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1

Automated recordkeeping of nuclear materials at electric power plants powered with a water-moderated-water-cooled nuclear reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions The automated nuclear-material recordkeeping system based on the NUMIS-2 program is at present being introduced at the Novororonezh electric power plant. Concurrently, the program is being modified in order to allow its use by the computer model being created in the COMECON member-nations. In the long term, it is expected that the recordkeeping program will become a component part

N. C. Babaev; N. L. Posnyakov; D. F. Strelkov

1978-01-01

2

The computational-and-experimental investigation into the head-flow characteristic of the two-stage ejector for the emergency core cooling system of the NPP with a water-moderated water-cooled power reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the computational-and-experimental investigation into the two-stage ejector for the emergency cooling system of the core of the water-moderated water-cooled power reactor. The results of experimental investigations performed for the ejector model at the JSC "EREC" and the result of calculations performed using the REMIX CFD code are presented.

Parfenov, Yu. V.

2013-09-01

3

Development of atomic power plants with water-moderated, water-cooled reactors in the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vessel size used in the very first unit of the NVAPP (VVI~'R-210) was essentially the maximum permissible for railroad transportation, so the transition to higher powers has primarily involved more efficient use of the vessel volume. Improvements in the design and manufacture accompanied an increase in the working pressure and a corresponding increase in the efficiency of the thermodynamic

V. P. Denisov; Yu. V. Markov; V. A. Sidorenko; S. A. Skvortsov; V. V. Stekol'nikov; L. M. Voronin

1971-01-01

4

Neutronics analyses of natural uranium fueled, light water cooled, heavy water moderated and graphite reflected nuclear reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work presented in this paper was conducted to validate the computer codes such as WIMS-D\\/4 and CITATION for the criticality analyses of natural uranium fueled, light water cooled, heavy water moderated and graphite reflected reactors such as National Experimental Reactor (NRX) and Canadian Indian Reactor (CIR). These codes are then used to search a proliferation resistant reactor core. It

M. J Khan; Aslam; N Ahmad

2004-01-01

5

Decommissioning the Romanian Water-Cooled Water-Moderated Research Reactor: New Environmental Perspective on the Management of Radioactive Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pre-feasibility and feasibility studies were performed for decommissioning of the water-cooled water-moderated research reactor (WWER) located in Bucharest - Magurele, Romania. Using these studies as a starting point, the preferred safe management strategy for radioactive wastes produced by reactor decommissioning is outlined. The strategy must account for reactor decommissioning, as well as for the rehabilitation of the existing Radioactive Waste

G. Barariu; R. Giumanca

2006-01-01

6

Application of the system of automated monitoring of the residual service life for the solution of the problems of operation of nuclear power plants with water-cooled water-moderated reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We generalize the software implementation experience for a SAKOR-M system of automated monitoring of the residual service\\u000a life operating as a component of the systems of diagnostics of residual service life. The SAKOR-320 system introduced at the\\u000a second power-generating block of the Rostovskaya nuclear power plant additionally includes the surface resistance thermometers,\\u000a solves the inverse problem, takes into account the

V. Ya. Berkovich; A. V. Bogachev; B. N. Dranchenko; V. P. Semishkin

2010-01-01

7

Seismicity and seismic response of the Soviet-designed VVER (Water-cooled, Water moderated Energy Reactor) reactor plants  

SciTech Connect

On March 4, 1977, a strong earthquake occurred at Vrancea, Romania, about 350 km from the Kozloduy plant in Bulgaria. Subsequent to this event, construction of the unit 2 of the Armenia plant was delayed over two years while seismic features were added. On December 7, 1988, another strong earthquake struck northwest Armenia about 90 km north of the Armenia plant. Extensive damage of residential and industrial facilities occurred in the vicinity of the epicenter. The earthquake did not damage the Armenia plant. Following this event, the Soviet government announced that the plant would be shutdown permanently by March 18, 1989, and the station converted to a fossil-fired plant. This paper presents the results of the seismic analyses of the Soviet-designed VVER (Water-cooled, Water moderated Energy Reactor) plants. Also presented is the information concerning seismicity in the regions where VVERs are located and information on seismic design of VVERs. The reference units are the VVER-440 model V230 (similar to the two units of the Armenia plant) and the VVER-1000 model V320 units at Kozloduy in Bulgaria. This document provides an initial basis for understanding the seismicity and seismic response of VVERs under seismic events. 1 ref., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Ma, D.C.; Gvildys, J.; Wang, C.Y.; Spencer, B.W.; Sienicki, J.J.; Seidensticker, R.W.; Purvis, E.E. III

1989-01-01

8

Importance of Delayed Neutrons on the Coupled Neutronic-Thermohydraulic Stability of a Natural Circulation Heavy Water-Moderated Boiling Light Water-Cooled Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coupled neutronic-thermohydraulic stability characteristics of a natural circulation heavy water-moderated boiling light water-cooled reactor was investigated analytically considering the effects of prompt and delayed neutrons. For this purpose, the reactor considered is the Indian Advanced Heavy Water Reactor. The analytical model considers a point kinetics model for the neutron dynamics, a homogeneous two-phase flow model for the coolant thermal

A. K. Nayak; M. Aritomi; V. Venkat Raj

2001-01-01

9

The water-cooled heavy-current power supply units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy-current power supply units with 400 A and 800 A load currents and 2 V and 5 V output voltages are presented. The general power consumption of a computer is 100 kW. Both in computer assemblies and in power supply units, water cooling is used. During computer power supply development, the following principal problems are solved: minimal power supply components

J. Mkrtchian; L. N. Reznikov; V. Mkrtchian

1995-01-01

10

Department of Energy's team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs (water-cooled water-moderated atomic energy reactors)  

SciTech Connect

This document contains apprendices A through P of this report. Topics discussed are: a cronyms and technical terms, accident analyses reactivity control; Soviet safety regulations; radionuclide inventory; decay heat; operations and maintenance; steam supply system; concrete and concrete structures; seismicity; site information; neutronic parameters; loss of electric power; diesel generator reliability; Soviet codes and standards; and comparisons of PWR and VVER features. (FI)

Not Available

1989-09-01

11

Development Project of Supercritical-water Cooled Power Reactor  

SciTech Connect

A Supercritical-water Cooled Power Reactor (SCPR) development project (Feb. 2001- Mar. 2005) is being performed by a joint team consisting of Japanese universities and nuclear venders with a national fund. The main objective of this project is to provide technical information essential to demonstration of SCPR technologies through concentrating three sub-themes: 'plant conceptual design', 'thermohydraulics', and 'material and water chemistry'. The target of the 'plant conceptual design sub-theme' is simplify the whole plant systems compared with the conventional LWRs while achieving high thermal efficiency of more than 40 % without sacrificing the level of safety. Under the 'thermohydraulics sub-theme', heat transfer characteristics of supercritical-water as a coolant of the SCPR are examined experimentally and analytically focusing on 'heat transfer deterioration'. The experiments are being performed using fron-22 for water at a fossil boiler test facility. The experimental results are being incorporated in LWR analytical tools together with an extended steam/R22 table. Under the 'material and water chemistry sub-theme', material candidates for fuel claddings and internals of the SCPR are being screened mainly through mechanical tests, corrosion tests, and simulated irradiation tests under the SCPR condition considering water chemistry. In particular, stress corrosion cracking sensitivity is being investigated as well as uniform corrosion and swelling characteristics. Influences of water chemistry on the corrosion product characteristics are also being examined to find preferable water condition as well as to develop rational water chemistry controlling methods. (authors)

Kataoka, K.; Shiga, S. [Toshiba Corporation, 8, Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, 235-8517 (Japan); Moriya, K. [Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan); Oka, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Yoshida, S. [Kyushu Univ. (Japan); Takahashi, H. [Hokkaido Univ. (Japan)

2002-07-01

12

78 FR 64029 - Cost-Benefit Analysis for Radwaste Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Radwaste Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory...Radwaste Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors,'' in which the NRC made editorial...

2013-10-25

13

Steam Generator Tube Failures: Experience with Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors During 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey was conducted of experience with steam generator tubes at nuclear power stations during 1976. Failures were reported at 25 out of 68 water-cooled reactors. The causes of these failures and the repair and inspection procedures designed to cope wit...

O. S. Tatone R. S. Pathania

1978-01-01

14

Water-cooled, in-cavity apertures for high power operation of FEL oscillators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an oscillator FEL, higher-order harmonic radiation from wigglers can cause serious damage to the downstream FEL resonator mirror and limit the maximum electron beam current for FEL operation due to thermal overload. These problems can be effectively dealt with for FELs driven by helical wigglers using a system to block off-axis wiggler harmonic radiation. In this paper, we report a new scheme to block the off-axis radiation from helical wigglers using a set of motorized, water-cooled, in-cavity apertures. These apertures can reduce the wiggler harmonic radiation power load on the downstream FEL resonator mirror by two orders of magnitude or more. With these apertures, we were able to operate the Duke FEL with record high intracavity power in infrared and visible wavelengths and extend FEL operation into ultraviolet wavelengths with a large electron beam current. The technique for limiting wiggler harmonic radiation using in-cavity apertures is expected to be useful for other types of FEL oscillators including high average power FEL oscillators driven by superconducting linacs.

Huang, S.; Li, J.; Wu, Y. K.

2009-07-01

15

Molten fuel-coolant interactions resulting from power transients in aluminium plate/water moderated reactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The behaviour of two reactors SL1 and SPERT D12, which underwent fast nuclear power transients prior to core destruction by a molten fuel-coolant interaction (MFCI) has been analysed and the results compared with measured data. The calculated spatial melt...

G. J. Storr

1989-01-01

16

Ultrasound applicators with internal water-cooling for high-powered interstitial thermal therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internal water-cooling of direct-coupled ultrasound (US) applicators for interstitial thermal therapy (hyperthermia and coagulative thermal therapy) was investigated. Implantable applicators were constructed using tubular US sources (360 angular acoustic emittance, \\\\?7 MHz) of 10 mm length and 1.5, 1.8, 2.2, and 2.5 mm outer diameter (OD). Directional applicators were also constructed using 2.2 mm OD tubes sectored to provide active

Dana L. Deardorff; Chris J. Diederich

2000-01-01

17

Conceptual design of a high temperature water-cooled divertor for a fusion power reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the conceptual design of a water-cooled divertor target using EUROFER as structural material, water coolant pressure and outlet temperature, respectively, of 15.5MPa and 325°C, and W-alloy monoblocks as armour. Assuming an advanced interface, formed by a thermal barrier in the pipe front part and a compliance layer between W and steel, this concept is able to withstand

L. Giancarli; J. P. Bonal; A. Li Puma; B. Michel; P. Sardain; J. F. Salavy

2005-01-01

18

The use of supercritical parameters of a coolant---A promising path to development of nuclear power plant water-cooled reactors in the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modern concept of the development of water-cooled reactors of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is considered. Data on the design of NPPs with supercritical-parameters coolant and the results of experimental studies are presented.

B. A. Gabaraev; V. N. Smolin; S. L. Solov'ev

2006-01-01

19

Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electrical Power Production, 5th Quarterly Report, October - December 2002  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to evaluate the feasibility of supercritical light water cooled reactors for electric power production. The use of light water at supercritical pressures as the coolant in a nuclear reactor offers the potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies for the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to about 45%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type re-circulation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel and smaller containment building than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed. If no additional moderator is added to the fuel rod lattice, it is possible to attain fast neutron energy spectrum conditions in a supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR). This type of core can make use of either fertile or fertile-free fuel and retain a hard spectrum to effectively burn plutonium and minor actinides from LWR spent fuel while efficiently generating electricity. One can also add moderation and design a thermal spectrum SCWR that can also burn actinides. The project is organized into three tasks:

Philip MacDonald; Jacopo Buongiorno; Cliff Davis; J. Stephen Herring; Kevan Weaver; Ron Latanision; Bryce Mitton; Gary Was; Luca Oriani; Mario Carelli; Dmitry Paramonov; Lawrence Conway

2003-01-01

20

Natural Circulation in Water Cooled Nuclear Power Plants Phenomena, models, and methodology for system reliability assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years it has been recognized that the application of passive safety systems (i.e., those whose operation takes advantage of natural forces such as convection and gravity), can contribute to simplification and potentially to improved economics of new nuclear power plant designs. In 1991 the IAEA Conference on ''The Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future'' noted that

Jose Reyes

2005-01-01

21

High Speed Water-Cooled Permanent Magnet Motor for Pulse Alternator-Based Pulse Power Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulse alternator-based pulse power systems for electromagnetic rail guns store the required energy for powering the rail gun as stored mechanical inertial energy in the rotating member. The pulse alternator (PA) converts the stored inertial energy into electrical energy that is supplied to the rail gun terminals. The losses in the system and energy delivered to the rail gun projectile

J. E. King; R. M. Kobuck; J. R. Repp

2008-01-01

22

Power scaling to high-brightness kW systems using semiconductor bars in water-cooled stacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scalability of semiconductor diode lasers to multi-kilowatt power levels has increasing importance in direct diode material processing applications. These applications require hard-pulse on-off cycling capability and high brightness achieved using low fill-factor (FF) bars with a tight vertical pitch. Coherent uses 20%FF bars operated at <60W/bar packaged on water-cooled packages with a 1.65mm vertical pitch in the Highlight D-series, which achieves <8kW of power in a < 1mm x 8mm beam line at a working distance of ~ 280mm. We compare thermal measurement results to thermal fluid flow simulations to show the emitters are cooled to low junction temperatures with minimal thermal crosstalk, similar to single emitter packaging. Good thermal performance allows for scaling to operation at higher power and brightness. We present accelerated life-testing results in both CW and hard-pulse on-off cycling conditions.

Schleuning, David; Guinn, Keith; Luong, Calvin; Zhang, Yu; Kuchibhotla, Krishna; Kim, Serguei; Ryu, Geunmin; Griffin, Mike; Chryssis, Athanasios; Acklin, Bruno

2013-02-01

23

The use of supercritical parameters of a coolant—A promising path to development of nuclear power plant water-cooled reactors in the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modern concept of the development of water-cooled reactors of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is considered. Data on the design\\u000a of NPPs with supercritical-parameters coolant and the results of experimental studies are presented.

B. A. Gabaraev; V. N. SMolin; S. L. Solov’ev

2006-01-01

24

Natural Circulation in Water Cooled Nuclear Power Plants Phenomena, models, and methodology for system reliability assessments  

SciTech Connect

In recent years it has been recognized that the application of passive safety systems (i.e., those whose operation takes advantage of natural forces such as convection and gravity), can contribute to simplification and potentially to improved economics of new nuclear power plant designs. In 1991 the IAEA Conference on ''The Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future'' noted that for new plants the use of passive safety features is a desirable method of achieving simplification and increasing the reliability of the performance of essential safety functions, and should be used wherever appropriate''.

Jose Reyes

2005-02-14

25

INVESTIGATIONS OF THE CONTAMINANTS IN THE FIRST NUCLEAR POWER PLANT WATER COOLING CIRCUIT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of primary water contamination by 1X18H9T steel corrosion was ; investigated. It was found that the corrosion rate is proportional to the purge ; rate and to reactor power. Using radiochemical, analytical, electrodialysis, and ; ultra-filtration methods, it was shown that Co, Cr, Mn, Na, and Ni were present ; as ions while Cu and Fe appeared in

P. N. Slyusarev; V. A. Ivanov; L. N. Nesterova

1959-01-01

26

Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Fast Reactors for Actinide Burning and Electric Power Production  

SciTech Connect

The use of supercritical temperature and pressure light water as the coolant in a direct-cycle nuclear reactor offers potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies of the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to 46%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type recirculation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed. If a tight fuel rod lattice is adopted, it is possible to significantly reduce the neutron moderation and attain fast neutron energy spectrum conditions. In this project a supercritical water reactor concept with a simple, blanket-free, pancake-shaped core will be developed. This type of core can make use of either fertile or fertile-free fuel and retain the hard spectrum to effectively burn plutonium and minor actinides from LWR spent fuel while efficiently generating electricity.

Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Davis, Cliff Bybee; Weaver, Kevan Dean

2002-01-01

27

Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electric Power Production, Progress Report for Work Through September 2003, 2nd Annual/8th Quarterly Report  

SciTech Connect

The supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) is one of the six reactor technologies selected for research and development under the Generation-IV program. SCWRs are promising advanced nuclear systems because of their high thermal efficiency (i.e., about 45% vs. about 33% efficiency for current Light Water Reactors, LWRs) and considerable plant simplification. SCWRs are basically LWRs operating at higher pressure and temperatures with a direct once-through cycle. Operation above the critical pressure eliminates coolant boiling, so the coolant remains single-phase throughout the system. Thus the need for recirculation and jet pumps, a pressurizer, steam generators, steam separators and dryers is eliminated. The main mission of the SCWR is generation of low-cost electricity. It is built upon two proven technologies, LWRs, which are the most commonly deployed power generating reactors in the world, and supercritical fossil-fired boilers, a large number of which is also in use around the world.

Philip E. MacDonald

2003-09-01

28

Study of the radiation-induced thermal decomposition of cesium iodide and the corrosion cracking of water-moderated-water-cooled power-reactor fuel-element cans under gamma radiation  

SciTech Connect

The authors studied the effect of temperature (20-380/sup 0/C) and pressure (0.2-15.5 MPa) on the ..gamma.. radiation of CsI in helium-filled Zr-1% Nb alloy cans. It was shown that the decomposition of CsI attains its maximum velocity at a temperature of 380/sup 0/C and a helium pressure of 15.5 MPa (G = 6.8 +/- 1.0 molecules per 100 eV), while lowering the temperature or the pressure diminishes the decomposition velocity of the CsI. The action of ..gamma.. radiation on CsI leads to the failure of helium-filled zirconium cans through corrosion.

Bibilashvili, Yu.K.; Vladimirova, M.V.; Golovnin, I.S.; Kulikov, I.A.; Novikov, V.V.; Sotnikov, A.S.

1987-02-01

29

Effect of mono-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid on the extraction processing of a refinate of the regeneration of spent fuel cells of a water-moderated-water-cooled power reactor with di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction reagents had the following characteristics: density of M2EHPA and D2EHPA 1.012 and 0.975 g\\/cm 3, respectively; index of refraction 1.4460, 1.4418, respectively. The concentration of D2EHPA was equal to 0.6 M in all the experiments; sulfonated synthine was used as a diluent (6). The M2EHPA concentration in the organic solution,was varied from 0.024 to 1.04 M. The distribution

V. S. Smelov; B. A. Kondrat'ev; V. V. Chubukov; S. N. Dobromyslova

1981-01-01

30

The thermal circuit of a nuclear power station's unit built around a supercritical-pressure water-cooled reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Main results obtained from calculations of the steam generator and thermal circuit of the steam turbine unit for a nuclear power unit with supercritical-pressure water coolant and integral layout are presented. The obtained characteristics point to the advisability of carrying out further developments of this promising nuclear power technology.

Silin, V. A.; Zorin, V. M.; Tagirov, A. M.; Tregubova, O. I.; Belov, I. V.; Povarov, P. V.

2010-12-01

31

10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...associated bases for other types of nuclear power reactors. II. Explanation of Terms...Containment Structures for Nuclear Reactors,â March 16, 1972. In addition...to the Director, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation or Director,...

2013-01-01

32

10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...containment of direct-cycle boiling water power reactors. I. Pa (p.s.i.g...secondary containments for boiling water reactors and shield buildings for pressurized water reactors that enclose the entire...

2010-01-01

33

10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...containment of direct-cycle boiling water power reactors. I. Pa (p.s.i.g...secondary containments for boiling water reactors and shield buildings for pressurized water reactors that enclose the entire...

2009-01-01

34

Development and construction of a high-power, 3000 m{sup 3}/h, 0.5 MPa, sodium pump without water cooling  

SciTech Connect

The concept of modular flat linear induction pumps (FLIP) without water cooling of the winding has been proposed and developed at the MHD Laboratory, Khar`kov, Ukraine. In these pumps, the total flow rate is equal to the sum of the flow rates of all the modules. The concept proposed can be useful when designing high-power electromagnetic pumps for the main loops of a fast breeder reactor with liquid sodium as the heat carrier. As a prototype, a high-power modular FLIP was developed and built in cooperation with the MHD Laboratory and two plants, the Electromechanical plant and the Turbine Plant at Khar`kov. This was a two-module FLIP, with the following design parameters: liquid to be pumped is sodium at 350{degrees}C, flowrate 3000 M{sup 3}/h, head 0.5 MPa, frequency 37.5 Hz, efficiency 38%, number of poles 10, pole pitch 276 mm, wall thickness 6 mm, and mass 25 tons. No-load tests of the inductors and the hermeticity of the ducts have been carried out. The problem of {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} operation tests is still to be solved.

Golovko, V.S.; Dronnik, L.M.; D`yachenko, U.D. [MHD Lab., Khar`kov (Ukraine)] [and others

1995-01-01

35

Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Fast Reactors for Actinide Burning and Electric Power Production, 3rd Quarterly Report  

SciTech Connect

The use of light water at supercritical pressures as the coolant in a nuclear reactor offers the potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies of the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to about 45%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type re-circulation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel and smaller containment building than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed.

Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

2002-06-01

36

The effects of temperature and rf power level on the tuning of the water-cooled SSC Low-Energy Booster cavity  

SciTech Connect

The SSC Low-Energy Booster (LEB) cavity must rapidly tune from 47.52 to 59.78 MHz. The cavity tuner will use transversely biased ferrite control of the cavity resonance. The thermal expansion of a cavity`s materials affects its resonance. There are two other known temperature mechanisms that affect resonance in the water-cooled LEB cavity. The saturation magnetization of the ferrite is a function of temperature, and since the ferrite permeability is dependent on the saturation magnetization, the ferrite permeability is also temperature dependent. The ferrite cooling water is present in the tuner rf field, hence the water permittivity, which is very temperature dependent, also affects cavity resonance. While taking data on the SSC Test Cavity to quantify the effect of temperature on the resonance, we observed that the rf power level also perturbed the resonance. It was readily apparent from the data that the power level affected the resonance much more strongly at low values of control bias than at high values. In fact, when we calculate an apparent modified control-bias H field that produces the observed resonance shift, we noticed an almost perfect, though non-linear, correlation between the ratio of H{sub rf} to H{sub bias} and the apparent modified bias field, H{sub app}. This paper will present a set of equations to predict the resonance shifts produced by changes in temperature and rf power level. It will also present the techniques, both theoretical and empirical, by which these equations are derived. Finally, some of the methods for dealing with these resonance shifts will be discussed.

Friedrichs, C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hulsey, G. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States)

1993-06-01

37

The effects of temperature and rf power level on the tuning of the water-cooled SSC Low-Energy Booster cavity  

SciTech Connect

The SSC Low-Energy Booster (LEB) cavity must rapidly tune from 47.52 to 59.78 MHz. The cavity tuner will use transversely biased ferrite control of the cavity resonance. The thermal expansion of a cavity's materials affects its resonance. There are two other known temperature mechanisms that affect resonance in the water-cooled LEB cavity. The saturation magnetization of the ferrite is a function of temperature, and since the ferrite permeability is dependent on the saturation magnetization, the ferrite permeability is also temperature dependent. The ferrite cooling water is present in the tuner rf field, hence the water permittivity, which is very temperature dependent, also affects cavity resonance. While taking data on the SSC Test Cavity to quantify the effect of temperature on the resonance, we observed that the rf power level also perturbed the resonance. It was readily apparent from the data that the power level affected the resonance much more strongly at low values of control bias than at high values. In fact, when we calculate an apparent modified control-bias H field that produces the observed resonance shift, we noticed an almost perfect, though non-linear, correlation between the ratio of H[sub rf] to H[sub bias] and the apparent modified bias field, H[sub app]. This paper will present a set of equations to predict the resonance shifts produced by changes in temperature and rf power level. It will also present the techniques, both theoretical and empirical, by which these equations are derived. Finally, some of the methods for dealing with these resonance shifts will be discussed.

Friedrichs, C. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Hulsey, G. (Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States))

1993-01-01

38

Increasing the operational reliability of the system for water cooling of electric motors of 300 MW generating unit feed pumps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric motors used to drive the feedwater pumps in USSR power plants have a system for direct water cooling (SDWC) of the rotor and a system for indirect water cooling (SIWC) of the stator. The tendency toward damage of the water cooling system of 24 electric motors installed at four power plants in 3 power systems was analyzed with the

Inozemtsev

1981-01-01

39

Ritm facility for testing fuel elements in variable power regimes in the SM2 reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problems originating with a change of the requirements for the operating conditions of nuclear power stations with water-cooled-water-moderated reactors (VVER) in the power generation system. In order to solve the problem of assuring that the necessary durability of the fuel elements in conditions of repeated changes of the power level at a rate of 1-6% per

V. A. Kuprienko; A. V. Pershin; Yu. G. Spiridonov; V. Sh. Sulaberidze

1985-01-01

40

Seismicity and Seismic Response of the Soviet-Designed VVER (Water-Cooled, Water Moderated Energy Reactor) Reactor Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On March 4, 1977, a strong earthquake occurred at Vrancea, Romania, about 350 km from the Kozloduy plant in Bulgaria. Subsequent to this event, construction of the unit 2 of the Armenia plant was delayed over two years while seismic features were added. O...

D. C. Ma J. Gvildys C. Y. Wang B. W. Spencer J. J. Sienicki

1989-01-01

41

Study on the flow-pattern-transition instability in a natural circulation heavy water moderated boiling light water cooled reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model has been developed to study the flow pattern transition instability which may occur in a boiling two-phase system. The model considers flow pattern transition criteria for vertical upward and horizontal flow in pipes to identify the flow pattern transition and flow pattern specific pressure drop models. It also considers the drift flux model to estimate the void

A. K. Nayak; P. K. Vijayan; V. Jain; D. Saha; R. K. Sinha

2003-01-01

42

Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Fast Reactors for Actinide Burning and Electric Power Production Progress Report for Year 1, Quarter 2 (January - March 2002)  

SciTech Connect

The use of light water at supercritical pressures as the coolant in a nuclear reactor offers the potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies of the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to about 45%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type re-circulation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel and smaller containment building than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed.

Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Davis, Cliff Bybee; Weaver, Kevan Dean

2002-03-01

43

Heat dissipation in water-cooled reflectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy balance of a lamp varies with the thermal and optical characteristics of the reflector. The photosynthetic radiation efficiency of lamps, defined as input power divided by photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) emitted from the lamp ranges between 0.17 and 0.26. The rest of the energy input is wasted as longwave (3000 nm and over) and non-PAR shortwave radiation (from 700 nm to 3000 nm), convective, and conductive heat from the lamp, reflector, and ballast, and simply for increasing the cooling load. Furthermore, some portion of the PAR is uselessly absorbed by the inner walls, shelves, vessels, etc. and some portion of the PAR received by the plantlets is converted into sensible and latent heat. More than 98% of the energy input is probably converted into heat, with only less than 2% of the energy input being converted into chemical energy as carbohydrates by photosynthesis. Therefore, it is essential to reduce the generation of heat in the culture room in order to reduce the cooling load. Through use of a water-cooled reflector, the generation of convective and conductive heat and longwave radiation from the reflector can be reduced, without reduction of PAR.

Kozai, Toyoki

1994-03-01

44

Air and water cooled modulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A

Daniel L. Birx; Phillip A. Arnold; Don G. Ball; Edward G. Cook

1995-01-01

45

Air and water cooled modulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method are disclosed for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding

D. L. Birx; P. A. Arnold; D. G. Ball; E. G. Cook

1995-01-01

46

Pyrographite Water-Cooled Target Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a study of two pyrographic water-cooled targets planned for use in the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. A steady-state thermal stress analysis was done that included a parameter study on the physical and numerical variables...

G. A. Bennett

1980-01-01

47

Pyrographite water-cooled target analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a study of two pyrographic water-cooled targets planned for use in the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. A steady-state thermal stress analysis was done that included a parameter study on the physical and numerical variables that affect the problem. The maximum target temperatures and stresses were calculated and compared for a variety of conditions. The comparisons

1980-01-01

48

Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electric Power Production, Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Project 2001-001, Westinghouse Electric Co. Grant Number: DE-FG07-02SF22533, Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) is one of the six reactor technologies selected for research and development under the Generation IV program. SCWRs are promising advanced nuclear systems because of their high thermal efficiency (i.e., about 45% versus about 33% efficiency for current Light Water Reactors [LWRs]) and considerable plant simplification. SCWRs are basically LWRs operating at higher pressure and temperatures with a direct once-through cycle. Operation above the critical pressure eliminates coolant boiling, so the coolant remains single-phase throughout the system. Thus, the need for a pressurizer, steam generators, steam separators, and dryers is eliminated. The main mission of the SCWR is generation of low-cost electricity. It is built upon two proven technologies: LWRs, which are the most commonly deployed power generating reactors in the world, and supercritical fossil-fired boilers, a large number of which are also in use around the world. The reference SCWR design for the U.S. program is a direct cycle system operating at 25.0 MPa, with core inlet and outlet temperatures of 280 and 500 C, respectively. The coolant density decreases from about 760 kg/m3 at the core inlet to about 90 kg/m3 at the core outlet. The inlet flow splits with about 10% of the inlet flow going down the space between the core barrel and the reactor pressure vessel (the downcomer) and about 90% of the inlet flow going to the plenum at the top of the rector pressure vessel, to then flow down through the core in special water rods to the inlet plenum. Here it mixes with the feedwater from the downcomer and flows upward to remove the heat in the fuel channels. This strategy is employed to provide good moderation at the top of the core. The coolant is heated to about 500 C and delivered to the turbine. The purpose of this NERI project was to assess the reference U.S. Generation IV SCWR design and explore alternatives to determine feasibility. The project was organized into three tasks: Task 1. Fuel-cycle Neutronic Analysis and Reactor Core Design Task 2. Fuel Cladding and Structural Material Corrosion and Stress Corrosion Cracking Task 3. Plant Engineering and Reactor Safety Analysis. moderator rods. materials.

Philip E. MacDonald

2005-01-01

49

DISTILLATION OF LIGHT WATER FROM HEAVY WATER MODERATOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of the equipment and method of operation of a ; distillation system to remove light water from heavy water moderator. The basic ; principles of the theory of distillation are reviewed. ( auth);

Bertsche

1958-01-01

50

Pyrographite water-cooled target analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a study of two pyrographic water-cooled targets planned for use in the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. A steady-state thermal stress analysis was done that included a parameter study on the physical and numerical variables that affect the problem. The maximum target temperatures and stresses were calculated and compared for a variety of conditions. The comparisons show that the 0.6-cm half-width fin target proposed for the A-2 line is the most vulnerable of the targets analyzed.

Bennett, G.A.

1980-09-01

51

Advanced water-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Water Cooled Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Development Program is being conducted by International Fuel Cells Corporation (IFC) to improve the performance and minimize the cost of water-cooled, electric utility phosphoric acid fuel cell stacks. The program adapts the existing on-site Configuration B cell design to electric utility operating conditions and introduces additional new design features. Task 1 consists of the conceptual design of a full-scale electric utility cell stack that meets program objectives. Tasks 2 and 3 develop the materials and processes required to fabricate the components that meet the program objective. The design of the small area and two 10-ft(exp 2) short stacks is conducted in task 4. The conceptual design also is updated to incorporate the results of material and process developments, as well as results of stack tests conducted in task 6. Fabrication and assembly of the short stacks are conducted in task 5 and subsequent tests are conducted in task 6. The Contractor expects to enter into a contract with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to assemble and endurance test the second 10-ft(exp 2) short stack. The management and reporting functions of task 7 provide DOE/METC with program visibility through required documentation and program reviews. This report describes the cell design and development effort that is being conducted to demonstrate, by subscale stack test, the technical achievements made toward the above program objectives.

1992-07-01

52

Locating of leaks in water-cooled generator stator bars using perfluorocarbon tracers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water cooled stator bars in power plant generators often fail during the maintenance cycle due to water leakage. After the hydrogen pressure in the generator shell has been released water can leak through cracks in the copper and through the insulation. Leaking bars, but not the leaks themselves, are detected with so-called hi-pot'' (high potential) tests where direct electrical current

W. M. Loss; R. N. Dietz

1991-01-01

53

Locating of leaks in water-cooled generator stator bars using perfluorocarbon tracers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water cooled stator bars in power plant generators often fail during the maintenance cycle due to water leakage. After the hydrogen pressure in the generator shell has been released water can leak through cracks in the copper and through the insulation. Leaking bars, but not the leaks themselves, are detected with so-called ``hi-pot`` (high potential) tests where direct electrical current

W. M. Loss; R. N. Dietz

1991-01-01

54

10 CFR 50.63 - Loss of all alternating current power.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1) Each light-water-cooled nuclear power plant licensed to operate under...part, each light-water-cooled nuclear power plant licensed under subpart...design for a light-water-cooled nuclear power plant approved under a...

2013-01-01

55

Advanced water-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell development  

SciTech Connect

This program was conducted to improve the performance and minimize the cost of existing water-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell stacks for electric utility and on-site applications. The goals for the electric utility stack technology were a power density of at least 175 watts per square foot over a 40,000-hour useful life and a projected one-of-a-kind, full-scale manufactured cost of less than $400 per kilowatt. The program adapted the existing on-site Configuration-B cell design to electric utility operating conditions and introduced additional new design features. Task 1 consisted of the conceptual design of a full-scale electric utility cell stack that meets program objectives. The conceptual design was updated to incorporate the results of material and process developments in Tasks 2 and 3, as well as results of stack tests conducted in Task 6. Tasks 2 and 3 developed the materials and processes required to fabricate the components that meet the program objectives. The design of the small area and 10-ft{sup 2} stacks was conducted in Task 4. Fabrication and assembly of the short stacks were conducted in Task 5 and subsequent tests were conducted in Task 6. The management and reporting functions of Task 7 provided DOE/METC with program visibility through required documentation and program reviews. This report describes the cell design and development effort that was conducted to demonstrate, by subscale stack test, the technical achievements made toward the above program objectives.

Not Available

1992-09-01

56

Advanced water-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program is being conducted to improve the performance and minimize the cost of water cooled, electric utility phosphoric acid fuel cell stacks. The program adapts the existing on-site Configuration B cell design to electric utility operating conditions and introduces additional new design features. Task 1 consists of the conceptual design of a full-scale electric utility cell stack that meets program objectives. Tasks 2 and 3 develop the materials and processes requested to fabricate the components that meet the program objective. The design of the small area and two 10-ft(exp 2) short stacks is conducted in Task 4. The conceptual design also is updated to incorporate the results of material and process developments, as well as results of stack tests conducted in Task 6. Fabrication and assembly of the short stacks are conducted in Task 5 and subsequent tests are conducted in Task 6. The Contractor expects to enter into a contract with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to assemble and endurance test the second 10-ft(exp 2) short stack. The management and reporting functions of Task 7 provide DOE/METC with program visibility through required documentation and program reviews. This report describes the cell design and development effort that is being conducted to demonstrate, by subscale stack test, the technical achievements made toward the above program objectives.

1992-05-01

57

Conceptual design features for a passive light water cooled and moderated pressure tube reactor (PLPTR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Key conceptual features are developed for a passive light water cooled and moderated pressure tube reactor having a total thermal output of 4,029 MW(thermal) and net electric power of 1,260 MW(electric), compatible with passive safety features that can ensure integrity of the fuel and reusability of the major reactor components without the requirements of delivery of emergency coolant makeup inventory.

J. R. Tang; N. E. Todreas; M. J. Driscoll

1994-01-01

58

Supercritical-pressure, light-water-cooled reactors for improving economy, safety, plutonium utilization and environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concepts of a direct-cycle supercritical-pressure, light-water-cooled reactors were developed. The conceptual design of the thermal and fast reactors was carried out. The plant system is identical among them. Breeding is possible in the tight lattice core. Waste problems are improved due to the high thermal efficiency. Power generation cost will be greatly reduced from the current LAIR.

Y Oka; S Koshizuka; T Jevremovic; Y Okano

1995-01-01

59

Conceptual design of compact supercritical water-cooled fast reactor with thermal hydraulic coupling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel rod design for high power density supercritical water-cooled fast reactor was conducted with mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel and stainless steel (SUS304) cladding under the limiting cladding surface temperature of 650°C. Fuel and cladding integrities, and flow-induced vibration were taken into account as design criteria. Designed fuel rod has the diameter of 7.6mm and is arranged in the fuel assembly with

Jaewoon Yoo; Yuki Ishiwatari; Yoshiaki Oka; Jie Liu

2006-01-01

60

Safety Features Comparative Study between Advanced Boiling Water Reactor and Supercritical Water-Cooling Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical water-cooling reactor is one of the advanced nuclear power plants as the fourth generation reactor of internationally recognized. The plant system design is once-through cycle, feed-water flow rate are provided from pressure head by pump through the reactor core became steam, and directly into the turbine. There is not a recirculation loop in this cycle, this is the the

Hangding Wang; Tao Zhou; Zhousen Hou

2011-01-01

61

Steam-Reheat Option for Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SuperCritical-Water-cooled Reactors (SCWRs) are being developed as one of the Generation-IV nuclear-reactor concepts. Main objectives of the development are to increase thermal efficiency of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) and to decrease capital and operational costs. The first objective can be achieved by introducing nuclear steam reheat inside a reactor and utilizing regenerative feedwater heaters. The second objective can be achieved by designing a steam cycle that closely matches that of the mature supercritical fossil-fuelled power plants. The feasibility of these objectives is discussed. As a part of this discussion, heat-transfer calculations have been performed and analyzed for SuperCritical-Water (SCW) and SuperHeated-Steam (SHS) channels of the proposed reactor concept. In the calculations a uniform and three non-uniform Axial Heat Flux Profiles (AHFPs) were considered for six different fuels (UO2, ThO 2, MOX, UC2, UC, and UN) and at average and maximum channel power. Bulk-fluid, sheath, and fuel centerline temperatures as well as the Heat Transfer Coefficient (HTC) profiles were obtained along the fuel-channel length. The HTC values are within a range of 4.7--20 kW/m2·K and 9.7--10 kW/m2·K for the SCW and SHS channels respectively. The main conclusion is that while all the mentioned fuels may be used for the SHS channel, only UC2, UC, or UN are suitable for a SCW channel, because their fuel centerline temperatures are at least 1000°C below melting point, while that of UO2, ThO2 , and MOX may reach melting point.

