Science.gov

Sample records for waterproofing

  1. Simplified Waterproofing of Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Ming-Ta S.; Chen, Timothy S.; White, Susan; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2003-01-01

    A relatively simple silanization process has been developed for waterproofing or rewaterproofing aerogels, xerogels, and aerogel/tile composites, and other, similar low-density, highly microporous materials. Such materials are potentially attractive for a variety of applications especially for thermal-insulation panels that are required to be thin and lightweight. Unfortunately, such materials are also hydrophilic and tend to collapse after adsorbing water from the air. Hence, an effective means of waterproofing is necessary to enable practical exploitation of aerogels and the like. Older processes for waterproofing aerogels are time-consuming, labor-intensive, and expensive, relative to the present process. Each of the older processes includes a number of different chemical treatment steps, and some include the use of toxic halogenated surface-modifying compounds, pressures as high as hundreds of atmospheres, and/or temperatures as high as 1,000 C.

  2. Waterproofing EMG Instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Benfield, Rebecca D; Newton, Edward R; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2007-01-01

    While still experimental, measurement of external uterine electromyographic (EMG) activity is a more sensitive and noninvasive method for measuring uterine contractility in human labor than the methods currently used in clinical practice. Hydrotherapy is purported to improve contractility in labor, yet there have been no reports of abdominal uterine EMG activity measured during immersion. To test telemetric EMG equipment and different waterproofing techniques under dry and immersed conditions, the authors recorded surface EMG activity from the abdominal muscles of 11 healthy, nonpregnant women, 22 to 51 years of age. After attaching one pair of electrodes to the skin on either side of the umbilicus and applying the waterproofing material, the authors tested the signal by asking participants to perform a short series of leg lifts while seated in a chair to evoke abdominal muscle contractions. They were then immersed to the chest in a hydrotherapy tub while performing two to three leg lifts over 60 s every 5 min for 60 min with 20 lb of weight suspended from their ankles to counteract the buoyancy effect of water. EMG activity was continuously recorded. They then repeated the dry-measures sequence. While waterproofing remained intact, EMG signals were essentially unchanged between dry and wet conditions. Of the 11 waterproofing applications tested, 10 failed at some point. In the data from the successful application, EMG signals in both channels exhibited stable baselines throughout and an absence of low-frequency artifact. The development of this technique allows for the recording of external uterine EMG activity during hydrotherapy. The authors have begun using it to investigate the effects of hydrotherapy on uterine contractility during human labor. PMID:17172318

  3. Waterproofing Agents for Silica Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakano, H. N.; Izu, Y. D.; Yoshioka, E. N.

    1985-01-01

    Waterproofing agent methyltrimethoxysilane applied to silica thermal insulation tiles in simple vapor-deposition process. Other waterproofing agents in same series include methylsiloxane and hexamethyldisilazane. Originally developed for insulating tiles for spacecraft, agents also find uses in roofing tiles, insulation for buildings or solar-energy systems, or solar reflectors.

  4. Method for Waterproofing Ceramic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagliostro, Domenick E. (Inventor); Hsu, Ming-Ta S. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Hygroscopic ceramic materials which are difficult to waterproof with a silane, substituted silane or silazane waterproofing agent, such as an alumina containing fibrous, flexible and porous, fibrous ceramic insulation used on a reentry space vehicle, are rendered easy to waterproof if the interior porous surface of the ceramic is first coated with a thin coating of silica. The silica coating is achieved by coating the interior surface of the ceramic with a silica precursor converting the precursor to silica either in-situ or by oxidative pyrolysis and then applying the waterproofing agent to the silica coated ceramic. The silica precursor comprises almost any suitable silicon containing material such as a silane, silicone, siloxane, silazane and the like applied by solution, vapor deposition and the like. If the waterproofing is removed by e.g., burning, the silica remains and the ceramic is easily rewaterproofed. An alumina containing TABI insulation which absorbs more that five times its weight of water, absorbs less than 10 wt. % water after being waterproofed according to the method of the invention.

  5. Concrete waterproofing in nuclear industry.

    PubMed

    Scherbyna, Alexander N; Urusov, Sergei V

    2005-01-01

    One of the main points of aggregate safety during the transportation and storage of radioactive materials is to supply waterproofing for all constructions having direct contact with radiating substances and providing strength, seismic shielding etc. This is the problem with all waterside structures in nuclear industry and concrete installations in the treatment and storage of radioactive materials. In this connection, the problem of developing efficient techniques both for the repair of operating constructions and the waterproofing of new objects of the specified assignment is genuine. Various techniques of concrete waterproofing are widely applied in the world today. However, in conditions of radiation many of these techniques can bring not a profit but irreparable damage of durability and reliability of a concrete construction; for instance, when waterproofing materials contain organic constituents, polymers etc. Application of new technology or materials in basic construction elements requires in-depth analysis and thorough testing. The price of an error might be very large. A comparative analysis shows that one of the most promising types of waterproofing materials for radiation loaded concrete constructions is "integral capillary systems" (ICS). The tests on radiation, thermal and strength stability of ICS and ICS-treated concrete samples were initiated and fulfilled in RFNC-VNIITF. The main result is--ICS applying is increasing of waterproofing and strength properties of concrete in conditions of readiation The paper is devoted to describing the research strategy, the tests and their results and also to planning of new tests. PMID:16604701

  6. Aerogel Composites: Strong and Waterproof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Susan; Hsu, Ming-ta; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Aerogels are exotic materials having superior thermal and physical properties with great potential for both space and industrial uses. Although aerogels are excellent low-density insulators with unique acoustic and optical properties, their commercialization potential is currently limited by moisture absorption, fragility, and cost. This paper describes useful, easily scaled-up solutions to the first two of these three problems. The waterproofing and water-repellent method described here is a cheaper and simpler improvement over previous permanent methods.

  7. Organopolysiloxane Waterproofing Treatment for Porous Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, Daniel B. (Inventor); Cagliostro, Domenick E. (Inventor); Hsu, Ming-ta S. (Inventor); Chen, Timothy S. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Rigid and flexible porous ceramics, including thermal insulation of a type used on space vehicles, are waterproofed by a treatment which comprises applying an aqueous solution of an organopolysiloxane water-proofing agent having reactive silanol groups to the surface of the ceramic and then heating the treated ceramic to form a waterproofed ceramic. The organopolysiloxane is formed by the hydrolysis and partial condensation of di- and trialkoxyfunctional alkylalkoxysilanes having 1-10 carbon atom hydrocarbyl groups.

  8. Waterproofing Nanostructured Aerogel-Ceramic Fiber Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Susan; Hsu, Ming Ta; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Aerogels are nanoporous materials which can be used to enhance the transport properties of ceramic fiber materials, to exploit their unique properties such as high porosity, large surface area, low density and low thermal conductivity. Numerous applications have been investigated. major obstacle to commercialization is that the structure of aerogels collapses due to the adsorption of water. simple and relatively cheap process has been developed to waterproof silica, alumina and alumina-silica and carbon aerogels and composites incorporating them. Previous waterproofing methods are short lived or expensive and time consuming.

  9. Waterproof Raised Floor Makes Utility Lines Accessible

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. M.

    1984-01-01

    Floor for laboratories, hospitals and factories waterproof yet allows access to subfloor utilities. Elevated access floor system designed for installations with multitude of diverse utility systems routed under and up through floor and requirement of separation of potentially conflicting utility services. Floor covered by continuous sheet of heat resealable vinyl. Floor system cut open when changes are made in utility lines and ducts. After modifications, floor covering resealed to protect subfloor utilities from spills and leaks.

  10. Earth shelter waterproofing: the guide to total moisture control. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.J.; Johnson, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    Waterproofing information beyond conventional building practices is important for the builder and owner of an earth-covered home. This guide deals with both internal and external moisture sources, highlighting potential trouble areas and outlining techniques for managing them. It gives construction details and explains various types and applications of building materials. The services of a waterproofing specialist, especially one with subsurface experience, are desirable. A directory lists 32 manufacturers of waterproofing materials, followed by a cross index by material type. 23 figures. (DCK)

  11. Surgically proven desquamative interstitial pneumonia induced by waterproofing spray.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Atsuhito; Hagiwara, Eri; Harada, Shingo; Yoshida, Masahiro; Baba, Tomohisa; Okudela, Koji; Takemura, Tamiko; Ogura, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    We herein describe the first case of desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP) induced by waterproofing spray, which was proven by a surgical lung biopsy. A 45-year-old male smoker heavily used a waterproofing spray gas, and presented with chills and fever that was followed by progressive dyspnea. Because steroid pulse therapy did not improve his symptoms, he was referred to our hospital. High-resolution chest CT showed diffuse pan-lobular ground-glass opacities in both lungs. A video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy revealed a DIP pattern. Acute short-time exposure to waterproofing spray can thus be a potential cause of DIP. PMID:25224197

  12. Thermal insulating and bituminous waterproofing board and application process thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, K.

