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1

Simplified Waterproofing of Aerogels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A relatively simple silanization process has been developed for waterproofing or rewaterproofing aerogels, xerogels, and aerogel/tile composites, and other, similar low-density, highly microporous materials. Such materials are potentially attractive for a variety of applications especially for thermal-insulation panels that are required to be thin and lightweight. Unfortunately, such materials are also hydrophilic and tend to collapse after adsorbing water from the air. Hence, an effective means of waterproofing is necessary to enable practical exploitation of aerogels and the like. Older processes for waterproofing aerogels are time-consuming, labor-intensive, and expensive, relative to the present process. Each of the older processes includes a number of different chemical treatment steps, and some include the use of toxic halogenated surface-modifying compounds, pressures as high as hundreds of atmospheres, and/or temperatures as high as 1,000 C.

Hsu, Ming-Ta S.; Chen, Timothy S.; White, Susan; Rasky, Daniel J.

2003-01-01

2

TryEngineering: Nano Waterproofing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson plan that explores how nanotechnology has impacted the design and engineering of many everyday items, from paint to fabrics. Students learn about the hydrophobic effect (the tendency of a substance to repel water). In this lesson for Grades 6-10, students learn about nanotechnology and its application in creating waterproof surfaces. They will then work in teams to develop a waterproof material and compare their results with nano waterproof materials developed recently by engineers and scientists. The driving question of the lesson: How are products re-engineered at the nano level to develop desired properties? The lesson includes objectives and learner outcomes, problem sets, student guides, recommended reading, illustrated procedures, worksheets, and background information. Editor's Note: The humble lotus leaf is one of nature's most water-repellant surfaces. That's because its surface sculpture has a very high static contact angle with water droplets. It features randomly oriented tiny wax tubules on top of convex-shaped cells. See Related Materials for links to an article from Scientific American describing how the lotus leaf has inspired the production of waterproofing materials, and for a link to a helpful scholarly article on Sculptured Biological Surfaces with Anti-Adhesive Properties. This collection is part of TryEngineering.org, a website maintained by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

2012-07-27

3

Organopolysiloxane Waterproofing Treatment for Porous Ceramics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rigid and flexible porous ceramics, including thermal insulation of a type used on space vehicles, are waterproofed by a treatment which comprises applying an aqueous solution of an organopolysiloxane water-proofing agent having reactive silanol groups to the surface of the ceramic and then heating the treated ceramic to form a waterproofed ceramic. The organopolysiloxane is formed by the hydrolysis and partial condensation of di- and trialkoxyfunctional alkylalkoxysilanes having 1-10 carbon atom hydrocarbyl groups.

Leiser, Daniel B. (Inventor); Cagliostro, Domenick E. (Inventor); Hsu, Ming-ta S. (Inventor); Chen, Timothy S. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

4

Polypropylene - asphalt mixtures for waterproofing membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In any field of polymer-asphalt mixtures application is extremely important to achieve a very good compatibility between the components in order to improve as much as possible the performances due to the polymer content. In the case of waterproofing membranes application this compatibility reduce, moreover, the amount of polymer required to obtain the best performances. Using the Colloidal Instability Index

P. Italia; E. Brandolese

1996-01-01

5

Insulating and waterproofing system for storage tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for insulating and waterproofing an underground chamber for storing liquified gas at cryogenic temperatures is described. A first liquid barrier against ingress of external liquid, such as water, is spaced from the top, sides, and floor of the chamber. A second liquid barrier, having at least a bottom and sides, to prevent egress of the liquid is spaced

B. E. Eakin; J. L. Jr. Crammer

1971-01-01

6

Imparting waterproof properties to cotton surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods are suggested and compositions are selected to endow the surfaces of textile goods made of cotton fabrics with waterproof\\u000a properties. The wetting angles are measured that water drops form with the coatings, made of fluorosilanes of different structures,\\u000a on the surfaces of cover glasses and fabric. It is shown that, if the aggregation of fluorosilane molecules takes place in

N. A. Ivanova; A. K. Zaretskaya

2011-01-01

7

Polypropylene - asphalt mixtures for waterproofing membranes  

SciTech Connect

In any field of polymer-asphalt mixtures application is extremely important to achieve a very good compatibility between the components in order to improve as much as possible the performances due to the polymer content. In the case of waterproofing membranes application this compatibility reduce, moreover, the amount of polymer required to obtain the best performances. Using the Colloidal Instability Index Ic, as measured by the Iatroscan device, we propose a correlation between asphalt`s chemical characteristics and the polymer minimum amount sufficient to disperse in a stable way the asphalt itself in the polymeric matrix. As a result, through the proposed correlation, with a simple asphalt composition analysis it is possible to predict its performance when mixed with polypropilene. In the paper, beside the description of the Iatroscan analytical technique, we also present a method for determining phase inversion based on optical fluorescence microscopy performed on about 30 different samples of asphalt. We also present the experimental correlation laws between the polymer amount at phase inversion and the asphalt single components content.

Italia, P.; Brandolese, E. [EURON S.p.A., Donato Milanese (Italy)

1996-12-31

8

Possible Concepts for Waterproofing of Norwegian TBM Railway Tunnels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to evaluate and compare the durability, life expectancy and maintenance needs of traditional Norwegian waterproofing concepts to the generally more rigid waterproofing concepts seen in other European countries. The focus will be on solutions for future Norwegian tunnel boring machine railway tunnels. Experiences from operation of newer and older tunnels with different waterproofing concepts have been gathered and analyzed. In the light of functional requirements for Norwegian rail tunnels, some preliminary conclusions about suitable concepts are drawn. Norwegian concepts such as polyethylene panels and lightweight concrete segments with membrane are ruled out. European concepts involving double shell draining systems (inner shell of cast concrete with membrane) and single shell undrained systems (waterproof concrete segments) are generally evaluated as favorable. Sprayable membranes and waterproof/insulating shotcrete are welcomed innovations, but more research is needed to verify their reliability and cost effectiveness compared to the typical European concepts. Increasing traffic and reliance on public transport systems in Norway result in high demand for durable and cost effective solutions.

Dammyr, Øyvind; Nilsen, Bjørn; Thuro, Kurosch; Grøndal, Jørn

2014-05-01

9

A Theory of Wood Waterproofing by Complexes of Metal Oxides with Lignin Structural Units  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of various metallic oxides and hydroxides on wood waterproofing was investigated. The waterproofing effect was attributed to the type of complexes formed by the metallic oxide with the guaiacol units of the lignin network of wood. The type of structure of the complex formed, as well as its insolubility, contribute to the wood waterproofing, although to a different

H. Kubel; A. Pizzi

1982-01-01

10

New Approaches to Waterproofing of Space Shuttle Insulating Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future reusable space vehicles will be in service much more frequently than current space shuttles. Therefore, rapid reconditioning of spacecraft will be required. Currently, the waterproofing of space shuttles after each re-entry takes 72 hours and requires substantial labor. In addition, the currently used waterproofing reagent, DiMethylEthoxySilane (DMES), is considered toxic, and ethanol fumes are released during its hydrolytic activation. Consequently, a long time period, which is not acceptable for future operations, is needed to ensure that 0 the excess volatile compounds are removed before further maintenance of the space vehicle can be performed. The objective of this project was to assist NASA Ames in finding improved waterproofing systems by identifying suitable waterproofing agents that can be applied by vapor phase deposition and will be less toxic, bond more rapidly to the insulation material surface, and potentially have higher thermal stability than the DMES system. Several approaches to achieve faster waterproofing with less toxicity were assessed using the following alternatives: Reactive volatile compounds that are rapidly deposited by chemical bonding at the surface and leave no toxic volatiles. Reactive reagents that are the least toxic. Nonvolatile reagents that are very reactive and bond strongly to the insulating material surface. Three specific types of potential reagents were chosen for evaluation in this project: 1. Volatile reagents with Si-Cl functional groups for vapor deposition 2. Volatile reagents with Si-H functional groups for vapor deposition 3. Nonvolatile oligomeric or polymeric reactive siloxanes that are assumed to have higher thermal stability and/or strong bonding to the insulating material. The chemistry involved in the project was targeted at the generation of intermediates having reactive Si-OH bonds for the formation of either volatile species or polymeric species that bond rapidly to the surface and also cure rapidly. We focused on two chemical reactions@-hydrolysis of Si-Cl bonds and catalytic dehydrocoupling of Si-H bonds.

Blum, Yigal D.; Johnson, Sylvia M.; Chen, Paul

1997-01-01

11

Efficient, environmentally acceptable method for waterproofing insulation material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process of waterproofing alumina-rich or silica-rich fibrous thermal insulation material, the process including the steps of: (a) providing an alumina-rich or a silica-rich fibrous material; (b) providing a waterproofing solution including: (1) a carrier solvent selected from the group consisting of aliphatic alcohols having from 1C to 6C, water, and mixtures thereof; and (2) an alkoxysilane defined by the formula R.sub.4-x -Si-(O-R').sub.x where x is 1-3 and R is selected from the group consisting of alkyl groups having from 1C to 10C, hydrogen, or fluorocarbon groups having from 1F to 15F; and where O-R' is an alkoxy group having from 1C to 5C, or a mixture of alkoxysilanes defined by the above formula R.sub.4-x -Si-(O-R').sub.x ; and optionally (3) modifiers including acids, such as acetic acid or nitric acid, or bases, such as ammonium hydroxide, RNH.sub.2, R.sub.2 NH, or R.sub.3 N, or MOH, where R is selected from the group consisting of alkyl groups having from 1C to 10C or hydrogen, and where M=Na, Li, or K; (c) contacting the fibrous material with the waterproofing solution for a sufficient amount of time to waterproof the fibrous material; and (d) curing the coated fibrous material to render it sufficiently waterproof. A chemical solution for waterproofing alumina-rich or silica-rich fibrous thermal insulation materials, the solution including: (a) a carrier solvent selected from the group consisting of aliphatic alcohols having from 1C to 6C, water, and mixtures thereof; and (b) an alkoxysilane defined by the formula R.sub.4-x -Si-(O-R').sub.x where x is 1-3 and R is selected from the group consisting of alkyl groups having from 1C to 10C, hydrogen, or fluorocarbon groups having from 1F to 15F; and where O-R' is an alkoxy group having from 1C to 5C, or a mixture of alkoxysilanes defined by the above formula R.sub.4-x -Si-(O-R').sub.x ; and optionally (c) modifiers including acids, such as acetic acid or nitric acid, or bases, such as ammonium hydroxide, RNH.sub.2, R.sub.2 NH, or R.sub.3 N, or MOH, where R is selected from the group consisting of alkyl groups having from 1C to 10C or hydrogen, and where M=Na, Li, or K.

Blohowiak, Kay Y. (Inventor); Krienke, Kenneth A. (Inventor); Olli, Larry K. (Inventor); Newquist, Charles W. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

12

Waterproofing and Strengthening Volcanic Tuff in Waste Repositories  

SciTech Connect

Waste repositories from surface trenches and shafts at Los Alamos to drilled tunnels at Yucca Mountain are being built in volcanic Tuff, a soft compacted material that is permeable to water and air. US Department of Energy documents on repository design identify the primary design goal of 'preventing water from reaching the waste canisters, dissolving the canisters and carrying the radioactive waste particles away from the repository'. Designers expect to achieve this by use of multiple barriers along with careful placement of the repository both well above the water table and well above the ground level in a mountain. Though repositories are located in areas that have a historically dry climate to minimize the impact of rainfall infiltration, global warming phenomena may have the potential to alter regional climate patterns - potentially leading to higher infiltration rates. Conventional methods of sealing fractures within volcanic tuff may not be sufficiently robust or long lived to isolate a repository shaft from water for the required duration. A new grouting technology based on molten wax shows significant promise for producing the kind of long term sealing performance required. Molten wax is capable of permeating a significant distance through volcanic tuff, as well as sealing fractures by permeation that is thermally dependent instead of chemically or time dependent. The wax wicks into and saturates tuff even if no fractures are present, but penetrates and fills only the heated area. Heated portions of the rock fill like a vessel. The taffy-like wax has been shown to waterproof the tuff, and significantly increase its resistance to fracture. This wax was used in 2004 for grouting of buried radioactive beryllium waste at the Idaho National Laboratory, chiefly to stop the water based corrosion reactions of the waste. The thermoplastic material contains no water and does not dry out or change with age. Recent studies indicate that this kind of wax material may be inherently resistant to bio-degradation. (authors)

Carter, E.E.; Carter, P.E. [Technologies Co, Texas (United States); Cooper, D.C. [Ph.D. Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

2008-07-01

13

Common Roofing and Waterproofing Materials and Equipment. Roofing Workbook and Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication on common roofing and waterproofing materials and equipment is one of a series of units of instruction for roofing apprenticeship classes. The workbook portion is divided into eight topics: production of bitumens and asphalt roofing materials, built-up materials and adhesives, asphalt products and rigid roofing materials,…

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Publications.

14

AMER. ZOOL., 38:471-482 (1998) Water-Proofing Properties of Cuticular Lipids1  

E-print Network

AMER. ZOOL., 38:471-482 (1998) Water-Proofing Properties of Cuticular Lipids1 ALLEN G. GIBBS2 of cuticular lipids appear to depend largely on their physical properties. In most arthropods, rates of water) that the transition in water loss rate is due to a change in the properties of the lipid layer. Specifically

Ahmad, Sajjad

15

Bored By Non-Glowing Skin? Ultra-Flexible, Waterproof LED Implants Are What You Seek  

E-print Network

Bored By Non-Glowing Skin? Ultra-Flexible, Waterproof LED Implants Are What You Seek By Alasdair Wilkins/io9 Posted 10.19.2010 at 12:15 pm LED Lights Could Be Implanted Under Skin Photo courtesy of iO9 LEDs are, on small scales, the cheapest, most reliable, and most technologically powerful light sources

Rogers, John A.

16

Heat-insulating and waterproofing coatings of epoxy-coal tar foamed plastics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Laboratory and full-scale investigations showed the possibility of using coatings of epoxy-coal tar foamed plastic for insulation-waterproofing\\u000a of hydraulic structures in regions with a rigorous climate.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a It was established that in the case of the same insulating effect the insulation-waterproofing of epoxycoal tar foamed plastics\\u000a is one of the most economical in the construction of structures by

V. I. Sakharov

1975-01-01

17

Ultrastructural organization of avian stratum corneum lipids as the basis for facultative cutaneous waterproofing.  

PubMed

The ultrastructure of naked neck epidermis from the ostrich (Struthio camelus) and ventral apterium from watered, and water-deprived, Zebra finches (Taeniopygia [Poephila] guttata castanotis) is presented. The form and distribution of the fully differentiated products of the lipid-enriched multigranular bodies are compared in biopsies post-fixed with osmium tetroxide or ruthenium tetroxide. The fine structure of ostrich epidermis suggests it is a relatively poor barrier to cutaneous water loss (CWL). The fine structure from watered, and 16-hr water-deprived Zebra finches, considered in conjunction with measurements of CWL, confirms previous reports of "facultative waterproofing," and emphasizes the rapidity of tissue response to dehydration. The seemingly counterintuitive facts that one xerophilic avian species, the ostrich, lacks a "good barrier" to CWL, whereas another, the Zebra finch, is capable of forming a good barrier, but does not always express this capability, are discussed. An explanation of these data in comparison to mammals centers on the dual roles of the integument of homeotherms in thermoregulation and conserving body water. It is concluded that birds, whose homeothermic control depends so much on CWL, cannot possess a permanent "good barrier," as such would compromise the heat loss mechanism. Facultative waterproofing (also documented in lizards) protects the organism against sudden reductions in water availability. In birds, and probably in snakes and lizards, facultative waterproofing involves qualitative changes in epidermal cell differentiation. Possible control mechanisms are discussed. PMID:8568904

Menon, G K; Maderson, P F; Drewes, R C; Baptista, L F; Price, L F; Elias, P M

1996-01-01

18

Toxicity study of dimethylethoxysilane (DMSES), the waterproofing agent for the Orbiter heat protective system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

DMES, a volatile liquid, is used by NASA to waterproof the Orbiter thermal protective system. During waterproofing operations at the Oribter Processing Facility at KSC, workers could be exposed to DMES vapor. To assess the toxicity of DMES, acute and subchronic (2-week and 13-week) inhalation studies were conducted with rats. Studies were also conducted to assess the potential of DMES. Inhalation exposure concentrations ranged from 40 ppm to 4000 ppm. No mortality was observed during the studies. Exposures to 2100 ppm produced narcosis and ataxia. Post-exposure recovery from these CNS effects was rapid (less than 1 hr). These effects were concentration-dependent and relatively independent of exposure length. Exposure to 3000 ppm for 2 weeks (5 h/d, 5 d/wk) produced testicular toxicity. The 13-week study yielded similar results. Results from the genotoxicity assays (in vivo/in vitro unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat primary heptaocytes, chromosomal aberrations in rat bone marrow cells; reverse gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium; and forward mutation in Chinese hamster culture cells) were negative. These studies indicated that DMES is mildly to moderately toxic but not a multagen.

Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.; Dodd, Darol; Stuart, Bruce; Rothenberg, Simon; Kershaw, Mary Ann; Thilagar, A.

1993-01-01

19

FTIR Study of Vapor Offgassing from Orbiter Tile Re-Waterproofing Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work presented in this paper was performed to identify and quantify the offgassing behavior of alternative re-waterproofmg materials under investigation for application to Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System (TPS) tile and blanket materials. The purpose was to determine whether the new materials would cause a problem with the operational analysis of residual vapors using the current portable vapor analyzer, a Miran 203. The materials investigated were limited to dimethylethoxysilane (DMES) and proposed solvent selected as suitable for use in re-waterproofing Orbiter TPS. The solvent was selected in another phase of the overall project. Obiter TPS tiles were injected with the re-waterproofing materials under constant conditions of temperature, relative humidity and air flow. The vapor concentrations of offgassing materials were monitored using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) multi-component analysis, and with the Miran 203 instruments. The procedure was to record the time dependent concentrations of offgassing materials as analyzed by the FTIR, and the time response of the Miran 203 to the materials under consideration. The FTIR was calibrated for vapor phase DMES, tetramethyldisiloxane (TMDS), ethanol and the hydrocarbon solvents to be used to dilute the DMES for application to the TPS tile. The Miran 203 was calibrated for the operational measurement of DMES airborne vapors. The FTIR data, shows for the first time that the principal product which offgases from the tile after the first hour is not DMES, but TMDS and ethanol. The Miran 203 response to TMDS is the primary reading after the re-waterproofing operation is completed. The operational use of the Miran 203 to measure DMES vapors after re-waterproofmg operations has been responding to TMDS. The results of this study suggest that the historical complaints that have contributed to the low threshold limit value (TLV) for DMES concentrations, as read with the Miran 203, are actually based on instrumental responses to TMDS, for which no other toxicology information is available at this time. While there is some interference, the use of the tested hydrocarbon solvents does not adversely affect the response of the Miran 203.

Mattson, C. B.

1999-01-01

20

Waterproof and translucent wings at the same time: problems and solutions in butterflies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the colour of butterflies attracts the most attention, the waterproofing properties of their wings are also extremely interesting. Most butterfly wings are considered “super-hydrophobic” because the contact angle (CA) with a water drop exceeds 150°. Usually, butterfly wings are covered with strongly overlapping scales; however, in the case of transparent or translucent wings, scale cover is reduced; thus, the hydrophobicity could be affected. Here, we present a comparative analysis of wing hydrophobicity and its dependence on morphology for two species with translucent wings Parantica sita (Nymphalidae) and Parnassius glacialis (Papilionidae). These species have very different life histories: P. sita lives for up to 6 months as an adult and migrates over long distance, whereas P. glacialis lives for less than 1 month and does not migrate. We measured the water CA and analysed wing morphology with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. P. sita has super-hydrophobic wing surfaces, with CA > 160°, whereas P. glacialis did not (CA = 100-135°). Specialised scales were found on the translucent portions of P. sita wings. These scales were ovoid and much thinner than common scales, erect at about 30°, and leaving up to 80% of the wing surface uncovered. The underlying bare wing surface had a remarkable pattern of ridges and knobs. P. glacialis also had over 80% of the wing surface uncovered, but the scales were either setae-like or spade-like. The bare surface of the wing had an irregular wavy smooth pattern. We suggest a mode of action that allows this super-hydrophobic effect with an incompletely covered wing surface. The scales bend, but do not collapse, under the pressure of a water droplet, and the elastic recovery of the structure at the borders of the droplet allows a high apparent CA. Thus, P. sita can be translucent without losing its waterproof properties. This characteristic is likely necessary for the long life and migration of this species. This is the first study of some of the effects on the hydrophobicity of translucency through scales’ cover reduction in butterfly wings and on the morphology associated with improved waterproofing.

Perez Goodwyn, Pablo; Maezono, Yasunori; Hosoda, Naoe; Fujisaki, Kenji

2009-07-01

21

Fast optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy using a 2-axis water-proofing MEMS scanner.  

PubMed

Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is a novel label-free microscopic imaging tool to provide in vivo optical absorbing contrasts. Specially, it is crucial to equip a real-time imaging capability without sacrificing high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for identifying and tracking specific diseases in OR-PAM. Herein we demonstrate a 2-axis water-proofing MEMS scanner made of flexible PDMS. This flexible scanner results in a wide scanning range (9 × 4?mm(2) in a transverse plane) and a fast imaging speed (5 B-scan images per second). Further, the MEMS scanner is fabricated in a compact footprint with a size of 15 × 15 × 15?mm(3). More importantly, the scanning ability in water makes the MEMS scanner possible to confocally and simultaneously reflect both ultrasound and laser, and consequently we can maintain high SNRs. The lateral and axial resolutions of the OR-PAM system are 3.6 and 27.7??m, respectively. We have successfully monitored the flow of carbon particles in vitro with a volumetric display frame rate of 0.14?Hz. Finally, we have successfully obtained in vivo PA images of microvasculatures in a mouse ear. It is expected that our compact and fast OR-PAM system can be significantly useful in both preclinical and clinical applications. PMID:25604654

Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Changho; Park, Kyungjin; Lim, Geunbae; Kim, Chulhong

2015-01-01

22

Fast optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy using a 2-axis water-proofing MEMS scanner  

PubMed Central

Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is a novel label-free microscopic imaging tool to provide in vivo optical absorbing contrasts. Specially, it is crucial to equip a real-time imaging capability without sacrificing high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for identifying and tracking specific diseases in OR-PAM. Herein we demonstrate a 2-axis water-proofing MEMS scanner made of flexible PDMS. This flexible scanner results in a wide scanning range (9 × 4?mm2 in a transverse plane) and a fast imaging speed (5 B-scan images per second). Further, the MEMS scanner is fabricated in a compact footprint with a size of 15 × 15 × 15?mm3. More importantly, the scanning ability in water makes the MEMS scanner possible to confocally and simultaneously reflect both ultrasound and laser, and consequently we can maintain high SNRs. The lateral and axial resolutions of the OR-PAM system are 3.6 and 27.7??m, respectively. We have successfully monitored the flow of carbon particles in vitro with a volumetric display frame rate of 0.14?Hz. Finally, we have successfully obtained in vivo PA images of microvasculatures in a mouse ear. It is expected that our compact and fast OR-PAM system can be significantly useful in both preclinical and clinical applications. PMID:25604654

Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Changho; Park, Kyungjin; Lim, Geunbae; Kim, Chulhong

2015-01-01

23

Ovarian Dual Oxidase (Duox) Activity Is Essential for Insect Eggshell Hardening and Waterproofing*  

PubMed Central

In insects, eggshell hardening involves cross-linking of chorion proteins via their tyrosine residues. This process is catalyzed by peroxidases at the expense of H2O2 and confers physical and biological protection to the developing embryo. Here, working with Rhodnius prolixus, the insect vector of Chagas disease, we show that an ovary dual oxidase (Duox), a NADPH oxidase, is the source of the H2O2 that supports dityrosine-mediated protein cross-linking and eggshell hardening. RNAi silencing of Duox activity decreased H2O2 generation followed by a failure in embryo development caused by a reduced resistance to water loss, which, in turn, caused embryos to dry out following oviposition. Phenotypes of Duox-silenced eggs were reversed by incubation in a water-saturated atmosphere, simultaneous silencing of the Duox and catalase genes, or H2O2 injection into the female hemocoel. Taken together, our results show that Duox-generated H2O2 fuels egg chorion hardening and that this process plays an essential role during eggshell waterproofing. PMID:24174530

Dias, Felipe A.; Gandara, Ana Caroline P.; Queiroz-Barros, Fernanda G.; Oliveira, Raquel L. L.; Sorgine, Marcos H. F.; Braz, Glória R. C.; Oliveira, Pedro L.

2013-01-01

24

Fast optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy using a 2-axis water-proofing MEMS scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is a novel label-free microscopic imaging tool to provide in vivo optical absorbing contrasts. Specially, it is crucial to equip a real-time imaging capability without sacrificing high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for identifying and tracking specific diseases in OR-PAM. Herein we demonstrate a 2-axis water-proofing MEMS scanner made of flexible PDMS. This flexible scanner results in a wide scanning range (9 × 4 mm2 in a transverse plane) and a fast imaging speed (5 B-scan images per second). Further, the MEMS scanner is fabricated in a compact footprint with a size of 15 × 15 × 15 mm3. More importantly, the scanning ability in water makes the MEMS scanner possible to confocally and simultaneously reflect both ultrasound and laser, and consequently we can maintain high SNRs. The lateral and axial resolutions of the OR-PAM system are 3.6 and 27.7 ?m, respectively. We have successfully monitored the flow of carbon particles in vitro with a volumetric display frame rate of 0.14 Hz. Finally, we have successfully obtained in vivo PA images of microvasculatures in a mouse ear. It is expected that our compact and fast OR-PAM system can be significantly useful in both preclinical and clinical applications.

Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Changho; Park, Kyungjin; Lim, Geunbae; Kim, Chulhong

2015-01-01

25

Fish oil disrupts seabird feather microstructure and waterproofing.  

PubMed

Seabirds and other aquatic avifauna are highly sensitive to exposure to petroleum oils. A small amount of oil is sufficient to break down the feather barrier that is necessary to prevent water penetration and hypothermia. Far less attention has been paid to potential effects on aquatic birds of so called 'edible oils', non-petroleum oils such as vegetable and fish oils. In response to a sardine oil discharge by a vessel off the coast of British Columbia, we conducted an experiment to assess if feather exposure to sheens of sardine oil (ranging from 0.04 to 3 ?m in thickness) resulted in measurable oil and water uptake and significant feather microstructure disruption. We designed the experiment based on a previous experiment on effects of petroleum oils on seabird feathers. Feathers exposed to the thinnest fish oil sheens (0.04 ?m) resulted in measurable feather weight gain (from oil and water uptake) and significant feather microstructure disruption. Both feather weight gain and microstructure disruption increased with increasing fish oil thickness. Because of the absence of primary research on effects of edible oils on sea birds, we conducted interviews with wildlife rehabilitation professionals with experience rehabilitating sea birds after edible oil exposure. The consensus from interviews and our experiment indicated that physical contact with fish and other 'edible oils' in the marine environment is at least as harmful to seabirds as petroleum oils. PMID:25089687

Morandin, Lora A; O'Hara, Patrick D

2014-10-15

26

[Synthesis, characterization and blood compatibility studies of waterproof breathable polyurethanes].  

PubMed

Adopting the two-step method and changing the proportion between PEG (Polyethylene glycol) and PTMG (poly (tetrahydrofuran), we used the MDI (4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate) and short chain extender BDO (1,4-butanediol) as hard segment, the PTMG and PEG as soft segment, and hence prepared a series of polyether-based thermoplastic polyurethanes. FTIR showed the structure character of these polyurethanes. The determination of mechanics property and water contact angles revealed their good mechanics properties and hydrophilicity. Blood compatibility was evaluated by hemolysis test and platelet adhesion test, which revealed their good hemocompatibility. So those polyurethanes may be of wide application in the future. PMID:16156261

Wang, Peng; Luo, Jianbin; Du, Minhui; He, Chengsheng; Fan, Cuirong; Zhong, Yinping

2005-08-01

27

An Analysis of Simultaneous Heat and Water Vapour Transfer through Waterproof Breathable Fabrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perforated metal cylinders were used to investigate simultaneous heat and water vapour transfer through breathable fabrics. The analysis of the condensa tion problem made use of the heat loss and water vapour loss lines obtained from ex periments. An attempt was made to solve the problem of condensation within a clothing system by adjusting a saturation line and water vapour

J. E. Ruckman

1997-01-01

28

Roofing: Workbook and Tests. Common Roofing and Waterproofing Materials and Equipment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook on materials and equipment is one of a series of nine individual units of instruction for roofing apprenticeship classes in California. The workbook covers eight topics: production of bitumens and asphaltic roofing materials; built-up roofing materials and adhesives; asphaltic products and rigid roofing materials; elastomeric and…

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Publications.

29

Drosophila melanogaster Acetyl-CoA-Carboxylase Sustains a Fatty Acid–Dependent Remote Signal to Waterproof the Respiratory System  

PubMed Central

Fatty acid (FA) metabolism plays a central role in body homeostasis and related diseases. Thus, FA metabolic enzymes are attractive targets for drug therapy. Mouse studies on Acetyl-coenzymeA-carboxylase (ACC), the rate-limiting enzyme for FA synthesis, have highlighted its homeostatic role in liver and adipose tissue. We took advantage of the powerful genetics of Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the role of the unique Drosophila ACC homologue in the fat body and the oenocytes. The fat body accomplishes hepatic and storage functions, whereas the oenocytes are proposed to produce the cuticular lipids and to contribute to the hepatic function. RNA–interfering disruption of ACC in the fat body does not affect viability but does result in a dramatic reduction in triglyceride storage and a concurrent increase in glycogen accumulation. These metabolic perturbations further highlight the role of triglyceride and glycogen storage in controlling circulatory sugar levels, thereby validating Drosophila as a relevant model to explore the tissue-specific function of FA metabolic enzymes. In contrast, ACC disruption in the oenocytes through RNA–interference or tissue-targeted mutation induces lethality, as does oenocyte ablation. Surprisingly, this lethality is associated with a failure in the watertightness of the spiracles—the organs controlling the entry of air into the trachea. At the cellular level, we have observed that, in defective spiracles, lipids fail to transfer from the spiracular gland to the point of air entry. This phenotype is caused by disrupted synthesis of a putative very-long-chain-FA (VLCFA) within the oenocytes, which ultimately results in a lethal anoxic issue. Preventing liquid entry into respiratory systems is a universal issue for air-breathing animals. Here, we have shown that, in Drosophila, this process is controlled by a putative VLCFA produced within the oenocytes. PMID:22956916

Rubin, Thomas; Poidevin, Mickael; Perrin, Laurent; Wicker-Thomas, Claude; Montagne, Jacques

2012-01-01

30

Waterproofing the Heme Pocket ROLE OF PROXIMAL AMINO ACID SIDE CHAINS IN PREVENTING HEMIN LOSS FROM MYOGLOBIN*  

E-print Network

of the first imidazole base in aqueous solution, causing the apparent equilibrium dissociation con- stant hydration of the His93 -Fe(III) bond and are highly conserved in all known myoglobins and hemoglobins. Three of the porphyrin are buried in the protein interior and stabilized by hydrophobic interactions with apolar side

Phillips, George N. Jr.

31

Thermal insulating and waterproofing of masonry structures by entrapment of multilayered dead air spaces with use of high speed injected liquid-air stream  

SciTech Connect

A thermally insulated masonry wall is disclosed, comprising a plurality of thermally insulated barrier layers extending laterally inwardly from the surface of the wall. This is accomplished by placing a nozzle against the surface of the wall and blasting a pulsating air stream containing a thermal insulating liquid which penetrates through the surface of the wall to provide a first barrier layer embedded deeply in the wall and laterally spaced inwardly from its surface. A second operation provides a second but shallower barrier layer. This can be followed by a third or more applications. Each of the resulting barrier layers comprises particles of masonry material coated with thermal insulating liquid and entrapping air in the interstices formed by the coated masonry particles.

Wyner, J.S.

1983-07-26

32

76 FR 6614 - Notice of a Regional Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...manufactured in Surrey, British Columbia, for a hot applied membrane waterproofing system for...manufactured in Surrey, British Columbia, for a hot applied membrane waterproofing system for...is being incorporated into the reinforced hot-applied waterproofing system to...

2011-02-07

33

UNC Charlotte PORTAL Building Trade Package Base Bid  

E-print Network

Company 873,500 7,940 Davco Roofing & Sheet Metal 620,000 8,500 Eastern Corporation 831,300 16 Services 516,000 9,500 07002 Caulking and Sealant Alpha Insulation & Waterproofing 88,000 900 East Coast Restoration & Waterproofing, Inc. 90,000 Strickland waterproofing Company, Inc. 65,700 Metro 161 390Metro 161

Kelly, Scott David

34

TTUS FP&C Design & Building Standards Division 7 Thermal & Moisture Protection  

E-print Network

be watertight without depending on any metal flashing or coping. Waterproofing Contractors are to engage install all roof flashings required to make a complete waterproof installation. Roofing system shall fulltime competent site representatives to supervise the installation of the waterproofing materials

Gelfond, Michael

35

SPROVERSPROVER Surf Profiling Remotely OperatedSurf Profiling Remotely Operated  

E-print Network

Body wrapped in carbon fiber forBody wrapped in carbon fiber for waterproof seal at flange O--ringring Cast Acrylic EndCast Acrylic End----transparencytransparency Waterproof connectorsWaterproof ¼"¼" sections ofsections of sheet metalsheet metal Rigid design with easyRigid design with easy usageusage Strap

Wood, Stephen L.

36

OTHER ITEMS, not in standard kits: Safe Aid Peha Haft -Conforming Bandage 8cm x 4m 2.27  

E-print Network

- Waterproof (Box of 6) N18.5103£22.95 Signs (First Aid) Sign: Metal 'First Aiders' 200mm (W) x 200mm (H) L 100) N18.546£3.30 Plasters - FABRIC Salvequick COMPLETE Units - (for Fabric and Waterproof Plasters) N18.5100£19.30 Salvequick - Fabric (Box of 6) N18.5105£28.50 Plasters - WATERPROOF Salvequick

Anderson, Jim

37

May2013Update Growing Together  

E-print Network

will be installed. Jerome L. Greene Science Center Steel framing, metal deck installation, concrete placement, waterproofing work and erection of the construction hoist. Manhattanville Valley Viaduct Preparation Work

Kaiser, Gail E.

38

2009 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University 2908-1407 Virginia Cooperative Extension programs and employment are open to all, regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, o  

E-print Network

Medical History & Any Medications Proof of Ownership (in waterproof bag) Registration Papers Photos Microchip/Brand/Tattoo Numbers Age, Breed, Sex, Physical Description First Aid Kit Bandages Adhesive

Liskiewicz, Maciej

39

JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 14, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2005 1023 Micromachined Thermal Shear-Stress Sensor for  

E-print Network

diaphragm. Special challenges for underwater measurements, such as the waterproof coating and minimization's pressure crosstalk have been discussed. Parylene C is chosen as the waterproof material for the underwater.1109/JMEMS.2005.856644 depositing thin metal film (mostly platinum or nickel) resistors on flat substrates

Lin, Qiao

40

31Home Power #16 April/May 1990 Code Corner  

E-print Network

, are generally waterproof. To maintain the UL listing for modules so listed, the interconnect cables must enter junction boxes are standard half inch electrical trade size. You can pay over $3 for metal, water tight.50 each. Some newer modules have waterproof gaskets and strain relief built in. Modules with and without

Johnson, Eric E.

41

NEW AND IMPROVED DEVICES FOR FISH CULTURISTS By Alfred E. Fuller  

E-print Network

, is provided with a waterproof record holder and indicator projecting above the water. The nest proper of the pond. The shield and container are coated with paint. The record holder consists of a waterproof case of 12 rectangular pieces of thin sheet metal, preferably copper, 2U by 5 inches, with rolled edges

42

The Pennsylvania State University OFFICE OF PHYSICAL PLANT  

E-print Network

...............................................04-1 Rev. DIVISION 05 ­ METALS Page Date 05 00 00 Metals 05-1 05 00 10 Owner General Requirements-1 07 10 00 Dampproofing and Waterproofing.................................07-1 .01 Waterproofing.......................................07-2 07 60 00 Flashing and Sheet Metal.......................................07-2 .01 Flashing

Yener, Aylin

43

YMCA Camp Chingachgook Adventure Trips Adventure Groups Rock Climbing Trip Packing List  

E-print Network

Rain Pants & Parka* ­ must be waterproof, breathable, durable nylon or comparable material Windshirt style with patch kit* Sleeping Bag* ­ (Synthetic insulation) with waterproof stuff sack or garbage bag, etc. Spoon ­ Metal teaspoon, tablespoon, or spork Bowl ­ Durable plastic or lexan; 8-10" in diameter

Linhardt, Robert J.

44

, T.V.Shymchuk , I.V.Stasyuk, T.S.Mysakovych  

E-print Network

reserves of the stuff it is promising to use them for building waterproof ground constructions, i and waterproof properties (klinoptylolite, vermiculite). Hence, even though Ukraine possesses large reserve of metals Fe3+, Cu2+, Al3+, Cr3+, etc. when the clay mineral is used as a ma- trix for mapping of high-performance s

45

YMCA Camp Chingachgook Adventure Trips Adventure Groups Sailing Trip Packing List  

E-print Network

* ­ must be waterproof, breathable, durable nylon or comparable material Windshirt or Jacket ­ quick* Sleeping Bag* ­ (Synthetic insulation) with waterproof stuff sack or garbage bag-line stuff sack ­ Travel size biodegradable soap, toothbrush, toothpaste, deodorant, etc. Spoon ­ Metal teaspoon

Linhardt, Robert J.

