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1

Nano Waterproofing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson focuses on how nanotechnology has impacted the design and engineering of many everyday items from paint to fabrics. Learners explore the hydrophobic effect and how similar properties can be introduced by reengineering products at the nano level. Learners work in teams to develop a waterproof material and compare their results with nano waterproof materials developed recently by engineers and scientists.

IEEE

2013-07-30

2

Simplified Waterproofing of Aerogels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A relatively simple silanization process has been developed for waterproofing or rewaterproofing aerogels, xerogels, and aerogel/tile composites, and other, similar low-density, highly microporous materials. Such materials are potentially attractive for a variety of applications especially for thermal-insulation panels that are required to be thin and lightweight. Unfortunately, such materials are also hydrophilic and tend to collapse after adsorbing water from the air. Hence, an effective means of waterproofing is necessary to enable practical exploitation of aerogels and the like. Older processes for waterproofing aerogels are time-consuming, labor-intensive, and expensive, relative to the present process. Each of the older processes includes a number of different chemical treatment steps, and some include the use of toxic halogenated surface-modifying compounds, pressures as high as hundreds of atmospheres, and/or temperatures as high as 1,000 C.

Hsu, Ming-Ta S.; Chen, Timothy S.; White, Susan; Rasky, Daniel J.

2003-01-01

3

Method for Waterproofing Ceramic Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hygroscopic ceramic materials which are difficult to waterproof with a silane, substituted silane or silazane waterproofing agent, such as an alumina containing fibrous, flexible and porous, fibrous ceramic insulation used on a reentry space vehicle, are rendered easy to waterproof if the interior porous surface of the ceramic is first coated with a thin coating of silica. The silica coating is achieved by coating the interior surface of the ceramic with a silica precursor converting the precursor to silica either in-situ or by oxidative pyrolysis and then applying the waterproofing agent to the silica coated ceramic. The silica precursor comprises almost any suitable silicon containing material such as a silane, silicone, siloxane, silazane and the like applied by solution, vapor deposition and the like. If the waterproofing is removed by e.g., burning, the silica remains and the ceramic is easily rewaterproofed. An alumina containing TABI insulation which absorbs more that five times its weight of water, absorbs less than 10 wt. % water after being waterproofed according to the method of the invention.

Cagliostro, Domenick E. (Inventor); Hsu, Ming-Ta S. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

4

TryEngineering: Nano Waterproofing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson plan that explores how nanotechnology has impacted the design and engineering of many everyday items, from paint to fabrics. Students learn about the hydrophobic effect (the tendency of a substance to repel water). In this lesson for Grades 6-10, students learn about nanotechnology and its application in creating waterproof surfaces. They will then work in teams to develop a waterproof material and compare their results with nano waterproof materials developed recently by engineers and scientists. The driving question of the lesson: How are products re-engineered at the nano level to develop desired properties? The lesson includes objectives and learner outcomes, problem sets, student guides, recommended reading, illustrated procedures, worksheets, and background information. Editor's Note: The humble lotus leaf is one of nature's most water-repellant surfaces. That's because its surface sculpture has a very high static contact angle with water droplets. It features randomly oriented tiny wax tubules on top of convex-shaped cells. See Related Materials for links to an article from Scientific American describing how the lotus leaf has inspired the production of waterproofing materials, and for a link to a helpful scholarly article on Sculptured Biological Surfaces with Anti-Adhesive Properties. This collection is part of TryEngineering.org, a website maintained by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

5

Aerogel Composites: Strong and Waterproof  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerogels are exotic materials having superior thermal and physical properties with great potential for both space and industrial uses. Although aerogels are excellent low-density insulators with unique acoustic and optical properties, their commercialization potential is currently limited by moisture absorption, fragility, and cost. This paper describes useful, easily scaled-up solutions to the first two of these three problems. The waterproofing and water-repellent method described here is a cheaper and simpler improvement over previous permanent methods.

White, Susan; Hsu, Ming-ta; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

6

Organopolysiloxane Waterproofing Treatment for Porous Ceramics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rigid and flexible porous ceramics, including thermal insulation of a type used on space vehicles, are waterproofed by a treatment which comprises applying an aqueous solution of an organopolysiloxane water-proofing agent having reactive silanol groups to the surface of the ceramic and then heating the treated ceramic to form a waterproofed ceramic. The organopolysiloxane is formed by the hydrolysis and partial condensation of di- and trialkoxyfunctional alkylalkoxysilanes having 1-10 carbon atom hydrocarbyl groups.

Leiser, Daniel B. (Inventor); Cagliostro, Domenick E. (Inventor); Hsu, Ming-ta S. (Inventor); Chen, Timothy S. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

7

Waterproofing Nanostructured Aerogel-Ceramic Fiber Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerogels are nanoporous materials which can be used to enhance the transport properties of ceramic fiber materials, to exploit their unique properties such as high porosity, large surface area, low density and low thermal conductivity. Numerous applications have been investigated. major obstacle to commercialization is that the structure of aerogels collapses due to the adsorption of water. simple and relatively cheap process has been developed to waterproof silica, alumina and alumina-silica and carbon aerogels and composites incorporating them. Previous waterproofing methods are short lived or expensive and time consuming.

White, Susan; Hsu, Ming Ta; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

8

Waterproof Raised Floor Makes Utility Lines Accessible  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Floor for laboratories, hospitals and factories waterproof yet allows access to subfloor utilities. Elevated access floor system designed for installations with multitude of diverse utility systems routed under and up through floor and requirement of separation of potentially conflicting utility services. Floor covered by continuous sheet of heat resealable vinyl. Floor system cut open when changes are made in utility lines and ducts. After modifications, floor covering resealed to protect subfloor utilities from spills and leaks.

Cohen, M. M.

1984-01-01

9

TryEngineering: Waterproof that Roof!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson plan on surface engineering, developed to help teachers integrate engineering practices in the secondary classroom. Students learn about nanotechnology and its application in developing hydrophobic surfaces. (Hydrophobicity is a physical property, and is defined as the tendency of a molecule to repel water.) Students work in teams to to design a roof from simple materials that will keep the contents of a box dry during a water test. The driving question of the lesson: How do civil engineers apply principles of nanotechnology to develop waterproof roofs? This resource includes objectives and learner outcomes, problem sets, student guides, recommended reading, illustrated procedures, worksheets, and background information. This collection is part of TryEngineering.org, a website maintained by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Editor's Note: Hydrophobic molecules tend to be non-polar, whereas H2O is a polar molecule. Examples of hydophobic molecules include oils and fats. But as the size of objects is reduced to the nanoscale, the effects of surface properties become even more pronounced. To extend this lesson, see Related Materials for an article by the Nanoterra Group that provides information on newer applications of nanotechnology in surface design.

10

Possible Concepts for Waterproofing of Norwegian TBM Railway Tunnels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to evaluate and compare the durability, life expectancy and maintenance needs of traditional Norwegian waterproofing concepts to the generally more rigid waterproofing concepts seen in other European countries. The focus will be on solutions for future Norwegian tunnel boring machine railway tunnels. Experiences from operation of newer and older tunnels with different waterproofing concepts have been gathered and analyzed. In the light of functional requirements for Norwegian rail tunnels, some preliminary conclusions about suitable concepts are drawn. Norwegian concepts such as polyethylene panels and lightweight concrete segments with membrane are ruled out. European concepts involving double shell draining systems (inner shell of cast concrete with membrane) and single shell undrained systems (waterproof concrete segments) are generally evaluated as favorable. Sprayable membranes and waterproof/insulating shotcrete are welcomed innovations, but more research is needed to verify their reliability and cost effectiveness compared to the typical European concepts. Increasing traffic and reliance on public transport systems in Norway result in high demand for durable and cost effective solutions.

Dammyr, Øyvind; Nilsen, Bjørn; Thuro, Kurosch; Grøndal, Jørn

2014-05-01

11

Waterproof Silicone Coatings of Thermal Insulation and Vaporization Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal insulation composed of porous ceramic material can be waterproofed by producing a thin silicone film on the surface of the insulation by exposing it to volatile silicone precursors at ambient conditions. When the silicone precursor reactants are multi-functional siloxanes or silanes containing alkenes or alkynes carbon groups higher molecular weight films can be produced. Catalyst are usually required for the silicone precursors to react at room temperature to form the films. The catalyst are particularly useful in the single component system e.g. dimethylethoxysilane (DNMS) to accelerate the reaction and decrease the time to waterproof and protect the insulation. In comparison to other methods, the chemical vapor technique assures better control over the quantity and location of the film being deposited on the ceramic insulation to improve the waterproof coating.

Cagliostro, Domenick E. (Inventor)

1999-01-01

12

16 CFR 24.3 - Misuse of the terms “waterproof,” “dustproof,” “warpproof,” “scuffproof,” “scratchproof,” “scuff...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...IMITATION LEATHER PRODUCTS § 24.3 Misuse of the terms “waterproof,” “dustproof,” “warpproof,” “scuffproof,” “scratchproof... It is unfair or deceptive to: (a) Use the term “Waterproof” to describe all or part of an industry...

2011-01-01

13

16 CFR 24.3 - Misuse of the terms “waterproof,” “dustproof,” “warpproof,” “scuffproof,” “scratchproof,” “scuff...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...IMITATION LEATHER PRODUCTS § 24.3 Misuse of the terms “waterproof,” “dustproof,” “warpproof,” “scuffproof,” “scratchproof... It is unfair or deceptive to: (a) Use the term “Waterproof” to describe all or part of an industry...

2010-01-01

14

The influences of gypsum water-proofing additive on gypsum crystal growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gypsum water-proofing additives were composed of organic emulsion that were emulsified by polyvinyl alcohol and stearic acid and saline water-proofing additive made of alunite, carboxylic acid sodium, aluminium sulfate, etc. Using modern testing instrument, such as SEM, EPS, the influences of gypsum water-proofing additives on the crystal growth of gypsum products and its water-proof mechanism were analyzed from the

Jianquan Li; Guozhong Li; Yanzhen Yu

2007-01-01

15

PVC waterproofing membranes and alkali-aggregated reaction in dams  

SciTech Connect

A waterproofing polyvinylchloride (PVC) based geocomposite was installed on two dams subject to alkali-aggregate reaction, to eliminate water intrusion and to protect the facing from further deterioration. The installation system allows drainage of the infiltrated water, thus accomplishing dehydration of the dam body. On one dam, the membrane also provided protection for future slot cutting.

Scuero, A.M. [C.A.R.P.I. Technologies SA, Lugano (Czech Republic)

1995-12-31

16

Hermetic sealing in bridge engineering and culvert waterproofing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems connected with the reliability of waterproofing and hermetic sealing of the expansion dams and couplings of separate\\u000a units in bridge constructions are considered. In the author’s opinion, the most reliable material for this purpose is mastics\\u000a and self-adhesive materials of the Abris type.

O. A. Lukinsky

2011-01-01

17

New Approaches to Waterproofing of Space Shuttle Insulating Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future reusable space vehicles will be in service much more frequently than current space shuttles. Therefore, rapid reconditioning of spacecraft will be required. Currently, the waterproofing of space shuttles after each re-entry takes 72 hours and requires substantial labor. In addition, the currently used waterproofing reagent, DiMethylEthoxySilane (DMES), is considered toxic, and ethanol fumes are released during its hydrolytic activation. Consequently, a long time period, which is not acceptable for future operations, is needed to ensure that 0 the excess volatile compounds are removed before further maintenance of the space vehicle can be performed. The objective of this project was to assist NASA Ames in finding improved waterproofing systems by identifying suitable waterproofing agents that can be applied by vapor phase deposition and will be less toxic, bond more rapidly to the insulation material surface, and potentially have higher thermal stability than the DMES system. Several approaches to achieve faster waterproofing with less toxicity were assessed using the following alternatives: Reactive volatile compounds that are rapidly deposited by chemical bonding at the surface and leave no toxic volatiles. Reactive reagents that are the least toxic. Nonvolatile reagents that are very reactive and bond strongly to the insulating material surface. Three specific types of potential reagents were chosen for evaluation in this project: 1. Volatile reagents with Si-Cl functional groups for vapor deposition 2. Volatile reagents with Si-H functional groups for vapor deposition 3. Nonvolatile oligomeric or polymeric reactive siloxanes that are assumed to have higher thermal stability and/or strong bonding to the insulating material. The chemistry involved in the project was targeted at the generation of intermediates having reactive Si-OH bonds for the formation of either volatile species or polymeric species that bond rapidly to the surface and also cure rapidly. We focused on two chemical reactions@-hydrolysis of Si-Cl bonds and catalytic dehydrocoupling of Si-H bonds.

Blum, Yigal D.; Johnson, Sylvia M.; Chen, Paul

1997-01-01

18

Efficient, environmentally acceptable method for waterproofing insulation material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process of waterproofing alumina-rich or silica-rich fibrous thermal insulation material, the process including the steps of: (a) providing an alumina-rich or a silica-rich fibrous material; (b) providing a waterproofing solution including: (1) a carrier solvent selected from the group consisting of aliphatic alcohols having from 1C to 6C, water, and mixtures thereof; and (2) an alkoxysilane defined by the formula R.sub.4-x -Si-(O-R').sub.x where x is 1-3 and R is selected from the group consisting of alkyl groups having from 1C to 10C, hydrogen, or fluorocarbon groups having from 1F to 15F; and where O-R' is an alkoxy group having from 1C to 5C, or a mixture of alkoxysilanes defined by the above formula R.sub.4-x -Si-(O-R').sub.x ; and optionally (3) modifiers including acids, such as acetic acid or nitric acid, or bases, such as ammonium hydroxide, RNH.sub.2, R.sub.2 NH, or R.sub.3 N, or MOH, where R is selected from the group consisting of alkyl groups having from 1C to 10C or hydrogen, and where M=Na, Li, or K; (c) contacting the fibrous material with the waterproofing solution for a sufficient amount of time to waterproof the fibrous material; and (d) curing the coated fibrous material to render it sufficiently waterproof. A chemical solution for waterproofing alumina-rich or silica-rich fibrous thermal insulation materials, the solution including: (a) a carrier solvent selected from the group consisting of aliphatic alcohols having from 1C to 6C, water, and mixtures thereof; and (b) an alkoxysilane defined by the formula R.sub.4-x -Si-(O-R').sub.x where x is 1-3 and R is selected from the group consisting of alkyl groups having from 1C to 10C, hydrogen, or fluorocarbon groups having from 1F to 15F; and where O-R' is an alkoxy group having from 1C to 5C, or a mixture of alkoxysilanes defined by the above formula R.sub.4-x -Si-(O-R').sub.x ; and optionally (c) modifiers including acids, such as acetic acid or nitric acid, or bases, such as ammonium hydroxide, RNH.sub.2, R.sub.2 NH, or R.sub.3 N, or MOH, where R is selected from the group consisting of alkyl groups having from 1C to 10C or hydrogen, and where M=Na, Li, or K.

Blohowiak, Kay Y. (Inventor); Krienke, Kenneth A. (Inventor); Olli, Larry K. (Inventor); Newquist, Charles W. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

19

Microstructural Observation and Simulation of Polymer Cement Waterproofing Membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A polymer-modified cement waterproofing membrane is formed by simultaneous cement hydration and polymer film formation, these rates are affected by the moisture content of the polymer emulsion used. The moisture content gradually decreases due to cement hydration and evaporation from the surface. This study focused on the changes caused in the waterproof layer by differences in the moisture environment. Four test pieces with different cement, polymer, and moisture contents were prepared and cured at 20 °C and relative humidities of 25, 60, and 98 %. The basic physical properties of the test pieces were studied in tensile tests; the structures were observed using an EPMA. Furthermore a simulation was carried out using a model that considers cement hydration, polymer film formation, and moisture evaporation rate. The simulation results well reproduced the experimental results.

Tsukagoshi, Masayuki; Tanaka, Kyoji

20

The fatty acyl-CoA reductase Waterproof mediates airway clearance in Drosophila.  

PubMed

The transition from a liquid to a gas filled tubular network is the prerequisite for normal function of vertebrate lungs and invertebrate tracheal systems. However, the mechanisms underlying the process of gas filling remain obscure. Here we show that waterproof, encoding a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR), is essential for the gas filling of the tracheal tubes during Drosophila embryogenesis, and does not affect branch network formation or key tracheal maturation processes. However, electron microscopic analysis reveals that in waterproof mutant embryos the formation of the outermost tracheal cuticle sublayer, the envelope, is disrupted and the hydrophobic tracheal coating is damaged. Genetic and gain-of-function experiments indicate a non-cell-autonomous waterproof function for the beginning of the tracheal gas filling process. Interestingly, Waterproof reduces very long chain fatty acids of 24 and 26 carbon atoms to fatty alcohols. Thus, we propose that Waterproof plays a key role in tracheal gas filling by providing very long chain fatty alcohols that serve as potential substrates for wax ester synthesis or related hydrophobic substances that ultimately coat the inner lining of the trachea. The hydrophobicity in turn reduces the tensile strength of the liquid inside the trachea, leading to the formation of a gas bubble, the focal point for subsequent gas filling. Waterproof represents the first enzyme described to date that is necessary for tracheal gas filling without affecting branch morphology. Considering its conservation throughout evolution, Waterproof orthologues may play a similar role in the vertebrate lung. PMID:24183938

Jaspers, Martin H J; Pflanz, Ralf; Riedel, Dietmar; Kawelke, Steffen; Feussner, Ivo; Schuh, Reinhard

2014-01-01

21

Waterproofed Photomultiplier Tube Assemblies for the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment  

E-print Network

In the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment 960 20-cm-diameter waterproof photomultiplier tubes are used to instrument three water pools as Cherenkov detectors for detecting cosmic-ray muons. Of these 960 photomultiplier tubes, 341 are recycled from the MACRO experiment. A systematic program was undertaken to refurbish them as waterproof assemblies. In the context of passing the water leakage check, a success rate better than 97% was achieved. Details of the design, fabrication, testing, operation, and performance of these waterproofed photomultiplier-tube assemblies are presented.

Chow, Ken; Edwards, Emily; Edwards, William; Ely, Ry; Hoff, Matthew; Lebanowski, Logan; Li, Bo; Li, Piyi; Lin, Shih-Kai; Liu, Dawei; Liu, Jinchang; Luk, Kam-Biu; Miao, Jiayuan; Napolitano, Jim; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Peng, Jen-Chieh; Qi, Ming; Steiner, Herbert; Stoler, Paul; Stuart, Mary; Wang, Lingyu; Yang, Changgen; Zhong, Weili

2015-01-01

22

Waterproofed Photomultiplier Tube Assemblies for the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment  

E-print Network

In the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment 960 20-cm-diameter waterproof photomultiplier tubes are used to instrument three water pools as Cherenkov detectors for detecting cosmic-ray muons. Of these 960 photomultiplier tubes, 341 are recycled from the MACRO experiment. A systematic program was undertaken to refurbish them as waterproof assemblies. In the context of passing the water leakage check, a success rate better than 97% was achieved. Details of the design, fabrication, testing, operation, and performance of these waterproofed photomultiplier-tube assemblies are presented.

Ken Chow; John Cummings; Emily Edwards; William Edwards; Ry Ely; Matthew Hoff; Logan Lebanowski; Bo Li; Piyi Li; Shih-Kai Lin; Dawei Liu; Jinchang Liu; Kam-Biu Luk; Jiayuan Miao; Jim Napolitano; Juan Pedro Ochoa-Ricoux; Jen-Chieh Peng; Ming Qi; Herbert Steiner; Paul Stoler; Mary Stuart; Lingyu Wang; Changgen Yang; Weili Zhong

2015-02-23

23

Laboratory analysis of protective waterproof membranes according to their degree of watertightness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attention is paid to the problems of the protective waterproof membranes of sloping roofs. The article presents a laboratory analysis of protective waterproof membranes according to their deree of watertightness. The laboratory analysis consists of 3 kinds of laboratory measurements: watertightness by a method of constant loading by a water column, watertightness by the method of a maximal water column up to 1500 mm, and watertightness by a dynamic method through rain simulation.

Kajan, I.

2011-03-01

24

The silkmoth cocoon as humidity trap and waterproof barrier.  

PubMed

To better understand how silkmoth cocoons maintain the correct internal moisture levels for successful pupation, we examined cocoons from the long-domesticated mulberry silkmoth Bombyx mori as well as from two wild silkmoth species, Antheraea pernyi and Philosamia cynthia ricini. We determined fluid-independent values for the porosity, tortuosity and permeability of the inner and outer surfaces of cocoons. Permeabilities were low and, with the exception of A. pernyi cocoons, inner surfaces were less permeable than outer surfaces. B. mori cocoons exhibited the highest permeability overall, but only at the outer surface, while A. pernyi cocoons appeared to show different patterns from the other species tested. We discuss our findings in light of the ecophysiology of the various species and propose a 'tortuous path' model to help explain our results. The model describes how the structure of the inner and outer layers of the cocoon allows it to function as both a humidity trap and a waterproof barrier, providing optimum conditions for the successful development of the pupa. PMID:23388210

Horrocks, Nicholas P C; Vollrath, Fritz; Dicko, Cedric

2013-04-01

25

Effect of Waterproofing Admixtures on the Flexural Strength and Corrosion Resistance of Concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals about the flexural strength and corrosion behaviour of concrete using waterproofing admixtures. The effect of waterproofing admixtures on the corrosion behaviour of RCC specimen has been studied by conducting accelerated corrosion test. To identify the effect of corrosion in pull out strength, corrosion process was induced by means of accelerated corrosion procedure. To accelerate the reinforcement corrosion, direct electric current was impressed on the rebar embedded in the specimen using a DC power supply system that has a facility to adjust voltage. The addition of waterproofing admixtures also shows the improvement in the flexural strength of concrete has been studied by conducting flexural strength tests on the concrete prism specimen of size 100 × 100 × 500 mm with and without admixtures for various dosages and various curing periods of 7 and 28 days. The results showed that the presence of waterproofing admixtures always improves the corrosion resistance and thus increases the strength of concrete due to the hydrophobic action of waterproofing admixtures.

Geetha, A.; Perumal, P.

2012-02-01

26

Application of new concept waterproofing in Xiang'an undersea tunnel, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a kind of transportation mode for crossing channels, undersea tunnel has incomparable advantages for its directness, convenience, fastness, insusceptibility to weather conditions, and smaller influences on environments. In recent years, with the development of undersea tunnel construction, the design and construction technologies have been greatly enhanced. The first undersea tunnel in China has just been built. Waterproofing is the key technique of undersea tunneling. A new concept of waterproofing scheme of grouting, sealing, draining and divided sections was adopted in the construction of the tunnel based on the researches, the in-situ geological features, the astuteness of the current technology, and the cost of construction. The structural details of the sealing and draining system are introduced to illustrate the salient features of the new waterproofing technique. It is hoped that experiences described in the paper can offer guidance for the construction of the extensive undersea tunnels in the coming years.

Chen, Tie-lin; Zhang, Ding-li; Zeng, Chao; Ying, Guo-gang

2013-03-01

27

Waterproof Anti-Explosive Powders for Coal Mines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Limestone powder characterized by hydrophobic properties is used as an anti-explosive agent in coal mining industry. Unfortunately, the standard method of producing such powder by milling limestone with stearic acid is practically unprofitable in many modernized quarries and plants, and sometimes literally impossible due to the introduction of technological changes and implementation of modern mills. Then new methods of hydrophobization of limestone surfaces ought be searched. In the work two methods hydrophobization: from the stearic acid vapour phase and from silicone solutions are proposed. Lime dust from the Czatkowice Quarry of Lime was used as a raw material during investigations. It is a good agent for research because it is possible to compare the properties of samples modified in this work to the properties of anti-explosive lime powder (Polish Standard, 1994) used in mining industry in Poland. The first technique of limestone powder hydrophobization was carried out in an apparatus of own design (Vogt, 2008, 2011), and it consisted in free sedimentation of the powder layer dispersed by stearic acid vapour in powder counter current flow. The second way of modification consisted in mixing in the evaporating dish substrates: limestone powder and dope - silicone solution - Sarsil® H-15 (Vogt & Opali?ski, 2009; Vogt & Ho?ownia, 2010). Evaluation of properties so-obtained waterproof powders was carried out according to the Polish Standard, as well as using original powder determination ways, with the Powder Characteristic Tester (Index tables, Tablets & Capsules, 2005). Moreover water vapour adsorption isotherms were obtained and the thermal decomposition of powder was made. All modified samples acquired the hydrophobic character. Therefore we can state that the both proposed methods of hydrophobization of the limestone powder are useful. The parameters obtained with the use of Powder Characteristics Tester enable us to make a characterization of limestone properties not only as a water resistant material but also from the cohesion point of view. On the base of TG, DTG or DTA and EGA curves for all investigated materials was stated that the character of the thermal decomposition of modified samples is the same as this one for raw powder, what is profitable for application of hydrophobized powders as an anti-explosive agent. W górnictwie w?gla kamiennego u?ywany jest hydrofobowy py? wapienny jako substancja stosowana w systemie zabezpiecze? przeciwwybuchowych (Cybulski, 2004). Niestety, dotychczasowy sposób wy- twarzania takiego produktu polegaj?cy na wspó?mieleniu kamienia wapiennego z kwasem stearynowym staje si? praktycznie niemo?liwy do stosowania w nowoczesnych zak?adach np. kamienio?omy. Sytuacja taka jest wynikiem wprowadzania zmian technologicznych, g?ównie zwi?zanych z wymian? starych konstrukcji m?ynów na nowe urz?dzenia. Tym samym istnieje potrzeba poszukiwania nowych metod hydrofobizacji powierzchni py?ów wapiennych. W pracy omówiono dwie nowe metody hydrofobizacji py?u wapiennego: za pomoc? par kwasu stearynowego oraz roztworu silikonowego - Sarsil® H-15. Podczas bada? u?ywano surowego py?u wapiennego pochodz?cego z Kopalni Kamienia Wapiennego w Czatkowicach. Materia? ten jest dobrym materia?em do bada? gdy? istnieje mo?liwo?? porównywania w?a?ciwo?ci materia?ów hydrofobowych otrzymanych w pracy z w?a?ciwo?ciami handlowego py?u przeciwwybuchowego (Polska Norma, 1994), u?ywanego w polskich kopalniach. Pierwszy sposób hydrofobizacji py?u wapiennego, polegaj?cy na swobodnym opadaniu py?u wapiennego w oparach kwasu stearynowego przep?ywaj?cych w przeciwpr?dzie, przeprowadzono w aparacie w?asnej konstrukcji (Vogt, 2008, 2011). Aparat gwarantuje dobry kontakt modyfikatora z ziarnami py?u. Py? opadaj?c, nie napotyka ?adnych przeszkód ulega? rozproszeniu, a wprowadzony w stanie parowym kwas stearynowy mo?e swobodnie osiada? na jego powierzchni zewn?trznej oraz penetrowa? w g??b porów, blokuj?c je dla wilgoci. Drugi sposób hydrofo

Buczek, Bronis?aw; Vogt, El?bieta

2014-03-01

28

AMER. ZOOL., 38:471-482 (1998) Water-Proofing Properties of Cuticular Lipids1  

E-print Network

AMER. ZOOL., 38:471-482 (1998) Water-Proofing Properties of Cuticular Lipids1 ALLEN G. GIBBS2 of cuticular lipids appear to depend largely on their physical properties. In most arthropods, rates of water) that the transition in water loss rate is due to a change in the properties of the lipid layer. Specifically

Ahmad, Sajjad

1998-01-01

29

Bored By Non-Glowing Skin? Ultra-Flexible, Waterproof LED Implants Are What You Seek  

E-print Network

Bored By Non-Glowing Skin? Ultra-Flexible, Waterproof LED Implants Are What You Seek By Alasdair Wilkins/io9 Posted 10.19.2010 at 12:15 pm LED Lights Could Be Implanted Under Skin Photo courtesy of iO9 LEDs are, on small scales, the cheapest, most reliable, and most technologically powerful light sources

Rogers, John A.

30

Fire ants self-assemble into waterproof rafts to survive floods.  

PubMed

Why does a single fire ant Solenopsis invicta struggle in water, whereas a group can float effortlessly for days? We use time-lapse photography to investigate how fire ants S. invicta link their bodies together to build waterproof rafts. Although water repellency in nature has been previously viewed as a static material property of plant leaves and insect cuticles, we here demonstrate a self-assembled hydrophobic surface. We find that ants can considerably enhance their water repellency by linking their bodies together, a process analogous to the weaving of a waterproof fabric. We present a model for the rate of raft construction based on observations of ant trajectories atop the raft. Central to the construction process is the trapping of ants at the raft edge by their neighbors, suggesting that some "cooperative" behaviors may rely upon coercion. PMID:21518911

Mlot, Nathan J; Tovey, Craig A; Hu, David L

2011-05-10

31

Transient altitude-induced compartment syndrome associated with fiberglass casts using waterproof cast padding.  

PubMed

Changes in aircraft cabin pressure and its interplay with a fixed diameter fiberglass cylindrical cast and the closed air cells in waterproof cast padding may cause a transient altitude-induced compartment syndrome. In this case series, 2 patients reported transient compartment syndromes that resolved with aircraft decent. As proof of concept, this work displays photographic and video evidence showing the difference in air cell volume from experimental data in a vacuum chamber as well as real-world volume changes at cruise altitude in a commercial airliner. Transient altitude-induced compartment syndromes associated with fiberglass casts using waterproof cast padding are real and surgeons and patients should be advised of this potentially devastating complication. PMID:23431541

Kadzielski, John; Bae, Donald S

2013-01-01

32

Elevated waterproof access floor system and method of making the same  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An elevated waterproof access floor system having subfloor channels or compartments for power lines, gas lines or the like is adapted such that it can be opened and subsequently resealed without destroying the waterproofing and without destroying its aesthetic appearance. A multiplicity of tiles are supported on a support grid, and a flooring sheet is supported on the tiles. Attachment means are provided to prevent lateral but not vertical movement of the flooring sheet with respect to the tiles so that the flooring sheet can be lifted off the tiles, but when the flooring sheet is supported on the tiles, no lateral slipping will occur. The flooring sheet is made of a heat resealable material, so that it can be cut away in sections, and the tiles therebelow lifted off, to provide access to subfloor compartments.

Cohen, Marc M. (inventor)

1987-01-01

33

Fire ants self-assemble into waterproof rafts to survive floods  

PubMed Central

Why does a single fire ant Solenopsis invicta struggle in water, whereas a group can float effortlessly for days? We use time-lapse photography to investigate how fire ants S. invicta link their bodies together to build waterproof rafts. Although water repellency in nature has been previously viewed as a static material property of plant leaves and insect cuticles, we here demonstrate a self-assembled hydrophobic surface. We find that ants can considerably enhance their water repellency by linking their bodies together, a process analogous to the weaving of a waterproof fabric. We present a model for the rate of raft construction based on observations of ant trajectories atop the raft. Central to the construction process is the trapping of ants at the raft edge by their neighbors, suggesting that some “cooperative” behaviors may rely upon coercion. PMID:21518911

Mlot, Nathan J.; Tovey, Craig A.; Hu, David L.

2011-01-01

34

Loads on Sprayed Waterproof Tunnel Linings in Jointed Hard Rock: A Study Based on Norwegian Cases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A composite tunnel lining system based on a sprayed waterproofing membrane combined with sprayed concrete is currently being considered for future Norwegian rail and road tunnels. Possible loading of the tunnel linings caused by water pressure is being investigated. This tunnel lining system consists of a waterproof membrane which, during application on the sprayed concrete lining, bonds mechanically to the sprayed concrete on either side. Hence, a continuous, sealing, and non-draining structure from the rock mass to the interior tunnel surface is formed in the walls and crown. Experiences from some successful recent projects with this lining system in Europe are reviewed. However, these experiences are not directly comparable to the Scandinavian hard rock tunnel lining approach, which utilizes a relatively thin sprayed and irregular concrete layer for permanent lining. When considering the sprayed membrane and sprayed concrete composite lining concept, introducing a partially sealing and undrained element in the lining, the experiences with the traditionally used lining systems in Norway need to be reconsidered and fully understood. A review of several hard rock tunnels with adverse conditions, in which the tunnel lining has been subject to load monitoring, shows that only very small loads in the tunnel linings occur. Recent investigations with in situ water pressure testing, including two sites with the composite sprayed membrane in a partially drained waterproof tunnel lining, are discussed. In a case with a cavern located in a hydraulically saturated rock mass subjected to approximately 8 bar hydrostatic pressure, a negative pressure gradient towards the tunnel lining has been measured. The investigation results from the Norwegian test sites indicate that no significant loading of the tunnel lining takes place in a hydraulically saturated rock when applying this composite waterproof tunnel lining in parts of the tunnel perimeter.

Holter, Karl Gunnar

2014-05-01

35

Evaluation of the waterproof ability of a hydrophobic nickel micromesh with array-type microholes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrophobic nickel micromeshes with array-type circular holes were designed and fabricated, and their waterproof abilities with respect to the hole diameter were theoretically and experimentally evaluated. The hole diameter increased from 20 µm to 100 µm in steps of 10 µm, while the hole pitch was fixed at 200 µm. Photolithography and nickel electroforming processes were used to fabricate 10 µm thick nickel micromeshes. In order to enhance the waterproof ability of nickel micromeshes, a plasma-polymerized fluorocarbon (PPFC) layer was coated on the nickel micromeshes. The contact angle of the micromesh increased from 63° for the non-coated nickel flat film to 106° for the PPFC-coated film. The maximum allowable hydraulic pressure decreased as the hole size increased and was inversely proportional to the hole diameter. The micromesh with a hole diameter of 20 µm showed the highest waterproof performance, with a water height of 111 cm in the experiment. The measured maximum allowable hydraulic pressures were about 31% lower than the calculated pressures on average.

Lee, Sang Min; Oh, Dong Joon; Jung, Im Deok; Jung, Phill Gu; Hyo Chung, Kwang; Ick Jang, Won; Ko, Jong Soo

2009-12-01

36

Basic principles for the development of a common standardised method for determining the radon diffusion coefficient in waterproofing materials.  

PubMed

Paper presents the principles for unified test methods for determining the radon diffusion coefficient in waterproof materials in order to increase the accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility of the results. We consider this very important, because an assessment of the radon diffusion coefficient is required by several national technical standards when waterproofing acts as a radon-proof membrane. The requirements for key parameters for one test method performed under non-stationary conditions and for two methods performed under stationary conditions are described in this paper. PMID:22245288

Jiránek, Martin; Rovenská, Kate?ina

2012-04-01

37

Does long term exposure to radon gas influence the properties of polymeric waterproof materials?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technical state of buildings and the quality of the indoor environment depend on the quality of the waterproofing course and on the properties of the insulating materials that are applied, in particular on their durability, long-term functional reliability and resistance to corrosive effects of the subsoil. Underground water chemistry and soil bacteria are well-known corrosive agents. Our investigations indicate that the ageing process of waterproof materials can be significantly accelerated by alpha particles emitted by radon and radon progenies which are present in soil gas. Materials commonly available on the building market, e.g. LDPE and HDPE of various densities, PVC, TPO (thermoplastic polyolefin), PP (polypropylene) and EPDM were selected for our experimental study. The preliminary results for 3-year exposure to radon gas show a decrease in tensile strength to 60%, elongation to 80% and hardness to 95% for samples based on PE. The diffusion coefficient of radon for samples based on PVC decreased to 20% of the initial value after 1-year exposure to radon and soil bacteria.

Navratilova Rovenska, Katerina; Jiranek, Martin; Kokes, Pavel; Wasserbauer, Richard; Kacmarikova, Veronika

2014-01-01

38

Radon diffusion coefficients in 360 waterproof materials of different chemical composition.  

PubMed

This paper summarises the results of radon diffusion coefficient measurements in 360 common waterproof materials available throughout Europe. The materials were grouped into 26 categories according to their chemical composition. It was found that the diffusion coefficients of materials used for protecting houses against radon vary within eight orders from 10(-15) to 10(-8) m(2) s(-1). The lowest values were obtained for bitumen membranes with an Al carrier film and for ethylene vinyl acetate membranes. The highest radon diffusion coefficient values were discovered for sodium bentonite membranes, rubber membranes made of ethylene propylene diene monomer and polymer cement coatings. The radon diffusion coefficients for waterproofings widely used for protecting houses, i.e. flexible polyvinyl chloride, high-, low-density polyethylene, polypropylene and bitumen membranes, vary in the range from 3 × 10(-12) to 3 × 10(-11) m(2) s(-1). Tests were performed which confirmed that the radon diffusion coefficient is also an effective tool for verifying the air-tightness of joints. PMID:21450700

Jiránek, M; Kotrbatá, M

2011-05-01

39

Toxicity study of dimethylethoxysilane (DMSES), the waterproofing agent for the Orbiter heat protective system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

DMES, a volatile liquid, is used by NASA to waterproof the Orbiter thermal protective system. During waterproofing operations at the Oribter Processing Facility at KSC, workers could be exposed to DMES vapor. To assess the toxicity of DMES, acute and subchronic (2-week and 13-week) inhalation studies were conducted with rats. Studies were also conducted to assess the potential of DMES. Inhalation exposure concentrations ranged from 40 ppm to 4000 ppm. No mortality was observed during the studies. Exposures to 2100 ppm produced narcosis and ataxia. Post-exposure recovery from these CNS effects was rapid (less than 1 hr). These effects were concentration-dependent and relatively independent of exposure length. Exposure to 3000 ppm for 2 weeks (5 h/d, 5 d/wk) produced testicular toxicity. The 13-week study yielded similar results. Results from the genotoxicity assays (in vivo/in vitro unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat primary heptaocytes, chromosomal aberrations in rat bone marrow cells; reverse gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium; and forward mutation in Chinese hamster culture cells) were negative. These studies indicated that DMES is mildly to moderately toxic but not a multagen.

Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.; Dodd, Darol; Stuart, Bruce; Rothenberg, Simon; Kershaw, Mary Ann; Thilagar, A.

1993-01-01

40

Waterproof Hanky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this physics demonstration, learners will be surprised when a handkerchief holds water in an upside-down glass. They will be especially shocked when you hold the glass over their head and nothing leaks out! Use this demonstration to introduce learners to surface tension and air pressure. This instruction guide includes a helpful video illustrating each step of the demonstration.

Institute of Physics

2012-07-12

41

Waterproof and translucent wings at the same time: problems and solutions in butterflies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the colour of butterflies attracts the most attention, the waterproofing properties of their wings are also extremely interesting. Most butterfly wings are considered “super-hydrophobic” because the contact angle (CA) with a water drop exceeds 150°. Usually, butterfly wings are covered with strongly overlapping scales; however, in the case of transparent or translucent wings, scale cover is reduced; thus, the hydrophobicity could be affected. Here, we present a comparative analysis of wing hydrophobicity and its dependence on morphology for two species with translucent wings Parantica sita (Nymphalidae) and Parnassius glacialis (Papilionidae). These species have very different life histories: P. sita lives for up to 6 months as an adult and migrates over long distance, whereas P. glacialis lives for less than 1 month and does not migrate. We measured the water CA and analysed wing morphology with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. P. sita has super-hydrophobic wing surfaces, with CA > 160°, whereas P. glacialis did not (CA = 100-135°). Specialised scales were found on the translucent portions of P. sita wings. These scales were ovoid and much thinner than common scales, erect at about 30°, and leaving up to 80% of the wing surface uncovered. The underlying bare wing surface had a remarkable pattern of ridges and knobs. P. glacialis also had over 80% of the wing surface uncovered, but the scales were either setae-like or spade-like. The bare surface of the wing had an irregular wavy smooth pattern. We suggest a mode of action that allows this super-hydrophobic effect with an incompletely covered wing surface. The scales bend, but do not collapse, under the pressure of a water droplet, and the elastic recovery of the structure at the borders of the droplet allows a high apparent CA. Thus, P. sita can be translucent without losing its waterproof properties. This characteristic is likely necessary for the long life and migration of this species. This is the first study of some of the effects on the hydrophobicity of translucency through scales’ cover reduction in butterfly wings and on the morphology associated with improved waterproofing.

Perez Goodwyn, Pablo; Maezono, Yasunori; Hosoda, Naoe; Fujisaki, Kenji

2009-07-01

42

FTIR Study of Vapor Offgassing from Orbiter Tile Re-Waterproofing Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work presented in this paper was performed to identify and quantify the offgassing behavior of alternative re-waterproofmg materials under investigation for application to Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System (TPS) tile and blanket materials. The purpose was to determine whether the new materials would cause a problem with the operational analysis of residual vapors using the current portable vapor analyzer, a Miran 203. The materials investigated were limited to dimethylethoxysilane (DMES) and proposed solvent selected as suitable for use in re-waterproofing Orbiter TPS. The solvent was selected in another phase of the overall project. Obiter TPS tiles were injected with the re-waterproofing materials under constant conditions of temperature, relative humidity and air flow. The vapor concentrations of offgassing materials were monitored using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) multi-component analysis, and with the Miran 203 instruments. The procedure was to record the time dependent concentrations of offgassing materials as analyzed by the FTIR, and the time response of the Miran 203 to the materials under consideration. The FTIR was calibrated for vapor phase DMES, tetramethyldisiloxane (TMDS), ethanol and the hydrocarbon solvents to be used to dilute the DMES for application to the TPS tile. The Miran 203 was calibrated for the operational measurement of DMES airborne vapors. The FTIR data, shows for the first time that the principal product which offgases from the tile after the first hour is not DMES, but TMDS and ethanol. The Miran 203 response to TMDS is the primary reading after the re-waterproofing operation is completed. The operational use of the Miran 203 to measure DMES vapors after re-waterproofmg operations has been responding to TMDS. The results of this study suggest that the historical complaints that have contributed to the low threshold limit value (TLV) for DMES concentrations, as read with the Miran 203, are actually based on instrumental responses to TMDS, for which no other toxicology information is available at this time. While there is some interference, the use of the tested hydrocarbon solvents does not adversely affect the response of the Miran 203.

Mattson, C. B.

1999-01-01

43

Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inorganic light-emitting diodes and photodetectors represent important, established technologies for solid-state lighting, digital imaging and many other applications. Eliminating mechanical and geometrical design constraints imposed by the supporting semiconductor wafers can enable alternative uses in areas such as biomedicine and robotics. Here we describe systems that consist of arrays of interconnected, ultrathin inorganic light-emitting diodes and photodetectors configured in mechanically optimized layouts on unusual substrates. Light-emitting sutures, implantable sheets and illuminated plasmonic crystals that are compatible with complete immersion in biofluids illustrate the suitability of these technologies for use in biomedicine. Waterproof optical-proximity-sensor tapes capable of conformal integration on curved surfaces of gloves and thin, refractive-index monitors wrapped on tubing for intravenous delivery systems demonstrate possibilities in robotics and clinical medicine. These and related systems may create important, unconventional opportunities for optoelectronic devices.

Kim, Rak-Hwan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Xiao, Jianliang; Kim, Bong Hoon; Park, Sang-Il; Panilaitis, Bruce; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Yao, Jimin; Li, Ming; Liu, Zhuangjian; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Kim, Dae Gon; Le, An-Phong; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Kaplan, David L.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.; Huang, Yonggang; Kang, Zhan; Rogers, John A.

2010-11-01

44

The effect on the radon diffusion coefficient of long-term exposure of waterproof membranes to various degradation agents.  

PubMed

Waterproofing, usually made of bitumen or polymers with various additives, is used to protect buildings mainly against dampness, but also against radon transported from the soil beneath the building. The radon diffusion coefficient is a material property which is considered to be strongly influenced by the inner structure (chemical composition, crystallinity) of a measured sample. We have used this parameter together with measurements of mechanical properties (hardness, tensile strength, elongation at break, etc.) and FTIR spectroscopy has been used in order to describe the changes in material properties induced by long-term degradation. This paper summarizes the results of radon diffusion coefficient measurements of waterproof materials exposed to radon, soil bacteria, high temperature and combinations of these factors. We have discovered changes as high as 83 % have been discovered compared to virgin samples. PMID:24748486

Navrátilová Rovenská, Katerina

2014-07-01

45

Fabrication of nickel micromesh sheets and evaluation of their water-repellent and water-proof abilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nickel micromesh sheets were designed and fabricated and their water-repellent and water-proof abilities were characterized.\\u000a The network-type microstructures of the micromesh sheets functioned as micro-protrusions of lotus leaves, which allowed the\\u000a sheets to superhydrophobic. The micromesh enabled the material waves, including sound and light waves, to pass through the\\u000a microholes, but repelled water. Because of the effects of the micromesh

Sang Min Lee; Dong Joon Oh; Im Deok Jung; Kong Myeong Bae; Phill Gu Jung; Kwang Hyo Chung; Seung-Jin Cho; Jong Soo Ko

2009-01-01

46

Fast optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy using a 2-axis water-proofing MEMS scanner.  

PubMed

Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is a novel label-free microscopic imaging tool to provide in vivo optical absorbing contrasts. Specially, it is crucial to equip a real-time imaging capability without sacrificing high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for identifying and tracking specific diseases in OR-PAM. Herein we demonstrate a 2-axis water-proofing MEMS scanner made of flexible PDMS. This flexible scanner results in a wide scanning range (9 × 4?mm(2) in a transverse plane) and a fast imaging speed (5 B-scan images per second). Further, the MEMS scanner is fabricated in a compact footprint with a size of 15 × 15 × 15?mm(3). More importantly, the scanning ability in water makes the MEMS scanner possible to confocally and simultaneously reflect both ultrasound and laser, and consequently we can maintain high SNRs. The lateral and axial resolutions of the OR-PAM system are 3.6 and 27.7??m, respectively. We have successfully monitored the flow of carbon particles in vitro with a volumetric display frame rate of 0.14?Hz. Finally, we have successfully obtained in vivo PA images of microvasculatures in a mouse ear. It is expected that our compact and fast OR-PAM system can be significantly useful in both preclinical and clinical applications. PMID:25604654

Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Changho; Park, Kyungjin; Lim, Geunbae; Kim, Chulhong

2015-01-01

47

Ovarian dual oxidase (Duox) activity is essential for insect eggshell hardening and waterproofing.  

PubMed

In insects, eggshell hardening involves cross-linking of chorion proteins via their tyrosine residues. This process is catalyzed by peroxidases at the expense of H2O2 and confers physical and biological protection to the developing embryo. Here, working with Rhodnius prolixus, the insect vector of Chagas disease, we show that an ovary dual oxidase (Duox), a NADPH oxidase, is the source of the H2O2 that supports dityrosine-mediated protein cross-linking and eggshell hardening. RNAi silencing of Duox activity decreased H2O2 generation followed by a failure in embryo development caused by a reduced resistance to water loss, which, in turn, caused embryos to dry out following oviposition. Phenotypes of Duox-silenced eggs were reversed by incubation in a water-saturated atmosphere, simultaneous silencing of the Duox and catalase genes, or H2O2 injection into the female hemocoel. Taken together, our results show that Duox-generated H2O2 fuels egg chorion hardening and that this process plays an essential role during eggshell waterproofing. PMID:24174530

Dias, Felipe A; Gandara, Ana Caroline P; Queiroz-Barros, Fernanda G; Oliveira, Raquel L L; Sorgine, Marcos H F; Braz, Glória R C; Oliveira, Pedro L

2013-12-01

48

Fast optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy using a 2-axis water-proofing MEMS scanner  

PubMed Central

Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is a novel label-free microscopic imaging tool to provide in vivo optical absorbing contrasts. Specially, it is crucial to equip a real-time imaging capability without sacrificing high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for identifying and tracking specific diseases in OR-PAM. Herein we demonstrate a 2-axis water-proofing MEMS scanner made of flexible PDMS. This flexible scanner results in a wide scanning range (9 × 4?mm2 in a transverse plane) and a fast imaging speed (5 B-scan images per second). Further, the MEMS scanner is fabricated in a compact footprint with a size of 15 × 15 × 15?mm3. More importantly, the scanning ability in water makes the MEMS scanner possible to confocally and simultaneously reflect both ultrasound and laser, and consequently we can maintain high SNRs. The lateral and axial resolutions of the OR-PAM system are 3.6 and 27.7??m, respectively. We have successfully monitored the flow of carbon particles in vitro with a volumetric display frame rate of 0.14?Hz. Finally, we have successfully obtained in vivo PA images of microvasculatures in a mouse ear. It is expected that our compact and fast OR-PAM system can be significantly useful in both preclinical and clinical applications. PMID:25604654

Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Changho; Park, Kyungjin; Lim, Geunbae; Kim, Chulhong

2015-01-01

49

Fast optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy using a 2-axis water-proofing MEMS scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is a novel label-free microscopic imaging tool to provide in vivo optical absorbing contrasts. Specially, it is crucial to equip a real-time imaging capability without sacrificing high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for identifying and tracking specific diseases in OR-PAM. Herein we demonstrate a 2-axis water-proofing MEMS scanner made of flexible PDMS. This flexible scanner results in a wide scanning range (9 × 4 mm2 in a transverse plane) and a fast imaging speed (5 B-scan images per second). Further, the MEMS scanner is fabricated in a compact footprint with a size of 15 × 15 × 15 mm3. More importantly, the scanning ability in water makes the MEMS scanner possible to confocally and simultaneously reflect both ultrasound and laser, and consequently we can maintain high SNRs. The lateral and axial resolutions of the OR-PAM system are 3.6 and 27.7 ?m, respectively. We have successfully monitored the flow of carbon particles in vitro with a volumetric display frame rate of 0.14 Hz. Finally, we have successfully obtained in vivo PA images of microvasculatures in a mouse ear. It is expected that our compact and fast OR-PAM system can be significantly useful in both preclinical and clinical applications.

Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Changho; Park, Kyungjin; Lim, Geunbae; Kim, Chulhong

2015-01-01

50

Waterproof that Roof!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how engineers have improved roofing designs and materials in order to protect the contents of buildings. Learners explore the hydrophobic effect, and learn about nanotechnology. Then, they work in teams to design a roof structure both in terms of shape and materials to protect a box and its contents from a simulated rainstorm. Teams build, test, and evaluate their designs and those of other teams.

IEEE

2014-05-23

51

575 nm laser oscillation in Dy3+-doped waterproof fluoro-aluminate glass fiber pumped by violet GaN laser diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We successfully drew a low-loss Dy-doped optical fiber (0.3dB/m at 532nm) of a waterproof fluoro-aluminate glass system and demonstrated yellow laser oscillation in the Dy3+-doped fluoride fiber pumped by a 398.8-nm GaN laser diode. The maximum output power was 10.3 mW and the slope efficiency was 17.1% at 575 nm. Since the fluoro-aluminate- glass system has a remarkable water resistance advantage compared to ZBLAN glass, Dy-doped fluoro-aluminate glass fiber is expected to contribute to making a solid-state yellow fiber laser with high chemical durability without a frequency doubling technique.