    1982-11-02

    A new thermal insulating and bituminous waterproofing board suitable for use in the combined application process of thermal insulation and built-up roofing or waterproofing, as well as the application process thereof are provided. This thermal insulating and bituminous waterproofing board contains: (I) a modified bitumen layer containing, as a principal constituent, a mixture of bitumen and at least one inorganic filler, which layer is formed in the form of a thick board; (II) a flat sheet laminated on each surface of the modified bitumen layer, said flat sheet consisting of a fibrous sheet, and; (III) a thermal insulating material layer bonded, via the flat sheets, to one surface of the modified bitumen layer. This thermal insulating and bituminous waterproofing board can be easily and reliably applied onto a substrate without any complex procedures and, also, without causing any damage to the thermal insulating material.

  13. Self balancing measuring probe enclosure and method for waterproofing same

    SciTech Connect

    Fodor, G.; Nilsen, R.J.

    1991-02-13

    Waterproofing standard linear position measuring transducers often requires a sacrifice in measuring accuracy when the transducer must be used at varying water depths. To obviate this disadvantage, the disclosed waterproofing structure is constructed such that increasing or decreasing forces applied to the transducer as its depth in the water changes will not apply unbalanced forces to the transducer thereby causing false readings. Similarly, the nominal gauging force developed by the instrument is unaffected by varying water depths.

  14. Polypropylene - asphalt mixtures for waterproofing membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Italia, P.; Brandolese, E.

    1996-12-31

    In any field of polymer-asphalt mixtures application is extremely important to achieve a very good compatibility between the components in order to improve as much as possible the performances due to the polymer content. In the case of waterproofing membranes application this compatibility reduce, moreover, the amount of polymer required to obtain the best performances. Using the Colloidal Instability Index Ic, as measured by the Iatroscan device, we propose a correlation between asphalt`s chemical characteristics and the polymer minimum amount sufficient to disperse in a stable way the asphalt itself in the polymeric matrix. As a result, through the proposed correlation, with a simple asphalt composition analysis it is possible to predict its performance when mixed with polypropilene. In the paper, beside the description of the Iatroscan analytical technique, we also present a method for determining phase inversion based on optical fluorescence microscopy performed on about 30 different samples of asphalt. We also present the experimental correlation laws between the polymer amount at phase inversion and the asphalt single components content.

  15. Possible Concepts for Waterproofing of Norwegian TBM Railway Tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dammyr, Øyvind; Nilsen, Bjørn; Thuro, Kurosch; Grøndal, Jørn

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate and compare the durability, life expectancy and maintenance needs of traditional Norwegian waterproofing concepts to the generally more rigid waterproofing concepts seen in other European countries. The focus will be on solutions for future Norwegian tunnel boring machine railway tunnels. Experiences from operation of newer and older tunnels with different waterproofing concepts have been gathered and analyzed. In the light of functional requirements for Norwegian rail tunnels, some preliminary conclusions about suitable concepts are drawn. Norwegian concepts such as polyethylene panels and lightweight concrete segments with membrane are ruled out. European concepts involving double shell draining systems (inner shell of cast concrete with membrane) and single shell undrained systems (waterproof concrete segments) are generally evaluated as favorable. Sprayable membranes and waterproof/insulating shotcrete are welcomed innovations, but more research is needed to verify their reliability and cost effectiveness compared to the typical European concepts. Increasing traffic and reliance on public transport systems in Norway result in high demand for durable and cost effective solutions.

  16. Waterproof Silicone Coatings of Thermal Insulation and Vaporization Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagliostro, Domenick E. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Thermal insulation composed of porous ceramic material can be waterproofed by producing a thin silicone film on the surface of the insulation by exposing it to volatile silicone precursors at ambient conditions. When the silicone precursor reactants are multi-functional siloxanes or silanes containing alkenes or alkynes carbon groups higher molecular weight films can be produced. Catalyst are usually required for the silicone precursors to react at room temperature to form the films. The catalyst are particularly useful in the single component system e.g. dimethylethoxysilane (DNMS) to accelerate the reaction and decrease the time to waterproof and protect the insulation. In comparison to other methods, the chemical vapor technique assures better control over the quantity and location of the film being deposited on the ceramic insulation to improve the waterproof coating.

  17. [Acute lung injury caused by inhalation of waterproofing spray].

    PubMed

    Tagawa, Akihiro; Ikehara, Kunihiko; Tsuburai, Takahiro; Nishiyama, Harumi; Miyazawa, Naoki; Hashiba, Tomonori; Suzuki, Motoyoshi; Suzuki, Shunsuke; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki

    2003-02-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of severe dyspnea 30 minutes after inhalation of waterproofing spray. He had used the spray outdoors and had then smoked a cigarette with spray-contaminated fingers. Chest radiography and computed tomography (CT) revealed diffuse ground glass opacities in both lungs. In pulmonary function tests, the lungs showed a moderately decreased diffusing capacity and there was slight hypoxemia. Transbronchial lung biopsy specimens demonstrated extensive alveolitis and marked eosinophil migration. Without any specific treatment, the patient recovered clinically in 4 days. We speculated that acute lung injury in this patient may have been induced by not only direct inhalation of the waterproofing spray itself, but also by inhalation of spray by-products resulting from decomposition due to heat. When waterproofing spray is used, precautions should be taken to avoid both inhalation and heating of the fumes. PMID:12722332

  18. [Severe respiratory symptoms following the use of waterproofing sprays].

    PubMed

    Bonte, F; Rudolphus, A; Tan, K Y; Aerts, J G

    2003-06-14

    Five patients became short of breath following the use of a waterproofing spray in an unventilated room: one 40-year-old woman and 4 men aged 40, 18, 21 and 39 years, respectively. After treatment the complaints diminished within the course of a few weeks. Waterproofing sprays are commonly used to make clothing and shoes water-repellent. Several hours after inhalation of such sprays symptoms of dyspnoea can occur. Without therapy this can lead to pulmonary fibrosis. Corticosteroid therapy seems to shorten the duration of complaints in the acute phase and preclude fibrosis. It is therefore advisable to present patients with respiratory complaints following inhalation of waterproofing sprays at an emergency department. A chest X-ray and blood gas analysis should be performed. In case of abnormalities, patients should be hospitalised. PMID:12845841

  19. Considerations for waterproofing of wood-framed buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Schroter, E.F.; Klein, K.A.

    1999-07-01

    Wood-framed construction is an important part of the residential housing industry, and has been so for decades. While some of the waterproofing materials and technology available to the construction industry have improved dramatically in the past 10 years, the basic precepts and many of the basic materials for waterproofing have not changed. In fact, many of these basic principles appear to have been forgotten or discarded in the wake of technological improvements. The authors have seen an increased reliance upon sealants, thin veneers and barrier wall waterproofing systems, and less attention paid to the importance of the underlying flashing systems. Many diverse industry organizations have attempted to set standards for installation practices as related to their own area of practice; i.e., the NRCA and SMACNA; however, there is no single source that ties these disparate standards together and binds them into a unified resource for the design professional. Experiences in the field show that it is necessary for the design profession to take a controlling interest in waterproofing standards. When specific conditions are not detailed, builders all too often rely upon the minimum, code-compliant installation practices, which are often inadequate. While a unified standard is required, care must be taken to insure that the standard is fair, not overly prescriptive and recognizes the contribution of individual building elements to the overall waterproofing integrity and comfort of the structure. In addition, the standard must recognizer the economic restrictions often placed on residential construction. While certain waterproofing systems and materials may be desirable they may impose an unfair economic burden upon the builder and, consequently, upon the consumer.

  20. Entering the Roofing and Waterproofing Industry. Roofing Workbook and Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Publications.

    This book is one of a series of 10 units of instruction for roofing apprenticeship classes in California. It covers the following 14 topics and provides tests for them: the nature of the roofing and waterproofing industry; the apprenticeship program; apprenticeship and the public schools; collective bargaining, wages, and benefits; safety in the…

  1. PVC waterproofing membranes and alkali-aggregated reaction in dams

    SciTech Connect

    Scuero, A.M.

    1995-12-31

    A waterproofing polyvinylchloride (PVC) based geocomposite was installed on two dams subject to alkali-aggregate reaction, to eliminate water intrusion and to protect the facing from further deterioration. The installation system allows drainage of the infiltrated water, thus accomplishing dehydration of the dam body. On one dam, the membrane also provided protection for future slot cutting.