Saltanov, Eugene

62

Small Water-Cooled Non-Ballast Tubular Xenon Lamp.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The work gives a description of a small non-ballast water-cooled tubular xenon lamp operating on alternating current with an input voltage of 220 v. The parameters of the optimal operation of the lamp are discussed and the electrical and luminous characte...

I. L. Tokhadze V. I. Vasilev I. S. Marshak

1968-01-01

63

Passive cooling means for water cooled nuclear reactor plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a water cooled, nuclear fission reactor plant having an improved auxiliary passive cooling system for dissipating heat produced during periods of other than normal operation, the nuclear fission reactor plant. It comprises the combination of: a reactor pressure vessel containing a core of heat producing fissionable fuel material provided with reciprocally removable fission control rods and having

D. M. Gluntz; W. J. Oosterkamp; R. M. van Kuijk

1992-01-01

64

Solid Propellant Test Evaluation of Water-Cooled Nozzle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this test program was to evaluate the feasibility of using a water-cooled nozzle on large solid propellant motors. The coolant requirement for this test was 1200 gal/min water flow rate with an inlet coolant pressure of 850 psi. The flow ...

D. R. Zorich A. A. Bassoni

1969-01-01

65

Corrosion mechanisms of candidate structural materials for supercritical water-cooled reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nickel-based alloys, austenitic stainless steel, ferritic\\/martensitic heat-resistant steels, and oxide dispersion strengthened\\u000a steel are presently considered to be the candidate structural or fuel-cladding materials for supercritical water-cooled reactor\\u000a (SCWR), one of the promising generation IV reactor for large-scale electric power production. However, corrosion and stress\\u000a corrosion cracking of these candidate alloys still remain to be a major problem in the

Lefu Zhang; Fawen Zhu; Rui Tang

2009-01-01

66

The Water-Cooled Steel-Tank Rectifier Corrosion Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first mercury-are rectifiers utilized glass tubes and consequently the physical size and electrical capacity was limited. The efforts to increase the available output led to the development of water-cooled steel-tank vacuum chambers after many years of research and the solution of many problems. This paper is primarily concerned with the solution of the problem presented by corrosion. Corrosion is

Emil J. Remscheid

1941-01-01

67

Deployment Scenario of Heavy Water Cooled Thorium Breeder Reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deployment scenario of heavy water cooled thorium breeder reactor has been studied. We have assumed to use plutonium and thorium oxide fuel in water cooled reactor to produce 233U which will be used in thorium breeder reactor. The objective is to analysis the potential of water cooled Th-Pu reactor for replacing all of current LWRs especially in Japan. In this paper, the standard Pressurize Water Reactor (PWR) has been designed to produce 3423 MWt; (i) Th-Pu PWR, (ii) Th-Pu HWR (MFR = 1.0) and (iii) Th-Pu HWR (MFR = 1.2). The properties and performance of the core were investigated by using cell and core calculation code. Th-Pu PWR or HWR produces 233U to introduce thorium breeder reactor. The result showed that to replace all (60 GWe) LWR by thorium breeder reactor within a period of one century, Th-Pu oxide fueled PWR has insufficient capability to produce necessary amount of 233U and Th-Pu oxide fueled HWR has almost enough potential to produce 233U but shows positive void reactivity coefficient.

Mardiansah, Deby; Takaki, Naoyuki

2010-06-01

68

High Power Cable with Internal Water Cooling 400 KV.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project was planned for a duration of 4 years. Afterwards it has been extended over 6 years and finally stopped after 3 1/2 years. Therefore, of course results of field tests with an internally cooled 400 kV cable are not available. Nevertheless, this...

W. Rasquin B. Harjes

1982-01-01

69

Pink-Beam, Highly-Accurate Compact Water Cooled Slits  

SciTech Connect

Advanced Design Consulting, Inc. (ADC) has designed accurate compact slits for applications where high precision is required. The system consists of vertical and horizontal slit mechanisms, a vacuum vessel which houses them, water cooling lines with vacuum guards connected to the individual blades, stepper motors with linear encoders, limit (home position) switches and electrical connections including internal wiring for a drain current measurement system. The total slit size is adjustable from 0 to 15 mm both vertically and horizontally. Each of the four blades are individually controlled and motorized. In this paper, a summary of the design and Finite Element Analysis of the system are presented.

Lyndaker, Aaron; Deyhim, Alex; Jayne, Richard; Waterman, Dave; Caletka, Dave [Advanced Design Consulting USA, 126 Ridge Road, P.O. Box 187, Lansing, NY 14882 (United States); Steadman, Paul; Dhesi, Sarnjeet [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Rutherford Apple ton Laboratory (United Kingdom)

2007-01-19

70

Water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source  

SciTech Connect

The program for providing water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source at Berkeley is reviewed with respect to fabrication and metrology of the surfaces. Materials choices, surface figure and smoothness specifications, and metrology systems for measuring the plated metal surfaces are discussed. Results from prototype mirrors and grating blanks will be presented, which show exceptionally low microroughness and mid-period error. We will briefly describe out improved version of the Long Trace Profiler, and its importance to out metrology program. We have completely redesigned the mechanical, optical and computational parts of the profiler system with the cooperation of Peter Takacs of Brookhaven, Continental Optical, and Baker Manufacturing. Most important is that one of our profilers is in use at the vendor to allow testing during fabrication. Metrology from the first water cooled mirror for an ALS beamline is presented as an example. The preplating processing and grinding and polishing were done by Tucson Optical. We will show significantly better surface microroughness on electroless nickel, over large areas, than has been reported previously.

McKinney, W.R.; Irick, S.C. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Lunt, D.L.J. [Tucson Optical Research Corp., AZ (United States)

1991-10-28

71

Research of a Supercritical Pressure Water Cooled Reactor in Korea  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the activities on the supercritical pressure water-cooled reactor (SCWR) in Korea are briefly introduced. Four projects on a SCWR are being conducted in Korea. Three of them are supported by the I-NERI program while one is by KAERI. Two of the I-NERI-supported projects concern suitable materials for supercritical pressure and temperature, and radiation environment. The other I-NERI-supported project surveys numerically and experimentally the proper turbulence modeling for the numerical calculation of heat transfer phenomena at a supercritical condition. Heat transfer at a supercritical condition is being studied at KAERI experimentally using carbon dioxide as a coolant. The test loop is to be completed by the end of 2004. (authors)

Bae, Yoon-Yeong; Joo, Hyung-Kook; Jang, Jinsung; Jeong, Yong-Hwan; Song, Jin-ho; Yoon, Han-Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jung-Yul [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1 Shinlim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2004-07-01

72

Water cooled scavenged crankcase type otto internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

In a system for a water cooled scavenged crankcase type two-cycle internal combustion engine comprising: a heat reclaimation system for extracting heat from an engine jacket for heating water supplied form an add-on reservoir via a heat exchanger located within the engine cylinder cooling system, the water being subsequently additionally heated by an exhaust pipe type heat exchanger to a superheated steam state and thence conveyed by a conduit to a steam lubricator for adjustably conveying in variably timed spaced succession intervals of regulated droplets of high viscous oil, fortified with adde graphite and tallow enrichment lubricant ingredients, and thence conveying such by steam at atmospheric pressure into an intake manifold which receives a carbureted air/fuel mixture into the crankcase via a manually operated auxiliary air intake device and way check valve and fire screen, due to suction effect of the piston up stroke action of the piston during engine operation.

Bidwell, H.

1988-10-25

73

Silver bonded, internally water-cooled monochromators for CHESS wiggler beamlines  

SciTech Connect

Intense synchrotron radiation from high power wiggler sources has long been a difficult high-heat-load problem to the design of properly cooled x-ray optics. Large, high power and very intense beams thermally distort crystal optics, reducing throughput and broadening rocking curves. An internally cooled silicon monochromator has been fabricated which demonstrated the capability of diffracting wiggler radiation of unprecedented power without significant degradation of the beam. Cooling water flows through rectangular cooling channels 1 mm wide, 1 mm below the diffracting surface, fed by a manifold bonded to the underside of the diffracting crystal. A novel silver diffusion bond was used to ensure leak-tight UHV performance. Recent test results at wiggler station F2 show a linear behavior of the x-ray flux with increasing storage ring current up to a total power of 3 kW and a peak surface power density of 5 W/mm{sup 2}. The improved monochromator has led to an increase of x-ray flux by a factor of six over previous contact-cooled designs and shows that internal water-cooling can be an effective solution to high-heat-load problems at high power wiggler stations.

Smolenski, Karl W.; Shen Qun; Doing, Park [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

1997-07-01

74

Design and Performance of a Water-cooled Permanent Magnet Retarder for Heavy Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a novel permanent magnet re- tarder (PMR) structure that uses water cooling to improve the braking performance of conventional PMR for heavy vehicles. A finite element model for a water-cooled PMR was developed by con- sidering the temperature dependence of magnetic characteristics and heat conductivity. The eddy current and temperature distri- bution were analyzed using the magneto-thermal

Lezhi Ye; Desheng Li; Yuanjing Ma; Bingfeng Jiao

2011-01-01

75

Nitrogen-16 Generation and Transport and Associated Shielding Requirements in a Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor  

SciTech Connect

As a water-cooled nuclear system with a direct thermal cycle, the supercritical-water-cooled reactor (SCWR) shares with the boiling water reactor (BWR) the issue of coolant activation and transport of the coolant activation products to the turbine and balance of plant (BOP). Consistent with the BWR experience, the dominant nuclide contributing to the SCWR coolant radioactivity at full power is {sup 16}N, which is produced by an (n,p) reaction on {sup 16}O. In this paper the production and decay of {sup 16}N in the SCWR coolant circuit along with the shielding requirements imposed on the BOP are analyzed and compared with those in a BWR with a similar thermal power rating. A simple control-mass approach is adopted in which the {sup 16}N inventory in a unit mass of coolant is tracked as the coolant flows in the SCWR and BWR primary systems, which are divided into several compartments (e.g., core, lower plenum, downcomer, etc.) of known volume, mass flow rate, and neutron flux. The values of the neutron flux and (n,p) cross section in the SCWR and BWR cores are calculated by means of full-length radially reflected Monte Carlo eigenvalue models of the SCWR and BWR fuel assemblies. The results are as follows: The {sup 16}N activities in the steam lines of the BWR with normal water chemistry, in the BWR with hydrogen water chemistry, and in the SCWR are about 40, 180, and 380 {mu}Ci/g, respectively. The calculated BWR values compare well with the trends and ranges found in the literature. The SCWR {sup 16}N concentration is significantly higher than that in the BWR for the following four reasons:1. The coolant transit time in the SCWR core is about twice that in the BWR core.2. The neutron flux is higher in the SCWR because of the higher power density.3. The slow coolant pass in the water rods produces a significant {sup 16}N activity at the SCWR core inlet.4. In the SCWR all the {sup 16}N generated in the core is sent to the steam lines because there is no recirculation within the vessel.A simple gamma attenuation model shows that the higher {sup 16}N activity in the SCWR results in shielding requirements only up to 10% higher than for the BWR with hydrogen water chemistry. However, because of the higher SCWR electric power, the specific shielding costs per unit of electric power associated with {sup 16}N are expected to be similar to or better than that for BWRs.

Fischer, Benjamin [University of Wisconsin at Madison (United States); Smolinski, Marci [University of Wisconsin at Madison (United States); Buongiorno, Jacopo [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (United States)

2004-08-15

76

Nitrogen-16 Generation, Transport and Associated Shielding Requirements in the Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor  

SciTech Connect

As a water-cooled nuclear system with a direct thermal cycle, the supercritical-water-cooled reactor (SCWR) shares with the boiling water reactor (BWR) the issue of coolant activation and transport of the coolant activation products to the turbine and balance of plant (BOP). Consistent with the BWR experience, the dominant nuclide contributing to the SCWR coolant radioactivity at full power is 16N, which is produced by an (n,p) reaction on 16O. In this paper the production and decay of 16N in the SCWR coolant circuit along with the shielding requirements imposed on the BOP are analyzed and compared with those in a BWR with a similar thermal power rating. A simple control-mass approach is adopted in which the 16N inventory in a unit mass of coolant is tracked as the coolant flows in the SCWR and BWR primary systems, which are divided into several compartments (e.g., core, lower plenum, downcomer, etc.) of known volume, mass flow rate, and neutron flux. The values of the neutron flux and (n,p) cross section in the SCWR and BWR cores are calculated by means of full-length radially reflected Monte Carlo eigenvalue models of the SCWR and BWR fuel assemblies. The results are as follows: The 16N activities in the steam lines of the BWR with normal water chemistry, in the BWR with hydrogen water chemistry, and in the SCWR are about 40, 180, and 380 Ci/g, respectively. The calculated BWR values compare well with the trends and ranges found in the literature. The SCWR 16N concentration is significantly higher than that in the BWR for the following four reasons: 1. The coolant transit time in the SCWR core is about twice that in the BWR core. 2. The neutron flux is higher in the SCWR because of the higher power density. 3. The slow coolant pass in the water rods produces a significant 16N activity at the SCWR core inlet. 4. In the SCWR all the 16N generated in the core is sent to the steam lines because there is no recirculation within the vessel. A simple gamma attenuation model shows that the higher 16N activity in the SCWR results in shielding requirements only up to 10% higher than for the BWR with hydrogen water chemistry. However, because of the higher SCWR electric power, the specific shielding costs per unit of electric power associated with 16N are expected to be similar to or better than that for BWRs.

Jacopo Buongiorno

2004-08-01

77

Advanced water-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell development. Technical progress report No. 26, April-June 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Advanced Water Cooled Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Development program is being conducted by International Fuel Cells Corporation (IFC) to improve the performance and minimize the cost of water cooled, electric utility phosphoric acid fuel cell stacks. T...

1990-01-01

78

Analysis of Heavy-Water-Moderated, Cluster-Type Fuel Lattices by Cluster Physics Code ‘MESSIAH’  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comprehensive analysis performed by a new cluster analysis code ‘MESSIAH’ on reactor physics constants measured in the critical facility for a pressure-tube-type, heavy-water-moderated reactor. The MESSIAH code system utilizes the method of the collision probability to solve the neutron transport equation. The effective space dependent cross sections are calculated in the thermal and resonance energy range

Hiroyuki KADOTANI; Yuuki HACHIYA

1982-01-01

79

A 200 W diode-side-pumped CW 2 ?m Tm:YAG laser with water cooling at 8°C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A water-cooled 785 nm diode-side-pumped high-power CW Tm:YAG laser system at 2 ?m is reported. 200 W output power is achieved with cooling water running at 8°C. As far as we know, this is the highest output power for a diode-pumped all solid-state 2 ?m Tm:YAG laser. The output corresponds to optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 11.2%, with a slope efficiency of about 22.8%. To make the system structure simple, only deionized water is used as the coolant instead of alcohol- or glycol-water mixture or the liquid nitrogen in the reported high-power Tm rod laser experiments, which were performed at low temperature near the freezing point of water, or even below.

Cao, D.; Peng, Q.; Du, S.; Xu, J.; Guo, Y.; Yang, J.; Bo, Y.; Zhang, J.; Cui, D.; Xu, Z.

2011-04-01

80

A 200 W diode-side-pumped CW 2 ?m Tm:YAG laser with water cooling at 8°C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A water-cooled 785 nm diode-side-pumped high-power CW Tm:YAG laser system at 2 ?m is reported. 200 W output power is achieved with cooling water running at 8°C. As far as we know, this is the highest output power for a diode-pumped all solid-state 2 ?m Tm:YAG laser. The output corresponds to optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 11.2%, with a slope efficiency of about 22.8%. To make the system structure simple, only deionized water is used as the coolant instead of alcohol- or glycol-water mixture or the liquid nitrogen in the reported high-power Tm rod laser experiments, which were performed at low temperature near the freezing point of water, or even below.

Cao, D.; Peng, Q.; Du, S.; Xu, J.; Guo, Y.; Yang, J.; Bo, Y.; Zhang, J.; Cui, D.; Xu, Z.

2010-11-01

81

A Study on Heat Transfer Characteristics of Water Cooled LO2/LH2 Rocket Combustor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The amount of enthalpy increase of coolant in regeneratively cooled engines was investigated. A water cooled calorimetric combustor was used to determine the local heat flux distribution along the axis and the boiling characteristics of cooling water unde...

M. Niino A. Kumakawa N. Yatuyanagi H. Gomi A. Suzuki

1982-01-01

82

Fluidized bed heat exchanger with water cooled air distributor and dust hopper  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fluidized bed heat exchanger is provided in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel. A steam-water natural circulation system is provided for heat exchange and the housing of the heat exchanger has a water-wall type construction. Vertical in-bed heat exchange tubes are provided and the air distributor is water-cooled. A water-cooled dust hopper is

W. W. Jukkola; A. M. Leon; G. C. Jr. Van Dyk; D. E. McCoy; B. L. Fisher; T. L. Saiers; M. E. Karstetter

1981-01-01

83

The Supercritical Water Cooled Reactor: Ongoing Research and Development in the U.S  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical water-cooled reactors (SCWRs) are among the most promising advanced nuclear systems because of their high thermal efficiency and considerable plant simplification. SCWRs are basically LWRs operating at higher pressure and temperatures with a direct once-through cycle. Operation above the critical pressure eliminates coolant boiling, so the coolant remains single-phase throughout the nuclear island. The need for recirculation and jet pumps, pressurizer, steam generators, steam separators and dryers is eliminated. The main mission of the SCWR is generation of low-cost electricity. SCWRs build upon two proven technologies, LWRs, which are the most commonly deployed power generating reactors in the world, and supercritical coal-fired boilers, a great many of which are also in use around the world. The SCWR concept is being investigated by 32 organizations in 13 countries and is one of only six reactor technologies selected for further development under the Generation-IV program. This paper outlines the main SCWR characteristics, its technical challenges and related research activities in the U.S. (author)

Buongiorno, Jacopo [U.S. SCWR System Integration Manager, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

2004-07-01

84

Advanced water-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell development. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This program was conducted to improve the performance and minimize the cost of existing water-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell stacks for electric utility and on-site applications. The goals for the electric utility stack technology were a power density of at least 175 watts per square foot over a 40,000-hour useful life and a projected one-of-a-kind, full-scale manufactured cost of less than $400 per kilowatt. The program adapted the existing on-site Configuration-B cell design to electric utility operating conditions and introduced additional new design features. Task 1 consisted of the conceptual design of a full-scale electric utility cell stack that meets program objectives. The conceptual design was updated to incorporate the results of material and process developments in Tasks 2 and 3, as well as results of stack tests conducted in Task 6. Tasks 2 and 3 developed the materials and processes required to fabricate the components that meet the program objectives. The design of the small area and 10-ft{sup 2} stacks was conducted in Task 4. Fabrication and assembly of the short stacks were conducted in Task 5 and subsequent tests were conducted in Task 6. The management and reporting functions of Task 7 provided DOE/METC with program visibility through required documentation and program reviews. This report describes the cell design and development effort that was conducted to demonstrate, by subscale stack test, the technical achievements made toward the above program objectives.

Not Available

1992-09-01

85

Calculations on Heavy-Water Moderated and Cooled Natural Uranium Fuelled Power Reactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the codes that the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico) has for the nuclear reactors design calculations is the LEOPARD code. This work studies the reliability of this code in reactors design calculations which component materia...

J. L. Pinedo V

1979-01-01

86

Water Cooled TJ Dense Array Modules for Parabolic Dishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

AZUR SPACE Solar Power GmbH has developed a novel type of dense array module for use in parabolic dishes. Such dishes never produce a perfectly homogeneous, rectangular light spot but an inhomogeneous light distribution. A regular module would use this light distribution very inefficiently. Therefore AZUR SPACE developed a dense array module concept which can be adapted to inhomogeneous light

Rüdiger Löckenhoff; Tim Kubera; Klaus Dieter Rasch

2010-01-01

87

A water-cooled mirror system for synchrotron radiation  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the design and performance of a directly-cooled soft x-ray mirror system which has been developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for synchrotron radiation beam lines in which mirror thermal distortion must be minimized for acceptable optical performance. Two similar mirror systems are being built: the first mirror has been installed and operated at the National Synchrotron Light Source on the X-17T mini-undulator beam line and will be moved to the permanent X-1 beam line when a new, more powerful undulator is installed there. The second system is being built for installation at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory on Beam Line VI, where the total absorbed power on the mirror may be as high as 2400 W with peak absorbed power density of 520 W/cm/sup 2/. Direct cooling by convection is achieved using internal water channels in a brazed, dispersion-strengthened copper and OFHC copper substrate with a polished electroless-nickel surface. A simple kinematic linkage and flexural pivot mounting provide for mirror positioning about two rotational axes that coincide with the optical surface. Surface figure metrology, optical configurations, and tolerancing are also discussed. 11 refs., 8 figs.

DiGennaro, R.; Gee, B.; Guigli, J.; Hogrefe, H.; Howells, M.; Rarback, H.

1987-06-01

88

Locating of leaks in water-cooled generator stator bars using perfluorocarbon tracers  

SciTech Connect

Water cooled stator bars in power plant generators often fail during the maintenance cycle due to water leakage. After the hydrogen pressure in the generator shell has been released water can leak through cracks in the copper and through the insulation. Leaking bars, but not the leaks themselves, are detected with so-called ``hi-pot`` (high potential) tests where direct electrical current is applied to the stator bar windings. A study initiated by ConEd and Brookhaven`s Tracer Technology Center to explore the cause of these leakage problems to determine if the failures originate in the manufacturing process or are created in service by phase related torque stresses. To this purpose bars that had failed the hi-pot test were investigated first with the insulation in place and then stripped to the bare copper. The bars were pressurized with gases containing perfluorocarbon tracers and the magnitude and location of the leaks was detected by using tracers technology principles and instruments such as the ``double source`` method and the Dual Trap Analyzer. In the second part of the project the windings within a generator were tested in-situ for leaks during an outage using tracer principles. Recommendations are given suggesting the shut down of stator bar cooling water before hydrogen bleeding during outages and a revision of the current vent flow rate. The new standard should establish a reasonable leak rate for the stator bar windings proper and exclude leakage of pump seals and connections. Testing during the maintenance cycle in generators should include routine tracer leak detection following the hi-pot test.

Loss, W.M.; Dietz, R.N.

1991-09-01

89

Locating of leaks in water-cooled generator stator bars using perfluorocarbon tracers  

SciTech Connect

Water cooled stator bars in power plant generators often fail during the maintenance cycle due to water leakage. After the hydrogen pressure in the generator shell has been released water can leak through cracks in the copper and through the insulation. Leaking bars, but not the leaks themselves, are detected with so-called hi-pot'' (high potential) tests where direct electrical current is applied to the stator bar windings. A study initiated by ConEd and Brookhaven's Tracer Technology Center to explore the cause of these leakage problems to determine if the failures originate in the manufacturing process or are created in service by phase related torque stresses. To this purpose bars that had failed the hi-pot test were investigated first with the insulation in place and then stripped to the bare copper. The bars were pressurized with gases containing perfluorocarbon tracers and the magnitude and location of the leaks was detected by using tracers technology principles and instruments such as the double source'' method and the Dual Trap Analyzer. In the second part of the project the windings within a generator were tested in-situ for leaks during an outage using tracer principles. Recommendations are given suggesting the shut down of stator bar cooling water before hydrogen bleeding during outages and a revision of the current vent flow rate. The new standard should establish a reasonable leak rate for the stator bar windings proper and exclude leakage of pump seals and connections. Testing during the maintenance cycle in generators should include routine tracer leak detection following the hi-pot test.

Loss, W.M.; Dietz, R.N.

1991-09-01

90

Summary of experimental data for critical arrays of water moderated Fast Test Reactor fuel  

SciTech Connect

A research program, funded by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), was initiated at Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to acquire experimental data on heterogeneous water moderated arrays of Fast Test Reactor (FTR) fuel pins. The objective of this program is to provide critical experiment data for validating calculational techniques used in criticality assessments of reprocessing equipment containing FTR-type fuels. Consequently, the experiments were designed to permit accurate definition in Monte Carlo computer codes currently used in these assessments. Square and triangular pitched lattices of fuel have been constructed under a variety of conditions covering the range from undermoderated to overmoderated arrays. Experiments were conducted composed of arrays which were water reflected, partially concrete reflected, and arrays with interspersed solid neutron absorbers. The absorbers utilized were Boral, and cadmium plates and gadolinium cylindrical rods. Data from non-CFRP sponsored subcritical experiments (previously performed at Hanford) also are included.

Durst, B.M.; Bierman, S.R.; Clayton, E.D.; Mincey, J.F.; Primm, R.T. III

1981-05-01

91

The use of water cooling during the continuous casting of steel and aluminum alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In both continuous casting of steel slabs and direct chill (DC) casting of aluminum alloy ingots, water is used to cool the mold in the initial stages of solidification, and then below the mold, where it is in direct contact with the newly solidified surface of the metal. Water cooling affects the product quality by (1) controlling the heat removal rate that creates and cools the solid shell and (2) generating thermal stresses and strains inside the solidified metal. This work reviews the current state-of-the-art in water cooling for both processes, and draws insights by comparing and contrasting the different practices used in each process. The heat extraction coefficient during secondary cooling depends greatly on the surface temperature of the ingot, as represented by boiling water-cooling curves. Thus, the heat extraction rate varies dramatically with time, as the slab/ingot surface temperature changes. Sudden fluctuations in the temperature gradients within the solidifying metal cause thermal stresses, which often lead to cracks, especially near the solidification front, where even small tensile stresses can form hot tears. Hence, a tight control of spray cooling for steel, and practices such as CO2 injection/pulse water cooling for aluminum, are now used to avoid sudden changes in the strand surface temperature. The goal in each process is to match the rate of heat removal at the surface with the internal supply of latent and sensible heat, in order to lower the metal surface temperature monotonically, until cooling is complete.

Sengupta, J.; Thomas, B. G.; Wells, M. A.

2005-01-01

92

Deposition of LTI Pyrolytic Carbon by a Nozzle Without Water Cooling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for pyrolytic carbon (PyC) coating has been developed, in which the inlet is prevented from clogging without employing a water-cooled gas injector. In the method, an appropriate temperature distribution is given around the inlet in order to dispe...

T. Ogawa K. Ikawa

1981-01-01

93

Supercritical-pressure, Once-through Cycle Light Water Cooled Reactor Concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study is to develop new reactor concepts for the innovation of light water reactors (LWR) and fast reactors. Concept of the once-through coolant cycle, supercritical-pressure light water cooled reactor was developed. Major aspects of reactor design and safety were analysed by the computer codes which were developed by ourselves. It includes core design of thermal and

Yoshiaki OKA; Seiichi KOSHIZUKA

2001-01-01

94

Investigation of Neutron Reaction Behavior in Water-cooled FBR with MOX Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water-cooled FBR with MOX fuel is under development using current LWR technologies and its design targets are to achieve a BR value, which is a ratio of a fissile plutonium content in a spent fuel to one in a fresh fuel, larger than 1.0 and to obtain a negative void reactivity. This study has been performed to clarify the

Koki HIBI; Hiroshi SEKIMOTO

2005-01-01

95

A Qualitative Assessment of Thorium-Based Fuels in Supercritical Pressure Water Cooled Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The requirements for the next generation of reactors include better economics and safety, waste minimization (particularly of the long-lived isotopes), and better proliferation resistance (both intrinsic and extrinsic). A supercritical pressure water cooled reactor has been chosen as one of the lead contenders as a Generation IV reactor due to the high thermal efficiency and compact\\/simplified plant design. In addition,

Kevan Dean Weaver; Philip Elsworth Mac Donald

2002-01-01

96

Mechanisms for extreme heat transfer conditions in water-cooling of fusion reactor components  

Microsoft Academic Search

In existing fusion reactors conceptual designs, water-cooled impurity control components employ operating heat fluxes up to 15 MW m?2, coolant velocities above 5 m?1, subcoolings more than 100 K, and pressures below 5 MPa. These conditions are quite different from those most used to obtain existing correlations for subcooled nucleate boiling and critical heat flux. In addition, some available data

B. M Lekakh; J. E Meyer; M. S Kazimi

1995-01-01

97

Safety analyses of water cooled components inside the JET thermonuclear fusion tokamak  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical model, supported by extensive experimental verification, has been used to examine the transient thermal behaviour of water cooled components, installed in the vessel of the world’s largest fusion tokamak (JET), under normal operational conditions and abnormal scenarios. Relevant freezing and boiling times for a full range of adverse scenarios were determined by the model, while protective actions were

P. A. Ageladarakis; A. Webster; N. P. O’Dowd; S. Papastergiou

1999-01-01

98

Numerical studies of nuclear traveling waves in a supercritical water cooled fast reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An axial fuel shuffling strategy is proposed based on the mechanism of the nuclear fission traveling wave and implemented numerically in the calculation for a supercritical water cooled fast reactor (SCWFR). The ERANOS code is adopted to perform the neutronics and burn-up calculations, and the calculation scheme for axial fuel shuffling and coolant density coupling are set up. The parametric

Dalin Zhang; Xue-Nong Chen; Fabrizio Gabrielli; Andrei Rineiski; Werner Maschek; Thomas Schulenberg

2011-01-01

99

ENHANCEMENT OF COOLANT SIDE HEAT TRANSFER IN WATER COOLED ENGINES BY USING FINNED CYLINDER HEADS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation has been carried out for almost the first time to examine the heat transfer by forced convection and subcooled boiling from a finned water-cooled engine cylinder head using steady state technique. Cast iron and cast steel specimens with and without fins have been used in the present work. The effects of flow velocity, coolant bulk temperature, fin

Mohamed Y. E. Selim; A. H. B. Helali

100

Computer code for the analyses of reactivity initiated accident of heavy water moderated and cooled research reactor 'EUREKA-2D'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Codes, such as EUREKA and EUREKA-2 have been developed to analyze the reactivity initiated accident for light water reactor. These codes could not be applied directly for the analyses of heavy water moderated and cooled research reactor which are differen...

I. Kosuge N. Ohnishi M. Iriko

1989-01-01

101

Solidification of aluminium alloys under ultrasonic irradiation using water-cooled resonator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation attempts to evaluate the effect of ultrasonic treatment using water-cooled resonator on the microstructure and properties of different commercial Al-based alloys. The effect of ultrasonic treatment on the as-cast alloy microstructure can be summarized as follows: reduction of mean grain size, variation of phase distribution and better material homogeneity and segregation control. Ultrasonically treated samples have elongation

V Abramov; O Abramov; V Bulgakov; F Sommer

1998-01-01

102

Water-cooled pyrolytic graphite targets at LAMPF: design and operation  

SciTech Connect

Design considerations and actual operating experience are reported for water-cooled pyrolytic graphite targets at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). Emphasis is placed on the use of finite element computer calculations to determine target temperatures and stresses, which can then be evaluated to judge the usefulness of a particular design. Consideration is also given to the swelling of the target following irradiation, and to the measures taken to prolong target lifetime.

Brown, R.D.; Grisham, D.L.

1981-01-01

103

Deposit suppression in the core of water-cooled nuclear reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In pressurized water-cooled nuclear reactors, the formation of deposits on surfaces in the core of the reactor, e.g. on fuel sheaths, is suppressed by maintaining in the circulating pressurized water, a high concentration of ammonia ranging from about 120 to about 200 mg Nhâ\\/kg water. Crevice corrosion of the fuel sheaths is avoided, even under localized boiling conditions, since the

Burrill

1982-01-01

104

Thermal Aspects of Using Alternative Nuclear Fuels in Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A SuperCritical Water-cooled Nuclear Reactor (SCWR) is a Generation IV concept currently being developed worldwide. Unique to this reactor type is the use of light-water coolant above its critical point. The current research presents a thermal-hydraulic analysis of a single fuel channel within a Pressure Tube (PT)-type SCWR with a single-reheat cycle. Since this reactor is in its early design

Lisa Christine Grande

2010-01-01

105

Development of a LOCA analysis code for the supercritical-pressure light water cooled reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supercritical-pressure light water cooled reactors aim at cost reduction by system simplification and higher thermal efficiency, and have flexibility for the fuel cycle due to technical feasibility for various neutron spectrum reactors. Since loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) behavior at supercritical pressure conditions cannot be analyzed with the existing codes for the current light water reactors, a LOCA analysis code for

Jong Ho Lee; Seiichi Koshizuka; Yoshiaki Oka

1998-01-01

106

Safety system consideration of a supercritical-water cooled fast reactor with simplified PSA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The probabilistic safety of the supercritical-water cooled fast reactor (SCFR) is evaluated with the simplified probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methodology. SCFR has a once-through direct cycle where all feedwater flows through the core to the turbine at supercritical pressure. There are no recirculation loops in the once-through direct cycle system, which is the most important difference from the current light

J. H Lee; Y Oka; S Koshizuka

1999-01-01

107

Development and selection of heat-resistant tool steels for water-cooled dies  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Alloying and heat treatment of tool steels for water-cooled dies to improve the service life in high-speed automatic presses must ensure: 1) The lowest but still sufficient level of hardening during precipitation hardening; 2) the smallest amount of carbide not dissolved during quenching; 3) prevention of the decomposition of martensite in grain boundaries during tempering; 4) a structure of lath

L. S. Kremney; A. Ya. Zabezhinskii

1980-01-01

108

Safety implications of an integrated boiling curve model for water-cooled divertor channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The international fusion community is actively researching advanced heat transfer methods for removal of high thermal loads from next-generation divertor assemblies. Such advanced techniques may indeed optimize the operational and economical performance of future divertor designs. However, with its extensive operational database, water-cooling remains as one of the optimum choices for near-term divertor designs. Critical heat flux (CHF) is the

T Marshall

2002-01-01

109

Thermal and hydraulic accommodation of water cooled payloads in the Columbus APM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Attached Pressure Module (APM) is the European orbiting laboratory which willbe permanently attached to the International Space Station Freedom (SSF). It is designed to provide a range of laboratory facilities in a microgravity environment for payload experimaents originating from the international payload-user community. The APM design provides a water cooling capability by means of moderate temperature (MT) and low temperature (LT) pumped fluid loops. The cooling loops serve both the APM essential subsystem equipment as well as the payload users. This paper describes the architecture of the APM water cooling loops and the water cooling capability offered to payload users. Thermal and hydraulic requirements applicable to the payloads are identified. A number of rack internal cooling options are examined. These options ensure the necessary heat removal while avioding any possible failure propagation or contamination of the subsystem loops. The resulting constraints and limitations on the payload design needed to ensure compatibility of the payload with the fluid loops and their operational conditions are identified.

Trichilo, Michele; Prever, Elena Brach; Dodd, Charles

110

Water cooling system for an air-breathing hypersonic test vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study provides concepts for hypersonic experimental scramjet test vehicles which have low cost and low risk. Cryogenic hydrogen is used as the fuel and coolant. Secondary water cooling systems were designed. Three concepts are shown: an all hydrogen cooling system, a secondary open loop water cooled system, and a secondary closed loop water cooled system. The open loop concept uses high pressure helium (15,000 psi) to drive water through the cooling system while maintaining the pressure in the water tank. The water flows through the turbine side of the turbopump to pump hydrogen fuel. The water is then allowed to vent. In the closed loop concept high pressure, room temperature, compressed liquid water is circulated. In flight water pressure is limited to 6000 psi by venting some of the water. Water is circulated through cooling channels via an ejector which uses high pressure gas to drive a water jet. The cooling systems are presented along with finite difference steady-state and transient analysis results. The results from this study indicate that water used as a secondary coolant can be designed to increase experimental test time, produce minimum venting of fluid and reduce overall development cost.

Petley, Dennis H.; Dziedzic, William M.

1993-06-01

111

Thermal-hydraulic performance of a water-cooled tungsten-rod target for a spallation neutron source  

SciTech Connect

A thermal-hydraulic (T-H) analysis is conducted to determine the feasibility and limitations of a water-cooled tungsten-rod target at powers of 1 MW and above. The target evaluated has a 10-cm x 10-cm cross section perpendicular to the beam axis, which is typical of an experimental spallation neutron source - both for a short-pulse spallation source and long-pulse spallation source. This report describes the T-H model and assumptions that are used to evaluate the target. A 1-MW baseline target is examined, and the results indicate that this target should easily handle the T-H requirements. The possibility of operating at powers >1 MW is also examined. The T-H design is limited by the condition that the coolant does not boil (actual limits are on surface subcooling and wall heat flux); material temperature limits are not approached. Three possible methods of enhancing the target power capability are presented: reducing peak power density, altering pin dimensions, and improving coolant conditions (pressure and temperature). Based on simple calculations, it appears that this target concept should have little trouble reaching the 2-MW range (from a purely T-H standpoint), and possibly much higher powers. However, one must keep in mind that these conclusions are based solely on thermal-hydraulics. It is possible, and perhaps likely, that target performance could be limited by structural issues at higher powers, particularly for a short-pulse spallation source because of thermal shock issues.

Poston, D.I.

1997-08-01

112

Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility tempered water and tempered water cooling system design description.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This system design description addresses tire tempered water (TTV) system and the tempered water cooling (TWC) system. The discussion that follows will be limited to these systems. The system design description, when used in conjunction with the other ele...

J. J. Irwin

1998-01-01

113

Comparison of the Heat Transfer Capabilities of Two Manufacturing Methods for High Heat Flux Water-Cooled Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental program was undertaken to compare the heat transfer characteristics of water-cooled copper devices manufactured via conventional drilled passage construction and via a technique whereby molten copper is cast over a network of preformed coo...

R. H. McKoon

1986-01-01

114

Determination of the modified conversion ratio of light-water-moderated uranium-plutonium mixed-oxide-fuel lattice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modified conversion ratio (MCR) (the ratio of the ²³⁸U capture rate to the total fission rate) in a light-water-moderated uranium-plutonium mixed-oxide (MOX-) fuel lattice was measured for four types of lattices with different plutonium enrichment. In the current method, the relative reaction rates of ²³⁸U capture and total fission were obtained from nondestructive gamma-ray spectrometry of ²³⁹Np and fission

K. Nakajima; Masanori Akai; Takenori Suzaki

1995-01-01

115

Modifications to MELCOR for the analysis of heavy-water moderated, U-A1 fuel reactors  

SciTech Connect

The MELCOR computer code is being used as the point of departure to develop an integrated severe accident analysis computer code for the heavy-water moderated U-Al fuel reactors. The resulting computer code (MELCOR/SR) provides a practical and comprehensive analytical tool for evaluating severe accident behavior in the Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactors. The technical scope of this development effort is summarized in this paper. Other companion papers are cited that provide additional details regarding particular models.

