Note: This page contains sample records for the topic water-moderated water-cooled power from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Seismicity and seismic response of the Soviet-designed VVER (Water-cooled, Water moderated Energy Reactor) reactor plants  

SciTech Connect

On March 4, 1977, a strong earthquake occurred at Vrancea, Romania, about 350 km from the Kozloduy plant in Bulgaria. Subsequent to this event, construction of the unit 2 of the Armenia plant was delayed over two years while seismic features were added. On December 7, 1988, another strong earthquake struck northwest Armenia about 90 km north of the Armenia plant. Extensive damage of residential and industrial facilities occurred in the vicinity of the epicenter. The earthquake did not damage the Armenia plant. Following this event, the Soviet government announced that the plant would be shutdown permanently by March 18, 1989, and the station converted to a fossil-fired plant. This paper presents the results of the seismic analyses of the Soviet-designed VVER (Water-cooled, Water moderated Energy Reactor) plants. Also presented is the information concerning seismicity in the regions where VVERs are located and information on seismic design of VVERs. The reference units are the VVER-440 model V230 (similar to the two units of the Armenia plant) and the VVER-1000 model V320 units at Kozloduy in Bulgaria. This document provides an initial basis for understanding the seismicity and seismic response of VVERs under seismic events. 1 ref., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Ma, D.C.; Gvildys, J.; Wang, C.Y.; Spencer, B.W.; Sienicki, J.J.; Seidensticker, R.W.; Purvis, E.E. III

1989-01-01

2

High power cable with internal water cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transmission capacity of conventional cables will not be sufficient for the increasing requirements of electrical energy. For this reason in the 110kV-range an high power cable with internal water cooling was developed. The development included the construction of the cable components as well as that of the sealing ends and of the joints, furthermore all necessary auxiliary equipment. By

D. Hotz; R. D. Steckel; E. Zimmermann

1977-01-01

3

Importance of Delayed Neutrons on the Coupled Neutronic-Thermohydraulic Stability of a Natural Circulation Heavy Water-Moderated Boiling Light Water-Cooled Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coupled neutronic-thermohydraulic stability characteristics of a natural circulation heavy water-moderated boiling light water-cooled reactor was investigated analytically considering the effects of prompt and delayed neutrons. For this purpose, the reactor considered is the Indian Advanced Heavy Water Reactor. The analytical model considers a point kinetics model for the neutron dynamics, a homogeneous two-phase flow model for the coolant thermal

A. K. Nayak; M. Aritomi; V. Venkat Raj

2001-01-01

4

HEAVY WATER MODERATED POWER REACTORS. Progress Report for September 1959  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results to date of the du Pont study of naturaluranium-fueled, heavy-; water-moderated power reactors are reviewed. The scope of the program and its ; current goals are presented. Continued progress is reported on the design and ; construction of the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor. The results of ; additional fabrication tests on prototype fuel elements of natural uranium

R. R. Hood; L. Isakoff

1959-01-01

5

Department of Energy's team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs (water-cooled water-moderated atomic energy reactors)  

SciTech Connect

This document contains apprendices A through P of this report. Topics discussed are: a cronyms and technical terms, accident analyses reactivity control; Soviet safety regulations; radionuclide inventory; decay heat; operations and maintenance; steam supply system; concrete and concrete structures; seismicity; site information; neutronic parameters; loss of electric power; diesel generator reliability; Soviet codes and standards; and comparisons of PWR and VVER features. (FI)

Not Available

1989-09-01

6

77 FR 73056 - Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRC-2012-0293] Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY...DG-1259, ``Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants...entitled, ``Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power...

2012-12-07

7

HEAVY WATER MODERATED POWER REACTORS. Progress Report, September 1962  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HWCTR was operated satisfactorily at a maximum power of 24 Mw with ; driver fuel only in the core for a period of approximately one month prior to the ; loading of the first test fuel charge. Test irradiations are to start early in ; October. Precise buckling measurements were made in the PDP and SE on a variety

R. R. Hood; L. comp. Isakoff

1962-01-01

8

SOME ASPECTS OF LIGHT WATER MODERATED REACTORS FOR POWER APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the propulsion unit in a nuclear powered ship, a hydrogen-moderated, ; heterogeneous reactor, using slightly enriched fuel would have a number of ; advantsges. Such types as the pressurized water reactor, boiling water reactor, ; organic moderated reactor, and solid hydridemoderated, gas-cooled reactor are ; included in this classification. Some results of studies conducted by the Ship ; Group

1957-01-01

9

HEAVY WATER MODERATED POWER REACTORS QUARTERLY PROGRESS REPORT FOR AUGUST, SEPTEMBER, AND OCTOBER 1958  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost estimates are reviewed for eight conceptual designs of heavy-water-; moderated, natural-uranium fueled power reactors. Continued progress is reported ; on the design of the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (a high temperature ; irradiation test facility), the construction of a pressurized exponential tank, ; the fabrication of several power reactor fuel elements, and the irradiation ; testing of these

Isakoff

1959-01-01

10

HEAVY WATER MODERATED POWER REACTORS QUARTERLY PROGRESS REPORT FOR MAY, JUNE, AND JULY 1958  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continued progress is reported on the nuclear, engineering, and ; materials aspects of several designs of 100-Mwe power reactors that are heavy ; water moderated and natural uranium fueled. A method, developed from ; experimental data, is given for predicting the resonance escape probabillty of ; almost any natural lattice ln heavy water. The start of firm design for the

Isakoff

1958-01-01

11

HEAVY WATER MODERATED POWER REACTORS. Quarterly Progress Report for February, March, and April 1959  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic survey of heavy-water-moderated, natural-uranium-fueled ; power reactors was completed this quarter. The results showed that the cost of ; power from a very large boiling-D\\/2 sub\\/O-cooled power reactor of the pressure ; tube type (i.e., 9.5 mills\\/kwh for a 400Mw(s) capacity) is the lowest cost for ; electricity from any of the reactors considered in the study, but

Isakoff

1959-01-01

12

10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors J Appendix...Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors This appendix...licenses under part 52 of this chapter for water-cooled power reactors as...

2014-01-01

13

Studies on advanced water-cooled reactors beyond generation III for power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinas ambitious nuclear power program motivates the countrys nuclear community to develop advanced reactor concepts beyond\\u000a generation III to ensure a long-term, stable, and sustainable development of nuclear power. The paper discusses some main\\u000a criteria for the selection of future water-cooled reactors by considering the specific Chinese situation. Based on the suggested\\u000a selection criteria, two new types of water-cooled reactors

Xu Cheng

2007-01-01

14

High power cable with internal water cooling 400 kV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the concentration of electricity production in large power plants, the need of higher power transmissions, and the protection of environment, developement of a 400 kV water cooled cable in the power range of 1 to 5 GVA was undertaken. The fabrication and testing of equipment, engineering of cable components, fabrication of a test cable, development of cable terminal

W. Rasquin; B. Harjes

1982-01-01

15

78 FR 35330 - Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Regulatory Research, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...for light water cooled nuclear power plants. This...revised to address design qualification tests for new design...and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This...for preoperational, fuel loading, initial...

2013-06-12

16

Steam-generator tube performance: world experience with water-cooled nuclear power reactors during 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of steam-generator tubes in water-cooled nuclear power reactors in various countries is reviewed for 1977. Tube failures were reported at 34 of the 79 reactors surveyed. The causes of these failures and the inspection and repair procedures designed to deal with them are presented. Although denting caused by corrosion remained the leading cause of tube failures, specific mechanisms

R. S. Pathania; O. S. Tatone

1979-01-01

17

Steam Generator Tube Performance: Experience with Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors During 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The performance of steam generator tubes in water-cooled nuclear power reactors has been reviewed for 1978. Tube failures occurred at 31 of the 86 reactors surveyed. Causes of these failures and procedures designed to deal with them are described. A drama...

O. S. Tatone R. S. Pathania

1980-01-01

18

Steam Generator Tube Performance: Experience with Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors During 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The performance of steam generator tubes in water-cooled nuclear power reactors has been reviewed for 1977. Failures were reported in 34 of the 79 reactors surveyed. Causes of these failures and inspection and repair procedures designed to deal with them ...

R. S. Pathania O. S. Tatone

1979-01-01

19

Steam Generator Tube Performance: Experience with Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors During 1983 and 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review of the performance of steam generator tubes in water-cooled nuclear power reactors showed that tubes were plugged at 47 (35.6%) of the reactors in 1983 and at 63 (42.6%) of the reactors during 1984. In 1983 and 1984 3291 and 3335 tubes, respectiv...

O. S. Tatone P. Meindl G. F. Taylor

1986-01-01

20

Steam Generator Tube Performance. Experience with Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors During 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review of the performance of steam generator tubes in 116 water-cooled nuclear power reactors showed that tubes were plugged at 54 (46 percent) of the reactors. The number of tubes removed from service decreased from 4,692 (0.30 percent) in 1981 to 3,22...

O. S. Tatone R. S. Pathania

1984-01-01

21

Steam Generator Tube Performance: Experience with Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors During 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The performance of steam generator tubes in water-cooled nuclear power reactors has been reviewed for 1979. Tube failures occurred at 38 of the 93 reactors surveyed. Causes of these failures and procedures designed to deal with them are described. The def...

O. S. Tatone R. S. Pathania

1981-01-01

22

Steam Generator Tube Performance. Experience with Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors During 1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review of the performance of steam generator tubes in 110 water-cooled nuclear power reactors showed that tubes were plugged at 46 (42 percent) of the reactors. The number of tubes removed from service increased from 1900 (0.14 percent) in 1980 to 4692 ...

O. S. Tatone R. S. Pathania

1983-01-01

23

Steam Generator Tube Performance. Experience with Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors During 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The performance of steam generator tubes in water-cooled nuclear power reactors has been reviewed for 1980. Tube defects occurred at 38% of the 97 reactors surveyed. This is a marginal improvement over 1979 when defects occurred at 41% of the reactors. Th...

O. S. Tatone R. S. Pathania

1982-01-01

24

Steam Generator Tube Failures: Experience with Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors During 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey was conducted of experience with steam generator tubes at nuclear power stations during 1976. Failures were reported at 25 out of 68 water-cooled reactors. The causes of these failures and the repair and inspection procedures designed to cope wit...

O. S. Tatone R. S. Pathania

1978-01-01

25

DETERMINATION OF REACTIVITY LIFETIME FOR LOW ENRICHMENT, LIGHT WATER MODERATED POWER REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report dsscribes the effect that variation in enrichment and water-; to-metal ratio have on the reactivity lifetime of low enrichment water moderated ; thermal reactors. Sines both reactivity lifetime and enrichment have a ; significant effect upon reactor fuel costs, the variation in these costs is also ; discussed. The present high chemical processing and fabrication costs cause the

Graves; H. W. Jr

1954-01-01

26

HEAVY WATER MODERATED REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of heavy water as moderator offers a number of important ; advantages that was possible to fully realize in the construction of research ; reactors. Even though up to the present time there were not many opportunities ; for ac quiring practical experience with heavy water moderated power reactors, ; our knowledge in the sphere of lattice physics

Ferrarini

1960-01-01

27

Preliminary report on the promise of accelerator-driven natural-uranium-fueled light-water-moderated breeding power reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new concept for a power breeder reactor that consists of an accelerator-driven subcritical thermal fission system is proposed. In this system an accelerator provides a high-energy proton beam which interacts with a heavy-element target to produce, via spallation reactions, an intense source of neutrons. This source then drives a natural-uranium-fueled, light-water-moderated and -cooled subcritical blanket which both breeds new

Greenspan

1977-01-01

28

Survey of Remote Area Monitoring Systems at U.S. Light-Water-Cooled Power Reactors  

SciTech Connect

A study was made of the capabilities and operating practices, including calibration, of remote area monitoring (RAM) systems at light-water-cooled power reactors in the United States. The information was obtained by mail questionaire. Specific design capabilities, including range, readout and alarm features are documented along with the numbers and location of detectors, calibration and operational procedures. Comments of respondents regarding RAM systems are also included.

Kathren, R. L.; Mileham, A. P.

1982-04-01

29

Supercritical-pressure, light-water-cooled reactors for economical nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design studies of supercritical-pressure light-water-cooled reactors (SCLWRs) have been carried out to pursue drastic improvement of the economy of nuclear power generation. The core is cooled by supercritical water which is superheated without the phase change. The cooling system is a once-through type; the whole core flow is driven by the feedwater pumps and is directly led to the turbine.

S. Koshizuka; Y. Oka

1998-01-01

30

Numerical analysis on the beam quality improvements of high power chemical laser system with water cooled mirrors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical laser is one of the most widely used high power infrared sources. Thermal deformation of mirrors in a resonator is a key factor which hinders the improvement of the beam quality in high power chemical lasers, and it has been a matter of the utmost concern in the design of high power chemical laser systems. Water-cooled technique is one

Kai Han; Bin Li; Xiao-Jun Xu

2011-01-01

31

HEAVY WATER MODERATED POWER REACTORS PROGRESS REPORT, MAY-JUNE 1963  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HWCTR was operated at power for about 30% of the May-June period. ; Operation of the reactor was preceded by completion of a shutdown period, during ; which iodine absorbers were installed, the containment building leaktightness was ; improved, the liquid-DO isolated coolant loop was put into operation, and ; other maintenance work was performed. During irradiation testing in

R. R. Hood; L. comps. Isakoff

1963-01-01

32

HEAVY WATER MODERATED POWER REACTORS. Quarterly Progress Report for November 1957 through January 1958  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continued study of natural-uranium-fueled, heavy-watermoderated power ; reactors has led to a preferred deslgn. The reactor is of the pressure-vessel ; variety, is fueled with metallic tubes, is cooled with heavy water, and produces ; 100 Mwe. The future potential, basic physics data, engineering design problems, ; metallurgical developments, and estimates of the costs for this currently ; preferred type

Isakoff

1958-01-01

33

Natural uranium fueled light water moderated breeding hybrid power reactors: a feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first part of the study consists of a thorough investigation of the properties of subcritical thermal lattices for hybrid reactor applications. Light water is found to be the best moderator for (fuel-self-sufficient) FSS hybrid reactors for power generation. Several lattice geometries and compositions of particular promise for LWHRs are identified. Using one of these lattices, fueled with natural uranium,

E. Greenspan; A. Schneider; A. Misolovin; D. Gilai; P. Levin

1978-01-01

34

APPARATUS FOR MEASURING THE POWER LEVEL OF HEAVY OR LIGHT WATER MODERATED NUCLEAR REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apparatus described utilizes Cherenkov radiation generated by beta ; particles in the moderator for measuring and\\/or monitoring the power developed in ; a reactor. This apparatus comprises a transparent light pipe, which is arranged ; so that the light generated by the Cherenkov effect is transmitted from the ; moderator within the reactor vessel to a photoelectric device outside

1963-01-01

35

HEAVY WATER MODERATED POWER REACTORS. Quarterly Progress Report for November 1958 through January 1959  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental work this quarter in the study of natural-uranium-fueled, D\\/; sub 2\\/O-moderated power reactors featured the successful fabrication of nine ; Zircaloy-clad U-2 wt.% Zr fuel tubes, a major advance in the extrusion of thin-; walled zirconium components, the startup of the high temperature exponential ; facility, continuation of the irradiation testing of prototype fuel elements, and ; additional work

Isakoff

1959-01-01

36

HEAVY WATER MODERATED POWER REACTORS QUARTERLY PROGRESS REPORT FOR FEBRUARY, MARCH, AND APRIL 1958  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continued progress is reported on the nuclear, engineering, and ; materials problems associated with four designs of DC-cooled-and-moderated ; 100-Mwe power reactors fueled with tubes of natural uranium metal. Evaluations ; are given of the quality of several full-size fuel tubes of U-2 wt.% Zr clad with ; Zircaloy-2 and of two full-size zirconium housing tubes that were fabricated for

Isakoff

1958-01-01

37

Leaktightness monitoring of the primary loop in steam generators at nuclear power stations using water-moderated water-cooled power reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of Primary Loop Leaks in the Secondary Loop. The concentration of radioactive gases can be measured in the main steam line upstream of the turbine {point 1), and at blowdown points from the main ejectors of the turbines (point 2). A conventional ejector is employed in order to bleed steam upstream of the turbine and in order to prepare

T. K. Fedchenko; A. A. Il'khman

1973-01-01

38

10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors J Appendix J to Part...Structures for Nuclear Reactors, March 16, 1972. In...addition to the Total time and Point-to-Point methods...

2010-01-01

39

10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors J Appendix J to Part...Structures for Nuclear Reactors, March 16, 1972. In...addition to the Total time and Point-to-Point methods...

2009-01-01

40

Steam generator tube performance. Experience with water-cooled nuclear power reactors during 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey of steam generator operating experience for 1986 has been carried out for 184 pressurized water and pressurized heavy-water reactors, and 1 water-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor. Tubes were plugged at 75 of the reactors (40.5%). In 1986, 3737 ...

O. S. Tatone R. L. Tapping L. Stipan

1992-01-01

41

Steam generator tube performance. Experience with water-cooled nuclear power reactors during 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The performance of steam generator tubes at water-cooled reactors during 1985 has been reviewed. Seventy-three of 168 reactors in the survey experienced tube degradation sufficient for the tubes to be plugged. The number of tubes plugged was 6837 or 0.28%...

O. S. Tatone R. L. Tapping

1988-01-01

42

Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electrical Power Production, 5th Quarterly Report, October - December 2002  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to evaluate the feasibility of supercritical light water cooled reactors for electric power production. The use of light water at supercritical pressures as the coolant in a nuclear reactor offers the potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies for the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to about 45%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type re-circulation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel and smaller containment building than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed. If no additional moderator is added to the fuel rod lattice, it is possible to attain fast neutron energy spectrum conditions in a supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR). This type of core can make use of either fertile or fertile-free fuel and retain a hard spectrum to effectively burn plutonium and minor actinides from LWR spent fuel while efficiently generating electricity. One can also add moderation and design a thermal spectrum SCWR that can also burn actinides. The project is organized into three tasks:

Philip MacDonald; Jacopo Buongiorno; Cliff Davis; J. Stephen Herring; Kevan Weaver; Ron Latanision; Bryce Mitton; Gary Was; Luca Oriani; Mario Carelli; Dmitry Paramonov; Lawrence Conway

2003-01-01

43

Simple Model of Transient Heat Transfer and Its Application to Power Excursions in Water Moderated Nuclear Reactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a calculational model used to describe transient boiling heat transfer from fuel plate to coolant during power excursions in the SPERT nuclear reactor cores with no coolant flow. The model has no relationship to existing descriptions o...

J. S. Connolly

1977-01-01

44

Natural Circulation in Water Cooled Nuclear Power Plants Phenomena, models, and methodology for system reliability assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years it has been recognized that the application of passive safety systems (i.e., those whose operation takes advantage of natural forces such as convection and gravity), can contribute to simplification and potentially to improved economics of new nuclear power plant designs. In 1991 the IAEA Conference on ''The Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future'' noted that

Jose Reyes

2005-01-01

45

Power scaling to high-brightness kW systems using semiconductor bars in water-cooled stacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scalability of semiconductor diode lasers to multi-kilowatt power levels has increasing importance in direct diode material processing applications. These applications require hard-pulse on-off cycling capability and high brightness achieved using low fill-factor (FF) bars with a tight vertical pitch. Coherent uses 20%FF bars operated at <60W/bar packaged on water-cooled packages with a 1.65mm vertical pitch in the Highlight D-series, which achieves <8kW of power in a < 1mm x 8mm beam line at a working distance of ~ 280mm. We compare thermal measurement results to thermal fluid flow simulations to show the emitters are cooled to low junction temperatures with minimal thermal crosstalk, similar to single emitter packaging. Good thermal performance allows for scaling to operation at higher power and brightness. We present accelerated life-testing results in both CW and hard-pulse on-off cycling conditions.

Schleuning, David; Guinn, Keith; Luong, Calvin; Zhang, Yu; Kuchibhotla, Krishna; Kim, Serguei; Ryu, Geunmin; Griffin, Mike; Chryssis, Athanasios; Acklin, Bruno

2013-02-01

46

Power spectral density measurements with ²⁵²Cf for a light-water-moderated research reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of determining the reactivity of far-subcritical systems from neutron noise power spectral density measurements with ²⁵²Cf has previously been tested in fast reactor critical assemblies: a mockup of the Fast Flux Test Facility reactor and a uranium metal sphere. Calculations indicated that this measurement was feasible for a pressurized water reactor (PWR).

W. T. King; J. T. Mihalczo

1979-01-01

47

Power spectral density measurements with ²⁵²Cf for a light water moderated research reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of determining the reactivity of far subcritical systems from neutron noise power spectral density measurements with ²⁵²Cf has previously been tested in fast reactor critical assemblies: a mockup of the Fast Flux Test Facility reactor and a uranium metal sphere. Calculations indicated that this measurement was feasible for a pressurized water reactor (PWR). In order to evaluate the

W. T. King; J. T. Mihalczo

1979-01-01

48

ADVANCED COURSE ON FUEL ELEMENTS FOR WATER COOLED POWER REACTORS, ORGANIZED BY THE NETHERLANDS'NORWEGIAN REACTOR SCHOOL AT INSTITUTT FOR ATOMENERGI, KJELLER, NORWAY, 22nd AUGUST3rd SEPTEMBER,1960. VOLUME III  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of lectures on fuel elements for water-cooled power reactors are presented. Topics covered include fabrication, properties, cladding, radiation damage, design, cycling, storage and transpont, and reprocessing. Separate records have been prepared for each section.

S. Aas; T. J. Barendregt; A. Chesne; J. M. Fletcher; K. P. Lindland

1960-01-01

49

Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electric Power Production, Progress Report for Work Through September 2003, 2nd Annual/8th Quarterly Report  

SciTech Connect

The supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) is one of the six reactor technologies selected for research and development under the Generation-IV program. SCWRs are promising advanced nuclear systems because of their high thermal efficiency (i.e., about 45% vs. about 33% efficiency for current Light Water Reactors, LWRs) and considerable plant simplification. SCWRs are basically LWRs operating at higher pressure and temperatures with a direct once-through cycle. Operation above the critical pressure eliminates coolant boiling, so the coolant remains single-phase throughout the system. Thus the need for recirculation and jet pumps, a pressurizer, steam generators, steam separators and dryers is eliminated. The main mission of the SCWR is generation of low-cost electricity. It is built upon two proven technologies, LWRs, which are the most commonly deployed power generating reactors in the world, and supercritical fossil-fired boilers, a large number of which is also in use around the world.

Philip E. MacDonald

2003-09-01

50

Underground high-power transmission: first results of testing a 110 kV lowpressure oil-filled cable with a water cooled conductor in Berlin (West), Germany  

SciTech Connect

The Berliner Kraft- u. Licht (BEWAG)AG have been conducting investigations during the last several years on a 110 kV low-pressure oil-filled high-power cable with a water cooled conductor and a load capacity of 950 MVA at 110 kV. After successful transport of the cable drums (weight: 16 metric tons; diameter: 4.9 m) from the manufacturing in Cologne, West Germany, to Berlin (West), and after laying of the cable over a 300 m stretch, the commissioning tests in accordance with IEC and VDE* standards have been concluded, and several loadings with a current of 5000 A have been performed. Now, after completion of various improvements in the test system, preparations are underway for initiation of long-term testing over a period of approx. 18 months.

Kunisch, H.J.; Blasius, P.

1982-07-01

51

Development of a thermalhydraulic analysis code for the Pebble Bed Water-cooled Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pebble Bed Water-cooled Reactor (PBWR) is a water-moderated water-cooled pebble bed reactor in which millions of tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) coated micro-fuel elements (MFE) pile in each assembly. Light water is used as coolant that flows from bottom to top in the assembly while the moderator water flows in the reverse direction out of the assembly.Steady-state thermalhydraullic analysis code for the

Xiaoyu Cai; Suizheng Qiu; Wenxi Tian; Guanghui Su

52

Positron study of radiation embrittlement of steels used in water cooled, water moderated energy reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) lifetime study was applied in the evaluation of the microstructure parameters and degradation processes of nuclear reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel surveillance specimens. Study was oriented to the material investigation of Russian WWER-1000 steels (15Kh2MNFAA and 12Kh2N2MAA) with higher Ni content (1.26 wt.% in base metal and 1.7 wt.% in weld). For comparison, the WWER-440 weld metal (Sv10KhMFT) without Ni was measured too. Specimens were studied in as received stage, after irradiation in LVR-15 experimental reactor to the neutron fluence F( E > 0.5 MeV) = 4 10 23 m -2 s -1 and after annealing in vacuum at 475 C/2 h. Post-irradiation thermal treatment and annealing of defects was well detected by different PAS techniques. It was observed that the sensitivity of PAS parameters to defined irradiation treatment decreases with Ni-content increase. Results confirm the hypothesis that Ni affects size (decrease) and distribution (more homogeneous) of the Cu- and P-rich clusters and M xC x carbides.

Sluge?, Vladimr; Zeman, Andrej; Petriska, Martin; Krjak, Vladimir

2006-02-01

53

Water cooled steam jet  

DOEpatents

A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed there between. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock. 2 figs.

Wagner, E.P. Jr.

1999-01-12

54

Water cooled steam jet  

DOEpatents

A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

Wagner, Jr., Edward P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01

55

The thermal circuit of a nuclear power station's unit built around a supercritical-pressure water-cooled reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Main results obtained from calculations of the steam generator and thermal circuit of the steam turbine unit for a nuclear power unit with supercritical-pressure water coolant and integral layout are presented. The obtained characteristics point to the advisability of carrying out further developments of this promising nuclear power technology.

Silin, V. A.; Zorin, V. M.; Tagirov, A. M.; Tregubova, O. I.; Belov, I. V.; Povarov, P. V.

2010-12-01

56

The impact of water use fees on dispatching and water requirements for water-cooled power plants in Texas.  

PubMed

We utilize a unit commitment and dispatch model to estimate how water use fees on power generators would affect dispatching and water requirements by the power sector in the Electric Reliability Council of Texas' (ERCOT) electric grid. Fees ranging from 10 to 1000 USD per acre-foot were separately applied to water withdrawals and consumption. Fees were chosen to be comparable in cost to a range of water supply projects proposed in the Texas Water Development Board's State Water Plan to meet demand through 2050. We found that these fees can reduce water withdrawals and consumption for cooling thermoelectric power plants in ERCOT by as much as 75% and 23%, respectively. To achieve these water savings, wholesale electricity generation costs might increase as much as 120% based on 2011 fuel costs and generation characteristics. We estimate that water saved through these fees is not as cost-effective as conventional long-term water supply projects. However, the electric grid offers short-term flexibility that conventional water supply projects do not. Furthermore, this manuscript discusses conditions under which the grid could be effective at "supplying" water, particularly during emergency drought conditions, by changing its operational conditions. PMID:24832169

Sanders, Kelly T; Blackhurst, Michael F; King, Carey W; Webber, Michael E

2014-06-17

57

FAST FISSION IN LIGHT-WATER-MODERATED LATTICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the results or measurements of the ratios of the fission rates of U\\/; sup 238\\/ and U²³⁵ in light-water-moderated critical assemblies with ; slightly enriched fuel effective cross sections were derived, with whose help the ; fast fission factor in power reactors could be calculated. (tr-auth);

1963-01-01

58

NUCLEAR CALCULATION FOR LIGHT WATER MODERATED REACTOR. Report No. 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABS>Calculation methods are presented for light water cooled and ; moderated power reactors. Three and four group theory are used taking into ; account the effect of epithermal fission. Results on four factor, multiplication ; factor, Fermi age and buckling of UO fueled reactors, effectiveness of ; control rods, and long term reactivity changes are given. (W.D.M.);

J. Hirota; T. Kuroyanagi; K. Inoue; H. Takahashi; S. Katsuragi

1958-01-01

59

Wetland Water Cooling Partnership: The Use of Constructed Wetlands to Enhance Thermoelectric Power Plant Cooling and Mitigate the Demand of Surface Water Use  

SciTech Connect

Through the Phase I study segment of contract #DE-NT0006644 with the U.S. Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory, Applied Ecological Services, Inc. and Sterling Energy Services, LLC (the AES/SES Team) explored the use of constructed wetlands to help address stresses on surface water and groundwater resources from thermoelectric power plant cooling and makeup water requirements. The project objectives were crafted to explore and develop implementable water conservation and cooling strategies using constructed wetlands (not existing, naturally occurring wetlands), with the goal of determining if this strategy has the potential to reduce surface water and groundwater withdrawals of thermoelectric power plants throughout the country. Our teams exploratory work has documented what appears to be a significant and practical potential for augmenting power plant cooling water resources for makeup supply at many, but not all, thermoelectric power plant sites. The intent is to help alleviate stress on existing surface water and groundwater resources through harvesting, storing, polishing and beneficially re-using critical water resources. Through literature review, development of conceptual created wetland plans, and STELLA-based modeling, the AES/SES team has developed heat and water balances for conventional thermoelectric power plants to evaluate wetland size requirements, water use, and comparative cooling technology costs. The ecological literature on organism tolerances to heated waters was used to understand the range of ecological outcomes achievable in created wetlands. This study suggests that wetlands and water harvesting can provide a practical and cost-effective strategy to augment cooling waters for thermoelectric power plants in many geographic settings of the United States, particularly east of the 100th meridian, and in coastal and riverine locations. The study concluded that constructed wetlands can have significant positive ancillary socio-economic, ecosystem, and water treatment/polishing benefits when used to complement water resources at thermoelectric power plants. Through the Phase II pilot study segment of the contract, the project team partnered with Progress Energy Florida (now Duke Energy Florida) to quantify the wetland water cooling benefits at their Hines Energy Complex in Bartow, Florida. The project was designed to test the wetlands ability to cool and cleanse power plant cooling pond water while providing wildlife habitat and water harvesting benefits. Data collected during the monitoring period was used to calibrate a STELLA model developed for the site. It was also used to inform management recommendations for the demonstration site, and to provide guidance on the use of cooling wetlands for other power plants around the country. As a part of the pilot study, Duke Energy is scaling up the demonstration project to a larger, commercial scale wetland instrumented with monitoring equipment. Construction is expected to be finalized in early 2014.

Apfelbaum, Steven; Duvall, Kenneth; Nelson, Theresa; Mensing, Douglas; Bengtson, Harlan; Eppich, John; Penhallegon, Clayton; Thompson, Ry

2013-09-30

60

Water-Cooled Optical Thermometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water-cooled optical probe measures temperature of nearby radiating object. Intended primarily for use in silicon-growing furnace for measuring and controlling temperatures of silicon ribbon, meniscus, cartridge surfaces, heaters, or other parts. Cooling water and flushing gas cool fiber-optic probe and keep it clean. Fiber passes thermal radiation from observed surface to measuring instrument.

Menna, A. A.

1987-01-01

61

Water cooled static pressure probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved static pressure probe containing a water cooling mechanism is disclosed. This probe has a hollow interior containing a central coolant tube and multiple individual pressure measurement tubes connected to holes placed on the exterior. Coolant from the central tube symmetrically immerses the interior of the probe, allowing it to sustain high temperature (in the region of 2500 F) supersonic jet flow indefinitely, while still recording accurate pressure data. The coolant exits the probe body by way of a reservoir attached to the aft of the probe. The pressure measurement tubes are joined to a single, larger manifold in the reservoir. This manifold is attached to a pressure transducer that records the average static pressure.

Lagen, Nicholas T. (inventor); Eves, John W. (inventor); Reece, Garland D. (inventor); Geissinger, Steve L. (inventor)

1991-01-01

62

Axial dependence of partial void reactivity in a light water-cooled, heavy water-moderated, pressure-tube reactor  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the effect on reactivity of changes in the coolant levels in the pressure tubes of a pressure-tube heavy water reactor is experimentally studied to clarify the effect of an axial coolant void fraction distribution. The coolant void fraction distribution is simulated by stepwise changes in the coolant levels in the Deuterium Critical Assembly (DCA). The reactivity is measured for a 25.0-cm pitch square-lattice core with a positive cool void reactivity. The reactivity changes resulting from changes in the coolant levels are measured as changes in the critical heavy water levels. The axial distribution of the thermal neutron flux is also measured by the copper activation method. In these measurements, the critical heavy water levels show a sinuous curve having a maximum and a minimum, and a positive reactivity larger than those of both the 9% and the 100%, void uniform cores is introduced at certain coolant levels by stepwise changes in the coolant levels. An experimental analysis is performed with the coupled WIMS-ATR/CITATION code system, whose analytical method was established through DCA critical experiments. Agreement between experiment and analysis is fairly good.

Aihara, N.; Fukumura, N.; Kadotani, H.; Hachiya, Y. (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai Engineering Center, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki-ken (JP))

1991-10-01

63

Study on the flow-pattern-transition instability in a natural circulation heavy water moderated boiling light water cooled reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model has been developed to study the flow pattern transition instability which may occur in a boiling two-phase system. The model considers flow pattern transition criteria for vertical upward and horizontal flow in pipes to identify the flow pattern transition and flow pattern specific pressure drop models. It also considers the drift flux model to estimate the void

A. K. Nayak; P. K. Vijayan; V. Jain; D. Saha; R. K. Sinha

2003-01-01

64

Water-Cooled Turbine Blade Technology Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The water-cooled turbine blade study was comprised of heat transfer experiments, a combined cycle performance analysis, and thermal and stress analyses of proposed water-cooled blade cross-sections. The objective was to obtain combined free- and forced-co...

B. V. Johnson

1979-01-01

65

Reactivity margins in heavy water moderated production reactors  

SciTech Connect

The design of the reactor core and components of the heavy water moderated reactors at the Savannah River Plant (SFP) can be varied to produce a number of isotopes. For the past decade, the predominant reactor core design has been the enriched-depleted lattice. In this lattice, fuel assemblies of highly enriched uranium and target assemblies of depleted uranium, which produce plutonium, occupy alternate lattice positions. This heterogeneous lattice arrangement and a nonuniform control rod distribution result in a reactor core that requires sophisticated calculational methods for accurate reactivity margin and power distribution predictions. For maximum accuracy, techniques must exist to provide a base of observed data for the calculations. Frequent enriched-depleted lattice design changes are required as product demands vary. These changes provided incentive for the development of techniques to combine the results of calculations and observed reactivity data to accurately and conveniently monitor reactivity margins during operation.

Benton, F.D.

1981-11-01

66

The Relative Stability of Boiling and Pressurized Light Water Moderated Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares the stability of a given heterogeneous core when operated with a pressurized or subcooled water cooling system in which the power is removed by boiling. In order to provide a basis for comparison the following assumptions are made: 1) reactor power is the same in both cases, 2) the core geometry is the same in both cases,

John Macphee

1957-01-01

67

In-service defects in the heat-exchange tubes of steam generators at nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider specific features of the in-service defects in the heat-exchange tubes of steam generators at nuclear power plants\\u000a with VVR (water-moderated water-cooled power reactor) power-generating units. The existence of correlation between the character\\u000a of defects and the mechanism of their formation under the operating conditions is established. It is shown that the process\\u000a of formation of defects is connected

A. S. Mytrofanov; I. M. Neklyudov; L. S. Ozhyhov

2008-01-01

68

Electrochemistry of Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactors  

SciTech Connect

This project developed a comprehensive mathematical and simulation model for calculating thermal hydraulic, electrochemical, and corrosion parameters, viz. temperature, fluid flow velocity, pH, corrosion potential, hydrogen injection, oxygen contamination, stress corrosion cracking, crack growth rate, and other important quantities in the coolant circuits of water-cooled nuclear power plants, including both Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). The model is being used to assess the three major operational problems in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR), which include mass transport, activity transport, and the axial offset anomaly, and provide a powerful tool for predicting the accumulation of SCC damage in BWR primary coolant circuits as a function of operating history. Another achievement of the project is the development of a simulation tool to serve both as a training tool for plant operators and as an engineering test-bed to evaluate new equipment and operating strategies (normal operation, cold shut down and others). The development and implementation of the model allows us to estimate the activity transport or "radiation fields" around the primary loop and the vessel, as a function of the operating parameters and the water chemistry.

Dgiby Macdonald; Mirna Urquidi-Macdonald; John Mahaffy, Amit Jain, Han Sang Kim, Vishisht Gupta; Jonathan Pitt

2006-08-08

69

TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT MEASUREMENTS OF LIGHT-WATER MODERATED HETEROGENEOUS CRITICAL ASSEMBLIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

zirconium, light water moderated assemblies in simple geometry is ; summarized. The assemblies consist of both uniform highly enriched media and ; seed-blanket slab arrays coutaining a natural uranium alloy blanket in plate form. ; A review is given of the typical experimeatal techniques and experimental data ; obtained in thae process of validating power reactor designs involving these core

S. H. Levine; B. H. Noordhoff; J. J. Taylor; W. F. Vogelsang

1958-01-01

70

Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Fast Reactors for Actinide Burning and Electric Power Production Progress Report for Year 1, Quarter 2 (January - March 2002)  

SciTech Connect

The use of light water at supercritical pressures as the coolant in a nuclear reactor offers the potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies of the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to about 45%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type re-circulation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel and smaller containment building than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed.

Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Davis, Cliff Bybee; Weaver, Kevan Dean

2002-03-01

71

Heavy water moderated reactors advances and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear energy is now a key contributor to world electricity production, with total installed capacity nearly equal to that of hydraulic power. Nevertheless, many important challenges lie ahead. Paramount among these is gaining public acceptance: this paper makes the basic assumption that public acceptance will improve if, and only if, nuclear power plants are operated safely and economically over an

D. A. Meneley; R. A. Olmstead; A. M. Yu

1994-01-01

72

DISTILLATION OF LIGHT WATER FROM HEAVY WATER MODERATOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of the equipment and method of operation of a ; distillation system to remove light water from heavy water moderator. The basic ; principles of the theory of distillation are reviewed. ( auth);

Bertsche

1958-01-01

73

Near term application of water cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents studies of combined gas and steam-turbine cycles related to the near term application of water cooling technology to the commercial gas turbine operating on heavy residual oil or coal derived liquid fuels. Water cooling promises significant reduction of hot corrosion and ash deposition at the turbine first-stage nozzle. It was found that: (1) corrosion of some alloys in the presence of alkali contaminant was less as metal temperatures were lowered to the 800-1000 F range, (2) the rate of ash deposition is increased for air-cooled and water-cooled nozzles at the 2060 F turbine firing temperature compared to 1850 F, (3) the ash deposit for the water cooled nozzle was lighter and more easily removed at both 1850 and 2050 F, (4) on-line nutshelling was effective on the water-cooled nozzles even at 2050 F, and (5) the data indicates that the rate of ash deposition may be sensitive to surface wall temperatures.

Horner, M. W.; Caruvana, A.; Cohn, A.; Smith, D. P.

1980-03-01

74

Air and water cooled modulator  

DOEpatents

A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method are disclosed for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air. 9 figs.

Birx, D.L.; Arnold, P.A.; Ball, D.G.; Cook, E.G.

1995-09-05

75

Air and water cooled modulator  

SciTech Connect

A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air.

Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Arnold, Phillip A. (Livermore, CA); Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01

76

Light-Water Moderator Core of Kyoto University Critical Assembly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Kyoto University Critical Assembly KUCA is of new type with three cores which consist of highly enriched uranium and solid moderator or light water moderator. The first critical experiment of KUCA was performed in August, 1974. In the present report, the ...

T. Sagane T. Shibata

1978-01-01

77

NUCLEAR CALCULATION METHODS FOR LIGHT WATER MODERATED REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief discussion of problems encountered in the nuclear design of ; water moderated reactors is presented and a comprehensive scheme of calculations ; is described. This scheme is based largely on theoretical methods and computer ; codes developed in the USA but some previously unreported developments made in ; this country are also described. It is shown that the

Hicks

1961-01-01

78

Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electric Power Production, Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Project 2001-001, Westinghouse Electric Co. Grant Number: DE-FG07-02SF22533, Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) is one of the six reactor technologies selected for research and development under the Generation IV program. SCWRs are promising advanced nuclear systems because of their high thermal efficiency (i.e., about 45% versus about 33% efficiency for current Light Water Reactors [LWRs]) and considerable plant simplification. SCWRs are basically LWRs operating at higher pressure and temperatures with a direct once-through cycle. Operation above the critical pressure eliminates coolant boiling, so the coolant remains single-phase throughout the system. Thus, the need for a pressurizer, steam generators, steam separators, and dryers is eliminated. The main mission of the SCWR is generation of low-cost electricity. It is built upon two proven technologies: LWRs, which are the most commonly deployed power generating reactors in the world, and supercritical fossil-fired boilers, a large number of which are also in use around the world. The reference SCWR design for the U.S. program is a direct cycle system operating at 25.0 MPa, with core inlet and outlet temperatures of 280 and 500 C, respectively. The coolant density decreases from about 760 kg/m3 at the core inlet to about 90 kg/m3 at the core outlet. The inlet flow splits with about 10% of the inlet flow going down the space between the core barrel and the reactor pressure vessel (the downcomer) and about 90% of the inlet flow going to the plenum at the top of the rector pressure vessel, to then flow down through the core in special water rods to the inlet plenum. Here it mixes with the feedwater from the downcomer and flows upward to remove the heat in the fuel channels. This strategy is employed to provide good moderation at the top of the core. The coolant is heated to about 500 C and delivered to the turbine. The purpose of this NERI project was to assess the reference U.S. Generation IV SCWR design and explore alternatives to determine feasibility. The project was organized into three tasks: Task 1. Fuel-cycle Neutronic Analysis and Reactor Core Design Task 2. Fuel Cladding and Structural Material Corrosion and Stress Corrosion Cracking Task 3. Plant Engineering and Reactor Safety Analysis. moderator rods. materials.