  2. New Approaches to Waterproofing of Space Shuttle Insulating Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, Yigal D.; Johnson, Sylvia M.; Chen, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Future reusable space vehicles will be in service much more frequently than current space shuttles. Therefore, rapid reconditioning of spacecraft will be required. Currently, the waterproofing of space shuttles after each re-entry takes 72 hours and requires substantial labor. In addition, the currently used waterproofing reagent, DiMethylEthoxySilane (DMES), is considered toxic, and ethanol fumes are released during its hydrolytic activation. Consequently, a long time period, which is not acceptable for future operations, is needed to ensure that 0 the excess volatile compounds are removed before further maintenance of the space vehicle can be performed. The objective of this project was to assist NASA Ames in finding improved waterproofing systems by identifying suitable waterproofing agents that can be applied by vapor phase deposition and will be less toxic, bond more rapidly to the insulation material surface, and potentially have higher thermal stability than the DMES system. Several approaches to achieve faster waterproofing with less toxicity were assessed using the following alternatives: Reactive volatile compounds that are rapidly deposited by chemical bonding at the surface and leave no toxic volatiles. Reactive reagents that are the least toxic. Nonvolatile reagents that are very reactive and bond strongly to the insulating material surface. Three specific types of potential reagents were chosen for evaluation in this project: 1. Volatile reagents with Si-Cl functional groups for vapor deposition 2. Volatile reagents with Si-H functional groups for vapor deposition 3. Nonvolatile oligomeric or polymeric reactive siloxanes that are assumed to have higher thermal stability and/or strong bonding to the insulating material. The chemistry involved in the project was targeted at the generation of intermediates having reactive Si-OH bonds for the formation of either volatile species or polymeric species that bond rapidly to the surface and also cure rapidly. We focused on two chemical reactions@-hydrolysis of Si-Cl bonds and catalytic dehydrocoupling of Si-H bonds.

  3. Efficient, environmentally acceptable method for waterproofing insulation material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blohowiak, Kay Y. (Inventor); Krienke, Kenneth A. (Inventor); Olli, Larry K. (Inventor); Newquist, Charles W. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A process of waterproofing alumina-rich or silica-rich fibrous thermal insulation material, the process including the steps of: (a) providing an alumina-rich or a silica-rich fibrous material; (b) providing a waterproofing solution including: (1) a carrier solvent selected from the group consisting of aliphatic alcohols having from 1C to 6C, water, and mixtures thereof; and (2) an alkoxysilane defined by the formula R.sub.4-x -Si-(O-R').sub.x where x is 1-3 and R is selected from the group consisting of alkyl groups having from 1C to 10C, hydrogen, or fluorocarbon groups having from 1F to 15F; and where O-R' is an alkoxy group having from 1C to 5C, or a mixture of alkoxysilanes defined by the above formula R.sub.4-x -Si-(O-R').sub.x ; and optionally (3) modifiers including acids, such as acetic acid or nitric acid, or bases, such as ammonium hydroxide, RNH.sub.2, R.sub.2 NH, or R.sub.3 N, or MOH, where R is selected from the group consisting of alkyl groups having from 1C to 10C or hydrogen, and where M=Na, Li, or K; (c) contacting the fibrous material with the waterproofing solution for a sufficient amount of time to waterproof the fibrous material; and (d) curing the coated fibrous material to render it sufficiently waterproof. A chemical solution for waterproofing alumina-rich or silica-rich fibrous thermal insulation materials, the solution including: (a) a carrier solvent selected from the group consisting of aliphatic alcohols having from 1C to 6C, water, and mixtures thereof; and (b) an alkoxysilane defined by the formula R.sub.4-x -Si-(O-R').sub.x where x is 1-3 and R is selected from the group consisting of alkyl groups having from 1C to 10C, hydrogen, or fluorocarbon groups having from 1F to 15F; and where O-R' is an alkoxy group having from 1C to 5C, or a mixture of alkoxysilanes defined by the above formula R.sub.4-x -Si-(O-R').sub.x ; and optionally (c) modifiers including acids, such as acetic acid or nitric acid, or bases, such as ammonium hydroxide, RNH.sub.2, R.sub.2 NH, or R.sub.3 N, or MOH, where R is selected from the group consisting of alkyl groups having from 1C to 10C or hydrogen, and where M=Na, Li, or K.

  4. [Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage arising after use of a waterproofing spray].

    PubMed

    Fukui, Yoshinobu; Tanino, Yoko; Doshita, Kazushi; Nakano, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Yoshihiro

    2011-05-01

    A 33-year-old woman used waterproofing spray and subsequently developed cough, sputum and chest pain about 8 hours later accompanied by dyspnea, fever and general fatigue. She was admitted to our hospital 4 days after the symptoms appeared. A chest CT scan on the first visit revealed diffuse mild centrilobular nodular opacities and ground-glass opacities in both lung fields. Hemosiderin-laden macrophages accounted for 11% of the histiocytes found in her bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, which also contained blood. Based on these findings, the patient was given a diagnosis of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. This is the first report in Japan of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage occurring after the use of a waterproofing spray. PMID:21688644

  5. Microstructural Observation and Simulation of Polymer Cement Waterproofing Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukagoshi, Masayuki; Tanaka, Kyoji

    A polymer-modified cement waterproofing membrane is formed by simultaneous cement hydration and polymer film formation, these rates are affected by the moisture content of the polymer emulsion used. The moisture content gradually decreases due to cement hydration and evaporation from the surface. This study focused on the changes caused in the waterproof layer by differences in the moisture environment. Four test pieces with different cement, polymer, and moisture contents were prepared and cured at 20 °C and relative humidities of 25, 60, and 98 %. The basic physical properties of the test pieces were studied in tensile tests; the structures were observed using an EPMA. Furthermore a simulation was carried out using a model that considers cement hydration, polymer film formation, and moisture evaporation rate. The simulation results well reproduced the experimental results.

  6. Frost resistance of concrete surfaces coated with waterproofing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klovas, A.; Dauksys, M.; Ciuprovaite, G.

    2015-03-01

    Present research lays emphasis on the problem of concrete surface exposed to aggressive surrounding quality. The test was conducted with concrete surfaces coated with different waterproofing materials exposed in solution of 3 % of sodium sulphate. Research was performed according to LST EN 1338:2003 standard requirements. Technological properties of concrete mixture as well as physical-mechanical properties of formed concrete specimens were established. The resistance of concrete to freezing - thawing cycles was prognosticated according to the porosity parameters established by the kinetic of water absorption. Five different waterproofing materials (coatings) such as liquid bitumen-rubber based, elastic fiber-strengthened, silane-siloxane based emulsion, mineral binder based and liquid rubber (caoutchouc) based coatings were used. Losses by mass of coating materials and specimens surface fractures were calculated based on the results of frost resistance test. Open code program "ImageJ" was used for visual analysis of concrete specimens. Based on the results, aggressive surrounding did not influence specimens coated with elastic, fibre-strengthened, mineral materials. On the other hand, specimens coated with liquid rubber (caoutchouc) based material were greatly influenced by aggressive surrounding. The biggest losses of specimen surface concrete (fractures) were obtained with silane-siloxane based emulsion coating. Generally, specimens coated with waterproofing materials were less influenced by aggressive surrounding compared with those without.

  7. FTIR instrumentation to monitor vapors from Shuttle tile waterproofing materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattson, C. B.; Schwindt, C. J.

    1995-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) tiles and blankets are waterproofed using DimethylEthoxySilane (DMEX) in the Orbiter Processing Facilities (OPF). DMES has a Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for exposure of personnel to vapor concentration in air of 0.5 ppm. The OPF high bay cannot be opened for normal work after a waterproofing operation until the DMES concentration is verified by measurement to be below the TLV. On several occasions the high bay has been kept closed for up to 8 hours following waterproofing operations due to high DMES measurements. In addition, the Miran 203 and Miran 1 BX infrared analyzers calibrated at different wavelengths gave different readings under the same conditions. There was reason to believe that some of the high DMES concentration readings were caused by interference form water and ethanol vapors. The Toxic Vapor Detection Laboratory (TVDL) was asked to test the existing DMES instruments and identify the best qualified instrument. In addition the TVDL was requested to develop instrumentation to ensure the OPF high bay could be opened safely as soon as possible after a waterproofing operation. A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer instrument developed for an earlier project was reprogrammed to measure DMES vapor along with ethanol, water, and several common solvent vapors. The FTIR was then used to perform a series of laboratory and field tests to evaluate the performance of the single wavelength IR instruments in use. The results demonstrated that the single wavelength IR instruments did respond to ethanol and water vapors, more or less depending on the analytical IR wavelength selected. The FTIR was able to separate the responses to DMES, water and ethanol, and give consistent readings for the DMES vapor concentration. The FTIR was then deployed to the OPF to monitor real waterproofing operations. The FTIR was also used to measure the time for DMES to evaporate from TPS tile under a range of humidity conditions in controlled laboratory tests. The combination of laboratory and field tests with the FTIR instrument demonstrated superior sensitivity, ability to reject interference from water and ethanol vapors, ruggedness to be transported from the lab to the OPF and set up without special procedures or degradation of performance. The multiple component vapor analysis algorithm was developed at KSC and incorporates automatic baseline correction and shape fitting of the spectra. The analysis for DMES, TetraMethylDiSiloxane (TMDS), ethanol, methanol, isopropanol, and baseline parameters uses 161 points per sample at 4 cm(exp -1) resolution, and processes an eight scan sample every ten seconds. The standard deviation of the measurements is 0.013 ppm and the upper linear limit is 125 ppm DMES. Based on successful demonstration of capabilities we produced three mobile instrument carts to be used in each OPF to support future waterproofing operations. The design and building of the 'DMES Carts' were accomplished in Fiscal year 1995.