Church, J.P. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (USA)); Leonard, M.T.; Williams, K.A. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-01-01

116

Soy-Based, Water-Cooled, TC W-III Two Cycle Engine Oil  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to achieve technical approval and commercial launch for a biodegradable soy oil-based, environmentally safe, TC W-III performance, water-cooled, two cycle engine oil. To do so would: (1) develop a new use for RBD soybean oil; (2) increase soybean utilization in North America in the range of 500 K-3.0 MM bushels; and (3) open up supply opportunities of 1.5-5.0 MM bushels worldwide. These goals have been successfully obtained.

Scharf, Curtis R.; Miller, Mark E.

2003-08-30

117

RELAP5-3D Code for Supercritical-Pressure Light-Water-Cooled Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The RELAP5-3D computer program has been improved for analysis of supercritical-pressure, light-water-cooled reactors. Several code modifications were implemented to correct code execution failures. Changes were made to the steam table generation, steam table interpolation, metastable states, interfacial heat transfer coefficients, and transport properties (viscosity and thermal conductivity). The code modifications now allow the code to run slow transients above the critical pressure as well as blowdown transients (modified Edwards pipe and modified existing pressurized water reactor model) that pass near the critical point.

Riemke, Richard Allan; Davis, Cliff Bybee; Schultz, Richard Raphael

2003-04-01

118

Fuel Breeding and Core Behavior Analyses on In Core Fuel Management of Water Cooled Thorium Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Thorium fuel cycle with recycled U-233 has been widely recognized having some contributions to improve the water-cooled breeder reactor program which has been shown by a feasible area of breeding and negative void reactivity which confirms that fissile of 233U contributes to better fuel breeding and effective for obtaining negative void reactivity coefficient as the main fissile material. The present study has the objective to estimate the effect of whole core configuration as well as burnup effects to the reactor core profile by adopting two dimensional model of fuel core management. About more than 40 months of cycle period has been employed for one cycle fuel irradiation of three batches fuel system for large water cooled thorium reactors. All position of fuel arrangement contributes to the total core conversion ratio which gives conversion ratio less than unity of at the BOC and it contributes to higher than unity (1.01) at the EOC after some irradiation process. Inner part and central part give the important part of breeding contribution with increasing burnup process, while criticality is reduced with increasing the irradiation time. Feasibility of breeding capability of water-cooled thorium reactors for whole core fuel arrangement has confirmed from the obtained conversion ratio which shows higher than unity. Whole core analysis on evaluating reactivity change which is caused by the change of voided condition has been employed for conservative assumption that 100% coolant and moderator are voided. It obtained always a negative void reactivity coefficient during reactor operation which shows relatively more negative void coefficient at BOC (fresh fuel composition), and it becomes less negative void coefficient with increasing the operation time. Negative value of void reactivity coefficient shows the reactor has good safety properties in relation to the reactivity profile which is the main parameter in term of criticality safety analysis. Therefore, this evaluation has confirmed that breeding condition and negative coefficient can be obtained simultaneously for water-cooled thorium reactor obtains based on the whole core fuel arrangement.

Permana, Sidik [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-N1-17, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Department of Physics, Bandung Institute of Technology, Gedung Fisika, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Sekimoto, Hiroshi [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-N1-17, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Waris, Abdul; Subhki, Muhamad Nurul [Department of Physics, Bandung Institute of Technology, Gedung Fisika, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Ismail, [BAPETEN (Indonesia)

2010-12-23

119

Preparation of semi-solid aluminum alloy slurry poured through a water-cooled serpentine channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A water-cooled serpentine channel pouring process was invented to produce semi-solid A356 aluminum alloy slurry for rheocasting, and the effects of pouring temperature and circulating cooling water flux on the microstructure of the slurry were investigated. The results show that at the pouring temperature of 640-680°C and the circulating cooling water flux of 0.9 m3/h, the semi-solid A356 aluminum alloy slurry with spherical primary ?(Al) grains can be obtained, whose shape factors are between 0.78 and 0.86 and the grain diameter can reach 48-68 ?m. When the pouring temperatures are at 660-680°C, only a very thin solidified shell remains inside the serpentine channel and can be removed easily. When the serpentine channel is cooled with circulating water, the microstructure of the semi-solid slurry can be improved, and the serpentine channel is quickly cooled to room temperature after the completion of one pouring. In terms of the productivity of the special equipment, the water-cooled serpentine channel is economical and efficient.

Chen, Zheng-Zhou; Mao, Wei-Min; Wu, Zong-Chuang

2012-01-01

120

The cast structure of a 7075 alloy produced by a water-cooling centrifugal casting method  

SciTech Connect

A water-cooling centrifugal casting method was applied to cast the 7075 Al alloy to generate a much finer cast structure than that produced by conventional ingot casting methods. The effects of casting parameters, i.e., rotation speed, pouring temperature, water flow, and grain refiner, on casting structure were systematically studied so that the optimum casting condition and the solidification mechanism could be established. The typical cast structure along the thickness direction of a cast ring could be divided into four equiaxed zones, including the chill zone which is in contact with the mold wall. All zones have their characteristic grain size, morphology, and relative thickness, which are all dependent on the casting condition. The optimum casting condition yielding the finest structure available was found to be 3,000 rpm, 650 C, and sufficient water cooling. A uniform portion occupying 90 pct of the whole thickness and having a grain size of 17 [mu]m could be achieved under such a casting condition. When a grain refiner was added, the whole ring became further concentrated with grains of fine structure. A mechanism concerning the overall effects of rapid solidification, turbulent flow, and centrifugal force has been proposed for the present casting method and might explain the zone-structure formation and the effects of the casting parameters on microstructural features.

Yeh, J.W. (National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Jong, S.H.

1994-03-01

121

Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electric Power Production  

SciTech Connect

The supercritical water reactor (SCWR) has been the object of interest throughout the nuclear Generation IV community because of its high potential: a simple, direct cycle, compact configuration; elimination of many traditional LWR components, operation at coolant temperatures much higher than traditional LWRs and thus high thermal efficiency. It could be said that the SWR was viewed as the water counterpart to the high temperature gas reactor.

Philip MacDonald; Jacopo Buongiorno; James Sterbentz; Cliff Davis; Robert Witt; Gary Was; J. McKinley; S. Teysseyre; Luca Oriani; Vefa Kucukboyaci; Lawrence Conway; N. Jonsson: Bin Liu

2005-02-13

122

Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electric Power Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supercritical water reactor (SCWR) has been the object of interest throughout the nuclear Generation IV community because of its high potential: a simple, direct cycle, compact configuration; elimination of many traditional LWR components, operation at coolant temperatures much higher than traditional LWRs and thus high thermal efficiency. It could be said that the SWR was viewed as the water

Philip MacDonald; Jacopo Buongiorno; James Sterbentz; Cliff Davis; Robert Witt; J. McKinley; S. Teysseyre; Luca Oriani; Vefa Kucukboyaci; Lawrence Conway; N. Jonsson; Bin Liu

2005-01-01

123

Improvement in understanding of natural circulation phenomena in water cooled nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IAEA has organized a coordinated research project (CRP) on “Natural Circulation Phenomena, Modelling, and Reliability of Passive Systems That Utilize Natural Circulation.” Specific objectives of CRP were to (i) establish the status of knowledge: reactor start-up and operation, passive system initiation and operation, flow stability, 3-D effects, and scaling laws, (ii) investigate phenomena influencing reliability of passive natural circulation

Jong-Ho Choi; John Cleveland; Nusret Aksan

2011-01-01

124

Elliptic Phantom Measurements and Calculations of Neutron Spectra and Dose Distributions for exp 252 Cf and Heavy-Water-Moderated exp 252 Cf Sources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Calculations and measurements for the dose distribution in a water-filled elliptical phantom when irradiated with neutrons of bare and heavy-water moderated Californium neutron sources are presented. The calculations were performed by a Monte-Carlo code, ...

J. Palfalvi

1983-01-01

125

Sensitivity Analysis of Fuel Centerline Temperatures in SuperCritical Water-cooled Reactors (SCWRs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SuperCritical Water-cooled Reactors (SCWRs) are one of the six nuclear-reactor concepts currently being developed under the Generation-IV International Forum (GIF). A main advantage of SCW Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) is that they offer higher thermal efficiencies compared to those of current conventional NPPs. Unlike today's conventional NPPs, which have thermal efficiencies between 30 - 35%, SCW NPPs will have thermal efficiencies within a range of 45 - 50%, owing to high operating temperatures and pressures (i.e., coolant temperatures as high as 625°C at 25 MPa pressure). The use of current fuel bundles with UO2 fuel at the high operating parameters of SCWRs may cause high fuel centerline temperatures, which could lead to fuel failure and fission gas release. Studies have shown that when the Variant-20 (43-element) fuel bundle was examined at SCW conditions, the fuel centerline temperature industry limit of 1850°C for UO2 and the sheath temperature design limit of 850°C might be exceeded. Therefore, new fuel-bundle designs, which comply with the design requirements, are required for future use in SCWRs. The main objective of this study to conduct a sensitivity analysis in order to identify the main factors that leads to fuel centerline temperature reduction. Therefore, a 54-element fuel bundle with smaller diameter of fuel elements compared to that of the 43-element bundle was designed and various nuclear fuels are examined for future use in a generic Pressure Tube (PT) SCWR. The 54-element bundle consists of 53 heated fuel elements with an outer diameter of 9.5 mm and one central unheated element of 20-mm outer diameter which contains burnable poison. The 54-element fuel bundle has an outer diameter of 103.45 mm, which is the same as the outer diameter of the 43-element fuel bundle. After developing the 54-element fuel bundle, one-dimensional heat-transfer analysis was conducted using MATLAB and NIST REFPROP programs. As a result, the Heat Transfer Coefficient (HTC), bulk-fluid, sheath and fuel centerline temperature profiles were generated along the heated length of 5.772 m for a generic fuel channel. The fuel centerline and sheath temperature profiles have been determined at four Axial Heat Flux Profiles (AHFPs) using an average thermal power per channel of 8.5 MWth. The four examined AHFPs are the uniform, cosine, upstream-skewed and downstream-skewed profiles. Additionally, this study focuses on investigating a possibility of using low, enhanced and high thermal-conductivity fuels. The low thermal-conductivity fuels, which have been examined in this study, are uranium dioxide (UO 2), Mixed Oxide (MOX) and Thoria (ThO2) fuels. The examined enhanced thermal-conductivity fuels are uranium dioxide - silicon carbide (UO2 - SiC) and uranium dioxide - beryllium oxide (UO2 - BeO). Lastly, uranium carbide (UC), uranium dicarbide (UC2) and uranium nitride (UN) are the selected high thermal-conductivity fuels, which have been proposed for use in SCWRs. A comparison has been made between the low, enhanced and high thermal-conductivity fuels in order to identify the fuel centerline temperature behaviour when different nuclear fuels are used. Also, in the process of conducting the sensitivity analysis, the HTC was calculated using the Mokry et al. correlation, which is the most accurate supercritical water heat-transfer correlation so far. The sheath and the fuel centerline temperature profiles were determined for two cases. In Case 1, the HTC was calculated based on the Mokry et al. correlation, while in Case 2, the HTC values calculated for Case 1 were multiplied by a factor of 2. This factor was used in order to identify the amount of decrease in temperatures if the heat transfer is enhanced with appendages. Results of this analysis indicate that the use of the newly developed 54-element fuel bundle along with the proposed fuels is promising when compared with the Variant-20 (43-element) fuel bundle. Overall, the fuel centerline and sheath temperatures were below the industry and design limits when most of the proposed fu

Abdalla, Ayman

126

A water-cooled x-ray monochromator for using off-axis undulator beam.  

SciTech Connect

Undulator beamlines at third-generation synchrotrons x-ray sources are designed to use the high-brilliance radiation that is contained in the central cone of the generated x-ray beams. The rest of the x-ray beam is often unused. Moreover, in some cases, such as in the zone-plate-based microfocusing beamlines, only a small part of the central radiation cone around the optical axis is used. In this paper, a side-station branch line at the Advanced Photon Source that takes advantage of some of the unused off-axis photons in a microfocusing x-ray beamline is described. Detailed information on the design and analysis of a high-heat-load water-cooled monochromator developed for this beamline is provided.

Khounsary, A.; Maser, J.

2000-12-11

127

Design and analysis of the DII-D radiative divertor water-cooled structures  

SciTech Connect

The Radiative Divertor is a major modification to the divertor of DIII-D and is being designed and fabricated for installation in late 1996. The Radiative Divertor Program (RDP) will enhance the dissipative processes in the edge and divertor plasmas to reduce the heat flux and plasma erosion at the divertor target. This approach will have major implications for the heat removal methods used in future devices. The divertor is of slot-type configuration designed to minimize the flow of sputtered and injected impurities back to the core plasma. The new divertor will be composed of toroidally continuous, Inconel 625 water-cooled rings of sandwich construction with an internal water channel, incorporating seam welding to provide the water-to-vacuum seal as well as structural integrity. The divertor structure is designed to withstand electromagnetic loads as a result of halo currents and induced toroidal currents. It also accommodates the thermal differences experienced during the 400 {degrees}C bake used on DIII-D. A low Z plasma-facing surface is provided by mechanically attached graphite tiles. Water flow through the rings will inertially cool these tiles which will be subjected to 38 MW, 10 second pulses. Current schedules call for detailed design in 1996 with installation completed in March 1997. A full size prototype, one-quarter of one ring, is being built to validate manufacturing techniques, machining, roll-forming, and seam welding. The experience and knowledge gained through the fabrication of the prototype is discussed. The design of the electrically isolated (5 kV) vacuum-to-air water feedthroughs supplying the water-cooled rings is also discussed.

Hollerbach, M.A.; Smith, J.P.; Baxi, C.B.; Bozek; Chin, E.; Phelps, R.D.; Redler, K.M.; Reis, E.E.

1995-10-01

128

Analytical study of a microfludic DNA amplification chip using water cooling effect.  

PubMed

A novel continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chip has been analyzed in our work. Two temperature zones are controlled by two external controllers and the other temperature zone at the chip center is controlled by the flow rate of the fluid inside a channel under the glass chip. By employing a water cooling channel at the chip center, the sequence of denaturation, annealing, and extension can be created due to the forced convection effect. The required annealing temperature of PCR less than 313 K can also be demonstrated in this chip. The Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) cooling channel with the thin aluminum cover is utilized to enhance the temperature uniformity. The size of this chip is 76 mm × 26 mm × 3 mm. This device represents the first demonstration of water cooling thermocycling within continuous-flow PCR microfluidics. The commercial software CFD-ACE+(TM) is utilized to determine the distances between the heating assemblies within the chip. We investigate the influences of various chip materials, operational parameters of the cooling channel and geometric parameters of the chip on the temperature uniformity on the chip surface. Concerning the temperature uniformity of the working zones and the lowest temperature at the annealing zone, the air gap spacing of 1 mm and the cooling channel thicknesses of 1 mm of the PMMA channel with an aluminum cover are recommended in our design. The hydrophobic surface of the PDMS channel was modified by filling it with 20 % Tween 20 solution and then adding bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution to the PCR mixture. DNA fragments with different lengths (372 bp and 478 bp) are successfully amplified with the device. PMID:23179465

Chen, Jyh Jian; Shen, Chia Ming; Ko, Yu Wei

2013-04-01

129

Design and construction of a c-w Nd:YAG laser using a single elliptical cavity and water-cooled krypton-arc-lamp pumping. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

A continuous-wave neodymium:YAG laser was designed and constructed using a water-cooled krypton arc lamp as the pump source in a single elliptical cavity. Operational testing of the system could not be done due to technical problems with running the arc, but fluorescence measurements on the cavity were made using a tungsten filament lamp. The results were compared with those of previous projects which employed circular cylindrical cavities. The elliptical cavity did not have the highly reflective gold coating present on the other cavities, and was not designed for the tungsten lamp. Despite this, the elliptic cavity's fluorescence output was greater than that recorded for the multi-lamp configurations at the same time input power levels. A detailed description of the design process used and sufficient information to implement recommendations and improve the overall system are given this thesis.

Burkett, B.T.

1984-12-01

130

Cooling performance of a water-cooling panel system for modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments on a water cooling panel system were performed to investigate its heat removal performance and the temperature distribution of components for a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR). The analytical code THANPACST2 was applied to analyze the experimental results to verify the validity of the analytical method and the model.

Shoji Takada; Kunihiko Suzuki; Yoshiyuki Inagaki; Yukio Sudo

1995-01-01

131

Solar energy as an alternate energy source to mixed oxide fuels in light-water cooled reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supplemental information pertaining to the generic environmental impact statement on the Pu recycling process for mixed oxide light-water cooled reactors (GESMO) was requested from several sources. In particular, the role of alternate sources of energy was to be explored and the implications of these alternate sources to the question of Pu recycle in LWRs were to be investigated. In this

Bertini

1977-01-01

132

A comparison of the heat transfer capabilities of two manufacturing methods for high heat flux water-cooled devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental program was undertaken to compare the heat transfer characteristics of water-cooled copper devices manufactured via conventional drilled passage construction and via a technique whereby molten copper is cast over a network of preformed cooling tubes. Two similar test blocks were constructed; one using the drilled passage technique, the other via casting copper over Monel pipe. Each test block

McKoon

1986-01-01

133

Design and Dynamic Performance of a Small Water Cooled Reactor Fuelled with Plutonium in Rock-Like Oxide (ROX) Form  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a design study for a small water-cooled reactor with plutonium fuel in a rock like oxide (ROX) form are reported. A summary is given of the five study areas, Physics, Thermal Hydraulics, Materials, Navalisation and Dynamics, and Shielding and Decommissioning. The dynamics simulation for the whole plant is then described in more detail. The physics of the

M. Gaultier; G. Danguy; D. Ritchie; A. Williams; A. Thompson; J. Brushwood; P. A. Beeley; L. Greenlees; A. Perry

2006-01-01

134

ON THE POSSIBILITY OF USING ALUMINUM ALLOY WATER COOLED CYLINDER HEAD IN I. C. ENGINES BY USING FINNED SURFACES  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation has been carried out to examine the heat transfer by convection and incipient boiling from an aluminum alloy water cooled engine cylinder head using steady state technique. A flat and finned aluminum alloy specimens have been used in the present work. The operating parameters studied included the effect of flow velocity, coolant bulk temperature, and fin length.

S. M. S. Elfeky; M. Y. E. Selim

135

Effects of Water Radiolysis in Water Cooled Reactors, NERI Proposal No.99-0010  

SciTech Connect

OAK B188 Effects of Water Radiolysis in Water Cooled Reactors, NERI Proposal No.99-0010. The aim of this project is to develop an experiment-and-theory based model for the radiolysis of nonstandard aqueous systems like those that will be encountered in the Advance Light Water reactor. Three aspects of the radiation chemistry of aqueous systems at elevated temperatures are considered in the project: the radiation-induced reaction within the primary track and with additives, the homogeneous production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at high radiation doses, and the heterogeneous reaction of the radiation-induced species escaping the track. The goals outlined for Phase 1 of the program were: the compilation of information on the radiation chemistry of water at elevated temperatures, the simulation of existing experimental data on the escape yields of e{sub aq}{sup -}, OH, H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in {gamma} radiolysis at elevated temperatures, the measurement of low LET and high LET production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at room temperature, the compilation of information on the radiation chemistry of water-(metal) oxide interfaces, and the synthesis and characterization the heterogeneous water-oxide systems of interest.

Pimblott, S.M.

2000-08-14

136

Improvement in Stability of SPring-8 Standard X-Ray Monochromators with Water-Cooled Crystals  

SciTech Connect

SPring-8 standard double-crystal monochromators containing water-cooled crystals were stabilized to a sufficient level to function as a part of optics components to supply stable microfocused x-ray beams, by determining causes of the instability and then removing them. The instability was caused by two factors--thermal deformation of fine stepper stages in the monochromator, which resulted in reduction in beam intensity with time, and vibrations of coolant supply units and vacuum pumps, which resulted in fluctuation in beam intensity. We remodeled the crystal holders to maintain the stage temperatures constant with water, attached x-ray and electron shields to the stages in order to prevent their warming up, introduced accumulators in the water circuits to absorb pressure pulsation, used polyurethane tubes to stabilize water flow, and placed rubber cushions under scroll vacuum pumps. As a result, the intensity reduction rate of the beam decreased from 26% to 1% per hour and the intensity fluctuation from 13% to 1%. The monochromators were also modified to prevent radiation damage to the crystals, materials used as a water seal, and motor cables.

Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Nobtaka; Kumasaka, Takashi; Koganezawa, Tomoyuki; Sato, Masugu; Hirosawa, Ichiro; Senba, Yasunori; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Goto, Shunji [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Miura, Takanori; Tanaka, Masayuki; Kishimoto, Hikaru; Matsuzaki, Yasuhisa [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); SPring-8 Service Co., Ltd., 2-23-1, Kouto, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1205 (Japan); Kawano, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Masaki; Ishikawa, Tetsuya [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

2010-06-23

137

Passive decay heat removal system for water-cooled nuclear reactors  

DOEpatents

This document describes passive decay-heat removal system for a water-cooled nuclear reactor which employs a closed heat transfer loop having heat-exchanging coils inside an open-topped, insulated evaporator located inside the reactor vessel, below its normal water level, in communication with a condenser located outside of containment and exposed to the atmosphere. The heat transfer loop is located such that the evaporator is in a position where, when the water level drops in the reactor, it will become exposed to steam. Vapor produced in the evaporator passes upward to the condenser above the normal water level. In operation, condensation in the condenser removes heat from the system, and the condensed liquid is returned to the evaporator. The system is disposed such that during normal reactor operations where the water level is at its usual position, very little heat will be removed from the system, but during emergency, low water level conditions, substantial amounts of decay heat will be removed.

Forseberg, C.W.

1990-12-31

138

Operating characteristics of transcritical CO2 heat pump for simultaneous water cooling and heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of water-side operating conditions (mass flow rates and inlet temperatures) of both evaporator and gas cooler on the experimental as well as simulated performances (cooling and heating capacities, system coefficient of performance (COP) and water outlet temperatures) of the transcritical CO2 heat pump for simultaneous water cooling and heating the are studied and revised. Study shows that both the water mass flow rate and inlet temperature have significant effect on the system performances. Test results show that the effect of evaporator water mass flow rate on the system performances and water outlet temperatures is more pronounced (COP increases by 0.6 for 1 kg/min) compared to that of gas cooler water mass flow rate (COP increases by 0.4 for 1 kg/min) and the effect of gas cooler water inlet temperature is more significant (COP decreases by 0.48 for given range) compared to that of evaporator water inlet temperature (COP increases by 0.43 for given range). Comparisons of experimental values with simulated results show the maximum deviation of 5% for cooling capacity, 10% for heating capacity and 16% for system COP.

Sarkar, Jahar; Bhattacharyya, Souvik

2011-11-01

139

Passive decay heat removal system for water-cooled nuclear reactors  

DOEpatents

This document describes passive decay-heat removal system for a water-cooled nuclear reactor which employs a closed heat transfer loop having heat-exchanging coils inside an open-topped, insulated evaporator located inside the reactor vessel, below its normal water level, in communication with a condenser located outside of containment and exposed to the atmosphere. The heat transfer loop is located such that the evaporator is in a position where, when the water level drops in the reactor, it will become exposed to steam. Vapor produced in the evaporator passes upward to the condenser above the normal water level. In operation, condensation in the condenser removes heat from the system, and the condensed liquid is returned to the evaporator. The system is disposed such that during normal reactor operations where the water level is at its usual position, very little heat will be removed from the system, but during emergency, low water level conditions, substantial amounts of decay heat will be removed.

Forseberg, C.W.

1990-01-01

140

Ion Source Specific Power Limitations Connected with Cooled Electrode Deformation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Considered are specific power limitations related to the deformation of water-cooled electrodes in the ion-optical system (IOS) of power ion sources for producing fast atoms and for injecting them into thermonuclear machines. Calculated was dependence of ...

N. N. Flerov

1979-01-01

141

Measurements of erbium laser-ablation efficiency in hard dental tissues under different water cooling conditions.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT. Laser triangulation measurements of Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser-ablated volumes in hard dental tissues are made, in order to verify the possible existence of a "hydrokinetic" effect that has been proposed as an alternative to the "subsurface water expansion" mechanism for hard-tissue laser ablation. No evidence of the hydrokinetic effect could be observed under a broad range of tested laser parameters and water cooling conditions. On the contrary, the application of water spray during laser exposure of hard dental material is observed to diminish the laser-ablation efficiency (AE) in comparison with laser exposure under the absence of water spray. Our findings are in agreement with the generally accepted principle of action for erbium laser ablation, which is based on fast subsurface expansion of laser-heated water trapped within the interstitial structure of hard dental tissues. Our measurements also show that the well-known phenomenon of ablation stalling, during a series of consecutive laser pulses, can primarily be attributed to the blocking of laser light by the loosely bound and recondensed desiccated minerals that collect on the tooth surface during and following laser ablation. In addition to the prevention of tooth bulk temperature buildup, a positive function of the water spray that is typically used with erbium dental lasers is to rehydrate these minerals, and thus sustaining the subsurface expansion ablation process. A negative side effect of using a continuous water spray is that the AE gets reduced due to the laser light being partially absorbed in the water-spray particles above the tooth and in the collected water pool on the tooth surface. Finally, no evidence of the influence of the water absorption shift on the hypothesized increase in the AE of the Er,Cr:YSGG wavelength is observed. PMID:24105399

Kuš?er, Lovro; Diaci, Janez

2013-10-01

142

Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility tempered water and tempered water cooling system design description  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Tempered Water (TW) and Tempered Water Cooling (TWC) System . The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-O02, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements,

1998-01-01

143

Hepatic resections using a water-cooled, high-density, monopolar device: A new technology for safer surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several techniques and devices have recently been developed in an effort to allow safer liver resections and avoid intraoperative\\u000a blood loss. The aim of this study was to analyze our initial experience with hepatic resections using a new water-cooled,\\u000a high-density, monopolar device—the Tissuelink Monopolar Floating Ball (Tissuelink Medical, Inc., Dover, NH)—in order to avoid\\u000a bleeding during hepatic surgery. We analyzed

Isidoro Di Carlo; Francesco Barbagallo; Adriana Toro; Maria Sofia; Tommaso Guastella; Ferdinando Latteri

2004-01-01

144

Hepatic resections using a water-cooled, high-density, monopolar device: a new technology for safer surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several techniques and devices have recently been developed in an effort to allow safer liver resections and avoid intraoperative blood loss. The aim of this study was to analyze our initial experience with hepatic resections using a new water-cooled, high-density, monopolar device—the Tissuelink Monopolar Floating Ball (Tissuelink Medical, Inc., Dover, NH)—in order to avoid bleeding during hepatic surgery. We analyzed

Isidoro Di Carlo; Francesco Barbagallo; Adriana Toro; Maria Sofia; Tommaso Guastella; Ferdinando Latteri

2004-01-01

145

HEMOSTATIC LAPAROSCOPIC PARTIAL NEPHRECTOMY ASSISTED BY A WATER-COOLED, HIGH-DENSITY, MONOPOLAR DEVICE WITHOUT RENAL VASCULAR CONTROL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To evaluate the feasibility of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy assisted by a water-cooled, high-density, monopolar device (TissueLink Floating Ball). Methods. Transperitoneal laparoscopic partial nephrectomy was performed without vascular control for four renal tumors in 3 patients. A flexible ultrasound probe was used to confirm tumor location and depth. Gerota's fascia was opened distant from the tumor site. Renal fat was

CHANDRU P. SUNDARAM; JAMIL REHMAN; RAMAKRISHNA VENKATESH; DAVID LEE; MAGED M. RAGEB; ADAM KIBEL; JAIME LANDMAN

146

53 kW water cooled solar cooling package for BDP distribution center, Phoenix, Arizona. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of the 53 kW water-cooled solar absorption unit installed at the rear of the BDP Arizona Distribution Center, Phoenix, Arizona, for use as the primary means of space comfort cooling. Thermal energy required to run the solar absorption unit is supplied by 133.8 m² of concentrating tracking trough-type Acurex collectors. Surplus solar energy is stored in

Biermann

1982-01-01

147

A Cu-Cr alloy with nano and microscale Cr particles produced in a water-cooled copper mold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microstructures have profound effects on the hardness and strength of Cu-Cr alloys. The microstructures of a Cu-Cr alloy cast\\u000a in a water-cooled copper mold were studied in the present work. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results show that there\\u000a are the copper matrix saturated with chromium, spherical precipitates of chromium separated from liquid phase during cooling\\u000a before the initiation of

Seyyed Mohammd Hossein Hejazi; Fatemeh Majidi; Gholam Hossein Akbari

2010-01-01

148

Design and Dynamic Performance of a Small Water Cooled Reactor Fuelled with Plutonium in Rock-Like Oxide (ROX) Form  

SciTech Connect

The results of a design study for a small water-cooled reactor with plutonium fuel in a rock like oxide (ROX) form are reported. A summary is given of the five study areas, Physics, Thermal Hydraulics, Materials, Navalisation and Dynamics, and Shielding and Decommissioning. The dynamics simulation for the whole plant is then described in more detail. The physics of the fuel module is studied using the WIMS suite of deterministic codes with selected computations checked with the Monte-Carlo code MONK. Whole core calculations are undertaken with the WIMS/SNAP code. Essential parameters are provided to the other study areas including reactivity feedback coefficients for the Dynamics. The Thermal Hydraulic design aims to remove the required maximum power using pumped flow and also to provide significant power removal using natural circulation. The major components of the primary circuit are sized and flow rates in pumped and natural circulation calculated by hand and by using the TRACPFQ code. This information is also used in the dynamics study. Further details of the Physics and Thermal hydraulics studies will be given at PHYSOR 2006. The materials study is being published elsewhere, but a brief description of the temperature and stress calculations for the fuel pellet performed with the ABACUS finite element code is given. Navalisation and dynamics of the plant are examined. The power requirements for the plant are estimated and a suitable electric propulsion system is proposed and sized. A whole plant model is built using the AcslXtreme computer package in which a block diagram of the system is constructed via a graphical interface and simulations of the system transients are produced. The block diagram for the whole system is described followed by the describing equations for the major blocks representing neutron kinetics, fuel element heat transfer, thermal hydraulics of the primary circuit and of the steam generators. Also included are describing equations for the flow rate in natural circulation and equations to represented major electrical components. A number of key transients are simulated including the warm up to self sustaining power, variations in vessel speed, the transition to natural circulation flow and a control rod ejection at full speed. The influence of the Pu ROX fuel on plant dynamics is discussed, particularly the need for movement of control rods during certain transients and SCRAM timing. Conclusions are drawn on the feasibility of the whole propulsion system. A study of shielding and decommissioning aspects of the plant is reported. A shield design is proposed and analysed using the MCBEND code. Annual dose calculations to key personnel are presented and discussed. Decommissioning of ROX fuel is examined by selecting nuclides of interest and calculating their evolution over long time periods using the ORIGEN code. Decay heat and shut down gamma dose rates are calculated and a disposal path for the fuel is proposed. (authors)

Gaultier, M.; Danguy, G. [Ecole des Applications Militaires de l'Energie Atomique, Cherbourg (France); Ritchie, D.; Williams, A.; Thompson, A.; Brushwood, J.; Beeley, P.A. [Nuclear Department, DCEME, Military Road, Gosport, PO12 3BY (United Kingdom); Greenlees, L.; Perry, A. [Rolls-Royce MP, Raynesway, Derby (United Kingdom)

2006-07-01

149

Analysis of Some Anticipated Transients Without Scram for a Pressurized Water Cooled Reactor (PWR) Using Coupling of the Containment Code CORAN to the System Model Code ALMOD.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) for a pressurized water cooled reactor, model KWU 1300 MWe, are studied using coupling of the containment code CORAN to the system model code ALMOD, under severe random conditions. This coupling has the obj...

F. A. T. Carvalho

1985-01-01

150

Neutronic performance of high-density LEU fuels in water-moderated and water-reflected research reactors  

SciTech Connect

At the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) meeting in September 1994, Durand reported that the maximum uranium loading attainable with U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuel is about 6.0 g U/cm{sup 3}. The French Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique (CEA) plan to perform irradiation tests with 5 plates at this loading. Compagnie pour L`Etude et La Realisation de Combustibles Atomiques (CERCA) has also fabricated a few uranium nitride (UN) plates with a uranium density in the fuel meat of 7.0 g/cm{sup 3} and found that UN is compatible with the aluminum matrix at temperatures below 500 C. High density dispersion fuels proposed for development include U-Zr(4 wt%)-Nb(2 wt%), U-Mo(5 wt%), and U-Mo(9 wt%). The purpose of this note is to examine the relative neutronic behavior of these high density fuels in a typical light water-reflected and water-moderated MTR-type research reactor. The results show that a dispersion of the U-Zr-Nb alloy has the most favorable neutronic properties and offers the potential for uranium densities greater than 8.0 g/cm{sup 3}. On the other hand, UN is the least reactive fuel because of the relatively large {sup 14}N(n,p) cross section. For a fixed value of k{sub eff}, the required {sup 235}U loading per fuel element is least for the U-Zr-Nb fuel and steadily increases for the U-Mo(5%), U-Mo(9%), and UN fuels. Because of volume fraction limitations, the UO{sub 2} dispersions are only useful for uranium densities below 5.0 g/cm{sup 3}. In this density range, however, UO{sub 2} is more reactive than U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}.

Bretscher, M.M.; Matos, J.E.

1996-09-01

151

A New HOM Water Cooled Absorber for the PEP-II B-factory Low Energy Ring  

SciTech Connect

At high currents and small bunch lengths beam line components in the PEP-II B-factory experience RF induced heating from higher order RF modes (HOMs) produced by scattered intense beam fields. A design for a passive HOM water cooled absorber for the PEP-II low energy ring is presented. This device is situated near HOM producing beamline components such as collimators and provide HOM damping for dipole and quadrupole modes without impacting beam impedance. We optimized the impedance characteristics of the device through the evaluation of absorber effectiveness for specific modes using scattering parameter and wakefield analysis. Operational results are presented and agree very well with the predicted effectiveness.

Weathersby, Stephen; Kosovsky, Michael; Kurita, Nadine; Novokhatski, Alexander; Seeman, John; /SLAC

2006-09-05

152

Optimization of water-cooled chiller system with load-based speed control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the energy performance of chiller and cooling tower systems integrated with variable condenser water flow and optimal speed control for tower fans and condenser water pumps. Thermodynamic-behaviour chiller and cooling tower models were developed to assess how different control methods of cooling towers and condenser water pumps influence the trade-off between the chiller power, pump power, fan

F. W. Yu; K. T. Chan

2008-01-01

153

ECONOMICS OF HEAVY WATER POWER REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three types of the heavy-water-moderated power reactor that are part of ; the Canadian development program for nuclear power are discussed. Competitive ; sources of power and the place for nuclear power in Canadian utility systems are ; suggested. The interest of other countries in heavywater power reactors is ; described. The advantages and disadvantages of heavy water as a

1962-01-01

154

The design and performance of a water cooling system for a prototype coupled cavity linear particle accelerator for the spallation neutron source  

SciTech Connect

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a facility being designed for scientific and industrial research and development. The SNS will generate and employ neutrons as a research tool in a variety of disciplines including biology, material science, superconductivity, chemistry, etc. The neutrons will be produced by bombarding a heavy metal target with a high-energy beam of protons, generated and accelerated with a linear particle accelerator, or linac. The low energy end of the linac consists of, in part, a multi-cell copper structure termed a coupled cavity linac (CCL). The CCL is responsible for accelerating the protons from an energy of 87 MeV, to 185 MeV. Acceleration of the charged protons is achieved by the use of large electrical field gradients established within specially designed contoured cavities of the CCL. While a large amount of the electrical energy is used to accelerate the protons, approximately 60-80% of this electrical energy is dissipated in the CCL's copper structure. To maintain an acceptable operating temperature, as well as minimize thermal stresses and maintain desired contours of the accelerator cavities, the electrical waste heat must be removed from the CCL structure. This is done using specially designed water cooling passages within the linac's copper structure. Cooling water is supplied to these cooling passages by a complex water cooling and temperature control system. This paper discusses the design, analysis, and testing of a water cooling system for a prototype CCL. First, the design concept and method of water temperature control is discussed. Second, the layout of the prototype water cooling system, including the selection of plumbing components, instrumentation, as well as controller hardware and software is presented. Next, the development of a numerical network model used to size the pump, heat exchanger, and plumbing equipment, is discussed. Finally, empirical pressure, flow rate, and temperature data from the prototype CCL water cooling tests are used to assess water cooling system performance and numerical modeling accuracy.

Bernardin, J. D. (John D.); Ammerman, C. N. (Curtt N.); Hopkins, S. M. (Steve M.)

2002-01-01

155

Numerical and experimental study of the elimination of shrinkage in complex and small investment castings using water cooling process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shrinkage porosity, one of the most serious defects, is usually formed in castings. The traditional ways in solving these kinds of defects are adding feeding channels, risers, placing metallic chills, optimizing the gating system, and so on. Indeed, they are effective methods to solve shrinkage defects in large castings, but not to the complex and small castings. In this research, one small and complex investment casting was investigated for its inner shrinkage defects. Since the defects are unsuitable to the traditional optimal ways. A novel method, dipping the preheated shell mold in water, was used to optimize the order of solidification. Both finite element method (FEM) analysis and experiment results show that the solidification sequence was optimized, and the shrinkage was eliminated. It shows that the water cooling process is an available approach to eliminate shrinkage defects in those complex, small, while with big length to width ratio investment castings.

Yuan, You-lu; Li, Zhu-guo

2013-05-01

156

Nuclear Characteristics of a Fissioning Uranium Plasma Test Reactor with Light-Water Cooling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analytical study was performed to determine a design configuration for a cavity test reactor. Test section criteria were that an average flux of 10 to the 15th power neutrons/sq cm/sec (E less than or equal to 0.12 eV) be supplied to a 61-cm-diameter s...

