering applications of pulleys. In a hands-on activity, they see how a pulley can change the direction of a force, the difference between fixed and movable pulleys, and the mechanical advantage gained with multiple / combined pulleys. They also learn the many ways engineers use pulleys for everyday purposes.

  4. HERA-B ELECTRIC POWER Power Distribution

    E-print Network

    Notstrom 1 x 25 16 16 Installed power (kVA) 38 x 16 row 1-4, 6 3 x 25 row 5 9 x 16 Room 100: HERAHERA-B ELECTRIC POWER Power Distribution: HV = Hauptverteilung (main distribution frame) UV alarm etc.) 400 A = 400 A * 380 V = 263 kW 1~ = 220 V; 3~ = 380 v Power cable = Emergency power cable

  5. ESBWR response to an extended station blackout/loss of all AC power

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, A. J.; Marquino, W. [New Plants Engineering, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy, M/CA 75, 3901 Castle Hayne Road, Wilmington, NC 28402 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    U.S. federal regulations require light water cooled nuclear power plants to cope with Station Blackouts for a predetermined amount of time based on design factors for the plant. U.S. regulations define Station Blackout (SBO) as a loss of the offsite electric power system concurrent with turbine trip and unavailability of the onsite emergency AC power system. According to U.S. regulations, typically the coping period for an SBO is 4 hours and can be as long as 16 hours for currently operating BWR plants. Being able to cope with an SBO and loss of all AC power is required by international regulators as well. The U.S. licensing basis for the ESBWR is a coping period of 72 hours for an SBO based on U.S. NRC requirements for passive safety plants. In the event of an extended SBO (viz., greater than 72 hours), the ESBWR response shows that the design is able to cope with the event for at least 7 days without AC electrical power or operator action. ESBWR is a Generation III+ reactor design with an array of passive safety systems. The ESBWR primary success path for mitigation of an SBO event is the Isolation Condenser System (ICS). The ICS is a passive, closed loop, safety system that initiates automatically on a loss of power. Upon Station Blackout or loss of all AC power, the ICS begins removing decay heat from the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) by (i) condensing the steam into water in heat exchangers located in pools of water above the containment, and (ii) transferring the decay heat to the atmosphere. The condensed water is then returned by gravity to cool the reactor again. The ICS alone is capable of maintaining the ESBWR in a safe shutdown condition after an SBO for an extended period. The fuel remains covered throughout the SBO event. The ICS is able to remove decay heat from the RPV for at least 7 days and maintains the reactor in a safe shutdown condition. The water level in the RPV remains well above the top of active fuel for the duration of the SBO event. Beyond 7 days, only a few simple actions are needed to cope with the SBO for an indefinite amount of time. The operation of the ICS as the primary success path for mitigation of an SBO, allows for near immediate plant restart once power is restored. (authors)

  6. Closed Brayton cycle power conversion systems for nuclear reactors :

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Steven A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Sanchez, Travis

    2006-04-01

    This report describes the results of a Sandia National Laboratories internally funded research program to study the coupling of nuclear reactors to gas dynamic Brayton power conversion systems. The research focused on developing integrated dynamic system models, fabricating a 10-30 kWe closed loop Brayton cycle, and validating these models by operating the Brayton test-loop. The work tasks were performed in three major areas. First, the system equations and dynamic models for reactors and Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) systems were developed and implemented in SIMULINKTM. Within this effort, both steady state and dynamic system models for all the components (turbines, compressors, reactors, ducting, alternators, heat exchangers, and space based radiators) were developed and assembled into complete systems for gas cooled reactors, liquid metal reactors, and electrically heated simulators. Various control modules that use proportional-integral-differential (PID) feedback loops for the reactor and the power-conversion shaft speed were also developed and implemented. The simulation code is called RPCSIM (Reactor Power and Control Simulator). In the second task an open cycle commercially available Capstone C30 micro-turbine power generator was modified to provide a small inexpensive closed Brayton cycle test loop called the Sandia Brayton test-Loop (SBL-30). The Capstone gas-turbine unit housing was modified to permit the attachment of an electrical heater and a water cooled chiller to form a closed loop. The Capstone turbine, compressor, and alternator were used without modification. The Capstone systems nominal operating point is 1150 K turbine inlet temperature at 96,000 rpm. The annular recuperator and portions of the Capstone control system (inverter) and starter system also were reused. The rotational speed of the turbo-machinery is controlled by adjusting the alternator load by using the electrical grid as the load bank. The SBL-30 test loop was operated at the manufacturers site (Barber-Nichols Inc.) and installed and operated at Sandia. A sufficiently detailed description of the loop is provided in this report along with the design characteristics of the turbo-alternator-compressor set to allow other researchers to compare their results with those measured in the Sandia test-loop. The third task consisted of a validation effort. In this task the test loop was operated and compared with the modeled results to develop a more complete understanding of this electrically heated closed power generation system and to validate the model. The measured and predicted system temperatures and pressures are in good agreement, indicating that the model is a reasonable representation of the test loop. Typical deviations between the model and the hardware results are less than 10%. Additional tests were performed to assess the capability of the Brayton engine to continue to remove decay heat after the reactor/heater is shutdown, to develop safe and effective control strategies, and to access the effectiveness of gas inventory control as an alternative means to provide load following. In one test the heater power was turned off to simulate a rapid reactor shutdown, and the turbomachinery was driven solely by the sensible heat stored in the heater for over 71 minutes without external power input. This is an important safety feature for CBC systems as it means that the closed Brayton loop will keep cooling the reactor without the need for auxiliary power (other than that needed to circulate the waste heat rejection coolant) provided the heat sink is available.

  7. POWER PURCHASE AGREEMENT DELMARVA POWER & LIGHT COMPANY

    E-print Network

    Firestone, Jeremy

    POWER PURCHASE AGREEMENT between DELMARVA POWER & LIGHT COMPANY ("Buyer") and BLUEWATER WIND DELAWARE LLC ("Seller") [Date] #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS Page -i- ARTICLE I GOVERNING TERMS.............................................................................. 64 ARTICLE VI PAYMENT AND NETTING; RECORDS AND AUDIT RI

  8. Power electronics for low power arcjets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamley, John A.; Hill, Gerald M.

    1991-01-01

    In anticipation of the needs of future light-weight low-power spacecraft, arcjet power electronics in the 100- to 400-W operating range were developed. Power topologies similar to those in the higher 2-kW and 5- to 30-kW power range were implemented, including a four-transistor bridge-switching circuit, current-mode pulse-width modulated control, and an output current averaging inductor with an integral pulse generation winding. Reduction of switching transients was accomplished using a low inductance power distribution network, and no passive snubber circuits were necessary for power switch protection. Phase shift control of the power bridge was accomplished using an improved pulse width modulation to phase shift converter circuit. These features, along with conservative magnetics designs, allowed power conversion efficiencies of greater than 92.5 percent to be achieved into resistive loads over the entire operating range of the converter.

  9. Synchronous Generator with HTS-2G field coils for Windmills with output power 1 MW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, K.; Kovalev, L.; Poltavets, V.; Samsonovich, S.; Ilyasov, R.; Levin, A.; Surin, M.

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays synchronous generators for wind-mills are developed worldwide. The cost of the generator is determined by its size and weight. In this deal the implementation of HTS-2G generators is very perspective. The application of HTS 2G field coils in the rotor allows to reduce the size of the generator is 1.75 times. In this work the design 1 MW HTS-2G generator is considered. The designed 1 MW HTS-2G generator has the following parameters: rotor diameter 800 mm, active length 400 mm, phase voltage 690V, rotor speed 600 min-1 rotor field coils with HTS-2G tapes. HTS-2G field coils located in the rotating cryostat and cooled by liquid nitrogen. The simulation and optimization of HTS-2G field coils geometry allowed to increase feed DC current up to 50A. Copper stator windings are water cooled. Magnetic and electrical losses in 1 MW HTS-2G generator do not exceed 1.6% of the nominal output power. In the construction of HTS-2G generator the wave multiplier with ratio 1:40 is used. The latter allows to reduce the total mass of HTS-2G generator down to 1.5 tons. The small-scale model of HTS-2G generator with output power 50 kW was designed, manufactured and tested. The test results showed good agreement with calculation results. The manufacturing of 1 MW HTS-2G generator is planned in 2014. This work is done under support of Rosatom within the frames of Russian Project "Superconducting Industry".

  10. Power of TDT The Power of Transmission

    E-print Network

    Sun, Fengzhu - Sun, Fengzhu

    Power of TDT The Power of Transmission Disequilibrium Tests for Quantitative Traits Jinming Li , Dai Wang , Jianping Dong, Renfang Jiang, Kui Zhang, Shuanglin Zhang, Hongyu Zhao, Fengzhu Sun of freedom involved that may reduce the overall power to detect linkage. To overcome this limitation, we

  11. LIFE Power Plant Fusion Power Associates

    E-print Network

    LIFE Power Plant Fusion Power Associates December 14, 2011 Mike Dunne LLNL #12;NIf-1111-23714.ppt LIFE power plant 2 #12;LIFE delivery timescale NIf-1111-23714.ppt 3 #12;Timely delivery is enabled fusion options exist. NIF/LIFE allows timely integrated demonstration. · Fusion performance based

  12. INCREASING SCIENTIFIC POWER WITH STATISTICAL POWER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A brief survey of basic ideas in statistical power analysis demonstrates the advantages and ease of using power analysis throughout the design, analysis, and interpretation of research. he power of a statistical test is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis of the test...

  13. Power conditioning unit for photovoltaic power systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Beghin; V. T. Nguyen Phuoc

    1981-01-01

    Operational features and components of a power conditioning unit for interconnecting solar cell module powers with a utility grid are outlined. The two-stage unit first modifies the voltage to desired levels on an internal dc link, then inverts the current in 2 power transformers connected to a vector summation control to neutralize harmonic distortion up to the 11th harmonic. The

  14. Flow Components in a NaK Test Loop Designed to Simulate Conditions in a Nuclear Surface Power Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Godfroy, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    A test loop using NaK as the working fluid is presently in use to study material compatibility effects on various components that comprise a possible nuclear reactor design for use on the lunar surface. A DC electromagnetic (EM) pump has been designed and implemented as a means of actively controlling the NaK flow rate through the system and an EM flow sensor is employed to monitor the developed flow rate. These components allow for the matching of the flow rate conditions in test loops with those that would be found in a full-scale surface-power reactor. The design and operating characteristics of the EM pump and flow sensor are presented. In the EM pump, current is applied to a set of electrodes to produce a Lorentz body force in the fluid. A measurement of the induced voltage (back-EMF) in the flow sensor provides the means of monitoring flow rate. Both components are compact, employing high magnetic field strength neodymium magnets thermally coupled to a water-cooled housing. A vacuum gap limits the heat transferred from the high temperature NaK tube to the magnets and a magnetically-permeable material completes the magnetic circuit. The pump is designed to produce a pressure rise of 5 psi, and the flow sensor's predicted output is roughly 20 mV at the loop's nominal flow rate of 0.5 GPM.

  15. Offshore Floating Wind Turbine-driven Deep Sea Water Pumping for Combined Electrical Power and District Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sant, T.; Buhagiar, D.; Farrugia, R. N.

    2014-06-01

    A new concept utilising floating wind turbines to exploit the low temperatures of deep sea water for space cooling in buildings is presented. The approach is based on offshore hydraulic wind turbines pumping pressurised deep sea water to a centralised plant consisting of a hydro-electric power system coupled to a large-scale sea water-cooled air conditioning (AC) unit of an urban district cooling network. In order to investigate the potential advantages of this new concept over conventional technologies, a simplified model for performance simulation of a vapour compression AC unit was applied independently to three different systems, with the AC unit operating with (1) a constant flow of sea surface water, (2) a constant flow of sea water consisting of a mixture of surface sea water and deep sea water delivered by a single offshore hydraulic wind turbine and (3) an intermittent flow of deep sea water pumped by a single offshore hydraulic wind turbine. The analysis was based on one year of wind and ambient temperature data for the Central Mediterranean that is known for its deep waters, warm climate and relatively low wind speeds. The study confirmed that while the present concept is less efficient than conventional turbines utilising grid-connected electrical generators, a significant portion of the losses associated with the hydraulic transmission through the pipeline are offset by the extraction of cool deep sea water which reduces the electricity consumption of urban air-conditioning units.

  16. Power control circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, E.A.

    1985-05-21

    An electronic power control circuit used in recording seismic data at unmanned remote locations is disclosed wherein the power requirements are minimized by segregating power distribution between continuous and non-continuous requirements.

  17. Nuclear Power Plant Accidents

    MedlinePLUS

    NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENTS Nuclear power plants have safety and security procedures in place and are closely monitored by the ... a plume). What are the main dangers of nuclear power plant accidents? Radioactive materials in the plume from the nuclear ...

  18. Overview of MC Power`s MCFC power generation system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. G. Benjamin; R. R. Woods

    1993-01-01

    The IMHEX{reg_sign} fuel cell power generation system is a skid mounted power plant which efficiently generates electricity and useful thermal energy. The primary benefits are its high electric generation efficiency (50% or greater), modular capacities (500 kW to 3 MW per unit) and minimal environmental impacts (less than 1 ppM NOâ). A cost effective, modular capacity fuel cell power plant

  19. Solar powered multipurpose remotely powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrou, A. N.; Durgin, W. W.; Cohn, R. F.; Olinger, D. J.; Cody, Charlotte K.; Chan, Agnes; Cheung, Kwok-Hung; Conley, Kristin; Crivelli, Paul M.; Javorski, Christian T.

    1992-01-01

    Increase in energy demands coupled with rapid depletion of natural energy resources have deemed solar energy as an attractive alternative source of power. The focus was to design and construct a solar powered, remotely piloted vehicle to demonstrate the feasibility of solar energy as an effective, alternate source of power. The final design included minimizing the power requirements and maximizing the strength-to-weight and lift-to-drag ratios. Given the design constraints, Surya (the code-name given to the aircraft), is a lightweight aircraft primarily built using composite materials and capable of achieving level flight powered entirely by solar energy.

  20. The Green Power Network: Buying Green Power

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Green Power Network (GPN), operated and maintained by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy, provides news and information on green power markets and related activities. Here, they supply a great tool for discovering green power availability throughout the United States. Clicking on any state will provide visitors with any green power including utility green pricing programs, retail green power products offered in competitive utility markets, and renewable energy certificate products (REC) sold separate from electricity. This will be a useful tool for instructors or students interested in renewable energy technologies.

  1. Infrared power cells for satellite power conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Christopher J.

    1991-01-01

    An analytical investigation is performed to assess the feasibility of long-wavelength power converters for the direct conversion of IR radiation onto electrical power. Because theses devices need to operate between 5 and 30 um the only material system possible for this application is the HgCdTe system which is currently being developed for IR detectors. Thus solar cell and IR detector theories and technologies are combined. The following subject areas are covered: electronic and optical properties of HgCdTe alloys; optimum device geometry; junction theory; model calculation for homojunction power cell efficiency; and calculation for HgCdTe power cell and power beaming.