  8. Cold-Applied Roofing Systems and Waterproofing and Dampproofing. Roofing Workbook and Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Arthur

    This workbook for students in California roofing apprenticeship programs provides information for classroom work in the area of cold-applied roofing systems and waterproofing and dampproofing. Eight topics are covered: introduction to cold-applied roofing systems and waterproofing and dampproofing, tools and equipment used in cold-applied roofing,…

  9. Waterproofed Photomultiplier Tube Assemblies for the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    E-print Network

    Ken Chow; John Cummings; Emily Edwards; William Edwards; Ry Ely; Matthew Hoff; Logan Lebanowski; Bo Li; Piyi Li; Shih-Kai Lin; Dawei Liu; Jinchang Liu; Kam-Biu Luk; Jiayuan Miao; Jim Napolitano; Juan Pedro Ochoa-Ricoux; Jen-Chieh Peng; Ming Qi; Herbert Steiner; Paul Stoler; Mary Stuart; Lingyu Wang; Changgen Yang; Weili Zhong

    2015-02-23

    In the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment 960 20-cm-diameter waterproof photomultiplier tubes are used to instrument three water pools as Cherenkov detectors for detecting cosmic-ray muons. Of these 960 photomultiplier tubes, 341 are recycled from the MACRO experiment. A systematic program was undertaken to refurbish them as waterproof assemblies. In the context of passing the water leakage check, a success rate better than 97% was achieved. Details of the design, fabrication, testing, operation, and performance of these waterproofed photomultiplier-tube assemblies are presented.

  10. Waterproofed Photomultiplier Tube Assemblies for the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    E-print Network

    Chow, Ken; Edwards, Emily; Edwards, William; Ely, Ry; Hoff, Matthew; Lebanowski, Logan; Li, Bo; Li, Piyi; Lin, Shih-Kai; Liu, Dawei; Liu, Jinchang; Luk, Kam-Biu; Miao, Jiayuan; Napolitano, Jim; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Peng, Jen-Chieh; Qi, Ming; Steiner, Herbert; Stoler, Paul; Stuart, Mary; Wang, Lingyu; Yang, Changgen; Zhong, Weili

    2015-01-01

    In the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment 960 20-cm-diameter waterproof photomultiplier tubes are used to instrument three water pools as Cherenkov detectors for detecting cosmic-ray muons. Of these 960 photomultiplier tubes, 341 are recycled from the MACRO experiment. A systematic program was undertaken to refurbish them as waterproof assemblies. In the context of passing the water leakage check, a success rate better than 97% was achieved. Details of the design, fabrication, testing, operation, and performance of these waterproofed photomultiplier-tube assemblies are presented.

  11. Waterproofed photomultiplier tube assemblies for the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Ken; Cummings, John; Edwards, Emily; Edwards, William; Ely, Ry; Hoff, Matthew; Lebanowski, Logan; Li, Bo; Li, Piyi; Lin, Shih-Kai; Liu, Dawei; Liu, Jinchang; Luk, Kam-Biu; Miao, Jiayuan; Napolitano, Jim; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Peng, Jen-Chieh; Qi, Ming; Steiner, Herbert; Stoler, Paul; Stuart, Mary; Wang, Lingyu; Yang, Changgen; Zhong, Weili

    2015-09-01

    In the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment 960 20-cm-diameter waterproof photomultiplier tubes are used to instrument three water pools as Cherenkov detectors for detecting cosmic-ray muons. Of these 960 photomultiplier tubes, 341 are recycled from the MACRO experiment. A systematic program was undertaken to refurbish them as waterproof assemblies. In the context of passing the water leakage check, a success rate better than 97% was achieved. Details of the design, fabrication, testing, operation, and performance of these waterproofed photomultiplier-tube assemblies are presented.

  12. Laboratory analysis of protective waterproof membranes according to their degree of watertightness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajan, I.

    2011-03-01

    Attention is paid to the problems of the protective waterproof membranes of sloping roofs. The article presents a laboratory analysis of protective waterproof membranes according to their deree of watertightness. The laboratory analysis consists of 3 kinds of laboratory measurements: watertightness by a method of constant loading by a water column, watertightness by the method of a maximal water column up to 1500 mm, and watertightness by a dynamic method through rain simulation.

  13. Waterproofing in hypospadias: a refinement of the two-stage reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Khan, U; Zic, R; Boorman, J

    2001-09-01

    A new technique for 'waterproofing' during the second stage of a two-stage hypospadias repair is described. It is simpler and involves less tissue dissection than other waterproofing techniques. The senior author has used it over a period of 6 years as standard practice. The technique has been used in a total of 24 cases, in which the fistula rate was 8% (two cases). PMID:11513517

  14. Waterproofing and Strengthening Volcanic Tuff in Waste Repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, E.E.; Carter, P.E.; Cooper, D.C.

    2008-07-01

    Waste repositories from surface trenches and shafts at Los Alamos to drilled tunnels at Yucca Mountain are being built in volcanic Tuff, a soft compacted material that is permeable to water and air. US Department of Energy documents on repository design identify the primary design goal of 'preventing water from reaching the waste canisters, dissolving the canisters and carrying the radioactive waste particles away from the repository'. Designers expect to achieve this by use of multiple barriers along with careful placement of the repository both well above the water table and well above the ground level in a mountain. Though repositories are located in areas that have a historically dry climate to minimize the impact of rainfall infiltration, global warming phenomena may have the potential to alter regional climate patterns - potentially leading to higher infiltration rates. Conventional methods of sealing fractures within volcanic tuff may not be sufficiently robust or long lived to isolate a repository shaft from water for the required duration. A new grouting technology based on molten wax shows significant promise for producing the kind of long term sealing performance required. Molten wax is capable of permeating a significant distance through volcanic tuff, as well as sealing fractures by permeation that is thermally dependent instead of chemically or time dependent. The wax wicks into and saturates tuff even if no fractures are present, but penetrates and fills only the heated area. Heated portions of the rock fill like a vessel. The taffy-like wax has been shown to waterproof the tuff, and significantly increase its resistance to fracture. This wax was used in 2004 for grouting of buried radioactive beryllium waste at the Idaho National Laboratory, chiefly to stop the water based corrosion reactions of the waste. The thermoplastic material contains no water and does not dry out or change with age. Recent studies indicate that this kind of wax material may be inherently resistant to bio-degradation. (authors)

  15. Effect of Waterproofing Admixtures on the Flexural Strength and Corrosion Resistance of Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geetha, A.; Perumal, P.

    2012-02-01

    This paper deals about the flexural strength and corrosion behaviour of concrete using waterproofing admixtures. The effect of waterproofing admixtures on the corrosion behaviour of RCC specimen has been studied by conducting accelerated corrosion test. To identify the effect of corrosion in pull out strength, corrosion process was induced by means of accelerated corrosion procedure. To accelerate the reinforcement corrosion, direct electric current was impressed on the rebar embedded in the specimen using a DC power supply system that has a facility to adjust voltage. The addition of waterproofing admixtures also shows the improvement in the flexural strength of concrete has been studied by conducting flexural strength tests on the concrete prism specimen of size 100 × 100 × 500 mm with and without admixtures for various dosages and various curing periods of 7 and 28 days. The results showed that the presence of waterproofing admixtures always improves the corrosion resistance and thus increases the strength of concrete due to the hydrophobic action of waterproofing admixtures.

  16. Application of new concept waterproofing in Xiang'an undersea tunnel, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tie-lin; Zhang, Ding-li; Zeng, Chao; Ying, Guo-gang

    2013-03-01

    As a kind of transportation mode for crossing channels, undersea tunnel has incomparable advantages for its directness, convenience, fastness, insusceptibility to weather conditions, and smaller influences on environments. In recent years, with the development of undersea tunnel construction, the design and construction technologies have been greatly enhanced. The first undersea tunnel in China has just been built. Waterproofing is the key technique of undersea tunneling. A new concept of waterproofing scheme of grouting, sealing, draining and divided sections was adopted in the construction of the tunnel based on the researches, the in-situ geological features, the astuteness of the current technology, and the cost of construction. The structural details of the sealing and draining system are introduced to illustrate the salient features of the new waterproofing technique. It is hoped that experiences described in the paper can offer guidance for the construction of the extensive undersea tunnels in the coming years.

  17. Methods for reducing volatile organic content in fabric waterproof coatings. Final report, May--November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Keohan, F.L.; Lazaro, E.

    1994-03-01

    Fabrics for rainwear and outdoor equipment traditionally have been rendered waterproof by coating with solvent-borne rubber solutions, solvent-borne polyurethanes and vinyl plastisols. Regulatory pressure for environmental protection and worker safety has become a potent driving force in eliminating volatile organic solvents and toxic additives from commercial coating products. A variety of low-solvent coating technologies are being introduced to replace the traditional solvent-based products. These include high solids formulation, solventless UV and electron beam curing systems, powder coatings and supercritical, CO{sub 2}-reduced paints. The benefits and limitations of these coating technologies were compared with respect to their applicability to fabric waterproofing. In addition, a novel acrylated surfactant was synthesized and employed in the formulation of UV-curing waterborne coatings for textile waterproofing. The application methods and cure characteristics of the solvent-free formulations are described. Physical properties of cured coating films including tensile strength, percent elongation, water absorption, water drop contact angle, and adhesion to common fabrics were measured and compared to those obtained using a commercial waterborne waterproofing system. One formulation produced cured films having low water absorption, tenacious adhesion to polyester fabric and surface hydrophobicity properties approaching those of polyethylene.