46

Further information Other leaflets in this series  

E-print Network

metal D-lock. More information on different types of locks is given in the Cycling: security matters or underpants, layers of clothing, water bottle, snacks, maps. All-weather cycling: waterproof jacket and a shower/waterproof top with zips (to help adjust to temperature changes) can be packed in your bag just

Bristol, University of

47

"Copyright (c) 2008 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to use this material for any other purposes must be obtained from the IEEE by sending an email to pubs-permissions@ieee.org."  

E-print Network

, and provides a hollow core to pass instrumentation. A soft elastomer flexure design maintains a waterproof seal due to the dynamic movement and pressures within the heart. The proposed design avoids metal flexures in favor of an elastomer element, which ensures a waterproof seal, simplifies construction, and enhances

48

Water-Repellency Probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrument yielding presence or absence of waterproofing agent at any given depth in blanket developed. In original application, blankets in question part of space shuttle thermal protection system. Instrument utilized to determine extent of waterproofing "burnout" due to re-entry heating and adverse environment exposure.

Rosen, Charles D.; Mitchell, Shirley M.; Jolly, Stanley R.; Jackson, Richard G.; Fleming, Scott T.; Roberts, William J.; Bell, Daniel R., III

1996-01-01

49

Chapter 10 -Common Zoonoses in Agriculture  

E-print Network

the wound with a waterproof dressing. Consider whether you need first-aid training; · Cover existing cuts equipment or tools likely to cause cuts, abrasions or puncture wounds; · When taking blood samples, use and abrasions on exposed skin with waterproof dressings before beginning work - some organisms enter the body

50

Library of Science & Medicine Roof Replacement and Related Work December 11, 2000 DSR # 0059-00 BSH  

E-print Network

an inappropriate dollar amount. Back-up may include detailed labor estimates, material cost data, etc. The Owner demolition; labor. g. Rough carpentry; materials. h. Rough carpentry; labor. i. Roof drains; material. j. Roof drains; labor. k. Waterproof vapor barrier; material. l. Waterproof vapor barrier; labor. m

51

Winter Ecology of Birds Field Course -What to Bring binoculars -the best you can find; excellent binoculars will improve your experience on  

E-print Network

long hikes and as the day warms up · warm winter hat · warm, waterproof mittens / gloves · warm, waterproof winter boots (and lots of socks) · knapsack to carry equipment, clothes, etc. · water bottle and/or thermos for hikes · snacks for hikes - all meals are provided, and you can make sandwiches early

Martin, Paul R.

52

The PennsylvaniaStateUniversity HUB-RobesonAddition and Renovation  

E-print Network

SouthEast,Level2 #12;© Gilbane Building Co., Inc. B2 LevelStairStringers #12;© Gilbane Building Co., Inc. Bookstore · Install Bookstore Framing · Waterproof Plaza Deck · Waterproof Bookstore Green Roof · Pour HUB Parking

53

Household Products Database: Personal Care  

MedlinePLUS

... jewelry cleaner kids leather/fabric waterproofing legs lice shampoo lip balm lipcolor lipcolor remover liquid mascara moisturizing ... pre-lightener preshave protective hand cream semi-permanent shampoo shampoo & conditioner combo shampoo & conditioner, dandruff shampoo, dandruff ...

54

Force Feedback In Surgery: Physical Constraints and Haptic Information  

E-print Network

drift over ve minutes) is comparable to a similarly sized metal element sensor built using standard surgical tasks, waterproof, and insensitive to temperature changes. Adapting the SDM design for mass

55

UC Berkeley Art Museum and Pacific Film Archive Construction update  

E-print Network

and concrete basement floors and walls. Other work includes waterproofing and placement of fill. The next pours days next week. Welding and placement of metal decks will follow the beam installation. * The Press

Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

56

Board of Regents University System of Georgia Architecture and Engineering Design Standards  

E-print Network

030000- Concrete 68 040000- Masonry 69 050000- Metals 70 061000- Rough Carpentry 71 064000- Architectural Woodwork 72 071000- Dampproofing and Waterproofing 73 072100- Thermal Insulation 74 075000 Membrane Roofing

57

Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology Information sheet  

E-print Network

contaminants or metals found in waters at very low concentrations (billionths to millionths of a gram per litre care products, waterproofing agents, detergents, paints, etc., which find their way into natural waters

Wehrli, Bernhard

58

Axisymmetric solitary waves on the surface of a ferrofluid E. Bourdin, J.-C. Bacri, and E. Falcon  

E-print Network

-carrying metallic tube. According to the ratio between the magnetic and capillary forces, both elevation through hollow waterproof screws. A dc electrical current, I, in the range 0­100 A is applied

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

59

Access Control and Revocation User Activity and Event Tracking  

E-print Network

of All Data Dual Channel, High Performance Architecture Ruggedized, Tamper-Resistant & Waterproof *Secure Rugged and Physically Secure Your IronKey is an investment that will last for years. Its rugged metal

MacMillan, Andrew

60

The Lite Bite An Illuminating Bite Block for Improving Oral Care in Developing Nations  

E-print Network

on and off by pushing the metal rod 5. Dental Prop The dental prop is the bulk of our device keeps the patient's mouth comfortably open The dental prop is made of ABS plastic and waterproofed in acrylic

McGaughey, Alan

61

Observation of Axisymmetric Solitary Waves on the Surface of a Ferrofluid E. Bourdin, J.-C. Bacri, and E. Falcon*  

E-print Network

magnetic fluid layer surrounding a current-carrying metallic tube. According to the ratio between waterproof screws. A dc electri- cal current I in the range 0­100 A is applied to the cylindrical conductor

Falcon, Eric

62

Effect of Sn addition on the corrosion behavior of Ti-Ta alloy B. Guo, Y. X. Tong, F. Chen, Y. F. Zheng*, L. Li and C. Y. Chung  

E-print Network

application point of view, the excellent corrosion resistance of metallic biomaterials in the body fluids with water-proof silicon carbide paper up to 2000# grid, all the samples were cleaned with acetone, ethanol

Zheng, Yufeng

63

Bio-inspired MEMS Pressure and Flow Sensors for Underwater Navigation and Object Imaging "  

E-print Network

for waterproofing. Fabrication Kayak Testing Commercial Sensors (Reference) MEMS Sensor When mounted on the side metal strain gauges. Mohsen Asadnia (NTU), Ajay Kottapalli (NTU), Chee Wee Tan (NTU), Mun Ee (Mandy)

64

Urinary incontinence products  

MedlinePLUS

... absorbent padding with a waterproof backside. The drip collector is worn over the penis. It is held in place by close-fitting underwear. This works well for men who constantly leak just a little. ...

65

Please note: this is a comprehensive list of suggestionsyou do not need to bring all of these items! What to Bring  

E-print Network

+ swimwear!) waterproof shoes or boots Twin-sized bed and mattress (long) Mirror Desk and chair Waste NOT PERMITTED Candles, incense, potpourri pots, open flames Firearms, BB guns, air pistols, pellet guns, of any

Brownstone, Rob

66

Residential Waste Do not mix in  

E-print Network

tape, cellophane, tissue paper, waterproof paper, thermal paper, carbon paper, photos or coated paper Styrofoam Fluorescent Tube Beverage Can Used Paper Metal Junk Battery PET Bottle Unburnable Waste Spray Can

Nakamura, Iku

67

ORGANOCHLORINE RESIDUES IN FISHES FROM THE NORTHWEST ATLANTIC OCEAN AND GULF OF MEXICO  

E-print Network

the waterproof coatings for dairy silos and fish tanks, and marine antifouling paint. The thermal and electrical properties of PCB are highly desirable in dielectric fluids, the electrical insulators in transformers

68

H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest Information for 2007 EISI participants You will be staying in a shared bedroom in a shared apartment at the Andrews Forest Headquarters  

E-print Network

, and sturdy, waterproof boots). You should discuss what specific field gear you may need with your project in the vicinity of the Andrews Forest including fishing, hiking, climbing, mountain biking, bird

Tullos, Desiree

69

46 CFR 160.061-3 - Design and construction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design and construction...shall be stainless steel. (f) Lines. Unless otherwise specified nylon lines shall be hard braided, waterproofed, and heat set to reduce...

2010-10-01

70

Poster Abstract: PipeProbe: Mapping Hidden Water Pipelines Tsung-te (Ted) Lai, Yu-han (Tiffany) Chen  

E-print Network

combinations, computational power, battery power, and radios. Our work focuses on a novel mobile sen- sor into a rectangle shape and sealed waterproof with glue and acrylic. Figure 2 shows how the PipeProbe capsule

Ouhyoung, Ming

71

UltraBasic Series Benchtop and Portable Electrochemisty Meters  

E-print Network

Basic Portable meters are ergonmically designed to fit comfortably in either hand.The sealed waterproof case battery operation includes automatic shut-off to prolong battery life. Ion mode. Select the UP-25 for ion

Raizada, Manish N.

72

PipeProbe: Mapping Spatial Layout of Indoor Water Yu-Chen Chang1  

E-print Network

nodes have been created with different sizes, sensor combinations, computational power, battery power at a resolution of 1.2 mbar. The whole package is fit into a teardrop shape and sealed waterproof with glue

Huang, Polly

73

Components of skin  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... skin layers from the outside environment and contains cells that make keratin, a substance that waterproofs and strengthens the skin. The epidermis also has cells that contain melanin, the dark pigment that gives ...

74

40 CFR 264.1201 - Design and operating standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (1) Earth-covered magazines. Earth-covered magazines must be: (i) Constructed of waterproofed, reinforced concrete or structural steel arches, with steel doors that are kept closed when not being accessed; (ii)...

2010-07-01

75

40 CFR 265.1201 - Design and operating standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (1) Earth-covered magazines. Earth-covered magazines must be: (i) Constructed of waterproofed, reinforced concrete or structural steel arches, with steel doors that are kept closed when not being accessed; (ii)...

2010-07-01

76

Project Name: Construction Period  

E-print Network

X Hot water pumps and piping assembly X X X X X X X X X Waterproof Rotunda planters X X X X X East ceiling access panels ? Reinstall metal panels level 2 walkway X X X Light poles in the plaza X X X X X Excavate and demo north walk and yard X X X Waterproof north yard area X X X X X Install mulch

Levinson, David M.

77

Shingle system  

DOEpatents

A barrier, such as a PV module, is secured to a base by a support to create a shingle assembly with a venting region defined between the barrier and base for temperature regulation. Water resistant junctions may be formed between the bases of adjacent shingle assemblies of an array of shingle assemblies. The base may include an insulation layer underlying a water barrier. The base may also include a waterproofing element; the width and height of the barrier may be shorter than the width and height of the waterproofing element.

Dinwoodie, Thomas L. (Piedmont, CA)

2008-02-12

78

Protecting Your Hands and Feet  

E-print Network

or polypropelene socks help wick moisture away from the skin. Cotton doesnít wick moisture away it actually keeps or boots risks developing trench foot from pro- longed exposure to moisture. Unfortunately, waterproof boots can hold moisture in as well as keep it out, so make a good choice in socks. Orlon

Liskiewicz, Maciej

79

Short-chain carboxylic acids from gray catbird ( Dumetella carolinensis) uropygial secretions vary with testosterone levels and photoperiod  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uropygial gland of birds produces secretions that are important in maintaining the health and structural integrity of feathers. Non-volatile components of uropygial secretions are believed to serve a number of functions including waterproofing and conditioning the feathers. Volatile components have been characterized in fewer species, but are particularly interesting because of their potential importance in olfactory interactions within and

Rebecca J. Whelan; Tera C. Levin; Jennifer C. Owen; Mary C. Garvin

2010-01-01

80

New system for bathing bedridden patients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multihead shower facility can be used with minimal patient handling. Waterproof curtain allows patient to bathe with his head out of shower. He can move completely inside shower to wash his face and hair. Main advantage of shower system is time saved in giving bath.

Greenleaf, J. E.; Staley, R. A.; Payne, P. A.

1973-01-01

81

Development of the Brain Tissue Scanner Brain Networks Laboratory Technical Report  

E-print Network

knife specifications for ultramicrotomy Knives for 3D microstructure reconstruction Wide knife for rodent brain surveys and building 3D brain atlases Diamond knife durability #12;Development of the Brain Waterproof laser-knife connector Diamond knife holder accommodations for underwater microtomy 4. Image

82

46 CFR 160.057-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...approved by the Commandant. Metal for containers shall be...be of corrosion-resistant metal. The combustible material...for intended use. All sheet metal seams should be hook jointed...be covered with two coats of waterproof paint or other...

2013-10-01

83

Construction of a Junction Box for Use with an Inexpensive, Commercially Available Underwater Video Camera Suitable for Aquatic Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater video camera apparatus is an important fisheries research tool. Such cameras, developed and marketed for recreational anglers, provide an opportunity for researchers to easily obtain cost-effective and waterproof video apparatus for fisheries research. We detail a series of modifications to an inexpensive, commercially available underwater video camera (about US$125) that provide flexibility for deploying the equipment in the laboratory

Steven J. Cooke; Christopher M. Bunt

2004-01-01

84

TRANSISTOR PREAMPLIFIER FOR NEUTRON MONITORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and performance of several transistor impedance matching ; circuits are discussed. The most satisfactory circuit is capable of operation up ; to 80 deg C and was tested to 100 deg C. The pre-amplifier which is potted with ; silicone rubber and attached to a waterproof BFâ tube, may be operated ; while submerged in water. Acid atmospheres

1960-01-01

85

File: TransIgn Simple Transistorized Ignition Retrofit for Old Cars 7/22/11 (C) Prof. W. Kahan Page 1 /2  

E-print Network

., WATERPROOF. L 2.5 mh., ferrite core, 10 to 15 ; e.g.: J.W. Miller #6302 or #5800-472 D (Two) Si. diode, 1A., 50 V. ; e.g.: 1N4000 C 400 V., hermetically sealed, mylar or paper-and-oil, foil or metallized

California at Berkeley, University of

86

Project Name: Construction Period  

E-print Network

X X X Cabinet reinstall on the walls 780 office area X X X X X Metal Cabinet prep on level 6 X X X X X X X X X X X X reinstall bike racks at the curved wall X X X X X X X X Waterproof ramp, step areas

Levinson, David M.

87

to nature home page 17 August 2000  

E-print Network

' dyes are waterproof and react rapidly. By combining them with metals such as iron, silver and zinc. Kenneth Suslick and Neal Rakow of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed dye/metal://C:\\Documents and Settings\\Ken\\KSS Docs\\HTML\\_KSS website\\pressclippings\

Suslick, Kenneth S.

88

46 CFR 160.022-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...approved by the Commandant. Metal for containers shall be...shall be corrosion-resistant metal. The combustible material...its intended use. All sheet metal seams should be hook-jointed...be covered with two coats of waterproof paint or equivalent...

2013-10-01

89

Fluid-tight enclosure for geophone and cable  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive waterproof seals are formed by clamping a flexible header between a metal top plate and the metal housing of a geophone enclosure. The ends of the cable are fed into conical-shaped supports of the flexible header through holes in a nylon stress ring and knotted. The bottom of the stress ring is forced against an annular lip, which clamps

McNeel

1976-01-01

90

Optimization design for eddy current sensor of water cutting robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

To realize intelligence of precise processing for random space orbit and in view of metal plate, a waterproofing and non-contact eddy current sensor is designed and applied into water jet cutting robot system in this paper. This paper studies mathematical model of eddy current sensor and analyzes influence of coil parameters on sensor performance. The section shape of coil is

Haiying Wang; Jie Hou; Hongyong Zhang

2010-01-01

91

46 CFR 160.057-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...approved by the Commandant. Metal for containers shall be...be of corrosion-resistant metal. The combustible material...for intended use. All sheet metal seams should be hook jointed...be covered with two coats of waterproof paint or other...

2012-10-01

92

Design of intelligent height control system based on eddy current sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In water jet cutting process, cutting quality and speed depend on the distance between cutting head and object. To solve the problem that it is difficult to realize precise control of water jet cutting technique in height track system, this paper designs a waterproofing eddy height-adjusting system based on eddy sensor in view of metal plate. This system realizes non-contact

Haiying Wang; Xuefei Wang; Zhenhe Sun; Yanjun Chen

2010-01-01

93

The PennsylvaniaStateUniversity HUB-RobesonAddition and Renovation  

E-print Network

· Flex Theater Electrical Rough-in · Plaza Deck Waterproofing · Hang Terracotta at Green Roof Parapet · Metal Panels at Loading Dock · Install Canopy Overhang Metal Panels and Snow Guards · Hang Outside AirRoof ParapetTerraCotta #12;© Gilbane Building Co., Inc. LoadingDock MetalPanels #12;© Gilbane Building Co., Inc

94

A Robust Uniaxial Force Sensor for Minimally Invasive Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel miniature uniaxial force sensor for use within a beating heart during mitral valve annuloplasty. The sensor measures 5.5 mm in diameter and 12 mm in length and provides a hollow core to pass instrumentation. A soft elastomer flexure design maintains a waterproof seal. Fiber optic transduction eliminates electrical circuitry within the heart, and acetal components

Michael C. Yip; Shelten G. Yuen; Robert D. Howe

2010-01-01

95

These are the materials we used to complete this experiment  

E-print Network

wire (45ft.) 5. Digital Multimeter ( Sperry DM-350A) 6. 2 Seal-All waterproof adhesives 7. 3 10ft. PVC metal screws (8by 5/8") 21.Sheet metal screws (8by ¾") 22.Machine screws (#8-32by ¾") 23.Garmin GPS III

Rosen, I. Gary

96

The PennsylvaniaStateUniversity HUB-RobesonAddition and Renovation  

E-print Network

Waterproofing · Hang Terracotta at Green Roof Parapet · Metal Panels Rough In at East & South Entrances · Install Canopy Overhang Metal Panels and Snow Guards · Level 2 Mechanical Room & Restroom HVAC © Gilbane Metal Panels and Snow Guards · Metal Panel Rough In at East & South Entrances · VAV Piping Level G & 2

97

46 CFR 160.057-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...approved by the Commandant. Metal for containers shall be...be of corrosion-resistant metal. The combustible material...for intended use. All sheet metal seams should be hook jointed...be covered with two coats of waterproof paint or other...

2011-10-01

98

Sticky Stuff Podcast Welcome to Bug Bytes, a bimonthly podcast from Texas A&M University's  

E-print Network

properties and is spun in a sheet that is almost completely waterproof and very hard to penetrate. And some, instead of trying to recreate it, are trying to improve it. Enter metal enhanced spider silk. Earlier a new type of atomic-layer deposition called infiltration to imbed metal ions into spider silk. And we

Behmer, Spencer T.

99

The finite element analysis of cylindrical overlapping piezoelectric transducers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cylindrical overlapping piezoelectric transducer is mainly composed of the three cylindrical piezoelectric ceramics, bracket, metal bolt, rubber, waterproof layer and output cable. The transducer model was established, separately in the air and water, with ANSYS to calculate the vibration frequency and conductance .The transmitting response and directivity in water were also calculated .The results showed that the overlapping structure

Tian-xiao Dong; Li-kun Wang; Lei Qin; Li Li; Wei-wei Wu; Gang Wang

2008-01-01

100

46 CFR 160.057-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...approved by the Commandant. Metal for containers shall be...be of corrosion-resistant metal. The combustible material...for intended use. All sheet metal seams should be hook jointed...be covered with two coats of waterproof paint or other...

2014-10-01

101

46 CFR 160.022-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...approved by the Commandant. Metal for containers shall be...shall be corrosion-resistant metal. The combustible material...its intended use. All sheet metal seams should be hook-jointed...be covered with two coats of waterproof paint or equivalent...

2014-10-01

102

49 CFR 172.519 - General specifications for placards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...waterproofing materials included. In addition, each placard made of tagboard must be able to pass a 414 kPa (60 p.s.i.) Mullen test. (3) Reflective or retroreflective materials may be used on a placard if the prescribed colors, strength and...

2010-10-01

103

49 CFR 172.519 - General specifications for placards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...waterproofing materials included. In addition, each placard made of tagboard must be able to pass a 414 kPa (60 p.s.i.) Mullen test. (3) Reflective or retroreflective materials may be used on a placard if the prescribed colors, strength and...

2011-10-01

104

Engineered proteins stick like glue --even in water1 www.sciencedaily.com2  

E-print Network

Engineered proteins stick like glue -- even in water1 www.sciencedaily.com2 3 Shellfish underwater.4 Inspired by these natural adhesives, a team of MIT engineers has designed new materials waterproof adhesives, the MIT researchers engineered bacteria to6 produce a hybrid material that incorporates

South Bohemia, University of

105

10 CFR 32.103 - Schedule D-prototype tests for ice detection devices containing strontium-90.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... The device shall be subjected to vibration tests as set forth in § 32.101(b). (c) Shock test. The device shall be subjected to shock test as set forth in § 32.101(d). (d) Hermetic seal and waterproof test....

2011-01-01

106

The Chemistry of Paper Preservation: Part 4. Alkaline Paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inherent instability of old papers is largely due to the presence of acids which catalyze the hydrolytic degradation of cellulose. The use of alkaline paper can minimize the problem of acidity for new papers. This study focuses on the chemistry involved in the sizing of both acid and alkaline papers and the types of fillers used. The waterproofing agent

Henry A. Carter

1997-01-01

107

Protected Membrane Roofs: A Sustainable Roofing Solution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the benefits of protected membrane roofing (PMR) for school buildings. PMR uses an upside-down approach, where the insulation is placed on top of the waterproofing membrane to improve membrane effectiveness, reduce ultraviolet degradation, and improve insulation efficiency. The article explains what makes PMR sustainable, focusing on…

Roodvoets, David L.

2003-01-01

108

Experimental analysis of the mechanics of reverse circulation air lift  

E-print Network

-inch thick plexi- glass sides which were joined together using a waterproof silicon rubber compound. To measure the water temperature, a copper-constantine ther- mocouple 16 was inserted into the flow at the lower end of the test pipe. The other...

Zeineddine, Talal Ibrahim

1980-01-01

109

Tree height measurement protocol J Chave Page 1 Measuring tree height for tropical forest trees  

E-print Network

A field manual for the CTFS sites February 22nd 2005 Jerome Chave chave@cict.fr Lab. Evolution et-resistant, but not water-proof, so don't use it in the rain (you won't see tree tops anyway). The Nikon Laser600 come

Chave, Jérôme

110

GUIDELINES FOR CRITICAL RESOURCES PROTECTION FAU HURRICANE PREPAREDNESS GUIDELINES  

E-print Network

, notes) to interior rooms or place in waterproof containers or sealable plastic bags. Before leaving.). (Can be stored in secondary containers such as plastic trays or 5 gallon utility buckets.) · Store GUARDING YOUR EQUIPMENT AND RESOURCES Building/Room #: Responsible Person: Date: Alternate Designee

Fernandez, Eduardo

111

2010, Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. University of Minnesota Extension is an equal opportunity educator and employer. This material is available in alternative formats upon request. Direct requests for consultation on format  

E-print Network

waterproof cap. Wrap cap and well casing with durable sheet plastic and duct tape, then sand bag around Extension is an equal opportunity educator and employer. This material is available in alternative formats, this material is available in alternative formats upon request. Direct requests to the Extension Store at 800

Minnesota, University of

112

University of North Carolina at Charlotte Design and Construction Manual Section 2, Division 03 Concrete  

E-print Network

workability, durability, compressive strength, maximum density, and minimum shrinkage and permeability. b compressive strength, and the average of six consecutive strength tests will be equal to or greater than over reinforcing steel 2. Sealing and waterproofing 3. Proper drainage 4. Joints and connections 5

Xie,Jiang (Linda)

113

Asphalt and Wood Shingling. Roofing Workbook and Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This combination workbook and set of tests contains materials on asphalt and wood shingling that have been designed to be used by those studying to enter the roofing and waterproofing trade. It consists of seven instructional units and seven accompanying objective tests. Covered in the individual units are the following topics: shingling…

Brown, Arthur

114

An innovative method to evaluate the suture compliance in sealing the surgical wound lips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aim: The increasing number of surgical procedures performed with local anesthesia, followed by immediate patient discharge from the hospital, emphasizes the need for a tight waterproof suture that is ca- pable of maintaining its tensile strength in the postoperative phase when the wound tumescence, edema due to the anesthetic drug, and surgical trauma disappear. Moreover, the issue of

Farid Saleh; Beniamino Palmieri; Danielle Lodi; Khalid Al-Sebeih

115

Underwater near-infrared spectroscopy measurements of muscle oxygenation: laboratory validation and preliminary observations in swimmers and triathletes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research was to waterproof a near-infrared spectroscopy device (PortaMon, Artinis Medical Systems) to enable NIR measurement during swim exercise. Candidate materials were initially tested for waterproof suitability by comparing light intensity values during phantom-based tissue assessment. Secondary assessment involved repeated isokinetic exercises ensuring reliability of the results obtained from the modified device. Tertiary assessment required analysis of the effect of water immersion and temperature upon device function. Initial testing revealed that merely covering the PortaMon light sources with waterproof materials considerably affected the NIR light intensities. Modifying a commercially available silicone covering through the addition of a polyvinyl chloride material (impermeable to NIR light transmission) produces an acceptable compromise. Bland-Altman analysis indicated that exercise-induced changes in tissue saturation index (TSI %) were within acceptable limits during laboratory exercise. Although water immersion had a small but significant effect upon NIR light intensity, this resulted in a negligible change in the measured TSI (%). We then tested the waterproof device in vivo illustrating oxygenation changes during a 100 m freestyle swim case study. Finally, a full study compared club level swimmers and triathletes. Significant changes in oxygenation profiles when comparing upper and lower extremities for the two groups were revealed, reflecting differences in swim biomechanics.

Jones, Ben; Dat, Marco; Cooper, Chris E.

2014-12-01

116

Underwater near-infrared spectroscopy measurements of muscle oxygenation: laboratory validation and preliminary observations in swimmers and triathletes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to waterproof a near-infrared spectroscopy device (PortaMon, Artinis Medical Systems) to enable NIR measurement during swim exercise. Candidate materials were initially tested for waterproof suitability by comparing light intensity values during phantom-based tissue assessment. Secondary assessment involved repeated isokinetic exercises ensuring reliability of the results obtained from the modified device. Tertiary assessment required analysis of the effect of water immersion and temperature upon device function. Initial testing revealed that merely covering the PortaMon light sources with waterproof materials considerably affected the NIR light intensities. Modifying a commercially available silicone covering through the addition of a polyvinyl chloride material (impermeable to NIR light transmission) produces an acceptable compromise. Bland–Altman analysis indicated that exercise-induced changes in tissue saturation index (TSI %) were within acceptable limits during laboratory exercise. Although water immersion had a small but significant effect upon NIR light intensity, this resulted in a negligible change in the measured TSI (%). We then tested the waterproof device in vivo illustrating oxygenation changes during a 100 m freestyle swim case study. Finally, a full study compared club level swimmers and triathletes. Significant changes in oxygenation profiles when comparing upper and lower extremities for the two groups were revealed, reflecting differences in swim biomechanics. PMID:25478871

Jones, Ben; Dat, Marco; Cooper, Chris E

2014-12-01

117

Hide And Seek GPS And Geocaching In The Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In short, geocaching is a high-tech, worldwide treasure hunt (geocaches can now be found in more than 180 countries) where a person hides a cache for others to find. Generally, the cache is some type of waterproof container that contains a log book and an assortment of goodies, such as lottery tickets, toys, photo books for cachers to fill with…

Lary, Lynn M.

2004-01-01

118

the square knob at the extremity of the cascable. The seat 6 rests ...  

E-print Network

a core, for many years, prevented any successful appli- .1 practical ... and a hole bored through the entire thickness of metal by a bit ..... proper length of the bore; lower end shaped to coin- ... Hydraulic press and apparatus for water-proof. 23.

119

Avian Biology Packing List Binoculars (strongly recommended) We do have a couple of pairs for borrowing, but you  

E-print Network

. Be sure to bring footwear that you are able to hike in if we get wet. o Comfortable, sturdy hiking boots hiking shoes. o Rubber boots - (optional) These depend on your personal preference. They are heavy are prepared to get very wet at times. If you are not bringing rubber boots, we recommend bringing waterproof

Navara, Kristen

120

Fabrication and test of a micro electromagnetic actuator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the fabrication, test results and the finite element analysis of an electromagnetic micro actuator with three diaphragms that can be driven individually. The actuator consists of parylene diaphragms, spiral copper coils and permanent magnets. Parylene is waterproof and its Young’s modulus is small compared with metals, silicon and silicon compounds. So, it is adequate for the actuator

Ki Hoon Kim; Hyeun Joong Yoon; Ok Chan Jeong; Sang Sik Yang

2005-01-01

121

August2013Update Growing Together  

E-print Network

Street. After slurry wall construction is completed on West 131st Street, the road will be reopened for graduate students and faculty. Current Construction Activity Abatement and Demolition Abatement, waterproofing work. The construction hoist is operational and in use. What to Expect Although contractors

Qian, Ning

122

Effects of access to preen gland secretions on mallard plumage.  

PubMed

Preen glands exist in almost every bird species and several non-exclusive functions have been proposed for this gland and the oils that it produces. One function generally admitted is that the oily secretions of the preen gland would provide a waterproofing layer when spread over feathers. Alternatively, several authors have proposed that plumage waterproofness is mostly due to the spatial micro-structure of feathers. The purpose of this study was to examine, by manipulating the access to the preen gland, the effect of the preen oil on the plumage waterproofness and condition. To explore this question, we carried out two independent experiments where we temporarily blocked access to the preen gland secretions with a removable mechanism in one group of captive mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), whilst a second group of birds had access to gland secretions. In a long-term experiment (3 months of treatment) and a short-term experiment (10 days), we measured plumage water retention and condition. After 3 months without access to preen glands, we found a significant decrease of plumage condition and an associated increase in plumage water retention. Moreover, we found a significant correlation between plumage condition and water retention ability. In contrast, after 10 days of treatment, no significant effect was found on plumage condition and water retention. Our study shows that preen oil acts to maintain plumage condition and suggests that feather microstructure is essential to maintain plumage waterproofness. PMID:20437221

Giraudeau, Mathieu; Duval, Camille; Guillon, Noel; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Gutierrez, Claude; Heeb, Philipp

2010-06-01

123

The acoustical flows of the hydrophobic and anticeptic liquids in porous media  

E-print Network

between the foundation and the wall is damaged, the damp comes up the wall due to the natural capillary of the acoustical flows in the porous or microcrum- bling media. Concrete and brick walls being porous media absorb water due to capillary effect. The damp pene- trates into the foundation if the waterproofing layer

Boyer, Edmond

124

16/05/12 4:05 PMUC Berkeley tests floating robot sensors to track water flow, environmen...ersity of California Berkeley, robotics, popular science, Berkeley -CIO Page 1 of 3http://www.cio.com.au/article/424209/uc_berkeley_tests_floating_robot_sensors_tra  

E-print Network

the water, here. Some of the sensors are equipped with Android smart phones inside their waterproof cases. core.insightexpressai.com Ads by Google Join the CIO Australia group on LinkedIn. The group is open MOST READ MOST COMMENTED 5 open source help desk apps to watch1 How to create a clear project plan2 All

125

Volume 30, Number I3 July 4, 1984 Expansion of SUB  

E-print Network

. the Liberal leadership convention. technology for handicapped childrrn. hidden dangers in business contracts with foresight had saved the AMS a good deal of money on the present expansion project. "I'venever been able of the SUB rest." And someone also had the foresight to lay down a waterproof membrane on top of the slab

Farrell, Anthony P.

126

Hillside C-type Renovation Issues and Remedies  

E-print Network

room loft torrents · Plaster crumbled · Rivulets after 1--2 hours of rain · Loft filled up with liters-type window rail rainwater drainage mechanism with minor enhancements #12;To Deputy Director IIT Bombay 8 completely This surface must be made waterproof Current status of most window rails in Hillside C

California at Berkeley, University of

127

Surfacing of concrete bridges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The estimated life for concrete bridges in Denmark is 100 years. One condition to en- sure this long lifetime is waterproofing of the bridge deck together with a high quality asphalt pavement. The surfacing of the concrete bridge deck is important because the concrete should be protected against water and de-icing salts since these factors can lead to reduction of

Vibeke Wegan

128

A miniature confocal optical scanning microscope for endoscopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a unique miniature confocal optical scanning microscope as an endoscopic application and successfully obtained a real time image. The confocal microscope can observe the longitudinal direction of a scanning head including the electrostatic 2-D MEMS scanner and an aspherical objective lens. Waterproof packaging of the scanning head is accomplished. The MEMS scanner and the objective lens in

Kenzi Murakami

2005-01-01

129

Design Standards Manual Table of Contents: Part III (Divisions 1 -16)  

E-print Network

Blinds 05/07 #12;DIVISION 13: SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION 13100 Lightning Protection 05/07 13210 Elevated Water;DIVISION 6: WOOD AND PLASTICS DIVISION 7: THERMAL & MOISTURE PROTECTION 07130 Waterproofing 07190 Water Protection Specialties 05/07 10801 Toilet and Bath Accessories 05/07 DIVISION 11: EQUIPMENT 11400 Food

130

Language Models Introduction to Natural Language Processing  

E-print Network

; but hardly had he ignited his match across the rough sandpaper of his ha utting the lashing of the waterproof along towards them followed by Stubb ' s producing his match and igniting his pipe , for now a re aspect their chosen with perils , is still it was too clear warrant the sound morals and other States have consumed

Smith, David A.

131

Use of epoxy compounds in structural elements and insulation in the Kislogubsk tidal power station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Epoxy foam heat-and-water insulation and epoxy-pitch waterproofing have been found to be suitable for structures in regions\\u000a with a severe climate, and in particular for tidal power stations built by the floating method.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a Industrial experience in the construction of the Kislogubsk tidal power station has shown the advantages of using epoxy plastic\\u000a solutions for constructing waterproofing seams

L. A. Igonin; P. A. Pshenitsyn; V. I. Sakharov

1971-01-01

132

Impacts of Some Building Design Parameters on Heat Pump Applications  

E-print Network

12 Wood 0,02 0,13 0,413 13 Cement finish 0,05 1,4 10 Polymer Bituminous waterproofing 0,007 0,19 9 Polyurethane rigid foam 0,06 0,035 10 Polymer Bituminous waterproofing 0,007 0,19 6 Lean concrete 0,10 1,65 15 Rubble masonry 0,15 0,7 - Ground... mortar 0,02 1 0,493 3 Porous light brick 0,19 0,23 8 Extruded polystyrene foam 0,04 0,04 2 Cement mortar 0,02 1,6 Ceiling 1 (Pitched Roof-with roof space) 7 Glass wool 0,13 0,04 0,283 4 Concrete slab 0,12 2,5 1 Lime mortar 0,02 1 Ceiling 2...

Erdim, B.; Manioglu, G.

2011-01-01

133

Marine organism repellent covering for protection of underwater objects and method of applying same  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of protecting the surface of underwater objects from fouling by growth of marine organisms thereon comprising the steps of: (A) applying a layer of waterproof adhesive to the surface to be protected; (B) applying to the waterproof adhesive layer, a deposit of cayenne pepper material; (C) applying a permeable layer of copper containing material to the adhesive layer in such a configuration as to leave certain areas of the outer surface of the adhesive layer exposed, through open portions of the permeable layer, to the ambient environment of the surface to be protected when such surface is submerged in water; (D) the permeable layer having the property of being a repellent to marine organisms.

Fischer, K.J.

1993-07-13

134

Finite Element Analyses for Radial Piezoelectric Mode Laminated Transducer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel laminated piezoelectric transducer was mainly composed of the piezoelectric ceramics, metal bolt, rubber gasket, copper electrode, waterproof layer and output cable. The transducer finite-element modeling was built, separately in the air and water, with ANSYS10.0 to calculate the resonance frequency, conductance, transmitting voltage response and directivity. The simulation showed that the laminated structure effectively improved the sensitivity of

Dong TianXiao; Wang LiKun; Qin Lei; Wu WeiWei; Wang Gang

2008-01-01

135

Underwater manipulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is described for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred

P. B. Schrum; G. H. Cohen

1993-01-01

136

Underwater manipulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention is comprised of a self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus provided for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls

P. B. Schrum; G. H. Cohen

1992-01-01

137

Wettability and Superhydrophobicity of 2-D Ordered Nano-structured Arrays Based on Colloidal Monolayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on colloidal monolayers of polystyrene spheres, we have prepared various two-dimensional nanostructured arrays by solution routes and electrodeposition. Many ordered structured arrays generated using these methods are of surface roughness on the nano- and micro-scales, and could be superhydrophobic or superhydrophilic. The nano-devices based on such nano-structured arrays would be waterproof and selfcleaning, in addition to their special device

Weiping Cai; Yue Li; Guotao Duan

2008-01-01

138

Underwater manipulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is provided for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred

Phillip B. Schrum; George H. Cohen

1993-01-01

139

A concentrating collector system for domestic hot water  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inexpensive parabolic solar collector system for heating domestic hot water produces about 60 gal of 110-120°F water most of the year and 30-40 gal in mid-winter. The collector, having an effective trough area of 55 ft², was constructed from a ribbed, waterproof plywood frame covered with black painted cold rolled sheet metal and an aluminized acrylic film as a

Stromberg

1979-01-01

140

Effect of floor type on the growth performance and health status of growing-finishing pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a factorial design: two full floor types, concrete vs. concrete waterproofed with resin (resin floor) and two slat types, concrete vs. metal, were used to house 72 pigs in four rooms (18 pigs room-1). During the experimental period which lasted from 22.9 kg to 112.7 kg live weight the four groups of pigs received the same feed. Growth, water

M. A. Garcimartín; I. Ovejero; J. Vázquez Minguela; A. Daza

2008-01-01

141

C tr ti N R rt Construction News Report  

E-print Network

. · Set interior tunnel lid and completed waterproofing. · Backfilled at interior tunnel. · Poured floor. · Continued low pressure sheet metal on the 3rd floor. C ti d l d t d VAV' th 2 d fl· Poured slab's on the 2nd floor. · Continued sheet metal mains on the 2nd floor. · Continued gas on the 1st floor

142

Use of Pressure-Sensitive Film to Quantify Sources of Injury to Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the use of pressure-sensitive film (PSF) to estimate pressures experienced by fish exposed to potentially damaging mechanical and fluid structures during downstream passage at hydroelectric dams. The films responded well to a wide range of applied pressures (0.5–50 MPa), providing reliable estimates of pressures even when contained within waterproof plastic packaging, stacked under other films, and exposed at

Glenn ?ada; John Smith; Jessica Busey

2005-01-01

143

Reliability control for wrist watches and their casements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reliability tests developed for controlling wrist watch movements and their casements are summarized. For controlling the watch movements, ageing accelerated tests and impact tests were performed. Testing the performance of a wrist watch casement is of great importance: since it is this which is initially attacked by the environment. The casement is submitted to impact, fatigue, vibration, and corrosion tests. The waterproof capabilities and ageing behavior of the casements are examined.