  2. Combination power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamoto, Y.; Terayama, T.

    1983-11-29

    A combination power plant is disclosed including an ocean thermal energy conversion power plant and a steam generation power plant. Water discharged from a condenser in the ocean thermal energy conversion power plant is mixed with water discharged from an evaporator in the ocean thermal energy conversion power plant. The mixed water is used as cooling water for a condenser in the steam generation power plant. Part of the water discharged from the condenser in the steam generation power plant is used as heating water for the evaporator in the ocean thermal energy conversion power plant.

  3. Performance of the 10kV, 100-kA pulsed-power modules for the FRX-C magnetic compression experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Rej, D.J.; Waganaar, W.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, we present detailed performance data collected from over a year's operation of the 25 and 50-kJoule pulsed-power capacitor-bank modules developed for the Los Alamos magnetic fusion facility FRX-C. These modules supply the 5-MA magnet current needed for the compressional heating of compact toroid plasmoids. To date, 54 modules have been built and successfully tested at their full design rating: 100-kA peak output current at 10-kV charge, {tau}{sub 1/4} = 60 {mu}s (25-kJ module), or 110 {mu}s (50-kJ module), crowbar L/R {le} 1 ms. Modules are compact, cost about $5000 each, and though designed for 25 or 50 kJ, they can be easily modified for other pulsed-power applications. Energy is stored in 25-kJ capacitors. Start and crowbar switching is performed with a pair of water-cooled, size-D ignitrons. As an alternative to an ignitron, crowbar switching by solid-state rectifiers has been successfully demonstrated. Current is conducted between components and to the load by parallel-plate transmission lines and by a parallel array of commercially-available coaxial cable. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Evolution of Carbide Precipitates in 2.25Cr-1Mo Steel during Long-Term Service in a Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yong; Chen, Yiren; Sridharan, Kumar; Allen, Todd R.

    2010-03-01

    Carbide precipitation from the steel matrix during long-term high-temperature exposure can adversely affect the fracture toughness and high-temperature creep resistance of materials with implications on the performance of power plant components. In the present work, carbide evolution in 2.25Cr-1Mo steel after long-term aging during service was investigated. Boiler pipe samples of this steel were removed from a supercritical water-cooled coal-fired power plant after service times of 17 and 28 years and a mean operational temperature of 810 K (537 °C). The carbide precipitation and coarsening effects were studied using the carbon extraction replica technique followed by analysis using transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The carbides extracted using an electrolytic technique were also analyzed using X-ray diffraction to evaluate phase transformations of the carbides during long-term service. Small ball punch and Vickers hardness were used to evaluate the changes in mechanical performance after long-term aging during service.

  5. Power electronics for low power arcjets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamley, John A.; Hill, Gerald M.

    1991-01-01

    In anticipation of the needs of future light-weight, low-power spacecraft, arcjet power electronics in the 100 to 400 W operating range were developed. Limited spacecraft power and thermal control capacity of these small spacecraft emphasized the need for high efficiency. Power topologies similar to those in the higher 2 kW and 5 to 30 kW power range were implemented, including a four transistor bridge switching circuit, current mode pulse-width modulated control, and an output current averaging inductor with an integral pulse generation winding. Reduction of switching transients was accomplished using a low inductance power distribution network, and no passive snubber circuits were necessary for power switch protection. Phase shift control of the power bridge was accomplished using an improved pulse width modulation to phase shift converter circuit. These features, along with conservative magnetics designs allowed power conversion efficiencies of greater than 92.5 percent to be achieved into resistive loads over the entire operating range of the converter. Electromagnetic compatibility requirements were not considered in this work, and control power for the converter was derived from AC mains. Addition of input filters and control power converters would result in an efficiency of on the order of 90 percent for a flight unit. Due to the developmental nature of arcjet systems at this power level, the exact nature of the thruster/power processor interface was not quantified. Output regulation and current ripple requirements of 1 and 20 percent respectively, as well as starting techniques, were derived from the characteristics of the 2 kW system but an open circuit voltage in excess of 175 V was specified. Arcjet integration tests were performed, resulting in successful starts and stable arcjet operation at power levels as low as 240 W with simulated hydrazine propellants.

  6. Practical application of the RUTA safe pool-type nuclear reactor to demonstrate the advantages of atomic energy use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Romenkov

    2009-01-01

    The concept of the RUTA water-cooled water-moderated pool-type nuclear reactor is presented. The basic results of findings of the RUTA-70 pilot district heating plant in Obninsk science town, Kaluga Region, Russia, and capabilities of using this for nuclear technology research purposes are shown. The basic technical data of the reactor facility are presented and its design is described in brief.

  7. Human Powered Centrifuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulenburg, Gerald M. (Inventor); Vernikos, Joan (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A human powered centrifuge has independently established turntable angular velocity and human power input. A control system allows excess input power to be stored as electric energy in a battery or dissipated as heat through a resistors. In a mechanical embodiment, the excess power is dissipated in a friction brake.

  8. Maximum Power Point

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students learn how to find the maximum power point (MPP) of a photovoltaic (PV) panel in order to optimize its efficiency at creating solar power. They also learn about real-world applications and technologies that use this technique, as well as Ohm's law and the power equation, which govern a PV panel's ability to produce power.

  9. Tidal power in Argentina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aisiks

    1993-01-01

    This presentation describes the tidal power potential of Argentina and the current status of its utilization. The topics of the presentation include tidal power potential, electric production of the region and the Argentine share of production and consumption, conventional hydroelectric potential, economic feasibility of tidal power production, and the general design and feasibility of a tidal power plant planned for

  10. Power Series Introduction

    E-print Network

    Vickers, James

    Power Series 16.4 Introduction In this section we consider power series. These are examples of infinite series where each term contains a variable, x, raised to a positive integer power. We use the ratio test to obtain the radius of convergence R, of the power series and state the important result

  11. Wind Power Now!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglis, David Rittenhouse

    1975-01-01

    The government promotes and heavily subsidizes research in nuclear power plants. Federal development of wind power is slow in comparison even though much research with large wind-electric machines has already been conducted. Unless wind power programs are accelerated it will not become a major energy alternative to nuclear power. (MR)

  12. Topical report : NSTF facilities plan for water-cooled VHTR RCCS : normal operational tests.

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Tzanos, C. P.; Lomperski, S.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-09-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Generation IV roadmapping activity, the gas-cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) has been selected as the principal concept for hydrogen production and other process-heat applications such as district heating and potable water production. On this basis, the DOE has selected the VHTR for additional R&D with the ultimate goal of demonstrating emission-free electricity and hydrogen production with this advanced reactor concept.

  13. Water-cooled end-point boundary temperature control of hot strip via dynamic programming

    SciTech Connect

    Samaras, N.S. [Danieli Automation, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [Danieli Automation, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Simaan, M.A. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering] [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1998-11-01

    In this paper, an end-point boundary temperature control approach for runout table cooling used in hot strip mills is presented. The system relies on a linearized model for describing heat radiated to the environment and heat transferred to cooling water. At first, a conventional feedforward control design to control the temperature at the end-point boundary, the only measurable controlled parameter, is presented. Subsequently, a modified control scheme which uses dynamic programming to minimize the temperature error at the end-point boundary is discussed in detail. System performance analysis via simulation is presented for both control schemes. Simulation results show that temperature error minimization by dynamic programming improves system performance.

  14. Water-cooled end-point boundary temperature control of hot strip via dynamic programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas S. Samaras; Marwan A. Simaan

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, an end-point boundary temperature control approach for runout table cooling used in hot strip mills is presented. The system relies on a linearized model for describing heat radiated to the environment and heat transferred to cooling water. At first, a conventional feedforward control design to control the temperature at the end-point boundary, the only measurable controlled parameter,

  15. Water cooled end-point boundary temperature control of hot strip via dynamic programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas S. Samaras; M. A. Simaan

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a system for end-point boundary temperature control approach, for run out table (ROT) cooling, used in hot strip mills. The system relies on a linearized model for describing heat radiated to the environment and heat transferred to cooling water. A conventional feedforward control design to control the temperature at the end boundary point, the only measurable controlled

  16. 25--30 T water cooled pulse magnet concept for neutron scattering experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Eyssa, Y.M.; Walsh, R.P.; Miller, J.R.; Pernambuco-Wise, P.; Bird, M.D.; Schneider-Muntau, H.J. [National High Magnetic Field Lab., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Boeing, H.; Robinson, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory is in need of a high field, split-pair, pulse magnet that would provide a 25--30 T field in a 25 mm bore and 10 mm split gap for 2--4 ms at a repetition rate of 2 Hz. Single stack Bitter magnets of this type providing less than 20 T vertical field in the split gap have been constructed before. To produce higher fields, there is a need to use a multiple layer coil with internal reinforcement. The magnet should withstand up to 10{sup 7} cycles of loading and unloading. The authors have conducted a feasibility study that address these unique requirements.

  17. Apparatus and method of direct water cooling several parallel circuit cards each containing several chip packages

    DOEpatents

    Cipolla, Thomas M. (Katonah, NY); Colgan, Evan George (Chestnut Ridge, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Hall, Shawn Anthony (Pleasantville, NY); Tian, Shurong (Mount Kisco, NY)

    2011-12-20

    A cooling apparatus, system and like method for an electronic device includes a plurality of heat producing electronic devices affixed to a wiring substrate. A plurality of heat transfer assemblies each include heat spreaders and thermally communicate with the heat producing electronic devices for transferring heat from the heat producing electronic devices to the heat transfer assemblies. The plurality of heat producing electronic devices and respective heat transfer assemblies are positioned on the wiring substrate having the regions overlapping. A heat conduit thermally communicates with the heat transfer assemblies. The heat conduit circulates thermally conductive fluid therethrough in a closed loop for transferring heat to the fluid from the heat transfer assemblies via the heat spreader. A thermally conductive support structure supports the heat conduit and thermally communicates with the heat transfer assemblies via the heat spreader transferring heat to the fluid of the heat conduit from the support structure.

  18. Water-cooled components test program. Air-cooled nozzle tests. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1985-01-01

    This experimental program involving full-size turbine components was directed toward investigating the nature, composition, and formation rates of the ash deposited on these components by the combustion of hot, minimally cleaned coal gas (MCCG) under actual operating environments. Specific items of interest included: (1) how these ash deposit characteristics varied with firing temperatures (and resultant component metal temperatures); (2) ease

  19. Characteristics of Laser Diode Bar and Stack with Jet-Type, Water-Cooled Heatsink

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirofumi Miyajima; Hirofumi Kan; Shin-ichi Furuta; Takayuki Uchiyama; Satoru Oishi; Masanobu Yamanaka; Yasukazu Izawa; Sadao Nakai

    2004-01-01

    Our group has developed a funryu (``fountain flow'' in Japanese) heatsink structure for a 1 cm laser diode (LD) bar. The funryu heatsink is only 1.1 mm in thickness and is designed in stackable form. With the help of a good indium soldering technique and detailed thermal analysis, this device achieved a thermal resistance of only 0.25°C\\/W, defined by the

  20. Preliminary study on feasibility of large and small water cooled thorium breeder reactor in equilibrium states

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sidik Permana; Naoyuki Takaki; Hiroshi Sekimoto

    2008-01-01

    Fuel breeding is one of the essential performances for a self-sustaining reactor system which can maintains the fuel sustainability while the reactor produces energy and consumes the fissile materials during operation. Thorium cycle shows some advantageous on higher breeding characteristics in thermal neutron spectrum region as shown in the Shippingport reactor and molten salt breeder reactor (MSBR) project. In the

  1. Design of 95 GHz gyrotron based on continuous operation copper solenoid with water cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Borodin, Dmitri; Ben-Moshe, Roey; Einat, Moshe [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Ariel University, Ariel 40700 (Israel)

    2014-07-15

    The design work for 2nd harmonic 95 GHz, 50 kW gyrotron based on continuous operation copper solenoid is presented. Thermionic magnetron injection gun specifications were calculated according to the linear trade off equation, and simulated with CST program. Numerical code is used for cavity design using the non-uniform string equation as well as particle motion in the “cold” cavity field. The mode TE02 with low Ohmic losses in the cavity walls was chosen as the operating mode. The Solenoid is designed to induce magnetic field of 1.8 T over a length of 40 mm in the interaction region with homogeneity of ±0.34%. The solenoid has six concentric cylindrical segments (and two correction segments) of copper foil windings separated by water channels for cooling. The predicted temperature in continuous operation is below 93?°C. The parameters of the design together with simulation results of the electromagnetic cavity field, magnetic field, electron trajectories, and thermal analyses are presented.

  2. The EC conceptual design proposal of a water-cooled convertible blanket for ITER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Giancarli; E. Proust; L. Baraer; B. Bielak; J. Quintric-Bossy; X. Raepsaet; J. F. Salavy; L. Sedano; Y. Severi; J. Szczepanski

    1993-01-01

    For several years the EC laboratories have developed breeding blankets for DEMO. From this experience, it has been derived a proposal of tritium breeding blanket for the Extended Performance Phase (EPP) of ITER. The general basic ideas are the following: i) the switch from the shielding blanket used during the BPP to the breeding blanket for the EPP should not

  3. Oxidation of Zircaloy Fuel Cladding in Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Digby Macdonald; Mirna Urquidi-Macdonald; Yingzi Chen; Jiahe Ai; Pilyeon Park; Han-Sang Kim

    2006-12-12

    Our work involved the continued development of the theory of passivity and passivity breakdown, in the form of the Point Defect Model, with emphasis on zirconium and zirconium alloys in reactor coolant environments, the measurement of critically-important parameters, and the development of a code that can be used by reactor operators to actively manage the accumulation of corrosion damage to the fuel cladding and other components in the heat transport circuits in both BWRs and PWRs. In addition, the modified boiling crevice model has been further developed to describe the accumulation of solutes in porous deposits (CRUD) on fuel under boiling (BWRs) and nucleate boiling (PWRs) conditions, in order to accurately describe the environment that is contact with the Zircaloy cladding. In the current report, we have derived expressions for the total steady-state current density and the partial anodic and cathodic current densities to establish a deterministic basis for describing Zircaloy oxidation. The models are “deterministic” because the relevant natural laws are satisfied explicitly, most importantly the conversation of mass and charge and the equivalence of mass and charge (Faraday’s law). Cathodic reactions (oxygen reduction and hydrogen evolution) are also included in the models, because there is evidence that they control the rate of the overall passive film formation process. Under open circuit conditions, the cathodic reactions, which must occur at the same rate as the zirconium oxidation reaction, are instrumental in determining the corrosion potential and hence the thickness of the barrier and outer layers of the passive film. Controlled hydrodynamic methods have been used to measure important parameters in the modified Point Defect Model (PDM), which is now being used to describe the growth and breakdown of the passive film on zirconium and on Zircaloy fuel sheathing in BWRs and PWRs coolant environments. The modified PDMs recognize the existence of a thick oxide outer layer over a thin barrier layer. From thermodynamic analysis, it is postulated that a hydride barrier layer forms under PWR coolant conditions whereas an oxide barrier layer forms under BWR primary coolant conditions. Thus, the introduction of hydrogen into the solution lowers the corrosion potential of zirconium to the extent that the formation of ZrH2 is predicted to be spontaneous rather than the ZrO2. Mott-Schottky analysis shows that the passive film formed on zirconium is n-type, which is consistent with the PDM, corresponding to a preponderance of oxygen/hydrogen vacancies and/or zirconium interstitials in the barrier layer. The model parameter values were extracted from electrochemical impedance spectroscopic data for zirconium in high temperature, de-aerated and hydrogenated environments by optimization. The results indicate that the corrosion resistance of zirconium is dominated by the porosity and thickness of the outer layer for both cases. The impedance model based on the PDM provides a good account of the growth of the bi-layer passive films described above, and the extracted model parameter values might be used, for example, for predicting the accumulation of general corrosion damage to Zircaloy fuel sheath in BWR and PWR operating environments. Transients in current density and film thickness for passive film formation on zirconium in dearated and hydrogenated coolant conditions have confirmed that the rate law afforded by the Point Defect Model (PDM) adequately describes the growth and thinning of the passive film. The experimental results demonstrate that the kinetics of oxygen or hydrogen vacancy generation at the metal/film interface control the rate of film growth, when the potential is displaced in the positive direction, whereas the kinetics of dissolution of the barrier layer at the barrier layer/solution interface control the rate of passive film thinning when the potential is stepped in the negative direction. In addition, the effects of second phase particles (SPPs) on the electrochemistry of passive zirconium in the

  4. Thermal-hydraulic limitations on water-cooled fusion reactor components

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, Y.S.; Misra, B.