Fujimoto, Yasushi; Ishii, Osamu; Yamazaki, Masaaki

2011-02-01

52

High power red laser oscillation in Pr3+-doped waterproof fluoroaluminate glass fiber excited by a GaN laser diode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have demonstrated a high power red fiber laser with a Pr-doped waterproof fluoro-aluminate glass fiber (Pr:WPFGF). When 800 mW pumping power of a blue/violet GaN laser diode (GaN-LD) was launched into the Pr:WPFGF (core diameter 8 ?m, length 40 mm) with dielectric coating on both end surfaces to construct a resonator, the maximum output laser power at 638 nm was obtained to be 311.4 mW that is higher than previously reported Pr:ZBLAN fibers. The threshold power was evaluated to be 52.1 mW, and the slope efficiency was calculated to be 41.6%. Assuming the resonator to be a Fabry-Perot resonator, we can calculate the output power to be 336 mW at 800 mW pump power and the slop efficiency to be 44.2%. These theoretical values show good agreement with experimental ones.

Nakanishi, J.; Yamada, T.; Fujimoto, Y.; Ishii, O.; Yamazaki, M.

2011-02-01

53

High-power direct green laser oscillation of 598 mW in Pr(3+)-doped waterproof fluoroaluminate glass fiber excited by two-polarization-combined GaN laser diodes.  

PubMed

We demonstrated a high-power and highly efficient Pr-doped waterproof fluoride glass fiber laser at 522.2 nm excited by two-polarization-combined GaN laser diodes and achieved a subwatt output power of 598 mW and slope efficiency of 43.0%. This system will enable us to make a vivid laser display, a photocoagulation laser for eye surgery, a color confocal scanning laser microscope, and an effective laser for material processing. Direct visible ultrashort pulse generation is also expected. PMID:21593907

Nakanishi, Jun; Horiuchi, Yuya; Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Ishii, Osamu; Yamazaki, Masaaki; Yoshida, Minoru; Fujimoto, Yasushi

2011-05-15

54

An analysis of residential window waterproofing systems  

E-print Network

The prevalence of vinyl nail-on windows in the North American new home construction market has prompted ASTM International to write ASTM E2112-01 "Standard Practice for Installation of Exterior Windows, Doors and Skylights". ...

Parsons, Austin, 1959-

2004-01-01

55

The Design of Waterproof, Water Vapour-Permeable Fabrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews some current developments in fabrics which are both water proof and water vapour-permeable. Outer garments manufactured from these materials can improve wearer comfort by reducing the buildup of perspiration in side the clothing. Tightly-woven fabrics and microporous polymer membranes transmit water vapour predominantly by a diffusion-controlled mechanism similar to air permeability. Apparently solid (i.e. non-microporous) polymer films

G. R. Lomax

1985-01-01

56

Roofing Workbook and Tests: Entering the Roofing and Waterproofing Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is one of a series of nine individual units of instruction for use in roofing apprenticeship classes in California. The unit consists of a workbook and test, perforated for student use. Fourteen topics are covered in the workbook and corresponding multiple-choice tests. For each topic, objectives, information sheets, and study…

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Vocational Education Services.

57

Fish oil disrupts seabird feather microstructure and waterproofing.  

PubMed

Seabirds and other aquatic avifauna are highly sensitive to exposure to petroleum oils. A small amount of oil is sufficient to break down the feather barrier that is necessary to prevent water penetration and hypothermia. Far less attention has been paid to potential effects on aquatic birds of so called 'edible oils', non-petroleum oils such as vegetable and fish oils. In response to a sardine oil discharge by a vessel off the coast of British Columbia, we conducted an experiment to assess if feather exposure to sheens of sardine oil (ranging from 0.04 to 3 ?m in thickness) resulted in measurable oil and water uptake and significant feather microstructure disruption. We designed the experiment based on a previous experiment on effects of petroleum oils on seabird feathers. Feathers exposed to the thinnest fish oil sheens (0.04 ?m) resulted in measurable feather weight gain (from oil and water uptake) and significant feather microstructure disruption. Both feather weight gain and microstructure disruption increased with increasing fish oil thickness. Because of the absence of primary research on effects of edible oils on sea birds, we conducted interviews with wildlife rehabilitation professionals with experience rehabilitating sea birds after edible oil exposure. The consensus from interviews and our experiment indicated that physical contact with fish and other 'edible oils' in the marine environment is at least as harmful to seabirds as petroleum oils. PMID:25089687

Morandin, Lora A; O'Hara, Patrick D

2014-10-15

58

Waterproof active paper via laser surface micropatterning of magnetic nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Paper is one of the oldest and most abundant materials known to man. Recently, there has been a considerable interest in creating paper devices by combining paper with other functional materials. In this letter, we demonstrate a simple fabrication technique to create water-resistant ferro-patterns on wax paper using CO(2) laser ablation. A resolution of about 100 ?m is achieved which is mostly limited by the cellulose fiber size (~50 ?m) in the wax paper and can be improved by using a smaller cellulose matrix. Laser ablation results in modification of surface morphology and chemistry, leading to a change in surface energy. We also present a 2D model for ferrofluid deposition relating the size of the pattern to the amount of ferroparticles deposited on the surface. Finally, a paper gripper is presented to demonstrate advantages of our technique, which allows microscale patterning and machining in a single step. PMID:22939525

Chitnis, G; Ziaie, B

2012-09-26

59

Mechanical behaviour of a sprayed concrete lining isolated by a sprayed waterproofing membrane  

E-print Network

, is suitable with the goal of a lining that permits a certain level of ground deformation. 3) The increase in stiffness and strength with age of sprayed concrete is also compatible with the need to control ground deformations. 4) Sprayed concrete linings... -B 4-point bending w/o w/ 2-A Eccentric compression w/ w/o 2-B Eccentric compression w/o w/o 3 Methodologies of laboratory tests 3.1 Sample preparation All specimens were prepared by spraying a wet mix concrete using the robotic spraying...

Nakashimaa, Masanari; Hammer, Anna-Lena; Thewes, Markus; Elshafie, Mohammed; Soga, Kenichi

2015-01-31

60

Formation and dynamics of "waterproof" photoluminescent complexes of rare earth ions in crowded environment.  

PubMed

Understanding behavior of rare-earth ions (REI) in crowded environments is crucial for several nano- and bio-technological applications. Evolution of REI photoluminescence (PL) in small compartments inside a silica hydrogel, mimic to a soft matter bio-environment, has been studied and explained within a solvation model. The model uncovered the origin of high PL efficiency to be the formation of REI complexes, surrounded by bile salt (DOC) molecules. Comparative study of these REI-DOC complexes in bulk water solution and those enclosed inside the hydrogel revealed a strong correlation between an up to 5×-longer lifetime of REIs and appearance of the DOC ordered phase, further confirmed by dynamics of REI solvation shells, REI diffusion experiments and morphological characterization of microstructure of the hydrogel. PMID:25379879

Ignatova, Tetyana; Blades, Michael; Duque, Juan G; Doorn, Stephen K; Biaggio, Ivan; Rotkin, Slava V

2014-12-28

61

Analysis of the moisture diffusion transfer through fibrous porous membrane used for waterproof breathable fabrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a new fractal model to determine the moisture effective diffusivity of porous membrane such as expanded polytetrafluorethylene membrane, by taking account of both parallel and perpendicular channels to diffusion flow direction. With the consideration of both the Knudsen and bulk diffusion effect, a relationship between micro-structural parameters and effective moisture diffusivity is deduced. The effective moisture diffusivities predicted by the present fractal model are compared with moisture diffusion experiment data and calculated values obtained from other theoretical models.

Zhu, Fanglong; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Suyan

2013-10-01

62

Waterproof Manado: Life must be safe and secure, not only today but also in the future!  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manado City is growing, its population is increasing. This demands the city to grow outside its borders and even into the sea by using land reclamation. Introducing new challenges or making challenges bigger, which are already present. Not only growth is present in the city, going forward and becoming better and better is an on-going fight for cities. The city

R. V. Slijk; L. W. Schadee; P. P. Knook; G. L. S. Van der Salm; P. D. Notenboom

2011-01-01

63

Fibers and fabrics with insulating, water-proofing, and flame-resistant properties  

DOEpatents

Fibers, and fabrics produced from the fibers, are made water repellent, fire-retardant and/or thermally insulating by filling void spaces in the fibers and/or fabrics with a powdered material. When the powder is sufficiently finely divided, it clings tenaciously to the fabric's fibers and to itself, resisting the tendency to be removed from the fabric.

Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Poco, John F.; Coronado, Paul R.

2004-04-20

64

Experience with waterproofness of basements constructed of concrete diaphragm walls in Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diaphragm walls 600 to 1200 mm thick are increasingly used as both temporary and permanent supports for excavations as deep as 20 m in congested urban areas in Singapore. Spaces enclosed by diaphragm walls include basements used for shops, offices, car park, underground mass rapid transit train stations, depressed roadways and civil defense centers. Diaphragm walls are effective as a

I. H. Wong

1997-01-01

65

Drosophila melanogaster Acetyl-CoA-Carboxylase Sustains a Fatty Acid–Dependent Remote Signal to Waterproof the Respiratory System  

PubMed Central

Fatty acid (FA) metabolism plays a central role in body homeostasis and related diseases. Thus, FA metabolic enzymes are attractive targets for drug therapy. Mouse studies on Acetyl-coenzymeA-carboxylase (ACC), the rate-limiting enzyme for FA synthesis, have highlighted its homeostatic role in liver and adipose tissue. We took advantage of the powerful genetics of Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the role of the unique Drosophila ACC homologue in the fat body and the oenocytes. The fat body accomplishes hepatic and storage functions, whereas the oenocytes are proposed to produce the cuticular lipids and to contribute to the hepatic function. RNA–interfering disruption of ACC in the fat body does not affect viability but does result in a dramatic reduction in triglyceride storage and a concurrent increase in glycogen accumulation. These metabolic perturbations further highlight the role of triglyceride and glycogen storage in controlling circulatory sugar levels, thereby validating Drosophila as a relevant model to explore the tissue-specific function of FA metabolic enzymes. In contrast, ACC disruption in the oenocytes through RNA–interference or tissue-targeted mutation induces lethality, as does oenocyte ablation. Surprisingly, this lethality is associated with a failure in the watertightness of the spiracles—the organs controlling the entry of air into the trachea. At the cellular level, we have observed that, in defective spiracles, lipids fail to transfer from the spiracular gland to the point of air entry. This phenotype is caused by disrupted synthesis of a putative very-long-chain-FA (VLCFA) within the oenocytes, which ultimately results in a lethal anoxic issue. Preventing liquid entry into respiratory systems is a universal issue for air-breathing animals. Here, we have shown that, in Drosophila, this process is controlled by a putative VLCFA produced within the oenocytes. PMID:22956916

Rubin, Thomas; Poidevin, Mickael; Perrin, Laurent; Wicker-Thomas, Claude; Montagne, Jacques

2012-01-01

66

Drosophila melanogaster Acetyl-CoA-carboxylase sustains a fatty acid-dependent remote signal to waterproof the respiratory system.  

PubMed

Fatty acid (FA) metabolism plays a central role in body homeostasis and related diseases. Thus, FA metabolic enzymes are attractive targets for drug therapy. Mouse studies on Acetyl-coenzymeA-carboxylase (ACC), the rate-limiting enzyme for FA synthesis, have highlighted its homeostatic role in liver and adipose tissue. We took advantage of the powerful genetics of Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the role of the unique Drosophila ACC homologue in the fat body and the oenocytes. The fat body accomplishes hepatic and storage functions, whereas the oenocytes are proposed to produce the cuticular lipids and to contribute to the hepatic function. RNA-interfering disruption of ACC in the fat body does not affect viability but does result in a dramatic reduction in triglyceride storage and a concurrent increase in glycogen accumulation. These metabolic perturbations further highlight the role of triglyceride and glycogen storage in controlling circulatory sugar levels, thereby validating Drosophila as a relevant model to explore the tissue-specific function of FA metabolic enzymes. In contrast, ACC disruption in the oenocytes through RNA-interference or tissue-targeted mutation induces lethality, as does oenocyte ablation. Surprisingly, this lethality is associated with a failure in the watertightness of the spiracles-the organs controlling the entry of air into the trachea. At the cellular level, we have observed that, in defective spiracles, lipids fail to transfer from the spiracular gland to the point of air entry. This phenotype is caused by disrupted synthesis of a putative very-long-chain-FA (VLCFA) within the oenocytes, which ultimately results in a lethal anoxic issue. Preventing liquid entry into respiratory systems is a universal issue for air-breathing animals. Here, we have shown that, in Drosophila, this process is controlled by a putative VLCFA produced within the oenocytes. PMID:22956916

Parvy, Jean-Philippe; Napal, Laura; Rubin, Thomas; Poidevin, Mickael; Perrin, Laurent; Wicker-Thomas, Claude; Montagne, Jacques

2012-01-01

67

Towards multifunctional surfaces using the plasma-induced graft-polymerization (PIGP) process: Flame and waterproof cotton textiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to produce multifunctional surfaces, water-repellent treatment combined with fire retardant finishes on cotton fabrics have been investigated by using the cold plasma technique. Three different protocols involving Ar plasma-induced graft-polymerization (PIGP) of flame retardant monomers (acrylate phosphate and phosphonates derivatives) combined to a water-repellent treatment – CF4 plasma treatment or Ar plasma induced graft polymerization of 1,1,2,2, tetrahydroperfluorodecylacrylate

M. J. Tsafack; J. Levalois-Grützmacher

2007-01-01

68

76 FR 6614 - Notice of a Regional Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...manufactured in Surrey, British Columbia, for a hot applied membrane waterproofing system for...manufactured in Surrey, British Columbia, for a hot applied membrane waterproofing system for...is being incorporated into the reinforced hot-applied waterproofing system to...

2011-02-07

69

46 CFR 160.047-6 - Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...following information clearly marked in waterproof lettering that can be read at a distance...distributor.). (Lot No.). (b) Waterproof marking tags. Marking for buoyant vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours...

2010-10-01

70

46 CFR 160.052-8 - Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...following information clearly marked in waterproof lettering that can be read at a distance...distributor). (Lot No.) (b) Waterproof marking. Marking for buoyant vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours...

2010-10-01

71

46 CFR 160.060-8 - Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...following information clearly marked in waterproof lettering: Type II Personal Flotation...distributor). (Lot No.). (b) Waterproof marking. Marking of buoyant vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours...

2011-10-01

72

40 CFR 156.212 - Personal protective equipment statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...glove statement shall specify: “waterproof gloves.” (3) Aqueous-based formulations...the glove statement may specify: “waterproof gloves” instead of the statement in...labeling, add a requirement for “waterproof gloves” in the statement of...

2011-07-01

73

46 CFR 160.060-8 - Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...following information clearly marked in waterproof lettering: Type II Personal Flotation...distributor). (Lot No.). (b) Waterproof marking. Marking of buoyant vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours...

2010-10-01

74

46 CFR 160.047-6 - Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...following information clearly marked in waterproof lettering that can be read at a distance...distributor.). (Lot No.). (b) Waterproof marking tags. Marking for buoyant vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours...

2011-10-01

75

46 CFR 160.052-8 - Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...following information clearly marked in waterproof lettering that can be read at a distance...distributor). (Lot No.) (b) Waterproof marking. Marking for buoyant vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours...

2011-10-01

76

There Is No Safe Suntan  

MedlinePLUS

... or drying off. Exercising or swimming? Use a waterproof or water resistant sunscreen. (You still have to reapply often!) If you have acne, waterproof sunscreen could make your skin break out, so ...

77

Urinary incontinence products - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... disposable pads in your underwear. They have a waterproof backing that keeps your clothes from getting wet. ... regular underwear than adult diapers. Some have a waterproof crotch area and room for a pad or ...

78

46 CFR 110.15-1 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...safely perform required electrical duties or functions. Waterproof means watertight; except that, moisture within or leakage...enclosed. In the case of a generator or motor enclosure, waterproof means watertight; except that, leakage around the...

2011-10-01

79

Hillside C-type Renovation Issues and Remedies  

E-print Network

waterproofing, especially utility shafts #12;To Deputy Director IIT Bombay 10 Cosmetics over function waterproofing needed before internal cosmetics · Even perfect external repairs will not fix the window leakage

California at Berkeley, University of

80

49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...bag of four plies or more must be made waterproof by the use of either a water-resistant...5M2 bag of three plies must be made waterproof by the use of a water-resistant ply...moisture, or when it is packed damp, a waterproof ply or barrier, such as...

2011-10-01

81

46 CFR 160.053-5 - Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...following information clearly printed in waterproof lettering that can be read at a distance...work vest there shall be stenciled in waterproof ink in letters not less than one inch in... Marking tags shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 48 hours...

2010-10-01

82

49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...bag of four plies or more must be made waterproof by the use of either a water-resistant...5M2 bag of three plies must be made waterproof by the use of a water-resistant ply...moisture, or when it is packed damp, a waterproof ply or barrier, such as...

2010-10-01

83

46 CFR 160.053-5 - Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...following information clearly printed in waterproof lettering that can be read at a distance...work vest there shall be stenciled in waterproof ink in letters not less than one inch in... Marking tags shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 48 hours...

2011-10-01

84

The PennsylvaniaStateUniversity HUB-RobesonAddition and Renovation  

E-print Network

· Waterproof Plaza Deck · Waterproof Bookstore Green Roof · Install Water Main in Food Service Kitchen · Install Air Vapor Barrier · Install B4 Duct Work · Install Brick Shelf Angle · Barnes & Noble Cafe Rough Units 6 and 7 · Insulate Bookstore Duct Work · Waterproof Bookstore Green Roof · Install Green Roof

85

CHARLES STREET STUDENT FAMILY HOUSING Residence Office  

E-print Network

the morning of May 22, 2012. This project is expected to run until November, 2012. Given that this is outdoor of removing the concrete topping and existing waterproof materials, re-enforcing the steel supports and installing new waterproofing and concrete. Repair work to each brick column will also begin in May. Access

Sun, Yu

86

46 CFR 160.048-6 - Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...cushion must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof lettering: (1) In letters that can be read at a distance...marking. Marking for buoyant cushions shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will...

2011-10-01

87

46 CFR 160.049-6 - Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...cushion must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof lettering: (1) In letters that can be read at a distance...marking. Marking for buoyant cushions shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will...

2011-10-01

88

46 CFR 160.048-6 - Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cushion must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof lettering: (1) In letters that can be read at a distance...marking. Marking for buoyant cushions shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will...

2010-10-01

89

46 CFR 161.006-5 - Sampling, inspections and tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...approved by the Commandant. (b) Methods of test —(1) Waterproof test. The searchlight shall be subjected for 5 minutes...continuously for 2 hours at rated voltage following which the waterproof test shall be conducted. This cycle shall be repeated 3...

2010-10-01

90

46 CFR 161.006-5 - Sampling, inspections and tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...approved by the Commandant. (b) Methods of test —(1) Waterproof test. The searchlight shall be subjected for 5 minutes...continuously for 2 hours at rated voltage following which the waterproof test shall be conducted. This cycle shall be repeated 3...

2011-10-01

91

46 CFR 160.049-6 - Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cushion must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof lettering: (1) In letters that can be read at a distance...marking. Marking for buoyant cushions shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will...

2010-10-01

92

Rewaterproofing Silica Tiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Waterproofing agent, vaporized in bubbler transported by gas flowing in system and deposits in pores of tiles. Vapor carried through hole of approximately 1/16 inch (1.6.mm) diameter made in tile coating. Technique used to waterproof buildups (concrete and brick) and possibly fabrics.

Lleger, L. J.; Wade, D. C.

1983-01-01

93

9 CFR 354.230 - Equipment and utensils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...hard-surfaced impervious material. (e) Where grading...metal or other impervious material and constructed so as...metal or other acceptable material and of such construction...products shall be of water-proof composition....

2014-01-01

94

Tips on Studying Abroad at Lund University in Sweden  

E-print Network

, water and wind-proof jacket and water-proof shoes · You can join a "nation", which is a social Design electives and Materials study. They were nice be- cause there are no lecture classes­ it is mostly

Li, Mo

95

9 CFR 354.230 - Equipment and utensils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...hard-surfaced impervious material. (e) Where grading...metal or other impervious material and constructed so as...metal or other acceptable material and of such construction...products shall be of water-proof composition....

2012-01-01

96

How do insertions affect green fluorescent protein? Murat Cetinkaya a  

E-print Network

at each end improving the water-proof structure of the b-can so that the GFP chromophore is thoroughly, USA d Materials Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA

Demirel, Melik C.

97

9 CFR 354.230 - Equipment and utensils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...hard-surfaced impervious material. (e) Where grading...metal or other impervious material and constructed so as...metal or other acceptable material and of such construction...products shall be of water-proof composition....

2013-01-01

98

9 CFR 354.230 - Equipment and utensils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...hard-surfaced impervious material. (e) Where grading...metal or other impervious material and constructed so as...metal or other acceptable material and of such construction...products shall be of water-proof composition....

2011-01-01

99

9 CFR 354.230 - Equipment and utensils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hard-surfaced impervious material. (e) Where grading...metal or other impervious material and constructed so as...metal or other acceptable material and of such construction...products shall be of water-proof composition....

2010-01-01

100

Emergency Preparedness and Response: Information for Pregnant Women  

MedlinePLUS

... your own plan, writing down the steps on paper. Talk about potential disasters and emergencies and how ... plastic bags that seal for water-proofing important papers, a battery-powered flashlight and radio with extra ...

101

40 CFR 410.60 - Applicability; description of the carpet finishing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...resulting from the following types of textile mills: carpet mills, which may include any or all of the following unit operations: Bleaching, scouring, carbonizing, fulling, dyeing, printing, resin treatment, waterproofing, flameproofing, soil...

2010-07-01

102

40 CFR 410.60 - Applicability; description of the carpet finishing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...resulting from the following types of textile mills: carpet mills, which may include any or all of the following unit operations: Bleaching, scouring, carbonizing, fulling, dyeing, printing, resin treatment, waterproofing, flameproofing, soil...

2014-07-01

103

40 CFR 410.60 - Applicability; description of the carpet finishing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...resulting from the following types of textile mills: carpet mills, which may include any or all of the following unit operations: Bleaching, scouring, carbonizing, fulling, dyeing, printing, resin treatment, waterproofing, flameproofing, soil...

2013-07-01

104

40 CFR 410.60 - Applicability; description of the carpet finishing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...resulting from the following types of textile mills: carpet mills, which may include any or all of the following unit operations: Bleaching, scouring, carbonizing, fulling, dyeing, printing, resin treatment, waterproofing, flameproofing, soil...

2012-07-01

105

40 CFR 410.60 - Applicability; description of the carpet finishing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...resulting from the following types of textile mills: carpet mills, which may include any or all of the following unit operations: Bleaching, scouring, carbonizing, fulling, dyeing, printing, resin treatment, waterproofing, flameproofing, soil...

2011-07-01

106

Extent of Sorption and Biodegradability of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in Aquifer Sediment (Maryland)  

EPA Science Inventory

Fluoropolymers such as Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) were used provide non-stick surfaces on cookware and waterproof, breathable clothing. PFOA is very persistent in the environment and is found at low concentrations in the environment and...

107

46 CFR 160.176-23 - Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...General. Each inflatable lifejacket must be marked with the information required by this section. Each marking must be waterproof, clear, and permanent. Except as provided elsewhere in this subpart, each marking must be readable from a distance...

2010-10-01

108

46 CFR 160.064-4 - Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...160.064-4 Marking. (a) Each water safety buoyant device must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof lettering: (1) For devices to be worn: (Type II or Type III) Personal Flotation Device. Inspected and...

2010-10-01

109

46 CFR 160.055-8 - Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Merchant Vessels § 160.055-8 Marking. Each life preserver must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof lettering: (a) In letters three-fourths of an inch or more in height; (1) Adult (for persons weighing over...

2011-10-01

110

46 CFR 28.845 - General requirements for electrical systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requirements for electrical systems. (a) Electrical equipment exposed to the weather or in a location exposed to seas must be waterproof or watertight, or enclosed in a watertight housing. (b) Aluminum must not be used for current carrying parts of...

2011-10-01

111

46 CFR 160.055-8 - Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Merchant Vessels § 160.055-8 Marking. Each life preserver must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof lettering: (a) In letters three-fourths of an inch or more in height; (1) Adult (for persons weighing over...

2010-10-01

112

46 CFR 160.064-4 - Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...160.064-4 Marking. (a) Each water safety buoyant device must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof lettering: (1) For devices to be worn: (Type II or Type III) Personal Flotation Device. Inspected and...

2011-10-01

113

21 CFR 880.6060 - Medical disposable bedding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...type of device may include disposable bedsheets, bedpads, pillows and pillowcases, blankets, emergency rescue blankets, or waterproof sheets. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket...

2011-04-01

114

46 CFR 160.050-6 - Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Life Ring, Unicellular Plastic § 160.050-6 Marking. (a) Each ring buoy must have the following information in waterproof lettering: Type IV Personal Flotation Device. Inspected and tested in accordance with U.S. Coast Guard...

2010-10-01

115

78 FR 70531 - Notice of Petitions by Firms for Determination of Eligibility To Apply for Trade Adjustment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...349 Military Cutoff Road, 11/08/2013 The firm manufactures Wilmington, NC 28405. waterproof bags for electronic devices. Benchmark Clothing Company, Inc. 1521 East McFadden Suite F, 11/08/2013 The firm...

2013-11-26

116

30 CFR 7.504 - Refuge alternatives and components; general requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...deployed. (d) Containers used for storage of refuge alternative components or provisions shall be— (1) Airtight, waterproof, and rodent-proof; (2) Easy to open and close without the use of tools; and (3) Conspicuously marked with...

2010-07-01

117

46 CFR 28.350 - General requirements for electrical systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requirements for electrical systems. (a) Electrical equipment exposed to the weather or in a location exposed to seas must be waterproof, watertight, or enclosed in a watertight housing. (b) Aluminum must not be used for current carrying parts of...

2011-10-01

118

46 CFR 160.050-6 - Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Life Ring, Unicellular Plastic § 160.050-6 Marking. (a) Each ring buoy must have the following information in waterproof lettering: Type IV Personal Flotation Device. Inspected and tested in accordance with U.S. Coast Guard...

2011-10-01

119

47 CFR 80.271 - Technical requirements for portable survival craft radiotelephone transceivers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...no significant adverse effect upon the performance of the device; (5) The transceivers must have a permanently attached waterproof label with the statement “Complies with the FCC requirements for survival craft two-way radiotelephone equipment”;...

2011-10-01

120

30 CFR 7.504 - Refuge alternatives and components; general requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...deployed. (d) Containers used for storage of refuge alternative components or provisions shall be— (1) Airtight, waterproof, and rodent-proof; (2) Easy to open and close without the use of tools; and (3) Conspicuously marked with...

2011-07-01

121

46 CFR 160.077-31 - PFD Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...General. Each hybrid PFD must be marked with the applicable information required by this section. Each marking must be waterproof, clear, permanent, and readable from a distance of three feet. (b) Prominence. Each marking, other than...

2011-10-01

122

Wireless telemetry system for floating bodies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unit includes rugged waterproof cables and equipment containers, low power, sturdy antenna construction, and easy equipment setup and serviceability. Accuracy and reliability of entire measurement system were not sacrificed.

Fain, L. T.; Cribb, H. E.

1974-01-01

123

Extent of Sorption and Biodegradation of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid (PFOS) in Aquifer Sediment  

EPA Science Inventory

Fluoropolymers such as Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) were used provide non-stick surfaces on cookware and waterproof, breathable clothing. PFOA is very persistent in the environment and is found at low concentrations in the environment and...

124

Extent of Sorption and Biodegradability of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid (PFOS) in Aquifer Sediment  

EPA Science Inventory

Fluoropolymers such as Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) were used provide non-stick surfaces on cookware and waterproof, breathable clothing. PFOA is very persistent in the environment and is found at low concentrations in the environment and...

125

Phase I: Laboratory testing (modified TCLP) was conducted on a variety of roofing materials and sealants to determine if potential for release existed.  

E-print Network

nitrate levels seen for roofing felt, cedar shakes (levels: waterproof (CCA levels initially high; highest concentrations associated with wood products. Elevated + organic preservative) wood, shingles. Elevated reactive phosphorus levels seen for untreated plywood

Clark, Shirley E.

126

Mold Resources  

MedlinePLUS

... house from the outside, your options range from simple landscaping to extensive excavation and waterproofing. (The ground ... wall surfaces of corner rooms in heating climate locations. An exposed corner room is likely to be ...

127

75 FR 27775 - Kenai Hydro, LLC; Notice of Scoping Meetings, Environmental Site Review, and Soliciting Scoping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...conditions for the entire day ( 3 miles with 200 feet of elevation gain). Participants should also pack their own lunch, snacks and water, wear waterproof, rugged footwear, and be prepared for inclement and potentially cold weather conditions....

2010-05-18

128

ROOFING PROJECT ODORS How Can EHS Help?  

E-print Network

). Smelling these odors does not indicate a harmful exposure. My Eyes Tear, My Head Aches, I Feel Nauseated or coal tar are used as water-proofing materials. What concerns are there with these odors? I Smell

Stephens, Graeme L.

129

46 CFR 160.057-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...considered upon special request when presented with supporting data. Igniter systems shall be of corrosion-resistant metal. The combustible...waterproof paint or other equivalent protection system. The igniter mechanism shall operate and provide ignition of the...

2011-10-01

130

46 CFR 160.057-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...considered upon special request when presented with supporting data. Igniter systems shall be of corrosion-resistant metal. The combustible...waterproof paint or other equivalent protection system. The igniter mechanism shall operate and provide ignition of the...

2013-10-01

131

46 CFR 160.022-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...considered upon special request when presented with supporting data. Igniter systems shall be corrosion-resistant metal. The combustible...coats of waterproof paint or equivalent protection system. The igniter mechanism shall be simple to operate and provide...

2012-10-01

132

46 CFR 160.057-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...considered upon special request when presented with supporting data. Igniter systems shall be of corrosion-resistant metal. The combustible...waterproof paint or other equivalent protection system. The igniter mechanism shall operate and provide ignition of the...

2012-10-01

133

46 CFR 160.022-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...considered upon special request when presented with supporting data. Igniter systems shall be corrosion-resistant metal. The combustible...coats of waterproof paint or equivalent protection system. The igniter mechanism shall be simple to operate and provide...

2011-10-01

134

46 CFR 160.022-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...considered upon special request when presented with supporting data. Igniter systems shall be corrosion-resistant metal. The combustible...coats of waterproof paint or equivalent protection system. The igniter mechanism shall be simple to operate and provide...

2013-10-01

135

46 CFR 160.022-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...considered upon special request when presented with supporting data. Igniter systems shall be corrosion-resistant metal. The combustible...coats of waterproof paint or equivalent protection system. The igniter mechanism shall be simple to operate and provide...

2014-10-01

136

46 CFR 160.057-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...considered upon special request when presented with supporting data. Igniter systems shall be of corrosion-resistant metal. The combustible...waterproof paint or other equivalent protection system. The igniter mechanism shall operate and provide ignition of the...

2014-10-01

137

214 Young et al. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 41:214224 (1999)  

E-print Network

nature of the arthro- pod exoskeleton requires periodic molts if growth is to occur, which exposes emerges from its shed exoskeleton with an adequate waterproofing layer already in place, as one would

138

78 FR 67129 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Plastic, Clear, Waterproof W/Neck Lanyard. NPA: West Texas Lighthouse for the Blind, San Angelo, TX. Contracting Activity: General...by the General Services Administration. NPA: San Antonio Lighthouse for the Blind, San Antonio, TX. Contracting...

2013-11-08

139

such a task. It grew out of a request by Bethe to Gerry Brown to explain his physics to the  

E-print Network

aerofoil structures, producing lift and reducing drag; they can be waterproof; they are resistant to wear and abrasion, and are self-repairing; they perform a wide variety of sensory functions; and they create humid

McGraw, Kevin J.

140

Project Name: Construction Period  

E-print Network

-Jun 6-Jun 7-Jun 8-Jun 9-Jun Day of the week Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun the decking X X X X X X X Lighting above the decking X X X X X Waterproofing level 6 X X X X X X X X X Prep planter X X X X X Waterproof, flood test, and insulate the south planter X X X X X X X X X Remove

Levinson, David M.

141

Superhydrophobic brocades modified with aligned ZnO nanorods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A superhydrophobic ZnO oriented nanorods coating on brocade substrate was prepared by a low-temperature wet chemical route, and the corresponding waterproof properties were evaluated. From wetting measurement, the modified brocades have a water contact angle of ?152° and roll-off angle of 9° to a 10 ?L water-droplet. A direct immersion of the modified brocades in water gives a strongly water-repellent behavior. The obtained waterproof brocades offer an opportunity for fabricating some special and protective drygoods.

Qi, Gaocan; Zhang, Huan; Yuan, Zhihao

2011-11-01

142

Shingle system  

DOEpatents

A barrier, such as a PV module, is secured to a base by a support to create a shingle assembly with a venting region defined between the barrier and base for temperature regulation. Water resistant junctions may be formed between the bases of adjacent shingle assemblies of an array of shingle assemblies. The base may include an insulation layer underlying a water barrier. The base may also include a waterproofing element; the width and height of the barrier may be shorter than the width and height of the waterproofing element.

Dinwoodie, Thomas L. (Piedmont, CA)

2008-02-12

143

Thermal insulation protection means  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system for providing thermal insulation for portions of a spacecraft which do not exceed 900 F during ascent or reentry relative to the earth's atmosphere is described. The thermal insulation is formed of relatively large flexible sheets of needled Nomex felt having a flexible waterproof coating. The thickness of the felt is sized to protect against projected temperatures and is attached to the structure by a resin adhesive. Vent holes in the sheets allow ventilation while maintaining waterproofing. The system is heat treated to provide thermal stability.

Dotts, R. L.; Smith, J. A.; Strouhal, G. (inventors)

1979-01-01

144

Rigid Top Plate Electronics Feed-through  

E-print Network

off ends of coated magnet wire. Attach wire to gages. Bring wires out to top, sick in place with 5.5 to 3 times diameter) 2. Coat sides with stiff, waterproof epoxy let set, then smooth off rough points 3- and S- transducers) - Allow bond to cure -Test transducer signals -Clean out pore fluid holes10. Add end

145

Defeating the Drips.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a holistic approach to preventing moisture penetration of exterior walls in modular school buildings. The problem of roof leaks in modular structures is examined as are approaches to water management, roof waterproofing, the problem of condensation, and the design of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems as it affects water…

Moss, Lincoln

2000-01-01

146

A, Science Servico Feature Relensed upon rccoipt  

E-print Network

into a waterproof fabric trough representing the foro- ground of the scene. This is supplied a i t h natcr undor Suitable lighting supplies the effect of depth, so t!mt .rrhr?.t i s really Q thin curtain of arctiiitl

147

Development of polymer concrete vaults for natural gas regulator stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaults for natural gas regulator stations have traditionally been fabricated with steel-reinforced portland cement concrete. Since these vaults are installed below ground level, they are usually coated with a water-proofing material to prevent the ingress of moisture into the vault. In some cases, penetrations for piping that are normally cast into the vault do not line up with the gas

J. J. Fontana; C. A. Miller; W. Reams; D. Elling

1990-01-01

148

Materials Science and Engineering A 438440 (2006) 891895 Corrosion behaviour of TiNbSn shape memory  

E-print Network

by breaking the tube. The samples were wet ground with water-proof silicon carbide papers to 2000 gritMaterials Science and Engineering A 438­440 (2006) 891­895 Corrosion behaviour of Ti­Nb­Sn shape.C. Zhaoa a School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001

Zheng, Yufeng

2006-01-01

149

Mechanics of stretchable electronics with high fill factors Yewang Su a,b  

E-print Network

), bio-integrated electronics (Kim et al., 2010a), water-proof optoelectronics for biomedicine (Kim et al and Materials, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China c Institute of High Performance Computing, A/ STAR Depts. of Material Sci. & Eng., Electrical & Computer Eng., Chemistry, Materials Research Lab

Rogers, John A.

150

Toward high output-power nanogenerator Peng Fei,1,2  

E-print Network

was com- pleted by packaging the device with water-proof polymer so that the testing could be carried out Lin Wang1,a 1 School Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0245, USA 2 Department of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, College of Engineering

Wang, Zhong L.

151

An Investigation on the Formation Mechanism of the Porous Structure of the PU Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of polyurethanes (PU) is extending into various fields, such as artificial leather, microfiltration, moisture-permeable water-proof material, and osmosis membranes. The polyurethane coated films are a porous material with dense surface backed by a porous substructure; they possess an excellent adsorption and permeability, a useful strength and toughness. These properties are closely related with their microstructure. The microstructure of PU

Caiyuan Chu; Zhiping Mao; Haojing Yan

1995-01-01

152

Plastisol Sealants for Automotive Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastisol sealants are widely used in the automotive industry both as structural adhesives and as water-proofing compounds. Over the years, a variety of materials have been used to promote adhesion in formulated plastisol sealants. This paper covers experimental work with a series of plastisol sealants using silane coupling agents as integral blend adhesion promoters. Silanes with cyclic epoxy, mer capto,

A. R. Bullman

1969-01-01

153

Please note: this is a comprehensive list of suggestionsyou do not need to bring all of these items! What to Bring  

E-print Network

+ toothpaste + floss Bathrobe Personal toiletries (makeup, deodorant, etc.) Shower shoes / flip flops Hair + swimwear!) waterproof shoes or boots Twin-sized bed and mattress (long) Mirror Desk and chair Waste / reusable cloths Laundry Items Laundry basket / bag Lint-roller High Efficiency laundry detergent Hangers

Brownstone, Rob

154

Design Standards Manual Table of Contents: Part III (Divisions 1 -16)  

E-print Network

Blinds 05/07 #12;DIVISION 13: SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION 13100 Lightning Protection 05/07 13210 Elevated Water;DIVISION 6: WOOD AND PLASTICS DIVISION 7: THERMAL & MOISTURE PROTECTION 07130 Waterproofing 07190 Water Protection Specialties 05/07 10801 Toilet and Bath Accessories 05/07 DIVISION 11: EQUIPMENT 11400 Food

155

Distributed A Wireless Sensor Network for  

E-print Network

Distributed Computing A Wireless Sensor Network for Orienteering Competitions Master's Thesis-wave Monopole Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5 MAC and Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks 14 5.1 Medium and waterproof cases free of charge. i #12;Abstract This thesis deals with the development of a wireless sensor

156

1 INTRODUCTION In Spain, Plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-  

E-print Network

1 INTRODUCTION In Spain, Plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC- P) geomembranes began being used in waterproof- ing of infrastructure in the seventies. Early usage of PVC-P geomembranes was not particularly for the PVC-P homogeneous geomem- branes used in roofing. Subsequently, other stan- dards were drafted

Zornberg, Jorge G.

157

Protected Membrane Roofs: A Sustainable Roofing Solution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the benefits of protected membrane roofing (PMR) for school buildings. PMR uses an upside-down approach, where the insulation is placed on top of the waterproofing membrane to improve membrane effectiveness, reduce ultraviolet degradation, and improve insulation efficiency. The article explains what makes PMR sustainable, focusing on…

Roodvoets, David L.

2003-01-01

158

The PennsylvaniaStateUniversity HUB-RobesonAddition and Renovation  

E-print Network

· Food Service Data Install · Install Food Service Security Gates · Install Food Service Terrazzo Building Co., Inc. July25,2014 #12;Work In Progress · Painting in Food Service · Pull Wire in Food Service · Install Ceramic Tile in Food Service · Install Food Service Equipment · Waterproofing East Side

159

ANDREW HIPP Plant Systematist & Herbarium Curator,  

E-print Network

, this triggers cells within the abscission zone to secrete a digestive enzyme, cutting the leaf from the tree, lignified protective layer. (Suberin and lignin are two waterproof, phenolic poly- mers to lignify (become filled with lignin, the brown, phenolic polymer found in wood and certain classes of plant

Hipp, Andrew

160

Differences in suberin content and composition between two varieties of potatoes ( Solanum tuberosum) and effect of post-harvest storage to the composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The waterproof defence barrier of the potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber periderm consists of the suberized cells of phellem. The distinct polyaliphatic and polyaromatic domains of suberin have separate roles in the development of resistance to infections. The aliphatic suberin composition and changes in the amounts of peel and extractive free suberized membrane i.e. raw suberin were studied in two potato

Riikka Järvinen; Henna Rauhala; Ulla Holopainen; Heikki Kallio

2011-01-01

161

Underwater near-infrared spectroscopy measurements of muscle oxygenation: laboratory validation and preliminary observations in swimmers and triathletes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to waterproof a near-infrared spectroscopy device (PortaMon, Artinis Medical Systems) to enable NIR measurement during swim exercise. Candidate materials were initially tested for waterproof suitability by comparing light intensity values during phantom-based tissue assessment. Secondary assessment involved repeated isokinetic exercises ensuring reliability of the results obtained from the modified device. Tertiary assessment required analysis of the effect of water immersion and temperature upon device function. Initial testing revealed that merely covering the PortaMon light sources with waterproof materials considerably affected the NIR light intensities. Modifying a commercially available silicone covering through the addition of a polyvinyl chloride material (impermeable to NIR light transmission) produces an acceptable compromise. Bland–Altman analysis indicated that exercise-induced changes in tissue saturation index (TSI %) were within acceptable limits during laboratory exercise. Although water immersion had a small but significant effect upon NIR light intensity, this resulted in a negligible change in the measured TSI (%). We then tested the waterproof device in vivo illustrating oxygenation changes during a 100 m freestyle swim case study. Finally, a full study compared club level swimmers and triathletes. Significant changes in oxygenation profiles when comparing upper and lower extremities for the two groups were revealed, reflecting differences in swim biomechanics. PMID:25478871

Jones, Ben; Dat, Marco; Cooper, Chris E

2014-12-01

162

Microfluidic devices constructed by a marker pen on a silica gel plate for multiplex assays.  

PubMed

In this report, we describe a simple-to-fabricate microfluidic device constructed on a silica gel plate by a waterproof marker pen. We call it pen-based assay on silica, which was successfully applied to simultaneously analyze multiple targets qualitatively and quantitatively based on colorimetric assays for protein, glucose, and pH value. PMID:21417226

Fang, Xueen; Chen, Hui; Jiang, Xingyu; Kong, Jilie

2011-05-01

163

46 CFR 161.013-3 - General performance requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...013-9; (4) Float in fresh water with the lens surface at or above the surface of the water; (5) Be equipped with a waterproof switch; and (6) Meet the requirement of paragraphs (a) (1) through (4) of this section after floating for...

2010-10-01

164

48 CFR 652.242-72 - Shipping Instructions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...kg 22.23 × 98.43mm 182 to 272 kg 22.23 × 123.83mm or 25.4 × 98.43 mm (b) Each box shall be lined with waterproof paper and shall be bound with 19.05mm? steel straps firmly stapled in position to prevent the straps from slipping...

2011-10-01

165

46 CFR 160.005-6 - Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Jacket Type), Models 52 and 56 § 160.005-6 Marking. Each life preserver must have the following clearly marked in waterproof lettering on a front section: (a) In letters three-fourths inch or more in height: (1) Adult (for persons...

2011-10-01

166

NEW TEACHER WELCOME PACK: ELEMENTARY SCHOOL  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Assortment of "Best-Selling" books for Elementary School Teachers. Pack includes the following books. Picture Perfect Science, Exemplary Science Grades K-4, Uncovering Student Ideas in Science, Volume 1, Using Science Notebooks, and Everyday Science Mysteries. Books are packed into a waterproof, nylon briefcase with handle and shoulder strap. Front flap of briefcase is printed with the NSTA logo.

1900-01-01

167

48 CFR 1852.246-72 - Material inspection and receiving report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...with NASA FAR Supplement 1846.6. The Contractor shall enclose the copies of the DD Form 250 in the package or seal them in a waterproof envelope, which shall be securely attached to the exterior of the package in the most protected location. (c)...

2011-10-01

168

46 CFR 160.002-6 - Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Jacket Type), Models 3 and 5 § 160.002-6 Marking. Each life preserver must have the following clearly marked in waterproof ink on a front section: (a) In letters three-quarters of an inch or more in height: (1) Adult (for persons...

2010-10-01

169

46 CFR 169.675 - Generators and motors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...contact with low lying vapors. (e) Each motor for use in a location exposed to the weather must be of the watertight or waterproof type or must be enclosed in a watertight housing. The motor enclosure or housing must be provided with a check valve...

2010-10-01

170

21 CFR 880.6185 - Cast cover.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...880.6185 Cast cover. (a) Identification. A cast cover is a device intended for medical purposes that is made of waterproof material and placed over a cast to protect it from getting wet during a shower or a bath. (b)...

2011-04-01

171

46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...caliber and loading specified in the instructions furnished by the manufacturer of the gun. The cartridges shall be blank with waterproof paper wad. (e) One cleaning rod with brush. (f) One can of oil suitable for cleaning the gun and preserving...

2010-10-01

172

46 CFR 161.013-3 - General performance requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...013-9; (4) Float in fresh water with the lens surface at or above the surface of the water; (5) Be equipped with a waterproof switch; and (6) Meet the requirement of paragraphs (a) (1) through (4) of this section after floating for...

2011-10-01

173

48 CFR 1852.246-72 - Material inspection and receiving report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...with NASA FAR Supplement 1846.6. The Contractor shall enclose the copies of the DD Form 250 in the package or seal them in a waterproof envelope, which shall be securely attached to the exterior of the package in the most protected location. (c)...

2010-10-01

174

46 CFR 169.675 - Generators and motors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...contact with low lying vapors. (e) Each motor for use in a location exposed to the weather must be of the watertight or waterproof type or must be enclosed in a watertight housing. The motor enclosure or housing must be provided with a check valve...

2011-10-01

175

46 CFR 160.050-4 - Construction and workmanship.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...around the body of the buoy with the free ends to the outside, and shall be securely cemented to the buoy with a suitable waterproof adhesive which is compatible with the unicellular plastic used in the buoy body. The ends of the beckets shall be...

2010-10-01

176

Swim Free. A 10 Day Program of Aquatic Exercises Adapted from Life in the Waterworld.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The completely waterproof book contains instructions for an alternative form of swimming exercises based on the movements of 19 water creatures. The exercises can be used by groups or individuals to enhance training programs, to serve as part of a structured synchronized swimming program, or to supplement recreational activities. The book provides…

Eberhardt, Lorraine; Sanborn, Laura

177

46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...caliber and loading specified in the instructions furnished by the manufacturer of the gun. The cartridges shall be blank with waterproof paper wad. (e) One cleaning rod with brush. (f) One can of oil suitable for cleaning the gun and preserving...

2011-10-01

178

46 CFR 160.061-3 - Design and construction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...instructions shall be prepared in pamphlet form, approximately 21/2 inches by 41/2 inches on parchment paper, in waterproof ink, with printing on one side of the paper only. The booklet shall contain a complete description of how and under what...

2011-10-01

179

46 CFR 160.005-6 - Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Jacket Type), Models 52 and 56 § 160.005-6 Marking. Each life preserver must have the following clearly marked in waterproof lettering on a front section: (a) In letters three-fourths inch or more in height: (1) Adult (for persons...

2010-10-01

180

46 CFR 160.043-6 - Marking and packing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...can opener. (c) Packing. Each jackknife, complete with lanyard attached, shall be packed in a heat-sealed bag of waterproof vinyl resin or polyethylene film not less than 0.004 inch in thickness. The bag shall be marked in a clear and...

2010-10-01

181

21 CFR 880.6185 - Cast cover.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...880.6185 Cast cover. (a) Identification. A cast cover is a device intended for medical purposes that is made of waterproof material and placed over a cast to protect it from getting wet during a shower or a bath. (b)...

2010-04-01

182

46 CFR 160.174-15 - Instructions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...b) The instructions required by paragraph (a) of this section must be on the exterior of the storage case, printed on a waterproof card attached to the storage case, or printed on the thermal protective aid and visible through a transparent storage...

2010-10-01

183

Skilled up and Having Fun  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many teachers seem to have followed the "dunking theory." That is, they dunk their children in a variety of investigations and hope that through their practical work they will absorb a thorough understanding of enquiry skills. Children seem to have quite a good natural waterproof coating when it comes to absorbing scientific skills through…

Goldsworthy, Anne

2013-01-01

184

46 CFR 160.002-6 - Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Jacket Type), Models 3 and 5 § 160.002-6 Marking. Each life preserver must have the following clearly marked in waterproof ink on a front section: (a) In letters three-quarters of an inch or more in height: (1) Adult (for persons...

2011-10-01

185

46 CFR 160.043-6 - Marking and packing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...can opener. (c) Packing. Each jackknife, complete with lanyard attached, shall be packed in a heat-sealed bag of waterproof vinyl resin or polyethylene film not less than 0.004 inch in thickness. The bag shall be marked in a clear and...

2011-10-01

186

46 CFR 160.174-15 - Instructions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...b) The instructions required by paragraph (a) of this section must be on the exterior of the storage case, printed on a waterproof card attached to the storage case, or printed on the thermal protective aid and visible through a transparent storage...

2011-10-01

187

48 CFR 652.242-72 - Shipping Instructions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...kg 22.23 × 98.43mm 182 to 272 kg 22.23 × 123.83mm or 25.4 × 98.43 mm (b) Each box shall be lined with waterproof paper and shall be bound with 19.05mm? steel straps firmly stapled in position to prevent the straps from slipping...

2010-10-01

188

NSTA WHEELED BACKPACK  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gray/black, waterproof, wheeled backpack with recessed handle. Zippered main compartment is 12" wide x 18" high, and includes smaller front and side zippered pockets. Can be used as a wheeled book bag or worn as a backpack. NSTA logo is printed on the small front compartment.

1900-01-01

189

49 CFR 178.520 - Standards for textile bags.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of paper or plastic material. (3) Bags, water-resistant, 5L3: To prevent entry of moisture, the bag must be made waterproof by appropriate means, such as by the use of separate inner liners of water-resistant paper (e.g., waxed kraft...

2011-10-01

190

Watertight low-cost electrical connector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fabrication is described of waterproof electrical connector assembly for use with Teflon jacketed cables and constructed so that assembly will remain sealed under extreme environmental conditions. Conditions are specified as: pressure from vacuum to atmospheric; temperature from 280 K to 450 K; exposure to saturated steam; and steam suddenly introduced into vacuum.

Dudenhoefer, J. E.; Miraldi, M. N.

1972-01-01

191

Coatings for mullite insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Series of coatings provides hard, impermeable, waterproof layer. Inclusion of color oxides imparts high emittance to surface. Refractory fillers investigated include TiO2, BaO.ZrO2, SrO.TiO2 ziron, spodumene, petalite, and kryptonite. Colorants include Cr2O3, NiO, and CoO.

Bolinger, P. N.; Rauch, H. W., Sr.

1976-01-01

192

Effects of access to preen gland secretions on mallard plumage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preen glands exist in almost every bird species and several non-exclusive functions have been proposed for this gland and the oils that it produces. One function generally admitted is that the oily secretions of the preen gland would provide a waterproofing layer when spread over feathers. Alternatively, several authors have proposed that plumage waterproofness is mostly due to the spatial micro-structure of feathers. The purpose of this study was to examine, by manipulating the access to the preen gland, the effect of the preen oil on the plumage waterproofness and condition. To explore this question, we carried out two independent experiments where we temporarily blocked access to the preen gland secretions with a removable mechanism in one group of captive mallards ( Anas platyrhynchos), whilst a second group of birds had access to gland secretions. In a long-term experiment (3 months of treatment) and a short-term experiment (10 days), we measured plumage water retention and condition. After 3 months without access to preen glands, we found a significant decrease of plumage condition and an associated increase in plumage water retention. Moreover, we found a significant correlation between plumage condition and water retention ability. In contrast, after 10 days of treatment, no significant effect was found on plumage condition and water retention. Our study shows that preen oil acts to maintain plumage condition and suggests that feather microstructure is essential to maintain plumage waterproofness.