  18. Common Roofing and Waterproofing Materials and Equipment. Roofing Workbook and Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Publications.

    This publication on common roofing and waterproofing materials and equipment is one of a series of units of instruction for roofing apprenticeship classes. The workbook portion is divided into eight topics: production of bitumens and asphalt roofing materials, built-up materials and adhesives, asphalt products and rigid roofing materials,…

  19. Waterproof Anti-Explosive Powders for Coal Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buczek, Bronis?aw; Vogt, El?bieta

    2014-03-01

    Limestone powder characterized by hydrophobic properties is used as an anti-explosive agent in coal mining industry. Unfortunately, the standard method of producing such powder by milling limestone with stearic acid is practically unprofitable in many modernized quarries and plants, and sometimes literally impossible due to the introduction of technological changes and implementation of modern mills. Then new methods of hydrophobization of limestone surfaces ought be searched. In the work two methods hydrophobization: from the stearic acid vapour phase and from silicone solutions are proposed. Lime dust from the Czatkowice Quarry of Lime was used as a raw material during investigations. It is a good agent for research because it is possible to compare the properties of samples modified in this work to the properties of anti-explosive lime powder (Polish Standard, 1994) used in mining industry in Poland. The first technique of limestone powder hydrophobization was carried out in an apparatus of own design (Vogt, 2008, 2011), and it consisted in free sedimentation of the powder layer dispersed by stearic acid vapour in powder counter current flow. The second way of modification consisted in mixing in the evaporating dish substrates: limestone powder and dope - silicone solution - Sarsil® H-15 (Vogt & Opali?ski, 2009; Vogt & Ho?ownia, 2010). Evaluation of properties so-obtained waterproof powders was carried out according to the Polish Standard, as well as using original powder determination ways, with the Powder Characteristic Tester (Index tables, Tablets & Capsules, 2005). Moreover water vapour adsorption isotherms were obtained and the thermal decomposition of powder was made. All modified samples acquired the hydrophobic character. Therefore we can state that the both proposed methods of hydrophobization of the limestone powder are useful. The parameters obtained with the use of Powder Characteristics Tester enable us to make a characterization of limestone properties not only as a water resistant material but also from the cohesion point of view. On the base of TG, DTG or DTA and EGA curves for all investigated materials was stated that the character of the thermal decomposition of modified samples is the same as this one for raw powder, what is profitable for application of hydrophobized powders as an anti-explosive agent. W górnictwie w?gla kamiennego u?ywany jest hydrofobowy py? wapienny jako substancja stosowana w systemie zabezpiecze? przeciwwybuchowych (Cybulski, 2004). Niestety, dotychczasowy sposób wy- twarzania takiego produktu polegaj?cy na wspó?mieleniu kamienia wapiennego z kwasem stearynowym staje si? praktycznie niemo?liwy do stosowania w nowoczesnych zak?adach np. kamienio?omy. Sytuacja taka jest wynikiem wprowadzania zmian technologicznych, g?ównie zwi?zanych z wymian? starych konstrukcji m?ynów na nowe urz?dzenia. Tym samym istnieje potrzeba poszukiwania nowych metod hydrofobizacji powierzchni py?ów wapiennych. W pracy omówiono dwie nowe metody hydrofobizacji py?u wapiennego: za pomoc? par kwasu stearynowego oraz roztworu silikonowego - Sarsil® H-15. Podczas bada? u?ywano surowego py?u wapiennego pochodz?cego z Kopalni Kamienia Wapiennego w Czatkowicach. Materia? ten jest dobrym materia?em do bada? gdy? istnieje mo?liwo?? porównywania w?a?ciwo?ci materia?ów hydrofobowych otrzymanych w pracy z w?a?ciwo?ciami handlowego py?u przeciwwybuchowego (Polska Norma, 1994), u?ywanego w polskich kopalniach. Pierwszy sposób hydrofobizacji py?u wapiennego, polegaj?cy na swobodnym opadaniu py?u wapiennego w oparach kwasu stearynowego przep?ywaj?cych w przeciwpr?dzie, przeprowadzono w aparacie w?asnej konstrukcji (Vogt, 2008, 2011). Aparat gwarantuje dobry kontakt modyfikatora z ziarnami py?u. Py? opadaj?c, nie napotyka ?adnych przeszkód ulega? rozproszeniu, a wprowadzony w stanie parowym kwas stearynowy mo?e swobodnie osiada? na jego powierzchni zewn?trznej oraz penetrowa? w g??b porów, blokuj?c je dla wilgoci. Drugi sposób hydrofo

  20. Elevated waterproof access floor system and method of making the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc M. (inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An elevated waterproof access floor system having subfloor channels or compartments for power lines, gas lines or the like is adapted such that it can be opened and subsequently resealed without destroying the waterproofing and without destroying its aesthetic appearance. A multiplicity of tiles are supported on a support grid, and a flooring sheet is supported on the tiles. Attachment means are provided to prevent lateral but not vertical movement of the flooring sheet with respect to the tiles so that the flooring sheet can be lifted off the tiles, but when the flooring sheet is supported on the tiles, no lateral slipping will occur. The flooring sheet is made of a heat resealable material, so that it can be cut away in sections, and the tiles therebelow lifted off, to provide access to subfloor compartments.

  1. An objective evaluation of the waterproofing qualities, ease of insertion and comfort of commonly available earplugs.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, E J; Kuchai, R; McPartlin, D

    2004-04-01

    Earplugs are commonly recommended to protect the middle ear from water in patients with exposed middle ears. This study assessed the waterproofing qualities, ease of insertion and comfort of six commonly available earplugs. Ten subjects (20 ears) were assessed by placing a pre-weighed neurosurgical pattie in their cleaned ear canal under microscope guidance. The subjects underwent a standardized head wetting regime. The outer ear was dried, earplug and pattie removed and pattie reweighed. The difference in weight was calculated. The subjects were also asked to score the difficulty of insertion and comfort of the earplugs on a visual analogue scale. The results show a significant difference in the waterproofing qualities of the various types of earplugs. Cotton wool with petroleum jelly was the most effective (P < 0.001). It was also the easiest to insert and the most comfortable for the subject (P < 0.001). PMID:15113295

  2. Science and technology of building seals, sealants, glazing, and waterproofing: Fifth volume

    SciTech Connect

    Lacasse, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    The current proceedings provide reviews of technological advances and the most recent developments in the domain of significant importance to both researchers and practitioners in the sealant industry. This would include, for instance, those involved in test method and product development research and practitioners having expertise in the areas of building joint seal and waterproofing design, specification, application, failure diagnosis, maintenance and repair, and other related domains. This volume contains eighteen contributions covering a wide spectrum of areas related to the science and technology of sealants and waterproofing and cognate systems. The papers have been organized into six categories: joint design and sealant selection: joint sealant failures; design, evaluation, and application of structural silicone glazing sealants; aesthetic performance; recent advances in adhesion testing; and studies related to the long-term performance and aging of sealants and gaskets. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  3. Loads on Sprayed Waterproof Tunnel Linings in Jointed Hard Rock: A Study Based on Norwegian Cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holter, Karl Gunnar

    2014-05-01

    A composite tunnel lining system based on a sprayed waterproofing membrane combined with sprayed concrete is currently being considered for future Norwegian rail and road tunnels. Possible loading of the tunnel linings caused by water pressure is being investigated. This tunnel lining system consists of a waterproof membrane which, during application on the sprayed concrete lining, bonds mechanically to the sprayed concrete on either side. Hence, a continuous, sealing, and non-draining structure from the rock mass to the interior tunnel surface is formed in the walls and crown. Experiences from some successful recent projects with this lining system in Europe are reviewed. However, these experiences are not directly comparable to the Scandinavian hard rock tunnel lining approach, which utilizes a relatively thin sprayed and irregular concrete layer for permanent lining. When considering the sprayed membrane and sprayed concrete composite lining concept, introducing a partially sealing and undrained element in the lining, the experiences with the traditionally used lining systems in Norway need to be reconsidered and fully understood. A review of several hard rock tunnels with adverse conditions, in which the tunnel lining has been subject to load monitoring, shows that only very small loads in the tunnel linings occur. Recent investigations with in situ water pressure testing, including two sites with the composite sprayed membrane in a partially drained waterproof tunnel lining, are discussed. In a case with a cavern located in a hydraulically saturated rock mass subjected to approximately 8 bar hydrostatic pressure, a negative pressure gradient towards the tunnel lining has been measured. The investigation results from the Norwegian test sites indicate that no significant loading of the tunnel lining takes place in a hydraulically saturated rock when applying this composite waterproof tunnel lining in parts of the tunnel perimeter.