Schneider, Jean-Claude

144

Photovoltaic Roofs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar cells perform two functions: waterproofing roof and generating electricity. Sections through horizontal and slanting joints show overlapping modules sealed by L-section rubber strips and side-by-side modules sealed by P-section strips. Water seeping through seals of slanting joints drains along channels. Rooftop photovoltaic array used watertight south facing roof, replacing shingles, tar, and gravel. Concept reduces cost of residential solar-cell array.

Drummond, R. W., Jr.; Shepard, N. F., Jr.

1984-01-01

145

A Safe and Accurate Method of Assessing the Size of Implants Required in Orbital Floor Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Many methods to determine the size of an orbital floor implant depend on trial and error. However, this technique is imprecise and the repeated insertion and removal of the implant leads to soft tissue trauma and swelling. A method of measuring orbital floor dimensions intraoperatively using a waterproof paper ruler is presented in this study. This technique has the advantage of being simple, precise, safe, and expedient. PMID:23730428

Lim, Thiam Chye; Rasheed, Zulfikar Mohamed; Sundar, Gangadhara

2012-01-01

146

Silazane to silica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin film silica and/or methyl silicone were detected on most external surfaces of the retrieved LDEF. Known sources of silicone in or on the LDEF appear inadequate to explain the ubiquitous presence of the silica and silicone films. Hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) was used as the Challenger tile waterproofing compound for the Challenger/LDEF deployment mission. HMDS releases NH3 which depolymerizes silicone RTV's. Polyurethanes were also attacked. Much of the silica/silicone contamination of LDEF resulted from HMDS.

Harvey, Gale A.

1992-01-01

147

The Hormuz Strait Dam Macroproject  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a “Noah’s Ark”, millennia ago, was caulked with tar mined from the ground’s surface to make it a waterproof lifeboat capable\\u000a of enduring “Noah’s Flood”. Today, petroleum is pumped from beneath the same desert region where, putatively, “Noah’s Ark”\\u000a was assembled. “Edin” is the Sumerian word for “plain”; the “Garden of Edin”, planted by God as man’s first home, is speculated

Roelof Schuiling; Viorel Badescu; Richard Cathcart; Piet van Overveld

148

Rob Roy`s earthwood home  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a 2,000 square foot house near the Canadian border, heated for $75 during the winter and maintaining a steady temperature. Among the design characteristics discussed are the following: round shape; earth sheltering; cordwood masonry; insulation and thermal mass; solar orientation; masonry stove; burning waste wood; floating slab foundation; surface bonded blocks; post and beam octoagon; waterproofing walls; drainage; earth roof.

Roy, R. [Earthwood Building School, West Chazy, NY (United States)

1995-04-01

149

Mechanism of Action of Lung Damage Caused by a Nanofilm Spray Product  

PubMed Central

Inhalation of waterproofing spray products has on several occasions caused lung damage, which in some cases was fatal. The present study aims to elucidate the mechanism of action of a nanofilm spray product, which has been shown to possess unusual toxic effects, including an extremely steep concentration-effect curve. The nanofilm product is intended for application on non-absorbing flooring materials and contains perfluorosiloxane as the active film-forming component. The toxicological effects and their underlying mechanisms of this product were studied using a mouse inhalation model, by in vitro techniques and by identification of the binding interaction. Inhalation of the aerosolized product gave rise to increased airway resistance in the mice, as evident from the decreased expiratory flow rate. The toxic effect of the waterproofing spray product included interaction with the pulmonary surfactants. More specifically, the active film-forming components in the spray product, perfluorinated siloxanes, inhibited the function of the lung surfactant due to non-covalent interaction with surfactant protein B, a component which is crucial for the stability and persistence of the lung surfactant film during respiration. The active film-forming component used in the present spray product is also found in several other products on the market. Hence, it may be expected that these products may have a toxicity similar to the waterproofing product studied here. Elucidation of the toxicological mechanism and identification of toxicological targets are important to perform rational and cost-effective toxicological studies. Thus, because the pulmonary surfactant system appears to be an important toxicological target for waterproofing spray products, study of surfactant inhibition could be included in toxicological assessment of this group of consumer products. PMID:24863969

Larsen, Søren T.; Dallot, Constantin; Larsen, Susan W.; Rose, Fabrice; Poulsen, Steen S.; Nørgaard, Asger W.; Hansen, Jitka S.; Sørli, Jorid B.; Nielsen, Gunnar D.; Foged, Camilla

2014-01-01

150

Application of time-temperature equivalence for long-time prediction of plasticizer extraction of PVC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The material we studied is composed of plasticized PVC mixed with pitch which is used for waterproofing in the City of Lyon's underground. We established that plasticizer migration in PVC is not ruled by the usual laws of diffusion, particularly when a difficult-to-extract plasticizer is used. Time-temperature equivalence allows us to use a graphic method to make an extrapolation to

A. M. Husson; F. C. Husson; G. Merle; J. Golé

1977-01-01

151

Aging and Hail Research of PVC Membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viable roofing systems provide long-term waterproofing. Reinforced and non-reinforced PVC roof systems presence in the American low-slope roofing market spans the better part of three decades. This roof membrane brings particular unique features to owners of flat roofs -- significant energy savings from reflective membranes, solid performance in ponded conditions, inherent flame resistance, integral seam fusion, and ease of inspection,

Frank J. Foley; Jim D. Koontz; Joseph K. Valaitis

152

FRHAM-TEX{trademark} cool suit - OST reference No. 1854. Deactivation and decommissioning focus area  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a demonstration project for the FRHAM-TEX Cool Suit{trademark} manufactured by FRHAM Safety Products. It is a one-piece, disposable, breathable, waterproof coverall designed to permit moisture generated by the wearer to be transmitted outside the suit. The performance of this suit was compared to a Tyvek{reg_sign} suit as a baseline. The suit is proposed as safety ware for workers at decontamination and decommissioning projects.

NONE

1998-02-01

153

BotEC: Weight of Gold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Question Let's suppose that you have a shoe box full of water (the box is waterproof, of course). The shoe box weighs about 9 kg (19.8 pounds). Suppose you emptied the box and filled it completely with rock (little or no air space). How much would it weigh? Let's empty the box again and fill it completely with pure gold. How much would the box weigh now?

Tewksbury, Barb

154

Full thickness skin burns secondary to an unusual exposure to diquat dibromide.  

PubMed

Diquat dibromide is a commonly used herbicide. The product label cautions against allowing the material to contact the skin as severe skin irritation is possible as well as absorption of the material into the systemic circulation. Waterproof footwear and clothing should be worn to minimize skin contact. A case of full thickness burns of the feet requiring skin grafting occurred following prolonged exposure of the soles of the feet to diquat dibromide. PMID:2381016

Manoguerra, A S

1990-01-01

155

Use of admixtures in organic-contaminated cement–clay pastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work microstructure, porosity and hydration degree of cement-based solidified\\/stabilized wasteforms were studied before assessing their leaching behaviour. 2-Chloroaniline was chosen as a model liquid organic pollutant and included into cement pastes, which were also modified with different admixtures for concrete: a superplasticizer based on acrylic-modified polymer, a synthetic rubber latex and a waterproofing agent. An organoclay, modified with

Paola Gallo Stampino; Luca Zampori; Giovanni Dotelli; Paola Meloni; Isabella Natali Sora; Renato Pelosato

2009-01-01

156

Rewaterproofing Chemical For Use With Silicones  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Agent restores impermeability without degrading silicone adhesives and substructures. Dimethylethoxysilane (DMES) found to rewaterproof tiles and composite panels internally without harming materials that underlie them. Replaces hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) as postmission rewaterproofing agent for tiles of thermal-protection system on Space Shuttle. Much of original waterproofing lost during rigors of launch and reentry. Potential terrestrial application includes composite materials in such structures as bridges and submarines.

Hill, William L.; Mitchell, Shirley M.; Massey, Howard S.

1990-01-01

157

PCB concentrations in Pere Marquette River and Muskegon River watersheds, 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs) are a class of209 individual compounds (known as congeners) for which there are no known natural sources. PCBs are carcinogenic and bioaccumulative compounds. For over 40 years, PCBs were manufactured in the United States. The flame resistant property of PCBs made them ideal chemicals for use as flame-retardants, and as coolants and lubricants in transformers and other electrical equipment. PCBs were also used in heating coils, carbonless paper, degreasers, varnishes, lacquers, waterproofing material, and cereal boxes. In addition, they were frequently used in the manufacturing of plastics, adhesives, and paints.

Fogarty, Lisa R.

2005-01-01

158

Molecular Structure of Dinitrotoluene  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DNT is frequently used in the manufacture of explosives as a gelatinizing and waterproofing agent or as an intermediate in the production of polyurethane foams for the bedding and furniture industry. DNT is also used as an intermediate in the manufacturing of certain dyes. In a purified form, DNT may also be used in creating smokeless gunpowders. DNT does not persist in the environment, since it is easily degraded by sunlight or by bacteria. This molecule is also combustible and will burn, emitting poisonous, toxic gases, but will not spontaneously ignite. DNT may also be absorbed by the skin upon physical contact.

2002-09-20

159

Making Pleated Draw Draperies.  

E-print Network

fabric antl tacketl in place, or a piece of twill tape or selvage is drawn through the center of the disc antl stitched to the inside edge of the hem, Figure 4. Lead weights in waterproof tapes also are available. MEASURING AND DETERMINING AMOUNT... care of cutting off the selvage edge and making seams antl hems. On fabrics with a pattern, a greater allowance may be needed for matching. (See page 7 .) Divide the total width, including fullness, by the witlth of the material after allow- ing...

Tompkins, Charlotte

1961-01-01

160

Silazine to silica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin film silica and/or methyl silicone were detected on most external surfaces of the retrieved LDEF. Both solar ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen can convert silicones to silica. Known sources of silicone in or on the LDEF appear inadequate to explain the ubiquitous presence of the silica and silicone films. Hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) was used as the Challenger tile waterproofing compound for the Challenger/LDEF deployment mission. HMDS is both volatile and chemically reactive at STP. In addition, HMDS releases NH3 which depolymerizes silicone RTV's. Polyurethanes are also depolymerized. Experiments are reported that indicate much of the silicone and silica contamination of LDEF resulted directly or indirectly from HMDS.

Harvey, Gale A.

1993-01-01

161

Low-cost encapsulation materials for terrestrial solar cell modules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents the findings of material surveys intended to identify low cost materials which could be functional as encapsulants (by 1986) for terrestrial solar cell modules. Economic analyses have indicated that in order to meet the low cost goal of $2.70 per sq m, some or all of the following material technologies must be developed or advanced: (1) UV screening outer covers; (2) elastomeric acrylics; (3) weatherproofing and waterproofing of structural wood and paper products; (4) transparent UV stabilizers for the UV-sensitive transparent pottants; and (5) cost-effective utilization of silicone and fluorocarbon materials.

Cuddihy, E. F.; Baum, B.; Willis, P.

1979-01-01

162

Measure Guideline: Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits  

SciTech Connect

This measure guideline provides recommendations for designs and variations for retrofit hybrid assemblies in improving interior foundation insulation and water management of basements. Variations include closed cell spray foam (ccSPF) with membrane waterproofing or air gap membrane drainage layers, rigid board foam insulation at flat walls (cast concrete or CMU block), a 'partial drainage' detail making use of the bulk water drainage that occurs through the field of a rubble stone wall, and non-drained spray foam assemblies (including slab insulation).

Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.

2012-05-01

163

Composite Riflescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bushnell Division of Bausch & Lomb's Armor-Sight riflescope combines the company's world-renowned optics with a graphite composite (Graphlon VI) developed for space applications. The riflescope is 10 percent lighter than aluminum scopes, and, because its thermal expansion coefficient is near zero, optical distortion from heat and cold extremes is eliminated. It is fogproof and waterproof; advanced multicoated optics provide maximum light transmission to brighten target ranges. Bushnell was assisted by NIAC/USC in searching for technical information on graphic composites and in overcoming difficulties with bonding and porosity.

1989-01-01

164

Fire Resistant, Moisture Barrier Membrane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A waterproof and breathable, fire-resistant laminate is provided for use in tents, garments, shoes, and covers, especially in industrial, military and emergency situations. The laminate permits water vapor evaporation while simultaneously preventing liquid water penetration. Further, the laminate is fire-resistant and significantly reduces the danger of toxic compound production when exposed to flame or other high heat source. The laminate may be applied to a variety of substrates and is comprised of a silicone rubber and plurality of fire-resistant, inherently thermally-stable polyimide particles.

St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

165

Detail view of the leading and top edge of the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view of the leading and top edge of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery showing the thermal protection system components with the white Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) blanket and the black High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (HRSI) tiles along the outer edges. The marks seen on the HRSI tiles are injection point marks and holes for the application of waterproofing material. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

166

Give Me Some Skin: A Hands-On Science Activity Integrating Racial Sensitivity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What's the largest, fastest growing, organ in the human body? It's the tough, elastic, flexible, and waterproof covering that helps protect other organs and body parts from such things as germs, heat, cold, and sunlight--skin, of course! This life science activity engages middle school students in an exploration of the structure, function, and variety of skin. They "construct" skin layer by layer using simple materials such as felt, foam padding, yarn, and vinyl in various skin tones. This activity provides an opportunity to discuss racial diversity and to show students that skin color is, quite literally, only skin deep.

Houtz, Lynne E.; Quinn, Thomas H.

2003-02-01

167

Disappearing Statues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (on page 8), learners model how marble statues and buildings are affected by acid rain. Antacid tablets made with calcium carbonate are used to represent marble (also made from calcium carbonate), and vinegar is used to represent acid rain. Learners observe the effect of adding water to one tablet and vinegar to another. The tablets can be made into slightly more realistic models by drawing on them with a pencil, or rubber stamping a design with waterproof ink. This activity could be used in connection with lessons on pollution and acid rain, or lessons on art and architecture.

Society, American C.

2008-01-01

168

Water and Soil Conservation Experiments at Spur, Texas.  

E-print Network

. Influence of Crops on Run-off and Erosion Vegetative cover and residue have long been recognized for their value in lessening the damage from run-off and erosion. Plant materials, either living or dead, tend to prevent the soil from being churned into a... waterproof cover until downward movement of water in the soil had ceased, and then taking soil samples' for moisture determinations. The approximate wilting point was found by determining the amount of moisture in the soil after crops had wilted following...

Langley, B. C. (Bryon Caldwell); Dickson, R. E.; Fisher, Charles E. (Charles Emil)

1940-01-01

169

Log of a young author's thinking: George W. Cable's "Drop Shot".  

E-print Network

in comments he makes in his column. For example, he opens the column of 25 December 1870, p. 3, col. 2, with this statement, "Following the natural course of our inclina- tion, we open a scattering fire of drop shot with a draft upon the poetical stores... columns, that is, the ones written between 27 February 1870 and 9 July 1871, are headed by the following epigraph taken from Tennyson's "Mill Waterproof's Lyrical Monologue": The Muse, the jolly Muse it 1st She answered to my call; She changes...

Sinitiere, Autry James

2012-06-07

170

Integrated residential photovoltaic array development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design details of an optimized integrated residential photovoltaic module/array are presented. This selected design features a waterproofing and mounting scheme which was devised to simplify the installation procedures by the avoidance of complex gasketed or caulked joints, while still maintaining a high confidence that the watertight integrity of the integral roofing surface will be achieved for the design lifetime of the system. The production and installation costs for the selected module/array design are reported for a range of annual production rates as a function of the cost of solar cells.

Shepard, N. F., Jr.

1981-01-01

171

Nutritional studies of NFT cultured lettuce  

E-print Network

simple. That is, a very shallow film of fertilizer solution is recirculated past the exposed roots of plants grown in the waterproof channels of the system (5). Restriction of the solution film to a very shallow and uniform depth is imperative in NFT... to obtain maximum aeration of the roots and the solution through air circulation in the upper air space of the growth channels. Three currently speculative and important nutritional issues were focused on in the study: the question of an optimal nutrient...

Benjamin, Cecilia Gilda

2012-06-07

172

Make a Watershed Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will create a three-dimensional model from a two-dimensional topographic map. They will use the model to trace the path that a water droplet takes across the watershed and into the watercourse, and will describe the relationship between the physical features of the watershed and the location of human activities. Resources needed vary, depending on the kind of model that is to be build, but may include: a topographic map of the local watershed, tracing paper, tempera paints, paint brushes, cutting knife or saw, plaster of Paris or paper maché, plasticene or other waterproofing, and corrugated cardboard, plywood or other media from which to cut layers representing each of the contour intervals. This activity is part of the Ground Truth Studies Teacher Handbook, which provides more than 20 activities to build student understanding of global change and remote sensing, and includes background chapters for teachers, glossary, and appendices. Resources needed vary, depending on the kind of model that is to be build, but may include: a topographic map of the local watershed, tracing paper, tempera paints, paint brushes, cutting knife or saw, plaster of Paris or paper maché, plasticene or other waterproofing, and corrugated cardboard, plywood or other media from which to cut layers representing each of the contour intervals.

2012-08-03

173

Clothing and bedding and its relevance to sudden infant death syndrome: further results from the New Zealand Cot Death Study.  

PubMed

As part of a large nationwide case-control study covering a region with 78% of all births in New Zealand during 1987-90, the clothing and bedding of infants dying of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and that of an appropriate control group were recorded. Cases consisted of 81% (n = 393) of all cases of SIDS in the study area and 88.4% (n = 1592) of 1800 control infants randomly selected from the hospital births and who completed a home interview. Use of a wool 'waterproof' underblanket was associated with a significantly reduced risk of SIDS (adjusted OR 0.44; 95% CI: 0.26-0.73) while sheepskin use was not. Firm tucking was identified as contributing to a reduced risk of SIDS even after adjusting for potentially confounding variables (adjusted OR 0.63, 95% CI: 0.46-0.86). Sixty case infants (15.6% of cases) were found dead with the head covered but there were no equivalent data for controls. Having been found previously completely covered by bedding was equally common in cases and controls (28.8% cases and 30.6% of control infants). Other differences of bedding and clothing between cases and controls were small; mattress characteristics were not studied. The exact methods in which babies are cared for are important and this study suggests that infants are at lower risk of SIDS when firmly tucked in and when sleeping on a 'waterproof' wool underblanket. PMID:7865263

Wilson, C A; Taylor, B J; Laing, R M; Williams, S M; Mitchell, E A

1994-12-01

174

Computerized controller with service display panel for an oil well pumping motor  

SciTech Connect

An oil well pump controller in combination with an oil pumping unit and oil well electrical pump motor for controlling and monitoring the operation of an oil well including: microprocessor means for monitoring three-phase electrical power consumption of the electrical pump motor and for calculating real time demand power consumption of the motor, power measuring means electrically connected to the three-phase electrical input of the motor for producing an analog signal indicative of power consumption, conversion means connected to the power measuring means for converting the analog signal into a digital signal usable by the microprocessor means to calculate electrical power consumption, relay means connected to and receiving signals from the microprocessor means indicative of detected power normal, power overload and power underload conditions, the relay means additionally providing circuitry to allow the microprocessor to selectively switch the motor on or off, waterproof box means for housing the components of the oil well pump controller, the waterproof box including a service display panel, overload display means, mounted on the service display panel, which is clearly visible from a distance, and connected to the relay means for indicating when power consumption of the motor has exceeded preprogrammed limits.

Markuson, N.D.; Wiens, T.A.

1988-08-30

175

Radiation induced changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of the granary weevil and their relationships to desiccation and adult mortality: Annual progress report, February 15, 1987 to February 14, 1988  

SciTech Connect

Sitophilus granarius (L) is a major pest of stroed grains and is prone to irradiation treatment. There is considerable scope for use of radiation like Cesium-137 (as a source) as an alternative to chemical treatment for pest control. Study with regard to radiation damage and the effect of environmental factors like temperature and humidity on adult weevil mortality due to radiation effect is limited. Stored-grain insects live in an enviroment where liquid water is seldom available. Waterproofing and conservation of water by the insects is a critical factor for weevil survival. In some insects it has been noted that the rate of water loss through the integument has been associated with changes in the hydrocarbon composition of the epicuticle. Epicuticular hydrocarbons play an important role in preventing desiccation. Information on the effects of irradiation on epicuticular hydrocarbon of the adult weevils is limited. The present investigation sudies the after effects of radiation damage to granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius (L.) in terms of causing increased water loss from the body, weevil nortality and concommitant changes, if any, in the cuticular hydrocarbons that waterproof the insect. 23 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

Sriharan, S.

1988-03-14

176

The Ancient Wood of the Acqualadrone Rostrum: A Materials History Through GC-MS and Sulfur X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

In 2008 the rostrum from an ancient warship was recovered from the Mediterranean near Acqualadrone, Sicily. To establish its provenance and condition, samples of black and brown rostrum wood were examined using sulfur K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and GC-MS. GC-MS of pyrolytic volatiles yielded only guaiacyl derivatives, indicating construction from pinewood. A derivatized extract of black wood yielded forms of abietic acid and sandaracopimaric acid consistent with pine pitch waterproofing. Numerical fits to the sulfur K-edge XAS spectra showed that about 65% of the endogenous sulfur consisted of thiols and disulfides. Elemental sulfur was about 2% and 7% in black and brown wood, respectively, while pyritic sulfur was about 12% and 6%. About 2% of the sulfur in both wood types was modeled as trimethylsulfonium, possibly reflecting biogenic dimethylsulfonio-propionate. High valent sulfur was exclusively represented by sulfate esters, consistent with bacterial sulfotransferase activity. Traces of chloride were detected, but no free sulfate ion. In summary, the rostrum was manufactured of pine wood and subsequently waterproofed with pine pitch. The subsequent 2300 years included battle, foundering, and marine burial followed by anoxia, bacterial colonization, sulfate reduction, and mobilization of transition metals, which produced pyrite and copious appended sulfur functionality. PMID:22545724

Frank, Patrick; Caruso, Francesco; Caponetti, Eugenio

2012-01-01

177

Wet-work Exposure: A Main Risk Factor for Occupational Hand Dermatitis.  

PubMed

Wet-work can be defined as activities where workers have to immerse their hands in liquids for >2 hours per shift, or wear waterproof (occlusive) gloves for a corresponding amount of time, or wash their hands >20 times per shift. This review considers the recent literature on wet-work exposure, and examines wet-work as a main risk factor for developing irritant contact dermatitis of the hands. The aim of this paper is to provide a detailed description of wet-work exposure among specific occupational groups who extensively deal with water and other liquids in their occupations. Furthermore, it highlights the extent and importance of the subsequent adverse health effects caused by exposure to wet-work. PMID:25516808

Behroozy, Ali; Keegel, Tessa G

2014-12-01

178

Moisture design to improve durability of low-slope roofing systems  

SciTech Connect

The roofing industry has traditionally held that moisture control in low-slope roofing comprises two independent elements: (1) provide a waterproof exterior covering (or membrane) to protect the low-slope roof from external sources of moisture and (2) perform a condensation calculation to determine if a vapor retarder is required to protect a roof system from internal moisture sources. The first criterion is assumed to be satisfied if a membrane system is specified; in reality, all membrane systems eventually fail, and existing moisture control strategies offer no mechanism for analyzing the inevitable failure. The means of assessing the second criterion, the need for a vapor retarder, has evolved in recent years. The criteria have become more liberal with time because it has been observed that roofing systems installed in a geographic area in which the old criteria required a vapor retarder, have performed well without one.

Desjarlais, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Byars, N. [Univ. of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC (United States)

1996-12-31

179

Deconditioning during prolonged immersion and possible countermeasures.  

PubMed

Test subjects covered with a waterproof highly elastic cloth were exposed to 13-day water immersion up to the neck. They were divided into two groups. The first (control) group consisting of six persons was exposed to immersion alone and the second (experimental) group was exposed daily to accelerations of 0.6-2 Gz for 60-90 min during the last 6 days of immersion. Before and after immersion all the test subjects were exposed to +3 Gz for 5 min which served as a provocative test. These experiments give evidence that the use of dry immersion allows experimentation during prolonged immersion without concomitant complications. Variations in the physiological parameters (cardiovascular system, fluid-electrolyte balance, blood-coagulatory system) are indicative of the preventive effect of periodic accelerations during 13-day immersion. PMID:11977283

Shulzhenko, E B; Vil-Vilyams, I F; Khudyakova, M A; Grigoryev, A I

1976-01-01

180

Expression of a fungal sterol desaturase improves tomato drought tolerance, pathogen resistance and nutritional quality  

PubMed Central

Crop genetic engineering mostly aims at improving environmental stress (biotic and abiotic) tolerance as well as nutritional quality. Empowering a single crop with multiple traits is highly demanding and requires manipulation of more than one gene. However, we report improved drought tolerance and fungal resistance along with the increased iron and polyunsaturated fatty acid content in tomato by expressing a single gene encoding C-5 sterol desaturase (FvC5SD) from an edible fungus Flammulina velutipes. FvC5SD is an iron binding protein involved in ergosterol biosynthesis. Morphological and biochemical analyses indicated ?23% more epicuticular wax deposition in leaves of transgenic plants that provides an effective waterproof barrier resulting in improved protection from drought and infection by phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Furthermore, the transgenic fruits have improved nutritional value attributed to enhanced level of beneficial PUFA and 2-3 fold increase in total iron content. This strategy can be extended to other economically important crops. PMID:23230516

Kamthan, Ayushi; Kamthan, Mohan; Azam, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

2012-01-01

181

Aluminium-containing transdermal patches: a risk of burns.  

PubMed

(1) The waterproof outer layer protecting some transdermal patches is composed of aluminium. This creates a risk of burns, especially when the patient is exposed to electric shocks or intense magnetic fields. (2) External electrical shocks delivered by a defibrillator for example can create electrical arcing between the electrode and the aluminium layer of the patch, potentially causing burns. (3) During Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) the aluminium present in these patches, which is not ferromagnetic, creates electrical resistance (by induction), and can sometimes cause second-degree burns. (4) Patients undergoing MRI or defibrillation should first be examined for patches containing aluminium. Such patches can generally be identified by examining the backing, which is shiny and reflects light if aluminium is present. (5) If in doubt it is best to temporarily remove all transdermal patches before MRI or external defibrillation. (6) Packaging of transdermal patches that contain conductive materials should include more explicit warnings. PMID:18092416

2007-12-01

182

Surface contamination of titanium by abrading treatment.  

PubMed

This study investigated the contamination of abraded Ti surfaces. Using a polishing machine, specimens were abraded with waterproof SiC grit papers under water cooling. The abraded surfaces were examined using element analysis, X-ray diffraction, and hardness tests. Contaminant deposits with dimensions reaching about 30 microns were observed throughout the surface. In these deposits, Ti was apparently reduced by about 10% and replaced by Si and O. The chemical bond state of the Si was similar to that of SiC or a titanium silicide. The O was solute in Ti, which increased the surface hardness. The contaminant deposits were amorphous or very thin. The contamination of Ti, the extent of which was related to hardness, resulted from a reaction with abrasives. PMID:8940534

Miyakawa, O; Watanabe, K; Okawa, S; Kanatani, M; Nakano, S; Kobayashi, M

1996-06-01

183

Underwater manipulator  

SciTech Connect

This invention is comprised of a self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus provided for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer {plus_minus} 45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer {plus_minus} 10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.

1992-12-31

184

Director's Discretionary Fund Report for Fiscal Year 1996  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics covered include: Waterproofing the Space Shuttle tiles, thermal protection system for Reusable Launch Vehicles, computer modeling of the thermal conductivity of cometary ice, effects of ozone depletion and ultraviolet radiation on plants, a novel telemetric biosensor to monitor blood pH on-line, ion mobility in polymer electrolytes for lithium-polymer batteries, a microwave-pumped far infrared photoconductor, and a new method for measuring cloud liquid vapor using near infrared remote sensing. Also included: laser-spectroscopic instrument for turbulence measurement, remote sensing of aircraft contrails using a field portable imaging interferometer, development of a silicon-micromachined gas chromatography system for determination of planetary surface composition, planar Doppler velocimetry, chaos in interstellar chemistry, and a limited pressure cycle engine for high-speed output.

1997-01-01

185

Development of photovoltaic modules integrated with roofing materials (heat insulated roof panel)  

SciTech Connect

The authors have started to develop low cost photovoltaic modules integrated with roofing materials for wooden houses. They made a concept of the design for the modules using amorphous silicon solar cells and produced test modules that consist of untempered surface glass, solar cells, waterproof sheet, heat insulating materials and base frames. They have primarily tested the distributed pressure resistance as a building component. When applying a load from the front surface side of the modules, a 3.6 mm deflection at the center of the specimen under 300 kg/m{sup 2} load was observed, which is equivalent to a snowfall of 1.2 meters. As a result, they have finally confirmed that modules have enough structural strength to be used as a roof panel. They also tested the impact resistance of untempered surface glass by the testing method in JIS3212. In this test, cracks could not be seen from a height of 75 cm.

Nitta, Y.; Hatukaiwa, T.; Yamawaki, T.; Matumura, Y.; Mizukami, S. [Kaneka Corp., Osaka (Japan)

1994-12-31

186

The Chemistry of Paper Preservation: Part 4. Alkaline Paper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inherent instability of old papers is largely due to the presence of acids which catalyze the hydrolytic degradation of cellulose. The use of alkaline paper can minimize the problem of acidity for new papers. This study focuses on the chemistry involved in the sizing of both acid and alkaline papers and the types of fillers used. The waterproofing agent that is used in acid paper is alum-precipitated rosin size, which tends to spread and create a hydrophobic surfaces over the cellulose fibers. Alkaline paper uses the synthetic sizing agents, alkyl ketene dimers(AKD) and alkyl succinic anhydrides (ASA). These alkaline sizing agents become chemically bound to the cellulose fibers with hydrophobic chains pointing outward, producing a water repellent surface. The sizing reactions take place in a neutral-to-alkaline medium. Calcium carbonate can then be used as a filler to replace expensive titanium dioxide. Finally, the advantages and potential problems in alkaline paper making are discussed.

Carter, Henry A.

1997-05-01

187

Fabrication of cotton fabric with superhydrophobicity and flame retardancy.  

PubMed

A simple and facile method for fabricating the cotton fabric with superhydrophobicity and flame retardancy is described in the present work. The cotton fabric with the maximal WCA of 160° has been prepared by the covalent deposition of amino-silica nanospheres and the further graft with (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetradecyl) trimethoxysilane. The geometric microstructure of silica spheres was measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cotton textiles before and after treatment were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The wetting behavior of cotton samples was investigated by water contact angle measurement. Moreover, diverse performances of superhydrophobic cotton textiles have been evaluated as well. The results exhibited the outstanding superhydrophobicity, excellent waterproofing durability and flame retardancy of the cotton fabric after treatment, offering a good opportunity to accelerate the large-scale production of superhydrophobic textiles materials for new industrial applications. PMID:23768579

Zhang, Ming; Wang, Chengyu

2013-07-25

188

Textiles in dermatology: our experience and literature review.  

PubMed

Skin protects its host from its environment and allows their interactions by providing a physical permeability barrier, protection from infectious agents, thermoregulation, and ultraviolet protection. Textiles, in particular clothing, interact with skin functions in a dynamic pattern. For years cotton has been considered as the only comfortable tissue suitable for patients with dermatologic disorders. Nowadays new synthetic fibers with important functions, for example breathability and waterproofing have leaned out and new tissues can be used as a complementary tool in dermatologic treatments. Our purpose is to report the main fibers used for dermatological problems and to review the literature on their use in dermatological field; finally, we also report our personal experience on this topic. PMID:25366891

Brambilla, L; Brena, M; Tourlaki, A

2014-11-01

189

Rad Pole Cam Development  

SciTech Connect

The RadPoleCam was developed to provide Department Of Energy (DOE) first responders the capability to assess the radiological and visual condition of remote or inaccessible locations. Real time gamma isotopic identification is provided to the first responder in the form of audio feedback (i.e. spoken through head phones) from a gamma detector mounted on a collapsible pole that can extend from 1 to 9 meters (6 to 29 feet). Simultaneously, selectable direct and side looking visual images are provided from the 5cm (2in) diameter, waterproof probe tip. The lightweight, self contained, ruggedized, system will provide a rapidly deployable field system for visual and radiological search and assessment of confined spaces and extended reach locations.

Heckendorn, F. M.; Odell, D. M. C; Harpring, L. J.; Peterson, K. D.

2005-10-05

190

The measurement of water vapour transfer rate through clothing system with air gap between layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experiments described in this paper are designed to test the water vapour transfer rates through outdoor clothing system with air gap between layers under conditions more closely actual wear. It was adopted distance of 5 mm to ensure no disturbance of the air gap thickness between layers throughout the measurement period with all fabrics. The results have indicated that the water vapour transfer rates of clothing system decrease very slightly with time, it is shown that they approached nearly equilibrium state throughout the experiment. It is revealed that the water vapour transfer rates of the clothing system were ordered into groups determined by the type of waterproof breathable fabric as a shell layer being ordered.

Oh, Ae-Gyeong

2008-02-01

191

Integrated residential photovoltaic array development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three basic module design concepts were analyzed with respect to both production and installation costs. The results of this evaluation were used to synthesize a fourth design which incorporates the best features of these initial concepts to produce a module/array design approach which offers the promise of a substantial reduction in the installed cost of a residential array. A unique waterproofing and mounting scheme was used to reduce the cost of installing an integral array while still maintaining a high probability that the installed array will be watertight for the design lifetime of the system. This recommended concept will also permit the array to be mounted as a direct or stand-off installation with no changes to the module design.

Shepard, N. F., Jr.

1981-01-01

192

Closeup view of the exterior of the starboard side of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Close-up view of the exterior of the starboard side of the forward fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking at the forward facing observation windows of the flight deck. Note the High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (HRSI) surrounding the window openings, the Low-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (LRSI) immediately beyond the HRSI tiles and the Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation blankets just beyond the LRSI tiles. The holes in the tiles are injection points for the application of waterproofing material. The windows are composed of redundant pressure window panes of thermal glass. This image was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

193

Modular, multi-level groundwater sampler  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for taking a multiple of samples of groundwater or pressure measurements from a well simultaneously. The apparatus comprises a series of chambers arranged in an axial array, each of which is dimensioned to fit into a perforated well casing and leave a small gap between the well casing and the exterior of the chamber. Seals at each end of the container define the limits to the axial portion of the well to be sampled. A submersible pump in each chamber pumps the groundwater that passes through the well casing perforations into the gap from the gap to the surface for analysis. The power lines and hoses for the chambers farther down the array pass through each chamber above them in the array. The seals are solid, water-proof, non-reactive, resilient disks supported to engage the inside surface of the well casing. Because of the modular design, the apparatus provides flexibility for use in a variety of well configurations.

Nichols, Ralph L. (812 Plantation Point Dr., N. Augusta, SC 29841); Widdowson, Mark A. (4204 Havana Ct., Columbia, SC 29206); Mullinex, Harry (10 Cardross La., Columbia, SC 29209); Orne, William H. (12 Martha Ct., Sumter, SC 29150); Looney, Brian B. (1135 Ridgemont Dr., Aiken, SC 29803)

1994-01-01

194

Integrated residential photovoltaic array development. Quarterly report No. 2  

SciTech Connect

The results of a selection process to define the conceptual design of an optimum integrated residential photovoltaic module array are discussed. Three basic module design concepts have been analyzed with respect to both production and installation costs. The results of this evaluation have been used to synthesize a fourth design which incorporates the best features of these initial concepts to produce a module/array design approach which offers the promise of a substantial reduction in the installed cost of a residential array. A unique waterproofing and mounting scheme has been used to reduce the cost of installing an integral array while still maintaining a high probability that the installed array will be watertight for the design lifetime of the system. This recommended concept will also permit the array to be mounted as a direct or stand-off installation with no changes to the module design.

Shepard, N.F. Jr.

1981-05-18

195

Development of strain gages for use to 1311 K (1900 F)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high temperature electric resistance strain gage system was developed and evaluated to 1366 K (2000 F) for periods of at least one hour. Wire fabricated from a special high temperature strain gage alloy (BCL-3), was used to fabricate the gages. Various joining techniques (NASA butt welding, pulse arc, plasma needle arc, and dc parallel gap welding) were investigated for joining gage filaments to each other, gage filaments to lead-tab ribbons, and lead-tab ribbons to lead wires. The effectiveness of a clad-wire concept as a means of minimizing apparent strain of BCL-3 strain gages was investigated by sputtering platinum coatings of varying thicknesses on wire samples and establishing the optimum coating thickness--in terms of minimum resistivity changes with temperature. Finally, the moisture-proofing effectiveness of barrier coatings subjected to elevated temperatures was studied, and one commercial barrier coating (BLH Barrier H Waterproofing) was evaluated.