C. L. Whitmarsh

1973-01-01

157

Detection of leaks in a water-cooled generator stator bar using perfluorocarbon tracers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generator stator bar with a suspected leak was removed from the ConEdison Ravenswood power plant and shipped to an independent laboratory for hydraulic pressure testing. The test failed to demonstrate the location and magnitude of leaks. The stator bar was subsequently investigated at Brookhaven's Tracer Technology Center. Pressurization with 3 ppM PMCP (perfluoromethylcyclopentane) in hydrogen as carrier gas revealed

W. M. Loss; R. N. Dietz; G. I. Senum

1989-01-01

158

Water-cooled, high-intensity ultrasound surgical applicators with frequency tracking.  

PubMed

High-intensity, focused ultrasound (HIFU) applicators have been developed for arresting bleeding with the ultimate intent of use in surgery. The design uses a tapered titanium component for transmission coupling of the ultrasound energy from a spherically curved transducer to biological tissues. The nominal operating frequency is 5.5 MHz, in a highly resonant mode (quality factor of 327 with water load). Liquid cooling is used to remove energy loss important at net applied power greater than 18 W/cm2 at the surface of the piezoelectric element. A downward resonance frequency shift (>20 kHz) occurs, even with cooling, as the applicator warms with normal operation. A feedback technique is used for maintaining the excitation near optimum resonance. Standing wave ratios of the applied power of 1.6 or less are thus sustained. The system and applicators have been found to be highly robust, effective in achieving hemostasis in the hemorrhaging liver, spleen, lung, or blood vessels in rabbit and pig experiments. One unit has been operated for over 1.7 hours in treating organ hemorrhage in blunt trauma experiments with nine swine with electrical net power of up to 158 W (31 W/cm2 across the transducer) and intensity of 2560 W/cm2 at focus. PMID:14609070

Martin, Roy W; Vaezy, Shahram; Proctor, Andrew; Myntti, Terrence; Lee, Janelle B J; Crum, Lawrence A

2003-10-01

159

Standardisation of water-moderated 241Am-Be neutron source using De Pangher neutron long counter: experimental and Monte Carlo modelling.  

PubMed

A convenient neutron source is made for calibration of neutron survey instruments and personal dosimeters that are used in various nuclear installations such as fuel reprocessing, waste management, fuel fabrication and oil and well logging facilities, etc. This source consists of a bare (241)Am-Be neutron source placed at the centre of a 15-cm radius stainless steel spherical shell filled with distilled water. This paper describes the standardisation of the source at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, using De Pangher neutron long counter both experimentally and using the Monte Carlo simulation. The ratio of neutron yield of water moderated to the bare (241)Am-Be neutron source was found to be 0.573. From the simulation, the neutron-fluence-weighted average energy of water-moderated (241)Am-Be source (fluence-weighted average energy of 2.25 MeV, dose-weighted average energy of 3.55 MeV) was found to be nearly the same as that of a (252)Cf source (fluence-weighted average energy of 2.1 MeV, dose-weighted average energy of 2.3 MeV). This source can be used for calibration in addition to (252)Cf, to study the variation in response of neutron monitoring instruments. PMID:21498862

Ghodke, Shobha; Kumari, Sujatha; Singh, Yashoda; Sathian, V; Mahant, A K; Sharma, D N

2011-04-16

160

Axial Simulation for the Core of a Pressurized Water-Cooled Reactor and Application About the Shim Rod Follow-Up.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The computer programme which has been developed takes temperature effects into account for load following and simulates the core behavior of a pressurized water-cooled reactor using control rods and soluble boron. The programme has been applied to a mediu...

M. de Peretti

1978-01-01

161

Subscale, Hydrogen-Burning, Airframe-Integrated-Scramjet: Experimental and Theoretical Evaluation of a Water Cooled Strut Airframe-Integrated-Scramjet: Experimental Leading Edge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A water-cooled leading-edge design for an engine/airframe integrated scramjet model strut leading edge was evaluated. The cooling design employs a copper cooling tube brazed just downstream of the leading edge of a wedge-shaped strut which is constructed ...

S. Z. Pinckney R. W. Guy H. L. Beach R. C. Rogers

1975-01-01

162

Structure and Performance of a 600MWe Supercritical CFB Boiler with Water Cooled Panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion technology is one of the approved clean combustion technologies, and the power supply efficiency can be improved combining with the supercritical technology. A 600MWe supercritical CFB boiler is introduced in this paper. This boiler is designed based on the success of 300 MWe CFB boilers, which has a single furnace with three cyclones without external heat exchangers. There are twin furnaces and twin air distributors in the boiler. The water walls of the twin furnace above dense bed combines to a common fence wall with some channels to balance the pressure of the two furnaces. The smooth tubes are adopted in membrane water wall with mixing header. Six cyclones are located beside the furnace as well as six loopseals and six external heat exchangers. The hydrodynamic characteristic of water wall is available with the modeling prediction. And the performance of the 600MWe supercritical CFB boiler is also investigated.

Li, Y.; Nie, L.; Hu, X. K.; Yue, G. X.; Li, W. K.; We, Y. X.; Lu, J. F.; Che, D. F.

163

Analytical study of criticality experiments of organic and light-water-moderated mixed-oxide fuel pin arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a joint criticality data development program between the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. of Japan and the US Dept. of Energy, critical experiments have been conducted with organically moderated fast test reactor (FTR) mixed-oxide fuel pin arrays. The neutronic characteristics of an organic moderator can be examined by comparing the results of these experiments with

N. Aihara; N. Fukumura; H. Kadotani; T. Koyama; M. J. Haire

1987-01-01

164

R 3--A NATURAL URANIUM FUEL HEAVY WATER MODERATED REACTOR FOR COMBINED ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION AND DISTRICT HEATING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design is described of Swedish Reactor (R-3), which will be used for ; supplying 70 Mw of heat to a district heating scheme and 15 Mw of electricity to ; the Swedish power system. Particular attention is given to mechanical and ; thermal engineering aspects of the design including a detailed analysis of the ; measures taken to prevent

P. H. Margen; H. Carruthers; B. Hargo; G. Lindberg; B. Pershagen

1959-01-01

165

Detection of leaks in a water-cooled generator stator bar using perfluorocarbon tracers  

SciTech Connect

A generator stator bar with a suspected leak was removed from the ConEdison Ravenswood power plant and shipped to an independent laboratory for hydraulic pressure testing. The test failed to demonstrate the location and magnitude of leaks. The stator bar was subsequently investigated at Brookhaven's Tracer Technology Center. Pressurization with 3 ppM PMCP (perfluoromethylcyclopentane) in hydrogen as carrier gas revealed a leak close to the turbine end of the generator. The equivalent water leak rate was calculated to be about 1/2 mL per day at 30 psi water pressure. A series of tests was designed to first verify the existence of potential leaks and then to locate these leaks as accurately as possible. Enclosing the bar in a flexible hose, introducing nitrogen gas into the hose and analyzing the hose exhaust with Brookhaven's Dual Trap Analyzer successfully identified the existence of leaks. However, the technique failed to locate the approximation position of the suspected leaks. It was found that diffusion and the existence of a laminar flow regime inside the hose prevented the formation of uniform concentration levels and, hence, consistent readings. Successful leak pinpointing was accomplished by wrapping short sections of the bar in plastic bags. This approach with some suggested improvements is also recommended for future experiments with stator bars. 6 figs., 1 tab.

Loss, W.M.; Dietz, R.N.; Senum, G.I.

1989-12-01

166

Influence of the pulse frequency and water cooling on the femtosecond laser ablation of bovine cortical bone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrafast lasers are extremely promising tools for minimally-invasive orthopedic surgery, but the ablated volumes per pulse are low, so a high pulse frequency is necessary to reach practical ablation rates. The purpose of this work was to study in vitro the influence of the pulse repetition rate on the ablation rate, surface topography and surface composition of bone using of bovine cortical femur as a model. The tests were carried out by scanning the laser beam in relation to the sample, using pulse frequencies between 50 and 3000 Hz, scanning velocities from 0.5 to 10 mm/s and average pulse energy of 650 ?J. The experiments were performed in dry conditions and with water irrigation. The higher ablation rates were obtained at high scanning velocity without water irrigation but severe thermal effects such as resolidification, cracking and, eventually, carbonization occurred in these conditions due to heat accumulation in the tissue. Thermal damage was avoided for all the laser processing parameters ranges tested by using water cooling. The highest ablation rate achieved was 1.4 mm3/min for a scanning velocity of 10 mm/s at 2 kHz pulse repetition rate under water irrigation.

Cangueiro, L. T.; Vilar, R.

2013-10-01

167

Legionella species and serogroups in Malaysian water cooling towers: identification by latex agglutination and PCR-DNA sequencing of isolates.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the distribution of Legionella species in water cooling towers located in different parts of Malaysia to obtain information that may inform public health policies for the prevention of legionellosis. A total of 20 water samples were collected from 11 cooling towers located in three different states in east, west and south Malaysia. The samples were concentrated by filtration and treated with an acid buffer before plating on to BCYE agar. Legionella viable counts in these samples ranged from 100 to 2,000 CFU ml(-1); 28 isolates from the 24 samples were examined by latex agglutination as well as 16S rRNA and rpoB PCR-DNA sequencing. These isolates were identified as Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (35.7%), L. pneumophila serogroup 2-14 (39%), L. pneumophila non-groupable (10.7%), L. busanensis, L. gormanii, L. anisa and L. gresilensis. L. pneumophila was clearly the predominant species at all sampling sites. Repeat sampling from the same cooling tower and testing different colonies from the same water sample showed concurrent colonization by different serogroups and different species of Legionella in some of the cooling towers. PMID:20009251

Yong, Stacey Foong Yee; Goh, Fen-Ning; Ngeow, Yun Fong

2010-03-01

168

The improved microstructures and properties of 7075 alloys produced by a water-cooling centrifugal casting method  

SciTech Connect

A centrifugal water-cooling casting method was used to cast a 7075 alloy with the aim of refining the grain and inclusion size and improving mechanical properties in the wrought condition. Conventional ingot casting methods were also used and investigated for comparison with the centrifugal casting method. The results show that by the centrifugal casting method, a small equiaxed grain size, 17 {micro}m, is obtained in as-cast condition. Only 50 minutes are required for material homogenization. After rolling to obtain sheet, a grain size of 15 {times} 8 {times} 6 {micro}m and an inclusion size of 2 to 3 {micro}m are achieved. Fine-grained centrifugal-cast 7075 alloy exhibits higher strength than the ingot-cast one in the early stages of aging but poorer in the latter stages. However, its ductility and combination of strength and ductility is superior to the ingot-cast ones at all aging times. The reduction in strength in the latter aging stages for the fine-grained structure arises from its higher volume fraction of soft precipitate free zones. The improved ductility is attributed to the higher fraction of transgranular fracture, higher transgranular fracture strain, and intergranular fracture strain. Fine-grained 7075 alloy also displays significant improvements in the exfoliation corrosion resistance. These improvements are related to the increased density of attacking sites on the surface and the increased turns for crack propagation along grain boundaries.

Yeh, J.W.; Jong, S.H. [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Liu, W.P. [Chengshiu Junior Coll. of Technology and Commerce, Kaoshung (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-07-01

169

RESONANCE CONTROL FOR THE COUPLED CAVITY LINAC AND DRIFT TUBE LINAC STRUCTURES OF THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE LINAC USING A CLOSED-LOOP WATER COOLING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a facility being designed for scientific and industrial research and development. SNS will generate and use neutrons as a diagnostic tool for medical purposes, material science, etc. The neutrons will be produced by bombarding a heavy metal target with a high-energy beam of protons, generated and accelerated with a linear particle accelerator, or linac. The low energy end of the linac consists of two room temperature copper structures, the drift tube linac (DTL), and the coupled cavity linac (CCL). Both of these accelerating structures use large amounts of electrical energy to accelerate the protons to an energy of 185 MeV. Approximately 60-80% of the electrical energy is dissipated in the copper structure and must be removed. This is done using specifically designed water cooling passages within the linac's copper structure. Cooling water is supplied to these cooling passages by specially designed resonance control and water cooling systems.

Bernardin, J. D. (John D.); Brown, R. L. (Richard L.); Brown, S. K. (Stanley K.); Bustos, G. R. (Gerald R.); Crow, M.L. (Martin L.); Gregory, W. S.; Hood, M. E. (Michael E.); Jurney, J. D. (James D.); Medalen, I. (Ivan); Owen, A. C. (Albert C.); Weiss, Robert E.

2001-01-01

170

Subscale, hydrogen-burning, airframe-integrated-scramjet: Experimental and theoretical evaluation of a water cooled strut airframe-integrated-scramjet: Experimental leading edge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water-cooled leading-edge design for an engine\\/airframe integrated scramjet model strut leading edge was evaluated. The cooling design employs a copper cooling tube brazed just downstream of the leading edge of a wedge-shaped strut which is constructed of oxygen-free copper. The survival of the strut leading edge during a series of tests at stagnation point heating rates confirms the practicality

S. Z. Pinckney; R. W. Guy; H. L. Beach Jr.; R. C. Rogers

1975-01-01

171

Actively cooled plasma facing components for long pulse high power operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the development of heat removal technology for plasma facing components (PFCs) and focuses on water-cooled PFCs for near term, high power applications and the use of the tungsten (W), carbon (C), and beryllium (Be) as the preferred armor materials. There are also brief summaries of developments in helium-cooled PFCs and applications of free liquid surfaces. Water-cooled PFCs

R. E. Nygren

2002-01-01

172

High power radio frequency attenuation device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A resistor device for attenuating radio frequency power includes a radio frequency conductor connected to a series of fins formed of high relative magnetic permeability material. The fins are dimensional to accommodate the skin depth of the current conduction therethrough, as well as an inner heat conducting portion where current does not travel. Thermal connections for air or water cooling

Q. A. Kerns; H. W. Miller

1984-01-01

173

Application of Power-Factor Correction in the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade Magnet Power Supply.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The magnet power supply for the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade (TMX Upgrade) contains 24 groups of dc rectifiers that feed the water-cooled magnets. Each group consists of five or less rectifiers, connected in series. All 24 are current-regulating, usin...

W. C. Corvin

1981-01-01

174

Corrosion study of heat exchanger tubes in pressurized water cooled nuclear reactors by conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

57Fe-conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) — a sensitive tool to analyze the phase composition of corrosion products\\u000a on the surface of stainless steel — was applied to study real specimens from the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary. The primary\\u000a circuit side of the heat exchanger tubes was studied on selected samples cut out from the steam generators during regular\\u000a maintenance.

Z. Homonnay; P. Á. Szilágyi; E. Kuzmann; K. Varga; Z. Németh; A. Szabó; K. Radó; J. Schunk; P. Tilky; G. Patek

2007-01-01

175

BURNOUT STUDIES FOR THE DU PONT POWER REACTOR. Summary Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burnout results of eighteen experiments with electrically heated, water ; cooled, hollow, stainless steel tubes are presented. Applicability of the ; results and of the developed formulas to three types of coolant geometries of the ; power reactor is discussed. Vibration phenomena, encountered during the burnout ; study are described. (auth);

Begell

1959-01-01

176

High-power radio-frequency attenuation device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A resistor device for attenuating radio frequency power includes a radio frequency conductor connected to a series of fins formed of high relative magnetic permeability material. The fins are dimensional to accommodate the skin depth of the current conduction therethrough, as well as an inner heat conducting portion where current does not travel. Thermal connections for air or water cooling

Q. A. Kerns; H. W. Miller

1981-01-01

177

Transient Performance Investigation of a Space Power System Heat Pipe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Start-up, shut-down, and peak power tests have been conducted with a molybdenum-lithium heat pipe at temperatures to 1500 K. The heat pipe was radiation coupled to a water cooled calorimeter for the tests with rf induction heating used for the input to th...

M. A. Merrigan E. S. Keddy J. T. Sena

1986-01-01

178

Corrosion and mechanical strength of NPP material welded joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the most typical cases of the primary and secondary circuit component damage of water-cooled and water-moderated reactors during nuclear power plant (NPP) operation, this paper demonstrates the necessity to investigate the corrosion and mechanical strength of NPP equipment. The results are presented on the effect of the coolant on the fracture resistance of materials at the stages of crack

B. T. Timofeev; V. A. Fedorova

1995-01-01

179

Evaluation of the activated corrosion product (ACP) and their distribution in the water cooling loop of the SEAFP project  

SciTech Connect

The work reported here has been developed in the framework of the Safety and Environmental Assessment of Fusion Power Long Term Program (SEAL), continuing the past SEAFP study. The aim of the present work is to analyze the corrosion induced by cooling water and the subsequent phenomena and to evaluate the activated corrosion product (ACP) distribution among the different regions of the cooling system. The thermofluidodynamic conditions inside the cooling loop, the water chemistry, the neutron fluxes and the operation scenario are considered for the ACP assessment. The influence of the different design and operation parameters is discussed. The results obtained are extensively used to evaluate the occupational radiation exposure ORE. 9 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

Di Pace, L. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Rome (Italy); Sandri, S. [ENEA AMB/CAT/INAT, Rome (Italy)

1996-12-31

180

ATWS; a reappraisal. Part 1: An examination and analysis of WASH1270, technical report on ATWS for water-cooled power reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project's goals include estimates of: the actual probability of failure to scram; the probabilities of initiating events. And the risk of the numerical information is upgraded by correcting deficiencies in the document and updating the input data.

R. R. Fullwood; R. C. Erdmann; A. A. Garcia; F. L. Leverenz Jr.; E. T. Rumble; G. S. Lellouche

1976-01-01

181

A progress report on a new, portable, water-cooled, rotating-anode X-ray tube with very small focus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new high-brilliance X-ray tube (< 0.1 × 1.0 mm focus) has a unique configuration designed especially for the X-ray crystallographer, although other uses are obvious. By ``portable'' we mean a unit that has attached to it only a high-voltage cable, a low-voltage cable and two (input and drain) water lines of reasonable length (i.e. less than 100 feet). Particular areas of application are to perform experiments never before possible (e.g. as a theta-theta diffractometer for study of liquids or in an orbiting space laboratory) because of the bulk, weight and cumbersome nature of prior existing high-brilliance water-cooled X-ray sources. Its potential use in molecular-structural studies of macromolecules, proteins, membranes and the like is conjectured to be at least part of the basis for the support of this project by the National Cancer Institute. Some background, design considerations and initial test configurations are presented.

Furnas, Thomas C.

1990-12-01

182

Power.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This issue addresses advantages and disadvantages of having power. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources with suggested age levels and disciplines as well as ideas for appropriate related activities. Sidebars discuss the power of the pen, the power of peace, and the power of the media. (LRW)|

Online-Offline, 1999

1999-01-01

183

Analytical investigations of transitional operating modes of the second circuit of units at NPP with water-moderated reactors with consideration of control systems  

SciTech Connect

A mathematical model for analysis of process parameters of equipment in the second circuit of nuclear power plants is presented, and the structure of the program and principles used for analysis of the equipment are described. A mathematical model for analysis of the deaerator and steam generator is described in detail. A computational analysis of several transitional modes, which is made possible on the basis of the mathematical model in question, is also presented in this paper, and a comparison is made with test data.

Pikin, M. A.; Nesterov, Yu. V. [JSC 'Vserossiiskii Teplotekhnicheskii Institut' (VTI) (Russian Federation)

2007-05-15

184

Water cooled bipolar battery apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A battery apparatus is provided which includes a plurality of modules which are mounted end-to-end in a stacked pile configuration. Each module contains a plurality of bipolar electrodes. One end of each module has a flexible bladder for storing an electrolyte. The bladders in a collapsed condition provide spacing between the modules for cooling. Each module has a passageway for

J. F. McCartney; W. H. Shipman

1979-01-01

185

Assessment of Evaporative Cooling Enhancement Methods for Air-Cooled Geothermal Power Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many binary-cycle geothermal power plants are air cooled because insufficient water is available to provide year-round water cooling. The performance of air-cooled geothermal plants is highly dependent on the dry bulb temperature of the air (much more so ...

C. Kutscher D. Costenaro

2002-01-01

186

High-temperature (250 °C \\/ 500 °F) 19?000 rpm BLDC fan for forced air-cooling of advanced automotive power electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an increasing number of application areas and industry sectors, such as the automotive, aerospace, military or oil and gas industry, a trend towards higher ambient temperature rating from 120 °C upward for electrical machines and power electronic converters can be observed. Forced air-cooling of power electronic converters offers reduced complexity of the cooling circuit compared to water-cooling. For high

Benjamin Wrzecionko; Andreas Looser; Johann W. Kolar; Michael Casey

2011-01-01

187

Pump Characteristic based optimization of a direct water cooling system for a 10kW\\/500kHz Vienna rectifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ultra high power density 10-kW\\/500-kHz three-phase pulse-width modulation rectifier (Vienna Rectifier) is under development at the Power Electronic Systems Laboratory, ETH Zurich. From preliminary measurements and numerical simulations the total efficiency is assumed to be 95% at full load, resulting in power losses of up to 150 W in each multichip power module that realizes a bridge leg of

Uwe Drofenik; Gerold Laimer; Johann W. Kolar

2005-01-01

188

Recognizing hydraulic power plant and aimpoint choosing from clutter background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large power stations are usually chosen as the target for missiles guided by IR seeker. This paper presents an aimpoint finding algorithm. The high light blob of boiler and straight lines of chimneys or water cooling towers are taken as the reference feature objects for locating and keeping the aimpoint form long to short distance. Some experiment results are given to show the validity of our method.

Li, Zhiyong; Yang, Weiping; Shen, Hai-Xin

1997-10-01

189

Power load limits of the WENDELSTEIN 7-X target elements---comparison of experimental results and design values for power loads up to the critical heat flux  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power load limits of the WENDELSTEIN7-X divertor target elements were experimentally evaluated with heat loads considerably exceeding the expected operating conditions. The water-cooled elements are designed for steady-state heat flux of 10 MW m-2 and to remove a power load up to 100 kW. The elements must allow a limited operation time at 12 MW m-2 steady-state and should

H. Greuner; B. Boeswirth; J. Boscary; A. Leuprecht; A. Plankensteiner

2007-01-01

190

Design and operating experience of a 40 MW, highly-stabilized power supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four 10 MW, highly-stabilized power supply modules have been installed at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, FL, to energize water-cooled, resistive, high-field research magnets. The power supply modules achieve a long term current stability if 10 ppM over a 12 h period with a short term ripple and noise variation of less than 10 ppM over a

Heinrich J. Boenig; James A. Ferner; Ferenc Bogdan; Gary C. Morris; Ron S. Rumrill

1995-01-01

191

Design and operation of a 40MW, highly stabilized power supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four 10 MW highly stabilized power supply modules have been installed at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, FL, to energize water-cooled resistive high-field research magnets. The power supply modules achieve a long-term current stability of 10 ppm over a 12-h period with a short-term ripple and noise variation of <10 ppm over a time period of one

H. J. Boenig; J. A. Ferner; F. Bogdan; R. S. Rumrill; G. C. Morris

1996-01-01

192

Design and operation of a 40 MW, highly-stabilized power supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four 10 MW, highly-stabilized power supply modules have been installed at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, FL, to energize water-cooled, resistive, high-field research magnets. The power supply modules achieve a long term current stability of 10 ppm over a 12 h period with a short term ripple and noise variation of <10 ppm over a time period

H. J. Boenig; J. A. Ferner; F. Bogdan; R. S. Rumrill; G. C. Morris

1995-01-01

193

Energy-consumption analysis of a confi guration of an absorption vapor compression coupled to MED in a dual-purpose power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dual-purpose power plant that produces heating-water-cooling-power cogeneration is presented. It comprises LiBr-H2O absorption vapour compression (ABVC), low-temperature multieffect distillation (LT-MED) and combined heat and power plant (CHP). The low grade extraction or discharged steam from the steam turbine is used for heating as well as motive steam to drive LT-MED combined ABVC that produces fresh water and cooling. Based

Luopeng Yang; Huawei Hu; Xue Chen

2010-01-01

194

Relicensing of the MIT Research Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Research Reactor (MITR) is owned and operated by MIT, a nonprofit university. The current reactor, MITR-II, is a 5-MW, light water-cooled and heavy water-moderated reactor that uses materials test reactor-type fuel. Documents supporting application to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for relicensing of MITR were submitted in July 1999. A power upgrade from

Lin-Wen Hu; John A. Bernard; Susan Tucker

2000-01-01

195

High power radio frequency attenuation device  

DOEpatents

A resistor device for attenuating radio frequency power includes a radio frequency conductor connected to a series of fins formed of high relative magnetic permeability material. The fins are dimensional to accommodate the skin depth of the current conduction therethrough, as well as an inner heat conducting portion where current does not travel. Thermal connections for air or water cooling are provided for the inner heat conducting portions of each fin. Also disclosed is a resistor device to selectively alternate unwanted radio frequency energy in a resonant cavity.

Kerns, Quentin A. (Bloomingdale, IL); Miller, Harold W. (Winfield, IL)

1984-01-01

196

Assessment of Evaporative Cooling Enhancement Methods for Air-Cooled Geothermal Power Plants: Preprint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many binary-cycle geothermal power plants are air cooled because insufficient water is available to provide year-round water cooling. The performance of air-cooled geothermal plants is highly dependent on the dry bulb temperature of the air (much more so than fossil fuel plants that operate at higher boiler temperatures), and plant electric output can drop by 50% or more on hot

C. Kutscher; D. Costenaro

2002-01-01

197

A 2Megawatt load for testing high voltage DC power supplies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high power water-cooled resistive load, capable of dissipating 2 Megawatts at 95 kilovolts is being designed and built. The load utilizes wirewound resistor elements suspended inside insulating tubing contained within a pressure vessel which is supplied with a continuous flow of deionized water for coolant. A sub-system of the load is composed of non-inductive resistor elements in an oil

D. Horan; R. Kustom; M. Ferguson; K. Primdahl

1993-01-01

198

A preliminary design study for a high power, pulsed, microwave amplifier: SAR applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A klystron amplifier which uses a nonoptimized gun and a water cooled single stage depressed collector was designed for spaceborne applications. Computer analysis and cold test measurements demonstrate gain, bandwidth, efficiency mean power, and duty and peak power characteristics which either match or exceed design specifications. Experimental results show peak output power of 6.05 kW, at 46.7% efficiency, a bandwidth of 45 MHz and a mean output power of 390 W. Equipment failures prevented the tube from being tested at the full specified duty (10 kW peak, 600 W mean) although a 10 kW peak output was obtained just before failure.

Feltham, S.

1981-09-01

199

The bouillante geothermal power-plant, Guadeloupe  

SciTech Connect

The geothermal exploration work carried out in Guadeloupe until 1977 by EURAFREP revealed the existence of an underground hot water field at a temperature of 240C. Four drillings were made, two of which produced superheated water that flashes to steam, and after several testing programs. Electricite de France (EDF) decided to build a geothermal power station with a net output of 4.2 MWe. This installation is a double flash cycle unit with a condensing turbine and sea water-cooled direct contact condenser equipped with a barometer pipe. The operation of this power-plant will be mainly automatic and the electric output will meet 6% of the Guadeloupe electric power demand at a cost lower than the one obtained with diesel generators.

Jaud, P.; Lamethe, D.

1985-01-01

200

Progress of research on waste energy management for electric power plants. IIT Waste Energy Management Project progress report No. 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report consists of two parts. Part 1 deals with the final technical report of a study entitled ''Open Circulating-Water Cooling Systems for Large Electric Power Plants''. Emphasis was on thermal performance and environmental effects of atmospheric-spray cooling systems. Theoretical, laboratory, and field experimental studies were directed toward characterizing the controlling-fluidmechanic phenomena governing heat and mass transfer. Specifically, the following

1978-01-01

201

A high power, radiation cooled, rotating toroidal target for neutrino production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rotating toroid is considered as a target for the production of pions by intense high energy proton beams for a neutrino factory. The toroid rotates in vacuum and the power is radiated to the water-cooled walls of the vacuum chamber. It is shown that steady powers of over 100 MW can be dissipated by thermal radiation at temperatures of ~2500 K, using a suitable refractory material such as tantalum or tungsten. Under pulsed beam conditions, the thermal stresses induced in the toroid will reduce the power capabilities. .

Bennett, J. R. J.

2000-11-01

202

Some thoughts on a high-power, radiation cooled, rotating toroidal target for neutrino production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rotating toroid is considered as a target for the production of pions by intense high-energy proton beams for a neutrino factory. The toroid rotates in vacuum and the power is radiated to the water-cooled walls of the vacuum chamber. It is shown that steady powers of over 100MW can be dissipated by thermal radiation at temperatures of /~2500K using a suitable refractory material such as tantalum or tungsten. Under pulsed beam conditions, the thermal stresses induced in the toroid will reduce the power capabilities.

Bennett, J. R. J.

2000-08-01

203

Electrochemistry of Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project developed a comprehensive mathematical and simulation model for calculating thermal hydraulic, electrochemical, and corrosion parameters, viz. temperature, fluid flow velocity, pH, corrosion potential, hydrogen injection, oxygen contamination...

A. Jain D. D. Macdonald H. Sang Kim J. H. Mahaffy M. Urquidi-Macdonald

2006-01-01

204

High-power radio-frequency attenuation device  

DOEpatents

A resistor device for attenuating radio frequency power includes a radio frequency conductor connected to a series of fins formed of high relative magnetic permeability material. The fins are dimensional to accommodate the skin depth of the current conduction therethrough, as well as an inner heat conducting portion where current does not travel. Thermal connections for air or water cooling are provided for the inner heat conducting portions of each fin. Also disclosed is a resistor device to selectively alternate unwanted radio frequency energy in a resonant cavity.

Kerns, Q.A.; Miller, H.W.

1981-12-30

205

INTEGRATED SYSTEM TO CONTROL PRIMARY PM 2.5 FROM ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

One of the major tasks of this project is to design and fabricate an Advanced ElectroCore field prototype system. The system is designed to handle 5,000 acfm of exhaust gas from a coal-fired power plant. The system consists of the Advanced ElectroCore module, a water-cooled precharger and a dry scrubber. The system is shown in Figure 1. LSR has completed the design drawings for the ElectroCore module and the water-cooled precharger. The design drawings for the dry scrubber are nearly complete. Merrick Environmental Technology, Inc. has completed most of the fabrication drawings for the ElectroCore module and for the water-cooled precharger. From the original schedule, the design task (Task 2) should have been completed by 15 July 2000. It now looks like this task will be finished by mid-October thereby putting the project about two months behind schedule. Much of the delay is due to design changes that will make this field prototype easier to transport and erect. These changes will make the unit much more valuable as an ElectroCore system sales tool at the end of this project.

Unknown

2000-10-01

206

10 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Numerical Guides for Design Objectives and Limiting Conditions for Operation To Meet the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Radioactive Material in Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactor Effluents I Appendix...effluents from light-water-cooled power reactors not generated in, or...curies for each light-water-cooled reactor at a site. 3....

2010-01-01

207

10 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Numerical Guides for Design Objectives and Limiting Conditions for Operation To Meet the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Radioactive Material in Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactor Effluents I Appendix...effluents from light-water-cooled power reactors not generated in, or...curies for each light-water-cooled reactor at a site. 3....

2009-01-01

208

METHOD OF OPERATING A HEAVY WATER MODERATED REACTOR  

DOEpatents

A method of removing fission products from the heavy water used in a slurry type nuclear reactor is described. According to the process the slurry is steam distilled with carbon tetrachloride so that at least a part of the heavy water and carbon tetrachloride are vaporized; the heavy water and carbon tetrachloride are separated; the carbon tetrachloride is returned to the steam distillation column at different points in the column to aid in depositing the slurry particles at the bottom of the column; and the heavy water portion of the condensate is purified. (AEC)

Vernon, H.C.

1962-08-14

209

A novel power block for CSP systems  

SciTech Connect

Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) and in particular parabolic trough, is a proven large-scale solar power technology. However, CSP cost is not yet competitive with conventional alternatives unless subsidized. Current CSP plants typically include a condensing steam cycle power block which was preferably designed for a continuous operation and higher operating conditions and therefore, limits the overall plant cost effectiveness and deployment. The drawbacks of this power block are as follows: (i) no power generation during low insolation periods (ii) expensive, large condenser (typically water cooled) due to the poor extracted steam properties (high specific volume, sub-atmospheric pressure) and (iii) high installation and operation costs. In the current study, a different power block scheme is proposed to eliminate these obstacles. This power block includes a top Rankine cycle with a back pressure steam turbine and a bottoming Kalina cycle comprising another back pressure turbine and using ammonia-water mixture as a working fluid. The bottoming (moderate temperature) cycle allows power production during low insolation periods. Because of the superior ammonia-water vapor properties, the condensing system requirements are much less demanding and the operation costs are lowered. Accordingly, air cooled condensers can be used with lower economical penalty. Another advantage is that back pressure steam turbines have a less complex design than condensing steam turbines which make their costs lower. All of these improvements could make the combined cycle unit more cost effective. This unit can be applicable in both parabolic trough and central receiver (solar tower) plants. The potential advantage of the new power block is illustrated by a detailed techno-economical analysis of two 50 MW parabolic trough power plants, comparing between the standard and the novel power block. The results indicate that the proposed plant suggests a 4-11% electricity cost saving. (author)

Mittelman, Gur [ASP Ltd., Advanced Solar Power, Industrial Zone, Be'er Tuviyya (Israel); Epstein, Michael [Solar Research Facilities Unit, Weizmann Institute of Science (Israel)

2010-10-15

210

Transient heat pipe investigations for space power systems  

SciTech Connect

A 4-meter long, high temperature, high power, molybdenum-lithium heat pipe has been fabricated and tested in transient and steady state operation at temperatures to 1500 K. Maximum power throughput during the tests was approximately 37 kW/cm/sup 2/ for the 1.4 cm diameter vapor space of the annular wick heat pipe. The evaporator flux density for the tests was 150.0 W/cm/sup 2/ over a length of 40 cm. Condenser length was approximately 3.0 m with radiant heat rejection from the condenser to a coaxial, water cooled radiation calorimeter. A variable radiation shield, controllable from the outside of the vacuum enclosure, was used to vary the load on the heat pipe during the tests. 1 ref., 9 figs.

Merrigan, M.A.; Keddy, E.S.; Sena, J.T.

1985-01-01

211

Final design of the control and auxiliary systems for the Balcones 60 MJ homopolar pulse power supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design criteria and features of a 60 MJ pulse power supply to be operated at the Center for Electromechanics at the University of Texas are described. The system is driven by six 10 MJ homopolar generators (HPG) which can be operated in series, in parallel, or in combination configurations. Component modularity, operational dependability, repetition rate, maintainability, drive train simplicity and failsafe operation criteria were met in the final design. The generators have removable brush assemblies and water cooled field coil assemblies and hydrostatic bearings. A block diagram is provided of the control I-O architecture and back-up systems and operational procedures are outlined.

Hildenbrand, D. J.; Pichot, M. A.; Price, J. H.

1986-11-01

212

Design of a new switching power supply for the ATLAS TileCAL front-end electronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the design of an upgraded switching power supply for the front-end electronics of the ATLAS hadron tile calorimeter (TileCAL) at the LHC. The new design features significant improvement in noise, improved fault detection, and improved reliability, while retaining the compact size, water-cooling, output control, and monitoring features. We discuss the steps taken to improve the design. We present the results from extensive radiation testing to qualify the design, including sensitivity to Single Event Upset. We also present our reliability analysis. Production of 2400 new bricks for the detector is currently in progress, and we present preliminary results from the production checkout.

Drake, G.

2013-02-01

213

Small-Scale Geothermal Power Plant Field Verification Projects: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

In the spring of 2000, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory issued a Request for Proposal for the construction of small-scale (300 kilowatt [kW] to 1 megawatt [MW]) geothermal power plants in the western United States. Five projects were selected for funding. Of these five, subcontracts have been completed for three, and preliminary design work is being conducted. The three projects currently under contract represent a variety of concepts and locations: a 1-MW evaporatively enhanced, air-cooled binary-cycle plant in Nevada; a 1-MW water-cooled Kalina-cycle plant in New Mexico; and a 750-kW low-temperature flash plant in Utah. All three also incorporate direct heating: onion dehydration, heating for a fish hatchery, and greenhouse heating, respectively. These projects are expected to begin operation between April 2002 and September 2003. In each case, detailed data on performance and costs will be taken over a 3-year period.

Kutscher, C.

2001-07-03

214

Formation of a nuclear reactor's molten core bath in a crucible-type corium catcher for a nuclear power station equipped with VVER reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results from a calculation study on analyzing the formation of a melt bath in a crucible-type catcher for the conditions of a severe accident at a nuclear power station equipped with VVER-1000 reactors are presented. It is shown that the heat loads exerted on the water-cooled walls of the corium catcher shell are limited to a permissible level at which the necessary margins to nucleate boiling crisis and to destruction are ensured under the conditions of thermal and mechanical loading of the shell. An important role of sacrificial material in the efficient operation of the corium catcher is pointed out.

Beshta, S. V.; Vitol', S. A.; Granovskii, V. S.; Kalyago, E. K.; Kovtunova, S. V.; Krushinov, E. V.; Sulatskaya, M. B.; Sulatskii, A. A.; Khabenskii, V. B.; Al'Myashev, V. I.; Gusarov, V. V.

2011-05-01

215

Physical model and experimental results of cathode erosion related to power supply ripple  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the physical effects of power supply ripple on cathode erosion and cathode arc attachment in a water-cooled, 30 kW nitrogen arcjet. Experimental results are presented for 2 percent thoriated tungsten, which show that the long-term cathode erosion rate is a decreasing function of current ripple over the range 1-13 percent. Above this range, the cathode discharge becomes unstable, and the erosion rate rapidly increases. A qualitative model of this effect is given in terms of a magnetically induced radial motion of the arc column, and an overall increase in the cathode spot radius due to the higher peak current associated with higher ripple. The most important effect of power supply ripple is therefore shown to be its ability to collectively drive the cathode attachment away from the cathode center. This leads to an increase in the cathode attachment area, and a subsequent decrease in the cathode erosion rate.