Giraudeau, Mathieu; Duval, Camille; Guillon, Noel; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Gutierrez, Claude; Heeb, Philipp

2010-06-01

193

New system for bathing bedridden patients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multihead shower facility can be used with minimal patient handling. Waterproof curtain allows patient to bathe with his head out of shower. He can move completely inside shower to wash his face and hair. Main advantage of shower system is time saved in giving bath.

Greenleaf, J. E.; Staley, R. A.; Payne, P. A.

1973-01-01

194

Engineered proteins stick like glue --even in water1 www.sciencedaily.com2  

E-print Network

Engineered proteins stick like glue -- even in water1 www.sciencedaily.com2 3 Shellfish underwater.4 Inspired by these natural adhesives, a team of MIT engineers has designed new materials waterproof adhesives, the MIT researchers engineered bacteria to6 produce a hybrid material that incorporates

South Bohemia, University of

195

Polymerization and surface modification by low pressure plasma technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A durable water repellent, stain resistant or flame retardant character can be conferred to polyacrylonitrile (PAN) textiles by using the plasma induced graft polymerization technique. The monomers used are perfluoroalkylacrylate, (meth)acrylate phosphates, and phosphonates which are well known to be effective for the waterproofing and the fireproofing of polymeric substrates, respectively.

Tsafack, M.-J.; Hochart, F.; Levalois-Grützmacher, J.

2004-06-01

196

Canonical notch signaling functions as a commitment switch in the epidermal lineage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammalian epidermis consists of a basal layer of proliferative progenitors that gives rise to multiple differentiating layers to provide a waterproof envelope covering the skin surface. To accomplish this, progenitor cells must detach from the basal layer, move upward, and execute a terminal differentiation program consisting of three distinct stages: spinous, granular layer, and stratum corneum. Notch signaling has been

Cédric Blanpain; William E. Lowry; H. Amalia Pasolli; Elaine Fuchs

2006-01-01

197

Fluid-Injection Tool for Inaccessible Areas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New tool injects liquids or gases into narrow crevices. Can be used to apply caulking and waterproofing compounds, adhesives, detergent, undercoats and oil and to aerate hard-to-reach places. Nozzle can reach into opening 1/32 inch wide to depth of more than 4 inches. Although thin, device is rigid and strong.

Myers, J. E.

1982-01-01

198

Optimizing Degradable Scaffolds for Cranium Tissue Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: The issue of repairing deformities in the craniofacial area continues to be a challenging one for reconstructive surgeons. To date many methods and materials have been used to obtain a waterproof seal of bone defects in the cranium (1). Various methods have been used for the preparation of porous polymeric structures for biomedical applications (2). The aim of this

H M Aydin; Y Yang; E Piskin; A El Haj

199

June2014Update Growing Together  

E-print Network

Repairing and grouting north and west slurry walls. Stripping form on shear wall below grade. Waterproofing is ongoing. Structural slab concrete pour is near completion. Lenfest Center for the Arts Prep work for columns in progress. Structural steel erection tentatively scheduled to begin in June 2014. Structural

Hone, James

200

Your Answers CAN-Y-COED  

E-print Network

jaws open wide! 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Guess what I am? CAE'N-Y-COED ANIMAL PUZZLE TRAIL Dylunio/Design wear suitable footwear, as the ground can be uneven in places. Warm and waterproof clothing is advised

201

www.ext.vt.edu Produced by Communications and Marketing, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 2013  

E-print Network

reducing the volume and velocity. Vegetated roofs consist of a waterproof- ing barrier, drainage system costs for the building, and create new interactive and functional green space where there was none) a root barrier, and (5) an imperme- able liner which blocks moisture also serves as a root barrier

Liskiewicz, Maciej

202

46 CFR 160.037-4 - Approval and production tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...removal from the bag) 25 mm (1 in.) below the surface of the water for a period of 10 minutes. (ii) Waterproofing of igniter button. Remove the cap from the test specimen. Place head of specimen without cap about 25 mm (1 in.) under the...

2012-10-01

203

46 CFR 160.037-4 - Approval and production tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...removal from the bag) 25 mm (1 in.) below the surface of the water for a period of 10 minutes. (ii) Waterproofing of igniter button. Remove the cap from the test specimen. Place head of specimen without cap about 25 mm (1 in.) under the...

2013-10-01

204

46 CFR 160.037-4 - Approval and production tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...removal from the bag) 25 mm (1 in.) below the surface of the water for a period of 10 minutes. (ii) Waterproofing of igniter button. Remove the cap from the test specimen. Place head of specimen without cap about 25 mm (1 in.) under the...

2014-10-01

205

49 CFR 178.358-2 - Materials of construction and other requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or a combination of these is 10 cm (4 inches). (3) Solid wood or laminated wood solidly glued may be used to replace...seams and joints for the liner and shell must be continuous welds. (g) Waterproofing. Each screw hole in the outer...

2013-10-01

206

49 CFR 178.358-2 - Materials of construction and other requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...or a combination of these is 10 cm (4 inches). (3) Solid wood or laminated wood solidly glued may be used to replace...seams and joints for the liner and shell must be continuous welds. (g) Waterproofing. Each screw hole in the outer...

2012-10-01

207

2014 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University VCE-414NP Virginia Cooperative Extension programs and employment are open to all, regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, g  

E-print Network

, tornado or terrorist attack depends largely on emergency planning. Because animals can influence a person plans in case you cannot get home to care for your animals. Arrange for a neighbor who is frequently in case they get lost. · Medications, first-aid kit and veterinary records (stored in a waterproof

Liskiewicz, Maciej

208

77 FR 17394 - Hazardous Materials: Approval and Communication Requirements for the Safe Transportation of Air...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...tape or a waterproof soft plastic cap that must easily provide ventilation of the drum contents in the...that have established a history of safety and which may...Outer packaging consisting of 4H2 solid plastic boxes or non-...

2012-03-26

209

No Valve in Vain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acting as biomedical engineers, students design, build, test and redesign prototype heart valves using materials such as waterproof tape, plastic tubing, flexible plastic and foam sheets, clay, wire and pipe cleaners. They test them with flowing water, representing blood moving through the heart. As students creatively practice engineering problem solving, they demonstrate their understanding of how one-way heart valves work.

Techtronics Program,

210

Asphalt and Wood Shingling. Roofing Workbook and Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This combination workbook and set of tests contains materials on asphalt and wood shingling that have been designed to be used by those studying to enter the roofing and waterproofing trade. It consists of seven instructional units and seven accompanying objective tests. Covered in the individual units are the following topics: shingling…

Brown, Arthur

211

SUGGESTED ITEMS FOR YOUR EMERGENCY DISASTER KIT  

E-print Network

-1/2 gallons per person for seven days). Bleach (several gallons) for water purification (not the scented kind (saves on water). Paper Towels and Baby Wipes Ice Gallon Zip-Lock Bags for making ice and water-proofing items. Large Garbage Bags to collect refuse and water- proof items. Cooking Facilities ­ Grill, charcoal

Jawitz, James W.

212

Entm 307G: Exoskeleton.TG The Insect (Arthropod) Exoskeleton  

E-print Network

Entm 307G: Exoskeleton.TG The Insect (Arthropod) Exoskeleton Appropriate Grades: 2-6 Think Ahead that insects, and other arthropods, have an external support system called an exoskeleton, which provides, in addition, the exoskeleton provides waterproofing to keep insects from drying out, protection from enemies

Ginzel, Matthew

213

Use of epoxy compounds in structural elements and insulation in the Kislogubsk tidal power station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Epoxy foam heat-and-water insulation and epoxy-pitch waterproofing have been found to be suitable for structures in regions\\u000a with a severe climate, and in particular for tidal power stations built by the floating method.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a Industrial experience in the construction of the Kislogubsk tidal power station has shown the advantages of using epoxy plastic\\u000a solutions for constructing waterproofing seams

L. A. Igonin; P. A. Pshenitsyn; V. I. Sakharov

1971-01-01

214

The behavior of pre-rusted steel in concrete  

SciTech Connect

This paper explores the possibility of an effective protection for precorroded steel by effect of the high alkalinity of the encasing mortar (by itself or in combination with the action of sodium nitrite). Application of a waterproof coating on the mortar surface was evaluated for this purpose. The behavior of clean steel electrodes and in three different pre-corrosion grades was characterized from periodic measurements of the corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) and polarization resistance (R{sub p}). Neither mortar alkalinity alone nor in combination with the effect of nitride ions was found to passivate the reinforcements in the two higher corrosion grades over 2 years of exposure in an atmosphere of a high relative humidity. Also, immersion of the specimens in a 5% NaNO{sub 2} solution was found not to passivate steel undergoing active corrosion. The effectiveness of the waterproofing treatment for diminishing reinforcement corrosion was found to rely heavily on timely application.

Gonzalez, J.A.; Bautista, A.; Feliu, S. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, Madrid (Spain)] [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, Madrid (Spain); Ramirez, E. [Pontificia Universidad Catolica, Lima (Peru)] [Pontificia Universidad Catolica, Lima (Peru)

1996-03-01

215

Further study on the use of foil strain gages under extremely high-pressure water environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an extension of an earlier study2 of a pressurized water environment of up to 80 MPa. The effectiveness of four water-proofing materials is studied for pressures up to 172.5 MPa (or 25,000 psi). The pressure effect on the coated gages is also investigated. The results indicate that the pressure effect on coated gages is smaller than on

A. S. Khan; J.-C. Chen

1985-01-01

216

The impermeability mechanism of self-compacting water proof concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impermeability mechanism of water-proof self-compacting concrete (WPSCC) was studied. The mechanism and influential factors,\\u000a such as water-cement ratio (w\\/c), dosage of powder, superplasticizer, sand content, aggregate content, fly ash, UEA, PP fiber,\\u000a on compactibility and crack resistance of WPSCC were analyzed. A type of WPSCC successfully applied in tunnel liner with its\\u000a validities, conveniences and economies by mockup test

Li Huoxiang; Tang Chun’an; Xiong Jianmin; Li Sinian

2005-01-01

217

Assembling an Archival Marking Kit for Paleontological Specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Will the number you put on your specimen, its tag, box or other housing, be legible in one hundred years? Is it rub-proof, water-proof, fade-proof? Will a future worker be able to remove it if necessary? This poster will present a plan for assembling an archival marking kit, adapted for fossils from a similar kit for anthropological objects. Having a

Amy Davidson; Samantha Alderson; Marilyn Fox

218

The use of brick–lime plasters and their relevance to climatic conditions of historic bath buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brick–lime mortars and plasters have been widely used as water-proof materials in aqueducts, bridges and cisterns since early Hellenistic time. In this study, the characteristics of brick–lime plasters used in some Ottoman bath buildings were investigated in order to understand their relevance as plasters in hot and humid environmental conditions of the baths. For this purpose, basic physical properties, raw

Elif U?urlu; Hasan Böke

2009-01-01

219

Mechanism of action of lung damage caused by a nanofilm spray product.  

PubMed

Inhalation of waterproofing spray products has on several occasions caused lung damage, which in some cases was fatal. The present study aims to elucidate the mechanism of action of a nanofilm spray product, which has been shown to possess unusual toxic effects, including an extremely steep concentration-effect curve. The nanofilm product is intended for application on non-absorbing flooring materials and contains perfluorosiloxane as the active film-forming component. The toxicological effects and their underlying mechanisms of this product were studied using a mouse inhalation model, by in vitro techniques and by identification of the binding interaction. Inhalation of the aerosolized product gave rise to increased airway resistance in the mice, as evident from the decreased expiratory flow rate. The toxic effect of the waterproofing spray product included interaction with the pulmonary surfactants. More specifically, the active film-forming components in the spray product, perfluorinated siloxanes, inhibited the function of the lung surfactant due to non-covalent interaction with surfactant protein B, a component which is crucial for the stability and persistence of the lung surfactant film during respiration. The active film-forming component used in the present spray product is also found in several other products on the market. Hence, it may be expected that these products may have a toxicity similar to the waterproofing product studied here. Elucidation of the toxicological mechanism and identification of toxicological targets are important to perform rational and cost-effective toxicological studies. Thus, because the pulmonary surfactant system appears to be an important toxicological target for waterproofing spray products, study of surfactant inhibition could be included in toxicological assessment of this group of consumer products. PMID:24863969

Larsen, Søren T; Dallot, Constantin; Larsen, Susan W; Rose, Fabrice; Poulsen, Steen S; Nørgaard, Asger W; Hansen, Jitka S; Sørli, Jorid B; Nielsen, Gunnar D; Foged, Camilla

2014-08-01

220

Automated quality inspection of surface defects on touch panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capacitive touch panels (CTPs) with advantages of water-proof, stain-proof, scratch-proof, and fast response are widely used in various electronic products built in touch technology functions. It is a difficult inspection task when defects imbedded on surfaces of CTPs with structural textures. This research proposes a Fourier transform-based approach to inspect surface defects of CTPs. When a CTP image with four

Hong-Dar Lin; Huan-Hua Tsai

2012-01-01

221

Highly efficient photocatalytic water reduction with robust iridium(III) photosensitizers containing arylsilyl substituents.  

PubMed

Waterproof complexes: Cationic Ir(III) photosensitizers (PSs) with an ancillary 4,4'-bis(4-(triphenylsilyl)phenyl)-2,2'-bipyridine ligand enabled hydrogen evolution from water with high turnover numbers (TONs; see scheme). The peripheral triphenylsilyl moieties prevent ligand substitution by solvent molecules, such as water, and thus increase the durability of the complexes. SR=sacrificial reducing agent, WRC=water-reduction catalyst. PMID:24027139

Whang, Dong Ryeol; Sakai, Ken; Park, Soo Young

2013-10-25

222

A safe and accurate method of assessing the size of implants required in orbital floor reconstruction.  

PubMed

Many methods to determine the size of an orbital floor implant depend on trial and error. However, this technique is imprecise and the repeated insertion and removal of the implant leads to soft tissue trauma and swelling. A method of measuring orbital floor dimensions intraoperatively using a waterproof paper ruler is presented in this study. This technique has the advantage of being simple, precise, safe, and expedient. PMID:23730428

Lim, Thiam Chye; Rasheed, Zulfikar Mohamed; Sundar, Gangadhara

2012-06-01

223

NEW TEACHER WELCOME PACK: MIDDLE SCHOOL  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Assortment of "Best Selling" books for Middle School Science Teachers. Pack includes the following books. Help! I'm Teaching Middle School Science, Exemplary Science Grades 5-8, Uncovering Student Ideas in Science, Volume 2, Doing Good Science in Middle School, Stop Faking It: Force and Motion. Books are packed into a waterproof, nylon briefcase with handle and shoulder strap. Front flap of briefcase is printed with the NSTA logo. Includes a free sample of the journal, Science Scope .

1900-01-01

224

NEW TEACHER WELCOME PACK: HIGH SCHOOL  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Assortment of "Best Selling" books for High School Science Teachers. Pack includes the following books. Investigating Safely, Science Educator's Guide to Laboratory Assessment, How to Write to Learn Science, Science as Inquiry in the Secondary Setting, and The Biologist's Handbook. Books are packed into a waterproof, nylon briefcase with handle and shoulder strap. Front flap of briefcase is printed with the NSTA logo. Includes free sample of the journal, The Science Teacher .

1900-01-01

225

Portable Spray Booth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Portable spray booth provides for controlled application of coating materials with high solvent contents. Includes contoured shroud and carbon filter bed limiting concentration of fumes in vicinity. Designed to substitute spraying for brush application of solvent-based adhesive prior to installing rubber waterproof seals over joints between segments of solid-fuel rocket motor. With minor adjustments and modifications, used to apply other solvent-based adhesives, paints, and like.

Hansen, Timothy D.; Bardwell, Micheal J.

1996-01-01

226

Cancer Stem Cells and Skin Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Skin cancers are the fastest growing type of cancer in the United States and represent the most commonly diagnosed malignancy,\\u000a surpassing lung, breast, colorectal and prostate cancer. The epidermis is a multilayered epithelium that covers the skin providing\\u000a a waterproof barrier that essentially controls the rate of water loss from the body. Recently, cancer stem cells (CSCs) are\\u000a defined as

Caterina A. M. Porta

227

BotEC: Weight of Gold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Question Let's suppose that you have a shoe box full of water (the box is waterproof, of course). The shoe box weighs about 9 kg (19.8 pounds). Suppose you emptied the box and filled it completely with rock (little or no air space). How much would it weigh? Let's empty the box again and fill it completely with pure gold. How much would the box weigh now?

Barb Tewksbury

228

Biotechnology DOI 10.1002/biot.201300232 Biotechnol. J. 2013, 8, 754755  

E-print Network

GCHP Results in Net-Zero Energy Residence in Japan Dr. Shinji Takasugi, PE, GeoSystem, Inc. Richard Hook w/ waterproof bag Well water connector ­25A Concrete encasement (60cm square) Fishing boat water Fishing boat water tank (60cm square) (60x60x130+470L) #12;13 Towel Warmer Towel Warmer Pipe KP-13A x2

229

Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons present in asphaltenes from Mexican oil. A possible environmental risk.  

PubMed

A supercritical fluid extraction and HPLC analysis of the asphaltenes derived from Mexican oil was performed. The aim was to identify potentially mutagenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons present in asphaltenes, since roof waterproofing applications in this country present a significant exposure to hot asphaltene vapors that might conceivably carry such toxic hydrocarbons and therefore pose a health hazard to the workers who apply molten asphaltenes. PMID:8555743

Dieck, T; Acosta, A S; Villegas-Navarro, A

1995-01-01

230

Reliability control for wrist watches and their casements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reliability tests developed for controlling wrist watch movements and their casements are summarized. For controlling the watch movements, ageing accelerated tests and impact tests were performed. Testing the performance of a wrist watch casement is of great importance: since it is this which is initially attacked by the environment. The casement is submitted to impact, fatigue, vibration, and corrosion tests. The waterproof capabilities and ageing behavior of the casements are examined.

Schneider, Jean-Claude

231

Mechanism of Action of Lung Damage Caused by a Nanofilm Spray Product  

PubMed Central

Inhalation of waterproofing spray products has on several occasions caused lung damage, which in some cases was fatal. The present study aims to elucidate the mechanism of action of a nanofilm spray product, which has been shown to possess unusual toxic effects, including an extremely steep concentration-effect curve. The nanofilm product is intended for application on non-absorbing flooring materials and contains perfluorosiloxane as the active film-forming component. The toxicological effects and their underlying mechanisms of this product were studied using a mouse inhalation model, by in vitro techniques and by identification of the binding interaction. Inhalation of the aerosolized product gave rise to increased airway resistance in the mice, as evident from the decreased expiratory flow rate. The toxic effect of the waterproofing spray product included interaction with the pulmonary surfactants. More specifically, the active film-forming components in the spray product, perfluorinated siloxanes, inhibited the function of the lung surfactant due to non-covalent interaction with surfactant protein B, a component which is crucial for the stability and persistence of the lung surfactant film during respiration. The active film-forming component used in the present spray product is also found in several other products on the market. Hence, it may be expected that these products may have a toxicity similar to the waterproofing product studied here. Elucidation of the toxicological mechanism and identification of toxicological targets are important to perform rational and cost-effective toxicological studies. Thus, because the pulmonary surfactant system appears to be an important toxicological target for waterproofing spray products, study of surfactant inhibition could be included in toxicological assessment of this group of consumer products. PMID:24863969

Larsen, Søren T.; Dallot, Constantin; Larsen, Susan W.; Rose, Fabrice; Poulsen, Steen S.; Nørgaard, Asger W.; Hansen, Jitka S.; Sørli, Jorid B.; Nielsen, Gunnar D.; Foged, Camilla

2014-01-01

232

Use of Pressure-Sensitive Film to Quantify Sources of Injury to Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the use of pressure-sensitive film (PSF) to estimate pressures experienced by fish exposed to potentially damaging mechanical and fluid structures during downstream passage at hydroelectric dams. The films responded well to a wide range of applied pressures (0.5–50 MPa), providing reliable estimates of pressures even when contained within waterproof plastic packaging, stacked under other films, and exposed at

Glenn ?ada; John Smith; Jessica Busey

2005-01-01

233

A Safe and Accurate Method of Assessing the Size of Implants Required in Orbital Floor Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Many methods to determine the size of an orbital floor implant depend on trial and error. However, this technique is imprecise and the repeated insertion and removal of the implant leads to soft tissue trauma and swelling. A method of measuring orbital floor dimensions intraoperatively using a waterproof paper ruler is presented in this study. This technique has the advantage of being simple, precise, safe, and expedient. PMID:23730428

Lim, Thiam Chye; Rasheed, Zulfikar Mohamed; Sundar, Gangadhara

2012-01-01

234

Study of properties of sand asphalt using a torsional rheometer  

E-print Network

?s oldest engineering material. Its adhesive and waterproof- ing properties were known at the dawn of civilization. The derivation of the word asphalt is from the Homeric Greek, asfalton, or asfaltos, meaning sticky, and later as an adjective meaning firm... and is one of the oldest and best documented of the triaxial compression tests. It essentially consists of applying a uniaxial sinusoidal compressive stress to an unconfined or confined HMA cylindrical test specimen and studying the stress-strain relationship...

Kasula, Lavan Kumar Reddy

2004-11-15

235

Photovoltaic Roofs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar cells perform two functions: waterproofing roof and generating electricity. Sections through horizontal and slanting joints show overlapping modules sealed by L-section rubber strips and side-by-side modules sealed by P-section strips. Water seeping through seals of slanting joints drains along channels. Rooftop photovoltaic array used watertight south facing roof, replacing shingles, tar, and gravel. Concept reduces cost of residential solar-cell array.

Drummond, R. W., Jr.; Shepard, N. F., Jr.

1984-01-01

236

Experimental evaluation of a flexible joint driven by water pressure for underwater robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe here the development a joint mechanism for underwater robotic manipulators. Arms of underwater robots require small-scale bodies and high waterproofing properties. In most of underwater robots, electric motors are used as actuators to drive the robotic arm\\/arms, but using electric motors for underwater manipulators may be problematic due to the size\\/weight of the robotic arm and need to

Mizuho Shibata; Yuusuke Onishi; Sadao Kawamura

2010-01-01

237

Three-layer reconstruction of large urethrocutaneous fistulas using scrotal-septal flaps  

PubMed Central

Introducton: The repair of large urethrocutaneous fistulas (UCFs) commonly involves reconstruction of the urethra, waterproof layer and skin coverage, which deploy different tissues from different flaps. To simplify the multiple procedures, we explored to use one flap (a scrotal-septal flap) to reconstruct three layers in UCF repairing in one stage. Methods: Between January 2011 and July 2012, 29 patients with large UCFs (ranging from 1.0 to 2.0 cm) were treated using scrotal-septal flaps for three-layer reconstruction. Every patient has an unbroken scrotum. The hair follicles in the donor site were destroyed using a radiosurgical knife 2 months before the operation. The flap was divided into three zones, which were flipped, folded, and extended respectively to form the urethra, waterproof layer and skin coverage. Results: The patients were followed up between 6 to 12 months. No fistula recurrence was observed. All flaps survived, except in one case, in which the distal skin flap was lost but stenosis or fistula did not develop. Two patients underwent second operations to refine the aesthetic results. Conclusions: The scrotal-septal flap can be transferred in an overturning-folding-advancement fashion and can simultaneously involve the reconstruction of the urethra, waterproof barrier and skin coverage. This is a simple and reliable alternative for large UCFs (?2 cm) repairing at the penoscrotal junction; however, it cannot be used in patients with a damaged scrotal septum. PMID:25485011

Zhou, Yu; Li, Liang; Zhou, Chuande; Li, Fengyong; Xie, Linhai; Li, Senkai

2014-01-01

238

Detail view of the leading and top edge of the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view of the leading and top edge of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery showing the thermal protection system components with the white Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) blanket and the black High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (HRSI) tiles along the outer edges. The marks seen on the HRSI tiles are injection point marks and holes for the application of waterproofing material. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

239

Give Me Some Skin: A Hands-On Science Activity Integrating Racial Sensitivity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What's the largest, fastest growing, organ in the human body? It's the tough, elastic, flexible, and waterproof covering that helps protect other organs and body parts from such things as germs, heat, cold, and sunlight--skin, of course! This life science activity engages middle school students in an exploration of the structure, function, and variety of skin. They "construct" skin layer by layer using simple materials such as felt, foam padding, yarn, and vinyl in various skin tones. This activity provides an opportunity to discuss racial diversity and to show students that skin color is, quite literally, only skin deep.

Lynne E. Houtz

2003-02-01

240

Sources and transport of silicone NVR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The retrieved LDEF had varying amounts of visible contamination films (brown stains) at many locations. FTIR spectra of heavy film deposits at vents and of optical windows from tray E5 indicated methyl silicone and silica in the contaminant films. Two possible sources of the methyl silicone are DC-710 phenyl methyl silicone in the shuttle-bay-liner beta cloth, and the shuttle tile waterproofing silane. It is concluded that much of the silicon and silica contamination came from ground operations and the orbiter.

Harvey, Gale A.

1992-01-01

241

Fire Resistant, Moisture Barrier Membrane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A waterproof and breathable, fire-resistant laminate is provided for use in tents, garments, shoes, and covers, especially in industrial, military and emergency situations. The laminate permits water vapor evaporation while simultaneously preventing liquid water penetration. Further, the laminate is fire-resistant and significantly reduces the danger of toxic compound production when exposed to flame or other high heat source. The laminate may be applied to a variety of substrates and is comprised of a silicone rubber and plurality of fire-resistant, inherently thermally-stable polyimide particles.

St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

242

Fire Resistant, Moisture Barrier Membrane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A waterproof and breathable, fire-resistant laminate is provided for use in tents, garments, shoes, and covers, especially in industrial, military and emergency situations. The laminate permits water vapor evaporation while simultaneously preventing liquid water penetration. Further, the laminate is fire-resistant and significantly reduces the danger of toxic compound production when exposed to flame or other high heat source. The laminate may be applied to a variety of substrates and is comprised of a silicone rubber and plurality of fire-resistant, inherently thermally-stable polyimide particles.

St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

243

Disappearing Statues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (on page 8), learners model how marble statues and buildings are affected by acid rain. Antacid tablets made with calcium carbonate are used to represent marble (also made from calcium carbonate), and vinegar is used to represent acid rain. Learners observe the effect of adding water to one tablet and vinegar to another. The tablets can be made into slightly more realistic models by drawing on them with a pencil, or rubber stamping a design with waterproof ink. This activity could be used in connection with lessons on pollution and acid rain, or lessons on art and architecture.

2014-06-18

244

Low-cost encapsulation materials for terrestrial solar cell modules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents the findings of material surveys intended to identify low cost materials which could be functional as encapsulants (by 1986) for terrestrial solar cell modules. Economic analyses have indicated that in order to meet the low cost goal of $2.70 per sq m, some or all of the following material technologies must be developed or advanced: (1) UV screening outer covers; (2) elastomeric acrylics; (3) weatherproofing and waterproofing of structural wood and paper products; (4) transparent UV stabilizers for the UV-sensitive transparent pottants; and (5) cost-effective utilization of silicone and fluorocarbon materials.

Cuddihy, E. F.; Baum, B.; Willis, P.

1979-01-01

245

Thermal Stress Analysis of RCG-Tempered TUFI Tile TPS for Hypersonic Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents detailed results from linear and nonlinear finite-element thermal stress analyses of a new tile, Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) concept. A very thin coating of Reaction Cured Glass (RCG) is used to "temper" the surface of Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation (TUFI) tiles to improve resistance to thermal shock and thermal cycling effects. The coating also serves to reduce catalytic heating and may improve waterproofing. Calculations include trajectory-based aerothermal heating environments for X-34 wing leading edge TPS designs and arc jet environments for TPS test articles. The nonlinear analyses include the high temperature plasticity of RCG to demonstrate the reuseability of the material.

Milos, Frank S.; Squire, Thomas H.

1995-01-01

246

Superhydrophobic Materials Technology-PVC Bonding Techniques  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the technology maturation project was to develop an enhanced application technique for applying diatomaceous earth with pinned polysiloxane oil to PVC pipes and materials. The oil infiltration technique is applied as a spray of diluted oil in a solvent onto the superhydrophobic diatomaceous earth substrate. This makes the surface take on the following characteristics: • wet?cleanable • anti?biofouling • waterproof • anti?corrosion. The project involved obtaining input and supplies from VeloxFlow and the development of successful techniques that would quickly result in a commercial license agreement with VeloxFlow and other companies that use PVC materials in a variety of other fields of use.

Hunter, Scott R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Efird, Marty [VeloxFlow, LLC

2013-05-03

247

Integrated residential photovoltaic array development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design details of an optimized integrated residential photovoltaic module/array are presented. This selected design features a waterproofing and mounting scheme which was devised to simplify the installation procedures by the avoidance of complex gasketed or caulked joints, while still maintaining a high confidence that the watertight integrity of the integral roofing surface will be achieved for the design lifetime of the system. The production and installation costs for the selected module/array design are reported for a range of annual production rates as a function of the cost of solar cells.

Shepard, N. F., Jr.

1981-01-01

248

New materials for solar cells - Tandem cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cost efficiency in the manufacturing processes of the solar cell panels is discussed, noting the utilization of the III-V compound semiconductors (such as InSb or Ge) instead of silicon or gallium arsenide which have a complicated and expensive technology. A computation program is presented for a p-n junction using a set of nonlinear differential equations and taking into consideration such parameters as the mobility, the life space and the forbidden band. It is concluded that new, economic technologies should be directed toward blocking the UV light, acrylic elastomers, waterproof wood and paper materials and cost efficient silicon and fluorocarbon materials.

Dolocan, V.

249

Molecular Structure of Dinitrotoluene  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DNT is frequently used in the manufacture of explosives as a gelatinizing and waterproofing agent or as an intermediate in the production of polyurethane foams for the bedding and furniture industry. DNT is also used as an intermediate in the manufacturing of certain dyes. In a purified form, DNT may also be used in creating smokeless gunpowders. DNT does not persist in the environment, since it is easily degraded by sunlight or by bacteria. This molecule is also combustible and will burn, emitting poisonous, toxic gases, but will not spontaneously ignite. DNT may also be absorbed by the skin upon physical contact.

2002-09-20

250

New devices for very long-term ECG monitoring.  

PubMed

Present day 24-h Holter monitors have been shown to miss many arrhythmias that may occur infrequently or under specific circumstances. The advancement in electronic and adhesive technologies have enabled the development of first generation wearable long-term 14-day patch ECG monitors that attach directly to the skin and require no electrodes and wires to operate. This new technology is unobtrusive to the patients and offers them unprecedented mobility. It enables very long-term monitoring of critical patients while they are carrying out daily activities. The monitors are waterproof, offer good adhesion to the skin and can operate as either recorders or wireless streaming devices. PMID:22461060

Lobodzinski, S Suave; Laks, Michael M

2012-01-01

251

Wettability designing by ZnO periodical surface textures.  

PubMed

A facile and effective aqueous chemical synthesis approach towards well control of periodical ZnO textures in large-scale areas is reported, by which considerable adjusting of surface wettability can be realized. With the assistance of polystyrene spheres monolayer template and morphology control agent, we succeeded in preparing a series of ordered ZnO microbowls with different sag height. It was found that the contact angle could be well adjusted by changing geometry of microbowl. Such novel, ordered arrays are expected to exploit the great potentiality in waterproof or self-cleaning micro/nanodevices, and even microfluidic devices. PMID:20716452

Zhang, Yinmin; Lan, Ding; Wang, Yuren; Cao, He; Zhao, Yapu

2010-11-01

252

New treatments for restoring impaired epidermal barrier permeability: skin barrier repair creams.  

PubMed

Skin health depends on an intact barrier composed of protein-rich corneocytes surrounded by the lamellar intercellular lipids. This barrier provides waterproof protection for the body, preventing infection, regulating electrolyte balance, maintaining body temperature, and providing a mechanism for sensation. Damage to the skin barrier results in skin disease that can be treated by a variety of externally applied substances, such as ceramides, hyaluronic acid, licorice extracts, dimethicone, petrolatum, and paraffin wax. These substances are found in moisturizers that are sold as cosmetics and in prescriptions as 510(k) devices. This contribution examines the formulation and effect of skin barrier creams. PMID:22507050

Draelos, Zoe Diana

2012-01-01

253

Flood Resilient Technological Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a consequence of the paradigm shift of the EU water policy (Directive 2007/60/EC, EC 2003) from defense to living with flood, floods shall be faced in the future through resilient solutions, seeking to improve the permanence of flood protection, and getting thus beyond traditional temporary and human-relying solutions. But the fact is that nowadays "Flood Resilient (FRe) Building Technological Products" is an undefined concept, and concerned FRe solutions cannot be even easily identified. "FRe Building Technological materials" is a wide term involving a wide and heterogeneous range of solutions. There is an interest in offering an identification and classification of the referred products, since it will be useful for stakeholders and populations at flood risk for adopting the most adequate protections when facing floods. Thus, a previous schematic classification would enable us at least to identify most of them and to figure out autonomous FRe Technological Products categories subject all of them to intense industrial innovative processes. The flood resilience enhancement of a given element requires providing it enough water-repelling capacity, and different flood resilient solutions can be sorted out: barriers, waterproofing and anticorrosive. Barriers are palliative solutions that can be obtained either from traditional materials, or from technological ones, offering their very low weight and high maneuverability. Belonging barriers and waterproofing systems to industrial branches clearly different, from a conceptual point of view, waterproofing material may complement barriers, and even be considered as autonomous barriers in some cases. Actually, they do not only complement barriers by their application to barriers' singular weak points, like anchors, joints, but on the other hand, waterproofing systems can be applied to enhance the flood resilience of new building, as preventive measure. Anticorrosive systems do belong to a clearly different category because their function do not consist in repelling water, but in preventing damages caused by the watery contact. Finally, others preventive flood resilient technologies could also be considered, since forecasting, near-casting and warning alert are solutions getting more and more involved in flood resilience strategies.

Diez Gonzalez, J. J.; Monnot, J. V.; Marquez Paniagua, P.; Pámpanas, P.; Paz Abuín, S.; Prendes, P.; Videra, O.; U. P. M. Smartest Team

2012-04-01

254

Composite Riflescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bushnell Division of Bausch & Lomb's Armor-Sight riflescope combines the company's world-renowned optics with a graphite composite (Graphlon VI) developed for space applications. The riflescope is 10 percent lighter than aluminum scopes, and, because its thermal expansion coefficient is near zero, optical distortion from heat and cold extremes is eliminated. It is fogproof and waterproof; advanced multicoated optics provide maximum light transmission to brighten target ranges. Bushnell was assisted by NIAC/USC in searching for technical information on graphic composites and in overcoming difficulties with bonding and porosity.

1989-01-01

255

Development of Air Speed Nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes the development of a suitable speed nozzle for the first few thousand airplanes made by the United States during the recent war in Europe, and to furnish a basis for more mature instruments in the future. Requirements for the project were to provide a suitable pressure collector for aircraft speed meters and to develop a speed nozzle which would be waterproof, powerful, unaffected by slight pitch and yaw, rugged and easy to manufacture, and uniform in structure and reading, so as not to require individual calibration.

Zahm, A F

1920-01-01

256

Cloning and expression of recombinant adhesive protein Mefp-1 of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis  

DOEpatents

The present invention comprises a Mytilus edulis cDNA sequenc having a nucleotide sequence that encodes for the Mytilus edulis foot protein-1 (Mefp-1), an example of a mollusk foot protein. Mefp-1 is an integral component of the blue mussels' adhesive protein complex, which allows the mussel to attach to objects underwater. The isolation, purification and sequencing of the Mefp-1 gene will allow researchers to produce Mefp-1 protein using genetic engineering techniques. The discovery of Mefp-1 gene sequence will also allow scientists to better understand how the blue mussel creates its waterproof adhesive protein complex.

Silverman, Heather G.; Roberto, Francisco F.

2006-01-17

257

Cloning and expression of recombinant adhesive protein MEFP-2 of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis  

DOEpatents

The present invention includes a Mytilus edulis cDNA having a nucleotide sequence that encodes for the Mytilus edulis foot protein-2 (Mefp-2), an example of a mollusk foot protein. Mefp-2 is an integral component of the blue mussels' adhesive protein complex, which allows the mussel to attach to objects underwater. The isolation, purification and sequencing of the Mefp-2 gene will allow researchers to produce Mefp-2 protein using genetic engineering techniques. The discovery of Mefp-2 gene sequences will also allow scientists to better understand how the blue mussel creates its waterproof adhesive protein complex.

Silverman, Heather G.; Roberto, Francisco F.

2006-02-07

258

Biophysical and biochemical characteristics of cutin, a plant barrier biopolymer.  

PubMed

Cutin is a support biopolyester involved in waterproofing the leaves and fruits of higher plants, regulating the flow of nutrients among various plant cells and organs, and minimizing the deleterious impact of pathogens. Despite the complexity and intractable nature of this biopolymer, significant progress in chemical composition, molecular architecture and, more recently, biosynthesis have been made in the past 10 years. This review is focused in the description of these advances and their physiological impacts to improve our knowledge on plant cutin, an unusual topic in most plant physiology and biochemistry books and reviews. PMID:12595066

Heredia, Antonio

2003-03-17

259

Measure Guideline: Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits  

SciTech Connect

This measure guideline provides recommendations for designs and variations for retrofit hybrid assemblies in improving interior foundation insulation and water management of basements. Variations include closed cell spray foam (ccSPF) with membrane waterproofing or air gap membrane drainage layers, rigid board foam insulation at flat walls (cast concrete or CMU block), a 'partial drainage' detail making use of the bulk water drainage that occurs through the field of a rubble stone wall, and non-drained spray foam assemblies (including slab insulation).

Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.

2012-05-01

260

The effects of asphalt binder oxidation on hot mix asphalt concrete mixture rheology and fatigue performance  

E-print Network

summarizes the findings and conclusions of this study. Introduction Asphalt binder is man?s oldest engineering material; its adhesive and waterproofing properties were known at the dawn of civilization (Barth, 1962). Before the patriarchal age..., it was used as water proofing material. Noah as a ship builder used pitch for sealing his Ark in Genesis 6: 14 (NIV). An ancient civilization in the Indus Valley used asphalt binder in the construction of large public baths or tanks about 3000 B.C (Roberts...

Jung, Sung Hoon

2009-06-02

261

Development of Lightning Surge Sensor for Railway Signal Electronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a new railway signal control system, which controls railway signals, switches, track circuits based on IP protocol. In this system, much electronic devices are installed along harsh railway environment. Therefore, it is required that these electronic devices have environment resistance for lightning surge, temperature, vibration, waterproof and electromagnetic noise. As a countermeasure for the lightning surge, we utilize a protective device (cable arrester). However there is a case in which the electronic device is damaged by the degradation of the protective device. Therefore we develop a lightning surge sensor to detect the degradation of a protective device. In this paper, we describe details of the lightning surge sensor for railway.

Hattori, Tetsunori; Kunifuji, Takashi; Kato, Tamotsu; Ebuchi, Ken-Ichi

262

Silazine to silica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin film silica and/or methyl silicone were detected on most external surfaces of the retrieved LDEF. Both solar ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen can convert silicones to silica. Known sources of silicone in or on the LDEF appear inadequate to explain the ubiquitous presence of the silica and silicone films. Hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) was used as the Challenger tile waterproofing compound for the Challenger/LDEF deployment mission. HMDS is both volatile and chemically reactive at STP. In addition, HMDS releases NH3 which depolymerizes silicone RTV's. Polyurethanes are also depolymerized. Experiments are reported that indicate much of the silicone and silica contamination of LDEF resulted directly or indirectly from HMDS.

Harvey, Gale A.

1993-01-01

263

Modular hydro dam approach to the economic development of ultra low-head hydropower  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential for developing economical new ultra low head sites using an innovative concept known as the modular hydro dam (MHD) were explored. This concept, combines the benefits of shop fabrication and installation of equipment in truck transportable, waterproof power modules, with prefabricated gate sections that can be located between the power modules. The technical, economic, environmental, and institutional feasibility of the MHD concept are examined. Capital and operating costs are estimated. It is concluded that the potential for power generation at ultralow head sites justifies the development of the MHD concept.

Broome, K. R.

1981-06-01

264

Underground water Cherenkov muon detector array with the Tibet air shower array for gamma-ray astronomy in the 100 TeV region  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose to build a large water-Cherenkov-type muon-detector array (Tibet MD array) around the 37?000 m2 Tibet air shower array (Tibet AS array) already constructed at 4300 m above sea level in Tibet, China. Each muon detector\\u000a is a waterproof concrete pool, 6 m wide 6 m long 1.5 m deep in size, equipped with a 20 inch-in-diameter PMT. The Tibet\\u000a MD array consists of

M. Amenomori; S. Ayabe; X. J. Bi; D. Chen; S. W. Cui; Danzengluobu; L. K. Ding; X. H. Ding; C. F. Feng; Zhaoyang Feng; Z. Y. Feng; X. Y. Gao; Q. X. Geng; H. W. Guo; H. H. He; M. He; K. Hibino; N. Hotta; Haibing Hu; H. B. Hu; J. Huang; Q. Huang; H. Y. Jia; F. Kajino; K. Kasahara; Y. Katayose; C. Kato; K. Kawata; Labaciren; G. M. Le; A. F. Li; J. Y. Li; H. Lu; S. L. Lu; X. R. Meng; K. Mizutani; J. Mu; K. Munakata; A. Nagai; H. Nanjo; M. Nishizawa; M. Ohnishi; I. Ohta; H. Onuma; T. Ouchi; S. Ozawa; J. R. Ren; T. Saito; M. Sakata; T. K. Sako; T. Sasaki; M. Shibata; A. Shiomi; T. Shirai; H. Sugimoto; M. Takita; Y. H. Tan; N. Tateyama; S. Torii; H. Tsuchiya; S. Udo; B. Wang; H. Wang; X. Wang; Y. G. Wang; H. R. Wu; L. Xue; Y. Yamamoto; C. T. Yan; X. C. Yang; S. Yasue; Z. H. Ye; G. C. Yu; A. F. Yuan; T. Yuda; H. M. Zhang; J. L. Zhang; N. J. Zhang; X. Y. Zhang; Y. Zhang; Yi Zhang; Zhaxisangzhu; X. X. Zhou

2007-01-01

265

Underground water Cherenkov muon detector array with the Tibet air shower array for gamma-ray astronomy in the 100 TeV region  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We propose to build a large water-Cherenkov-type muon-detector array (Tibet MD array) around the 37?000 m2 Tibet air shower array (Tibet AS array) already constructed at 4300 m above sea level in Tibet, China. Each muon detector\\u000a is a waterproof concrete pool, 6 m wide × 6 m long × 1.5 m deep in size, equipped with a 20 inch-in-diameter PMT. The Tibet\\u000a MD array

M. Amenomori; S. Ayabe; X. J. Bi; D. Chen; S. W. Cui; Danzengluobu; L. K. Ding; X. H. Ding; C. F. Feng; Zhaoyang Feng; Z. Y. Feng; X. Y. Gao; Q. X. Geng; H. W. Guo; H. H. He; M. He; K. Hibino; N. Hotta; Haibing Hu; H. B. Hu; J. Huang; Q. Huang; H. Y. Jia; F. Kajino; K. Kasahara; Y. Katayose; C. Kato; K. Kawata; Labaciren; G. M. Le; A. F. Li; J. Y. Li; H. Lu; S. L. Lu; X. R. Meng; K. Mizutani; J. Mu; K. Munakata; A. Nagai; H. Nanjo; M. Nishizawa; M. Ohnishi; I. Ohta; H. Onuma; T. Ouchi; S. Ozawa; J. R. Ren; T. Saito; M. Sakata; T. K. Sako; T. Sasaki; M. Shibata; A. Shiomi; T. Shirai; H. Sugimoto; M. Takita; Y. H. Tan; N. Tateyama; S. Torii; H. Tsuchiya; S. Udo; B. Wang; H. Wang; X. Wang; Y. G. Wang; H. R. Wu; L. Xue; Y. Yamamoto; C. T. Yan; X. C. Yang; S. Yasue; Z. H. Ye; G. C. Yu; A. F. Yuan; T. Yuda; H. M. Zhang; J. L. Zhang; N. J. Zhang; X. Y. Zhang; Y. Zhang; Yi Zhang; Zhaxisangzhu; X. X. Zhou

266

Computerized controller with service display panel for an oil well pumping motor  

SciTech Connect

An oil well pump controller in combination with an oil pumping unit and oil well electrical pump motor for controlling and monitoring the operation of an oil well including: microprocessor means for monitoring three-phase electrical power consumption of the electrical pump motor and for calculating real time demand power consumption of the motor, power measuring means electrically connected to the three-phase electrical input of the motor for producing an analog signal indicative of power consumption, conversion means connected to the power measuring means for converting the analog signal into a digital signal usable by the microprocessor means to calculate electrical power consumption, relay means connected to and receiving signals from the microprocessor means indicative of detected power normal, power overload and power underload conditions, the relay means additionally providing circuitry to allow the microprocessor to selectively switch the motor on or off, waterproof box means for housing the components of the oil well pump controller, the waterproof box including a service display panel, overload display means, mounted on the service display panel, which is clearly visible from a distance, and connected to the relay means for indicating when power consumption of the motor has exceeded preprogrammed limits.

Markuson, N.D.; Wiens, T.A.

1988-08-30

267

Sealing ability of MTA used as a root end filling material: effect of the sonic and ultrasonic condensation.  

PubMed

Despite the excellent properties of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), the condensation technique may have some influence in its sealing ability. The purpose of this study was to compare the sealing ability of sonic and ultrasonic setting of MTA. Thirty-four extracted human teeth had their canals prepared and filled with Sealapex sealer and gutta-percha using the active lateral condensation technique. The teeth were rendered waterproof and apicoectomy performed at 3 mm from the apex. Root-end cavities (3.0 mm deep and 1.4 mm diameter) were prepared with diamond ultrasonic tips. The root-end cavities were filled with Pro-Root MTA® with ultrasonic vibration, sonic vibration or no vibration. The positive control group did not receive any material while the negative control group was totally rendered waterproof. After material set, the specimens were immersed in Rodhamine B for 24 h, under vacuum in the first 15 min, then washed, dried and split longitudinally for evaluating the infiltration at the dentin/material interface. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's tests at 5% significance level. Sonic vibration promoted the lowest infiltration values (p<0.05). It was concluded that sonic vibration could be considered an efficient aid to improve the sealing ability of MTA when used as root-end filling material. PMID:23780366

Bernabé, Pedro Felício Estrada; Gomes-Filho, João Eduardo; Bernabé, Daniel Galera; Nery, Mauro Juvenal; Otoboni-Filho, José Arlindo; Dezan-Jr, Eloi; Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo

2013-01-01

268

Performance evaluation of carbon black based electrodes for underwater ECG monitoring.  

PubMed

Underwater electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring currently uses Ag/AgCl electrodes and requires sealing of the electrodes to avoid water intrusion, but this procedure is time consuming and often results in severe irritations or even tearing of the skin. To alleviate these problems, our research team developed hydrophobic electrodes comprised of a mixture of carbon black powder (CB) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) that provide all morphological waveforms without distortion of an ECG signal for dry and water-immersed conditions. Performance comparison of CB/PDMS electrodes to adhesive Ag/AgCl hydrogel electrodes was carried out in three different scenarios which included recordings from a dry surface, water immersion, and post-water immersion conditions. CB/PDMS electrodes were able to acquire ECG signals highly correlated with those from adhesive Ag/AgCl electrodes during all conditions. Statistical reduction in ECG amplitude (p<;0.05) was only found during the immersed condition with CB/PDMS electrodes when compared to Ag/AgCl electrodes sealed with their waterproof adhesive tape. Besides this reduction readability of the recordings was not obscured and all morphological waveforms of the ECG signal were discernible. The advantages of our CB/PDMS electrodes are that they are reusable, can be fabricated economically, and most importantly, high-fidelity underwater ECG signals can be acquired without relying on the heavy use of waterproof sealing. PMID:25570300

Reyes, Bersain A; Posada-Quintero, Hugo F; Bales, Justin R; Chon, Ki H

2014-08-01

269

Environmental planning and management in an age of uncertainty: the case of the Water Framework Directive.  

PubMed

Scenario planning is one of the most prominent methods applied by organisations to assist long-term decision making. This paper uses a case study method to demonstrate how scenarios can be operationalised to inform future strategies and to challenge rigid silo-based decision making approaches. The WaterProof Northwest scenarios developed by the authors in collaboration with a range of stakeholders, and described within this paper, offer a platform for considering the future of the water environment. The scenarios were developed in the context of meeting the goals of the European Water Framework Directive. This Directive has the core aim of improving the chemical and ecological status of Europe's water bodies. The scenarios highlight that water bodies in the case study area (the region of Northwest England) are impacted directly by a wide array of driving forces which will affect the state of the water environment over the coming decades. This analysis demonstrates that organisations responsible for creating and implementing long-term plans and policies to manage water are often far removed from the forces that will influence the effectiveness of the exercises that they are engaged in. The WaterProof Northwest scenarios highlight that organisations need different decision making approaches in order to adapt to modern environmental challenges. They also raise questions over whether environmental legislation such as the Water Framework Directive should incorporate a futures perspective in recognition of the wide ranging forces influencing their implementation. PMID:23047323

Carter, Jeremy G; White, Iain

2012-12-30

270

Stability and reactivity of dimethylethoxysilane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The chemistry of the compound dimethylethoxysilane (DMES) is discussed especially as it relates to waterproofing silica surfaces. Some of the desirable properties of this compound are that it readily reacts with silica in the vapor phase, it is a low boiling point liquid (54 C), and the by-product of its reaction with silica is the rather inert substances ethanol. It is currently used by NASA to re-waterproof the HRSI shuttle tiles before relaunching the vehicle. Very little information is available on this particular compound in the literature or even on related silane compounds that have both a hydride group and an alkoxy group. Since the close proximity of two groups often drastically affects the chemical behavior of each group, chemical reactions were carried out in the laboratory with DMES to verify the expected behavior of these two functional groups located on DMES. Some of the reactions tested would be potentially useful for quantitative or qualitative measurements on DMES. To study the reactions of DMES with silica surfaces, cabosil was used as a silica substrate because of its high surface area and the ease of detection by infrared spectroscopy as well as other techniques.

Johnson, Richard E.; Ford, Douglas I.