Lemcoe, M. M.

1974-01-01

196

Analysis of asphalt-based roof systems using thermal analysis  

SciTech Connect

Asphalt has been used in the construction of roads and houses for thousands of years. The properties of asphalt has rendered it quite useful in roofing and waterproofing applications. The most popular use of asphalt in industrial roofing is in the form of a built-up roof or modified-bituminous sheet. This type of roof consists of asphalt, reinforcement and aggregate which is used to protect the asphalt from ultraviolet rays. All materials have their weaknesses and asphalt is no exception. A good asphalt (e.g., low asphaltene content) must be used to ensure the quality and low-temperature performance of roofing asphalts. Polymer additives can be added. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the utility of termogravimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis in establishing the durability of modified bituminous membranes.

Paroli, R.M.; Delgado, A.H. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

1996-12-31

197

NuFab{trademark} anti-contamination suit - OST reference No. 1855. Deactivation and decommissioning focus area  

SciTech Connect

Radiation workers at all US Department of Energy (DOE) sites require some form of protective clothing when performing radiological work. A large number of contaminated facilities at DOE site are currently or will eventually undergo some form of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), requiring some type of protective clothing, often in multiple layers. Protective clothing that does not allow perspiration to escape causes heat stress, which lowers worker comfort and productivity. This report describes the NuFab{trademark} anti-contamination. The suit is a one-piece, disposable, breathable, waterproof coverall with a single front zipper. Constructed of tri-laminated composite material using spun-bonded polypropylene and microporous film layers, the suit is certified as incineratorable.

NONE

1998-02-01

198

Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal  

SciTech Connect

Battelle-Columbus and Amax Research Development conducted a program to develop a process to transport, handle, store, and utilize ultra-fine, ultra-clean (UFUC) coals. The primary objective was to devise a cost-effective method, based on conventional pelletization techniques, to transform the sludge-like filter cake produced in advanced flotation cleaning processes into a product which could be used like lump coal. A secondary objective was the production of a pellet which could be readily converted into a coal water fuel (CWF) because the UFUC coal would ultimately be used as CWF. The resulting product would be a hard, waterproof pellet which could be easily reduced to small particle sizes and formulated with water into a liquid fuel.

Conkle, H.N.

1992-09-29

199

Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Battelle-Columbus and Amax Research & Development conducted a program to develop a process to transport, handle, store, and utilize ultra-fine, ultra-clean (UFUC) coals. The primary objective was to devise a cost-effective method, based on conventional pelletization techniques, to transform the sludge-like filter cake produced in advanced flotation cleaning processes into a product which could be used like lump coal. A secondary objective was the production of a pellet which could be readily converted into a coal water fuel (CWF) because the UFUC coal would ultimately be used as CWF. The resulting product would be a hard, waterproof pellet which could be easily reduced to small particle sizes and formulated with water into a liquid fuel.

Conkle, H.N.

1992-09-29

200

Detail view of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery Discovery showing the thermal protection system components with the white Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFSI) Blanket and the black High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (HRSI) tiles along the outer edges . The marks seen on the HRSI tiles are injection point marks and holes for the application of waterproofing material. This view also a good detailed view of the two-piece rudder which is used to control the yaw position of orbiter on approach and landing in earth's atmosphere and upon landing the two-piece rudder splays open to both sides of the stabilizer to act as an air brake to help slow the craft to a stop. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

201

Detail view of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery looking at the two-piece rudder which is used to control the yaw position of orbiter on approach and landing in earth's atmosphere and upon landing the two-piece rudder splays open to both sides of the stabilizer to act as an air brake to help slow the craft to a stop. Note the thermal protection system components with the white Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation Blanket and the black High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation tiles along the outer edges (HRSI tiles). The marks seen on the HRSI tiles are injection point marks and holes for the application of waterproofing material. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

202

Underground coal miners' foot and boot problems.  

PubMed

The New South Wales (NSW) Joint Coal Board Health and Safety Trust funded an investigation into foot problems reported by 400 randomly selected underground coal miners from 15 mines in NSW. Miners were interviewed and their responses were entered directly into laptop computers. Digital cameras were also used to take pictures of skin conditions and miners' posture. Observations of the skin results indicate that miners find gumboots to be hot, sweaty and uncomfortable. Skin breakdown and tinea, is frequent and disabling and responsible for absences from the workforce that are costly for both miner and employer. A more comfortable and better designed boot is needed, fabricated in waterproof leather together with socks that 'wick' the moisture away from the foot. Socks worn were of varying components and washed at irregular intervals, indicating a need for regular changes of socks and improved hygiene. PMID:10570554

Wood, G; Marr, S; Berry, G; Nubé, V; Cole, J

1999-11-01

203

The Use of Basalt, Basalt Fibers and Modified Graphite for Nuclear Waste Repository - 12150  

SciTech Connect

New materials enhancing the isolation of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel are continuously being developed.. Our research suggests that basalt-based materials, including basalt roving chopped basalt fiber strands, basalt composite rebar and materials based on modified graphite, could be used for enhancing radioactive waste isolation during the storage and disposal phases and maintaining it during a significant portion of the post-closure phase. The basalt vitrification process of nuclear waste is a viable alternative to glass vitrification. Basalt roving, chopped basalt fiber strands and basalt composite rebars can significantly increase the strength and safety characteristics of nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel storages. Materials based on MG are optimal waterproofing materials for nuclear waste containers. (authors)

Gulik, V.I. [Institute for Nuclear Research, pr. Nauky 47, Kyiv, 03680 (Ukraine); Biland, A.B. [HHK Technologies, 3535 Wilcreast Dr., Houston TX 77042 (United States)

2012-07-01

204

Invisible photonic printing: computer designing graphics, UV printing and shown by a magnetic field  

PubMed Central

Invisible photonic printing, an emerging printing technique, is particularly useful for steganography and watermarking for anti-counterfeiting purposes. However, many challenges exist in order to realize this technique. Herein, we describe a novel photonic printing strategy targeting to overcome these challenges and realize fast and convenient fabrication of invisible photonic prints with good tenability and reproducibility. With this novel photonic printing technique, a variety of graphics with brilliant colors can be perfectly hidden in a soft and waterproof photonic-paper. The showing and hiding of the latent photonic prints are instantaneous with magnet as the only required instrument. In addition, this strategy has excellent practicality and allows end-user control of the structural design utilizing simple software on a PC. PMID:23508071

Hu, Haibo; Tang, Jian; Zhong, Hao; Xi, Zheng; Chen, Changle; Chen, Qianwang

2013-01-01

205

Underwater manipulator  

DOEpatents

Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is described for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer [plus minus]45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer [plus minus]10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.

1993-04-20

206

Fabrication of hydrophobic, electrically conductive and flame-resistant carbon aerogels by pyrolysis of regenerated cellulose aerogels.  

PubMed

In this paper, we reported miscellaneous carbon aerogels prepared by pyrolysis of regenerated cellulose aerogels that were fabricated by dissolution in a mild NaOH/PEG solution, freeze-thaw treatment, regeneration, and freeze drying. The as-prepared carbon aerogels were subsequently characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), nitrogen adsorption measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and water contact angle (WCA) tests. The results showed that the carbon aerogels with pore diameters of 1-60nm maintained interconnected three-dimensional (3D) network after the pyrolysis, and showed type-IV adsorption isotherm. The pyrolysis process leaded to the decomposition of oxygen-containing functional groups, the destruction of cellulose crystalline structure, and the formation of highly disordered amorphous graphite. Moreover, the carbon aerogels also had strong hydrophobicity, electrical conductivity and flame retardance, which held great potential in the fields of waterproof, electronic devices and fireproofing. PMID:25542115

Wan, Caichao; Lu, Yun; Jiao, Yue; Jin, Chunde; Sun, Qingfeng; Li, Jian

2015-03-15

207

Local drainage analyses of the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants during an extreme storm  

SciTech Connect

Local drainage analyses have been performed for the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants during an extreme storm having an approximate 10,000-yr recurrence interval. This review discusses the methods utilized to accomplish the analyses in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) design and evaluation guidelines, and summarizes trends, results, generalizations, and uncertainties applicable to other DOE facilities. Results indicate that some culverts may be undersized, and that the storm sewer system cannot drain the influx of precipitation from the base of buildings. Roofs have not been designed to sustain ponding when the primary drainage system is clogged. Some underground tunnels, building entrances, and ground level air intakes may require waterproofing.

Johnson, R.O.; Wang, J.C.; Lee, D.W.

1993-11-01

208

Waste drum refurbishment  

SciTech Connect

Low-carbon steel, radioactive waste containers (55-gallon drums) are experiencing degradation due to moisture and temperature fluctuations. With thousands of these containers currently in use; drum refurbishment becomes a significant issue for the taxpayer and stockholders. This drum refurbishment is a non-intrusive, portable process costing between 1/2 and 1/25 the cost of repackaging, depending on the severity of degradation. At the INEL alone, there are an estimated 9,000 drums earmarked for repackaging. Refurbishing drums rather than repackaging can save up to $45,000,000 at the INEL. Based on current but ever changing WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), this drum refurbishment process will restore drums to a WIPP acceptable condition plus; drums with up to 40% thinning o the wall can be refurbished to meet performance test requirements for DOT 7A Type A packaging. A refurbished drum provides a tough, corrosion resistant, waterproof container with longer storage life and an additional containment barrier. Drums are coated with a high-pressure spray copolymer material approximately .045 inches thick. Increase in internal drum temperature can be held to less than 15 F. Application can be performed hands-on or the equipment is readily adaptable and controllable for remote operations. The material dries to touch in seconds, is fully cured in 48 hours and has a service temperature of {minus}60 to 500 F. Drums can be coated with little or no surface preparation. This research was performed on drums however research results indicate the coating is very versatile and compatible with most any material and geometry. It could be used to provide abrasion resistance, corrosion protection and waterproofing to almost anything.

Whitmill, L.J.

1996-10-18

209

Process development for production of coal/sorbent agglomerates  

SciTech Connect

Current coal mining and processing procedures produce significant quantities of fine coal with limited marketability. The objective of this work is to utilize these fines to economically produce a fuel which will meet anticipated sulfur dioxide emission levels. To accomplish this, the process of pelletizing fine coal with a sulfur capturing sorbent such as calcium hydroxide is being studied. Carbonation, which is the reaction of calcium hydroxide with carbon dioxide to produce a bonding matrix of calcium carbonate, is being investigated as a method for improving pellet quality and decreasing binder costs. Two potential combustion options are being considered - fluidized bed combustors and industrial stoker boilers. This project represents phase 2 of research in this area. Previous test results indicate that carbonation can improve compressive strength, impact and attrition resistance and essentially waterproofs pellets having a 14% lime content. Binders such as corn starch or molasses do not produce waterproof pellets capable of withstanding rainfall that might occur during shipping or outdoor storage. The past years work was conducted using IBC-106 ground to a particle size of 90% minus 90 microns. In this years work, testing will be performed using a flotation concentrate collected from an operating preparation plant. The sample was collected this quarter and is currently being processed. Also during this quarter, a carbonation reactor has been designed and will be fabricated early next quarter. To aid in pelletization work, an undergraduate civil engineering student has been hired and trained. Some pelletization work has been completed but results are too preliminary to report. 2 refs.

Rapp, D.M.; Lytle, J.M.; Hackley, K.C.; Moran, D.L. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (USA)); Berger, R.L. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA)); Griggs, K. (Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (USA))

1990-01-01

210

Development of a measurement system for the online inspection of microstructured surfaces in harsh industrial conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microscopic imaging techniques are usually applied for the inspection of microstructured surfaces. These techniques require clean measurement conditions. Soilings, e.g. dust or splashing liquids, can disturb the measurement process or even damage instruments. Since these soilings occur in the majority of manufacturing processes, microscopic inspection usually must be carried out in a separate laboratory. We present a measurement system which allows for a microscopic inspection and a 3D reconstruction of microstructured surfaces in harsh industrial conditions. The measurement system also enables precise positioning, e.g. of a grinding wheel, with an accuracy of 5 ?m. The main component of the measurement system is a CCD camera with a high-magnification telecentric lens. By means of this camera it is even possible to measure structures with dimensions in the range of 30 to 50 ?m. The camera and the lens are integrated into a waterproof and dustproof enclosure. The inspection window of the enclosure has an air curtain which serves as a splash guard. The workpiece illumination is crucial in order to obtain good measurement results. The measuring system includes high-power LEDs which are integrated in a waterproof enclosure. The measurement system also includes a laser with a specially designed lens system to form an extremely narrow light section on the workpiece surface. It is possible to obtain a line width of 25 ?m. This line and the camera with the high-magnification telecentric lens are used to perform a laser triangulation of the microstructured surface. This paper describes the system as well as the development and evaluation of the software for the automatic positioning of the workpiece and the automatic three-dimensional surface analysis.

Mueller, Thomas; Langmann, Benjamin; Reithmeier, Eduard

2014-05-01

211

Functional properties of whey protein and its application in nanocomposite materials and functional foods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whey is a byproduct of cheese making; whey proteins are globular proteins which can be modified and polymerized to add functional benefits, these benefits can be both nutritional and structural in foods. Modified proteins can be used in non-foods, being of particular interest in polymer films and coatings. Food packaging materials, including plastics, can linings, interior coatings of paper containers, and beverage cap sealing materials, are generally made of synthetic petroleum based compounds. These synthetic materials may pose a potential human health risk due to presence of certain chemicals such as Bisphenol A (BPA). They also add to environmental pollution, being difficult to degrade. Protein-based materials do not have the same issues as synthetics and so can be used as alternatives in many packaging types. As proteins are generally hydrophilic they must be modified structurally and their performance enhanced by the addition of waterproofing agents. Polymerization of whey proteins results in a network, adding both strength and flexibility. The most interesting of the food-safe waterproofing agents are the (large aspect ratio) nanoclays. Nanoclays are relatively inexpensive, widely available and have low environmental impact. The clay surface can be modified to make it organophilic and so compatible with organic polymers. The objective of this study is the use of polymerized whey protein (PWP), with reinforcing nanoclays, to produce flexible surface coatings which limit the transfer of contents while maintaining food safety. Four smectite and kaolin type clays, one treated and three natural were assessed for strengthening qualities and the potential waterproofing and plasticizing benefits of other additives were also analyzed. The nutritional benefits of whey proteins can also be used to enhance the protein content of various foodstuffs. Drinkable yogurt is a popular beverage in the US and other countries and is considered a functional food, especially when produced with probiotic bacteria. Carbonation was applied to a drinkable yogurt to enhance its benefits. This process helps reduce the oxygen levels in the foodstuff thus potentially being advantageous to the microaerophilic probiotic bacteria while simultaneously producing a product, somewhat similar to kefir, which has the potential to fill a niche in the functional foods market. Yogurt was combined with a syrup to reduce its viscosity, making it drinkable, and also to allow infusion of CO2. This dilution reduced the protein content of the drink and so whey protein concentrate was added to increase levels in the final product. High-methoxyl pectins were used to provide stability by reducing the tendency of the proteins to sediment out. The objectives of this study were to develop a manufacturing technology for drinkable carbonated symbiotic yogurts, and to evaluate their physicochemical properties. Two flavors of yogurt drink, pomegranate and vanilla, were formulated containing inulin as prebiotic, along with probiotic bacteria, producing symbiotic dairy beverages.

Walsh, Helen

212

Short-chain carboxylic acids from gray catbird (Dumetella carolinensis) uropygial secretions vary with testosterone levels and photoperiod.  

PubMed

The uropygial gland of birds produces secretions that are important in maintaining the health and structural integrity of feathers. Non-volatile components of uropygial secretions are believed to serve a number of functions including waterproofing and conditioning the feathers. Volatile components have been characterized in fewer species, but are particularly interesting because of their potential importance in olfactory interactions within and across species. We used solid-phase microextraction headspace sampling with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to detect and identify volatiles in uropygial secretions of gray catbirds (Dumetella carolinensis), a North American migratory bird. We consistently detected the following carboxylic acids: acetic, propanoic, 2-methylpropanoic, butanoic, and 3-methylbutanoic. We tested for the effect of lengthened photoperiod and/or exogenous testosterone on volatile signal strength and found a negative effect of lengthened photoperiod on the signal strength of propanoic, 2-methylpropanoic, and butanoic acids, suggesting a trade-off between their production and heightened night-time activity associated with lengthened photoperiod. Signal strength of propanoic and 2-methylpropanoic acids was lower in birds treated with exogenous testosterone than in birds treated with placebos. Sex did not affect signal strength of any of the volatile compounds. PMID:20346408

Whelan, Rebecca J; Levin, Tera C; Owen, Jennifer C; Garvin, Mary C

2010-07-01

213

A food contaminant detection system based on high-Tc SQUIDs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed and constructed a computer controlled food contaminant detection system for practical use, based on high-Tc SQUID detectors. The system, which features waterproof stainless steel construction, is acceptable under the HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) programme guidelines. The outer dimensions of the system are 1500 mm length × 477 mm width × 1445 mm height, and it can accept objects up to 200 mm wide × 80 mm high. An automatic liquid nitrogen filling system was installed in the standard model. This system employed a double-layered permeable metallic shield with a thickness of 1 mm as a magnetically shielded box. The distribution of the magnetic field in the box was simulated by FEM; the gap between each shield layer was optimized before fabrication. A shielding factor of 732 in the Z-component was achieved. This value is high enough to safely operate the system in a non-laboratory environment, i.e., a factory. During testing, we successfully detected a steel contaminant as small as 0.3 mm in diameter at a distance of 75 mm.

Tanaka, Saburo; Fujita, H.; Hatsukade, Y.; Nagaishi, T.; Nishi, K.; Ota, H.; Otani, T.; Suzuki, S.

2006-05-01

214

High-energy devices, optics and photography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a unit for catching high energy particles form space in an experiment called Pamir, scientists have obtained new data on interactions between these particles and nuclei of atoms of matter. According to a hypothesis of physicists, electromagnetic fields operating in space and in supernova stars which flare up from time to time accelerate particles to energies which are hundreds of thousands or even millions of times as high as those which can be obtained on Earth. Something resembling a layer cake with layers of lead and a special x ray film in lightproof and waterproof packages was set up on a level area at an elevation of almost 5,000 meters in the Pamir Mountains. This cake covers an area of almost 1,000 square meters. A single x ray film takes up about a hectare. Particles enter the x ray emulsion chamber and form spots on the film. The particles' energy nd the character of their interaction with nuclei of atoms of matter can be judged on the basis of these spots.

Borodio, K.

1986-01-01

215

Abrading increases oxygen and hardness of titanium surface.  

PubMed

CP Ti was mirror-polished and then abraded with waterproof SiC papers of two different grit sizes: 16 and 3 microm. As-polished and abraded surfaces were characterized by means of EPMA, XPS, XRD, and hardness test. Oxygen in the mirror-polished surface was uniformly distributed at the lowest level. Comparatively, abrading with SiC papers increased the surface oxygen amount and hardness. Owing to its excellent abrasivity, the coarse grit efficiently scratched the surface and hindered the regenerated oxide film from growing thick, but allowed only the metal-oxide interfacial gradient zone to extend. But, the fine grit merely rubbed the surface and allowed both the oxide film and interfacial zone to extend. Further, the surface appeared to be lightly yellow-colored, suggesting that the oxide film was thicker, probably within 10 nm, than the nominal one. When compared with the bulk, the interfacial zone was rich in oxygen and therefore subjected to high coherency strain, which was introduced to relieve the great lattice mismatch between the outer and inner layers of titanium substrate. Effects of solute oxygen hardening and strain hardening were speculated to be responsible for the surface hardening of both SiC-abraded surfaces. In conclusion, abrading with a coarse grit led to accumulation of a high, non-uniform strain in the titanium substrate, thereby hardening the surface further. PMID:16706291

Miyakawa, Osamu; Okawa, Seigo; Kobayashi, Masayoshi

2006-03-01

216

Current progress in the development of a totally implantable Gyro centrifugal artificial heart.  

PubMed

A totally implantable centrifugal artificial heart has been developed using a miniaturized pivot bearing supported centrifugal pump (Gyro PI pump). The authors report current progress in its development. The Gyro PI-601 has a priming volume of 20 ml, weighs 100 g, has a height of 60 mm, and has a diameter of 65 mm. This pump can provide 8 L/min against 150 mmHg at 2,250 rpm. It is driven by an miniaturized DC brushless motor with the coils fixed in a plastic mold that is waterproof and made of titanium (weight, 204 g; height, 18 mm; diameter, 65 mm). In this centrifugal artificial heart, two Gyro PI pumps are implanted independently to replace cardiac function without resecting the native heart. Its anatomic and surgical feasibility were confirmed experimentally. The Gyro PI-601 was implanted as a right or left ventricular assist device in the preperitoneal space of five calves. All five tests proceeded without any thromboembolic symptoms. One of five tests was extended more than 1 month to confirm the long-term feasibility of the Gyro PI-601 pump system. Based on the satisfactory results of the in vivo tests, the material conversion of the Gyro PI from polycarbonate to titanium alloy (Ti-6A1-4V) was undertaken to improve its biocompatibility for long-term implantation. PMID:9617953

Takami, Y; Ohtsuka, G; Mueller, J; Ebner, M; Tayama, E; Ohashi, Y; Taylor, D; Fernandes, J; Schima, H; Schmallegger, H; Wolner, E; Nosé, Y

1998-01-01

217

Underwater sediment-contact radiation survey method  

SciTech Connect

The authors are striving to produce a practical system for mapping lateral distributions in gamma activity on submerged sediments. This is in response to the need for quality control and interpretation of data obtainable by sediment sampling and analyses near nuclear utilities. A prototype gamma probe has been constructed and tested. The prototype is essentially a background survey meter packaged in a 53-cm-long {times} 5.4-cm-diam waterproof vehicle. This usage-shaped vehicle is connected to a cable for towing in contact with bottom sediments of lakes, rivers, and coastal waters. This vehicle, or sediment probe as it is called, was initially developed for measuring sediment electrical conductances, a parameter that can be used to locate underwater areas of groundwater and contaminant upwelling. During towing, the probe does not roll or twist around its longitudinal axis by more than 10 deg, so that sensors, which have been fixed within the vehicle, can be oriented to look up, down, or sideways. In over 450 lin-km of underwater survey, only a single sediment probe has been irretrievably snagged on sunken rocks or other debris. Work in the Ottawa River near the Chalk River Laboratories has shown good agreement among point measurements of river sediment with continuous measurements using the moving probe.

Lee, D.R.; St. Aubin, M.; Welch, S.J. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, Ontario (Canada))

1991-11-01

218

Effects of repeated hand instrumentation on the marginal portion of a cast gold crown.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of repeated hand instrumentation on the marginal portion of a cast gold crown. Seven extracted periodontally diseased premolars were used. The finishing line of the preparation was placed on the root surface and then the crown was cast and cemented in the usual manner. One proximal surface of each sample was divided into 2 areas: root planing (RP) area and RP plus polishing (RPP) area. The marginal portion of the crown was measured to give a baseline value using a surface roughness- and profile-analyzing system. Then, the marginal portion was painted with a waterproof pen. RP was performed to remove paint in the RP area with the curets. In the RPP area, RP followed by polishing was done by silicone polishing points and a rubber cup with polishing paste. The relevant procedures and measurements were repeated 3 times in each area. Changes in the sample roughness and profile were evaluated and compared between the 2 techniques. The results showed that repeated instrumentation altered the surface of the marginal portion of the cast gold crown, resulting in increased roughness in both areas (P < 0.01). However, the roughness of the RPP area was considerably restored to the baseline value by polishing after RP. Therefore, it is suggested that polishing after RP smoothes the marginal portion of the cast gold crowns and appears to be an efficient prophylactic system. PMID:9527560

Yagi, H; Ito, K; Eda, M; Murai, S

1998-01-01

219

Titanium surface roughness accelerates RANKL-dependent differentiation in the osteoclast precursor cell line, RAW264.7.  

PubMed

The present study was a molecular analysis of the initial differentiation of osteoclast precursor RAW264.7 cells on titanium specimens. RAW264.7 cell line was cultured on titanium specimens of which the surfaces were finished by wet grinding with 2000-, 1200-, 600-, or 180-grit waterproof abrasive paper. Total RNA was extracted from cells cultured in the presence or absence of Receptor Activator of NF-kappaB Ligand (RANKL), prior to cDNA synthesis for real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Titanium surfaces initially enhanced the expression of osteoclast differentiation markers including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and cathepsin K in RAW264.7 cells cultured with RANKL stimulation, in a roughness-dependent manner. The mRNA expressions of both RANKL receptor, RANK, and its adapter protein TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) increased when RAW264.7 cells were cultured on titanium specimens with roughened surfaces, as compared with that of control specimen with a polished surface. These results, taken together, suggested that titanium surface roughness facilitated osteoclast differentiation through the activation of the RANK-TRAF6 signaling network. PMID:18203477

Makihira, Seicho; Mine, Yuichi; Kosaka, Eduardo; Nikawa, Hiroki

2007-09-01

220

Reconstitution of Plant Alkane Biosynthesis in Yeast Demonstrates That Arabidopsis ECERIFERUM1 and ECERIFERUM3 Are Core Components of a Very-Long-Chain Alkane Synthesis Complex[C][W  

PubMed Central

In land plants, very-long-chain (VLC) alkanes are major components of cuticular waxes that cover aerial organs, mainly acting as a waterproof barrier to prevent nonstomatal water loss. Although thoroughly investigated, plant alkane synthesis remains largely undiscovered. The Arabidopsis thaliana ECERIFERUM1 (CER1) protein has been recognized as an essential element of wax alkane synthesis; nevertheless, its function remains elusive. In this study, a screen for CER1 physical interaction partners was performed. The screen revealed that CER1 interacts with the wax-associated protein ECERIFERUM3 (CER3) and endoplasmic reticulum–localized cytochrome b5 isoforms (CYTB5s). The functional relevance of these interactions was assayed through an iterative approach using yeast as a heterologous expression system. In a yeast strain manipulated to produce VLC acyl-CoAs, a strict CER1 and CER3 coexpression resulted in VLC alkane synthesis. The additional presence of CYTB5s was found to enhance CER1/CER3 alkane production. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that CER1 His clusters are essential for alkane synthesis, whereas those of CER3 are not, suggesting that CYTB5s are specific CER1 cofactors. Collectively, our study reports the identification of plant alkane synthesis enzymatic components and supports a new model for alkane production in which CER1 interacts with both CER3 and CYTB5 to catalyze the redox-dependent synthesis of VLC alkanes from VLC acyl-CoAs. PMID:22773744

Bernard, Amélie; Domergue, Frédéric; Pascal, Stéphanie; Jetter, Reinhard; Renne, Charlotte; Faure, Jean-Denis; Haslam, Richard P.; Napier, Johnathan A.; Lessire, René; Joubès, Jérôme

2012-01-01

221

Shear bond strength of three resin based sealers to dentin with and without the smear layer.  

PubMed

Bond strength of root canal sealers to dentin is an important property for the integrity of the sealings of root-canals. The purpose of this study was to test shear bond strength of three endodontic sealers (Diaket, AH Plus and Endo-REZ). The coronal two thirds of ninety extracted human third molars were removed. The smear layer of the exposed dentin surfaces were removed using 17% EDTA followed by 5.25% NaOCl and the teeth were randomly divided into two groups (n = 45). Group 1 was kept as control and in group 2, uniform smear layer was created using waterproof polishing papers. Three-mm long sections of polyethylene tubing were filled with freshly mixed sealer and placed on the dentin surfaces for conducting a shear bond strength test. The data was calculated as MPa and was statistically analyzed using a two way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. A significant difference was found among the bond strength of the sealers, smear layer, and control groups. AH Plus sealer showed the highest bond strength in smear layer removed surfaces (p < 0.05). Pretreatment with EDTA/NaOCl affected bond strength of AH Plus. AH Plus had the highest bond to dentin with or without smear layer. PMID:15793387

Eldeniz, Ayce Unverdi; Erdemir, Ali; Belli, Sema

2005-04-01

222

Could the Health Decline of Prehistoric California Indians be Related to Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Natural Bitumen?  

PubMed Central

Background: The negative health effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are well established for modern human populations but have so far not been studied in prehistoric contexts. PAHs are the main component of fossil bitumen, a naturally occurring material used by past societies such as the Chumash Indians in California as an adhesive, as a waterproofing agent, and for medicinal purposes. The rich archaeological and ethnohistoric record of the coastal Chumash suggests that they were exposed to multiple uptake pathways of bituminous PAHs, including direct contact, fume inhalation, and oral uptake from contaminated water and seafood. Objectives: We investigated the possibility that PAHs from natural bitumen compromised the health of the prehistoric Chumash Indians in California. Conclusions: Exposure of the ancient Chumash Indians to toxic PAHs appears to have gradually increased across a period of 7,500 years because of an increased use of bitumen in the Chumash technology, together with a dietary shift toward PAH-contaminated marine food. Skeletal analysis indicates a concurrent population health decline that may be related to PAH uptake. However, establishing such a connection is virtually impossible without knowing the actual exposure levels experienced by these populations. Future methodological research may provide techniques for determining PAH levels in ancient skeletal material, which would open new avenues for research on the health of prehistoric populations and on the long-term effects of human PAH exposure. PMID:21596651

Sholts, Sabrina B.; Erlandson, Jon M.; Gjerdrum, Thor; Westerholm, Roger

2011-01-01

223

Marker and pen graffiti cleaning on diverse calcareous stones by different laser techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industries nowadays continuously produce new types of inks for markers and pens, so new different graffiti appear . In this paper laser cleaning tests on 41 new marker and pen types ( fluorescent, permanent, water-based, acrylic tempera, metallic paint, waterproof inks ), applied into laboratory on different litho- type samples (Chianca, Travertino di Roma, Tufo Carparo fine grain, Sabbie), typical stones employed in much more monuments in Puglia and Italian architectures were carried out. The same ones, were exposed for twelve months to outdoor ageing, subject to sunshine, rain, wind, IR and UV solar radiations. Ablation experiments and tests by using different cleaning techniques, each one in Dry and Wet condition (classic technique, Daurelio technique 1 and Daurelio technique 2 and others new techniques) and two different Nd:YAG laser systems (Palladio by QUANTA SYSTEM and SMART CLEAN II by EL.EN.), were adopted. The experimental modes, N-Mode (1064nm - 150, 300 and 500 ?s pulse duration), Q-Switch (1064nm - 8 ns pulse duration) and SFR (Short Free Running - 1064 nm - 40 to 110?s pulse duration) were tested on each marked stones. It was found that according to the different ink types and stone substrate, Q-Switch laser cleaning ablation with optimized laser technique are the best solution to marker an pen graffiti removal. The work is still in progress.

Andriani, S. E.; Catalano, I. M.; Daurelio, G.; Albanese, A.

2007-05-01

224

CFD Model of Water Droplet Transport for ISS Hygiene Activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the study is to assess the impacts of free water propagation in the Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC). Free water can be generated inside the WHC in small quantities due to crew hygiene activity. To mitigate potential impact of free water in Node 3 cabin the WHC doorway is enclosed by a waterproof bump-out, Kabin, with openings at the top and bottom. At the overhead side of the rack, there is a screen that prevents large drops of water from exiting. However, as the avionics fan in the WHC causes airflow toward the deck side of the rack, small quantities of free water may exit at the bottom of the Kabin. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of Node 3 cabin airflow made possible to identify the paths of water transport. The Node 3 airflow was computed for several ventilation scenarios. To simulate the droplet transport the Lagrangian discrete phase approach was used. Various initial droplet distributions were considered in the study. The droplet diameter was varied in the range of 2-20 mm. The results of the computations showed that most of the drops fall to the rack surface not far from the WHC curtain. The probability of the droplet transport to the adjacent rack surface with electronic equipment was predicted.

Son, Chang H.

2011-01-01

225

Design of Inorganic Water Repellent Coatings for Thermal Protection Insulation on an Aerospace Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this report, thin film deposition of one of the model candidate materials for use as water repellent coating on the thermal protection systems (TPS) of an aerospace vehicle was investigated. The material tested was boron nitride (BN), the water-repellent properties of which was detailed in our other investigation. Two different methods, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD), were used to prepare the BN films on a fused quartz substrate (one of the components of thermal protection systems on aerospace vehicles). The deposited films were characterized by a variety of techniques including X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The BN films were observed to be amorphous in nature, and a CVD-deposited film yielded a contact angle of 60 degrees with water, similar to the pellet BN samples investigated previously. This demonstrates that it is possible to use the bulk sample wetting properties as a guideline to determine the candidate waterproofing material for the TPS.

Fuerstenau, D. W.; Ravikumar, R.

1997-01-01

226

Mechanical model testing of rebreathing potential in infant bedding materials  

PubMed Central

Rebreathing of expired air may be a lethal hazard for prone sleeping infants. This paper describes a mechanical model to simulate infant breathing, and examines the effects of bedding on exhaled air retention. Under simulated rebreathing conditions, the model allows the monitoring of raised carbon dioxide (CO2) inside an artificial lung-trachea system. Resulting levels of CO2 (although probably exaggerated in the mechanical model compared with an infant, due to the model's fixed breathing rate and volume) suggest that common bedding materials vary widely in inherent rebreathing potential. In face down tests, maximum airway CO2 ranged from less than 5% on sheets and waterproof mattresses to over 25% on sheepskins, bean bag cushions, and some pillows and comforters. Concentrations of CO2 decreased with increasing head angle of the doll, away from the face down position. Recreations of 29infant death scenes also showed large CO2 increases on some bedding materials, suggesting these infants could have died while rebreathing.?? PMID:9623394

Carleton, J.; Donoghue, A.; Porter, W.

1998-01-01

227

Lightweight, Miniature Inertial Measurement System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A miniature, lighter-weight, and highly accurate inertial navigation system (INS) is coupled with GPS receivers to provide stable and highly accurate positioning, attitude, and inertial measurements while being subjected to highly dynamic maneuvers. In contrast to conventional methods that use extensive, groundbased, real-time tracking and control units that are expensive, large, and require excessive amounts of power to operate, this method focuses on the development of an estimator that makes use of a low-cost, miniature accelerometer array fused with traditional measurement systems and GPS. Through the use of a position tracking estimation algorithm, onboard accelerometers are numerically integrated and transformed using attitude information to obtain an estimate of position in the inertial frame. Position and velocity estimates are subject to drift due to accelerometer sensor bias and high vibration over time, and so require the integration with GPS information using a Kalman filter to provide highly accurate and reliable inertial tracking estimations. The method implemented here uses the local gravitational field vector. Upon determining the location of the local gravitational field vector relative to two consecutive sensors, the orientation of the device may then be estimated, and the attitude determined. Improved attitude estimates further enhance the inertial position estimates. The device can be powered either by batteries, or by the power source onboard its target platforms. A DB9 port provides the I/O to external systems, and the device is designed to be mounted in a waterproof case for all-weather conditions.

Tang, Liang; Crassidis, Agamemnon

2012-01-01

228

Genetic control of cuticle formation during embryonic development of Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed Central

The embryonic cuticle of Drosophila melanogaster is deposited by the epidermal epithelium during stage 16 of development. This tough, waterproof layer is essential for maintaining the structural integrity of the larval body. We have characterized mutations in a set of genes required for proper deposition and/or morphogenesis of the cuticle. Zygotic disruption of any one of these genes results in embryonic lethality. Mutant embryos are hyperactive within the eggshell, resulting in a high proportion reversed within the eggshell (the "retroactive" phenotype), and all show poor cuticle integrity when embryos are mechanically devitellinized. This last property results in embryonic cuticle preparations that appear grossly inflated compared to wild-type cuticles (the "blimp" phenotype). We find that one of these genes, krotzkopf verkehrt (kkv), encodes the Drosophila chitin synthase enzyme and that a closely linked gene, knickkopf (knk), encodes a novel protein that shows genetic interaction with the Drosophila E-cadherin, shotgun. We also demonstrate that two other known mutants, grainy head (grh) and retroactive (rtv), show the blimp phenotype when devitellinized, and we describe a new mutation, called zeppelin (zep), that shows the blimp phenotype but does not produce defects in the head cuticle as the other mutations do. PMID:12019232

Ostrowski, Stephen; Dierick, Herman A; Bejsovec, Amy

2002-01-01

229

Occupational and environmental exposure to tribromophenol used for wood surface protection in sawmills.  

PubMed

This study analyses the occupational and environmental conditions of sawmills where the lumber is protected from microorganism action by dipping it in 2,4,6 tribromophenol (TBP). Three processes were evaluated: hydraulic immersion, chain conveyor system and manual immersion. The biggest occupational exposure to TBP was registered in manual and chain conveyor systems. The average values in the workers' urine for TBP were 6.9 and 5.7 mg/g creatinine, respectively. For environmental exposure, the highest value in well waters was 25.1 microg/L and in soil was 4,602 mg/kg. It could be established that the hydraulic immersion system presents less occupational TBP exposure. Nevertheless, the hydraulic system, as well as the other two anti-stain alternatives, requires the introduction of pollution prevention efforts. To reduce the environmental exposure to TBP, the lumber-dipping tank area, the forklift traffic areas, and the storage areas need to be waterproofed. It is also necessary to implement a TBP solution recovery system to eliminate dripping from the lumber once it is removed from the fungicide dipping tanks. PMID:16134480

Gutiérrez, Manuel; Becerra, José; Godoy, Juan; Barra, Ricardo

2005-06-01

230

Influence of the processed sunflower oil on the cement properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Used oils (vegetable oil, animal oil, engine oil, etc.), which are essentially industrial wastes, have found application as secondary raw materials in some braches of industry. In particular, the only well-known and commonly-used way of utilizing wastes of vegetable oils is to apply them as raw materials in the production of biodiesel. The goal of the present study is to develop a conceptually new way of vegetable oil wastes utilization in the building industry. The test admixture D-148 was obtained from the processing of wastes of sunflower oil and it mainly consists of fatty acid diethanolamide. The test admixture was added to the cement system for the purpose of studying its influence on water demand, flowability, setting times, compressive strength and moisture adsorption. The test admixture D-148 at the optimal content 0. 2 weight % causes 10% decrease in water demand, 1.7 time increase in flowability (namely spread diameter), 23% increase in grade strength and 34% decrease in moisture adsorption. The results of the present investigation make it possible to consider the final product of the waste sunflower oil processing as multifunctional plasticizing-waterproofing admixture.