    1986-01-01

    An assessment of the cooling requirements for fusion reactor components, such as the first wall and limiter/divertor, was carried out using pressurized water as the coolant. In order to establish the coolant operating conditions, a survey of the literature on departure from nucleate boiling, critical heat flux, asymmetrical heating and heat transfer augmentation techniques was carried out. The experimental data and the empirical correlations indicate that thermal protection for the fusion reactor components based on conventional design concepts can be provided with an adequate margin of safety without resorting to either high coolant velocities, excessive coolant pressures, or heat transfer augmentation techniques. If, however, the future designs require unconventional shapes or heat transfer enhancement techniques, experimental verification would be necessary since no data on heat transfer augmentation techniques exist for complex geometries, especially under asymmetrically heated conditions. Since the data presented herein are concerned primarily with thermal protection of the reactor components, the final design should consider other factors such as thermal stresses, temperature limits, and fatigue.

  5. Zirconium carbide coating for corium experiments related to water-cooled and sodium-cooled reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plevacova, K.; Journeau, C.; Piluso, P.; Zhdanov, V.; Baklanov, V.; Poirier, J.

    2011-07-01

    Since the TMI and Chernobyl accidents the risk of nuclear severe accident is intensively studied for existing and future reactors. In case of a core melt-down accident in a nuclear reactor, a complex melt, called corium, forms. To be able to perform experiments with prototypic corium materials at high temperature, a coating which resists to different corium melts related to Generation I and II Water Reactors and Generation IV sodium fast reactor was researched in our experimental platforms both in IAE NNC in Kazakhstan and in CEA in France. Zirconium carbide was selected as protective coating for graphite crucibles used in our induction furnaces: VCG-135 and VITI. The method of coating application, called reactive wetting, was developed. Zirconium carbide revealed to resist well to the (U x, Zr y)O 2-z water reactor corium. It has also the advantage not to bring new elements to this chemical system. The coating was then tested with sodium fast reactor corium melts containing steel or absorbers. Undesirable interactions were observed between the coating and these materials, leading to the carburization of the corium ingots. Concerning the resistance of the coating to oxide melts without ZrO 2, the zirconium carbide coating keeps its role of protective barrier with UO 2-Al 2O 3 below 2000 °C but does not resist to a UO 2-Eu 2O 3 mixture.

  6. Developments of a powder-metallurgy, MZC copper-alloy, water-cooled gas turbine component

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. G. Peterson

    1984-01-01

    The Department of Energy of the Federal Government has sponsored a technology development and verification testing program.\\u000a This work is in support of an advanced, watercooled gas turbine firing at 2600 ‡F (1427 ‡C). As part of this turbine, strong\\u000a emphasis has been placed on the design and testing of a composite firststage nozzle. One of the materials making up

  7. R and D on a Supercritical Pressure Water-Cooled Reactor in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Yoon-Yeong; Bae, Kang-Mok; Yoon, Han-Young; Kim, Hyungrae; Hwang, Seong-Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin Yuseong Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Korea is actively participating in the international collaboration program on the development of a SCWR with Canada, Japan, EU, France, and USA. In this paper the current progress of the research activities on the SCWR in Korea is presented. The current research areas include reactor core conceptual design, a heat transfer test with supercritical CO{sub 2}, an improvement of existing safety analysis code adapting to supercritical pressure condition, and an evaluation and/or development of candidate material. (authors)

  8. UNSTEADY THREE-DIMENSIONAL NATURAL CONVECTION OF WATER COOLED INSIDE A CUBIC ENCLOSURE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nelson O. Moraga; Sylvana A. Vega

    2004-01-01

    Three-dimensional unsteady natural convection of cooling water inside a cubical cavity at Ra = 10 is investigated. The finite-volume method with the SIMPLE algorithm is used to solve the nonlinear coupled continuity, momentum, and energy equations. All physical water properties—density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and specific heat—are allowed to change with temperature. The numerical results for the 3-D geometry show that the side

  9. Water-cooled hard-soldered kilowatt laser diode arrays operating at high duty cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Genady Klumel; Yoram Karni; Jacob Oppenhaim; Yuri Berk; Moshe Shamay; Renana Tessler; Shalom Cohen; Shlomo Risemberg

    2010-01-01

    High brightness laser diode arrays are increasingly found in defense applications either as efficient optical pumps or as direct energy sources. In many instances, duty cycles of 10- 20 % are required, together with precise optical collimation. System requirements are not always compatible with the use of microchannel based cooling, notwithstanding their remarkable efficiency. Simpler but effective solutions, which will

  10. Neutronics analysis of water-cooled energy production blanket for a fusion–fission hybrid reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jieqiong Jiang; Minghuang Wang; Zhong Chen; Yuefeng Qiu; Jinchao Liu; Yunqing Bai; Hongli Chen; Yanglin Hu

    2010-01-01

    Neutronics calculations were performed to analyse the parameters of blanket energy multiplication factor (M) and tritium breeding ratio (TBR) in a fusion–fission hybrid reactor for energy production named FDS (Fusion-Driven hybrid System)-EM (Energy Multiplier) blanket. The most significant and main goal of the FDS-EM blanket is to achieve the energy gain of about 1GWe with self-sustaining tritium, i.e. the M

  11. NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY OF WATER-COOLED FUSION REACTORS: ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, Andrei Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL] [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    ITER is an experimental Tokamak fusion energy reactor that is being built in Cadarache, France, in collaboration with seven agencies representing China, the European Union, India, Japan, Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, and the United States. The main objective of ITER is to demonstrate the scientific and technical feasibility of a controlled fusion reaction An important U.S. contribution is the design, fabrication, and delivery of the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS). This paper describes the main sources of radioactivity in TCWS water, which are the nitrogen isotopes 16N and 17N, tritium, activated corrosion products, and the carbon isotope 14C; the relative contribution of each of these sources to the total radioactive contamination of water; issues related to excess accumulation of these species; and methods to control TCWS radioactivity within acceptable limits. Among these methods are: (1) water purification to minimize corrosion of materials in contact with TCWS water; (2) monitoring of vital chemistry parameters and control of water chemistry; (3) design of proper building structure and/or TCWS loop/geometry configuration; and (4) design of an ITER liquid radwaste facility tailored to TCWS operational requirements. Design of TCWS nuclear chemistry control is crucial to ensuring that the inventory of radioactive species is consistent with the principle of 'As Low as Reasonably Achievable.'

  12. Design of 95 GHz gyrotron based on continuous operation copper solenoid with water cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodin, Dmitri; Ben-Moshe, Roey; Einat, Moshe

    2014-07-01

    The design work for 2nd harmonic 95 GHz, 50 kW gyrotron based on continuous operation copper solenoid is presented. Thermionic magnetron injection gun specifications were calculated according to the linear trade off equation, and simulated with CST program. Numerical code is used for cavity design using the non-uniform string equation as well as particle motion in the "cold" cavity field. The mode TE02 with low Ohmic losses in the cavity walls was chosen as the operating mode. The Solenoid is designed to induce magnetic field of 1.8 T over a length of 40 mm in the interaction region with homogeneity of ±0.34%. The solenoid has six concentric cylindrical segments (and two correction segments) of copper foil windings separated by water channels for cooling. The predicted temperature in continuous operation is below 93 °C. The parameters of the design together with simulation results of the electromagnetic cavity field, magnetic field, electron trajectories, and thermal analyses are presented.

  13. High power fast ramping power supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Marneris,I.; Bajon, E.; Bonati, R.; Sandberg, J.; Roser, T.; Tsoupas, N.

    2009-05-04

    Hundred megawatt level fast ramping power converters to drive proton and heavy ion machines are under research and development at accelerator facilities in the world. This is a leading edge technology. There are several topologies to achieve this power level. Their advantages and related issues will be discussed.

  14. Active Power Control from Wind Power (Presentation)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Ela; D. Brooks

    2011-01-01

    In order to keep the electricity grid stable and the lights on, the power system relies on certain responses from its generating fleet. This presentation evaluates the potential for wind turbines and wind power plants to provide these services and assist the grid during critical times.

  15. From power to action.

    PubMed

    Galinsky, Adam D; Gruenfeld, Deborah H; Magee, Joe C

    2003-09-01

    Three experiments investigated the hypothesis that power increases an action orientation in the power holder, even in contexts where power is not directly experienced. In Experiment 1, participants who possessed structural power in a group task were more likely to take a card in a simulated game of blackjack than those who lacked power. In Experiment 2, participants primed with high power were more likely to act against an annoying stimulus (a fan) in the environment, suggesting that the experience of power leads to the performance of goal-directed behavior. In Experiment 3, priming high power led to action in a social dilemma regardless of whether that action had prosocial or antisocial consequences. The effects of priming power are discussed in relation to the broader literature on conceptual and mind-set priming. PMID:14498782

  16. An Innovative System for the Efficient and Effective Treatment of Non-Traditional Waters for Reuse in Thermoelectric Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    John Rodgers; James Castle

    2008-08-31

    This study assessed opportunities for improving water quality associated with coal-fired power generation including the use of non-traditional waters for cooling, innovative technology for recovering and reusing water within power plants, novel approaches for the removal of trace inorganic compounds from ash pond effluents, and novel approaches for removing biocides from cooling tower blowdown. This research evaluated specifically designed pilot-scale constructed wetland systems for treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters for reuse in thermoelectric power generation and other purposes. The overall objective of this project was to decrease targeted constituents in non-traditional waters to achieve reuse criteria or discharge limitations established by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Clean Water Act (CWA). The six original project objectives were completed, and results are presented in this final technical report. These objectives included identification of targeted constituents for treatment in four non-traditional water sources, determination of reuse or discharge criteria for treatment, design of constructed wetland treatment systems for these non-traditional waters, and measurement of treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters, as well as determination of the suitability of the treated non-traditional waters for reuse or discharge to receiving aquatic systems. The four non-traditional waters used to accomplish these objectives were ash basin water, cooling water, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) water, and produced water. The contaminants of concern identified in ash basin waters were arsenic, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. Contaminants of concern in cooling waters included free oxidants (chlorine, bromine, and peroxides), copper, lead, zinc, pH, and total dissolved solids. FGD waters contained contaminants of concern including arsenic, boron, chlorides, selenium, mercury, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and zinc. Similar to FGD waters, produced waters contained contaminants of concern that are predominantly inorganic (arsenic, cadmium, chlorides, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, sulfide, zinc, total dissolved solids), but also contained some organics (benzene, PAHs, toluene, total organic carbon, total suspended solids, and oil and grease). Constituents of concern that may cause chemical scaling, biofouling and corrosion, such as pH, hardness and ionic strength, and nutrients (P, K, and N) may also be found in all four non-traditional waters. NPDES permits were obtained for these non-traditional waters and these permit limits are summarized in tabular format within this report. These limits were used to establish treatment goals for this research along with toxicity values for Ceriodaphnia dubia, water quality criteria established by the US EPA, irrigation standards established by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and reuse standards focused on minimization of damage to the power plant by treated waters. Constructed wetland treatment systems were designed for each non-traditional water source based on published literature reviews regarding remediation of the constituents of concern, biogeochemistry of the specific contaminants, and previous research. During this study, 4 non-traditional waters, which included ash basin water, cooling water, FGD water and produced water (PW) were obtained or simulated to measure constructed wetland treatment system performance. Based on data collected from FGD experiments, pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment systems can decrease aqueous concentrations of elements of concern (As, B, Hg, N, and Se). Percent removal was specific for each element, including ranges of 40.1% to 77.7% for As, 77.6% to 97.8% for Hg, 43.9% to 88.8% for N, and no measureable removal to 84.6% for Se. Other constituents of interest in final outflow samples should have aqueous characteristics sufficient for discharge, with the exception of chlorides (<2000 mg/L). Based on total dissolved solids, co-

  17. Power Factor Improvement

    E-print Network

    Viljoen, T. A.

    1979-01-01

    of the equipment, and will be shown at the conference. Typical billing methods involving power factors are described. Then, the alternative methods of improving power factor are discussed with advantages and disadvantages of each. Here, the advantages...

  18. Space Solar Power Program

    SciTech Connect

    Arif, H.; Barbosa, H.; Bardet, C.; Baroud, M.; Behar, A.; Berrier, K.; Berthe, P.; Bertrand, R.; Bibyk, I.; Bisson, J.; Bloch, L.; Bobadilla, G.; Bourque, D.; Bush, L.; Carandang, R.; Chiku, T.; Crosby, N.; De Seixas, M.; De Vries, J.; Doll, S.; Dufour, F.; Eckart, P.; Fahey, M.; Fenot, F.; Foeckersperger, S.; Fontaine, J.E.; Fowler, R.; Frey, H.; Fujio, H.; Gasa, J.M.; Gleave, J.; Godoe, J.; Green, I.; Haeberli, R.; Hanada, T.; Ha

    1992-08-01

    Information pertaining to the Space Solar Power Program is presented on energy analysis; markets; overall development plan; organizational plan; environmental and safety issues; power systems; space transportation; space manufacturing, construction, operations; design examples; and finance.