1993-01-01

271

Microfabricated environmental barrier using ZnO nanowire on metal mesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a waterproof environmental barrier for microsensor package has been developed using metal mesh covered with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire. A near superhydrophobic surface with two-dimensional array of holes has been fabricated by hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowire on an off-the-shelf steel use stainless (SUS) mesh. For a twill-woven SUS wire mesh having wire thickness of 30 µm and gap of 33 µm, a maximum contact angle of 160.40° and a minimum contact angle hysteresis of 15.23° have been achieved using ZnO nanowire grown on the wire surface and further deposition of FC film. The mesh was able to withstand a maximum water pressure of 2,459.8 Pa. The measured height of ZnO nanowire was approximately 2-3 µm. The fabricated SUS mesh covered with ZnO nanowire has been assembled with a microphone package, and waterproof characteristics have been measured by cyclic dipping test at various water levels. For a microphone package having two acoustic ports on top and bottom covered with fabricated mesh, no visible change in acoustic characteristics has been observed up to 1,372.9 Pa of water pressure. Total volume of the package was 6.8 × 9.8 × 1.9 mm3.

Shin, Young-Min; Lee, Seung-Ki; Lee, Joo-Yong; Kim, Jun-Ho; Park, Jae-Hyoung; Ji, Chang-Hyeon

2013-12-01

272

Analysis of yellow ``fat'' deposits on Inuit boots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irregular residues of a yellow deposit that was assumed to be seal fat used for waterproofing were observed in the creases of the outer surface of a pair of Inuit boots from Arctic Canada. A sample of this deposit detached from one of these areas on these boots was examined initially by FT-Raman microscopy, from which interesting and rather surprising results demanded further analysis using FT-IR and GC-MS. The non-destructive Raman spectroscopic analysis yielded spectra which indicated the presence of a tree resin from the Pinaceae sp. The Raman spectra were also characteristic of a well-preserved keratotic protein and indicative of adherent skin. Subsequent FT-IR spectroscopic analysis supported the attribution of a Pinaceae resin to the yellow deposit. GC-MS analysis of the same deposits identified the presence of pimaric, sandaracopimaric, dehydroabietic and abietic acids, all indicative of an aged Pinaceae resin. These results confirmed that the Inuit people had access to tree resins which they probably used as a waterproofing agent.

Edwards, Howell G. M.; Stern, Ben; Burgio, Lucia; Kite, Marion

2009-08-01

273

Positively-charged reduced graphene oxide as an adhesion promoter for preparing a highly-stable silver nanowire film.  

PubMed

An ultrathin conductive adhesion promoter using positively charged reduced graphene oxide (rGO-NH3(+)) has been demonstrated for preparing highly stable silver nanowire transparent conductive electrodes (AgNW TCEs). The adhesion promoter rGO-NH3(+), spray coated between the substrate and AgNWs, significantly enhances the chemical and mechanical stabilities of the AgNW TCEs. Besides, the ultrathin thickness of the rGO-NH3(+) ensures excellent optical transparency and mechanical flexibility for TCEs. The AgNW films prepared using the adhesion promoter are extremely stable under harsh conditions, including ultrasonication in a variety of solvents, 3M Scotch tape detachment test, mechanical bending up to 0.3% strain, or fatigue over 1000 cycles. The greatly enhanced adhesion force is attributed to the ionic interactions between the positively charged protonated amine groups in rGO-NH3(+) and the negatively charged hydroxo- and oxo-groups on the AgNWs. The positively charged GO-NH3(+) and commercial polycationic polymer (poly allylamine hydrochloride) are also prepared as adhesion promoters for comparison with rGO-NH3(+). Notably, the closely packed hexagonal atomic structure of rGO offers better barrier properties to water permeation and demonstrates promising utility in durable waterproof electronics. This work offers a simple method to prepare high-quality TCEs and is believed to have great potential application in flexible waterproof electronics. PMID:25807039

Sun, Qijun; Lee, Seong Jun; Kang, Hyungseok; Gim, Yuseong; Park, Ho Seok; Cho, Jeong Ho

2015-04-01

274

The Ancient Wood of the Acqualadrone Rostrum: A Materials History Through GC-MS and Sulfur X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

In 2008 the rostrum from an ancient warship was recovered from the Mediterranean near Acqualadrone, Sicily. To establish its provenance and condition, samples of black and brown rostrum wood were examined using sulfur K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and GC-MS. GC-MS of pyrolytic volatiles yielded only guaiacyl derivatives, indicating construction from pinewood. A derivatized extract of black wood yielded forms of abietic acid and sandaracopimaric acid consistent with pine pitch waterproofing. Numerical fits to the sulfur K-edge XAS spectra showed that about 65% of the endogenous sulfur consisted of thiols and disulfides. Elemental sulfur was about 2% and 7% in black and brown wood, respectively, while pyritic sulfur was about 12% and 6%. About 2% of the sulfur in both wood types was modeled as trimethylsulfonium, possibly reflecting biogenic dimethylsulfonio-propionate. High valent sulfur was exclusively represented by sulfate esters, consistent with bacterial sulfotransferase activity. Traces of chloride were detected, but no free sulfate ion. In summary, the rostrum was manufactured of pine wood and subsequently waterproofed with pine pitch. The subsequent 2300 years included battle, foundering, and marine burial followed by anoxia, bacterial colonization, sulfate reduction, and mobilization of transition metals, which produced pyrite and copious appended sulfur functionality. PMID:22545724

Frank, Patrick; Caruso, Francesco; Caponetti, Eugenio

2012-01-01

275

Radiation induced changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of the granary weevil and their relationships to desiccation and adult mortality: Annual progress report, February 15, 1987 to February 14, 1988  

SciTech Connect

Sitophilus granarius (L) is a major pest of stroed grains and is prone to irradiation treatment. There is considerable scope for use of radiation like Cesium-137 (as a source) as an alternative to chemical treatment for pest control. Study with regard to radiation damage and the effect of environmental factors like temperature and humidity on adult weevil mortality due to radiation effect is limited. Stored-grain insects live in an enviroment where liquid water is seldom available. Waterproofing and conservation of water by the insects is a critical factor for weevil survival. In some insects it has been noted that the rate of water loss through the integument has been associated with changes in the hydrocarbon composition of the epicuticle. Epicuticular hydrocarbons play an important role in preventing desiccation. Information on the effects of irradiation on epicuticular hydrocarbon of the adult weevils is limited. The present investigation sudies the after effects of radiation damage to granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius (L.) in terms of causing increased water loss from the body, weevil nortality and concommitant changes, if any, in the cuticular hydrocarbons that waterproof the insect. 23 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

Sriharan, S.

1988-03-14

276

The impact of water temperature on core body temperature of North American river otters (Lutra canadensis) during simulated oil spill recovery washing protocols.  

PubMed

Ten North American river otters (Lutra canadensis) were anesthetized with Telazol and instrumented with ingestable radiotelemetry temperature sensors for measuring core body temperature. The otters were then subjected to a washing protocol to simulate rehabilitation following an oil spill contamination. This protocol consisted of a 30-min wash in a 1:16 dilution of dishwashing liquid using either cold (24 degrees C) water or water near baseline core body temperature (38.4 degrees C), followed by a 30-min rinse with water of the same temperature, followed by 10 min of forced hot air drying. Core body temperatures of the otters washed in cold water fell at a median rate of 0.1 degrees C/min, whereas otters washed in warm water maintained stable core temperatures until the completion of the protocol, at which time their core temperatures began to drop at a similar rate. Core temperatures restabilized in both groups, and no statistical difference in core temperature between groups remained 180 min after initiation of the protocol. Efforts to examine the efficacy of supplemental squalene administration to speed the recovery of fur condition and waterproofing were unsuccessful because the washing protocol did not cause loss of coat waterproofing in 8 of the 10 subjects. PMID:9523634

Stoskopf, M K; Spelman, L H; Sumner, P W; Redmond, D P; Jochem, W J; Levine, J F

1997-12-01

277

Make a Watershed Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will create a three-dimensional model from a two-dimensional topographic map. They will use the model to trace the path that a water droplet takes across the watershed and into the watercourse, and will describe the relationship between the physical features of the watershed and the location of human activities. Resources needed vary, depending on the kind of model that is to be build, but may include: a topographic map of the local watershed, tracing paper, tempera paints, paint brushes, cutting knife or saw, plaster of Paris or paper maché, plasticene or other waterproofing, and corrugated cardboard, plywood or other media from which to cut layers representing each of the contour intervals. This activity is part of the Ground Truth Studies Teacher Handbook, which provides more than 20 activities to build student understanding of global change and remote sensing, and includes background chapters for teachers, glossary, and appendices. Resources needed vary, depending on the kind of model that is to be build, but may include: a topographic map of the local watershed, tracing paper, tempera paints, paint brushes, cutting knife or saw, plaster of Paris or paper maché, plasticene or other waterproofing, and corrugated cardboard, plywood or other media from which to cut layers representing each of the contour intervals.

278

A vision-based tool for the control of hydraulic structures in sewer systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During rain events, the total amount of the wastewater/storm-water mixture cannot be treated in the wastewater treatment plant; the overflowed water goes directly into the environment (lakes, rivers, streams) via devices called combined sewers overflows (CSOs). This water is untreated and is recognized as an important source of pollution. In most cases, the quantity of overflowed water is unknown due to high hydraulic turbulences during rain events; this quantity is often significant. For this reason, the monitoring of the water flow and the water level is of crucial environmental importance. Robust monitoring of sewer systems is a challenging task to achieve. Indeed, the environment inside sewers systems is inherently harsh and hostile: constant humidity of 100%, fast and large water level changes, corrosive atmosphere, presence of gas, difficult access, solid debris inside the flow. A flow monitoring based on traditional probes placed inside the water (such as Doppler flow meter) is difficult to conduct because of the solid material transported by the flow. Probes placed outside the flow such as ultrasonic water level probes are often used; however the measurement is generally done on only one particular point. Experience has shown that the water level in CSOs during rain events is far from being constant due to hydraulic turbulences. Thus, such probes output uncertain information. Moreover, a check of the data reliability is impossible to achieve. The HydroPix system proposes a novel approach to the monitoring of sewers based on video images, without contact with the water flow. The goal of this system is to provide a monitoring tool for wastewater system managers (end-users). The hardware was chosen in order to suit the harsh conditions of sewers system: Cameras are 100% waterproof and corrosion-resistant; Infra-red LED illumination systems are used (waterproof, low power consumption); A waterproof case contains the registration and communication system. The monitoring software has the following requirements: visual analysis of particular hydraulic behavior, automatic vision-based flow measurements, automatic alarm system for particular events (overflows, risk of flooding, etc), database for data management (images, events, measurements, etc.), ability to be controlled remotely. The software is implemented in modular server/client architecture under LabVIEW development system. We have conducted conclusive in situ tests in various sewers configurations (CSOs, storm-water sewerage, WWTP); they have shown the ability of the HydroPix to perform accurate monitoring of hydraulic structures. Visual information demonstrated a better understanding of the flow behavior in complex and difficult environment.

Nguyen, L.; Sage, D.; Kayal, S.; Jeanbourquin, D.; Rossi, L.

2009-04-01

279

Assessment of digital camera-derived vegetation indices in quantitative monitoring of seasonal rice growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A commercially available digital camera can be used in a low-cost automatic observation system for monitoring crop growth change in open-air fields. We developed a prototype Crop Phenology Recording System (CPRS) for monitoring rice growth, but the ready-made waterproof cases that we used produced shadows on the images. After modifying the waterproof cases, we repeated the fixed-point camera observations to clarify questions regarding digital camera-derived vegetation indices (VIs), namely, the visible atmospherically resistant index (VARI) based on daytime normal color images (RGB image) and the nighttime relative brightness index (NRBI NIR) based on nighttime near infrared (NIR) images. We also took frequent measurements of agronomic data such as plant length, leaf area index (LAI), and aboveground dry matter weight to gain a detailed understanding of the temporal relationship between the VIs and the biophysical parameters of rice. In addition, we conducted another nighttime outdoor experiment to establish the link between NRBI NIR and camera-to-object distance. The study produced the following findings. (1) The customized waterproof cases succeeded in preventing large shadows from being cast, especially on nighttime images, and it was confirmed that the brightness of the nighttime NIR images had spatial heterogeneity when a point light source (flashlight) was used, in contrast to the daytime RGB images. (2) The additional experiment using a forklift showed that both the ISO sensitivity and the calibrated digital number of the NIR (cDN NIR) had significant effects on the sensitivity of NRBI NIR to the camera-to-object distance. (3) Detailed measurements of a reproductive stem were collected to investigate the connection between the morphological feature change caused by the panicle sagging process and the downtrend in NRBI NIR during the reproductive stages. However, these agronomic data were not completely in accord with NRBI NIR in terms of the temporal pattern. (4) The time-series data for the LAI, plant length, and aboveground dry matter weight could be well approximated by a sigmoid curve based on NRBI NIR and VARI. The results confirmed that NRBI NIR was more sensitive to all of the agronomic data for overall season, including the early reproductive stages. VARI had an especially high correlation with LAI, unless yellow panicles appeared in the field of view.

Sakamoto, Toshihiro; Shibayama, Michio; Kimura, Akihiko; Takada, Eiji

2011-11-01

280

Green Roofs: Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Federal Technology Alert  

SciTech Connect

In a ''green roof,'' a layer of vegetation (e.g., a roof garden) covers the surface of a roof to provide shade, cooler indoor and outdoor temperatures, and effective storm-water management to reduce runoff. The main components are waterproofing, soil, and plants. There are two basic kinds: intensive and extensive. An intensive green roof often features large shrubs and trees, and it can be expensive to install and maintain. An extensive green roof features shallow soil and low-growing, horizontally spreading plants that can thrive in the alpine conditions of many rooftops. These plants do not require a lot of water or soil, and they can tolerate a significant amount of exposure to the sun and wind. This Federal Technology Alert focuses on the benefits, design, and implementation of extensive green roofs and includes criteria for their use on federal facilities.

Scholz-Barth, K.; Tanner, S.

2004-09-01

281

Detail view of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery Discovery showing the thermal protection system components with the white Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFSI) Blanket and the black High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (HRSI) tiles along the outer edges . The marks seen on the HRSI tiles are injection point marks and holes for the application of waterproofing material. This view also a good detailed view of the two-piece rudder which is used to control the yaw position of orbiter on approach and landing in earth's atmosphere and upon landing the two-piece rudder splays open to both sides of the stabilizer to act as an air brake to help slow the craft to a stop. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

282

Detail view of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery looking at the two-piece rudder which is used to control the yaw position of orbiter on approach and landing in earth's atmosphere and upon landing the two-piece rudder splays open to both sides of the stabilizer to act as an air brake to help slow the craft to a stop. Note the thermal protection system components with the white Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation Blanket and the black High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation tiles along the outer edges (HRSI tiles). The marks seen on the HRSI tiles are injection point marks and holes for the application of waterproofing material. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

283

Director's Discretionary Fund Report for Fiscal Year 1996  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics covered include: Waterproofing the Space Shuttle tiles, thermal protection system for Reusable Launch Vehicles, computer modeling of the thermal conductivity of cometary ice, effects of ozone depletion and ultraviolet radiation on plants, a novel telemetric biosensor to monitor blood pH on-line, ion mobility in polymer electrolytes for lithium-polymer batteries, a microwave-pumped far infrared photoconductor, and a new method for measuring cloud liquid vapor using near infrared remote sensing. Also included: laser-spectroscopic instrument for turbulence measurement, remote sensing of aircraft contrails using a field portable imaging interferometer, development of a silicon-micromachined gas chromatography system for determination of planetary surface composition, planar Doppler velocimetry, chaos in interstellar chemistry, and a limited pressure cycle engine for high-speed output.

1997-01-01

284

Wet-work Exposure: A Main Risk Factor for Occupational Hand Dermatitis  

PubMed Central

Wet-work can be defined as activities where workers have to immerse their hands in liquids for >2 hours per shift, or wear waterproof (occlusive) gloves for a corresponding amount of time, or wash their hands >20 times per shift. This review considers the recent literature on wet-work exposure, and examines wet-work as a main risk factor for developing irritant contact dermatitis of the hands. The aim of this paper is to provide a detailed description of wet-work exposure among specific occupational groups who extensively deal with water and other liquids in their occupations. Furthermore, it highlights the extent and importance of the subsequent adverse health effects caused by exposure to wet-work. PMID:25516808

Behroozy, Ali; Keegel, Tessa G.

2014-01-01

285

Integrated residential photovoltaic array development. Quarterly report No. 2  

SciTech Connect

The results of a selection process to define the conceptual design of an optimum integrated residential photovoltaic module array are discussed. Three basic module design concepts have been analyzed with respect to both production and installation costs. The results of this evaluation have been used to synthesize a fourth design which incorporates the best features of these initial concepts to produce a module/array design approach which offers the promise of a substantial reduction in the installed cost of a residential array. A unique waterproofing and mounting scheme has been used to reduce the cost of installing an integral array while still maintaining a high probability that the installed array will be watertight for the design lifetime of the system. This recommended concept will also permit the array to be mounted as a direct or stand-off installation with no changes to the module design.

Shepard, N.F. Jr.

1981-05-18

286

Design and development of a 3D scanning MEMS OCT probe using a novel SiOB package assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A MEMS optical coherence tomography (OCT) probe prototype was developed using a unique assembly based on silicon optical bench (SiOB) methodology. The probe is formed by integrating a three-dimensional (3D) scanning micromirror, gradient refractive index (GRIN) lens and optical fiber on SiOB substrates having prefabricated self-aligned slots. The two-axis scanning micromirror is based on electrothermal actuation with required voltage less than 2 V for mechanical deflections up to 17°. The optical probe was enclosed within a biocompatible, transparent and waterproof polycarbonate tube with a view of in vivo diagnostic applications. The diameter of the miniature probe is less than 4 mm and the length of its rigid part is about 25 mm. The probe engineering and proof of concept of the probe were demonstrated by obtaining en face and three-dimensional OCT images of an IR card used as a standard sample.

Xu, Y.; Singh, J.; Premachandran, C. S.; Khairyanto, A.; Chen, K. W. S.; Chen, N.; Sheppard, C. J. R.; Olivo, M.

2008-12-01

287

Sacrificial cathodic protection of a concrete overpass using metallized zinc: Latest update  

SciTech Connect

Removal of the salt-contaminated concrete, patching and the application of waterproofing membranes are some of the possible treatments that, alone or in combination, have been traditionally used to rehabilitate corrosion-damaged infrastructure. However, there are concerns about the effectiveness of only using such approach to mitigate reinforcement corrosion when the concrete is salt contaminated. Sacrificial cathodic protection using metallized zinc coatings is regarded by many as a possible rehabilitation alternative. In order to investigate it, seven reinforced concrete columns of a bridge in Montreal have been flame sprayed with zinc. The zinc anode has delivered adequate levels of cathodic protection for more than 24 months. Although initially the sacrificial current provided by the metallized zinc decreased, it now appears to have stabilized to an acceptable level.

Brousseau, R.; Baldock, B.; Pye, G.; Gu, P. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Inst. for Research in Construction

1997-12-01

288

Modular, multi-level groundwater sampler  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for taking a multiple of samples of groundwater or pressure measurements from a well simultaneously. The apparatus comprises a series of chambers arranged in an axial array, each of which is dimensioned to fit into a perforated well casing and leave a small gap between the well casing and the exterior of the chamber. Seals at each end of the container define the limits to the axial portion of the well to be sampled. A submersible pump in each chamber pumps the groundwater that passes through the well casing perforations into the gap from the gap to the surface for analysis. The power lines and hoses for the chambers farther down the array pass through each chamber above them in the array. The seals are solid, water-proof, non-reactive, resilient disks supported to engage the inside surface of the well casing. Because of the modular design, the apparatus provides flexibility for use in a variety of well configurations.

Nichols, Ralph L. (812 Plantation Point Dr., N. Augusta, SC 29841); Widdowson, Mark A. (4204 Havana Ct., Columbia, SC 29206); Mullinex, Harry (10 Cardross La., Columbia, SC 29209); Orne, William H. (12 Martha Ct., Sumter, SC 29150); Looney, Brian B. (1135 Ridgemont Dr., Aiken, SC 29803)

1994-01-01

289

Fabrication of hydrophobic, electrically conductive and flame-resistant carbon aerogels by pyrolysis of regenerated cellulose aerogels.  

PubMed

In this paper, we reported miscellaneous carbon aerogels prepared by pyrolysis of regenerated cellulose aerogels that were fabricated by dissolution in a mild NaOH/PEG solution, freeze-thaw treatment, regeneration, and freeze drying. The as-prepared carbon aerogels were subsequently characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), nitrogen adsorption measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and water contact angle (WCA) tests. The results showed that the carbon aerogels with pore diameters of 1-60 nm maintained interconnected three-dimensional (3D) network after the pyrolysis, and showed type-IV adsorption isotherm. The pyrolysis process leaded to the decomposition of oxygen-containing functional groups, the destruction of cellulose crystalline structure, and the formation of highly disordered amorphous graphite. Moreover, the carbon aerogels also had strong hydrophobicity, electrical conductivity and flame retardance, which held great potential in the fields of waterproof, electronic devices and fireproofing. PMID:25542115

Wan, Caichao; Lu, Yun; Jiao, Yue; Jin, Chunde; Sun, Qingfeng; Li, Jian

2015-03-15

290

Development of strain gages for use to 1311 K (1900 F)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high temperature electric resistance strain gage system was developed and evaluated to 1366 K (2000 F) for periods of at least one hour. Wire fabricated from a special high temperature strain gage alloy (BCL-3), was used to fabricate the gages. Various joining techniques (NASA butt welding, pulse arc, plasma needle arc, and dc parallel gap welding) were investigated for joining gage filaments to each other, gage filaments to lead-tab ribbons, and lead-tab ribbons to lead wires. The effectiveness of a clad-wire concept as a means of minimizing apparent strain of BCL-3 strain gages was investigated by sputtering platinum coatings of varying thicknesses on wire samples and establishing the optimum coating thickness--in terms of minimum resistivity changes with temperature. Finally, the moisture-proofing effectiveness of barrier coatings subjected to elevated temperatures was studied, and one commercial barrier coating (BLH Barrier H Waterproofing) was evaluated.

Lemcoe, M. M.

1974-01-01

291

Robotics development for the enhancement of space endeavors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Telerobotics and robotics development activities to support NASA's goal of increasing opportunities in space commercialization and exploration are described. The Rockwell International activities center is using robotics to improve efficiency and safety in three related areas: remote control of autonomous systems, automated nondestructive evaluation of aspects of vehicle integrity, and the use of robotics in space vehicle ground reprocessing operations. In the first area, autonomous robotic control, Rockwell is using the control architecture, NASREM, as the foundation for the high level command of robotic tasks. In the second area, we have demonstrated the use of nondestructive evaluation (using acoustic excitation and lasers sensors) to evaluate the integrity of space vehicle surface material bonds, using Orbiter 102 as the test case. In the third area, Rockwell is building an automated version of the present manual tool used for Space Shuttle surface tile re-waterproofing. The tool will be integrated into an orbiter processing robot being developed by a KSC-led team.

Mauceri, A. J.; Clarke, Margaret M.

292

The tensile force sensor of diamond string bead wires and its capability target analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection principle of tension sensor for diamond string bead wire is introduced. Its calibration is carried out. Analysis of sensor performance shows that it can meet the design requirement. Its main specification includes: the measurement range is 0~3000N, the accuracy is less than 0.5% FS, the non- linearity is less than 0.2% FS, the delay is less than 0.01% FS; and the repetition is less than 0.05% FS. The tension sensor can accurately and reliably measure tension of diamond string bead wire. Thus, working process of diamond wire saw can be controlled according to tension condition of string bead wire, and it is favorable to improve efficiency of diamond wire saw. The sensor has good waterproof and shockproof capability, so it can safely and stably work under water.

Cao, Liwen

2008-12-01

293

Modeling and experimental study on wire tension of diamond-bead wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A beads wire-based setup has been devised to satisfy the operation conditions of the underwater diamond wire saw. The mechanical model is established based on micro components when the string bead wire keeps stable cutting. The proper tension can be obtained according to the model under the current conditions, which provides a theoretical foundation for selecting the drive components of the annular frame design. The basic structure and the working principle of the tension sensor are introduced, and its performance index is analyzed, which meets the design demand. Tension detection test shows that the mechanical model is correct and the force feedback-based control of the radial feeding velocity is feasible, which is beneficial for working efficiency. The tension sensor is waterproof and shockproof which satisfies the demand for underwater inspection and control.

Zhang, Lan; Lu, Zesheng; Wang, Haibo; Meng, Qingxin; Wang, Liquan

2008-12-01

294

Preparation of porous super-hydrophobic and super-oleophilic polyvinyl chloride surface with corrosion resistance property  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous super-hydrophobic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surfaces were obtained via a facile solvent/non-solvent coating process without introducing compounds with low surface energy. The microstructure, wetting behavior, and corrosion resistance of resultant super-hydrophobic PVC coatings were investigated in relation to the effects of dosage of glacial acetic acid and the temperature of drying the mixed PVC solution spread over glass slide substrate. As-prepared PVC coatings had porous microstructure, and the one obtained at a glacial acetic acid to tetrahydrofuran volume ratio of 2.5:10.0 and under a drying temperature of 17 °C had a water contact angle of 150 ± 1.5°, showing super-hydrophobicity. In the meantime, it possessed very small contact angles for liquid paraffin and diiodomethane and good corrosion resistance against acid and alkali corrosive mediums, showing promising applications in self-cleaning, waterproof for outer wall of building, seawater resistant coating, and efficient separation of oil and water.

Kang, Yingke; Wang, Jinyan; Yang, Guangbin; Xiong, Xiujuan; Chen, Xinhua; Yu, Laigui; Zhang, Pingyu

2011-11-01

295

Long-term reliability of screen printed CdS/CdTe solar-cell modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term reliability tests have been carried out screen-printed CdS/CdTe solar-cell modules under rooftop conditions in three countries at different latitudes (Japan, India and Australia). Test results on 118 modules, over periods of 140 to 800 days, have shown that such modules are fundamentally stable under these conditions. The only exception was one large module tested in India. The degradation of this module appears to have resulted from water which was able to enter because of poor sealing. Studies on waterproofing are necessary if the long-term reliability of screen-printed CdS/CdTe solar-cell modules is to be improved.

Nakano, A.; Ikegami, S.; Matsumoto, H.; Uda, H.; Komatsu, Y.

1986-05-01

296

High-efficiency sol-gel antireflection coatings for astronomical optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The antireflective properties of silica sol-gel coatings have been known for some time, and such coatings have bene used to reduce losses in the optical elements of high- powered lasers used in fusion experiments. Research at DAO has developed the technology to the pont where optical elements in three 4-meter class telescopes at CFHT, KPNO, and CTIO have benefitted from coatings made form high- efficiency sol-gel films. The process is attractive because it is simple to apply, is inexpensive, and is as effective as multi-layer vacuum-deposited coatings which it can replace. A description is given of the basic chemistry involved and the techniques used to apply the coatings. Techniques used to improve the durability of the films by hardening and waterproofing are described, as well as a two- layer coating in combination with magnesium fluoride.

Stilburn, James R.

2000-08-01

297

Closeup view of the exterior of the starboard side of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Close-up view of the exterior of the starboard side of the forward fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking at the forward facing observation windows of the flight deck. Note the High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (HRSI) surrounding the window openings, the Low-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (LRSI) immediately beyond the HRSI tiles and the Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation blankets just beyond the LRSI tiles. The holes in the tiles are injection points for the application of waterproofing material. The windows are composed of redundant pressure window panes of thermal glass. This image was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

298

Invisible photonic printing: computer designing graphics, UV printing and shown by a magnetic field  

PubMed Central

Invisible photonic printing, an emerging printing technique, is particularly useful for steganography and watermarking for anti-counterfeiting purposes. However, many challenges exist in order to realize this technique. Herein, we describe a novel photonic printing strategy targeting to overcome these challenges and realize fast and convenient fabrication of invisible photonic prints with good tenability and reproducibility. With this novel photonic printing technique, a variety of graphics with brilliant colors can be perfectly hidden in a soft and waterproof photonic-paper. The showing and hiding of the latent photonic prints are instantaneous with magnet as the only required instrument. In addition, this strategy has excellent practicality and allows end-user control of the structural design utilizing simple software on a PC. PMID:23508071

Hu, Haibo; Tang, Jian; Zhong, Hao; Xi, Zheng; Chen, Changle; Chen, Qianwang

2013-01-01

299

Stable low-loss optical nanofibres embedded in hydrophobic aerogel.  

PubMed

Nanofibres, optical fibres narrower than the wavelength of light, degrade in hours on exposure to air. We show that encapsulation in hydrophobic silica aerogel (refractive index 1.05) provides protection and stability (over 2 months) without sacrificing low attenuation, strong confinement and accessible evanescent field. The measured attenuation was <0.03 dB/mm, over 10 × lower than reported with other encapsulants. This enables many nanofibre applications based on their extreme small size and strong external evanescent field, such as optical sensors, nonlinear optics, nanofibre circuits and high-Q resonators. The aerogel is more than a waterproof box, it is a completely-compatible gas-permeable material in intimate contact with the nanofibre and hydrophobic on both the macroscopic and molecular scales. Its benefits are illustrated by experiments on gas sensing (exploiting the aerogel's porosity) and supercontinuum generation (exploiting its ultra-low index). PMID:21263617

Xiao, Limin; Grogan, M D W; Wadsworth, W J; England, R; Birks, T A

2011-01-17

300

The Fukushima disaster and Japan's nuclear plant vulnerability in comparative perspective.  

PubMed

We consider the vulnerability of nuclear power plants to a disaster like the one that occurred at Fukushima Daiichi. Examination of Japanese nuclear plants affected by the earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011 shows that three variables were crucial at the early stages of the crisis: plant elevation, sea wall elevation, and location and status of backup generators. Higher elevations for these variables, or waterproof protection of backup generators, could have mitigated or prevented the disaster. We collected information on these variables, along with historical data on run-up heights, for 89 coastal nuclear power plants in the world. The data shows that 1. Japanese plants were relatively unprotected against potential inundation in international comparison, but there was considerable variation for power plants within and outside of Japan; 2. Older power plants and plants owned by the largest utility companies appear to have been particularly unprotected. PMID:23679069

Lipscy, Phillip Y; Kushida, Kenji E; Incerti, Trevor

2013-06-18

301

Expression of a fungal sterol desaturase improves tomato drought tolerance, pathogen resistance and nutritional quality.  

PubMed

Crop genetic engineering mostly aims at improving environmental stress (biotic and abiotic) tolerance as well as nutritional quality. Empowering a single crop with multiple traits is highly demanding and requires manipulation of more than one gene. However, we report improved drought tolerance and fungal resistance along with the increased iron and polyunsaturated fatty acid content in tomato by expressing a single gene encoding C-5 sterol desaturase (FvC5SD) from an edible fungus Flammulina velutipes. FvC5SD is an iron binding protein involved in ergosterol biosynthesis. Morphological and biochemical analyses indicated ?23% more epicuticular wax deposition in leaves of transgenic plants that provides an effective waterproof barrier resulting in improved protection from drought and infection by phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotiniasclerotiorum. Furthermore, the transgenic fruits have improved nutritional value attributed to enhanced level of beneficial PUFA and 2-3 fold increase in total iron content. This strategy can be extended to other economically important crops. PMID:23230516

Kamthan, Ayushi; Kamthan, Mohan; Azam, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

2012-01-01

302

Arabidopsis cuticular waxes: advances in synthesis, export and regulation.  

PubMed

Cuticular waxes and cutin form the cuticle, a hydrophobic layer covering the aerial surfaces of land plants and acting as a protective barrier against environmental stresses. Very-long-chain fatty acid derived compounds that compose the cuticular waxes are produced in the endoplasmic reticulum of epidermal cells before being exported to the environmental face of the epidermis. Twenty years of genetic studies on Arabidopsis thaliana have led to the molecular characterization of enzymes catalyzing major steps in fatty acid elongation and wax biosynthesis. Although transporters required for wax export from the plasma membrane have been identified, intracellular and extracellular traffic remains largely unknown. In accordance with its major function in producing an active waterproof barrier, wax metabolism is up-regulated at the transcriptional level in response to water deficiency. However its developmental regulation is still poorly described. Here, we discuss the present knowledge of wax functions, biosynthesis and transport as well as the regulation of these processes. PMID:23103356

Bernard, Amélie; Joubès, Jérôme

2013-01-01

303

Use of autologous platelet rich fibrin in urethracutaneous fistula repair: preliminary report.  

PubMed

Urethrocutaneous fistula (UCF) is one of the most common complications occurring after hypospadias repair. Despite the surgical advancement in hypospadias, multiple failed fistula closures are commonly referred to paediatric urologists. Although several techniques have been described to interpose a waterproof layer between urethral and skin closures, occurrence of urethrocutaneous fistula cannot be eliminated completely. In addition to several local tissue grafts, autologous and homologous fibrin sealants are used to prevent UCF. Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) is known as an autologous source of growth factors obtained from the sera of the patient. PRF supports collagen synthesis and tissue repair and accelerates wound healing. We aimed to present our initial experience about the use of autologous PRF in a 3-year-old boy with a UCF after hypospadias repair. PMID:22568526

Soyer, Tutku; Çakmak, Murat; Aslan, Mustafa K; ?enyücel, Mine F; Kisa, Üçler

2013-06-01

304

Wet-work Exposure: A Main Risk Factor for Occupational Hand Dermatitis.  

PubMed

Wet-work can be defined as activities where workers have to immerse their hands in liquids for >2 hours per shift, or wear waterproof (occlusive) gloves for a corresponding amount of time, or wash their hands >20 times per shift. This review considers the recent literature on wet-work exposure, and examines wet-work as a main risk factor for developing irritant contact dermatitis of the hands. The aim of this paper is to provide a detailed description of wet-work exposure among specific occupational groups who extensively deal with water and other liquids in their occupations. Furthermore, it highlights the extent and importance of the subsequent adverse health effects caused by exposure to wet-work. PMID:25516808

Behroozy, Ali; Keegel, Tessa G

2014-12-01

305

Electromyographic signal and force comparisons during maximal voluntary isometric contraction in water and on dry land.  

PubMed

This study was designed to compare surface electromyographic (sEMG) signal and force production during maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVCs) in water and on dry land. The reproducibility of sEMG and isometric force measurements between water and dry land environments was also assessed. Nine women performed MVC for elbow flexion and extension, hip flexion, and extension against identical fixed resistance in both environments. The sEMG signal from biceps brachii, triceps brachii, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris was recorded with waterproof adhesives placed over each electrode. The sEMG and force production showed no significant difference between water and dry land, except for HEX (p = 0.035). In addition, intraclass correlation coefficient values were significant and ranged from moderate to high (0.66-0.96) for sEMG and force production between environments. These results showed that the environment did not influence the sEMG and force in MVC. PMID:20697905

Pinto, Stephanie Santana; Liedtke, Giane Veiga; Alberton, Cristine Lima; da Silva, Eduardo Marczwski; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

2010-11-01

306

A flexible ultrasound transducer array with micro-machined bulk PZT.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a novel flexible piezoelectric micro-machined ultrasound transducer, which is based on PZT and a polyimide substrate. The transducer is made on the polyimide substrate and packaged with medical polydimethylsiloxane. Instead of etching the PZT ceramic, this paper proposes a method of putting diced PZT blocks into holes on the polyimide which are pre-etched. The device works in d31 mode and the electromechanical coupling factor is 22.25%. Its flexibility, good conformal contacting with skin surfaces and proper resonant frequency make the device suitable for heart imaging. The flexible packaging ultrasound transducer also has a good waterproof performance after hundreds of ultrasonic electric tests in water. It is a promising ultrasound transducer and will be an effective supplementary ultrasound imaging method in the practical applications. PMID:25625905

Wang, Zhe; Xue, Qing-Tang; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Shu, Yi; Tian, He; Yang, Yi; Xie, Dan; Luo, Jian-Wen; Ren, Tian-Ling

2015-01-01

307

Invisible photonic printing: computer designing graphics, UV printing and shown by a magnetic field.  

PubMed

Invisible photonic printing, an emerging printing technique, is particularly useful for steganography and watermarking for anti-counterfeiting purposes. However, many challenges exist in order to realize this technique. Herein, we describe a novel photonic printing strategy targeting to overcome these challenges and realize fast and convenient fabrication of invisible photonic prints with good tenability and reproducibility. With this novel photonic printing technique, a variety of graphics with brilliant colors can be perfectly hidden in a soft and waterproof photonic-paper. The showing and hiding of the latent photonic prints are instantaneous with magnet as the only required instrument. In addition, this strategy has excellent practicality and allows end-user control of the structural design utilizing simple software on a PC. PMID:23508071

Hu, Haibo; Tang, Jian; Zhong, Hao; Xi, Zheng; Chen, Changle; Chen, Qianwang

2013-01-01

308

An assessment of the readiness of ablative materials for preflight application to the shuttle orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The shuttle orbiter relies primarily on a reusable surface insulation (RSI) thermal protection system (TPS). The RSI is very efficient in its thermal performance; however, the RSI tile system has shown poor mechanical integrity. The state-of-the-art of the ablative TPS is reviewed, and an assessment made of the ablator's readiness for use on the shuttle orbiter. Unresolved technical issues with regard to the ablative TPS are identified. Short time, highly focused analytical and experimental programs were initiated to: (1) identify candidate ablation materials; (2) assess the data base for these materials; (3) evaluate the need and kind of waterproof coating; (4) calculate thermal and other stresses in an ablator tile; (5) identify an acceptable ablator/RSI tile joint filler; and (6) assess the sensitivity of the ablator to sequential heat pulses. Results from some of these programs are discussed.

Tompkins, S. S.; Brewer, W. D.; Clark, R. K.; Pittman, C. M.; Brinkley, K. L.

1980-01-01

309

Development of a power control system for AUVs probing for underwater mineral resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Valuable mineral resources are widely distributed throughout the seabed. autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are preferable to remotely-operated vehicles (ROVs) when probing for such mineral resources as the extensive exploration area makes it difficult to maintain contact with operators. AUVs depend on batteries, so their power consumption should be reduced to extend exploration time. Power for conventional marine instrument systems is incorporated in their waterproof sealing. External intermittent control of this power source until termination of exploration is challenging due to limitations imposed by the underwater environment. Thus, the AUV must have a power control system that can improve performance and maximize use of battery capacity. The authors developed such a power control system with a three-step algorithm. It automatically detects underwater operational states and can limit power, effectively decreasing power consumption by about 15%.

Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Hyung Tae; Cho, Young June; Lee, Kang Won

2009-12-01

310

Development and Characterization of CPI Surface Insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new type of reusable surface material that could find application as a component of the thermal protection system of the space shuttle orbiter is discussed. These materials consist of 20-30% dense closed cell high emittance glass ceramic foams formulated by sintering an intimate mixture of fly ash cenospheres with 4-12 wt % cobalt oxide. These unique ceramic foams exhibit: (1) High mechanical strengths; (2) no need for waterproof coating due to the non-interconnecting cell network; (3) high emissivities; (4) ability to withstand space shuttle thermal environments with no loss of reuse capability; and (5) a machinable ceramic with capability of maintaining the close tolerances required of an integrated heat shield system.

Tobin, A.; Feldman, C.; Reichman, J.; Russak, M.; Varisco, A.

1973-01-01

311

Methods for characterizing subsurface volatile contaminants using in-situ sensors  

DOEpatents

An inverse analysis method for characterizing diffusion of vapor from an underground source of volatile contaminant using data taken by an in-situ sensor. The method uses one-dimensional solutions to the diffusion equation in Cartesian, cylindrical, or spherical coordinates for isotropic and homogenous media. If the effective vapor diffusion coefficient is known, then the distance from the source to the in-situ sensor can be estimated by comparing the shape of the predicted time-dependent vapor concentration response curve to the measured response curve. Alternatively, if the source distance is known, then the effective vapor diffusion coefficient can be estimated using the same inverse analysis method. A triangulation technique can be used with multiple sensors to locate the source in two or three dimensions. The in-situ sensor can contain one or more chemiresistor elements housed in a waterproof enclosure with a gas permeable membrane.

Ho, Clifford K. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-02-21

312

Electrostatic Spraying With Conductive Liquids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin, uniform polymer coatings applied in water base normally impossible to charge. Electrostatic sprayer modified so applies coatings suspended or dissolved in electrically conductive liquids. Nozzle and gun constructed of nonconductive molded plastic. Liquid passageway made long enough electrical leakage through it low. Coaxial hose for liquid built of polytetrafluoroethylene tube, insulating sleeve, and polyurethane jacket. Sprayer provided with insulated seal at gun-to-hose connection, nonconductive airhose, pressure tank electrically isolated from ground, and special nozzle electrode. Supply of atomizing air reduced so particle momentum controlled by electrostatic field more effectively. Developed to apply water-base polyurethane coating to woven, shaped polyester fabric. Coating provides pressure seal for fabric, which is part of spacesuit. Also useful for applying waterproof, decorative, or protective coatings to fabrics for use on Earth.

Kosmo, Joseph J.; Dawn, Frederic S.; Erlandson, Robert E.; Atkins, Loren E.

1989-01-01

313

The application of conductive polymer nano emulsion in printing ink  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to achieve the acquirement of flexible displayer, such as e-paper and touch screen, and to reduce the cost of conductive printing ink, the application of conductive polymer in printing ink is studied, and conductive flexible layer is acquired. The effect of N, N-dimethylformamide, glycerol, deionizer water, and pH value on the performance of water-based nano conductive polymer ink is studied by the second doping of conductive polymer nano suspension. The effect of various polymers on the conductivity of printing ink is researched by adding various polymer resins. At last, printing performance of the conductive polymer ink is tested by some printing methods, such as screen, and offset printing. Conductive printing layer which can be compared with the traditional conductive ink in the conductivity is acquired and the conductive layer is waterproof.

Li, Luhai; Mo, Linxin; Yi, Fang; Xin, Zhiqing; Tang, Xiaojun

2009-07-01

314

The application of PCMMcs and SiC by commercially direct dual-complex coating on textile polymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To enhance the thermal insulation effect, waterproof/breathable fabrics were directly top dual-coated by the dry coating method with ceramic materials (silicon carbide, SiC). The fabric was base coated by the wet coating method with 5 wt% phase-change material microcapsules (PCMMcs) and tested for the emission of far-infrared (FIR) radiation. With increasing SiC content, the fabric altered some of the physical properties by increasing the FIR emissivity, emission power, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) and heat release capacity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed the presence of the PCMMcs and SiC particles at the cross-section and surface of the coating, respectively, which exhibited a rugged and blocky shape. The results indicated that SiC addition did not affect the water entry pressure (WEP) in the fabric structure, but did alter the following physical properties: WVTR, interactions between the macromolecule chains and the susceptibility to humidity.

Koo, Kang; Choe, Jongdeok; Park, Youngmi

2009-07-01

315

Integrated residential photovoltaic array development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three basic module design concepts were analyzed with respect to both production and installation costs. The results of this evaluation were used to synthesize a fourth design which incorporates the best features of these initial concepts to produce a module/array design approach which offers the promise of a substantial reduction in the installed cost of a residential array. A unique waterproofing and mounting scheme was used to reduce the cost of installing an integral array while still maintaining a high probability that the installed array will be watertight for the design lifetime of the system. This recommended concept will also permit the array to be mounted as a direct or stand-off installation with no changes to the module design.

Shepard, N. F., Jr.

1981-01-01

316

[Hygienic monitoring in a municipal solid waste incineration plant].  

PubMed

Under President's Executive Order 915/1982, the Malagrotta waste disposal plant has been surrounded by a water-proof ring. This study reflects a eight-year research activity about "the Plant's steadiness and its impact on the land; hygienic monitoring of aquifers, air quality control and sound pollution; health and safety of workers; disinfection and land reclamation". For surface subsidence to be measured, 21 spots were monitored and 30 piezometers were set up in adjacent critical areas, both inside and outside the plant. Some of them were also used to pick up water and test it for chemical and microbiological purposes. Samples of leachates were analysed, air quality assessed and sound tests carried out. Overall outcomes show good performance in terms of interaction between plant, hydro-geological regimen and possible impact on the surrounding land. PMID:14716379

Boccia, Antonio; Del Cimmuto, Angela; Tufi, Daniela; De Giusti, Maria; Grisolia, Massimo

2003-01-01

317

NuFab{trademark} anti-contamination suit - OST reference No. 1855. Deactivation and decommissioning focus area  

SciTech Connect

Radiation workers at all US Department of Energy (DOE) sites require some form of protective clothing when performing radiological work. A large number of contaminated facilities at DOE site are currently or will eventually undergo some form of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), requiring some type of protective clothing, often in multiple layers. Protective clothing that does not allow perspiration to escape causes heat stress, which lowers worker comfort and productivity. This report describes the NuFab{trademark} anti-contamination. The suit is a one-piece, disposable, breathable, waterproof coverall with a single front zipper. Constructed of tri-laminated composite material using spun-bonded polypropylene and microporous film layers, the suit is certified as incineratorable.

NONE

1998-02-01

318

The measurement of water vapour transfer rate through clothing system with air gap between layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experiments described in this paper are designed to test the water vapour transfer rates through outdoor clothing system with air gap between layers under conditions more closely actual wear. It was adopted distance of 5 mm to ensure no disturbance of the air gap thickness between layers throughout the measurement period with all fabrics. The results have indicated that the water vapour transfer rates of clothing system decrease very slightly with time, it is shown that they approached nearly equilibrium state throughout the experiment. It is revealed that the water vapour transfer rates of the clothing system were ordered into groups determined by the type of waterproof breathable fabric as a shell layer being ordered.

Oh, Ae-Gyeong

2008-02-01

319

Turbine set with a generator feeding a network of constant frequency  

SciTech Connect

In a turbine set with an axial flow which is traversed by water and which is coupled to a generator feeding a network of constant frequency, the flow turbine is a propeller turbine with nonadjustable blades. The stator winding of the generator is connected to the network by means of a frequency-controllable converter, in particular a direct converter. The speed of rotation of the turbine set is controllable continuously according to the power to be delivered. In the case of an asynchronous design of the generator, it is advisable to provide the stator with a waterproof jacket on the inside and to flange it into the turbine tube, since the rotor with its cage winding is swept by water.

Spirk, F.

1983-01-11

320

Underwater manipulator  

SciTech Connect

Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is provided for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer .+-.45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer .+-.10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

Schrum, Phillip B. (Clairton, PA); Cohen, George H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1993-01-01

321

Underwater manipulator  

DOEpatents

Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is described for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer [plus minus]45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer [plus minus]10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.

1993-04-20

322

The Use of Basalt, Basalt Fibers and Modified Graphite for Nuclear Waste Repository - 12150  

SciTech Connect

New materials enhancing the isolation of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel are continuously being developed.. Our research suggests that basalt-based materials, including basalt roving chopped basalt fiber strands, basalt composite rebar and materials based on modified graphite, could be used for enhancing radioactive waste isolation during the storage and disposal phases and maintaining it during a significant portion of the post-closure phase. The basalt vitrification process of nuclear waste is a viable alternative to glass vitrification. Basalt roving, chopped basalt fiber strands and basalt composite rebars can significantly increase the strength and safety characteristics of nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel storages. Materials based on MG are optimal waterproofing materials for nuclear waste containers. (authors)

Gulik, V.I. [Institute for Nuclear Research, pr. Nauky 47, Kyiv, 03680 (Ukraine); Biland, A.B. [HHK Technologies, 3535 Wilcreast Dr., Houston TX 77042 (United States)

2012-07-01

323

Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Battelle-Columbus and Amax Research & Development conducted a program to develop a process to transport, handle, store, and utilize ultra-fine, ultra-clean (UFUC) coals. The primary objective was to devise a cost-effective method, based on conventional pelletization techniques, to transform the sludge-like filter cake produced in advanced flotation cleaning processes into a product which could be used like lump coal. A secondary objective was the production of a pellet which could be readily converted into a coal water fuel (CWF) because the UFUC coal would ultimately be used as CWF. The resulting product would be a hard, waterproof pellet which could be easily reduced to small particle sizes and formulated with water into a liquid fuel.

Conkle, H.N.

1992-09-29

324

Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal  

SciTech Connect

Battelle-Columbus and Amax Research Development conducted a program to develop a process to transport, handle, store, and utilize ultra-fine, ultra-clean (UFUC) coals. The primary objective was to devise a cost-effective method, based on conventional pelletization techniques, to transform the sludge-like filter cake produced in advanced flotation cleaning processes into a product which could be used like lump coal. A secondary objective was the production of a pellet which could be readily converted into a coal water fuel (CWF) because the UFUC coal would ultimately be used as CWF. The resulting product would be a hard, waterproof pellet which could be easily reduced to small particle sizes and formulated with water into a liquid fuel.

Conkle, H.N.

1992-09-29

325

Development of CVD diamond detectors for clinical dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) methods for the manufacture of diamonds could lead to detectors for high-resolution radiotherapy dosimetry that are cheaper and more reproducible than detectors based on natural diamonds. In this work two prototype designs (Diamond Detectors Ltd, Poole) of CVD diamond detectors were considered. The detectors were encapsulated in a water-proof housing in a form-factor that would be suitable for dosimetry measurements in water, as well as solid material phantoms. Stability of the dosimeter over time, the dose-response, dose-rate response and angular-response were examined. The study demonstrated that the detector behaviour conformed with theory in terms of the dose-rate response and had acceptable properties for use in the clinic.

Piliero, M. A.; Hugtenburg, R. P.; Ryde, S. J. S.; Oliver, K.

2014-11-01

326

Visible fiber lasers excited by GaN laser diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes and discusses visible fiber lasers that are excited by GaN laser diodes. One of the attractive points of visible light is that the human eye is sensitive to it between 400 and 700 nm, and therefore we can see applications in display technology. Of course, many other applications exist. First, we briefly review previously developed visible lasers in the gas, liquid, and solid-state phases and describe the history of primary solid-state visible laser research by focusing on rare-earth doped fluoride media, including glasses and crystals, to clarify the differences and the merits of primary solid-state visible lasers. We also demonstrate over 1 W operation of a Pr:WPFG fiber laser due to high-power GaN laser diodes and low-loss optical fibers (0.1 dB/m) made by waterproof fluoride glasses. This new optical fiber glass is based on an AlF3 system fluoride glass, and its waterproof property is much better than the well known fluoride glass of ZBLAN. The configuration of primary visible fiber lasers promises highly efficient, cost-effective, and simple laser systems and will realize visible lasers with photon beam quality and quantity, such as high-power CW or tunable laser systems, compact ultraviolet lasers, and low-cost ultra-short pulse laser systems. We believe that primary visible fiber lasers, especially those excited by GaN laser diodes, will be effective tools for creating the next generation of research and light sources.

Fujimoto, Yasushi; Nakanishi, Jun; Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Ishii, Osamu; Yamazaki, Masaaki

2013-07-01

327

Airborne nanoparticle concentrations in the manufacturing of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) apparel.  