Fleysher, A. U.; Tokarchuk, V. V.; Sviderskiy, V. A.

2015-01-01

231

Afocal viewport optics for underwater imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conventional camera can be adapted for underwater use by enclosing it in a sealed waterproof pressure housing with a viewport. The viewport, as an optical interface between water and air needs to consider both the camera and water optical characteristics while also providing a high pressure water seal. Limited hydrospace visibility drives a need for wide angle viewports. Practical optical interfaces between seawater and air vary from simple flat plate windows to complex water contact lenses. This paper first provides a brief overview of the physical and optical properties of the ocean environment along with suitable optical materials. This is followed by a discussion of the characteristics of various afocal underwater viewport types including flat windows, domes and the Ivanoff corrector lens, a derivative of a Galilean wide angle camera adapter. Several new and interesting optical designs derived from the Ivanoff corrector lens are presented including a pair of very compact afocal viewport lenses that are compatible with both in water and in air environments and an afocal underwater hyper-hemispherical fisheye lens.

Slater, Dan

2014-09-01

232

Shuttle antenna radome technology test program. Volume 2: Development of S-band antenna interface design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of the Thermal Protection Subsystem (TPS) contamination on the space shuttle orbiter S band quad antenna due to multiple mission buildup are discussed. A test fixture was designed, fabricated and exposed to ten cycles of simulated ground and flight environments. Radiation pattern and impedance tests were performed to measure the effects of the contaminates. The degradation in antenna performance was attributed to the silicone waterproofing in the TPS tiles rather than exposure to the contaminating sources used in the test program. Validation of the accuracy of an analytical thermal model is discussed. Thermal vacuum tests with a test fixture and a representative S band quad antenna were conducted to evaluate the predictions of the analytical thermal model for two orbital heating conditions and entry from each orbit. The results show that the accuracy of predicting the test fixture thermal responses is largely dependent on the ability to define the boundary and ambient conditions. When the test conditions were accurately included in the analytical model, the predictions were in excellent agreement with measurements.

Kuhlman, E. A.; Baranowski, L. C.

1977-01-01

233

LWA demonstration applications using Illinois coal gasification slag: Phase 2. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this program are to demonstrate the feasibility of producing ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from solid residues (slag) generated during the gasification of Illinois coals, and to test the products as substitutes for conventional aggregates produced by pyroprocessing of perlite ores. In Phase 1 of this project, Praxis developed a pilotscale production technique and produced a large batch of expanded aggregates from an Illinois coal slag feed. The Phase 2 work focuses on characterization and applications-oriented testing of the expanded slag products as substitutes for conventional ULWAs. Target applications include high-volume uses such as loose fill insulation, insulating concrete, lightweight precast products (blocks), waterproof wallboard, rooftiles, and filtration media. The precast products will be subjected to performance and characterization testing in conjunction with a commercial manufacturer of such products in order to obtain input from a potential user. The production of value-added products from slag will eliminate a solid waste and possibly enhance the overall gasification process economics, especially when the avoided costs of disposal are taken into consideration.

Choudhry, V. [Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States); Steck, P. [Harvey Cement Products, Inc. (United States)

1993-12-31

234

An O2 smart plastic film for packaging.  

PubMed

The preparation and characterisation of a novel, water-proof, irreversible, reusable, UV-activated, O(2) sensitive, smart plastic film is described. A pigment, consisting of a redox dye, methylene blue (MB), and a sacrificial electron donor, DL-threitol, coated onto an inorganic support with semiconductor functionality, TiO(2), has been extruded in low-density polyethylene (LDPE). The blue-coloured indicator is readily photobleached in <90 s using UVA light (4 mW cm(-2)), whereby MB is converted to its colourless, leuco form, leuco-methylene blue (LMB). This form persists in the absence of oxygen, but is re-oxidised to MB in ~2.5 days in air under ambient conditions (?21 °C, ~65% RH) within the O(2) smart plastic film. The rate of recovery is linearly dependent upon the ambient level of O(2). At the lower temperature of 5 °C, the kinetics of the photobleaching activation step is largely unchanged, whereas that of recovery is markedly reduced to t(1/2) = 36 h at 5 °C (cf. 9 h at 21 °C); the activation energy for the recovery step was calculated as 28 kJ mol(-1). The O(2)-sensitive recovery step was found to be moderately dependent upon humidity at 21 °C, but not significantly dependent upon humidity at 5 °C. The possible application of this type of indicator in food packaging is illustrated and discussed briefly. PMID:22076639

Mills, Andrew; Lawrie, Katherine; Bardin, Julie; Apedaile, Alistair; Skinner, Graham A; O'Rourke, Christopher

2012-01-01

235

Quantitative genetic analysis suggests causal association between cuticular hydrocarbon composition and desiccation survival in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Survival to low relative humidity is a complex adaptation, and many repeated instances of evolution to desiccation have been observed among Drosophila populations and species. One general mechanism for desiccation resistance is Cuticular Hydrocarbon (CHC) melting point. We performed the first Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) map of population level genetic variation in desiccation resistance in D. melanogaster. Using a panel of Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs) derived from a single natural population, we mapped QTL in both sexes throughout the genome. We found that in both sexes, CHCs correlated strongly with desiccation resistance. At most desiccation resistance loci there was a significant association between CHCs and desiccation resistance of the sort predicted from clinal patterns of CHC variation and biochemical properties of lipids. This association was much stronger in females than males, perhaps because of greater overall abundance of CHCs in females, or due to correlations between CHCs used for waterproofing and sexual signalling in males. CHC evolution may be a common mechanism for desiccation resistance in D. melanogaster. It will be interesting to compare patterns of CHC variation and desiccation resistance in species which adapt to desiccation, and rainforest restricted species which cannot. PMID:20389309

Foley, B R; Telonis-Scott, M

2011-01-01

236

Integrated Microbatteries for Implantable Medical Devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated microbatteries have been proposed to satisfy an anticipated need for long-life, low-rate primary batteries, having volumes less than 1 mm3, to power electronic circuitry in implantable medical devices. In one contemplated application, such a battery would be incorporated into a tubular hearing-aid device to be installed against an eardrum. This device is based on existing tube structures that have already been approved by the FDA for use in human ears. As shown in the figure, the battery would comprise a single cell at one end of the implantable tube. A small volume of Li-based primary battery cathode material would be compacted and inserted in the tube near one end, followed by a thin porous separator, followed by a pressed powder of a Li-containing alloy. Current-collecting wires would be inserted, with suitably positioned insulators to prevent a short circuit. The battery would contain a liquid electrolyte consisting of a Li-based salt in an appropriate solvent. Hermetic seals would be created by plugging both ends with a waterproof polymer followed by deposition of parylene.

Whitacre, Jay; West, William

2008-01-01

237

What Hazards Do Humans Encounter in Antarctica?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After investigating the challenges of living and working in Antarctica and how researchers prepare for them, students evaluate the insulating properties of a variety of fabrics. Throughout this six-day unit, they collect their findings in a portfolio. The comprehensive curriculum materials contain teacher tools, which include individually downloadable readings, detailed daily breakdowns of tasks, teacher strategies for using the activities, a portfolio grading sheet, a project rubric sheet, and additional readings; an online activity in which students review the preparation materials given to researchers before traveling to Antarctica; two classroom activities,an experiment to test the insulation and waterproof properties of a variety of fabrics, and a Jeopardy-style game in which students write the answers and questions; several readings that provide a broad perspective, including an excerpt from Edmund Hillary's journal and Q&A interviews with a safety engineer and a field support services manager. A student handout with guidance for putting together their portfolios and examples of creative final projects is included.

238

[Action proposals to Japanese Neurological Society from Fukushima Medical University: based on our three years' experiences].  

PubMed

In this paper, I make several proposals of what Japanese Neurological Society is able to do or should do in preparing future disaster in Japan. I mention several points separately.Patient education: Patients usually try to visit their hospital as soon as possible for the safety, especially in Japan. Is it true? The traffic jams actually blocked this action in March 11, 2011, which made more serious problems in some patients. We should ask them to prepare matters necessary for staying at home at least for a week when no medical emergency is present.Disaster prevention training: We should make a list of hospitals which accept emergent patients at disaster. We should have some methods of communication still active at disaster (internet, satellite phone) and make society network for communication and patient transportation. How to transfer required drugs to patients is another issue we should consider.Name tag: We sometimes treated unidentified patients in the disaster because the name tag or reference papers was gone or not specified to a certain patient. It is due to great mechanical power of injury or rains. For not detached from the patient and waterproofed, I recommend writing the patient's name on the chest with a permanent marker used in the triathlon when transferring the patients to other hospitals or other places. PMID:24291912

Ugawa, Yoshikazu

2013-01-01

239

Final environmental and regulatory assessment of using asphalt as a sealant in mine shafts  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the properties of asphalt, the current regulatory status governing asphalt and future regulatory implications which may be pertinent in using asphalt as a waterproof shaft sealant. An understanding of the inherent organic composition of asphalt, an increase in the number of health and environmental research publications conducted on asphalt and an examination of the apparent trend of regulatory agencies toward more stringent environmental regulation governing the use of organic materials suggests asphalt could become regulated at a future time. This would only occur, however, if asphalt was found to conform to the present regulatory definitions of pollutants, contaminants or hazardous substances or if asphalt was included on a regulated substance list. In this regard, the study points out that asphalt contains very low levels of hazardous poly-nuclear aromatics (PNA's). These levels are significantly lower than the levels present in coal tars, a substance known to contain high levels of hazardous PNA's. Asphalt, however, has the inherent potential of producing higher concentrations of PNA's if the adverse condition of cracking should occur during the refinery production stage or on-site preparation of the asphalt. Also, unless existing control technology is applied, emission levels of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulates and volatile organic carbons from the on-site preparation facilities could approach the permissible health standard levels of EPA. The study indicates, however, that available literature is limited on these issues.

Not Available

1987-01-01

240

Detailed tests and specifications of the new microbarometer MB3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To solve the unaddressed issue of remote calibration of infrasound stations and some needs for temporary deployment, CEA developed a new microbarometer called MB3. The goal was to propose a sensor as reliable and robust as the worldwide deployed reference sensor MB2005, with a self-noise 10 dB under the Low noise model on the whole IS bandwidth. The core of the sensor is an aneroid capsule coupled to a magnet & coil transducer. A secondary coil wrapped with the main one ensures remote calibration. Two versions are available. The analog one MB3a, is compatible with usual digitizers while the MB3d is digital, embedding a low consumption high performance ADC, a low drift GPS timing board and a 1 GB data storage memory. This last version is especially suitable for temporary measurement required by scientific studies. Experiments showed the MB3 ability to measure very low frequency signals down to 24 hours. Environment testing was performed with success: Operating temperature, Waterproofness, Shock/fall, Transportation, EMC compliancy…

Denis, Stephane; Nief, Guillaume; Baptiste Le Blanc, Jean; Larsonnier, Franck; Bosca, Laurent; Guillois, Francis

2014-05-01

241

Plasma thyroid hormone pattern in king penguin chicks: a semi-altricial bird with an extended posthatching developmental period.  

PubMed

Plasma concentrations of thyroid hormones (TH) were investigated during the extended posthatching developmental period (approximately 11 months) of a semi-altricial bird species, the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus). The first period of growth in summer was marked by a progressive rise in plasma T4 concentration that paralleled rapid increases in body mass and in structural and down growth. By contrast, plasma T3 concentration had already reached adult levels in newly hatched chicks and did not change thereafter. Circulating TH of king penguin chicks thus follow an original pattern when comparing to altricial and precocial species. During the austral winter, the long period of undernutrition of king penguin chicks was characterized by a decrease in circulating TH that can be related to a seasonal stop in growth and energy saving mechanisms. Plasma TH concentrations increased again during the second growth phase in spring, and they reached their highest levels at the end of the fledging period, slightly before juveniles initiated their first foraging trip at sea. As expected, plasma T4 levels were elevated when chicks moulted, developing a true-adult type waterproof plumage. The data also suggest that T4 plays a major role in skeletal development and pectoral muscle maturation in anticipation of marine life. Plasma T3 was at its highest during the period when juveniles improved resistance to cold waters by going back and forth to the sea, suggesting a role for circulating T3 in cold acclimatization occurring at that time. PMID:15081840

Cherel, Yves; Durant, Joël M; Lacroix, André

2004-05-01

242

Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing  

SciTech Connect

The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination (anti-C) material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-C clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant, disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled.

Reichelt, R.; Clay, M.; Eichorst, J.

1996-10-01

243

Possibility of using waste tire rubber and fly ash with Portland cement as construction materials.  

PubMed

The growing amount of waste rubber produced from used tires has resulted in an environmental problem. Recycling waste tires has been widely studied for the last 20 years in applications such as asphalt pavement, waterproofing systems and membrane liners. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing fly ash and rubber waste with Portland cement as a composite material for masonry applications. Class C fly ash and waste automobile tires in three different sizes were used with Portland cement. Compressive and flexural strength, dry unit weight and water absorption tests were performed on the composite specimens containing waste tire rubber. The compressive strength decreased by increasing the rubber content while increased by increasing the fly ash content for all curing periods. This trend is slightly influenced by particle size. For flexural strength, the specimens with waste tire rubber showed higher values than the control mix probably due to the effect of rubber fibers. The dry unit weight of all specimens decreased with increasing rubber content, which can be explained by the low specific gravity of rubber particles. Water absorption decreased slightly with the increase in rubber particles size. These composite materials containing 10% Portland cement, 70% and 60% fly ash and 20% and 30% tire rubber particles have sufficient strength for masonry applications. PMID:19110410

Yilmaz, Arin; Degirmenci, Nurhayat

2009-05-01

244

Overexpression of Arabidopsis ECERIFERUM1 Promotes Wax Very-Long-Chain Alkane Biosynthesis and Influences Plant Response to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses1[W  

PubMed Central

Land plant aerial organs are covered by a hydrophobic layer called the cuticle that serves as a waterproof barrier protecting plants against desiccation, ultraviolet radiation, and pathogens. Cuticle consists of a cutin matrix as well as cuticular waxes in which very-long-chain (VLC) alkanes are the major components, representing up to 70% of the total wax content in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves. However, despite its major involvement in cuticle formation, the alkane-forming pathway is still largely unknown. To address this deficiency, we report here the characterization of the Arabidopsis ECERIFERUM1 (CER1) gene predicted to encode an enzyme involved in alkane biosynthesis. Analysis of CER1 expression showed that CER1 is specifically expressed in the epidermis of aerial organs and coexpressed with other genes of the alkane-forming pathway. Modification of CER1 expression in transgenic plants specifically affects VLC alkane biosynthesis: waxes of TDNA insertional mutant alleles are devoid of VLC alkanes and derivatives, whereas CER1 overexpression dramatically increases the production of the odd-carbon-numbered alkanes together with a substantial accumulation of iso-branched alkanes. We also showed that CER1 expression is induced by osmotic stresses and regulated by abscisic acid. Furthermore, CER1-overexpressing plants showed reduced cuticle permeability together with reduced soil water deficit susceptibility. However, CER1 overexpression increased susceptibility to bacterial and fungal pathogens. Taken together, these results demonstrate that CER1 controls alkane biosynthesis and is highly linked to responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:21386033

Bourdenx, Brice; Bernard, Amélie; Domergue, Frédéric; Pascal, Stéphanie; Léger, Amandine; Roby, Dominique; Pervent, Marjorie; Vile, Denis; Haslam, Richard P.; Napier, Johnathan A.; Lessire, René; Joubès, Jérôme

2011-01-01

245

Does the volatile hydrocarbon profile differ between the sexes: a case study on five aphidophagous ladybirds.  

PubMed

Insect hydrocarbons (HCs) primarily serve as a waterproofing cuticular layer and function extensively in chemical communication by facilitating species, sex, and colony recognition. In this study, headspace solid-phase microextraction is employed for investigating the sex-specific volatile HC profile of five ladybirds collected from Lucknow, India namely, Coccinella septempunctata (L.), Coccinella transversalis (Fabr.), Menochilus sexmaculatus (Fabr.), Propylea dissecta (Mulsant), and Anegleis cardoni (Weise) for the first time. Major compounds reported in C. septempunctata, C. transversalis, and A. cardoni are methyl-branched saturated HCs, whereas in M. sexmaculatus, and P. dissecta, they are unsaturated HCs. Other than A. cardoni, both the sexes of the other four ladybirds had similar compounds at highest peak but with statistically significant differences. However, in A. cardoni, which is a beetle with a narrow niche, the major compound in both male and female was different. The difference in volatile HC profile of the sexes of the five ladybirds indicates that gender-specific differences primarily exist due to quantitative differences in chemicals with only very few chemicals being unique to a gender. This variation in semiochemicals might have a role in behavioral or ecological aspects of the studied ladybirds. PMID:25060353

Pattanayak, Rojalin; Mishra, Geetanjali; Omkar; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Rout, Prasant Kumar; Mohanty, Chandra Sekhar

2014-11-01

246

Structure and properties of thermoplastic polyurethanes based on poly(dimethylsiloxane): assessment of biocompatibility.  

PubMed

Properties and biocompatibility of a series of thermoplastic poly(urethane-siloxane)s (TPUSs) based on ?,?-dihydroxy ethoxy propyl poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) for potential biomedical application were studied. Thin films of TPUSs with a different PDMS soft segment content were characterized by (1) H NMR, quantitative (13) C NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), contact angle, and water absorption measurements. Different techniques (FTIR, AFM, and DMA) showed that decrease of PDMS content promotes microphase separation in TPUSs. Samples with a higher PDMS content have more hydrophobic surface and better waterproof performances, but lower degree of crystallinity. Biocompatibility of TPUSs was examined after attachment of endothelial cells to the untreated copolymer surface or surface pretreated with multicomponent protein mixture, and by using competitive protein adsorption assay. TPUSs did not exhibit any cytotoxicity toward endothelial cells, as measured by lactate dehydrogenase and 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assays. The untreated and proteins preadsorbed TPUS samples favored endothelial cells adhesion and growth, indicating good biocompatibility. All TPUSs adsorbed more albumin than fibrinogen in competitive protein adsorption experiment, which is feature regarded as beneficial for biocompatibility. The results indicate that TPUSs have good surface, thermo-mechanical, and biocompatible properties, which can be tailored for biomedical application requirements by adequate selection of the soft/hard segments ratio of the copolymers. PMID:24376027

Pergal, Marija V; Nestorov, Jelena; Tovilovi?, Gordana; Ostoji?, Sanja; Go?evac, Dejan; Vasiljevi?-Radovi?, Dana; Djonlagi?, Jasna

2014-11-01

247

Pyromorphite formation in a fungal biofilm community growing on lead metal.  

PubMed

Lead is a priority pollutant, and lead metal is widely found in the environment as a waterproofing structural component in roofing, fence post covers, venting and flashing, as well as in industrial and urban waste. However, little is known of microbial interactions with metallic lead. The objective of this research was to investigate fungal roles in transformations of lead in a surface biofilm community growing on lead sheeting. The lead surface was found to support a diverse fungal community with several members, such as Aureobasidum pullulans, Phoma macrostoma, Penicillium sp. and Botryotinia fuckeliana, probably originating from adjacent phylloplane communities. Many fungal isolates showed tolerance to lead compounds in growth inhibition assays and were able to mediate production of lead-containing secondary minerals in the presence of metallic lead. These exhibited widely differing morphologies to the lead-containing secondary minerals produced under abiotic conditions. The presence of pyromorphite (Pb5 (PO4 )3 Cl) (approximately 50?wt%) was detected in the lead sheet biofilm, and we speculate that animal (bird) faeces could be a significant source of phosphorus in this location. Pyromorphite formation represents biomineralization of mobile lead species into a very stable form, and this research provides the first demonstration of its occurrence in the natural environment. PMID:24707856

Rhee, Young Joon; Hillier, Stephen; Pendlowski, Helen; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

2014-05-01

248

In Situ Experiments To Reveal the Role of Surface Feature Sidewalls in the Cassie–Wenzel Transition  

PubMed Central

Waterproof and self-cleaning surfaces continue to attract much attention as they can be instrumental in various different technologies. Such surfaces are typically rough, allowing liquids to contact only the outermost tops of their asperities, with air being entrapped underneath. The formed solid–liquid–air interface is metastable and, hence, can be forced into a completely wetted solid surface. A detailed understanding of the wetting barrier and the dynamics of this transition is critically important for the practical use of the related surfaces. Toward this aim, wetting transitions were studied in situ at a set of patterned perfluoropolyether dimethacrylate (PFPEdma) polymer surfaces exhibiting surface features with different types of sidewall profiles. PFPEdma is intrinsically hydrophobic and exhibits a refractive index very similar to water. Upon immersion of the patterned surfaces into water, incident light was differently scattered at the solid–liquid–air and solid–liquid interface, which allows for distinguishing between both wetting states by dark-field microscopy. The wetting transition observed with this methodology was found to be determined by the sidewall profiles of the patterned structures. Partial recovery of the wetting was demonstrated to be induced by abrupt and continuous pressure reductions. A theoretical model based on Laplace’s law was developed and applied, allowing for the analytical calculation of the transition barrier and the potential to revert the wetting upon pressure reduction. PMID:25496232

2014-01-01

249

The “Double-Pulley” Technique for Arthroscopic Fixation of Partial Articular-Side Bony Avulsion of the Supraspinatus Tendon: A Rare Case of Bony PASTA Lesion  

PubMed Central

We report the use of the double-pulley technique for arthroscopic fixation of the bony PASTA (partial articular surface tendon avulsion) lesion. Arthroscopic examination documented a 15-mm-long and 8-mm-wide comminuted bony avulsion with 2 main fragments. Two double-loaded suture anchors were placed with a transtendinous technique at the anterior and posterior edges of the lesion respecting the tendon insertion to the avulsed fragment. The medial sutures were retrieved through the intact supraspinatus tendon medially to the fracture. The sutures were initially coupled in a double-pulley configuration generating 2 sutures oriented from anterior to posterior; then a simple suture for each anchor oriented from medial to lateral was obtained. At the end of the procedure, the adequacy of reduction and stability of the fragments were confirmed. At 2 months from surgery, radiographic healing of the fracture was noted and integrity of the supraspinatus tendon insertion to the footprint was confirmed by arthro–magnetic resonance imaging, with full recovery of daily activities and complete active range of motion confirmed at 6 and 12 months. The double-pulley technique allows optimal reduction of bony fragments and reconstruction of normal footprint anatomy even in comminuted fractures. Moreover, it creates a waterproof reduction of the fragments, protecting the fracture site from synovial fluid. PMID:23767005

Murena, Luigi; Canton, Gianluca; Falvo, Daniele A.; Genovese, Eugenio A.; Surace, Michele F.; Cherubino, Paolo

2012-01-01

250

A field trail for sealing abandoned mine shafts and adits with lightweight concrete  

SciTech Connect

An abandoned mine shaft near Omar, in Logan County, WV, was permanently sealed through a cooperative agreement between the West Virginia Department of Commerce, Labor, and Environmental Resources, Division of Environmental Protection, and the US Bureau of Mines (USBM), Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) Program. An engineered shaft seal design was developed and demonstrated that featured lightweight concrete as a key material component at a wet density of about 45 lb/ft[sup 3]. A reinforced concrete cap designed for 5 psi live load was placed over the shaft seal. Applicable new concrete technologies relating to a 100-yr design life were utilized to assure future integrity of the shaft seal. Waterproofing methods were included in the shaft seal design to provide protection from ambient moisture and corrosive mine waters and to increase the long-term durability of the shaft seal. All construction methods used in the field trial are fully adaptable for the mine-reclamation contractor. The USBM research objectives were to develop a broad generic design that will be widely applicable to other adit-sealing and shaft-sealing problems throughout the mining industry.

Skinner, E.H.; Beckett, L.A.

1994-01-01

251

Analysis of streambed temperatures in ephemeral channels to determine streamflow frequency and duration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spatial and temporal patterns in streamflow are rarely monitored for ephemeral streams. Flashy, erosive streamflows common in ephemeral channels create a series of operational and maintenance problems, which makes it impractical to deploy a series of gaging stations along ephemeral channels. Streambed temperature is a robust and inexpensive parameter to monitor remotely, leading to the possibility of analyzing temperature patterns to estimate streamflow frequency and duration along ephemeral channels. A simulation model was utilized to examine various atmospheric and hydrological upper boundary conditions compared with a series of hypothetical temperature-monitoring depths within the streambed. Simulation results indicate that streamflow events were distinguished from changing atmospheric conditions with greater certainty using temperatures at shallow depths (e.g., 10-20 cm) as opposed to the streambed surface. Three ephemeral streams in the American Southwest were instrumented to monitor streambed temperature for determining the accuracy of using this approach to ascertain the long-term temporal and spatial extent of streamflow along each stream channel. Streambed temperature data were collected at the surface or at shallow depth along each stream channel, using thermistors encased in waterproof, single-channel data loggers tethered to anchors in the channel. On the basis of comparisons with site information, such as direct field observations and upstream flow records, diurnal temperature variations successfully detected the presence and duration of streamflow for all sites.

Constantz, J.; Stonestrom, D.; Stewart, A.E.; Niswonger, R.; Smith, T.R.

2001-01-01

252

Two-stage repair in hypospadias  

PubMed Central

We provide the reader with a nonsystematic review concerning the use of the two-stage approach in hypospadias repairs. A one-stage approach using the tubularized incised plate urethroplasty is a well-standardized approach for the most cases of hypospadias. Nevertheless, in some primary severe cases, in most hypospadias failures and in selected patients with balanitis xerotica obliterans a two-stage approach is preferable. During the first stage the penis is straightened, if necessary and the urethral plate is substituted with a graft of either genital (prepuce) or extragenital origin (oral mucosa or postauricular skin). During the second stage, performed around 6 months later, urethroplasty is accomplished by graft tubulization. Graft take is generally excellent, with only few cases requiring an additional inlay patch at second stage due to graft contracture. A staged approach allows for both excellent cosmetic results and a low morbidity including an overall 6% fistula rate and 2% stricture rate. Complications usually occur in the first year after the second stage and are higher in secondary repairs. Complications tend to decrease as experience increases and use of additional waterproofing layers contributes to reduce the fistula rate significantly. Long-term cosmetic results are excellent, but voiding and ejaculatory problems may occur in as much as 40% of cases if a long urethral tube is constructed. The procedure has a step learning curve but because of its technical simplicity does not require to be confined only to highly specialized centers. PMID:19468402

Haxhirexha, K. N.; Castagnetti, M.; Rigamonti, W.; Manzoni, G. A.

2008-01-01

253

Canal configuration of mandibular first premolars in an Egyptian population  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate canal configuration of mandibular first premolars in an Egyptian population. Two hundred fifty human extracted mandibular first premolars were collected from Egyptian patients and a small hole in the center of the occlusal surface of each tooth was made perforating the roof of the pulp chamber. Teeth were decalcified by immersing in nitric acid and dehydrated in ascending concentrations of ethyl alcohol. A waterproof black ink was passively injected from the occlusal hole into pulp system and stained teeth were immersed in methyl salicylate solution for clearing. Standardized pictures of the cleared teeth were obtained and anatomical features of the root canal were observed. The average length of the mandibular first premolar teeth was 22.48 ± 1.74 mm, one-rooted teeth were 96.8% and the two-rooted were 3.2%. Vertucci Type I canal configuration represented the highest percentage (61.2%) followed by Type V (16.4%), Type IV (13.2%), Type II (5.6%) and Type III (2.8%). Vertucci Type VI canal configuration represented the lowest percentage (0.4%) and a complex configuration was found in one tooth. Accessory canals were detected in 22.8% and inter-canal connections were observed in 24.8% while 54% showed apical delta. Such knowledge is clinically useful for localization and negotiation of canals of mandibular first premolar, as well as their subsequent management in Egyptian population.

Alhadainy, Hatem A.

2012-01-01

254

In situ experiments to reveal the role of surface feature sidewalls in the cassie-wenzel transition.  

PubMed

Waterproof and self-cleaning surfaces continue to attract much attention as they can be instrumental in various different technologies. Such surfaces are typically rough, allowing liquids to contact only the outermost tops of their asperities, with air being entrapped underneath. The formed solid-liquid-air interface is metastable and, hence, can be forced into a completely wetted solid surface. A detailed understanding of the wetting barrier and the dynamics of this transition is critically important for the practical use of the related surfaces. Toward this aim, wetting transitions were studied in situ at a set of patterned perfluoropolyether dimethacrylate (PFPEdma) polymer surfaces exhibiting surface features with different types of sidewall profiles. PFPEdma is intrinsically hydrophobic and exhibits a refractive index very similar to water. Upon immersion of the patterned surfaces into water, incident light was differently scattered at the solid-liquid-air and solid-liquid interface, which allows for distinguishing between both wetting states by dark-field microscopy. The wetting transition observed with this methodology was found to be determined by the sidewall profiles of the patterned structures. Partial recovery of the wetting was demonstrated to be induced by abrupt and continuous pressure reductions. A theoretical model based on Laplace's law was developed and applied, allowing for the analytical calculation of the transition barrier and the potential to revert the wetting upon pressure reduction. PMID:25496232

Hensel, René; Finn, Andreas; Helbig, Ralf; Killge, Sebastian; Braun, Hans-Georg; Werner, Carsten

2014-12-23

255

Latherin and other biocompatible surfactant proteins.  

PubMed

Horses and other equids are unusual in producing protein-rich sweat for thermoregulation, a major component of which is latherin, a highly surface-active, non-glycosylated protein that is a member of the PLUNC (palate, lung and nasal epithelium clone) family. Latherin produces a significant reduction in water surface tension at low concentrations (?1 mg/ml), and probably acts as a wetting agent to facilitate evaporative cooling through a thick, waterproofed pelt. Latherin binds temporarily to hydrophobic surfaces, and so may also have a disruptive effect on microbial biofilms. It may consequently have a dual role in horse sweat in both evaporative cooling and controlling microbial growth in the pelt that would otherwise be resourced by nutrients in sweat. Latherin is also present at high levels in horse saliva, where its role could be to improve mastication of the fibrous diet of equids, and also to reduce microbial adherence to teeth and oral surfaces. Neutron reflection experiments indicate that latherin adsorbs to the air/water interface, and that the protein undergoes significant conformational change and/or partial unfolding during incorporation into the interfacial layer. PMID:21787340

Kennedy, Malcolm W

2011-08-01

256

Use of admixtures in organic-contaminated cement-clay pastes.  

PubMed

In this work microstructure, porosity and hydration degree of cement-based solidified/stabilized wasteforms were studied before assessing their leaching behaviour. 2-Chloroaniline was chosen as a model liquid organic pollutant and included into cement pastes, which were also modified with different admixtures for concrete: a superplasticizer based on acrylic-modified polymer, a synthetic rubber latex and a waterproofing agent. An organoclay, modified with an ammonium quaternary salt (benzyl-dimethyl-tallowammonium, BDMTA), was added to the pastes as pre-sorbent agent of the organic matter. All the samples were dried up to constant weight in order to stop the hydration process at different times during the first 28 days of curing, typically, after 1 day (1d), 7 days (7d) and 28 days. Then, the microstructure of the hardened cement-clay pastes was investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The hydration degree and porosity were studied by thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), respectively. For samples cured for 28 days a short-term leach test set by Italian regulation for industrial waste recycling (D.M. 5 February 1998) was performed. The best results showed a 5% release of the total initial amount of organic pollutant. PMID:18514398

Gallo Stampino, Paola; Zampori, Luca; Dotelli, Giovanni; Meloni, Paola; Sora, Isabella Natali; Pelosato, Renato

2009-01-30

257

Direct exposure electron ionization mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry techniques to study organic coatings on archaeological amphorae.  

PubMed

Two different analytical approaches, direct exposure electron ionization mass spectrometry (DE-MS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), were compared in a study of archaeological resinous materials. DE-MS was found to be an efficient fingerprinting tool for the fast screening of organic archaeological samples and for providing information on the major components. GC/MS appeared to be more efficient in unravelling the sample composition at a molecular level, despite the long analysis time and the need for a wet chemical pretreatment. Both procedures were applied to characterize the organic material present as coatings in Roman and Egyptian amphorae. DE-MS successfully identified abietanic compounds, hence a diterpenic resinous material could be identified and its degree of oxidation assessed. GC/MS enabled us to identify dehydroabietic acid, 7-oxodehydroabietic acid, 15-hydroxy-7-oxodehydroabietic acid, 15-hydroxydehydroabietic acid, retene, tetrahydroretene, norabietatriene, norabietatetraene and methyl dehydroabietate. These oxidized and aromatized abietanes provided evidence that the amphorae examined were waterproofed with a pitch produced from resinous wood of plants from the Pinaceae family. The chemometric evaluation of the GC/MS data highlighted significant chemical differences between the pitches found in the two archaeological sites, basically related to differences in the production techniques of the materials and in their degradation pathways. PMID:15739159

Colombini, Maria Perla; Modugno, Francesca; Ribechini, Erika

2005-05-01

258

Preparation of hydrophobic organic aeorgels  

DOEpatents

Synthetic methods for the preparation of hydrophobic organics aerogels. One method involves the sol-gel polymerization of 1,3-dimethoxybenzene or 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene with formaldehyde in non-aqueous solvents. Using a procedure analogous to the preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels, this approach generates wet gels that can be dried using either supercritical solvent extraction to generate the new organic aerogels or air dried to produce an xerogel. Other methods involve the sol-gel polymerization of 1,3,5 trihydroxy benzene (phloroglucinol) or 1,3 dihydroxy benzene (resorcinol) and various aldehydes in non-aqueous solvents. These methods use a procedure analogous to the one-step base and two-step base/acid catalyzed polycondensation of phloroglucinol and formaldehyde, but the base catalyst used is triethylamine. These methods can be applied to a variety of other sol-gel precursors and solvent systems. These hydrophobic organics aerogels have numerous application potentials in the field of material absorbers and water-proof insulation.

Baumann, Theodore F. (Tracy, CA); Satcher, Jr., Joe H. (Patterson, CA); Gash, Alexander E. (Livermore, CA)

2007-11-06

259

Coastal Changes in Temperature and Salinity Observed during Hurricane Isaac Recorded and Downloaded by NASA DRIFTERs Moored in Heron Bay and at Half Moon Island, Louisiana  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Major changes in salinity (approx.14 ppt.) and temperature (approx.40C) were continuously registered by two prototype NASA DRIFTERs, surface moored floaters, that NASA's Applied Science and Technology Project Office (ASTPO) has developed. The DRIFTER floating sensor module is equipped with an Arduino open-source electronics prototyping platform and programming language (http://www.arduino.cc), a GPS (Global Positioning System) module with antenna, a cell phone SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) card and a cellular antenna which is used to transmit data, and a probe to measure temperature and conductivity (from which salinity can be derived). The DRIFTER is powered by a solar cell panel and all the electronic components are mounted and sealed in [ waterproof encasement. Position and measurement data are transmitted via short message service (SMS) messaging to a Twitter site (DRIFTER 002@NASADRIFTER_002 and DRIFTER 004@NASADRIFTER_004), which provides a live feed. These data are the imported into a Google spreadsheet where conductivity is converted to salinity, and graphed in real-time. The spreadsheet data will be imported into a webpage maintained by ASTPO, where it will be displayed available for dO\\\\1lload.

Kalcic, Maria; Iturriaga, Rodolfo H.; Kuper, Philip D.; O'Neal, Stanford Duane; Underwood, Lauren; Fletcher, Rose

2012-01-01

260

A comparison of standard methods for measuring water vapour permeability of fabrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is difficult for outdoor apparel manufacturers to interpret the technical information provided by fabric suppliers concerning fabric 'breathability' properties because different methods and test conditions are used. In addition, fabrics with hydrophilic components change their properties under different humidity conditions. The purpose of this study was to measure the water vapour permeability and evaporative resistance of 26 different waterproof, windproof and breathable shell fabrics using five standard test methods. The water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) was measured using the ASTM E 96 upright and inverted cup tests with water, the JIS L 1099 desiccant inverted cup test and the new ASTM F 2298 standard using the dynamic moisture permeation cell (DMPC). The evaporative resistance was measured using the ISO 11092 sweating hot plate test. The WVTRs were consistently highest when measured with the desiccant inverted cup, followed by the inverted cup, DMPC and upright cup. The upright cup was significantly correlated with the DMPC (0.97), and the desiccant inverted cup was correlated to the sweating hot plate (-0.91).

McCullough, Elizabeth A.; Kwon, Myoungsook; Shim, Huensup

2003-08-01

261

Modular, multi-level groundwater sampler  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is described for taking a multiple of samples of groundwater or pressure measurements from a well simultaneously. The apparatus comprises a series of chambers arranged in an axial array, each of which is dimensioned to fit into a perforated well casing and leave a small gap between the well casing and the exterior of the chamber. Seals at each end of the container define the limits to the axial portion of the well to be sampled. A submersible pump in each chamber pumps the groundwater that passes through the well casing perforations into the gap from the gap to the surface for analysis. The power lines and hoses for the chambers farther down the array pass through each chamber above them in the array. The seals are solid, water-proof, non-reactive, resilient disks supported to engage the inside surface of the well casing. Because of the modular design, the apparatus provides flexibility for use in a variety of well configurations. 3 figures.