  19. Solar powered desalination system

    E-print Network

    Mateo, Tiffany Alisa

    2011-01-01

    of fresh water? Table 1.19: Solar Desalination Systemssolar desalination systems with a variety of power sources, desalination processes, and fresh watersolar-powered reverse osmosis system can be taken to a fresh water

  20. Residential Wind Power

    E-print Network

    Willis, Gary

    2011-12-16

    This research study will explore the use of residential wind power and associated engineering and environmental issues. There is various wind power generating devices available to the consumer. The study will discuss the dependencies of human...

  1. Savings Through Power Quality

    E-print Network

    Mehrdad, M.

    2005-01-01

    . Harmonics can be cause of inefficient distribution of power, power line carrier (PLC), egg. Clocks and Energy Management Systems (EMS). Finally, harmonics can cause utility meters, KW Demand and KWH consumption, to register false readings. Electro...

  2. Microwave beam power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faymon, Karl A.

    1989-01-01

    Information on microwave beam power is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on orbit transfer proulsion applications, costs of delivering 100 kWe of usable power, and costs of delivering a 1 kg payload into orbit.

  3. Body powered thermoelectric systems

    E-print Network

    Settaluri, Krishna Tej

    2012-01-01

    Great interest exists for and progress has be made in the effective utilization of the human body as a possible power supply in hopes of powering such applications as sensors and continuously monitoring medical devices ...

  4. Power beaming providing a space power infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, J.A.; Coomes, E.P.

    1992-08-01

    This study, based on two levels of technology, applies the power beaming concept to four planned satellite constellations. The analysis shows that with currently available technology, power beaming can provide mass savings to constellations in orbits ranging from low earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit. Two constellations, space surveillance and tracking system and space based radar, can be supported with current technology. The other two constellations, space-based laser array and boost surveillance and tracking system, will require power and transmission system improvements before their breakeven specific mass is achieved. A doubling of SP-100 conversion efficiency from 10 to 20/% would meet or exceed breakeven for these constellations.

  5. Strategic Power Infrastructure Defense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hao Li; GARY W. ROSENWALD; JUHWAN JUNG; Chen-ching Liu

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive state-of-the-art overview on power infrastructure defense systems. A review of the literature on the subjects of critical infrastructures, threats to the power grids, defense system concepts, and the special protection systems is reported. The proposed Strategic Power Infrastructure Defense (SPID) system methodology is a real-time, wide-area, adaptive protection and control system involving the power, communication,

  6. Power of Points

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-17

    This geometry lesson introduces the Power of Points theorem. While it is often taught in three parts (the Chord-Chord Power theorem, the Secant-Secant Power theorem, and the Tangent-secant Power theorem), this lesson demonstrates how the three theorems relate to one another. An interactive applet is included to help demonstrate the theorem. This activity is best for grades 9-12 and should require 1 class period to complete.

  7. Electrical power generating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A power generating system for adjusting coupling an induction motor, as a generator, to an A.C. power line wherein the motor and power line are connected through a triac is described. The triac is regulated to normally turn on at a relatively late point in each half cycle of its operation, whereby at less than operating speed, and thus when the induction motor functions as a motor rather than as a generator, power consumption from the line is substantially reduced.

  8. Power Line Monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike S. Wilson; Stefan Hurlebaus

    2007-01-01

    Overhead power lines are periodically inspected using both on-ground and helicopter-aided visual inspection. Factors including sun glare, cloud cover, close proximity to power lines, and rapidly changing visual circumstances make airborne inspection of power lines a particularly hazardous task. In this study, the feasibility of continuous, on-line monitoring of power lines using ultrasonic waves is considered. A sending\\/receiving transducer located

  9. Comparative Assessment of Gasification Based Coal Power Plants with Various CO2 Capture Technologies Producing Electricity and Hydrogen

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Seven different types of gasification-based coal conversion processes for producing mainly electricity and in some cases hydrogen (H2), with and without carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, were compared on a consistent basis through simulation studies. The flowsheet for each process was developed in a chemical process simulation tool “Aspen Plus”. The pressure swing adsorption (PSA), physical absorption (Selexol), and chemical looping combustion (CLC) technologies were separately analyzed for processes with CO2 capture. The performances of the above three capture technologies were compared with respect to energetic and exergetic efficiencies, and the level of CO2 emission. The effect of air separation unit (ASU) and gas turbine (GT) integration on the power output of all the CO2 capture cases is assessed. Sensitivity analysis was carried out for the CLC process (electricity-only case) to examine the effect of temperature and water-cooling of the air reactor on the overall efficiency of the process. The results show that, when only electricity production in considered, the case using CLC technology has an electrical efficiency 1.3% and 2.3% higher than the PSA and Selexol based cases, respectively. The CLC based process achieves an overall CO2 capture efficiency of 99.9% in contrast to 89.9% for PSA and 93.5% for Selexol based processes. The overall efficiency of the CLC case for combined electricity and H2 production is marginally higher (by 0.3%) than Selexol and lower (by 0.6%) than PSA cases. The integration between the ASU and GT units benefits all three technologies in terms of electrical efficiency. Furthermore, our results suggest that it is favorable to operate the air reactor of the CLC process at higher temperatures with excess air supply in order to achieve higher power efficiency. PMID:24578590

  10. Comparative Assessment of Gasification Based Coal Power Plants with Various CO2 Capture Technologies Producing Electricity and Hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sanjay; Kumar, Prashant; Hosseini, Ali; Yang, Aidong; Fennell, Paul

    2014-02-20

    Seven different types of gasification-based coal conversion processes for producing mainly electricity and in some cases hydrogen (H2), with and without carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, were compared on a consistent basis through simulation studies. The flowsheet for each process was developed in a chemical process simulation tool "Aspen Plus". The pressure swing adsorption (PSA), physical absorption (Selexol), and chemical looping combustion (CLC) technologies were separately analyzed for processes with CO2 capture. The performances of the above three capture technologies were compared with respect to energetic and exergetic efficiencies, and the level of CO2 emission. The effect of air separation unit (ASU) and gas turbine (GT) integration on the power output of all the CO2 capture cases is assessed. Sensitivity analysis was carried out for the CLC process (electricity-only case) to examine the effect of temperature and water-cooling of the air reactor on the overall efficiency of the process. The results show that, when only electricity production in considered, the case using CLC technology has an electrical efficiency 1.3% and 2.3% higher than the PSA and Selexol based cases, respectively. The CLC based process achieves an overall CO2 capture efficiency of 99.9% in contrast to 89.9% for PSA and 93.5% for Selexol based processes. The overall efficiency of the CLC case for combined electricity and H2 production is marginally higher (by 0.3%) than Selexol and lower (by 0.6%) than PSA cases. The integration between the ASU and GT units benefits all three technologies in terms of electrical efficiency. Furthermore, our results suggest that it is favorable to operate the air reactor of the CLC process at higher temperatures with excess air supply in order to achieve higher power efficiency. PMID:24578590

  11. Ocean wave power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Glendenning

    1977-01-01

    The potential of wave power and some of the more promising methods of harnessing it are discussed with attention to the wave energy arriving on the west coast of the United Kingdom. Unresolved technical and engineering problems are examined, and the impact of wave power on the environment is considered. Data on wave power and its variability are supplied. It

  12. The Power of Powerlessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Gerald; Johnson, Jackie

    1980-01-01

    Power and the paradox of powerlessness are defined in terms of the resource exchange theory of Foa and Foa. Power is conceptualized as the possession of resources, e.g., love, status, and money. The Karpman triangle is used to illustrate the power behind the victim's powerlessness. (Author)

  13. Remarks on power automata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatjana Petkovic; Stojan Bogdanovic; Milena Bogdanovic

    The construction of power algebras is an important way for producing new algebras from the given ones. Much information about an algebra can be derived from that concerning its power algebras, and it is interesting to treat the questions such as: What structural properties of A are inherited by its power algebras, and to what extent does the structure of

  14. The Administrative Power Grab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Administrative power for some school teachers can be an aphrodisiac that can be applied negatively, especially when a leader has devastating instinct for the weaknesses of others. A leader's intellect and heart closes shop and ceases to function when drunk on power. In this article, the author describes how the use of administrative power can be…

  15. Geothermal Power Plant Model

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    California Energy Commission

    2006-01-01

    In this activity, learners make a model of a power plant that uses steam. Learners use simple materials like foil, a tin can, and a pot of water to model a geothermal power plant. Learners use a pinwheel to observe the power produced by the steam. SAFETY NOTE: Adult assistance required.

  16. Power quality following deregulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOS ARRILLAGA; MATH H. J. BOLLEN; NEVILLE R. WATSON

    2000-01-01

    Utility deregulation will have tangible and intangible effects on power quality requiring industry-wide action to maintain adequate standards. These effects are discussed in the first part of the paper. The increasing trend towards more extensive use of power electronic control at the generation, transmission and utilization systems following deregulation has power quality implications that will affect the standards, system simulation

  17. Personal power systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek Dunn-Rankin; Elisângela Martins Leal; David C. Walther

    2005-01-01

    The lack of compact, efficient, human compatible, lightweight power sources impedes the realization of machine-enhanced human endeavor. Electronic and communication devices, as well as mobile robotic devices, need new power sources that will allow them to operate autonomously for periods of hours. In this work, a personal power system implies an application of interest to an individual person. The human-compatible

  18. Optimal Power Flow Solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hermann Dommel; William Tinney

    1968-01-01

    A practical method is given for solving the power flow problem with control variables such as real and reactive power and transformer ratios automatically adjusted to minimize instantaneous costs or losses. The solution is feasible with respect to constraints on control variables and dependent variables such as load voltages, reactive sources, and tie line power angles. The method is based

  19. Fluid Power Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2008-01-01

    Fluid power technicians, sometimes called hydraulic and pneumatic technicians, work with equipment that utilizes the pressure of a liquid or gas in a closed container to transmit, multiply, or control power. Working under the supervision of an engineer or engineering staff, they assemble, install, maintain, and test fluid power equipment.…

  20. Solar lunar power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    Current and projected technology is assessed for photovoltaic power for a lunar base. The following topics are discussed: requirements for power during the lunar day and night; solar cell efficiencies, specific power, temperature sensitivity, and availability; storage options for the lunar night; array and system integration; the potential for in situ production of photovoltaic arrays and storage medium.

  1. Power systems (review of \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hashem Nehrir

    2009-01-01

    This book covers a variety of issues related to the integration and operation of renewable energy (RE) in power systems. Given the steady increase in demand for electricity, increased interest in protecting the environment and deployment of RE power generation sources, and their increased penetration into the power grid worldwide, the subject book is very timely. Congratulations to the authors!

  2. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  3. Nuclear Power Plants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The potential danger from an accident at a nuclear power plant is exposure to radiation. This exposure could come from the release of ... Power Plant Emergency If an accident at a nuclear power plant were to release radiation in your area, local authorities would activate warning ...

  4. Solar powered desalination system

    E-print Network

    Mateo, Tiffany Alisa

    2011-01-01

    solar power more efficient and cost effective. Figure 1.13: Californiasolar power is not yet cost competitive to fossil fuel. In California,California 2008 Total System Generation…………………………………..32 Table 1.18: Largest PV Power Plants……………………………………………………32 Table 1.19: Solar

  5. Resonance transformer power conditioners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Ness; S. G. E. Pronko; J. R. Cooper; E. Y. Chu

    1990-01-01

    Designs for power conditioning systems based on the resonance transformer have been developed for applications requiring compact, lightweight power supplies ranging from average power levels of 10 kW to over 1 MW. The resonance transformer is a patented concept which depends on a set of resonant LC circuits to produce transformer-like voltage or current gain. Because this approach does not

  6. Bottle Rock Power Corporation

    E-print Network

    Bottle Rock Power Corporation 1275 4th Street, No. 105 Phone: 707.541.0976 Santa Rosa, CA 95404 Fax 1516 9th Street, MS-2000 Sacramento, CA 95814-5512 RE: Bottle Rock Power Plant (79-AFC-4C) Petition for Extending Environmental Monitoring Program Dear Ms. Tronaas: The Bottle Rock Power Corporation (BRPC

  7. Wave driven power generators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neville

    1975-01-01

    Two one-way clutches on a power output shaft are driven through two oppositely driven power trains driven by a lever arm oscillated by a float raised by waves and lowered by gravity. In an alternate embodiment, a plurality of floatoscillated lever arms are spaced apart a fraction of a wave length and drive pairs of one-way clutches on a power

  8. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  9. Turbine power plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tobber

    1980-01-01

    A turbine power plant of particularly inexpensive construction and using static expansion of the combustion gas to accelerate slugs of liquid used as the motive power for a pelton wheel is disclosed. The turbine power plant comprises a fuel combustion unit producing combustion gas which serves to impart speed to slugs of an auxiliary liquid, like water, in output pipes;

  10. Superconducting Power Generation

    E-print Network

    Mario Rabinowitz

    2003-02-20

    The superconducting ac generator has the greatest potential for large-scale commercial application of superconductivity that can benefit the public. Electric power is a vital ingredient of modern society, and generation may be considered to be the vital ingredient of a power system. This articles gives background, and an insight into the physics and engineering of superconducting power generation.

  11. Power invariance transformation in power systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Heydeman; W. W. Schongs

    Many textbooks describe a balanced three-phase circuit by a single-phase equivalent representation. Confusion may arise amongst students regarding per-unit values of line-to-line voltages and phase voltages and, therefore, about the magnitudes of currents and powers. This paper proposes that students must first be taught symmetrical components based on power invariance transformation. A balanced three-phase circuit is to be described only

  12. Optically powered fiber networks.

    PubMed

    Röger, M; Böttger, G; Dreschmann, M; Klamouris, C; Huebner, M; Bett, A W; Becker, J; Freude, W; Leuthold, J

    2008-12-22

    Optically powered networks are demonstrated. Heterogeneous subscribers having widely varying needs with respect to power and band-width can be effectively controlled and optically supplied by a central of-fice. The success of the scheme relies both on power-efficient innovative hardware and on a novel low-energy medium access control protocol. We demonstrate a sensor network with subscribers consuming less than 1 microW average power, and an optically powered high-speed video link transmitting data at a bitrate of 100 Mbit/s. PMID:19104615

  13. Revealing power in truth

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kelley

    2015-01-01

    Jeremy Shiffman’s editorial appropriately calls on making all forms of power more apparent and accountable, notably productive power derived from expertise and claims to moral authority. This commentary argues that relationships based on productive power can be especially difficult to reveal in global health policy because of embedded notions about the nature of power and politics. Yet, it is essential to recognize that global health is shot through with power relationships, that they can take many forms, and that their explicit acknowledgement should be part of, rather than factored out of, any reform of global health governance. PMID:25844390

  14. ADEPT: Efficient Power Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2011-01-01

    ADEPT Project: In today’s increasingly electrified world, power conversion—the process of converting electricity between different currents, voltage levels, and frequencies—forms a vital link between the electronic devices we use every day and the sources of power required to run them. The 14 projects that make up ARPA-E’s ADEPT Project, short for “Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,” are paving the way for more energy efficient power conversion and advancing the basic building blocks of power conversion: circuits, transistors, inductors, transformers, and capacitors.