Philip E. MacDonald

2005-01-01

79

Deployment Scenario of Heavy Water Cooled Thorium Breeder Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deployment scenario of heavy water cooled thorium breeder reactor has been studied. We have assumed to use plutonium and thorium oxide fuel in water cooled reactor to produce 233U which will be used in thorium breeder reactor. The objective is to analysis the potential of water cooled Th-Pu reactor for replacing all of current LWRs especially in Japan. In this

Deby Mardiansah; Naoyuki Takaki

2010-01-01

80

Few Group Diffusion Calculations of a Light Water Moderated Lattice  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis was made of a light water moderated lattice based on few group diffusion calculations. The lattice under investigation consisted of 468 fuel rods in a square lattice arranged in a cylindrical core of 22.46 cm effective radius and 127.2 cm core height, with a water to fuel volume ratio of 2.918. The fuel was 2.02% enriched UO2, clad

Hiroshi MIZUTA; Kakuji MAKINO

1966-01-01

81

HEAVY WATER MODERATED POWER REACTORS. Progress Report, December 1962  

Microsoft Academic Search

BS>The Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) was operated ; intermittently for irradiation tests of fuel assemblies of various types. The U ; metal assembly that failed in the HWCTR in Nov. was removed to a spent fuel basin ; without difficulty. A one-week shutdown of the HWCTR was made for temporary ; repair of one of the steam generators

L. Isakoff; R. R. comps. Hood

1963-01-01

82

HEAVY WATER MODERATED POWER REACTORS PROGRESS REPORT FOR MAY 1960  

Microsoft Academic Search

BS>A Zircaloy-clad tube of unalloyed uranium that was irradiated in a ;\\u000a loop of the NRU reactor to a maximum exposure of 950 Mwd\\/ton at a maximum uranium ;\\u000a temperature of 40O deg C experienced less than 1.5% volume increase and 0.14% ;\\u000a outer-cladding strain. Inspection of the swaged oxide tube that had failed ;\\u000a during irradiation in a Savannah

R. R. Hood; L. comps. Isakoff

1960-01-01

83

HEAVY WATER MODERATED POWER REACTORS. Progress Report for July 1959  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continued progress is reported on the design and construction of the ; Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR), a high-temperature facility for ; simultaneously irradiating sizable numbers of fuel elememts; 65% of the firm ; design and 5% of the construction were complete at the end of July 1959. Further ; analyses are given of the response of the KWCTR

Isakoff

1959-01-01

84

HEAVY WATER MODERATED POWER REACTORS. Progress Report for December 1959  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the end of 1959, 25% of the construction and 85% of the firm design ;\\u000a of the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) were complete. Further ;\\u000a safeguards analyses of the HWCTR, done with the aid of analog and digital ;\\u000a computers, corroberated earlier data which indicated that the reactor is highly ;\\u000a self-regulating, and that the safety system

R. R. Hood; L. comps. Isakoff

1960-01-01

85

HEAVY WATER MODERATED POWER REACTORS. Progress Report for August 1959  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continued prcgress is reported on the design and construction of the ; Heavy Water Components Test Reactor; 70% of the firm design and 10% of the ; construction were complete at the end of August 1959. Installation of two ; isolated coolant loops, one cooled with boiling DO and the other with ; liquid DO, were authorized by the Atomic

Isakoff

1959-01-01

86

HEAVY WATER MODERATED POWER REACTORS. Progress Report for February 1960  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the end of February 1960, 30% of the construction of the Heavy Water ;\\u000a Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) was compplete. Limits for safe operation of the ;\\u000a reactor were defined, and the general procedures for startup, shutdown, and ;\\u000a normal operation here formulated. A detailed analysis of operating stresses in ;\\u000a the reactor vessel defined the ling that can

R. R. Hood; L. comp. Isakoff

1960-01-01

87

HEAVY WATER MODERATED POWER REACTORS. Progress Report for June 1960  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the end of June 1960, 36% of the construction and 94% of the firm ;\\u000a design of the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) were complete. Revised ;\\u000a calculations of transients in the liquid-DO-cooled loop of the HWCTR ;\\u000a showed that the safety of the loop was not impaired by recent changes in the ;\\u000a location and design of

R. R. Hood; L. comps. Isakoff

1960-01-01

88

Cooling apparatus for water-cooled engines  

SciTech Connect

A cooling apparatus is described for a water-cooled internal combustion engine including a shaft that rotates when the engine is running, the apparatus comprising a centrifugal fan adapted to be connected to and rotated by the shaft, the fan having an intake air port and a discharge air opening, a rotary screen adapted to be operatively connected to and rotated by the shaft, the screen being disposed in the intake air port, a cooling radiator, a spiral-shaped duct connecting the radiator with the discharge air opening, and separating means on the duct, the separating means comprising an opening formed in the outer wall of the duct.

Fujikawa, T.; Tamba, S.

1986-05-20

89

Water-Cooled Gas Turbine Development Program. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the final report of EPRI Water-Cooled Gas Turbine Development Program, RP234. The program was initiated in 1974 to establish the viability of water cooling as a means of achieving higher firing temperatures and increased fuels flexibility in utili...

1981-01-01

90

Metering cooling flows in the water-cooled gas turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metering of coolant flow to bucket cooling passages in the water-cooled gas turbine rotor was experimentally evaluated. Through water flow per cooling passage is approximately one gallon per hour and rotor ''g'' field is approximately 20,000 g's, the water-cooled gas turbine depends on uniform water distribution. Measurements indicative of water distribution accuracy to eight buckets and representative cooling passages in

Grondahl

1983-01-01

91

Water-cooled solid-breeder concept for ITER  

SciTech Connect

A water-cooled solid-breeder blanket concept was developed for ITER. The main function of this blanket is to produce the necessary tritium for the ITER operation. Several design features are incorporated in this blanket concept to increase its attractiveness. It is assumed that the blanket operation at commercial power reactor conditions can be sacrificed to achieve a high tritium breeding ratio with minimum additional research and development, and minimal impact on reactor design and operation. Operating temperature limits are enforced for each material to insure a satisfactory blanket performance. In fact, the design was iterated to maximize the tritium breeding ratio and satisfy these temperature limits. The other design constraint is to permit a large increase in the neutron wall loading without exceeding the temperature limits for the different blanket materials. The blanket concept contains 1.8 cm of Li/sub 2/O and 22.5 cm of beryllium both with a 0.8 density factor. The water coolant is isolated from the breeder material by several zones which reduces the tritium buildup in the water by permeation, reduces the chance for water-breeder interaction, and permits the breeder to operate at high temperature with a low temperature coolant. This improves the safety and environmental aspects of the blanket and eliminates the costly process of the tritium recovery from the water. The key features and design analysis of this blanket are summarized in this paper. 11 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Gohar, Y.; Baker, C.C.; Attaya, H.; Billone, M.; Clemmer, R.C.; Finn, P.A.; Hassanein, A.; Johnson, C.E.; Majumdar, S.; Mattas, R.F.

1988-08-01

92

A direct-cycle, supercritical light-water-cooled FBR, SCFBR-D  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been studying supercritical-pressure light-water-cooled reactors (SCLWRS) for improving thermal efficiency, simplifying the light water reactor (LWR) system, and moving toward a low-cost fast breeder reactor (FBR) based on long-standing water coolant technology of a fossil-fired power plants and LWRs. This paper summarizes the conceptual design of a direct-cycle, supercritical-pressure FBR, the SCFBR-D. The fuel is U-Pu mixed oxides

Yoshiaki Oka; Tatjana Jevremovic; Seiichi Koshizuka; Yasushi Okano

1993-01-01

93

Design and Uses of a Light-Water-Moderated Subcritical Assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utility of subcritical assemblies in the development of nuclear reactors and as educational tools is discussed, and a detailed description of the light-water-moderated, natural uranium assembly at Georgia Tech is presented.

E. W. McDaniel; T. A. Elliott

1958-01-01

94

Water-cooled beam line components at LAMPF  

SciTech Connect

The beam line components that comprise the main experimental beam at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) have been operating since February 1976. This paper will define the functions of the primary water-cooled elements, their design evolution, and our operating experience to the present time.

Grisham, D.L.; Lambert, J.E.

1981-01-01

95

Computational Simulation of a Water-Cooled Heat Pump  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Fortran-language computer program for simulating the operation of a water-cooled vapor-compression heat pump in any orientation with respect to gravity has been developed by modifying a prior general-purpose heat-pump design code used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

Bozarth, Duane

2008-01-01

96

Copper corrosion & clogging in APS deionized water cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive amount of work has been performed on copper corrosion in last century due to its abundant use in domestic and industrial water systems. However, work on copper corrosion in deionized water is very limited. The water cooling system of Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory uses deionized water containing very low dissolved oxygen (less than 10

Bijaya Adak

2009-01-01

97

Water cooled anode increases life of high temperature arc lamp  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water cooling system increases the life of the anode of a high temperature compact arc lamp. A shaped water passage is provided through the tip or hottest point of the anode so that water will flow through it at a relatively high velocity.

Riise, H. N.

1967-01-01

98

Summary of research and development effort on air and water cooling of gas turbine blades  

SciTech Connect

The review on air- and water-cooled gas turbines from the 1904 Lemale-Armengaud water-cooled gas turbine, the 1948 to 1952 NACA work, and the program at GE indicates that the potential of air cooling has been largely exploited in reaching temperatures of 1100/sup 0/C (approx. 2000/sup 0/F) in utility service and that further increases in turbine inlet temperature may be obtained with water cooling. The local heat flux in the first-stage turbine rotor with water cooling is very high, yielding high-temperature gradients and severe thermal stresses. Analyses and tests indicate that by employing a blade with an outer cladding of an approx. 1-mm-thick oxidation-resistant high-nickel alloy, a sublayer of a high-thermal-conductivity, high-strength, copper alloy containing closely spaced cooling passages approx. 2 mm in ID to minimize thermal gradients, and a central high-strength alloy structural spar, it appears possible to operate a water-cooled gas turbine with an inlet gas temperature of 1370/sup 0/C. The cooling-water passages must be lined with an iron-chrome-nickel alloy must be bent 90/sup 0/ to extend in a neatly spaced array through the platform at the base of the blade. The complex geometry of the blade design presents truly formidable fabrication problems. The water flow rate to each of many thousands of coolant passages must be metered and held to within rather close limits because the heat flux is so high that a local flow interruption of only a few seconds would lead to a serious failure.Heat losses to the cooling water will run approx. 10% of the heat from the fuel. By recoverying this waste heat for feedwater heating in a command cycle, these heat losses will give a degradation in the power plant output of approx. 5% relative to what might be obtained if no cooling were required. However, the associated power loss is less than half that to be expected with an elegant air cooling system.

Fraas, A.P.

1980-03-01

99

Corrosion mechanisms of candidate structural materials for supercritical water-cooled reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nickel-based alloys, austenitic stainless steel, ferritic\\/martensitic heat-resistant steels, and oxide dispersion strengthened\\u000a steel are presently considered to be the candidate structural or fuel-cladding materials for supercritical water-cooled reactor\\u000a (SCWR), one of the promising generation IV reactor for large-scale electric power production. However, corrosion and stress\\u000a corrosion cracking of these candidate alloys still remain to be a major problem in the

Lefu Zhang; Fawen Zhu; Rui Tang

2009-01-01

100

Copper corrosion & clogging in APS deionized water cooling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extensive amount of work has been performed on copper corrosion in last century due to its abundant use in domestic and industrial water systems. However, work on copper corrosion in deionized water is very limited. The water cooling system of Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory uses deionized water containing very low dissolved oxygen (less than 10 ppb). Therefore, It is expected that copper corrosion would be less in this system. On the contrary, APS suffers significant clogging in its water cooling circuit resulting from the deposition of corrosion product and carries out frequent expensive maintenance to retain the required flow rate. The location of pH and corrosion potential of APS water cooling system is very close to the boundary condition of the two oxides (CuO and Cu 2O) of the Pourbaix diagram of copper. While a single phase presence of either of these two oxides is stable as a protective layer, a mixture of the two oxides is unstable. An unstable protective layer results in spalling of the oxide layer. A fluctuation in water chemistry (which is common in an industrial facility) triggers a phase transformation between these two oxides due to its near boundary values. It was observed that the location of pH and corrosion potential was away from the boundaries in high dissolved oxygen condition (more than 2000 ppm). Hence, the possibility of phase transformation becomes lesser in high dissolved oxygen condition than in low dissolved oxygen condition. A test station, that was a replica of the APS water cooling system, was used to perform experiments in both high and low oxygen condition. It was demonstrated that high oxygen condition results in less clogging than in low oxygen condition. Microstructural characterization was performed on the coupons from test station and on some components from APS to evaluate oxide surface and determine phases. Mechanism of the phase transformation was suggested.

Adak, Bijaya

101

Deployment Scenario of Heavy Water Cooled Thorium Breeder Reactor  

SciTech Connect

Deployment scenario of heavy water cooled thorium breeder reactor has been studied. We have assumed to use plutonium and thorium oxide fuel in water cooled reactor to produce {sup 233}U which will be used in thorium breeder reactor. The objective is to analysis the potential of water cooled Th-Pu reactor for replacing all of current LWRs especially in Japan. In this paper, the standard Pressurize Water Reactor (PWR) has been designed to produce 3423 MWt; (i) Th-Pu PWR, (ii) Th-Pu HWR (MFR = 1.0) and (iii) Th-Pu HWR (MFR 1.2). The properties and performance of the core were investigated by using cell and core calculation code. Th-Pu PWR or HWR produces {sup 233}U to introduce thorium breeder reactor. The result showed that to replace all (60 GWe) LWR by thorium breeder reactor within a period of one century, Th-Pu oxide fueled PWR has insufficient capability to produce necessary amount of {sup 233}U and Th-Pu oxide fueled HWR has almost enough potential to produce {sup 233}U but shows positive void reactivity coefficient.

Mardiansah, Deby; Takaki, Naoyuki [Course of Applied Science, School of Engineering, Tokai University (Japan)

2010-06-22

102

THE EFFECTS OF BERYLLIA REFLECTOR ELEMENTS ON A HIGHLY ENRICHED LIGHT-WATER MODERATED REACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance and use of beryllium oxide reflector elements are ; described wlth respect to improvements made in a water moderated reactor ; utilizing the elements. Since beryllia does not absorb neutrons as markedly as ; water it may be used for filling the vacant spaces in the lattice plates, thereby ; giving the neutron currents more facility. Since beryllia

P. N. Cooper; W. M. Cooper; K. Firth; A. J. Salmon

1962-01-01

103

Compilation of criticality data involving thorium or 233U and light water moderation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature has been searched for criticality data for light water moderated systems which contain thorium or U, and data found are compiled herein. They are from critical experiments, extrapolations, and exponential experiments performed with homogeneous solutions and metal spheres of U; with lattices of fuel rods containing highly enriched UO - ThO and UO - ThO; and with arrays

Gore

2011-01-01

104

Light-water-moderated reactivity of tubular slug pairs containing 1.1 wt % U  

Microsoft Academic Search

From joint meeting of the American Nuclear Society and the Atomic ; Industrial Forum and Nuclear Energy Exhibition; San Francisco, California, USA ; (11 Nov 1973). Experiments in the exponential facility at thc Savannah River ; Laboratory have provided a basis for safe storage and handling of slightly ; enriched tubular uranium slugs. The reactivities of light-water-moderated and ; reflected

Smotrel

1974-01-01

105

Pulsed Neutron Intensity from Rectangular Shaped Light Water Moderator with Fast-Neutron Reflector  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a view to enhancing the thermal-neutron intensity obtained from a pulsed neutron source, an experimental study has been made to determine the optimum size of a rectangular shaped light water moderator provided with fast neutron reflector of beryllium oxide or graphite, and decoupled thermal-neutronically by means of Cd sheet. The optimum dimensions for the moderator are derived for the

Yoshiaki KIYANAGI; Hirokatsu IWASA

1982-01-01

106

PLUTONIUM RECYCLE CRITICAL FACILITY CRITERIA FOR LIGHT WATER-MODERATED EXPERIMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Included are outlines of the experimental program and safety ; requirements for the water-moderated studies to be carried out in the PRCF, which ; provide a basis for establishing safe design and safe operating limits and ; procedures for the program. Type I experiments consist of fuel elements of 2 to ; 4 feet, while Type II experiments involve fuel

Gustafson

1963-01-01

107

CRITICAL SIZE AND FLUX DISTRIBUTION MEASUREMENTS IN HIGHLY ENRICHED, LIGHT WATER MODERATED LATTICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental determinations of critical size and flux distributions ; in critical and sub-critical assemblies using fuel packs consisting of Al- U and ; stainless steel plates are described. The results show that few-group models are ; adequate for calculating the critical size of highly absorbing light water ; moderated lattices and that material buckling and thermal fine structure ;

I. Johnstone; W. H. Taylor; S. K. Wallace

1963-01-01

108

Fate of Radionuclides in the Light Water Moderator of a Research Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fate of radionuclides produced in a light water moderator was investigated by assaying with a Ge(Li) detector sampled coolant water and the waste water produced by regeneration of resins, measuring the radiation dose rates along the surface of the resin column length with TLDs, and studying the sorption of radionuclides to resins in dynamic experiments. The buildup concentrations of

Masami FUKUI; Taka-aki YOSHIMOTO; Ken-ichi OKAMOTO; Kaoru MINAMI

1994-01-01

109

Hot ion plasma production in HIP-1 using water-cooled hollow cathodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper reports on hot-ion plasma experiments conducted in a magnetic mirror facility. A steady-state E x B plasma was formed by applying a strong radially inward dc electric field near the mirror throats. Most of the results were for hydrogen, but deuterium and helium plasmas were also studied. Three water-cooled hollow cathodes were operated in the hot-ion plasma mode with the following results: (1) thermally emitting cathodes were not required to achieve the hot-ion mode; (2) steady-state operation (several minutes) was attained; (3) input powers greater than 40 kW were achieved; (4) cathode outside diameters were increased from 1.2 cm (uncooled) to 4.4 cm (water-cooled); (5) steady-state hydrogen plasmas with ion temperatures from 185 to 770 eV and electron temperatures from 5 to 21 eV were produced. Scaling relations were empirically obtained for discharge current, ion temperature, electron temperature, and relative ion density as a function of hydrogen gas feed rate, magnetic field, and cathode voltage.

Reinmann, J. J.; Lauver, M. R.; Patch, R. W.; Layman, R. W.; Snyder, A.

1975-01-01

110

Modifications to MELCOR for the analysis of heavy-water moderated, UA1 fuel reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MELCOR computer code is being used as the point of departure to develop an integrated severe accident analysis computer code for the heavy-water moderated U-Al fuel reactors. The resulting computer code (MELCOR\\/SR) provides a practical and comprehensive analytical tool for evaluating severe accident behavior in the Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactors. The technical scope of this development effort

J. P. Church; M. T. Leonard; K. A. Williams

1990-01-01

111

The Reactivity Temperature Coefficient Analysis in Light Water Moderated UO and UO-PuO Lattices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contributions of different physical phenomena to the reactivity temperature coefficient (RTC) in typical light water moderated lattices have been assessed. Using the APOLLO2 code with the CEA93 cross-section library based on JEF2.2 data, we have analyzed the main French experiments available on the RTC: the CREOLE and MISTRAL experiments. In these experiments performed in the EOLE critical facility located

L. Erradi; A. Santamarina; O. Litaize

2003-01-01

112

Moderator temperature effect on reactivity in light water moderated experimental reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity has been measured in a U-233 fuelled plate type light water moderated reactor (KAMINI). Using neutron cross sections based on WIMS library, lattice homogenization code SMAXY and 3D core calculation code COMESH the moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity is predicted very well (within 0.6 pcm per C). For U-235 and Pu-239 fuelled KRITZ experiments

D. K. Mohapatra; P. Mohanakrishnan

2000-01-01

113

Temperature Effects on Reactivity in Light Water Moderated U02 Cores with Soluble Poisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental and computational studies have been performed on the temperature coefficients of reactivity in light-water moderated and reflected UO2 cores with soluble poisons such as boron and gadolinium. Experiments were carried out using the Tank-type Critical Assembly (TCA) in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Temperature coefficients of the cores with soluble poisons were measured by changing the temperature of

Yoshinori MIYOSHI; Toshihiro YAMAMOTO; Takenori SUZAKI; Iwao KOBAYASHI

1992-01-01

114

Modified conversion ratio measurement in light water-moderated UO lattices  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the accuracy of the neutronic calculations in various neutron spectra, the modified conversion ratios [(MCR): ratio of ²³⁸U capture rate-to-total fission rate] of four kinds of light water-moderated UO fuel lattices were measured. In the measurements, the relative reaction rates of ²³⁸U capture and total fission were obtained from the nondestructive gamma-ray spectrometry of ²³⁹Np and ¹⁴³Ce, respectively,

Ken Nakajima; Masanori Akai

1996-01-01

115

Management of Radioactive Wastes at Power Reactor Sites in India.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Indian nuclear power programme, at the present stage, is based on natural uranium fuelled heavy water moderated CANDU type reactors except for the first nuclear power station consisting of two units of enriched uranium fuelled, light water moderated, BWR ...

K. Balu R. V. Amalraj

1980-01-01

116

Water-cooled hard-soldered kilowatt laser diode arrays operating at high duty cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High brightness laser diode arrays are increasingly found in defense applications either as efficient optical pumps or as direct energy sources. In many instances, duty cycles of 10- 20 % are required, together with precise optical collimation. System requirements are not always compatible with the use of microchannel based cooling, notwithstanding their remarkable efficiency. Simpler but effective solutions, which will not involve high fluid pressure drops as well as deionized water, are needed. The designer is faced with a number of challenges: effective heat removal, minimization of the built- in and operational stresses as well as precise and accurate fast axis collimation. In this article, we report on a novel laser diode array which includes an integral tap water cooling system. Robustness is achieved by all around hard solder bonding of passivated 940nm laser bars. Far field mapping of the beam, after accurate fast axis collimation will be presented. It will be shown that the design of water cooling channels , proper selection of package materials, careful design of fatigue sensitive parts and active collimation technique allow for long life time and reliability, while not compromising the laser diode array efficiency, optical power density ,brightness and compactness. Main performance characteristics are 150W/bar peak optical power, 10% duty cycle and more than 50% wall plug efficiency with less than 1 fast axis divergence. Lifetime of 0.5 Gshots with less than 10% power degradation has been proved. Additionally, the devices have successfully survived harsh environmental conditions such as thermal cycling of the coolant temperature and mechanical shocks.

Klumel, Genady; Karni, Yoram; Oppenhaim, Jacob; Berk, Yuri; Shamay, Moshe; Tessler, Renana; Cohen, Shalom; Risemberg, Shlomo

2010-04-01

117

Silver bonded, internally water-cooled monochromators for CHESS wiggler beamlines  

SciTech Connect

Intense synchrotron radiation from high power wiggler sources has long been a difficult high-heat-load problem to the design of properly cooled x-ray optics. Large, high power and very intense beams thermally distort crystal optics, reducing throughput and broadening rocking curves. An internally cooled silicon monochromator has been fabricated which demonstrated the capability of diffracting wiggler radiation of unprecedented power without significant degradation of the beam. Cooling water flows through rectangular cooling channels 1 mm wide, 1 mm below the diffracting surface, fed by a manifold bonded to the underside of the diffracting crystal. A novel silver diffusion bond was used to ensure leak-tight UHV performance. Recent test results at wiggler station F2 show a linear behavior of the x-ray flux with increasing storage ring current up to a total power of 3 kW and a peak surface power density of 5 W/mm{sup 2}. The improved monochromator has led to an increase of x-ray flux by a factor of six over previous contact-cooled designs and shows that internal water-cooling can be an effective solution to high-heat-load problems at high power wiggler stations.

Smolenski, Karl W.; Shen Qun; Doing, Park [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

1997-07-01

118

Safety design principle of supercritical water cooled reactors  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes safety of high temperature supercritical pressure light water cooled and moderated reactor (SCLWR-H) developed by Univ. Tokyo. Although SCLWR-H is a logical evolution of LWR, the cooling system and safety principle are different from it. SCLWR-H is once-through cooling cycle where all the coolant is led to the turbine. The safety design principle of once-through SCLWR-H is to keep core flow rate while keeping water inventory is important in LWR. The safety system of SCLWR-H is similar to that of BWR since both reactors are direct cycle. Cladding temperature is limited at transient instead of heat flux because heat transfer deterioration of single-phase supercritical water is milder than DNB and dryout of subcritical water. A set of safety analyses shows that SCLWR-H safety is maintained. Once-through cooling cycle, relatively small pressure change at supercritical pressure and heat conduction to many water rods characterizes safety behavior of SCLWR-H. Depressurization induces core flow and increases core cooling because high-density water passively flow from the RPV through the ADS. Such effect of depressurization is advantage in SCLWR-H safety. Decrease in water inventory by depressurization is not a problem for SCLWR-H because water inventory is not important safety factor. Another advantage is that ATWS behavior is mild and better than LWR. It is mitigated without scram and depressurization. (authors)

Ishiwatari, Y.; Oka, Y.; Koshizuka, S. [Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, The University of Tokyo, Shirane-Shirakata 2-22, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki, 319-1188 (Japan)

2004-07-01

119

Energetics of semi-catalyzed-deuterium, light-water-moderated, fusion-fission toroidal reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The semi-catalyzed-deuterium Light-Water Hybrid Reactor (LWHR) comprises a lithium-free light-water-moderated blanket with USi fuel driven by a deuterium-based fusion-neutron source, with complete burn-up of the tritium but almost no burn-up of the helium-3 reaction product. A one-dimensional model for a neutral-beam-driven tokamak plasma is used to determine the operating modes under which the fusion energy multiplication Q\\/sub p\\/ can be

D. L. Jassby; H. H. Towner; E. Greenspan; A. Schneider; A. Misolovin; D. Gilai

1978-01-01

120

Nitrogen-16 Generation, Transport and Associated Shielding Requirements in the Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor  

SciTech Connect

As a water-cooled nuclear system with a direct thermal cycle, the supercritical-water-cooled reactor (SCWR) shares with the boiling water reactor (BWR) the issue of coolant activation and transport of the coolant activation products to the turbine and balance of plant (BOP). Consistent with the BWR experience, the dominant nuclide contributing to the SCWR coolant radioactivity at full power is 16N, which is produced by an (n,p) reaction on 16O. In this paper the production and decay of 16N in the SCWR coolant circuit along with the shielding requirements imposed on the BOP are analyzed and compared with those in a BWR with a similar thermal power rating. A simple control-mass approach is adopted in which the 16N inventory in a unit mass of coolant is tracked as the coolant flows in the SCWR and BWR primary systems, which are divided into several compartments (e.g., core, lower plenum, downcomer, etc.) of known volume, mass flow rate, and neutron flux. The values of the neutron flux and (n,p) cross section in the SCWR and BWR cores are calculated by means of full-length radially reflected Monte Carlo eigenvalue models of the SCWR and BWR fuel assemblies. The results are as follows: The 16N activities in the steam lines of the BWR with normal water chemistry, in the BWR with hydrogen water chemistry, and in the SCWR are about 40, 180, and 380 Ci/g, respectively. The calculated BWR values compare well with the trends and ranges found in the literature. The SCWR 16N concentration is significantly higher than that in the BWR for the following four reasons: 1. The coolant transit time in the SCWR core is about twice that in the BWR core. 2. The neutron flux is higher in the SCWR because of the higher power density. 3. The slow coolant pass in the water rods produces a significant 16N activity at the SCWR core inlet. 4. In the SCWR all the 16N generated in the core is sent to the steam lines because there is no recirculation within the vessel. A simple gamma attenuation model shows that the higher 16N activity in the SCWR results in shielding requirements only up to 10% higher than for the BWR with hydrogen water chemistry. However, because of the higher SCWR electric power, the specific shielding costs per unit of electric power associated with 16N are expected to be similar to or better than that for BWRs.

Jacopo Buongiorno

2004-08-01

121

Water cooled gas turbine development. Annual report summary. [April through Dec. 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress during April through Dec. 1975 in developing the technology and components for performing tests to evaluate the ability of water-cooled, ultrahigh-temperature, heavy-duty gas turbine hardware to resist erosion, conducting a design analysis of water-cooled, ultrahigh-temperature, heavy-duty gas turbine components, studying the rates and compositions of deposits and the methods for modification or removal of such deposits, and for conducting

Perugi

1976-01-01

122

Experimental study of the decrease in the temperature of an air\\/water-cooled turbine blade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of the full-scale testing of an air\\/water-cooled deflector-type turbine blade are reported. Data on the decrease in the temperature of the cooling air and of the blade are presented and compared with the calculated values. An analysis of the results indicates that the use of air\\/water cooling makes it possible to significantly reduce the temperature of the cooling air

A. A. Ryzhov; A. V. Sereda; V. F. Shaiakberov; K. M. Iskakov; Iu. S. Shatalov

1992-01-01

123

The high temperature water cooled gas turbine in combined cycle with integrated low Btu gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of turbine subsystem design sponsored by the High-Temperature Turbine Technology Program of ERDA is described, with emphasis on development of a water-cooled turbine for use in a combined cycle plant having integrated fixed-bed gasification. In addition to water cooling, air and steam cooling concepts are considered, and various designs of buckets and nozzles applicable to high-temperature conditions are

R. K. Alff; G. B. Manning; R. C. Sheldon

1977-01-01

124

The Supercritical Water Cooled Reactor: Ongoing Research and Development in the U.S  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical water-cooled reactors (SCWRs) are among the most promising advanced nuclear systems because of their high thermal efficiency and considerable plant simplification. SCWRs are basically LWRs operating at higher pressure and temperatures with a direct once-through cycle. Operation above the critical pressure eliminates coolant boiling, so the coolant remains single-phase throughout the nuclear island. The need for recirculation and jet pumps, pressurizer, steam generators, steam separators and dryers is eliminated. The main mission of the SCWR is generation of low-cost electricity. SCWRs build upon two proven technologies, LWRs, which are the most commonly deployed power generating reactors in the world, and supercritical coal-fired boilers, a great many of which are also in use around the world. The SCWR concept is being investigated by 32 organizations in 13 countries and is one of only six reactor technologies selected for further development under the Generation-IV program. This paper outlines the main SCWR characteristics, its technical challenges and related research activities in the U.S. (author)

Buongiorno, Jacopo [U.S. SCWR System Integration Manager, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

2004-07-01

125

Effect of thermal barrier coatings on the performance of steam- and water-cooled gas turbine: steam turbine combined cycle systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical study was made of the performance of air-, steam-, and water-cooled gas-turbine\\/steam-turbine combined-cycle systems with and without thermal-barrier coatings. For steam cooling, thermal-barrier coatings permit an increase in the turbine inlet temperature from 1205°C to 1370°C, resulting in an efficiency improvement of 1.9 percentage points. The maximum specific power improvement with thermal barriers is 32.4% when the turbine

Nainiger

1978-01-01

126

Development of a silicon calorimeter for dosimetry applications in a water-moderated reactor.  

SciTech Connect

High fidelity active dosimetry in the mixed neutron/gamma field of a research reactor is a very complex issue. For passive dosimetry applications, the use of activation foils addresses the neutron environment while the use of low neutron response CaF{sub 2}:Mn thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) addresses the gamma environment. While radiation-hardened diamond photoconducting detectors (PCD) have been developed that provide a very precise fast response (picosecond) dosimeter and can provide a time-dependent profile for the radiation environment, the mixed field response of the PCD is still uncertain and this interferes with the calibration of the PCD response. In order to address the research reactor experimenter's need for a dosimeter that reports silicon dose and dose rate at a test location during a pulsed reactor operation, a silicon calorimeter has been developed. This dosimeter can be used by itself to provide a dose in rad(Si) up to a point in a reactor pulsed operation, or, in conjunction with the diamond PCD, to provide a dose rate. This paper reports on the development, testing, and validation of this silicon calorimeter for applications in water-moderated research reactors.

DePriest, Kendall Russell; King, Donald Bryan; Naranjo, Gerald E.; Luker, Spencer Michael; Keltner, Ned R. (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma (Alion Science and Technology, Albuquerque, NM); Griffin, Patrick Joseph

2005-05-01

127

REACTIVITY EFFECTS OF LARGE VOIDS IN THE REFLECTOR OF A LIGHT-WATER- MODERATED AND-REFLECTED REACTOR (thesis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactivity effects of large voids in the reflector of the Pool Critical ; Assembly (PCA), an enriched-uranium, light-water-moderated and -reflected ; reactor, were investigated experimentally and theoretically. The three principal ; effects which were studied experimentally were: the variation of reactivity with ; the size of a void located at the center of one face of the core (including a

1959-01-01

128

Evaluation of Critical Bucklings of Light-Water Moderated Low Enriched UO Cores by the Variable Loading Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horizontal extrapolated distances Xh and critical bucklings B C for light-water moderated low enriched UO cores were evaluated using the variable loading method. A set of critical height (water levels) of the cores having various horizontal dimensions was used in this method. Errors of the present method were smaller than the previous ones by the flux shape method in which

Ken NAKAJIMA; Hiroshi AKIE

1993-01-01

129

CORRELATION OF CRITICAL MASS DATA ON LIGHT WATER MODERATED, FULLY ENRICHED URANIUM, STAINLESS STEEL REACTORS. PART I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental data were collected on over 70 light water moderated, fully ; enriched uranium, stainless steel, critical cores. An equation for the critical ; mass of cores with a buckling of 0.007 cm⁻² that is lineally dependent on ; stainless steel volume fraction and grams of B¹° was compared with ; available critical experiments and found to yield reasonable results.

1962-01-01

130

REACTIVITY EFFECTS OF LARGE VOIDS IN THE REFLECTOR OF A LIGHT-WATER- MODERATED AND REFLECTED REACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactivity effects of large voids in the reflector of the Pool Critical ; Assembly (PCA), an enricheduranium, light-water-moderated and -reflected, ; pooltype reactor were investigated experimentally and were the variations of ; reactivity of voids at the center of a core face, void position on core face, and ; separation distance between void and core face. Superposability of the ;

A. B. Reynolds; K. M. Henry; E. B. Johnson; T. J. Thompson

1959-01-01

131

Modifications to MELCOR for the analysis of heavy-water moderated, U-A1 fuel reactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The MELCOR computer code is being used as the point of departure to develop an integrated severe accident analysis computer code for the heavy-water moderated U-Al fuel reactors. The resulting computer code (MELCOR/SR) provides a practical and comprehensi...

J. P. Church M. T. Leonard K. A. Williams

1990-01-01

132

Fluidized bed heat exchanger with water cooled air distributor and dust hopper  

DOEpatents

A fluidized bed heat exchanger is provided in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel. A steam-water natural circulation system is provided for heat exchange and the housing of the heat exchanger has a water-wall type construction. Vertical in-bed heat exchange tubes are provided and the air distributor is water-cooled. A water-cooled dust hopper is provided in the housing to collect particulates from the combustion gases and separate the combustion zone from a volume within said housing in which convection heat exchange tubes are provided to extract heat from the exiting combustion gases.

Jukkola, Walfred W. (Westport, CT); Leon, Albert M. (Mamaroneck, NY); Van Dyk, Jr., Garritt C. (Bethel, CT); McCoy, Daniel E. (Williamsport, PA); Fisher, Barry L. (Montgomery, PA); Saiers, Timothy L. (Williamsport, PA); Karstetter, Marlin E. (Loganton, PA)

1981-11-24

133

Locating of leaks in water-cooled generator stator bars using perfluorocarbon tracers  

SciTech Connect

Water cooled stator bars in power plant generators often fail during the maintenance cycle due to water leakage. After the hydrogen pressure in the generator shell has been released water can leak through cracks in the copper and through the insulation. Leaking bars, but not the leaks themselves, are detected with so-called ``hi-pot`` (high potential) tests where direct electrical current is applied to the stator bar windings. A study initiated by ConEd and Brookhaven`s Tracer Technology Center to explore the cause of these leakage problems to determine if the failures originate in the manufacturing process or are created in service by phase related torque stresses. To this purpose bars that had failed the hi-pot test were investigated first with the insulation in place and then stripped to the bare copper. The bars were pressurized with gases containing perfluorocarbon tracers and the magnitude and location of the leaks was detected by using tracers technology principles and instruments such as the ``double source`` method and the Dual Trap Analyzer. In the second part of the project the windings within a generator were tested in-situ for leaks during an outage using tracer principles. Recommendations are given suggesting the shut down of stator bar cooling water before hydrogen bleeding during outages and a revision of the current vent flow rate. The new standard should establish a reasonable leak rate for the stator bar windings proper and exclude leakage of pump seals and connections. Testing during the maintenance cycle in generators should include routine tracer leak detection following the hi-pot test.

Loss, W.M.; Dietz, R.N.

1991-09-01

134

Locating of leaks in water-cooled generator stator bars using perfluorocarbon tracers  

SciTech Connect

Water cooled stator bars in power plant generators often fail during the maintenance cycle due to water leakage. After the hydrogen pressure in the generator shell has been released water can leak through cracks in the copper and through the insulation. Leaking bars, but not the leaks themselves, are detected with so-called hi-pot'' (high potential) tests where direct electrical current is applied to the stator bar windings. A study initiated by ConEd and Brookhaven's Tracer Technology Center to explore the cause of these leakage problems to determine if the failures originate in the manufacturing process or are created in service by phase related torque stresses. To this purpose bars that had failed the hi-pot test were investigated first with the insulation in place and then stripped to the bare copper. The bars were pressurized with gases containing perfluorocarbon tracers and the magnitude and location of the leaks was detected by using tracers technology principles and instruments such as the double source'' method and the Dual Trap Analyzer. In the second part of the project the windings within a generator were tested in-situ for leaks during an outage using tracer principles. Recommendations are given suggesting the shut down of stator bar cooling water before hydrogen bleeding during outages and a revision of the current vent flow rate. The new standard should establish a reasonable leak rate for the stator bar windings proper and exclude leakage of pump seals and connections. Testing during the maintenance cycle in generators should include routine tracer leak detection following the hi-pot test.

Loss, W.M.; Dietz, R.N.

1991-09-01

135

Thermal hydraulic analysis and control of the HELOKA water cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helium loop Karlsruhe (HELOKA) is a new test facility, in advanced status of design at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, which will be used to test the helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB) breeder blanket for ITER under realistic pressure, temperature and He flow conditions. A redundant water cooling system, built in the 1980s, with a nominal heat load of 7MW, will be

V. Marchese; X. Jin; A. Jianu

2007-01-01

136

Hot Ion Plasma Production in Hip-1 Using Water-Cooled Hollow Cathodes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A steady-state ExB plasma was formed by applying a strong radially inward dc electric field near the mirror throats. Most of the results were for hydrogen, but deuterium and helium plasmas were also studied. Three water-cooled hollow cathodes were operate...

A. Snyder J. J. Reinmann M. R. Lauver R. W. Layman R. W. Patch

1975-01-01

137

Elements of Design Consideration of Once-Through Cycle, Supercritical-Pressure Light Water Cooled Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes elements of design consideration of supercritical-pressure, light water cooled reactors as well as the status and prospects of the research and development. It summarizes the results of the conceptual design study at the University of Tokyo from 1989. The research and development started in Japan, Europe and USA. The major advantages of the reactors are 1. Compact

Yoshiaki Oka; Sei-ichi Koshizuka; Yuki Ishiwatari; Akifumi Yamaji

2002-01-01

138

Supercritical-pressure, Once-through Cycle Light Water Cooled Reactor Concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study is to develop new reactor concepts for the innovation of light water reactors (LWR) and fast reactors. Concept of the once-through coolant cycle, supercritical-pressure light water cooled reactor was developed. Major aspects of reactor design and safety were analysed by the computer codes which were developed by ourselves. It includes core design of thermal and

Yoshiaki OKA; Seiichi KOSHIZUKA

2001-01-01

139

Suboptimal onoff switching control strategies for chilled water cooling systems with storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic model of vapour compression refrigeration system is developed. The overall model consists of the following basic components: a compressor, a condenser, an expansion valve, an evaporator, an evaporative cooler and a cool storage. The integrated system is referred to as chilled water cooling system with storage (CWCS). The mathematical modelling of the CWC system undertaken in this study

Wei-Ling Jian; M. Zaheeruddin

1998-01-01

140

Aqueous corrosion and stress corrosion of 316SS for the ITER water-cooled blanket concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of the ITER Driver blanket has been shifted from the Aqueous Lithium Salt Blanket (ALSB) concept to a design using a ceramic breeder with a beryllium multiplier. This concept utilizes water cooling with Type 316 austenitic stainless steel (316SS) as the structure. As a result, research at RPI is now being focused on corrosion and stress-corrosion behavior of

D. J. Duquette; D. Steiner

1991-01-01

141

Deposition of LTI Pyrolytic Carbon by a Nozzle Without Water Cooling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for pyrolytic carbon (PyC) coating has been developed, in which the inlet is prevented from clogging without employing a water-cooled gas injector. In the method, an appropriate temperature distribution is given around the inlet in order to dispe...