Harris, W. J.; O'Hair, E. A.; Hatfield, L. L.; Kristiansen, M.

1992-07-01

216

A 35 GHz Extremely High Power Rectenna For The Microwave Lightcraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rectenna has been designed to provide DC energy for the propulsion engines of the Microwave Lightcraft. It uses very high density sub-arrays to convert the microwave energy in a beam of power density 4 kW/cm2 with an efficiency of 56 %. Each sub-array consists of an ensemble of very short dipoles and Schottky diode elements deposited on and within a semiconductor substrate. The substrate sits down on a low-loss wafer carrier which also performs the function of water cooling. The rectenna design permits the periodic reflection and focussing of the beam to maintain a plasma nose-cone in front of the vehicle. In addition, the rectenna is capable of transmitting stored energy to this `air-spike' region to maintain that plasma in the event of a loss of beam power.

Alden, A.

2003-05-01

217

Combined heat and power for the City of London  

SciTech Connect

The first phase of an innovative combined heat and power (CHP) system for the City of London is now almost complete and should be operating at full capacity by the end of 1994. Test runs are taking place. The system is powered by two large 18-cylinder Waertsilae Vasa 46GD multifuel engines developing a total of just under 32 MW of power. The engines drive ABB Stromberg HSG 160O water-cooled generators with electrical efficiencies exceeding 97%. The station will use natural gas and heavy fuel oil to generate electricity for the grid, hot water for district heating and chilled water for air conditioning. In the first phase of the project, underground pipework and cabling will connect the power station to various buildings in the City including the Barbican Center, Guildhall and the Museum of London/Bastion House. State-of-the-art emission control equipment has been installed to reduce NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] by over 90%. 5 figs.

Mullins, P.

1994-06-01

218

Klystron Cluster Scheme for ILC High Power RF Distribution  

SciTech Connect

We present a concept for powering the main linacs of the International Linear Collider (ILC) by delivering high power RF from the surface via overmoded, low-loss waveguides at widely spaced intervals. The baseline design employs a two-tunnel layout, with klystrons and modulators evenly distributed along a service tunnel running parallel to the accelerator tunnel. This new idea eliminates the need for the service tunnel. It also brings most of the warm heat load to the surface, dramatically reducing the tunnel water cooling and HVAC requirements. In the envisioned configuration, groups of 70 klystrons and modulators are clustered in surface buildings every 2.5 km. Their outputs are combined into two half-meter diameter circular TE{sub 01} mode evacuated waveguides. These are directed via special bends through a deep shaft and along the tunnel, one upstream and one downstream. Each feeds approximately 1.25 km of linac with power tapped off in 10 MW portions at 38 m intervals. The power is extracted through a novel coaxial tap-off (CTO), after which the local distribution is as it would be from a klystron. The tap-off design is also employed in reverse for the initial combining.

Nantista, Christopher; Adolphsen, Chris; /SLAC

2009-07-06

219

Commercial fusion power in the next decade  

SciTech Connect

The tokamak is a concept first invented by the Russians in 1966, which permits the stable and efficient confinement of a hot ''plasma'' in a toroidal or ''doughnut-shaped'' magnetic ''bottle''. The tokamak configuration is the world standard for all major national fusion research programs. The RIGGATRON is a very small high-field tokamak, which employs unique thermal and mechanical designs for appropriate energy extraction. The hot and densely confined ''plasma'' gas is composed of ions of the heavy hydrogen isotopes, deuterium (D) and tritium (T) which are ''fusing together'' to form helium and neutrons. The toroidal magnetic bottle confines and contains the heavy hydrogen fuel and the helium by-product, while it permits the energetic neutrons to escape. The tokamak is a special type of magnetic bottle, and the RIGGATRON is a special type of tokamak. Work conducted to date has led to conceptual design of the first fusion test units, and to the successful development of basic materials and fabrication techniques required to assure performance and engineering integrity of these units. Simultaneously, initial specifications for the test site, electrical power supply, water cooling supply and other auxiliary sub-systems have been defined.

Bussard, R.

1984-01-01

220

Water cooled absorption chillers for solar cooling applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A broad line of absorption chillers designed to operate with hot fluids at as low a temperature as practical while rejecting heat to a stream of water was developed. A packaging concept for solar application in which controls, pumps, valves and other system components could be factor assembled into a unitary solar module was investigated.

Biermann, W. J.; Reimann, R. C.

1982-03-01

221

Advanced water-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell development  

SciTech Connect

150 electrolyte reservoir plates (ERP's) were carbonized for the small area short stack. A process was developed which allows thin (1--2 mil) matrix to be applied to full-size electrodes using a curtain coater. Full-size cooler samples were molded with and without cooler tube arrays. Two alternative cooler hoses were evaluated and found to be acceptable based on 1400 h testing at simulated conditions.

Not Available

1989-01-01

222

Advanced water-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell development  

SciTech Connect

Fabrication of repeat parts for small area short stack is underway: 100 electrode substrates and 150 ERP substrates were graphitized, and 30 electrode substrates were run through each manufacturing step. Teflon content and compaction pressure of shop-made electrodes for the small area short stack was optimized based on single cell tests. A single cell with GSB-18P catalyst and 1 mg/cm[sup 2] loading is performing very well; performance is 0.66 V per cell after 1200 h at 300 ASF. 3 integral separator plate configurations have been selected for verification in the upcoming short stack. Bubble pressures over 7 psid have been demonstrated in filler bands applied with a production curtain and coating process. 5 full-size (small area) coolers were molded, and encapsulation development for molded and commercial graphite coolers continued.

Not Available

1989-01-01

223

Calculation of thermal deformations in water-cooled monochromator crystals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Through calculation of temperature distribution and thermal deformation of monochromators, optical degradation by the heat loads in SPring-8 have been discussed. Cooling experiments were made on three models of copper structures with the JAERI Electron Be...

A. Nakamura S. Hashimoto H. Motohashi

1994-01-01

224

PRECIPITATION-HARDENING STAINLESS STEELS IN WATER-COOLED REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study is made of the stress corrosion susceptibiity of unirradiated ; precipitation-hardening stainless steels. This study is made because of the ; failures encouatered with these materials in the Dresden and Vallecltos boiling ; water reactors. Service experience, static steam autoclave tests, and dynamic ; water and steam corrosion loop tests have demonstrated that 17-4 PH in the high-;

M. C. Rowland; W. R. Sr. Smith

1962-01-01

225

Sea/Lake Water Cooling for Naval Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seawater cooling was found to be economically feasible for a trial Naval facility in San Diego, Calif. and an operational test was recommended for the Naval Security Group Activity (NSGA), Winter Harbor, Maine. A preliminary design and environmental impac...

J. Ciani

1978-01-01

226

Titanium design permits once-through sea-water cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Titanium tubes in shell-and-tube heat exchangers using once-through sea-water as the cooling fluid offer significant advantages in terms of reduced weight and occupied space when designing production facilities for offshore platforms. Additional advantages include minimal maintenance requirements and operating costs. Offshore oil and gas production is costly and complex. In any given location, optimization of the cost of a production

1986-01-01

227

Water-cooled target-box design at LAMPF  

SciTech Connect

The target boxes in the main experimental beam line (Line A) at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) have operated since 1976. A program of replacing the boxes is underway. This paper will present past history, design considerations, calculational results and the final box design.

Grisham, D.; Lambert, J.

1983-01-01

228

Advanced Water-Cooled Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Development  

SciTech Connect

Electrode substrate handsheets were formed. A new electrode edge seal with in-plane bubble pressures 40--50 psid and through-plane pressures 8--9 psid was demonstrated. A new polymeric edge seal for ERP's with bubble pressure greater than 30 psid was tested and shown to be stable after 5 thermal cycles. A thin (1.2 mil) natrix was applied to full-size electrodes using a curtain coater. Full-size coolers were fabricated using both molded and commercial graphite holders.

Not Available

1989-01-01

229

Water cooled scavenged crankcase type otto internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improved combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine comprising in combination: a cylinder defining the chamber, an intake passage communicating with the chamber, an exhaust passage communicating with the chamber, a piston slidable within the cylinder, the wall and head of the cylinder having removable ceramic liners facing toward the chamber, the totality of the head of the piston facing toward the chamber having a removable ceramic liner, the wall lining extending throughout the major portion of the cylinder length.

Bidwell, H.

1988-12-20

230

Diamond cooling of high-power diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 and Nd:YAG lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have demonstrated the feasibility of cooling high power solid-state lasers with diamond windows, whose thermal conductivity is about two orders of magnitude higher than sapphire's, the material conventionally used for this purpose. Since pumping and cooling were along the same axis, a Cartesian thermal gradient was achieved, while the zigzag scheme was used to minimize thermal lensing. An output power of 200Watt was achieved from a single Nd:YVO4 slab in a zigzag configuration when pumped with 600Watt diodes at 808nm. The maximum output power previously reported in the literature with Nd:YVO4 using conventional cooling schemes is only about 100W. A 2.3x4x24mm3 slab was pumped from its broad side (4x24 mm2) through a 0.3mm thick optical diamond window placed in close contact with the lasing crystal. The diamond window, held in a water-cooled copper housing acted as a heat conductor. The other broad side of the crystal was cooled directly by its water-cooled copper housing. The output of a two-head configuration was 295Watt. By using a RTP Q-switch, 124Watt average power was obtained at 15kHz with a pulse width of 17nsec, pumping at 650Watt. An additional larger head was developed to pump a Nd:YAG slab. The concept of the pumping and cooling is identical to the Nd:YVO4 laser head. An output power of 1000Watt was achieved from a single Nd:YAG slab when pumped with 2500Watt diodes at 808nm. The slab dimensions are 3×12×90mm3.

Tzuk, Yitshak; Tal, Alon; Goldring, Sharone; Glick, Yaakov; Lebiush, Eyal; Lavi, Raphael

2005-06-01

231

On monitoring nuclear power plant emergency diesel generator reliability  

SciTech Connect

If offsite power is interrupted, the availability of onsite alternating current power supplies is a major factor in assuring acceptable safety at commercial light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. To control the risk of severe care damage during station blackout accidents at a given plant, the reliability of the emergency diesel generators (EDGS) to start and load-run upon demand must be maintained at a sufficiently high level. The minimum EDG reliability, which we denote by RT, is targeted at either 0.95 or 0.975 per nuclear unit consistent with the reliability level that the plant operator assumed in the coping analysis for station blackout. In 1992 the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) considered an amendment that would require licensees to test and monitor EDG reliability against performance-based criteria that indicate possible degradation from the EDG target reliability levels. They originally proposed the following set of fixed sample-size triggers for use in monitoring EDG reliability. The purpose of this report is to compare the performance of the proposed triggers with corresponding alternative sequential variable sample-size triggers which potentially permit earlier detection of EDG reliability degradation without significantly increasing the false alarm rate. The comparison is to be done in a simulated use environment by means of Monte Carlo simulation. We are also interested in the inverse conditional probabilities of reliability degradation given that a trigger has occurred.

Martz, H.F.; Tietjen, G.L.; Kvam, P.H. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Abramson, L.R. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States))

1993-08-11

232

Engineering activities at the MIT research reactor in support of power reactor technology  

SciTech Connect

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) research reactor (MITR-II) is a 5-MW(thermal) light-water-cooled and-moderated reactor (LWR) with in-core neutron and gamma dose rates that closely approximate those in current LWRs. Compact in-pile loops that simulate pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) thermal hydraulics and coolant chemistry have been designed for installation in the MITR-II. A PWR loop has been completed and is currently operating in the reactor. A BWR loop is under construction, and an in-pile facility for irradiation-assisted stress corrosion crack (IASCC) testing is being designed. Another major area of research and on-line testing is the closed-loop, nonlinear, digital control of various reactor parameters, including the power level, temperature, and net energy production.

Harling, O.K.; Bernard, J.A.; Driscoll, M.J.; Kohse, G.E.; Ballinger, R.G.

1989-01-01

233

Proceedings of the 2012 International Congress on Advances in National Power Plants - ICAPP '12  

SciTech Connect

ICAPP '12 provides a forum for leaders of the nuclear industry to exchange information, present results from their work, review the state of the industry, and discuss future directions and needs for the deployment of new nuclear power plant systems around the world. These proceedings gather 326 papers covering the following topics: 1. Water-Cooled Reactor Programs; 2. High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors; 3. LMFR and Innovative Reactor Programs; 4. Operation, Performance and Reliability Management; 5. Plant Safety Assessment and Regulatory Issues; 6. Reactor Physics and Analysis; 7. Thermal Hydraulics Analysis and Testing; 8. Fuel Cycle and Waste Management; 9. Materials and Structural Issues; 10. Nuclear Energy and Global Environment; 11. Deployment and Cross-Cutting Issues; 12. Plant Licensing and International Regulatory Issues.

NONE

2012-07-01

234

Retrofitting utility power plant motors for adjustable speed: Field test program  

SciTech Connect

EPRI recognized there was a need for converting large power plant induction motors to adjustable speed for fuel conservation. When this project started, only the synchronous motor ASD was available which required a new synchronous motor to replace the existing squirrel cage motor. The retrofitting of large power plant induction motors offered an opportunity to develop and refine a technology for large induction motor ASDs. Prior to 1984 no high horsepower induction motor ASDs were installed on utility or industrial fans or pumps, but there were 57 LCI synchronous motor systems. By mid-1986 the market evolved such that more induction motor ASDs were being installed in the US than synchronous motor ASDs. The major US induction motor ASD suppliers now offer water cooling which greatly simplifies the cooling of large thyristors in power plant environments. Included in the report is a copy of a sample ASD specification developed during the field test program. The other major output of this study, ASCON II, and IBM PC compatible computer program for technical and economic applications of ASDs to power plants, has been improved as a result of these field tests and will be made available from the Electric Power Software Center.

Oliver, J.A.; Eslami, A.A. (Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (USA))

1990-12-01

235

Characteristics of power meters for high CO[sub 2] lasers  

SciTech Connect

Four different instruments used for measuring CO[sub 2] laser beam power in the kilowatt range were evaluated. The techniques used to determine the laser beam power included temperature increase from an absorber of known mass and specific heat, temperature increase from a steady flow of water used to cool the absorber, thermal gradient caused by edge-cooling a circular absorber, and diffuse scattering from a small portion of the water-cooled absorber surface. The parameters evaluated included response time, repeatability, sensitivity to position of the incident laser beam and beam mode, and linearity of response. The accuracies of the instruments were not determined as no NIST standard exists. Response times varied from 1 to 15 s. Each instrument had good reproducibility in indicated power values. Some meters exhibited sensitivity to beam mode, diameter, and position. All meters had very good to excellent linearity in response. Comparison of the indicated power values showed that each instrument tended to give slightly different values. For the range 400--6,000 W the indicated power values from all meters differed by <15% from the mean value.

Leong, K.H.; Holdridge, D.J.; Sabo, K.R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1994-12-01

236

Use of Cooling Thermal Storage as a Heat Sink for Steam Power Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper, a system is proposed for improving the performance of steam power plant with air-cooled condenser during peak loads. In this system, the power plant comprises two steam turbines, and the air-cooled condenser is replaced by two condensers. The first one is air-cooled (dry) and used for condensing the exhaust steam of the first turbine, while the second is water-cooled and serves to condense the steam outlet of the second turbine. The warm cooling water exiting the wet condenser is pumped to a cooling storage container, where it is cooled and re-circulated to the wet condenser. Cooling is produced by a refrigeration machine driven by the extra electric power generated by the two turbines during the time of the off-peak-loads (low electricity rates). Simple energy analyses have been developed to predict the energy characteristics of this system. The results of this paper showed that the proposed system leads to improving the plant power output at peak-loads. About 6, 16, 24 and 33% increase in generated plant power can be achieved at peak-loads (high electricity rates) when the ambient temperature is 20, 30, 40 and 50°C respectively, and the whole steam exiting both turbines is cooled in a wet condenser to a design temperature of 20°C. The results showed also that choice of the capacity of each turbine is essentially affected by the quality of the refrigeration machine and ambient temperature.

Hegazy, Ahmed Sabry

237

Wind power  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamentals of wind power utilization are described with emphasis placed on the information needed to determine the basic geometry of wind power devices and to discuss the availability of wind for power generation. The economics and social acceptance of wind power systems at the present time are analyzed.

G. M. Bragg

1979-01-01

238

10 CFR 50.62 - Requirements for reduction of risk from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ATWS) events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. 50.62 Section 50.62 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING...ATWS) events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. (a)...

2013-01-01

239

10 CFR 50.62 - Requirements for reduction of risk from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for reduction of risk from anticipated...light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. 50...62 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...for reduction of risk from anticipated...light-water-cooled nuclear power plants....

2010-01-01

240

10 CFR 50.62 - Requirements for reduction of risk from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for reduction of risk from anticipated...light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. 50...62 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...for reduction of risk from anticipated...light-water-cooled nuclear power plants....

2009-01-01

241

10 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Reactor Vessel Material Surveillance Program Requirements  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Light-Water Cooled Nuclear Power Reactor Vesselsâ; and ASTM...Light-Water Cooled Nuclear Power Reactor Vesselsâ; which...Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race Street...is current on the issue date of the ASME...

2010-01-01

242

10 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Reactor Vessel Material Surveillance Program Requirements  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Light-Water Cooled Nuclear Power Reactor Vesselsâ; and ASTM...Light-Water Cooled Nuclear Power Reactor Vesselsâ; which...Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race Street...is current on the issue date of the ASME...

2009-01-01

243

Solid state power amplifier as 805 MHz master source for the LANSCE coupled-cavity linac  

SciTech Connect

From 100 to 800 MeV, the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) proton linac receives RF power from forty-four 1.25 MW klystrons at 805 Megahertz (MHz). A single master RF source provides a continuous high level phase reference signal which drives the klystrons along the 731 meter-long linac through a coaxial transmission line. A single point failure of this system can deenergize the entire coupled-cavity linac (CCL) RF plant. The authors replaced a physically large air-cooled tetrode amplifier with a compact water-cooled unit based on modular amplifier pallets developed at LANSCE. Each 600 Watt pallet utilizes eight push-pull bipolar power transistor pairs operated in class AB. Four of these can easily provide the 2000 watt reference carrier from the stable master RF source. A radial splitter and combiner parallels the modules. This amplifier has proven to be completely reliable after two years of operation without failure. A second unit was constructed and installed for redundancy, and the old tetrode system was removed in 1998. The compact packaging for cooling, DC power, impedance matching, RF interconnection, and power combining met the electrical and mechanical requirements. CRT display of individual collector currents and RF levels is made possible with built-in samplers and a VXI data acquisition unit.

Lyles, J.; Davis, J.

1998-12-31

244

Power supply  

DOEpatents

A modular, low weight impedance dropping power supply with battery backup is disclosed that can be connected to a high voltage AC source and provide electrical power at a lower voltage. The design can be scaled over a wide range of input voltages and over a wide range of output voltages and delivered power.

Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul (Seminole, FL); Hamilton, Pamela Jane (Seminole, FL); Brubaker, Michael Allen (Loveland, CO)

2007-12-04

245

Design and operating experience of a 40 MW, highly-stabilized power supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four 10 MW, highly-stabilized power supply modules have been installed at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, FL, to energize water-cooled, resistive, high-field research magnets. The power supply modules achieve a long term current stability if 10 ppM over a 12 h period with a short term ripple and noise variation of less than 10 ppM over a time period of one cycle. The power supply modules can operate independently, feeding four separate magnets, or two, three or four modules can operate in parallel. Each power supply module consists of a 12.5 kV vacuum circuit breaker, two three-winding, step-down transformers, a 24-pulse rectifier with interphase reactors, and a passive and an active filter. Two different transformer tap settings allow rated dc supply output voltages of 400 and 500 V. The rated current of a supply module is 17 kA and each supply module has a one-hour overload capability of 20 kA. The isolated output terminals of each power supply module are connected to a reversing switch. An extensive high-current bus system allows the modules to be connected to 16 magnet cells. This paper presents the detailed design of the power supply components. Various test results taken during the commissioning phase with a 10 MW resistive load and results taken with the research magnets are shown. The effects of the modules on the electrical supply system and the operational behavior of the power factor correction/harmonic filters are described. Included also are results of a power supply module feeding a superconducting magnet during quench propagation tests. Problems with the power supply design and solutions are presented. Some suggestions on how to improve the performance of these supplies are outlined.

Boenig, Heinrich J.; Ferner, James A.; Bogdan, Ferenc; Morris, Gary C.; Rumrill, Ron S.

246

Design and operating experience of a 40 MW, highly-stabilized power supply  

SciTech Connect

Four 10 MW, highly-stabilized power supply modules have been installed at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, FL, to energize water-cooled, resistive, high-field research magnets. The power supply modules achieve a long term current stability if 10 ppM over a 12 h period with a short term ripple and noise variation of <10 ppM over a time period of one cycle. The power supply modules can operate independently, feeding four separate magnets, or two, three or four modules can operate in parallel. Each power supply module consists of a 12.5 kV vacuum circuit breaker, two three-winding, step-down transformers, a 24-pulse rectifier with interphase reactors, and a passive and an active filter. Two different transformer tap settings allow rated dc supply output voltages of 400 and 500 V. The rated current of a supply module is 17 kA and each supply module has a one-hour overload capability of 20 kA. The isolated output terminals of each power supply module are connected to a reversing switch. An extensive high-current bus system allows the modules to be connected to 16 magnet cells. This paper presents the detailed design of the power supply components. Various test results taken during the commissioning phase with a 10 MW resistive load and results taken with the research magnets are shown. The effects of the modules on the electrical supply system and the operational behavior of the power factor correction/harmonic filters are described. Included also are results of a power supply module feeding a superconducting magnet during quench propagation tests. Problems with the power supply design and solutions are presented. Some suggestions on how to improve the performance of these supplies are outlined.

Boenig, H.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ferner, J.A. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Nationa High Magnetic Field Laboratory; Bogdan, F.; Morris, G.C. [ABB Industrial Systems, New Berlin, WI (United States); Rumrill, R.S. [Alpha Scientific Electronics Inc., Hayward, CA (United States)

1995-07-01

247

A quasi-optical resonant ring for high power millimeter-wave testing  

SciTech Connect

Gyrotrons of > 1-MW cw power in the 110- to 160-GHz frequency range with HE{sub 11} output beams are being developed for electron cyclotron heating (ECH) of plasmas. Windows are required for gyrotrons and for waveguide transmission systems at the plasma device to provide vacuum isolation and containment. Windows ar difficult to build for these systems because the window dielectric losses increase with frequency and the centrally peaked output power beam concentrates the power deposition near the center. Development and testing of a window independent of gyrotron development is desirable since window failure on a cw gyrotron usually means an expensive reprocessing of the entire tube or possibly even total loss. A quasi-optical resonant ring is being developed for testing of millimeter wave components, windows and low-loss materials at very high power levels using medium power level sources. The resonant ring generates a traveling wave resonance of uniform amplitude along the waveguide that is ideal for testing components and materials. Both smooth-wall TE{sub 01} mode and a corrugated-wall HE{sub 11} mode versions have been constructed. These units use highly oversized waveguide and four miter bends to form a quasi-optical resonant ring. A perforated plate miter bend serves as the input directional coupler. A water-cooled tube array is being designed for a coupler capable high-power cw operation. A theoretical power gain of > 10 is possible using the 63.5 mm HE{sub 11} version at 53 GHz. Low power measurements have been performed to confirm the operation and > 1.5 MW high power tests using a 200 kW gyrotron are expected in the near future.

Bigelow, T.S.

1997-08-01

248

Solid State Power Amplifier for 805 MegaHertz at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center  

SciTech Connect

Particle accelerators for protons, electrons, and other ion species often use high-power vacuum tubes for RF amplification, due to the high RF power requirements to accelerate these particles with high beam currents. The final power amplifier stages driving large accelerators are unable to be converted to solid-state devices with the present technology. In some instances, radiation levels preclude the use of transistors near beamlines. Work is being done worldwide to replace the RF power stages under about ten kilowatts CW with transistor amplifiers, due to the lower maintenance costs and obsolescence of power tubes in these ranges. This is especially practical where the stages drive fifty Ohm impedance and are not located in high radiation zones. The authors are doing this at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) proton linear accelerator (linac) in New Mexico. They replaced a physically-large air-cooled UHF power amplifier using a tetrode electron tube with a compact water-cooled unit based on modular amplifier pallets developed at LANSCE. Each module uses eight push-pull bipolar power transistor pairs operated in class AB. Four pallets can easily provide up to 2,800 watts of continuous RF at 805 MHz. A radial splitter and combiner parallels the modules. This amplifier has proven to be completely reliable after over 10,000 hours of operation without failure. A second unit was constructed and installed for redundancy, and the old tetrode system was removed in 1998. The compact packaging for cooling, DC power, impedance matching, RF interconnection, and power combining met the electrical and mechanical requirements. CRT display of individual collector currents and RF levels is made possible with built-in samplers and a VXI data acquisition unit.

Davis, J.L.; Lyles, J.T.M.

1998-10-19

249

Relicensing of the MIT Research Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Research Reactor (MITR) is owned and operated by MIT, a nonprofit university. The current reactor, MITR-II, is a 5-MW, light water-cooled and heavy water-moderated reactor that uses materials test reactor-type fuel. Documents supporting application to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for relicensing of MITR were submitted in July 1999. A power upgrade from 5 to 6 MW was also requested. The relicensed reactor (MITR-III) will be the third reactor operated by MIT. This paper describes MITR-I and MITR-II, and design options considered for MITR-III. Selected problems addressed during the relicensing studies are also described, namely core tank aging evaluation, neutronic analysis, thermal-hydraulic analysis, and step reactivity insertion analysis.

Lin-Wen Hu; John A. Bernard; Susan Tucker

2000-06-04

250

Proceedings of the 1996 international joint power generation conference. Volume 3: Nuclear -- Trends in power production; Nuclear power plant operation; Nuclear fuel utilization, storage, and disposal; NE-Volume 20  

SciTech Connect

This volume is divided into two sections: plant raw water cooling systems challenges and plant engineering support strategies in the competitive environment. Separate abstracts were prepared for nine papers in this volume.

Laudenat, R.T. [ed.

1996-12-31

251

Field tests of a vertical-fluted-tube condenser in the prototype power plant at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site  

SciTech Connect

A vertical-fluted-tube condenser was designed, fabricated, and tested with isobutane as the shell-side working fluid in a binary prototype power plant at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site. After shakedown and contamination removal operations were completed, the four-pass water-cooled unit (with 102 outside-fluted Admiralty tubes) achieved performance predictions while operating with the plant surface evaporator on-line. A sample comparison shows that use of this enhanced condenser concept offers the potential for a reduction of about 65% from the size suggested by corresponding designs using conventional horizontal-smooth-tube concepts. Subsequent substitution of a direct-contact evaporator for the surface evaporator brought drastic reductions in system performance, the apparent consequence of high concentrations of noncondensible gases introduced by the brine/working-fluid interaction.

Murphy, R.W.

1983-04-01

252

Power Source  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Principals are powerful: They are the primary catalysts for creating a lasting foundation for learning, driving school and student performance, and shaping the long-term impact of school improvement efforts. Yet few principals would characterize themselves as powerful. Rather, they're self-effacing, adaptable, pragmatic, and quick to share credit…

Schooley, Michael L.

2010-01-01

253

Cyber Power.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Power depends upon context, and the rapid growth of cyber space is an important new context in world politics. The low price of entry, anonymity, and asymmetries in vulnerability means that smaller actors have more capacity to exercise hard and soft power...

J. J. Nye

2010-01-01

254

Power Source  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Principals are powerful: They are the primary catalysts for creating a lasting foundation for learning, driving school and student performance, and shaping the long-term impact of school improvement efforts. Yet few principals would characterize themselves as powerful. Rather, they're self-effacing, adaptable, pragmatic, and quick to share credit…

Schooley, Michael L.

2010-01-01

255

Power Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Power Teaching weaves four factors into a seamless whole: standards, teaching thinking, research based strategies, and critical inquiry. As a prototype in its first year of development with an urban fifth grade class, the power teaching model connects selected district standards, thinking routines from Harvard University Project Zero Research…

Fluellen, Jerry E., Jr.

2007-01-01

256

SOLAR POWER  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes categories of solar technologies and identijies those that are economic. It compares the private costs of power from solar, wind, nuclear, coal, oil, and gas generators. In the southern United States, the private costs of building and generating electricity from new solar and wind power plants are less than the private cost of electricity from a new

A. L WALTON; DARWIN C. HALL

1990-01-01

257

POWER SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low power output of other devices at this time dictates the use of ; nuclear-reactor systems for manned space explorations. Work up to the present is ; briefly reviewed, and progress and utilization of other power supplies are ; discussed. Pros and cons of solar cells, fuel cells, and thermoelectric and ; thermionic devices are included as well as consideration

1962-01-01

258

The reactor physics characteristics of a transuranic mixed oxide fuel in a heavy water moderated reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reprocessing actinide materials extracted from spent fuel for use in mixed oxide fuels is a key component in maximizing the spent fuel repository utility. While fast spectrum reactor technologies are being considered in order to close the fuel cycle, and transmute these actinides, there is potential to utilize existing pressurized heavy water reactors such as the CANDU®11CANDU is a

A. C. Morreale; W. J. Garland; D. R. Novog

2011-01-01

259

EFFECTS OF LOW-LYING EUROPIUM RESONANCES ON THE TEMPERATURE DEFECT IN WATER MODERATED REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selection of appropriate epithermal groupaveraged cross sections for ; use in a few-group criticality calculation is particularly difficult when ; resonance absorbers are present. However, by use of the SOFOCATE code for the ; calculation of thermal spectra in hydrogenous media, it is now practical to ; include low-lying resonances below 2 ev in the thermal group. Since the

D. M. Keaveney; T. J. Krieger; M. L. Storm

1958-01-01

260

Critical experiments with solid neutron absorbers and water-moderated fast test reactor fuel pins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments was performed at the Battelle-Pacific Northwest Laboratories on water-flooded arrays of Fast Test Reactor fuel elements (PuOâ-UOâ) intermixed with solid neutron absorbers. The objective of these experiments was to provide reliable experiment data that could be used to benchmark computer codes and calculational schemes commonly used in criticality analysis of such systems. The neutron absorbers used

B. M. Durst; S. R. Bierman; E. D. Clayton; J. F. Mincey

1980-01-01

261

POWERFUL LEARNING, POWERFUL TEACHING AND POWERFUL SCHOOLS?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a personal reflection on the purpose and scope of school improvement. In explaining why in education the more things change the more they stay the same, I clarify the focus of educational reform as being powerful learning on the part of students, and then demonstrate that this occurs in contexts where content is concep- tual rather than

DAVID HOPKINS

2000-01-01

262

Engineering design features of FUGEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

From international nuclear industries fair; Basel, Switzerland (16 Oct ; 1972). FUGEN is a pressure tube type, heavy water moderated and boiling light ; water cooled reactor with an output of 165 MW(e). One of the main objects of the ; FUGEN project is to demonstrate a Plutonium Self-Sustaining Cycle. Engineering ; design features of major systems of the plant

S. Shima; M. Akebi

1972-01-01

263

Fusion Power.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the extraordinary potential, the technical difficulties, and the financial problems that are associated with research and development of fusion power plants as a major source of energy. (GA)|

Dingee, David A.

1979-01-01

264

Fusion Power.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the extraordinary potential, the technical difficulties, and the financial problems that are associated with research and development of fusion power plants as a major source of energy. (GA)

Dingee, David A.

1979-01-01

265

Power Factor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that âÂÂprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Power Factor, is the eleventh chapter in Volume II âÂÂAlternating Current. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: True, Reactive, and Apparent power; Calculating power factor, and Practical power factor correction. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-10

266

Reliable high-power diode lasers: thermo-mechanical fatigue aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High power water-cooled diode lasers are finding increasing demand in biomedical, cosmetic and industrial applications, where repetitive cw (continuous wave) and pulsed cw operation modes are required. When operating in such modes, the lasers experience numerous complete thermal cycles between "cold" heat sink temperature and the "hot" temperature typical of thermally equilibrated cw operation. It is clearly demonstrated that the main failure mechanism directly linked to repetitive cw operation is thermo-mechanical fatigue of the solder joints adjacent to the laser bars, especially when "soft" solders are used. Analyses of the bonding interfaces were carried out using scanning electron microscopy. It was observed that intermetallic compounds, formed already during the bonding process, lead to the solders fatigue both on the p- and n-side of the laser bar. Fatigue failure of solder joints in repetitive cw operation reduces useful lifetime of the stacks to hundreds hours, in comparison with more than 10,000 hours lifetime typically demonstrated in commonly adopted non-stop cw reliability testing programs. It is shown, that proper selection of package materials and solders, careful design of fatigue sensitive parts and burn-in screening in the hard pulse operation mode allow considerable increase of lifetime and reliability, without compromising the device efficiency, optical power density and compactness.

Klumel, Genady; Gridish, Yaakov; Szafranek, Igor; Karni, Yoram

2006-03-01

267

A 2-Megawatt load for testing high voltage dc power supplies  

SciTech Connect

A high power water-cooled resistive load, capable of dissipating 2 Megawatts at 95 kilovolts is being designed and built. The load utilizes wirewound resistor elements suspended inside insulating tubing contained within a pressure vessel which is supplied a continuous flow of deionized water for coolant. A sub-system of the load is composed of non-inductive resistor elements in an oil tank. Power tests conducted on various resistor types indicate that dissipation levels as high as 22 times the rated dissipation in air can be achieved when the resistors are placed in a turbulent water flow of at least 15 gallons per minute. Using this data, the load w.as designed using 100 resistor elements in a series arrangement A single-wall 316 stainless steel pressure vessel with flanged torispherical heads is built to contain the resistor assembly and deionized water. The resistors are suspended within G-11 tubing which span the cylindrical length of the vessel. These tubes are supported by G-10 baffles which also increase convection from the tubes by promoting turbulence within the surrounding water.

Horan, D.; Kustom, R.; Ferguson, M.; Primdahl, K.

1993-06-01

268

Power struggle  

SciTech Connect

Private power development in Mexico or at least the dream of it, can be characterized by three words - turmoil, tragedy and trauma. The saga continues for all parties concerned and there is little question that the worst suffering is being experienced by the Mexican people themselves. There are signs along the road that changing political, social, economic and market factors are laying the foundation for real, substantive support of a long-term private power development business sector in Mexico. Developers may still experience some potholes and wrong turns, but there is little doubt that private energy and power development will play a dominant role in Mexico`s future if for no other reason than it has to - to meet the needs of the Mexican people, the Mexican economy and the foreign investment community. There are three fundamental reasons for this guarded optimism: Basic energy/economic growth factors which originally attracted electric power investors have not changed; Legal, financial and regulatory frameworks necessary for private power investment are still in place, and are expected to grow even stronger; and, The Salinas administration`s handcuffs on the Mexican energy sector are slowly being removed, but Mexico`s economic restructuring may speed up the process.

Smith, J.H. [International Business Strategies, Golden, CO (United States)

1995-05-01

269

Power Trains.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum guide is part of a series designed to teach students about diesel engines. The materials in this power trains guide apply to both on-road and off-road vehicles and include information about chain and belt drives used in tractors and combines. These instructional materials, containing nine units, are written in terms of student…

Kukuk, Marvin; Mathis, Joe

270

Nuclear Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An introduction to nuclear fission, its controlled release in power stations, problems of nuclear waste, and nuclear accidents. A linked web page discusses nuclear weapons, their effect, their ban, and "dirty bombs". This material supplements a previous section on fission in the Sun and the curve of binding energy in "From Stargazers to Starships". A French translation also exists.

Stern, David

2004-11-28

271

Power politics  

SciTech Connect

The author reviews the political fighting that is keeping the Shoreham nuclear power plant from receiving its operating license. Meanwhile, LILCO is losing money because it has been unable to recover what it has already spent on the plant. Politicians, financial analysts and lawyers are deciding the fate of Shoreham and the U.S. nuclear industry as a whole.

Zorpette, G.

1987-11-01

272

Ocean Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast reports on ways to put ocean water to work doing everything from running steam engines and providing electricity to providing air conditioning and growing marine life and vegetables. After harnessing the power of the sea, the water is still clean and can be returned to the ocean. The clip is 2 minutes in length.

273

Power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive swing of the feedwater in power supply apparatus on the occurrence of a transient is suppressed by injecting an anticipatory compensating signal into the control for the feedwater. Typical overshoot occurs on removal of a large part of the load, the steam flow is reduced so that the conventional control system reduces the flow of feedwater. At the same

Cook

1984-01-01

274

Fusion power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusion, which powers the sun and stars, is potentially an environmentally responsible and intrinsically safe source of essentially limitless energy on earth. The potential of fusion has been recognized for over 65 years, but mastering fusion on earth has proved to be an enormous scientific and technical challenge. It involves heating a large volume of dilute gas, containing equal parts

CHRIS LLEWELLYN-SMITH; DAVID WARD

2005-01-01

275

Perpetual Power?  

SciTech Connect

This is a submission to Innovation Magazine for its January 2010 Clean-tech issue. The article discusses PNNL's award-winning Thermoelectric Ambient Energy Harvester technology, its license to Perpetua Power Source Technologies, Perpetua's subsequent product based on the PNNL technology, and where they're headed with it.

Madison, Alison L.