  15. Power Simulator for Smartphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkolemis, Nikolaos

    The ability to accurately estimate the power and energy dissipation of a smartphone, based on different running applications, has been a crucial demand for both mobile companies and mobile users. Pre-existing solutions are either calibrated for specific devices or lack accuracy due to the use of oversimplified power models or operating restrictions. The developed power simulator for smartphones described here is the first complete attempt to combine generalized power models together with sequential and parallel application execution algorithms and a user friendly graphical user interface in order to create a power

  16. Multimegawatt space power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Dearien, J.A.; Whitbeck, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    In response to the need of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) and long range space exploration and extra-terrestrial basing by the National Air and Space Administration (NASA), concepts for nuclear power systems in the multi-megawatt levels are being designed and evaluated. The requirements for these power systems are being driven primarily by the need to minimize weight and maximize safety and reliability. This paper will discuss the present requirements for space based advanced power systems, technological issues associated with the development of these advanced nuclear power systems, and some of the concepts proposed for generating large amounts of power in space. 31 figs.

  17. Analysis to the Reliability of Evaporative Cooling Turbo generator in Power System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin Xiong; GuoBiao Gu

    2011-01-01

    Evaporative cooling technique is successfully applied for large turbo generator following the air-cooled, hydrogen- cooled and water-cooled techniques. Compared with the three techniques, evaporative cooling technique absorbs the heat of thermal parts of generator by vaporization latent heat of coolant, which is sharply more efficient than the specific heat cooling approaches. The temperature rise of evaporative cooling generator can be

  18. Closed-cycle gas turbines for power generation and LNG vaporization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Weber

    1980-01-01

    Cooling by LNG (liquefied nitrogen gas) in closed-cycle gas turbines results in double the electrical output of water cooled turbines. A circuit scheme of the LNG turbine is presented with the temperatures and pressures of the cycle. The turbine inlet temperature is limited to 720 C. Pressure level control and bypass control are the two basic types of control applied.

  19. Analysis of ion source arc chamber failure and grid damage sustained during high power operation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Kamperschroer; M. B. Cropper; L. R. Grisham; B. E. McCormack; T. E. O'Connor; M. E. Oldaker; T. N. Stevenson; A. Von Halle

    1997-01-01

    Several ion sources failed during the last months of TFTR operation. Four suffered are chamber vacuum leaks which admitted SF6 into the source. One of these also had warped accelerator rails which resulted in damage to a water cooled scraper. The arc chamber leaks occurred at the boundary between the probe plate and either the bucket or interface plate. Vacuum

  20. Multimode power processor

    DOEpatents

    O'Sullivan, G.A.; O'Sullivan, J.A.

    1999-07-27

    In one embodiment, a power processor which operates in three modes: an inverter mode wherein power is delivered from a battery to an AC power grid or load; a battery charger mode wherein the battery is charged by a generator; and a parallel mode wherein the generator supplies power to the AC power grid or load in parallel with the battery. In the parallel mode, the system adapts to arbitrary non-linear loads. The power processor may operate on a per-phase basis wherein the load may be synthetically transferred from one phase to another by way of a bumpless transfer which causes no interruption of power to the load when transferring energy sources. Voltage transients and frequency transients delivered to the load when switching between the generator and battery sources are minimized, thereby providing an uninterruptible power supply. The power processor may be used as part of a hybrid electrical power source system which may contain, in one embodiment, a photovoltaic array, diesel engine, and battery power sources. 31 figs.

  1. Multimode power processor

    DOEpatents

    O'Sullivan, George A. (Pottersville, NJ); O'Sullivan, Joseph A. (St. Louis, MO)

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment, a power processor which operates in three modes: an inverter mode wherein power is delivered from a battery to an AC power grid or load; a battery charger mode wherein the battery is charged by a generator; and a parallel mode wherein the generator supplies power to the AC power grid or load in parallel with the battery. In the parallel mode, the system adapts to arbitrary non-linear loads. The power processor may operate on a per-phase basis wherein the load may be synthetically transferred from one phase to another by way of a bumpless transfer which causes no interruption of power to the load when transferring energy sources. Voltage transients and frequency transients delivered to the load when switching between the generator and battery sources are minimized, thereby providing an uninterruptible power supply. The power processor may be used as part of a hybrid electrical power source system which may contain, in one embodiment, a photovoltaic array, diesel engine, and battery power sources.

  2. Power Quality Aspects in a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Chacon, J.; Romanowitz, H.

    2006-01-01

    Although many operational aspects affect wind power plant operation, this paper focuses on power quality. Because a wind power plant is connected to the grid, it is very important to understand the sources of disturbances that affect the power quality.

  3. Sixth Power Plan northwest Power and Conservation Council

    E-print Network

    Sixth Power Plan northwest Power and Conservation Council March 15, 2013 Mid-term assessment Summary #12;PaGe 2 > Mid-TerM AssessMenT suMMAry > Sixth Power Plan topics · Background on the Council · Northwest Power System · Sixth Northwest Power Plan · Mid-Term Assessment · Seventh Northwest Power Plan

  4. Power conditioning options for central station rated photovoltaic power plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. S. Key; F. G. Turnbull

    1985-01-01

    Design options for power conditioning in a 5 megawatt photovoltaic power station include the use of a small number of high-power modules, or a larger number of low-power modules. The effects of this choice on Power Conditioning Subsystem (PCS) cost, efficiency, and overall design are discussed, based on experience gained from recent inverter design studies for power ratings ranging from

  5. Power flow for spacecraft power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpin, S. M.; Grigsby, L. L.; Sheble, G. B.; Nelms, R. M.

    1989-01-01

    A method for constructing the generalized system-level admittance matrix for use with a Newton-Raphson power flow is presented. The network modeling technique presented does not use the standard pi-equivalent models, which assume a lossless return path, for the transmission line and transformer. If the return path cannot be assumed lossless, then the standard algorithms for constructing the system admittance matrix cannot be used. The method presented here uses concepts from linear graph theory to combine network modules to form the system-level admittance matrix. The modeling technique is presented, and the resulting matrix is used with a standard Newton-Raphson power flow to calculate all system voltages and current (power) flows.

  6. Advanced photovoltaic power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, P.; Reppucci, G. M.

    1977-03-01

    The state-of-the-art of synchronous orbit photovoltaic power systems is characterized including performance of solar arrays, batteries and power control components. Advanced developments in each of these areas are reviewed and projections are made for performance improvements in the 1980-1985 time period. It is estimated that overall photovoltaic power system specific weight could decrease from a present value of 126 kg/kW to approximately 43 kg/kW in 1985. These performance predictions are compared to projections of nuclear system performance over the same period. The analysis indicates that advanced photovoltaic power systems will exhibit specific weights which are lower than isotope and reactor nuclear systems at all power levels up to approximately 25 kW. At higher power levels, higher energy density batteries would be required to compete with the projected performance of advanced nuclear systems.

  7. Fluid Power Basics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students learn about the fundamental concepts important to fluid power, which includes both pneumatic (gas) and hydraulic (liquid) systems. Both systems contain four basic components: reservoir/receiver, pump/compressor, valve, cylinder. Students learn background information about fluid power—both pneumatic and hydraulic systems—including everyday applications in our world (bulldozers, front-end loaders, excavators, chair height lever adjustors, door closer dampers, dental drills, vehicle brakes) and related natural laws. After a few simple teacher demos, they learn about the four components in all fluid power systems, watch two 26-minute online videos about fluid power, complete a crossword puzzle of fluid power terms, and conduct a task card exercise. This prepares them to conduct the associated hands-on activity, using the Portable Fluid Power Demonstrator (teacher-prepared kits) to learn more about the properties of gases and liquids in addition to how forces are transmitted and multiplied within these systems.

  8. Peak power ratio generator

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Robert D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  9. Power Subscription Strategy.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-12-21

    This document lays out the Bonneville Power Administration`s ``Power Subscription Strategy,`` a process that will enable the people of the Pacific Northwest to share the benefits of the Federal Columbia river Power System after 2001 while retaining those benefits within the region for future generations. The strategy also addresses how those who receive the benefits of the region`s low-cost federal power should share a corresponding measure of the risks. This strategy seeks to implement the subscription concept created by the Comprehensive Review in 1996 through contracts for the sale of power and the distribution of federal power benefits in the deregulated wholesale electricity market. The success of the subscription process is fundamental to BPA`s overall business purpose to provide public benefits to the Northwest through commercially successful businesses.

  10. Powerful Winds in Extreme RBS quasars (POWER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piconcelli, Enrico

    2013-10-01

    This proposal aims at studying powerful outflows in ultra-luminous (log Lx >45) Radio-Quiet Quasars (RQQ). We propose to observe four objects extracted from a luminosity limited sample in the ROSAT Bright Survey for a full orbit (130 ks) each. Both models and observations suggest that the efficiency of driving energetic outflows increases with the AGN luminosity. Therefore, our targets are potentially the best objects to hunt for very powerful outflows expected in the AGN/galaxy feedback scenario. Our observations represent the first attempt ever to obtain deep, high-resolution-driven spectroscopy of a representative sample of RQQ in this high-luminosity regime.

  11. 10 CFR 50.55a - Codes and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...50.55a Section 50.55a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING...a boiling or pressurized water-cooled nuclear power facility is subject to the conditions...boiling or pressurized water-cooled nuclear power facility is subject to the...

  12. 10 CFR 50.55a - Codes and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...50.55a Section 50.55a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING...a boiling or pressurized water-cooled nuclear power facility is subject to the conditions...boiling or pressurized water-cooled nuclear power facility is subject to the...

  13. 10 CFR 50.55a - Codes and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...50.55a Section 50.55a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING...a boiling or pressurized water-cooled nuclear power facility is subject to the conditions...boiling or pressurized water-cooled nuclear power facility is subject to the...

  14. 10 CFR 50.55a - Codes and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...50.55a Section 50.55a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING...a boiling or pressurized water-cooled nuclear power facility is subject to the conditions...boiling or pressurized water-cooled nuclear power facility is subject to the...

  15. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE IV Colloque (77, suppl6ment au Journal de Physique111, Vol. 1, d6cembre 1991

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -power and efficiency have been achieved so far only for AIxGal-xAs and In,Gal -xAs compositions operating from about are water cooled copper and diamond heatsinks [2] and water cooled silicon microchannel coolers [3]. With copper heatsinks, peak diode array power densities of over 1 kW/cm2are available for short pulses (-100

  16. Betavoltaics Of Increased Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Frederick S.; Stella, Paul

    1991-01-01

    Batteries of newly developed betavoltaic cells proposed as long-lived sources of power of order of watts. High-power betavoltaic cell resembles solar photo voltaic cell, except it includes layer of beta-emitting material. Betavoltaic battery cells are stacked as in chemical battery, and surrounded by material containing beta rays. Intended for use aboard spacecraft, batteries also used in surgically implanted devices requiring high power.

  17. Power subsystem automation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tietz, J. C.; Sewy, D.; Pickering, C.; Sauers, R.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the phase 2 of the power subsystem automation study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using computer software to manage an aspect of the electrical power subsystem on a space station. The state of the art in expert systems software was investigated in this study. This effort resulted in the demonstration of prototype expert system software for managing one aspect of a simulated space station power subsystem.

  18. Power from ocean waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1983-01-01

    The total power of the waves breaking against the world's shores is estimated at 10¹³ watts--the equivalent of world energy consumption. Yet recent research in Britain projects a negative near term future. Performance and costs of wave power devices compared unfavorably to electricity. Studies continue on harnessing wave power at special sites, usually islands, where the waves are energetic, and

  19. Nuclear power browning out

    SciTech Connect

    Flavin, C.; Lenssen, N.

    1996-05-01

    When the sad history of nuclear power is written, April 26, 1986, will be recorded as the day the dream died. The explosion at the Chernobyl plant was a terrible human tragedy- and it delivered a stark verdict on the hope that nuclear power will one day replace fossil fuel-based energy systems. Nuclear advocates may soldier on, but a decade after Chernobyl it is clear that nuclear power is no longer a viable energy option for the twenty-first century.

  20. Switching power supply filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Prithvi R. (Inventor); Abare, Wayne (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A filter for a switching power supply. The filter includes a common mode inductor with coil configurations allowing differential mode current from a dc source to pass through but attenuating common mode noise from the power supply so that the noise does not reach the dc source. The invention also includes the use of feed through capacitors at the switching power supply input terminals to provide further high-frequency noise attenuation.

  1. NEP power subsystem modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harty, Richard B.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system optimization code consists of a master module and various submodules. Each of the submodules represents a subsystem within the total NEP power system. The master module sends commands and input data to each of the submodules and receives output data back. Rocketdyne was responsible for preparing submodules for the power conversion (both K-Rankine and Brayton), heat rejection, and power management and distribution.

  2. Space station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraona, Cosmo R.

    1987-01-01

    The major requirements and guidelines that affect the space station configuration and power system are explained. The evolution of the space station power system from the NASA program development-feasibility phase through the current preliminary design phase is described. Several early station concepts are described and linked to the present concept. Trade study selections of photovoltaic system technologies are described in detail. A summary of present solar dynamic and power management and distribution systems is also given.

  3. Electric power annual 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-08

    This report presents a summary of electric power industry statistics at national, regional, and state levels: generating capability and additions, net generation, fossil-fuel statistics, retail sales and revenue, finanical statistics, environmental statistics, power transactions, demand side management, nonutility power producers. Purpose is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts, and the public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets.

  4. Interleaved power converter

    DOEpatents

    Zhu, Lizhi (Canton, MI)

    2007-11-13

    A power converter architecture interleaves full bridge converters to alleviate thermal management problems in high current applications, and may, for example, double the output power capability while reducing parts count and costs. For example, one phase of a three phase inverter is shared between two transformers, which provide power to a rectifier such as a current doubler rectifier to provide two full bridge DC/DC converters with three rather than four high voltage inverter legs.

  5. Unified powered flight guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, T. J.; Brown, D. W.; Higgins, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    A complete revision of the orbiter powered flight guidance scheme is presented. A unified approach to powered flight guidance was taken to accommodate all phases of exo-atmospheric orbiter powered flight, from ascent through deorbit. The guidance scheme was changed from the previous modified version of the Lambert Aim Point Maneuver Mode used in Apollo to one that employs linear tangent guidance concepts. This document replaces the previous ascent phase equation document.