T. Ogawa K. Ikawa

1981-01-01

142

Determination of the modified conversion ratio of light-water-moderated uranium-plutonium mixed-oxide-fuel lattice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modified conversion ratio (MCR) (the ratio of the ²³⁸U capture rate to the total fission rate) in a light-water-moderated uranium-plutonium mixed-oxide (MOX-) fuel lattice was measured for four types of lattices with different plutonium enrichment. In the current method, the relative reaction rates of ²³⁸U capture and total fission were obtained from nondestructive gamma-ray spectrometry of ²³⁹Np and fission

K. Nakajima; Masanori Akai; Takenori Suzaki

1995-01-01

143

Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity in Light-Water Moderated and Reflected Cores Loaded with Highly-Enriched-Uranium Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both experimental and analytical studies have been performed on the temperature coefficient of reactivity in a light-water moderated and reflected core loaded with highly-enriched-uranium fuel, which was constructed in the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA). The temperature effect on reactivity was measured for the range of 20?70C to investigate separately the effects of (1) the fuel pitch (H\\/U atomic ratio)

Masaaki MORI; Seiji SHIROYA; Keiji KANDA

1987-01-01

144

Measurement and Analysis of U Doppler Reactivity Effect in FCA Cores Simulating Light-Water-Moderated MOX Fuel Lattices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Doppler reactivity effect of 238U was measured in simulated MOX fuel using the FCA facility for the purpose of obtaining data on the U Doppler reactivity effect in light-water-moderated MOX fuel and evaluating the prediction accuracy of the current analysis code systems and nuclear data library. Experimental data on the Doppler reactivity effect from room temperature up to 800C

Masaki ANDOHI; Masahiro FUKUSHIMA; Shigeaki OKAJIMA; Kenji KAWASAKI

2007-01-01

145

CADMIUM RATIOS OF U²³⁵ FISSION IN SLIGHTLY ENRICHED URANIUM, LIGHT WATER MODERATED LATTICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

S>The cadmium ratios for U²³⁵ fission ( delta ) were ; remeasured for some water-moderated lattices, using enriched U-Al foils. The ; delta results are tabulated for rod diameters of 0.60 and 0.25 in. and ; water\\/uranium ratios of 1 to 4. The corresponding conversion ratios are also ; tabulated and found to be in good agreement with these

Tassan

1963-01-01

146

Assessment of the accident response of a light-water-moderated breeder-reactor system: AWBA development program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predicted accident response for a light water moderated, thorium\\/U-233 fueled, seed-blanket reactor concept was assessed. The first part of the assessment compared breeder accident response with that of a current commercial pressurized water reactor design for several different types of transients. Based on these comparisons and a review of the various parameter differences between the breeder and a U-235

1983-01-01

147

Modifications to MELCOR for the analysis of heavy-water moderated, U-A1 fuel reactors  

SciTech Connect

The MELCOR computer code is being used as the point of departure to develop an integrated severe accident analysis computer code for the heavy-water moderated U-Al fuel reactors. The resulting computer code (MELCOR/SR) provides a practical and comprehensive analytical tool for evaluating severe accident behavior in the Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactors. The technical scope of this development effort is summarized in this paper. Other companion papers are cited that provide additional details regarding particular models.

Church, J.P. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (USA)); Leonard, M.T.; Williams, K.A. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-01-01

148

Evaluation of water cooled supersonic temperature and pressure probes for application to 1366 K flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water cooled supersonic probes are developed to investigate total pressure, static pressure, and total temperature in high-temperature jet plumes and thereby determine the mean flow properties. Two probe concepts, designed for operation at up to 1366 K in a Mach 2 flow, are tested on a water cooled nozzle. The two probe designs - the unsymmetric four-tube cooling configuration and the symmetric annular cooling design - take measurements at 755, 1089, and 1366 K of the three parameters. The cooled total and static pressure readings are found to agree with previous test results with uncooled configurations. The total-temperature probe, however, is affected by the introduction of water coolant, and effect which is explained by the increased heat transfer across the thermocouple-bead surface. Further investigation of the effect of coolant on the temperature probe is proposed to mitigate the effect and calculate more accurate temperatures in jet plumes.

Lagen, Nicholas; Seiner, John M.

1990-01-01

149

Correction analysis for a supersonic water cooled total temperature probe tested to 1370 K  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors address the thermal analysis of a water cooled supersonic total temperature probe tested in a Mach 2 flow, up to 1366 K total temperature. The goal of this experiment was the determination of high-temperature supersonic jet mean flow temperatures. An 8.99 cm exit diameter water cooled nozzle was used in the tests. It was designed for exit Mach 2 at 1366 K exit total temperature. Data along the jet centerline were obtained for total temperatures of 755 K, 1089 K, and 1366 K. The data from the total temperature probe were affected by the water coolant. The probe was tested through a range of temperatures between 755 K and 1366 K with and without the cooling system turned on. The results were used to develop a relationship between the indicated thermocouple bead temperature and the freestream total temperature. The analysis and calculated temperatures are presented.

Lagen, Nicholas T.; Seiner, John M.

1991-01-01

150

Hydraulic analysis of the water-cooled blanket based on the sub-critical water condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydraulic simulation of the water-cooled blanket module based on Fluent code is reported. This study focused on heat transfer and the pressure drop under the sub-critical water condition. The temperature field distribution is discussed with the solid zones (breeder, multiplier and F82H material) and the coolants. The peak temperature of beryllium zones reaches about 600C and most of the

C. Liu; K. Tobita

2010-01-01

151

Heat-transfer phenomena in water-cooled zinc-fuming furnace jackets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the zinc slag-fuming process, zinc is removed from lead blast furnace slag by reduction with a coal-air mixture injected\\u000a into the slag through submerged tuyeres. The furnace is constructed of water-cooled jackets which freeze a slag layer and\\u000a contain the bath. This greatly reduces vessel wear caused by the violently agitated and corrosive bath. The jackets, however,\\u000a fail due

K. E. Scholey; G. G. Richards; I. V. Samarasekera

1991-01-01

152

Packing experiment of breeder pebbles into water cooled solid breeder test blanket module for ITER  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an experiment in which Li2TiO3 tritium breeder pebbles were packed into a full-scale breeder pebble container (BPC) mockup. The BPC mockup, part of the Japanese water cooled solid breeder (WCSB) Test Blanket Module (TBM) project, has been successfully developed using a reduced activation ferritic\\/martensitic steel, F82H. The BPC mockup was fabricated using a fiber laser welding

Takanori Hirose; Yohji Seki; Hisashi Tanigawa; Hiroyasu Tanigawa; Daigo Tsuru; Mikio Enoeda; Hisashi Serizawa; Hiroto Yamaoka

2010-01-01

153

Water cooling system for an air-breathing hypersonic test vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study provides concepts for hypersonic experimental scramjet test vehicles which have low cost and low risk. Cryogenic hydrogen is used as the fuel and coolant. Secondary water cooling systems were designed. Three concepts are shown: an all hydrogen cooling system, a secondary open loop water cooled system, and a secondary closed loop water cooled system. The open loop concept uses high pressure helium (15,000 psi) to drive water through the cooling system while maintaining the pressure in the water tank. The water flows through the turbine side of the turbopump to pump hydrogen fuel. The water is then allowed to vent. In the closed loop concept high pressure, room temperature, compressed liquid water is circulated. In flight water pressure is limited to 6000 psi by venting some of the water. Water is circulated through cooling channels via an ejector which uses high pressure gas to drive a water jet. The cooling systems are presented along with finite difference steady-state and transient analysis results. The results from this study indicate that water used as a secondary coolant can be designed to increase experimental test time, produce minimum venting of fluid and reduce overall development cost.

Petley, Dennis H.; Dziedzic, William M.

1993-01-01

154

Evaluation of water cooled supersonic temperature and pressure probes for application to 2000 F flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of water cooled supersonic probes used to study high temperature jet plumes is addressed. These probes are: total pressure, static pressure, and total temperature. The motivation for these experiments is the determination of high temperature supersonic jet mean flow properties. A 3.54 inch exit diameter water cooled nozzle was used in the tests. It is designed for exit Mach 2 at 2000 F exit total temperature. Tests were conducted using water cooled probes capable of operating in Mach 2 flow, up to 2000 F total temperature. Of the two designs tested, an annular cooling method was chosen as superior. Data at the jet exit planes, and along the jet centerline, were obtained for total temperatures of 900 F, 1500 F, and 2000 F, for each of the probes. The data obtained from the total and static pressure probes are consistent with prior low temperature results. However, the data obtained from the total temperature probe was affected by the water coolant. The total temperature probe was tested up to 2000 F with, and without, the cooling system turned on to better understand the heat transfer process at the thermocouple bead. The rate of heat transfer across the thermocouple bead was greater when the coolant was turned on than when the coolant was turned off. This accounted for the lower temperature measurement by the cooled probe. The velocity and Mach number at the exit plane and centerline locations were determined from the Rayleigh-Pitot tube formula.

Lagen, Nicholas T.; Seiner, John M.

1990-01-01

155

Measurements of Thermal Disadvantage Factors in Light-Water Moderated PuO2-UO2 and UO2 Lattices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disadvantage factor for thermal neutrons in light-water moderated PuO2-UO2 and UO2 square lattices were obtained from measurements of thermal neutron density distributions in a unit lattice cell, measured with Dy-Al wire detectors. The lattices consisted of 3.4w\\/o PuO2-UO2 and 2.6w\\/o UO2 fuel rods, and the water-to-fuel volume ratio within the unit cell was parametrically changed. The PuO2-UO2 and UO2

Akio OHNO; Iwao KOBAYASHI; Harumichi TSURUTA; Masao HASHIMOTO; Takenori SUZAKI; Kiyonobu MURAKAMI; Shojiro MATSUURA; Saburo KIKUCHI; Takashi KAJIYAMA; Hideyoshi SASAJIMA; Ryozo YUMOTO

1980-01-01

156

Performance evaluation of heat-stressed commercial broilers provided water-cooled floor perches.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine whether water-cooled floor perches would be utilized by commercial broilers exposed to a constant hot ambient environment; and subsequently, whether utilization of these perches would improve performance beyond those provided uncooled floor perches. A total of 330 day-old commercial broiler chicks were randomly allocated to six pens (2.44 m2) in an environmentally controlled facility and maintained in a thermoneutral brooding environment for 16 days. Following this period, 240 birds were selected on a body weight basis and randomly assigned to the six pens. A perch constructed from steel pipe (2.44 m length, 5.0 cm diameter) was then placed diagonally on the litter covered floor of each pen. The birds were first exposed to a thermoneutral period (27.7 C), during which time cooling of the perches in three replicate pens was initiated by circulating tap water. The other three experimental pens received ambient perches. Ambient temperature was then raised to 32.6 C for the following 4 wk. The results of the present study showed that utilization of water-cooled perches by broilers was greater (P less than or equal to .01) than ambient perch utilization throughout the 32.6 C period. Average daily gain was greatest (P less than or equal to .01) for broilers exposed to cool perches. Additionally, they consume more feed (P less than or equal to .05), on a daily basis, than those given ambient perches during the heat-stress period. Broilers exposed to water-cooled perches also had a more efficient gain to feed ratio (P less than or equal to .01). At the completion of the study, final body weight and total body weight gain were greater (P less than or equal to .05) for broilers given water-cooled perches compared with those exposed to ambient perches. Total amount of feed consumed and total feed efficiency were only moderately affected (P less than or equal to .10) by perch treatments. These results indicated that water-cooled perches were beneficial in improving broiler performance during periods of high environmental temperatures. PMID:1924088

Reilly, W M; Koelkebeck, K W; Harrison, P C

1991-08-01

157

PROGRAM FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF PLUTONIUM RECYCLE FOR USE IN LIGHT WATER MODERATED REACTORS. Seventh Quarterly Report, October 1December 31, 1962  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activities in a program to determine data for use in predicting the long-; term changes in isotopic composition and reactivity of Pu-enriched, light-water-; moderated reactors are reported. The required data are being obtained from a ; high-burnup experiment using a U-- Pu lattice typical of light-water-moderated ; reactors. The VBWR, in which the experiment is being conducted, was shut down

Robkin

1962-01-01

158

Thermal-hydraulic performance of a water-cooled tungsten-rod target for a spallation neutron source  

SciTech Connect

A thermal-hydraulic (T-H) analysis is conducted to determine the feasibility and limitations of a water-cooled tungsten-rod target at powers of 1 MW and above. The target evaluated has a 10-cm x 10-cm cross section perpendicular to the beam axis, which is typical of an experimental spallation neutron source - both for a short-pulse spallation source and long-pulse spallation source. This report describes the T-H model and assumptions that are used to evaluate the target. A 1-MW baseline target is examined, and the results indicate that this target should easily handle the T-H requirements. The possibility of operating at powers >1 MW is also examined. The T-H design is limited by the condition that the coolant does not boil (actual limits are on surface subcooling and wall heat flux); material temperature limits are not approached. Three possible methods of enhancing the target power capability are presented: reducing peak power density, altering pin dimensions, and improving coolant conditions (pressure and temperature). Based on simple calculations, it appears that this target concept should have little trouble reaching the 2-MW range (from a purely T-H standpoint), and possibly much higher powers. However, one must keep in mind that these conclusions are based solely on thermal-hydraulics. It is possible, and perhaps likely, that target performance could be limited by structural issues at higher powers, particularly for a short-pulse spallation source because of thermal shock issues.

Poston, D.I.

1997-08-01

159

SOME MEASUREMENTS OF REACTIVITY IN A LIGHT-WATER MODERATED HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM ASSEMBLY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified version of the inhour equation, which relates the reactivity ; to the rate of change of power of a reactor, was used. It takes into account the ; different probabilities of leakage from the reactor core during the slowing down ; of prompt and delayed neutrons. Using this equation the reactivity absorbed by a ; control element in

P. N. Cooper; K. Firth; M. Kerridge; R. F. Mathams; A. J. Salmon; K. G. Stephens

1962-01-01

160

Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility tempered water and tempered water cooling system design description.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This system design description addresses tire tempered water (TTV) system and the tempered water cooling (TWC) system. The discussion that follows will be limited to these systems. The system design description, when used in conjunction with the other ele...

J. J. Irwin

1998-01-01

161

Uncertainties in the analysis of plutonium fueled light water moderated assemblies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical analysis of UO-- PuO fueled, light-water-;\\u000a moderated lattice experiments has been performed to aid in establishing technical ;\\u000a bases and design criteria for the utilization of plutonium bearing fuel in ;\\u000a thermal power reactors. Results for UO and Al-- Pu lattices are included ;\\u000a in order to understand the effects due to uranium and plutonium separately. The ;

R. C. Liikala; V. O. Uotinen; U. P. Jenquin

1973-01-01

162

Critical Experiments on Light-Water Moderated PuO2-UO2 Lattices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of critical experiments using mixed-oxide (PuO2-UO2) plutonium fuels was carried out at the Tank type Critical Assembly (TCA) in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in cooperation with the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Isotopie compositions of the Pu were 68, 22, 7 and 2w\\/0 for Pu, Pu, Pu and Pu, respectively, and the U was

Iwao KOBAYASHI; Harumichi TSURUTA; Takenori SUZAKI; Akio OHNO; Kiyonobu MURAKAMI; Shojiro MATSUURA; Ryozo YUMOTO; Tadakuni MATSUMOTO; Hideyoshi SASAJIMA; Kazuo ITAGAWA

1978-01-01

163

Effect of thermal barrier coatings on the performance of steam and water-cooled gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical study was made of the performance of air, steam, and water-cooled gas-turbine/steam turbine combined-cycle systems with and without thermal-barrier coatings. For steam cooling, thermal barrier coatings permit an increase in the turbine inlet temperature from 1205 C (2200 F), resulting in an efficiency improvement of 1.9 percentage points. The maximum specific power improvement with thermal barriers is 32.4 percent, when the turbine inlet temperature is increased from 1425 C (2600 F) to 1675 C (3050 F) and the airfoil temperature is kept the same. For water cooling, the maximum efficiency improvement is 2.2 percentage points at a turbine inlet temperature of 1683 C (3062 F) and the maximum specific power improvement is 36.6 percent by increasing the turbine inlet temperature from 1425 C (2600 F) to 1730 C (3150 F) and keeping the airfoil temperatures the same. These improvements are greater than that obtained with combined cycles using air cooling at a turbine inlet temperature of 1205 C (2200 F). The large temperature differences across the thermal barriers at these high temperatures, however, indicate that thermal stresses may present obstacles to the use of coatings at high turbine inlet temperatures.

Nainiger, J. J.

1978-01-01

164

RELAP5-3D Code for Supercritical-Pressure Light-Water-Cooled Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The RELAP5-3D computer program has been improved for analysis of supercritical-pressure, light-water-cooled reactors. Several code modifications were implemented to correct code execution failures. Changes were made to the steam table generation, steam table interpolation, metastable states, interfacial heat transfer coefficients, and transport properties (viscosity and thermal conductivity). The code modifications now allow the code to run slow transients above the critical pressure as well as blowdown transients (modified Edwards pipe and modified existing pressurized water reactor model) that pass near the critical point.

Riemke, Richard Allan; Davis, Cliff Bybee; Schultz, Richard Raphael

2003-04-01

165

Fuel Breeding and Core Behavior Analyses on In Core Fuel Management of Water Cooled Thorium Reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thorium fuel cycle with recycled U-233 has been widely recognized having some contributions to improve the water-cooled breeder reactor program which has been shown by a feasible area of breeding and negative void reactivity which confirms that fissile of 233U contributes to better fuel breeding and effective for obtaining negative void reactivity coefficient as the main fissile material. The present study has the objective to estimate the effect of whole core configuration as well as burnup effects to the reactor core profile by adopting two dimensional model of fuel core management. About more than 40 months of cycle period has been employed for one cycle fuel irradiation of three batches fuel system for large water cooled thorium reactors. All position of fuel arrangement contributes to the total core conversion ratio which gives conversion ratio less than unity of at the BOC and it contributes to higher than unity (1.01) at the EOC after some irradiation process. Inner part and central part give the important part of breeding contribution with increasing burnup process, while criticality is reduced with increasing the irradiation time. Feasibility of breeding capability of water-cooled thorium reactors for whole core fuel arrangement has confirmed from the obtained conversion ratio which shows higher than unity. Whole core analysis on evaluating reactivity change which is caused by the change of voided condition has been employed for conservative assumption that 100% coolant and moderator are voided. It obtained always a negative void reactivity coefficient during reactor operation which shows relatively more negative void coefficient at BOC (fresh fuel composition), and it becomes less negative void coefficient with increasing the operation time. Negative value of void reactivity coefficient shows the reactor has good safety properties in relation to the reactivity profile which is the main parameter in term of criticality safety analysis. Therefore, this evaluation has confirmed that breeding condition and negative coefficient can be obtained simultaneously for water-cooled thorium reactor obtains based on the whole core fuel arrangement.

Permana, Sidik; Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Waris, Abdul; Subhki, Muhamad Nurul; Ismail

2010-12-01

166

Preparation of semi-solid aluminum alloy slurry poured through a water-cooled serpentine channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A water-cooled serpentine channel pouring process was invented to produce semi-solid A356 aluminum alloy slurry for rheocasting, and the effects of pouring temperature and circulating cooling water flux on the microstructure of the slurry were investigated. The results show that at the pouring temperature of 640-680C and the circulating cooling water flux of 0.9 m3/h, the semi-solid A356 aluminum alloy slurry with spherical primary ?(Al) grains can be obtained, whose shape factors are between 0.78 and 0.86 and the grain diameter can reach 48-68 ?m. When the pouring temperatures are at 660-680C, only a very thin solidified shell remains inside the serpentine channel and can be removed easily. When the serpentine channel is cooled with circulating water, the microstructure of the semi-solid slurry can be improved, and the serpentine channel is quickly cooled to room temperature after the completion of one pouring. In terms of the productivity of the special equipment, the water-cooled serpentine channel is economical and efficient.

Chen, Zheng-Zhou; Mao, Wei-Min; Wu, Zong-Chuang

2012-01-01

167

Water-Cooled Data Center Packs More Power Per Rack | Poster  

Cancer.gov

The network racks in the foreground house all of the Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network hardware. The fiber cables from the 17 ATRF LAN closets, the storage systems, and the servers are fed through the overhead cable trays into the network racks and connected. The racks in the background contain 2 petabytes of tier-two and -three disk storage.

168

Improvement in understanding of natural circulation phenomena in water cooled nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IAEA has organized a coordinated research project (CRP) on Natural Circulation Phenomena, Modelling, and Reliability of Passive Systems That Utilize Natural Circulation. Specific objectives of CRP were to (i) establish the status of knowledge: reactor start-up and operation, passive system initiation and operation, flow stability, 3-D effects, and scaling laws, (ii) investigate phenomena influencing reliability of passive natural circulation

Jong-Ho Choi; John Cleveland; Nusret Aksan

2011-01-01

169

Natural Circulation in Water Cooled Nuclear Power Plants Phenomena, Models, and Methodology for System Reliability Assessments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In recent years it has been recognized that the application of passive safety systems (i.e., those whose operation takes advantage of natural forces such as convection and gravity), can contribute to simplification and potentially to improved economics of...

J. Reyes

2005-01-01

170

Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electric Power Production  

SciTech Connect

The supercritical water reactor (SCWR) has been the object of interest throughout the nuclear Generation IV community because of its high potential: a simple, direct cycle, compact configuration; elimination of many traditional LWR components, operation at coolant temperatures much higher than traditional LWRs and thus high thermal efficiency. It could be said that the SWR was viewed as the water counterpart to the high temperature gas reactor.

Philip MacDonald; Jacopo Buongiorno; James Sterbentz; Cliff Davis; Robert Witt; Gary Was; J. McKinley; S. Teysseyre; Luca Oriani; Vefa Kucukboyaci; Lawrence Conway; N. Jonsson: Bin Liu

2005-02-13

171

Materials in the primary circuit of water-cooled power reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first part of this study deals with the various forms of selective corrosion in austenitic chromium-nickel steels, 'Inconel' 600 and 'Incoloy' 800 under the various service conditions obtaining in light-water reactors. Particular reference is made to the phenomenon of intercrystalline stress corrosion. Results of the authors' corrosion tests are presented and these are discussed with reference to recent results

W. Debray; L. Stieding

1973-01-01

172

Aqueous corrosion and stress corrosion of 316SS for the ITER water-cooled blanket concept  

SciTech Connect

The design of the ITER Driver blanket has been shifted from the Aqueous Lithium Salt Blanket (ALSB) concept to a design using a ceramic breeder with a beryllium multiplier. This concept utilizes water cooling with Type 316 austenitic stainless steel (316SS) as the structure. As a result, research at RPI is now being focused on corrosion and stress-corrosion behavior of 316SS in high purity water with radiolysis products present. The effects of radiolysis products on the corrosion behavior of 316SS will be monitored by in-situ potential and polarization measurements in high energy, Bremmstrahlung radiation at the Rensselaer Linear Accelerator (LINAC). Radiolysis water chemistry modeling, stress corrosion cracking, and corrosion rate calculations will be performed in the corrosion laboratory at the Rensselaer Materials Research Center.

Duquette, D.J.; Steiner, D.

1991-01-01

173

A water-cooled x-ray monochromator for using off-axis undulator beam.  

SciTech Connect

Undulator beamlines at third-generation synchrotrons x-ray sources are designed to use the high-brilliance radiation that is contained in the central cone of the generated x-ray beams. The rest of the x-ray beam is often unused. Moreover, in some cases, such as in the zone-plate-based microfocusing beamlines, only a small part of the central radiation cone around the optical axis is used. In this paper, a side-station branch line at the Advanced Photon Source that takes advantage of some of the unused off-axis photons in a microfocusing x-ray beamline is described. Detailed information on the design and analysis of a high-heat-load water-cooled monochromator developed for this beamline is provided.

Khounsary, A.; Maser, J.

2000-12-11

174

Directly water-cooled crystal development for SPring-8 bending magnet beamlines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The directly water-cooled first crystal of the SPring-8 standard monochromator for bending magnet beamlines has been developed. Thanks to the bonding technique, the performance of the new crystal has been improved without decreasing the cooling efficiency. The finite element analyses show the deformation of the crystal by the hydraulic pressure and by the crystal clamping is negligible small, which were dominated for the previous crystal. Both Si(111) and Si(311) crystal were evaluated in SPring-8 beamlines, the deformation induced while the bonding process is comparable to the thermal deformation. and long-term endurance test shows the lifetime of the O-ring becomes long because they are not on the direct path of the SR beam. Although the overall performance is insufficient, much improvement was shown.

Takeshita, Kunikazu; Goto, Shunji; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

2007-10-01

175

Alloy development for first wall materials used in water-cooling type fusion reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Austenitic stainless steels with high resistance to IASCC were developed for the first wall used in a water cooling type fusion reactor. New alloys with ultra low carbon content were designed to improve all-round properties relevant to the reliability below 450C, by enhancing the austenite phase stability and purifying the austenite matrix. For this purpose, these were manufactured by means of controlling minor elements, adjusting principal elements and applying SAR thermomechanical treatment. The major characteristics of these alloys were compared with that of Type 316 and JPCA. These alloys showed a good swelling resistance to electron irradiation and high cracking resistance to high heat fluxes of hydrogen beam. The ductility loss and decrease of tensile strength at the objective temperature were also minimized.

Kiuchi, K.; Ishiyama, T.; Hishinuma, A.

1991-03-01

176

Thermal analysis and water-cooling design of the CSNS MEBT 324 MHz buncher cavity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At least two bunchers are needed in the 3 MeV H- Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) line located between RFQ and DTL for the CSNS (China Spallation Neutron Source). A nose-cone geometry has been adopted as the type of buncher cavity for its simplicity, higher impedance and lower risk of multipacting. By making use of the results got from the simulations on the buncher with two-dimension code SUPERFISH, the thermal and structural analyses have been carried out, the process and results to determine the resulting frequency shift due to thermal and structural distortion of the cavity are presented, the water-cooling channel position and the optimum cooling water temperature as well as the tuning method by adjusting the cooling water temperature when the cavity is out of resonance are also determined through the analyses.

Liu, Hua-Chang; Ouyang, Hua-Fu

2008-04-01

177

Conceptual design of a 1000-MWe light-water-moderated prebreeder/breeder reactor system based on the seed-blanket principle (AWBA Development Program)  

SciTech Connect

A practical light water moderated breeder reactor design concept is described which is based on the technology of PWRs and which uses the Th/U-233 fuel cycle. On the equilibrium core cycle, the breeder is self-sustaining, producing enough new fissile fuel to load the next core cycle with allowance for up to 1% fissile losses during fuel reprocessing and refabrication. The reactor system proceeds through two phases of operation in the same reactor plant: a prebreeder phase and a breeder phase. During the early prebreeder phase the core is fueled with naturally available U-235 and Th to produce the U-233 needed to start the breeder phase. During the breeder phase the reactor continues operation with U-233 being recycled through succeeding core cycles. The principal geometric difference between the prebreeder and breeder cores is a smaller fuel element diameter in the prebreeder core. Cumulative uranium mill ore requirements to attain the equilibrium breeder core cycle are calculated to range from 2700 to 3900 short tons U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ per gigawatt electric capacity (including ex-core fuel inventory) for assumed fissile losses during fuel recycle ranging from 0.5% to 1.0%, and for an assumed time period ranging from one to two years for recycling discharged fuel. Good neutron economy in a practical size core is obtained by arranging the core into a pattern of seed regions containing ThO/sub 2/-UO/sub 2/ fuel and blanket regions containing only ThO/sub 2/ fuel. The seed-blanket core arrangement levels core lifetime reactivity variation at full power with minimal use of neutron poisons for reactivity control. The nuclear, mechanical and thermal/hydraulic design features of the prebreeder/breeder concept are described. Performance predictions show that both the prebreeder and breeder reactors are expected to have performance and safety margins comparable to a commercial PWR.

Merriman, F.C.; Detwyler, J.M.

1983-05-01

178

A Qualitative Assessment of Thorium-Based Fuels in Supercritical Pressure Water Cooled Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The requirements for the next generation of reactors include better economics and safety, waste minimization (particularly of the long-lived isotopes), and better proliferation resistance (both intrinsic and extrinsic). A supercritical pressure water cooled reactor has been chosen as one of the lead contenders as a Generation IV reactor due to the high thermal efficiency and compact/simplified plant design. In addition, interest in the use of thorium-based fuels for Generation IV reactors has increased based on the abundance of thorium, and the minimization of transuranics in a neutron flux; as plutonium (and thus the minor actinides) is not a by-product in the thorium chain. In order to better understand the possibility of the combination of these concepts to meet the Generation IV goals, the qualitative burnup potential and discharge isotopics of thorium and uranium fuel were studied using pin cell analyses in a supercritical pressure water cooled reactor environment. Each of these fertile materials were used in both nitride and metallic form, with light water reactor grade plutonium and minor actinides added. While the uranium-based fuels achieved burnups that were 1.3 to 2.7 times greater than their thorium-based counterparts, the thorium-based fuels destroyed 2 to 7 times more of the plutonium and minor actinides. The fission-to-capture ratio is much higher in this reactor as compared to PWRs and BWRs due to the harder neutron spectrum, thus allowing more efficient destruction of the transuranic elements. However, while the uranium-based fuels do achieve a net depletion of plutonium and minor actinides, the breeding of these isotopes limits this depletion; especially as compared to the thorium-based fuels.

Weaver, Kevan Dean; Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

2002-10-01

179

Analytical study of a microfludic DNA amplification chip using water cooling effect.  

PubMed

A novel continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chip has been analyzed in our work. Two temperature zones are controlled by two external controllers and the other temperature zone at the chip center is controlled by the flow rate of the fluid inside a channel under the glass chip. By employing a water cooling channel at the chip center, the sequence of denaturation, annealing, and extension can be created due to the forced convection effect. The required annealing temperature of PCR less than 313 K can also be demonstrated in this chip. The Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) cooling channel with the thin aluminum cover is utilized to enhance the temperature uniformity. The size of this chip is 76 mm 26 mm 3 mm. This device represents the first demonstration of water cooling thermocycling within continuous-flow PCR microfluidics. The commercial software CFD-ACE+(TM) is utilized to determine the distances between the heating assemblies within the chip. We investigate the influences of various chip materials, operational parameters of the cooling channel and geometric parameters of the chip on the temperature uniformity on the chip surface. Concerning the temperature uniformity of the working zones and the lowest temperature at the annealing zone, the air gap spacing of 1 mm and the cooling channel thicknesses of 1 mm of the PMMA channel with an aluminum cover are recommended in our design. The hydrophobic surface of the PDMS channel was modified by filling it with 20 % Tween 20 solution and then adding bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution to the PCR mixture. DNA fragments with different lengths (372 bp and 478 bp) are successfully amplified with the device. PMID:23179465

Chen, Jyh Jian; Shen, Chia Ming; Ko, Yu Wei

2013-04-01

180

Conceptual Design of a 1000-MWe Light-Water-Moderated Prebreeder/Breeder Reactor System Based on the Seed-Blanket Principle (AWBA Development Program).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A practical light water moderated breeder reactor design concept is described which is based on the technology of PWRs and which uses the Th/U-233 fuel cycle. On the equilibrium core cycle, the breeder is self-sustaining, producing enough new fissile fuel...

F. C. Merriman J. M. Detwyler

1983-01-01

181

Research and Development of High Temperature Light Water Cooled Reactor Operating at Supercritical-Pressure in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the status and future plans of research and development of the high temperature light water cooled reactor operating at supercritical-pressure in Japan. It includes; the concept development; material for the fuel cladding; water chemistry under supercritical pressure; thermal hydraulics of supercritical fluid; and the conceptual design of core and plant system. Elements of concept development of the

Yoshiaki Oka; Katsumi Yamada

2004-01-01

182

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF USING EMULSIFIED DIESEL FUEL ON THE PERFORMANCE AND POLLUTANTS EMITTED FROM FOUR STROKE WATER COOLED DIESEL ENGINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water-cooled, four stroke, four cylinder, direct injection diesel engine was used to study the effect of emulsified diesel fuel on the engine performance and on the main pollutant emissions. Emulsified diesel fuels of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% water by volume were used. The experiments were conducted in the speed range from 1000 to 3000 rpm.

A. Sakhrieh; R. H. Fouadb; J. A. Yamina

2009-01-01

183

Description of a Gas-Pressurized Water-Flow System for the NASA Water-Cooled Nozzle Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this facilities buildup was the support of a NASA Lewis Research Center Program dealing with a water-cooled nozzle concept for solid propellant rocket motors. The support requirements for cooling the second-stage Titan II nozzle employed ...

A. A. Bassoni D. R. Zorich

1968-01-01

184

Safety analysis of a supercritical pressure, light water cooled and moderated reactor with double tube water rods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supercritical pressure, light water cooled and moderated reactor (SCLWR) has once-through cooling system. All feedwater which cools the reactor core flows to the turbines. This paper summarizing the safety analysis of the SCLWR with double tube water rods. The plant system is simple but no natural circulation is established at the loss of feedwater flow. The coolant inventory in

Yasushi Okano; Sei-Ichi Koshizuka; Yoshiaki Oka

1997-01-01

185

Feasibility study for use of the natural convection shutdown heat removal test facility (NSTF) for VHTR water-cooled RCCS shutdown  

Microsoft Academic Search

In summary, a scaling analysis of a water-cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) system was performed based on generic information on the RCCS design of PBMR. The analysis demonstrates that the water-cooled RCCS can be simulated at the ANL NSTF facility at a prototypic scale in the lateral direction and about half scale in the vertical direction. Because, by necessity,

C. P. Tzanos; M. T. Farmer

2007-01-01

186

Feasibility Study for Use of the Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) for VHTR Water-Cooled RCCS Shutdown.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In summary, a scaling analysis of a water-cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) system was performed based on generic information on the RCCS design of PBMR. The analysis demonstrates that the water-cooled RCCS can be simulated at the ANL NSTF facil...

C. P. Tzanos M. T. Farmer

2006-01-01

187

Fabrication of gas turbine water-cooled composite nozzle and bucket hardware employing plasma spray process  

DOEpatents

In the method for fabrication of water-cooled composite nozzle and bucket hardware for high temperature gas turbines, a high thermal conductivity copper alloy is applied, employing a high velocity/low pressure (HV/LP) plasma arc spraying process, to an assembly comprising a structural framework of copper alloy or a nickel-based super alloy, or combination of the two, and overlying cooling tubes. The copper alloy is plamsa sprayed to a coating thickness sufficient to completely cover the cooling tubes, and to allow for machining back of the copper alloy to create a smooth surface having a thickness of from 0.010 inch (0.254 mm) to 0.150 inch (3.18 mm) or more. The layer of copper applied by the plasma spraying has no continuous porosity, and advantageously may readily be employed to sustain a pressure differential during hot isostatic pressing (HIP) bonding of the overall structure to enhance bonding by solid state diffusion between the component parts of the structure.

Schilke, Peter W. (4 Hempshire Ct., Scotia, NY 12302); Muth, Myron C. (R.D. #3, Western Ave., Amsterdam, NY 12010); Schilling, William F. (301 Garnsey Rd., Rexford, NY 12148); Rairden, III, John R. (6 Coronet Ct., Schenectady, NY 12309)

1983-01-01

188

Assessment of stress-corrosion cracking in a water-cooled ITER  

SciTech Connect

Water-cooled, near-term reactors will operate under conditions at which SCC is possible; however, control of material purity and processing and coolant chemistry can either eliminate or greatly reduce the probability of this type of structural failure. This evaluation has focused on an assessment of water impurity effects on SCC of austenitic stainless steel at temperatures below 100{degree}C and on the conditions controlling sensitization in the fusion heat of Type 316 SS and the fusion materials heat of modified Type 316 SS designated as PCA. This assessment identifies the dominant effect of small concentrations of impurities in high-purity water on SCC such that crack growth rates at 25--75{degree}C in water with as little as 5--15 ppM Cl{sup {minus}} are equal to the crack growth rates at 200--300{degree}C in high-purity water. These effects are primarily for sensitized Type 304 SS, so analysis of sensitization behavior of fusion austenitic alloys was also undertaken. An SSDOS model developed at PNL was used to make these assessments, and correlation to experimental results for Type 316 SS was very good. Both the fusion heat of Type 316 SS and PCA can be severely sensitized but with proper thermal treatment it should be possible to avoid sensitization. 14 refs., 8 figs.

Jones, R.H.; Bruemmer, S.M.

1989-04-01

189

Conceptual design of a 1000-MWe light-water-moderated prebreeder\\/breeder reactor system based on the seed-blanket principle (AWBA Development Program)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A practical light water moderated breeder reactor design concept is described which is based on the technology of PWRs and which uses the Th\\/U-233 fuel cycle. On the equilibrium core cycle, the breeder is self-sustaining, producing enough new fissile fuel to load the next core cycle with allowance for up to 1% fissile losses during fuel reprocessing and refabrication. The

F. C. Merriman; J. M. Detwyler

1983-01-01

190

MEASUREMENTS OF PARAMETERS LEADING TO p, f, AND \\/epsislon\\/ IN LIGHT WATER MODERATED 4.48% AND 2.73% ENRICHED LATTICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Yankee and the Relgian Reactor-3 Critical Experiments ; program, measurements were made of the parameters leading to p, f, and epsilon ; in a light-water moderated heterogeneous reactor with slightly enriched UO ; fuel rods clad in stainless steel. Measurements were made using 4.48 and 2.73% ; enriched fuel with lattice pitches of 0.470 and 0.435

V. E. Grob; E. Santandrea; H. Ritz

1960-01-01

191

Reevaluation of the Effective Delayed Neutron Fraction Measured by the Substitution Technique for a Light Water Moderated Low-enriched Uranium Core  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effective delayed neutron fraction ?eff for a light water moderated low-enriched UO2 core has been re-evaluated to obtain benchmark data for the validation of calculation codes and nuclear data. Originally, the ?eff value was measured by the substitution method. In that method, the ?eff value was obtained from measured reactivity change by substituting a Sb-Cd-Pb absorber rod for a

Ken NAKAJIMA

2001-01-01

192

Heat-transfer phenomena in water-cooled zinc-fuming furnace jackets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the zinc slag-fuming process, zinc is removed from lead blast furnace slag by reduction with a coal-air mixture injected into the slag through submerged tuyeres. The furnace is constructed of water-cooled jackets which freeze a slag layer and contain the bath. This greatly reduces vessel wear caused by the violently agitated and corrosive bath. The jackets, however, fail due to the formation of cracks which grow from the slag face through the working face of the jacket to the water channel. In this study, in-plant measurements and mathematical modeling of heat transfer in the jackets have been combined to elucidate the mechanism of failure. The working face of a water jacket was instrumented with thermocouples and installed in a fuming furnace at the Trail smelter of Cominco Ltd., Trail, BC. Measurements revealed the presence of large thermal transients or temperature spikes in the panel in the region immediately above the tuyeres. These were generally observed during charging and tapping of the furnace and are likely associated with disturbances on the surface of the bath or gas injection effects when the liquid level is low. Temperatures at the midthickness were seen to rise by as much as 180 C above the steady-state level. Under these conditions, low-cycle fatigue may lead to crack formation and propagation. A mathematical modeling analysis of the transient freezing phenomena indicates that the temperature spikes are associated with sudden slag falloff and direct contact of molten slag on the jacket. In order to reduce slag falloff, an increased number of anchoring fins should be used in critical areas.

Scholey, K. E.; Richards, G. G.; Samarasekera, I. V.

1991-04-01

193

Measurements of erbium laser-ablation efficiency in hard dental tissues under different water cooling conditions.  