2010-02-16

276

Wireless Power Transmission Technology State-Of-The-Art  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This first Bill Brown SSP La Crescenta, CA 91214 technology , including microwave and laser systems for the transfer of electric , as related to eventually developing Space Solar Power (SSP) systems. Current and past technology accomplishments in ground based and air and space applied energy conversion devices, systems and modeling performance and cost information is presented, where such data are known to the author. The purpose of the presentation is to discuss and present data to encourage documenting and breaking the current technology records, so as to advance the SOA in WPT for SSP . For example, regarding DC to RF and laser converters, 83% efficient 2.45 GHz cooker-tube magnetrons with 800W CW output have been jointly developed by Russia and US. Over 50% wa11-plug efficient 1.5 kW/cm2 CW, water cooled, multibeam, solid state laser diode bar-arrays have been developed by LLNL at 808 nm wavelength. The Gennans have developed a 36% efficient, kW level, sing1e coherent beam, lateral pumped semiconductor laser. The record for end-to-end DC input to DC output power overall WPT link conversion efficiency is 54% during the Raytheon-JPL experiments in 1975 for 495.6 W recovered at 1.7-mrange at 2.4469 GAz. The record for usefully recovered electric power output ( as contrasted with thennally induced power in structures) is 34 kW OC output at a range of 1.55 km, using 2.388 GHz microwaves, during the JPL- Raytheon experiments by Bill Brown and the author at Goldstone, CA in 1975. The GaAs-diode rectenna array had an average collection-conversion efficiency of 82.5%. A single rectenna element operating a 6W RF input, developed by Bill Brown demonstrated 91.4% efficiency. The comparable record for laser light to OC output power conversion efficiency of photovoltaics is 590/0. for AlGaAs at 1.7 Wand 826nm wavelength. Russian cyclotron-wave converters have demonstrated 80% rectification efficiency at S-band. Concerning WPT technology equipment costs, magnetron conversion devices for microwave ovens are approximately O.O25/W, due to the large manufacturing quantities. Comparable, remanufactured lasers for industrial applications at the 4 kW CW level are of order 25/W. Industrial klystrons cost over 1/W and solid state power amplifiers cost over 3/W. Model tethered helicopters, model airplanes, a smal1 airship and several small rovers have been powered with microwave beams at 2.45, 5.8 and 35 GHz. Smal1 rovers have been powered with laser beams. Two space-to-space microwave power link experiments have been conducted by the Japanese and with Texas A&M assistance in one case. International records for WPT link electric power delivered, range, 1ink efficiency and other salient parameters for both wireless-laser and -microwave power demonstrations win be reviewed. Also, costing models for WPT -system figure- of-merit (FOM) in terms of capital costs, in /MW -km, as a fonction of range and power level are reviewed. Records in Japan. France, Korea, Russia, Canada and the US will be reviewed for various land based WPT demonstrations. SSP applicable elements of technology in fiber and wireless links, cell phones and base stations, aircraft, and spacecraft phased arrays, industrial and scientific klystrons and lasers, military equipment (where information is available in open literature) microwave heating, and other telecommunication activities win be presented, concerning power handling, frequency or wavelength, conversion efficiency, specific mass, specific cost, etc. Previously studied and proposed applications of WPT technology will be presented to show the range of WPT technology being considered for commercial and other applications that will lead to advancing the SOA of WPT technology that win benefit SSP .

Dickinson, R. M. T.

2002-01-01

277

Proceedings of the 2006 international congress on advances in nuclear power plants - ICAPP'06  

SciTech Connect

Following the highly successful ICAPP'05 meeting held in Seoul Korea, the 2006 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants brought together international experts of the nuclear industry involved in the operation, development, building, regulation and research related to Nuclear Power Plants. The program covers the full spectrum of Nuclear Power Plant issues from design, deployment and construction of plants to research and development of future designs and advanced systems. The program covers lessons learned from power, research and demonstration reactors from over 50 years of experience with operation and maintenance, structures, materials, technical specifications, human factors, system design and reliability. The program by technical track deals with: - 1. Water-Cooled Reactor Programs and Issues Evolutionary designs, innovative, passive, light and heavy water cooled reactors; issues related to meeting medium term utility needs; design and regulatory issues; business, political and economic challenges; infrastructure limitations and improved construction techniques including modularization. - 2. High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors Design and development issues, components and materials, safety, reliability, economics, demonstration plants and environmental issues, fuel design and reliability, power conversion technology, hydrogen production and other industrial uses; advanced thermal and fast reactors. - 3. Long Term Reactor Programs and Strategies Reactor technology with enhanced fuel cycle features for improved resource utilization, waste characteristics, and power conversion capabilities. Potential reactor designs with longer development times such as, super critical water reactors, liquid metal reactors, gaseous and liquid fuel reactors, Gen IV, INPRO, EUR and other programs. - 4. Operation, Performance and Reliability Management Training, O and M costs, life cycle management, risk based maintenance, operational experiences, performance and reliability improvements, outage optimization, human factors, plant staffing, outage reduction features, major component reliability, repair and replacement, in-service inspection, and codes and standards. - 5. Plant Safety Assessment and Regulatory Issues Transient and accident performance including LOCA and non-LOCA, severe accident analysis, impact of risk informed changes, accident management, assessment and management of aging, degradation and damage, life extension lessons from plant operations, probabilistic safety assessment, plant safety analysis, reliability engineering, operating and future plants. - 6. Thermal Hydraulic Analysis and Testing Phenomena identification and ranking, computer code scaling applicability and uncertainty, containment thermal hydraulics, component and integral system tests, improved code development and qualification, single and two phase flow; advanced computational thermal hydraulic methods. - 7. Core and Fuel Cycle Concepts and Experiments Core physics, advances in computational reactor analysis, in-core fuel management, mixed-oxide fuel, thorium fuel cycle, low moderation cores, high conversion reactor designs, particle and pebble bed fuel design, testing and reliability; fuel cycle waste minimization, recycle, storage and disposal. - 8. Materials and Structural Issues Fuel, core, RPV and internals structures, advanced materials issues and fracture mechanics, concrete and steel containments, space structures, analysis, design and monitoring for seismic, dynamic and extreme accidents; irradiation issues and materials for new plants. - 9. Nuclear Energy and Sustainability including Hydrogen, Desalination and Other Applications Environmental impact of nuclear and alternative systems, spent fuel dispositions and transmutation systems, fully integrated fuel cycle and symbiotic nuclear power systems, application of advanced designs to non-power applications such as the production of hydrogen, sea water desalination, heating and other co-generation applications. - 10. Near Term Issues (New) Applies to plants that have a significa

NONE

2006-07-01

278

Solar powered lighting system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar powered lighting system including a light emitting unit electrically connected to a rechargeable power storage unit, a solar powered recharger connected to that power storage unit, means to prevent discharge of that power storage unit through the solar powered recharger, means to prevent overcharging of the power storage unit, means to prevent discharging the power storage unit below

Stackpole

1983-01-01

279

Parent power, not pester power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explores the reasons behind parents’ food purchases for their children, relating this to the part that advertising is alleged to play in the purchase of unhealthy food, and in particular the issue of “pester power” or the nag factor. Reports a study of 1530 families in the UK sponsored by the Food Advertising Unit, which explored the questions of whether

Pat Spungin

2004-01-01

280

CISCO AIRONET POWER INJECTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

® Power Injector products increase the deployment flexibility of Cisco Aironet wireless access points and bridges by providing an alternative powering option to local power, inline power-capable multiport switches, and multiport power patch panels.

Cisco Aironet

2006-01-01

281

Star Power!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this extensive activity students estimate the energy output of the Sun by doing a simple experiment and discover how much energy sunlight provides to Earth and the role of the Sun in the Earth System. Students also evaluate the power of sunlight closer to the Sun, at the distance of Mercury, since the activity was developed in support of the NASA Mercury Messenger program.

Program, Nasa D.; Laboratory., Carnegie I.

282

Photovoltaic power  

SciTech Connect

A solar photovoltaic system has a number of advantages in addition to its reliance on a clean and inexhaustible resource. It has no moving parts, so that a solar power station can be virtually maintenance-free - a phenomenon that has been demonstrated in remotely operated lighthouses, telecommunication relay stations and space vehicles. Solar cells can easily be mass-produced, as transistors and semiconductor integrated circuits are. In an expanding market this attribute can be expected to bring about cost reductions resulting from economies of scale. Solar arrays consist of a number of solar-cell modules and allow a wide range of application sizes and types with the same conversion efficiency and technology. A plant of megawatt size can be built in less than a year, in sharp contrast to conventional power plants and particularly to nuclear plants. As a result power companies can have more flexibility in planning for projected changes in the demand for electricity In the light of all those considerations one can expect that the era of economically feasible photovoltaics will arrive in the near future, sooner than anyone would have supposed a decade ago. The achievement will require sustained research and development work, international cooperation and perhaps some initial subsidies by individual governments. Given the right conditions, the photovoltaic industry could eventually rival the electronic industry in size. 5 figures.

Hamakawa, Y.

1987-04-01

283

SINQ layout, operation, applications and R&D to high power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1997, the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) is operating a 1 MW class research spallation neutron source, named SINQ. SINQ is driven by a cascade of three accelerators, the final stage being a 590 MeV isochronous ring cyclotron which delivers a beam current of 1.8 mA at an rf-frequency of 51 MHz. Since for neutron production this is essentially a dc-device, SINQ is a continuous neutron source and is optimized in its design for high time average neutron flux. This makes the facility similar to a research reactor in terms of utilization, but, in terms of beam power, it is, by a large margin, the most powerful spallation neutron source currently in operation world wide. As a consequence, target load levels prevail in SINQ which are beyond the realm of existing experience, demanding a careful approach to the design and operation of a high power target. While the best neutronic performance of the source is expected for a liquid lead-bismuth eutectic target, no experience with such systems exists. For this reason a staged approach has been embarked upon, starting with a heavy water cooled rod target of Zircaloy-2 and proceeding via steel clad lead rods towards the final goal of a target optimised in both, neutronic performance and service life time. Experience currently accruing with a test target containing sample rods with different materials specimens will help to select the proper structural material and make dependable life time estimates accounting for the real operating conditions that prevail in the facility. In parallel, both theoretical and experimental work is going on within the MEGAPIE (MEGAwatt Pilot Experiment) project, a joint initiative by six European research institutions and JAERI (Japan), DOE (USA) and KAERI (Korea), to design, build, operate and explore a liquid lead-bismuth spallation target for 1MW of beam power, taking advantage of the existing spallation neutron facility SINQ.

Bauer, G. S.; Dai, Y.; Wagner, W.

2002-09-01

284

Free electron laser with small period wiggler and sheet electron beam: A study of the feasibility of operation at 300 GHz with 1 MW CW output power  

SciTech Connect

The use of a small period wiggler (/ell//sub ..omega../ < 1 cm) together with a sheet electron beam has been proposed as a low cost source of power for electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in magnetic fusion plasmas. Other potential applications include space-based radar systems. We have experimentally demonstrated stable propagation of a sheet beam (18 A. 1 mm /times/ 20 mm) through a ten-period wiggler electromagnet with peak field of 1.2 kG. Calculation of microwave wall heating and pressurized water cooling have also been carried out, and indicate the feasibility of operating a near-millimeter, sheet beam FEL with an output power of 1 MW CW (corresponding to power density into the walls of 2 kW/cm/sup 2/). Based on these encouraging results, a proof-of-principle experiment is being assembled, and is aimed at demonstrating FEL operating at 120 GHz with 300 kW output power in 1 ..mu..s pulses: electron energy would be 410 keV. Preliminary design of a 300 GHz 1 MW FEL with an untapered wiggler is also presented. 10 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Booske, J.H.; Granatstein, V.L.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Destler, W.W.; Finn, J.; Latham, P.E.; Levush, B.; Mayergoyz, I.D.; Radack, D.; Rodgers, J.

1988-01-01

285

Assessment of Evaporative Cooling Enhancement Methods for Air-Cooled Geothermal Power Plants: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Many binary-cycle geothermal power plants are air cooled because insufficient water is available to provide year-round water cooling. The performance of air-cooled geothermal plants is highly dependent on the dry bulb temperature of the air (much more so than fossil fuel plants that operate at higher boiler temperatures), and plant electric output can drop by 50% or more on hot summer days, compared to winter performance. This problem of reduced summer performance is exacerbated by the fact that electricity has a higher value in the summer. This paper describes a spreadsheet model that was developed to assess the cost and performance of four methods for using supplemental evaporative cooling to boost summer performance: (1) pre-cooling with spray nozzles, (2) pre-cooling with Munters media, (3) a hybrid combination of nozzles and Munters media, and (4) direct deluge cooling of the air-cooled condenser tubes. Although all four options show significant benefit, deluge cooling has the potential to be the most economic. However, issues of scaling and corrosion would need to be addressed.

Kutscher, C.; Costenaro, D.

2002-08-01

286

Power Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Providing power quality (PQ) for 21st-century needs is one of the widely accepted principal characteristics of the envisioned\\u000a Smart Grid because we will have more and more PQ-sensitive loads such as microprocessor-based devices, critical manufacturing\\u000a processes, and data centers [1]. Our future global competitiveness demands disturbance-free operation of the digital devices\\u000a that empower the productivity of our economy. It is

Kyeon Hur; Surya Santoso

287

Power Play  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online game, learners build complicated machines to complete simple tasks. The game starts with a power source on one side of the screen and the task on the other side. Learners select machine parts to link together and complete the task. The machine parts follow simple physics rules. When learners set up a free account at Kinetic City, they can answer bonus questions at the end of the activity as a quick assessment. As a larger assessment, learners can complete the Bug Blaster game after they've completed several activities.

Science, American A.

2009-01-01

288

Tidal power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The factors involved in producing energy from variations in sea level due to tides are examined. The physics of tidal power is reviewed, considering gravitational effects of moon and sun; semidiurnal, diurnal, and mixed tides; and major periodic components that affect the tidal range. Attention is also given to shelving, funneling, reflection, and resonance phenomena that have a significant effect on tidal range. It is suggested that the best mechanism for exploiting tidal energy is to employ estuarine barrages as suitable sites with high tidal ranges. It is pointed out that the components for this technology are already commercially available.

Hammons, Thomas J.

1993-03-01

289

Electrical Power Generating System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An alternating current power generation system adopted to inject power in an already powered power line is discussed. The power generating system solves to adjustably coup an induction motor, as a generator, to an ac power line wherein the motor and power...

F. J. Nola

1981-01-01

290

Girl Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Launched in 1996 by former US Department of Health and Human Services Secretary Donna Shalala, the Girl Power! Program seeks to encourage 9 to 13 year-old girls to make the most of their lives, and "to support and nurture girls in order for them to be confident, fulfilled, and true to themselves." With that in mind, this Web site is designed to be a clearinghouse of information, press releases, and activities for both parents and young women alike. The section for parents contains information about ongoing activities sponsored and endorsed by Girl Power, along with current cultural quizzes that will help keep parents in touch with their children. The area for young women features an interactive school locker that contains a "talk-back" section, fun games and activities, and information on healthy eating habits and maintaining a balanced body image. The last section on the site provides links to external sites dealing with surveys and studies on young women, such as ones dealing with substance abuse, perceived threats, and gender roles.

291

POWER REACTOR  

DOEpatents

A fast nuclear reactor system ls described for producing power and radioactive isotopes. The reactor core is of the heterogeneous, fluid sealed type comprised of vertically arranged elongated tubular fuel elements having vertical coolant passages. The active portion is surrounded by a neutron reflector and a shield. The system includes pumps and heat exchangers for the primary and secondary coolant circuits. The core, primary coolant pump and primary heat exchanger are disposed within an irapenforate tank which is filled with the primary coolant, in this case a liquid metal such as Na or NaK, to completely submerge these elements. The tank is completely surrounded by a thick walled concrete shield. This reactor system utilizes enriched uranium or plutonium as the fissionable material, uranium or thorium as a diluent and thorium or uranium containing less than 0 7% of the U/sup 235/ isotope as a fertile material.

Zinn, W.H.

1958-07-01

292

Knowledges and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactors  

SciTech Connect

The Knowledges and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operations: Savannah River Site (SRS) Production Reactors, provides the basis for the development of content-valid certification examinations for Senior Reactor Operators (SROs) and Central Control Room Supervisors (SUP). The position of Shift Technical Engineer (STE) has been included in the catalog for completeness. This new SRS reactor operating shift crew position is held by an individual holding a CCR Supervisor Certification who has received special engineering and technical training. Also, the STE has a Bachelor of Science degree in engineering or a related technical field. The SRS catalog contains approximately 2500 knowledge and ability (K/A) statements for SROs and SUPs at heavy water moderated production reactors. Each K/A statement has been rated for its importance to the safe operation of the plant in a manner ensuring the health and safety of the public. The SRS K/A catalog is presently organized into five major sections: Plant Systems grouped by Safety Function, Plant Wide Generic K/As, Emergency Plant Evolutions, Theory and Components (to be developed).

Not Available

1990-06-20

293

Telecom power supplies and power quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we address the issue of power quality in relation to the telecommunication power supply. After a general discussion of power quality and related global trends, we present a comprehensive list of line disturbances and investigate the effect of rectifier loads. Nonlinear loads, including rectifiers used in telecommunication power supplies, generate harmonic currents and, through the impedance of

R. Redl; A. S. Kislovski

1995-01-01

294

Power transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an electrohydraulic servo system which includes, in combination, a pressure compensated flow control servo valve for proportionally variably feeding hydraulic fluid to a load at a flow rate which is a predetermined proportional function of an electronic valve control signal, a variable output pump for coupling to a source of motive power to feed hydraulic fluid under pressure from a source to the servo valve, pump control means for controlling output of the pump, and an electronic servo control coupled to the valve and including means for receiving a first signal indicative of motion desired at the load, means for receiving a second signal indicative of actuation motion at the load and means for generating the valve control signal to the valve as a function of a difference between the first and second signals. The valve control signal is indicative of fluid flow velocity at the valve required to obtain the desired motion at the load, characterized in that the pump control means comprises: means for receiving the valve control signal, means for providing a signal indicative of fluid flow rate at the valve as the predetermined function of the valve control signal, and means for providing an output control signal to the pump as a function of the flow-indicative signal.

Gunda, R.; McCarty, M.R.; Rode, M.A.

1988-05-03

295

Proceedings of the 2004 international congress on advances in nuclear power plants - ICAPP'04  

SciTech Connect

The 2004 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP'04) provides a forum for the industry to exchange the latest ideas and research findings on nuclear plants from all perspectives. This conference builds on the success of last year's meeting held in Cordoba, Spain, and on the 2002 inaugural meeting held in Hollywood, Florida. Because of the hard work of many volunteers from around the world, ICAPP'04 has been successful in achieving its goal. More than 325 invited and contributed papers/presentations are part of this ICAPP. There are 5 invited plenary sessions and 70 technical sessions with contributed papers. The ICAPP'04 Proceedings contain almost 275 papers prepared by authors from 25 countries covering topics related to advances in nuclear power plant technology. The program by technical track deals with: 1 - Water-Cooled Reactor Programs and Issues (Status of All New Water-Cooled Reactor Programs; Advanced PWRs: Developmental Stage I; Advanced PWRs: Developmental Stage II; Advanced PWRs: Basic Design Stage; Advanced BWRs; Economics, Regulation, Licensing, and Construction; AP1000); 2 - High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (Pebble Bed Modular Reactors; Very High Temperature Reactors; HTR Fuels and Materials; Innovative HTRs and Fuel Cycles); 3 - Long Term Reactor Programs and Strategies (Supercritical Pressure Water Reactors; Lead-Alloy Fast Reactors; Sodium and Gas Fast Reactors; Status of Advanced Reactor Programs; Non-classical Reactor Concepts); 4 - Operation, Performance, and Reliability Management (Information Technology Effect on Plant Operation; Operation, Maintenance and Reliability; Improving Performance and Reducing O and M Costs; Plant Modernization and Retrofits); 5 - Plant Safety Assessment and Regulatory Issues (LOCA and non-LOCA Analysis Methodologies; LOCA and non-LOCA Plant Analyses; In-Vessel Retention; Containment Performance and Hydrogen Control; Advances in Severe Accident Analysis; Advances in Severe Accident Management; Ex-Vessel Debris Coolability and Steam Explosion: Theory and Modeling; Ex-Vessel Debris Coolability and Steam Explosion: Experiments and Supporting Analysis; PRA and Risk-informed Decision Making: Methodology; PRA and Risk-informed Decision Making: Advances in Practice; Use of CFD in Plant Safety Assessment and Related Regulatory Issues; Development and Application of Severe Accident Analysis Code); 6 - Thermal Hydraulic Analysis and Testing (Advances in Two-Phase Flow and Heat Transfer; Advances in CHF and Rod Bundle Thermal Hydraulics; CFD Applications to Water, Liquid Metal, and Gas Reactors; Separate Effects Thermal Hydraulic Experiments and Analysis; Integral Systems Thermal Hydraulic Experiments; Benchmark Analysis and Assessment; Natural Circulation Thermal Hydraulics; Thermal Striping and Thermal Stratification Studies); 7 - Core and Fuel Cycle Concepts and Experiments (Innovations in Core Designs; Advances in Core Design Methodology and Experimental Benchmarking; Advanced Fuel Cycles, Recycling, and Actinide Transmutation; Out of Core Fuel Cycle Issues); 8 - Material and Structural Issues (Structural and Materials Modeling and Analysis; Testing and Analysis of Structures and Materials; Advanced Issues in Welding and Materials; Fuel Design and Irradiation Issues for Next Generation Plants; Materials' Issues for Next Generation Plants); 9 - Nuclear Energy and Sustainability Including Hydrogen, Desalination, and Other Applications (Nuclear Energy Sustainability and Desalination; Nuclear Energy Application - Hydrogen); 10 - Space Power and Propulsion (Space Nuclear Power and Propulsion Systems; Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Concepts; Test and Design Methods; Instrumentation for Space Nuclear Reactors; Materials for Space Reactor Concepts)

NONE

2004-07-01

296

Secondary power systems  

SciTech Connect

In aeronautical engineering secondary power systems have long played second fiddle to the airframe, the engine, and indeed, the avionics. This collection of papers is thus timely, and its publication by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers appropriate, as secondary power systems in modern aircraft present challenging mechanical engineering problems. In military aircraft demands for electrical and hydraulic power and high pressure air have grown over the past two decades. To these basic needs are added requirements for emergency power, ground power, and independent engine starting. Additionally increased reliability and maintainability is demanded from all secondary power systems. Complete contents: What is a secondary power system. Modern technology secondary power systems for next generation military aircraft; Integrated power units; Secondary power system gearbox; Starting the system - air turbine starters; Auxiliary and emergency power system; Secondary hydraulic power generation; Advanced technology electrical power generation equipment.

Not Available

1985-01-01

297

Electrical power generating system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An alternating current power generation system adopted to inject power in an already powered power line is discussed. The power generating system solves to adjustably coup an induction motor, as a generator, to an ac power line wherein the motor and power line are connected through a triac. The triac is regulated to normally turn on at a relatively late point in each half cycle of its operation, whereby at less than operating speed, and thus when the induction motor functions as a motor rather than as a generator, power consumption from the line is substantially reduced. The principal application will be for windmill powered generation.

Nola, F. J.

1981-03-01

298

Clean power from landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal electric utilities acquire the electricity they sell to their customers two ways. They generate a portion or all of their power or they purchase power. This power is usually purchased from investor-owned utilities or joint action agencies. Another viable source of power for municipal electric utilities is independent power producers. The National Energy Policy Act of 1992 opened greater

Bean

1993-01-01

299

Power system commonality study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system\\/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this

Franklin D. Littman

1992-01-01

300

Combination power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination power plant is disclosed including an ocean thermal energy conversion power plant and a steam generation power plant. Water discharged from a condenser in the ocean thermal energy conversion power plant is mixed with water discharged from an evaporator in the ocean thermal energy conversion power plant. The mixed water is used as cooling water for a condenser

Y. Nakamoto; T. Terayama

1983-01-01

301

Software controlled power management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing power consumption is critical in many sys- tem designs. Dynamic power management is an effec- tive approach to decrease power without significantly degrading performance. Power management decisions can be implemented in either hardware or software. A recent trend on personal computers is to use software to change hardware power states. This paper presents a software architecture that allows system

Yung-Hsiang Lu; Tajana Šimuni?; Giovanni De Micheli

1999-01-01

302

Wind power for India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical and economic feasibility of wind power for rural conditions in India is assessed. Early and current wind power and windmill development are surveyed, and wind measurements on record are mentioned. The relative economics of wind power and power taken from the grid (for areas where such power is accessible) are compared for rural electrification, with base prices for

S. K. Tewari

1977-01-01

303

Constrained power control  

Microsoft Academic Search

High system capacities can be achieved by controlling the transmitter power in multiuser radio systems. Power control with no constraint on the maximum power level has been studied extensively in earlier work [1–18]. Transmitter power is at a premium in radio systems such as cellular systems and PCS. There is a limit on the maximum transmitter power especially at the

Sudheer A. Grandhi; Jens Zander; Roy Yates

1994-01-01

304

Solar Powered Multipurpose Remotely Powered Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Increase in energy demands coupled with rapid depletion of natural energy resources have deemed solar energy as an attractive alternative source of power. The focus was to design and construct a solar powered, remotely piloted vehicle to demonstrate the f...

A. N. Alexandrou W. W. Durgin R. F. Cohn D. J. Olinger C. K. Cody

1992-01-01

305

Sensitivity Degradation Characteristics of In-core Neutron Detector for Heavy Water Reactor, Fugen NPP  

SciTech Connect

Fugen nuclear power plant is a 165 MWe, heavy water-moderated, boiling light water-cooled, pressure tube-type reactor developed by JNC, which is the world's first thermal neutron power reactor to utilize mainly Uranium and Plutonium mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. Fugen has been loaded a total of 726 MOX fuel assemblies since the initial core in 1978. Each in-core neutron detector assembly of Fugen composed of four Local Power Monitors (LPM) is located at sixteen positions in the area of heavy water moderator in the core and monitors its power distribution during operation. The thermal neutron flux of Fugen is relatively higher than that of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), therefore LPM, which is comprised of a fission chamber, degrades more quickly than that of BWR. An Improved Long-life LPM (LLPM) pasted inner surface wall of the chamber with {sup 234}U/{sup 235}U at a ratio of 4 to 1 had been developed through the irradiation test at Japan Material Test Reactor (JMTR). The {sup 234}U is converted to {sup 235}U with absorption of neutron, and compensates the consumption of {sup 235}U. LPM has been loaded to the initial core of Fugen since 1978. JNC had evaluated its sensitivity degradation characteristics through the accumulated irradiation data and the parametric survey for {sup 234}U and {sup 235}U. Based on the experience of evaluation for sensitivity degradation, JNC has applied shuffling operation of LPM assemblies during an annual inspection outage to reduce the operating cost. This operation realizes the reduction of replacing number of LPM assemblies and volume of radioactive waste. This paper describes the sensitivity degradation characteristics of in-core neutron detector and the degradation evaluation methods established in Fugen. (authors)

Tsuyoshi Okawa; Naoyuki Yomori [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (Japan)

2002-07-01

306

INCREASING SCIENTIFIC POWER WITH STATISTICAL POWER  

EPA Science Inventory

A brief survey of basic ideas in statistical power analysis demonstrates the advantages and ease of using power analysis throughout the design, analysis, and interpretation of research. he power of a statistical test is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis of the test...

307

Power Semiconductor Switching Devices and Power Semiconductor Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Power semiconductor switching devices, power converters, integrated circuit assemblies, integrated circuitry, power current switching methods, methods of forming a power semiconductor switching device, power conversion methods, power semiconductor switchi...

B. A. Smetana R. C. Eden

2005-01-01

308

Power control circuit  

SciTech Connect

An electronic power control circuit used in recording seismic data at unmanned remote locations is disclosed wherein the power requirements are minimized by segregating power distribution between continuous and non-continuous requirements.

Bowden, E.A.

1985-05-21

309

Wind Power Machines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Basic aerodynamic features of wind power and wind wheels are discussed. The adaptation of wind power to running machinery is described. Developments in wind power are illustrated, followed by a brief outline of operating properties. (Author)

U. Hutter

1975-01-01

310

Wind power machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic aerodynamic features of wind power and wind wheels are discussed. The adaptation of wind power to running machinery is described. Developments in wind power are illustrated, followed by a brief outline of operating properties.

U. Hutter

1975-01-01

311

Powered Parachute Flying Handbook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Powered Parachute Flying Handbook is designed as a technical manual for applicants who are preparing for a powered parachute category rating and for currently certificated powered parachute pilots who wish to improve their knowledge. Certificated flig...

2007-01-01

312

Performance of the 10kV, 100-kA pulsed-power modules for the FRX-C magnetic compression experiment  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we present detailed performance data collected from over a year's operation of the 25 and 50-kJoule pulsed-power capacitor-bank modules developed for the Los Alamos magnetic fusion facility FRX-C. These modules supply the 5-MA magnet current needed for the compressional heating of compact toroid plasmoids. To date, 54 modules have been built and successfully tested at their full design rating: 100-kA peak output current at 10-kV charge, {tau}{sub 1/4} = 60 {mu}s (25-kJ module), or 110 {mu}s (50-kJ module), crowbar L/R {le} 1 ms. Modules are compact, cost about $5000 each, and though designed for 25 or 50 kJ, they can be easily modified for other pulsed-power applications. Energy is stored in 25-kJ capacitors. Start and crowbar switching is performed with a pair of water-cooled, size-D ignitrons. As an alternative to an ignitron, crowbar switching by solid-state rectifiers has been successfully demonstrated. Current is conducted between components and to the load by parallel-plate transmission lines and by a parallel array of commercially-available coaxial cable. 4 refs., 8 figs.

Rej, D.J.; Waganaar, W.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

1989-01-01

313

Water-cooled ion-milled diffraction gratings for the synchrotron radiation community  

SciTech Connect

Key technical and strategic choices are reviewed, leading to the fabrication method of ion-milled grating grooves for the monochromators at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), and for other synchrotrons. Several laboratories and their industrial partners have joined to manufacture gratings with essentially theoretical performance. Metrology -data and theoretical comparisons are given for square wave profile grating samples ion-milled into electroless nickel surfaces. The extensive capabilities of Hughes Aircraft in grating manufacture are reviewed.

McKinney, W.R.; Shannon, C.L.; Shults, E.N.

1993-08-01

314

NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY OF WATER-COOLED FUSION REACTORS: ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS  

SciTech Connect

ITER is an experimental Tokamak fusion energy reactor that is being built in Cadarache, France, in collaboration with seven agencies representing China, the European Union, India, Japan, Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, and the United States. The main objective of ITER is to demonstrate the scientific and technical feasibility of a controlled fusion reaction An important U.S. contribution is the design, fabrication, and delivery of the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS). This paper describes the main sources of radioactivity in TCWS water, which are the nitrogen isotopes 16N and 17N, tritium, activated corrosion products, and the carbon isotope 14C; the relative contribution of each of these sources to the total radioactive contamination of water; issues related to excess accumulation of these species; and methods to control TCWS radioactivity within acceptable limits. Among these methods are: (1) water purification to minimize corrosion of materials in contact with TCWS water; (2) monitoring of vital chemistry parameters and control of water chemistry; (3) design of proper building structure and/or TCWS loop/geometry configuration; and (4) design of an ITER liquid radwaste facility tailored to TCWS operational requirements. Design of TCWS nuclear chemistry control is crucial to ensuring that the inventory of radioactive species is consistent with the principle of 'As Low as Reasonably Achievable.'

Petrov, Andrei Y [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL

2010-01-01

315

Oxidation of Zircaloy Fuel Cladding in Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our work involved the continued development of the theory of passivity and passivity breakdown, in the form of the Point Defect Model, with emphasis on zirconium and zirconium alloys in reactor coolant environments, the measurement of critically-important parameters, and the development of a code that can be used by reactor operators to actively manage the accumulation of corrosion damage to

Digby Macdonald; Mirna Urquidi-Macdonald; Yingzi Chen; Jiahe Ai; Han-Sang Kim

2006-01-01

316

Oxidation of Zircaloy Fuel Cladding in Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Our work involved the continued development of the theory of passivity and passivity breakdown, in the form of the Point Defect Model, with emphasis on zirconium and zirconium alloys in reactor coolant environments, the measurement of critically-important parameters, and the development of a code that can be used by reactor operators to actively manage the accumulation of corrosion damage to the fuel cladding and other components in the heat transport circuits in both BWRs and PWRs. In addition, the modified boiling crevice model has been further developed to describe the accumulation of solutes in porous deposits (CRUD) on fuel under boiling (BWRs) and nucleate boiling (PWRs) conditions, in order to accurately describe the environment that is contact with the Zircaloy cladding. In the current report, we have derived expressions for the total steady-state current density and the partial anodic and cathodic current densities to establish a deterministic basis for describing Zircaloy oxidation. The models are “deterministic” because the relevant natural laws are satisfied explicitly, most importantly the conversation of mass and charge and the equivalence of mass and charge (Faraday’s law). Cathodic reactions (oxygen reduction and hydrogen evolution) are also included in the models, because there is evidence that they control the rate of the overall passive film formation process. Under open circuit conditions, the cathodic reactions, which must occur at the same rate as the zirconium oxidation reaction, are instrumental in determining the corrosion potential and hence the thickness of the barrier and outer layers of the passive film. Controlled hydrodynamic methods have been used to measure important parameters in the modified Point Defect Model (PDM), which is now being used to describe the growth and breakdown of the passive film on zirconium and on Zircaloy fuel sheathing in BWRs and PWRs coolant environments. The modified PDMs recognize the existence of a thick oxide outer layer over a thin barrier layer. From thermodynamic analysis, it is postulated that a hydride barrier layer forms under PWR coolant conditions whereas an oxide barrier layer forms under BWR primary coolant conditions. Thus, the introduction of hydrogen into the solution lowers the corrosion potential of zirconium to the extent that the formation of ZrH2 is predicted to be spontaneous rather than the ZrO2. Mott-Schottky analysis shows that the passive film formed on zirconium is n-type, which is consistent with the PDM, corresponding to a preponderance of oxygen/hydrogen vacancies and/or zirconium interstitials in the barrier layer. The model parameter values were extracted from electrochemical impedance spectroscopic data for zirconium in high temperature, de-aerated and hydrogenated environments by optimization. The results indicate that the corrosion resistance of zirconium is dominated by the porosity and thickness of the outer layer for both cases. The impedance model based on the PDM provides a good account of the growth of the bi-layer passive films described above, and the extracted model parameter values might be used, for example, for predicting the accumulation of general corrosion damage to Zircaloy fuel sheath in BWR and PWR operating environments. Transients in current density and film thickness for passive film formation on zirconium in dearated and hydrogenated coolant conditions have confirmed that the rate law afforded by the Point Defect Model (PDM) adequately describes the growth and thinning of the passive film. The experimental results demonstrate that the kinetics of oxygen or hydrogen vacancy generation at the metal/film interface control the rate of film growth, when the potential is displaced in the positive direction, whereas the kinetics of dissolution of the barrier layer at the barrier layer/solution interface control the rate of passive film thinning when the potential is stepped in the negative direction. In addition, the effects of second phase particles (SPPs) on the electrochemistry of passive zirconium in the

Digby Macdonald; Mirna Urquidi-Macdonald; Yingzi Chen; Jiahe Ai; Pilyeon Park; Han-Sang Kim

2006-12-12

317

Topical report : NSTF facilities plan for water-cooled VHTR RCCS : normal operational tests.  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Generation IV roadmapping activity, the gas-cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) has been selected as the principal concept for hydrogen production and other process-heat applications such as district heating and potable water production. On this basis, the DOE has selected the VHTR for additional R&D with the ultimate goal of demonstrating emission-free electricity and hydrogen production with this advanced reactor concept.

Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Tzanos, C. P.; Lomperski, S.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2006-09-01

318

Temperature-time distribution and thermal stresses on the RTG fins and shell during water cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) packages designed for space missions generally do not require active cooling. However, the heat they generate cannot remain inside of the launch vehicle bay and requires active removal. Therefore, before the Shuttle bay door is closed, the RTG coolant tubes attached to the heat rejection fins must be filled with water, which will circulate and remove most of the heat from the cargo bay. There is concern that charging a system at initial temperature around 200 C with water at 24 C can cause unacceptable thermal stresses in the RTG shell and fins. A computer model is developed to estimate the transient temperature distribution resulting from such charging. The thermal stresses resulting from the temperature gradients do not exceed the elastic deformation limit for the material. Since the simplified mathematical model for thermal stresses tends to overestimate stresses, it is concluded that the RTG can be cooled by introducing water at 24 C to the initially hot fin coolant tubes while the RTG is in the Shuttle cargo bay.

Turner, R. H.

319

A water-cooled spherical niobium target for the production of [ 18F]fluoride  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new automated target system for the routine production of [18F]fluoride from 18O-enriched water has been constructed. It consists of a small spherical niobium target chamber mounted into a special holder, which provides rapid cooling by water flow around the sphere. The target is irradiated with 21 MeV protons; the incident energy in the target chamber is 13 MeV. The

S. K. Zeisler; D. W. Becker; R. A. Pavan; R. Moschel; H. Rühle

2000-01-01

320

A water-cooled spherical niobium target for the production of [18F]fluoride.  

PubMed

A new automated target system for the routine production of [18F]fluoride from (18)O-enriched water has been constructed. It consists of a small spherical niobium target chamber mounted into a special holder, which provides rapid cooling by water flow around the sphere. The target is irradiated with 21 MeV protons; the incident energy in the target chamber is 13 MeV. The system is operated without external over-pressure and has been tested for beam currents up to 50 microA. 95% of the theoretical yield of [18F]fluoride has been extracted and used for the synthesis of [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. PMID:10972152

Zeisler, S K; Becker, D W; Pavan, R A; Moschel, R; Rühle, H

2000-09-01

321

Calculations of thermal deformations in directly water-cooled monochromator crystals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Computer simulations on the thermal behavior, i.e., thermal transfer coefficient, temperature distribution and thermal deformations of monochromator crystals have been reported under the condition that they would be used in SPring-8. The calculations have...

N. Matsuki S. Hashimoto H. Motohashi

1993-01-01

322

HOTRAN-2. A Code for Coolant Flow Transient Calculations of Water-Cooled Reactor Codes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

HOTRAN-2 is a digital computer program for predicting the thermal and hydraulic performance of an open-channel reactor core. The core, or a section of it, is divided into two parts: the first part is assumed to consist of a large number of normal channels...