PubMed

One form of waterproof, breathable apparel is manufactured from polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane laminated fabric using a specific process to seal seams that have been sewn with traditional techniques. The sealing process involves applying waterproof tape to the seam by feeding the seam through two rollers while applying hot air (600 °C). This study addressed the potential for exposure to particulate matter from this sealing process by characterizing airborne particles in a facility that produces more than 1000 lightweight PTFE rain jackets per day. Aerosol concentrations throughout the facility were mapped, breathing zone concentrations were measured, and hoods used to ventilate the seam sealing operation were evaluated. The geometric mean (GM) particle number concentrations were substantially greater in the sewing and sealing areas (67,000 and 188,000 particles cm?³)) compared with that measured in the office area (12,100 particles cm?³). Respirable mass concentrations were negligible throughout the facility (GM = 0.002 mg m?³) in the sewing and sealing areas). The particles exiting the final discharge of the facility's ventilation system were dominated by nanoparticles (number median diameter = 25 nm; geometric standard deviation of 1.39). The breathing zone particle number concentrations of the workers who sealed the sewn seams were highly variable and significantly greater when sealing seams than when conducting other tasks (p < 0.0001). The sealing workers' breathing zone concentrations ranged from 147,000 particles cm?³ to 798,000 particles cm?³, and their seam responsibility significantly influenced their breathing zone concentrations (p = 0.03). The finding that particle number concentrations were approximately equal outside the hood and inside the local exhaust duct indicated poor effectiveness of the canopy hoods used to ventilate sealing operations. PMID:21347955

Vosburgh, Donna J H; Boysen, Dane A; Oleson, Jacob J; Peters, Thomas M

2011-03-01

328

Waste drum refurbishment  

SciTech Connect

Low-carbon steel, radioactive waste containers (55-gallon drums) are experiencing degradation due to moisture and temperature fluctuations. With thousands of these containers currently in use; drum refurbishment becomes a significant issue for the taxpayer and stockholders. This drum refurbishment is a non-intrusive, portable process costing between 1/2 and 1/25 the cost of repackaging, depending on the severity of degradation. At the INEL alone, there are an estimated 9,000 drums earmarked for repackaging. Refurbishing drums rather than repackaging can save up to $45,000,000 at the INEL. Based on current but ever changing WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), this drum refurbishment process will restore drums to a WIPP acceptable condition plus; drums with up to 40% thinning o the wall can be refurbished to meet performance test requirements for DOT 7A Type A packaging. A refurbished drum provides a tough, corrosion resistant, waterproof container with longer storage life and an additional containment barrier. Drums are coated with a high-pressure spray copolymer material approximately .045 inches thick. Increase in internal drum temperature can be held to less than 15 F. Application can be performed hands-on or the equipment is readily adaptable and controllable for remote operations. The material dries to touch in seconds, is fully cured in 48 hours and has a service temperature of {minus}60 to 500 F. Drums can be coated with little or no surface preparation. This research was performed on drums however research results indicate the coating is very versatile and compatible with most any material and geometry. It could be used to provide abrasion resistance, corrosion protection and waterproofing to almost anything.

Whitmill, L.J.

1996-10-18

329

Development of a measurement system for the online inspection of microstructured surfaces in harsh industrial conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microscopic imaging techniques are usually applied for the inspection of microstructured surfaces. These techniques require clean measurement conditions. Soilings, e.g. dust or splashing liquids, can disturb the measurement process or even damage instruments. Since these soilings occur in the majority of manufacturing processes, microscopic inspection usually must be carried out in a separate laboratory. We present a measurement system which allows for a microscopic inspection and a 3D reconstruction of microstructured surfaces in harsh industrial conditions. The measurement system also enables precise positioning, e.g. of a grinding wheel, with an accuracy of 5 ?m. The main component of the measurement system is a CCD camera with a high-magnification telecentric lens. By means of this camera it is even possible to measure structures with dimensions in the range of 30 to 50 ?m. The camera and the lens are integrated into a waterproof and dustproof enclosure. The inspection window of the enclosure has an air curtain which serves as a splash guard. The workpiece illumination is crucial in order to obtain good measurement results. The measuring system includes high-power LEDs which are integrated in a waterproof enclosure. The measurement system also includes a laser with a specially designed lens system to form an extremely narrow light section on the workpiece surface. It is possible to obtain a line width of 25 ?m. This line and the camera with the high-magnification telecentric lens are used to perform a laser triangulation of the microstructured surface. This paper describes the system as well as the development and evaluation of the software for the automatic positioning of the workpiece and the automatic three-dimensional surface analysis.

Mueller, Thomas; Langmann, Benjamin; Reithmeier, Eduard

2014-05-01

330

Functional properties of whey protein and its application in nanocomposite materials and functional foods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whey is a byproduct of cheese making; whey proteins are globular proteins which can be modified and polymerized to add functional benefits, these benefits can be both nutritional and structural in foods. Modified proteins can be used in non-foods, being of particular interest in polymer films and coatings. Food packaging materials, including plastics, can linings, interior coatings of paper containers, and beverage cap sealing materials, are generally made of synthetic petroleum based compounds. These synthetic materials may pose a potential human health risk due to presence of certain chemicals such as Bisphenol A (BPA). They also add to environmental pollution, being difficult to degrade. Protein-based materials do not have the same issues as synthetics and so can be used as alternatives in many packaging types. As proteins are generally hydrophilic they must be modified structurally and their performance enhanced by the addition of waterproofing agents. Polymerization of whey proteins results in a network, adding both strength and flexibility. The most interesting of the food-safe waterproofing agents are the (large aspect ratio) nanoclays. Nanoclays are relatively inexpensive, widely available and have low environmental impact. The clay surface can be modified to make it organophilic and so compatible with organic polymers. The objective of this study is the use of polymerized whey protein (PWP), with reinforcing nanoclays, to produce flexible surface coatings which limit the transfer of contents while maintaining food safety. Four smectite and kaolin type clays, one treated and three natural were assessed for strengthening qualities and the potential waterproofing and plasticizing benefits of other additives were also analyzed. The nutritional benefits of whey proteins can also be used to enhance the protein content of various foodstuffs. Drinkable yogurt is a popular beverage in the US and other countries and is considered a functional food, especially when produced with probiotic bacteria. Carbonation was applied to a drinkable yogurt to enhance its benefits. This process helps reduce the oxygen levels in the foodstuff thus potentially being advantageous to the microaerophilic probiotic bacteria while simultaneously producing a product, somewhat similar to kefir, which has the potential to fill a niche in the functional foods market. Yogurt was combined with a syrup to reduce its viscosity, making it drinkable, and also to allow infusion of CO2. This dilution reduced the protein content of the drink and so whey protein concentrate was added to increase levels in the final product. High-methoxyl pectins were used to provide stability by reducing the tendency of the proteins to sediment out. The objectives of this study were to develop a manufacturing technology for drinkable carbonated symbiotic yogurts, and to evaluate their physicochemical properties. Two flavors of yogurt drink, pomegranate and vanilla, were formulated containing inulin as prebiotic, along with probiotic bacteria, producing symbiotic dairy beverages.

Walsh, Helen

331

The case for using a sacrificial layer of absorbent insulation in the design of flat and low-sloped roofing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beginning about twenty-five years ago, there was a marked increase in the number of single-ply membrane roof designs used to cover and waterproof flat and low-sloped building roofs. Over the past ten years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of installations of white and more reflective single-ply roof systems, mostly using high density cellular foam insulation in the substrate for insulation. A major factor in the increase in the popularity of these highly insulated and more reflective roof systems is the fact that many governments began offering incentives for building owners to use reflective coverings and better insulated roofs. Now, owing to the energy efficient requirements for the design and construction of new buildings put forth in ASHRAE Standard 90.1, "Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings" and the world's apparent desire to be "green" (or at least appear to be), more and more roof designs will include these reflective single-ply membranes, which use the cellular foam insulation boards to meet these requirements. Using a lower density traditional insulation will mean that the roof will have to be very thick to comply, increasing the costs of installation. High density cellular foams do not absorb water until time, vapor pressure drive, UV and thermal shock break down the foam and it becomes more absorbent. This could be 5-7 years or longer, depending on the roof construction and other factors. This means that any water that enters the roof through a breach (leak) in the membrane goes straight into the building. This is not a good consequence since the failure mode of any roof is water entering the building. Keeping the water out of the building is the purpose of the waterproofing layer. This paper reviews the techniques of moisture testing on building roofs and infrared (IR) thermography, and puts forth the idea and reasoning behind having a sacrificial layer of very absorbent insulation installed in every flat and low-sloped roof so that when a breach occurs, it can easily be found, documented and repaired during an annual infrared inspection; as IR is an effective predictive maintenance technique and condition monitoring best practice for roof maintenance.

Stockton, Gregory R.

2013-05-01

332

A Balloon-borne Limb-Emission Sounder at 650-GHz band for Stratospheric observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a Balloon-borne Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (BSMILES) to observe stratospheric minor constituents like ozone, HCl etc. BSMILES carries a 300mm-diameter offset parabolic antenna, a 650-GHz heterodyne superconducting (SIS) low-noise receiver, and an acousto-optical spectrometer (AOS) with the bandwidth of 1GHz and the resolution of 1MHz. Gondola size is 1.35 m x 1.35 m x 1.26 m. Total weight is about 500 kg. Limb observations are made by scanning the antenna beam of about 0.12 degrees (FWHM) in vertical direction. A calibrated hot load (CHL) and elevation angle of 50 degrees are ob-served after each scan for calibration. The DSB system noise temperature of the SIS receiver is less than 460 K at 624-639 GHz with a best value of 330 K that is 11 times as large as the quantum limit. Data acquisition and antenna control are made by on-board PCs. Observed data are recorded to PC card with 2 GB capacity to collect after the observations from the sea, and HK data are transmitted to the ground. Gondola attitude is measured by three-axis fiber-optical gyroscope with accuracy less than 0.01 degrees, three-axis accelerometer, and a two-axis geoaspect sensor. Electric power is supplied by lithium batteries. Total power con-sumption is about 150W. Almost all systems are put in pressurized vessels for waterproofing, heat dissipation, and noise shield, etc. BSMILES was launched from Sanriku Balloon Center of Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), at the east coast of Japan, in the summer of 2003, 2004, and 2006. The gondola was carried to an altitude of 35 km by a balloon of 100,000 m3 in volume and the observations were made for 1.5 hours in 2004. All systems operated normally by keeping their temperature within the limit of operation by keeping gondola warm with styrene foam. After the observations, the gondola was dropped and splashed on the Pacific Ocean by a parachute and retrieved by using a boat. Almost all systems were waterproofed and it turns out that they are reusable. The emission line spectra of ozone, HCl, and HO2 etc. were observed. We would like to thank the member of balloon group of ISAS/JAXA for the successful balloon flight of BSMILES.

Irimajiri, Yoshihisa; Ochiai, Satoshi

333

Measure Guideline: Water Management at Tub and Shower Assemblies  

SciTech Connect

Due to the high concentrations of water and the consequential risk of water damage to the home's structure a comprehensive water management system is imperative to protect the building assemblies underlying the finish surround of tub and shower areas. This guide shows how to install fundamental waterproofing strategies to prevent water related issues at shower and tub areas. When conducting a total gut rehab of a structure or constructing a new home, best practice installation and detailing for effective waterproofing are critically important at bathtub and shower assemblies. Water management issues in a structure may go unrecognized for long periods, so that when they are finally observed, the damage from long-term water exposure is extensive. A gut rehab is often undertaken when a home has experienced a natural disaster or when the homeowners are interested in converting an old, high-energy-use building into a high-quality, efficient structure that meets or exceeds one of the national energy standards, such as ENERGY STAR or LEED for homes. During a gut rehab, bath areas need to be replaced with diligent attention to detail. Employing effective water management practices in the installation and detailing of tub and shower assemblies will minimize or eliminate water issues within the building cavities and on the finished surfaces. A residential tub-and-shower surround or shower-stall assembly is designed to handle a high volume of water - 2.5 gallons per minute, with multiple baths occurring during a typical day. Transitions between dissimilar materials and connections between multiple planes must be installed with care to avoid creating a pathway for water to enter the building assemblies. Due to the high volume of water and the consequential risk of water damage to the home's structure, a comprehensive water management system is imperative to protect the building assemblies underlying the finish surround of tub and shower areas. At each stage of construction, successive trades must take care not to create a defect nor to compound or cover up a previous trade's defect. Covering a defect hides the inevitable point of failure and may even exacerbate the situation.

Dickson, B.

2011-12-01

334

A hydrodynamically suspended, magnetically sealed mechanically noncontact axial flow blood pump: design of a hydrodynamic bearing.  

PubMed

To overcome the drive shaft seal and bearing problem in rotary blood pumps, a hydrodynamic bearing, a magnetic fluid seal, and a brushless direct current (DC) motor were employed in an axial flow pump. This enabled contact-free rotation of the impeller without material wear. The axial flow pump consisted of a brushless DC motor, an impeller, and a guide vane. The motor rotor was directly connected to the impeller by a motor shaft. A hydrodynamic bearing was installed on the motor shaft. The motor and the hydrodynamic bearing were housed in a cylindrical casing and were waterproofed by a magnetic fluid seal, a mechanically noncontact seal. Impeller shaft displacement was measured using a laser sensor. Axial and radial displacements of the shaft were only a few micrometers for motor speed up to 8500 rpm. The shaft did not make contact with the bearing housing. A flow of 5 L/min was obtained at 8000 rpm at a pressure difference of 100 mm Hg. In conclusion, the axial flow blood pump consisting of a hydrodynamic bearing, a magnetic fluid seal, and a brushless DC motor provided contact-free rotation of the impeller without material wear. PMID:17343698

Mitamura, Yoshinori; Kido, Kazuyuki; Yano, Tetsuya; Sakota, Daisuke; Yambe, Tomoyuki; Sekine, Kazumitsu; OKamoto, Eiji

2007-03-01

335

Integrated Microbatteries for Implantable Medical Devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated microbatteries have been proposed to satisfy an anticipated need for long-life, low-rate primary batteries, having volumes less than 1 mm3, to power electronic circuitry in implantable medical devices. In one contemplated application, such a battery would be incorporated into a tubular hearing-aid device to be installed against an eardrum. This device is based on existing tube structures that have already been approved by the FDA for use in human ears. As shown in the figure, the battery would comprise a single cell at one end of the implantable tube. A small volume of Li-based primary battery cathode material would be compacted and inserted in the tube near one end, followed by a thin porous separator, followed by a pressed powder of a Li-containing alloy. Current-collecting wires would be inserted, with suitably positioned insulators to prevent a short circuit. The battery would contain a liquid electrolyte consisting of a Li-based salt in an appropriate solvent. Hermetic seals would be created by plugging both ends with a waterproof polymer followed by deposition of parylene.

Whitacre, Jay; West, William

2008-01-01

336

Development and testing of bio-inspired microelectromechanical pressure sensor arrays for increased situational awareness for marine vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lateral line found on most species of fish is a sensory organ without analog in humans. Using sensory feedback from the lateral line, fish are able to track prey, school, avoid obstacles, and detect vortical flow structures. Composed of both a superficial component, and a component contained within canals beneath the fish’s skin, the lateral line acts in a similar fashion to an array of differential pressure sensors. In an effort to enhance the situational and environmental awareness of marine vehicles, lateral-line-inspired pressure sensor arrays were developed to mimic the enhanced sensory capabilities observed in fish. Three flexible and waterproof pressure sensor arrays were fabricated for use as a surface-mounted ‘smart skin’ on marine vehicles. Two of the sensor arrays were based around the use of commercially available piezoresistive sensor dies, with innovative packaging schemes to allow for flexibility and underwater operation. The sensor arrays employed liquid crystal polymer and flexible printed circuit board substrates with metallic circuits and silicone encapsulation. The third sensor array employed a novel nanocomposite material set that allowed for the fabrication of a completely flexible sensor array. All three sensors were surface mounted on the curved hull of an autonomous kayak vehicle, and tested in both pool and reservoir environments. Results demonstrated that all three sensors were operational while deployed on the autonomous vehicle, and provided an accurate means for monitoring the vehicle dynamics.

Dusek, J.; Kottapalli, A. G. P.; Woo, M. E.; Asadnia, M.; Miao, J.; Lang, J. H.; Triantafyllou, M. S.

2013-01-01

337

FLASH: a rapid method for prototyping paper-based microfluidic devices.  

PubMed

This article describes FLASH (Fast Lithographic Activation of Sheets), a rapid method for laboratory prototyping of microfluidic devices in paper. Paper-based microfluidic devices are emerging as a new technology for applications in diagnostics for the developing world, where low cost and simplicity are essential. FLASH is based on photolithography, but requires only a UV lamp and a hotplate; no clean-room or special facilities are required (FLASH patterning can even be performed in sunlight if a UV lamp and hotplate are unavailable). The method provides channels in paper with dimensions as small as 200 microm in width and 70 microm in height; the height is defined by the thickness of the paper. Photomasks for patterning paper-based microfluidic devices can be printed using an ink-jet printer or photocopier, or drawn by hand using a waterproof black pen. FLASH provides a straightforward method for prototyping paper-based microfluidic devices in regions where the technological support for conventional photolithography is not available. PMID:19023478

Martinez, Andres W; Phillips, Scott T; Wiley, Benjamin J; Gupta, Malancha; Whitesides, George M

2008-12-01

338

FLASH: A rapid method for prototyping paper-based microfluidic devices‡  

PubMed Central

This article describes FLASH (Fast Lithographic Activation of Sheets), a rapid method for laboratory prototyping of microfluidic devices in paper. Paper-based microfluidic devices are emerging as a new technology for applications in diagnostics for the developing world, where low cost and simplicity are essential. FLASH is based on photolithography, but requires only a UV lamp and a hotplate; no clean-room or special facilities are required (FLASH patterning can even be performed in sunlight if a UV lamp and hotplate are unavailable). The method provides channels in paper with dimensions as small as 200 ?m in width and 70 ?m in height; the height is defined by the thickness of the paper. Photomasks for patterning paper-based microfluidic devices can be printed using an ink-jet printer or photocopier, or drawn by hand using a waterproof black pen. FLASH provides a straightforward method for prototyping paper-based microfluidic devices in regions where the technological support for conventional photolithography is not available. PMID:19023478

Martinez, Andres W.; Phillips, Scott T.; Wiley, Benjamin J.; Gupta, Malancha

2011-01-01

339

The physical action of three diatomaceous earths against the cuticle of the flour mite Acarus siro L. (Acari: Acaridae).  

PubMed

Experiments examined the accepted modes of action of the desiccant dust, diatomaceous earth (DE), against the flour mite, Acarus siro (L.) (Astigmata). Adult mites were exposed to three DE products for periods of 3, 18 and 72 h under conditions designed to allow partial desiccation of the mites without causing mortality. After exposure, the DE dust particles were washed off the mite bodies, and both the DE and the mites were examined for presence of cuticular hydrocarbons by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis. GC-MS identified seven major cuticular lipids of chain length C(13)--C(26) that may have a role in the waterproofing of A. siro. After 18 h exposure, n-tridecane and several different long-chain fatty acid ethyl esters were detected on one of the DE products. After 72 h, n-tridecane was detected on all three DE products. Mite samples retained after removal of the DEs were examined by microscopy. Tentative evidence was observed by conventional low-power microscopy that might indicate uniform removal of the epicuticle. However, a detailed examination by scanning electron microscopy showed no signs of abrasion. PMID:17972301

Cook, Dean A; Wakefield, Maureen E; Bryning, Gareth P

2008-02-01

340

CFD Lagrangian Modeling of Water Droplet Transport for ISS Hygiene Activity Application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this study was to assess the impacts of free water propagation in the Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) installed in Node 3. Free water can be generated inside the WHC in small quantities due to crew hygiene activity. To mitigate potential impact of free water in Node 3 cabin the WHC doorway is enclosed by a waterproof bump-out, Kabin, with openings at the top and bottom. At the overhead side of the rack, there is a screen that prevents large drops of water from exiting. However, as the avionics fan in the WHC causes airflow toward the deck side of the rack, small quantities of free water may exit at the bottom of the Kabin. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of Node 3 cabin airflow enable identifying the paths of water transport. To simulate the droplet transport the Lagrangian discrete phase approach was used. Various initial droplet distributions were considered in the study. The droplet diameter was varied in the range of 5-20 mm. The results of the computations showed that most of the drops fall to the rack surface not far from the WHC curtain.

Son, Chang H.

2013-01-01

341

Responses of alpine grassland on Qinghai-Tibetan plateau to climate warming and permafrost degradation: a modeling perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Permafrost plays a critical role in soil hydrology. Thus, the degradation of permafrost under warming climate conditions may affect the alpine grassland ecosystem on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Previous space-for-time studies using plot and basin scales have reached contradictory conclusions. In this study, we applied a process-based ecosystem model (DOS-TEM) with a state-of-the-art permafrost hydrology scheme to examine this issue. Our results showed that 1) the DOS-TEM model could properly simulate the responses of soil thermal and hydrological dynamics and of ecosystem dynamics to climate warming and spatial differences in precipitation; 2) the simulated results were consistent with plot-scale studies showing that warming caused an increase in maximum unfrozen thickness, a reduction in vegetation and soil carbon pools as a whole, and decreases in soil water content, net primary production, and heterotrophic respiration; and 3) the simulated results were also consistent with basin-scale studies showing that the ecosystem responses to warming were different in regions with different combinations of water and energy constraints. Permafrost prevents water from draining into water reservoirs. However, the degradation of permafrost in response to warming is a long-term process that also enhances evapotranspiration. Thus, the degradation of the alpine grassland ecosystem on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (releasing carbon) cannot be mainly attributed to the disappearing waterproofing function of permafrost.

Yi, Shuhua; Wang, Xiaoyun; Qin, Yu; Xiang, Bo; Ding, Yongjian

2014-07-01

342

Preparation of hydrophobic organic aeorgels  

DOEpatents

Synthetic methods for the preparation of hydrophobic organics aerogels. One method involves the sol-gel polymerization of 1,3-dimethoxybenzene or 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene with formaldehyde in non-aqueous solvents. Using a procedure analogous to the preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels, this approach generates wet gels that can be dried using either supercritical solvent extraction to generate the new organic aerogels or air dried to produce an xerogel. Other methods involve the sol-gel polymerization of 1,3,5 trihydroxy benzene (phloroglucinol) or 1,3 dihydroxy benzene (resorcinol) and various aldehydes in non-aqueous solvents. These methods use a procedure analogous to the one-step base and two-step base/acid catalyzed polycondensation of phloroglucinol and formaldehyde, but the base catalyst used is triethylamine. These methods can be applied to a variety of other sol-gel precursors and solvent systems. These hydrophobic organics aerogels have numerous application potentials in the field of material absorbers and water-proof insulation.

Baumann, Theodore F. (Tracy, CA); Satcher, Jr., Joe H. (Patterson, CA); Gash, Alexander E. (Livermore, CA)

2007-11-06

343

Preparation of hydrophobic organic aeorgels  

DOEpatents

Synthetic methods for the preparation of hydrophobic organics aerogels. One method involves the sol-gel polymerization of 1,3-dimethoxybenzene or 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene with formaldehyde in non-aqueous solvents. Using a procedure analogous to the preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels, this approach generates wet gels that can be dried using either supercritical solvent extraction to generate the new organic aerogels or air dried to produce an xerogel. Other methods involve the sol-gel polymerization of 1,3,5 trihydroxy benzene (phloroglucinol) or 1,3 dihydroxy benzene (resorcinol) and various aldehydes in non-aqueous solvents. These methods use a procedure analogous to the one-step base and two-step base/acid catalyzed polycondensation of phloroglucinol and formaldehyde, but the base catalyst used is triethylamine. These methods can be applied to a variety of other sol-gel precursors and solvent systems. These hydrophobic organics aerogels have numerous application potentials in the field of material absorbers and water-proof insulation.

Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher Jr., Joe H.; Gash, Alexander E.

2004-10-19

344

Detailed tests and specifications of the new microbarometer MB3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To solve the unaddressed issue of remote calibration of infrasound stations and some needs for temporary deployment, CEA developed a new microbarometer called MB3. The goal was to propose a sensor as reliable and robust as the worldwide deployed reference sensor MB2005, with a self-noise 10 dB under the Low noise model on the whole IS bandwidth. The core of the sensor is an aneroid capsule coupled to a magnet & coil transducer. A secondary coil wrapped with the main one ensures remote calibration. Two versions are available. The analog one MB3a, is compatible with usual digitizers while the MB3d is digital, embedding a low consumption high performance ADC, a low drift GPS timing board and a 1 GB data storage memory. This last version is especially suitable for temporary measurement required by scientific studies. Experiments showed the MB3 ability to measure very low frequency signals down to 24 hours. Environment testing was performed with success: Operating temperature, Waterproofness, Shock/fall, Transportation, EMC compliancy…

Denis, Stephane; Nief, Guillaume; Baptiste Le Blanc, Jean; Larsonnier, Franck; Bosca, Laurent; Guillois, Francis

2014-05-01

345

Marker and pen graffiti cleaning on diverse calcareous stones by different laser techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industries nowadays continuously produce new types of inks for markers and pens, so new different graffiti appear . In this paper laser cleaning tests on 41 new marker and pen types ( fluorescent, permanent, water-based, acrylic tempera, metallic paint, waterproof inks ), applied into laboratory on different litho- type samples (Chianca, Travertino di Roma, Tufo Carparo fine grain, Sabbie), typical stones employed in much more monuments in Puglia and Italian architectures were carried out. The same ones, were exposed for twelve months to outdoor ageing, subject to sunshine, rain, wind, IR and UV solar radiations. Ablation experiments and tests by using different cleaning techniques, each one in Dry and Wet condition (classic technique, Daurelio technique 1 and Daurelio technique 2 and others new techniques) and two different Nd:YAG laser systems (Palladio by QUANTA SYSTEM and SMART CLEAN II by EL.EN.), were adopted. The experimental modes, N-Mode (1064nm - 150, 300 and 500 ?s pulse duration), Q-Switch (1064nm - 8 ns pulse duration) and SFR (Short Free Running - 1064 nm - 40 to 110?s pulse duration) were tested on each marked stones. It was found that according to the different ink types and stone substrate, Q-Switch laser cleaning ablation with optimized laser technique are the best solution to marker an pen graffiti removal. The work is still in progress.

Andriani, S. E.; Catalano, I. M.; Daurelio, G.; Albanese, A.

2007-05-01

346

Modular, multi-level groundwater sampler  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is described for taking a multiple of samples of groundwater or pressure measurements from a well simultaneously. The apparatus comprises a series of chambers arranged in an axial array, each of which is dimensioned to fit into a perforated well casing and leave a small gap between the well casing and the exterior of the chamber. Seals at each end of the container define the limits to the axial portion of the well to be sampled. A submersible pump in each chamber pumps the groundwater that passes through the well casing perforations into the gap from the gap to the surface for analysis. The power lines and hoses for the chambers farther down the array pass through each chamber above them in the array. The seals are solid, water-proof, non-reactive, resilient disks supported to engage the inside surface of the well casing. Because of the modular design, the apparatus provides flexibility for use in a variety of well configurations. 3 figures.

Nichols, R.L.; Widdowson, M.A.; Mullinex, H.; Orne, W.H.; Looney, B.B.

1994-03-15

347

The “Double-Pulley” Technique for Arthroscopic Fixation of Partial Articular-Side Bony Avulsion of the Supraspinatus Tendon: A Rare Case of Bony PASTA Lesion  

PubMed Central

We report the use of the double-pulley technique for arthroscopic fixation of the bony PASTA (partial articular surface tendon avulsion) lesion. Arthroscopic examination documented a 15-mm-long and 8-mm-wide comminuted bony avulsion with 2 main fragments. Two double-loaded suture anchors were placed with a transtendinous technique at the anterior and posterior edges of the lesion respecting the tendon insertion to the avulsed fragment. The medial sutures were retrieved through the intact supraspinatus tendon medially to the fracture. The sutures were initially coupled in a double-pulley configuration generating 2 sutures oriented from anterior to posterior; then a simple suture for each anchor oriented from medial to lateral was obtained. At the end of the procedure, the adequacy of reduction and stability of the fragments were confirmed. At 2 months from surgery, radiographic healing of the fracture was noted and integrity of the supraspinatus tendon insertion to the footprint was confirmed by arthro–magnetic resonance imaging, with full recovery of daily activities and complete active range of motion confirmed at 6 and 12 months. The double-pulley technique allows optimal reduction of bony fragments and reconstruction of normal footprint anatomy even in comminuted fractures. Moreover, it creates a waterproof reduction of the fragments, protecting the fracture site from synovial fluid. PMID:23767005

Murena, Luigi; Canton, Gianluca; Falvo, Daniele A.; Genovese, Eugenio A.; Surace, Michele F.; Cherubino, Paolo

2012-01-01

348

The "Double-Pulley" Technique for Arthroscopic Fixation of Partial Articular-Side Bony Avulsion of the Supraspinatus Tendon: A Rare Case of Bony PASTA Lesion.  

PubMed

We report the use of the double-pulley technique for arthroscopic fixation of the bony PASTA (partial articular surface tendon avulsion) lesion. Arthroscopic examination documented a 15-mm-long and 8-mm-wide comminuted bony avulsion with 2 main fragments. Two double-loaded suture anchors were placed with a transtendinous technique at the anterior and posterior edges of the lesion respecting the tendon insertion to the avulsed fragment. The medial sutures were retrieved through the intact supraspinatus tendon medially to the fracture. The sutures were initially coupled in a double-pulley configuration generating 2 sutures oriented from anterior to posterior; then a simple suture for each anchor oriented from medial to lateral was obtained. At the end of the procedure, the adequacy of reduction and stability of the fragments were confirmed. At 2 months from surgery, radiographic healing of the fracture was noted and integrity of the supraspinatus tendon insertion to the footprint was confirmed by arthro-magnetic resonance imaging, with full recovery of daily activities and complete active range of motion confirmed at 6 and 12 months. The double-pulley technique allows optimal reduction of bony fragments and reconstruction of normal footprint anatomy even in comminuted fractures. Moreover, it creates a waterproof reduction of the fragments, protecting the fracture site from synovial fluid. PMID:23767005

Murena, Luigi; Canton, Gianluca; Falvo, Daniele A; Genovese, Eugenio A; Surace, Michele F; Cherubino, Paolo

2013-02-01

349

Conditions for forming a hydrogeological system of the artesian and free aquifers of the Avacha artesian basin (eastern Kamchatka).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exploration area covers the southern part of the Avacha-Koryak volcano group and the Avacha depression, lying at its foot. On the territory of the Avacha depression, in the cities of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and Elizovo and in the settlements there reside around almost three forth of Kamchatka Peninsula people. Here the question of the fresh water supply is quite actual. The Avacha-Koryak volcano group represents an isolated hydrogeological structure with its own replenishment conditions, localization, transit and unloading of underground water, which is the area of the water supply for the artesian basin connected with the Avacha depression. In course of the carried out explorations there were reconstructed the history of the porous quaternary deposits of the Avacha depression and the hydrogeological system connected with it, cleared up their genesis and age. Most part of the porous deposits consists of products of the Avacha-Koryak group or is connected to them. Location of the boundaries between water reserving and waterproof beds were established both over a section and the area. Thickness and position of screening layers on the path of underground water flow motion that contributes to the water head in them have been determined. Obtained data allow defining the most perspective area for searching large fields of fresh underground water. In one plot of this area there was found a field, which is regarded as the main source for water supply for Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and the settlements around.

Lazarev, V.

2003-04-01

350

Tethered acoustic doppler current profiler platforms for measuring streamflow  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey tested and refined tethered-platform designs for measuring streamflow. Platform specifications were developed, radio-modem telemetry of acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data and potential platform-hull sources were investigated, and hulls were tested and evaluated. Different platforms, which included a variety of hull configurations, were tested for drag and stability at the U.S. Geological Survey tow tank and at a field site below a reservoir. The testing indicated that, although any of the designs could be used under certain conditions, trimaran designs provided the best all-around performance under a range of conditions. The trimaran designs housed the ADCP in the center hull; this resulted in lower drag than the catamaran designs and retained the stability advantage of catamarans over monohull designs. Waterproof radio modems that operate at 900 megahertz were used to communicate wirelessly with instruments at high baud rates. A tethered-platform design with a tri-maran hull and 900-megahertz radio modems is now commercially available. Continued field use has resulted in U.S. Geological Survey procedures for making tethered-platform discharge measurements, including methods for tethered-boat deployment, moving-bed tests, and measurement of edge distances.

Rehmel, Michael S.; Stewart, James A.; Morlock, Scott E.

2003-01-01

351

Lamb-wave (X, Y) giant tap screen panel with built-in microphone and loudspeaker.  

PubMed

This paper presents a passive (X, Y) giant tap screen panel (GTP). Based on the time difference of arrival principle (TDOA), the device localizes low-energy impacts of around 1 mJ generated by fingernail taps. Selective detection of A0 Lamb waves generated in the upper frequency spectrum, around 100 kHz, makes it possible to detect light to strong impacts with equal resolution or precision, close to 1 cm and 2 mm, respectively, for a 10-mm-thick and 1-m(2) glass plate. Additionally, with glass, symmetrical beveling of the edges is used to create a tsunami effect that reduces the minimum impacting speed for light taps by a factor of three. Response time is less than 1 ms. Maximum panel size is of the order of 10 m(2). A rugged integrated flat design with embedded transducers in an electrically shielding frame features waterproof and sticker/ tag proof operation. Sophisticated electronics with floating amplification maintains the panel at its maximum possible sensitivity according to the surrounding noise. Amplification and filtering turns the panel into a microphone and loudspeaker featuring 50 mV/Pa as a microphone and up to 80 dBlin between 500 Hz and 8 kHz as a loudspeaker. PMID:25004480

Nikolovski, Jean-Pierre

2013-06-01

352

Specification of epidermal cell fate in plant shoots  

PubMed Central

Land plants have evolved a single layer of epidermal cells, which are characterized by mostly anticlinal cell division patterns, formation of a waterproof coat called cuticle, and unique cell types such as stomatal guard cells and trichomes. The shoot epidermis plays important roles not only to protect plants from dehydration and pathogens but also to ensure their proper organogenesis and growth control. Extensive molecular genetic studies in Arabidopsis and maize have identified a number of genes that are required for epidermal cell differentiation. However, the mechanism that specifies shoot epidermal cell fate during plant organogenesis remains largely unknown. Particularly, little is known regarding positional information that should restrict epidermal cell fate to the outermost cell layer of the developing organs. Recent studies suggested that certain members of the HD-ZIP class IV homeobox genes are possible master regulators of shoot epidermal cell fate. Here, we summarize the roles of the regulatory genes that are involved in epidermal cell fate specification and discuss the possible mechanisms that limit the expression and/or activity of the master transcriptional regulators to the outermost cell layer in plant shoots. PMID:24616724

Takada, Shinobu; Iida, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

353

Dynamics and shape of large fire ant rafts  

PubMed Central

To survive floods, fire ants link their bodies together to build waterproof rafts. Such rafts can be quite large, exceeding 100,000 individuals in size. In this study, we make two improvements on a previously reported model on the construction rate of rafts numbering between 3,000 and 10,000 individuals. That model was based upon experimental observations of randomly-directed linear ant trajectories atop the raft. Here, we report anomalous behavior of ants atop larger rafts of up to 23,000 ants. As rafts increase in size, the behavior of ants approaches diffusion, which is in closer alignment with other studies on the foraging and scouting patterns of ants. We incorporate this ant behavior into the model. Our modified model predicts more accurately the growth of large rafts. Our previous model also relied on an assumption of raft circularity. We show that this assumption is not necessary for large rafts, because it follows from the random directionality of the ant trajectories. Our predicted relationship between raft size and circularity closely fits experimental data. PMID:23336030

Mlot, Nathan J.; Tovey, Craig; Hu, David L.

2012-01-01

354

NASA Tech Briefs, September 2003  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics include: Oxygen-Partial-Pressure Sensor for Aircraft Oxygen Mask; Three-Dimensional Venturi Sensor for Measuring Extreme Winds; Swarms of Micron-Sized Sensors; Monitoring Volcanoes by Use of Air-Dropped Sensor Packages; Capacitive Sensors for Measuring Masses of Cryogenic Fluids; UHF Microstrip Antenna Array for Synthetic- Aperture Radar; Multimode Broad-Band Patch Antennas; 164-GHz MMIC HEMT Frequency Doubler; GPS Position and Heading Circuitry for Ships; Software for Managing Parametric Studies; Software Aids Visualization of Computed Unsteady Flow; Software for Testing Electroactive Structural Components; Advanced Software for Analysis of High-Speed Rolling-Element Bearings; Web Program for Development of GUIs for Cluster Computers; XML-Based Generator of C++ Code for Integration With GUIs; Oxide Protective Coats for Ir/Re Rocket Combustion Chambers; Simplified Waterproofing of Aerogels; Improved Thermal-Insulation Systems for Low Temperatures; Device for Automated Cutting and Transfer of Plant Shoots; Extension of Liouville Formalism to Postinstability Dynamics; Advances in Thrust-Based Emergency Control of an Airplane; Ultrasonic/Sonic Mechanisms for Drilling and Coring; Exercise Device Would Exert Selectable Constant Resistance; Improved Apparatus for Measuring Distance Between Axles; Six Classes of Diffraction-Based Optoelectronic Instruments; Modernizing Fortran 77 Legacy Codes; Active State Model for Autonomous Systems; Shields for Enhanced Protection Against High-Speed Debris; Scaling of Two-Phase Flows to Partial-Earth Gravity; Neutral-Axis Springs for Thin-Wall Integral Boom Hinges.

2003-01-01

355

Design of Inorganic Water Repellent Coatings for Thermal Protection Insulation on an Aerospace Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this report, thin film deposition of one of the model candidate materials for use as water repellent coating on the thermal protection systems (TPS) of an aerospace vehicle was investigated. The material tested was boron nitride (BN), the water-repellent properties of which was detailed in our other investigation. Two different methods, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD), were used to prepare the BN films on a fused quartz substrate (one of the components of thermal protection systems on aerospace vehicles). The deposited films were characterized by a variety of techniques including X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The BN films were observed to be amorphous in nature, and a CVD-deposited film yielded a contact angle of 60 degrees with water, similar to the pellet BN samples investigated previously. This demonstrates that it is possible to use the bulk sample wetting properties as a guideline to determine the candidate waterproofing material for the TPS.

Fuerstenau, D. W.; Ravikumar, R.

1997-01-01

356

Development of an implantable centrifugal blood pump for circulatory assist.  

PubMed

An implantable centrifugal pump (ICP) for prolonged circulatory assist has been developed, at 320 ml and 830 g. A central balancing hole was made in its impeller for better antithrombogenicity. Waterproofing and histocompatibility were supported by a silicone seal and a casing made of titanium and acrylic resin. Overall efficiency was 30% and normalized index of homolysis was 0.003 mg/dl, the same value as the BP-80, at a flow rate of 5 L/min and a head of 100 mmHg. Antithrombogenicity and hemolytic properties of the ICP were investigated in paracorporeal implantation in three goats (61-71 kg). Exothermicity, anatomic fit, and water tightness of the ICP were evaluated in intrathoracic implantation in an adult goat (66 kg). The ICP could run paracorporeally for 50, 200, and 381 days. There was no thrombus in the ICP after 381 days' pumping, and the ICP could run in the chest cavity for 40 days. The temperature of the motor rose 1.8 +/- 0.3 degrees C from that of the pleura. Moisture content of the seal remained normal. The ICP was completely covered with smooth fibrous tissue. Although a small area of atelectasis was found in the lingula, neither lung adhesion nor necrosis of the chest wall was observed. The ICP has satisfactory antithrombogenicity, hemolytic property, water tightness, anatomic fit, and exothermicity for use as an implantable circulatory assist device. PMID:9360117

Wakisaka, Y; Taenaka, Y; Chikanari, K; Okuzono, Y; Endo, S; Takano, H

1997-01-01

357

Can Preening Contribute to Influenza A Virus Infection in Wild Waterbirds?  

PubMed Central

Wild aquatic birds in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are the main reservoir hosts perpetuating the genetic pool of all influenza A viruses, including pandemic viruses. High viral loads in feces of infected birds permit a fecal-oral route of transmission. Numerous studies have reported the isolation of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) from surface water at aquatic bird habitats. These isolations indicate aquatic environments have an important role in the transmission of AIV among wild aquatic birds. However, the progressive dilution of infectious feces in water could decrease the likelihood of virus/host interactions. To evaluate whether alternate mechanisms facilitate AIV transmission in aquatic bird populations, we investigated whether the preen oil gland secretions by which all aquatic birds make their feathers waterproof could support a natural mechanism that concentrates AIVs from water onto birds' bodies, thus, representing a possible source of infection by preening activity. We consistently detected both viral RNA and infectious AIVs on swabs of preened feathers of 345 wild mallards by using reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and virus-isolation (VI) assays. Additionally, in two laboratory experiments using a quantitative real-time (qR) RT-PCR assay, we demonstrated that feather samples (n?=?5) and cotton swabs (n?=?24) experimentally impregnated with preen oil, when soaked in AIV-contaminated waters, attracted and concentrated AIVs on their surfaces. The data presented herein provide information that expands our understanding of AIV ecology in the wild bird reservoir system. PMID:20593026

Delogu, Mauro; De Marco, Maria A.; Di Trani, Livia; Raffini, Elisabetta; Cotti, Claudia; Puzelli, Simona; Ostanello, Fabio; Webster, Robert G.; Cassone, Antonio; Donatelli, Isabella

2010-01-01

358

Effect of nano BaCO3 on pyrolytic reaction of phenol-formaldehyde resin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenol-formaldehyde resin is used as the most adhesive to produce waterproof plant-based composite. However, this product contains phenol and formaldehyde which can be easily released to pollute air and water. Based on the single-factor method, the effect of nano BaCO3 on situabtion of pyrolytic reaction of PF resin was studied by Py-GC/MS. There were components including carbon dioxide, D,.alpha.-tocopherol, 1,3-bis(trimethylsilyl) benzene, phenol from PF resin in 590(see manuscript) He gas. However, the 17 compounds including phenol, 2-methyl-, phenol, carbon dioxide, p-xylene, toluene, phenol, 2-ethyl-, phenol, 2,3-dimethyl-, benzene, 1,2,3-trimethyl-, etc were identified by Py-GC/MS after PF/BaCO3 composite was pyrolyzed in 590(see manuscript) He gas, and phenol and phenol derivants were found in the compounds. The result showed that nano BaCO3 could effectively delay the pyrolysis of PF resin.

Zhang, Xu; Ma, Qing-zhi; Zhang, Zhong-feng; Peng, Wan-xi; Zhang, Ming-long

2009-07-01

359

Ex situ reconstitution of the plant biopolyester suberin as a film.  

PubMed

Biopolymers often have unique properties of considerable interest as a basis for new materials. It is however not evident how to extract them from plants without destroying their chemical skeleton and inherent properties. Here we report the ex situ reconstitution of the biopolyester suberin as a new waterproof and antimicrobial material. In plant cell walls, suberin, a cross-linked network of aromatic and aliphatic monomers, builds up a hydrophobic protective and antimicrobial barrier. Recently we succeeded in extracting suberin from the plant cell wall using the ionic liquid cholinium hexanoate. During extraction the native three-dimensional structure of suberin was partially preserved. In this study, we demonstrate that this preservation is the key for its ex situ reconstitution. Without any chemical additives or purification, the suberin composing macromolecules undergo self-association on the casting surface forming a film. Suberin films obtained show barrier properties similar to those of the suberin barrier in plants, including a potentially broad bactericidal effect. PMID:24670155

Garcia, Helga; Ferreira, Rui; Martins, Celso; Sousa, Andreia F; Freire, Carmen S R; Silvestre, Armando J D; Kunz, Werner; Rebelo, Luís Paulo N; Silva Pereira, Cristina

2014-05-12

360

Benchmarking numerical predictions with force and moment measurements on slender, supercavitating bodies  

SciTech Connect

High-speed water-entry is a very complex, dynamic process. As a first attempt at modeling the process, a numerical solution was developed at Sandia National Laboratories for predicting the forces and moments acting on a body with a steady supercavity, that is, a cavity which extends beyond the base of the body. The solution is limited to supercavities on slender, axisymmetric bodies at small angles of attack. Limited data were available with which to benchmark the axial force predictions at zero angle of attack. Even less data were available with which to benchmark the pitching moment and normal force predictions at nonzero angles of attack. A water tunnel test was conducted to obtain force and moment data on a slender shape. This test produced limited data because of waterproofing problems with the balance. A new balance was designed and a second water tunnel test was conducted at Tracor Hydronautics, Inc. This paper describes the numerical solution, the experimental equipment and test procedures, and the results of the second test. 8 refs., 11 figs.

Hailey, C.E.; Clark, E.L.; Cole, J.K.

1991-01-01

361

Two-stage repair in hypospadias  

PubMed Central

We provide the reader with a nonsystematic review concerning the use of the two-stage approach in hypospadias repairs. A one-stage approach using the tubularized incised plate urethroplasty is a well-standardized approach for the most cases of hypospadias. Nevertheless, in some primary severe cases, in most hypospadias failures and in selected patients with balanitis xerotica obliterans a two-stage approach is preferable. During the first stage the penis is straightened, if necessary and the urethral plate is substituted with a graft of either genital (prepuce) or extragenital origin (oral mucosa or postauricular skin). During the second stage, performed around 6 months later, urethroplasty is accomplished by graft tubulization. Graft take is generally excellent, with only few cases requiring an additional inlay patch at second stage due to graft contracture. A staged approach allows for both excellent cosmetic results and a low morbidity including an overall 6% fistula rate and 2% stricture rate. Complications usually occur in the first year after the second stage and are higher in secondary repairs. Complications tend to decrease as experience increases and use of additional waterproofing layers contributes to reduce the fistula rate significantly. Long-term cosmetic results are excellent, but voiding and ejaculatory problems may occur in as much as 40% of cases if a long urethral tube is constructed. The procedure has a step learning curve but because of its technical simplicity does not require to be confined only to highly specialized centers. PMID:19468402

Haxhirexha, K. N.; Castagnetti, M.; Rigamonti, W.; Manzoni, G. A.

2008-01-01

362

Roles of silica and lignin in horsetail (Equisetum hyemale), with special reference to mechanical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research deals with detailed analyses of silica and lignin distribution in horsetail with special reference to mechanical strength. Scanning electron images of a cross-section of an internode showed silica deposited densely only around the outer epidermis. Detailed histochemical analyses of lignin showed no lignin deposition in the silica-rich outer internodes of horsetail, while a characteristic lignin deposition was noticed in the vascular bundle in inner side of internodes. To analyze the structure of horsetail from a mechanical viewpoint, we calculated the response of a model structure of horsetail to a mechanical force applied perpendicularly to the long axis by a finite element method. We found that silica distributed in the outer epidermis may play the major structural role, with lignin's role being limited ensuring that the vascular bundle keep waterproof. These results were in contrast to more modern tall trees like gymnosperms, for which lignin provides mechanical strength. Lignin has the advantage of sticking to cellulose, hemicellulose, and other materials. Such properties make it possible for plants containing lignin to branch. Branching of tree stems aids in competing for light and other atmospheric resources. This type of branching was impossible for ancient horsetails, which relied on the physical properties of silica. From the evolutional view points, over millennia in trees with high lignin content, true branching, and many chlorophyll-containing leaves developed.

Yamanaka, Shigeru; Sato, Kanna; Ito, Fuyu; Komatsubara, Satoshi; Ohata, Hiroshi; Yoshino, Katsumi

2012-02-01

363

Reconstitution of plant alkane biosynthesis in yeast demonstrates that Arabidopsis ECERIFERUM1 and ECERIFERUM3 are core components of a very-long-chain alkane synthesis complex.  

PubMed

In land plants, very-long-chain (VLC) alkanes are major components of cuticular waxes that cover aerial organs, mainly acting as a waterproof barrier to prevent nonstomatal water loss. Although thoroughly investigated, plant alkane synthesis remains largely undiscovered. The Arabidopsis thaliana ECERIFERUM1 (CER1) protein has been recognized as an essential element of wax alkane synthesis; nevertheless, its function remains elusive. In this study, a screen for CER1 physical interaction partners was performed. The screen revealed that CER1 interacts with the wax-associated protein ECERIFERUM3 (CER3) and endoplasmic reticulum-localized cytochrome b5 isoforms (CYTB5s). The functional relevance of these interactions was assayed through an iterative approach using yeast as a heterologous expression system. In a yeast strain manipulated to produce VLC acyl-CoAs, a strict CER1 and CER3 coexpression resulted in VLC alkane synthesis. The additional presence of CYTB5s was found to enhance CER1/CER3 alkane production. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that CER1 His clusters are essential for alkane synthesis, whereas those of CER3 are not, suggesting that CYTB5s are specific CER1 cofactors. Collectively, our study reports the identification of plant alkane synthesis enzymatic components and supports a new model for alkane production in which CER1 interacts with both CER3 and CYTB5 to catalyze the redox-dependent synthesis of VLC alkanes from VLC acyl-CoAs. PMID:22773744

Bernard, Amélie; Domergue, Frédéric; Pascal, Stéphanie; Jetter, Reinhard; Renne, Charlotte; Faure, Jean-Denis; Haslam, Richard P; Napier, Johnathan A; Lessire, René; Joubès, Jérôme

2012-07-01

364

Canal configuration of mandibular first premolars in an Egyptian population.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate canal configuration of mandibular first premolars in an Egyptian population. Two hundred fifty human extracted mandibular first premolars were collected from Egyptian patients and a small hole in the center of the occlusal surface of each tooth was made perforating the roof of the pulp chamber. Teeth were decalcified by immersing in nitric acid and dehydrated in ascending concentrations of ethyl alcohol. A waterproof black ink was passively injected from the occlusal hole into pulp system and stained teeth were immersed in methyl salicylate solution for clearing. Standardized pictures of the cleared teeth were obtained and anatomical features of the root canal were observed. The average length of the mandibular first premolar teeth was 22.48 ± 1.74 mm, one-rooted teeth were 96.8% and the two-rooted were 3.2%. Vertucci Type I canal configuration represented the highest percentage (61.2%) followed by Type V (16.4%), Type IV (13.2%), Type II (5.6%) and Type III (2.8%). Vertucci Type VI canal configuration represented the lowest percentage (0.4%) and a complex configuration was found in one tooth. Accessory canals were detected in 22.8% and inter-canal connections were observed in 24.8% while 54% showed apical delta. Such knowledge is clinically useful for localization and negotiation of canals of mandibular first premolar, as well as their subsequent management in Egyptian population. PMID:25685409

Alhadainy, Hatem A

2013-03-01

365

Wettability control of a transparent substrate using ZnO nanorods.  

PubMed

This paper presents a simple way of controlling the wettability of a structured surface with ZnO nanorods on a transparent substrate. A combination of ZnO nanostructures and stearic acid was used to create superhydrophobic surfaces with the potential properties of being self-cleaning, waterproof, and antifog. ZnO nanorods were uniformly covered on glass substrates through a simple hydrothermal method with varying growth time which affects the surface morphology. When a substrate is dipped into 10 mM stearic acid in ethanol for 24 h, chemisorption of the stearic acid takes place on the ZnO nanorod surface, after which the hydrophilic ZnO nanorod surfaces are modified into hydrophobic ones. The contact angle of a water droplet on this superhydrophobic ZnO nanorod surface increased from 110 degrees to 150 degrees depending on the growth time (from 3 to 6 h) with a high transparency of above 60%. In addition, the water contact angle can be made to as low as 27 degrees after exposing the substrate to 10-mW/cm2 UV for 1 h. PMID:22121636

Choi, Jae-Hoon; You, Xueqiu; Chang, Jong-Hyeon; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Pak, James Jungho

2011-07-01

366

In situ experiments to reveal the role of surface feature sidewalls in the Cassie-Wenzel transition.  