PubMed

Laser triangulation measurements of Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser-ablated volumes in hard dental tissues are made, in order to verify the possible existence of a "hydrokinetic" effect that has been proposed as an alternative to the "subsurface water expansion" mechanism for hard-tissue laser ablation. No evidence of the hydrokinetic effect could be observed under a broad range of tested laser parameters and water cooling conditions. On the contrary, the application of water spray during laser exposure of hard dental material is observed to diminish the laser-ablation efficiency (AE) in comparison with laser exposure under the absence of water spray. Our findings are in agreement with the generally accepted principle of action for erbium laser ablation, which is based on fast subsurface expansion of laser-heated water trapped within the interstitial structure of hard dental tissues. Our measurements also show that the well-known phenomenon of ablation stalling, during a series of consecutive laser pulses, can primarily be attributed to the blocking of laser light by the loosely bound and recondensed desiccated minerals that collect on the tooth surface during and following laser ablation. In addition to the prevention of tooth bulk temperature buildup, a positive function of the water spray that is typically used with erbium dental lasers is to rehydrate these minerals, and thus sustaining the subsurface expansion ablation process. A negative side effect of using a continuous water spray is that the AE gets reduced due to the laser light being partially absorbed in the water-spray particles above the tooth and in the collected water pool on the tooth surface. Finally, no evidence of the influence of the water absorption shift on the hypothesized increase in the AE of the Er,Cr:YSGG wavelength is observed. PMID:24105399

Ku?er, Lovro; Diaci, Janez

2013-01-01

194

A Cu-Cr alloy with nano and microscale Cr particles produced in a water-cooled copper mold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microstructures have profound effects on the hardness and strength of Cu-Cr alloys. The microstructures of a Cu-Cr alloy cast\\u000a in a water-cooled copper mold were studied in the present work. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results show that there\\u000a are the copper matrix saturated with chromium, spherical precipitates of chromium separated from liquid phase during cooling\\u000a before the initiation of

Seyyed Mohammd Hossein Hejazi; Fatemeh Majidi; Gholam Hossein Akbari

2010-01-01

195

A Cu-Cr alloy with nano and microscale Cr particles produced in a water-cooled copper mold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microstructures have profound effects on the hardness and strength of Cu-Cr alloys. The microstructures of a Cu-Cr alloy cast in a water-cooled copper mold were studied in the present work. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results show that there are the copper matrix saturated with chromium, spherical precipitates of chromium separated from liquid phase during cooling before the initiation of

Seyyed Mohammd Hossein Hejazi; Fatemeh Majidi; Gholam Hossein Akbari

2010-01-01

196

Design development and manufacturing sequence of the European water-cooled Pb17Li test blanket module  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1996, the European Community started the development of a water-cooled Pb-17Li blanket test module for ITER. First tests are currently scheduled to start with the beginning of the Basic Performance Phase prior to dt operation. The test module is designed to be representative for a DEMO breeding blanket and relies on the liquid alloy Pb-17Li as both tritium breeder

M. A Ftterer; B Bielak; J. P Deffain; C Dellis; L Giancarli; A Li Puma; C Nardi; J. F Salavy; K Schleisiek; J Szczepanski

1998-01-01

197

A New HOM Water Cooled Absorber for the PEP-II B-factory Low Energy Ring  

SciTech Connect

At high currents and small bunch lengths beam line components in the PEP-II B-factory experience RF induced heating from higher order RF modes (HOMs) produced by scattered intense beam fields. A design for a passive HOM water cooled absorber for the PEP-II low energy ring is presented. This device is situated near HOM producing beamline components such as collimators and provide HOM damping for dipole and quadrupole modes without impacting beam impedance. We optimized the impedance characteristics of the device through the evaluation of absorber effectiveness for specific modes using scattering parameter and wakefield analysis. Operational results are presented and agree very well with the predicted effectiveness.

Weathersby, Stephen; Kosovsky, Michael; Kurita, Nadine; Novokhatski, Alexander; Seeman, John; /SLAC

2006-09-05

198

Miniaturized compact water-cooled pitot-pressure probe for flow-field surveys in hypersonic wind tunnels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation of the design of pitot probes for flowfield surveys in hypersonic wind tunnels is reported. The results show that a pitot-pressure probe can be miniaturized for minimum interference effects by locating the transducer in the probe support body and water-cooling it so that the pressure-settling time and transducer temperature are compatible with hypersonic tunnel operation and flow conditions. Flowfield surveys around a two-to-one elliptical cone model in a 20-inch Mach 6 wind tunnel using such a probe show that probe interference effects are essentially eliminated.

Ashby, George C.

1988-01-01

199

Cooling of Gas Turbines. 6; Computed Temperature Distribution Through Cross Section of Water-Cooled Turbine Blade  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theoretical analysis of the cross-sectional temperature distribution of a water-cooled turbine blade was made using the relaxation method to solve the differential equation derived from the analysis. The analysis was applied to specific turbine blade and the studies icluded investigations of the accuracy of simple methods to determine the temperature distribution along the mean line of the rear part of the blade, of the possible effect of varying the perimetric distribution of the hot gas-to -metal heat transfer coefficient, and of the effect of changing the thermal conductivity of the blade metal for a constant cross sectional area blade with two quarter inch diameter coolant passages.

Livingood, John N. B.; Sams, Eldon W.

1947-01-01

200

Standardisation of water-moderated 241Am-Be neutron source using De Pangher neutron long counter: experimental and Monte Carlo modelling.  

PubMed

A convenient neutron source is made for calibration of neutron survey instruments and personal dosimeters that are used in various nuclear installations such as fuel reprocessing, waste management, fuel fabrication and oil and well logging facilities, etc. This source consists of a bare (241)Am-Be neutron source placed at the centre of a 15-cm radius stainless steel spherical shell filled with distilled water. This paper describes the standardisation of the source at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, using De Pangher neutron long counter both experimentally and using the Monte Carlo simulation. The ratio of neutron yield of water moderated to the bare (241)Am-Be neutron source was found to be 0.573. From the simulation, the neutron-fluence-weighted average energy of water-moderated (241)Am-Be source (fluence-weighted average energy of 2.25 MeV, dose-weighted average energy of 3.55 MeV) was found to be nearly the same as that of a (252)Cf source (fluence-weighted average energy of 2.1 MeV, dose-weighted average energy of 2.3 MeV). This source can be used for calibration in addition to (252)Cf, to study the variation in response of neutron monitoring instruments. PMID:21498862

Ghodke, Shobha; Kumari, Sujatha; Singh, Yashoda; Sathian, V; Mahant, A K; Sharma, D N

2012-02-01

201

Analytical study of criticality experiments of organic and light-water-moderated mixed-oxide fuel pin arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a joint criticality data development program between the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. of Japan and the US Dept. of Energy, critical experiments have been conducted with organically moderated fast test reactor (FTR) mixed-oxide fuel pin arrays. The neutronic characteristics of an organic moderator can be examined by comparing the results of these experiments with

N. Aihara; N. Fukumura; H. Kadotani; T. Koyama; M. J. Haire

1987-01-01

202

DETERMINATION OF MAXIMUM FUEL PLATE TEMPERATURE IN A LIGHT WATER MODERATED RESEARCH REACTOR WITH CENTRAL WATER VOID (thesis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present operating level of the Livermore Pool Type Reactor is 2 Mw. ; With the addition of two heat exchangers and a second cooling tower, the power ; level will be raised to 5 Mw. An experimental study was carried out on the ; reactor standard core configuration to predict the maximum fuel and cladding ; temperatures, and their

Broadman

1963-01-01

203

Planning and Operation of Atomic Electric Power Stations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report deals with the planning and operation of atomic electric power stations. Studies include steam parameters for water-cooled reactors, single-loop station operation and steam-cooled reactors. (Author)

E. P. Kunegin G. N. Morozov M. A. Altshuler D. D. Kalafati

1972-01-01

204

Copper corrosion and activation in water cooling loops under fusion irradiation conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copper alloys have recently been proposed in the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), Spherical Tokamak (ST) power plants (ARIES ST, Culham ST), and have been used in the construction of the central column of experimental machines like MAST (UKAEA) and NSTX (PPPL). The activation-corrosion code transport of activation (TRACT) is used to predict corrosion, transport behaviour, and activity in the central column-cooling loop of the ST power plant. A 2 yr irradiation of the central column results in coolant activity due to the 66Cu, 62Cu, 16N and 64Cu nuclides. After power down, activity is dominated by 64Cu, but after a few days it is due to the long-lived nuclides. The solubility and radiolysis models developed here can be used to predict corrosion release rates and the necessary water chemistry conditions to minimise activated products in cooling loops of fusion experimental machines and future power plants.

Karditsas, P. J.; Ali, S. M.; Wan, D.

2000-12-01

205

Pumpless thermal management of water-cooled high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have been considered for combined heat and power (CHP) applications, but cost reduction has remained an issue for commercialization. Among various types of PEMFC, the high-temperature (HT) PEMFC is gaining more attention due to the simplicity of the system, that will make the total system cost lower. A pumpless cooling concept is introduced to

Tae-Won Song; Kyoung-Hwan Choi; Ji-Rae Kim; Jung S. Yi

2011-01-01

206

Copper corrosion and activation in water cooling loops under fusion irradiation conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper alloys have recently been proposed in the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), Spherical Tokamak (ST) power plants (ARIES ST, Culham ST), and have been used in the construction of the central column of experimental machines like MAST (UKAEA) and NSTX (PPPL). The activationcorrosion code transport of activation (TRACT) is used to predict corrosion, transport behaviour, and

P. J. Karditsas; S. M. Ali; D. Wan

2000-01-01

207

Water-cooled non-thermal gliding arc for adhesion improvement of glass-fibre-reinforced polyester  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A non-equilibrium quenched plasma is prepared using a gliding-arc discharge generated between diverging electrodes and extended by a gas flow. It can be operated at atmospheric pressure and applied to plasma surface treatment to improve adhesion properties of material surfaces. In this work, glass-fibre-reinforced polyester plates were treated using an atmospheric pressure gliding-arc discharge with air flow to improve adhesion with a vinylester adhesive. The electrodes were water-cooled so as to operate the gliding arc continually. The treatment improved wettability and increased the density of oxygen-containing polar functional groups on the surfaces. Double cantilever beam specimens were prepared for fracture mechanic characterization of the laminate adhesive interface. It was found that gliding-arc treatment significantly increases the fracture resistance in comparison with a standard peel-ply treatment.

Kusano, Yukihiro; Srensen, Bent F.; Andersen, Tom L.; Toftegaard, Helmuth L.; Leipold, Frank; Salewski, Mirko; Sun, Zhiwei; Zhu, Jiajian; Li, Zhongshan; Alden, Marcus

2013-04-01

208

53 kW water cooled solar cooling package for BDP distribution center, Phoenix, Arizona. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of the 53 kW water-cooled solar absorption unit installed at the rear of the BDP Arizona Distribution Center, Phoenix, Arizona, for use as the primary means of space comfort cooling. Thermal energy required to run the solar absorption unit is supplied by 133.8 m/sup 2/ of concentrating tracking trough-type Acurex collectors. Surplus solar energy is stored in a 9462 liter insulated steel storage tank. Summaries are given of the performance of the system and the problems encountered. Appendices include: job site photographs, summarized tabulated daily performance data; 3M company trip report; and insolation data from NOAA National Weather Service.

Biermann, W.J.

1982-12-01

209

Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility tempered water and tempered water cooling system design description  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Tempered Water (TW) and Tempered Water Cooling (TWC) System . The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-O02, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the TW and TWC equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SOD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

IRWIN, J.J.

1998-11-30

210

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF THE SNS CCL HOT MODEL WATER COOLING SYSTEM USING THE SINDA/FLUINT NETWORK MODELING TOOL  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results for design and analysis of the hot model water cooling system for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) coupled-cavity linac (CCL). The hot model, when completed, will include segments for both the CCL and coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL). The scope of this report encompasses the modeling effort for the CCL portion of the hot model. This modeling effort employed the SINDA/FLUINT network modeling tool. This report begins with an introduction of the SNS hot model and network modeling using SINDA/FLUINT. Next, the development and operation of the SINDA/FLUINT model are discussed. Finally, the results of the SINDA/FLUINT modeling effort are presented and discussed.

C. AMMERMAN; J. BERNARDIN

1999-11-01

211

Magnetically Diffused Radial Electric-Arc Air Heater Employing Water-Cooled Copper Electrodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A magnetically rotated electric-arc air heater has been developed that is novel in that an intense magnetic field of the order of 10,000 to 25,000 gauss is employed. This field is supplied by a coil that is connected in series with the arc. Experimentation with this heater has shown that the presence of an intense magnetic field transverse to the arc results in diffusion of the arc and that the arc has a positive effective resistance. With the field coil in series with the arc, highly stable arc operation is obtained from a battery power supply. External ballast is not required to stabilize the arc when it is operating at maximum power level. The electrode erosion rate is so low that the airstream contamination is no more than 0.07 percent and may be substantially less.

Mayo, R. F.; Davis, D. D., Jr.

1962-01-01

212

High-enthalpy, water-cooled and thin-walled ICP sources characterization and MHD optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of the inductively driven plasma wind tunnel PWK3, which enables the electrodeless generation of high-enthalpy plasmas for the development of heat shield materials required for space vehicles performing entry manoeuvres in the atmospheres of Venus, Earth and Mars, is described. The facility with its modular inductive plasma generators allows operation with gases such as carbon dioxide, air, oxygen and nitrogen and was qualified for thermal plasma powers up to 60 kW. Previously developed models for determining plasma properties and plasma source related characteristics enable a maximum plasma power in combination with long operational periods using different operational gases and gas mixtures. This is achieved by an optimization using the optimum operational frequency, a minimization of field losses using very thin plasma tube wall thicknesses and the successful application of MHD effects. Based on the solved cylinder problem for ICPs, a one-dimensional model for radial Lorentz forces and magnetic pressure has been developed. Here, a synthesis of previously published data and works is made where the new algebraic model for the calculation of Lorentz forces and magnetic pressures in an ICP was used and applied to experimental data. In addition, results from the model using the experimental data are shown to be consistent and, in addition, a comparison with a simpler model based on the well-known exponential approach for ICPs showed that the simpler model is covered without fail by the new model. The new model also states that there is a maximum of the Lorentz forces over the damping parameter d/? (plasma diameter divided by skin depth) which almost corresponds with the position of the maximum plasma power of the cylindric model for ICPs. For the magnetic pressure the position of the maximum pressure is identical to the value for d/? for the maximum plasma power.

Herdrich, G.; Petkow, D.

2008-06-01

213

Nuclear characteristics of a fissioning uranium plasma test reactor with light-water cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical study was performed to determine a design configuration for a cavity test reactor. Test section criteria were that an average flux of 10 to the 15th power neutrons/sq cm/sec (E less than or equal to 0.12 eV) be supplied to a 61-cm-diameter spherical cavity at 200-atm pressure. Design objectives were to minimize required driver power, to use existing fuel-element technology, and to obtain fuel-element life of 10 to 100 full-power hours. Parameter calculations were made on moderator region size and material, driver fuel arrangement, control system, and structure in order to determine a feasible configuration. Although not optimized, a configuration was selected which would meet design criteria. The driver fuel region was a cylindrical annular region, one element thick, of 33 MTR-type H2O-cooled elements (Al-U fuel plate configuration), each 101 cm long. The region between the spherical test cavity and the cylindrical driver fuel region was Be (10 vol. % H2O coolant) with a midplane dimension of 8 cm. Exterior to the driver fuel, the 25-cm-thick cylindrical and axial reflectors were also Be with 10 vol. % H2O coolant. The entire reactor was contained in a 10-cm-thick steel pressure vessel, and the 200-atm cavity pressure was equalized throughout the driver reactor. Fuel-element life was 50 hr at the required driver power of 200 MW. Reactor control would be achieved with rotating poison drums located in the cylindrical reflector region. A control range of about 18 percent delta k/k was required for reactor operation.

Whitmarsh, C. L., Jr.

1973-01-01

214

Structure and Performance of a 600MWe Supercritical CFB Boiler with Water Cooled Panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion technology is one of the approved clean combustion technologies, and the power supply efficiency can be improved combining with the supercritical technology. A 600MWe supercritical CFB boiler is introduced in this paper. This boiler is designed based on the success of 300 MWe CFB boilers, which has a single furnace with three cyclones without external heat exchangers. There are twin furnaces and twin air distributors in the boiler. The water walls of the twin furnace above dense bed combines to a common fence wall with some channels to balance the pressure of the two furnaces. The smooth tubes are adopted in membrane water wall with mixing header. Six cyclones are located beside the furnace as well as six loopseals and six external heat exchangers. The hydrodynamic characteristic of water wall is available with the modeling prediction. And the performance of the 600MWe supercritical CFB boiler is also investigated.

Li, Y.; Nie, L.; Hu, X. K.; Yue, G. X.; Li, W. K.; We, Y. X.; Lu, J. F.; Che, D. F.

215

Water-cooled lithium-lead blanket design studies for Demo reactor: definition and recent developments of the box-shaped concept.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Within the framework of the European DEMO blanket study programme, this paper describes the design work performed on the 'box-shaped' concept for water-cooled Pl-17Li blankets in the past two years. The first part of the paper describes the general design...

L. Giancarli L. Baraer P. Leroy J. Mercier E. Proust

1992-01-01

216

Three core concepts for producing uranium-233 in commercial pressurized light water reactors for possible use in water-cooled breeder reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected prebreeder core concepts are described which could be backfit into a reference light water reactor similar to current commercial reactors, and produce uranium-233 for use in water-cooled breeder reactors. The prebreeder concepts were selected on the basis of minimizing fuel system development and reactor changes required to permit a backfit. The fuel assemblies for the prebreeder core concepts discussed

G. H. Conley; G. K. Cowell; C. A. Detrick; J. Kusenko; E. G. Johnson; J. Dunyak; B. K. Flanery; M. S. Shinko; R. H. Giffen; D. S. Rampolla

1979-01-01

217

Aqueous corrosion and stress corrosion of 316SS for the ITER water-cooled blanket concept. Progress report, 1 January 1991-1 April 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design of the ITER Driver blanket has been shifted from the Aqueous Lithium Salt Blanket (ALSB) concept to a design using a ceramic breeder with a beryllium multiplier. This concept utilizes water cooling with Type 316 austenitic stainless steel (316S...

D. J. Duquette D. Steiner

1991-01-01

218

Electrical conductivity and phase composition of calcium aluminate cement containing air-cooled and water-cooled slag at 20, 40 and 60 C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium aluminate cement (CAC) pastes containing Egyptian air-cooled slag (AS) or water-cooled slag (WS) were prepared using different amounts of slag, namely, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mass%. The pastes were prepared with deionized water using the required water of standard consistency to produce normal workability. The variations of electrical conductivity with the hydration time were measured at 20,

M. Heikal; M. S. Morsy; M. M. Radwan

2005-01-01

219

LIGHT WATER MODERATED NEUTRONIC REACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A uranium fuel reactor designed to utilize light water as a moderator is ; described. The reactor core is in a tank at the bottom of a substantially ; cylindrical cross-section pit, the core being supported by an apertured grid ; member and comprised of hexagonal tubes each containing a pluralily of fuel rods ; held in a geometrical arrangement

R. F. Christy; A. M. Weinberg

1957-01-01

220

Computation Results from a Parametric Study to Determine Bounding Critical Systems of Homogeneously Water-Moderated Mixed Plutonium--Uranium Oxides  

SciTech Connect

This report provides computational results of an extensive study to examine the following: (1) infinite media neutron-multiplication factors; (2) material bucklings; (3) bounding infinite media critical concentrations; (4) bounding finite critical dimensions of water-reflected and homogeneously water-moderated one-dimensional systems (i.e., spheres, cylinders of infinite length, and slabs that are infinite in two dimensions) that were comprised of various proportions and densities of plutonium oxides and uranium oxides, each having various isotopic compositions; and (5) sensitivity coefficients of delta k-eff with respect to critical geometry delta dimensions were determined for each of the three geometries that were studied. The study was undertaken to support the development of a standard that is sponsored by the International Standards Organization (ISO) under Technical Committee 85, Nuclear Energy (TC 85)--Subcommittee 5, Nuclear Fuel Technology (SC 5)--Working Group 8, Standardization of Calculations, Procedures and Practices Related to Criticality Safety (WG 8). The designation and title of the ISO TC 85/SC 5/WG 8 standard working draft is WD 14941, ''Nuclear energy--Fissile materials--Nuclear criticality control and safety of plutonium-uranium oxide fuel mixtures outside of reactors.'' Various ISO member participants performed similar computational studies using their indigenous computational codes to provide comparative results for analysis in the development of the standard.

Shimizu, Y.

2001-01-11

221

Legionella species and serogroups in Malaysian water cooling towers: identification by latex agglutination and PCR-DNA sequencing of isolates.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the distribution of Legionella species in water cooling towers located in different parts of Malaysia to obtain information that may inform public health policies for the prevention of legionellosis. A total of 20 water samples were collected from 11 cooling towers located in three different states in east, west and south Malaysia. The samples were concentrated by filtration and treated with an acid buffer before plating on to BCYE agar. Legionella viable counts in these samples ranged from 100 to 2,000 CFU ml(-1); 28 isolates from the 24 samples were examined by latex agglutination as well as 16S rRNA and rpoB PCR-DNA sequencing. These isolates were identified as Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (35.7%), L. pneumophila serogroup 2-14 (39%), L. pneumophila non-groupable (10.7%), L. busanensis, L. gormanii, L. anisa and L. gresilensis. L. pneumophila was clearly the predominant species at all sampling sites. Repeat sampling from the same cooling tower and testing different colonies from the same water sample showed concurrent colonization by different serogroups and different species of Legionella in some of the cooling towers. PMID:20009251

Yong, Stacey Foong Yee; Goh, Fen-Ning; Ngeow, Yun Fong

2010-03-01

222

Melting Mechanism of Water-Cooled Billet-Type Bottom Electrode of Direct Current Arc Furnace: A Numerical Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The direct current (DC) furnace, the earliest type of the electric arc furnace (EAF), was popularized at the end of the 1980s. Even in its heyday, there were always doubts about its superiority due to some imperfections of the DC furnace ( e.g., the problems of the bottom electrode system). The water-cooled billet electrode, which is classified as one of the four types of the bottom electrodes, has been in use for more than two decades. However, so far its melting mechanism has not been well understood. A sophisticated numerical model was thus constructed by coupling the heat transfer and the fluid flow, and taking into account the electromagnetic effect as well as the influence of the gap between the billet and the copper jacket. The observed phenomena could readily be explained using the model. The computed results show that the axial component of the electromagnetic force plays an essential role in driving the strong flow within the electrode hole, and that the Joule effect does not contribute the majority of the heat taken away by cooling water. An important conclusion is reached that there is a double-edged effect by changing the billet diameter. Accordingly, a modification of the billet shape is suggested, i.e., a diameter-variable structure, which should greatly assist in improving the thermal state of the billet.

Liu, X.; Zhou, J. P.; Shi, H. Z.; Yang, Y. L.; Yang, B. Q.; Hu, A. M.; Du, Z. H.; Yuan, F.; Wang, Y. P.

2008-10-01

223

A Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Based System-Level Thermal Modeling Methodology for Shipboard Power Electronics Cabinets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system-level thermal modeling methodology for shipboard power-electronics cabinets is presented and demonstrated for a PCM-1 cabinet, a complex air-to-water-cooled cabinet design of interest to naval applications. The cabinet is completely sealed and the heat dissipation in the power electronics bays is removed from the cabinet by re-circulating the hot air through an air-to-water-cooled packaged heat exchanger that is served

Syed I. Haider; Ludovic Burton; Yogendra Joshi

2008-01-01

224

RESONANCE CONTROL FOR THE COUPLED CAVITY LINAC AND DRIFT TUBE LINAC STRUCTURES OF THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE LINAC USING A CLOSED-LOOP WATER COOLING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a facility being designed for scientific and industrial research and development. SNS will generate and use neutrons as a diagnostic tool for medical purposes, material science, etc. The neutrons will be produced by bombarding a heavy metal target with a high-energy beam of protons, generated and accelerated with a linear particle accelerator, or linac. The low energy end of the linac consists of two room temperature copper structures, the drift tube linac (DTL), and the coupled cavity linac (CCL). Both of these accelerating structures use large amounts of electrical energy to accelerate the protons to an energy of 185 MeV. Approximately 60-80% of the electrical energy is dissipated in the copper structure and must be removed. This is done using specifically designed water cooling passages within the linac's copper structure. Cooling water is supplied to these cooling passages by specially designed resonance control and water cooling systems.

Bernardin, J. D. (John D.); Brown, R. L. (Richard L.); Brown, S. K. (Stanley K.); Bustos, G. R. (Gerald R.); Crow, M.L. (Martin L.); Gregory, W. S.; Hood, M. E. (Michael E.); Jurney, J. D. (James D.); Medalen, I. (Ivan); Owen, A. C. (Albert C.); Weiss, Robert E.

2001-01-01

225

Flow-Induced Accident and Transient Analyses of a Direct-Cycle, Light-Water-Cooled, Fast Breeder Reactor Operating at Supercritical Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the safety design of a light-water-cooled fast breeder reactor operating at supercritical pressure (SCFBR) hich has the advantages of high thermal efficiency and simple reactor system. A new computer code was developed and five important flow-induced events were analyzed for the 1,245 M We SCFBR with two coolant loops.A core flow rate must be maintained for

Yasushi OKANO; Seiichi KOSHIZUKA; Kazuaki KITOH; Yoshiaki OKA

1996-01-01

226

Experimental Study on Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity in Light-Water-Moderated and Heavy-Water-Reflected Cylindrical Core Loaded with Highly-Enriched-Uranium or Medium-Enriched-Uranium Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA), a series of critical experiments was performed to measure the temperature coefficient of reactivity in a light-water-moderated and heavy-water-reflected cylindrical core loaded with highly-enriched-uranium (HEU) or medium- enriched-uranium (MEU) fuel. The measurement was performed for the approximately 20 to 70C range to examine the effects of the size of light-water region in

Seiji SHIROYA; Masaaki MORI; Tsuyoshi MISAWA; Masatoshi HAYASHI; Keiji KOBAYASHI; Keiji KANDA

1995-01-01

227

Analysis of Experiment on Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity in Light-Water-Moderated and Heavy Water-Reflected Cylindrical Core Loaded with Highly-Enriched-Uranium or Medium-Enriched-Uranium Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis was performed for the temperature coefficient of reactivity measured in the six types of light-water-moderated and heavy-water-reflected cylindrical cores containing highly-enriched-uranium (HEU) or medium-enriched-uranium (MEU) fuel, which was constructed in the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA). The purpose of the present analysis was to reveal a mechanism why a light-water region existed in the core contributes to a

Seiji SHIROYA; Masaaki MORI; Keiji KANDA

1996-01-01

228

State of metallic surfaces in systems of nuclear power plants with a series 1000 high-powered-water-cooled channel reactor after assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the state of the surfaces by examining, photographing, and collecting samples of surface contaminants at the open ends of piping system blocks. We performed a phase analysis of the samples taken in a 3,-resonance YaGRS-4M spectrometer. We determined the specific contamination of the inner surfaces of equipment and piping system by a weight method by mechanically removing oxides

V. M. Sedov; P. G. Krutikov; A. I. Grushanin; S. T. Zolotukhin; Yu. O. Zakharzhevskii; A. P. Eperin

1981-01-01

229

Theoretical analysis of transurethral laser-induced thermo-therapy for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Evaluation of a water-cooled applicator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mathematical model for predicting the temperature rise in transurethral laser-induced thermo-therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia was developed. In the model an optical line source emitting light from an Nd:YAG laser isotropically was placed in the urethra. Water cooling of the urethral epithelium was modelled using a two-tube system. The relationship between the difference in outlet and inlet water temperatures and the highest tissue temperature level reached was theoretically investigated. It was found that the water temperature difference was linearly dependent on the steady-state maximum tissue temperature. The theoretical calculations suggest that the water-cooled applicator can be used to measure the maximum tissue temperature. With temperature control, the prostatic tissue temperature can be prevented from exceeding the boiling point of water, excluding tissue carbonization. The model was also used to evaluate the influence of a number of different parameters on the damaged tissue volume. Increasing the urethral lumen radius by a factor of two by means of inserting different sized tubes was found to augment the tissue volume raised to therapeutic temperatures by up to 50%. The calculations showed that cooling of the urethral epithelium can result in an increase in the damaged volume by 80% as compared to not applying any cooling. The temperature of the cooling water was found to influence the tissue temperature only to a small extent.

Sturesson, C.; Andersson-Engels, S.

1996-03-01

230

Enhanced tritium production for fusion reactors via 3 He(n, p) 3 H in the heavy water moderator of a CANDU reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing requirement for tritium to supply the fuel needs of current experimental fusion devices and in the initial startup of future power generating reactors. Tritium is produced in heavy water reactors through deuterium activation, but the total production capacity of Canadian operated CANDUs will fall short of future demands, during the period before and for some time

Gerald F. Thomas; Sandra J. Brereton

1985-01-01

231

Detailed Neutron Activation Measurements in Lattices with 31-Element PuOsub(2)-UOsub(2) Clusters of Simulated Burned-Up Natural Uranium Fuel in Heavy Water Moderator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Low power experiments have been performed in the ZED-2 reactor to determine detailed neutron activation distributions in the central cell of lattices containing 31-element clusters of PuOsub(2)-UOsub(2), simulated burned-up natural uranium oxide fuel in h...

P. M. French

1983-01-01

232

Conversion-performance characteristics of light-water-moderated lattices as a function of fuel-to-coolant volume ratio (AWBA Development Program)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report presents a comprehensive evaluation of the conversion performance characteristics of uranium-based and thorium-based fuel systems in an initial cycle (no recycle of fuel) reactor operation. The conversion performance characteristics for a number of fissile\\/fertile fuel combinations are evaluated as a function of fuel-to-coolant volume ratio and as a function of cycle length (burnup) and power density. The range

N. R. Candelore; G. K. Cowell; G. H. Conley

1981-01-01

233

Advances in high average power long life laser diode pump array architectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sophisticated packaging architectures have been developed that enable low cost, very high average power, long lived pumping of solid state lasers. Single water cooled manifolds now provide slab pumping of up to 2.5 kW of average optical power, while low cost yet flexible bar mounting techniques allow burn-in that enables very long lifetimes. Architecture modification allows for high peak power of up to 80 kW per water cooled pump manifold. Specialized high brightness packaging now allows approximately 20 watt cw bars to be lensed into less than 200 micrometers diameter spot sizes (approximately 54 kW/cm2).

Haden, James M.; Endriz, John G.; Sakamoto, Masamichi; Dawson, David C.; Browder, Gerald S.; Anderson, Kenneth; Mundinger, David C.; Worland, D. Philip; Wolak, Edmund L.; Scifres, Donald R.

1995-04-01

234

Evaluation of coal-gasification - combustion-turbine power plants emphasizing low water consumption  

SciTech Connect

A cost and performance study was made of several integrated power plants using coal gasification technology now in advanced development and combustion turbines for power generation. The principal emphasis was placed on studying plants using air cooling and comparing costs and performance of those plants with water-cooled coal gasification-combined-cycle (GCC) and conventional coal-fired power plants. The major objective was to determine whether cost and performance penalties would be prohibitive for air-cooled plants that use yet-to-be-developed coal gasifiers and commercially available combustion turbines for topping cycle power. The results indicate the following: air-cooled GCC plants using conceptual designs of either the Texaco or the British Gas Corporation (BGC) slaging gasifier could have coal-to-net electric power efficiencies equivalent to that of a water-cooled conventional coal-fired plant; the air-cooled GCC plants could produce electricity at busbar cost 1 to 3 mills per kWh (1980 dollars) less than busbar cost in a water-cooled conventional plant and only up to 2 mills per kWh higher than busbar cost in a water-cooled Texaco GCC plant; and even a simple-cycle regenerative combustion turbine plant fueled with gas from the BGC gasifier could have a coal-to-net electric power efficiency of over 30% and a busbar cost competitive with that in a water cooled conventional plant. The principal reason that air-cooled power plants using combustion turbines could be competitive with conventional water-cooled, coal-fired steam plants is that a majority of net power is produced by the combustion turbines, which require no cooling water. This, in turn, leads to a reduced cost and performance penalty when bottoming steam-cycle condensers are air-cooled.

Cavazo, R.; Clemmer, A.B.; de la Mora, J.A.; Grisso, J.R.; Klumpe, H.W.; Meissner, R.E.; Musso, A.; Roszkowski, T.R.

1982-01-01

235

Corrosion and mechanical strength of NPP material welded joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the most typical cases of the primary and secondary circuit component damage of water-cooled and water-moderated reactors during nuclear power plant (NPP) operation, this paper demonstrates the necessity to investigate the corrosion and mechanical strength of NPP equipment. The results are presented on the effect of the coolant on the fracture resistance of materials at the stages of crack

B. T. Timofeev; V. A. Fedorova

1995-01-01

236

Nuclear power reactor applications of high gradient magnetic filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the present status and future prospects for applications of high gradient magnetic filters to water-cooled nuclear power plants. A brief summary of tests performed at installations world-wide in support of nuclear applications and specifically the author's work at the United States Department of Energy's N Reactor is presented. Filtration of both the primary and secondary coolant circuits

B. Emory

1982-01-01

237

Feed-through connector couples RF power into vacuum chamber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Feed-through device connects RF power to an RF coil in a vacuum chamber. The coil and leads are water cooled and vacuum tight seals are provided at the junctions. The device incorporates silver soldered copper tubes, polytetrafluoroethylene electrical insulators, and O-ring vacuum seals.

Grandy, G. L.

1967-01-01

238

Diversion assumptions for high-powered research reactors. ISPO C-50 Phase 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study deals with diversion assumptions for high-powered research reactors -- specifically, MTR fuel; pool- or tank-type research reactors with light-water moderator; and water, beryllium, or graphite reflectors, and which have a power level of 25 MW(...

F. T. Binford

1984-01-01

239

Means of Examination and Evaluation of Fuel Assembly for Water Cooled Power Reactors in the Nuclear Research Center at Saclay (CEA).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Description is presented of the equipment of two laboratories at Saclay (CEA) concerned with destructive and nondestructive experiences on spent fuels from pressurized water reactors in France. Study of fuel assemblies in fuel storage pools, study of fuel...

G. Colomez, G. Farny, H. Vidal, M. Robin, J. C. Van Craeynest

1984-01-01

240

Monitoring system for over-temperature detection of water cooled rotor poles of hydro electrical generators installed at the Danube River Iron Gates Power Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of temperature measurement, infra-red measuring methods, the only one which gives full information on surface temperature distribution of the observed objects, proves to be even more valuable when it is necessary to measure and monitor temperatures of moving objects. The advantage of being a passive method, with no interference on the thermal balance of the observed object,

D. F. Varduca; C. D. Olivotto; H. Selegean

1996-01-01

241

Cost analysis of revisions to 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix J, leak tests for primary and secondary containments of light-water-cooled nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report examines the differences between the existing and proposed Appendix J and identifies eleven substantive areas where quantifiable impacts will likely result. The analysis indicated that there are four areas of change which tend to dominate all others in terms of cost impacts. The applicable paragraph numbers from Draft E2 of the Appendix J revision and the nature of

F. Sciacca; W. Nelson; B. Simpkins; B. Riordan; P. Godfrey; S. Cohen; S. Beal; D. Goldin

1985-01-01

242

Achievements in the development of the Water Cooled Solid Breeder Test Blanket Module of Japan to the milestones for installation in ITER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the primary candidate of ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM) to be tested under the leadership of Japan, a water cooled solid breeder (WCSB) TBM is being developed. This paper shows the recent achievements towards the milestones of ITER TBMs prior to the installation, which consist of design integration in ITER, module qualification and safety assessment. With respect to the design integration, targeting the detailed design final report in 2012, structure designs of the WCSB TBM and the interfacing components (common frame and backside shielding) that are placed in a test port of ITER and the layout of the cooling system are presented. As for the module qualification, a real-scale first wall mock-up fabricated by using the hot isostatic pressing method by structural material of reduced activation martensitic ferritic steel, F82H, and flow and irradiation test of the mock-up are presented. As for safety milestones, the contents of the preliminary safety report in 2008 consisting of source term identification, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and identification of postulated initiating events (PIEs) and safety analyses are presented.

Tsuru, Daigo; Tanigawa, Hisashi; Hirose, Takanori; Mohri, Kensuke; Seki, Yohji; Enoeda, Mikio; Ezato, Koichiro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Nishi, Hiroshi; Akiba, Masato

2009-06-01

243

Conceptual design description for the tritium recovery system for the US ITER Li sub 2 O/Be water cooled blanket  

SciTech Connect

The tritium recovery system for the US ITER Li{sub 2}O/Be water cooled blanket processes two separate helium purge streams to recovery tritium from the Li{sub 2}O zones and the Be zones of the blanket, to process the waste products, and to recirculate the helium back to the blanket. The components are selected to minimize the tritium inventory of the recovery system, and to minimize waste products. The system is robust to either an increase in the tritium release rate or to an in-leak of water in the purge system. Three major components were used to process these streams, first, 5A molecular sieves at {minus}196{degree}C separate hydrogen from the helium, second, a solid oxide electrolysis unit is used to reduce all molecular water, and third, a palladium/silver diffuser is used to ensure that only hydrogen (H{sub 2}, HT) species reach the cryogenic distillation unit. The total tritium process inventory is 20g. The total capital cost is {approximately}$14M. Technical advantages of a solid oxide electrolysis unit and a palladium/silver diffuser are presented. 5 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Finn, P.A.; Sze, D.K. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Clemmer, R.G. (Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1990-09-01

244

Conceptual design description for the tritium recovery system for the US ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) Li sub 2 O/Be water cooled blanket  

SciTech Connect

The tritium recovery system for the US ITER Li{sub 2}O/Be water cooled blanket processes two separate helium purge streams to recover tritium from the Li{sub 2}O zones and the Be zones of the blanket, to process the waste products, and to recirculate the helium back to the blanket. The components are selected to minimize the tritium inventory of the recovery system, and to minimize waste products. The system is robust to either an increase in the tritium release rate or to an in-leak of water in the purge system. Three major components were used to process these streams, first, 5A molecular sieves at {minus}196{degree}C separate hydrogen from the helium, second, a solid oxide electrolysis unit is used to reduce all molecular water, and third, a palladium/silver diffuser is used to ensure that only hydrogen (H{sub 2}, HT) species reach the cryogenic distillation unit. Other units are present to recover tritium from waste products but the three major components are the basis of the blanket tritium recovery system. 32 refs.

Finn, P.A.; Sze, D.K. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA). Fusion Power Program); Clemmer, R.G. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1990-11-01

245

Spectroscopic comparison of the effects of CO2, Nd:YAG, and water-cooled Nd:YAG on tooth root  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This in vitro investigation characterized the chemical structure of lased root surfaces using FTIR photoacoustic spectroscopy. Twelve disks, 6 X 2 mm, were cut from debrided root surfaces of extracted, unerupted human molars. Each specimen was exposed to either the CO2 Nd:YAG or water cooled Nd:YAG laser at these energy densities: CO2, 275; Nd:YAG without water 571; Nd:YAG with water 571 and 1429 J/cm2. Spectra were recorded using the photoacoustic cell attachment of an Analect RFX 65 FTIR spectrometer. Spectral contributions from protein occur at 1650, 1550, 1240 cm-1; mineral contributions at 1030 - 1060 cm-1, 600 - 560 cm-1, 870 cm-1. Specimens exposed to the Nd:YAG without water show a substantial reduction in the absorption bands attributable to protein and an additional band at 2015 cm-1. In the presence of water, the band at 2015 cm-1 does not appear at the lower energy density but is recorded at an energy density of 1429 J/cm2 when the surface is darkened. The spectra of the CO2 treated specimens, with the char layer present, show a significant reduction in the protein bands and additional bands at 2015 and 2200 cm-1, that are tentatively assigned to the cyanamide and cyanate ions, respectively (Dowker and Elliott, 1979). These results suggest a reaction of the organic matrix and mineral with laser exposure.

Spencer, Paulette; Cobb, Charles M.; McCollum, Mark H.; Wieliczka, David M.

1995-05-01

246

Power.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue addresses advantages and disadvantages of having power. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources with suggested age levels and disciplines as well as ideas for appropriate related activities. Sidebars discuss the power of the pen, the power of peace, and the power of the media. (LRW)

Online-Offline, 1999

1999-01-01

247

LIGHT WATER MODERATED NUCLEAR RESEARCH REACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A swimming pool-type reactor is designed with the pool divided into a ; stall station and a bulk shield station and with a tank station below the stall ; station. Both stall and tank stations are provided with experimental facilities, ; and the core is movable to either station for irradiation experiments. Means is ; also provided for circulating cooling

Loeb

1962-01-01

248

Characterization of Platinum Self-Powered Detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because platinum self-powered flux detectors have a mixed (neutron and gamma-ray) response in reactor radiation fields, an experimental program was undertaken to characterize these devices. This paper describes experiments performed to determine the response parameters for Pt detectors in a heavy-water moderated reactor. Absolute y-ray and neutron sensitivities were derived from these measurements for detectors with three different emitter diameters,

G. F. Lynch; R. B. Shields; P. G. Coulter

1977-01-01

249

THE THERMAL AND HYDRAULIC CHARACTERISTICS OF POWER REACTOR FUEL BUNDLE DESIGNS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The type of fuel bundle evolved for the various Canadian heavy water-; moderated power reactors is described. The data necessary for estimating the ; thermal and hydraulic characteristics of this type of fuel bundle are indicated. ; The calculations and experimentation undertaken in the general fields of fluid ; flow, heat transfer, and coolant mixing are then described. The future

G. T. Leaist; R. D. Page; R. J. Klock

1963-01-01

250

High-power Faraday isolators based on TAG ceramics.  

PubMed

The Faraday isolator based on a new magneto-optical medium--TAG (terbium aluminum garnet) ceramics was implemented and investigated experimentally. The magneto-optical element was temperature-stabilized using water cooling. The device provides a stable isolation ratio of 38 dB at 300 W laser power. Estimates show high performance of the device at a kilowatt laser power. PMID:24663550

Zheleznov, Dmitry; Starobor, Aleksey; Palashov, Oleg; Chen, Chong; Zhou, Shengming

2014-02-10

251

Thermal-Fluid Analysis and Simulation of High Power Solid-State Laser Diode (SLD) Assemblies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thermal configuration is an important factor determining the successful operation of the high power solid-state laser diode assemblies. The solid-state diode array in an H-package using a conventional water-cooling flow was analyzed using a combined t...