L. Perneczky L. Szabados L. M. Kovacs

1977-01-01

323

Water-cooled spacecraft: DART to be launched by Russian Volna (Stingray) rocket  

Microsoft Academic Search

A25 September 2005, Barents Sea, near Murmansk.Ten metres under the surface of the sea, the launch tube of the Mstislav, a Rostropovich class nuclear submarine, grinds open. The countdown for the launch of a Volna R-29R slbm (Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile) starts: For many years, satellites were launched into orbit in the nose cone of a dispensable rocket. This is a

L. Hartmann

2002-01-01

324

Onset of Buoyancy-Driven Convection in Porous Media Saturated with Cold Water Cooled from Above  

Microsoft Academic Search

When porous media saturated with initially stagnant cold water around the density maximum temperature are cooled from above,\\u000a convection may be induced in an unstable lower layer. In this study, the onset of buoyancy-driven convection during time-dependent\\u000a cooling is investigated using the propagation theory, which transforms disturbance equations similarly, and also considering\\u000a the density inversion effect. The critical Darcy–Rayleigh number

Min Chan Kim; Do-Young Yoon; Joo Hyung Moon; Chang Kyun Choi

2008-01-01

325

Neutronics analysis of water-cooled energy production blanket for a fusion–fission hybrid reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutronics calculations were performed to analyse the parameters of blanket energy multiplication factor (M) and tritium breeding ratio (TBR) in a fusion–fission hybrid reactor for energy production named FDS (Fusion-Driven hybrid System)-EM (Energy Multiplier) blanket. The most significant and main goal of the FDS-EM blanket is to achieve the energy gain of about 1GWe with self-sustaining tritium, i.e. the M

Jieqiong Jiang; Minghuang Wang; Zhong Chen; Yuefeng Qiu; Jinchao Liu; Yunqing Bai; Hongli Chen; Yanglin Hu

2010-01-01

326

Apparatus and method of direct water cooling several parallel circuit cards each containing several chip packages  

SciTech Connect

A cooling apparatus, system and like method for an electronic device includes a plurality of heat producing electronic devices affixed to a wiring substrate. A plurality of heat transfer assemblies each include heat spreaders and thermally communicate with the heat producing electronic devices for transferring heat from the heat producing electronic devices to the heat transfer assemblies. The plurality of heat producing electronic devices and respective heat transfer assemblies are positioned on the wiring substrate having the regions overlapping. A heat conduit thermally communicates with the heat transfer assemblies. The heat conduit circulates thermally conductive fluid therethrough in a closed loop for transferring heat to the fluid from the heat transfer assemblies via the heat spreader. A thermally conductive support structure supports the heat conduit and thermally communicates with the heat transfer assemblies via the heat spreader transferring heat to the fluid of the heat conduit from the support structure.

Cipolla, Thomas M. (Katonah, NY); Colgan, Evan George (Chestnut Ridge, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Hall, Shawn Anthony (Pleasantville, NY); Tian, Shurong (Mount Kisco, NY)

2011-12-20

327

Performance of water-cooled lithium bromide absorption units for solar energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article includes a comprehensive review of the variables that can influence the proper choice of all the solar energy system components for the cooling of buildings. Optimization of absorption unit COPs and the required temperature levels of the heat source directly affect the choice of systems external to the unit. Improved COPs influence the effectiveness of hot water storage

1976-01-01

328

THE USE OF ALUMINUM AS FUEL CLADDING IN HIGH TEMPERATURE WATER COOLED REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum corrision product solubility has been found to be an important ; factor in aqueous aluminum corrosion. High aluminum corrosion rates in dynamic ; tests, as compared to static test, can be accounted for in terms of oxide ; solubility. Hanford solubility measurements have extablished the solubility of ; aluminum corrosion product in the temperature range 200 to successfully ;

J. A. Ayres; R. L. Dillon; R. J. Lobsinger

1958-01-01

329

Effects of Water Radiolysis in Water Cooled Reactors - Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) Program  

SciTech Connect

OAK B188 Quarterly Progress Report on NERI Proposal No.99-0010 for the Development of an Experiment and Calculation Based Model to Describe the Effects of Radiation on Non-standard Aqueous Systems Like Those Encountered in the Advanced Light Water Reactor

S. M. Pimblott

2000-10-01

330

Literature Review of Dilute Chemical Decontamination Processes for Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Decontamination of nuclear reactors denotes removal of radioactive species from systems or components, generally by the action of chemical reagents. Historically, decontamination of reactor primary systems has involved a campaign-type method, utilizing re...

G. R. Choppin R. L. Dillon B. Griggs A. B. Johnson J. F. Remark

1979-01-01

331

R and D on a Supercritical Pressure Water-Cooled Reactor in Korea  

SciTech Connect

Korea is actively participating in the international collaboration program on the development of a SCWR with Canada, Japan, EU, France, and USA. In this paper the current progress of the research activities on the SCWR in Korea is presented. The current research areas include reactor core conceptual design, a heat transfer test with supercritical CO{sub 2}, an improvement of existing safety analysis code adapting to supercritical pressure condition, and an evaluation and/or development of candidate material. (authors)

Bae, Yoon-Yeong; Bae, Kang-Mok; Yoon, Han-Young; Kim, Hyungrae; Hwang, Seong-Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin Yuseong Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

332

Holonic control of a water cooling system for a steel rod mill  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the intelligent manufacturing systems feasibility study on holonic manufacturing systems, a benchmark study whose objective was to develop an architecture of a holonic cooling control system for a steel rod rolling mill is described. The resulting architecture was simulated to illustrate benefits that could be obtained with the holonic system compared with a conventional system. A generic

J. R. Agre; G. Elsley; D. McFarlane; J. Cheng; B. Gunn

1994-01-01

333

Foundations of organization power  

Microsoft Academic Search

I shall argue that the foundations of organization power were laid down in practice through theories of power – in the sense that they sought to explain power – but through quite pragmatic practices that were not necessarily regarded as embodying a theory of power, which I shall maintain they most assuredly did. Thus, in a second move, I shall

Stewart Clegg

2009-01-01

334

Wind Power Now!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The government promotes and heavily subsidizes research in nuclear power plants. Federal development of wind power is slow in comparison even though much research with large wind-electric machines has already been conducted. Unless wind power programs are accelerated it will not become a major energy alternative to nuclear power. (MR)|

Inglis, David Rittenhouse

1975-01-01

335

Identifying Power Structures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on two processes used to begin a long-term series of studies on educational power structures in the states of Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Purposes of the study were to determine if (1) substrata or pools of power undergird educational power structures, (2) certain paths to power are…

Smith, Martha L.; Smith, Milton L.

336

POWER DYNAMICS IN NEGOTIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power is widely acknowledged to affect negotiator performance. Yet few efforts have been made to integrate the most prominent theories of power into a cohesive frame- work that can account for the results from a broad array of negotiation-relevant research. We address this limitation by proposing a dynamic integrative model that decouples power into four components: (1) potential power, (2)

PETER H. KIM; ROBIN L. PINKLEY

2005-01-01

337

Power system restoration issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the problems encountered in the three phases of power system restoration (PSR) are described. The three phases are planning for restart and reintegration of the bulk power supply, actions during system degradations for saving and retaining critical sources of power, and restoration when the power system has stabilized at some degraded level. Common concerns found in several PSR

M. M. Adibi; R. J. Kafka

1991-01-01

338

Nuclear power revival  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has not been a nuclear power plant licensed since 1979 due to the radioactive releases at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant and an accident at Chernobyl. The public and federal government opinion regarding nuclear power has since changed because the nuclear power plants are operating with unprecedented reliability and economy. Nuclear has again become the focus of

Narinder K. Trehan; Rohit Saran

2003-01-01

339

Solar power satellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar power satellite includes a truss structure having a plurality of independently controlled solar power modules mounted to one face of the truss structure. The solar power satellite is constructed in orbit by first forming and then assemblying component beam members to the truss structure. The solar power modules are constructed on a fabrication and assembly station movably attached

R. J. Copeland; J. D. Martin

1983-01-01

340

Wind Power Now!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The government promotes and heavily subsidizes research in nuclear power plants. Federal development of wind power is slow in comparison even though much research with large wind-electric machines has already been conducted. Unless wind power programs are accelerated it will not become a major energy alternative to nuclear power. (MR)

Inglis, David Rittenhouse

1975-01-01

341

Nuclear power: Fourth edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book describes the basics of nuclear power generation, explaining both the benefits and the real and imagined risks of nuclear power. It includes a discussion of the Three Mile Island accident and its effects. Nuclear Power has been used in the public information programs of more than 100 utilities. The contents discussed are: Nuclear Power and People; Why Nuclear

Deutsch

1986-01-01

342

Powers of Ten.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program explains the use of powers of ten and explains rules for converting numbers to powers of ten. It solves multiplication and division problems using powers of ten. It coverts standard prefixes such as meg, milli, and micro to powers of ten.

1964-01-01

343

Power transmission in vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a power transmission in a vehicle in which a power plant having a rear hanger portion is mounted on a body frame having a pair of frame members extending downwardly generally aft of the engine, and the power of the power plant is transmitted to a driving wheel through a continuous loop transmission mechanism.

Oike, I.; Hiasa, T.

1987-06-09

344

Subtyping with Power Types  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a typed -calculus called Power , a predicative reformulation of part of Cardelli's power type system. Power types integrate subtyping into the typing judgement, allowing bounded abstraction and bounded quantication over both types and terms. This gives a powerful and concise system of dependent types, but leads to diculty in the meta-theory and semantics which has impeded

David Aspinall

2000-01-01

345

Organizational and Individual Power  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Management, consultants, and organization development specialists are provided a method for examining an organization in terms of its power, powerlessness, and power games. Emphasis is on building on existing power and reducing perceived or real states of powerlessness and subsequent power games. (Author/EA)|

Clary, Thomas C.; Luke, Robert A., Jr.

1975-01-01

346

Geothermal Power Generation  

SciTech Connect

The report provides an overview of the renewed market interest in using geothermal for power generation including a concise look at what's driving interest in geothermal power generation, the current status of geothermal power generation, and plans for the future. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of geothermal power generation including its history, the current market environment, and its future prospects; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving renewed interest in geothermal power generation; an analysis of the challenges that are hindering the implementation of geothermal power generation projects; a description of geothermal power generation technologies; a review of the economic drivers of geothermal power generation project success; profiles of the major geothermal power producing countries; and, profiles of the major geothermal power project developers.

NONE

2007-11-15

347

HIGH-POWER LITHIUM TARGET FOR ACCELERATOR-BASED BNCT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water-cooled conical target for producing neutrons via the 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be reaction at 2.5 MeV is under development at Linac Systems. The target is intended to accept an expanded 50-kW beam from an rf linac, and is predicted to meet the intensity requirements for practical accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in concert with Linac Systems' CW RFI

Carl Willis; John Lenz; Donald Swenson

348

Power reliability and quality adds power value  

SciTech Connect

It is estimated that $27 billion dollars was lost as a result of power mishaps during 1996. Within the industry, there is little agreement on the effect that electric power industry restructuring will have on the future reliability and quality of the system. However, many engineering experts are concerned that the number of mishaps will increase as the electric power industry becomes more competitive because (1) power will travel over longer distances to reach the customer, (2) increased system impedance will make it more susceptible to sags from faults, (3) power suppliers will have less incentive to resolve system problems cooperatively, (4) price cutting pressures will result in decreased system maintenance and (5) more breakdowns will result from antiquated, and ill-maintained, end-user equipment. The 1996 western states outages prompted an immediate focus on reliability issues. Moreover, power suppliers and end-users are beginning to become more aware of the serious legal implications posed by problems in power reliability and quality, as the traditional utility gross negligence liability standards begin to be replaced by breach of contract, negligence and, perhaps, strict liability standards. This has resulted in new interest in power reliability and quality in power contract negotiations, loss control and maintenance, and reviews and audits of insurance requirements.

Fleishman, B.J. [Dickstein Shapiro Morin and Oshinsky, Washington, DC (United States)

1998-07-01

349

Power systems and power plant control  

SciTech Connect

This Proceedings consists of the 6 plenary papers and 65 of the contributed papers which were presented at the IFAC Symposium on Power Systems and Power Plant Control, held in Beijing, China on August 12-15, 1986. The control of power systems and of power plants is a subject of worldwide interest which continues to sustain a high level of research, development, and application activities in many diverse yet complementary areas. Papers pertaining to thirteen areas directly related to power system and power plant control are included in this Proceedings. The generation, transmission, and distribution of electrical energy for maximum economy, reliability, and quality of service, require both realtime control systems as well as offline support functions. The papers in this volume present state-of-the-art methods in hardware and software for both real-time control and offline decision-making. The functions and techniques described include linear and nonlinear optimization, static and dynamic state estimation, security analysis, generation control, excitation and voltage control, power plant modelling and control, stability analysis, emergency and restorative controls, large-scale sparse matrix techniques, data communications via wide area networks, microcomputer systems, power system stabilizers, load forecasting, optimum generation scheduling, and power system control centers.

Pingyang, W.

1987-01-01

350

Core performance and proliferation resistance prospective of a novel natural uranium fueled, heavy water moderated nuclear research reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional burnup calculations were carried out to analyze the performance and proliferation resistance prospective of a novel natural uranium fueled, D2O moderated, D2O cooled and graphite reflected nuclear research reactor. The lattice simulation code WIMS-D\\/4 generated microscopic group constants, (?a, ?f, ?tr, ? etc.,), in conjunction with the diffusion theory based reactor core simulation code CITATION was employed in this

Mohammad Javed Khan; Aslam; Nasir Ahmad

2006-01-01

351

Active Power Control from Wind Power (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

In order to keep the electricity grid stable and the lights on, the power system relies on certain responses from its generating fleet. This presentation evaluates the potential for wind turbines and wind power plants to provide these services and assist the grid during critical times.

Ela, E.; Brooks, D.

2011-04-01

352

Integrated solar power systems [space power applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors are developing lightweight devices that are capable of solar energy conversion and storage. These integrated power supplies (IPS) incorporate photovoltaic power generation with thin-film lithium ion energy storage. Lithium ion devices with large energy densities and long cycling lifetimes are ideal for this application. The techniques used to fabricate the solar cell and battery component films are compatible

R. P. Raffaelle; J. Underwood; D. Scheiman; J. Cowen; P. Jenkins; A. F. Hepp; J. Harris; D. M. Wilt

2000-01-01

353

Output power variations with solar power satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first comprehensive evaluation of output power variations expected from solar power satellites is presented. The various factors are classified in a two-tier manner as deterministic (either periodic or nonperiodic) and statistical (either constant with system life or changing with life). The largest variations are due to seasonal periodic factors, namely variations in the solar constant (plus or minus 3.3

R. J. Gutmann

1978-01-01

354

PowerNap: eliminating server idle power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data center power consumption is growing to unprece- dented levels: the EPA estimates U.S. data centers will con- sume 100 billion kilowatt hours annually by 2011. Much of this energy is wasted in idle systems: in typical deployments, server utilization is below 30%, but idle servers still con- sume 60% of their peak power draw. Typical idle periods— though frequent—last

David Meisner; Brian T. Gold; Thomas F. Wenisch

2009-01-01

355

Reactivity worths of annular control rods in a pressure-tube-type heavy water lattice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control rod effect has been experimentally studied in the Deuterium Critical Assembly (DCA) by using annular absorbers that simulate control rods of the FUGEN reactor, a prototype heavy-water-moderated, boiling-light-water-cooled, pressure-tube-type reactor. The DCA cores for this experiment are of the 1.2 percent-²³⁵U-enriched UOâ lattices, and consist of 28-pin fuel clusters arranged in a square array of 22.5-cm lattice pitch.

M. Ueda; M. Matsumoto; T. Haga

1977-01-01

356

Practical application of the RUTA safe pool-type nuclear reactor to demonstrate the advantages of atomic energy use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of the RUTA water-cooled water-moderated pool-type nuclear reactor is presented. The basic results of findings of the RUTA-70 pilot district heating plant in Obninsk science town, Kaluga Region, Russia, and capabilities of using this for nuclear technology research purposes are shown. The basic technical data of the reactor facility are presented and its design is described in brief.

A. Romenkov

2009-01-01

357

Evaluation method of check-valve integrity during sudden closure using thermal-hydraulic and structural analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Thermal Reactor (ATR), a boiling-water-cooled, heavy-water-moderated, pressure-tube type reactor, has a series of check-valves just upstream of a water drum that serves as a distributing header for fuel channels. In the case of a hypothetical guillotine break upstream of the water drum, the check-valve integrity is a key issue for reactor safety during rapid closure. Pipe break experiments

Hiroyasu Mochizuki

2000-01-01

358

Photoconductive power switches  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines the advantages and the potential of photoconductive switches applied to high-power systems. The photoconductive effect can be used to switch large amounts of energy by changing the conductivity of a solid-state circuit element many orders of magnitude with a high-power laser. The simplicity of these devices offers many advantages in high-power applications when combined with high-power pulsed lasers. The surge capability, the switched energy gain, and the maximum average power for photoconductive power switches are discussed. In addition, the results of a 100-kV, 100-MW photoconductive switch experiment transferring 20 J in 200 ns are presented.

Nunnally, W.C.; Hammond, R.B.

1983-01-01

359

Green Power Partnership Glossary  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Renewable Energy Resources:  See Green Power Market section of this Web site. (http://www.epa.gov/greenpower/pubs/glossary.htm)   From Green Power Partnership Glossary  -  Search all glossaries for terms containing renewable energy resources

2011-04-20

360

Power conversion technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Power Conversion Technologies thrust area identifies and sponsors development activities that enhance the capabilities of engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the area of solid- state power electronics. Our primary objective...

M. Newton

1997-01-01

361

Space Solar Power Program  

SciTech Connect

Information pertaining to the Space Solar Power Program is presented on energy analysis; markets; overall development plan; organizational plan; environmental and safety issues; power systems; space transportation; space manufacturing, construction, operations; design examples; and finance.

Arif, H.; Barbosa, H.; Bardet, C.; Baroud, M.; Behar, A.; Berrier, K.; Berthe, P.; Bertrand, R.; Bibyk, I.; Bisson, J.; Bloch, L.; Bobadilla, G.; Bourque, D.; Bush, L.; Carandang, R.; Chiku, T.; Crosby, N.; De Seixas, M.; De Vries, J.; Doll, S.; Dufour, F.; Eckart, P.; Fahey, M.; Fenot, F.; Foeckersperger, S.; Fontaine, J.E.; Fowler, R.; Frey, H.; Fujio, H.; Gasa, J.M.; Gleave, J.; Godoe, J.; Green, I.; Haeberli, R.; Hanada, T.; Ha

1992-08-01

362

Tropix Power System Architecture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains results obtained in the process of performing a power system definition study of the TROPIX power management and distribution system (PMAD). Requirements derived from the PMADs interaction with other spacecraft systems are discussed...

D. B. Manner J. M. Hickman

1995-01-01

363

Power MOSFET Ruggedness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Until now, power MOSFETs (metal oxide semiconductor-field effect transistors) have been used in power supplies and motor control devices but many new applications such as in relays, car electronics and lighting inverters are being developed rapidly. Howev...

H. Tanabe K. Suzuki K. Suzuki

1989-01-01

364

Wind power price regulation considering wind power fluctuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind power penetration to power systems is increasing rapidly in the recent years due to its environmental benefit, while wind power fluctuation also brings some problems to power system operation which impacts the transmission company's willingness to accept wind power. The most serious conflict influencing wind power development is that the currently adopted price of wind power on-grid does not

Yuhong Zhang; Ming Zhou; Gengyin Li

2010-01-01

365

Fiber optic power converter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-efficiency, narrow-band fiber optic power converters have been produced under pilot line conditions. Power conversion efficiencies as high as 30 percent are obtained for devices illuminated with 50 mw from a 1060 nm Nd:YAG laser. The devices have an average power conversion efficiency in excess of 23 percent and fill factor greater than 74 percent. These devices can be used in remote locations to provide power for a variety of uses.

Eide, John; Mueller, Chip; Leonard, Ted

1989-09-01

366

Electrical power generating system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A power generating system for adjusting coupling an induction motor, as a generator, to an A.C. power line wherein the motor and power line are connected through a triac is described. The triac is regulated to normally turn on at a relatively late point in each half cycle of its operation, whereby at less than operating speed, and thus when the induction motor functions as a motor rather than as a generator, power consumption from the line is substantially reduced.

Nola, F. J.

1983-06-01

367

Solar thermal power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The\\u000a focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale.\\u000a In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of

L. Schnatbaum

2009-01-01

368

The Administrative Power Grab  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Administrative power for some school teachers can be an aphrodisiac that can be applied negatively, especially when a leader has devastating instinct for the weaknesses of others. A leader's intellect and heart closes shop and ceases to function when drunk on power. In this article, the author describes how the use of administrative power can be…

Sorenson, Richard D.

2007-01-01

369

Measuring National Power.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the dawn of the 21st century, the concept of power is more important than ever and also more debated. How to measure the power of the United States fundamental to the major debates over American foreign policy. If, as the globe's unipolar power, the Un...

G. F. Treverton S. G. Jones

2005-01-01

370

Ocean engineering power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The text presents basic thermodynamic principles and engineering considerations for ocean power systems. A survey chapter introduces a wide range of applications of power systems in the oceans. Thermodynamic principles and engine cycles are extensively reviewed in the next chapter. Then, chapters on energy sources, thermal power plants, and engineering of specific types of ocean systems are presented. Engineering principles

Carmichael

1974-01-01

371

Solar power towers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Components of solar power towers include a heliostat array, a central receiver, a thermodynamic conversion system, and a thermal storage unit. A 1-MW solar power tower prototype which has 17,500 sq m of mirror surface and a tower 90 m in elevation is currently under development in France. A joint European project to develop another 1-MW solar power tower is

M. Bignon

1979-01-01

372

Power systems (review of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book covers a variety of issues related to the integration and operation of renewable energy (RE) in power systems. Given the steady increase in demand for electricity, increased interest in protecting the environment and deployment of RE power generation sources, and their increased penetration into the power grid worldwide, the subject book is very timely. Congratulations to the authors!

Hashem Nehrir

2009-01-01

373

Power systems (review of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a good introductory textbook on the subject of power system dynamic performance and control, and I would recommend it to both students of power system dynamics and practicing engineers. It is well written with a good balance between mathematical rigger and physically insightful discussions. The book provides a good broad coverage of dynamics, stability and control of power

Pouyan Pourbeik

2009-01-01

374

Microcontroller Based Power Supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

These days, majority of electronic devices work on DC power source, so there was a requirement of a reliable and customized power supply. Generally, the requirements are not too varied, but still they require every time a new hardware designing. The idea presented here is to build a microcontroller controlled power supply (1) that is flexible enough to meet different

Tanvir Singh Mundra; Er. Satwinder Singh Sachdeva; K. S. Kahlon

2006-01-01

375

Radioisotope Powered Cardiac Pacemakers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 50, 000 implantable cardiac pacemakers are in use to rehabilitate patients with heart block. The chemical batteries powering these pacemakers usually fail within a few years. A variety of nuclear batteries, with the potential of providing long-lived (10 - 20 years) pacemaker power, are under development. This paper reviews the status of this development. Nuclear-powered pacemakers have reached the

F. N. Huffman; J. J. Migliore; W. J. Robinson; J. C. Norman

1974-01-01

376

Smart power technologies evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the evolution in the mixed power process field driven by the need to integrate more and more functions onto the same chip. The more recent BCD (Bipolar, CMOS, DMOS) and VIPower(R) (Vertical Intelligent Power) examples are a demonstration of how Smart Power technologies evolves today following, with some delay, the road maps of VLSI CMOS and BiCMOS

Bruno Murari; Claudio Contiero; Roberto Gariboldi; S. Sueri; A. Russo

2000-01-01

377

Fluid Power Technician  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fluid power technicians, sometimes called hydraulic and pneumatic technicians, work with equipment that utilizes the pressure of a liquid or gas in a closed container to transmit, multiply, or control power. Working under the supervision of an engineer or engineering staff, they assemble, install, maintain, and test fluid power equipment.…

Moore, Pam

2008-01-01

378

Optimal Power Flow Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A practical method is given for solving the power flow problem with control variables such as real and reactive power and transformer ratios automatically adjusted to minimize instantaneous costs or losses. The solution is feasible with respect to constraints on control variables and dependent variables such as load voltages, reactive sources, and tie line power angles. The method is based

Hermann Dommel; William Tinney

1968-01-01

379

The power of transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion The answer to the question, how is man empowered to change? can be given in this form: We are empowered to change when we experience trust and acceptance coming to us from another person or group. Change occurs when our power of being is affirmed by other centers of power. This affirmation of our power of being overcomes the

Harville Hendrix

1971-01-01

380

Safety of nuclear power  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree of safety associated with power production by different types of nuclear power plants and with the processing and storage of radioactive wastes is assessed. Nuclear power plant designs incorporate redundant and overlapping safety control systems to guard against component failures and misfunctions. Additional safety systems and special design features are included to minimize the consequences of a wide

J. M. Hendrie

1976-01-01

381

Prospects for Nuclear Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear power has long been controversial because of concerns about nuclear accidents, storage of spent fuel, and how the spread of nuclear power might raise risks of the proliferation of nuclear weapons. These concerns are real and important. However, emphasizing these concerns implicitly suggests that unless these issues are taken into account, nuclear power would otherwise be cost effective compared

Lucas W. Davis

2012-01-01

382

Modular hydroelectric power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modular hydroelectric power plant which converts energy of water flowing in a stream into electric power is described. The plant comprises a plurality of modules which are removably mounted on piers embedded in a river or stream bed. Each module comprises a turbine over which water flows to rotate the turbine, and turbine rotation is converted into power by

Diggs

1977-01-01

383

Micro hydroelectric power stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is a concise, comprehensive presentation of all aspects of hydro-power exploitation using micro-power stations. It offers engineers guidance to techniques for assessing the power available from a given stream, designing and building siteworks, selecting the appropriate turbine types for given conditions, and measuring and controlling environmental hazards associated with micro-hydro installations.

L. Monition; L. LeNir; J. Roux

1985-01-01

384

SURVEY OF STOPPING POWER  

Microsoft Academic Search

This survey discusses the status of stopping power problems pertinent to ; dosimetry. It is shown that stopping powers of light elements can be predicted ; with high accuracy over wide energy ranges. A systematic discrepency of ca 2 per ; cert still exists between the stopping powers of heavy elements derived from ; measurements with high-energy particles, and those

W. Brandt

1958-01-01

385

Wind power myths debunked  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural variability of wind power makes it different from other generating technologies, which can give rise to questions about how wind power can be integrated into the grid successfully. This article aims to answer several important questions that can be raised with regard to wind power. Although wind is a variable resource, grid operators have experience with managing variability

Michael Milligan; Kevin Porter; Edgar DeMeo; Paul Denholm; Hannele Holttinen; Brendan Kirby; Nicholas Miller; Andrew Mills; Mark O'Malley; Matthew Schuerger; Lennart Soder

2009-01-01

386

Transmitters using Power Amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

TWT amplifiers have traditionally been used for microwave communications links requiring high power amplifiers. The mean-time-before-failure (MTBF) of traveling wave tube amplifiers (TWTAs) is low compared to solid state power amplifiers and generally limits the communication system performance. The frequency and power capabilities of solid state amplifiers using FETs and IMPATT devices have been advancing rapidly in recent years. Transmitters

J. Goel; S. Yuan

1984-01-01

387

Power quality following deregulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utility deregulation will have tangible and intangible effects on power quality requiring industry-wide action to maintain adequate standards. These effects are discussed in the first part of the paper. The increasing trend towards more extensive use of power electronic control at the generation, transmission and utilization systems following deregulation has power quality implications that will affect the standards, system simulation

JOS ARRILLAGA; MATH H. J. BOLLEN; NEVILLE R. WATSON

2000-01-01

388

Knowledge, power, and hypermedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our paper explores the relationship between knowledge and power first articulated in the modern age by Francis Bacon, in terms of M. Foucault's postmodern critique of Power\\/Knowledge that seems to reverse the meaning of Bacon's “knowledge is power” maxim. We apply Foucault's critique to instructional technology concentrating especially on hypermedia. We remark on the many similarities between Foucault's postmodern critique

James W. Garrison; John K. Burton

1995-01-01

389

Switched power workshop. [Switched power electron guns  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the design of a switched power electron gun. Particular topics discussed are: vacuum photodiode switch; laser switched solid state diodes; gun performance; charging supply; and laser requirements. (LSP)

Palmer, R.B.

1988-01-01

390

Stopping pollution of natural watercourses by oil-containing power station wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the present state of oil coolers, the simplest and most reliable low-cost system should be considered to be a closed oil cooler and auxiliary equipment system with their cooling water cooled separately in a small cooling tower. With practically perfect oil cooler sealing, it is allowable to use a combination system with a closed system for cooling the auxiliary

G. T. Shkolnik; G. A. Mendeleev; V. N. Zelenin; T. V. Mikheeva

1977-01-01

391

Optimal power flows of interconnected power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work presented in this paper seeks to provide a theoretically sound, yet practical foundation for the implementation of inter-utilities power exchanges based on spot pricing. The proposed approach allows the operational independence of each utility. Using decomposition-coordination techniques, a multi-area optimal power flow problem is reformulated as a master problem and a set of area-OPF subproblems, each associated with

J. A. Aguado; Victor H. Quintana; Antonio J. Conejo

1999-01-01

392

Multimegawatt space power reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to the need of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) and long range space exploration and extra-terrestrial basing by the National Air and Space Administration (NASA), concepts for nuclear power systems in the multi-megawatt levels are being designed and evaluated. The requirements for these power systems are being driven primarily by the need to minimize weight and maximize safety and reliability. This paper will discuss the present requirements for space based advanced power systems, technological issues associated with the development of these advanced nuclear power systems, and some of the concepts proposed for generating large amounts of power in space.

Dearien, J. A.; Whitbeck, J. F.

393

Transient hardened power FETs  

SciTech Connect

N-channel power FETs offer significant advantages in power conditioning circuits. Similiarily to all MOS technologies, power FET devices are vulnerable to ionizing radiation, and are particularily susceptible to burn-out in high dose rate irradiations (>1E10 rads(Si)/sec.), which precludes their use in many military environments. This paper will summarize the physical mechanisms responsible for burn-out, and discuss various fabrication techniques designed to improve the transient hardness of power FETs. Power FET devices were fabricated with several of these techniques, and data will be presented which demonstrates that transient hardness levels in excess of 1E12 rads(Si)/sec. are easily achievable.

Dawes, W.R. Jr.; Fischer, T.A.; Huang, C.C.C.; Meyer, W.J.; Smith, C.S.; Blanchard, R.A.; Fortier, T.J.

1986-01-01

394

Multimegawatt space power reactors  

SciTech Connect

In response to the need of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) and long range space exploration and extra-terrestrial basing by the National Air and Space Administration (NASA), concepts for nuclear power systems in the multi-megawatt levels are being designed and evaluated. The requirements for these power systems are being driven primarily by the need to minimize weight and maximize safety and reliability. This paper will discuss the present requirements for space based advanced power systems, technological issues associated with the development of these advanced nuclear power systems, and some of the concepts proposed for generating large amounts of power in space. 31 figs.

Dearien, J.A.; Whitbeck, J.F.

1989-01-01

395

Solar thermal power  

SciTech Connect

Solar thermal power is produced by three types of concentrating systems, which utilize parabolic troughs, dishes, and heliostats as the solar concentrators. These systems are at various levels of development and commercialization in the United States and in Europe. The U.S. Industry is currently developing these systems for export at the end of this century and at the beginning of the next one for remote power, village electrification, and grid-connected power. U.S. utilities are not forecasting to need power generation capacity until the middle of the first decade of the 21{sup st} century. At that time, solar thermal electric power systems should be cost competitive with conventional power generation in some unique U.S. markets. In this paper, the authors describe the current status of the development of trough electric, dish/engine, and power tower solar generation systems. 46 refs., 20 figs., 8 tabs.

Mancini, T.R.; Kolb, G.J.; Prairie, M.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-12-31

396

10 CFR 50.55a - Codes and standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...50.55a Section 50.55a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING...a boiling or pressurized water-cooled nuclear power facility is subject to the conditions...boiling or pressurized water-cooled nuclear power facility is subject to the...

2011-01-01

397

10 CFR 50.55a - Codes and standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...50.55a Section 50.55a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING...a boiling or pressurized water-cooled nuclear power facility is subject to the conditions...boiling or pressurized water-cooled nuclear power facility is subject to the...

2012-01-01

398

Power Density Optimization in High Fidelity Power Drive  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes factors determining power density in high current and high MVA power electronic converters & solid-state switches and recommends practical approaches to increase power density. For years increase in power density was the result of improvements in the power semiconductors density, which is the determining factor in medium power applications at voltages below 1 KV. However in most

Yuri Khersonsky; Chi Mak; George Robinson

2005-01-01

399

Trace-element characterization of evidential cannabis sative samples using k{sub 0}-standardization methodology  

SciTech Connect

The University of Florida Training Reactor (UFTR) facilities including the analytical laboratory are used for a wide range of educational, research, training, and service functions. The UFTR is a 100-kW light-water-cooled, graphite-and-water-moderated modified Argonaut-type reactor. The UFTR utilizes high enriched plate-type fuel in a two-slab arrangement and operates at a 100-kW power level. Since first licensed to operate at 10 kW in 1959, this nonpower reactor facility has had an active but evolving record of continuous service to a wide range of academic, utility, and community users. The services of the UFTR have also been used by various state authorities in criminal investigations. Because of its relatively low power and careful laboratory analyses, the UFTR neutron flux characteristics in several ports are not only well characterized but they are also quite invariant with time. As a result, such a facility is well-suited to the application of the multielement analysis using the k{sub o}-standardization method of neutron activation analysis. The analysis of untreated evidential botanical samples presented a unique opportunity to demonstrate implementation of this method at the UFTR facilities.

Henderson, D.P. Jr.; Vernetson, W.G.; Ratner, R.T. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

400

Solar power towers  

SciTech Connect

The high desert near Barstow, California, has witnessed the development of this country`s first two solar power towers. Solar One operated successfully from 1982 to 1988 and proved that power towers work efficiently to produce utility-scale power from sunlight. Solar Two was connected to the utility grid in 1996 and is operating today. Like its predecessor, Solar Two is rated at 10 megawatts. An upgrade of the Solar One plant, Solar Two demonstrates how solar energy can be stored in the form of heat in molten salt for power generation on demand. The experience gained with these two pilot power towers has established a foundation on which industry can develop its first commercial plants. These systems produce electricity on a large scale. They are unique among solar technologies because they can store energy efficiently and cost effectively. They can operate whenever the customer needs power, even after dark or during cloudy weather.

Not Available

1998-04-01

401

Entangling power of permutations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The notion of entangling power of unitary matrices was introduced by Zanardi , [Phys. Rev. A 62, 030301 (2000)]. We study the entangling power of permutations, given in terms of a combinatorial formula. We show that the permutation matrices with zero entangling power are, up to local unitaries, the identity and the swap. We construct the permutations with the minimum nonzero entangling power for every dimension. With the use of orthogonal latin squares, we construct the permutations with the maximum entangling power for every dimension. Moreover, we show that the value obtained is maximum over all unitaries of the same dimension, with a possible exception for 36. Our result enables us to construct generic examples of 4-qudit maximally entangled states for all dimensions except for 2 and 6. We numerically classify, according to their entangling power, the permutation matrices of dimensions 4 and 9, and we give some estimates for higher dimensions.

Clarisse, Lieven; Ghosh, Sibasish; Severini, Simone; Sudbery, Anthony

2005-07-01

402

Solar power towers  

SciTech Connect

The high desert near Barstow, California, has witnessed the development of this country's first two solar power towers. Solar One operated successfully from 1982 to 1988 and proved that power towers work efficiently to produce utility-scale power from sunlight. Solar Two was connected to the utility grid in 1996 and is operating today. Like its predecessor, Solar Two is rated at 10 megawatts. An upgrade of the Solar One plant, Solar Two demonstrates how solar energy can be stored in the form of heat in molten salt for power generation on demand. The experience gained with these two pilot power towers has established a foundation on which industry can develop its first commercial plants. These systems produce electricity on a large scale. They are unique among solar technologies because they can store energy efficiently and cost effectively. They can operate whenever the customer needs power, even after dark or during cloudy weather.

NONE

1998-04-01

403

Entangling power of permutations  

SciTech Connect

The notion of entangling power of unitary matrices was introduced by Zanardi et al., [Phys. Rev. A 62, 030301 (2000)]. We study the entangling power of permutations, given in terms of a combinatorial formula. We show that the permutation matrices with zero entangling power are, up to local unitaries, the identity and the swap. We construct the permutations with the minimum nonzero entangling power for every dimension. With the use of orthogonal latin squares, we construct the permutations with the maximum entangling power for every dimension. Moreover, we show that the value obtained is maximum over all unitaries of the same dimension, with a possible exception for 36. Our result enables us to construct generic examples of 4-qudit maximally entangled states for all dimensions except for 2 and 6. We numerically classify, according to their entangling power, the permutation matrices of dimensions 4 and 9, and we give some estimates for higher dimensions.

Clarisse, Lieven; Sudbery, Anthony [Department of Mathematics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Ghosh, Sibasish [Department of Computer Science, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Severini, Simone [Department of Mathematics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Department of Computer Science, The University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

2005-07-15

404

Self-powered sensors.  

PubMed

One of the problems associated with miniaturization and portability of sensors is the power supply. Power supplies, such as batteries, are difficult to miniaturize and require a sensor design that allows for easy replacement or recharging. This review describes the field of self-powered sensing, where the sensor itself provides the power for the sensing device. Most self-powered-sensing strategies employ either nuclear energy conversion or electrochemical energy conversion. Nuclear energy conversion is employed for radioisotope or nuclear reactor sensing. Electrochemical energy conversion is employed for chemical and biological sensing. This review details the common strategies for self-powered nuclear, chemical, and biological sensing and discusses the future of the technology. PMID:21359574

Arechederra, Robert L; Minteer, Shelley D

2011-02-26

405

The Power of God  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much contemporary analytic philosophy understands the power of God as belonging to the same logical space as the power of\\u000a human beings: a power of efficient causation taken to the maximum limit. This anthropomorphic picture is often explicated\\u000a in terms of God’s capacity to bring about any logically possible state of affairs, so-called omnipotence. D.Z. Phillips criticized\\u000a this position in

Andrew Gleeson

2010-01-01

406

Nuclear power browning out  

SciTech Connect

When the sad history of nuclear power is written, April 26, 1986, will be recorded as the day the dream died. The explosion at the Chernobyl plant was a terrible human tragedy- and it delivered a stark verdict on the hope that nuclear power will one day replace fossil fuel-based energy systems. Nuclear advocates may soldier on, but a decade after Chernobyl it is clear that nuclear power is no longer a viable energy option for the twenty-first century.