  4. Effect of thickness of the waterproofing sheath on the calibration of photon and electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Gillin, M.T.; Kline, R.W.; Niroomand-Rad, A.; Grimm, D.F.

    1985-03-01

    The TG-21 protocol recommends using a thin sheath for waterproofing an ion chamber used in the calibration of photon and electron beams. A thickness of 0.5 mm is suggested for a material having a composition and density close to that of water. This work investigates the effect on the calibration of photon beams ranging from Co/sup 60/ to 25 MV, and electron beams ranging from nominal energies of 7--18 MeV, for changes in the thickness of the waterproofing sheath from 0.5 to 5.5 mm. For photon beams, a maximum change of 1.2% was found for the 25-MV x-ray beam. For electron beams, a maximum change of 0.5% was found for 10-MeV electrons. It is concluded that the thickness of the waterproofing sheath is not a very sensitive variable, assuming the thickness is between 0.5 and 2.0 mm.

  5. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-416-1742, Roofing and Waterproofing Sites, Chicago, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Zey, J.N.; Stephenson, R.

    1986-10-01

    Potential exposures to organic solvents during the application of single-ply roofing and waterproofing systems were evaluated in response to a request from the United Union of Roofers, Waterproofers, and Allied Workers. The evaluation was conducted at three sites in Chicago, Illinois where roofing contractors were using two roofing systems (ARC and Carlisle) and one waterproofing (WR Grace) system. Air concentrations of toluene, xylene, hexane, acetone, and heptane were measured. Acenaphthalene, fluorene, and naphthalene were detected in air samples collected at the ARC roofing site. Potential hazards observed at both roofing sites included falls from roofs and slipping on slick roof surfaces. Another potential source of injuries was the use of torches for installation of the ARC system. The authors conclude that personal exposures were relatively low for the chemicals evaluated. Contractors should make every effort to determine the principal components of the roofing supplies they are using. Employees should receive adequate training to work safely with the materials involved. Exposure to coal tar and pitch fumes should be minimized due to the risk of cancer.

  6. Hard protective waterproof coating for high-power laser optical elements.

    PubMed

    Murahara, Masataka; Sato, Nobuhiro; Ikadai, Akimitsu

    2005-12-15

    We developed a new method for making a waterproof coating by photooxidation of silicone oil. The silicone oil was spin coated onto the surfaces of optical elements, i.e., a plastic lens, a laser mirror, and a nonlinear optical crystal, and then irradiated with a xenon excimer lamp in air, which transformed the organic silicone oil into an amorphous glass film. This technique has enabled an optical thin film to transmit ultraviolet rays of wavelengths below 200 nm and to exhibit the characteristics of homogeneity, high density, and resistance to environmental effects and to corrosion by water, and a Mohs scale value of 5. PMID:16389850

  7. Hard protective waterproof coating for high-power laser optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murahara, Masataka; Sato, Nobuhiro; Ikadai, Akimitsu

    2005-12-01

    We developed a new method for making a waterproof coating by photooxidation of silicone oil. The silicone oil was spin coated onto the surfaces of optical elements, i.e., a plastic lens, a laser mirror, and a nonlinear optical crystal, and then irradiated with a xenon excimer lamp in air, which transformed the organic silicone oil into an amorphous glass film. This technique has enabled an optical thin film to transmit ultraviolet rays of wavelengths below 200 nm and to exhibit the characteristics of homogeneity, high density, and resistance to environmental effects and to corrosion by water, and a Mohs scale value of 5.

  8. Basic principles for the development of a common standardised method for determining the radon diffusion coefficient in waterproofing materials.

    PubMed

    Jiránek, Martin; Rovenská, Kate?ina

    2012-04-01

    Paper presents the principles for unified test methods for determining the radon diffusion coefficient in waterproof materials in order to increase the accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility of the results. We consider this very important, because an assessment of the radon diffusion coefficient is required by several national technical standards when waterproofing acts as a radon-proof membrane. The requirements for key parameters for one test method performed under non-stationary conditions and for two methods performed under stationary conditions are described in this paper. PMID:22245288

  9. [A couple suffering acute respiratory illness due to waterproofing spray exposure].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kashin; Tachikawa, Soichi; Horiguchi, Takahiko; Kondo, Rieko; Shiga, Mamoru; Hirose, Masahiro; Sasaki, Yasushi; Torigoe, Hiroshi

    2006-09-01

    The patients were a 28-year-old man and a his 27-year-old wife. The husband smoked a cigarette immediately after using a waterproofing spray, and developed fever, cough, and dyspnea 15 min later. The wife had nausea 2 hours later. Nine hours later, the husband visited a local clinic, and was referred to our hospital because of hypoxemia. In addition, chest CT showed ill-defined areas of increased density, predominantly in the bilateral upper lung fields, with interlobular septal thickening, and he was hospitalized. Although the wife was asymptomatic at the time of examination, she had chest CT findings similar to those of her husband, and was also hospitalized. After admission, the husband received steroid pulse therapy and oxygen inhalation for his symptoms and hypoxemia, with return of arterial blood gas analysis results to normal on the third day. The wife had no symptoms or hypoxemia during her hospital stay. Their chest CT findings improved on the seventh day after admission, and they were discharged. Thus, it appears that the couple suffered from acute respiratory illness due to waterproofing spray exposure, and probably heat degradation products from cigarette smoking caused the husband to have severe symptoms. PMID:17037410

  10. Does long term exposure to radon gas influence the properties of polymeric waterproof materials?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navratilova Rovenska, Katerina; Jiranek, Martin; Kokes, Pavel; Wasserbauer, Richard; Kacmarikova, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    The technical state of buildings and the quality of the indoor environment depend on the quality of the waterproofing course and on the properties of the insulating materials that are applied, in particular on their durability, long-term functional reliability and resistance to corrosive effects of the subsoil. Underground water chemistry and soil bacteria are well-known corrosive agents. Our investigations indicate that the ageing process of waterproof materials can be significantly accelerated by alpha particles emitted by radon and radon progenies which are present in soil gas. Materials commonly available on the building market, e.g. LDPE and HDPE of various densities, PVC, TPO (thermoplastic polyolefin), PP (polypropylene) and EPDM were selected for our experimental study. The preliminary results for 3-year exposure to radon gas show a decrease in tensile strength to 60%, elongation to 80% and hardness to 95% for samples based on PE. The diffusion coefficient of radon for samples based on PVC decreased to 20% of the initial value after 1-year exposure to radon and soil bacteria.

  11. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage after use of a fluoropolymer-based waterproofing spray.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Ryota; Itoh, Masayuki; Uruma, Tomonori; Tsuji, Takao; Watanabe, Hidehiro; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Aoshiba, Kazutetsu

    2015-01-01

    A 30-year-old man developed chills, cough and dyspnea a few minutes after using a fluoropolymer-based waterproofing spray in a small closed room. He visited our hospital 1 h later. Examination revealed that the patient had incessant cough, tachypnea, fever and decreased peripheral arterial oxygen saturation. Blood tests revealed leukocytosis with elevated serum C-reactive protein levels. Chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scan showed bilateral ground glass opacities, mainly in the upper lobes. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid obtained from the right middle lobe showed a bloody appearance. Microscopic examination of a BAL cytospin specimen revealed the presence of numerous red blood cells associated with extreme neutrophilia. Microbiological studies of the BAL fluid were negative. The patient was observed without corticosteroid therapy, and his symptoms and abnormal shadows on the chest radiographs and CT improved. On day 7 after admission, the patient was discharged from the hospital. Accidental inhalation of waterproofing spray may cause diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, a rare manifestation of acute lung injury. Supportive treatment may be effective and sufficient. PMID:26090317

  12. A PDMS-Based 2-Axis Waterproof Scanner for Photoacoustic Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Changho; Park, Kyungjin; Lim, Geunbae; Kim, Chulhong

    2015-01-01

    Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is an imaging tool to provide in vivo optically sensitive images in biomedical research. To achieve a small size, fast imaging speed, wide scan range, and high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) in a water environment, we introduce a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based 2-axis scanner for a flexible and waterproof structure. The design, theoretical background, fabrication process and performance of the scanner are explained in details. The designed and fabricated scanner has dimensions of 15 × 15 × 15 mm along the X, Y and Z axes, respectively. The characteristics of the scanner are tested under DC and AC conditions. By pairing with electromagnetic forces, the maximum scanning angles in air and water are 18° and 13° along the X and Y axes, respectively. The measured resonance frequencies in air and water are 60 and 45 Hz along the X axis and 45 and 30 Hz along the Y axis, respectively. Finally, OR-PAM with high SNRs is demonstrated using the fabricated scanner, and the PA images of micro-patterned samples and microvasculatures of a mouse ear are successfully obtained with high-resolution and wide-field of view. OR-PAM equipped with the 2-axis PDMS based waterproof scanner has lateral and axial resolutions of 3.6 ?m and 26 ?m, respectively. This compact OR-PAM system could potentially and widely be used in preclinical and clinical applications. PMID:25923931

  13. Toxicity study of dimethylethoxysilane (DMSES), the waterproofing agent for the Orbiter heat protective system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.; Dodd, Darol; Stuart, Bruce; Rothenberg, Simon; Kershaw, Mary Ann; Thilagar, A.