L. L. Liou C. T. Tsai X. A. Zhu

2002-01-01

252

Reliable high-power diode lasers: thermo-mechanical fatigue aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

High power water-cooled diode lasers are finding increasing demand in biomedical, cosmetic and industrial applications, where repetitive cw (continuous wave) and pulsed cw operation modes are required. When operating in such modes, the lasers experience numerous complete thermal cycles between \\

Genady Klumel; Yaakov Gridish; Igor Szafranek; Yoram Karni

2006-01-01

253

A study of a desuperheater heat recovery system complete with a reversibly used water cooling tower (RUWCT) for hot water supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recovering heat rejected from the condenser in a refrigeration system to generate service hot water for buildings is commonly seen in both tropics and subtropics. This study included a critical literature review on heat recovery from air-conditioning/refrigeration systems, with particular emphasis on the direct condenser heat recovery and its related mathematical simulation models. The review identified many applications of desuperheaters to small-scaled residential air-conditioning or heat pump units. The heat and mass transfer characteristics of a RUWCT have been studied in detail, which is based on the theory of direct contact heat and mass transfer between moist air and water. The thesis reports on the differences in the heat and mass transfer process that takes place in a RUWCT, a standard water cooling tower and a spray room. A corrective factor that accounts for the change of chilled water mass flow rate is incorporated into the theoretical analysis of a RUWCT. The algorithms developed from the theoretical analysis are capable of predicting the heat exchange capacity of a RUWCT at any operating conditions. This theoretical analysis is the first of its kind. Extensive field experimental work on the heat and mass transfer characteristics of a RUWCT has been carried out in a hotel building in Haikou, Hainan province of China, where the RUWCT is installed. Results from the experimental work indicate that the theoretical analysis can represent the heat and mass transfer characteristics in a RUWCT with an acceptable accuracy. A numerical analysis for a RUWCT is undertaken to determine both air and water states at intermediate horizontal sections along the tower height. Field experimental data confirm that the predicted air and water conditions at the tower inlet and outlet are of acceptable accuracy. A steady-state mathematical model is developed to simulate the operational performance of a water chiller plant complete with a desuperheater heat recovery system and a RUWCT. This model will be useful in future studies on the optimum design of a water chiller complete with a desuperheater and a RUWCT for heat recovery. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Tan, Kunxiong

254

Evaluation of coal-gasification - combustion-turbine power plants emphasizing low water consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cost and performance study was made of several integrated power plants using coal gasification technology now in advanced development and combustion turbines for power generation. The principal emphasis was placed on studying plants using air cooling and comparing costs and performance of those plants with water-cooled coal gasification-combined-cycle (GCC) and conventional coal-fired power plants. The major objective was to

R. Cavazo; A. B. Clemmer; J. A. de la Mora; J. R. Grisso; H. W. Klumpe; R. E. Meissner; A. Musso; T. R. Roszkowski

1982-01-01

255

Power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space station requires an increase in power or energy of at least several orders of magnitude compared to previous space missions. With the requirement up in the range of 10 kilowatt hours, this obviiously requires the development of new technology. Although the power area is very well integrated in the spacecraft itself, it represents a diverse set of components necessary for energy conversion, electronics, and energy distribution. Considerable work is ongoing at NASA Lewis in the power devices development area, including transformers, large area solid-state chips, transistors, and fast recovery diodes. This work is oriented toward eventual application to both AC and DC power conversion approaches. In the energy storage area, there are many options available to fit into the space station representing various degrees of risk and leverage combination, such as the near-term integral-pressure-vessel nickel hydrogen battery, an advanced Ni-H2 battery concept, and the regenrative hydrogen-oxygen system utilizing essentially the Shuttle orbiter type of fuel cell.

Corbett, R.

1984-01-01

256

Primary-to-secondary leak monitoring using information obtained from measurement of reference radionuclides in NPP water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of heat-exchange equipment failures in the primary circuit is one of the problems to be solved by radiochemical\\u000a monitoring during operation of nuclear power installations. A series of experimental and numerical studies were performed\\u000a in a low-power installation with a water-cooled water-moderated reactor where sequential failure of heat exchangers in two\\u000a reactor water cleanup and cooling units occurred and

I. S. Orlenkov; L. N. Moskvin

2010-01-01

257

REVIEW: High-power CO lasers in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research-and-development effort on CO lasers and applications of these lasers in Russia are reviewed. Various types of cw, pulsed, and periodic-pulse CO lasers have been developed in various laboratories. Sealed-off, water-cooled cw CO lasers with an output power of 5-10 W, pumped by a self-sustained electric discharge, are being used successfully in the manufacture of electronic devices and in

Andrei A. Ionin

1993-01-01

258

Recognizing hydraulic power plant and aimpoint choosing from clutter background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large power stations are usually chosen as the target for missiles guided by IR seeker. This paper presents an aimpoint finding algorithm. The high light blob of boiler and straight lines of chimneys or water cooling towers are taken as the reference feature objects for locating and keeping the aimpoint form long to short distance. Some experiment results are given to show the validity of our method.

Li, Zhiyong; Yang, Weiping; Shen, Hai-Xin

1997-10-01

259

Superior power handling in fiber optic cables for multi-kW lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transmitting high power laser light through fiber optic cables has been used in industrial environments for years. Designing fiber optic cables for industrial environments requires robust solutions able to handle high power losses without compromise either to process quality or to safety. Internal water cooling, where the optical fiber is in direct contact with water, in combination with an efficient cladding mode-stripper the optical fiber cable has superior advantages handling high power losses. In this paper we will present recent power-handling data for the new series of the well-known standards QBH and QD (LLK-D) fiber optic cables launched by Optoskand. The new series are designed with a combination of materials and internal water cooling.

Blomster, Ola; Blomqvist, Mats; Campbell, Stuart; Plsson, Magnus

2014-02-01

260

Exergy analysis of a system using a chemical heat pump to link a supercritical water-cooled nuclear reactor and a thermochemical water splitting cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increases in the power generation efficiency of nuclear plants are mainly limited by the permissible temperatures in nuclear reactors and the corresponding temperatures and pressures of the coolants. Coolant parameters are limited by the corrosion rates of materials and nuclear- reactor safety constraints. The advanced construction materials for the next generation of CANDU reactors, which employ supercritical water\\/steam as a

Mikhail Granovskii; Ibrahim Dincer; Marc A. Rosen; Igor Pioro

261

High-power long-wavelength (1.4 to 1.5 mm) laser array and stacked arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have demonstrated record high cw and quasi-cw operation of InP-based 1.5 ?m laser arrays (bars) and water-cooled stacks. High-efficiency and high-power operation were achieved through device design optimization including the multi-quantum well design, crystal growth process, doping profile, and material composition. Internal quantum efficiency, mode loss, gain parameters, and temperature sensitivity parameters are reported. Single-stripe devices produced 3 watts of cw output power and 35 percent electrical-to-optical efficiency. We demonstrated 40 watts of cw power from single bars on water-cooled copper-microchannel heatsinks. A stack of 20 bars that were collimated using fast axis microlenses achieved greater than 350 watts of cw power.

Huang, Zack; Crump, Paul; Crum, Trevor R.; DeVito, Mark A.; Farmer, Jason; Grimshaw, Michael; Igl, Scott A.; Macomber, Steve

2004-06-01

262

Thermodynamic Analysis of the Use a Chemical Heat Pump to Link a Supercritical Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactor and a Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycle for Hydrogen Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increases in the power generation efficiency of nuclear power plants (NPPs) are mainly limited by the permissible temperatures in nuclear reactors and the corresponding temperatures and pressures of the coolants in reactors. Coolant parameters are limited by the corrosion rates of materials and nuclear-reactor safety constraints. The advanced construction materials for the next generation of CANDU reactors, which employ supercritical water (SCW) as a coolant and heat carrier, permit improved steam parameters (outlet temperatures up to 625C and pressures of about 25 MPa). An increase in the temperature of steam allows it to be utilized in thermochemical water splitting cycles to produce hydrogen. These methods are considered by many to be among the most efficient ways to produce hydrogen from water and to have advantages over traditional low-temperature water electrolysis. However, even lower temperature water splitting cycles (Cu-Cl, UT-3, etc.) require an intensive heat supply at temperatures higher than 550-600C. A sufficient increase in the heat transfer from the nuclear reactor to a thermochemical water splitting cycle, without jeopardizing nuclear reactor safety, might be effectively achieved by application of a heat pump, which increases the temperature of the heat supplied by virtue of a cyclic process driven by mechanical or electrical work. Here, a high-temperature chemical heat pump, which employs the reversible catalytic methane conversion reaction, is proposed. The reaction shift from exothermic to endothermic and back is achieved by a change of the steam concentration in the reaction mixture. This heat pump, coupled with the second steam cycle of a SCW nuclear power generation plant on one side and a thermochemical water splitting cycle on the other, increases the temperature of the nuclear heat and, consequently, the intensity of heat transfer into the water splitting cycle. A comparative preliminary thermodynamic analysis is conducted of the combined system comprising a SCW nuclear power generation plant and a chemical heat pump, which provides high-temperature heat to a thermochemical water splitting cycle for hydrogen production. It is concluded that the proposed chemical heat pump permits the utilization efficiency of nuclear energy to be improved by at least 2% without jeopardizing nuclear reactor safety. Based on this analysis, further research appears to be merited on the proposed advanced design of a nuclear power generation plant combined with a chemical heat pump, and implementation in appropriate applications seems worthwhile.

Granovskii, Mikhail; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.; Pioro, Igor

263

High power radio frequency attenuation device  

DOEpatents

A resistor device for attenuating radio frequency power includes a radio frequency conductor connected to a series of fins formed of high relative magnetic permeability material. The fins are dimensional to accommodate the skin depth of the current conduction therethrough, as well as an inner heat conducting portion where current does not travel. Thermal connections for air or water cooling are provided for the inner heat conducting portions of each fin. Also disclosed is a resistor device to selectively alternate unwanted radio frequency energy in a resonant cavity.

Kerns, Quentin A. (Bloomingdale, IL); Miller, Harold W. (Winfield, IL)

1984-01-01

264

Initial and equilibrium cycle evaluations of conversion and loading performance in light-water-moderated lattices as a function of fuel-to-coolant volume ratio (AWBA Development Program)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of an evaluation of performance of the U-Th and Pu-U238 fuel systems as a function of fuel-to-coolant volume ratio and as a function of cycle length (burnup) and power density. Results are included for both the initial cycle and the equilibrium cycle of operation. Only light water is considered as the coolant in this study.

N. R. Candelore; E. G. Johnson

1982-01-01

265

Research on control strategy and integrated power-train system as shifting progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on BF6M1015CP electronic diesel engine (it is a supercharged, water-cooled engine. It has 6 cylinders and it is for heavy-duty vehicle) and HD4070PR electronic automatic transmission (it covers heavy-duty applications requiring high input horsepower and torque. It contains torque converter module, control module, planetary module and output module. It has 7 forward gears and a power-take -off (PTO) and

Sun Wentao; Chen Huiyan

2008-01-01

266

High Power Primary Slits For The ESRF Beamlines  

SciTech Connect

At the ESRF, in order to face the increased heatload on the beamlines, new Primary slits have been developed. The main features of the new slits are: beam size = 0 to 4mm; accuracy = 10{mu}m; acceptable power density: 600 W/mm2; acceptable total power: 7kW; total length: 740mm. The adopted design offers a wide water cooled area; the shapes of the heated parts have been optimized to reduce the local thermal stresses. The maximum calculated temperature and stress are 353C and 606MPa. Six of these new slits are now in operation on ESRF Beamlines.

Marion, Philippe; Zhang Lin [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

2004-05-12

267

A preliminary design study for a high power, pulsed, microwave amplifier: SAR applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A klystron amplifier which uses a nonoptimized gun and a water cooled single stage depressed collector was designed for spaceborne applications. Computer analysis and cold test measurements demonstrate gain, bandwidth, efficiency mean power, and duty and peak power characteristics which either match or exceed design specifications. Experimental results show peak output power of 6.05 kW, at 46.7% efficiency, a bandwidth of 45 MHz and a mean output power of 390 W. Equipment failures prevented the tube from being tested at the full specified duty (10 kW peak, 600 W mean) although a 10 kW peak output was obtained just before failure.

Feltham, S.

1981-09-01

268

High-power beam dump system for the BigRIPS fragment separator at RIKEN RI Beam Factory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-power beam dump system for the BigRIPS fragment separator at the RIKEN Nishina Center RI Beam Factory was designed to handle ion beams up to 238U at 345 MeV/nucleon and intensity of 1 particle ?A. A water-cooled stationary beam dump system utilizing screw or swirl tubes as water cooling channels was developed based on detailed thermal simulation. Since March 2007, the system has been successfully operated with the various beams at the RI Beam Factory (RIBF), although the available beam power remains less than one-tenth of the goal. Temperatures of beam spots at the beam dump were measured and compared with the thermal simulations to evaluate the cooling capacity of the systems.

Yoshida, K.; Fukuda, N.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Inabe, N.; Mizoi, Y.; Kubo, T.

2013-12-01

269

The bouillante geothermal power-plant, Guadeloupe  

SciTech Connect

The geothermal exploration work carried out in Guadeloupe until 1977 by EURAFREP revealed the existence of an underground hot water field at a temperature of 240C. Four drillings were made, two of which produced superheated water that flashes to steam, and after several testing programs. Electricite de France (EDF) decided to build a geothermal power station with a net output of 4.2 MWe. This installation is a double flash cycle unit with a condensing turbine and sea water-cooled direct contact condenser equipped with a barometer pipe. The operation of this power-plant will be mainly automatic and the electric output will meet 6% of the Guadeloupe electric power demand at a cost lower than the one obtained with diesel generators.

Jaud, P.; Lamethe, D.

1985-01-01

270

Increasing thermal oxidizer capacity with water cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, as well as state air regulations, require substantial reductions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Industrial facilities affected by these mandated reductions have several options available to comply with the new requirements. These include: process and operational modifications; changes in raw materials; installation of new air

G. N. Alford; J. J. Sudnick

1997-01-01

271

Biofilm formation in water cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilm formation on stainless steel samples immersed in cooling water has been evaluated by exposing metal samples to cooling seawater for 30 days. Anaerobic bacteria were then at 1.6 106\\/cm2, with sulphate-reducing species predominating. Aerobic bacteria and fungi were 2600 and 140\\/cm2, respectively. After 60 days, numbers of aerobic microorganisms remained constant whereas the count of anaerobic microorganisms had

M. T. S. Lutterbach; F. P. Frana

1996-01-01

272

Biofilm formation in water cooling systems.  

PubMed

Biofilm formation on stainless steel samples immersed in cooling water has been evaluated by exposing metal samples to cooling seawater for 30 days. Anaerobic bacteria were then at 1.6 10(6)/cm(2), with sulphate-reducing species predominating. Aerobic bacteria and fungi were 2600 and 140/cm(2), respectively. After 60 days, numbers of aerobic microorganisms remained constant whereas the count of anaerobic microorganisms had increased to 1.810(9)/cm(2). Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of morphologically different microorganisms in deposits and as a mucilaginous net. No signs of corrosion were detected on the stainless steel surface. PMID:24415316

Lutterbach, M T; de Frana, F P

1996-07-01

273

High-power radio-frequency attenuation device  

DOEpatents

A resistor device for attenuating radio frequency power includes a radio frequency conductor connected to a series of fins formed of high relative magnetic permeability material. The fins are dimensional to accommodate the skin depth of the current conduction therethrough, as well as an inner heat conducting portion where current does not travel. Thermal connections for air or water cooling are provided for the inner heat conducting portions of each fin. Also disclosed is a resistor device to selectively alternate unwanted radio frequency energy in a resonant cavity.

Kerns, Q.A.; Miller, H.W.

1981-12-30

274

Completely automated nuclear reactors for long-term operation II: toward a conceptual-level point design of a high-temperature, gas-cooled central power station system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss a new type of nuclear fission power reactor optimized for the generation of heat for use in obviously safe, economic, and long- duration electricity production in large central power stations. These reactors are fundamentally different in design, implementation, and operation from conventional light-water-cooled and- moderated reactors (LWRs) currently in widespread use. they feature a low- average-enrichment initial fuel

E. Teller; M. Ishikawa; L. Wood; R. Hyde; J. Nuckolls

1996-01-01

275

Water-Moderated and -Reflected Slabs of Uranium Oxyfluoride  

SciTech Connect

A series of ten experiments were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiment Facility in December 1955, and January 1956, in an attempt to determine critical conditions for a slab of aqueous uranium oxyfluoride (UO2F2). These experiments were recorded in an Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Logbook and results were published in a journal of the American Nuclear Society, Nuclear Science and Engineering, by J. K. Fox, L. W. Gilley, and J. H. Marable (Reference 1). The purpose of these experiments was to obtain the minimum critical thickness of an effectively infinite slab of UO2F2 solution by extrapolation of experimental data. To do this the slab thickness was varied and critical solution and water-reflector heights were measured using two different fuel solutions. Of the ten conducted experiments eight of the experiments reached critical conditions but the results of only six of the experiments were published in Reference 1. All ten experiments were evaluated from which five critical configurations were judged as acceptable criticality safety benchmarks. The total uncertainty in the acceptable benchmarks is between 0.25 and 0.33 % ?k/keff. UO2F2 fuel is also evaluated in HEU-SOL-THERM-043, HEU-SOL-THERM-011, and HEU-SOL-THERM-012, but these those evaluation reports are for large reflected and unreflected spheres. Aluminum cylinders of UO2F2 are evaluated in HEU-SOL-THERM-050.

Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs; Clinton Gross

2010-09-01

276

Design of Recycle Pressurized Water Reactor with Heavy Water Moderation  

SciTech Connect

This study presents the conceptual design of the recycle pressurized water reactor (RPWR), which is an innovative PWR fueled with mixed oxide, moderated by heavy water, and having breeding ratios around 1.1. Most of the systems of RPWR can employ those of PWRs. The RPWR has no boric acid systems and has a small tritium removal system. The construction and operation costs would be similar to those of current PWRs. Heavy water cost has decreased drastically with up-to-date producing methods. The reliability of the systems of the RPWR is high, and the research and development cost for RPWR is very low because the core design is fundamentally based on the current PWR technology.

Hibi, Koki [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (Japan); Uchita, Masato [Japan Atomic Power Company (Japan)

2004-03-15

277

THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF HIGHLY ENRICHED LIGHT WATER MODERATED CRITICAL ASSEMBLIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments with a series of slab cores composed of highly enriched U\\/; sup 235\\/, Zr, and water surrounded by reflectors of either water or a metal-water ; mixture and their analysis are described. The assemblies are amenable to one-; dimensional analyses employing available cross section information smd diffusion ; theory improved in highly absorbing regions by transport theory. In addition

M. Goldsmith; R. T. Jones; T. M. Ryan; S. Kaplan; A. D. Voorhis

1958-01-01

278

THE NEUTRON SPECTRUM IN LIGHT WATER MODERATED REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some ways in which information may be gained on the influence of the ; molecular binding on the neutron spectrum near the Pu resonances are considered. ; Four possible modes of attack considered are direct measurement of the neutron ; spectrum, fundamental measurements regarding the scattering process, and integral ; experiments. (L.T.W.);

P. W. Mummery; P. A. Egelstaff; J. H. Tait

1953-01-01

279

Light water moderator filled rod for a nuclear reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a neutron moderator filled rod, comprising: an elongated hollow tubular member having opposite ends and a hermetically sealed chamber defined therein between its opposite ends, the chamber being pressurized with an inert gas; and a boron-free moderator in liquid form partially filling the sealed chamber within the tubular member to a predetermined level leaving a vapor space

J. F. Wilson; P. K. Doshi; S. Cerni

1987-01-01

280

New Concepts For High Power ICRF Antennas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents new concepts for Ion Cyclotron Heating antennas based on cascaded sequences of tuned radiating structures. It is shown that, in large arrays, such as the ones proposed for fusion reactors applications, these schemes offer, in principle, a number of desirable features, such as operation at power density significantly higher than currently adopted systems, at equal maximum voltage and array geometry, simple mechanical layout, suitable for water cooling, a compact impedance tuning system, passive decoupling of the array elements, single ended or balanced feed from two power sources. The antenna layout also allows the remote, real time measurement of the complex impedance of the radiating elements and the detection, location, and measurement of the complex admittance of arcs occurring anywhere in the structure, as discussed in [1].

Bosia, G.

2011-12-01

281

Spallator: a new option for nuclear power  

SciTech Connect

The principles of the spallator reactor are reviewed. Advances in linear accelerator technology allow the design and construction of high current (hundreds of mA) continuous wave high energy (thousands of MeV) proton machines in the near term. Spallation neutronic calculations building on existing experimental results, indicate substantial neutron yields on uranium targets. Spallator target assembly designs based on water cooled reactor technology indicate operable efficient systems. Fuel cycles are presented which supply fissile material to thermal power reactors and reduce fission product waste. Preliminary comparative analysis indicates an economically competitive system in which a single purpose self-sufficient spallator supplies fuel to a number of LWRs. The spallator assures a long-term LWR power reactor economy. International interest in advancing the technology is indicated.

Steinberg, M.; Grand, P.; Takahashi, H.; Powell, J.R.; Kouts, H.J.

1983-06-01

282

INTEGRATED SYSTEM TO CONTROL PRIMARY PM 2.5 FROM ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

One of the major tasks of this project is to design and fabricate an Advanced ElectroCore field prototype system. The system is designed to handle 5,000 acfm of exhaust gas from a coal-fired power plant. The system consists of the Advanced ElectroCore module, a water-cooled precharger and a dry scrubber. The system is shown in Figure 1. LSR has completed the design drawings for the ElectroCore module and the water-cooled precharger. The design drawings for the dry scrubber are nearly complete. Merrick Environmental Technology, Inc. has completed most of the fabrication drawings for the ElectroCore module and for the water-cooled precharger. From the original schedule, the design task (Task 2) should have been completed by 15 July 2000. It now looks like this task will be finished by mid-October thereby putting the project about two months behind schedule. Much of the delay is due to design changes that will make this field prototype easier to transport and erect. These changes will make the unit much more valuable as an ElectroCore system sales tool at the end of this project.

Unknown

2000-10-01

283

Advancements in high-power diode laser stacks for defense applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on the latest advancements in vertical high-power diode laser stacks using micro-channel coolers, which deliver the most compact footprint, power scalability and highest power/bar of any diode laser package. We present electro-optical (E-O) data on water-cooled stacks with wavelengths ranging from 7xx nm to 9xx nm and power levels of up to 5.8kW, delivered @ 200W/bar, CW mode, and a power-conversion efficiency of >60%, with both-axis collimation on a bar-to-bar pitch of 1.78mm. Also, presented is E-O data on a compact, conductively cooled, hardsoldered, stack package based on conventional CuW and AlN materials, with bar-to-bar pitch of 1.8mm, delivering average power/bar >15W operating up to 25% duty cycle, 10ms pulses @ 45C. The water-cooled stacks can be used as pump-sources for diode-pumped alkali lasers (DPALs) or for more traditional diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSL). which are power/brightness scaled for directed energy weapons applications and the conductively-cooled stacks as illuminators.

Pandey, Rajiv; Merchen, David; Stapleton, Dean; Patterson, Steve; Kissel, Heiko; Fassbender, Wilhlem; Biesenbach, Jens

2012-05-01

284

A Thermoelectric Generator Using Engine Coolant for Light-Duty Internal Combustion Engine-Powered Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We proposed and fabricated a thermoelectric generator (TEG) using the engine water coolant of passenger vehicles. The experimental results revealed that the maximum output power from the proposed thermoelectric generator was ~75 W, the calculated thermoelectric module efficiency of the TEG was ~2.1%, and the overall efficiency of electric power generation from the waste heat of the engine coolant was ~0.3% in the driving mode at 80 km/h. The conventional radiator can thus be replaced by the proposed TEG without additional devices or redesign of the engine water cooling system of the existing radiator.

Kim, Shiho; Park, Soonseo; Kim, Sunkook; Rhi, Seok-Ho

2011-05-01

285

High-power air-cooled SiC-clad Nd:YVO4 slab lasers.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a diode-pumped, air-cooled, 100 W class SiC-clad Nd:YVO(4) active slab laser based on diffusion bonding of two SiC plates to a thin Nd:YVO(4) slab. We obtained 83 W of cw output power with a slope efficiency of 27% without water cooling. This demonstration initiates a novel (to the best of our knowledge) cooling design for efficient removal of waste heat generated from the diode edge-pumped high-power slab laser at room temperature. PMID:21593914

Zhang, Rui; Niu, Jinfu; Xu, Jianqiu; Xu, Jingzhong

2011-05-15

286

Newly developed high-power laser diode bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Power Laser Diode (LD) modules are widely used as high-brightness light sources for pumping solid-state lasers and for direct diode laser processing utilizing a compact feature. The LD bars installed in modules are required with higher output power, efficiency and beam quality. We have optimized the LD bar structure for high output power and efficient operation. The water-cooled heat sink has been designed for excellent thermal performance as well as long-term stable cooling performance. We have also developed the thermal expansion controlled assembly technique to suppress the "smile". As a result, we have achieved an output power of over 200 W and a conversion efficiency of 58% from 940 nm LD bars under continuous wave (CW) operation with very low smile of 0.8 ?m.

Kageyama, Nobuto; Morita, Takenori; Torii, Kousuke; Takauji, Motoki; Nagakura, Takehito; Maeda, Junya; Miyajima, Hirofumi; Yoshida, Harumasa

2012-02-01

287

The Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) fuel cell evaluation program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) has promoted the development of fuel cells for individual suppliers for installation in buildings having a large heat demand, and for dispersed power sources in re-developed urban areas, utilizing advanced technology associated with phosphoric acid fuel cells. In demonstration testing of two 200 kW water-cooled plants for individual supply, the power generation performance and operating characteristics as a co-generation system are being assessed. Furthermore, construction of an 11 MW fuel cell plant for regional supply was completed. This was followed by the PAC (process and control) test, which led to successfully achieving the plant's rated power output. Although there are some obstacles to be overcome, the present demonstration tests clearly indicate the high potential of fuel cells for full-fledged commercial use. This paper presents an outline of these tests and the interim evaluation results.

Shibata, Kunio

288

10 CFR 50.62 - Requirements for reduction of risk from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...without scram (ATWS) events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. 50...without scram (ATWS) events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. (a...section apply to all commercial light-water-cooled nuclear power plants,...

2014-01-01

289

10 CFR 50.34 - Contents of construction permit and operating license applications; technical information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...design criteria for water-cooled nuclear power plants similar in design and...Applications for light water cooled nuclear power plant operating licenses...Applications for light-water-cooled nuclear power plant construction...

2009-01-01

290

Transient heat pipe investigations for space power systems  

SciTech Connect

A 4-meter long, high temperature, high power, molybdenum-lithium heat pipe has been fabricated and tested in transient and steady state operation at temperatures to 1500 K. Maximum power throughput during the tests was approximately 37 kW/cm/sup 2/ for the 1.4 cm diameter vapor space of the annular wick heat pipe. The evaporator flux density for the tests was 150.0 W/cm/sup 2/ over a length of 40 cm. Condenser length was approximately 3.0 m with radiant heat rejection from the condenser to a coaxial, water cooled radiation calorimeter. A variable radiation shield, controllable from the outside of the vacuum enclosure, was used to vary the load on the heat pipe during the tests. 1 ref., 9 figs.

Merrigan, M.A.; Keddy, E.S.; Sena, J.T.

1985-01-01

291

Flow reversal power limit for the HFBR  

SciTech Connect

The High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) is a pressurized heavy water moderated and cooled research reactor that began operation at 40 MW. The reactor was subsequently upgraded to 60 MW and operated at that level for several years. The reactor undergoes a buoyancy-driven reversal of flow in the reactor core following certain postulated accidents. Questions which were raised about the afterheat removal capability during the flow reversal transition led to a reactor shutdown and subsequent resumption of operation at a reduced power of 30 MW. An experimental and analytical program to address these questions is described in this report. The experiments were single channel flow reversal tests under a range of conditions. The analytical phase involved simulations of the tests to benchmark the physical models and development of a criterion for dryout. The criterion is then used in simulations of reactor accidents to determine a safe operating power level. It is concluded that the limit on the HFBR operating power with respect to the issue of flow reversal is in excess of 60 MW. Direct use of the experimental results and an understanding of the governing phenomenology supports this conclusion.

Cheng, L.Y.; Tichler, P.R.

1997-01-01

292

A Solar Thermophotovoltaic Electric Generator for Remote Power Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have successfully demonstrated that a solar thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system with a SiC graybody emitter and the monolithic interconnected module device technology can be realized. A custom-designed solar cavity was made to house the SiC emitter and the MIM strings for testing in a Stirling dish solar concentrator. Five 1x1-cm MIMs, with a bandgap of 0.74 eV,were mounted on a specially designed water-cooled heatsink and were electrically connected in series to form a string. Two such strings were fabricated and tested, as well as high-performance 2x2-cm MIMs with a bandgap of 0.74 eV. Very high output power density values between 0.82 and 0.90 W/sq cm were observed for an average emitter temperature of 1501 K.

Fatemi, Navid S.

1998-01-01

293

STARFIRE: a commercial tokamak fusion power plant study  

SciTech Connect

STARFIRE is a 1200 MWe central station fusion electric power plant that utilizes a deuterium-tritium fueled tokamak reactor as a heat source. Emphasis has been placed on developing design features which will provide for simpler assembly and maintenance, and improved safety and environmental characteristics. The major features of STARFIRE include a steady-state operating mode based on continuous rf lower-hybrid current drive and auxiliary heating, solid tritium breeder material, pressurized water cooling, limiter/vacuum system for impurity control and exhaust, high tritium burnup and low vulnerable tritium inventories, superconducting EF coils outside the superconducting TF coils, fully remote maintenance, and a low-activation shield. A comprehensive conceptual design has been developed including reactor features, support facilities and a complete balance of plant. A construction schedule and cost estimate are presented, as well as study conclusions and recommendations.

Not Available

1980-09-01

294

A Solar Thermophotovoltaic Electric Generator for Remote Power Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have successfully demonstrated that a solar thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system with a SiC graybody emitter and the monolithic interconnected module device technology can be realized. A custom-designed solar cavity was made to house the SiC emitter and the Monolithic Integrated Module (MIM) strings for testing in a Stirling dish solar concentrator. Five 1x1-cm MIMs, with a bandgap of 0.74 eV, were mounted on a specially designed water-cooled heatsink and were electrically connected in series to form a string. Two such strings were fabricated and tested, as well as high-performance 2x2-cm MIMs with a bandgap of 0.74 eV. Very high output power density values between 0.82 and 0.90 W/ square cm were observed for an average emitter temperature of 1501 K.

Fatemi, Navid S.

1998-01-01

295

A new high current laboratory and pulsed homopolar generator power supply at the University of Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Texas at Austin is constructing a facility for research in pulse power technology for the Center for Electromechanics at the Balcones Research Center. The facility, designed to support high-current experiments, will be powered by six homopolar generators, each rated at 10 MJ and arranged to allow matching the requirements of resistive and inductive loads at various voltage and current combinations. Topics covered include the high bay, the power supply configuration and parameters, the speed and field control, and the magnetic circuit. Also considered are the removable air-cooled brushes, the water-cooled field coils, the hydraulic motor sizing and direct coupling, the low-impedance removable field coils, and the hydrostatic bearing design.

Floyd, J. E.; Aanstoos, T. A.

1984-03-01

296

A millimetre wave high power TWT amplifier - Aspects of design and practical performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design issues considered in developing a 250-W TWTA for use in a 44-GHz military satellite-communication uplink transmitter are reviewed. Topics addressed include the specification of the TWTA output power on the basis of the satellite EIRP requirement and propagation losses; the required gain/frequency response; intermodulation products and phase noise; the relative advantages of GaAs FET amplifiers and InP or GaAs Gunn-diode-reflection amplifiers; delay-line, collector, filament, and ion-pump power-supply configurations; and conduction, forced-air, and water cooling systems. A block diagram of a power supply and graphs of typical TWTA performance data are provided.

Sara, M.

297

Towards a 30kW/liter, Three-Phase Unity Power Factor Rectifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a forced air-cooled, 400kHz, 10kW Vienna Rectifier with a power density of 8.5kW/liter is presented. To further improve the power density, the switching frequency is increased to reduce the EMI filter volume. A design for an 18.5kW/liter, 2.5MHz rectifier is proposed. By using today's technology, it is calculated that the maximum power density for a forced air-cooled and water-cooled rectifier is 20.8kW/liter and 24kW/liter respectively. To achieve 30kW/liter, improvements must be made in passive component material properties, reducing semiconductor losses and improving the cooling system.

Round, Simon; Karutz, Philipp; Heldwein, Marcelo; Kolar, Johann W.

298

NASA Ames Research Center 60 MW Power Supply Modernization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Ames Research Center 60 MW DC Power Supply was built in 1974 to provide controlled DC power for the Thermophysics Facility Arc Jet Laboratory. The Power Supply has gradually losing reliability due to outdated technology and component life limitation. NASA has decided to upgrade the existing rectifier modules with contemporary high-power electronics and control equipment. NASA plans to complete this project in 2001. This project includes a complete replacement of obsolete thyristor stacks in all six rectifier modules and rectifier bridge control system. High power water-cooled thyristors and freewheeling diodes will be used. The rating of each of the six modules will be 4000 A at 5500 V. The control firing angle signal will be sent from the Facility Control System to six modules via fiberoptic cable. The Power Supply control and monitoring system will include a Master PLC in the Facility building and a Slave PLC in each rectifier module. This system will also monitor each thyristor level in each stack and the auxiliary equipment.

Choy, Yuen Ching; Ilinets, Boris V.; Miller, Ted; Nagel, Kirsten (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

299

Robust focusing optics for high-power laser welding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As available power levels from both fiber and disc lasers rapidly increase, so does the need for more robust beam delivery solutions. Traditional transmissive optics for 1 micron lasers have proven to be problematic in the presence of higher power densities and are more susceptible to focal shift. A new, fully-reflective, optical solution has been developed using mirrors rather than lenses and windows to achieve the required stable focal spot, while still protecting the delicate fiber end. This patent-approved beam focusing solution, referred to as high power reflective focusing optic (HPRFO), involves specialty mirrors and a flowing gas orifice that prevents ingress of contaminants into the optically sensitive region of the assembly. These mirrors also provide a unique solution for increasing the distance between the sensitive optics and the contamination-filled region at the work, without sacrificing spot size. Longer focal lengths and lower power densities on large mass, water-cooled, copper mirrors deliver the robustness needed at increasingly high power levels. The HPRFO exhibits excellent beam quality and minimal focal shift at a fraction of commercially available optics, and has demonstrated consistent reliability on applications requiring 15 kW with prolonged beam-on times.

McAllister, Blake

2014-02-01

300

Physical model and experimental results of cathode erosion related to power supply ripple  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the physical effects of power supply ripple on cathode erosion and cathode arc attachment in a water-cooled, 30 kW nitrogen arcjet. Experimental results are presented for 2 percent thoriated tungsten, which show that the long-term cathode erosion rate is a decreasing function of current ripple over the range 1-13 percent. Above this range, the cathode discharge becomes unstable, and the erosion rate rapidly increases. A qualitative model of this effect is given in terms of a magnetically induced radial motion of the arc column, and an overall increase in the cathode spot radius due to the higher peak current associated with higher ripple. The most important effect of power supply ripple is therefore shown to be its ability to collectively drive the cathode attachment away from the cathode center. This leads to an increase in the cathode attachment area, and a subsequent decrease in the cathode erosion rate.

Harris, W. J.; O'Hair, E. A.; Hatfield, L. L.; Kristiansen, M.

1992-01-01

301

Design of a thrust stand for high power electric propulsion devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thrust stand for use with high power electric propulsion devices was designed and tested. The thrust stand was specifically tailored to the needs of a 100 to 250 kW magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster program currently in progress at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The thrust stand structure was built as an inverted pendulum arrangement, supported at the base by water-cooled electrical power flexures. Thrust stand tares due to thruster discharge current were demonstrated to be negligible. Tares due to an applied field magnet current, after considerable effort, were reduced to less than 3.0 percent of measured thrust. These tares, however, could be determined independently and subtracted from the indicated thrust measurement. A detailed description is given for the thrust stand design and operation with a 100 kW class MPD device. Other thrust stand tares due to vibration and thermal effects are discussed, along with issues of accuracy and repeatability.

Haag, Thomas W.

1989-01-01

302

Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the risk of reservoir under-performance, and minimize or eliminate emission of pollutants and consumption of surface and ground water. Power plant concepts were analyzed using resource characteristics at ten different geothermal sites located in the western United States. Concepts were developed into viable power plant processes, capital costs were estimated and levelized busbar costs determined. Thus, the study results should be considered as useful indicators of the commercial viability of the various power plants concepts that were investigated. Broadly, the different power plant concepts that were analyzed in this study fall into the following categories: commercial binary and flash plants, advanced binary plants, advanced flash plants, flash/binary hybrid plants, and fossil/geothed hybrid plants. Commercial binary plants were evaluated using commercial isobutane as a working fluid; both air-cooling and water-cooling were considered. Advanced binary concepts included cycles using synchronous turbine-generators, cycles with metastable expansion, and cycles utilizing mixtures as working fluids. Dual flash steam plants were used as the model for the commercial flash cycle. The following advanced flash concepts were examined: dual flash with rotary separator turbine, dual flash with steam reheater, dual flash with hot water turbine, and subatmospheric flash. Both dual flash and binary cycles were combined with other cycles to develop a number of hybrid cycles: dual flash binary bottoming cycle, dual flash backpressure turbine binary cycle, dual flash gas turbine cycle, and binary gas turbine cycle. Results of this study indicate that dual flash type plants are preferred at resources with temperatures above 400 F. Closed loop (binary type) plants are preferred at resources with temperatures below 400 F. A rotary separator turbine upstream of a dual flash plant can be beneficial at Salton Sea, the hottest resource, or at high temperature resources where there is a significant variance in wellhead pressures from well to well. Full scale demonstration is required to verify cost and performance. Hot water turbines that recover energy from the spent brine in a dual flash cycle improve that cycle's brine efficiency. Prototype field tests of this technology have established its technical feasibility. If natural gas prices remain low, a combustion turbine/binary hybrid is an economic option for the lowest temperature sites. The use of mixed fluids appear to be an attractive low risk option. The synchronous turbine option as prepared by Barber-Nichols is attractive but requires a pilot test to prove cost and performance. Dual flash binary bottoming cycles appear promising provided that scaling of the brine/working fluid exchangers is controllable. Metastable expansion, reheater, Subatmospheric flash, dual flash backpressure turbine, and hot dry rock concepts do not seem to offer any cost advantage over the baseline technologies. If implemented, the next generation geothermal power plant concept may improve brine utilization but is unlikely to reduce the cost of power generation by much more than 10%. Colder resources will benefit more from the development of a next generation geothermal power plant than will hotter resources. All values presented in this study for plant cost and for busbar cost of power are relative numbers intended to allow an objective and meaningful comparison of technologies. The goal of this study is to assess various technologies on an common basis and, secondarily, to give an approximate idea of the current costs of the technologies at actual resource sites. Absolute costs at a given site will be determined by the specifics of a given pr

Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

1995-09-01

303

Klystron Cluster Scheme for ILC High Power RF Distribution  

SciTech Connect

We present a concept for powering the main linacs of the International Linear Collider (ILC) by delivering high power RF from the surface via overmoded, low-loss waveguides at widely spaced intervals. The baseline design employs a two-tunnel layout, with klystrons and modulators evenly distributed along a service tunnel running parallel to the accelerator tunnel. This new idea eliminates the need for the service tunnel. It also brings most of the warm heat load to the surface, dramatically reducing the tunnel water cooling and HVAC requirements. In the envisioned configuration, groups of 70 klystrons and modulators are clustered in surface buildings every 2.5 km. Their outputs are combined into two half-meter diameter circular TE{sub 01} mode evacuated waveguides. These are directed via special bends through a deep shaft and along the tunnel, one upstream and one downstream. Each feeds approximately 1.25 km of linac with power tapped off in 10 MW portions at 38 m intervals. The power is extracted through a novel coaxial tap-off (CTO), after which the local distribution is as it would be from a klystron. The tap-off design is also employed in reverse for the initial combining.

Nantista, Christopher; Adolphsen, Chris; /SLAC

2009-07-06

304

Transient performance investigation of a space power system heat pipe  

SciTech Connect

Start-up, shut-down, and peak power tests have been conducted with a molybdenum-lithium heat pipe at temperatures to 1500 K. The heat pipe was radiation coupled to a water cooled calorimeter for the tests with rf induction heating used for the input to the evaporator region. Maximum power throughput in the tests was 36.8 kw corresponding to a power density of 23 kw/cm/sup 2/ for the 1.4 cm diameter vapor space of the annular wick heat pipe. The corresponding evaporator flux density was approximately 150 w/cm/sup 2/ over an evaporator length of 40 cm at peak power. Condenser length for the tests was approximately 3.0 m. A variable geometry radiation shield was used to vary the load on the heat pipe during the tests. Results of the tests showed that liquid depletion in the evaporator region of the heat pipe could occur in shut-down and prevent restart of the heat pipe. Changes in surface emissivity of the heat pipe condenser surface were shown to affect the shut-down and re-start limits. 12 figs.

Merrigan, M.A.; Keddy, E.S.; Sena, J.T.