Flavin, C.; Lenssen, N.

1996-05-01

407

Optimizing power using transformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing demand for portable computing has elevated power consumption to be one of the most critical design parameters. A high-level synthesis system, HYPER-LP, is presented for mini- mizing power consumption in application specific datapath intensive CMOS circuits using a variety of architectural and computational transformations. The synthesis envir onment consists of high-level esti- mation of power consumption, a library

Anantha P. Chandrakasan; Miodrag Potkonjak; Renu Mehra; Jan M. Rabaey; Robert W. Brodersen

1995-01-01

408

UHF Integrated Power Amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of integrated UHF power amplifiers using thin-film lumped elements and UHF power-transistor chips. Single-stage hybrid amplifier modules capable of delivering output powers up to 20 watts CW in the frequency range of 225-400 MHz are reported. In addition, broad-band hybrid amplifiers are discussed with 1-dB bandwidths of up to 40 percent in the same 225-400

W. E. Poole

1969-01-01

409

Critical pulse power components  

SciTech Connect

Critical components for pulsed power conditioning systems will be reviewed. Particular emphasis will be placed on those components requiring significant development efforts. Capacitors, for example, are one of the weakest elements in high-power pulsed systems, especially when operation at high-repetition frequencies for extended periods of time are necessary. Switches are by far the weakest active components of pulse power systems. In particular, opening switches are essentially nonexistent for most applications. Insulaton in all systems and components requires development and improvement. Efforts under way in technology base development of pulse power components will be discussed.

Sarjeant, W.J.; Rohwein, G.J.

1981-01-01

410

Efficiency and Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following animation shows how a load resistance results in increase in output power. Use the up and down arrow keys to change the load resistance. While viewing, note the following: power output peaks when load resistance equals generator resistance, further increases in load resistance results in lower output power. The objective is to describe the optimum load versus power settings for transfer of RF Energy. This simulation is from Module 106 of the RF Energy and Plasma Cluster of the MATEC Module Library (MML).

2011-10-05

411

Power System Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric power generation that relies on various sources as the primary sources of energy is expected to bring down CO2 emissions levels to support the overall strategy to curb global warming. Accordingly, utilities are moving towards integrating more renewable sources for generation, mostly dispersed, and adopting Smart Grid Technologies for system control. In order to construct, operate, and maintain power systems stably and economically in such background, thorough understanding about the characteristics of power systems and their components is essential. This paper presents modeling and simulation techniques available for the analysis of critical aspects such as thermal capacity, stability, voltage stability, and frequency dynamics, vital for the stable operation of power systems.

Taniguchi, Haruhito

412

Lithium power sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theoretical and applied aspects of the development of lithium power sources are examined. The characteristics of lithium power sources with liquid and solid cathode materials are analyzed, and their performance is evaluated as a function of the discharge regime and temperature. The discussion also covers the electrochemical kinetics of the lithium electrode, inorganic and organic electrolytes, primary and secondary lithium power sources, and medium-temperature storage batteries of the system lithium/iron sulfides. Particular attention is given to the existing and prospective applications of lithium power sources of various kinds.

Kedrinskii, Il'ia A.; Dmitrenko, Vasilii E.; Grudianov, Igor'i.

413

Radioisotope powered AMTEC systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alkali metal thermal to electric converter (AMTEC) systems are being developed for high performance spacecraft power systems, including small, general purpose heat source (GPHS) powered systems. Several design concepts have been evaluated for the power range from 75 W to 1 kW. The specific power for these concepts has been found to be as high as 18-20 W/kg and 22 kW/m(exp 3). The projected area, including radiators, has been as low as 0.4 m(exp 2)/kW. AMTEC power systems are extremely attractive, relative to other current and projected power systems, because AMTEC offers high power density, low projected area, and low volume. Two AMTEC cell design types have been identified. A single-tube cell is already under development and a multitube cell design, to provide additional power system gains, has undergone proof-of-principle testing. Solar powered AMTEC (SAMTEC) systems are also being developed, and numerous terrestrial applications have been identified for which the same basic AMTEC cells being developed for radioisotope systems are also suitable.

Ivanenok, Joseph F., III; Sievers, Robert K.

1994-11-01

414

Storage modeling for power estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power consumption is a major issue in today's datacenters. Storage typically comprises a significant percentage of datacenter power. Thus, understanding, managing, and reducing storage power consumption is an essential aspect of any efforts that address the total power consumption of datacenters. We developed a scalable power modeling method that estimates the power consumption of storage workloads. The modeling concept is

Miriam Allalouf; Yuriy Arbitman; Michael Factor; Ronen I. Kat; Kalman Z. Meth; Dalit Naor

2009-01-01

415

Comparison and Evaluation of Power Plant Options for Geosynchronous Power Stations. Part 1: Synchronous Solar Power.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present state-of-the-art is described for the development of solar power generators in far out synchronous orbit for power generation. Concepts of geosynchronous solar power satellites are discussed including photovoltaic arrays for power satellites, ...

J. R. Williams

1973-01-01

416

Reactive power compensation for wind power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This technical paper provides the basic guidelines for the application of reactive compensation systems to be used as part of a wind power plant. A brief history of wind plant reactive compensation system is discussed, then the fundamental needs of why reactive compensation is required. The paper will then provide some alternatives for reactive compensation, how to size the reactive

E. H. Camm; M. R. Behnke; O. Bolado; M. Bollen; M. Bradt; C. Brooks; W. Dilling; M. Edds; W. J. Hejdak; D. Houseman; S. Klein; F. Li; J. Li; P. Maibach; T. Nicolai; J. Patino; S. V. Pasupulati; N. Samaan; S. Saylors; T. Siebert; T. Smith; M. Starke; R. Walling

2009-01-01

417

Limits to Tidal Power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean tides have been proposed as a source of renewable energy, though the maximum available power may be shown to be only a fraction of the present dissipation rate of 3.5 TW, which is small compared with global insolation (nearly 105 TW), wind dissipation (103 TW), and even human power usage of 15 TW. Nonetheless, tidal power could be a useful contributor in some locations. Traditional use of tidal power, involving the trapping of water behind a barrage at high tide, can produce an average power proportional to the area of the headpond and the square of the tidal range; the power density is approximately 6 W per square meter for a tidal range of 10 m. Capital costs and fears of environmental damage have put barrage schemes in disfavor, with interest turning to the exploitation of strong tidal currents, using turbines in a manner similar to wind turbines. There is a limit to the available power, however, as adding turbines reduces the flow, ultimately reducing the power. For sinusoidal forcing of flow in a channel connecting two large open basins, the maximum available power may be shown to be given approximately by 0.2? g a Q_max, where ? is the water density, g gravity, a the amplitude of the tidal sea level difference along the channel, and Q_max is the maximum volume flux in the natural state. The same formula applies if the channel is the entrance to a semi-enclosed basin, with a now the amplitude of the external tide. A flow reduction of approximately 40% is typically associated with the maximum power extraction. The power would be reduced if only smaller environmental changes are acceptable, and reduced further by drag on supporting structures, dissipation in turbine wakes, and internal inefficiencies. It can be suggested that the best use of strong, cold, tidal currents is to provide cooling water for nuclear reactors.

Garrett, C.

2008-12-01

418

Power, power density and efficiency optimization for a closed cycle helium turbine nuclear power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a closed cycle helium turbine nuclear power plant for submarine propulsion is optimized in this paper. The power output, power density (ratio of power output to maximum specific volume in the cycle) and thermal efficiency of the cycle are derived. The maximum power, power density and efficiency are obtained by searching for the optimum heat conductance distribution

Lin-Gen Chen; Jun-Lin Zheng; Feng-Rui Sun; Chih Wu

2003-01-01

419

40 CFR 190.02 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STANDARDS FOR NUCLEAR POWER OPERATIONS ...associated with the production of electrical power for public use...generation of electricity by a light-water-cooled nuclear power plant using uranium...directly support the production of...

2013-07-01

420

10 CFR 52.79 - Contents of applications; technical information in final safety analysis report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses ...General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants,â establishes minimum...design criteria for water-cooled nuclear power plants similar in design...

2013-01-01

421

10 CFR 52.157 - Contents of applications; technical information in final safety analysis report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses...General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants,â establishes minimum...design criteria for water-cooled nuclear power plants similar in design...

2013-01-01

422

10 CFR 52.137 - Contents of applications; technical information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Standard Design Approvals...design criteria for water-cooled nuclear power plants similar in design and...design criteria for other types of nuclear power units; (ii) The design...

2013-01-01

423

10 CFR 52.47 - Contents of applications; technical information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Standard Design Certifications...design criteria for water-cooled nuclear power plants similar in design and location...design criteria for other types of nuclear power units; (ii) The design...

2013-01-01

424

High-power lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the earliest lasers, the waste heat generated in the course of lasing limited the average power of the device's beam to very low amounts. The heat produced at the center of a tube laser had to diffuse to the walls of the tube. The limit on average power was relieved by designing lasers in which the laser medium flows.

J. P. Reilly

1978-01-01

425

Optimal continuation power flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to develop an algorithm for tracing the optima of equality and inequality constrained optimal power flow as a function of the load parameter. Although available optimization techniques can determine an optimal power flow solution for a fixed load, often the effects of change in load parameter on the optima for a wide range are

Venkataramana Ajjarapu; Nirlesh Jain

1995-01-01

426

From Betrayal to Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance is the secret of joy! --Alice Walker Possessing the Secret of Joy What does it mean to love a daughter in a culture that is hostile to her integrity? In a culture where power equals dominance and superiority, men's control of public life--the world of political and economic power that shapes the desires of private life--places mothers in a

Elizabeth Debold; Marie Wilson; Idelisse Malave

1994-01-01

427

Solar thermal power towers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar thermal central receiver technology, known as solar power towers, is rapidly evolving to a state of near-term energy availability for electrical power generation and industrial process heat applications. The systems consist of field arrays of heliostat reflectors, a central receiver boiler, short term thermal storage devices, and either turbine-generators or heat exchangers. Fluid temperatures up to 550 C

FRANK KREITH; RICHARD T. MEYER

1984-01-01

428

Explorations in Statistics: Power  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This fifth installment of "Explorations in Statistics" revisits power, a concept fundamental to the test of a null hypothesis. Power is the probability that we reject the null hypothesis when it is false. Four things affect…

Curran-Everett, Douglas

2010-01-01

429

Language, Power and Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|How are identities constructed in discourse? How are national and European identities tied to language and communication? And what role does power have--power in discourse, over discourse and of discourse? This paper seeks to identify and analyse processes of identity construction within Europe and at its boundaries, particularly the diversity of…

Wodak, Ruth

2012-01-01

430

A Balance of Power?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The booming economy of the Pacific Northwest region promotes the dilemma of balancing the need for increased electrical power with the desire to maintain that region's unspoiled natural environment. Pertinent factors discussed within the balance equation are population trends, economic considerations, industrial power requirements, and…

Mosey, Edward

1991-01-01

431

Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

432

Freewheeling hydraulic power mills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Components of free-wheeling power plants that use the hydraulic forces of winds or water currents are described. Fore and aft cones to increase throughput, multiple impellers driving a single rotor, swivel mounts to support nacelles, dc electrolytic cells for the production of H2 and O2, and cryogenic storage systems for the gases are the principle elements in the power mill

F. F. Hall

1979-01-01

433

Taking Soft Power Seriously  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term soft power is entrenched in the theory and practice of American foreign policy, yet scholars have not yet developed, or empirically tested, a theory about the conditions under which governments can use soft power to their advantage—and that makes good policy hard to design. Drawing on research from the fields of communications, social psychology, and international relations theory,

Matthew Kroenig; Melissa McAdam; Steven Weber

2010-01-01

434

PWM uninterruptable power supplies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uninterruptable power supply (UPS) systems have been developed for those electronic installations, especially computers and communication systems, which require a power supply unaffected by mains degradation or failure. This article describes a laboratory prototype UPS which has been designed to demonstrate the application of PWM techniques to UPS systems. The UPS is based on our Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) speed

L. Hampson; W. Ebbinge

1984-01-01

435

Powering a CATV System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cable television network is becoming more of a communications network than a simple distribution system for entertainment. CATV systems today are carrying data and voice communications as well as the entertainment channels. The power requirements for a communications network are far different than a simple entertainment network and the method of powering the network is considerably different than techniques

Robert J. Plow

1984-01-01

436

Power Technologies Data Book  

SciTech Connect

This report, prepared by NREL's Energy Analysis Office, includes up-to-date information on power technologies, including complete technology profiles. The data book also contains charts on electricity restructuring, power technology forecasts and comparisons, electricity supply, electricity capability, electricity generation, electricity demand, prices, economic indicators, environmental indicators, conversion factors, and selected congressional questions and answers.

Goldstein, L.

2002-09-01

437

The power of feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feedback is one of the most powerful influences on learning and achieve- ment, but this impact can be either positive or negative. Its power is fre- quently mentioned in articles about learning and teaching, but surprisingly few recent studies have systematically investigated its meaning. This article provides a conceptual analysis of feedback and reviews the evidence related to its impact

M. E. Harrington; Helen Timperley

2008-01-01

438

Solar power-up  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the curriculum for an elementary school project on solar power arising from a cooperative effort between teachers and engineers working with utility companies. The student design and build photovoltaic-powered model cars in design teams of three. They must make group decisions about design problems, build the model and present details to students, teachers and parents.

Halverson, F.

1994-11-01

439

Fusion Power Deployment  

SciTech Connect

Fusion power plants could be part of a future portfolio of non-carbon dioxide producing energy supplies such as wind, solar, biomass, advanced fission power, and fossil energy with carbon dioxide sequestration. In this paper, we discuss key issues that could impact fusion energy deployment during the last half of this century. These include geographic issues such as resource availability, scale issues, energy storage requirements, and waste issues. The resource needs and waste production associated with fusion deployment in the U.S. should not pose serious problems. One important feature of fusion power is the fact that a fusion power plant should be locatable within most local or regional electrical distribution systems. For this reason, fusion power plants should not increase the burden of long distance power transmission to our distribution system. In contrast to fusion power, regional factors could play an important role in the deployment of renewable resources such as wind, solar and biomass or fossil energy with CO2 sequestration. We examine the role of these regional factors and their implications for fusion power deployment.

J.A. Schmidt; J.M. Ogden

2002-02-06

440

Thermal power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermal power plant is described that has a thermal prime mover and a supercharged gas generator for generating producer gas from coal which, following separation of fly ash and sulfur, serves as fuel for the power plant. A charging group for the gas generator consists of coupled air compressor and gas turbine units, the compressor unit providing compressed air

Pfenninger

1978-01-01

441

Talk About Nuclear Power  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an overview of the relation of nuclear power to human health and the environment, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power as an energy source urging technical educators to inculcate an awareness of the problems associated with the production of energy. Describes the fission reaction process, the hazards of…

Tremlett, Lewis

1976-01-01

442

What price wind power  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of wind power systems depends on an assessment of the total cost over a time period and the net useful energy produced. Although initial costs of equipment are high, the economic gap will decrease as conventional fuel prices increase. Wind power, which has the advantage of using an unlimited and free energy source, can benefit from the new

2009-01-01

443

What price wind power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic considerations in adapting wind power systems for different uses and locations are discussed. The role of such factors as average wind velocity and wind variation in the selection of a wind system design is examined. The advantages and disadvantages of different types of wind power systems, including lift or drag types and horizontal or vertical axis types, are discussed

D. G. Shepherd

1977-01-01

444

Algorithms for power savings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines two different mechanisms for saving power in battery-operated embedded systems. The first is that the system can be placed in a sleep state if it is idle. However, a fixed amount of energy is required to bring the system back into an active state in which it can resume work. The second way in which power savings

Sandy Irani; Sandeep K. Shukla; Rajesh K. Gupta

2003-01-01

445

The power of words  

Microsoft Academic Search

Languag e is special, yet its power to facilitate communication may have distracted researchers from the power of another, potential precursor ability: the ability to label things, and the effect this can have in transforming or extending cognitive abilities. In this paper we present a simple robotic model, using the iCub robot, demonstrating the effects of spatial grouping, binding, and

Anthony F. Morse; Paul Baxter; Tony Belpaeme; Linda B. Smith; Angelo Cangelosi

2011-01-01

446

Solar power-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the curriculum for an elementary school project on solar power arising from a cooperative effort between teachers and engineers working with utility companies. The student design and build photovoltaic-powered model cars in design teams of three. They must make group decisions about design problems, build the model and present details to students, teachers and parents.

1994-01-01

447

Power from Ocean Waves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is the utilization of surface ocean waves as a potential source of power. Simple and large-scale wave power devices and conversion systems are described. Alternative utilizations, environmental impacts, and future prospects of this alternative energy source are detailed. (BT)

Newman, J. N.

1979-01-01

448

Power from Ocean Waves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discussed is the utilization of surface ocean waves as a potential source of power. Simple and large-scale wave power devices and conversion systems are described. Alternative utilizations, environmental impacts, and future prospects of this alternative energy source are detailed. (BT)|

Newman, J. N.

1979-01-01

449

How Fish Power Swimming  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is thought that fish generate the power needed for steady swimming with their anterior musculature, whereas the posterior musculature only transmits forces to the tail and does negative work. Isolated red muscle bundles driven through the length changes and stimulation pattern that muscles normally undergo during steady swimming showed the opposite pattern. Most of the power for swimming came

Lawrence C. Rome; Douglas Swank; David Corda

1993-01-01

450

NUCLEAR POWER PLANT  

DOEpatents

A nuclear power plant for use in an airless environment or other environment in which cooling is difficult is described. The power plant includes a boiling mercury reactor, a mercury--vapor turbine in direct cycle therewith, and a radiator for condensing mercury vapor. (AEC)

Carter, J.C.; Armstrong, R.H.; Janicke, M.J.

1963-05-14

451

MHD POWER CONVERSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development problems and technical features of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ; generators that could operate with the relatively low temperatures provided by ; gas-cooled reactors are discussed. Principles of MHD generation are given, and ; proposed designs for a 500-Mwe power plant and an MHD space power convertor are ; included. Electron injection and electron-heating ionization are the two forms ; of

W. E. Gunson; E. E. Smith; T. C. Tsu; J. H. Wright

1963-01-01

452

Nuclear power's burdened future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although governments of the world's leading nations are reiterating their faith in nuclear power, Chernobyl has brought into focus the public's overwhelming feeling that the current generation of nuclear technology is simple not working. Despite the drastic slowdown, however, the global nuclear enterprise is large. As of mid-1986, the world had 366 nuclear power plants in operation, with a generating

Flavin

2009-01-01

453

Power with heliostats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proposal for the use of heliostats as a means to produce solar energy in quantities great enough to power the electric and gas utilities, i.e., with high-quality heat of at least 300 C and where individual units produce approximately 100 MW of electricity, is outlined. The plan of the solar thermal power system is discussed in detail including variations

A. F. Hildebrandt; L. L. vant-Hull

1977-01-01

454

Labor and nuclear power  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AFL-CIO is officially pro-nuclear, but tensions within unions are taking issue over ideological differences. The Labor movement, having looked to nuclear power development as an economic necessity to avoid unemployment, has opposed efforts to delay construction or close plants. As many as 42% of union members or relatives of members, however, were found to oppose new power plants, some

R. Logan; D. Nelkin

1980-01-01

455

Geothermal power technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1999, 8 GWe of electrical generating plant worldwide was powered by geothermal heat. Geothermal sources generated 49 terawatt hours of virtually pollution-free power that year. Coal- or oil-fired plants generating this amount would discharge ~40 million tons per year of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Geothermal capacity has doubled in the past 20 years, and increased 17% in the

KENNETH H. WILLIAMSON; RICHARD P. GUNDERSON; GERALD M. HAMBLIN; DARRELL L. GALLUP; KEVIN KITZ

2001-01-01

456

Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

457

Talk About Nuclear Power  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of the relation of nuclear power to human health and the environment, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power as an energy source urging technical educators to inculcate an awareness of the problems associated with the production of energy. Describes the fission reaction process, the hazards of…

Tremlett, Lewis

1976-01-01

458

Safety of Nuclear Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main questions related to nuclear power development concern effects of small radiation doses typical for the operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) and hazards of NPP accidents. The last decade has brought many results of large scale epidemiological studies indicating that there are no detrimental effects of low radiation doses. On the contrary, many results indicate that among the

J M Hendrie

1976-01-01

459

Pulsed Power Research Colloquium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Pulsed Power Lecture Series was conducted by Texas Tech University for the U.S. Air Force. Modular instructional material for use in this lecture series was developed. Each module is a self-consistent discussion of some aspect of pulsed power technology...

M. Kristiansen

1984-01-01

460

NSTX electrical power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has been designed and installed in the existing facilities at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Most of the hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary sub-systems, and power systems originally used for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have been used with suitable modifications to reflect NSTX needs. The design of the NSTX electrical power system was

S. Ramakrishnan; C. Neumeyer; R. Hatcher; E. Baker; H. Schneider; W. Reiersen; A. von Halle

1999-01-01

461

Antares laser power amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of the Antares laser power amplifier is discussed. The power amplifier is the last stage of amplification in the 100 kJ Antares laser. A single, cylindrical, grid control, cold cathode electron gun, surrounded by 12 large aperture CO2 electron beam sustained laser discharge sectors is described. A large scale interaction between optical, mechanical, and electrical disciplines required to

R. D. Stine; G. F. Ross; C. J. Silvernail

1979-01-01

462

Power in International Politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of power is central to international relations. Yet disciplinary discussions tend to privilege only one, albeit important, form: an actor controlling another to do what that other would not otherwise do. By showing conceptual favoritism, the discipline not only overlooks the different forms of power in international politics, but also fails to develop sophisticated understandings of how global

Michael Barnett; Raymond Duvall

2005-01-01

463

Electromagnetic Vibration Power Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows an alternative for supplying wireless sensors with energy: electrical power is generated from an ambient mechanical vibration by use of a vibration power generator. As the generator is excited by ambient mechanical vibration, its construction produces a relative movement of a magnetic circuit. This movement induces a current into an electrical coil due to Faraday's law. For

Z. Hadas; M. Kluge; V. Singule; C. Ondrusek

2007-01-01

464

Electric steering power electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicular power steering systems incorporating electric motors to either drive the hydraulic pump or the steering gear must offer long term reliability and yet be cost competitive. The electronics used to manage the steering system's electric motor includes large power transistor devices and single chip MCUs (microcontrollers). These active electronic devices and the motor type affect the performance of the

R. J. Valentine

1996-01-01

465

NUCLEAR POWER AND SHIPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantages and disadvantages of nuclear reactors for surface vessels ; and submarines are outlined. Design considerations for reactors, fuel elements, ; moderators, coolants, and power cycles are tabulated and discussed. The special ; economic consideration to be made for nuclear power in merchant ships is also ; discussed. (T.R.H.);

Righton

1958-01-01

466

Grinding Mill Power Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equations and associated procedures for estimating power draw are inconsistent. The various methods are discussed critically. Topics discussed are: diameter exponent; loading; speed correction factors; buoyancy effects; liner wear, and effect of load dilation. Balance between effective load weight and torque-arm length determines direction of power change at critical operating points (e.g. incipient overloading). Consistent procedures for calculating the effect

C. C. HARRIS; E. M. SCHNOCK; N. ARBITER

1985-01-01

467

Automotive Power Trains.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting of automotive power trains and certain auxiliary equipment. The course contains six study units covering basic power trains; clutch principles and operations; conventional…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

468

Automotive Power Trains.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting of automotive power trains and certain auxiliary equipment. The course contains six study units covering basic power trains; clutch principles and operations; conventional…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

469

Tuning magnet power supply  

SciTech Connect

The particles in a Rapid Cycling Accelerator are accelerated by rf cavities, which are tuned by dc biased ferrite cores. The tuning is achieved by the regulation of bias current, which is produced by a power supply. The tuning magnet power supply utilizes a bridge circuit, supplied by a three phase rectifier. During the rise of the current, when the particles are accelerated, the current is controlled with precision by the bridge which operates a power amplifier. During the fall of the current, the bridge operates in a switching mode and recovers the energy stored in the ferrites. The recovered energy is stored in a capacitor bank. The bridge circuit is built with 150 power transistors. The drive, protection and control circuit were designed and built from commercial component. The system will be used for a rf cavity experiment in Los Alamos and will serve as a prototype tuning power supply for future accelerators. 1 ref., 7 figs.

Han, B.M.; Karady, G.G.; Thiessen, H.A.

1989-01-01

470

Power module assembly  

DOEpatents

A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.

Campbell, Jeremy B. (Torrance, CA); Newson, Steve (Redondo Beach, CA)

2011-11-15

471

Space Station power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DC primary power requirements are presented for Space Station Freedom. The power conversion system used is a current-fed push-pull (CFPP) converter. Large signal, small signal, and closed-loop control, analysis of the CFPP converter is presented. Both PSPICE circuit simulation and MATLAB control loop simulation along with experimental results confirm theoretical work. A prototype unit has been developed by using specially designed power components, which exhibit power conversion efficiency of more than 92 percent. By using the state-space averaging method, the Buck-like canonical model of the DC-to-DC converter unit was derived. The peak-current programming control is employed to ensure the cycle-to-cycle correction of small distribution. In the controller design, the interactions among line filter, power stage, and output filter have been taken into account.

Silva, Rosemary; Lee, Henry

472

Power quality load management for large spacecraft electrical power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In December, 1986, a Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) proposal was granted to study power system control techniques in large space electrical power systems. Presented are the accomplishments in the area of power system control by power quality load management. In addition, information concerning the distortion problems in a 20 kHz ac power system is presented.

Lollar, Louis F.

1988-09-01

473

Spiritual power: the internal, renewable social power source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of social power have not included spirituality as a source of power, which may miss an important dynamic in organizations. A definition of spiritual power is proposed based on empirically demonstrated effects of spiritual practice. Unlike other sources of power, spiritual power is independent of external resources, does not deplete as it is spent, and stimulates transcendent responses. The

Sonia M. Goltz

2011-01-01

474

Power factor controller-an integrated power quality device  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new integrated power quality device-power factor controller (PFC) for power distribution system and industrial power circuit applications. A PFC integrates breaker-switched capacitor banks into a compact design with low cost sensing elements and an intelligent control unit. The device provides more accurate voltage control and power factor correction than traditional shunt capacitor bank installations. The integrated

R. Tinggren; Yi Hu; Le Tang; H. Mathews; R. Tyner

1999-01-01

475

Electric power annual 1992  

SciTech Connect

The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric utility statistics at national, regional and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. ``The US Electric Power Industry at a Glance`` section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; retail sales; revenue; financial statistics; environmental statistics; electric power transactions; demand-side management; and nonutility power producers. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences in US electricity power systems. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. Monetary values in this publication are expressed in nominal terms.

Not Available

1994-01-06

476

Wind power generating system  

SciTech Connect

Normally feathered propeller blades of a wind power generating system unfeather in response to the actuation of a power cylinder that responds to actuating signals. Once operational, the propellers generate power over a large range of wind velocities. A maximum power generation design point signals a feather response of the propellers so that once the design point is reached no increase in power results, but the system still generates power. At wind speeds below this maximum point, propeller speed and power output optimize to preset values. The propellers drive a positive displacement pump that in turn drives a positive displacement motor of the swash plate type. The displacement of the motor varies depending on the load on the system, with increasing displacement resulting in increasing propeller speeds, and the converse. In the event of dangerous but not clandestine problems developing in the system, a control circuit dumps hydraulic pressure from the unfeathering cylinder resulting in a predetermined, lower operating pressure produced by the pump. In the event that a problem of potentially cladestine consequence arises, the propeller unfeathering cylinder immediately unloads. Upon startup, a bypass around the motor is blocked, applying a pressure across the motor. The motor drives the generator until the generator reaches a predetermined speed whereupon the generator is placed in circuit with a utility grid and permitted to motor up to synchronous speed.

Schachle, Ch.; Schachle, E. C.; Schachle, J. R.; Schachle, P. J.

1985-03-12

477

Solar thermal power towers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar thermal central receiver technology, known as solar power towers, is rapidly evolving to a state of near-term energy availability for electrical power generation and industrial process heat applications. The systems consist of field arrays of heliostat reflectors, a central receiver boiler, short term thermal storage devices, and either turbine-generators or heat exchangers. Fluid temperatures up to 550 C are currently achievable, and technology developments are underway to reach 1100 C. Six solar power towers are now under construction or in test operation in five countries around the world.

Kreith, F.; Meyer, R. T.

1984-07-01

478

Salazar on private power  

SciTech Connect

The Philipines power market, considered one of the more mature markets in Asia, continues to expand with economic growth. Independent power producers will find opportunities in the next few years as new additions are required. Currently, the government is encouraging private investment and is awaiting feedback from financiers as it considers eliminating its government guarantee. In a recent interview, the Honorable Mariano S. Salazar, secretary of energy, with the Philippines` Department of Energy, discussed the regulatory structure, encouragement of private power and his country`s capital needs.

Anderson, J.

1995-02-01

479

Solar power station  

SciTech Connect

Solar power station with semiconductor solar cells for generating electric power is described, wherein the semiconductor solar cells are provided on a member such as a balloon or a kite which carries the solar cells into the air. The function of the balloon or kite can also be fulfilled by a glider or airship. The solar power station can be operated by allowing the system to ascend at sunrise and descend at sunset or when the wind is going to be too strong in order to avoid any demage.

Wenzel, J.

1982-11-30

480

Public power innovation  

SciTech Connect

The second annual listing of innovations in public power also cites winners in the American Public Power Association Energy Innovator Award. There are brief descriptions of 337 projects grouped under solar energy (heating and cooling, solar thermal electric, wind power, photovoltaics, low-head hydroelectricity, and biomass), municipal solid waste, geothermal, synthetic fuels, advanced heat engines, heat recovery generation, district heating/cooling, energy storage, fuel cells, conservation (residential energy efficiency, electric vehicles, heat pumps, and infrared photography), load management, commercial/industrial, and miscellaneous. The list concludes with nine rural electric cooperative projects. (DCK)

Not Available

1981-11-01

481

Hierarchical Adaptive Dynamic Power Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic power management aims at extending battery life by switching devices to lower-power modes when there is a reduced demand for service. Static power management strategies can lead to poor performance or unnecessary power consumption when there are wide variations in the rate of requests for service. This paper presents a hierarchical scheme for adaptive dynamic power management (DPM) under

Zhiyuan Ren; Bruce H. Krogh; Radu Marculescu

2005-01-01

482

FEL options for power beaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demand for the output power of communication satellites has been increasing exponentially. The satellite power is generated from solar panels which collect the sunlight and convert it to electrical power. The power per satellite is limited due to the limit in the practical size of the solar panel. One way to meet the power demand is to employ multiple

K. J. Kim; A. A. Zholents; M. S. Zolotorev; N. A. Vinokurov

1997-01-01

483

Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the

John Brugman; Mai Hattar; Kenneth Nichols; Yuri Esaki

1995-01-01

484

NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS AND MOBILE NUCLEAR POWER STATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief review is given of general technical problems, safety and ; special incidents, stationary nuclear power plants, mobile nuclear power plants, ; and research reactors for studying economic methods for producing power. The ; bibliography contains 54 references. (N.W.R.);

Wiesenack

1962-01-01

485

Advanced power cable technology  

SciTech Connect

This two volume reference combines the basic concepts of power cable technology with descriptions of actual and future designs and performances of power cables. Cable engineers, students and management personnel who are interested in electric power engineering and underground transmission will find the tables and equations that highlight these volumes helpful. Vol. I, BASIC CONCEPTS and TESTING and: Presents a basic introduction to electric energy and underground transmission. Cable design, structural materials such as conductors, insulating materials and protective coverings, and electrical breakdown characteristics are just some of the aspects covered. In addition, all types of testing methods are thoroughly reviewed. Vol. II, PRESENT and FUTURE: Structures, manufacturing processes, improvement of extruded cables, OF cables, POF cables, forced cooled cables, their splices and terminations, gas insulated cables, DC cables and cables for nuclear power stations are discussed. Cryogenic resistive, superconducting and other new types of cables are studied.

Tanaka, T.; Greenwood, A.

1983-01-01

486

Power Harvesting from Rotation?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We show the impossibility of harvesting power from rotational motions by devices attached to the rotating object. The presentation is suitable for students who have studied Lagrangian mechanics. (Contains 2 figures.)|

Chicone, Carmen; Feng, Z. C.

2008-01-01

487

Windkraft. (Wind power).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For Schleswig-Holstein, wind energy is the most interesting renewable energy source because the country with its permanent winds is an extensive 'strong wind area'. Therefore, the government significantly emphasizes the development of wind power. The obje...

1989-01-01

488

Power systems development facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses the commissioning and operation of the transport reactor train and associated balance-of-plant equipment at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The transport reactor is an advanced circulati...

1998-01-01

489

Powering down quietly  

SciTech Connect

This article describes how the US Navy has quietly begun scuttling much of its nuclear-powered fleet. More than 50 submarines have been scrapped to date--half since 1990-and at least 43 more are scheduled for retirement before 1998. The first nuclear-powered surface ships are also being retired, with five of nine nuclear cruisers to be decommissioned before 1995. Some specific retirements of nuclear submarines and cruisers are also discussed. The ironic move toward an all nuclear-powered aircraft carrier fleet and the design of new nuclear submarines in discussed. As the nuclear-powered fleet dwindles, the base structure that supports it also contracts. The list of planned base closures is briefly reviewed.

Norris, R.S. (Natural Resources Defense Council, Washington, DC (United States)); Arkin, W.M.

1993-06-01

490

High Power Electrochemical Capacitors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electrochemical supercapacitors are rechargeable electrochemical energy storage devices similar to batteries, but with different performance characteristics. Supercapacitors can store more power in a smaller volume and often at a lower cost. In contrast t...

G. Yushin

2012-01-01

491

The new power paradigm  

SciTech Connect

The coming year holds great promise for advancing the principles of competitive power worldwide. Successful private power development strategies will address the regulatory, institutional and cultural challenges of evolving markets. There are unprecedented political and economic changes occuring globally. The impact of the collapse of the Berlin Wall is rippling its way through developing countries as a new development paradigm emerges with great emphasis on the private sector and the role of market forces. Reform is, however, a political process and the key issue over the next cuple of years is whether or not developing country reforms in the power sector are going to be sustainable. In the year ahead, Asia, especially India and China, continue to offer the most potential for private power. Latin America and Europe follow closely as new markets expand in the southern hemisphere and Europe moves out of its recession and toward privitazation.

Burr, M.T.

1995-01-01

492

Power plant releasing smoke  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Power plants are a well-known source of pollution. They drain directly into bodies of water such as the ocean. In addition, they burn fossil fuels to create energy. The smoke that results causes acid rain and global warming.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-12

493

Why Not Solar Power?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the world generally depends on energy sources such as fossil fuels and nuclear power to meet our energy consumption needs. As we all know, the excessive use of these resources has large environmental impacts, including displacing habitats, pollution, global warming, and scarcity of resources. Solar power is a clean form of energy that has the potential to fulfill our energy needs while balancing the natural state of our environment. So why do we not power our houses with solar energy? I will give a general overview of the working principles of commercially available solar power, and examine the issues relating to why we should use it and why we currently do not.

Pokharel, Reeju; Sheldon, Peter

2008-03-01

494

Magnetohydrodynamic Power Generation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Power Generation is a concise summary of MHD theory, history, and future trends. Results of the major international MHD research projects are discussed. Data from MHD research is included. Economics of initial and operating costs...

J. L. Smith

1984-01-01

495

MHD Power Generation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains the operation of the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator and advantages of the system over coal, oil or nuclear powered generators. Details the development of MHD generators in the United States and Soviet Union. (CP)|

Kantrowitz, Arthur; Rosa, Richard J.

1975-01-01

496

Electrically powered motor vehicle  

SciTech Connect

An electrically powered vehicle achieves maximum structural strength with minimum weight by utilizing a combined body and chassis formed entirely of plastic material, molded and bonded into an integral composite structure which includes a central, hollow longitudinal beam, top, bottom, and side panels of the vehicle body portion, and a power unit supporting chamber at the forward end closing the forward end of the beam and tying it to the side panels. The beam holds the batteries, and the chamber contains all of the components of the power unit including the controlling device. The structure is thus as rigid and light as possible, in addition to eliminating any possibility of any unwanted grounding or electrical paths. The only metal in the vehicle is that of the additional components such as road wheels, suspension members, steering, and power unit and the fasteners and brackets used to retain them in mounted position.

Eve, W. R.; Gould, J. S.; Mccutchen, J. V.; Pelcher, A. M.; Watson, R. E.; Winquist, R. D.

1980-08-12

497

Contemporary Power Supplies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Work-Ready Electronics, a project of the Advanced Technological Education program, this module walks visitors through the basics of contemporary power supplies. The content of the site is divided into seven areas: contemporary power supply technology, SMPS technology, architecture and operation, discrete devices and SMPS performance, improving efficiency, power supply architectures, power management and digital control in SMPS. There is a quiz for each in the Knowledge Probe area, and the Learning Resources section contains two activities to help cement student understanding. There are also further resources - both print and Web based - for more information and two Questors, a Flash trivia game. The Notebook function allows visitors to take notes and review them at any time. This is an excellent resource students and educators in electronics technician programs.

2008-12-09

498

Satellite Power System (SPS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Potential organizational options for a solar power satellite system (SPS) were investigated. Selection and evaluation criteria were determined to include timeliness, reliability, and adequacy to contribute meaningfully to the U.S. supply; political feasib...

H. G. Edler

1978-01-01

499

Power-grade butanol  

SciTech Connect

Butanol manufacture by fermentation, fuel value comparison to ethanol manufacture, water tolerance, and engine test results of fuel blends containing butanol are described. Power butanol fuel blends function well in standard spark-ignition engines with only modest equipment adaptations.

Noon, R.

1982-01-01

500

Ultra headless hydro power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Site selection considerations were reviewed for hydroelectric power stations. Design factors influencing energy conversion efficiency are presented. Electric energy storage technology was reviewed. Principles for the ultimate attainment of hydropower from the least head are discussed.

Hall, F. F.

1980-09-01