PubMed

Waterproof and self-cleaning surfaces continue to attract much attention as they can be instrumental in various different technologies. Such surfaces are typically rough, allowing liquids to contact only the outermost tops of their asperities, with air being entrapped underneath. The formed solid-liquid-air interface is metastable and, hence, can be forced into a completely wetted solid surface. A detailed understanding of the wetting barrier and the dynamics of this transition is critically important for the practical use of the related surfaces. Toward this aim, wetting transitions were studied in situ at a set of patterned perfluoropolyether dimethacrylate (PFPEdma) polymer surfaces exhibiting surface features with different types of sidewall profiles. PFPEdma is intrinsically hydrophobic and exhibits a refractive index very similar to water. Upon immersion of the patterned surfaces into water, incident light was differently scattered at the solid-liquid-air and solid-liquid interface, which allows for distinguishing between both wetting states by dark-field microscopy. The wetting transition observed with this methodology was found to be determined by the sidewall profiles of the patterned structures. Partial recovery of the wetting was demonstrated to be induced by abrupt and continuous pressure reductions. A theoretical model based on Laplace's law was developed and applied, allowing for the analytical calculation of the transition barrier and the potential to revert the wetting upon pressure reduction. PMID:25496232

Hensel, René; Finn, Andreas; Helbig, Ralf; Killge, Sebastian; Braun, Hans-Georg; Werner, Carsten

2014-12-23

367

Monopolar electromyographic signals recorded by a current amplifier in air and under water without insulation.  

PubMed

It was recently proposed that one could use signal current instead of voltage to collect surface electromyography (EMG). With EMG-current, the electrodes remain at the ground potential, thereby eliminating lateral currents. The purpose of this study was to determine whether EMG-currents can be recorded in Tap and Salt water, as well as in air, without electrically shielding the electrodes. It was hypothesized that signals would display consistent information between experimental conditions regarding muscle responses to changes in contraction effort. EMG-currents were recorded from the flexor digitorum muscles as participant's squeezed a pre-inflated blood pressure cuff bladder in each experimental condition at standardized efforts. EMG-current measurements performed underwater showed no loss of signal amplitude when compared to measurements made in air, although some differences in amplitude and spectral components were observed between conditions. However, signal amplitudes and frequencies displayed consistent behavior across contraction effort levels, irrespective of the experimental condition. This new method demonstrates that information regarding muscle activity is comparable between wet and dry conditions when using EMG-current. Considering the difficulties imposed by the need to waterproof traditional bipolar EMG electrodes when underwater, this new methodology is tremendously promising for assessments of muscular function in aquatic environments. PMID:25241214

Whitting, John W; von Tscharner, Vinzenz

2014-12-01

368

[Design of plant leaf bionic camouflage materials based on spectral analysis].  

PubMed

The influence of structure parameters and contents of plant leaves on their reflectance spectra was analyzed using the PROSPECT model. The result showed that the bionic camouflage materials should be provided with coarse surface and spongy inner structure, the refractive index of main content must be close to that of plant leaves, the contents of materials should contain chlorophyll and water, and the content of C-H bond must be strictly controlled. Based on the analysis above, a novel camouflage material, which was constituted by coarse transparent waterproof surface, chlorophyll, water and spongy material, was designed. The result of verifiable experiment showed that the reflectance spectra of camouflage material exhibited the same characteristics as those of plant leaves. The similarity coefficient of reflectance spectrum of the camouflage material and camphor leaves was 0.988 1, and the characteristics of camouflage material did not change after sunlight treatment for three months. The bionic camouflage material, who exhibited a high spectral similarity with plant leaves and a good weather resistance, will be an available method for reconnaissance of hyperspectral imaging hopefully. PMID:21847955

Yang, Yu-Jie; Liu, Zhi-Ming; Hu, Bi-Ru; Wu, Wen-Jian

2011-06-01

369

The Fading Electricity Theory of Ageing: the missing biophysical principle?  

PubMed

Since a few years convincing data are accumulating showing that some of the premises of the master integrative theory of ageing, namely Harman's Reactive Oxygen Species or free radical theory, are less well founded than originally assumed. In addition, none of the about another dozen documented ageing mechanisms seems to hold the final answer as to the ultimate cause and evolutionary significance of ageing. This review raises the question whether, perhaps, something important has been overlooked, namely a biophysical principle, electrical in nature. The first cell on earth started to be alive when its system for generating its own electricity, carried by inorganic ions, became operational. Any cell dies at the very moment that this system irreversibly collapses. In between birth and death, the system is subject to wear and tear because any cell's overall repair system is not 100 percent waterproof; otherwise adaptation would not be an option. The Fading Electricity Theory of Ageing has all necessary properties for acting as a universal major integrative concept. The advent of novel methods will facilitate the study of bioelectrical phenomena with molecular biological methods in combination with optogenetics, thereby offering challenging possibilities for innovative research in evo-gero. PMID:22940501

De Loof, Arnold; De Haes, Wouter; Boerjan, Bart; Schoofs, Liliane

2013-01-01

370

Overexpression of Arabidopsis ECERIFERUM1 promotes wax very-long-chain alkane biosynthesis and influences plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses.  

PubMed

Land plant aerial organs are covered by a hydrophobic layer called the cuticle that serves as a waterproof barrier protecting plants against desiccation, ultraviolet radiation, and pathogens. Cuticle consists of a cutin matrix as well as cuticular waxes in which very-long-chain (VLC) alkanes are the major components, representing up to 70% of the total wax content in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves. However, despite its major involvement in cuticle formation, the alkane-forming pathway is still largely unknown. To address this deficiency, we report here the characterization of the Arabidopsis ECERIFERUM1 (CER1) gene predicted to encode an enzyme involved in alkane biosynthesis. Analysis of CER1 expression showed that CER1 is specifically expressed in the epidermis of aerial organs and coexpressed with other genes of the alkane-forming pathway. Modification of CER1 expression in transgenic plants specifically affects VLC alkane biosynthesis: waxes of TDNA insertional mutant alleles are devoid of VLC alkanes and derivatives, whereas CER1 overexpression dramatically increases the production of the odd-carbon-numbered alkanes together with a substantial accumulation of iso-branched alkanes. We also showed that CER1 expression is induced by osmotic stresses and regulated by abscisic acid. Furthermore, CER1-overexpressing plants showed reduced cuticle permeability together with reduced soil water deficit susceptibility. However, CER1 overexpression increased susceptibility to bacterial and fungal pathogens. Taken together, these results demonstrate that CER1 controls alkane biosynthesis and is highly linked to responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:21386033

Bourdenx, Brice; Bernard, Amélie; Domergue, Frédéric; Pascal, Stéphanie; Léger, Amandine; Roby, Dominique; Pervent, Marjorie; Vile, Denis; Haslam, Richard P; Napier, Johnathan A; Lessire, René; Joubès, Jérôme

2011-05-01

371

QSAR classification models for the screening of the endocrine-disrupting activity of perfluorinated compounds.  

PubMed

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are a class of emerging pollutants still widely used in different materials as non-adhesives, waterproof fabrics, fire-fighting foams, etc. Their toxic effects include potential for endocrine-disrupting activity, but the amount of experimental data available for these pollutants is limited. The use of predictive strategies such as quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) is recommended under the REACH regulation, to fill data gaps and to screen and prioritize chemicals for further experimentation, with a consequent reduction of costs and number of tested animals. In this study, local classification models for PFCs were developed to predict their T4-TTR (thyroxin-transthyretin) competing potency. The best models were selected by maximizing the sensitivity and external predictive ability. These models, characterized by robustness, good predictive power and a defined applicability domain, were applied to predict the activity of 33 other PFCs of environmental concern. Finally, classification models recently published by our research group for T4-TTR binding of brominated flame retardants and for estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity were applied to the studied perfluorinated chemicals to compare results and to further evaluate the potential for these PFCs to cause endocrine disruption. PMID:22352429

Kovarich, S; Papa, E; Li, J; Gramatica, P

2012-01-01

372

Leaching-resistant carrageenan-based colorimetric oxygen indicator films for intelligent food packaging.  

PubMed

Visual oxygen indicators can give information on the quality and safety of packaged food in an economic and simple manner by changing color based on the amount of oxygen in the packaging, which is related to food spoilage. In particular, ultraviolet (UV)-activated oxygen indicators have the advantages of in-pack activation and irreversibility; however, these dye-based oxygen indicator films suffer from dye leaching upon contact with water. In this work, we introduce carrageenans, which are natural sulfated polysaccharides, to develop UV-activated colorimetric oxygen indicator films that are resistant to dye leakage. Carrageenan-based indicator films were fabricated using redox dyes [methylene blue (MB), azure A, and thionine], a sacrificial electron donor (glycerol), an UV-absorbing photocatalyst (TiO2), and an encapsulation polymer (carrageenan). They showed even lower dye leakage in water than conventional oxygen indicator films, owing to the electrostatic interaction of anionic carrageenan with cationic dyes. The MB/TiO2/glycerol/carrageenan oxygen indicator film was successfully bleached upon UV irradiation, and it regained color very rapidly in the presence of oxygen compared to the other waterproof oxygen indicator films. PMID:24979322

Vu, Chau Hai Thai; Won, Keehoon

2014-07-23

373

Dynamics and shape of large fire ant rafts.  

PubMed

To survive floods, fire ants link their bodies together to build waterproof rafts. Such rafts can be quite large, exceeding 100,000 individuals in size. In this study, we make two improvements on a previously reported model on the construction rate of rafts numbering between 3,000 and 10,000 individuals. That model was based upon experimental observations of randomly-directed linear ant trajectories atop the raft. Here, we report anomalous behavior of ants atop larger rafts of up to 23,000 ants. As rafts increase in size, the behavior of ants approaches diffusion, which is in closer alignment with other studies on the foraging and scouting patterns of ants. We incorporate this ant behavior into the model. Our modified model predicts more accurately the growth of large rafts. Our previous model also relied on an assumption of raft circularity. We show that this assumption is not necessary for large rafts, because it follows from the random directionality of the ant trajectories. Our predicted relationship between raft size and circularity closely fits experimental data. PMID:23336030

Mlot, Nathan J; Tovey, Craig; Hu, David L

2012-11-01

374

Long-term dry immersion: review and prospects.  

PubMed

Dry immersion, which is a ground-based model of prolonged conditions of microgravity, is widely used in Russia but is less well known elsewhere. Dry immersion involves immersing the subject in thermoneutral water covered with an elastic waterproof fabric. As a result, the immersed subject, who is freely suspended in the water mass, remains dry. For a relatively short duration, the model can faithfully reproduce most physiological effects of actual microgravity, including centralization of body fluids, support unloading, and hypokinesia. Unlike bed rest, dry immersion provides a unique opportunity to study the physiological effects of the lack of a supporting structure for the body (a phenomenon we call 'supportlessness'). In this review, we attempt to provide a detailed description of dry immersion. The main sections of the paper discuss the changes induced by long-term dry immersion in the neuromuscular and sensorimotor systems, fluid-electrolyte regulation, the cardiovascular system, metabolism, blood and immunity, respiration, and thermoregulation. The long-term effects of dry immersion are compared with those of bed rest and actual space flight. The actual and potential uses of dry immersion are discussed in the context of fundamental studies and applications for medical support during space flight and terrestrial health care. PMID:21161267

Navasiolava, Nastassia M; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Tomilovskaya, Elena S; Larina, Irina M; Mano, Tadaaki; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Gharib, Claude; Kozlovskaya, Inesa B

2011-07-01

375

Cyanoacrylate glue burn in a child--lessons to be learned.  

PubMed

Cyanoacrylate is the generic name for cyanoacrylate based 'fast-acting' adhesives such as methyl-2-cyanoacrylate and ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate(commonly sold under trade names like Super Glue and Krazy Glue). Other forms have been developed as medical grade glues to be non-toxic and less irritating to skin tissue. Cyanoacrylate has a multitude of uses, ranging from simple domestic applications, to those for industrial purposes. It is an acrylic resin which rapidly polymerises in the presence of water (specifically hydroxide ions), forming long, strong chains, joining the bonded surfaces together. Cyanoacrylate sets quickly, often in less than a minute and a normal bond reaches full strength in two hours and is waterproof. This case report outlines an interesting case of a full thickness burn resulting from skin in contact with cyanoacrylate glue, including highlighting several areas where the management was not appropriate. This was likely due to the novel presentation of this patient, and lack of education of staff. Although there have been cases of burns resulting from this type of glue documented in the literature, there are none of this exact nature and depth. [See figure in text]. Polymerization of methyl-2-cyanoacrylate. PMID:21481658

Clarke, T F E

2011-07-01

376

Experimental study of the influence of refraction on underwater three-dimensional reconstruction using the SVP camera model.  

PubMed

In an underwater imaging system, a perspective camera is often placed outside a tank or in waterproof housing with a flat glass window. The refraction of light occurs when a light ray passes through the water-glass and air-glass interface, rendering the conventional multiple view geometry based on the single viewpoint (SVP) camera model invalid. While most recent underwater vision studies mainly focus on the challenging topic of calibrating such systems, no previous work has systematically studied the influence of refraction on underwater three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. This paper demonstrates the possibility of using the SVP camera model in underwater 3D reconstruction through theoretical analysis of refractive distortion and simulations. Then, the performance of the SVP camera model in multiview underwater 3D reconstruction is quantitatively evaluated. The experimental results reveal a rather surprising and useful yet overlooked fact that the SVP camera model with radial distortion correction and focal length adjustment can compensate for refraction and achieve high accuracy in multiview underwater 3D reconstruction (within 0.7 mm for an object of dimension 200 mm) compared with the results of land-based systems. Such an observation justifies the use of the SVP camera model in underwater application for reconstructing reliable 3D scenes. Our results can be used to guide the selection of system parameters in the design of an underwater 3D imaging setup. PMID:23128708

Kang, Lai; Wu, Lingda; Yang, Yee-Hong

2012-11-01

377

Specification of epidermal cell fate in plant shoots.  

PubMed

Land plants have evolved a single layer of epidermal cells, which are characterized by mostly anticlinal cell division patterns, formation of a waterproof coat called cuticle, and unique cell types such as stomatal guard cells and trichomes. The shoot epidermis plays important roles not only to protect plants from dehydration and pathogens but also to ensure their proper organogenesis and growth control. Extensive molecular genetic studies in Arabidopsis and maize have identified a number of genes that are required for epidermal cell differentiation. However, the mechanism that specifies shoot epidermal cell fate during plant organogenesis remains largely unknown. Particularly, little is known regarding positional information that should restrict epidermal cell fate to the outermost cell layer of the developing organs. Recent studies suggested that certain members of the HD-ZIP class IV homeobox genes are possible master regulators of shoot epidermal cell fate. Here, we summarize the roles of the regulatory genes that are involved in epidermal cell fate specification and discuss the possible mechanisms that limit the expression and/or activity of the master transcriptional regulators to the outermost cell layer in plant shoots. PMID:24616724

Takada, Shinobu; Iida, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

378

Structure and properties of thermoplastic polyurethanes based on poly(dimethylsiloxane): assessment of biocompatibility.  

PubMed

Properties and biocompatibility of a series of thermoplastic poly(urethane-siloxane)s (TPUSs) based on ?,?-dihydroxy ethoxy propyl poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) for potential biomedical application were studied. Thin films of TPUSs with a different PDMS soft segment content were characterized by (1) H NMR, quantitative (13) C NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), contact angle, and water absorption measurements. Different techniques (FTIR, AFM, and DMA) showed that decrease of PDMS content promotes microphase separation in TPUSs. Samples with a higher PDMS content have more hydrophobic surface and better waterproof performances, but lower degree of crystallinity. Biocompatibility of TPUSs was examined after attachment of endothelial cells to the untreated copolymer surface or surface pretreated with multicomponent protein mixture, and by using competitive protein adsorption assay. TPUSs did not exhibit any cytotoxicity toward endothelial cells, as measured by lactate dehydrogenase and 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assays. The untreated and proteins preadsorbed TPUS samples favored endothelial cells adhesion and growth, indicating good biocompatibility. All TPUSs adsorbed more albumin than fibrinogen in competitive protein adsorption experiment, which is feature regarded as beneficial for biocompatibility. The results indicate that TPUSs have good surface, thermo-mechanical, and biocompatible properties, which can be tailored for biomedical application requirements by adequate selection of the soft/hard segments ratio of the copolymers. PMID:24376027

Pergal, Marija V; Nestorov, Jelena; Tovilovi?, Gordana; Ostoji?, Sanja; Go?evac, Dejan; Vasiljevi?-Radovi?, Dana; Djonlagi?, Jasna

2014-11-01

379

Tubularized penile-flap urethroplasty using a fasciocutaneous random pedicled flap for recurrent anterior urethral stricture.  

PubMed

This report describes the use of a tubularized random flap for the curative treatment of recurrent anterior urethral stricture. Under the condition of pendulous lithotomy and suprapubic cystostomy, the urethral stricture was removed via a midline ventral penile incision followed by elevation of the flap and insertion of an 18-Fr catheter. Subcutaneous buried interrupted sutures were used to reapproximate the waterproof tubularized neourethra and to coapt with the neourethra and each stump of the urethra, first proximally and then distally. The defect of the penile shaft was covered by advancement of the surrounding scrotal flap. The indwelling catheter was maintained for 21 days. A 9 month postoperative cystoscopy showed no flap necrosis, no mechanical stricture, and no hair growth on the lumen of the neourethra. The patient showed no voiding discomfort 6 months after the operation. The advantages of this procedure are the lack of need for microsurgery, shortening of admission, the use of only spinal anesthesia (no general anesthesia), and a relatively short operative time. The tubularized unilateral penile fasciocutaneous flap should be considered an option for initial flap urethroplasty as a curative technique. PMID:22783537

Lee, Yong Jig; Lee, Byung Kwon

2012-05-01

380

A new technique for the deep-sea mating of inexpensive connectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep-sea electric and optical connections can often be problematic. Several manufacturers propose wet-mateable connectors based on integrated valve systems but the complexity and precision needed to reach the required reliability result in high cost. We are therefore developing a new type of tooling for connecting cheap standard wet-mateable connectors under oil in deep sea water pressure conditions. Complexity is delocalised from the connector to the easily recoverable and reparable tooling. The cost of wet connections is consequently expected to be drastically reduced, with reliability enhanced. The tooling contains 2 carriers sliding on a linear stage together with a second perpendicular stage intersecting the line between the carriers. The carriers and linear stages are enclosed in a clam-shelled oil-fillable volume. Each half of the connector to be mated is fixed to its respective carrier in a ROV operation. The waterproof caps of the two connectors automatically attach to the third carrier on the perpendicular stage. Seawater around the connectors is replaced with non-conductive oil, and both halves of the connector are detached from their sealing caps, which are then moved sideways to allow the connector to be mated under oil. The clamshells are then opened, allowing the mated connector to be removed by the ROV. A reverse capping procedure is applied for disconnection.

Beurthey, Stephan

2011-01-01

381

Large thermal protection system panel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A protective panel for a reusable launch vehicle provides enhanced moisture protection, simplified maintenance, and increased temperature resistance. The protective panel includes an outer ceramic matrix composite (CMC) panel, and an insulative bag assembly coupled to the outer CMC panel for isolating the launch vehicle from elevated temperatures and moisture. A standoff attachment system attaches the outer CMC panel and the bag assembly to the primary structure of the launch vehicle. The insulative bag assembly includes a foil bag having a first opening shrink fitted to the outer CMC panel such that the first opening and the outer CMC panel form a water tight seal at temperatures below a desired temperature threshold. Fibrous insulation is contained within the foil bag for protecting the launch vehicle from elevated temperatures. The insulative bag assembly further includes a back panel coupled to a second opening of the foil bag such that the fibrous insulation is encapsulated by the back panel, the foil bag, and the outer CMC panel. The use of a CMC material for the outer panel in conjunction with the insulative bag assembly eliminates the need for waterproofing processes, and ultimately allows for more efficient reentry profiles.

Myers, Franklin K. (Inventor); Weinberg, David J. (Inventor); Tran, Tu T. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

382

Thermal ecology on an exposed algal reef: infrared imagery a rapid tool to survey temperature at local spatial scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We tested the feasibility of infra-red (IR) thermography as a tool to survey in situ temperatures in intertidal habitats. We employed this method to describe aspects of thermal ecology for an exposed algal reef in the tropics (O`ahu, Hawai`i). In addition, we compared temperatures of the surrounding habitat as determined by IR thermography and traditional waterproof loggers. Images of reef organisms (6 macroalgae, 9 molluscs, 1 anthozoan, and 2 echinoderms), loggers, and landscapes were taken during two diurnal low tides. Analysis of IR thermographs revealed remarkable thermal complexity on a narrow tropical shore, as habitats ranged from 18.1 to 38.3°C and surfaces of organisms that ranged from 21.1 to 33.2°C. The near 20°C difference between abiotic habitats and the mosaic of temperatures experienced by reef organisms across the shore are similar to findings from temperate studies using specialized longterm loggers. Further, IR thermography captured rapid temperature fluctuations that were related to tidal height and cross-correlated to wave action. Finally, we gathered evidence that tidal species were associated with particular temperature ranges and that two species possess morphological characteristics that limit thermal stress. Loggers provided similar results as thermography but lack the ability to resolve variation in fine-scale spatial and temporal patterns. Our results support the utility of IR thermography in exploring thermal ecology, and demonstrate the steps needed to calibrate data leading to establishment of baseline conditions in a changing and heterogeneous environment.

Cox, T. E.; Smith, C. M.

2011-12-01

383

A potential space- and power-effective muon sensor module for imaging a volcano  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of muon radiography will be greatly enhanced by the use of two muon sensor modules that save electric power consumption and are easily transportable. Muon sensor modules used for a volcano observation must have a low electric power consumption requirement and be both waterproof and portable. In this article, we discuss two candidate sensor modules: (1) a portable muon sensor module with wavelength-shifting (WLS) fibers and a multi-anode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT), and (2) a regular scintillator telescope with PMT complemented by a low-power Cockcroft-Walton circuit (CWPMT). A realistic telescope system consisting of a muon sensor module with MAPMT has been tested and found to consume 76 W, most of which (72 W) is used by the redundant electronic circuit required for pulse shaping; this could be modified to drastically improve the power consumption. In comparison, a muon telescope system with a CWPMT was found to consume 7.57 W. We also calculated the muon stopping length in SiO2 by means of a Monte-Carlo simulation. This calculation provided the average density structure along the muon path in rock, where the muon path length was shorter than 1.5 km, with an accuracy of about 5% during a 90-day measurement period by assuming a 1-m2 muon detector with an angular resolution of 25 mrad.

Taira, H.; Tanaka, H. K. M.

2010-02-01

384

Evaluation of reusable surface insulation for space shuttle over a range of heat-transfer rate and surface temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reusable surface insulation materials, which were developed as heat shields for the space shuttle, were tested over a range of conditions including heat-transfer rates between 160 and 620 kW/sq m. The lowest of these heating rates was in a range predicted for the space shuttle during reentry, and the highest was more than twice the predicted entry heating on shuttle areas where reusable surface insulation would be used. Individual specimens were tested repeatedly at increasingly severe conditions to determine the maximum heating rate and temperature capability. A silica-base material experienced only minimal degradation during repeated tests which included conditions twice as severe as predicted shuttle entry and withstood cumulative exposures three times longer than the best mullite material. Mullite-base materials cracked and experienced incipient melting at conditions within the range predicted for shuttle entry. Neither silica nor mullite materials consistently survived the test series with unbroken waterproof surfaces. Surface temperatures for a silica and a mullite material followed a trend expected for noncatalytic surfaces, whereas surface temperatures for a second mullite material appeared to follow a trend expected for a catalytic surface.

Chapman, A. J.

1973-01-01

385

Detection of water content inhomogeneities in a dike model using invasive GPR guided wave sounding and TRIME-TDR® technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Guided wave sounding (GWS), an invasive application of ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry with intelligible micro elements (TRIME-TDR®) were used to investigate the distribution of volumetric water content (VWC) in a dike model under controlled conditions in order to detect possible dike damage. The dike model, which was constructed with soil of the texture class loamy sand, was flooded at different levels of water between 0.3 and 1.25 m high from a waterproof baseline. The two techniques were applied to retrieve VWC information from the same location at the crest of the dike model. Both techniques assessed reflection data from the lower end of a metal probe lowered through a common access borehole and successfully detected a water content inhomogeneity in the model at a depth of about 0.6 m from the crest. Comparison of the colocated VWC measurements from the two techniques showed almost identical trends with a root mean square deviation of 0.018 m3 m-3. GWS, however, showed a much higher depth resolution than TRIME-TDR®. Accompanying analytical and numerical modelling show that GWS sounding should be applicable to water content exploration in existing, 10-20 m deep boreholes.

Preko, Kwasi; Wilhelm, Helmut

2012-06-01

386

Corrosion detection by induction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bridges in Florida are exposed to high amounts of humidity due to the state's geography. This excess moisture results in a high incidence of corrosion on the bridge's steel support cables. Also, the inclusion of ineffective waterproofing has resulted in additional corrosion. As this corrosion increases, the steel cables, responsible for maintaining bridge integrity, deteriorate and eventually break. If enough of these cables break, the bridge will experience a catastrophic failure resulting in collapse. Repairing and replacing these cables is very expensive and only increases with further damage. As each of the cables is steel, they have strong conductive properties. By inducing a current along each group of cables and measuring its dissipation over distance, a picture of structural integrity can be determined. The purpose of this thesis is to prove the effectiveness of using electromagnetic techniques to determine cable integrity. By comparing known conductive values (determined in a lab setting) to actual bridge values, the tester will be able to determine the location and severity of any damage, if present.

Roddenberry, Joshua L.

387

Macrophyte monitoring along the Trentino side of the Lake Garda  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Macrophytes, that grow along the Trentino shorezone of the Lake Garda, were sampled and mapped during summer 2010. The sampling protocol foresees a lake bottom survey until the depth of 15 using GPS system, for identifying sampling sites and transects, waterproof camcorder, batiscope and a rake. The proof of 13/14 meters is the internal limit for macrophyte development. The area between 6 and 13/14 meters was surveyed with a robot camcorder placed on a boat of the fireworks brigade of Trento. This boat was used to track the 14 km of the shorezone of the Trentino part of the Lake Garda. The investigation result is a survey of a wide carex prairie that has no interruption all along the lake perimeter. An inflatable boat was used to inspect the shorezone using a batiscope. The macrophyte samples were collected using a rake. The number of mapped sites is 15, transects are 15 and identified 18 different species. During 2011, in conjunction with the flight MIVIS within the EULAKES project, the macrophyte distribution was confirmed and further inspection was carried out for sampling and classifying caracee. Among the species collected, Chara globularis was present in all sites sampled, while sites 0 and 12, corresponding respectively to local reserve Val Gola and the bay of Torbole, showed the highest biodiversity among sites, with 11 species collected of the 18 total. Within each site, higher number of species were collected between 2 and 5 meters depth's.

Pellegrini, Giovanna; Monauni, Catia; Fedrizzi, Fabio; Laura, Fravezzi; Paola, Testa; Silvia, Costaraoss; Mario, Mazzurana; Gaetano, Patti; Barbara, Zennaro

2013-04-01

388

The thermal insulation difference of clothing ensembles on the dry and perspiration manikins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are about a hundred manikin users around the world. Some of them use the manikin such as 'Walter' and 'Tore' to evaluate the comfort of clothing ensembles according to their thermal insulation and moisture resistance. A 'Walter' manikin is made of water and waterproof breathable fabric 'skin', which simulates the characteristics of human perspiration. So evaporation, condensation or sorption and desorption are always accompanied by heat transfer. A 'Tore' manikin only has dry heat exchange by conduction, radiation and convection from the manikin through clothing ensembles to environments. It is an ideal apparatus to measure the thermal insulation of the clothing ensemble and allows evaluation of thermal comfort. This paper compares thermal insulation measured with dry 'Tore' and sweating 'Walter' manikins. Clothing ensembles consisted of permeable and impermeable clothes. The results showed that the clothes covering the 'Walter' manikin absorbed the moisture evaporated from the manikin. When the moisture transferred through the permeable clothing ensembles, heat of condensation could be neglected. But it was observed that heavy condensation occurred if impermeable clothes were tested on the 'Walter' manikin. This resulted in a thermal insulation difference of clothing ensembles on the dry and perspiration manikins. The thermal insulation obtained from the 'Walter' manikin has to be modified when heavy condensation occurs. The modified equation is obtained in this study.

Xiaohong, Zhou; Chunqin, Zheng; Yingming, Qiang; Holmér, Ingvar; Gao, Chuansi; Kuklane, Kalev

2010-08-01

389

PROVING EXPERIMENTS AND ANALYSIS OF ROOFTOP HEAT SHIELD EXPERIMENT WITH WATER CONTAIN CONCRETE BOAD THAT USES ELEMENTARY SCHOOL BUILDING  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the reduction effect of the heat inflow on the rooftop and the indoor thermal environment was measured by using the elementary school building, the rooftop of the bilding was covered with the water contain concrete boards. And, conserve energy effect and effectiveness for the indoor thermal environment improvement were evaluated. The effect of the decrease of the surface temperature and the slab side temperature at water contain concrete boad plot remarkably from the measurement result during the July-September of 2010, the temperatures decrease 22°C at the surface, 15°C at the waterproof layer surface that was caused compared with the gravel covered roof. The water contain concrete boards plot always drove the ceiling side temperature and the indoor temperature low as a result of comparing with the indoor condition of the control plot. The temperature fluctuate was small at time that opened the window and ventilated, and ventilation was discontinued, it became big temperatures fluctuate. The effect of the decrease of 0.5°C in PMV and 0.5 in WBGT was caused while the room had sealed up, and the effect of the decrease of 0.3 in WBGT was caused while the ventilated state.

Yamada, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Akinori; ??, ??; Okuda, Yoshio; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Hada, Yuuichi

390

Preparation of superhydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate)-silicon dioxide nanocomposite films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superhydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate)-SiO 2 (coded as PMMA-SiO 2) nanocomposite films with micro-nanohierarchical structure were prepared via a simple approach in the absence of low surface-energy compounds. By spin-coating the suspension of hydrophobic silica (SiO 2) nanoparticles dispersed in PMMA solution, target nanocomposite films were obtained on glass slides. The wetting behavior of PMMA-SiO 2 nanocomposite films was investigated in relation to the dosage of SiO 2 nanoparticles dispersed in PMMA solution. It was found that hydrophilic PMMA film was transferred to superhydrophobic PMMA-SiO 2 nanocomposite films when hydrophobic SiO 2 nanoparticles were introduced into the PMMA solution at a high enough dosage (0.2 g and above). Resultant PMMA-SiO 2 nanocomposite films had a static water contact angle of above 162°, showing promising applications in selfcleaning and waterproof for outer wall of building, outer covering for automobile, sanitary wares, and so forth.

Wang, Jinyan; Chen, Xinhua; Kang, Yingke; Yang, Guangbin; Yu, Laigui; Zhang, Pingyu

2010-12-01

391

Isotopic characterization of the Precambrian carbonate aquifers under the city of Bangui (Central African Republic)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The city of Bangui, the capital of the Central African Republic, is located on the right bank of the Ubangi River which is the northernmost tributary of the Congo River. From its foundation in 1889 this city has always suffered from serious problems of water management. This is related to the specificity of the site configuration (steep hills surrounding a large swampy flat valley poorly drained) and to the urbanisation process responsible for the waterproofing of soils and the associated increased runoff processes under tropical humid condition.This paper presents the results of a geochemical and isotopic survey carried out in 2011 aiming at evaluating the type and chemical quality of the groundwater resources of the Bangui region. By combining geological, hydrogeochemical and isotopic data it appears that the underground of Bangui seems favourable to the development of a secured and sustainable water supply from groundwater provided that the conditions of exploitation would be constrained by the local authorities. The deep fractured (and locally kastified) Precambrian carbonate aquifers known as Bimbo and Fatima formations are identified as target resources considering the relatively good quality of the resource from the chemical point of view, and the semi-confined structure of the aquifer preventing the mixing with shallow aquifers already strongly impacted by domestic and industrial pollutions.

Huneau, Frederic; Djebebe-Ndjiguim, Chantal-Laure; Foto, Eric; Ito, Mari; Celle-Jeanton, Helene; Garel, Emilie; Mabingui, Joseph

2013-04-01

392

Lightweight, Miniature Inertial Measurement System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A miniature, lighter-weight, and highly accurate inertial navigation system (INS) is coupled with GPS receivers to provide stable and highly accurate positioning, attitude, and inertial measurements while being subjected to highly dynamic maneuvers. In contrast to conventional methods that use extensive, groundbased, real-time tracking and control units that are expensive, large, and require excessive amounts of power to operate, this method focuses on the development of an estimator that makes use of a low-cost, miniature accelerometer array fused with traditional measurement systems and GPS. Through the use of a position tracking estimation algorithm, onboard accelerometers are numerically integrated and transformed using attitude information to obtain an estimate of position in the inertial frame. Position and velocity estimates are subject to drift due to accelerometer sensor bias and high vibration over time, and so require the integration with GPS information using a Kalman filter to provide highly accurate and reliable inertial tracking estimations. The method implemented here uses the local gravitational field vector. Upon determining the location of the local gravitational field vector relative to two consecutive sensors, the orientation of the device may then be estimated, and the attitude determined. Improved attitude estimates further enhance the inertial position estimates. The device can be powered either by batteries, or by the power source onboard its target platforms. A DB9 port provides the I/O to external systems, and the device is designed to be mounted in a waterproof case for all-weather conditions.

Tang, Liang; Crassidis, Agamemnon

2012-01-01

393

Underwater green laser vibrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a laser vibrometer based on an monolithic single-frequency green laser operating at 532 nm. This wavelength can be particularly useful in the case of underwater vibrometry, especially with regard to the minimum of water absorption for this wavelength range (blue-green window). Using polarizing optics, we proposed a configuration that allows the elimination of parasitic reflections at the air-glass-water boundary. A measurement of heterodyne signals as a mixing result of scattered and reference beams has been performed. The study was conducted in aqueous medium for the scattering waterproof paper and retro-reflective surface. In both configurations we have obtained signals with a relatively high S/N ratio > 20 dB (for scattering surface) and > 31 dB (for retro-reflective tape) with the Resolution Bandwidth RBW 10 kHz for a vibrometer output power of 5 mW and the distance to the moving object 1.2 m (including 0.3 m in air). In our opinion, laser Doppler vibrometry LDV based on high-performance single frequency solid-state lasers with a wavelength range corresponding to the blue-green window allows effective measurement of vibration in the underwater environment.

Anto?czak, Arkadiusz J.; Kozio?, Pawe?; W??, Adam T.; Sotor, Jaros?aw Z.; Dudzik, Grzegorz; Kaczmarek, Pawe? R.; Abramski, Krzysztof M.

2012-06-01

394

Effect of STS space suit on astronaut dominant upper limb EVA work performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS Space Suited and unsuited dominant upper limb performance was evaluated in order to quantify future EVA astronaut skeletal muscle upper limb performance expectations. Testing was performed with subjects standing in EVA STS foot restraints. Data was collected with a CYBEX Dynamometer enclosed in a waterproof container. Control data was taken in one g. During one g testing, weight of the Space Suit was relieved from the subject via an overhead crane with a special connection to the PLSS of the suit. Experimental data was acquired during simulated zero g, accomplished by neutral buoyancy in the Weightless Environment Training Facility. Unsuited subjects became neutrally buoyant via SCUBA BC vests. Actual zero g experimental data was collected during parabolic arc flights on board NASA's modified KC-135 aircraft. During all test conditions, subjects performed five EVA work tasks requiring dominant upper limb performance and ten individual joint articulation movements. Dynamometer velocities for each tested movement were 0 deg/sec, 30 or 60 deg/sec and 120 or 180 deg/sec, depending on the test, with three repetitions per test. Performance was measured in foot pounds of torque.

Greenisen, Michael C.

1987-01-01

395

Comparison of invasive and non-invasive electromagnetic methods in soil water content estimation of a dike model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water infiltration through a dike model under controlled flooding and drainage conditions was investigated using the gravimetric soil water sampling technique and electromagnetic techniques, in particular ground penetrating radar (GPR) applied in different forms, time domain reflectometry with intelligent microelements (TRIME-TDR) and spatial-time domain reflectometry (S-TDR). The experiments were conducted on the model in two phases. In the first phase, the model was flooded with varying water levels between 0 and 1.25 m above the waterproof base of the model. In the second phase, the characteristics of the temporal water content changes were investigated over a period of 65 days as the flood water drained off from the 1.25 m level. The dike model was constructed with soil of the texture class loamy sand. The aim of the experiment was to investigate whether GPR-based invasive and non-invasive methods were able to quantitatively observe and correctly monitor temporal changes in the volumetric water content (VWC) within embankment dams. The VWC values from the various techniques corresponded very well, especially with low VWC values. A comparison with the VWC of gravimetric soil water sampling showed a satisfactory reproducibility. Characteristic discrepancies were recorded with higher values of the VWC. Under saturated conditions only the invasive methods were able to produce reasonable values of the VWC. After the release of the highest flood level, the drainage phase could be characterized by two invasive methods based on the TDR and GPR techniques.

Preko, Kwasi; Scheuermann, Alexander; Wilhelm, Helmut

2009-06-01

396

Afocal viewport optics for underwater imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conventional camera can be adapted for underwater use by enclosing it in a sealed waterproof pressure housing with a viewport. The viewport, as an optical interface between water and air needs to consider both the camera and water optical characteristics while also providing a high pressure water seal. Limited hydrospace visibility drives a need for wide angle viewports. Practical optical interfaces between seawater and air vary from simple flat plate windows to complex water contact lenses. This paper first provides a brief overview of the physical and optical properties of the ocean environment along with suitable optical materials. This is followed by a discussion of the characteristics of various afocal underwater viewport types including flat windows, domes and the Ivanoff corrector lens, a derivative of a Galilean wide angle camera adapter. Several new and interesting optical designs derived from the Ivanoff corrector lens are presented including a pair of very compact afocal viewport lenses that are compatible with both in water and in air environments and an afocal underwater hyper-hemispherical fisheye lens.

Slater, Dan

2014-09-01

397

Assessment of the state of urban ecosystems on the basis of remote sensing data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the soil-ecological monitoring of the Novovladykino (Moscow) key site are presented. The monitoring included the interpretation of aerospace information collected in 2000 and 2010, terrestrial route observations, and mapping of the key site. The data obtained confirm the possibility to use the remote sensing information in the investigation of urban ecosystems and to recognize the arboreal vegetation, shrubs, and lawn grass in images. The approximate identification of the tree species; the assessment of the state of the green belts and the natural, anthropogenic, and technogenic soils and their complexes; the identification of the overcompacted, mechanically destroyed, and sealed soils under the waterproof and permeable surface horizons are also possible. The determination of the species composition of the trees in small groups, the poor state of the individual trees and small groves, and the causes of the changes in the state of the green belts and polluted areas turned out to be impossible. Additional field and laboratory investigations were performed in order to verify and refine information obtained from the satellite images.

Gorokhova, I. N.; Borisochkina, T. I.; Shishkonakova, E. A.

2013-04-01

398

Occupational and environmental exposure to tribromophenol used for wood surface protection in sawmills.  

PubMed

This study analyses the occupational and environmental conditions of sawmills where the lumber is protected from microorganism action by dipping it in 2,4,6 tribromophenol (TBP). Three processes were evaluated: hydraulic immersion, chain conveyor system and manual immersion. The biggest occupational exposure to TBP was registered in manual and chain conveyor systems. The average values in the workers' urine for TBP were 6.9 and 5.7 mg/g creatinine, respectively. For environmental exposure, the highest value in well waters was 25.1 microg/L and in soil was 4,602 mg/kg. It could be established that the hydraulic immersion system presents less occupational TBP exposure. Nevertheless, the hydraulic system, as well as the other two anti-stain alternatives, requires the introduction of pollution prevention efforts. To reduce the environmental exposure to TBP, the lumber-dipping tank area, the forklift traffic areas, and the storage areas need to be waterproofed. It is also necessary to implement a TBP solution recovery system to eliminate dripping from the lumber once it is removed from the fungicide dipping tanks. PMID:16134480

Gutiérrez, Manuel; Becerra, José; Godoy, Juan; Barra, Ricardo

2005-06-01

399

Kestrel 2 Program: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Kestrel 2 program began in 1986 as an outgrowth of the original Kestrel program, which used conventional balloon techniques and facilities, and was completed in 1988. It was undertaken to extend operational and geographic flexibility beyond that achievable using traditional techniques observed in the original program. During that time, we developed a tandem-balloon system that can be launched from any single launch site in winds up to 20 knots. We also developed a fast-fill tow balloon, which we tested by filling a tow balloon directly from it shipping container without laying it out on a long clean surface. To test the endurance of the tow balloon, we filled and repackaged the same balloon four times, once while at sea, at a fill rate of 3000 to 4000 ft/sup 3//min, using helium gas. This testing showed that the tow balloon is indeed quite rugged. We also demonstrated how to control the tow balloon with handling lines and rig the balloon in winds up to 26 knots at sea on a small ship. The tandem-balloon deployment system includes a lightweight, high-strength, waterproof payload containment canister and an explosive flight-termination system. The launch release mechanism that we designed was tested at sea. An electronics and power supply system provided tracking and command termination and was used to perform simple command functions.

Duke, P.O.

1988-05-01

400

Preparation and evaluation of colon adhesive pellets of 5-aminosalicylic acid.  

PubMed

Oral modified-release delivery systems, such as bio-adhesive one, enable drug delivery to affected regions and minimize the side effects by reducing the systemic absorption. Our aim was to develop colon adhesive pellets of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. The core of the pellet was formulated from bioadhesive agents, Carbomer 940 and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), by extrusion/spheronization method and coated with Surelease(®) as inner layer for waterproof and with Eudragit(®) S100 as outer layer for pH control. The rat model of ulcerative colitis was used to evaluate the efficiency of our loaded pellets as a drug carrier. Microcrystalline cellulose 101 (PH 301) was found to be the best agent for pellet core. The ratio of CP940 to HPC should be kept as (1:1) to achieve high bioadhesion. When the amount of Surelease(®) was from 16% to 20% and of Eudragit(®) S100 was 28%, the dissolution profiles of coated pellets revealed no drug release in the artificial gastric fluid (pH 1.0) within 2h and less than 10% was released in phosphate buffer (pH 6.0) within 2h whereas complete dissolution was observed in colonic fluid of pH 7.4 for 20 h. The animal experiment showed that 5-ASA loaded colon adhesive pellets had optimal therapeutic effect. We showed a novel approach to prepare effective bioadhesive pellets as colon targeted drug delivery system. PMID:24746693

Xu, Meixia; Sun, Minjie; Qiao, Hongzhi; Ping, Qineng; Elamin, Eltayeb Suliman

2014-07-01

401

CFD Model of Water Droplet Transport for ISS Hygiene Activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the study is to assess the impacts of free water propagation in the Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC). Free water can be generated inside the WHC in small quantities due to crew hygiene activity. To mitigate potential impact of free water in Node 3 cabin the WHC doorway is enclosed by a waterproof bump-out, Kabin, with openings at the top and bottom. At the overhead side of the rack, there is a screen that prevents large drops of water from exiting. However, as the avionics fan in the WHC causes airflow toward the deck side of the rack, small quantities of free water may exit at the bottom of the Kabin. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of Node 3 cabin airflow made possible to identify the paths of water transport. The Node 3 airflow was computed for several ventilation scenarios. To simulate the droplet transport the Lagrangian discrete phase approach was used. Various initial droplet distributions were considered in the study. The droplet diameter was varied in the range of 2-20 mm. The results of the computations showed that most of the drops fall to the rack surface not far from the WHC curtain. The probability of the droplet transport to the adjacent rack surface with electronic equipment was predicted.

Son, Chang H.

2011-01-01

402

Modular hydro dam approach to the economic development of ultra low-head hydropower  

SciTech Connect

The solution to developing economical ultra low-head (10 ft. -6 ft., 3m-2m hydrpower lies in being able to reduce equipment and construction costs at new dams to less than $4000/KW, while maintaining an operating efficiency of 80% or more. The purpose of this investigation was to explore the potential for developing economical new ultra low-head sites using an innovative concept known as the Modular Hydro Dam (MHD). This concept, combines the benefits of shop fabrication and installation of equipment in truck transportable, waterproof power modules, with prefabricated gate sections that can be located between the power modules. Lateral support to withstand the static head pressure is provided by an upstream tension cable system anchored at each bank. Foundation design for vertical support varies with subsurface conditions. The technical, economic, environmental, and institutional feasibility of the MHD concept were examined. The module selected contains an axial-flow type turbine, rated at 300 kW under a 10-ft head, a generator driven by a belt drive, vertical intake gate, and electrical control system and switchgear. Capital and operating costs are estimated. It is concluded that the US potential for power generation at ultralow-head sites justifies the development of the MHD concept, and that a full scale demonstration of the concept could be completed by 1986. (LCL)

Broome, K.R.

1981-01-01

403

Coastal Changes in Temperature and Salinity Observed during Hurricane Isaac Recorded and Downloaded by NASA DRIFTERs Moored in Heron Bay and at Half Moon Island, Louisiana  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Major changes in salinity (approx.14 ppt.) and temperature (approx.40C) were continuously registered by two prototype NASA DRIFTERs, surface moored floaters, that NASA's Applied Science and Technology Project Office (ASTPO) has developed. The DRIFTER floating sensor module is equipped with an Arduino open-source electronics prototyping platform and programming language (http://www.arduino.cc), a GPS (Global Positioning System) module with antenna, a cell phone SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) card and a cellular antenna which is used to transmit data, and a probe to measure temperature and conductivity (from which salinity can be derived). The DRIFTER is powered by a solar cell panel and all the electronic components are mounted and sealed in [ waterproof encasement. Position and measurement data are transmitted via short message service (SMS) messaging to a Twitter site (DRIFTER 002@NASADRIFTER_002 and DRIFTER 004@NASADRIFTER_004), which provides a live feed. These data are the imported into a Google spreadsheet where conductivity is converted to salinity, and graphed in real-time. The spreadsheet data will be imported into a webpage maintained by ASTPO, where it will be displayed available for dO\\\\1lload.

Kalcic, Maria; Iturriaga, Rodolfo H.; Kuper, Philip D.; O'Neal, Stanford Duane; Underwood, Lauren; Fletcher, Rose

2012-01-01

404

The Campaign GPS Component of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO): New Tools, New Strategies and New Opportunities to Support EarthScope Investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The UNAVCO Facility is charged with implementing the campaign GPS component of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) to support EarthScope investigators through a pool of approximately one hundred mobile GPS systems. In contrast to the PBO continuous GPS network, the PBO campaign systems are designed for temporary deployments with periods ranging from several minutes to several months per site. This allows researchers to conduct spatially and temporally focused investigations into a wide range of phenomena, including volcano monitoring, post-seismic deformation monitoring, and ground control for airborne LIDAR surveys. A standard PBO campaign system consists of a Topcon GB-1000 dual-frequency GPS receiver, a Topcon PG-A1 compact GPS antenna, an 18 Ah battery, cabling, a portable and waterproof Pelican case enclosure, and a Tech 2000 GPS antenna mast or tripod and tribrach. Available ancillary equipment includes solar panels, additional batteries, enclosures and mounting hardware. Communications equipment such as radio modems and cellular modems are also available to allow remote data retrieval during longer term deployments. We present an overview of the PBO campaign equipment available to investigators, technical specifications of the system, examples of current and planned EarthScope research projects utilizing the campaign equipment, and a hands-on demonstration of a PBO campaign system.

Phillips, D. A.; Greenberg, J.; Sklar, J.; Meertens, C. M.; Andreatta, V.; Feaux, K.

2004-12-01

405

Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing  

SciTech Connect

The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work, (2) working conditions, (3) type of anti-contamination material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-contamination clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Reichelt, R.A.; Clay, M.E.; Eichorst, A.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1998-01-01

406

Possibility of using waste tire rubber and fly ash with Portland cement as construction materials.  

PubMed

The growing amount of waste rubber produced from used tires has resulted in an environmental problem. Recycling waste tires has been widely studied for the last 20 years in applications such as asphalt pavement, waterproofing systems and membrane liners. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing fly ash and rubber waste with Portland cement as a composite material for masonry applications. Class C fly ash and waste automobile tires in three different sizes were used with Portland cement. Compressive and flexural strength, dry unit weight and water absorption tests were performed on the composite specimens containing waste tire rubber. The compressive strength decreased by increasing the rubber content while increased by increasing the fly ash content for all curing periods. This trend is slightly influenced by particle size. For flexural strength, the specimens with waste tire rubber showed higher values than the control mix probably due to the effect of rubber fibers. The dry unit weight of all specimens decreased with increasing rubber content, which can be explained by the low specific gravity of rubber particles. Water absorption decreased slightly with the increase in rubber particles size. These composite materials containing 10% Portland cement, 70% and 60% fly ash and 20% and 30% tire rubber particles have sufficient strength for masonry applications. PMID:19110410

Yilmaz, Arin; Degirmenci, Nurhayat

2009-05-01

407

Tubularized Penile-Flap Urethroplasty Using a Fasciocutaneous Random Pedicled Flap for Recurrent Anterior Urethral Stricture  

PubMed Central

This report describes the use of a tubularized random flap for the curative treatment of recurrent anterior urethral stricture. Under the condition of pendulous lithotomy and suprapubic cystostomy, the urethral stricture was removed via a midline ventral penile incision followed by elevation of the flap and insertion of an 18-Fr catheter. Subcutaneous buried interrupted sutures were used to reapproximate the waterproof tubularized neourethra and to coapt with the neourethra and each stump of the urethra, first proximally and then distally. The defect of the penile shaft was covered by advancement of the surrounding scrotal flap. The indwelling catheter was maintained for 21 days. A 9 month postoperative cystoscopy showed no flap necrosis, no mechanical stricture, and no hair growth on the lumen of the neourethra. The patient showed no voiding discomfort 6 months after the operation. The advantages of this procedure are the lack of need for microsurgery, shortening of admission, the use of only spinal anesthesia (no general anesthesia), and a relatively short operative time. The tubularized unilateral penile fasciocutaneous flap should be considered an option for initial flap urethroplasty as a curative technique. PMID:22783537

Lee, Byung Kwon

2012-01-01

408

In Situ Experiments To Reveal the Role of Surface Feature Sidewalls in the Cassie–Wenzel Transition  

PubMed Central

Waterproof and self-cleaning surfaces continue to attract much attention as they can be instrumental in various different technologies. Such surfaces are typically rough, allowing liquids to contact only the outermost tops of their asperities, with air being entrapped underneath. The formed solid–liquid–air interface is metastable and, hence, can be forced into a completely wetted solid surface. A detailed understanding of the wetting barrier and the dynamics of this transition is critically important for the practical use of the related surfaces. Toward this aim, wetting transitions were studied in situ at a set of patterned perfluoropolyether dimethacrylate (PFPEdma) polymer surfaces exhibiting surface features with different types of sidewall profiles. PFPEdma is intrinsically hydrophobic and exhibits a refractive index very similar to water. Upon immersion of the patterned surfaces into water, incident light was differently scattered at the solid–liquid–air and solid–liquid interface, which allows for distinguishing between both wetting states by dark-field microscopy. The wetting transition observed with this methodology was found to be determined by the sidewall profiles of the patterned structures. Partial recovery of the wetting was demonstrated to be induced by abrupt and continuous pressure reductions. A theoretical model based on Laplace’s law was developed and applied, allowing for the analytical calculation of the transition barrier and the potential to revert the wetting upon pressure reduction. PMID:25496232

2014-01-01

409

Flow rate logging seepage meter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus for remotely measuring and logging the flow rate of groundwater seepage into surface water bodies. As groundwater seeps into a cavity created by a bottomless housing, it displaces water through an inlet and into a waterproof sealed upper compartment, at which point, the water is collected by a collection bag, which is contained in a bag chamber. A magnet on the collection bag approaches a proximity switch as the collection bag fills, and eventually enables the proximity switch to activate a control circuit. The control circuit then rotates a three-way valve from the collection path to a discharge path, enables a data logger to record the time, and enables a pump, which discharges the water from the collection bag, through the three-way valve and pump, and into the sea. As the collection bag empties, the magnet leaves the proximity of the proximity switch, and the control circuit turns off the pump, resets the valve to provide a collection path, and restarts the collection cycle.