1986-01-01

305

Anode arc motion in high power arcjets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The long-term operational lifetime of most medium to high power arcjets is currently limited by the rapid deterioration of the arcjet electrodes. To a large extent, the rate of this deterioration is related to the motion of the arc discharge on the electrode surfaces. This paper details a series of experiments aimed at studying the temporal behavior of dc arcs on a water-cooled radially-segmented 30 kW class arcjet anode. The experimental anode used for these tests was made of copper, and was divided into four equivalent radial segments which were electrically isolated with aluminum oxide gaskets. The current carried by each segment was measured independently using four calibrated resistive shunts, and was analyzed by digital computer. The tests were limited to nitrogen propellant over a current range of 100-250 A dc. Results show that for the range of total currents considered here, the current distribution in the segmented arcjet anode is generally asymmetric, exhibiting random fluctuations over a wide range of frequencies.

Harris, W. J.; O'Hair, E. A.; Hatfield, L. L.; Kristiansen, M.; Mankins, J. S.

1992-01-01

306

Water-cooled insulated steam-injection wells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water is used as insulated coolant and heat-transfer medium for steam-injection oil wells. Approach is somewhat analogous to cooling system in liquid-propellant rocket. In addition to trapping and delivering heat to steam-injection point, water will also keep casing cooler, preventing or reducing casing failures caused by thermal stresses.

Back, L. H.; Jaffe, L. D.

1980-01-01

307

Rotary combustor barrel with water-cooled baffles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combustion barrel in a rotary combustor used for burning solid material is described. The rotary combustor is connected to heat exchanging equipment. The combustion barrel comprises: a generally cylindrical side wall rotatable about a central axis of rotation and having an input end and an exit end, baffle pipes, attached to the interior of the generally cylindrical side wall,

Jurusz

1988-01-01

308

Rotation and penetrative convection in water cooled from below}  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has already been suggested that the outer core of the Earth might not be entirely in a convective regime [1], for instance in a region close to the CMB where the heat conducted along the adiabat could be larger than the net heat transfer and where compositional buoyancy vanishes. Radial dependence of thermal conductivity could also produce neighbouring stable and unstable regions. To what extent does convection spread into the stable region is then an important issue. Liquid water and its maximum density at 4C provides a convenient way to observe penetrative convection. We have performed experiments where a volume of water (of square cross-section 16 cm by 16 cm and height 20 cm) initially at room temperature (around 22C) is then suddenly cooled around 0C at the bottom while the sides and top walls are (imperfectly) thermally insulated. Near the bottom, where temperature is below 4C, unstable buoyancy conditions prevail and we observe convective cells. Above 4C, quiescent stable stratification is observed. Temperature is close to 4C within the bulk of the convective zone, so that the flux of heat extracted from the bottom is used to change the temperature from 22C to 4C within the successive layers of water, while the height of the convective zone increases and eventually reaches the top of the volume. Temperatures have been measured on a array of 15 PT100 probes protruding 5 mm into water along a vertical side wall. the extreme probes are 1 cm away from the lower and upper boundaries respectively. The evolution of all 15 temperatures can be seen on left-hand side of Fig. 1. Another type of information was obtained from a synthetic schlieren technique, whereby pictures of a random pattern placed behind the transparent water-filled box (perspex walls) are taken every 5 s with a digital camera. The cross-correlation of the different images provides a dynamical visualization of the gradients of refraction index within the volume of water. A snapshot is displayed on the right-hand side of Fig. 1. In a second step, we will analyze the influence of rotation on the configuration described above. The experiments will be performed in October and the results will be available for discussion during the AGU fall meeting. When transposed to the conditions of the Earth's outer core, we expect to be able to assess how stable and unstable regions can exist next to each other. [1] Braginsky, S.I., Phys. Earth Planet. Int., vol. 111, 21--34, 1999; Temperatures on the left, time derivative of index horizontal gradient on the right

Alboussiere, T.; Labrosse, S.; Dubuffet, F.; Thibon, F.; Huguet, L.; Deguen, R.

2012-12-01

309

Condensate polishers for brackish water-cooled PWRs  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of project RP 1571-5 ''Optimization of Pressurized Water Reactor Secondary Water Treatment: Task 4 Conceptual Design Options - Condensate Polishing'' were to provide detailed guidelines for the design of a condensate polishing system for retrofitting to a seawater cooled PWR. For this purpose a national 1100MW PWR with recirculating steam generators was defined. The polished water to be produced by this plant must be of such a quality so as to permit the advisory SGOG guidelines on impurity levels in Steam Generator water to be achieved. Target maximum impurity levels in the final polished water were proposed by the RP 1571 Project review Team and adopted for this study.

Sadler, M.A.; Darvill, M.R.; Bickerstaffe, J.A.; Chakravorti, R.; Siegwarth, D.P.

1986-07-01

310

PRECIPITATION-HARDENING STAINLESS STEELS IN WATER-COOLED REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study is made of the stress corrosion susceptibiity of unirradiated ; precipitation-hardening stainless steels. This study is made because of the ; failures encouatered with these materials in the Dresden and Vallecltos boiling ; water reactors. Service experience, static steam autoclave tests, and dynamic ; water and steam corrosion loop tests have demonstrated that 17-4 PH in the high-;

M. C. Rowland; W. R. Sr. Smith

1962-01-01

311

Titanium design permits once-through sea-water cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Titanium tubes in shell-and-tube heat exchangers using once-through sea-water as the cooling fluid offer significant advantages in terms of reduced weight and occupied space when designing production facilities for offshore platforms. Additional advantages include minimal maintenance requirements and operating costs. Offshore oil and gas production is costly and complex. In any given location, optimization of the cost of a production

1986-01-01

312

Preliminary test results for the small community solar power system  

SciTech Connect

A single power module of the Small Community Solar Power System has been undergoing solar testing at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Parabolic Dish Test Site at Edwards AFB, California beginning in February of this year. The purpose of this phase of the testing is to determine overall behavior of the system and also to characterize the dynamic response of thermal, mechanical and electronic components of the system. The module consists of a regenerative, air-cooled 20 kW /SUB e/ organic Rankine cycle (ORC) engine/generator unit and a coupled cavity receiver, all mounted at the focus of the JPL 11m diameter Test Bed Concentrator. Typical module power output is 16.2 kW /SUB e/ at 948 W/m/sup 2/ direct normal insolation, corresponding to an overall module efficiency--from sun to electricity--of 19.5%. Despite wind gusts up to 13-14 m/s (30 mph), receiver efficiency measures out on the order of 95 to 96%. Of specific interest is system dynamic response, shown in reaction to sequential opening and closing of a water-cooled plate in front of the receiver as well as naturally occurring cloud transients. These data show the control system to be completely stable.

Pons, R.L.; Boda, F.P.

1982-01-01

313

On monitoring nuclear power plant emergency diesel generator reliability  

SciTech Connect

If offsite power is interrupted, the availability of onsite alternating current power supplies is a major factor in assuring acceptable safety at commercial light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. To control the risk of severe care damage during station blackout accidents at a given plant, the reliability of the emergency diesel generators (EDGS) to start and load-run upon demand must be maintained at a sufficiently high level. The minimum EDG reliability, which we denote by RT, is targeted at either 0.95 or 0.975 per nuclear unit consistent with the reliability level that the plant operator assumed in the coping analysis for station blackout. In 1992 the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) considered an amendment that would require licensees to test and monitor EDG reliability against performance-based criteria that indicate possible degradation from the EDG target reliability levels. They originally proposed the following set of fixed sample-size triggers for use in monitoring EDG reliability. The purpose of this report is to compare the performance of the proposed triggers with corresponding alternative sequential variable sample-size triggers which potentially permit earlier detection of EDG reliability degradation without significantly increasing the false alarm rate. The comparison is to be done in a simulated use environment by means of Monte Carlo simulation. We are also interested in the inverse conditional probabilities of reliability degradation given that a trigger has occurred.

Martz, H.F.; Tietjen, G.L.; Kvam, P.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Abramson, L.R. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

1993-08-11

314

An experimental study of energy loss mechanisms and efficiency consideration in the low power dc arcjet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential utility of the low power dc arcjet in auxiliary propulsion was investigated. It was indicated that improvements in the areas of stability, energy efficiency, reliability, and electrode erosion are necessary to obtain a useful device. A water-cooled arcjet simulator was tested to investigate both the energy loss mechanisms at the electrodes and the stability of different conventional arcjet configurations in the presence of a vortex flow field. It is shown that in certain configurations only 25 to 30% of the input energy is lost to the electrodes. It is also shown that vortex stabilization is not difficult to obtain in many cases at the flow rates used and that a careful starting procedure is effective in minimizing electrode damage.

Curran, F. M.

1985-01-01

315

An experimental study of energy loss mechanisms and efficiency considerations in the low power dc arcjet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential utility of the low power dc arcjet in auxiliary propulsion was investigated. It was indicated that improvements in the areas of stability, energy efficiency, reliability, and electrode erosion are necessary to obtain a useful device. A water-cooled arcjet simulator was tested to investigate both the energy loss mechanisms at the electrodes and the stability of different conventional arcjet configurations in the presence of a vortex flow field. It is shown that in certain configurations only 25 to 30 percent of the input energy is lost to the electrodes. It is also shown that vortex stabilization is not difficult to obtain in many cases at the flow rates used and that a careful starting procedure is effective in minimizing electrode damage.

Curran, F. M.

1985-01-01

316

Terbium gallium garnet ceramic Faraday rotator for high-power laser application.  

PubMed

A terbium gallium garnet (TGG) ceramic Faraday rotator (FR) with an isolation ratio of 33 dB was demonstrated at a laser radiation power of 257 W. This FR can be equipped with a large optical aperture by using ceramics technology to prevent laser damage at high-energy pulse operation. The thermal lens of a 257 W laser with a beam diameter of 2.6 mm had a focal length of 9.5 m, which is easily corrected using a spherical lens to suppress the undesirable effects of thermal lensing. The rotation angle of the FR was stabilized by water cooling. The results indicate that the TGG-ceramic-based FR is suitable for high-energy laser systems with high repetition rates. PMID:24690692

Yasuhara, Ryo; Snetkov, Ilya; Starobor, Alexey; Zheleznov, Dmitry; Palashov, Oleg; Khazanov, Efim; Nozawa, Hoshiteru; Yanagitani, Takagimi

2014-03-01

317

Naval Power.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

All too often, the terms naval power and sea power are used interchangeably. But naval power, properly understood, refers to a direct and indirect source of military power at sea. Obviously, the main components of a naval power are the navy, coast guard, ...

M. N. Vego

2008-01-01

318

Power transmission with power electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most power electronics applications have, until now, been aimed at enabling a more efficient utilisation of electricity at the point of use, for example in motor drives. However, power electronics is now playing an increasingly important role in the transmission of power. There are two main uses for power electronics in power transmission: in HVDC transmission, and to enhance AC

Colin C Davidson

2011-01-01

319

EOIL power scaling in a 1-5 kW supersonic discharge-flow reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scaling of EOIL systems to higher powers requires extension of electric discharge powers into the kW range and beyond with high efficiency and singlet oxygen yield. We have previously demonstrated a high-power microwave discharge approach capable of generating singlet oxygen yields of ~25% at ~50 torr pressure and 1 kW power. This paper describes the implementation of this method in a supersonic flow reactor designed for systematic investigations of the scaling of gain and lasing with power and flow conditions. The 2450 MHz microwave discharge, 1 to 5 kW, is confined near the flow axis by a swirl flow. The discharge effluent, containing active species including O II(a1? g, b1? g +), O( 3P), and O 3, passes through a 2-D flow duct equipped with a supersonic nozzle and cavity. I2 is injected upstream of the supersonic nozzle. The apparatus is water-cooled, and is modular to permit a variety of inlet, nozzle, and optical configurations. A comprehensive suite of optical emission and absorption diagnostics is used to monitor the absolute concentrations of O II(a), O II(b), O( 3P), O 3, I II, I(2P 3/2), I(2P 1/2), small-signal gain, and temperature in both the subsonic and supersonic flow streams. We discuss initial measurements of singlet oxygen and I* excitation kinetics at 1 kW power.

Davis, Steven J.; Lee, Seonkyung; Oakes, David B.; Haney, Julie; Magill, John C.; Paulsen, Dwane A.; Cataldi, Paul; Galbally-Kinney, Kristin L.; Vu, Danthu; Polex, Jan; Kessler, William J.; Rawlins, Wilson T.

2008-02-01

320

Pressure control system to improve power plant efficiency  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A system for improving the efficiency of a modem power plant for generating electricity with a water-cooled shell and tube steam condenser with an air removal system is disclosed. An air removal system typically includes an air offtake pipe and a two-stage liquid ring vacuum pump. The operating pressure of this type of air removal system under steady state operation attains equilibrium by itself and cannot be changed. This invention adds a pressure control system to lower the operating pressure at the inlet of the vacuum pump of the air removal system so that an optimum minimum pressure is attained to reduce air inventory inside the condenser. This enhances heat transfer and improves power plant efficiency. The pressure control system contains a pressure control device (e.g. miniature condenser), a chiller, and a pump with variable speed. These components are connected in a loop that circulates cold water. Part of the steam in the steam-air mixture from the condenser is condensed while passing through the pressure control device. The pressure control system adjusts the condensation rate in the pressure control device to yield the optimum minimum pressure. The condensation rate is changed by adjusting either the flow rate or the temperature of water leaving the chiller and flowing to the pressure control device, or by adjusting both.

2000-10-10

321

Human Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students do work by lifting a known mass over a period of time. The mass and measured distance and time is used to calculate force, work, energy and power in metric units. The students' power is then compared to horse power and the power required to light 60-watt light bulbs.

Office Of Educational Partnerships

322

Powering Smallsburg  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students act as power engineers by specifying the power plants to build for a community. They are given a budget, an expected power demand from the community, and different power plant options with corresponding environmental effects. They can work through this scenario as a class or on their own.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

323

Medium power arcjet thruster experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental results on the electrothermal behavior and operating performance of water-cooled laboratory model arcjet thrusters using a variety of propellants in the range of 5-50 kW are reported. The highest voltage and specific impulse are attained with hydrogen propellant and the lowest with argon propellant; intermediate results are obtained with nitrogen and a mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen. The highest cathode erosion rate is measured with argon while the lowest is associated with hydrogen.

Glocker, Bernd; Auweter-Kurtz, Monika; Goelz, Thomas M.; Kurtz, Helmut L.; Schrade, Herbert O.

1990-01-01

324

Laser excitation power and the flow cytometric resolution of complex karyotypes.  

PubMed

The analytical resolution of individual chromosome peaks in the flow karyotype of cell lines is dependent on sample preparation and the detection sensitivity of the flow cytometer. We have investigated the effect of laser power on the resolution of chromosome peaks in cell lines with complex karyotypes. Chromosomes were prepared from a human gastric cancer cell line and a cell line from a patient with an abnormal phenotype using a modified polyamine isolation buffer. The stained chromosome suspensions were analyzed on a MoFlo sorter (Beckman Coulter) equipped with two water-cooled lasers (Coherent). A bivariate flow karyotype was obtained from each of the cell lines at various laser power settings and compared to a karyotype generated using laser power settings of 300 mW. The best separation of chromosome peaks was obtained with laser powers of 300 mW. This study demonstrates the requirement for high-laser powers for the accurate detection and purification of chromosomes, particularly from complex karyotypes, using a conventional flow cytometer. PMID:20506467

Ng, Bee L; Carter, Nigel P

2010-06-01

325

Evaluation of light-water-moderated, mixed-oxide, hexagonal pitch lattices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of previously measured mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel systems as benchmarks can be valuable tool in computational analysis and quality assurance efforts. The Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) has identified these experiments as potential benchmarks, or standards, for VVER`s employing MOX fuel. Standards for the analysis of these benchmark experiments were based on those used in the recent compilation International

1997-01-01

326

THERMAL NEUTRON SPECTRAL AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTIONS IN LIGHT WATER MODERATED URANIUM LATTICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal disadvantage factors for cylindrical U rods in hexagonal ; lattices were measured by activation techniques. Monte Carlo calculated factors ; obtained for these arrays with the Nelkin kernel were 4.3% lower than those ; obtained with the Radkowsky (free proton) kernel for a wide range of HO: U ; volume ratios. For an 8:1 ratio, the measured value

J. Jr. Hardy; J. J. Volpe; D. Klein; E. Schmidt; E. Gelbard

1963-01-01

327

Measurement of Neutron Characteristics of a Cavity Assembly with an Outer Light Water Moderator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The neutron spatial distribution in the volume of a model of a gaseous cavity reactor was measured. Some integral characteristics of the neutron energy spectrum were determined. The comparison of the calculate europium spectrum index by the P sub 3 -appro...

D. Y. Chuvilin

1975-01-01

328

THE A.W.R.E. 5 MW LIGHT WATER MODERATED RESEARCH REACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary function of the 5-Mw light water mederated reactor at AWRE, ; Aldermaston, is to provide intense neutron beams for physics research and small ; sample irradiation facilities for radiochemical studies. Fuel elements are ; similar to those used for the Merlin reactor but the U²³⁵ content was ; increased from 10 to 11.5 gm per plate. The layout

F. J. Barclay; J. J. McEnhill; M. C. J. Todd

1959-01-01

329

THE EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF FAST FISSION FACTORS IN LIGHT WATER MODERATED, SLIGHTLY ENRICHED URANIUM ROD LATTICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ratio, delta , of the fission rate in U²³⁸ to that in ; U²³⁵ was determined for various slightly enriched hexagonal miniature ; uranium rod lattices in light water. The experimental values of delta ; and epsilon are given for 1.0, 1.15, and 1.3 per cent fuel enrichments, 1, 1.5, ; 2, 3, and 4 water-touranium volume ratios

E ERDIK

1961-01-01

330

In-pile collimator and shutter for neutron beam research at a light water moderated reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construction of an in-pile collimator\\/shutter system for neutron beam research on a reactor is described. A series of vertically rotatable cylinders, fitted inside the existing beam tube, gives an optimum beam cross-section in the opened position and a very good shielding effect in the closed position.

W. Bhrer; V. Herrnberger; B. Hollenstein; M. Koch; A. Rede

1985-01-01

331

Fission Surface Power Systems (FSPS) Project Final Report for the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP): Fission Surface Power, Transition Face to Face  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Fission Surface Power Systems Project became part of the ETDP on October 1, 2008. Its goal was to demonstrate fission power system technology readiness in an operationally relevant environment, while providing data on fission system characteristics pertinent to the use of a fission power system on planetary surfaces. During fiscal years 08 to 10, the FSPS project activities were dominated by hardware demonstrations of component technologies, to verify their readiness for inclusion in the fission surface power system. These Pathfinders demonstrated multi-kWe Stirling power conversion operating with heat delivered via liquid metal NaK, composite Ti/H2O heat pipe radiator panel operations at 400 K input water temperature, no-moving-part electromagnetic liquid metal pump operation with NaK at flight-like temperatures, and subscale performance of an electric resistance reactor simulator capable of reproducing characteristics of a nuclear reactor for the purpose of system-level testing, and a longer list of component technologies included in the attached report. Based on the successful conclusion of Pathfinder testing, work began in 2010 on design and development of the Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU), a full-scale 1/4 power system-level non-nuclear assembly of a reactor simulator, power conversion, heat rejection, instrumentation and controls, and power management and distribution. The TDU will be developed and fabricated during fiscal years 11 and 12, culminating in initial testing with water cooling replacing the heat rejection system in 2012, and complete testing of the full TDU by the end of 2014. Due to its importance for Mars exploration, potential applicability to missions preceding Mars missions, and readiness for an early system-level demonstration, the Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration program is currently planning to continue the project as the Fission Power Systems project, including emphasis on the TDU completion and testing.

Palac, Donald T.

2011-01-01

332

Space Power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Appropriate directions for the applied research and technology programs that will develop space power systems for U.S. future space missions beyond 1995 are explored. Spacecraft power supplies; space stations, space power reactors, solar arrays, thermoelectric generators, energy storage, and communication satellites are among the topics discussed.

1984-01-01

333

From the first nuclear power plant to fourth-generation nuclear power installations [on the 60th anniversary of the World's First nuclear power plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful commissioning in the 1954 of the World's First nuclear power plant constructed at the Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Obninsk signaled a turn from military programs to peaceful utilization of atomic energy. Up to the decommissioning of this plant, the AM reactor served as one of the main reactor bases on which neutron-physical investigations and investigations in solid state physics were carried out, fuel rods and electricity generating channels were tested, and isotope products were bred. The plant served as a center for training Soviet and foreign specialists on nuclear power plants, the personnel of the Lenin nuclear-powered icebreaker, and others. The IPPE development history is linked with the names of I.V. Kurchatov, A.I. Leipunskii, D.I. Blokhintsev, A.P. Aleksandrov, and E.P. Slavskii. More than 120 projects of various nuclear power installations were developed under the scientific leadership of the IPPE for submarine, terrestrial, and space applications, including two water-cooled power units at the Beloyarsk NPP in Ural, the Bilibino nuclear cogeneration station in Chukotka, crawler-mounted transportable TES-3 power station, the BN-350 reactor in Kazakhstan, and the BN-600 power unit at the Beloyarsk NPP. Owing to efforts taken on implementing the program for developing fast-neutron reactors, Russia occupied leading positions around the world in this field. All this time, IPPE specialists worked on elaborating the principles of energy supertechnologies of the 21st century. New large experimental installations have been put in operation, including the nuclear-laser setup B, the EGP-15 accelerator, the large physical setup BFS, the high-pressure setup SVD-2; scientific, engineering, and technological schools have been established in the field of high- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics, electrostatic accelerators of multicharge ions, plasma processes in thermionic converters and nuclear-pumped lasers, physics of compact nuclear reactors and radiation protection, thermal physics, physical chemistry and technology of liquid metal coolants, and physics of radiation-induced defects, and radiation materials science. The activity of the institute is aimed at solving matters concerned with technological development of large-scale nuclear power engineering on the basis of a closed nuclear fuel cycle with the use of fast-neutron reactors (referred to henceforth as fast reactors), development of innovative nuclear and conventional technologies, and extension of their application fields.

Rachkov, V. I.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Kukharchuk, O. F.; Orlov, Yu. I.; Sorokin, A. P.

2014-05-01

334

Palm Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Military equipment often requires significant amounts of electrical power, and it is important for power supplies to be portable and to have large capacities. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency realizes this need for efficient power sources, so it is investigating alternatives to conventional batteries. High energy fuels are the primary focus of the Palm Power project. This Web site discusses the details and goals of the project in introductory sections. More specific information can be found in the Briefings section, which has a collection of presentations on different aspects of Palm Power research.

Browning, Valerie.

335

High power bremsstrahlung X-ray source for radiation processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high power X-ray irradiation facility designed for the sterilization of medical appliances is described. The X-ray source consists of the 5 MeV, 300 kW Cockcroft Walton type of electron accelerator and the water cooled tantalum target. Conditions necessary for designing the X-ray target are conversion efficiency from electron beam to X-ray, thermal conductivity, readiness for machining and cost of the material. The conversion efficiency was determined through the Monte Carlo type calculation and obtained as 10.8 % for 3.667 g/cm 2 thickness (1 csda range) of tantalum target. In order to obtain the data on the source design, experiments have been carried out at the JAERI TAKASAKI 2 MeV, 60 kW Cockcroft-Walton type of electron accelerator equipped with a tantalum target. The size of package and the speed of conveyor was determined through the calculation of the absorbed dose distribution in the irradiated medium and the utilization efficiency.

Yotsumoto, K.; Sunaga, H.; Tanaka, S.; Kanazawa, T.; Agematsu, T.; Tanaka, R.; Yoshida, K.; Taniguchi, S.; Sakamoto, I.; Tamura, N.

336

Spallator: a new option for nuclear power  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles of the spallator reactor are reviewed. Advances in linear accelerator technology allow the design and construction of high current (hundreds of mA) continuous wave high energy (thousands of MeV) proton machines in the near term. Spallation neutronic calculations building on existing experimental results, indicate substantial neutron yields on uranium targets. Spallator target assembly designs based on water cooled

M. Steinberg; P. Grand; H. Takahashi; J. R. Powell; H. J. Kouts

1983-01-01

337

Preliminary demonstration of power beaming with non-coherent laser diode arrays  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary demonstration of free-space electric power transmission has been conducted using non-coherent laser diode arrays as the transmitter and standard silicon photovoltaic cell arrays as the receiver. The transmitter assembly used a high-power-density array of infrared laser diode bars, water cooled via integrated microchannel heat sinks and focused by cylindrical microlenses. The diode array composite beam was refocused by a parabolic mirror over a 10 meter path, and received on a {approximately}15 x 25 cm panel of thinned single crystal high efficiency silicon solar cells. The maximum cell output obtained was several watts, and the cell output was used to drive a small motor. Due to operating constraints and unexpected effects, particularly the high nonuniformity of the output beam, both the distance and total received power in this demonstration were modest. However, the existing transmitter is capable of supplying several hundred watts of light output, with a projected received electric power in excess of 200 watts. The source radiance is approximately 5 x 10{sup 9} W/m{sup 2}-steradian. With the existing 20 cm aperture, useful power transmission over ranges to {approximately}100 meters should be achievable with a DC to DC efficiency of greater than 10%. Non-coherent sources of this type are readily scalable to powers of tens of kilowatts, and with larger apertures can be used directly for power transmission up to several kilometers. Future non-coherent diode laser sources may be suitable for power transmission over hundreds of kilometers. Also, the experience gained with non-coherent arrays will be directly applicable to power beaming systems using coherent diode arrays or other array-type laser sources.

Kare, J T; Militsky, F; Weisberg, A

1999-02-26

338

Preliminary demonstration of power beaming with non-coherent laser diode arrays  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary demonstration of free-space electric power transmission has been conducted using non-coherent laser diode arrays as the transmitter and standard silicon photovoltaic cell arrays as the receiver. The transmitter assembly used a high-power-density array of infrared laser diode bars, water cooled via integrated microchannel heat sinks and focused by cylindrical microlenses. The diode array composite beam was refocused by a parabolic mirror over a 10 meter path, and received on a {approximately}15{times}25&hthinsp;cm panel of thin film high efficiency silicon solar cells. The maximum cell output obtained was several watts, and the cell output was used to drive a small motor. Due to operating constraints and unexpected effects, particularly the high nonuniformity of the output beam, both the distance and total received power in this demonstration were modest. However, the existing transmitter is capable of supplying several hundred watts of light output, with a projected received electric power in excess of 200 watts. The source radiance is approximately 5{times}10{sup 9}&hthinsp;W/m{sup 2}-steradian. With the existing 20 cm aperture, useful power transmission over ranges to {approximately}100 meters should be achievable with a DC to DC efficiency of greater than 10{percent}. Non-coherent sources of this type are readily scalable to powers of tens of kilowatts, and with larger apertures can be used directly for power transmission up to several kilometers. Future non-coherent diode laser sources may be suitable for power transmission over hundreds of kilometers. Also, the experience gained with non-coherent arrays will be directly applicable to power beaming systems using coherent diode arrays or other array-type laser sources. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Kare, J.T. [Kare Technical Consulting, 222 Canyon Lakes Pl., San Ramon, California 94583 (United States); Mitlitsky, F.; Weisberg, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, L-174, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

1999-01-01

339

Preliminary demonstration of power beaming with non-coherent laser diode arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A preliminary demonstration of free-space electric power transmission has been conducted using non-coherent laser diode arrays as the transmitter and standard silicon photovoltaic cell arrays as the receiver. The transmitter assembly used a high-power-density array of infrared laser diode bars, water cooled via integrated microchannel heat sinks and focused by cylindrical microlenses. The diode array composite beam was refocused by a parabolic mirror over a 10 meter path, and received on a ~1525 cm panel of thin film high efficiency silicon solar cells. The maximum cell output obtained was several watts, and the cell output was used to drive a small motor. Due to operating constraints and unexpected effects, particularly the high nonuniformity of the output beam, both the distance and total received power in this demonstration were modest. However, the existing transmitter is capable of supplying several hundred watts of light output, with a projected received electric power in excess of 200 watts. The source radiance is approximately 5109 W/m2-steradian. With the existing 20 cm aperture, useful power transmission over ranges to ~100 meters should be achievable with a DC to DC efficiency of greater than 10%. Non-coherent sources of this type are readily scalable to powers of tens of kilowatts, and with larger apertures can be used directly for power transmission up to several kilometers. Future non-coherent diode laser sources may be suitable for power transmission over hundreds of kilometers. Also, the experience gained with non-coherent arrays will be directly applicable to power beaming systems using coherent diode arrays or other array-type laser sources.

Kare, Jordin T.; Mitlitsky, Fred; Weisberg, Andrew

1999-01-01

340

Design and operating experience of a 40 MW, highly-stabilized power supply  

SciTech Connect

Four 10 MW, highly-stabilized power supply modules have been installed at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, FL, to energize water-cooled, resistive, high-field research magnets. The power supply modules achieve a long term current stability if 10 ppM over a 12 h period with a short term ripple and noise variation of <10 ppM over a time period of one cycle. The power supply modules can operate independently, feeding four separate magnets, or two, three or four modules can operate in parallel. Each power supply module consists of a 12.5 kV vacuum circuit breaker, two three-winding, step-down transformers, a 24-pulse rectifier with interphase reactors, and a passive and an active filter. Two different transformer tap settings allow rated dc supply output voltages of 400 and 500 V. The rated current of a supply module is 17 kA and each supply module has a one-hour overload capability of 20 kA. The isolated output terminals of each power supply module are connected to a reversing switch. An extensive high-current bus system allows the modules to be connected to 16 magnet cells. This paper presents the detailed design of the power supply components. Various test results taken during the commissioning phase with a 10 MW resistive load and results taken with the research magnets are shown. The effects of the modules on the electrical supply system and the operational behavior of the power factor correction/harmonic filters are described. Included also are results of a power supply module feeding a superconducting magnet during quench propagation tests. Problems with the power supply design and solutions are presented. Some suggestions on how to improve the performance of these supplies are outlined.

Boenig, H.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ferner, J.A. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Nationa High Magnetic Field Laboratory; Bogdan, F.; Morris, G.C. [ABB Industrial Systems, New Berlin, WI (United States); Rumrill, R.S. [Alpha Scientific Electronics Inc., Hayward, CA (United States)

1995-07-01

341

10 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Numerical Guides for Design Objectives and Limiting Conditions for Operation To Meet the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Achievableâ for Radioactive Material in Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactor Effluents...for Radioactive Material in Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactor Effluents...Guides on design objectives for light-water-cooled nuclear power reactors...

2014-01-01

342

77 FR 60481 - Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Post-Accident...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Engineered-Safety-Feature Atmosphere Cleanup Systems in Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY...Engineered-Safety-Feature Atmosphere Cleanup Systems in Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants...engineered-safety-feature (ESF) atmosphere cleanup systems in light-water-cooled nuclear power...

2012-10-03

343

Component development for 500 watt diesel fueled portable thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) and JX Crystals have developed an innovative design for a compact, 500-watt, thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power supply using diesel fuel. Under a contract with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and managed by the U.S. Army Communications-Electronics Command (CECOM), this design is being reduced to hardware. Prototypes of the two main subsystems, the power converter assembly (PCA) and the burner/emitter/recuperator (BER), have been designed, fabricated, and tested. The PCA uses low-band-gap gallium antimonide (GaSb) photovoltaic (PV) cells for high efficiency and power density. The prototype PCA will be air cooled for system simplicity and portability. However, initial testing was performed on a water-cooled PCA. The BER uses a thermal vaporizer to produce a stable, high-intensity, low-emissions combustion zone inside an impervious emitter. A thermally integrated recuperator is utilized to boost system efficiency by transferring the unused energy in the exhaust stream to the incoming fuel and combustion air. This paper describes the design, testing and performance of the first-generation PCA and BER along with model predictions used for design and evaluation.

Debellis, Crispin L.; Scotto, Mark V.; Fraas, Lewis; Samaras, John; Watson, Ron C.; Scoles, Stephen W.

1999-03-01

344

Nuclear power  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is stated that apart from inevitable waste heat, nuclear power ; stations discharge significant amounts of low-level radioactivity which are ; dangerous, though how dangerous is controversial. It is further stated that ; there are two still more important disadvantages of nuclear power: the danger of ; reactor accidents, which are grent enough to dissuade those experts in risk

1973-01-01

345

Powerful Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interactions are the daily exchanges in words and gestures one has with others. As a teacher, the interactions he/she has with young children can make a positive difference in their lives. A teacher's powerful interactions with children play an important role in their emotional well-being and learning. Powerful interactions are not the same as

Dombro, Amy Laura; Jablon, Judy R.; Stetson, Charlotte

2011-01-01

346

Power Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability for a device to locomote freely on a surface requires the ability to deliver power in a way that does not restrain the device's motion. This paper presents a MEMS actuator that operates free of any physically restraining tethers. We show how a capacitive coupling can be used to deliver power to untethered MEMS devices, independently of the

Bruce R. Donald; Christopher G. Levey; Craig D. McGray; Daniela Rus; Mike Sinclair

347

Power Source  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Principals are powerful: They are the primary catalysts for creating a lasting foundation for learning, driving school and student performance, and shaping the long-term impact of school improvement efforts. Yet few principals would characterize themselves as powerful. Rather, they're self-effacing, adaptable, pragmatic, and quick to share credit

Schooley, Michael L.

2010-01-01

348

Power Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Power Teaching weaves four factors into a seamless whole: standards, teaching thinking, research based strategies, and critical inquiry. As a prototype in its first year of development with an urban fifth grade class, the power teaching model connects selected district standards, thinking routines from Harvard University Project Zero Research

Fluellen, Jerry E., Jr.

2007-01-01

349

Tidal power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews the physics of tidal power, considering the gravitational effects of the Moon and Sun; semidiurnal, diurnal, and mixed tides; and major periodic components that affect the tidal range. Shelving, funneling, reflection, and resonance phenomena that have a significant effect on tidal range are also discussed. Basic parameters that govern the design of tidal power schemes in terms of mean

T. J. Hammons

1993-01-01

350

Proceedings of the 1996 international joint power generation conference. Volume 3: Nuclear -- Trends in power production; Nuclear power plant operation; Nuclear fuel utilization, storage, and disposal; NE-Volume 20  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume is divided into two sections: plant raw water cooling systems challenges and plant engineering support strategies in the competitive environment. Separate abstracts were prepared for nine papers in this volume.

Laudenat

1996-01-01

351

Power system  

DOEpatents

A power system includes a prime mover, a transmission, and a fluid coupler having a selectively engageable lockup clutch. The fluid coupler may be drivingly connected between the prime mover and the transmission. Additionally, the power system may include a motor/generator drivingly connected to at least one of the prime mover and the transmission. The power-system may also include power-system controls configured to execute a control method. The control method may include selecting one of a plurality of modes of operation of the power system. Additionally, the control method may include controlling the operating state of the lockup clutch dependent upon the mode of operation selected. The control method may also include controlling the operating state of the motor/generator dependent upon the mode of operation selected.

Hickam, Christopher Dale (Glasford, IL)

2008-03-18

352

Steam generator tube failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a

P. E. MacDonald; V. N. Shah; L. W. Ward; P. G. Ellison

1996-01-01

353

Sensitivity analysis for AHWR fuel cluster parameters using different WIMS libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is presently engaged in the design of an advanced heavy water reactor (AHWR) which utilises thorium as fuel. The AHWR is a boiling light water cooled heavy water moderated reactor where the heat is removed through natural convection. Dysprosium is used as burnable absorber to get a reduction in void reactivity. The design needs to be well validated. The

Arvind Kumar; Umashankari Kannan; R. Srivenkatesan

2002-01-01

354

Power law or power flaw?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its introduction by Svensson in 1959, the power law curve y = axb (where x and y are horizontal and vertical direction, respectively) has been widely used in morphological analysis of glacial trough cross-profiles. The numerical constants a and b are obtained by a linear regression analysis of the logarithmic form of the power law curve (ln y =

Frank Pattyn; Wim van Huele

1998-01-01

355

High power continuous wave microwave system at 3.7 GHz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) system is an important system in superconducting steady state tokamak (SST-1). It is used to drive and maintain the plasma current for 1000 s with a duty cycle of 17%. The LHCD system is being designed to launch 1 MW of radio frequency (rf) power at 3.7 GHz. The rf source is comprised of two high power klystron amplifiers, each capable of delivering 500 kW rf power. In this article, the results obtained during installation and commissioning of these klystrons are presented. Two klystrons (model TH2103D) have been successfully installed and commissioned on dummy loads, delivering ~200 kW power for more than 1000 s. The maximum output power that could be obtained is limited due to the available direct current (dc) power supply. The test system is comprised of a TH2103D klystron, a low power rf (3.7 GHz/25 W) source, two high power four port circulators, two high power dual directional couplers, two arc detector systems, and two dummy water loads. To avoid rf breakdown in the rf components of the transmission line, the system has been pressurized with dry air to 3 bar. To energize and operate the klystron, a high voltage dc power supply, a magnet power supply, an ion pump power supply, a -65 kV floating anode modulator power supply, and a filament power supply are used. An arc detector unit has been installed to detect and initiate action within a few microseconds to protect the klystron, waveguides, and other rf passive components during arcing. To protect the klystron in the event of an arc, a fast responding (<10 ?s), rail gap based pressurized crowbar unit has been used. The entire system is water cooled to avoid excess temperature rise during high power continuous wave operation of the klystron and other rf components. The tube requires initial conditioning. Thereafter, the output rf power is studied as a function of beam parameters such as cathode voltage and beam current.

Bora, D.; Dani, S.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Jadav, B.; Jha, M.; Kadia, B. R.; Khilar, P. L.; Kulkarni, S. V.; Kushwah, M.; Patel, A. P.; Parmar, K. G.; Parmar, K. M.; Parmar, P.; Rajnish, K.; Raghuraj, S.; Rao, S. L.; Samanta, K. K.; Sathyanarayana, K.; Shah, P.; Sharma, P. K.; Srinivas, Y. S. S.; Trivedi, R. G.; Verghese, G.

2001-03-01

356

Fusion Power.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the extraordinary potential, the technical difficulties, and the financial problems that are associated with research and development of fusion power plants as a major source of energy. (GA)

Dingee, David A.

1979-01-01

357

Power Factor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that âprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Power Factor, is the eleventh chapter in Volume II âAlternating Current. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: True, Reactive, and Apparent power; Calculating power factor, and Practical power factor correction. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-10

358

Magnetocaloric Power.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The work treats the subject of power produced by cycling a ferromagnetic material thermally through a range of temperatures such that its magnetization changes appreciably and of utilizing the change of magnetization and its interaction with a magnetic fi...

E. L. Resler, R. E. Rosensweig

1964-01-01

359

Fluid Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hydraulics and pneumatics are both forms of fluid power, a common means of driving and controlling mechanical motions. It is one of the three kinds of power, with the other two being mechanical and electrical. Fluid power systems are widely used in most machinery, such as automobiles and construction equipment.The National Fluid Power Association (1) has an excellent introduction to the topic, which includes a general overview and descriptions of over 20 practical applications. It also looks at the current state of fluid power technology and how it has progressed in recent years. For a more detailed discussion of fluid power principles and how hydraulic and pneumatic devices operate, Integrated Publishing (2) offers twelve chapters of material, complete with diagrams. Fluid Power Web (3) is a comprehensive source of information about components, vendors, and software. Ideas and Applications is an especially interesting section, as it periodically gives a new article about clever, innovative ways of using fluid power systems. Every two months, the Fluid Power Society (4) publishes a journal with a few articles about industry news and trends. Three specialized issues are offered each year, and there is an archive with issues that date back to 1998. A complete hydraulics system is broken down into its constituent parts and explained at this Web site (5). The author uses many drawings and animations to illustrate the physical processes involved in hydraulics. The Institute of Hydraulics and Automation (6), located at the University of Tampere in Finland, has a very active research program with many focus areas. Telerobotics, mobile hydraulics, cavitation, and virtual testing are all investigated at the institute, and project descriptions in each of these areas are given on the site. The Division of Fluid Power Technology (7) at a Swedish university has developed a digital simulation tool for fluid power system design. Called HOPSAN, the software can be freely downloaded from the Web site to run on the Windows operating system (a Fortran compiler is required for Windows 95 and newer). Students at Purdue University (8) have recently built "what is thought to be the first vehicle that uses water in all of its hydraulic systems." This article highlights the students' achievement and considers the rationale behind this original design.

Leske, Cavin.

2002-01-01

360

Power Supply  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maxwell Laboratories capacitor charging power supply is the first commercial spinoff from the NASA CCDS program - a consortia of industries and government establishments to accelerate development of ground and space based commercial applications of NASA technology. The power supply transforms and conditions large voltages to charge capacitors used in x-ray sources, medical accelerators, etc. It is lighter, more reliable, more compact and efficient. Originally developed for space lasers, its commercial potential was soon recognized.

1991-01-01

361

Hydroelectric Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hydroelectric Power: USGS Science for Schools explains how electrical power is generated from a dam. A clear illustration labels the parts of a generator, from the stator to the turbine blades. A motion diagram shows the movement of water through the process for easy understanding. Visitors will also find links to a number of related topics, such as water use, from the USGS Science for Schools sites.