    1993-01-01

    DMES, a volatile liquid, is used by NASA to waterproof the Orbiter thermal protective system. During waterproofing operations at the Oribter Processing Facility at KSC, workers could be exposed to DMES vapor. To assess the toxicity of DMES, acute and subchronic (2-week and 13-week) inhalation studies were conducted with rats. Studies were also conducted to assess the potential of DMES. Inhalation exposure concentrations ranged from 40 ppm to 4000 ppm. No mortality was observed during the studies. Exposures to 2100 ppm produced narcosis and ataxia. Post-exposure recovery from these CNS effects was rapid (less than 1 hr). These effects were concentration-dependent and relatively independent of exposure length. Exposure to 3000 ppm for 2 weeks (5 h/d, 5 d/wk) produced testicular toxicity. The 13-week study yielded similar results. Results from the genotoxicity assays (in vivo/in vitro unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat primary heptaocytes, chromosomal aberrations in rat bone marrow cells; reverse gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium; and forward mutation in Chinese hamster culture cells) were negative. These studies indicated that DMES is mildly to moderately toxic but not a multagen.

  14. Waterproof and translucent wings at the same time: problems and solutions in butterflies.

    PubMed

    Goodwyn, Pablo Perez; Maezono, Yasunori; Hosoda, Naoe; Fujisaki, Kenji

    2009-07-01

    Although the colour of butterflies attracts the most attention, the waterproofing properties of their wings are also extremely interesting. Most butterfly wings are considered "super-hydrophobic" because the contact angle (CA) with a water drop exceeds 150 degrees. Usually, butterfly wings are covered with strongly overlapping scales; however, in the case of transparent or translucent wings, scale cover is reduced; thus, the hydrophobicity could be affected. Here, we present a comparative analysis of wing hydrophobicity and its dependence on morphology for two species with translucent wings Parantica sita (Nymphalidae) and Parnassius glacialis (Papilionidae). These species have very different life histories: P. sita lives for up to 6 months as an adult and migrates over long distance, whereas P. glacialis lives for less than 1 month and does not migrate. We measured the water CA and analysed wing morphology with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. P. sita has super-hydrophobic wing surfaces, with CA > 160 degrees, whereas P. glacialis did not (CA = 100-135 degrees). Specialised scales were found on the translucent portions of P. sita wings. These scales were ovoid and much thinner than common scales, erect at about 30 degrees, and leaving up to 80% of the wing surface uncovered. The underlying bare wing surface had a remarkable pattern of ridges and knobs. P. glacialis also had over 80% of the wing surface uncovered, but the scales were either setae-like or spade-like. The bare surface of the wing had an irregular wavy smooth pattern. We suggest a mode of action that allows this super-hydrophobic effect with an incompletely covered wing surface. The scales bend, but do not collapse, under the pressure of a water droplet, and the elastic recovery of the structure at the borders of the droplet allows a high apparent CA. Thus, P. sita can be translucent without losing its waterproof properties. This characteristic is likely necessary for the long life and migration of this species. This is the first study of some of the effects on the hydrophobicity of translucency through scales' cover reduction in butterfly wings and on the morphology associated with improved waterproofing. PMID:19322552

  15. FTIR Study of Vapor Offgassing from Orbiter Tile Re-Waterproofing Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattson, C. B.

    1999-01-01

    The work presented in this paper was performed to identify and quantify the offgassing behavior of alternative re-waterproofmg materials under investigation for application to Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System (TPS) tile and blanket materials. The purpose was to determine whether the new materials would cause a problem with the operational analysis of residual vapors using the current portable vapor analyzer, a Miran 203. The materials investigated were limited to dimethylethoxysilane (DMES) and proposed solvent selected as suitable for use in re-waterproofing Orbiter TPS. The solvent was selected in another phase of the overall project. Obiter TPS tiles were injected with the re-waterproofing materials under constant conditions of temperature, relative humidity and air flow. The vapor concentrations of offgassing materials were monitored using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) multi-component analysis, and with the Miran 203 instruments. The procedure was to record the time dependent concentrations of offgassing materials as analyzed by the FTIR, and the time response of the Miran 203 to the materials under consideration. The FTIR was calibrated for vapor phase DMES, tetramethyldisiloxane (TMDS), ethanol and the hydrocarbon solvents to be used to dilute the DMES for application to the TPS tile. The Miran 203 was calibrated for the operational measurement of DMES airborne vapors. The FTIR data, shows for the first time that the principal product which offgases from the tile after the first hour is not DMES, but TMDS and ethanol. The Miran 203 response to TMDS is the primary reading after the re-waterproofing operation is completed. The operational use of the Miran 203 to measure DMES vapors after re-waterproofmg operations has been responding to TMDS. The results of this study suggest that the historical complaints that have contributed to the low threshold limit value (TLV) for DMES concentrations, as read with the Miran 203, are actually based on instrumental responses to TMDS, for which no other toxicology information is available at this time. While there is some interference, the use of the tested hydrocarbon solvents does not adversely affect the response of the Miran 203.

  16. Acute respiratory syndrome after inhalation of waterproofing sprays: a posteriori exposure-response assessment in 102 cases.

    PubMed

    Vernez, David; Bruzzi, Raffaella; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; De-Batz, Alice; Droz, Pierre; Lazor, Romain

    2006-05-01

    Waterproofing agents are widely used to protect leather and textiles in both domestic and occupational activities. An outbreak of acute respiratory syndrome following exposure to waterproofing sprays occurred during the winter 2002-2003 in Switzerland. About 180 cases were reported by the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre between October 2002 and March 2003, whereas fewer than 10 cases per year had been recorded previously. The reported cases involved three brands of sprays containing a common waterproofing mixture, that had undergone a formulation change in the months preceding the outbreak. A retrospective analysis was undertaken in collaboration with the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre and the Swiss Registries for Interstitial and Orphan Lung Diseases to clarify the circumstances and possible causes of the observed health effects. Individual exposure data were generated with questionnaires and experimental emission measurements. The collected data was used to conduct numeric simulation for 102 cases of exposure. A classical two-zone model was used to assess the aerosol dispersion in the near- and far-field during spraying. The resulting assessed dose and exposure levels obtained were spread on large scales, of several orders of magnitude. No dose-response relationship was found between exposure indicators and health effects indicators (perceived severity and clinical indicators). Weak relationships were found between unspecific inflammatory response indicators (leukocytes, C-reactive protein) and the maximal exposure concentration. The results obtained disclose a high interindividual response variability and suggest that some indirect mechanism(s) predominates in the respiratory disease occurrence. Furthermore, no threshold could be found to define a safe level of exposure. These findings suggest that the improvement of environmental exposure conditions during spraying alone does not constitute a sufficient measure to prevent future outbreaks of waterproofing spray toxicity. More efficient preventive measures are needed prior to the marketing and distribution of new waterproofing agents. PMID:16574608

  17. Electricity generation of microbial fuel cell with waterproof breathable membrane cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Defeng; Tang, Yu; Mei, Xiaoxue; Liu, Bingfeng

    2015-12-01

    Simplification of fabrication and reduction of capital cost are important for scale-up and application of microbial electrochemical systems (MES). A fast and inexpensive method of making cathode was developed via assembling stainless steel mesh (SSM) with waterproof breathable membrane (WBM). Three assemble types of cathodes were fabricated; Pt@SSM/WBM (SSM as cathode skeleton, WBM as diffusion layer, platinum (Pt) catalyst applied on SSM), SSM/Pt@WBM and Pt@WBM. SSM/Pt@WBM cathode showed relatively preferable with long-term stability and favorable power output (24.7 W/m3). Compared to conventional cathode fabrication, air-cathode was made for 0.5 h. The results indicated that the novel fabrication method could remarkably reduce capital cost and simplify fabrication procedures with a comparable power output, making MFC more prospective for future application.

  18. Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Rak-Hwan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Xiao, Jianliang; Kim, Bong Hoon; Park, Sang-Il; Panilaitis, Bruce; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Yao, Jimin; Li, Ming; Liu, Zhuangjian; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Kim, Dae Gon; Le, An-Phong; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Kaplan, David L.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.; Huang, Yonggang; Kang, Zhan; Rogers, John A.

    2010-11-01

    Inorganic light-emitting diodes and photodetectors represent important, established technologies for solid-state lighting, digital imaging and many other applications. Eliminating mechanical and geometrical design constraints imposed by the supporting semiconductor wafers can enable alternative uses in areas such as biomedicine and robotics. Here we describe systems that consist of arrays of interconnected, ultrathin inorganic light-emitting diodes and photodetectors configured in mechanically optimized layouts on unusual substrates. Light-emitting sutures, implantable sheets and illuminated plasmonic crystals that are compatible with complete immersion in biofluids illustrate the suitability of these technologies for use in biomedicine. Waterproof optical-proximity-sensor tapes capable of conformal integration on curved surfaces of gloves and thin, refractive-index monitors wrapped on tubing for intravenous delivery systems demonstrate possibilities in robotics and clinical medicine. These and related systems may create important, unconventional opportunities for optoelectronic devices.