Reay, William G. (Inventor); Walthall, Harry G. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

410

Use of admixtures in organic-contaminated cement-clay pastes.  

PubMed

In this work microstructure, porosity and hydration degree of cement-based solidified/stabilized wasteforms were studied before assessing their leaching behaviour. 2-Chloroaniline was chosen as a model liquid organic pollutant and included into cement pastes, which were also modified with different admixtures for concrete: a superplasticizer based on acrylic-modified polymer, a synthetic rubber latex and a waterproofing agent. An organoclay, modified with an ammonium quaternary salt (benzyl-dimethyl-tallowammonium, BDMTA), was added to the pastes as pre-sorbent agent of the organic matter. All the samples were dried up to constant weight in order to stop the hydration process at different times during the first 28 days of curing, typically, after 1 day (1d), 7 days (7d) and 28 days. Then, the microstructure of the hardened cement-clay pastes was investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The hydration degree and porosity were studied by thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), respectively. For samples cured for 28 days a short-term leach test set by Italian regulation for industrial waste recycling (D.M. 5 February 1998) was performed. The best results showed a 5% release of the total initial amount of organic pollutant. PMID:18514398

Gallo Stampino, Paola; Zampori, Luca; Dotelli, Giovanni; Meloni, Paola; Sora, Isabella Natali; Pelosato, Renato

2009-01-30

411

Simple battery armor to protect against gastrointestinal injury from accidental ingestion.  

PubMed

Inadvertent battery ingestion in children and the associated morbidity and mortality results in thousands of emergency room visits every year. Given the risk for serious electrochemical burns within hours of ingestion, the current standard of care for the treatment of batteries in the esophagus is emergent endoscopic removal. Safety standards now regulate locked battery compartments in toys, which have resulted in a modest reduction in inadvertent battery ingestion; specifically, 3,461 ingestions were reported in 2009, and 3,366 in 2013. Aside from legislation, minimal technological development has taken place at the level of the battery to limit injury. We have constructed a waterproof, pressure-sensitive coating, harnessing a commercially available quantum tunneling composite. Quantum tunneling composite coated (QTCC) batteries are nonconductive in the low-pressure gastrointestinal environment yet conduct within the higher pressure of standard battery housings. Importantly, this coating technology enables most battery-operated equipment to be powered without modification. If these new batteries are swallowed, they limit the external electrolytic currents responsible for tissue injury. We demonstrate in a large-animal model a significant decrease in tissue injury with QTCC batteries compared with uncoated control batteries. In summary, here we describe a facile approach to increasing the safety of batteries by minimizing the risk for electrochemical burn if the batteries are inadvertently ingested, without the need for modification of most battery-powered devices. PMID:25368176

Laulicht, Bryan; Traverso, Giovanni; Deshpande, Vikram; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M

2014-11-18

412

[Action proposals to Japanese Neurological Society from Fukushima Medical University: based on our three years' experiences].  

PubMed

In this paper, I make several proposals of what Japanese Neurological Society is able to do or should do in preparing future disaster in Japan. I mention several points separately.Patient education: Patients usually try to visit their hospital as soon as possible for the safety, especially in Japan. Is it true? The traffic jams actually blocked this action in March 11, 2011, which made more serious problems in some patients. We should ask them to prepare matters necessary for staying at home at least for a week when no medical emergency is present.Disaster prevention training: We should make a list of hospitals which accept emergent patients at disaster. We should have some methods of communication still active at disaster (internet, satellite phone) and make society network for communication and patient transportation. How to transfer required drugs to patients is another issue we should consider.Name tag: We sometimes treated unidentified patients in the disaster because the name tag or reference papers was gone or not specified to a certain patient. It is due to great mechanical power of injury or rains. For not detached from the patient and waterproofed, I recommend writing the patient's name on the chest with a permanent marker used in the triathlon when transferring the patients to other hospitals or other places. PMID:24291912

Ugawa, Yoshikazu

2013-01-01

413

Influence of the processed sunflower oil on the cement properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Used oils (vegetable oil, animal oil, engine oil, etc.), which are essentially industrial wastes, have found application as secondary raw materials in some braches of industry. In particular, the only well-known and commonly-used way of utilizing wastes of vegetable oils is to apply them as raw materials in the production of biodiesel. The goal of the present study is to develop a conceptually new way of vegetable oil wastes utilization in the building industry. The test admixture D-148 was obtained from the processing of wastes of sunflower oil and it mainly consists of fatty acid diethanolamide. The test admixture was added to the cement system for the purpose of studying its influence on water demand, flowability, setting times, compressive strength and moisture adsorption. The test admixture D-148 at the optimal content 0. 2 weight % causes 10% decrease in water demand, 1.7 time increase in flowability (namely spread diameter), 23% increase in grade strength and 34% decrease in moisture adsorption. The results of the present investigation make it possible to consider the final product of the waste sunflower oil processing as multifunctional plasticizing-waterproofing admixture.

Fleysher, A. U.; Tokarchuk, V. V.; Sviderskiy, V. A.

2015-01-01

414

Airplane dopes and doping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate are the important constituents of airplane dopes in use at the present time, but planes were treated with other materials in the experimental stages of flying. The above compounds belong to the class of colloids and are of value because they produce a shrinking action on the fabric when drying out of solution, rendering it drum tight. Other colloids possessing the same property have been proposed and tried. In the first stages of the development of dope, however, shrinkage was not considered. The fabric was treated merely to render it waterproof. The first airplanes constructed were covered with cotton fabric stretched as tightly as possible over the winds, fuselage, etc., and flying was possible only in fine weather. The necessity of an airplane which would fly under all weather conditions at once became apparent. Then followed experiments with rubberized fabrics, fabrics treated with glue rendered insoluble by formaldehyde or bichromate, fabrics treated with drying and nondrying oils, shellac, casein, etc. It was found that fabrics treated as above lost their tension in damp weather, and the oil from the motor penetrated the proofing material and weakened the fabric. For the most part the film of material lacked durability. Cellulose nitrate lacquers, however were found to be more satisfactory under varying weather conditions, added less weight to the planes, and were easily applied. On the other hand, they were highly inflammable, and oil from the motor penetrated the film of cellulose nitrate, causing the tension of the fabric to be relaxed.

Smith, W H

1919-01-01

415

Surprising high hydrophobicity of polymer networks from hydrophilic components.  

PubMed

We report a simple and inexpensive method of fabricating highly hydrophobic novel materials based on interpenetrating networks of polyamide and poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) hydrophilic components. The process is a single-step solution casting from a common solvent, formic acid, of polyamide and ethyl cyanoacrylate monomers. After casting and subsequent solvent evaporation, the in situ polymerization of ethyl cyanoacrylate monomer forms polyamide-poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) interpenetrating network films. The interpenetrating networks demonstrate remarkable waterproof properties allowing wettability control by modulating the concentration of the components. In contrast, pure polyamide and poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) films obtained from formic acid solutions are highly hygroscopic and hydrophilic, respectively. The polymerization of ethyl cyanoacrylate in the presence of polyamide promotes molecular interactions between the components, which reduce the available hydrophilic moieties and render the final material hydrophobic. The wettability, morphology, and thermo-physical properties of the polymeric coatings were characterized. The materials developed in this work take advantage of the properties of both polymers in a single blend and above all, due to their hydrophobic nature and minimal water uptake, can extend the application range of the individual polymers where water repellency is required. PMID:23713478

Attanasio, Agnese; Bayer, Ilker S; Ruffilli, Roberta; Ayadi, Farouk; Athanassiou, Athanassia

2013-06-26

416

Could the Health Decline of Prehistoric California Indians be Related to Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Natural Bitumen?  

PubMed Central

Background: The negative health effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are well established for modern human populations but have so far not been studied in prehistoric contexts. PAHs are the main component of fossil bitumen, a naturally occurring material used by past societies such as the Chumash Indians in California as an adhesive, as a waterproofing agent, and for medicinal purposes. The rich archaeological and ethnohistoric record of the coastal Chumash suggests that they were exposed to multiple uptake pathways of bituminous PAHs, including direct contact, fume inhalation, and oral uptake from contaminated water and seafood. Objectives: We investigated the possibility that PAHs from natural bitumen compromised the health of the prehistoric Chumash Indians in California. Conclusions: Exposure of the ancient Chumash Indians to toxic PAHs appears to have gradually increased across a period of 7,500 years because of an increased use of bitumen in the Chumash technology, together with a dietary shift toward PAH-contaminated marine food. Skeletal analysis indicates a concurrent population health decline that may be related to PAH uptake. However, establishing such a connection is virtually impossible without knowing the actual exposure levels experienced by these populations. Future methodological research may provide techniques for determining PAH levels in ancient skeletal material, which would open new avenues for research on the health of prehistoric populations and on the long-term effects of human PAH exposure. PMID:21596651

Sholts, Sabrina B.; Erlandson, Jon M.; Gjerdrum, Thor; Westerholm, Roger

2011-01-01

417

Operating manual for the U.S. Geological Survey minimonitor, 1988 revised edition; punched-paper-tape model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This manual describes the U.S. Geological Survey Minimonitor Water Quality Data Measuring and Recording System. Instructions for calibrating, servicing, maintaining, and operating the system are provided. The Survey Minimonitor is a battery-powered , multiparameter water quality monitoring instrument designed for field use. A watertight can containing signal conditioners is connected with cable and waterproof connectors to various water quality sensors. Data are recorded on a punched paper-tape recorder. An external battery is required. The operation and maintenance of various sensors and signal conditioners are discussed, for temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and pH. Calibration instructions are provided for each parameter, along with maintenance instructions. Sections of the report explain how to connect the Minimonitor to measure direct-current voltages, such as signal outputs from other instruments. Instructions for connecting a satellite data-collection platform or a solid-state data recorder to the Minimonitor are given also. Basic information is given for servicing the Minimonitor and trouble-shooting some of its electronic components. The use of test boxes to test sensors, isolate component problems, and verify calibration values is discussed. (USGS)

Ficken, James H.; Scott, Carl T.

1988-01-01

418

Analysis of streambed temperatures in ephemeral channels to determine streamflow frequency and duration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spatial and temporal patterns in streamflow are rarely monitored for ephemeral streams. Flashy, erosive streamflows common in ephemeral channels create a series of operational and maintenance problems, which makes it impractical to deploy a series of gaging stations along ephemeral channels. Streambed temperature is a robust and inexpensive parameter to monitor remotely, leading to the possibility of analyzing temperature patterns to estimate streamflow frequency and duration along ephemeral channels. A simulation model was utilized to examine various atmospheric and hydrological upper boundary conditions compared with a series of hypothetical temperature-monitoring depths within the streambed. Simulation results indicate that streamflow events were distinguished from changing atmospheric conditions with greater certainty using temperatures at shallow depths (e.g., 10-20 cm) as opposed to the streambed surface. Three ephemeral streams in the American Southwest were instrumented to monitor streambed temperature for determining the accuracy of using this approach to ascertain the long-term temporal and spatial extent of streamflow along each stream channel. Streambed temperature data were collected at the surface or at shallow depth along each stream channel, using thermistors encased in waterproof, single-channel data loggers tethered to anchors in the channel. On the basis of comparisons with site information, such as direct field observations and upstream flow records, diurnal temperature variations successfully detected the presence and duration of streamflow for all sites.

Constantz, J.; Stonestrom, D.; Stewart, A.E.; Niswonger, R.; Smith, T.R.

2001-01-01

419

Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing  

SciTech Connect

The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination (anti-C) material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-C clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant, disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled.

Reichelt, R.; Clay, M.; Eichorst, J.

1996-10-01

420

Does the volatile hydrocarbon profile differ between the sexes: a case study on five aphidophagous ladybirds.  

PubMed

Insect hydrocarbons (HCs) primarily serve as a waterproofing cuticular layer and function extensively in chemical communication by facilitating species, sex, and colony recognition. In this study, headspace solid-phase microextraction is employed for investigating the sex-specific volatile HC profile of five ladybirds collected from Lucknow, India namely, Coccinella septempunctata (L.), Coccinella transversalis (Fabr.), Menochilus sexmaculatus (Fabr.), Propylea dissecta (Mulsant), and Anegleis cardoni (Weise) for the first time. Major compounds reported in C. septempunctata, C. transversalis, and A. cardoni are methyl-branched saturated HCs, whereas in M. sexmaculatus, and P. dissecta, they are unsaturated HCs. Other than A. cardoni, both the sexes of the other four ladybirds had similar compounds at highest peak but with statistically significant differences. However, in A. cardoni, which is a beetle with a narrow niche, the major compound in both male and female was different. The difference in volatile HC profile of the sexes of the five ladybirds indicates that gender-specific differences primarily exist due to quantitative differences in chemicals with only very few chemicals being unique to a gender. This variation in semiochemicals might have a role in behavioral or ecological aspects of the studied ladybirds. PMID:25060353

Pattanayak, Rojalin; Mishra, Geetanjali; Omkar; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Rout, Prasant Kumar; Mohanty, Chandra Sekhar

2014-11-01

421

Chemical and physical analyses of wax ester properties  

PubMed Central

Wax esters are major constituents of the surface lipids in many terrestrial arthropods, but their study is complicated by their diversity. We developed a procedure for quantifying isomers in mixtures of straight-chain saturated and unsaturated wax esters having the same molecular weights, using single-ion monitoring of the total ion current data from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We examined the biological consequences of structural differences by measuring the melting temperatures, Tm, of >60 synthetic wax esters, containing 26–48 carbon atoms. Compounds containing saturated alcohol and acid moieties melted at 38–73°C. The main factor affecting Tm was the total chain length of the wax ester, but the placement of the ester bond also affected Tm. Insertion of a double bond into either the alcohol or acid moiety decreased Tm by ?30°C. Simple mixtures of wax esters with n-alkanes melted several °C lower than predicted from the melting points of the component lipids. Our results indicate that the wax esters of primary alcohols that are most typically found on the cuticle of terrestrial arthropods occur in a solid state under physiological conditions, thereby conferring greater waterproofing. Wax esters of secondary alcohols, which occur on melanopline grasshoppers, melted >60°C below primary esters of the same molecular weight and reduced Tm of the total surface lipids to environmental values. PMID:15455064

Patel, Sejal; Nelson, Dennis R.; Gibbs, Allen G.

2001-01-01

422

An insect-specific P450 oxidative decarbonylase for cuticular hydrocarbon biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Insects use hydrocarbons as cuticular waterproofing agents and as contact pheromones. Although their biosynthesis from fatty acyl precursors is well established, the last step of hydrocarbon biosynthesis from long-chain fatty aldehydes has remained mysterious. We show here that insects use a P450 enzyme of the CYP4G family to oxidatively produce hydrocarbons from aldehydes. Oenocyte-directed RNAi knock-down of Drosophila CYP4G1 or NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase results in flies deficient in cuticular hydrocarbons, highly susceptible to desiccation, and with reduced viability upon adult emergence. The heterologously expressed enzyme converts C18-trideuterated octadecanal to C17-trideuterated heptadecane, showing that the insect enzyme is an oxidative decarbonylase that catalyzes the cleavage of long-chain aldehydes to hydrocarbons with the release of carbon dioxide. This process is unlike cyanobacteria that use a nonheme diiron decarbonylase to make alkanes from aldehydes with the release of formate. The unique and highly conserved insect CYP4G enzymes are a key evolutionary innovation that allowed their colonization of land. PMID:22927409

Qiu, Yue; Tittiger, Claus; Wicker-Thomas, Claude; Le Goff, Gaëlle; Young, Sharon; Wajnberg, Eric; Fricaux, Thierry; Taquet, Nathalie; Blomquist, Gary J.; Feyereisen, René

2012-01-01

423

Canonical notch signaling functions as a commitment switch in the epidermal lineage  

PubMed Central

Mammalian epidermis consists of a basal layer of proliferative progenitors that gives rise to multiple differentiating layers to provide a waterproof envelope covering the skin surface. To accomplish this, progenitor cells must detach from the basal layer, move upward, and execute a terminal differentiation program consisting of three distinct stages: spinous, granular layer, and stratum corneum. Notch signaling has been implicated in late stages of differentiation, but the commitment switch remains unknown. Here we show with loss and gain-of-function studies that active Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and its obligate canonical signaling partner RBP-J act at the basal/suprabasal juncture to induce spinous and down-regulate basal fate. Spinous layers are absent in RBP-J conditional null epidermis and expanded when Notch1 signaling is elevated transgenically in epidermis. We show that RBP-J is essential for mediating both spinous gene activation and basal gene repression. In contrast, the NICD/RBP-J target gene Hes1 is expressed in spinous layers and mediates spinous gene induction but not basal gene repression. These data uncover an early role for RBP-J and Notch in commitment of epidermal cells to terminally differentiate and reveal that spinous gene induction is mediated by a Hes1-dependent mechanism, while basal gene repression occurs independently of Hes1. PMID:17079689

Lowry, William E.; Pasolli, H. Amalia; Fuchs, Elaine

2006-01-01

424

Functional morphology of the hyolaryngeal complex of the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena): implications for its role in sound production and respiration.  

PubMed

In several publications, it was shown that echolocation sound generation in the nasal (epicranial) complex of toothed whales (Odontoceti) is pneumatically driven. Modern hypotheses consider the larynx and its surrounding musculature to produce the initial air pressure: (a) contraction of the strong pipelike palatopharyngeal sphincter muscle complex, which connects the choanae with the epiglottic spout of the larynx, should provide much of the power for this process and (b) muscles suspending the larynx/hyoid complex from the skull base and the mandibles may support these pistonlike laryngeal movements. Here, we describe the morphology and topography of the larynx, the hyoid apparatus, and the relevant musculature in the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) with respect to odontocete vocalization and respiration. We demonstrate that the hyoid apparatus, reminiscent of a "swinging cage," may not only be a stable framework in which the larynx can move but should support laryngeal actions by its own movements. Rostrocaudal relocations of the hyoid apparatus may thus support pistonlike actions of the larynx creating air flow into the nasal complex for sound production. The lift of the hyoid apparatus with the thick larynx in the direction of the skull base may squeeze the pharynx in the region of the piriform recesses and thus help to secure the (waterproof) tracheochoanal connection during respiration when the palatopharyngeal sphincter cannot be contracted maximally, because the air passage must remain open at the epiglottic spout. PMID:18780307

Huggenberger, Stefan; Rauschmann, Michael A; Oelschläger, Helmut H A

2008-10-01

425

Residual sludge from dimensional stones: characterisation for their exploitation in civil and environmental applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Residual sludge coming from dimensional stones working plants (diamond framesaw and ganguesaw with abrasive shots processes) represents a problem for Stone Industries. In fact the cost connected to their landfilling amounts to more than 3% of operating costs of dimensional stone working plants. Furthermore their strict feature as waste to dump (CER code 010413) contrasts the EU principles of "resource preservation" and "waste recovery". The main problems related to their management are: size distribution (fine materials, potentially asphyxial), presence of heavy metals (due to the working processes) and TPH content (due to oil machines losses). Residual sludge, considered according to Italian Legislative Decree n.152/06, can be used, as waste, for environmental restoration of derelict land or in cement plants. It is also possible to think about their systematic treatment in consortium plats for the production of Secondary Raw Materials (SRM) or "New Products" (NP, eg. artificial loam, waterproofing materials, ....). The research evidences that, on the basis of a correct sludge management, treatment and characterization, economic and environmental benefits are possible (NP or SRM in spite of waste to dump). To individuate different applications of residual sludge in civil and environmental contexts, a geotechnical (size distribution, permeability, Atterberg limits, cohesion and friction angle evaluation, Proctor soil test) characterization was foreseen. The geotechnical tests were conducted on sludge as such and on three different mixes: - Mix 1 - Bentonite clay (5-10%) added to sludge a.s (90-95%); - Mix 2 - Sludge a.s. (90-80-70%) added to coarse materials coming from crushed dimensional stones (10-20-30%); - Mix 3 - Sludge a.s. (50-70%) mixed with sand, compost, natural loam (50-30% mixture of sand, compost, natural loam). The results obtained from the four sets of tests were fundamental to evaluate: - the characteristics of the original materials; - the chance to obtain new products for dumps waterproofing (Mix 1). In this case the permeability has to be at least 10-9 m/s; - the opportunity to use them for land rehabilitation and reclamation (fine and coarse materials to fill quarry or civil works pits - Mix2; artificial loam to use for quarry and civil works revegetation - Mix 3). In Mix 3 phytotoxicity tests have been performed in cooperation with Agricultural Dept. - University of Turin. In this case the "cradle to grave principle" would be applied: "waste" coming from dimensional stone working plants could return to quarries. The results coming from geotechnical tests are promising, but to exploit sludge mixtures in civil and environmental applications it is necessary to guarantee, by means of appropriate chemical analysis, that there are no problems connected to soil, water and air pollution (connected to heavy metals and TPH contents). Magnetic or hydrogravimetric separation can be performed to reduce heavy metal content, instead TPH decrement can be reached by mean of specific agronomic treatments (eg. Bioremediation). Several in situ tests will be performed to compare the laboratory results to the "pre-industrial" ones: the obtained results will be potentially useful to propose some integration to the present Italian legislation.

Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Clemente, Paolo; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela

2013-04-01

426

Water depression storage under different tillage conditions: measuring and modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water storage in surface depressions (DS) is an important process which affects infiltration, runoff and erosion. Since DS is driven by micro relief, in agricultural soils DS is much affected by tillage and by the direction of tillage rows in relation to the main slope. A direct and accurate measurement of DS requires making the soil surface waterproof -soil is very permeable especially under tillage- but preserving all details of the soil roughness including aggregates over the soil surface (micro-roughness). All this is a very laborious and time-consuming task. That is why hydrological and erosion models for DS estimation normally use either empirical relationships based on some roughness index or numerical approaches. The aim of this work was (i) to measure directly in the field the DS of a soil under different tillage conditions and (ii) to assess the performance of existing empirical 2D models and of a numerical 2D algorithm for DS estimation. Three types of tillage classes (mouldbard+roller, roller compacted and chisel) in 2 tillage directions (parallel and perpendicular to the main slope) were assessed in an experimental hillslope (10% slope) which defines then 6 treatments. Experiments were carried out in 12, 1-m2 micro-plots delimited by metal sheets; that is, a pair of repetitions for each treatment. In each plot, soil surface was gently impregnated with a waterproof, white paint but without altering micro-roughness. A known amount of water (stained with a blue dye) was poured all over the surface with a measuring cup. The excess water was captured in a gutter and measured. Soon after finishing the experiment, pictures of the surface was taken in order to analyze water storage pattern (from stained water) by image processing. Besides, longitudinal height profiles were measured using a laser profilemeter. Finally, infiltration rate was measured near the plot using a double ring infiltrometer. For all the treatments, DS ranged from 2 mm to 17 mm. For the same tillage direction, clear differences in DS were observed among tillage types. Besides and as expected, DS much increased (up to 3 times) in those treatments were tillage rows were perpendicular to the main slope. The performance of the models in DS prediction was in general rather limited with deviations from reference values ranging from 45% to over 100%. The results suggest the inadequacy of 2D approaches to depict the complexity of the water surface storage pattern. On the other hand, some tillage operations lead to a rather small DS but with a relative high infiltration rate (up to 3 times that of the non-tilled soil); whereas in others the opposite was true. This fact should be taken into account in hydrological management of agricultural soils.

Giménez, R.; Campo, M. A.; González-Audicana, M.; Álvarez-Mozos, J.; Casalí, J.

2012-04-01

427

Three generations of wireless sensor networks to monitor the soil ecosystem (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Capturing soil spatio-temporal heterogeneity is a considerable challenge. We designed, built and deployed three generations of wireless sensor networks to measure soil temperature, moisture, CO2 concentration and efflux. In the past eight years the system was tested in a high altitude desert, tropical and temperate forests, and in croplands. We developed Grazor, a graphic web interface for visualizing, exploring, and downloading data. Since 2005, our first field deployment, we have collected over 160 million data points, all stored in our persistent database. Our largest and longest experiment took place in a residential neighborhood in Baltimore, MD. A total of 108 soil moisture sensors were installed in urban soils covered by forest and grass. The system successfully captured spatial heterogeneity, transient events, such as Hurricane Irene, and highlighted habitat differences. However, issues such as waterproofing, battery consumption, mote failure and scale of deployment still need to be addressed. Improvements in our third generation hardware and software are based upon lessons learned from earlier deployments. In the new hardware, rather than having a single device that does everything (analog sensing, data storage, and routing), we have developed an analog sensor board and a separate wireless sensor mote. The latter can be configured as a leaf (with an antenna printed directly on the circuit board) or as a router (with a power amplifier and an external antenna connector). Additional sensors with an industry standard I2C interface can also be connected to the mote. The cost of each unit is 20$, and the software is user friendly for the non-computer scientist. We are currently testing this system in the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, MD. Cumulative number of data collected in the Life Under Your Feet project. Major hardware changes are marked with vertical lines, while horizontal lines show the start and end of deployments.

Szlavecz, K. A.

2013-12-01

428

Novel electrodes for underwater ECG monitoring.  

PubMed

We have developed hydrophobic electrodes that provide all morphological waveforms without distortion of an ECG signal for both dry and water-immersed conditions. Our electrode is comprised of a mixture of carbon black powder (CB) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). For feasibility testing of the CB/PDMS electrodes, various tests were performed. One of the tests included evaluation of the electrode-to-skin contact impedance for different diameters, thicknesses, and different pressure levels. As expected, the larger the diameter of the electrodes, the lower the impedance and the difference between the large sized CB/PDMS and the similarly-sized Ag/AgCl hydrogel electrodes was at most 200 k?, in favor of the latter. Performance comparison of CB/PDMS electrodes to Ag/AgCl hydrogel electrodes was carried out in three different scenarios: a dry surface, water immersion, and postwater immersion conditions. In the dry condition, no statistical differences were found for both the temporal and spectral indices of the heart rate variability analysis between the CB/PDMS and Ag/AgCl hydrogel (p > 0.05) electrodes. During water immersion, there was significant ECG amplitude reduction with CB/PDMS electrodes when compared to wet Ag/AgCl electrodes kept dry by their waterproof adhesive tape, but the reduction was not severe enough to obscure the readability of the recordings, and all morphological waveforms of the ECG signal were discernible even when motion artifacts were introduced. When water did not penetrate tape-wrapped Ag/AgCl electrodes, high fidelity ECG signals were observed. However, when water penetrated the Ag/AgCl electrodes, the signal quality degraded to the point where ECG morphological waveforms were not discernible. PMID:24845297

Reyes, Bersain A; Posada-Quintero, Hugo F; Bales, Justin R; Clement, Amanda L; Pins, George D; Swiston, Albert; Riistama, Jarno; Florian, John P; Shykoff, Barbara; Qin, Michael; Chon, Ki H

2014-06-01

429

Interpretation of 3D void measurements with Tripoli4.6/JEFF3.1.1 Monte Carlo code  

SciTech Connect

The present work details the first analysis of the 3D void phase conducted during the EPICURE/UM17x17/7% mixed UOX/MOX configuration. This configuration is composed of a homogeneous central 17x17 MOX-7% assembly, surrounded by portions of 17x17 1102 assemblies with guide-tubes. The void bubble is modelled by a small waterproof 5x5 fuel pin parallelepiped box of 11 cm height, placed in the centre of the MOX assembly. This bubble, initially placed at the core mid-plane, is then moved in different axial positions to study the evolution in the core of the axial perturbation. Then, to simulate the growing of this bubble in order to understand the effects of increased void fraction along the fuel pin, 3 and 5 bubbles have been stacked axially, from the core mid-plane. The C/E comparison obtained with the Monte Carlo code Tripoli4 for both radial and axial fission rate distributions, and in particular the reproduction of the very important flux gradients at the void/water interfaces, changing as the bubble is displaced along the z-axis are very satisfactory. It demonstrates both the capability of the code and its library to reproduce this kind of situation, as the very good quality of the experimental results, confirming the UM-17x17 as an excellent experimental benchmark for 3D code validation. This work has been performed within the frame of the V and V program for the future APOLL03 deterministic code of CEA starting in 2012, and its V and V benchmarking database. (authors)

Blaise, P.; Colomba, A. [CEA, DEN, DER/SPRC/LEPh, F-13108 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

2012-07-01

430

Development of testing and training simulator for CEDMCS in KSNP  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a newly developed testing and training simulator (TTS) for automatically diagnosing and tuning the Control Element Drive Mechanism Control System (CEDMCS). TTS includes a new automatic, diagnostic, method for logic control cards and a new tuning method for phase synchronous pulse cards. In Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plants (KSNP). reactor trips occasionally occur due to a damaged logic control card in CEDMCS. However, there is no pre-diagnostic tester available to detect a damaged card in CEDMCS before it causes a reactor trip. Even after the reactor trip occurs, it is difficult to find the damaged card. To find the damaged card. ICT is usually used. ICT is an automated, computer-controlled testing system with measurement capabilities for testing active and passive components, or clusters of components, on printed circuit boards (PCB) and/or assemblies. However, ICT cannot detect a time dependent fault correctly and requires removal of the waterproof mating to perform the test. Therefore, the additional procedure of re-coating the PCB card is required after the test. TTS for CEDMCS is designed based on real plant conditions, both electrically and mechanically. Therefore, the operator can operate the Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM), which is mounted on the closure head of the reactor vessel (RV) using the soft control panel in ITS, which duplicates the Main Control Board (MCB) in the Main Control Room (MCR). However, during the generation of electric power in a nuclear power plant, it is difficult to operate the CEDM so a CEDM and Control Element Assembly (CEA) mock-up facility was developed to simulate a real plant CEDM. ITS was used for diagnosing and tuning control logic cards in CEDMCS in the Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant No. 4 during the plant overhaul period. It exhibited good performance in detecting the damaged cards and tuning the phase synchronous pulse cards. In addition, TTS was useful in training the CEDMCS operator by supplying detail signal information from the logic cards. (authors)

Nam, C. H.; Park, C. Y.; Nam, J. I.; Yook, S. K.; Cho, C. I. [Doosan Heavy Industries, Construction Co., Ltd., Doosan Technical Center Bldg., 39-3, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, 449-795 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

431

Absorption and thermal study of dental enamel when irradiated with Nd:YAG laser with the aim of caries prevention  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely recognized that Nd:YAG can increase enamel resistance to demineralization; however, the safe parameters and conditions that enable the application of Nd:YAG laser irradiation in vivo are still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine a dye as a photoabsorber for Nd:YAG laser and to verify in vitro a safe condition of Nd:YAG irradiation for caries prevention. Fifty-eight human teeth were selected. In a first morphological study, four dyes (waterproof India ink., iron oxide, caries indicator and coal paste) were tested before Nd:YAG laser irradiation, under two different irradiation conditions: 60 mJ/pulse and 10 Hz (84.9 J/cm2); 80 mJ/pulse and 10 Hz (113.1 J/cm2). In a second study, the enamel surface and pulp chamber temperatures were evaluated during laser irradiations. All dyes produced enamel surface melting, with the exception of the caries indicator, and coal paste was the only dye that could be completely removed. All irradiation conditions produced temperature increases of up to 615.08°C on the enamel surface. Nd:YAG laser irradiation at 60 mJ/pulse, 10 Hz and 84.9 J/cm2 promoted no harmful temperature increase in the pulp chamber (ANOVA, p < 0.05). Among all dyes tested, the coal paste was an efficient photoabsorber for Nd:YAG irradiation, considered feasible for clinical practice. Nd:YAG laser at 84.9 J/cm2 can be indicated as a safe parameter for use in caries prevention.

Boari, H. G. D.; Ana, P. A.; Eduardo, C. P.; Powell, G. L.; Zezell, D. M.

2009-07-01

432

Identification of acyltransferases required for cutin biosynthesis and production of cutin with suberin-like monomers  

PubMed Central

Cutin and suberin are the two major lipid-based polymers of plants. Cutin is the structural polymer of the epidermal cuticle, the waterproof layer covering primary aerial organs and which is often the structure first encountered by phytopathogens. Suberin contributes to the control of diffusion of water and solutes across internal root tissues and in periderms. The enzymes responsible for assembly of the cutin polymer are largely unknown. We have identified two Arabidopsis acyltransferases essential for cutin biosynthesis, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) 4 and GPAT8. Double knockouts gpat4/gpat8 were strongly reduced in cutin and were less resistant to desiccation and to infection by the fungus Alternaria brassicicola. They also showed striking defects in stomata structure including a lack of cuticular ledges between guard cells, highlighting the importance of cutin in stomatal biology. Overexpression of GPAT4 or GPAT8 in Arabidopsis increased the content of C16 and C18 cutin monomers in leaves and stems by 80%. In order to modify cutin composition, the acyltransferase GPAT5 and the cytochrome P450-dependent fatty acyl oxidase CYP86A1, two enzymes associated with suberin biosynthesis, were overexpressed. When both enzymes were overexpressed together the epidermal polyesters accumulated new C20 and C22 ?-hydroxyacids and ?,?-diacids typical of suberin, and the fine structure and water-barrier function of the cuticle were altered. These results identify GPATs as partners of fatty acyl oxidases in lipid polyester synthesis and indicate that their cooverexpression provides a strategy to probe the role of cutin composition and quantity in the function of plant cuticles. PMID:17991776

Li, Yonghua; Beisson, Fred; Koo, Abraham J. K.; Molina, Isabel; Pollard, Mike; Ohlrogge, John

2007-01-01

433

Water conservation features of ova of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, has destroyed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America since first identified in Detroit in 2002. With species of ash distributed throughout North America, it is easy to speculate the extinction of all susceptible species of ash on the continent given a lack of physical, environmental, or climactic barrier for dispersal of the insect. We investigated water balance characteristics of emerald ash borer ova by using gravimetric methods in an effort to measure their response to heat- and water-stress and explore possible influences this stress may have on the ecology and physiology of the ovum. We also explored the possible water balance benefit of a peculiar, "clustering," oviposition behavior, as well as the difference in responses to stress between ova from a laboratory colony and ova from two wild populations. We found no evidence of water vapor absorption as a water balance strategy; rather enhanced water retention, resistance to desiccation, and viability with low water content were important survival strategies for these ova. Surface lipids resist thermal breakdown as indicated by ova having no detectable critical transition temperature, maintaining their water-proofing function as temperature rises. The observed "clustering" behavior had no desiccation-avoidance benefit and ova from the wild populations behaved almost identically to the ova from the lab colony, although the lab ova were slightly larger and more sensitive to dehydration. Given this new information, there appears to be no heat- or water-stress barriers for the dispersal of this devastating pest at the ovum stage. PMID:23575027

Rigsby, Chad M; Cipollini, Don; Amstutz, Evan M; Smith, Terrance J; Yoder, Jay A

2013-04-01

434

Red to blue high electrochromic contrast and rapid switching poly(3,4-ethylenedioxypyrrole)-Au/Ag nanocomposite devices for smart windows.  

PubMed

Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxypyrrole) (PEDOP)-Ag and PEDOP-Au nanocomposite films have been synthesized for the first time by electropolymerization of the conducting-polymer precursor in a waterproof ionic liquid, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, followed by Ag/Au nanoparticle incorporation. That the Ag/Au nanoparticles are not adventitious entities in the film is confirmed by a) X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which provides evidence of Ag/Au-PEDOP interactions through chemical shifts of the Ag/Au core levels and new signals due to Ag-N(H) and Au-N(H) components, and b) electron microscopy, which reveals Au nanoparticles with a face-centered-cubic crystalline structure associated with the amorphous polymer. Spectroelectrochemistry of electrochromic devices based on PEDOP-Au show a large coloring efficiency (?(max) =270 cm(2) C(-1), ?=458 nm) in the visible region, for an orange/red to blue reversible transition, followed by a second, remarkably high ?(max) of 490 cm(2) C(-1) (?=1000 nm) in the near-infrared region as compared to the much lower values achieved for the neat PEDOP analogue. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies reveal that the metal nanoparticles lower charge-transfer resistance and facilitate ion intercalation-deintercalation, which manifests in enhanced performance characteristics. In addition, significantly faster color-bleach kinetics (five times of that of neat PEDOP!) and a larger electrochemical ion insertion capacity unambiguously demonstrate the potential such conducting-polymer nanocomposites have for smart window applications. PMID:21480457

Kharkwal, Aneeta; Deepa, Melepurath; Joshi, Amish G; Srivastava, Avanish Kumar

2011-04-18

435

Epithelial migration on the canine tympanic membrane.  

PubMed

Epithelial migration (EM) is a process that serves as a self-cleaning and repair mechanism for the ear canal and tympanic membrane (TM). Epithelial migration has been evaluated in humans and several other species, but not in dogs. The objective of this study was to determine the rate and pattern of EM on the TM in clinically normal laboratory dogs. Eighteen dogs were anaesthetized, and three drops of waterproof drawing ink were placed on two sites of the pars tensa (PT) and one on the pars flaccida (PF). Images were recorded with a video otoscope and digital capture system. Each dog was evaluated and images were recorded every 6-8 days for four evaluations. Migration pattern analysis and EM rate calculation were performed with image-processing software. Descriptive statistics for EM rate (mean, SD, 95% confidence interval) were calculated for all ink-drop locations on the TM (PT1, PT2 and PF) at each time point. No significant differences in the mean EM rates were identified between right and left ears of the fox hounds breeds (beagle or fox hound), or locations PT1 and PT2. The mean overall EM rates (± SD) were 96.4 (± 43.1) and 225.4 (± 128.1) ?m/day for the PT and PF, respectively. All ink drops moved outwards, the majority in a radial direction, from the original location to the periphery of the TM. The ink-drop placement method used in this study can be used in future studies to determine the EM rate of the canine TM. PMID:21535257

Tabacca, Natalie E; Cole, Lynette K; Hillier, Andrew; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi J

2011-12-01

436

Evaluation of a diode laser based photoacoustic instrument combined with preconcentration sampling for measuring surface-atmosphere exchange of ammonia with the aerodynamic gradient method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present here a novel instrument for measuring surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes of ammonia. The instrument is the upgraded version of a recently developed near-infrared diode laser based photoacoustic ammonia concentration monitoring instrument, i.e. the original instrument is supplemented with two additional sampling lines, an appropriate gas handling system and an advanced software controlling gradient measurements. As a result of these developments, ammonia concentration can be measured simultaneously at three different heights above the ground and ammonia fluxes can be calculated from these data using the aerodynamic gradient method. The instrument operates fully automatically, requires minimal maintenance and has a temperature controlled, waterproof housing which makes it suitable for measurements even under harsh field conditions. Preliminary tests on stability and accuracy were carried out during two two-week field measurement campaigns, with the three sampling inlets being placed at the same height together with the inlet of a reference instrument. The readings of the three channels agreed well (with correlation coefficients above 0.96). Comparison to reference instruments showed good stability of the photoacoustic instrument, there was no measurable zero-drift or change in sensitivity during the tests. Flux measurements were carried out during a three-week field campaign in southern Scotland over fertilized grassland with reference to a wet-chemical AMANDA instrument in gradient configuration. Ammonia fluxes calculated from the data of the two instruments agreed well. Fluxes up to 2500 ng m -2 s -1 were observed after fertilization. The minimum detectable ammonia flux was calculated on the basis of "virtual ammonia fluxes", from measurements carried out with all inlets at the same height and was found to be ±60 ng m -2 s -1 which ensures reliable measurements above intensively managed grasslands or agricultural fields.

Pogány, Andrea; Mohácsi, Árpád; Jones, Stephanie K.; Nemitz, Eiko; Varga, Attila; Bozóki, Zoltán; Galbács, Zoltán; Weidinger, Tamás; Horváth, László; Szabó, Gábor

2010-04-01

437

Impact of Megacity Shanghai on the Urban Heat-Island Effects over the Downstream City Kunshan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of upstream urbanization on the enhanced urban heat-island (UHI) effects between Shanghai and Kunshan is investigated by analyzing seven years of surface observations and results from mesoscale model simulations. The observational analysis indicates that, under easterly and westerly winds, the temperature difference between Shanghai and Kunshan increases with wind speed when the wind speed 5 m s. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) numerical model, coupled with a one-layer urban canopy model (UCM), is used to examine the UHI structure and upstream effects by replacing the urban surface of Shanghai and/or Kunshan with cropland. The WRF/UCM modelling system is capable of reproducing the surface temperature and wind field reasonably well. The simulated urban canopy wind speed is a better representation of the near-surface wind speed than is the 10-m wind speed at the centre of Shanghai. Without the urban landscape of Shanghai, the surface air temperature over downstream Kunshan would decrease by 0.2-0.4 C in the afternoon and 0.4-0.6 C in the evening. In the simulation with the urban landscape of Shanghai, a shallow cold layer is found above the UHI, with a minimum temperature of about to 0.5 C during the afternoon hours. Strong horizontal divergence is found in this cold layer. The easterly breeze over Shanghai is strengthened at the surface by strong UHI effects, but weakened at upper levels. With the appearance of the urban landscape specific humidity decreases by 0.5-1 g kg within the urban area because of the waterproof property of an urban surface. On the other hand, the upper-level specific humidity is increased because of water vapour transferred by the strong upward vertical motions.

Kang, Han-Qing; Zhu, Bin; Zhu, Tong; Sun, Jia-Li; Ou, Jian-Jun

2014-09-01

438

Experimental investigation of thermal effects in HIFU-based external valvuloplasty with a non-spherical transducer, using high-resolution MR thermometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time image-guided extracorporeal high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been suggested for minimally invasive treatment of valvular dysfunction in the saphenous vein. Local application of heat on the perimeter of the valve zone was previously reported to induce a partial shrinkage of the collagen, which may correct valvular function. In our study, a novel MR compatible HIFU device has been investigated. This device is based on a non-spherical geometry, with two active elements that create a focusing line which is orthogonal to the beam main axis, aiming to cover the valve longitudinally. The prototype performance was characterized by electro-acoustical measurements of the pressure field and by high-resolution MR thermometry. Pressure and thermal fields were found in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. To investigate the therapeutic potential, fresh samples of excised human veins were filled with an agarose gel, embedded in porcine muscle and exposed to HIFU. The power level applied during a fixed duration of 30 s was varied such that the absolute temperature at focus ranged between 52 °C and 83 °C. Targeting was achieved under MR guidance using a MR compatible XZ positioning system. A dedicated waterproof miniature loop coil was specifically built to achieve high-resolution MRI image-based targeting (0.25 mm × 0.25 mm × 3 mm voxel) and thermometry (0.4 mm × 0.4 mm × 4 mm voxel). The vein wall was clearly identified on MR images before and after HIFU treatment. The thermal buildup created by the non-spherical transducer could be characterized from MR thermometry data. Shrinkage of the vein wall (above 65 °C) was determined by absolute temperature and was not a cumulative thermal dose effect.

Petrusca, Lorena; Salomir, Rares; Milleret, Réné; Pichot, Olivier; Rata, Mihaela; Cotton, François; Chapelon, Jean-Yves

2009-09-01

439

Design and characterization of a piezoelectric sensor for monitoring scour hole evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scour occurring near bridge piers and abutments jeopardizes the stability and safety of overwater bridges. In fact, bridge scour is responsible for a significant portion of overwater bridge failures in the United States and around the world. As a result, numerous methods have been developed for monitoring bridge scour by measuring scour depth at locations near bridge piers and foundations. Besides visual inspections conducted by trained divers, other technologies include sonar, float-out devices, magnetic sliding collars, tilt sensors, and fiber optics, to name a few. These systems each offer unique advantages, but most of them share fundamental limitations (e.g., high costs, low reliability, limited accuracy, low reliability, etc.) that have limited their implementation in practice. Thus, the goal of this study is to present a low-cost and simple scour depth sensor fabricated using piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer strips. Unlike current piezoelectric scour sensors that are based on mounting multiple and equidistantly spaced transducers on a rod, the proposed sensor is formed by coating one continuous PVDF film onto a substrate, followed by waterproofing the sensor. The PVDF-based sensor can then be buried in the streambed and at a location where scour depth measurements are desired. When scour occurs and exposes a portion of the PVDF sensor, water flow excites the sensor to cause the generation of a time-varying voltage signal. Since the dynamics of the voltage time history response is related to the exposed length of the sensor, scour depth can be determined. This work presents the design and fabrication of the sensor. Then, the sensor's performance and accuracy is characterized through extensive laboratory testing.

Azhari, Faezeh; Tom, Caroline; Benassini, Joseph; Loh, Kenneth J.; Bombardelli, Fabian A.

2014-03-01

440

Short-term survival and effects of transmitter implantation into western grebes using a modified surgical procedure  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two pilot trials and one study in a closely related grebe species suggest that Western grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis) will not tolerate intracoelomic transmitter implantation with percutaneous antennae and often die within days of surgery. Wild Western grebes (n = 21) were captured to evaluate a modified surgical technique. Seven birds were surgically implanted with intracoelomic transmitters with percutaneous antennae by using the modified technique (transmitter group), 7 received the same surgery without transmitter implantation (celiotomy group), and 7 served as controls (only undergoing anesthesia). Modifications included laterally offsetting the body wall incision from the skin incision, application of absorbable cyanoacrylate tissue glue to the subcutaneous space between the body wall and skin incisions, application of a waterproof sealant to the skin incision after suture closure, and application of a piece of porcine small intestine submucosa to the antenna egress. Survival did not differ among the 3 groups with 7 of 7 control, 6 of 7 celiotomy, and 6 of 7 transmitter birds surviving the 9-day study. Experimental birds were euthanized at the end of the study, and postmortem findings indicated normal healing. Significant differences in plasma chemistry or immune function were not detected among the 3 groups, and only minor differences were detected in red blood cell indices and plasma proteins. After surgery, the birds in the transmitter group spent more time preening tail feathers than those in the control and celiotomy groups. These results demonstrate that, in a captive situation, celiotomy and intracoelomic transmitter implantation caused minimal detectable homeostatic disturbance in this species and that Western grebes can survive implantation of intracoelomic transmitters with percutaneous antennae. It remains to be determined what potential this modified surgical procedure has to improve postoperative survival of Western grebes that are intracelomically implanted with transmitters with percutaneous antennae and released into the wild.

Gaydos, Joseph K.; Massey, J. Gregory; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Gaskins, Lori A.; Nysewander, David; Evenson, Joseph; Siegel, Paul B.; Ziccardi, Michael H.

2011-01-01

441

Molecular Structure of Oleic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A mono-unsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid is a component of almost all natural fats. It is obtained from any of various vegetable and animal oils and fats, particularly the seeds of castor, sunflower, safflower, parsley, soybean, flax, perilla, and celery. A colorless or yellow-to-red oily liquid with a lard-like odor, it solidifies to a crystalline mass at four degrees Celsius. When exposed to air it oxidizes and acquires a yellow to brown color and rancid odor; for this reason it should be kept sealed in a container and away from sunlight. It is almost completely insoluble in water but is soluble in alcohol, benzene chloroform, ether, and fixed and volatile oils. Although oleic acid has a low level of toxicity when absorbed orally, it is mildly irritating to the skin and mucous membranes. It also is combustible. Oleic acid is used as a soap base and in the production of food-grade additives, ointments, cosmetics, fragrance products, polishing compounds, surface coatings, and manufacturing driers. It is used for waterproofing textiles and for thickening lubricating oils. It also is used as a solvent in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals. It contributes to the flavor of foods and is found in sweet cider apples. One of the "good" or unsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid has proven helpful to cell and heart function. It has shown anti-inflammatory effects in the body and has been used to treat arthritis, asthma, allergies, and skin conditions. Its inclusion in the diet has improved cases of diabetes, depression, menopausal problems, obesity, memory and learning disabilities, eye problems, and digestive disorders. It is considered to lower the incidence of cancer (as an antioxidant), multiple sclerosis, and lupus as well.

2003-05-08

442

Chemiresistor microsensors for in-situ monitoring of volatile organic compounds : final LDRD report.  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a summary of the three-year LDRD (Laboratory Directed Research and Development) project aimed at developing microchemical sensors for continuous, in-situ monitoring of volatile organic compounds. A chemiresistor sensor array was integrated with a unique, waterproof housing that allows the sensors to be operated in a variety of media including air, soil, and water. Numerous tests were performed to evaluate and improve the sensitivity, stability, and discriminatory capabilities of the chemiresistors. Field tests were conducted in California, Nevada, and New Mexico to further test and develop the sensors in actual environments within integrated monitoring systems. The field tests addressed issues regarding data acquisition, telemetry, power requirements, data processing, and other engineering requirements. Significant advances were made in the areas of polymer optimization, packaging, data analysis, discrimination, design, and information dissemination (e.g., real-time web posting of data; see www.sandia.gov/sensor). This project has stimulated significant interest among commercial and academic institutions. A CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) was initiated in FY03 to investigate manufacturing methods, and a Work for Others contract was established between Sandia and Edwards Air Force Base for FY02-FY04. Funding was also obtained from DOE as part of their Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative program from FY01 to FY03, and a DOE EMSP contract was awarded jointly to Sandia and INEEL for FY04-FY06. Contracts were also established for collaborative research with Brigham Young University to further evaluate, understand, and improve the performance of the chemiresistor sensors.