Nichols, R.L.; Widdowson, M.A.; Mullinex, H.; Orne, W.H.; Looney, B.B.

1994-03-15

262

A Feasibility Study of Wearable Activity Monitors for Pre-Adolescent School-Age Children  

PubMed Central

Introduction Understanding physical activity is key in the fight against childhood obesity. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using certain wearable devices to measure physical activity among children. Methods A qualitative study was conducted with 25 children aged 7 to 10 years to assess acceptability and compliance of wearable activity devices in this age group. During March through August 2012, children participated in a 4-week study of 3 accelerometer models and a heart rate monitor. Children were asked to use a different device each week for 7 consecutive days. Children and their parents completed structured interviews after using each device; they also completed a final exit interview. Results The wrist-worn Polar Active was the device most preferred by children and was associated with the highest level of compliance. Devices that are comfortable to wear, fit properly, have engaging features, and are waterproof increase feasibility and are associated with higher levels of compliance. Conclusion The wrist-worn device was the most feasible for measuring physical activity among children aged 7 to 10 years. These findings will inform researchers in selecting tools for measuring children’s physical activity. PMID:24854236

Van Loan, Marta; German, J. Bruce

2014-01-01

263

Evaluation of miniature data loggers for body temperature measurement during sporting activities.  

PubMed

We recorded body temperatures in four runners, two squash players and one swimmer at 1-min intervals using miniature data loggers. These single-channel loggers are small and light (25 g), and were easily carried by the athletes during their sporting activities. Wide-range loggers (-37 degrees C to +46 degrees C), which had a temperature resolution of 0.4 degrees C, were used to measure thigh skin temperature. Auditory canal temperature and rectal temperature were measured with narrow-range loggers (+34 degrees C to + 46 degrees C) which had a considerably higher resolution (0.04 degrees C). With the aid of visual analogue scales subjects reported that the thermometric equipment caused very little discomfort or impairment of exercise performance. Loggers connected to uncoated bead thermistors (used for skin and auditory canal temperatures) had a thermal time constant of 0.4 s, and that of the coated thermistors (rectal probes) was 6 s. We were able to waterproof the equipment and measure rectal temperature in a swimmer. Hot (35 degrees C) or cold (5 degrees C) ambient temperatures had an insignificant effect on the intrinsic accuracy of the data loggers, even when used without recalibration at those temperatures. We believe that miniature temperature loggers are convenient and accurate thermometers for use during sporting activities and may provide new insights into thermoregulation during exercise. PMID:10090634

Fuller, A; Oosthuyse, T; Maloney, S K; Mitchell, D

1999-03-01

264

Kestrel 2 Program: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Kestrel 2 program began in 1986 as an outgrowth of the original Kestrel program, which used conventional balloon techniques and facilities, and was completed in 1988. It was undertaken to extend operational and geographic flexibility beyond that achievable using traditional techniques observed in the original program. During that time, we developed a tandem-balloon system that can be launched from any single launch site in winds up to 20 knots. We also developed a fast-fill tow balloon, which we tested by filling a tow balloon directly from it shipping container without laying it out on a long clean surface. To test the endurance of the tow balloon, we filled and repackaged the same balloon four times, once while at sea, at a fill rate of 3000 to 4000 ft/sup 3//min, using helium gas. This testing showed that the tow balloon is indeed quite rugged. We also demonstrated how to control the tow balloon with handling lines and rig the balloon in winds up to 26 knots at sea on a small ship. The tandem-balloon deployment system includes a lightweight, high-strength, waterproof payload containment canister and an explosive flight-termination system. The launch release mechanism that we designed was tested at sea. An electronics and power supply system provided tracking and command termination and was used to perform simple command functions.

Duke, P.O.

1988-05-01

265

An insect-specific P450 oxidative decarbonylase for cuticular hydrocarbon biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Insects use hydrocarbons as cuticular waterproofing agents and as contact pheromones. Although their biosynthesis from fatty acyl precursors is well established, the last step of hydrocarbon biosynthesis from long-chain fatty aldehydes has remained mysterious. We show here that insects use a P450 enzyme of the CYP4G family to oxidatively produce hydrocarbons from aldehydes. Oenocyte-directed RNAi knock-down of Drosophila CYP4G1 or NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase results in flies deficient in cuticular hydrocarbons, highly susceptible to desiccation, and with reduced viability upon adult emergence. The heterologously expressed enzyme converts C18-trideuterated octadecanal to C17-trideuterated heptadecane, showing that the insect enzyme is an oxidative decarbonylase that catalyzes the cleavage of long-chain aldehydes to hydrocarbons with the release of carbon dioxide. This process is unlike cyanobacteria that use a nonheme diiron decarbonylase to make alkanes from aldehydes with the release of formate. The unique and highly conserved insect CYP4G enzymes are a key evolutionary innovation that allowed their colonization of land. PMID:22927409

Qiu, Yue; Tittiger, Claus; Wicker-Thomas, Claude; Le Goff, Gaëlle; Young, Sharon; Wajnberg, Eric; Fricaux, Thierry; Taquet, Nathalie; Blomquist, Gary J.; Feyereisen, René

2012-01-01

266

Water depression storage under different tillage conditions: measuring and modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water storage in surface depressions (DS) is an important process which affects infiltration, runoff and erosion. Since DS is driven by micro relief, in agricultural soils DS is much affected by tillage and by the direction of tillage rows in relation to the main slope. A direct and accurate measurement of DS requires making the soil surface waterproof -soil is very permeable especially under tillage- but preserving all details of the soil roughness including aggregates over the soil surface (micro-roughness). All this is a very laborious and time-consuming task. That is why hydrological and erosion models for DS estimation normally use either empirical relationships based on some roughness index or numerical approaches. The aim of this work was (i) to measure directly in the field the DS of a soil under different tillage conditions and (ii) to assess the performance of existing empirical 2D models and of a numerical 2D algorithm for DS estimation. Three types of tillage classes (mouldbard+roller, roller compacted and chisel) in 2 tillage directions (parallel and perpendicular to the main slope) were assessed in an experimental hillslope (10% slope) which defines then 6 treatments. Experiments were carried out in 12, 1-m2 micro-plots delimited by metal sheets; that is, a pair of repetitions for each treatment. In each plot, soil surface was gently impregnated with a waterproof, white paint but without altering micro-roughness. A known amount of water (stained with a blue dye) was poured all over the surface with a measuring cup. The excess water was captured in a gutter and measured. Soon after finishing the experiment, pictures of the surface was taken in order to analyze water storage pattern (from stained water) by image processing. Besides, longitudinal height profiles were measured using a laser profilemeter. Finally, infiltration rate was measured near the plot using a double ring infiltrometer. For all the treatments, DS ranged from 2 mm to 17 mm. For the same tillage direction, clear differences in DS were observed among tillage types. Besides and as expected, DS much increased (up to 3 times) in those treatments were tillage rows were perpendicular to the main slope. The performance of the models in DS prediction was in general rather limited with deviations from reference values ranging from 45% to over 100%. The results suggest the inadequacy of 2D approaches to depict the complexity of the water surface storage pattern. On the other hand, some tillage operations lead to a rather small DS but with a relative high infiltration rate (up to 3 times that of the non-tilled soil); whereas in others the opposite was true. This fact should be taken into account in hydrological management of agricultural soils.

Giménez, R.; Campo, M. A.; González-Audicana, M.; Álvarez-Mozos, J.; Casalí, J.

2012-04-01

267

Residual sludge from dimensional stones: characterisation for their exploitation in civil and environmental applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Residual sludge coming from dimensional stones working plants (diamond framesaw and ganguesaw with abrasive shots processes) represents a problem for Stone Industries. In fact the cost connected to their landfilling amounts to more than 3% of operating costs of dimensional stone working plants. Furthermore their strict feature as waste to dump (CER code 010413) contrasts the EU principles of "resource preservation" and "waste recovery". The main problems related to their management are: size distribution (fine materials, potentially asphyxial), presence of heavy metals (due to the working processes) and TPH content (due to oil machines losses). Residual sludge, considered according to Italian Legislative Decree n.152/06, can be used, as waste, for environmental restoration of derelict land or in cement plants. It is also possible to think about their systematic treatment in consortium plats for the production of Secondary Raw Materials (SRM) or "New Products" (NP, eg. artificial loam, waterproofing materials, ....). The research evidences that, on the basis of a correct sludge management, treatment and characterization, economic and environmental benefits are possible (NP or SRM in spite of waste to dump). To individuate different applications of residual sludge in civil and environmental contexts, a geotechnical (size distribution, permeability, Atterberg limits, cohesion and friction angle evaluation, Proctor soil test) characterization was foreseen. The geotechnical tests were conducted on sludge as such and on three different mixes: - Mix 1 - Bentonite clay (5-10%) added to sludge a.s (90-95%); - Mix 2 - Sludge a.s. (90-80-70%) added to coarse materials coming from crushed dimensional stones (10-20-30%); - Mix 3 - Sludge a.s. (50-70%) mixed with sand, compost, natural loam (50-30% mixture of sand, compost, natural loam). The results obtained from the four sets of tests were fundamental to evaluate: - the characteristics of the original materials; - the chance to obtain new products for dumps waterproofing (Mix 1). In this case the permeability has to be at least 10-9 m/s; - the opportunity to use them for land rehabilitation and reclamation (fine and coarse materials to fill quarry or civil works pits - Mix2; artificial loam to use for quarry and civil works revegetation - Mix 3). In Mix 3 phytotoxicity tests have been performed in cooperation with Agricultural Dept. - University of Turin. In this case the "cradle to grave principle" would be applied: "waste" coming from dimensional stone working plants could return to quarries. The results coming from geotechnical tests are promising, but to exploit sludge mixtures in civil and environmental applications it is necessary to guarantee, by means of appropriate chemical analysis, that there are no problems connected to soil, water and air pollution (connected to heavy metals and TPH contents). Magnetic or hydrogravimetric separation can be performed to reduce heavy metal content, instead TPH decrement can be reached by mean of specific agronomic treatments (eg. Bioremediation). Several in situ tests will be performed to compare the laboratory results to the "pre-industrial" ones: the obtained results will be potentially useful to propose some integration to the present Italian legislation.

Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Clemente, Paolo; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela

2013-04-01

268

Heterogeneous films of ionotropic hydrogels fabricated from delivery templates of patterned paper.  

PubMed

The use of delivery templates makes it possible to fabricate shaped, millimeter-thick heterogeneously patterned films of ionotropic hydrogels. These structures include two-dimensional (2-D) patterns of a polymer cross-linked by different ions (e.g., alginic acid cross-linked with Ca2+ and Fe3+) and patterns of step gradients in the concentration of a single cross-linking ion. The delivery templates consist of stacked sheets of chromatography paper patterned with hydrophobic barriers (waterproof tape, transparency film, or toner deposited by a color laser printer). Each layer of paper serves as a reservoir for a different solution of cross-linking ions, while the hydrophobic barriers prevent solutions on adjacent sheets from mixing. Holes cut through the sheets expose different solutions of cross-linking ions to the surface of the templates. Films with shaped regions of hydrogels cross-linked by paramagnetic ions can be oriented with a bar magnet. Variations in the concentrations of cations used to cross-link the gel can control the mechanical properties of the film: for single alginate films composed of areas cross-linked with different concentrations of Fe3+, the regions cross-linked with high concentrations of Fe3+ are more rigid than regions cross-linked with low concentrations of Fe3+. The heterogeneous hydrogel films can be used to culture bacteria in various 2-D designs. The pattern of toxic and nontoxic ions used to cross-link the polymer determines the pattern of viable colonies of Escherichia coli within the film. PMID:20046855

Bracher, Paul J; Gupta, Malancha; Mack, Eric T; Whitesides, George M

2009-08-01

269

Development of a retrofit coal combustor for industrial applications, (Phase 1-A). Technical progress report, July--September 1988  

SciTech Connect

During this past quarter, two tandem-fired pulse combustors were designed to fire at a nominal rate of 3.5 to 5.5 MMBtu/hr under continuation of Phase I work on DOE project DE-AC22-87PC79654. In prior work, MTCI demonstrated the operation of a 1--2 MMBtu/h coal-fired tandem pulse combustor that is intended for small industrial applications. These component tests emphasized verification of key design issues such as combustor coupling, slag rejection, and staged air addition. The current work, which represents an extension of the Phase I effort, focuses on integrated testing of the tandem pulse combustor with a fire-tube boiler, and the addition of a slag quench vessel. A tandem-fired pulse combustion unit designed to fire at a nominal rate of 3.5-5 MMBtu/hr was designed and fabricated. The configuration includes two combustion chambers cast in a single monolith, tailpipes cast separately with annular air preheating capability, and a cyclonic decoupler. Design analysis and evaluations were performed to optimize the system with respect to minimizing heat losses, size, and cost. Heat losses from the combustor and decoupler walls are predicted to be approximately 3 percent. The final designs for the ancillary items (slag quench, tertiary air addition, scrubber and sampling system) were completed and fabrication and installation initiated. A Cleaver-Brooks 150 hp-4 pass boiler was delivered and installed and modifications for interfacing with the retrofit pulse combustor unit completed. A below-ground slag collection pit was excavated to permit direct in-line coupling of the combustor to the boiler and to reduce head-room requirements. The pit is 30 inches deep and lined with waterproof and fireproof siding.

Not Available

1988-10-01

270

Development of a retrofit coal combustor for industrial applications, (Phase 1-A)  

SciTech Connect

During this past quarter, two tandem-fired pulse combustors were designed to fire at a nominal rate of 3.5 to 5.5 MMBtu/hr under continuation of Phase I work on DOE project DE-AC22-87PC79654. In prior work, MTCI demonstrated the operation of a 1--2 MMBtu/h coal-fired tandem pulse combustor that is intended for small industrial applications. These component tests emphasized verification of key design issues such as combustor coupling, slag rejection, and staged air addition. The current work, which represents an extension of the Phase I effort, focuses on integrated testing of the tandem pulse combustor with a fire-tube boiler, and the addition of a slag quench vessel. A tandem-fired pulse combustion unit designed to fire at a nominal rate of 3.5-5 MMBtu/hr was designed and fabricated. The configuration includes two combustion chambers cast in a single monolith, tailpipes cast separately with annular air preheating capability, and a cyclonic decoupler. Design analysis and evaluations were performed to optimize the system with respect to minimizing heat losses, size, and cost. Heat losses from the combustor and decoupler walls are predicted to be approximately 3 percent. The final designs for the ancillary items (slag quench, tertiary air addition, scrubber and sampling system) were completed and fabrication and installation initiated. A Cleaver-Brooks 150 hp-4 pass boiler was delivered and installed and modifications for interfacing with the retrofit pulse combustor unit completed. A below-ground slag collection pit was excavated to permit direct in-line coupling of the combustor to the boiler and to reduce head-room requirements. The pit is 30 inches deep and lined with waterproof and fireproof siding.

Not Available

1988-10-01

271

Blue-Violet Laser Modification of Titania Treated Titanium: Antibacterial and Osteo-Inductive Effects  

PubMed Central

Background Many studies on surface modifications of titanium have been performed in an attempt to accelerate osseointegration. Recently, anatase titanium dioxide has been found to act as a photocatalyst that expresses antibiotic properties and exhibits hydrophilicity after ultraviolet exposure. A blue-violet semiconductor laser (BV-LD) has been developed as near-ultraviolet light. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exposure to this BV-LD on surface modifications of titanium with the goal of enhancing osteoconductive and antibacterial properties. Methods The surfaces of pure commercial titanium were polished with #800 waterproof polishing papers and were treated with anatase titania solution. Specimens were exposed using BV-LD (? = 405 nm) or an ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV-LED, ? = 365 nm) at 6 mW/cm2 for 3 h. The surface modification was evaluated physically and biologically using the following parameters or tests: surface roughness, surface temperature during exposure, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, contact angle, methylene blue degradation tests, adherence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, osteoblast and fibroblast proliferation, and histological examination after implantation in rats. Results No significant changes were found in the surface roughness or XRD profiles after exposure. BV-LD exposure did not raise the surface temperature of titanium. The contact angle was significantly decreased, and methylene blue was significantly degraded. The number of attached P. gingivalis organisms was significantly reduced after BV-LD exposure compared to that in the no exposure group. New bone was observed around exposed specimens in the histological evaluation, and both the bone-to-specimen contact ratio and the new bone area increased significantly in exposed groups. Conclusions This study suggested that exposure of titanium to BV-LD can enhance the osteoconductivity of the titanium surface and induce antibacterial properties, similar to the properties observed following exposure to UV-LED. PMID:24358355

Kawano, Takanori; Prananingrum, Widyasri; Ishida, Yuichi; Goto, Takaharu; Naito, Yoshihito; Watanabe, Megumi; Tomotake, Yoritoki; Ichikawa, Tetsuo

2013-01-01

272

Support of EarthScope GPS Campaigns at the UNAVCO Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to support portable GPS deployments funded by the NSF's EarthScope Science panel, PBO has purchased 100 campaign GPS systems. Based Topcon GB-1000 equipment, the systems have been designed for stand-alone temporary or semi-permanent deployment that will be used for densifying areas not sufficiently covered by continuous GPS, and responding to volcanic and tectonic crises. UNAVCO provides support for all aspects of these projects, including proposal and budget development, project planning, equipment design, field support, and data archiving. Ten of the 100 systems will be purchased with real-time kinematic (RTK) capability requiring additional radio and data logging equipment. RTK systems can be used to rapidly map fault traces and profile fault escarpments and collect precise position information for GIS based geologic mapping. Each portable self-contained campaign systems include 18 Ah batteries, a regulated 32 watt solar charging system, and a low-power dual frequency GPS receiver and antenna in a waterproof case with security enhancements. The receivers have redundant memory sufficient for storing over a year's worth of data as well as IP and serial communications capabilities for longer-term deployments. Monumentation options are determined on a project-by-project basis, with options including Tech2000 masts, low-profile spike mounts, and traditional tripods and optical tribrachs. Drilled-braced monuments or masts can be installed for "semi-permanent" style occupations. The systems have been used to support several projects to date, including the University of Washington's 30- unit deployment to monitor the Episodic Tremor and Slip event in November, 2005 and the ongoing Rio Grande Rift experiment, run by the Universities of Colorado, Utah State, and New Mexico, which has seen the construction of 25 permanent monuments in 2006 and 2007.

Boyce, E.; Blume, F.; Normandeau, J.

2007-12-01

273

Support of EarthScope GPS Campaigns at the UNAVCO Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to support portable GPS deployments funded by the NSF's EarthScope Science panel, PBO has purchased 100 campaign GPS systems. Based Topcon GB-1000 equipment, the systems have been designed for stand-alone temporary or semi-permanent deployment that will be used for densifying areas not sufficiently covered by continuous GPS, and responding to volcanic and tectonic crises. UNAVCO provides support for all aspects of these projects, including proposal and budget development, project planning, equipment design, field support, and data archiving. Ten of the 100 systems have been equipped with real-time kinematic (RTK) capability requiring additional radio and data logging equipment. RTK systems can be used to rapidly map fault traces and profile fault escarpments and collect precise position information for GIS based geologic mapping. Each portable self-contained campaign systems include 18 Ah batteries, a regulated 32 watt solar charging system, and a low-power dual frequency GPS receiver and antenna in a waterproof case with security enhancements. The receivers have redundant memory sufficient for storing over a year's worth of data as well as IP and serial communications capabilities for longer-term deployments. Monumentation options are determined on a project-by-project basis, with options including Tech2000 masts, low-profile spike mounts, and traditional tripods and optical tribrachs. Drilled-braced monuments or masts can be installed for "semi- permanent" style occupations. The systems have been used to support several projects to date, including the University of Washington's 30-unit deployment to monitor the Episodic Tremor and Slip event in November, 2005 and the ongoing Rio Grande Rift experiment, run by the Universities of Colorado, Utah State, and New Mexico, which has seen the construction of 25 permanent monuments in 2006 and 2007 and a 26-site campaign reoccupation in 2008.

Boyce, E.; Blume, F.; Normandeau, J.

2008-12-01

274

Support of EarthScope GPS Campaigns at the UNAVCO Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to support portable GPS deployments funded by the NSF's EarthScope Science panel, PBO has purchased 100 campaign GPS systems. Based Topcon GB-1000 equipment, the systems have been designed for stand-alone temporary or semi-permanent deployment that will be used for densifying areas not sufficiently covered by continuous GPS, and responding to volcanic and tectonic crises. UNAVCO provides support for all aspects of these projects, including proposal and budget development, project planning, equipment design, field support, and data archiving. Ten of the 100 systems will be purchased with real-time kinematic (RTK) capability requiring additional radio and data logging equipment. RTK systems can be used to rapidly map fault traces and profile fault escarpments and collect precise position information for GIS based geologic mapping. Each portable self-contained campaign systems include 18 Ah batteries, a regulated 32 watt solar charging system, and a low-power dual frequency GPS receiver and antenna in a waterproof case with security enhancements. The receivers have redundant memory sufficient for storing over a year's worth of data as well as IP and serial communications capabilities for longer-term deployments. Monumentation options will be determined on a project-by-project basis, with options including Tech2000 masts, low-profile spike mounts, and traditional tripods and optical tribrachs. The systems have been used to support three projects to date, including the University of Washington's 30-unit deployment to monitor the Episodic Tremor and Slip event this past November and they will be used for ongoing support of the ongoing Rio Grande Rift experiment, run by the Universities of Colorado and New Mexico.

Blume, F.; Feldl, N.

2005-12-01

275

Interpretation of 3D void measurements with Tripoli4.6/JEFF3.1.1 Monte Carlo code  

SciTech Connect

The present work details the first analysis of the 3D void phase conducted during the EPICURE/UM17x17/7% mixed UOX/MOX configuration. This configuration is composed of a homogeneous central 17x17 MOX-7% assembly, surrounded by portions of 17x17 1102 assemblies with guide-tubes. The void bubble is modelled by a small waterproof 5x5 fuel pin parallelepiped box of 11 cm height, placed in the centre of the MOX assembly. This bubble, initially placed at the core mid-plane, is then moved in different axial positions to study the evolution in the core of the axial perturbation. Then, to simulate the growing of this bubble in order to understand the effects of increased void fraction along the fuel pin, 3 and 5 bubbles have been stacked axially, from the core mid-plane. The C/E comparison obtained with the Monte Carlo code Tripoli4 for both radial and axial fission rate distributions, and in particular the reproduction of the very important flux gradients at the void/water interfaces, changing as the bubble is displaced along the z-axis are very satisfactory. It demonstrates both the capability of the code and its library to reproduce this kind of situation, as the very good quality of the experimental results, confirming the UM-17x17 as an excellent experimental benchmark for 3D code validation. This work has been performed within the frame of the V and V program for the future APOLL03 deterministic code of CEA starting in 2012, and its V and V benchmarking database. (authors)

Blaise, P.; Colomba, A. [CEA, DEN, DER/SPRC/LEPh, F-13108 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

2012-07-01

276

Diphenylthiourea, a common rubber chemical, is bioactivated to potent skin sensitizers.  

PubMed

Diphenylthiourea (DPTU) is a known skin sensitizer commonly used as a vulcanization accelerator in the production of synthetic rubber, for example, neoprene. The versatile usage of neoprene is due to the multifaceted properties of the material; for example, it is stretchable, waterproof, and chemical- and abrasion-resistant. The wide application of neoprene has resulted in numerous case reports of dermatitis patients allergic to DPTU. The mechanism by which DPTU works as a contact allergen has not been described; thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate if DPTU is a prohapten that can be activated by skin metabolism. The metabolic activation and covalent binding of (14)C-labeled DPTU to proteins were tested using a skinlike cytochrome P450 (P450) cocktail containing the five most abundant P450s found in human skin (CYP1A1, 1B1, 2B6, 2E1, and 3A5) and human liver microsomes. The incubations were carried out in the presence or absence of the metabolite trapping agents glutathione, methoxylamine, and benzylamine. The metabolism mixtures were analyzed by LC-radiochromatography, LC-MS, and LC-MS/MS. DPTU was mainly metabolically activated to reactive sulfoxides resulting in desulfurated adducts in both enzymatic systems used. Also, phenylisothiocyanate and phenylisocyanate were found to be metabolites of DPTU. The sensitizing capacity of the substrate (DPTU) and three metabolites was tested in the murine local lymph node assay. Two out of three metabolites tested were strong skin sensitizers, whereas DPTU itself, as previously known, was negative using this mouse model. In conclusion, DPTU forms highly reactive metabolites upon bioactivation by enzymes present in the skin. These metabolites are able to induce skin sensitization and are probable causes for DPTU allergy. To increase the possibilities of diagnosing contact allergy to DPTU-containing items, we suggest that suitable metabolites of DPTU should be used for screening testing. PMID:21073181

Samuelsson, Kristin; Bergström, Moa Andresen; Jonsson, Charlotte A; Westman, Gunnar; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

2011-01-14

277

Use of a Noninvasive Continuous Monitoring Device in the Management of Atrial Fibrillation: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background Outpatient ambulatory cardiac rhythm monitoring is a routine part of the management of patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). Current systems are limited by patient convenience and practicality. Methods We compared the Zio® Patch, a single-use, noninvasive waterproof long-term continuous monitoring patch, with a 24-hour Holter monitor in 74 consecutive patients with paroxysmal AF referred for Holter monitoring for detection of arrhythmias. Results The Zio® Patch was well tolerated, with a mean monitoring period of 10.8 ± 2.8 days (range 4–14 days). Over a 24-hour period, there was excellent agreement between the Zio® Patch and Holter for identifying AF events and estimating AF burden. Although there was no difference in AF burden estimated by the Zio® Patch and the Holter monitor, AF events were identified in 18 additional individuals, and the documented pattern of AF (persistent or paroxysmal) changed in 21 patients after Zio® Patch monitoring. Other clinically relevant cardiac events recorded on the Zio® Patch after the first 24 hours of monitoring, including symptomatic ventricular pauses, prompted referrals for pacemaker placement or changes in medications. As a result of the findings from the Zio® Patch, 28.4% of patients had a change in their clinical management. Conclusions The Zio® Patch was well tolerated, and allowed significantly longer continuous monitoring than a Holter, resulting in an improvement in clinical accuracy, the detection of potentially malignant arrhythmias, and a meaningful change in clinical management. Further studies are necessary to examine the long-term impact of the use of the Zio® Patch in AF management. PMID:23240827

Rosenberg, Michael A; Samuel, Michelle; Thosani, Amit; Zimetbaum, Peter J

2013-01-01

278

Short-term survival and effects of transmitter implantation into western grebes using a modified surgical procedure  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two pilot trials and one study in a closely related grebe species suggest that Western grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis) will not tolerate intracoelomic transmitter implantation with percutaneous antennae and often die within days of surgery. Wild Western grebes (n = 21) were captured to evaluate a modified surgical technique. Seven birds were surgically implanted with intracoelomic transmitters with percutaneous antennae by using the modified technique (transmitter group), 7 received the same surgery without transmitter implantation (celiotomy group), and 7 served as controls (only undergoing anesthesia). Modifications included laterally offsetting the body wall incision from the skin incision, application of absorbable cyanoacrylate tissue glue to the subcutaneous space between the body wall and skin incisions, application of a waterproof sealant to the skin incision after suture closure, and application of a piece of porcine small intestine submucosa to the antenna egress. Survival did not differ among the 3 groups with 7 of 7 control, 6 of 7 celiotomy, and 6 of 7 transmitter birds surviving the 9-day study. Experimental birds were euthanized at the end of the study, and postmortem findings indicated normal healing. Significant differences in plasma chemistry or immune function were not detected among the 3 groups, and only minor differences were detected in red blood cell indices and plasma proteins. After surgery, the birds in the transmitter group spent more time preening tail feathers than those in the control and celiotomy groups. These results demonstrate that, in a captive situation, celiotomy and intracoelomic transmitter implantation caused minimal detectable homeostatic disturbance in this species and that Western grebes can survive implantation of intracoelomic transmitters with percutaneous antennae. It remains to be determined what potential this modified surgical procedure has to improve postoperative survival of Western grebes that are intracelomically implanted with transmitters with percutaneous antennae and released into the wild.

Gaydos, Joseph K.; Massey, J. Gregory; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Gaskins, Lori A.; Nysewander, David; Evenson, Joseph; Siegel, Paul B.; Ziccardi, Michael H.

2011-01-01

279

Facility design and associated services for the study of amphibians.  

PubMed

The role of facilities and associated services for amphibians has recently undergone diversification. Amphibians traditionally used as research models adjust well to captivity and thrive with established husbandry techniques. However, it is now necessary to maintain hundreds of novel amphibian species in captive breeding, conservation research, and biomedical research programs. These diverse species have a very wide range of husbandry requirements, and in many cases the ultimate survival of threatened species will depend on captive populations. Two critical factors have emerged in the maintenance of amphibians, stringent quarantine and high-quality water. Because exotic diseases such as chytridiomycosis have devastated both natural and captive populations of amphibians, facilities must provide stringent quarantine. The provision of high-quality water is also essential to maintain amphibian health and condition due to the intimate physiological relationship of amphibians to their aquatic environment. Fortunately, novel technologies backed by recent advances in the scientific knowledge of amphibian biology and disease management are available to overcome these challenges. For example, automation can increase the reliability of quarantine and maintain water quality, with a corresponding decrease in handling and the associated disease-transfer risk. It is essential to build facilities with appropriate nontoxic waterproof materials and to provide quarantined amphibian rooms for each population. Other spaces and services include live feed rooms, quarantine stations, isolation rooms, laboratory space, technical support systems, reliable energy and water supplies, high-quality feed, and security. Good husbandry techniques must include reliable and species-specific management by trained staff members who receive support from the administration. It is possible to improve husbandry techniques for many species by sharing knowledge through common information systems. Overall, good facility design corresponds to the efficient use of space, personnel, energy, materials, and other resources. PMID:17592183

Browne, Robert K; Odum, R Andrew; Herman, Timothy; Zippel, Kevin

2007-01-01

280

Groundwater System Investigation of the Cheonggyecheon Watershed Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cheonggyecheon is an urban stream in the center of the Seoul, Korea. Because of fundamental solution of the deterioration on covering structure and expressway, the Seoul Metropolis decided 'Cheonggyecheon restoration' and began on July 1, 2003. The purpose of the Cheonggyecheon restoration is a plan for the afforestation in Seoul, but the Cheonggyecheon needs more water for the maintenance of flow. The Cheonggyecheon is a disconnected stream because of a urban stream which has many influenced factors such as pumping out, groundwater leakages into subway stations and leaking water from water supply and sewage line. So, the objectives of this study are analyzing influenced factors in the groundwater budget in the Cheonggyecheon watershed and suggesting the amount of input and output water. There are many factors influenced by the infiltration in this study area such as a flow rate of the stream, a thickness of the stream bed, a grain size of the stream bed, and a permeability of a waterproof material after restoration. For investigation of the hydrogeologic parameter in the study area, we perform the hydraulic tests; pumping test, slug test, and infiltration test. Groundwater quality data were collected for an investigation of the origin of groundwater in the study area and the index parameter after restoration. For estimating a level of sensitive factors after restoration construction, we conduct sand tank test and numerical test. In comparison of the results of the sand tank test and the numerical test, we decide the prime control factor of infiltration water in the Cheonggyecheon watershed, and suggest the amount of water budget in this study site.

Choi, D.; Lee, K.; Hyun, Y.; Kim, Y.

2004-12-01

281

DUCKS: A continuous thermal presence on the rim of Pu'u 'O'o  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past 2 years we have been monitoring the persistent activity at the Pu'u 'O'o crater (Kilauea, Hawaii) with a permanent system of infrared thermometers. Our intent has been to implement a cheap, robust, modular real-time thermal system capable of surviving the harshest of conditions. The system cost \\10,000 to construct and consists of three modules: field-based sensors, a repeater station and a reception site. The field-based component consists of three thermal infrared thermometers, housed in pelican cases with selenium-germanium-arsenic windows. Two 1 degree field of view (FOV) instruments allow specific but small areas to be monitored, and a 60 degree FOV provides an overview for all crater floor activity. A hard wire connection extends 25 m to a pelican-case-housed microprocessor, modem, and power module. From here, data are transmitted using Yagi antennas, via the repeater site, to a dedicated PC in the lobby of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. Here, the three channels of data are displayed on-screen, with a delay of ~3 seconds between data acquisition and display. Data are also used to automatically update web-based plots for general access. Aside from some minor glitches, such has sensor damage during probable tampering and unresolved data stream failures, the system has been in continuous operation since March 2001. In this regard, careful waterproofing of connectors, cables and protective cases has kept out the extremely wet and acidic atmosphere encountered at the crater edge. We have also constructed self-contained versions with internal loggers for \\1500/unit. These have been deployed in a temporary fashion at Stromboli, Masaya and Erta Ale. Together these instruments have proved capable of detecting thermal signals associated with (1) gas puffing and jetting, (2) spattering, (3) lava effusion, (4) crater floor collapse, (5) vent blockage-and-clearing, and (6) lava lake overturn.

Harris, A. J.; Pirie, D. J.; Horton, K.; Flynn, L. P.; Garbeil, H.; Johnson, J. B.; Ramm, H.; Pilger, E.

2002-12-01

282

Chemiresistor microsensors for in-situ monitoring of volatile organic compounds : final LDRD report.  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a summary of the three-year LDRD (Laboratory Directed Research and Development) project aimed at developing microchemical sensors for continuous, in-situ monitoring of volatile organic compounds. A chemiresistor sensor array was integrated with a unique, waterproof housing that allows the sensors to be operated in a variety of media including air, soil, and water. Numerous tests were performed to evaluate and improve the sensitivity, stability, and discriminatory capabilities of the chemiresistors. Field tests were conducted in California, Nevada, and New Mexico to further test and develop the sensors in actual environments within integrated monitoring systems. The field tests addressed issues regarding data acquisition, telemetry, power requirements, data processing, and other engineering requirements. Significant advances were made in the areas of polymer optimization, packaging, data analysis, discrimination, design, and information dissemination (e.g., real-time web posting of data; see www.sandia.gov/sensor). This project has stimulated significant interest among commercial and academic institutions. A CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) was initiated in FY03 to investigate manufacturing methods, and a Work for Others contract was established between Sandia and Edwards Air Force Base for FY02-FY04. Funding was also obtained from DOE as part of their Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative program from FY01 to FY03, and a DOE EMSP contract was awarded jointly to Sandia and INEEL for FY04-FY06. Contracts were also established for collaborative research with Brigham Young University to further evaluate, understand, and improve the performance of the chemiresistor sensors.

Thomas, Michael Loren; Hughes, Robert Clark; Kooser, Ara S.; McGrath, Lucas K.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Wright, Jerome L.; Davis, Chad Edward

2003-09-01

283

Rotating Balances Used for Fluid Pump Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Marshall Space Flight Center has developed and demonstrated two direct read force and moment balances for sensing and resolving the hydrodynamic loads on rotating fluid machinery. These rotating balances consist of a series of stainless steel flexures instrumented with semiconductor type, unidirectional strain gauges arranged into six bridges, then sealed and waterproofed, for use fully submerged in degassed water at rotational speeds up to six thousand revolutions per minute. The balances are used to measure the forces and moments due to the onset and presence of cavitation or other hydrodynamic phenomena on subscale replicas of rocket engine turbomachinery, principally axial pumps (inducers) designed specifically to operate in a cavitating environment. The balances are inserted into the drive assembly with power to and signal from the sensors routed through the drive shaft and out through an air-cooled twenty-channel slip ring. High frequency data - balance forces and moments as well as extensive, flush-mounted pressures around the rotating component periphery - are acquired via a high-speed analog to digital data acquisition system while the test rig conditions are varied continuously. The data acquisition and correction process is described, including the in-situ verifications that are performed to quantify and correct for known system effects such as mechanical imbalance, "added mass," buoyancy, mechanical resonance, and electrical bias. Examples of four types of cavitation oscillations for two typical inducers are described in the laboratory (pressure) and rotating (force) frames: 1) attached, symmetric cavitation, 2) rotating cavitation, 3) attached, asymmetric cavitation, and 4) cavitation surge. Rotating and asymmetric cavitation generate a corresponding unbalanced radial force on the rotating assembly while cavitation surge generates an axial force. Attached, symmetric cavitation induces no measurable force. The frequency of the forces can be determined a priori from the pressure environment while the magnitude of the hydrodynamic force is proportional to the pressure unsteadiness.

Skelley, Stephen; Mulder, Andrew

2014-01-01

284

Experimental investigation of thermal effects in HIFU-based external valvuloplasty with a non-spherical transducer, using high-resolution MR thermometry.  