  6. Hybrid Power Management (HPM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center s Avionics, Power and Communications Branch of the Engineering and Systems Division initiated the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program for the GRC Technology Transfer and Partnership Office. HPM is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The advanced power devices include ultracapacitors and fuel cells. HPM has extremely wide potential. Applications include power generation, transportation systems, biotechnology systems, and space power systems. HPM has the potential to significantly alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, and stimulate the economy. One of the unique power devices being utilized by HPM for energy storage is the ultracapacitor. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy storage device, which has extremely high volumetric capacitance energy due to high surface area electrodes, and very small electrode separation. Ultracapacitors are a reliable, long life, maintenance free, energy storage system. This flexible operating system can be applied to all power systems to significantly improve system efficiency, reliability, and performance. There are many existing and conceptual applications of HPM.

  7. Critical pulse power components

    SciTech Connect

    Sarjeant, W.J.; Rohwein, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    Critical components for pulsed power conditioning systems will be reviewed. Particular emphasis will be placed on those components requiring significant development efforts. Capacitors, for example, are one of the weakest elements in high-power pulsed systems, especially when operation at high-repetition frequencies for extended periods of time are necessary. Switches are by far the weakest active components of pulse power systems. In particular, opening switches are essentially nonexistent for most applications. Insulaton in all systems and components requires development and improvement. Efforts under way in technology base development of pulse power components will be discussed.

  8. Can solar power deliver?

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jenny; Emmott, Christopher J M

    2013-08-13

    Solar power represents a vast resource which could, in principle, meet the world's needs for clean power generation. Recent growth in the use of photovoltaic (PV) technology has demonstrated the potential of solar power to deliver on a large scale. Whilst the dominant PV technology is based on crystalline silicon, a wide variety of alternative PV materials and device concepts have been explored in an attempt to decrease the cost of the photovoltaic electricity. This article explores the potential for such emerging technologies to deliver cost reductions, scalability of manufacture, rapid carbon mitigation and new science in order to accelerate the uptake of solar power technologies. PMID:23816915

  9. Efficiency and Power

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The following animation shows how a load resistance results in increase in output power. Use the up and down arrow keys to change the load resistance. While viewing, note the following: power output peaks when load resistance equals generator resistance, further increases in load resistance results in lower output power. The objective is to describe the optimum load versus power settings for transfer of RF Energy. This simulation is from Module 106 of the RF Energy and Plasma Cluster of the MATEC Module Library (MML).

  10. Application Power Signature Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Chung-Hsing [ORNL] [ORNL; Combs, Jacob [Sonoma State University] [Sonoma State University; Nazor, Jolie [Sonoma State University] [Sonoma State University; Santiago, Fabian [Sonoma State University] [Sonoma State University; Thysell, Rachelle [Sonoma State University] [Sonoma State University; Rivoire, Suzanne [Sonoma State University] [Sonoma State University; Poole, Stephen W [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The high-performance computing (HPC) community has been greatly concerned about energy efficiency. To address this concern, it is essential to understand and characterize the electrical loads of HPC applications. In this work, we study whether HPC applications can be distinguished by their power-consumption patterns using quantitative measures in an automatic manner. Using a collection of 88 power traces from 4 different systems, we find that basic statistical measures do a surprisingly good job of summarizing applications' distinctive power behavior. Moreover, this study opens up a new area of research in power-aware HPC that has a multitude of potential applications.

  11. Automated Power-Distribution System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashworth, Barry; Riedesel, Joel; Myers, Chris; Miller, William; Jones, Ellen F.; Freeman, Kenneth; Walsh, Richard; Walls, Bryan K.; Weeks, David J.; Bechtel, Robert T.

    1992-01-01

    Autonomous power-distribution system includes power-control equipment and automation equipment. System automatically schedules connection of power to loads and reconfigures itself when it detects fault. Potential terrestrial applications include optimization of consumption of power in homes, power supplies for autonomous land vehicles and vessels, and power supplies for automated industrial processes.

  12. Power system commonality study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1992-07-01

    A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this report along with a mass comparison. Other criteria such as life cycle cost (which includes transportation cost), reliability, safety, risk, and operability should be used in future, more detailed studies to select optimum power system architectures. Nineteen potential power system concepts were identified and evaluated for planetary surface applications including photovoltaic arrays with energy storage, isotope, and nuclear power systems. A top level environmental factors study was completed to assess environmental impacts on the identified power system concepts for both lunar and Mars applications. Potential power system design solutions for commonality between Mars and lunar applications were identified. Isotope, photovoltaic array (PVA), regenerative fuel cell (RFC), stainless steel liquid-metal cooled reactors (less than 1033 K maximum) with dynamic converters, and in-core thermionic reactor systems were found suitable for both lunar and Mars environments. The use of SP-100 thermoelectric (TE) and SP-100 dynamic power systems in a vacuum enclosure may also be possible for Mars applications although several issues need to be investigated further (potential single point failure of enclosure, mass penalty of enclosure and active pumping system, additional installation time and complexity). There are also technical issues involved with development of thermionic reactors (life, serviceability, and adaptability to other power conversion units). Additional studies are required to determine the optimum reactor concept for Mars applications. Various screening criteria (availability, environmental compatibility, mass competitiveness of energy storage, safety, and practicality for the application) were used to define concept applicability for each lunar and Mars application. A screening study resulted in 13 power systems for lunar applications and 15 for Mars applications. A commonality analysis showed several power systems with potentially high commonality (across both lunar and Mars applications). These high commonality systems include d PVA/RFC, dynamic isotope (1033 K Stirling, 1133 K Brayton, and 1300 K Brayton PCU's), SP-100 TE and dynamic derivatives (Mars systems required vacuum enclosure), in-core thermionic reactor, and liquid metal cooled reactor/Stirling cycle (1033 K). The generic commonality results were used to synthesize 3 high commonality power system architectures: (1) predominantly PV (limited nuclear and isotope), (2) predominantly in-core thermionic reactor/DIPS, and (3) predominantly SP-100 reactor/DIPS. The in-core thermionic reactor/DIPS power system architecture had the lowest total mass. Specific outputs from this study included lists of power system requirements, power system candidates, a power system application matrix, power system characteristics (mass), power system commonality ratings, example high commonality power system architectures, architecture masses, and issues/design solutions for lunar/Mars commonality.

  13. On the Powers of Powerful Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael; Muller, Johan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore and clarify the idea of "powerful knowledge" as a sociological concept and as a curriculum principle. The paper seeks to clarify its conceptual basis and to make its meaning and the arguments it implies, less ambiguous and less open to misunderstanding. This will enable us to suggest some of the…

  14. Limits to Tidal Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, C.

    2008-12-01

    Ocean tides have been proposed as a source of renewable energy, though the maximum available power may be shown to be only a fraction of the present dissipation rate of 3.5 TW, which is small compared with global insolation (nearly 105 TW), wind dissipation (103 TW), and even human power usage of 15 TW. Nonetheless, tidal power could be a useful contributor in some locations. Traditional use of tidal power, involving the trapping of water behind a barrage at high tide, can produce an average power proportional to the area of the headpond and the square of the tidal range; the power density is approximately 6 W per square meter for a tidal range of 10 m. Capital costs and fears of environmental damage have put barrage schemes in disfavor, with interest turning to the exploitation of strong tidal currents, using turbines in a manner similar to wind turbines. There is a limit to the available power, however, as adding turbines reduces the flow, ultimately reducing the power. For sinusoidal forcing of flow in a channel connecting two large open basins, the maximum available power may be shown to be given approximately by 0.2? g a Q_max, where ? is the water density, g gravity, a the amplitude of the tidal sea level difference along the channel, and Q_max is the maximum volume flux in the natural state. The same formula applies if the channel is the entrance to a semi-enclosed basin, with a now the amplitude of the external tide. A flow reduction of approximately 40% is typically associated with the maximum power extraction. The power would be reduced if only smaller environmental changes are acceptable, and reduced further by drag on supporting structures, dissipation in turbine wakes, and internal inefficiencies. It can be suggested that the best use of strong, cold, tidal currents is to provide cooling water for nuclear reactors.

  15. Comparison and evaluation of power plant options for geosynchronous power stations. Part 1: Synchronous solar power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The present state-of-the-art is described for the development of solar power generators in far out synchronous orbit for power generation. Concepts of geosynchronous solar power satellites are discussed including photovoltaic arrays for power satellites, solar-thermal power satellites, and power transmission to earth.

  16. Power, Media & Montesquieu. New forms of public power and the balance of power

    E-print Network

    van den Brink, Jeroen

    SUMMARY Power, Media & Montesquieu. New forms of public power and the balance of power are organized it is crucial to restrain the power that the state exerts on its citizens. The state has three functions, commonly known as powers: the legislative, executive and judicial powers. This three

  17. Exercises of power in marketing channel dyads: Power advantage versus power disadvantage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guijun Zhuang; Neil C. Herndon Jr; Nan Zhou

    2006-01-01

    Taking the channel dyad as the unit of analysis, this study investigated the impact of channel members' power on their uses of power in two distinct conditions: in power advantage and in power disadvantage. The study found that channel members' power has a positive impact on their uses of non-coercive power regardless of their relative position in channel dyads; their

  18. Labor and nuclear power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Logan; D. Nelkin

    1980-01-01

    The AFL-CIO is officially pro-nuclear, but tensions within unions are taking issue over ideological differences. The Labor movement, having looked to nuclear power development as an economic necessity to avoid unemployment, has opposed efforts to delay construction or close plants. As many as 42% of union members or relatives of members, however, were found to oppose new power plants, some

  19. Gas turbine power plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kronogard

    1978-01-01

    An automotive power plant includes three turbine rotors, of which one forms a spool together with the compressor, and the other two rotors are interconnected by a gearing. The first turbine rotor is undersized, and cannot provide the necessary power for driving the compressor at full load, although the spool does not have to drive any internal auxiliaries. A slim

  20. Solar thermal power towers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FRANK KREITH; RICHARD T. MEYER

    1984-01-01

    The solar thermal central receiver technology, known as solar power towers, is rapidly evolving to a state of near-term energy availability for electrical power generation and industrial process heat applications. The systems consist of field arrays of heliostat reflectors, a central receiver boiler, short term thermal storage devices, and either turbine-generators or heat exchangers. Fluid temperatures up to 550 C

  1. The Power of Storytelling

    E-print Network

    Phillips, Taylor

    2013-02-04

    THE POWER OF STORYTELLING An Undergraduate Research Scholars Thesis by CHRISTINA ELANDARY & TAYLOR PHILLIPS Submitted to Honors and Undergraduate Research Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...???????????????????????????...9 REFERENCES???????????????????????????????.10 ABSTRACT The Power of Storytelling (May 2013) Taylor Phillips and Christina Elandary Department of English and Psychology Texas A...

  2. Power Station Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Kuljian Corporation provides design engineering and construction management services for power generating plants in more than 20 countries. They used WASP (Calculating Water and Steam Properties), a COSMIC program to optimize power station design. This enabled the company to substantially reduce lead time and software cost in a recent design project.

  3. Cogeneration power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, H. S.

    1978-01-01

    Cogeneration is defined as the combination of electrical generation and process heat for more efficient use of fuel. Comparisons of energy utilization in conventional electric power plants and cogeneration electric power plants are presented. Characteristics of various cogeneration systems are also presented. Systems are analyzed for use in utility systems and industrial systems. Economic and cost analysis are reviewed.

  4. IEEE Power and Energy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-01-01

    IIEEE presents Power and Energy magazine online. The latest issue as well as several previous issues are available online for free use. Columns of Power and Energy highlight history, industry news, standards, and opinion articles. The archives currently go back to 2009.

  5. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  6. NUCLEAR POWER in CALIFORNIA

    E-print Network

    NUCLEAR POWER in CALIFORNIA: 2007 STATUS REPORT CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION October 2007 CEC-100 public workshops on nuclear power. The Integrated Energy Policy Report Committee, led by Commissioners, California Contract No. 700-05-002 Prepared For: California Energy Commission Barbara Byron, Senior Nuclear

  7. High power coaxial ubitron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam J. Balkcum

    1998-01-01

    In the ubitron, also known as the free electron laser, high power coherent radiation is generated from the interaction of an undulating electron beam with an electromagnetic signal and a static periodic magnetic wiggler field. These devices have experimentally produced high power spanning the microwave to x-ray regimes. Potential applications range from microwave radar to the study of solid state

  8. Explorations in Statistics: Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This fifth installment of "Explorations in Statistics" revisits power, a concept fundamental to the test of a null hypothesis. Power is the probability that we reject the null hypothesis when it is false. Four things affect…

  9. Economical space power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkholder, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    A commercial approach to design and fabrication of an economical space power system is investigated. Cost projections are based on a 2 kW space power system conceptual design taking into consideration the capability for serviceability, constraints of operation in space, and commercial production engineering approaches. A breakdown of the system design, documentation, fabrication, and reliability and quality assurance estimated costs are detailed.

  10. Laser power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Edmund J.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of previous studies related to laser power transmission is presented. Particular attention is given to the use of solar pumped lasers for space power applications. Three general laser mechanisms are addressed: photodissociation lasing driven by sunlight, photoexcitation lasing driven directly by sunlight, and photoexcitation lasing driven by thermal radiation.

  11. Second Edition Electric Power

    E-print Network

    Texas at Austin, University of

    Monterrey #12;#12;iGUIDE TO ELECTRIC POWER IN MEXICO TABLE OF CONTENTS Part 1 Facts on Mexico Electric Power, an emeritus professor at the Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM), now retired

  12. Powering the electric car

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. O. Murray; G. J. Ostrowski

    1981-01-01

    The electric car may represent major new opportunities for America and its electric utilities. Widespread use of electric cars can reduce consumption of both imported and domestic oil, substituting abundant American fuels such as coal and nuclear power. Air and noise pollution can be reduced since emissions from a single power plant are easier to control than those from thousands

  13. Independent power generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. N. (inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A gas turbine powered aircraft auxiliary power system is described which is capable of efficiently supplying all aircraft auxiliary services both in flight and on the ground and is further capable of operating independently of the aircraft main engines. The system employs multiple gas turbine compressor stages, thereby accomplishing cabin pressurization, ventilation and heating.

  14. Work and Power: Waterwheel

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Investigating a waterwheel illustrates to students the physical properties of energy. They learn that the concept of work, force acting over a distance, differs from power, which is defined as force acting over a distance over some period of time. Students create a model waterwheel and use it to calculate the amount of power produced and work done.

  15. Wind Power Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    US Department of Energy; Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This animation, from the US Department of Energy, discusses the advantages of wind power, the workings of a wind turbine, and wind resources in the United States. It also describes how wind power is used in small- and large-scale applications.