2008-05-07

362

A study of cathode erosion in high power arcjets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cathode erosion continues to be one of the predominant technology concerns for high power arcjets. This study will show that cathode erosion in these devices is significantly affected by several mitigating factors, including propellant composition, propellant flowrate, current level, cathode material, and power supply current ripple. In a series of 50-hour and 100-hour long duration experiments, using a water-cooled 30 kilowatt laboratory arcjet, variations in the steady-state cathode erosion rate were characterized for each of these factors using nitrogen propellant at a fixed arc current of 250 Amperes. A complementary series of measurements was made using hydrogen propellant at an arc current of 100 Amperes. The cold cathode erosion rate was also differentiated from the steady-state cathode erosion rate in a series of multi-start cathode erosion experiments. Results of these measurements are presented, along with an analysis of the significant effects of current ripple on arcjet cathode erosion. As part of this study, over a dozen refractory cathode materials were evaluated to measure their resistance to arcjet cathode erosion. Among the materials tested were W-ThO2(1%, 2%, 4%), poly and mono-crystalline W, W-LaB6, W-La2O3, W-BaO2, W-BaCaAl2O4, W-Y2O3, and ZrB2. Based on these measurements, several critical material properties were identified, such work function, density, porosity, melting point, and evaporation rate. While the majority of the materials failed to outperform traditional W-ThO2, these experimental results are used to develop a parametric model of the arcjet cathode physics. The results of this model, and the results of a finite-element thermal analysis of the arcjet cathode, are presented to better explain the relative performance of the materials tested.

Harris, William Jackson, III

363

Development and extended operation of a high power radiation loaded heat pipe  

SciTech Connect

A high temperature, high power molybdenum-lithium heat pipe has been fabricated and tested at 1500 K for 1700 hours with radiant heat rejection. Power throughput during the test was approximately 14 kW, corresponding to an axial flux density of 11 kW/cm/sup 2/ for the 1.59 cm diameter heat pipe. Radial flux density was 70 W/cm/sup 2/ over an evaporator length of 40.0 cm. Condenser length was approximately 150 cm with radiant heat rejection from the condenser to a coaxial water cooled radiation calorimeter. A plasma sprayed, high emissivity coating was used on the condenser surface to increase the radiant heat rejection during the tests. The heat pipe was operated for 514 hours at steady state conditions before being damaged during a planned shutdown for test equipment maintenance. The damage was repaired and the initial 1000 hour test period completed without further incident. After physical examination of the heat pipe at 1000 hours the test was resumed and the heat pipe operated at the same conditions for an additional 700 hours before conclusion of this test phase.

Merrigan, M.A.; Keddy, E.S.; Runyan, J.R.; Martinez, H.E.

1984-06-01

364

A 2-Megawatt load for testing high voltage dc power supplies  

SciTech Connect

A high power water-cooled resistive load, capable of dissipating 2 Megawatts at 95 kilovolts is being designed and built. The load utilizes wirewound resistor elements suspended inside insulating tubing contained within a pressure vessel which is supplied a continuous flow of deionized water for coolant. A sub-system of the load is composed of non-inductive resistor elements in an oil tank. Power tests conducted on various resistor types indicate that dissipation levels as high as 22 times the rated dissipation in air can be achieved when the resistors are placed in a turbulent water flow of at least 15 gallons per minute. Using this data, the load w.as designed using 100 resistor elements in a series arrangement A single-wall 316 stainless steel pressure vessel with flanged torispherical heads is built to contain the resistor assembly and deionized water. The resistors are suspended within G-11 tubing which span the cylindrical length of the vessel. These tubes are supported by G-10 baffles which also increase convection from the tubes by promoting turbulence within the surrounding water.

Horan, D.; Kustom, R.; Ferguson, M.; Primdahl, K.

1993-06-01

365

Narrow-line, tunable, high-power diode laser pump for DPAL applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a high-power diode laser pump source for diode-pumped alkali lasers (DPAL), specifically rubidium alkali vapor lasers at 780nm, delivering up to 100W/bar with FWHM spectral line width of 0.06nm (~30GHz). This pump is based on a micro-channel water-cooled stack with collimation in both-axes. Wavelength-locking of the output spectrum allows absorption in one of the very narrow resonance lines of the atomic rubidium alkali vapor. To achieve these results, research was conducted to deliver the highest performance on all key components of the product from the diode laser bar which produces the optical power at 780nm to the external Bragg gratings which narrow the spectrum line width. We highlight the advancements in the epitaxy, device design, beam collimation, grating selection, alignment, tunability and thermal control that enable realization of this novel pump-source for DPALs. Design trade-offs will be presented.

Pandey, Rajiv; Merchen, David; Stapleton, Dean; Irwin, David; Humble, Chuck; Patterson, Steve; Kissel, Heiko; Biesenbach, Jens

2013-05-01

366

Power inverters  

DOEpatents

Power inverters include a frame and a power module. The frame has a sidewall including an opening and defining a fluid passageway. The power module is coupled to the frame over the opening and includes a substrate, die, and an encasement. The substrate includes a first side, a second side, a center, an outer periphery, and an outer edge, and the first side of the substrate comprises a first outer layer including a metal material. The die are positioned in the substrate center and are coupled to the substrate first side. The encasement is molded over the outer periphery on the substrate first side, the substrate second side, and the substrate outer edge and around the die. The encasement, coupled to the substrate, forms a seal with the metal material. The second side of the substrate is positioned to directly contact a fluid flowing through the fluid passageway.

Miller, David H. (Redondo Beach, CA); Korich, Mark D. (Chino Hills, CA); Smith, Gregory S. (Woodland Hills, CA)

2011-11-15

367

Power transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a power transmission. It comprises: in combination, a master gear having at least one annular tooth set, means for drivingly engaging the master gear with a power source, driven shaft, a yoke member attached to the shaft and including a screw pump housing extending radially with respect to the shaft with a pair of ports in spaced relation, a pump screw rotatable in the housing and a pump gear attached to the screw and engaging the annular tooth set, and a casing for transmission fluid. The pump housing being located for immersion in the fluid.

Yale, O.S.

1989-12-12

368

Nuclear Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An introduction to nuclear fission, its controlled release in power stations, problems of nuclear waste, and nuclear accidents. A linked web page discusses nuclear weapons, their effect, their ban, and "dirty bombs". This material supplements a previous section on fission in the Sun and the curve of binding energy in "From Stargazers to Starships". A French translation also exists.

Stern, David

2004-11-28

369

Power Struggle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

California's "power struggle" will probably not be replicated in the other 23 states that have deregulated electricity, but costs are rising everywhere. The Environmental Protection Agency/Department of Energy's new Energy Star online rating system should help school officials measure their buildings' efficiency and remove barriers to improvement.

Cook, Glenn

2001-01-01

370

POWER SEWING.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ALTHOUGH THE PRIMARY PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY GUIDE IS TO PROVIDE A TEXT IN POWER SEWING FOR DEAF PUPILS, IT CAN ALSO BE USED FOR STUDENTS WITH READING OR LEARNING DIFFICULTIES. DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTOR WITH FACULTY HELP, THE TEXT FOLLOWS A COURSE OF STUDY APPROVED BY THE BOARD OF EDUCATION AND HAS BEEN TESTED IN VARIOUS CLASSROOMS. UNITS ARE --

HILLINGER, YVONNE M.

371

Stigma power.  

PubMed

When people have an interest in keeping other people down, in or away, stigma is a resource that allows them to obtain ends they desire. We call this resource "stigma power" and use the term to refer to instances in which stigma processes achieve the aims of stigmatizers with respect to the exploitation, control or exclusion of others. We draw on Bourdieu (1987, 1990) who notes that power is often most effectively deployed when it is hidden or "misrecognized." To explore the utility of the stigma-power concept we examine ways in which the goals of stigmatizers are achieved but hidden in the stigma coping efforts of people with mental illnesses. We developed new self-report measures and administered them to a sample of individuals who have experienced mental illness to test whether results are consistent with the possibility that, in response to negative societal conceptions, the attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of people with psychosis lead them to be concerned with staying in, propelled to stay away and induced to feel downwardly placed - precisely the outcomes stigmatizers might desire. Our introduction of the stigma-power concept carries the possibility of seeing stigmatizing circumstances in a new light. PMID:24507908

Link, Bruce G; Phelan, Jo

2014-02-01

372

Power sprouts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explains how a large number of sprouts were used as a battery of cells and connected together to power a set of LED Christmas lights. All relevant calculations to find the number of sprouts needed, their arrangement in series and parallel, the charge stored on the required capacitor and the capacitor charging time are illustrated.

French, M. M. J.

2014-05-01

373

Power converter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dc-to-dc converter employs four transistor switches in a bridge to chop dc power from a source, and a voltage multiplying diode rectifying ladder network to rectify and filter the chopped dc power for delivery to a load. The bridge switches are cross coupled in order for diagonally opposite pairs to turn on and off together using RC networks for the cross coupling to achieve the mode of operation of a free running multivibrator, and the diode rectifying ladder is configured to operate in a push-pull mode driven from opposite sides of the multivibrator outputs of the ridge switches. The four transistor switches provide a square-wave output voltage which as a peak-to-peak amplitude that is twice the input dc voltage, and is thus useful as a dc-to-ac inverter.

Black, J. M. (inventor)

1981-01-01

374

Paddle Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this design challenge, learners build a boat that paddles itself using a rubber band as its power source. Learners follow the design process to make a boat out of cups, design and build working paddles, use rubber bands to store and release energy, and figure out ways to attach their paddles to their boats. This is a great activity for lessons on engineering and potential/kinetic energy.

Wgbh

2010-01-01

375

Hydroelectric Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

USGS Science for Schools explains how electrical power is generated from a dam. A clear illustration labels the parts of a generator, from the stator to the turbine blades. A motion diagram shows the movement of water through the process for easy understanding. Visitors will also find links to a number of related topics, such as water use, from the USGS Science for Schools sites.

2008-05-07

376

Power saw  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A power saw is disclosed for space or robotic operations with jaw members for clamping to a work piece by an operation of a lever arm. The saw assembly is slidably mounted on the jaw assembly and fed into the work piece by a hand operated feed screw. The saw assembly includes a motor and gear belt. A current sensing circuit provides a current signal which actuates colored lights to visually depict the load on the saw blade during the cutting operations.

Bradley, Jimmy D. (inventor)

1991-01-01

377

Star Power!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this extensive activity students estimate the energy output of the Sun by doing a simple experiment and discover how much energy sunlight provides to Earth and the role of the Sun in the Earth System. Students also evaluate the power of sunlight closer to the Sun, at the distance of Mercury, since the activity was developed in support of the NASA Mercury Messenger program.

Program, Nasa D.; Laboratory., Carnegie I.

378

Power Calculations  

Cancer.gov

This program has been assembled through the combined efforts of the Biometry Branch (DCP) and Information Management Services, Inc. The program computes sample size or power for user specified null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis parameter values for a variety of experimental designs. The user is asked to select the appropriate experimental design from a menu of available options. After an option is selected, the user can specify parameter variations associated with that option only.

379

Tidal power  

SciTech Connect

The paper reviews the physics of tidal power considering gravitational effects of moon and sun; semidiurnal, diurnal, and mixed tides; and major periodic components that affect the tidal range. Shelving, funneling, reflection, and resonance phenomena that have a significant effect on tidal range are also discussed. The paper then examines tidal energy resource for principal developments estimated from parametric modeling in Europe and worldwide. Basic parameters that govern the design of tidal power schemes in terms of mean tidal range and surface area of the enclosed basin are identified. While energy extracted is proportional to the tidal amplitude squared, requisite sluicing are is proportional to the square root of the tidal amplitude. Sites with large tidal amplitudes are therefore best suited for tidal power developments, whereas sites with low tidal amplitudes have sluicing that may be prohibitive. It is shown that 48% of the European tidal resource is in the United Kingdom, 42% in France and 8% in Ireland, other countries having negligible potential. Worldwide tidal resource is identified. Tidal barrage design and construction using caissons is examined, as are alternative operating modes (single-action generation, outflow generation, flood generation, two-way generation, twin basin generation, pumping, etc), development trends and possibilities, generation cost at the barrage boundary, sensitivity to discount rates, general economics, and markets. Environmental effects, and institutional constraints to the development of tidal barrage schemes are also discussed.

Hammons, T.J. (Glasgow Univ., Scotland (United Kingdom))

1993-03-01

380

Proceedings of the 2006 international congress on advances in nuclear power plants - ICAPP'06  

SciTech Connect

Following the highly successful ICAPP'05 meeting held in Seoul Korea, the 2006 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants brought together international experts of the nuclear industry involved in the operation, development, building, regulation and research related to Nuclear Power Plants. The program covers the full spectrum of Nuclear Power Plant issues from design, deployment and construction of plants to research and development of future designs and advanced systems. The program covers lessons learned from power, research and demonstration reactors from over 50 years of experience with operation and maintenance, structures, materials, technical specifications, human factors, system design and reliability. The program by technical track deals with: - 1. Water-Cooled Reactor Programs and Issues Evolutionary designs, innovative, passive, light and heavy water cooled reactors; issues related to meeting medium term utility needs; design and regulatory issues; business, political and economic challenges; infrastructure limitations and improved construction techniques including modularization. - 2. High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors Design and development issues, components and materials, safety, reliability, economics, demonstration plants and environmental issues, fuel design and reliability, power conversion technology, hydrogen production and other industrial uses; advanced thermal and fast reactors. - 3. Long Term Reactor Programs and Strategies Reactor technology with enhanced fuel cycle features for improved resource utilization, waste characteristics, and power conversion capabilities. Potential reactor designs with longer development times such as, super critical water reactors, liquid metal reactors, gaseous and liquid fuel reactors, Gen IV, INPRO, EUR and other programs. - 4. Operation, Performance and Reliability Management Training, O and M costs, life cycle management, risk based maintenance, operational experiences, performance and reliability improvements, outage optimization, human factors, plant staffing, outage reduction features, major component reliability, repair and replacement, in-service inspection, and codes and standards. - 5. Plant Safety Assessment and Regulatory Issues Transient and accident performance including LOCA and non-LOCA, severe accident analysis, impact of risk informed changes, accident management, assessment and management of aging, degradation and damage, life extension lessons from plant operations, probabilistic safety assessment, plant safety analysis, reliability engineering, operating and future plants. - 6. Thermal Hydraulic Analysis and Testing Phenomena identification and ranking, computer code scaling applicability and uncertainty, containment thermal hydraulics, component and integral system tests, improved code development and qualification, single and two phase flow; advanced computational thermal hydraulic methods. - 7. Core and Fuel Cycle Concepts and Experiments Core physics, advances in computational reactor analysis, in-core fuel management, mixed-oxide fuel, thorium fuel cycle, low moderation cores, high conversion reactor designs, particle and pebble bed fuel design, testing and reliability; fuel cycle waste minimization, recycle, storage and disposal. - 8. Materials and Structural Issues Fuel, core, RPV and internals structures, advanced materials issues and fracture mechanics, concrete and steel containments, space structures, analysis, design and monitoring for seismic, dynamic and extreme accidents; irradiation issues and materials for new plants. - 9. Nuclear Energy and Sustainability including Hydrogen, Desalination and Other Applications Environmental impact of nuclear and alternative systems, spent fuel dispositions and transmutation systems, fully integrated fuel cycle and symbiotic nuclear power systems, application of advanced designs to non-power applications such as the production of hydrogen, sea water desalination, heating and other co-generation applications. - 10. Near Term Issues (New) Applies to plants that have a significa

NONE

2006-07-01

381

Power Play  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online game, learners build complicated machines to complete simple tasks. The game starts with a power source on one side of the screen and the task on the other side. Learners select machine parts to link together and complete the task. The machine parts follow simple physics rules. When learners set up a free account at Kinetic City, they can answer bonus questions at the end of the activity as a quick assessment. As a larger assessment, learners can complete the Bug Blaster game after they've completed several activities.

Science, American A.

2009-01-01

382

Free electron laser with small period wiggler and sheet electron beam: A study of the feasibility of operation at 300 GHz with 1 MW CW output power  

SciTech Connect

The use of a small period wiggler (/ell//sub ..omega../ < 1 cm) together with a sheet electron beam has been proposed as a low cost source of power for electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in magnetic fusion plasmas. Other potential applications include space-based radar systems. We have experimentally demonstrated stable propagation of a sheet beam (18 A. 1 mm /times/ 20 mm) through a ten-period wiggler electromagnet with peak field of 1.2 kG. Calculation of microwave wall heating and pressurized water cooling have also been carried out, and indicate the feasibility of operating a near-millimeter, sheet beam FEL with an output power of 1 MW CW (corresponding to power density into the walls of 2 kW/cm/sup 2/). Based on these encouraging results, a proof-of-principle experiment is being assembled, and is aimed at demonstrating FEL operating at 120 GHz with 300 kW output power in 1 ..mu..s pulses: electron energy would be 410 keV. Preliminary design of a 300 GHz 1 MW FEL with an untapered wiggler is also presented. 10 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Booske, J.H.; Granatstein, V.L.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Destler, W.W.; Finn, J.; Latham, P.E.; Levush, B.; Mayergoyz, I.D.; Radack, D.; Rodgers, J.

1988-01-01

383

Design of micro-channel heat sink with diamond heat spreader for high power LD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new design of water cooled heat sink with micro-channels and diamond heat spreader for high power diode laser (LD) is presented. The design mainly discusses heat sink made of pure copper plates with micro-channels of three sizes (75 ?m, 150 ?m and 300 ?m). And the design is simulated with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Numerical Heat Transfer (NHT) methods, the influences of the size, numbers of the cooling channels and the flow rate of the cooling water to the temperature and the flow resistance characteristics of the heat sink are investigated. In general, decreasing of characteristic size, or, increasing of channel numbers, or, increasing of the flow rate of the cooling water can reduce thermal resistance of heat sink; meanwhile increase the pressure drop significantly. The performance with a diamond heat spreader is numerical calculated for all three sizes of micro-channels as well. The results indicate that the diamond heat spreader can play an important role on decreasing the maximum temperature of the heat sink. The whole thermal resistance of heat sink can be reduced 10 % to 20 % with a 100 ?m thickness diamond heat spreader compared with a heat sink without it.

Liu, Gang; Wang, Wentao; Liu, Lei; Liang, Xingbo; Wang, Chao; Chen, Sanbin; Liu, Yang; Tang, Xiaojun

2012-10-01

384

Power management system  

DOEpatents

A method of managing power resources for an electrical system of a vehicle may include identifying enabled power sources from among a plurality of power sources in electrical communication with the electrical system and calculating a threshold power value for the enabled power sources. A total power load placed on the electrical system by one or more power consumers may be measured. If the total power load exceeds the threshold power value, then a determination may be made as to whether one or more additional power sources is available from among the plurality of power sources. At least one of the one or more additional power sources may be enabled, if available.

Algrain, Marcelo C. (Peoria, IL); Johnson, Kris W. (Washington, IL); Akasam, Sivaprasad (Peoria, IL); Hoff, Brian D. (East Peoria, IL)

2007-10-02

385

Power oscillator  

DOEpatents

An oscillator includes an amplifier having an input and an output, and an impedance transformation network connected between the input of the amplifier and the output of the amplifier, wherein the impedance transformation network is configured to provide suitable positive feedback from the output of the amplifier to the input of the amplifier to initiate and sustain an oscillating condition, and wherein the impedance transformation network is configured to protect the input of the amplifier from a destructive feedback signal. One example of the oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to match the driving frequency of the oscillator to a plurality of tuning states of the lamp.

Gitsevich, Aleksandr (Montgomery Village, MD)

2001-01-01

386

Radarsat power plan  

NSF Publications Database

... active photovoltaic power, wind power, fuel cells and a hybrid power system. Photovoltaic Cells (PV ... installation of a power line from the station grid to the site, the installation of a boresight ...

387

Power systems and power plant control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Proceedings consists of the 6 plenary papers and 65 of the contributed papers which were presented at the IFAC Symposium on Power Systems and Power Plant Control, held in Beijing, China on August 12-15, 1986. The control of power systems and of power plants is a subject of worldwide interest which continues to sustain a high level of research,

Pingyang

1987-01-01

388

Power Sources for Ultra Low Power Electronics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

DARPA asked JASON to examine the issue of power sources for low power electronics with a specific emphasis on the properties of nuclear batteries and integrated power sources combining power and electronics. During the 1998 Summer Study a workshop was hel...

R. Westervelt

2000-01-01

389

Power transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an electrohydraulic servo system which includes, in combination, a pressure compensated flow control servo valve for proportionally variably feeding hydraulic fluid to a load at a flow rate which is a predetermined proportional function of an electronic valve control signal, a variable output pump for coupling to a source of motive power to feed hydraulic fluid under pressure from a source to the servo valve, pump control means for controlling output of the pump, and an electronic servo control coupled to the valve and including means for receiving a first signal indicative of motion desired at the load, means for receiving a second signal indicative of actuation motion at the load and means for generating the valve control signal to the valve as a function of a difference between the first and second signals. The valve control signal is indicative of fluid flow velocity at the valve required to obtain the desired motion at the load, characterized in that the pump control means comprises: means for receiving the valve control signal, means for providing a signal indicative of fluid flow rate at the valve as the predetermined function of the valve control signal, and means for providing an output control signal to the pump as a function of the flow-indicative signal.

Gunda, R.; McCarty, M.R.; Rode, M.A.

1988-05-03

390

Electric power trends  

SciTech Connect

This book provides information about the forces shaping the electric power industry. It provides data on trends in the electric power industry, such as: electric utility ownership; sources of energy; industrial electricity demand; manufacturing energy for heat and power; fossil fuels consumed in electric power generation; electric power transmission; nuclear power plant generators; and residential energy consumption.

Not Available

1989-01-01

391

An efficient analytical form for the period-reactivity relation of beryllium and heavy-water moderated reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new mathematical form of the period-reactivity equation for heavy-water- and beryllium-moderated reactors has been developed. This form is represented in a polynomial form with a degree of G+1 for G-th group of delayed neutrons and photoneutrons. A general formula for the coefficients of such polynomial is derived. These coefficients have a linear dependence on the step reactivity insertion. The

Ahmed Ebrahim Aboanber

2003-01-01

392

PROGRAM FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF PLUTONIUM RECYCLE FOR USE IN LIGHT WATER MODERATED REACTORS. Quarterly Report No. 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Program fuel element was completed and assembled. Before the ; element was inserted in the Vallecitos Boiling Water Reactor, preliminary ; analyses were made on the unclad fuel pellets supplied by Hanford. Due to a high ; disparity in the Pu\\/U ratio, the scheduled insertion of the fuel was postponed ; until after more detailed studies of the composition

1962-01-01

393

Reactivity effect of borated stainless steel plates in light-water-moderated UO[sub 2] cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

To store spent fuels effectively in a pond, high-density storage systems using neutron-absorbing materials are considered for light water reactor sites. Few criticality experiments are reported on neutron absorption of Boral plates, borated stainless steel plates, and cadmium plates. The reactivity properties of fixed neutron absorbers depend on the neutron spectrum of the volumetric ratio of water to fuel in

Yoshinori Miyoshi; Ken Nakajima; Iwao Kobayashi; S. Aoki; I. Deguchi

1992-01-01

394

Development of a simple neutron irradiation facility with variable average energy using a light water moderated 241 Am Be source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy spectra of a 37 TBq (1.0 Ci) 241AmBe neutron source, immersed in cylindrical water filled polyethylene jars of different radii were unfolded using multiple Bonner spheres. The use of this facility for the calibration exposure of LiF thermoluminescence dosimeters and neutron monitors with fast neutrons of various average energies has been suggested.

Bhaskar Mukherjee

1995-01-01

395

Comparison of thermal neutron activation measurements and Monte Carlo calculations in light-water moderated uranium cells (LWBR Development Program)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal disadvantage factors and spectral indices have been measured in a variety of lattices. One series contained slightly enriched uranium rods in hexagonal geometry; another used natural uranium fuel in slab geometry. Both types employed water as the moderator. The detectors used were ¹⁶⁴Dy, ¹⁷⁶Lu, and ²³⁹Pu. Full energy range (0 to 10 MeV) Monte Carlo calculations with explicit cell

J. J. Volpe; J. Jr. Hardy; D. Klein

1970-01-01

396

Proceedings of the 2004 international congress on advances in nuclear power plants - ICAPP'04  

SciTech Connect

The 2004 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP'04) provides a forum for the industry to exchange the latest ideas and research findings on nuclear plants from all perspectives. This conference builds on the success of last year's meeting held in Cordoba, Spain, and on the 2002 inaugural meeting held in Hollywood, Florida. Because of the hard work of many volunteers from around the world, ICAPP'04 has been successful in achieving its goal. More than 325 invited and contributed papers/presentations are part of this ICAPP. There are 5 invited plenary sessions and 70 technical sessions with contributed papers. The ICAPP'04 Proceedings contain almost 275 papers prepared by authors from 25 countries covering topics related to advances in nuclear power plant technology. The program by technical track deals with: 1 - Water-Cooled Reactor Programs and Issues (Status of All New Water-Cooled Reactor Programs; Advanced PWRs: Developmental Stage I; Advanced PWRs: Developmental Stage II; Advanced PWRs: Basic Design Stage; Advanced BWRs; Economics, Regulation, Licensing, and Construction; AP1000); 2 - High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (Pebble Bed Modular Reactors; Very High Temperature Reactors; HTR Fuels and Materials; Innovative HTRs and Fuel Cycles); 3 - Long Term Reactor Programs and Strategies (Supercritical Pressure Water Reactors; Lead-Alloy Fast Reactors; Sodium and Gas Fast Reactors; Status of Advanced Reactor Programs; Non-classical Reactor Concepts); 4 - Operation, Performance, and Reliability Management (Information Technology Effect on Plant Operation; Operation, Maintenance and Reliability; Improving Performance and Reducing O and M Costs; Plant Modernization and Retrofits); 5 - Plant Safety Assessment and Regulatory Issues (LOCA and non-LOCA Analysis Methodologies; LOCA and non-LOCA Plant Analyses; In-Vessel Retention; Containment Performance and Hydrogen Control; Advances in Severe Accident Analysis; Advances in Severe Accident Management; Ex-Vessel Debris Coolability and Steam Explosion: Theory and Modeling; Ex-Vessel Debris Coolability and Steam Explosion: Experiments and Supporting Analysis; PRA and Risk-informed Decision Making: Methodology; PRA and Risk-informed Decision Making: Advances in Practice; Use of CFD in Plant Safety Assessment and Related Regulatory Issues; Development and Application of Severe Accident Analysis Code); 6 - Thermal Hydraulic Analysis and Testing (Advances in Two-Phase Flow and Heat Transfer; Advances in CHF and Rod Bundle Thermal Hydraulics; CFD Applications to Water, Liquid Metal, and Gas Reactors; Separate Effects Thermal Hydraulic Experiments and Analysis; Integral Systems Thermal Hydraulic Experiments; Benchmark Analysis and Assessment; Natural Circulation Thermal Hydraulics; Thermal Striping and Thermal Stratification Studies); 7 - Core and Fuel Cycle Concepts and Experiments (Innovations in Core Designs; Advances in Core Design Methodology and Experimental Benchmarking; Advanced Fuel Cycles, Recycling, and Actinide Transmutation; Out of Core Fuel Cycle Issues); 8 - Material and Structural Issues (Structural and Materials Modeling and Analysis; Testing and Analysis of Structures and Materials; Advanced Issues in Welding and Materials; Fuel Design and Irradiation Issues for Next Generation Plants; Materials' Issues for Next Generation Plants); 9 - Nuclear Energy and Sustainability Including Hydrogen, Desalination, and Other Applications (Nuclear Energy Sustainability and Desalination; Nuclear Energy Application - Hydrogen); 10 - Space Power and Propulsion (Space Nuclear Power and Propulsion Systems; Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Concepts; Test and Design Methods; Instrumentation for Space Nuclear Reactors; Materials for Space Reactor Concepts)

NONE

2004-07-01

397

Power electronics for low power arcjets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In anticipation of the needs of future light-weight low-power spacecraft, arcjet power electronics in the 100- to 400-W operating range were developed. Power topologies similar to those in the higher 2-kW and 5- to 30-kW power range were implemented, including a four-transistor bridge-switching circuit, current-mode pulse-width modulated control, and an output current averaging inductor with an integral pulse generation winding. Reduction of switching transients was accomplished using a low inductance power distribution network, and no passive snubber circuits were necessary for power switch protection. Phase shift control of the power bridge was accomplished using an improved pulse width modulation to phase shift converter circuit. These features, along with conservative magnetics designs, allowed power conversion efficiencies of greater than 92.5 percent to be achieved into resistive loads over the entire operating range of the converter.

Hamley, John A.; Hill, Gerald M.

1991-01-01

398

Solar Powered Multipurpose Remotely Powered Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Increase in energy demands coupled with rapid depletion of natural energy resources have deemed solar energy as an attractive alternative source of power. The focus was to design and construct a solar powered, remotely piloted vehicle to demonstrate the f...

A. N. Alexandrou W. W. Durgin R. F. Cohn D. J. Olinger C. K. Cody

1992-01-01

399

Fibre-coupled air-cooled high-power diode laser systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current laser systems based on high-power laser diode bars need active cooling either water cooling or the use of thermo-electric coolers to ensure an adequate operating temperature for a reasonable lifetime. Here is a solution with a bonded fin heat sink and forced ventilation introduced, a diode laser bar with an improved efficiency and a low thermal resistance as well as an optical system for a highly efficient fibre coupling. With this system it is possible to couple 25 Watt continuous wave power from a single laser diode bar on a passive heat sink into a fibre with 200 ?m core diameter. The basis for this performance is a heat sink with an exceptionally low thermal resistance. Several new features are introduced to reach a low overall gradient between the laser diode temperature and the ambient temperature. In addition, it does geometrically fit to the layout of the optical design. Shape and aspect ratio of both heat sink and housing of the laser system are matched to each other. Another feature is the use of hard-soldered or pressed bars to achieve a thermo-mechanically stable performance. The long-term thermal characteristic was tested. The operation temperature comes to saturation after about 30 minutes. Therefore it can be used for continuous wave operation at 25 Watt output power. At a quasi continuous operation at 70 percent duty cycle a peak power of 30 Watt out of the fibre is possible. From this technology results a compact fibre coupled laser system what is simple to drive compared with current high power laser systems, because there is no need to control the operating temperature. This gives way for more compact driver solutions. Fields of application are laser marking systems and material processing, where a simple driver system is requested. Also medical applications need this requirement and a compact cooling too so that mobile integrated solutions become possible. Further developments allow multiple laser diode systems for specific industrial applications demanding more power. Our measurements show the potential for direct air-cooled laser systems with 100 Watt power out of the fibre.

Bartoschewski, Daniel; Meinschien, Jens; Fornahl, Udo

2008-03-01

400

Wireless power transmission technology state of the art the first Bill Brown lecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This first Bill Brown SSP Technology Lecture covers the state-of-the-art (SOA) in wireless power transmission (WPT) technology including microwave and laser systems for the transfer of CW electric power, as related to eventually developing Space Solar Power (SSP) systems. Current and past technology accomplishments in ground based and air and space applied energy conversion devices, systems and modeling information is presented, where such data are known to the author. The purpose of the presentation is to discuss and present data to encourage documenting and breaking the current records, so as to advance the SOA in WPT for SSP. For example, regarding DC to RF and laser converters, 83% efficient 2.45 GHz cooker-tube magnetrons with 800 W CW output have been developed by CPII and the Russians. Over 50% wall-plug efficient 1.5 kW/cm 2 CW, water-cooled, multibeam, solid state laser diode bar-arrays have been developed by LLNL at 808 nm wavelength. The Germans have developed a 36% efficient, kW level, single coherent beam, lateral pumped semiconductor laser. The record for end-to-end DC input to DC output power overall WPT link conversion efficiency is 54% achieved during the Raytheon-JPL experiments in 1975 for 495.6 W recovered at 1.7 -m range, at 2.4469 GHz The record for usefully recovered electric power output (as contrasted with thermally induced power in structures) is 34 kW DC output at a range of 1.55 km, using 2.388 GHz microwaves, during the JPL-Raytheon experiments by Bill Brown and the author at Goldstone, CA in 1975. The GaAs-diode rectenna array had an average collection-conversion efficiency of 82.5%. A single rectenna element developed by Bill Brown demonstrated 91.4% efficiency. The comparable record for laser light to DC output power conversion efficiency of photovoltaics is 59%, for AlGaAs at 1.7 W and 826-nm wavelength.

Dickinson, Richard M.

2003-08-01

401

Power Struggles. Beginnings Workshop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents four articles about children's power struggles: (1) "The Personal Side of Power" (Bonnie Neugebauer); (2) "Learning To Harness Human Power" (Roslyn Duffy); (3) "Power Struggles: Early Experiences Matter" (James Garbarino); and (4) "Personal Power: Creating New Realities" (Janet Gonzalez-Mena). (DLH)

Neugebauer, Bonnie; Duffy, Roslyn; Garbarino, James; Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

2001-01-01

402

Satellite power systems technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development emphasis of the next decade in electrical power systems for satellites will be to provide larger amounts of electrical power with dramatically improved power system performance. Reliability, survivability, adaptability, scalability and endurability will continue to be important power system technology considerations for most missions. This paper addresses increasing power trends seen for future satellite missions, describes the current

R. R. Barthelemy; L. D. Massie

1984-01-01

403

Transients in Power Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power system engineering largely focuses on steady state analysis. The main areas of power system engineering are power flow studies and fault studies - both steady state technologies. But the world is largely transient, and power systems are always subject to time varying and short lived signals. This technical report concerns several important topics in transient analyses of power systems.

M. Belkhayat; J. Edwards; N. Hoonchareon; O. Marte; D. Stenberg; E. Walters

1995-01-01

404

Power conditioning unit for photovoltaic power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operational features and components of a power conditioning unit for interconnecting solar cell module powers with a utility grid are outlined. The two-stage unit first modifies the voltage to desired levels on an internal dc link, then inverts the current in 2 power transformers connected to a vector summation control to neutralize harmonic distortion up to the 11th harmonic. The

G. Beghin; V. T. Nguyen Phuoc

1981-01-01

405

Power Electronics for Low Power Arcjets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In anticipation of the needs of future light-weight, low-power spacecraft, arcjet power electronics in the 100 to 400 W operating range were developed. Limited spacecraft power and thermal control capacity of these small spacecraft emphasized the need for...

J. A. Hamley G. M. Hill

1991-01-01

406

Solar power satellites - Microwaves deliver the power  

Microsoft Academic Search

While microwave power transmission from the Solar Power Satellite (SPS) network provides such advantages as availability of the sun's energy for more than 99% of the year, supply five GW of power from each SPS and dc-to-dc transmission efficiency of more than 60%, there are three possible environmental problems associated with the SPS system: radio frequency interference (RFI), local heating

W. C. Brown

1979-01-01

407

INCREASING SCIENTIFIC POWER WITH STATISTICAL POWER  

EPA Science Inventory

A brief survey of basic ideas in statistical power analysis demonstrates the advantages and ease of using power analysis throughout the design, analysis, and interpretation of research. he power of a statistical test is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis of the test...

408

Dynamic power systems for power generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics of dynamic power systems have considerable potential value, especially for the space station. The base of technology that makes these dynamic power systems practical is reviewed. The following types of power-generating systems are examined herein: organic Rankine cycle, potassium Rankine cycle, Brayton cycle, and Stirling cycle.

English, R. E.

1984-01-01

409

Synchronous Generator with HTS-2G field coils for Windmills with output power 1 MW  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays synchronous generators for wind-mills are developed worldwide. The cost of the generator is determined by its size and weight. In this deal the implementation of HTS-2G generators is very perspective. The application of HTS 2G field coils in the rotor allows to reduce the size of the generator is 1.75 times. In this work the design 1 MW HTS-2G generator is considered. The designed 1 MW HTS-2G generator has the following parameters: rotor diameter 800 mm, active length 400 mm, phase voltage 690V, rotor speed 600 min?1 rotor field coils with HTS-2G tapes. HTS-2G field coils located in the rotating cryostat and cooled by liquid nitrogen. The simulation and optimization of HTS-2G field coils geometry allowed to increase feed DC current up to 50A. Copper stator windings are water cooled. Magnetic and electrical losses in 1 MW HTS-2G generator do not exceed 1.6% of the nominal output power. In the construction of HTS-2G generator the wave multiplier with ratio 1:40 is used. The latter allows to reduce the total mass of HTS-2G generator down to 1.5 tons. The small-scale model of HTS-2G generator with output power 50 kW was designed, manufactured and tested. The test results showed good agreement with calculation results. The manufacturing of 1 MW HTS-2G generator is planned in 2014. This work is done under support of Rosatom within the frames of Russian Project "Superconducting Industry".

Kovalev, K.; Kovalev, L.; Poltavets, V.; Samsonovich, S.; Ilyasov, R.; Levin, A.; Surin, M.

2014-05-01

410

Nuclear power: Fourth edition  

SciTech Connect

This book describes the basics of nuclear power generation, explaining both the benefits and the real and imagined risks of nuclear power. It includes a discussion of the Three Mile Island accident and its effects. Nuclear Power has been used in the public information programs of more than 100 utilities. The contents discussed are: Nuclear Power and People; Why Nuclear Power. Electricity produced by coal; Electricity produced by nuclear fuel; Nuclear plant sites in the United States; Short History of Commercial Nuclear Power; U.S. nuclear submarines, Regulation of Nuclear Power Plants; Licensing process, Nuclear Power Plant Operator Training; Nuclear power plant simulator, Are Nuclear Plants Safe.; Containment structure, Nuclear Power Plant Insurance; Is Radiation Dangerous.; Man-made radiation, What is Nuclear Fuel.; Fuel cycle for commercial nuclear power plants; Warm Water Discharge; Cooling tower; Protection of Radioactive Materials; Plutonium and Proliferation; Disposal of Radioactive Wastes; Are Alternate Energy Sources Available.; Nuclear Opposition; and Nuclear Power in the Future.

Deutsch, R.W.

1986-01-01

411

Power control circuit  

SciTech Connect

An electronic power control circuit used in recording seismic data at unmanned remote locations is disclosed wherein the power requirements are minimized by segregating power distribution between continuous and non-continuous requirements.

Bowden, E.A.

1985-05-21

412

Flow Components in a NaK Test Loop Designed to Simulate Conditions in a Nuclear Surface Power Reactor  

SciTech Connect

A test loop using NaK as the working fluid is presently in use to study material compatibility effects on various components that comprise a possible nuclear reactor design for use on the lunar surface. A DC electromagnetic (EM) pump has been designed and implemented as a means of actively controlling the NaK flow rate through the system and an EM flow sensor is employed to monitor the developed flow rate. These components allow for the matching of the flow rate conditions in test loops with those that would be found in a full-scale surface-power reactor. The design and operating characteristics of the EM pump and flow sensor are presented. In the EM pump, current is applied to a set of electrodes to produce a Lorentz body force in the fluid. A measurement of the induced voltage (back-EMF) in the flow sensor provides the means of monitoring flow rate. Both components are compact, employing high magnetic field strength neodymium magnets thermally coupled to a water-cooled housing. A vacuum gap limits the heat transferred from the high temperature NaK tube to the magnets and a magnetically-permeable material completes the magnetic circuit. The pump is designed to produce a pressure rise of 34.5 kPa, and the flow sensor's predicted output is roughly 20 mV at the loop's nominal flow rate of 0.114 m{sup 3}/hr.

Polzin, Kurt A.; Godfroy, Thomas J. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Propulsion Research and Technology Applications Branch/ER24, MSFC, AL 35812 (United States)

2008-01-21

413

Development of a high temperature solar powered water chiller. Phase III. Technical progress report, October 1, 1979-July 31, 1981  

SciTech Connect

This project is to design, construct and test a 25 ton air-cooled solar water chiller for multi-family and commercial applications. The design utilizes a dual loop Rankine power cycle driving a Rankine vapor compressor cycle. R-113, selected as optimum for this application, is common to both loops. The prime mover is a high speed turbo machine with gas bearings and a variable speed electric auxiliary energy source. During this period, the turbo machine was completed and successfully bench tested on an air loop to qualify the rotor dynamic design. The chiller, with turbo machine, was completed in a water cooled configuration to facilitate initial testing. The chiller was installed in a specially designed test loop with complete instrumentation and data acquisition equipment. A series of tests was initiated to qualify the turbo machine rotor dynamics and gas bearings in the R-113 working fluid under selected operating conditions. During these tests, a failure of the thrust bearing was experienced. A detailed analysis of this failure is presented in this report with recommendations for future work.

English, R.A.

1982-02-01

414

Flow Components in a NaK Test Loop Designed to Simulate Conditions in a Nuclear Surface Power Reactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A test loop using NaK as the working fluid is presently in use to study material compatibility effects on various components that comprise a possible nuclear reactor design for use on the lunar surface. A DC electromagnetic (EM) pump has been designed and implemented as a means of actively controlling the NaK flow rate through the system and an EM flow sensor is employed to monitor the developed flow rate. These components allow for the matching of the flow rate conditions in test loops with those that would be found in a full-scale surface-power reactor. The design and operating characteristics of the EM pump and flow sensor are presented. In the EM pump, current is applied to a set of electrodes to produce a Lorentz body force in the fluid. A measurement of the induced voltage (back-EMF) in the flow sensor provides the means of monitoring flow rate. Both components are compact, employing high magnetic field strength neodymium magnets thermally coupled to a water-cooled housing. A vacuum gap limits the heat transferred from the high temperature NaK tube to the magnets and a magnetically-permeable material completes the magnetic circuit. The pump is designed to produce a pressure rise of 5 psi, and the flow sensor's predicted output is roughly 20 mV at the loop's nominal flow rate of 0.5 GPM.