PubMed

Real-time image-guided extracorporeal high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been suggested for minimally invasive treatment of valvular dysfunction in the saphenous vein. Local application of heat on the perimeter of the valve zone was previously reported to induce a partial shrinkage of the collagen, which may correct valvular function. In our study, a novel MR compatible HIFU device has been investigated. This device is based on a non-spherical geometry, with two active elements that create a focusing line which is orthogonal to the beam main axis, aiming to cover the valve longitudinally. The prototype performance was characterized by electro-acoustical measurements of the pressure field and by high-resolution MR thermometry. Pressure and thermal fields were found in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. To investigate the therapeutic potential, fresh samples of excised human veins were filled with an agarose gel, embedded in porcine muscle and exposed to HIFU. The power level applied during a fixed duration of 30 s was varied such that the absolute temperature at focus ranged between 52 degrees C and 83 degrees C. Targeting was achieved under MR guidance using a MR compatible XZ positioning system. A dedicated waterproof miniature loop coil was specifically built to achieve high-resolution MRI image-based targeting (0.25 mm x 0.25 mm x 3 mm voxel) and thermometry (0.4 mm x 0.4 mm x 4 mm voxel). The vein wall was clearly identified on MR images before and after HIFU treatment. The thermal buildup created by the non-spherical transducer could be characterized from MR thermometry data. Shrinkage of the vein wall (above 65 degrees C) was determined by absolute temperature and was not a cumulative thermal dose effect. PMID:19661567

Petrusca, Lorena; Salomir, Rares; Milleret, Réné; Pichot, Olivier; Rata, Mihaela; Cotton, François; Chapelon, Jean-Yves

2009-09-01

285

"Smart pebble" design for environmental monitoring applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment transport, due to primarily the action of water, wind and ice, is one of the most significant geomorphic processes responsible for shaping Earth's surface. It involves entrainment of sediment grains in rivers and estuaries due to the violently fluctuating hydrodynamic forces near the bed. Here an instrumented particle, namely a "smart pebble", is developed to investigate the exact flow conditions under which individual grains may be entrained from the surface of a gravel bed. This could lead in developing a better understanding of the processes involved, while focusing on the response of the particle during a variety of flow entrainment events. The "smart pebble" is a particle instrumented with MEMS sensors appropriate for capturing the hydrodynamic forces a coarse particle might experience during its entrainment from the river bed. A 3-axial gyroscope and accelerometer registers data to a memory card via a microcontroller, embedded in a 3D-printed waterproof hollow spherical particle. The instrumented board is appropriately fit and centred into the shell of the pebble, so as to achieve a nearly uniform distribution of the mass which could otherwise bias its motion. The "smart pebble" is powered by an independent power to ensure autonomy and sufficiently long periods of operation appropriate for deployment in the field. Post-processing and analysis of the acquired data is currently performed offline, using scientific programming software. The performance of the instrumented particle is validated, conducting a series of calibration experiments under well-controlled laboratory conditions. "Smart pebble" allows for a wider range of environmental sensors (e.g. for environmental/pollutant monitoring) to be incorporated so as to extend the range of its application, enabling accurate environmental monitoring which is required to ensure infrastructure resilience and preservation of ecological health.

Valyrakis, Manousos; Pavlovskis, Edgars

2014-05-01

286

Simple and reliable method to incorporate the Janus property onto arbitrary porous substrates.  

PubMed

Economical fabrication of waterproof/breathable substrates has many potential applications such as clothing or improved medical dressing. In this work, a facile and reproducible fabrication method was developed to render the Janus property to arbitrary porous substrates. First, a hydrophobic surface was obtained by depositing a fluoropolymer, poly(3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,9,9,10,10,10-heptadecafluorodecyl methacrylate) (PHFDMA), on various porous substrates such as polyester fabric, nylon mesh, and filter paper. With a one-step vapor-phase deposition process, termed as initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD), a conformal coating of hydrophobic PHFDMA polymer film was achieved on both faces of the porous substrate. Since the hydrophobic perfluoroalkyl functionality is tethered on PHFDMA via hydrolyzable ester functionality, the hydrophobic functionality on PHFDMA was readily released by hydrolysis reaction. Here, by simply floating the PHFDMA-coated substrates on KOH(aq) solution, only the face of the PHFDMA-coated substrate in contact with the KOH(aq) solution became hydrophilic by the conversion of the fluoroalkyl ester group in the PHFDMA to hydrophilic carboxylic acid functionality. The hydrophilized face was able to easily absorb water, showing a contact angle of less than 37°. However, the top side of the PHFDMA-coated substrate was unaffected by the exposure to KOH(aq) solution and remained hydrophobic. Moreover, the carboxylated surface was further functionalized with aminated polystyrene beads. The porous Janus substrates fabricated using this method can be applied to various kinds of clothing such as pants and shirts, something that the lamination process for Gore-tex has not allowed. PMID:24568214

You, Jae Bem; Yoo, Youngmin; Oh, Myung Seok; Im, Sung Gap

2014-03-26

287

Histological and MS spectrometric analyses of the modified tissue of bulgy form tadpoles induced by salamander predation  

PubMed Central

Summary The rapid induction of a defensive morphology by a prey species in face of a predation risk is an intriguing in ecological context; however, the physiological mechanisms that underlie this phenotypic plasticity remain uncertain. Here we investigated the phenotypic changes shown by Rana pirica tadpoles in response to a predation threat by larvae of the salamander Hynobius retardatus. One such response is the bulgy morph phenotype, a relatively rapid swelling in size by the tadpoles that begins within 4 days and reaches a maximum at 8 to 10 days. We found that although the total volume of bodily fluid increased significantly (P<0.01) in bulgy morph tadpoles, osmotic pressure was maintained at the same level as control tadpoles by a significant increase (P<0.01) in Na and Cl ion concentrations. In our previous report, we identified a novel frog gene named pirica that affects the waterproofing of the skin membrane in tadpoles. Our results support the hypothesis that predator-induced expression of pirica on the skin membrane causes retention of absorbed water. Midline sections of bulgy morph tadpoles showed the presence of swollen connective tissue beneath the skin that was sparsely composed of cells containing hyaluronic acid. Mass spectrographic (LC-MS/MS) analysis identified histone H3 and 14-3-3 zeta as the most abundant constituents in the liquid aspirated from the connective tissue of bulgy tadpoles. Immunohistochemistry using antibodies against these proteins showed the presence of non-chromatin associated histone H3 in the swollen connective tissue. Histones and 14-3-3 proteins are also involved in antimicrobial activity and secretion of antibacterial proteins, respectively. Bulgy tadpoles have a larger surface area than controls, and their skin often has bite wounds inflicted by the larval salamanders. Thus, formation of the bulgy morph may also require and be supported by activation of innate immune systems. PMID:23213421

Mori, Tsukasa; Kitani, Yoichiro; Ogihara, Jun; Sugiyama, Manabu; Yamamoto, Goshi; Kishida, Osamu; Nishimura, Kinya

2012-01-01

288

Design and performance of personal cooling garments based on three-layer laminates.  

PubMed

Personal cooling systems are mainly based on cold air or liquids circulating through a tubing system. They are weighty, bulky and depend on an external power source. In contrast, the laminate-based technology presented here offers new flexible and light weight cooling garments integrated into textiles. It is based on a three-layer composite assembled from two waterproof, but water vapor permeable membranes and a hydrophilic fabric in between. Water absorbed in the fabric will be evaporated by the body temperature resulting in cooling energy. The laminate's high adaptiveness makes it possible to produce cooling garments even for difficult anatomic topologies. The determined cooling energy of the laminate depends mainly on the environmental conditions (temperature, relative humidity, wind): heat flux at standard climatic conditions (20 degrees C, 65% R.H., wind 5 km/h) has measured 423.2 +/- 52.6 W/m(2), water vapor transmission resistance, R (et), 10.83 +/- 0.38 m(2) Pa/W and thermal resistance, R (ct), 0.010 +/- 0.002 m(2) K/W. Thermal conductivity, k, changed from 0.048 +/- 0.003 (dry) to 0.244 +/- 0.018 W/m K (water added). The maximum fall in skin temperature, Delta T (max), under the laminate was 5.7 +/- 1.2 degrees C, taken from a 12 subject study with a thigh cooling garment during treadmill walking (23 degrees C, 50% R.H., no wind) and a significant linear correlation (R = 0.85, P = 0.01) between body mass index and time to reach 67% of Delta T (max) could be determined. PMID:18581156

Rothmaier, M; Weder, M; Meyer-Heim, A; Kesselring, J

2008-08-01

289

TOPICAL REVIEW: Smart aggregates: multi-functional sensors for concrete structures—a tutorial and a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarizes the authors' recent pioneering research work in piezoceramic-based smart aggregates and their innovative applications in concrete civil structures. The basic operating principle of smart aggregates is first introduced. The proposed smart aggregate is formed by embedding a waterproof piezoelectric patch with lead wires into a small concrete block. The proposed smart aggregates are multi-functional and can perform three major tasks: early-age concrete strength monitoring, impact detection and structural health monitoring. The proposed smart aggregates are embedded into the desired location before the casting of the concrete structure. The concrete strength development is monitored by observing the high frequency harmonic wave response of the smart aggregate. Impact on the concrete structure is detected by observing the open-circuit voltage of the piezoceramic patch in the smart aggregate. For structural health monitoring purposes, a smart aggregate-based active sensing system is designed for the concrete structure. Wavelet packet analysis is used as a signal-processing tool to analyze the sensor signal. A damage index based on the wavelet packet analysis is used to determine the structural health status. To better describe the time-history and location information of damage, two types of damage index matrices are proposed: a sensor-history damage index matrix and an actuator-sensor damage index matrix. To demonstrate the multi-functionality of the proposed smart aggregates, different types of concrete structures have been used as test objects, including concrete bridge bent-caps, concrete cylinders and a concrete frame. Experimental results have verified the effectiveness and the multi-functionality of the proposed smart aggregates. The multi-functional smart aggregates have the potential to be applied to the comprehensive monitoring of concrete structures from their earliest stages and throughout their lifetime.

Song, Gangbing; Gu, Haichang; Mo, Yi-Lung

2008-06-01

290

Development of testing and training simulator for CEDMCS in KSNP  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a newly developed testing and training simulator (TTS) for automatically diagnosing and tuning the Control Element Drive Mechanism Control System (CEDMCS). TTS includes a new automatic, diagnostic, method for logic control cards and a new tuning method for phase synchronous pulse cards. In Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plants (KSNP). reactor trips occasionally occur due to a damaged logic control card in CEDMCS. However, there is no pre-diagnostic tester available to detect a damaged card in CEDMCS before it causes a reactor trip. Even after the reactor trip occurs, it is difficult to find the damaged card. To find the damaged card. ICT is usually used. ICT is an automated, computer-controlled testing system with measurement capabilities for testing active and passive components, or clusters of components, on printed circuit boards (PCB) and/or assemblies. However, ICT cannot detect a time dependent fault correctly and requires removal of the waterproof mating to perform the test. Therefore, the additional procedure of re-coating the PCB card is required after the test. TTS for CEDMCS is designed based on real plant conditions, both electrically and mechanically. Therefore, the operator can operate the Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM), which is mounted on the closure head of the reactor vessel (RV) using the soft control panel in ITS, which duplicates the Main Control Board (MCB) in the Main Control Room (MCR). However, during the generation of electric power in a nuclear power plant, it is difficult to operate the CEDM so a CEDM and Control Element Assembly (CEA) mock-up facility was developed to simulate a real plant CEDM. ITS was used for diagnosing and tuning control logic cards in CEDMCS in the Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant No. 4 during the plant overhaul period. It exhibited good performance in detecting the damaged cards and tuning the phase synchronous pulse cards. In addition, TTS was useful in training the CEDMCS operator by supplying detail signal information from the logic cards. (authors)

Nam, C. H.; Park, C. Y.; Nam, J. I.; Yook, S. K.; Cho, C. I. [Doosan Heavy Industries, Construction Co., Ltd., Doosan Technical Center Bldg., 39-3, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, 449-795 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

291

Dynamics of the Macular Hole-Silicone Oil Tamponade Interface with Patient Positioning as Imaged by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) the relationship between the retina and overlying silicone oil tamponade after macular hole surgery, and to evaluate how this relationship changes with patient positioning. Patients and Methods Retrospective consecutive case series of 10 eyes from 9 patients who underwent macular hole surgery with silicone oil tamponade and subsequent SD-OCT scans. Four of the included eyes were also imaged with patients in face-down posture to determine if the silicone-retina apposition changes with prone positioning. Finally, a single patient was additionally scanned in the lateral and supine positions. Results The posterior surface of the silicone oil bubble was well visualized in all 10 eyes. In the majority of eyes (7/10) the oil tamponade bridged across the macular hole creating a pre-foveal fluid space, but in 3 eyes the silicone oil filled the macular hole and was seen in touch with the underlying foveal depression or retinal pigment epithelium. In 75% of eyes (3/4) the silicone oil-retinal approximation did not vary with face-down position. Supine positioning clearly floated the silicone tamponade anteriorly and off of the retinal surface. Conclusions Silicone oil tamponade can either bridge across macular holes, or in a novel finding, can fill the underlying foveal depression or macular hole space. Generally, the oil position is stable between face-forward and prone SD-OCT images, suggesting that either of these patient positions allows waterproofing of the underlying macular hole. Finally, our images confirm that supine positioning should be avoided post-operatively as it leads to loss of oil-retinal tamponade. PMID:20531144

Oster, Stephen F.; Mojana, Francesca; Bartsch, Dirk-Uwe G.; Goldbaum, Michael; Freeman, William R.

2010-01-01

292

Three generations of wireless sensor networks to monitor the soil ecosystem (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Capturing soil spatio-temporal heterogeneity is a considerable challenge. We designed, built and deployed three generations of wireless sensor networks to measure soil temperature, moisture, CO2 concentration and efflux. In the past eight years the system was tested in a high altitude desert, tropical and temperate forests, and in croplands. We developed Grazor, a graphic web interface for visualizing, exploring, and downloading data. Since 2005, our first field deployment, we have collected over 160 million data points, all stored in our persistent database. Our largest and longest experiment took place in a residential neighborhood in Baltimore, MD. A total of 108 soil moisture sensors were installed in urban soils covered by forest and grass. The system successfully captured spatial heterogeneity, transient events, such as Hurricane Irene, and highlighted habitat differences. However, issues such as waterproofing, battery consumption, mote failure and scale of deployment still need to be addressed. Improvements in our third generation hardware and software are based upon lessons learned from earlier deployments. In the new hardware, rather than having a single device that does everything (analog sensing, data storage, and routing), we have developed an analog sensor board and a separate wireless sensor mote. The latter can be configured as a leaf (with an antenna printed directly on the circuit board) or as a router (with a power amplifier and an external antenna connector). Additional sensors with an industry standard I2C interface can also be connected to the mote. The cost of each unit is 20$, and the software is user friendly for the non-computer scientist. We are currently testing this system in the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, MD. Cumulative number of data collected in the Life Under Your Feet project. Major hardware changes are marked with vertical lines, while horizontal lines show the start and end of deployments.

Szlavecz, K. A.

2013-12-01

293

Variation in percentage weight bearing with changes in standing posture during water immersion: implication for clinical practice  

PubMed Central

Background The degree of weightlessness during water immersion is usually estimated through percentage weight bearing (PWB). However, variations in PWB in different standing postures have not been documented. The study was designed to investigate the PWB of apparently healthy individuals in four standing postures at the anterior superior iliac spine level of immersion. Methods One hundred and ninety-three consenting undergraduates were purposively enlisted in this study. Participants’ body weight (BW) was measured on land as well as in Erect Standing (ES), Grasp-Inclined-Prone-Standing (GIPS), Half-Grasp-Inclined-Towards-Side Standing (HGITSS) and Inclined-Standing with Head Support (ISHS) postures in hydro pool, using a specially designed water-proof weighing scale. PWB was calculated by dividing BW in water by BW on land and multiplying by 100. Data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and ANOVA at ??=?0.05. Results The mean age and BW (on land) of the participants were 22.4 years and 60.7 kg respectively. Participants’ PWB were significantly different (p??0.05). Conclusion Changes in standing posture have significant effect on PWB in hydro pool. The finding has implication for partial weight bearing exercises in hydro pool. PMID:25091034

2014-01-01

294

Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System and its application to emergency response involving chemical, biological or radiological contamination. The Idaho National Laboratory designed the Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System to assist the National Guard Weapons of Mass Destruction - Civil Support Teams during their mission of emergency response to incidents involving weapons of mass destruction. The lightweight, handheld camera transmits encrypted, real-time video from inside a contaminated area, or hot-zone, to a command post located a safe distance away. The system includes a small wireless video camera, a true-diversity receiver, viewing console, and an optional extension link that allows the command post to be placed up to five miles from danger. It can be fully deployed by one person in a standalone configuration in less than 10 minutes. The complete system is battery powered. Each rechargeable camera battery powers the camera for 3 hours with the receiver and video monitor battery lasting 22 hours on a single charge. The camera transmits encrypted, low frequency analog video signals to a true-diversity receiver with three antennas. This unique combination of encryption and transmission technologies delivers encrypted, interference-free images to the command post under conditions where other wireless systems fail. The lightweight camera is completely waterproof for quick and easy decontamination after use. The Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System is currently being used by several National Guard Teams, the US Army, and by fire fighters. The system has been proven to greatly enhance situational awareness during the crucial, initial phase of a hazardous response allowing commanders to make better, faster, safer decisions.

Kevin L. Young

2006-02-01

295

Characterization of a new MOSFET detector configuration for in vivo skin dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

The dose released to the patient skin during a radiotherapy treatment is important when the skin is an organ at risk, or on the contrary, is included in the target volume. Since most treatment planning programs do not predict dose within several millimeters of the body surface, it is important to have a method to verify the skin dose for the patient who is undergoing radiotherapy. A special type of metal oxide semiconductors field-effect transistors (MOSFET) was developed to perform in vivo skin dosimetry for radiotherapy treatments. Water-equivalent depth (WED), both manufacturing and sensor reproducibility, dependence on both field size and angulation of the sensor were investigated using 6 MV photon beams. Patient skin dosimetries were performed during 6 MV total body irradiations (TBI). The resulting WEDs ranged from 0.04 and 0.15 mm (0.09 mm on average). The reproducibility of the sensor response, for doses of 50 cGy, was within {+-}2% (maximum deviation) and improves with increasing sensitivity or dose level. As to the manufacturing reproducibility, it was found to be {+-}0.055 mm. No WED dependence on the field size was verified, but possible variations of this quantity with the field size could be hidden by the assessment uncertainty. The angular dependence, for both phantom-surface and in-air setups, when referred to the mean response, is within {+-}27% until 80 deg. rotations. The results of the performed patient skin dosimetries showed that, normally, our TBI setup was suitable to give skin the prescribed dose, but, for some cases, interventions were necessary: as a consequence the TBI setup was corrected. The water-equivalent depth is, on average, less than the thinnest thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). In addition, when compared with TLDs, the skin MOSFETs have significant advantages, like immediate both readout and reuse, as well as the permanent storage of dose. These sensors are also waterproof. The in vivo dosimetries performed prove the importance of verifying the dose to the skin of the patient undergoing radiotherapy.

Scalchi, Paolo; Francescon, Paolo; Rajaguru, Priyadarshini [Department of Medical Physics, San Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza (Italy)

2005-06-15

296

Characterization of a new MOSFET detector configuration for in vivo skin dosimetry.  

PubMed

The dose released to the patient skin during a radiotherapy treatment is important when the skin is an organ at risk, or on the contrary, is included in the target volume. Since most treatment planning programs do not predict dose within several millimeters of the body surface, it is important to have a method to verify the skin dose for the patient who is undergoing radiotherapy. A special type of metal oxide semiconductors field-effect transistors (MOSFET) was developed to perform in vivo skin dosimetry for radiotherapy treatments. Water-equivalent depth (WED), both manufacturing and sensor reproducibility, dependence on both field size and angulation of the sensor were investigated using 6 MV photon beams. Patient skin dosimetries were performed during 6 MV total body irradiations (TBI). The resulting WEDs ranged from 0.04 and 0.15 mm (0.09 mm on average). The reproducibility of the sensor response, for doses of 50 cGy, was within +/-2% (maximum deviation) and improves with increasing sensitivity or dose level. As to the manufacturing reproducibility, it was found to be +/-0.055 mm. No WED dependence on the field size was verified, but possible variations of this quantity with the field size could be hidden by the assessment uncertainty. The angular dependence, for both phantom-surface and in-air setups, when referred to the mean response, is within +/-27% until 80 degree rotations. The results of the performed patient skin dosimetries showed that, normally, our TBI setup was suitable to give skin the prescribed dose, but, for some cases, interventions were necessary: as a consequence the TBI setup was corrected. The water-equivalent depth is, on average, less than the thinnest thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). In addition, when compared with TLDs, the skin MOSFETs have significant advantages, like immediate both readout and reuse, as well as the permanent storage of dose. These sensors are also waterproof. The in vivo dosimetries performed prove the importance of verifying the dose to the skin of the patient undergoing radiotherapy. PMID:16013716

Scalchi, Paolo; Francescon, Paolo; Rajaguru, Priyadarshini

2005-06-01

297

Road runoff management using over-the-shoulder infiltration: real-scale experimentation.  

PubMed

A new management policy regarding road runoff was proposed in 2002 by the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN). This new concept is based on the diffuse infiltration of road runoff into embankment slopes, where soils will filter particles and contaminants. The shoulder lying between road surface and infiltration slopes must be impervious in order to maximise the amount of water reaching the slope and avoid losses in the road structure. The implementation of this new concept should lower the impact of roads on the environment, improve aquifer recharge and reduce construction costs. The Swiss Federal Road Office (FedRO) decided to carry out real-scale investigations regarding this new policy and thus commissioned the GEOLEP to design, build, and test 5 different shoulder structures. This paper presents the results of a 2-years survey of infiltration processes in these shoulders to establish the best performing structure. The first three shoulders were overlaid with 5 cm of gravel mixed with humus, gravel mixed with clay, and seeded with lawn, respectively. The latter two had impervious layers located 26 cm deep: the road bituminous basement (road base) was prolonged and coated with bitumen in the first case, and a sodic-bentonite geotextile was used in the second. Both were covered with gravel. All shoulders were equipped with basal collecting devices that measured hydraulic fluxes seeping through the shoulders. In total, 112 natural precipitations and 3 artificial events were monitored. Artificial events mimicked known transitory regimes (thunderstorms) or were performed with constant regime. The goal was to effectively assess infiltration processes in shoulders. Results showed that shoulders made of gravel and humus or lawn were highly ineffective (only 30 to 40% of runoff is conducted to the infiltration slope). Gravel and clay was more efficient with a proportion of approximately 60%. The shoulder with prolonged road base showed similar results since the bituminous coating was in fact rather permeable. The best results were exhibited by the shoulder waterproofed with bentonitic geotextile, which allowed no water to penetrate. This material already proved to be very powerful in groundwater catchments. The authors thus proposed a combination of sodic-bentonite geotextile covered by a gravel and clay mixture. This would be the most efficient shoulder: it will convey all the runoff to infiltration slopes, thereby optimising its filtration, which in turn will enhance environmental conditions in the vicinity of roads. PMID:19759460

Piguet, P; Parriaux, A; Bensimon, M

2009-01-01

298

The fur of mammals in exposed environments; do crypsis and thermal needs necessarily conflict? The polar bear and marsupial koala compared.  

PubMed

The furs of mammals have varied and complex functions. Other than for thermoregulation, fur is involved in physical protection, sensory input, waterproofing and colouration, the latter being important for crypsis or camouflage. Some of these diverse functions potentially conflict. We have investigated how variation in cryptic colouration and thermal features may interact in the coats of mammals and influence potential heat inflows from solar radiation, much of which is outside the visible spectral range. The coats of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and the marsupial koala (Phascolarctus cinereus) have insulative similarities but, while they feature cryptic colouration, they are of contrasting colour, i.e. whitish and dark grey. The reflectance of solar radiation by coats was measured across the full solar spectrum using a spectroradiometer. The modulation of incident solar radiation and resultant heat flows in these coats were determined at a range of wind speeds by mounting them on a heat flux transducer/temperature-controlled plate apparatus in a wind tunnel. A lamp with a spectral distribution of radiation similar to the solar spectrum was used as a proxy for the sun. Crypsis by colour matching was apparent within the visible spectrum for the two species, U. maritimus being matched against snow and P. cinereus against Eucalyptus forest foliage. While reflectances across the full solar spectrum differed markedly, that of U. maritimus being 66 % as opposed to 10 % for P. cinereus, the heat influxes from solar radiation reaching the skin were similar. For both coats at low wind speed (1 m s(-1)), 19 % of incident solar radiation impacted as heat at the skin surface; at higher wind speed (10 m s(-1)) this decreased to approximately 10 %. Ursus maritimus and P. cinereus have high and comparable levels of fur insulation and although the patterns of reflectance and depths of penetrance of solar radiation differ for the coats, the considerable insulation limited the radiant heat reaching the skin. These data suggest that generally, if mammal coats have high insulation then heat flow from solar radiation into an animal is much restricted and the impact of coat colour is negligible. However, comparisons with published data from other species suggest that as fur insulation decreases, colour increasingly influences the heat inflow associated with solar radiation. PMID:24366474

Dawson, Terence J; Webster, Koa N; Maloney, Shane K

2014-02-01

299

Development of a Testing Platform for Scaled-Laboratory Studies of Marine Hydrokinetic Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small-scale platform for testing model hydrokinetic devices in riverine environments has been developed for the hydraulic flume facility (32 ft long, 4 ft wide, 1.5 ft deep) in the Environmental Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics Laboratory (EFM&H) at Bucknell University. This platform is being used to advance development of marine hydrokinetic technologies by providing scaled-laboratory testing in a controlled environment. The results will provide validation of numerical predictions for device effects on the local substrate. Specifically, the flume is being used to model the effect of an underwater turbine on the sediment transport through its wake flow as it converts hydrokinetic energy to power. A test bed has been designed and assembled to hold sediment of varying size and material, where a single model turbine or an array formation, can be rooted within an erodible bed to conduct scour and erosion studies. Additionally, the facility is equipped with contraction inserts to increase the range of flow speeds available for turbine testing. For accurate flow field measurements the testing platform is instrumented with a Sontek Horizon 16 MHz Micro Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) which is used to characterize the mean velocity field of the wake generated by the turbine to correlate the strength of the wake with changes in the sediment bed. Finally, the testing platform includes an HR Wallingford 2D Sediment Bed Profiler with a low-powered laser distance sensor mounted inside a waterproof housing to enable characterization of changes in bed form topology for various turbine performance regimes. The flume is equipped with a track that allows a precision 3D traversing system to position measurement probes along the length, width and depth of the flume. Model turbine performance in terms of torque and power are characterized. This testing platform for laboratory-scaled studies are instrumental in yielding physical measurements of the alteration of sediment caused by variations in flow and wake structures due to the presence of marine hydrokinetic devices. These results will facilitate siting assessment for green energy technologies.

Beninati, M. L.; Volpe, M. A.; Riley, D. R.; Krane, M. H.

2010-12-01

300

DUCKS: Low cost thermal monitoring units for near-vent deployment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 1999 we designed and tested a thermal monitoring system to provide a cheap, robust, modular, real-time system capable of surviving the hostile conditions encountered proximal to active volcanic vents. In November 2000 the first system was deployed at Pu'u 'O'o (Kilauea, Hawai'i) to target persistently active vents. Aside from some minor problems, such as sensor damage due to tampering, this system remained operational until January 2004. The success of the prototype system led us to use the blueprint for a second installation at Stromboli (Aeolian Islands, Italy). This was deployed, dug into a bomb-proof bunker, during May 2002 and survived the April 2003 paroxysmal eruption despite being located just 250 m from the vent. In both cases, careful waterproofing of connectors and selection of suitable protection has prevented water damage and corrosion in the harsh atmosphere encountered at the crater rim. The Pu'u 'O'o system cost ˜US10,000 and comprises four modules: sensors, transmission and power hub, repeater station and reception site. The sensor component consists of three thermal infrared thermometers housed in Pelican™ cases fitted with Germanium-Arsenide-Selenium windows. Two 1° field of view (FOV) sensors allow specific vents to be targeted and a 60° FOV sensor provides a crater floor overview. A hard wire connection links to a Pelican™-case-housed microprocessor, modem and power module. From here data are transmitted, via a repeater site, to a dedicated PC at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. Here data are displayed with a delay of ˜3 s between acquisition and display. The modular design allows for great flexibility. At Stromboli, 1° and 15° FOV sensor modules can be switched depending changes in activity style and crater geometry. In addition a direct line of site to the Stromboli reception center negates the repeater site requirement, reducing the cost to US5500 for a single sensor system. We have also constructed self-contained units with internal data loggers for US$1500/unit. These have been tested at Kilauea, Stromboli, Etna, Masaya, Santiaguito, Fuego, Pacaya, Poas, Soufriere Hills, Villarrica and Erta Ale. These instruments have proved capable of detecting thermal signals associated with: (1) gas emission; (2) gas jetting events; (3) crater floor collapse; (4) lava effusion; (5) lava flow in tubes; (6) lava lake activity; (7) lava dome activity; and (8) crater lake skin temperature.

Harris, Andrew; Pirie, Dawn; Horton, Keith; Garbeil, Harold; Pilger, Eric; Ramm, Hans; Hoblitt, Rick; Thornber, Carl; Ripepe, Maurizio; Marchetti, Emanuele; Poggi, Pasquale

2005-05-01

301

Cuticular differences associated with aridity acclimation in African malaria vectors carrying alternative arrangements of inversion 2La  

PubMed Central

Background Principal malaria vectors in Africa, An. gambiae and An. coluzzii, share an inversion polymorphism on the left arm of chromosome 2 (2La/2L+a) that is distributed non-randomly in the environment. Genomic sequencing studies support the role of strong natural selection in maintaining steep clines in 2La inversion frequency along environmental gradients of aridity, and physiological studies have directly implicated 2La in heat and desiccation tolerance, but the precise genetic basis and the underlying behavioral and physiological mechanisms remain unknown. As the insect cuticle is the primary barrier to water loss, differences in cuticle thickness and/or epicuticular waterproofing associated with alternative 2La arrangements might help explain differences in desiccation resistance. Methods To test that hypothesis, two subcolonies of both An. gambiae and An. coluzzii were established that were fixed for alternative 2La arrangements (2La or 2L+a) on an otherwise homosequential and shared genetic background. Adult mosquitoes reared under controlled environmental conditions (benign or arid) for eight days post-eclosion were collected and analyzed. Measurements of cuticle thickness were made based on scanning electron microscopy, and cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) composition was evaluated by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results After removing the allometric effects of body weight, differences in mean cuticle thickness were found between alternative 2La karyotypes, but not between alternative environments. Moreover, the thicker cuticle of the An. coluzzii 2La karyotype was contrary to the known higher rate of water loss of this karyotype relative to 2L+a. On the other hand, quantitative differences in individual CHCs and overall CHC profiles between alternative karyotypes and environmental conditions were consistent with expectation based on previous physiological studies. Conclusions Our results suggest that alternative arrangements of the 2La inversion are associated with differences in cuticle thickness and CHC composition, but that only CHC composition appears to be relevant for desiccation resistance. Differences in the CHC composition were consistent with previous findings of a lower rate of water loss for the 2L+a karyotype at eight days post-eclosion, suggesting that CHC composition is an important strategy for maintaining water balance in this genetic background, but not for 2La. Despite a higher rate of water loss at eight days, higher body water content of the 2La karyotype confers a level of desiccation resistance equivalent to that of the 2L+a karyotype. PMID:24721548

2014-01-01

302

Genes involved in thoracic exoskeleton formation during the pupal-to-adult molt in a social insect model, Apis mellifera  

PubMed Central

Background The insect exoskeleton provides shape, waterproofing, and locomotion via attached somatic muscles. The exoskeleton is renewed during molting, a process regulated by ecdysteroid hormones. The holometabolous pupa transforms into an adult during the imaginal molt, when the epidermis synthe3sizes the definitive exoskeleton that then differentiates progressively. An important issue in insect development concerns how the exoskeletal regions are constructed to provide their morphological, physiological and mechanical functions. We used whole-genome oligonucleotide microarrays to screen for genes involved in exoskeletal formation in the honeybee thoracic dorsum. Our analysis included three sampling times during the pupal-to-adult molt, i.e., before, during and after the ecdysteroid-induced apolysis that triggers synthesis of the adult exoskeleton. Results Gene ontology annotation based on orthologous relationships with Drosophila melanogaster genes placed the honeybee differentially expressed genes (DEGs) into distinct categories of Biological Process and Molecular Function, depending on developmental time, revealing the functional elements required for adult exoskeleton formation. Of the 1,253 unique DEGs, 547 were upregulated in the thoracic dorsum after apolysis, suggesting induction by the ecdysteroid pulse. The upregulated gene set included 20 of the 47 cuticular protein (CP) genes that were previously identified in the honeybee genome, and three novel putative CP genes that do not belong to a known CP family. In situ hybridization showed that two of the novel genes were abundantly expressed in the epidermis during adult exoskeleton formation, strongly implicating them as genuine CP genes. Conserved sequence motifs identified the CP genes as members of the CPR, Tweedle, Apidermin, CPF, CPLCP1 and Analogous-to-Peritrophins families. Furthermore, 28 of the 36 muscle-related DEGs were upregulated during the de novo formation of striated fibers attached to the exoskeleton. A search for cis-regulatory motifs in the 5?-untranslated region of the DEGs revealed potential binding sites for known transcription factors. Construction of a regulatory network showed that various upregulated CP- and muscle-related genes (15 and 21 genes, respectively) share common elements, suggesting co-regulation during thoracic exoskeleton formation. Conclusions These findings help reveal molecular aspects of rigid thoracic exoskeleton formation during the ecdysteroid-coordinated pupal-to-adult molt in the honeybee. PMID:23981317

2013-01-01

303

Tribute to R. G. Boutilier: skin colour and body temperature changes in basking Bokermannohyla alvarengai (Bokermann 1956).  

PubMed

In amphibians solar basking far from water sources is relatively uncommon since the highly permeable amphibian skin does not represent a significant barrier to the accompanying risk of losing water by evaporation. A South American frog, Bokermannohyla alvarengai (Bokermann 1956), however, spends a significant amount of the day exposed to full sun and relatively high temperatures. The means by which this frog copes with potentially high rates of evaporative water loss and high body temperatures are unknown. Thus, in this study, skin colour changes, body surface temperature, and evaporative water loss rates were examined under a mixture of field and laboratory conditions to ascertain whether changes in skin reflectivity play an important role in this animal's thermal and hydric balance. Field data demonstrated a tight correlation between the lightness of skin colour and frog temperature, with lighter frogs being captured possessing higher body temperatures. Laboratory experiments supported this relationship, revealing that frogs kept in the dark or at lower temperatures (20 degrees C) had darker skin colours, whereas frogs kept in the light or higher temperatures (30 degrees C) had skin colours of a lighter hue. Light exhibited a stronger influence on skin colour than temperature alone, suggesting that colour change is triggered by the increase in incident solar energy and in anticipation of changes in body temperature. This conclusion is corroborated by the observation that cold, darkly coloured frogs placed in the sun rapidly became lighter in colour during the initial warming up period (over the first 5 min), after which they warmed up more slowly and underwent a further, albeit slower, lightening of skin colour. Surprisingly, despite its natural disposition to bask in the sun, this species does not possess a ;waterproof' skin, since its rates of evaporative water loss were not dissimilar from many hylid species that live in arboreal or semi-aquatic environments. The natural history of B. alvarengai is largely unknown and, therefore, it is likely that the herein reported colour change and basking behaviour represent a complex interaction between thermoregulation and water balance with other ecologically relevant functions, such as crypsis. PMID:16547291

Tattersall, Glenn J; Eterovick, Paula C; de Andrade, Denis V

2006-04-01

304

Field tests of a chemiresistor sensor for in-situ monitoring of vapor-phase contaminants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An in-situ chemiresistor sensor has been developed that can detect volatile organic compounds in subsurface environmental applications. Several field tests were conducted in 2001 and 2002 to test the reliability, operation, and performance of the in-situ chemiresistor sensor system. The chemiresistor consists of a carbon-loaded polymer deposited onto a microfabricated circuit. The polymer swells reversibly in the presence of volatile organic compounds as vapor-phase molecules absorb into the polymer, causing a change in the electrical resistance of the circuit. The change in resistance can be calibrated to known concentrations of analytes, and arrays of chemiresistors can be used on a single chip to aid in discrimination. A waterproof housing was constructed to allow the chemiresistor to be used in a variety of media including air, soil, and water. The integrated unit, which can be buried in soils or emplaced in wells, is connected via cable to a surface-based solar-powered data logger. A cell-phone modem is used to automatically download the data from the data logger on a periodic basis. The field tests were performed at three locations: (1) Edwards Air Force Base, CA; (2) Nevada Test Site; and (3) Sandia's Chemical Waste Landfill near Albuquerque, NM. The objectives of the tests were to evaluate the ruggedness, longevity, operation, performance, and engineering requirements of these sensors in actual field settings. Results showed that the sensors could be operated continuously for long periods of time (greater than a year) using remote solar-powered data-logging stations with wireless telemetry. The sensor housing, which was constructed of 304 stainless steel, showed some signs of corrosion when placed in contaminated water for several months, but the overall integrity was maintained. The detection limits of the chemiresistors were generally found to be near 0.1% of the saturated vapor pressure of the target analyte in controlled laboratory conditions (e.g., ~100 ppmv for TCE), but fluctuations in environmental parameters and other interferences increased the detection limit by about an order of magnitude in the field tests. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Ho, C.; McGrath, L.; Wright, J.