  16. Electrically powered hand tool

    DOEpatents

    Myers, Kurt S.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-01-16

    An electrically powered hand tool is described and which includes a three phase electrical motor having a plurality of poles; an electrical motor drive electrically coupled with the three phase electrical motor; and a source of electrical power which is converted to greater than about 208 volts three-phase and which is electrically coupled with the electrical motor drive.

  17. Automotive Power Trains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting of automotive power trains and certain auxiliary equipment. The course contains six study units covering basic power trains; clutch principles and operations; conventional…

  18. Wave action power plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucia

    1982-01-01

    A wave action power plant powered by the action of water waves has a drive shaft rotated by a plurality of drive units, each having a lever pivotally mounted on and extending from said shaft and carrying a weight, in the form of a float, which floats on the waves and rocks the lever up and down on the shaft.

  19. Talk About Nuclear Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremlett, Lewis

    1976-01-01

    Presents an overview of the relation of nuclear power to human health and the environment, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power as an energy source urging technical educators to inculcate an awareness of the problems associated with the production of energy. Describes the fission reaction process, the hazards of…

  20. Power from Ocean Waves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, J. N.

    1979-01-01

    Discussed is the utilization of surface ocean waves as a potential source of power. Simple and large-scale wave power devices and conversion systems are described. Alternative utilizations, environmental impacts, and future prospects of this alternative energy source are detailed. (BT)

  1. Ultracompact pulsed power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL V. FAZIO; HUGH C. KIRBIE

    2004-01-01

    Now more than ever, the pulsed power field is driven by size, weight, and volume constraints. In both the military and commercial arenas, there is an overwhelming need to provide more and more capability in ever smaller and lighter packages. The need for higher energy density, power density, reliability, and efficiency is driving progress in the field. This paper provides

  2. Space Nuclear Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Fission power and propulsion systems can enable exciting space exploration missions. These include bases on the moon and Mars; and the exploration, development, and utilization of the solar system. In the near-term, fission surface power systems could provide abundant, constant, cost-effective power anywhere on the surface of the Moon or Mars, independent of available sunlight. Affordable access to Mars, the asteroid belt, or other destinations could be provided by nuclear thermal rockets. In the further term, high performance fission power supplies could enable both extremely high power levels on planetary surfaces and fission electric propulsion vehicles for rapid, efficient cargo and crew transfer. Advanced fission propulsion systems could eventually allow routine access to the entire solar system. Fission systems could also enable the utilization of resources within the solar system.

  3. High Power Hall Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert; Tverdokhlebov, Sergery; Manzella, David

    1999-01-01

    The development of Hall thrusters with powers ranging from tens of kilowatts to in excess of one hundred kilowatts is considered based on renewed interest in high power. high thrust electric propulsion applications. An approach to develop such thrusters based on previous experience is discussed. It is shown that the previous experimental data taken with thrusters of 10 kW input power and less can be used. Potential mass savings due to the design of high power Hall thrusters are discussed. Both xenon and alternate thruster propellant are considered, as are technological issues that will challenge the design of high power Hall thrusters. Finally, the implications of such a development effort with regard to ground testing and spacecraft intecrati'on issues are discussed.

  4. Solar Power on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This chart illustrates the variation in available solar power for each of NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers over the course of approximately two Mars years. Two factors affect the amount of available power: the tilt of Mars' axis and the eccentricity of the Mars' orbit about the sun.

    The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after the Jan. 4, 2004, (Universal Time) landing of Spirit at Mars' Gusev Crater. The vertical scale on the right indicates the amount of available solar power as a ratio of the amount available at the equator when Mars is closest to the sun (perihelion). The red line indicates power availability at Spirit's landing site (Gusev). The blue line indicates power availability at Opportunity's landing site (Meridiani).

    The vertical scale on the right applies to the dotted line, indicating the latitude north or south of Mars' equator where the noon sun is overhead at different times of the Martian year.

  5. Power module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Jeremy B. (Torrance, CA); Newson, Steve (Redondo Beach, CA)

    2011-11-15

    A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.

  6. Power supply conditioning circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primas, L. E.; Loveland, R.

    1987-01-01

    A power supply conditioning circuit that can reduce Periodic and Random Deviations (PARD) on the output voltages of dc power supplies to -150 dBV from dc to several KHz with no measurable periodic deviations is described. The PARD for a typical commercial low noise power supply is -74 dBV for frequencies above 20 Hz and is often much worse at frequencies below 20 Hz. The power supply conditioning circuit described here relies on the large differences in the dynamic impedances of a constant current diode and a zener diode to establish a dc voltage with low PARD. Power supplies with low PARD are especially important in circuitry involving ultrastable frequencies for the Deep Space Network.

  7. 10 CFR 50.62 - Requirements for reduction of risk from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...apply to all commercial light-water-cooled nuclear power plants, other than nuclear power reactor facilities for which the certifications...sensor output to interruption of power to the control rods. This scram system must be designed...

  8. 10 CFR 52.157 - Contents of applications; technical information in final safety analysis report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...nuclear power plants similar in...location to plants for which...other types of nuclear power units; ...instrumentation and control systems...and technical control to be exercised...light-water-cooled nuclear power plants, an...

  9. 10 CFR 50.62 - Requirements for reduction of risk from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...apply to all commercial light-water-cooled nuclear power plants, other than nuclear power reactor facilities for which the certifications...sensor output to interruption of power to the control rods. This scram system must be designed...

  10. 10 CFR 50.62 - Requirements for reduction of risk from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...apply to all commercial light-water-cooled nuclear power plants, other than nuclear power reactor facilities for which the certifications...sensor output to interruption of power to the control rods. This scram system must be designed...

  11. 10 CFR 52.157 - Contents of applications; technical information in final safety analysis report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...nuclear power plants similar in...location to plants for which...other types of nuclear power units; ...instrumentation and control systems...and technical control to be exercised...light-water-cooled nuclear power plants, an...

  12. 10 CFR 52.157 - Contents of applications; technical information in final safety analysis report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...nuclear power plants similar in...location to plants for which...other types of nuclear power units; ...instrumentation and control systems...and technical control to be exercised...light-water-cooled nuclear power plants, an...

  13. 10 CFR 50.62 - Requirements for reduction of risk from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...apply to all commercial light-water-cooled nuclear power plants, other than nuclear power reactor facilities for which the certifications...sensor output to interruption of power to the control rods. This scram system must be designed...

  14. 10 CFR 52.157 - Contents of applications; technical information in final safety analysis report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...nuclear power plants similar in...location to plants for which...other types of nuclear power units; ...instrumentation and control systems...and technical control to be exercised...light-water-cooled nuclear power plants, an...

  15. 10 CFR 52.157 - Contents of applications; technical information in final safety analysis report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...nuclear power plants similar in...location to plants for which...other types of nuclear power units; ...instrumentation and control systems...and technical control to be exercised...light-water-cooled nuclear power plants, an...

  16. 10 CFR 50.62 - Requirements for reduction of risk from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...apply to all commercial light-water-cooled nuclear power plants, other than nuclear power reactor facilities for which the certifications...sensor output to interruption of power to the control rods. This scram system must be designed...

  17. 77 FR 38857 - Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Normal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ...of nuclear power plants that use water...currently being developed or improvements...series was developed to describe...Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants,'' is temporarily...Nuclear Power Plant Air Cleaning...CONAGT has developed and...

  18. Research and simulation on photovoltaic power system maximum power control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ling Lu; Ping Liu

    2011-01-01

    Photovoltaic power generation system implements an effective utilization of solar energy, but generally has very low conversion efficiency. Maximum power point tracker (MPPT) control is essential to ensure the output of photovoltaic power generation system at the maximum power output as possible. Photovoltaic cells model of photovoltaic power generation system and basic control algorithm is discussed in this paper. MPPT

  19. The Power of Non-Uniform Wireless Power

    E-print Network

    The Power of Non-Uniform Wireless Power ETH Zurich ­ Distributed Computing Group Magnus M-To-Interference-Plus-Noise Ratio (SINR) Formula Minimum signal- to-interference ratio Power level of sender u Path-loss exponent Noise Distance between two nodes Received signal power from sender Received signal power from all other

  20. Power Consumption Prediction and Power-Aware Packing in Consolidated

    E-print Network

    Urgaonkar, Bhuvan

    Power Consumption Prediction and Power-Aware Packing in Consolidated Environments Jeonghwan Choi the power consumption of groups of colocated applications. Such characterization is crucial for effective prediction and enforcement of appropriate limits on power consumption--power budgets--within the data center

  1. Power quality load management for large spacecraft electrical power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, Louis F.

    1988-01-01

    In December, 1986, a Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) proposal was granted to study power system control techniques in large space electrical power systems. Presented are the accomplishments in the area of power system control by power quality load management. In addition, information concerning the distortion problems in a 20 kHz ac power system is presented.

  2. Overview of power loss measurement techniques in power electronics systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chucheng Xiao; Gang Chen; W. G. Odendaal

    2002-01-01

    Measuring power loss accurately is of great importance for power electronics systems design and for assessing system performance and reliability. This paper reviews various power loss measurement techniques in power electronics systems. A brief overview of electrical methods for loss measurements is given. Calorimetric methods, the most accurate of all instruments for measuring power loss, are described along with their

  3. The Green Power Network: Green Power government information clearinghouse

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site contains Green Power information from the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Clearinghouse of the U.S. Department of Energy. The Green Power Network exists to provide "news and information on green power providers." The site's information is searchable by state and shows different markets for green power (utility green pricing, green power marketing, and renewable energy certificates).

  4. TEP Power Partners Project [Tucson Electric Power

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2013-11-19

    The Arizona Governor’s Office of Energy Policy, in partnership with Tucson Electric Power (TEP), Tendril, and Next Phase Energy (NPE), formed the TEP Power Partners pilot project to demonstrate how residential customers could access their energy usage data and third party applications using data obtained from an Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) network. The project applied for and was awarded a Smart Grid Data Access grant through the U.S. Department of Energy. The project participants’ goal for Phase I is to actively engage 1,700 residential customers to demonstrate sustained participation, reduction in energy usage (kWh) and cost ($), and measure related aspects of customer satisfaction. This Demonstration report presents a summary of the findings, effectiveness, and customer satisfaction with the 15-month TEP Power Partners pilot project. The objective of the program is to provide residential customers with energy consumption data from AMR metering and empower these participants to better manage their electricity use. The pilot recruitment goals included migrating 700 existing customers from the completed Power Partners Demand Response Load Control Project (DRLC), and enrolling 1,000 new participants. Upon conclusion of the project on November 19, 2013: ? 1,390 Home Area Networks (HANs) were registered. ? 797 new participants installed a HAN. ? Survey respondents’ are satisfied with the program and found value with a variety of specific program components. ? Survey respondents report feeling greater control over their energy usage and report taking energy savings actions in their homes after participating in the program. ? On average, 43 % of the participants returned to the web portal monthly and 15% returned weekly. ? An impact evaluation was completed by Opinion Dynamics and found average participant savings for the treatment period1 to be 2.3% of their household use during this period.2 In total, the program saved 163 MWh in the treatment period of 2013.

  5. Inductive power transfer: Powering our future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covic, Grant A.

    2013-12-01

    The ability to provide power without wires was imagined over a century ago, but assumed commercially impractical and impossible to realise. However for more than two decades the University of Auckland has been at the forefront of developing and commercialising this technology alongside its industrial partners. This research has proven that significant wireless power can be transferred over relatively large air-gaps efficiently and robustly. Early solutions were applied in industrial applications to power moving vehicles in clean room systems, industrial plants, and in theme parks, but more recently this research has helped develop technology that has the ability to impact us directly at home. The seminar will describe some of the early motivations behind this research, and introduce some of the solutions which have been developed by the team of researchers at Auckland over two decades, many of which have found their way into the market. It will also describe how the technology has recently been re-developed to enable battery charging of electric vehicles without the need to plug in, and alongside this how it has the potential to change the way we drive in the future.

  6. Autonomous power expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Autonomous Power System (APS) program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control technologies to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power Systems (SSF/EPS). The objectives of the program are to establish artificial intelligence/expert system technology paths, to create knowledge based tools with advanced human-operator interfaces, and to integrate and interface knowledge-based and conventional control schemes. This program is being developed at the NASA-Lewis. The APS Brassboard represents a subset of a 20 KHz Space Station Power Management And Distribution (PMAD) testbed. A distributed control scheme is used to manage multiple levels of computers and switchgear. The brassboard is comprised of a set of intelligent switchgear used to effectively switch power from the sources to the loads. The Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) portion of the APS program integrates a knowledge based fault diagnostic system, a power resource scheduler, and an interface to the APS Brassboard. The system includes knowledge bases for system diagnostics, fault detection and isolation, and recommended actions. The scheduler autonomously assigns start times to the attached loads based on temporal and power constraints. The scheduler is able to work in a near real time environment for both scheduling and dynamic replanning.

  7. Electric power annual 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-06

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric utility statistics at national, regional and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. ``The US Electric Power Industry at a Glance`` section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; retail sales; revenue; financial statistics; environmental statistics; electric power transactions; demand-side management; and nonutility power producers. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences in US electricity power systems. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. Monetary values in this publication are expressed in nominal terms.

  8. Power without nukes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    Nuclear power is good at producing large quantities of electricity. Barring a big change in the world's pattern of energy consumption, that is the kind of energy that will be most in demand if economic growth is to remain rapid. What are the options if we abandon nuclear power. By the year 2000, even on conservative estimates of economic growth, OECD countries would be generating 25% of their electricity from nuclear power. Total nuclear capacity would be about 400,000 MW. That is the size of the gap that would have to be filled. The rate of economic growth and the progress of conservation both depend partly on the price of energy - and the price of energy depends on the speed and extent of any nuclear phase-out. But if nuclear power stations were shut overnight, power cuts would be impossible to avoid in several countries, and electricity-generating costs would osar. Only oil, gas, and coal could fill the gap. Consumption of either oil or coal would have to rise by 10%. Replacing nuclear power over say 20 years would be less disruptive, but still costly. Some new sources - oil from tar sands and shale, more hydroelectric power, perhaps fuel cells - would fill the gap. But they would not prevent energy prices from rising to at least double their present levels in real terms. Indeed, they would require such a rise, because without it they would make no commercial sense.

  9. Transforming Power Grid Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhenyu; Guttromson, Ross T.; Nieplocha, Jarek; Pratt, Robert G.