Thomas, Michael Loren; Hughes, Robert Clark; Kooser, Ara S.; McGrath, Lucas K.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Wright, Jerome L.; Davis, Chad Edward

2003-09-01

443

Histological and MS spectrometric analyses of the modified tissue of bulgy form tadpoles induced by salamander predation  

PubMed Central

Summary The rapid induction of a defensive morphology by a prey species in face of a predation risk is an intriguing in ecological context; however, the physiological mechanisms that underlie this phenotypic plasticity remain uncertain. Here we investigated the phenotypic changes shown by Rana pirica tadpoles in response to a predation threat by larvae of the salamander Hynobius retardatus. One such response is the bulgy morph phenotype, a relatively rapid swelling in size by the tadpoles that begins within 4 days and reaches a maximum at 8 to 10 days. We found that although the total volume of bodily fluid increased significantly (P<0.01) in bulgy morph tadpoles, osmotic pressure was maintained at the same level as control tadpoles by a significant increase (P<0.01) in Na and Cl ion concentrations. In our previous report, we identified a novel frog gene named pirica that affects the waterproofing of the skin membrane in tadpoles. Our results support the hypothesis that predator-induced expression of pirica on the skin membrane causes retention of absorbed water. Midline sections of bulgy morph tadpoles showed the presence of swollen connective tissue beneath the skin that was sparsely composed of cells containing hyaluronic acid. Mass spectrographic (LC-MS/MS) analysis identified histone H3 and 14-3-3 zeta as the most abundant constituents in the liquid aspirated from the connective tissue of bulgy tadpoles. Immunohistochemistry using antibodies against these proteins showed the presence of non-chromatin associated histone H3 in the swollen connective tissue. Histones and 14-3-3 proteins are also involved in antimicrobial activity and secretion of antibacterial proteins, respectively. Bulgy tadpoles have a larger surface area than controls, and their skin often has bite wounds inflicted by the larval salamanders. Thus, formation of the bulgy morph may also require and be supported by activation of innate immune systems. PMID:23213421

Mori, Tsukasa; Kitani, Yoichiro; Ogihara, Jun; Sugiyama, Manabu; Yamamoto, Goshi; Kishida, Osamu; Nishimura, Kinya

2012-01-01

444

Variation in preen oil composition pertaining to season, sex, and genotype in the polymorphic white-throated sparrow.  

PubMed

Evidence for the the ability of birds to detect olfactory signals is now well documented, yet it remains unclear whether birds secrete chemicals that can be used as social cues. A potential source of chemical cues in birds is the secretion from the uropygial gland, or preen gland, which is thought to waterproof, maintain, and protect feathers from ectoparasites. However, it is possible that preen oil also may be used for individual recognition, mate choice, and signalling social/sexual status. If preen oil secretions can be used as socio-olfactory signals, we should be able to identify the volatile components that could make the secretions more detectable, determine the seasonality of these secretions, and determine whether olfactory signals differ among relevant social groups. We examined the seasonal differences in volatile compounds of the preen oil of captive white-throated sparrows, Zonotrichia albicollis. This species is polymorphic and has genetically determined morphs that occur in both sexes. Mating is almost exclusively disassortative with respect to morph, suggesting strong mate choice. By sampling the preen oil from captive birds in breeding and non-breeding conditions, we identified candidate chemical signals that varied according to season, sex, morph, and species. Linear alcohols with a 10-18 carbon chains, as well as methyl ketones and carboxylic acids, were the most abundant volatile compounds. Both the variety and abundances of some of these compounds were different between the sexes and morphs, with one morph secreting more volatile compounds in the non-breeding season than the other. In addition, 12 compounds were seasonally elevated in amount, and were secreted in high amounts in males. Finally, we found that preen oil signatures tended to be species-specific, with white-throated sparrows differing from the closely related Junco in the abundances and/or prevalence of at least three compounds. Our data suggest roles for preen oil secretions and avian olfaction in both non-social as well as social interactions. PMID:25236380

Tuttle, Elaina M; Sebastian, Peter J; Posto, Amanda L; Soini, Helena A; Novotny, Milos V; Gonser, Rusty A

2014-09-01

445

Variation in quantity and composition of cuticular hydrocarbons in the scorpion Buthus occitanus (Buthidae) in response to acute exposure to desiccation stress.  

PubMed

Scorpions exhibit some of the lowest recorded water loss rates among terrestrial arthropods. Evaporative water loss to the surrounding environment occurs mainly through the integument, and thus its resistance to water loss has paramount significance for the ability of scorpions to tolerate extremely dry habitats. Cuticular hydrocarbons (HCs) deposited on the outer epicuticle play an important role in determining cuticular waterproofing, and seasonal variation in both cuticular HC quantity and composition has been shown to correlate with water loss rates. Precursor incorporation rates into cuticle HCs have been observed to be extremely low in scorpions compared with insects. We therefore used adult male Buthus occitanus (Buthidae) in order to test HC profile plasticity during acute exposure to 14d and 28d of experimental desiccation. Cuticular HC profile of hydrated scorpions was similar to that reported for several other scorpion species, consisting of similar fractions of n-alkanes and branched alkanes, with no evidence for unsaturation. Most abundant of the n-alkanes were n-heptacosane (C27; 19±2% of total HCs), n-nonacosane (C29; 16±1%) and n-hentriacontane (C31; 11±1%). Exposure to desiccation stress resulted in a significant increase in the total amount of extracted HCs, and in the relative abundance of branched alkanes at the expense of n-alkanes. Together with an increase in HC chain lengths, these changes mimic previously-reported seasonal variation among freshly-collected specimens. This indicates that scorpions respond to water shortage by regulating the properties of their passive integumental barrier to water loss. PMID:25499238

Gefen, E; Talal, S; Brendzel, O; Dror, A; Fishman, A

2015-04-01

446

Support of EarthScope GPS Campaigns at the UNAVCO Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to support portable GPS deployments funded by the NSF's EarthScope Science panel, PBO has purchased 100 campaign GPS systems. Based Topcon GB-1000 equipment, the systems have been designed for stand-alone temporary or semi-permanent deployment that will be used for densifying areas not sufficiently covered by continuous GPS, and responding to volcanic and tectonic crises. UNAVCO provides support for all aspects of these projects, including proposal and budget development, project planning, equipment design, field support, and data archiving. Ten of the 100 systems will be purchased with real-time kinematic (RTK) capability requiring additional radio and data logging equipment. RTK systems can be used to rapidly map fault traces and profile fault escarpments and collect precise position information for GIS based geologic mapping. Each portable self-contained campaign systems include 18 Ah batteries, a regulated 32 watt solar charging system, and a low-power dual frequency GPS receiver and antenna in a waterproof case with security enhancements. The receivers have redundant memory sufficient for storing over a year's worth of data as well as IP and serial communications capabilities for longer-term deployments. Monumentation options are determined on a project-by-project basis, with options including Tech2000 masts, low-profile spike mounts, and traditional tripods and optical tribrachs. Drilled-braced monuments or masts can be installed for "semi-permanent" style occupations. The systems have been used to support several projects to date, including the University of Washington's 30- unit deployment to monitor the Episodic Tremor and Slip event in November, 2005 and the ongoing Rio Grande Rift experiment, run by the Universities of Colorado, Utah State, and New Mexico, which has seen the construction of 25 permanent monuments in 2006 and 2007.

Boyce, E.; Blume, F.; Normandeau, J.

2007-12-01

447

Support of EarthScope GPS Campaigns at the UNAVCO Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to support portable GPS deployments funded by the NSF's EarthScope Science panel, PBO has purchased 100 campaign GPS systems. Based Topcon GB-1000 equipment, the systems have been designed for stand-alone temporary or semi-permanent deployment that will be used for densifying areas not sufficiently covered by continuous GPS, and responding to volcanic and tectonic crises. UNAVCO provides support for all aspects of these projects, including proposal and budget development, project planning, equipment design, field support, and data archiving. Ten of the 100 systems have been equipped with real-time kinematic (RTK) capability requiring additional radio and data logging equipment. RTK systems can be used to rapidly map fault traces and profile fault escarpments and collect precise position information for GIS based geologic mapping. Each portable self-contained campaign systems include 18 Ah batteries, a regulated 32 watt solar charging system, and a low-power dual frequency GPS receiver and antenna in a waterproof case with security enhancements. The receivers have redundant memory sufficient for storing over a year's worth of data as well as IP and serial communications capabilities for longer-term deployments. Monumentation options are determined on a project-by-project basis, with options including Tech2000 masts, low-profile spike mounts, and traditional tripods and optical tribrachs. Drilled-braced monuments or masts can be installed for "semi- permanent" style occupations. The systems have been used to support several projects to date, including the University of Washington's 30-unit deployment to monitor the Episodic Tremor and Slip event in November, 2005 and the ongoing Rio Grande Rift experiment, run by the Universities of Colorado, Utah State, and New Mexico, which has seen the construction of 25 permanent monuments in 2006 and 2007 and a 26-site campaign reoccupation in 2008.

Boyce, E.; Blume, F.; Normandeau, J.

2008-12-01

448

Support of EarthScope GPS Campaigns at the UNAVCO Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to support portable GPS deployments funded by the NSF's EarthScope Science panel, PBO has purchased 100 campaign GPS systems. Based Topcon GB-1000 equipment, the systems have been designed for stand-alone temporary or semi-permanent deployment that will be used for densifying areas not sufficiently covered by continuous GPS, and responding to volcanic and tectonic crises. UNAVCO provides support for all aspects of these projects, including proposal and budget development, project planning, equipment design, field support, and data archiving. Ten of the 100 systems will be purchased with real-time kinematic (RTK) capability requiring additional radio and data logging equipment. RTK systems can be used to rapidly map fault traces and profile fault escarpments and collect precise position information for GIS based geologic mapping. Each portable self-contained campaign systems include 18 Ah batteries, a regulated 32 watt solar charging system, and a low-power dual frequency GPS receiver and antenna in a waterproof case with security enhancements. The receivers have redundant memory sufficient for storing over a year's worth of data as well as IP and serial communications capabilities for longer-term deployments. Monumentation options will be determined on a project-by-project basis, with options including Tech2000 masts, low-profile spike mounts, and traditional tripods and optical tribrachs. The systems have been used to support three projects to date, including the University of Washington's 30-unit deployment to monitor the Episodic Tremor and Slip event this past November and they will be used for ongoing support of the ongoing Rio Grande Rift experiment, run by the Universities of Colorado and New Mexico.

Blume, F.; Feldl, N.

2005-12-01

449

The Arabidopsis cer26 mutant, like the cer2 mutant, is specifically affected in the very long chain fatty acid elongation process.  

PubMed

Plant aerial organs are covered by cuticular waxes, which form a hydrophobic crystal layer that mainly serves as a waterproof barrier. Cuticular wax is a complex mixture of very long chain lipids deriving from fatty acids, predominantly of chain lengths from 26 to 34 carbons, which result from acyl-CoA elongase activity. The biochemical mechanism of elongation is well characterized; however, little is known about the specific proteins involved in the elongation of compounds with more than 26 carbons available as precursors of wax synthesis. In this context, we characterized the three Arabidopsis genes of the CER2-like family: CER2, CER26 and CER26-like . Expression pattern analysis showed that the three genes are differentially expressed in an organ- and tissue-specific manner. Using individual T-DNA insertion mutants, together with a cer2 cer26 double mutant, we characterized the specific impact of the inactivation of the different genes on cuticular waxes. In particular, whereas the cer2 mutation impaired the production of wax components longer than 28 carbons, the cer26 mutant was found to be affected in the production of wax components longer than 30 carbons. The analysis of the acyl-CoA pool in the respective transgenic lines confirmed that inactivation of both genes specifically affects the fatty acid elongation process beyond 26 carbons. Furthermore, ectopic expression of CER26 in transgenic plants demonstrates that CER26 facilitates the elongation of the very long chain fatty acids of 30 carbons or more, with high tissular and substrate specificity. PMID:23384041

Pascal, Stéphanie; Bernard, Amélie; Sorel, Maud; Pervent, Marjorie; Vile, Denis; Haslam, Richard P; Napier, Johnathan A; Lessire, René; Domergue, Frédéric; Joubès, Jérôme

2013-03-01

450

Development of polymer concrete vaults for natural gas regulator stations  

SciTech Connect

Vaults for natural gas regulator stations have traditionally been fabricated with steel-reinforced portland cement concrete. Since these vaults are installed below ground level, they are usually coated with a water-proofing material to prevent the ingress of moisture into the vault. In some cases, penetrations for piping that are normally cast into the vault do not line up with the gas lines in the streets. This necessitates off-setting the lines to line up with the penetrations in the vault or breaking out new penetrations which could weaken the structure and/or allow water ingress. By casting the vaults using a new material of construction such as polymer concrete, a longer maintenance free service life is possible because the physical and durability properties of polymer concrete composites are much superior to those of portland cement concrete. The higher strengths of polymer concrete allow the design engineer to reduce the wall, floor, and ceiling thicknesses making the vaults lighter for easier transportation and installation. Penetrations can be cut after casting to match existing street lines, thus making the vault more universal and reducing the number of vaults that are normally in stock. The authors developed a steel-fiber reinforced polymer concrete composite that could be used for regulator vaults. Based on the physical properties of his new composite, vaults were designed to replace the BUG PV-008 and Con Ed GR-6 regulator vaults made of reinforced portland cement concrete. Quarter-scale models of the polymer concrete vaults were tested and the results reaffirmed the reduced wall thickness design. Two sets of vaults, cast by Hardinge Bros., were inspected by representatives of the utilities and BNL (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and were accepted for delivery. 6 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

Fontana, J.J.; Miller, C.A.; Reams, W.; Elling, D.

1990-08-01

451

"Smart pebble" design for environmental monitoring applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment transport, due to primarily the action of water, wind and ice, is one of the most significant geomorphic processes responsible for shaping Earth's surface. It involves entrainment of sediment grains in rivers and estuaries due to the violently fluctuating hydrodynamic forces near the bed. Here an instrumented particle, namely a "smart pebble", is developed to investigate the exact flow conditions under which individual grains may be entrained from the surface of a gravel bed. This could lead in developing a better understanding of the processes involved, while focusing on the response of the particle during a variety of flow entrainment events. The "smart pebble" is a particle instrumented with MEMS sensors appropriate for capturing the hydrodynamic forces a coarse particle might experience during its entrainment from the river bed. A 3-axial gyroscope and accelerometer registers data to a memory card via a microcontroller, embedded in a 3D-printed waterproof hollow spherical particle. The instrumented board is appropriately fit and centred into the shell of the pebble, so as to achieve a nearly uniform distribution of the mass which could otherwise bias its motion. The "smart pebble" is powered by an independent power to ensure autonomy and sufficiently long periods of operation appropriate for deployment in the field. Post-processing and analysis of the acquired data is currently performed offline, using scientific programming software. The performance of the instrumented particle is validated, conducting a series of calibration experiments under well-controlled laboratory conditions. "Smart pebble" allows for a wider range of environmental sensors (e.g. for environmental/pollutant monitoring) to be incorporated so as to extend the range of its application, enabling accurate environmental monitoring which is required to ensure infrastructure resilience and preservation of ecological health.

Valyrakis, Manousos; Pavlovskis, Edgars

2014-05-01

452

A hundred-year-old question: is the moss calyptra covered by a cuticle? A case study of Funaria hygrometrica  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The maternal gametophytic calyptra is critical for moss sporophyte development and ultimately sporogenesis. The calyptra has been predicted to protect the sporophyte apex, including the undifferentiated sporogenous region and seta meristem, from desiccation. We investigate the hypothesis that this waterproofing ability is due to a waxy cuticle. The idea that moss calyptrae are covered by a cuticle has been present in the literature for over a century, but, until now, neither the presence nor the absence of a cuticle has been documented for any calyptra. Methods The epidermis of the calyptra, leafy gametophyte and sporophyte sporangia of the moss Funaria hygrometrica were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Thicknesses of individual cuticle layers were quantified and compared statistically. The immunochemistry antibody (LM19) specific for pectins was used to locate cell wall material within the cuticle. Key Results A multi-layered cuticle is present on the calyptra of F. hygrometrica, including layers analogous to the cuticular layer, cell wall projections, electron-lucent and electron-dense cuticle proper observed in vascular plants. The calyptra rostrum has a cuticle that is significantly thicker than the other tissues examined and differs by specialized thickenings of the cuticular layer (cuticular pegs) at the regions of the anticlinal cell walls. This is the first documentation of cuticular pegs in a moss. Conclusions The calyptra and its associated cuticle represent a unique form of maternal care in embryophytes. This organ has the potential to play a critical role in preventing desiccation of immature sporophytes and thereby may have been essential for the evolution of the moss sporophyte. PMID:21486928

Budke, Jessica M.; Goffinet, Bernard; Jones, Cynthia S.

2011-01-01

453

Simple and reliable method to incorporate the Janus property onto arbitrary porous substrates.  

PubMed

Economical fabrication of waterproof/breathable substrates has many potential applications such as clothing or improved medical dressing. In this work, a facile and reproducible fabrication method was developed to render the Janus property to arbitrary porous substrates. First, a hydrophobic surface was obtained by depositing a fluoropolymer, poly(3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,9,9,10,10,10-heptadecafluorodecyl methacrylate) (PHFDMA), on various porous substrates such as polyester fabric, nylon mesh, and filter paper. With a one-step vapor-phase deposition process, termed as initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD), a conformal coating of hydrophobic PHFDMA polymer film was achieved on both faces of the porous substrate. Since the hydrophobic perfluoroalkyl functionality is tethered on PHFDMA via hydrolyzable ester functionality, the hydrophobic functionality on PHFDMA was readily released by hydrolysis reaction. Here, by simply floating the PHFDMA-coated substrates on KOH(aq) solution, only the face of the PHFDMA-coated substrate in contact with the KOH(aq) solution became hydrophilic by the conversion of the fluoroalkyl ester group in the PHFDMA to hydrophilic carboxylic acid functionality. The hydrophilized face was able to easily absorb water, showing a contact angle of less than 37°. However, the top side of the PHFDMA-coated substrate was unaffected by the exposure to KOH(aq) solution and remained hydrophobic. Moreover, the carboxylated surface was further functionalized with aminated polystyrene beads. The porous Janus substrates fabricated using this method can be applied to various kinds of clothing such as pants and shirts, something that the lamination process for Gore-tex has not allowed. PMID:24568214

You, Jae Bem; Yoo, Youngmin; Oh, Myung Seok; Im, Sung Gap

2014-03-26

454

Blue-Violet Laser Modification of Titania Treated Titanium: Antibacterial and Osteo-Inductive Effects  

PubMed Central

Background Many studies on surface modifications of titanium have been performed in an attempt to accelerate osseointegration. Recently, anatase titanium dioxide has been found to act as a photocatalyst that expresses antibiotic properties and exhibits hydrophilicity after ultraviolet exposure. A blue-violet semiconductor laser (BV-LD) has been developed as near-ultraviolet light. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exposure to this BV-LD on surface modifications of titanium with the goal of enhancing osteoconductive and antibacterial properties. Methods The surfaces of pure commercial titanium were polished with #800 waterproof polishing papers and were treated with anatase titania solution. Specimens were exposed using BV-LD (? = 405 nm) or an ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV-LED, ? = 365 nm) at 6 mW/cm2 for 3 h. The surface modification was evaluated physically and biologically using the following parameters or tests: surface roughness, surface temperature during exposure, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, contact angle, methylene blue degradation tests, adherence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, osteoblast and fibroblast proliferation, and histological examination after implantation in rats. Results No significant changes were found in the surface roughness or XRD profiles after exposure. BV-LD exposure did not raise the surface temperature of titanium. The contact angle was significantly decreased, and methylene blue was significantly degraded. The number of attached P. gingivalis organisms was significantly reduced after BV-LD exposure compared to that in the no exposure group. New bone was observed around exposed specimens in the histological evaluation, and both the bone-to-specimen contact ratio and the new bone area increased significantly in exposed groups. Conclusions This study suggested that exposure of titanium to BV-LD can enhance the osteoconductivity of the titanium surface and induce antibacterial properties, similar to the properties observed following exposure to UV-LED. PMID:24358355

Kawano, Takanori; Prananingrum, Widyasri; Ishida, Yuichi; Goto, Takaharu; Naito, Yoshihito; Watanabe, Megumi; Tomotake, Yoritoki; Ichikawa, Tetsuo

2013-01-01

455

Rotating Balances Used for Fluid Pump Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Marshall Space Flight Center has developed and demonstrated two direct read force and moment balances for sensing and resolving the hydrodynamic loads on rotating fluid machinery. These rotating balances consist of a series of stainless steel flexures instrumented with semiconductor type, unidirectional strain gauges arranged into six bridges, then sealed and waterproofed, for use fully submerged in degassed water at rotational speeds up to six thousand revolutions per minute. The balances are used to measure the forces and moments due to the onset and presence of cavitation or other hydrodynamic phenomena on subscale replicas of rocket engine turbomachinery, principally axial pumps (inducers) designed specifically to operate in a cavitating environment. The balances are inserted into the drive assembly with power to and signal from the sensors routed through the drive shaft and out through an air-cooled twenty-channel slip ring. High frequency data - balance forces and moments as well as extensive, flush-mounted pressures around the rotating component periphery - are acquired via a high-speed analog to digital data acquisition system while the test rig conditions are varied continuously. The data acquisition and correction process is described, including the in-situ verifications that are performed to quantify and correct for known system effects such as mechanical imbalance, "added mass," buoyancy, mechanical resonance, and electrical bias. Examples of four types of cavitation oscillations for two typical inducers are described in the laboratory (pressure) and rotating (force) frames: 1) attached, symmetric cavitation, 2) rotating cavitation, 3) attached, asymmetric cavitation, and 4) cavitation surge. Rotating and asymmetric cavitation generate a corresponding unbalanced radial force on the rotating assembly while cavitation surge generates an axial force. Attached, symmetric cavitation induces no measurable force. The frequency of the forces can be determined a priori from the pressure environment while the magnitude of the hydrodynamic force is proportional to the pressure unsteadiness.

Skelley, Stephen; Mulder, Andrew

2014-01-01

456

Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System and its application to emergency response involving chemical, biological or radiological contamination. The Idaho National Laboratory designed the Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System to assist the National Guard Weapons of Mass Destruction - Civil Support Teams during their mission of emergency response to incidents involving weapons of mass destruction. The lightweight, handheld camera transmits encrypted, real-time video from inside a contaminated area, or hot-zone, to a command post located a safe distance away. The system includes a small wireless video camera, a true-diversity receiver, viewing console, and an optional extension link that allows the command post to be placed up to five miles from danger. It can be fully deployed by one person in a standalone configuration in less than 10 minutes. The complete system is battery powered. Each rechargeable camera battery powers the camera for 3 hours with the receiver and video monitor battery lasting 22 hours on a single charge. The camera transmits encrypted, low frequency analog video signals to a true-diversity receiver with three antennas. This unique combination of encryption and transmission technologies delivers encrypted, interference-free images to the command post under conditions where other wireless systems fail. The lightweight camera is completely waterproof for quick and easy decontamination after use. The Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System is currently being used by several National Guard Teams, the US Army, and by fire fighters. The system has been proven to greatly enhance situational awareness during the crucial, initial phase of a hazardous response allowing commanders to make better, faster, safer decisions.

Kevin L. Young

2006-02-01

457

DUCKS: A continuous thermal presence on the rim of Pu'u 'O'o  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past 2 years we have been monitoring the persistent activity at the Pu'u 'O'o crater (Kilauea, Hawaii) with a permanent system of infrared thermometers. Our intent has been to implement a cheap, robust, modular real-time thermal system capable of surviving the harshest of conditions. The system cost \\10,000 to construct and consists of three modules: field-based sensors, a repeater station and a reception site. The field-based component consists of three thermal infrared thermometers, housed in pelican cases with selenium-germanium-arsenic windows. Two 1 degree field of view (FOV) instruments allow specific but small areas to be monitored, and a 60 degree FOV provides an overview for all crater floor activity. A hard wire connection extends 25 m to a pelican-case-housed microprocessor, modem, and power module. From here, data are transmitted using Yagi antennas, via the repeater site, to a dedicated PC in the lobby of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. Here, the three channels of data are displayed on-screen, with a delay of ~3 seconds between data acquisition and display. Data are also used to automatically update web-based plots for general access. Aside from some minor glitches, such has sensor damage during probable tampering and unresolved data stream failures, the system has been in continuous operation since March 2001. In this regard, careful waterproofing of connectors, cables and protective cases has kept out the extremely wet and acidic atmosphere encountered at the crater edge. We have also constructed self-contained versions with internal loggers for \\1500/unit. These have been deployed in a temporary fashion at Stromboli, Masaya and Erta Ale. Together these instruments have proved capable of detecting thermal signals associated with (1) gas puffing and jetting, (2) spattering, (3) lava effusion, (4) crater floor collapse, (5) vent blockage-and-clearing, and (6) lava lake overturn.

Harris, A. J.; Pirie, D. J.; Horton, K.; Flynn, L. P.; Garbeil, H.; Johnson, J. B.; Ramm, H.; Pilger, E.

2002-12-01

458

Development of a semi-permanent mascara technology.  

PubMed

Many women would like their mascara beauty benefits to be available all day, every day. One way to address this desire is through a semi-permanent mascara technology that provides full mascara benefits of long, dark beautiful lashes for multiple days. To date, products promising multi-day benefits have acted more as either 'lash dyes', providing a lash darkening benefit but failing to provide fullness and length, or waterproof mascaras that do not maintain the initial beauty look over multiple days. Here, a formulation approach is described for a mascara product that is designed to be abrasion resistant, flexible and insoluble in soap and water so that the initial beauty look is maintained for multiple days. The new semi-permanent formula technology uses rosinate polymers that have a superior combination of flexibility, abrasion resistance and water and surfactant resistance. Based on principles used by the paint industry for creating durable films, the levels of the polymers and other non-volatile ingredients are balanced such that the product forms a continuous polymer film on the eyelash. Cryo-SEM is used to demonstrate that the new semi-permanent formula technology forms a film different from those formed by current mascara products. A stretch test and rub test are used to demonstrate that the new semi-permanent formula technology has superior flexibility and abrasion resistance to current mascara products. Finally, a multi-day consumer study with daily imaging of the eyes is used to demonstrate the superior wear performance of the new semi-permanent formula technology in actual usage. PMID:21834943

Dempsey, J H; Fabula, A M; Rabe, T E; Lubbers, J M; Ye, M

2012-02-01

459

Diphenylthiourea, a common rubber chemical, is bioactivated to potent skin sensitizers.  

PubMed

Diphenylthiourea (DPTU) is a known skin sensitizer commonly used as a vulcanization accelerator in the production of synthetic rubber, for example, neoprene. The versatile usage of neoprene is due to the multifaceted properties of the material; for example, it is stretchable, waterproof, and chemical- and abrasion-resistant. The wide application of neoprene has resulted in numerous case reports of dermatitis patients allergic to DPTU. The mechanism by which DPTU works as a contact allergen has not been described; thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate if DPTU is a prohapten that can be activated by skin metabolism. The metabolic activation and covalent binding of (14)C-labeled DPTU to proteins were tested using a skinlike cytochrome P450 (P450) cocktail containing the five most abundant P450s found in human skin (CYP1A1, 1B1, 2B6, 2E1, and 3A5) and human liver microsomes. The incubations were carried out in the presence or absence of the metabolite trapping agents glutathione, methoxylamine, and benzylamine. The metabolism mixtures were analyzed by LC-radiochromatography, LC-MS, and LC-MS/MS. DPTU was mainly metabolically activated to reactive sulfoxides resulting in desulfurated adducts in both enzymatic systems used. Also, phenylisothiocyanate and phenylisocyanate were found to be metabolites of DPTU. The sensitizing capacity of the substrate (DPTU) and three metabolites was tested in the murine local lymph node assay. Two out of three metabolites tested were strong skin sensitizers, whereas DPTU itself, as previously known, was negative using this mouse model. In conclusion, DPTU forms highly reactive metabolites upon bioactivation by enzymes present in the skin. These metabolites are able to induce skin sensitization and are probable causes for DPTU allergy. To increase the possibilities of diagnosing contact allergy to DPTU-containing items, we suggest that suitable metabolites of DPTU should be used for screening testing. PMID:21073181

Samuelsson, Kristin; Bergström, Moa Andresen; Jonsson, Charlotte A; Westman, Gunnar; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

2011-01-14

460

A tactical, permanent telemetered volcano monitoring station design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The USGS-USAID Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) designs, constructs and installs telemetered volcano-monitoring stations for use in developing countries, at a wide range of latitudes and elevations, weather and environmental conditions. The stations typically house seismometers, GPS and webcams, singly or in combination. They are frequently installed quickly during a volcanic crisis, but are expected to function over the long term as permanent stations. The primary design goal is for a simple, highly portable station that can be installed in less than a day, but not require maintenance until the natural end of battery life, usually 2-5 years. The station consists of a pair of aluminum boxes (43x46x71cm, approx.) placed on the ground facing each other, 2-3m apart, forming the lower part of a metal framework made of 2" pipe to mount solar panels and antennae. Vertical sections of 2" pipe, 3-4m long, are clamped to each end of both the boxes, the lower ends buried into cement-filled holes. This makes 4 masts on a rectangular footprint of 1m X 3-4m. Two horizontal crosspieces of 2" pipe 3-4m long are clamped across the masts. Solar panels are laid across the crosspieces, mounted with 2" angle aluminum extending from the high crosspiece to the low one. Relative height of the crosspieces controls the angle of the solar panels. The crosspieces can be lengthened to increase mounting space for additional solar panels. Inside the aluminum boxes, the radios and electronics are housed in plastic boxes. All external cables are protected by flexible aluminum conduit. Important elements of the design include: -Redundant dual solar power supplies of expandable capacity for loads from 1W to 10W or more. -Robust lightning protection afforded by grounded metal footlockers and framework, and a built-in common grounding point. -Strongly resistant to ice loads. -Waterproof, insect-proof plastic boxes for radios and electronics. -Aluminum boxes are easily fabricated, fit within postal and airline baggage size and weight limitations. -2" pipe can be procured locally, everywhere VDAP has worked. -Clamps for 2" pipe are made of U-bolts that can be readily obtained or procured locally if necessary. This design can be easily replicated and installed by relatively inexperienced and unskilled workers. A USGS Open-File Report detailing the construction is in production.

Lockhart, A. B.; LaFevers, M.; Couchman, M. R.

2012-12-01

461

Loss of function of the yellow-e gene causes dehydration-induced mortality of adult Tribolium castaneum.  

PubMed

Yellow protein (dopachrome conversion enzyme, DCE) is involved in the melanin biosynthetic pathway that significantly accelerates pigmentation reactions in insects. Recent studies have suggested that the insect yellow genes represent a rapidly evolving gene family generating functionally diverse paralogs, but the exact physiological functions of several yellow genes are still not understood. To study the function(s) of one of the yellow genes, yellow-e (TcY-e), in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, we performed real-time PCR to analyze its developmental and tissue-specific expression, and utilized immunohistochemistry to identify the localization of the TcY-e protein in adult cuticle. Injection of double-stranded RNA for TcY-e (dsTcY-e) into late instar larvae had no effect on larval-pupal molting or pupal development. The pupal cuticle, including that lining the setae, gin traps and urogomphi, underwent normal tanning. Adult cuticle tanning including that of the head, mandibles and legs viewed through the translucent pupal cuticle was initiated on schedule (pupal days 4-5), indicating that TcY-e is not required for pupal or pharate adult cuticle pigmentation in T. castaneum. The subsequent pupal-adult molt, however, was adversely affected. Although pupal cuticle apolysis and slippage were evident, some of the adults (~25%) were unable to shed their exuvium and died entrapped in their pupal cuticle. In addition, the resulting adults rapidly became highly desiccated. Interestingly, both the failure of the pupal-adult molt and desiccation-induced mortality were prevented by maintaining the dsTcY-e-treated insects at 100% relative humidity (rh). However, when the high humidity-rescued adults were removed from 100% rh and transferred to 50% rh, they rapidly dehydrated and died, whereas untreated beetles thrived throughout development at 50% rh. We also observed that the body color of the high humidity-rescued dsTcY-e-adults was slightly darker than that of control animals. These results support the hypothesis that TcY-e has a role not only in normal body pigmentation in T. castaneum adults but also has a vital waterproofing function. PMID:25614237

Noh, Mi Young; Kramer, Karl J; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Beeman, Richard W; Kanost, Michael R; Arakane, Yasuyuki

2015-03-15

462

The fur of mammals in exposed environments; do crypsis and thermal needs necessarily conflict? The polar bear and marsupial koala compared.  

PubMed

The furs of mammals have varied and complex functions. Other than for thermoregulation, fur is involved in physical protection, sensory input, waterproofing and colouration, the latter being important for crypsis or camouflage. Some of these diverse functions potentially conflict. We have investigated how variation in cryptic colouration and thermal features may interact in the coats of mammals and influence potential heat inflows from solar radiation, much of which is outside the visible spectral range. The coats of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and the marsupial koala (Phascolarctus cinereus) have insulative similarities but, while they feature cryptic colouration, they are of contrasting colour, i.e. whitish and dark grey. The reflectance of solar radiation by coats was measured across the full solar spectrum using a spectroradiometer. The modulation of incident solar radiation and resultant heat flows in these coats were determined at a range of wind speeds by mounting them on a heat flux transducer/temperature-controlled plate apparatus in a wind tunnel. A lamp with a spectral distribution of radiation similar to the solar spectrum was used as a proxy for the sun. Crypsis by colour matching was apparent within the visible spectrum for the two species, U. maritimus being matched against snow and P. cinereus against Eucalyptus forest foliage. While reflectances across the full solar spectrum differed markedly, that of U. maritimus being 66 % as opposed to 10 % for P. cinereus, the heat influxes from solar radiation reaching the skin were similar. For both coats at low wind speed (1 m s(-1)), 19 % of incident solar radiation impacted as heat at the skin surface; at higher wind speed (10 m s(-1)) this decreased to approximately 10 %. Ursus maritimus and P. cinereus have high and comparable levels of fur insulation and although the patterns of reflectance and depths of penetrance of solar radiation differ for the coats, the considerable insulation limited the radiant heat reaching the skin. These data suggest that generally, if mammal coats have high insulation then heat flow from solar radiation into an animal is much restricted and the impact of coat colour is negligible. However, comparisons with published data from other species suggest that as fur insulation decreases, colour increasingly influences the heat inflow associated with solar radiation. PMID:24366474

Dawson, Terence J; Webster, Koa N; Maloney, Shane K

2014-02-01

463

Energy balance measurements over a small reservoir in Ghana's Upper East Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near the small village of Binaba (10.778927 deg N, 0.464859 deg E), a small irrigation reservoir has been instrumented to measure different parts of the energy balance of this water body. Instruments were placed on, or attached to, a spar platform. This platform consisted of a long PVC pipe, the spar, which is closed at the bottom. On the PVC pipe rests an aluminum frame platform that carries instrumentation and solar power panel. In turn, the platform rests partially on a large inflated tire. At the bottom of the PVC pipe, lead weights and batteries were placed to ensure a very low point of gravity to minimize wave impact on the platform movement. The tire ensures a large second moment of the water plane. The combination of large second momentum of the water plane and small displacement, ensures a high placement of the metacenter. The distance between the point of gravity and the metacenter is relatively long and the weight is large due to the weights and batteries. This ensures that the eigenfrequency of the platform is very low. On the platform, we fixed a WindMaster Pro (sonic anemometer for 3D wind speed and air temperature to perform eddy covariance measurements of sensible heat flux), a NR Lite (net radiometer), and air temperature and relative humidity sensors. Water temperature at different depths was measured with a string of TidbiT's (waterproof temperature sensors and loggers). The platform had a wind vane and the spar could turn freely around its anchor cable to ensure that the anemometer always faced upwind. A compass in the logger completed this setup. First results suggest, as expected, that the sensible heat flux is relatively small with on average 20 W/m2 over the course of a day. Sensible heat flux peaked around midnight at 35 W/m2, when the warm water warmed up the air from the colder surrounding land. The dynamics of heat storage during the daytime and longwave radiation during the night time, are important to calculate the latent heat flux.

van de Giesen, Nick; Ohene Annor, Frank

2013-04-01

464

Modelisation numerique et algebrique des joints labyrinthe des turbines francis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are various types of hydraulic turbines. Regarding the operating conditions, geometries and technologies differ. Hydraulic seals are only used in Francis turbines, which are widely used. The role of hydraulic seals is not to be waterproof. Their main aim is to prevent contact between the rotating and static parts of the turbine. Although necessary, hydraulic seals create energetic losses : some fluid does not flow through the runner (leakage loss) and exerts a torque on the rotor (friction loss). In a context of constant progression towards still more efficient turbines, the optimization of each part of the turbine is necessary. Our study is a part of this research seeking to decrease the losses in turbines as much as possible. In order to understand fully the problem, and to ensure an optimal seal exists, an analytical study has been lead in the first place. It establishes the analytical expressions of the speeds, pressure, losses and optimal seal length for laminar flows in straight seals. Various tests were then lead with the ANSYS CFX solver in order to highlight aspects which necessitate a particular attention. For example, the issues of boundary conditions and dimensionless simulations were adressed. A CFD model has then been validated. The results of the experiences lead in the sixties by Dominion Engineering Works, which later became Andritz Hydro Limited, were used in this process. Even if all the tests were not useable, some of them were reproduced numerically. The CFD model which was used features SST turbulence modeling, 2D axisymmetric geometries, parabolic mesh distributions, smooth walls, and a outlet headloss based on the normal speed. For the various tests which were considered, the average discrepancy between numerical and experimental results is 6.5%. More than 60% of the discrepancies of those simulations are below the empirical uncertainty. That is why this model can be used for numerical experiences : as long as these experiences are in the design space, their result will be coherent with reality. An appropriate space-filling design of experiments was created using the software JMP, from SAS Institute. The numerical results of 34 tests have then been modeled statistically using a quadratic polynomial taking into account interactions between various factors. The response surface obtained this way was compared to experimental results. The average discrepancy was around 7.5%. The response surface is precise enough to get an accurate estimation of the experimental results. As no other experimental data is available, nothing proves that the numerical model, and the statistical model which was obtained thanks to it, will be valid outside the design space which was considered.

Bouderlique, Remi

465

Genes involved in thoracic exoskeleton formation during the pupal-to-adult molt in a social insect model, Apis mellifera  

PubMed Central

Background The insect exoskeleton provides shape, waterproofing, and locomotion via attached somatic muscles. The exoskeleton is renewed during molting, a process regulated by ecdysteroid hormones. The holometabolous pupa transforms into an adult during the imaginal molt, when the epidermis synthe3sizes the definitive exoskeleton that then differentiates progressively. An important issue in insect development concerns how the exoskeletal regions are constructed to provide their morphological, physiological and mechanical functions. We used whole-genome oligonucleotide microarrays to screen for genes involved in exoskeletal formation in the honeybee thoracic dorsum. Our analysis included three sampling times during the pupal-to-adult molt, i.e., before, during and after the ecdysteroid-induced apolysis that triggers synthesis of the adult exoskeleton. Results Gene ontology annotation based on orthologous relationships with Drosophila melanogaster genes placed the honeybee differentially expressed genes (DEGs) into distinct categories of Biological Process and Molecular Function, depending on developmental time, revealing the functional elements required for adult exoskeleton formation. Of the 1,253 unique DEGs, 547 were upregulated in the thoracic dorsum after apolysis, suggesting induction by the ecdysteroid pulse. The upregulated gene set included 20 of the 47 cuticular protein (CP) genes that were previously identified in the honeybee genome, and three novel putative CP genes that do not belong to a known CP family. In situ hybridization showed that two of the novel genes were abundantly expressed in the epidermis during adult exoskeleton formation, strongly implicating them as genuine CP genes. Conserved sequence motifs identified the CP genes as members of the CPR, Tweedle, Apidermin, CPF, CPLCP1 and Analogous-to-Peritrophins families. Furthermore, 28 of the 36 muscle-related DEGs were upregulated during the de novo formation of striated fibers attached to the exoskeleton. A search for cis-regulatory motifs in the 5?-untranslated region of the DEGs revealed potential binding sites for known transcription factors. Construction of a regulatory network showed that various upregulated CP- and muscle-related genes (15 and 21 genes, respectively) share common elements, suggesting co-regulation during thoracic exoskeleton formation. Conclusions These findings help reveal molecular aspects of rigid thoracic exoskeleton formation during the ecdysteroid-coordinated pupal-to-adult molt in the honeybee. PMID:23981317

2013-01-01

466

DUCKS: Low cost thermal monitoring units for near-vent deployment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1999 we designed and tested a thermal monitoring system to provide a cheap, robust, modular, real-time system capable of surviving the hostile conditions encountered proximal to active volcanic vents. In November 2000 the first system was deployed at Pu'u 'O'o (Kilauea, Hawai'i) to target persistently active vents. Aside from some minor problems, such as sensor damage due to tampering, this system remained operational until January 2004. The success of the prototype system led us to use the blueprint for a second installation at Stromboli (Aeolian Islands, Italy). This was deployed, dug into a bomb-proof bunker, during May 2002 and survived the April 2003 paroxysmal eruption despite being located just 250 m from the vent. In both cases, careful waterproofing of connectors and selection of suitable protection has prevented water damage and corrosion in the harsh atmosphere encountered at the crater rim. The Pu'u 'O'o system cost ???US$10,000 and comprises four modules: sensors, transmission and power hub, repeater station and reception site. The sensor component consists of three thermal infrared thermometers housed in Pelican??? cases fitted with Germanium-Arsenide-Selenium windows. Two 1?? field of view (FOV) sensors allow specific vents to be targeted and a 60?? FOV sensor provides a crater floor overview. A hard wire connection links to a Pelican???-case-housed microprocessor, modem and power module. From here data are transmitted, via a repeater site, to a dedicated PC at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. Here data are displayed with a delay of ???3 s between acquisition and display. The modular design allows for great flexibility. At Stromboli, 1?? and 15?? FOV sensor modules can be switched depending changes in activity style and crater geometry. In addition a direct line of site to the Stromboli reception center negates the repeater site requirement, reducing the cost to US$5500 for a single sensor system. We have also constructed self-contained units w ith internal data loggers for US$1500/unit. These have been tested at Kilauea, Stromboli, Etna, Masaya, Santiaguito, Fuego, Pacaya, Poas, Soufriere Hills, Villarrica and Erta Ale. These instruments have proved capable of detecting thermal signals associated with: (1) gas emission; (2) gas jetting events; (3) crater floor collapse; (4) lava effusion; (5) lava flow in tubes; (6) lava lake activity; (7) lava dome activity; and (8) crater lake skin temperature. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Harris, A.; Pirie, D.; Horton, K.; Garbeil, H.; Pilger, E.; Ramm, H.; Hoblitt, R.; Thornber, C.; Ripepe, M.; Marchetti, E.; Poggi, P.

2005-01-01

467

Ref Tek Ultra-low Power Seismic Recorder With Low-cost High Speed Internet Telemetry U An Advanced Real-time Seismological Data Acquisition System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3rd Generation Seismic Recorder, Model 130-01, has been designed to be easier to use - more compact, lighter in weight, lower power, and requires less maintenance than other recorders. Not only is the hardware optimized for field deployments, soft- ware tools as well have been specially developed to support both field and base station operation. The 130's case is a clamshell design, inherently waterproof, with easy access to all user features on the top of the unit. The 130 has 6 input/output connectors, an LCD display, and a removable lid on top of the case. There are two Channel input connectors on a 6-channel unit (only one on a 3-channel unit), a Terminal connector for setup and control, a Net connector combining Ethernet and Serial PPP for network access, a 12 VDC Power connector, and a GPS receiver connector. The LCD display allows the user to monitor the status of various sub systems within the 130 without having a terminal device attached. For storing large amounts of data the IBM MicrodriveTM is offered. User setup, control and status monitoring is done either with a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) (Palm OS compatible) using our Palm Field Controller (PFC) software or from a PC/workstation using our REF TEK Network Controller (RNC) GUI interface. StarBand VSAT is the premier two-way, always-on, high-speed satellite Internet ser- vice. StarBand means high-speed Internet without the constraints and congestion of land-based cable or telephone networks. StarBand uses a single satellite dish antenna for receiving and for sending dataUno telephone connection is needed. The hardware ° cost is much less than standard VSAT equipment with double or single hop transmis- sion. REF TEK protocol (RTP) provides end-to-end error-correcting data transmission and command/control. StarBandSs low cost VSAT provides two-way, always-on, high speed satellite Internet data availability. REF TEK and StarBand create the most ad- vanced real-time seismological data acquisition system. 1 Results of data transmission and availability is discussed. 2

Passmore, P.; Zimakov, L.; Rozhkov, M.

468

Rapid In-situ Measurement of Magnetic Susceptibility in Unconsolidated Lake Sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic susceptibility measurements can provide a useful indicator of anthropogenic effects in lake basins, including the onset of land clearance, forest fires, soil erosion and as a proxy for estimating contaminant levels in sediment. Susceptibility is commonly measured on whole or split cores, or on core sub-samples, but coring can be expensive and time consuming where a large number of profiles are required to correlate and map sediment volumes. Post- sampling mineralogic changes in cores are also a potential concern. An alternate approach investigated in this study is to obtain near continuous in-situ measurements of sediment volume susceptibility (k) using a probe driven into the lake bottom. An inexpensive proto-type probe was constructed using a Bartington MS2-F sensor mounted in waterproof housing with an extendable 10 m handle. Several calibration runs were made in a laboratory test column to determine the probe response characteristics and repeatability. Testing showed that the effective sensing volume is a 0.8 cm radius around the probe tip and that edge effects from sensor shoulders are negligible. The probe was then used to measure the thickness and distribution of a post-colonial sediment layer in a shallow coastal lagoon (Frenchman's Bay) in western Lake Ontario. Volume susceptibility profiles were collected at 40 locations by driving the probe up to 2.5 m into the lagoon bottom sediments at 2 cm measurement intervals. The in-situ volume susceptibility profiles were then compared with volume and bulk susceptibility measurements obtained on 10 vibracores extracted from the lagoon. The probe measurements showed comparable resolution to the core-derived data and closely paralleled the core susceptibility curves. The base of the post-colonial sediment layer was identified by an abrupt increase in magnetic susceptibility at 0.5-1.5 m depth. The marker horizon was correlated across the lagoon and the thickness and volume of the anthropogenic layer was estimated. The results demonstrate that in-situ susceptibility measurements using a sediment probe can provide a rapid and highly repeatable method for correlating shallow stratigraphic boundaries within unconsolidated lake bottom sediments.

Clark, C. T.; Boyce, J. I.

2004-05-01

469

Serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) among selected populations of children and adults in California.  

PubMed

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products. Their persistent nature and potential health impacts are of concern. Given the high cost of collecting serum samples, this study is to understand whether we can quantify PFC serum concentrations using factors extracted from questionnaire responses and indirect measurements, and whether a single serum measurement can be used to classify an individual's exposure over a one-year period. The study population included three demographic groups: young children (2-8 years old) (N=67), parents of young children (<55 years old) (N=90), and older adults (>55 years old) (N=59). PFC serum concentrations, house dust concentrations, and questionnaires were collected. The geometric mean of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was highest for the older adults. In contrast, the geometric mean of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was highest for children. Serum concentrations of the parent and the child from the same family were moderately correlated (Spearman correlation (r)=0.26-0.79, p<0.05), indicating common sources within a family. For adults, age, having occupational exposure or having used fire extinguisher, frequencies of consuming butter/margarine, pork, canned meat entrées, tuna and white fish, freshwater fish, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of individual PFCs. For children, residential dust concentrations, frequency of wearing waterproof clothes, frequency of having canned fish, hotdogs, chicken nuggets, French fries, and chips, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significant positive predictors of individual PFC serum concentrations. In addition, the serum concentrations collected in a subset of young children (N=20) and the parents (N=42) one year later were strongly correlated (r=0.68-0.98, p<0.001) with the levels measured at the first visits, but showed a decreasing trend. Children had moderate correlation (r=0.43) between serum and dust concentrations of PFOS, indicating indoor sources contribute to exposure. In conclusion, besides food intake, occupational exposure, consumer product use, and exposure to residential dust contribute to PFC exposure. The downward temporal trend of serum concentrations reflects the reduction of PFCs use in recent years while the year-to-year correlation indicates that a single serum measurement could be an estimate of exposure relative to the population for a one-year period in epidemiology studies. PMID:25460645

Wu, Xiangmei May; Bennett, Deborah H; Calafat, Antonia M; Kato, Kayoko; Strynar, Mark; Andersen, Erik; Moran, Rebecca E; Tancredi, Daniel J; Tulve, Nicolle S; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

2015-01-01

470

A novel Multi-Fiber Optode sensor system (MuFO) for monitoring oxygen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the marine environment, dissolved oxygen concentrations often vary significantly spatially as well as temporally. Monitoring these variations is essential for our understanding of the biological and chemical processes controlling the oxygen dynamics in water columns and sediments. Such investigations require a high number of measuring points and a high temporal resolution. A Multi-Fiber Optode sensor system (MuFO) was designed to assess these requirements. The MuFO system simultaneously controls 100 fiber optodes enabling continuous monitoring of oxygen in 100 positions within a 5-10m radius. The measurements are based on quenching of an oxygen sensitive luminophore, which is immobilised at the end of each fiber optode. The optical oxygen measurements are based on lifetime-imaging, which are converted into oxygen concentrations using a multipoint calibration. At a constant temperature of 21C, the system overall had a mean accuracy of 1.3%, a precision of 0.2% air saturation, the average 90% response time was 16 seconds and the detection limit was 0.1% air saturation. The MuFO set-up was build into a waterproof titanium casing for marine field applications. The system is battery-powered and has a maximum operational capacity of 15 hours for continuous measurements. The MuFO system was recently used for various research tasks in the marine environment: Mounted on a lander, the in situ MuFO system was used for investigations of oxygen dynamics in marine water columns placing the fiber optodes in a vertical line on a 7m high pole. For studies of oxygen dynamics in marine wetland rhizospheres, the sensing ends of the fiber optodes were covered with a 50cm protective sleeve made from stainless steel tubing, and the sensors were manually pushed into the rhizosphere. For laboratory measurements of sediment oxygen demand, the MuFO system was used to simultaneously monitor the oxygen consumption in multiple sediment slurry incubations. The MuFO system proved to be a useful tool for field studies as well as in the laboratory and the system has multiple applications in marine research. This work was supported by the 7th framework EU-projects SENSEnet and HYPOX.

Koop-Jakobsen, K.; Fischer, J.; Wenzhöfer, F.

2012-04-01

471

a Comparison Between Active and Passive Techniques for Underwater 3d Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the field of 3D scanning, there is an increasing need for more accurate technologies to acquire 3D models of close range objects. Underwater exploration, for example, is very hard to perform due to the hostile conditions and the bad visibility of the environment. Some application fields, like underwater archaeology, require to recover tridimensional data of objects that cannot be moved from their site or touched in order to avoid possible damages. Photogrammetry is widely used for underwater 3D acquisition, because it requires just one or two digital still or video cameras to acquire a sequence of images taken from different viewpoints. Stereo systems composed by a pair of cameras are often employed on underwater robots (i.e. ROVs, Remotely Operated Vehicles) and used by scuba divers, in order to survey archaeological sites, reconstruct complex 3D structures in aquatic environment, estimate in situ the length of