2003-04-01

305

SoundProof: A Smartphone Platform for Wireless Monitoring of Wildlife and Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing an open-source, low-cost wildlife and environmental monitoring solution based on Android smartphones. Using a smartphone instead of a traditional microcontroller or single board computer has several advantages: smartphones are single integrated devices with multiple radios and a battery; they have a robust software interface which enables customization; and are field-tested by millions of users daily. Consequently, smartphones can improve the cost, configurability, and real-time access to data for environmental monitoring, ultimately replacing existing monitoring solutions which are proprietary, difficult to customize, expensive, and require labor-intensive maintenance. While smartphones can radically change environmental and wildlife monitoring, there are a number of technical challenges to address. We present our smartphone-based platform, SoundProof, discuss the challenges of building an autonomous system based on Android phones, and our ongoing efforts to enable environmental monitoring. Our system is built using robust off-the-shelf hardware and mature open-source software where available, to increase scalability and ease of installation. Key features include: * High-quality acoustic signal collection from external microphones to monitor wildlife populations. * Real-time data access, remote programming, and configuration of the field sensor via wireless cellular or WiFi channels, accessible from a website. * Waterproof packaging and solar charger setup for long-term field deployments. * Rich instrumentation of the end-to-end system to quickly identify and debug problems. * Supplementary mesh networking system with long-range wireless antennae to provide coverage when no cell network is available. We have deployed this system to monitor Rufous Crowned Sparrows on Anacapa Island, Chinese Crested Turns on the Matsu Islands in Taiwan, and Ashy Storm Petrels on South East Farallon Island. We have testbeds at two UC Natural Reserves to field-test new or exploratory features before deployment. Side-by-side validation data collected in the field using SoundProof and state-of-the-art wildlife monitoring solutions, including the Cornell ARU and Wildlife Acoustic's Songmeter, demonstrate that acoustic signals collected with cellphones provide sufficient data integrity for measuring the success of bird conservation efforts, measuring bird relative abundance and detecting elusive species. We are extending this platform to numerous other areas of environmental monitoring. Recent developments such as the Android Open Accessory, the IOIO Board, MicroBridge, Amarino, and Cellbots enable microcontrollers to talk with Android applications, making it affordable and feasible to extend our platform to operate with the most common sensors.

Lukac, M.; Monibi, M.; Lane, M. L.; Howell, L.; Ramanathan, N.; Borker, A.; McKown, M.; Croll, D.; Terschy, B.

2011-12-01

306

A Miniaturized Laser Heterodyne Radiometer for a Global Ground-Based Column Carbon Monitoring Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present progress in the development of a passive, miniaturized Laser Heterodyne Radiometer (mini-LHR) that will measure key greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, CO) in the atmospheric column as well as their respective altitude profiles, and O2 for a measure of atmospheric pressure. Laser heterodyne radiometry is a spectroscopic method that borrows from radio receiver technology. In this technique, a weak incoming signal containing information of interest is mixed with a stronger signal (local oscillator) at a nearby frequency. In this case, the weak signal is sunlight that has undergone absorption by a trace gas of interest and the local oscillator is a distributive feedback (DFB) laser that is tuned to a wavelength near the absorption feature of the trace gas. Mixing the sunlight with the laser light, in a fast photo-receiver, results in a beat signal in the RF. The amplitude of the beat signal tracks the concentration of the trace gas in the atmospheric column. The mini-LHR operates in tandem with AERONET, a global network of more than 450 aerosol sensing instruments. This partnership simplifies the instrument design and provides an established global network into which the mini-LHR can rapidly expand. This network offers coverage in key arctic regions (not covered by OCO-2) where accelerated warming due to the release of CO2 and CH4 from thawing tundra and permafrost is a concern as well as an uninterrupted data record that will both bridge gaps in data sets and offer validation for key flight missions such as OCO-2, OCO-3, and ASCENDS. Currently, the only ground global network that routinely measures multiple greenhouse gases in the atmospheric column is TCCON (Total Column Carbon Observing Network) with 18 operational sites worldwide and two in the US. Cost and size of TCCON installations will limit the potential for expansion. We offer a low-cost (<$30K/unit) solution to supplement these measurements with the added benefit of an established aerosol optical depth measurement. Aerosols induce a radiative effect that is an important modulator of regional carbon cycles. Changes in the diffuse radiative flux fraction (DRF) due to aerosol loading have the potential to alter the terrestrial carbon exchange.omponents of the mini-LHR. Clockwise from upper right: (1) collimation optics clamped to an AERONET sun tracker, (2) RF receiver box containing a bias-T, low pass filter, 4 RF amplifiers, an RF detector, and a printed circuit board (PCB) video amplifier, (3) mini-LHR housed in a waterproof case, (4) screen capture of the raw beat signal, (5) real-time scan of CO2 line.

Wilson, E. L.; Melroy, H.; Miller, J. H.; McLinden, M. L.; Ott, L.; Holben, B. N.

2012-12-01

307

Corrosion Resistant Cladding by YAG Laser Welding in Underwater Environment  

SciTech Connect

It is known that stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) will occur in nickel-base alloys used in Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) and Internals of nuclear power plants. A SCC sensitivity has been evaluated by IHI in each part of RPV and Internals. There are several water level instrumentation nozzles installed in domestic BWR RPV. In water level instrumentation nozzles, 182 type nickel-base alloys were used for the welding joint to RPV. It is estimated the SCC potential is high in this joint because of a higher residual stress than the yield strength (about 400 MPa). This report will describe a preventive maintenance method to these nozzles Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and welds by a corrosion resistant cladding (CRC) by YAG Laser in underwater environment (without draining a reactor water). There are many kinds of countermeasures for SCC, for example, Induction Heating Stress Improvement (IHSI), Mechanical Stress Improvement Process (MSIP) and so on. A YAG laser CRC is one of them. In this technology a laser beam is used for heat source and irradiated through an optical fiber to a base metal and SCC resistant material is used for welding wires. After cladding the HAZ and welds are coated by the corrosion resistant materials so their surfaces are improved. A CRC by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) in an air environment had been developed and already applied to a couple of operating plants (16 Nozzles). This method was of course good but it spent much time to perform because of an installation of some water-proof working boxes to make a TIG-weldability environment. CRC by YAG laser welding in underwater environment has superior features comparing to this conventional TIG method as follows. At the viewpoint of underwater environment, (1) an outage term reduction (no drainage water). (2) a radioactive exposure dose reduction for personnel. At that of YAG laser welding, (1) A narrower HAZ. (2) A smaller distortion. (3) A few cladding layers. A YAG laser CRC test in underwater environment was carried out in the different welding position, horizontal, vertical upward and downward. The soundness of cladding layers (about 3 mm) is confirmed in visual and penetration test, and cross section observation. In the application to the actual plants, it is preferable to reduce the start and end point numbers of beads with which a defect is easy to cause. Therefore a special welding equipment for a YAG laser CRC that could weld continuously was developed. (authors)

Tsutomi Kochi; Toshio Kojima; Suemi Hirata; Ichiro Morita; Katsura Ohwaki [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Company Ltd., 1 Shin-Nakaharacho, Isogoku, Yokohama 235-8501 (Japan)

2002-07-01

308

Direct burial and vault emplacement data quality comparison at Dotson Ranch, New Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare the data quality of two emplacement methods for portable broadband seismic stations, traditional vault and direct burial, using power spectral density analysis to examine temporal trends in noise, the ratio of signal-to-noise for local, regional and teleseismic earthquakes, coherence of both noise and earthquake signal recordings as well as overall data return. Sensor emplacement in the past has been overwhelmingly dominated by traditional vaults requiring more materials, manpower and time. A new technique of directly burying sensors drastically reduces the expense, personnel and time required to install a seismic station. Comparisons between the data quality of vault and direct buried sensors are needed to show that the time and money saved in emplacement does not downgrade the quality of the data collected. Two identical shallow vaults were installed adjacent to two identical direct burial sites at Dotson Ranch in San Antonio, New Mexico, in a deliberately-chosen noisy, wet and generally inhospitable location. These four sites each used a Guralp 3T sensor retrofitted with a waterproof lid and connector. Eight months of data recorded during 2012 from these four sensors are compared in order to determine if the emplacement method has a profound and systematic effect on data quality using several different metrics that mimic the actual use of seismic data in research. A posthole installation with a Nanometrics Trillium 120PH sensor was also installed at the site for a portion of the study and six months of data are included in the analysis. Overall the variability in data quality metrics used in this study is comparable between sites with differing emplacement method as it is between sites with the same emplacement method. Noise in the vaults is higher in amplitude during the transition from spring to summer as compared to the direct burials and is especially evident on the horizontal components at long periods between 20-170 seconds. Diurnal changes in noise levels are similar at all sensors and are likely due to cultural activity and temperature fluctuations. The conclusion from this study is that the shallow vault emplacement method does not provide significant improvement in data quality compared to direct burial emplacement method. Further experiments are underway in a less noisy environment at Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska.

Beaudoin, B. C.; Aderhold, K.; Anderson, K.; Pfeifer, M.; Parker, T.; Miller, P. E.; Slad, G. W.; Reusch, A.

2013-12-01

309

Coastal Seafloor Observatory Of The East China Sea At Xiaoqushan And Its Primary Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seafloor observation system becomes increasingly important infrastructure in ocean sciences, which transforms oceanic research from temporal investigation to long term observation. The East China Sea coastal seafloor observatory, located between 30°31'44"N,122°15'12"E and 30°31'34"N,122°14'40"E, is built near the Xiaoqushan island outside the Yangtze River estuary, on the inner East China Sea continental shelf. The East China Sea coastal seafloor observatory is part of the East China Sea seafloor observational network. The observatory consists of a composite power cable made of optical fiber and extending for more than 1 kilometer and a special junction box, which provide power and signal communication for different instruments. The special junction box, which has various waterproof plugs, connects to three different instruments installed in a trawl preventer. The submarine optical fiber composite power cable is landed on the platform by The East China Sea Branch, State Oceanic Administration of the People’s Republic of China, and the power is continuously supplied by the solar panels and solar battery on the top of the platform. The real time data are directly sent through the cable to the platform and are transmitted by CDMA wireless to the receiver at the State Key Laboratory of Marine Geology of Tongji University. Measurements at the observatory have been taken since 26 April, 2009. The observations include current speeds and their directions at different depths, suspended sediment concentration, temperature and salinity nearby the seabed. The more than one year preliminary results show that the current field and fine suspended sediment transport of East China Sea are complex and show considerable seasonal variation affected by the integrated influence of Changjiang diluted water, Taiwan warm current and the Yellow Sea coastal current. The successful establishment of the coastal seafloor observatory is the first step toward future development of the East China Sea seafloor observational network. It not only accumulates experiences in technology and engineering, but also paves the way for performing important sciences using the long term continuous observation platform.

Xu, H.; Xu, C.; Qin, R.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, H.

2010-12-01

310

Energy balance measurements over a small reservoir in Ghana's Upper East Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near the small village of Binaba (10.778927 deg N, 0.464859 deg E), a small irrigation reservoir has been instrumented to measure different parts of the energy balance of this water body. Instruments were placed on, or attached to, a spar platform. This platform consisted of a long PVC pipe, the spar, which is closed at the bottom. On the PVC pipe rests an aluminum frame platform that carries instrumentation and solar power panel. In turn, the platform rests partially on a large inflated tire. At the bottom of the PVC pipe, lead weights and batteries were placed to ensure a very low point of gravity to minimize wave impact on the platform movement. The tire ensures a large second moment of the water plane. The combination of large second momentum of the water plane and small displacement, ensures a high placement of the metacenter. The distance between the point of gravity and the metacenter is relatively long and the weight is large due to the weights and batteries. This ensures that the eigenfrequency of the platform is very low. On the platform, we fixed a WindMaster Pro (sonic anemometer for 3D wind speed and air temperature to perform eddy covariance measurements of sensible heat flux), a NR Lite (net radiometer), and air temperature and relative humidity sensors. Water temperature at different depths was measured with a string of TidbiT's (waterproof temperature sensors and loggers). The platform had a wind vane and the spar could turn freely around its anchor cable to ensure that the anemometer always faced upwind. A compass in the logger completed this setup. First results suggest, as expected, that the sensible heat flux is relatively small with on average 20 W/m2 over the course of a day. Sensible heat flux peaked around midnight at 35 W/m2, when the warm water warmed up the air from the colder surrounding land. The dynamics of heat storage during the daytime and longwave radiation during the night time, are important to calculate the latent heat flux.

van de Giesen, Nick; Ohene Annor, Frank

2013-04-01

311

Variations on a theme: diversification of cuticular hydrocarbons in a clade of cactophilic Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Background We characterized variation and chemical composition of epicuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) in the seven species of the Drosophila buzzatii cluster with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Despite the critical role of CHCs in providing resistance to desiccation and involvement in communication, such as courtship behavior, mating, and aggregation, few studies have investigated how CHC profiles evolve within and between species in a phylogenetic context. We analyzed quantitative differences in CHC profiles in populations of the D. buzzatii species cluster in order to assess the concordance of CHC differentiation with species divergence. Results Thirty-six CHC components were scored in single fly extracts with carbon chain lengths ranging from C29 to C39, including methyl-branched alkanes, n-alkenes, and alkadienes. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that CHC amounts were significantly different among all species and canonical discriminant function (CDF) analysis resolved all species into distinct, non-overlapping groups. Significant intraspecific variation was found in different populations of D. serido suggesting that this taxon is comprised of at least two species. We summarized CHC variation using CDF analysis and mapped the first five CHC canonical variates (CVs) onto an independently derived period (per) gene + chromosome inversion + mtDNA COI gene for each sex. We found that the COI sequences were not phylogenetically informative due to introgression between some species, so only per + inversion data were used. Positive phylogenetic signal was observed mainly for CV1 when parsimony methods and the test for serial independence (TFSI) were used. These results changed when no outgroup species were included in the analysis and phylogenetic signal was then observed for female CV3 and/or CV4 and male CV4 and CV5. Finally, removal of divergent populations of D. serido significantly increased the amount of phylogenetic signal as up to four out of five CVs then displayed positive phylogenetic signal. Conclusions CHCs were conserved among species while quantitative differences in CHC profiles between populations and species were statistically significant. Most CHCs were species-, population-, and sex-specific. Mapping CHCs onto an independently derived phylogeny revealed that a significant portion of CHC variation was explained by species' systematic affinities indicating phylogenetic conservatism in the evolution of these hydrocarbon arrays, presumptive waterproofing compounds and courtship signals as in many other drosophilid species. PMID:21699713

2011-01-01

312

Management of long-term and reversible hysteroscopic sterilization: a novel device with nickel-titanium shape memory alloy  

PubMed Central

Background Female sterilization is the second most commonly used method of contraception in the United States. Female sterilization can now be performed through laparoscopic, abdominal, or hysteroscopic approaches. The hysteroscopic sterilization may be a safer option than sterilization through laparoscopy or laparotomy because it avoids invading the abdominal cavity and undergoing general anaesthesia. Hysteroscopic sterilization mainly includes chemical agents and mechanical devices. Common issues related to the toxicity of the chemical agents used have raised concerns regarding this kind of contraception. The difficulty of the transcervical insertion of such mechanical devices into the fallopian tubes has increased the high incidence of device displacement or dislodgment. At present, Essure® is the only commercially available hysteroscopic sterilization device being used clinically. The system is irreversible and is not effective immediately. Presentation of the hypothesis Our new hysteroscopic sterility system consists of nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy and a waterproof membrane. The NiTi alloy is covered with two coatings to avoid toxic Ni release and to prevent stimulation of epithelial tissue growth around the oviducts. Because of the shape memory effect of the NiTi alloy, the device works like an umbrella: it stays collapsed at low temperature before placement and opens by the force of shape memory activated by the body temperature after it is inserted hysteroscopically into the interstitial tubal lumen. The rim of the open device will incise into interstitial myometrium during the process of unfolding. Once the device is fixed, it blocks the tube completely. When the patient no longer wishes for sterilization, the device can be closed by perfusing liquid with low temperature into the uterine cavity, followed by prospective hysteroscopic removal. After the device removal, the fallopian tube will revert to its physiological functions. Testing the hypothesis Currently, experimental and clinical studies are needed to attest the safety, efficiency and reversibility of the novel sterilization device. Implications of the hypothesis If our hypothesis is confirmed, appropriate and reversible contraceptive can be achieved with the device we have designed, which may have significant repercussions for numerous women worldwide. PMID:24999021

2014-01-01

313

Inducer Hydrodynamic Forces in a Cavitating Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Marshall Space Flight Center has developed and demonstrated a measurement device for sensing and resolving the hydrodynamic loads on fluid machinery. The device - a derivative of the six-component wind tunnel balance - senses the forces and moments on the rotating device through a weakened shaft section instrumented with a series of strain gauges. This rotating balance was designed to directly measure the steady and unsteady hydrodynamic loads on an inducer, thereby defining the amplitude and frequency content associated with operating in various cavitation modes. The rotating balance was calibrated statically using a dead-weight load system in order to generate the 6 x 12 calibration matrix later used to convert measured voltages to engineering units. Structural modeling suggested that the rotating assembly first bending mode would be significantly reduced with the balance s inclusion. This reduction in structural stiffness was later confirmed experimentally with a hammer-impact test. This effect, coupled with the relatively large damping associated with the rotating balance waterproofing material, limited the device s bandwidth to approximately 50 Hertz Other pre-test validations included sensing the test article rotating assembly built-in imbalance for two configurations and directly measuring the assembly mass and buoyancy while submerged under water. Both tests matched predictions and confirmed the device s sensitivity while stationary and rotating. The rotating balance was then demonstrated in a water test of a full-scale Space Shuttle Main Engine high-pressure liquid oxygen pump inducer. Experimental data was collected a scaled operating conditions at three flow coefficients across a range of cavitation numbers for the single inducer geometry and radial clearance. Two distinct cavitation modes were observed symmetric tip vortex cavitation and alternate-blade cavitation. Although previous experimental tests on the same inducer demonstrated two additional cavitation modes at lower inlet pressures, these conditions proved unreachable with the rotating balance installed due to the intense dynamic environment. The sensed radial load was less influenced by flow coefficient than by cavitation number or cavitation mode although the flow coefficient range was relatively narrow. Transition from symmetric tip vortex to alternate-blade cavitation corresponded to changes in both radial load magnitude and radial load orientation relative to the inducer. Sensed moments indicated that the effective load center moved downstream during this change in cavitation mode. An occurrence of "higher+rdex cavitation" was also detected in both the stationary pressures and the rotating balance data although the frequency of the phenomena was well above the reliable bandwidth of the rotating balance. In summary the experimental tests proved both the concept and device s capability despite the limitations and confirmed that hydrodynamically-induced forces and moments develop in response to the unbalanced pressure field, which is, in turn, a product of the cavitation environment.

Skelley, Stephen E.

2004-01-01

314

Absorbed-dose beam quality conversion factors for cylindrical chambers in high energy photon beams.  

PubMed

Recent working groups of the AAPM [Almond et al., Med. Phys. 26, 1847 (1999)] and the IAEA (Andreo et al., Draft V.7 of "An International Code of Practice for Dosimetry based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water," IAEA, 2000) have described guidelines to base reference dosimetry of high energy photon beams on absorbed dose to water standards. In these protocols use is made of the absorbed-dose beam quality conversion factor, kQ which scales an absorbed-dose calibration factor at the reference quality 60Co to a quality Q, and which is calculated based on state-of-the-art ion chamber theory and data. In this paper we present the measurement and analysis of beam quality conversion factors kQ for cylindrical chambers in high-energy photon beams. At least three chambers of six different types were calibrated against the Canadian primary standard for absorbed dose based on a sealed water calorimeter at 60Co [TPR10(20)=0.572, %dd(10)x=58.4], 10 MV [TPR10(20)=0.682, %dd(10)x=69.6), 20 MV (TPR10(20)=0.758, %dd(10)x= 80.5] and 30 MV [TPR10(20) = 0.794, %dd(10)x= 88.4]. The uncertainty on the calorimetric determination of kQ for a single chamber is typically 0.36% and the overall 1sigma uncertainty on a set of chambers of the same type is typically 0.45%. The maximum deviation between a measured kQ and the TG-51 protocol value is 0.8%. The overall rms deviation between measurement and the TG-51 values, based on 20 chambers at the three energies, is 0.41%. When the effect of a 1 mm PMMA waterproofing sleeve is taken into account in the calculations, the maximum deviation is 1.1% and the overall rms deviation between measurement and calculation 0.48%. When the beam is specified using TPR10(20), and measurements are compared with kQ values calculated using the version of TG-21 with corrected formalism and data, differences are up to 1.6% when no sleeve corrections are taken into account. For the NE2571 and the NE2611A chamber types, for which the most literature data are available, using %dd(10)x, all published data show a spread of 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively, over the entire measurement range, compared to spreads of up to 1.1% for both chambers when the kQ values are expressed as a function of TPR10(20). For the PR06-C chamber no clear preference of beam quality specifier could be identified. When comparing the differences of our kQ measurements and calculations with an analysis in terms of air-kerma protocols with the same underlying calculations but expressed in terms of a compound conversion factor CQ, we observe that a system making use of absorbed-dose calibrations and calculated kQ values, is more accurate than a system based on air-kerma calibrations in combination with calculated CQ (rms deviation of 0.48% versus 0.67%, respectively). PMID:11190960

Seuntjens, J P; Ross, C K; Shortt, K R; Rogers, D W

2000-12-01

315

Consistency in reference radiotherapy dosimetry: resolution of an apparent conundrum when 60Co is the reference quality for charged-particle and photon beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Substantial changes in ion chamber perturbation correction factors in 60Co ?-rays, suggested by recent Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, would cause a decrease of about 1.5% in the reference dosimetry of all types of charged particles (electrons, protons and heavier ions) based on calculated kQ values. It has gone largely unnoticed that the ratio of calibration coefficients ND, w, Co60 and NK, air, Co60 yields an experimental value of Fch, Co60 =?(sw-air?pch)Co60 through ND, air, Co60. Coefficients provided by the IAEA and traceable to the BIPM for 91 NE-2571 chambers result in an average Fch, Co60 which is compared with published (and new) MC simulations and with the value in IAEA TRS-398. It is shown that TRS-398 agrees within 0.12% with the experimental Fch, Co60. The 1.5% difference resulting from MC calculations (1.1% for the new simulations) cannot be justified using current fundamental data and BIPM standards if consistency in the entire dosimetry chain is sought. For photons, MC kQ factors are compared with TRS-398. Using the same uncertainty for Wair, the two sets of data overlap considerably. Experimental kQ values from standards laboratories lie between the two sets of calculated values, showing no preference for one set over the other. Observed chamber-to-chamber differences, that include the effect of waterproof sleeves (also seen for 60Co), justify the recommendation in TRS-398 for kQ values specifically measured for the user chamber. Current developments on I-values for the stopping powers of water and graphite are presented. A weighted average Iwater = 78 ± 2?eV is obtained from published experimental and DRF-based values; this would decrease sw-air for all types of radiotherapy beams between 0.3% and 0.6%, and would consequently decrease the MC derived Fch, Co60. The implications of a recent proposal for Igraphite = 81?eV are analysed, resulting in a potential decrease of 0.7% in NK, air, Co60 which would raise the experimental Fch, Co60; this would result in an increase of about 0.8% in the current TRS-398 value when referred to the BIPM standards. MC derived Fch, Co60 using new stopping powers would then agree at a level of 0.1% with the experimental value, confirming the need for consistency in the dosimetry chain data. Should world average standards be used as reference, the figures would become +0.4% for TRS-398 and -0.3% for the MC calculation. Fch, Q calculated for megavoltage photons using new stopping powers would decrease by between 0.2% and 0.5%. When they enter as a ratios in kQ, differences with MC values based on current key data would be within 0.2% but their discrepancy with kQ experimental photon values remains unresolved. For protons the new data would require an increase in Wair, Q of about 0.6%, as this is inferred from a combination of calorimetry and ionometry. This consistent scenario would leave unchanged the current TRS-398 kQ (NE-2571) data for protons, as well as for ions heavier than protons unless new independent Wair, Q values become available. Also in these advanced radiotherapy modalities, the need for maintaining data consistency in an analysis that unavoidably must include the complete dosimetry chain is demonstrated.

Andreo, Pedro; Wulff, Jörg; Burns, David T.; Palmans, Hugo

2013-10-01

316

Wetting, superhydrophobicity, and icephobicity in biomimetic composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in nano- and bio-technology require new materials. Among these new classes of materials which have emerged in the recent years are biomimetic materials, which mimic structure and properties of materials found in living nature. There are a large number of biological objects including bacteria, animals and plants with properties of interest for engineers. Among these properties is the ability of the lotus leaf and other natural materials to repel water, which has inspired researchers to prepare similar surfaces. The Lotus effect involving roughness-induced superhydrophobicity is a way to design nonwetting, self-cleaning, omniphobic, icephobic, and antifouling surfaces. The range of actual and potential applications of superhydrophobic surfaces is diverse including optical, building and architecture, textiles, solar panels, lab-on-a-chip, microfluidic devices, and applications requiring antifouling from biological and organic contaminants. In this thesis, in chapter one, we introduce the general concepts and definitions regarding the wetting properties of the surfaces. In chapter two, we develop novel models and conduct experiments on wetting of composite materials. To design sustainable superhydrophobic metal matrix composite (MMC) surfaces, we suggest using hydrophobic reinforcement in the bulk of the material, rather than only at its surface. We experimentally study the wetting properties of graphite-reinforced Al- and Cu-based composites and conclude that the Cu-based MMCs have the potential to be used in the future for the applications where the wear-resistant superhydrophobicity is required. In chapter three, we introduce hydrophobic coating at the surface of concrete materials making them waterproof to prevent material failure, because concretes and ceramics cannot stop water from seeping through them and forming cracks. We create water-repellant concretes with CA close to 160o using superhydrophobic coating. In chapter four, experimental data are collected in terms of oleophobicity especially when underwater applications are of interest. We develop models for four-phase rough interface of underwater oleophobicity and develop a novel approach to predict the CA of organic liquid on the rough surfaces immersed in water. We investigate wetting transition on a patterned surface in underwater systems, using a phase field model. We demonstrated that roughening on an immersed solid surface can drive the transition from Wenzel to Cassie-Baxter state. This discovery improves our understanding of underwater systems and their surface interactions during the wetting phenomenon and can be applied for the development of underwater oil-repellent materials which are of interest for various applications in the water industry, and marine devices. In chapter five, we experimentally and theoretically investigate the icephobicity of composite materials. A novel comprehensive definition of icephobicity, broad enough to cover a variety of situations including low adhesion strength, delayed ice crystallization, and bouncing is determined. Wetting behavior and ice adhesion properties of various samples are theoretically and experimentally compared. We conclude superhydrophobic surfaces are not necessarily icephobic. The models are tested against the experimental data to verify the good agreement between them. The models can be used for the design of novel superhydrophobic, oleophobic, omniphobic and icephobic composite materials. Finally we conclude that creating surface micro/nanostructures using mechanical abrasion or chemical etching as well as applying low energy materials are the most simple, inexpensive, and durable techniques to create superhydrophobic, oleophobic, and icephobic materials.

Hejazi, Vahid

317

Transmediterranean flights,in the edge of two centuries.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transmediterranean flights program goal is to perform stratospheric balloons flights carrying scientific/technological payloads at 40 Km altitude and approximate 38°N latitude.ASI and INTA continued the early ASI-CNES-INTA program with several stratospheric flights since 1993.The network comprises three stations located at Trapani-Milo (Italy),Palma de Mallorca and El Arenosillo(Spain). Nine successful transmediterranean crossings were performed in this program stage. Four new transmediterranean flights are scheduled for summer 2002 .These include astronomical,biological and technological experiments .Beside , three local flights will be performed at Trapani-Milo next summer. Technical tracking that encompasses telemetry,telecommand and localization uses allocated UHF band,in the old classical and the new Mini Telemetry configurations. Flight qualification of a S-band TM/TC equipment was realised ,using local flights, in 1997 and 1998.In summer 2002,a S band flight will be realised over the Mediterranean with the UHF telemetry as a backup. A summary of system requirements , that would assure state-of-the-art open stratospheric balloons flights is presented . When flying over the Iberian Peninsula , the time of land overflight diminishes , in direct relationship , with the balloon drift toward the South.A latitude control , applied in our case , should enhance the flight feasibility. Trajectory predictions,must incorporate radiosoundings of more places,to take into account several possibilities of descent.Also El Arenosillo soundings ,usually three days a week,should be increased ,in order to validate the new atmospheric models. Beside altitude control handled mainly by the ballast , in the future "boomerang" flights of a transmediterranean scale,opening/closing of the valves will be used. Active floating system,comb ined with waterproof electronic and experiment boxes and a minimal time of arrival to the gondola , become critical points in case of an unplanned overwater descent for recovery.With regard to power storage subsystems Ni-H2,NiMH and Li-ion batteries,should be embarked onboard new flights to gain experiences,acting in this way,as in others,as a technological testbed of industry designs. Thermal control subsystems,should withstand the cycle sunrise-sunset-sunrise,if the usual 1 day flights are to be extended 10 hours , under the "boomerang" principle.In summer 2002 , a High Performance Gondola experiment will carry an azimuthal stabilization system using GPS phase variation.Parachutes employed were either in- dividual or a bunch of three,in the ASI-CNES-INTA program stage. A payload precision descent,involving GPS to aim at a preselected descent point,will help to reduce the risk index over land zones.

Cosentino, O.; Caballero, F.; Ibba, R.; Gerardi, G.; Cecchini, G.; Fernandez Abad, A.; Vazquez, M.

318

Acute, 2-week, and 13-week inhalation toxicity studies on dimethylethoxysilane vapor in Fischer 344 rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dimethylethoxysilane (DMES), a volatile liquid, is used by NASA to waterproof the heat-protective silica tiles and blankets on the Space Shuttle. Acute, 2-wk, and 13-wk inhalation exposures to DMES vapor were conducted in male and female Fischer 344 rats. In the acute study, rats were exposed to 4000, 2000, 1000, 500, or 0 (control) ppm DMES for 4 h and observed for 14 days. There were no deaths. Narcosis and ataxia were observed in rats of the two highest concentrations only. These signs disappeared within 1 h following exposure. There were no DMES-related gross or microscopic tissue lesions in rats of all exposure groups. In the 2-wk study, rats were exposed for 6 h/day, 5 days/wk to 3000, 1000, 300, 100, or 0 ppm DMES. During exposure, narcosis was observed in rats of the 3000 and 1000 ppm groups. There was a mild decrease in body weight gain in rats of the 3000 ppm group. A decrease in platelet count, an increase in bile acids, and reduced weights of the thymus, testis, and liver were observed in rats of the 3000 ppm group. Microscopically, hypospermatogenesis and spermatid giant cells were observed in the seminiferous tubules of the testes of rats exposed to 3000 ppm DMES. In the 13-wk study, rats were exposed 6 h/day, 5 days/wk to 2000, 600, 160, 40, or 0 ppm DMES. During exposure, rats of the 2000 ppm group exhibited mild narcosis and loss of startle reflex. Recovery from these central nervous system signs was rapid. Body weights were mildly decreased for rats of the 2000 ppm group. There were no exposure-related effects in hematology, serum chemistry, or urinalysis. Female rats of the 2000 ppm group had delayed estrous cycles (6 days compared to 5 days in control rats). Noteworthy organ weight changes in rats of the 2000 ppm group included decreases in thymus, liver, and testicular weights; however, pathologic lesions were observed in the testes only. Sperm motility, epididymal sperm count, and testicular spermatid count were dramatically reduced. Microscopic lesions included degeneration of the seminiferous tubular cells, pyknosis or absence of germ cells, and hypospermia in the epididymis. Rats of the 600 ppm group had a slight decrease in thymic weight and a transient decrease in body weight. Results of the acute, 2-wk, and 13-wk inhalation studies indicate DMES concentrations of 1000 ppm and higher produce narcosis that rapidly disappears following exposure. Repeated exposure of rats to DMES at either 3000 ppm for 2 wk or 2000 ppm for 13 wk caused testicular atrophy and hypospermia in male rats. Female rats exposed to 2000 ppm for 13 wk had delayed estrous cycles. Toxicological effects in rats of the 600 ppm group were minimal and equivocal. The 160 ppm concentration was a no-observable-effect level (NOEL) for 13 wk of exposure to DMES.

Dodd, D. E.; Stuart, B. O.; Rothenberg, S. J.; Kershaw, M.; Mann, P. C.; James, J. T.; Lam, C. W.

1994-01-01

319

Quadrotor helicopter for surface hydrological measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface hydrological measurements are typically performed through user-assisted and intrusive field methodologies which can be inadequate to monitor remote and extended areas. In this poster, we present the design and development of a quadrotor helicopter equipped with digital acquisition system and image calibration units for surface flow measurements. This custom-built aerial vehicle is engineered to be lightweight, low-cost, highly customizable, and stable to guarantee optimal image quality. Quadricopter stability guarantees minimal vibrations during image acquisition and, therefore, improved accuracy in flow velocity estimation through large scale particle image velocimetry algorithms or particle tracking procedures. Stability during the vehicle pitching and rolling is achieved by adopting large arm span and high-wing configurations. Further, the vehicle framework is composed of lightweight aluminum and durable carbon fiber for optimal resilience. The open source Ardupilot microcontroller is used for remote control of the quadricopter. The microcontroller includes an inertial measurement unit (IMU) equipped with accelerometers and gyroscopes for stable flight through feedback control. The vehicle is powered by a 3 cell (11.1V) 3000 mAh Lithium-polymer battery. Electronic equipment and wiring are hosted into the hollow arms and on several carbon fiber platforms in the waterproof fuselage. Four 35A high-torque motors are supported at the far end of each arm with 10 × 4.7 inch propellers. Energy dissipation during landing is accomplished by four pivoting legs that, through the use of shock absorbers, prevent the impact energy from affecting the frame thus causing significant damage. The data capturing system consists of a GoPro Hero3 camera and in-house built camera gimbal and shock absorber damping device. The camera gimbal, hosted below the vehicle fuselage, is engineered to maintain the orthogonality of the camera axis with respect to the water surface by compensating for changes in pitch and roll during flight. The constant orthogonality of the camera leads to minimal image distortions and, therefore, reduced post-processing for picture dewarping. The gimbal is based on a system of two closed-loop DC motors. The motors are controlled through an open source Martinez V3 brushless controller board and an MPU6050 IMU. The IMU is placed on the back of the camera to read the change in orientation during the flight. To prevent the physical acquisition of ground reference points for image rectification, low power red lasers facing the water surface are placed on each of the quadricopter arms at known distances. The pixel distance between the laser lights in images are then automatically converted to metric units. Experimental results from outdoor testing on water bodies are reported to demonstrate the feasibility of surface water monitoring through this mobile imaging platform.

Pagano, C.; Tauro, F.; Porfiri, M.; Grimaldi, S.

2013-12-01

320

Use and trade of bitumen in antiquity and prehistory: molecular archaeology reveals secrets of past civilizations  

PubMed Central

Natural asphalt (or bitumen) deposits, oil seepage and liquid oil shows are widespread in the Middle East, especially in the Zagros mountains of Iran. Ancient people from northern Iraq, south-west Iran and the Dead Sea area extensively used this ubiquitous natural resource until the Neolithic period (7000 to 6000 BC). Evidence of earlier use has been recently documented in the Syrian desert near El Kown, where bitumen-coated flint implements, dated to 40,000 BC (Mousterian period), have been unearthed. This discovery at least proves that bitumen was used by Neanderthal populations as hafting material to fix handles to their flint tools. Numerous testimonies, proving the importance of this petroleum-based material in Ancient civilizations, were brought to light by the excavations conducted in the Near East as of the beginning of the century. Bitumen remains show a wide range of uses that can be classified under several headings. First of all, bitumen was largely used in Mesopotamia and Elam as mortar in the construction of palaces (e.g. the Darius Palace in Susa), temples, ziggurats (e.g. the so-called 'Tower of Babel' in Babylon), terraces (e.g. the famous 'Hanging Gardens of Babylon') and exceptionally for roadway coating (e.g. the processional way of Babylon). Since the Neolithic, bitumen served to waterproof containers (baskets, earthenware jars, storage pits), wooden posts, palace grounds (e.g. in Mari and Haradum), reserves of lustral waters, bathrooms, palm roofs, etc. Mats, sarcophagi, coffins and jars, used for funeral practices, were often covered and sealed with bitumen. Reed and wood boats were also caulked with bitumen. Abundant lumps of bituminous mixtures used for that particular purpose have been found in storage rooms of houses at Ra's al-Junayz in Oman. Bitumen was also a widespread adhesive in antiquity and served to repair broken ceramics, fix eyes and horns on statues (e.g. at Tell al-Ubaid around 2500 BC). Beautiful decorations with stones, shells, mother of pearl, on palm trees, cups, ostrich eggs, musical instruments (e.g. the Queen's lyre) and other items, such as rings, jewellery and games, have been excavated from the Royal tombs in Ur. They are on view in the British Museum. With a special enigmatic material, commonly referred to as 'bitumen mastic', the inhabitants of Susa sculpted masterpieces of art which are today exhibited in the Louvre Museum in Paris. This unique collection is presented in a book by Connan and Deschesne (1996). Last, bitumen was also considered as a powerful remedy in medical practice, especially as a disinfectant and insecticide, and was used by the ancient Egyptians to prepare mixtures to embalm the corpses of their dead. Modern analytical techniques, currently applied in the field of petroleum geochemistry, have been adapted to the study of numerous archaeological bituminous mixtures found in excavations. More than 700 bituminous samples have been analysed during the last decade, using gas chromatography alone and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and isotopic chemistry (carbon and hydrogen mainly). These powerful tools, focused on the detailed analysis of biomarkers in hydrocarbon fractions, were calibrated on various well-known natural sources of bitumen in Iraq, Syria, Iran, Bahrain and Kuwait. These reference studies have made it possible to establish the origins of bitumen from numerous archaeological sites and to document the bitumen trade routes in the Middle East and the Arabo-Persian Gulf. Using a well-documented case history, Tell el 'Oueili (5800 to 3500 BC) in South Mesopotamia, we will illustrate in this paper how these new molecular and isotopic tools can help us to recognize different sources of bitumen and to trace the ancient trade routes through time. These import routes were found to vary with major cultural and political changes in the area under study. A second example, referring to the prehistoric period, describes bitumen traces on flint implements, dated from Mousterian times. This discovery, from the Umm El Tlel excavations nea

Connan, J.

1999-01-01