    2007-04-15

    While computation is used to plan, monitor, and control power grids, some of the computational technologies now used are more than a hundred years old, and the complex interactions of power grid components impede real-time operations. Thus it is hard to speed up “state estimation,” the procedure used to estimate the status of the power grid from measured input. State estimation is the core of grid operations, including contingency analysis, automatic generation control, and optimal power flow. How fast state estimation and contingency analysis are conducted (currently about every 5 minutes) needs to be increased radically so the analysis of contingencies is comprehensive and is conducted in real time. Further, traditional state estimation is based on a power flow model and only provides a static snapshot—a tiny piece of the state of a large-scale dynamic machine. Bringing dynamic aspects into real-time grid operations poses an even bigger challenge. Working with the latest, most advanced computing techniques and hardware, researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) intend to transform grid operations by increasing computational speed and improving accuracy. Traditional power grid computation is conducted on single PC hardware platforms. This article shows how traditional power grid computation can be reformulated to take advantage of advanced computing techniques and be converted to high-performance computing platforms (e.g., PC clusters, reconfigurable hardware, scalable multicore shared memory computers, or multithreaded architectures). The improved performance is expected to have a huge impact on how power grids are operated and managed and ultimately will lead to more reliability and better asset utilization to the power industry. New computational capabilities will be tested and demonstrated on the comprehensive grid operations platform in the Electricity Infrastructure Operations Center, which is a newly commissioned PNNL facility for research, development and demonstration of next-generation tools and technologies for enhanced energy infrastructure operations (EIOC sidebar).

  10. Fundamentals of Power Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site has information regarding the U.S. Armyâ??s requirements for the construction and performance of aircraft power plants, brought to you by GlobalSecurity.org. The basic requirements, including reliability, durability, and ease of maintenance are each clearly and succinctly defined. Along with labeled images of aircraft power plants, policy descriptions of the required fuels, combustion, lubrication, and bearings are provided. This would be a helpful tool for students studying aircraft power plant technology, especially those heading into government military service, to gain an understanding of the Armyâ??s requirements for this aircraft component.

  11. Mobile nuclear power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Bengt

    1988-11-01

    Nuclear reactors where the energy comes from nuclear fission and isotopic generators utilizing the energy of the decay of suitable isotopes are discussed. The reactors are used as power sources on board nuclear submarines and other warships, as well as in space and in remote places. Their thermal power ranges from 30 KWth in a satellite to 175 MWth on board an aircraft carrier. Isotopic generators are suitable only for small power demands and are used on board satellites and spaceprobes, automatic weather stations, lighthouses, and marine installations for navigation and observation.

  12. Rotorcraft contingency power study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschkron, R.; Haynes, J. F.; Goldstein, D. N.; Davis, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    Twin helicopter engines are often sized by the power requirement of a safe mission completion after the failure of one of the two engines. This study was undertaken for NASA Lewis by General Electric Co. to evaluate the merits of special design features to provide a 2-1/2 Contingency Power rating, permitting an engine size reduction. The merits of water injection, turbine cooling airflow modulation, throttle push, and a propellant auxiliary power plant were evaluated using military Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and commercial helicopter Direct Operating Cost (DOC) merit factors in a rubber engine and a rubber aircraft scenario.

  13. TROPIX power system architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manner, David B.; Hickman, J. Mark

    1995-09-01

    This document contains results obtained in the process of performing a power system definition study of the TROPIX power management and distribution system (PMAD). Requirements derived from the PMADs interaction with other spacecraft systems are discussed first. Since the design is dependent on the performance of the photovoltaics, there is a comprehensive discussion of the appropriate models for cells and arrays. A trade study of the array operating voltage and its effect on array bus mass is also presented. A system architecture is developed which makes use of a combination of high efficiency switching power convertors and analog regulators. Mass and volume estimates are presented for all subsystems.

  14. Fluid Power Textbook

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A more detailed discussion of fluid power principles and how hydraulic and pneumatic devices operate, Integrated Publishing offers twelve chapters of material, complete with diagrams. The text was "intended as a basic reference for all Navy personnel whose duties require them to have a knowledge of the fundamentals of fluid power." Along with an introduction to fluid power, this text covers pneumatics, valves, and sealing devices, along with many other topics. Five assignments from the textbook are also offered here. While the chapters are free to view online, a subscription is required to download a copy of the textbook.

  15. Foucault's Ethics of Power

    E-print Network

    Wolf, Kirk

    Foucault's Ethics of Power Kirk Wolf Delia College 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n Since Foucaull 's death in 19K4, his interpreters have generally located his importance in his genealogical critiques and in his phi­ losophy ofpower. On the one hand... critiques and his views on power remains a matter of dispute, for Foucault neither expressly states a program of critique, nor clearly articulates an account of power. The pur­ pose of this paper, then, is to establish the relationship between...

  16. Solar power station

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, J.

    1982-11-30

    Solar power station with semiconductor solar cells for generating electric power is described, wherein the semiconductor solar cells are provided on a member such as a balloon or a kite which carries the solar cells into the air. The function of the balloon or kite can also be fulfilled by a glider or airship. The solar power station can be operated by allowing the system to ascend at sunrise and descend at sunset or when the wind is going to be too strong in order to avoid any demage.

  17. Salazar on private power

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.

    1995-02-01

    The Philipines power market, considered one of the more mature markets in Asia, continues to expand with economic growth. Independent power producers will find opportunities in the next few years as new additions are required. Currently, the government is encouraging private investment and is awaiting feedback from financiers as it considers eliminating its government guarantee. In a recent interview, the Honorable Mariano S. Salazar, secretary of energy, with the Philippines` Department of Energy, discussed the regulatory structure, encouragement of private power and his country`s capital needs.

  18. Wind power prediction models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, R.; Mcginness, H.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations were performed to predict the power available from the wind at the Goldstone, California, antenna site complex. The background for power prediction was derived from a statistical evaluation of available wind speed data records at this location and at nearby locations similarly situated within the Mojave desert. In addition to a model for power prediction over relatively long periods of time, an interim simulation model that produces sample wind speeds is described. The interim model furnishes uncorrelated sample speeds at hourly intervals that reproduce the statistical wind distribution at Goldstone. A stochastic simulation model to provide speed samples representative of both the statistical speed distributions and correlations is also discussed.

  19. Nanosatellite Power System Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robyn, M.; Thaller, L.; Scott, D.

    1995-01-01

    The capability to build complex electronic functions into compact packages is opening the path to miniature satellites on the order of 1 kg mass, 10 cm across, packed with the computing processors, motion controllers, measurement sensors, and communications hardware necessary for operation. Power generation will be from short strings of silicon or gallium arsenide-based solar photovoltaic cells with the array power maximized by a peak power tracker (PPT). Energy storage will utilize a low voltage battery with nickel cadmium or lithium ion cells as the most likely selections for rechargeables and lithium (MnO2-Li) primary batteries for one shot short missions.

  20. TROPIX Power System Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manner, David B.; Hickman, J. Mark

    1995-01-01

    This document contains results obtained in the process of performing a power system definition study of the TROPIX power management and distribution system (PMAD). Requirements derived from the PMADs interaction with other spacecraft systems are discussed first. Since the design is dependent on the performance of the photovoltaics, there is a comprehensive discussion of the appropriate models for cells and arrays. A trade study of the array operating voltage and its effect on array bus mass is also presented. A system architecture is developed which makes use of a combination of high efficiency switching power convertors and analog regulators. Mass and volume estimates are presented for all subsystems.

  1. Power Systems Decentralized Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Juan M.; Vargas-Marín, Javier; Correa-Gutiérrez, Rosa E.

    2014-12-01

    The paper's aim is to explore both active and reactive power losses minimization and voltage stability by a decentralized strategy. The approach assumes that the grid is split into sub-systems; each sub-system is in charge of its own optimal solution using equivalents for the neighbors, so that information exchange is not required. Schedule interchanges among sub-systems have been added as constraints into the optimal formulation. Once the individual solutions are available, the corresponding settings are allocated to the corresponding equipment and a full power flow study is carried out to assure the steady-state preservation. Results are exhibited on two test power systems.

  2. Power control system and method

    DOEpatents

    Steigerwald, Robert Louis (Burnt Hills, NY) [Burnt Hills, NY; Anderson, Todd Alan (Niskayuna, NY) [Niskayuna, NY

    2008-02-19

    A power system includes an energy harvesting device, a battery coupled to the energy harvesting device, and a circuit coupled to the energy harvesting device and the battery. The circuit is adapted to deliver power to a load by providing power generated by the energy harvesting device to the load without delivering excess power to the battery and to supplement the power generated by the energy harvesting device with power from the battery if the power generated by the energy harvesting device is insufficient to fully power the load. A method of operating the power system is also provided.

  3. Power control system and method

    DOEpatents

    Steigerwald, Robert Louis; Anderson, Todd Alan

    2006-11-07

    A power system includes an energy harvesting device, a battery coupled to the energy harvesting device, and a circuit coupled to the energy harvesting device and the battery. The circuit is adapted to deliver power to a load by providing power generated by the energy harvesting device to the load without delivering excess power to the battery and to supplement the power generated by the energy harvesting device with power from the battery if the power generated by the energy harvesting device is insufficient to fully power the load. A method of operating the power system is also provided.

  4. Public Diplomacy and Soft Power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph S. Nye

    2008-01-01

    Soft power is the ability to affect others to obtain the outcomes one wants through attraction rather than coercion or payment. A country's soft power rests on its resources of culture, values, and policies. A smart power strategy combines hard and soft power resources. Public diplomacy has a long history as a means of promoting a country's soft power and

  5. POWER CENTRALIZED SEMIGROUPS PRIMOZ MORAVEC

    E-print Network

    POWER CENTRALIZED SEMIGROUPS PRIMOZ MORAVEC Abstract. A semigroup is said to be power centralized if for every pair of elements x and y there exists a power of x commuting with y. The structure of power centralized groups and semigroups is investigated. In particular, we characterize 0-simple power centralized

  6. How Hydroelectric Power Works

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ontario Power Generation

    This 2-minute YouTube video guides viewers through how hydroelectric power works with Niagara Falls as an example. Animations supplement an explanation for specifics of physical processes involved in energy generation.

  7. PowerPC News

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PowerPC News: Full text of an independent electronic magazine published every two weeks for users and developers who want the latest news about the IBM/Motorola/Apple microprocessor family and the systems.

  8. MHD Power Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantrowitz, Arthur; Rosa, Richard J.

    1975-01-01

    Explains the operation of the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator and advantages of the system over coal, oil or nuclear powered generators. Details the development of MHD generators in the United States and Soviet Union. (CP)

  9. Ocean waves: power unlimited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lockerby

    1981-01-01

    After a brief discussion of the types of wave power converters being developed and some technical problems involved in development, 144 bibliographic citations are listed for works on ocean wave energy conversion. (LEW)

  10. Power-control switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, L. L.

    1976-01-01

    Constant-current source creates drive current independent of input-voltage variations, 50% reduction in power loss in base drive circuitry, maintains essentially constant charge rate, and improves rise-time consistency over input voltage range.

  11. Contemporary Power Supplies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created by Work-Ready Electronics, a project of the Advanced Technological Education program, this module walks visitors through the basics of contemporary power supplies. The content of the site is divided into seven areas: contemporary power supply technology, SMPS technology, architecture and operation, discrete devices and SMPS performance, improving efficiency, power supply architectures, power management and digital control in SMPS. There is a quiz for each in the Knowledge Probe area, and the Learning Resources section contains two activities to help cement student understanding. There are also further resources - both print and Web based - for more information and two Questors, a Flash trivia game. The Notebook function allows visitors to take notes and review them at any time. This is an excellent resource students and educators in electronics technician programs.

  12. The Power of Storytelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder-Wise, Patricia S.; Kowalski, Karren

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the value of storytelling and offers guidelines for developing stories to use in teaching. Includes sections on presentation skills, overcoming pitfalls, and the power of telling stories. (Contains 13 references.) (JOW)

  13. Crowd-powered systems

    E-print Network

    Bernstein, Michael Scott

    2012-01-01

    Crowd-powered systems combine computation with human intelligence, drawn from large groups of people connecting and coordinating online. These hybrid systems enable applications and experiences that neither crowds nor ...

  14. Linear Motor Powered Transportation

    E-print Network

    Thornton, Richard D.

    This special issue on linear-motor powered transportation covers both supporting technologies and innovative transport systems in various parts of the World, as this technology moves from the lab to commercial operations. ...

  15. Structural power flow measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Falter, K.J.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    Previous investigations of structural power flow through beam-like structures resulted in some unexplained anomalies in the calculated data. In order to develop structural power flow measurement as a viable technique for machine tool design, the causes of these anomalies needed to be found. Once found, techniques for eliminating the errors could be developed. Error sources were found in the experimental apparatus itself as well as in the instrumentation. Although flexural waves are the carriers of power in the experimental apparatus, at some frequencies longitudinal waves were excited which were picked up by the accelerometers and altered power measurements. Errors were found in the phase and gain response of the sensors and amplifiers used for measurement. A transfer function correction technique was employed to compensate for these instrumentation errors.

  16. Explorations in statistics: power

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Douglas Curran-Everett (University of Colorado Physiology and Biophysics)

    2010-06-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This fifth installment of Explorations in Statistics revisits power, a concept fundamental to the test of a null hypothesis. Power is the probability that we reject the null hypothesis when it is false. Four things affect power: the probability with which we are willing to rejectÂ?by mistakeÂ?a true null hypothesis, the magnitude of the difference we want to be able to detect, the variability of the underlying population, and the number of observations in our sample. In an application to an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee or to the National Institutes of Health, we define power to justify the sample size we propose.

  17. Developments in tidal power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlier, R. H.

    Successful, planned, and potential tidal power plants and sites are discussed. Units are in operation in France and Russia, with the French plant using reversible blade turbines being used as a design guide for plants in Argentina and Australia. The U.S. is studying the feasibility of a plant in Passamaquaddy Bay, and Canada is pursuing construction of a plant in the Bay of Fundy. The Severn River in Great Britain is receiving a site study, and over a hundred plants have been built as local power systems in China. Bulb-type turbines, which enhance the volume emptying and filling the retaining basin, are considered as the highest performing power unit. Simpler one-way flow turbines have been suggested as more economical to install. Governmental, institutional, and investor impediments to tidal power plant are explored.

  18. Power conversion technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, M. A.

    1997-02-01

    The Power Conversion Technologies thrust area identifies and sponsors development activities that enhance the capabilities of engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the area of solid- state power electronics. Our primary objective is to be a resource to existing and emerging LLNL programs that require advanced solid-state power electronic technologies.. Our focus is on developing and integrating technologies that will significantly impact the capability, size, cost, and reliability of future power electronic systems. During FY-96, we concentrated our research efforts on the areas of (1) Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR); (2) novel solid-state opening switches; (3) advanced modulator technology for accelerators; (4) compact accelerators; and (5) compact pulse generators.

  19. Wind powering America: Nebraska

    SciTech Connect

    NREL

    2000-04-10

    This fact sheet contains a description of Nebraska's wind energy resources and the state's green power programs. The fact sheet includes a list of contacts for those interested in obtaining more information.

  20. Wind powering America: Nebraska

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2000-01-01

    This fact sheet contains a description of Nebraska's wind energy resources and the state's green power programs. The fact sheet includes a list of contacts for those interested in obtaining more information.