Polzin, Kurt A.; Godfroy, Thomas J.

2008-01-01

415

Solar powered multipurpose remotely powered aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increase in energy demands coupled with rapid depletion of natural energy resources have deemed solar energy as an attractive alternative source of power. The focus was to design and construct a solar powered, remotely piloted vehicle to demonstrate the feasibility of solar energy as an effective, alternate source of power. The final design included minimizing the power requirements and maximizing the strength-to-weight and lift-to-drag ratios. Given the design constraints, Surya (the code-name given to the aircraft), is a lightweight aircraft primarily built using composite materials and capable of achieving level flight powered entirely by solar energy.

Alexandrou, A. N.; Durgin, W. W.; Cohn, R. F.; Olinger, D. J.; Cody, Charlotte K.; Chan, Agnes; Cheung, Kwok-Hung; Conley, Kristin; Crivelli, Paul M.; Javorski, Christian T.

1992-01-01

416

Infrared power cells for satellite power conversion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical investigation is performed to assess the feasibility of long-wavelength power converters for the direct conversion of IR radiation onto electrical power. Because theses devices need to operate between 5 and 30 um the only material system possible for this application is the HgCdTe system which is currently being developed for IR detectors. Thus solar cell and IR detector theories and technologies are combined. The following subject areas are covered: electronic and optical properties of HgCdTe alloys; optimum device geometry; junction theory; model calculation for homojunction power cell efficiency; and calculation for HgCdTe power cell and power beaming.

Summers, Christopher J.

1991-01-01

417

Power electronics for low power arcjets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In anticipation of the needs of future light-weight, low-power spacecraft, arcjet power electronics in the 100 to 400 W operating range were developed. Limited spacecraft power and thermal control capacity of these small spacecraft emphasized the need for high efficiency. Power topologies similar to those in the higher 2 kW and 5 to 30 kW power range were implemented, including a four transistor bridge switching circuit, current mode pulse-width modulated control, and an output current averaging inductor with an integral pulse generation winding. Reduction of switching transients was accomplished using a low inductance power distribution network, and no passive snubber circuits were necessary for power switch protection. Phase shift control of the power bridge was accomplished using an improved pulse width modulation to phase shift converter circuit. These features, along with conservative magnetics designs allowed power conversion efficiencies of greater than 92.5 percent to be achieved into resistive loads over the entire operating range of the converter. Electromagnetic compatibility requirements were not considered in this work, and control power for the converter was derived from AC mains. Addition of input filters and control power converters would result in an efficiency of on the order of 90 percent for a flight unit. Due to the developmental nature of arcjet systems at this power level, the exact nature of the thruster/power processor interface was not quantified. Output regulation and current ripple requirements of 1 and 20 percent respectively, as well as starting techniques, were derived from the characteristics of the 2 kW system but an open circuit voltage in excess of 175 V was specified. Arcjet integration tests were performed, resulting in successful starts and stable arcjet operation at power levels as low as 240 W with simulated hydrazine propellants.

Hamley, John A.; Hill, Gerald M.

1991-01-01

418

Shield Penetrating Water Cooled Bus Ducts for Radiation Resistant Magnets at J-PARC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high intensity proton accelerator facility J-PARC is now in its final stage of construction. Soon intense primary proton beams will be slowly extracted to an experimental hall (HD-hall) and transported to a production target. Since the radiation level around the target will be very high, the beam line tunnel needs to be surrounded by 2.5 m-5 m thick concrete

E. Hirose; K. H. Tanaka; H. Takahashi; K. Agari; M. Ieiri; Y. Katoh; M. Minakawa; H. Noumi; Y. Sato; Y. Suzuki; M. Takasaki; A. Toyoda; Y. Yamanoi; H. Watanabe; K. Katoh; N. Saitoh; M. Saijyo

2008-01-01

419

Light and heavy water cooled hybrid reactors for rejuvenation of LWR spent fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the rejuvenation performance and energy production of DT driven hybrid blankets fueled by LWR spent fuel and cooled by heavy water (D2O) and light water (H2O). A fuel zone is placed between two cylindrical walls (first wall and second wall). The coolants through the fuel zone are circulated at an operation pressure of 70 bar. The fusion

S nalan; T Ayata; S. O Akansu; A Eri?en; A Blkba??

2003-01-01

420

Protection from corrosion and deposits for water-cooling systems in oil processing plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors are noted that affect the formation of mineral and microbiological deposits in water circulation supply systems of\\u000a oil processing plants (OPP). The most widespread measures are considered for protection from biodeposits; chlorination using\\u000a hypochlorite; water treatment with copper sulfate; water treatment with organic biocides. Results are provided for a study\\u000a of protection of OPP water systems from corrosion using

Yu. I. Kuznetsov; G. V. Redkina; A. A. Chirkunov

2008-01-01

421

Water-cooled ion-milled diffraction gratings for the synchrotron radiation community  

SciTech Connect

Key technical and strategic choices are reviewed, leading to the fabrication method of ion-milled grating grooves for the monochromators at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), and for other synchrotrons. Several laboratories and their industrial partners have joined to manufacture gratings with essentially theoretical performance. Metrology -data and theoretical comparisons are given for square wave profile grating samples ion-milled into electroless nickel surfaces. The extensive capabilities of Hughes Aircraft in grating manufacture are reviewed.

McKinney, W.R.; Shannon, C.L.; Shults, E.N.

1993-08-01

422

Extending the life of water-cooled copper cooling fingers for furnace refractories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To extend the service life of refractory linings in high-temperature furnaces, it is becoming common to embed copper cooling devices in the lining. These devices extract enough heat from the hearth of the furnace to freeze a protective thin layer of slag onto the surface of the lining. However, the cooling devices may lose their efficiency over time. It is believed that high-temperature oxidation of copper is responsible for the loss in heat-extraction capacity. To test coolers under severe conditions, immersion tests were carried out in molten matte and slag of laboratory-scale cooling elements protected by various means. A composite cooler was developed that consists of a copper core shielded by a Cu-4 wt.% Al alloy sheet. Although the rate of heat extraction is not as high as that of the un-alloyed copper, this cooler still extracts heat at a very high rate.

Plascencia, Gabriel; Utigard, Torstein A.; Plascencia, Gabriel; Jaramillo, David

2005-10-01

423

Apparatus and method of direct water cooling several parallel circuit cards each containing several chip packages  

DOEpatents

A cooling apparatus, system and like method for an electronic device includes a plurality of heat producing electronic devices affixed to a wiring substrate. A plurality of heat transfer assemblies each include heat spreaders and thermally communicate with the heat producing electronic devices for transferring heat from the heat producing electronic devices to the heat transfer assemblies. The plurality of heat producing electronic devices and respective heat transfer assemblies are positioned on the wiring substrate having the regions overlapping. A heat conduit thermally communicates with the heat transfer assemblies. The heat conduit circulates thermally conductive fluid therethrough in a closed loop for transferring heat to the fluid from the heat transfer assemblies via the heat spreader. A thermally conductive support structure supports the heat conduit and thermally communicates with the heat transfer assemblies via the heat spreader transferring heat to the fluid of the heat conduit from the support structure.

Cipolla, Thomas M. (Katonah, NY); Colgan, Evan George (Chestnut Ridge, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Hall, Shawn Anthony (Pleasantville, NY); Tian, Shurong (Mount Kisco, NY)

2011-12-20

424

Numerical Simulation of Macrosegregation in Water-Cooled Heavy Flat Ingot During Solidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on a volume-averaged two-phase approach, a coupled concentration, temperature, and velocity fields model has been established to predict the formation of macrosegregation during solidification. Because of the significant influence of velocity field on solute transfer and distribution during solidification process, the density of liquid steel was set as a function of temperature and concentration to accurately calculate the velocity field. Therefore, the influence of gravity, temperature gradient, concentration gradient, and volume shrinkage on velocity field distribution was comprehensively considered. The calculation result showed good agreement with previous reports. Thereafter, the current model was applied to simulate the solidification of 12Cr2Mo1R (ASTM standard 2.25Cr1Mo) heavy ingot, and the influence of surface cooling intensity on the final carbon macrosegregation was investigated. The results showed that with the increase of cooling intensity, the solidification time, flow velocity, and mushy zone width decrease, and as a result, macrosegregation is alleviated. When the heat-transfer coefficient is less than 1000 W m-2 K-1, macrosegregation dramatically decreases with the rise of cooling intensity. In contrast, when heat-transfer coefficient is greater than 1000 W m-2 K-1, the effect of reducing the central carbon segregation by increasing cooling is weakened.

Meng, Qingyong; Wang, Fuming; Li, Changrong; Li, Menglong; Zhang, Jing; Cui, Guanjun

2014-05-01

425

Compatibility of water-cooled refractories with a basic coal-ash slag at 1500 C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compatibility of 11 watercooled refractories with a basic coalash slag at 1500 C has been investigated. The highest corrosion\\u000a resistance was demonstrated by a fusedcast chromespinel refractory (80pct Cr2O3). Alumina refractories were found to react with the slag to produce primarily calcium hexaluminate. The addition of between\\u000a 16 and 32 pct chromia to alumina refractories was sufficient to cause

C. R. Kennedy

1980-01-01

426

Literature Review of Dilute Chemical Decontamination Processes for Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Decontamination of nuclear reactors denotes removal of radioactive species from systems or components, generally by the action of chemical reagents. Historically, decontamination of reactor primary systems has involved a campaign-type method, utilizing re...

G. R. Choppin R. L. Dillon B. Griggs A. B. Johnson J. F. Remark

1979-01-01

427

Topical Report : NSTF Facilities Plan for Water-Cooled VHTR RCCS : Normal Operational Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Generation IV roadmapping activity, the gas-cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) has been selected as the principal concept for hydrogen production and other process-heat applications such as district heati...

C. P. Tzanos D. J. Kilsdonk M. T. Farmer R. W. Aeschlimann S. Lomperski

2006-01-01

428

Water-cooled gas turbine nozzle technology demonstration at ultra-high firing temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

During Phase II of the Department of Energy (DOE) funded High Temperature Turbine Technology (HTTT Program, critical technology development and component verification testing related to the design of an advanced watercooled gas turbine, firing at 2600°F (1427°C) on low-Btu gas, are being performed by General Electric. A composite construction first stage nozzle was chosen so that low surface temperature (1000°F

D. W. Geilling; N. Klompas; K. P. Zeman

1983-01-01

429

Developments of a powder-metallurgy, MZC copper-alloy, water-cooled gas turbine component  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy of the Federal Government has sponsored a technology development and verification testing program.\\u000a This work is in support of an advanced, watercooled gas turbine firing at 2600 F (1427 C). As part of this turbine, strong\\u000a emphasis has been placed on the design and testing of a composite firststage nozzle. One of the materials making up

L. G. Peterson

1984-01-01

430

High temperature water cooled gas turbine in combined cycle with integrated low Btu gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turbine system design studies funded by ERDA are reviewed. Three overall plant design descriptions were developed, using respectively General Electric's fixed-bed gasifier (GEGAS), an entrained-bed gasifier, and a liquid fuel such as H-Coal boiler fuel. A system using the fixed-bed gasifier is described.

Alff

1978-01-01

431

NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY OF WATER-COOLED FUSION REACTORS: ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS  

SciTech Connect

ITER is an experimental Tokamak fusion energy reactor that is being built in Cadarache, France, in collaboration with seven agencies representing China, the European Union, India, Japan, Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, and the United States. The main objective of ITER is to demonstrate the scientific and technical feasibility of a controlled fusion reaction An important U.S. contribution is the design, fabrication, and delivery of the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS). This paper describes the main sources of radioactivity in TCWS water, which are the nitrogen isotopes 16N and 17N, tritium, activated corrosion products, and the carbon isotope 14C; the relative contribution of each of these sources to the total radioactive contamination of water; issues related to excess accumulation of these species; and methods to control TCWS radioactivity within acceptable limits. Among these methods are: (1) water purification to minimize corrosion of materials in contact with TCWS water; (2) monitoring of vital chemistry parameters and control of water chemistry; (3) design of proper building structure and/or TCWS loop/geometry configuration; and (4) design of an ITER liquid radwaste facility tailored to TCWS operational requirements. Design of TCWS nuclear chemistry control is crucial to ensuring that the inventory of radioactive species is consistent with the principle of 'As Low as Reasonably Achievable.'

Petrov, Andrei Y [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL

2010-01-01

432

Evolution of Carbide Precipitates in 2.25Cr-1Mo Steel during Long-Term Service in a Power Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbide precipitation from the steel matrix during long-term high-temperature exposure can adversely affect the fracture toughness and high-temperature creep resistance of materials with implications on the performance of power plant components. In the present work, carbide evolution in 2.25Cr-1Mo steel after long-term aging during service was investigated. Boiler pipe samples of this steel were removed from a supercritical water-cooled coal-fired power plant after service times of 17 and 28 years and a mean operational temperature of 810 K (537 C). The carbide precipitation and coarsening effects were studied using the carbon extraction replica technique followed by analysis using transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The carbides extracted using an electrolytic technique were also analyzed using X-ray diffraction to evaluate phase transformations of the carbides during long-term service. Small ball punch and Vickers hardness were used to evaluate the changes in mechanical performance after long-term aging during service.

Yang, Yong; Chen, Yiren; Sridharan, Kumar; Allen, Todd R.

2010-03-01

433

Performance of the 10-kV, 100-kA pulsed-power modules for the FRX-C magnetic compression experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed performance data collected from over a year's operation of the 25 and 50-kJoule pulsed-power capacitor-bank modules developed for the Los Alamos magnetic fusion facility FRX-C are presented. These modules supply the 5-MA magnet current needed for the compressional heating of compact toroid plasmoids. To date, 54 modules were built and successfully tested at their full design rating: 100-kA peak output current at 10-kV charge, tau(sub 1/4) = 60 microsec (25-kJ module), or 110 microsec (50-kJ module), crowbar L/R is less than or equal to 1 ms. Modules are compact, cost about $5000 each, and though designed for 25 or 50 kJ, they can be easily modified for other pulsed-power applications. Energy is stored in 25-kJ capacitors. Start and crowbar switching is performed with a pair of water-cooled, size-D ignitrons. As an alternative to an ignitron, crowbar switching by solid-state rectifiers has been successfully demonstrated. Current is conducted between components and to the load by parallel-plate transmission lines and by a parallel array of commercially-available coaxial cable.

Rej, D. J.; Waganaar, W. J.

1989-02-01

434

Planning for Power.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the electrical power problems that can arise when schools try to integrate educational technology components into an existing facility, and how to plan the electrical power design to avoid power failures. Examines setting objectives, evaluating current electrical conditions, and developing the technology power design. (GR)

Failla, Victor A.; Birk, Thomas A.

1999-01-01

435

Identifying Power Structures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on two processes used to begin a long-term series of studies on educational power structures in the states of Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Purposes of the study were to determine if (1) substrata or pools of power undergird educational power structures, (2) certain paths to power are

Smith, Martha L.; Smith, Milton L.

436

Ideological Power in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article agues that ideological power plays an important role in education and that it is part of a general trend in policy and social sciences to underestimate ideological and overestimate the role of political and economic power. The article sketches a concept of power in general and especially of ideological power based primarily on the

Laursen, Per F.

2006-01-01

437

Nuclear power: Fourth edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book describes the basics of nuclear power generation, explaining both the benefits and the real and imagined risks of nuclear power. It includes a discussion of the Three Mile Island accident and its effects. Nuclear Power has been used in the public information programs of more than 100 utilities. The contents discussed are: Nuclear Power and People; Why Nuclear

Deutsch

1986-01-01

438

Geothermal Power Generation  

SciTech Connect

The report provides an overview of the renewed market interest in using geothermal for power generation including a concise look at what's driving interest in geothermal power generation, the current status of geothermal power generation, and plans for the future. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of geothermal power generation including its history, the current market environment, and its future prospects; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving renewed interest in geothermal power generation; an analysis of the challenges that are hindering the implementation of geothermal power generation projects; a description of geothermal power generation technologies; a review of the economic drivers of geothermal power generation project success; profiles of the major geothermal power producing countries; and, profiles of the major geothermal power project developers.

NONE

2007-11-15

439

Mobile Uninterruptible Power Supply  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed mobile unit provides 20 kVA of uninterruptible power. Used with mobile secondary power-distribution centers to provide power to test equipment with minimal cabling, hazards, and obstacles. Wheeled close to test equipment and system being tested so only short cable connections needed. Quickly moved and set up in new location. Uninterruptible power supply intended for tests which data lost or equipment damaged during even transient power failure.

Mears, Robert L.

1990-01-01

440

Power booster audio amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel power booster amplifier is based on a modified half-bridge topology using separated switches and a floating bridge capacitor. The power booster amplifier provides four times higher peak power at the loudspeaker than the peak power of a class-D amplifier using the same power supply. Total harmonic distortion and amplifier efficiency are similar to a class-D amplifier. A universal

Milan Prokin

2002-01-01

441

A 3D stylized half-core CANDU benchmark problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3D stylized half-core Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor benchmark problem is presented. The benchmark problem is comprised of a heterogeneous lattice of 37-element natural uranium fuel bundles, heavy water moderated, heavy water cooled, with adjuster rods included as reactivity control devices. Furthermore, a 2-group macroscopic cross section library has been developed for the problem to increase the utility of

Justin M. Pounders; Farzad Rahnema; Dumitru Serghiuta; John Tholammakkil

2011-01-01

442

Significant results of neutronics analysis for fuel conversion of the UFTR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Florida Training Reactor (UFTR) is a 100-kW light-water-cooled, graphite and light-water-moderated Argonaut-type reactor that utilizes high-enriched (93%) materials test reactor-type (uranium-aluminum alloy) fuel plates in a two-slab core configuration consisting of 11-plate fuel bundles loaded into six fuel boxes. The purpose of this work was to perform the neutronics analysis necessary to support a licensing submittal to

Vernetson

1992-01-01

443

Power electronics for power quality improvements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control of most of the industrial loads is mainly based on semiconductor devices, which causes such loads to be more sensitive against power system disturbances. Thus, the power quality problems have gained more interest recently. This paper presents a review of some the disturbances, on the source side that may cause problems on the load side. Focus is given on

Hiliny Awad; Math H. J Bollen

2003-01-01

444

EDITORIAL - Power Modulators and Repetitive Pulsed Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma breakdown at dielectric windows in the output of high power microwave systems has become an important challenge with the advent of GW power level sources. The modeling and simulations have played a crucial role in understanding the physics of plasma breakdown. In this work, we report a number of recent advances which have significantly improved understanding of the physics

H. C. Kim; J. P. Verboncoeur; Y. Y. Lau

2007-01-01

445

Power electronic devices for renewable power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, overhead lines, cables, transformers and circuit breakers represented the core components of electric power systems. However, in light of a considerable and still increasing share of renewable energy sources in grids, a change in electricity infrastructure can be observed. Over the last decades advances in power semiconductor devices have paved the way for innovative equipment such as

Rik W. De Doncker; Christian P. Dick; Florian Mura; Thomas Butschen

2010-01-01

446

Short-Term Power Fluctuations of Large Wind Power Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With electric utilities and other power providers showing increased interest in wind power and with growing penetration of wind capacity into the market, questions about how wind power fluctuations affect power system operations and about wind power's anc...

Y. H. Wan D. Buacaneg

2002-01-01

447

Power beaming providing a space power infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

This study, based on two levels of technology, applies the power beaming concept to four planned satellite constellations. The analysis shows that with currently available technology, power beaming can provide mass savings to constellations in orbits ranging from low earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit. Two constellations, space surveillance and tracking system and space based radar, can be supported with current technology. The other two constellations, space-based laser array and boost surveillance and tracking system, will require power and transmission system improvements before their breakeven specific mass is achieved. A doubling of SP-100 conversion efficiency from 10 to 20/% would meet or exceed breakeven for these constellations.

Bamberger, J.A.; Coomes, E.P.

1992-08-01

448

Technologies. [space power sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Energy technologies to meet the power requirements of future space missions are reviewed. Photovoltaic, solar dynamic, and solar thermal technologies are discussed along with techniques for energy storage and power management and distribution.

Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

1992-01-01

449

Microwave beam power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information on microwave beam power is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on orbit transfer proulsion applications, costs of delivering 100 kWe of usable power, and costs of delivering a 1 kg payload into orbit.

Faymon, Karl A.

1989-01-01

450

Power Plants, 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume contains 34 papers presented on the technical session of the West German Association of large utility companies. The topics discussed include operational experiences with power plants, cooling methods of nuclear power plants, environmental mon...

1976-01-01

451

Contributions: Power Plants, 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fifty papers presented at the conference are compiled. The topics discussed concerned primarily the construction, operation, and control of nuclear and fossil-fuel power plants. Emission control and environmental aspects of the operation of power plan...

1977-01-01

452

Smart Power Grid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment adapted from NOVA scienceNOW provides an overview of the existing United States power grid, and envisions a smart power grid that would prevent problems, such as blackouts, and reduce energy waste and pollution.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2011-03-31

453

Power plant chemical technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

17 contributions covering topies of fossil fuel combustion, flue gas cleaning, power plant materials, corrosion, water/steam cycle chemistry, monitoring and control were presented at the annual meeting devoted to Power Plant Chemical Technology 1996 at Ko...

1996-01-01

454

Eliminating Nuclear Power.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study, initiated by the Swedish Energy Commission, of the possibilities to discontinue the use of nuclear power by year 1985. The report deals with economical, technical and environmental consequences of converting nuclear power stations to coal firing....

T. Nyten R. Johansson

1977-01-01

455

High power fiber lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss fundamental aspects of high-power fiber lasers and describe their recent dramatic advances and prospects including our up-to-date experimental results with particular attention to kilowatt-class, refined power amplifier regimes.

Y. Jeong; J. Nilsson; J. K. Sahu; P. Dupriez; C. A. Codemard; D. B. S. Soh; C. Farrell; J. Kim; D. J. Richardson; D. N. Payne

2005-01-01

456

Space Solar Power Program  

SciTech Connect

Information pertaining to the Space Solar Power Program is presented on energy analysis; markets; overall development plan; organizational plan; environmental and safety issues; power systems; space transportation; space manufacturing, construction, operations; design examples; and finance.

Arif, H.; Barbosa, H.; Bardet, C.; Baroud, M.; Behar, A.; Berrier, K.; Berthe, P.; Bertrand, R.; Bibyk, I.; Bisson, J.; Bloch, L.; Bobadilla, G.; Bourque, D.; Bush, L.; Carandang, R.; Chiku, T.; Crosby, N.; De Seixas, M.; De Vries, J.; Doll, S.; Dufour, F.; Eckart, P.; Fahey, M.; Fenot, F.; Foeckersperger, S.; Fontaine, J.E.; Fowler, R.; Frey, H.; Fujio, H.; Gasa, J.M.; Gleave, J.; Godoe, J.; Green, I.; Haeberli, R.; Hanada, T.; Ha

1992-08-01

457

Power Line Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overhead power lines are periodically inspected using both on-ground and helicopter-aided visual inspection. Factors including sun glare, cloud cover, close proximity to power lines, and rapidly changing visual circumstances make airborne inspection of power lines a particularly hazardous task. In this study, the feasibility of continuous, on-line monitoring of power lines using ultrasonic waves is considered. A sending\\/receiving transducer located

Mike S. Wilson; Stefan Hurlebaus

2007-01-01

458

Naval shipboard power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different naval shipboard power system architectures and their basic characteristics have been discussed in the paper. In addition the paper discusses about incorporation of platform management systems into the ship automation system that would enable monitoring and control of the shipboard power system, assessing and diagnosing system failures\\/damages and reconfiguring and restoring power to service loads with reduced manpower and

R. Jayabalan; B. Fahimi

2005-01-01

459

Powerful planning tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed power generation offers a solution to the limitations in the capacity of distributed systems and, at the same time, improves the reliability of the overall power system by increasing its generation capacity reserves. The planning process to integrate dispersed generation in power networks must take into account multiple factors such as the existing resources, the technology used in the

I. J. Ramirez-Rosado; L. A. Fernandez-Jimenez; C. Monteiro; V. Miranda; E. Garcia-Garrido; P. J. Zorzano-Santamaria

2005-01-01

460

High Wind Power Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In comparison to the usual power plants in which the machines are installed in special buildings, the high wind power plant is described as a power source in which the structure as a whole makes up the machine. New large structures are supports for genera...

H. Honnef

1974-01-01

461

Power quality following deregulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utility deregulation will have tangible and intangible effects on power quality requiring industry-wide action to maintain adequate standards. These effects are discussed in the first part of the paper. The increasing trend towards more extensive use of power electronic control at the generation, transmission and utilization systems following deregulation has power quality implications that will affect the standards, system simulation

JOS ARRILLAGA; MATH H. J. BOLLEN; NEVILLE R. WATSON

2000-01-01

462

Geothermal Power Plant Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make a model of a power plant that uses steam. Learners use simple materials like foil, a tin can, and a pot of water to model a geothermal power plant. Learners use a pinwheel to observe the power produced by the steam. SAFETY NOTE: Adult assistance required.

Commission, California E.

2006-01-01

463

NUCLEAR POWER ECONOMICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cost of the fuel consumed in a nuclear power reactor is lower than ; that which is required in conventional power stations for the generation of the ; same amount of energy: this premise points to the conditions under which atomic ; energy becomes competitive with conventional thermal power. From the initial ; \\/lb ( .4\\/kg), the incentive price

Cassuto

1962-01-01

464

Optimal Reactive Power Allocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic procedure is developed to locate reactive power devices in a power system based on a set of indices, that are based on overall system conditions. After identifying the desired locations, the cost of installation and number of reactive power devices, subject to any required practical and real economic constraints are minimized. Existing controllers are fully utilized before adding

A. Venkataramana; J. Carr; R. S. Ramshaw

1987-01-01

465

Fluid Power Technician  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fluid power technicians, sometimes called hydraulic and pneumatic technicians, work with equipment that utilizes the pressure of a liquid or gas in a closed container to transmit, multiply, or control power. Working under the supervision of an engineer or engineering staff, they assemble, install, maintain, and test fluid power equipment.

Moore, Pam

2008-01-01

466

Micro-Power Magnetometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document discloses a micro-power magnetometer which can be driven by an oscillator with low power expenditure on the order of 50 to 150 microwatts. The low power feature is provided for by using an oscillator circuit with appropriate resistance which...

R. E. Brown

1980-01-01

467

Post Hoc Power Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of a post hoc review of statistical power is to determine the average power of tests used in a particular field. Because most theories in psychology are not sufficiently advanced to provide an exact prediction of effect size, post hoc reviews invariably calculate the power of a test in terms of the test's ability to detect the expected

Raphael Gillett

1994-01-01

468

Satellite power system simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to furnish a useful tool for the power system preliminary sizing, a satellite power system simulator was developed. The simulator has a modular structure where each module implements the mathematical model of the system components (solar array, battery, voltage regulators etc.). The software allows both the verification of the rating co-ordination of all those parts composing the power

G. Colombo; U. Grasselli; A. De Luca; A. Spizzichino; S. Falzini

1997-01-01

469

Solar lunar power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current and projected technology is assessed for photovoltaic power for a lunar base. The following topics are discussed: requirements for power during the lunar day and night; solar cell efficiencies, specific power, temperature sensitivity, and availability; storage options for the lunar night; array and system integration; the potential for in situ production of photovoltaic arrays and storage medium.

Bailey, Sheila G.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

1994-01-01

470

Aircraft Electric Secondary Power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

1983-01-01

471

Prospects for Nuclear Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prospects for a revival of nuclear power were dim even before the partial reactor meltdowns at the Fukushima nuclear plant. Nuclear power has long been controversial because of concerns about nuclear accidents, proliferation risk, and the storage of spent fuel. These concerns are real and important. In addition, however, a key challenge for nuclear power has been the high

Lucas W. Davis

2011-01-01

472

Prospects for Nuclear Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear power has long been controversial because of concerns about nuclear accidents, storage of spent fuel, and how the spread of nuclear power might raise risks of the proliferation of nuclear weapons. These concerns are real and important. However, emphasizing these concerns implicitly suggests that unless these issues are taken into account, nuclear power would otherwise be cost effective compared

Lucas W. Davis

2012-01-01

473

High power fiber lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

High power fiber lasers are one of the hot topics in laser science and technology in recent years. The clad pumping of double clad fiber lasers was the key issue for high power performance in the last decade. The clad pumping scheme demonstrated more than 100 W from a single core fiber. A new concept of high power fiber lasers,

K. Ueda

2001-01-01

474

Comparative Assessment of Gasification Based Coal Power Plants with Various CO2 Capture Technologies Producing Electricity and Hydrogen  

PubMed Central

Seven different types of gasification-based coal conversion processes for producing mainly electricity and in some cases hydrogen (H2), with and without carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, were compared on a consistent basis through simulation studies. The flowsheet for each process was developed in a chemical process simulation tool Aspen Plus. The pressure swing adsorption (PSA), physical absorption (Selexol), and chemical looping combustion (CLC) technologies were separately analyzed for processes with CO2 capture. The performances of the above three capture technologies were compared with respect to energetic and exergetic efficiencies, and the level of CO2 emission. The effect of air separation unit (ASU) and gas turbine (GT) integration on the power output of all the CO2 capture cases is assessed. Sensitivity analysis was carried out for the CLC process (electricity-only case) to examine the effect of temperature and water-cooling of the air reactor on the overall efficiency of the process. The results show that, when only electricity production in considered, the case using CLC technology has an electrical efficiency 1.3% and 2.3% higher than the PSA and Selexol based cases, respectively. The CLC based process achieves an overall CO2 capture efficiency of 99.9% in contrast to 89.9% for PSA and 93.5% for Selexol based processes. The overall efficiency of the CLC case for combined electricity and H2 production is marginally higher (by 0.3%) than Selexol and lower (by 0.6%) than PSA cases. The integration between the ASU and GT units benefits all three technologies in terms of electrical efficiency. Furthermore, our results suggest that it is favorable to operate the air reactor of the CLC process at higher temperatures with excess air supply in order to achieve higher power efficiency.

2014-01-01

475

Transient hardened power FETs  

SciTech Connect

N-channel power FETs offer significant advantages in power conditioning circuits. Similiarily to all MOS technologies, power FET devices are vulnerable to ionizing radiation, and are particularily susceptible to burn-out in high dose rate irradiations (>1E10 rads(Si)/sec.), which precludes their use in many military environments. This paper will summarize the physical mechanisms responsible for burn-out, and discuss various fabrication techniques designed to improve the transient hardness of power FETs. Power FET devices were fabricated with several of these techniques, and data will be presented which demonstrates that transient hardness levels in excess of 1E12 rads(Si)/sec. are easily achievable.

Dawes, W.R. Jr.; Fischer, T.A.; Huang, C.C.C.; Meyer, W.J.; Smith, C.S.; Blanchard, R.A.; Fortier, T.J.

1986-01-01

476

Multimegawatt space power reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to the need of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) and long range space exploration and extra-terrestrial basing by the National Air and Space Administration (NASA), concepts for nuclear power systems in the multi-megawatt levels are being designed and evaluated. The requirements for these power systems are being driven primarily by the need to minimize weight and maximize safety and reliability. This paper will discuss the present requirements for space based advanced power systems, technological issues associated with the development of these advanced nuclear power systems, and some of the concepts proposed for generating large amounts of power in space.

Dearien, J. A.; Whitbeck, J. F.

477

Power Simulator for Smartphones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to accurately estimate the power and energy dissipation of a smartphone, based on different running applications, has been a crucial demand for both mobile companies and mobile users. Pre-existing solutions are either calibrated for specific devices or lack accuracy due to the use of oversimplified power models or operating restrictions. The developed power simulator for smartphones described here is the first complete attempt to combine generalized power models together with sequential and parallel application execution algorithms and a user friendly graphical user interface in order to create a power

Gkolemis, Nikolaos

478

International Space Station Power Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation gives a general overview of the International Space Station Power Systems. The topics include: 1) The Basics of Power; 2) Space Power Systems Design Constraints; 3) Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems; 4) Energy Storage for Space Power Systems; 5) Challenges of Operating Power Systems in Earth Orbit; 6) and International Space Station Electrical Power System.

Propp, Timothy William

2001-01-01

479

Multimode power processor  

DOEpatents

In one embodiment, a power processor which operates in three modes: an inverter mode wherein power is delivered from a battery to an AC power grid or load; a battery charger mode wherein the battery is charged by a generator; and a parallel mode wherein the generator supplies power to the AC power grid or load in parallel with the battery. In the parallel mode, the system adapts to arbitrary non-linear loads. The power processor may operate on a per-phase basis wherein the load may be synthetically transferred from one phase to another by way of a bumpless transfer which causes no interruption of power to the load when transferring energy sources. Voltage transients and frequency transients delivered to the load when switching between the generator and battery sources are minimized, thereby providing an uninterruptible power supply. The power processor may be used as part of a hybrid electrical power source system which may contain, in one embodiment, a photovoltaic array, diesel engine, and battery power sources.

O'Sullivan, George A. (Pottersville, NJ); O'Sullivan, Joseph A. (St. Louis, MO)

1999-01-01

480

Multimode power processor  

DOEpatents

In one embodiment, a power processor which operates in three modes: an inverter mode wherein power is delivered from a battery to an AC power grid or load; a battery charger mode wherein the battery is charged by a generator; and a parallel mode wherein the generator supplies power to the AC power grid or load in parallel with the battery. In the parallel mode, the system adapts to arbitrary non-linear loads. The power processor may operate on a per-phase basis wherein the load may be synthetically transferred from one phase to another by way of a bumpless transfer which causes no interruption of power to the load when transferring energy sources. Voltage transients and frequency transients delivered to the load when switching between the generator and battery sources are minimized, thereby providing an uninterruptible power supply. The power processor may be used as part of a hybrid electrical power source system which may contain, in one embodiment, a photovoltaic array, diesel engine, and battery power sources. 31 figs.

O'Sullivan, G.A.; O'Sullivan, J.A.

1999-07-27

481

Optimal reactive power allocation  

SciTech Connect

A systematic procedure is developed to locate reactive power devices in a power system based on a set of indices, that are based on overall system conditions. After identifying the desired locations, the cost of installation and number of reactive power devices, subject to any required practical and real economic constraints are minimized. Existing controller are fully utilized before adding any new devices. Linearized sensitivity relationships of power systems are used to obtain an objective function for minimizing the cost of installation. The constraints include the limits on dependent variables (reactive powers of the generators, load bus voltages) and control variables (generator voltages, tap positions, switchable reactive power sources). A parametric linear programming technique based on active set analysis is proposed to solve the reactive power allocation problem.

Venkataramana, A.; Carr, J.; Ramshaw, R.S.

1987-02-01

482

Matter power spectrum 101  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We modify the public PM code developed by Anatoly Klypin and Jon Holtzman to simulate cosmologies with arbitrary initial power spectrum and equation of state of dark energy. With this tool in hand, we perform the following studies on the matter power spectrum. With an artificial sharp peak at k ~ 0.2 h Mpc -1 in the initial power spectrum, we find that the position of the peak is not shifted by nonlinear evolution. An upper limit of the shift at the level of 0.02% is achieved by fitting the power spectrum local to the peak using a power law plus a Gaussian. This implies that, for any practical purpose, the baryon acoustic oscillation peaks in the matter power spectrum are not shifted by nonlinear evolution which would otherwise bias the cosmological distance estimation. We also find that the existence of a peak in the linear power spectrum would boost the nonlinear power at all scales evenly. This is contrary to what HKLM scaling relation predicts, but roughly consistent with that of halo model. We construct two dark energy models with the same linear power spectra today but different linear growth histories. We demonstrate that their nonlinear power spectra differ at the level of the maximum deviation of the corresponding linear power spectra in the past. Similarly, two constructed dark energy models with the same growth histories result in consistent nonlinear power spectra. This is hinting, not a proof, that linear power spectrum together with linear growth history uniquely determine the nonlinear power spectrum. Based on these results, we propose that linear growth history be included in the next generation fitting formulas of the nonlinear power spectrum. For simple dark energy models parametrized by w 0 and w a , the existing nonlinear power spectrum fitting formulas, which are calibrated for ACDM model, work reasonably well. The corrections needed are at percent level for the power spectrum and 10% level for the derivative of the power spectrum. We find that, for Peacock & Dodds (1996) fitting formula, the corrections to the derivative of the power spectrum are independent of w a but changing with redshift. As a short term solution, a fitting form could be developed for w 0 , w a models based on this fact.

Ma, Zhaoming

483

Trace-element characterization of evidential cannabis sative samples using k{sub 0}-standardization methodology  

SciTech Connect

The University of Florida Training Reactor (UFTR) facilities including the analytical laboratory are used for a wide range of educational, research, training, and service functions. The UFTR is a 100-kW light-water-cooled, graphite-and-water-moderated modified Argonaut-type reactor. The UFTR utilizes high enriched plate-type fuel in a two-slab arrangement and operates at a 100-kW power level. Since first licensed to operate at 10 kW in 1959, this nonpower reactor facility has had an active but evolving record of continuous service to a wide range of academic, utility, and community users. The services of the UFTR have also been used by various state authorities in criminal investigations. Because of its relatively low power and careful laboratory analyses, the UFTR neutron flux characteristics in several ports are not only well characterized but they are also quite invariant with time. As a result, such a facility is well-suited to the application of the multielement analysis using the k{sub o}-standardization method of neutron activation analysis. The analysis of untreated evidential botanical samples presented a unique opportunity to demonstrate implementation of this method at the UFTR facilities.

Henderson, D.P. Jr.; Vernetson, W.G.; Ratner, R.T. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

484

Power Quality Aspects in a Wind Power Plant: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Although many operational aspects affect wind power plant operation, this paper focuses on power quality. Because a wind power plant is connected to the grid, it is very important to understand the sources of disturbances that affect the power quality.

Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Chacon, J.; Romanowitz, H.

2006-01-01

485

Economic reactive power compensation of the railway power line  

Microsoft Academic Search

An economic reactive power compensation approach for the railway power line is proposed in this paper. With simulation based on PSCAD\\/EMTDC platform, the peculiarity of only inductive reactive power compensation is needed for the power through line revealed, which means dynamic compensation devices are not necessary, although the reactive power characteristic of the all cable power through line switches between

Yao Duan; Yumin Xiong; Buhan Zhang; Yan Li; Jianming Sun

2010-01-01

486

Power Subscription Strategy.  

SciTech Connect

This document lays out the Bonneville Power Administration`s ``Power Subscription Strategy,`` a process that will enable the people of the Pacific Northwest to share the benefits of the Federal Columbia river Power System after 2001 while retaining those benefits within the region for future generations. The strategy also addresses how those who receive the benefits of the region`s low-cost federal power should share a corresponding measure of the risks. This strategy seeks to implement the subscription concept created by the Comprehensive Review in 1996 through contracts for the sale of power and the distribution of federal power benefits in the deregulated wholesale electricity market. The success of the subscription process is fundamental to BPA`s overall business purpose to provide public benefits to the Northwest through commercially successful businesses.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1998-12-21

487

Peak power ratio generator  

DOEpatents

A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

Moyer, Robert D. (Albuquerque, NM)

1985-01-01

488

Power from groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power can be generated from groundwater by pumping water from one or more bores and passing this discharge to a hydro power station located at an elevation below the bore water level. Given a suitable hydrogeological environment, a small groundwater power system should be more robust against dry periods than a stream-based scheme of the same size. This is relevant, for example, for isolated islands where no single stream may provide a sufficiently large and consistent discharge for normal hydropower generation. Large groundwater power schemes may be possible in particular topographic and geological configurations in high-rainfall environments. The aquifer here plays the role of a storage lake so land inundation can be avoided. Potential groundwater power sites will have to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis using numerical models, but simple expressions for preliminary power estimates can be derived for situations where the Dupuit approximation applies.

Bardsley, W. E.

1994-10-01

489

Solar power towers  

SciTech Connect

The high desert near Barstow, California, has witnessed the development of this country`s first two solar power towers. Solar One operated successfully from 1982 to 1988 and proved that power towers work efficiently to produce utility-scale power from sunlight. Solar Two was connected to the utility grid in 1996 and is operating today. Like its predecessor, Solar Two is rated at 10 megawatts. An upgrade of the Solar One plant, Solar Two demonstrates how solar energy can be stored in the form of heat in molten salt for power generation on demand. The experience gained with these two pilot power towers has established a foundation on which industry can develop its first commercial plants. These systems produce electricity on a large scale. They are unique among solar technologies because they can store energy efficiently and cost effectively. They can operate whenever the customer needs power, even after dark or during cloudy weather.

Not Available

1998-04-01

490

Power subsystem automation study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the phase 2 of the power subsystem automation study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using computer software to manage an aspect of the electrical power subsystem on a space station. The state of the art in expert systems software was investigated in this study. This effort resulted in the demonstration of prototype expert system software for managing one aspect of a simulated space station power subsystem.

Tietz, J. C.; Sewy, D.; Pickering, C.; Sauers, R.

1984-01-01

491