  19. How long after waterproofing a deck can you still isolate an ignitable liquid?

    PubMed

    Hetzel, Susan S; Moss, Robert D

    2005-03-01

    Dried, treated wood was sealed with Thompson's WaterSeal "Clear Multi-Surface Waterproofer" and exposed to outdoor, summer conditions. Sections of the sealed wood were then periodically tested and analyzed in accordance with ASTM methods. The WaterSeal contained a medium petroleum distillate (MPD) as a solvent for a wax. The treated lumber contained a background of aldehydes that could mimic a dearomatized MPD if not carefully investigated by the analyst. The MPD of the WaterSeal was detectable 14 days, but not 27 days after application with exposure to relatively hot, dry and sunny weather conditions. The test was repeated with the MPD detectable 16 days, but not 20 days after application with exposure to cooler and wetter weather conditions. The testing demonstrates the need for a thorough and complete investigation by the fire investigator and the submission of comparison samples to the laboratory. PMID:15813548

  20. Science and technology of building seals, sealants, glazing, and waterproofing: Seventh volume

    SciTech Connect

    Klosowski, J.M.

    1998-12-31

    This book captures papers from the Charles J. Parise Seventh Symposium on the Science and Technology of Building Seals. Sealants, Glazing, and Waterproofing. The overriding theme behind the papers is durability. This topic is fundamental to all users and specifiers of sealants. The first set of papers in this book addresses the topic of stress and fatigue. Joint designs vary from the square section to exaggerated hour-glass shapes. The joint designs are factors in the longevity of a sealant in the joint. The available work on accelerated weathering tests and how that relates to the damage caused by real weathering is summarized. Acrylic latex sealants can come in many qualities and some can be formulated to have properties that approach and in some cases match some of the chemically curing sealants. The unique sealant applications in roofs and doing the old fashion listing of the performance needed for each application is addressed. Destruction of a joint can be more than a failed sealant. It can be a fine sealant in a joint that is picked clean by birds. Destruction of weather protection offered by sealant, the diagnosis of the cause and solutions, especially in EIFS systems, was discussed in several papers. The esthetic concerns of fluid migration from sealants and sealant staining potential were addressed. Relative to sealant testing, the paper of work done at V.P.I. on adhesion testing is a landmark paper. Papers on finite element analysis are presented. These show where the stress concentration starts and maximizes in various joint designs and provides the basis for better joint design and better joint geometry. There is a concluding series of papers that address the adhesion of waterproofing membranes; firestopping from a latex viewpoint; polysulfide sealants for chemical containment; and a final paper looks at the myriad of places sealants are used in modern buildings and spaceframe structures.

  1. The effect on the radon diffusion coefficient of long-term exposure of waterproof membranes to various degradation agents.

    PubMed

    Navrátilová Rovenská, Katerina

    2014-07-01

    Waterproofing, usually made of bitumen or polymers with various additives, is used to protect buildings mainly against dampness, but also against radon transported from the soil beneath the building. The radon diffusion coefficient is a material property which is considered to be strongly influenced by the inner structure (chemical composition, crystallinity) of a measured sample. We have used this parameter together with measurements of mechanical properties (hardness, tensile strength, elongation at break, etc.) and FTIR spectroscopy has been used in order to describe the changes in material properties induced by long-term degradation. This paper summarizes the results of radon diffusion coefficient measurements of waterproof materials exposed to radon, soil bacteria, high temperature and combinations of these factors. We have discovered changes as high as 83 % have been discovered compared to virgin samples. PMID:24748486

  2. Radon diffusion coefficient measurement in waterproofings--a review of methods and an analysis of differences in results.

    PubMed

    Rovenská, Kate?ina; Jiránek, Martin

    2012-04-01

    This paper summarizes information about 16 measuring methods for determining the radon diffusion coefficient of waterproofing materials. We have found that the differences in results for identical membranes, which can be as high as two orders of magnitude, can mainly be attributed to insufficient duration of the tests, insufficient radon concentration to which the samples are exposed, and the use of steady state calculation procedures for data measured under non-steady state conditions. PMID:22285061

  3. [Two cases of lung injury due to inhalation of waterproofing spray--with special reference to pulmonary function disorder].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kazunori; Arita, Kenichi; Kajihara, Toshiki; Nitta, Tomoko; Mito, Akiko; Awaya, Hirokazu; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Ohashi, Nobuyuki

    2009-05-01

    CASE 1: A 57-year-old man experienced severe dyspnea 24 hours after inhalation of waterproofing spray. Computed tomography (CT) revealed diffuse ground glass opacities in bilateral lungs. Pulmonary function tests showed mixed ventilatory disturbance with a low expiratory flow rate near the end of forced expiration and a normal diffusing capacity with normal functional residual capasity. The pulmonary function disorder was quickly improved by steroid therapy. CASE 2: A 59-year-old man smoked after inhaling waterproofing spray and soon developed dyspnea. The findings of CT were similar to those of case 1. His pulmonary function test revealed restrictive ventilatory disturbance and normal pulmonary diffusing capacity with low functional residual capacity. These findings improved without steroid treatment. However, it took more time for the pulmonary function to recover. There was probably specific inflammation around bronchioles, and the inflammation might have spread to the alveolar region in such cases with severe pulmonary function disorder. Steroid treatment seems to be useful to improve both the pulmonary function disorder and the clinical feature due to inhalation of waterproofing spray. PMID:19514496

  4. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy as a suitable technique in the study of the materials used in waterproofing of archaeological amphorae.

    PubMed

    Font, J; Salvadó, N; Butí, S; Enrich, J

    2007-08-13

    The resinous materials from the interior surfaces of two Roman and one Iberian amphora were studied with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results were then compared with those obtained by synchrotron radiation-FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The FTIR spectra obtained by the technique of KBr micropellets, prepared directly with the materials scraped from the amphora without any further sample preparation, provided enough information to establish their diterpenoic nature, and even to differentiate between the two main materials employed for waterproofing purposes, pitch and wood tar. Methyl dehydroabietic acid (DHAM) is the main chemical marker that allows a distinction to be made between these two materials. Pitch and wood tar were prepared in the laboratory heating pine resin and resinous pine wood, respectively. These resinous waterproofing materials were compared with the coatings extracted from the amphorae. The samples whose direct FTIR spectra showed a signal at approximately 1740 cm(-1), attributed to a carbonyl group of methyl ester, presented as well a peak of DHAM in the GC-MS chromatogram of the neutral fraction of their extract. Samples without this signal in their spectra did not present DHAM in their chromatogram. This work studies, for the first time, waterproofing of an amphora attributed to the Iberian culture. PMID:17693315

  5. Fast optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy using a 2-axis water-proofing MEMS scanner.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Changho; Park, Kyungjin; Lim, Geunbae; Kim, Chulhong

    2015-01-01

    Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is a novel label-free microscopic imaging tool to provide in vivo optical absorbing contrasts. Specially, it is crucial to equip a real-time imaging capability without sacrificing high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for identifying and tracking specific diseases in OR-PAM. Herein we demonstrate a 2-axis water-proofing MEMS scanner made of flexible PDMS. This flexible scanner results in a wide scanning range (9 × 4?mm(2) in a transverse plane) and a fast imaging speed (5 B-scan images per second). Further, the MEMS scanner is fabricated in a compact footprint with a size of 15 × 15 × 15?mm(3). More importantly, the scanning ability in water makes the MEMS scanner possible to confocally and simultaneously reflect both ultrasound and laser, and consequently we can maintain high SNRs. The lateral and axial resolutions of the OR-PAM system are 3.6 and 27.7??m, respectively. We have successfully monitored the flow of carbon particles in vitro with a volumetric display frame rate of 0.14?Hz. Finally, we have successfully obtained in vivo PA images of microvasculatures in a mouse ear. It is expected that our compact and fast OR-PAM system can be significantly useful in both preclinical and clinical applications. PMID:25604654

  6. Ovarian dual oxidase (Duox) activity is essential for insect eggshell hardening and waterproofing.

    PubMed

    Dias, Felipe A; Gandara, Ana Caroline P; Queiroz-Barros, Fernanda G; Oliveira, Raquel L L; Sorgine, Marcos H F; Braz, Glória R C; Oliveira, Pedro L

    2013-12-01

    In insects, eggshell hardening involves cross-linking of chorion proteins via their tyrosine residues. This process is catalyzed by peroxidases at the expense of H2O2 and confers physical and biological protection to the developing embryo. Here, working with Rhodnius prolixus, the insect vector of Chagas disease, we show that an ovary dual oxidase (Duox), a NADPH oxidase, is the source of the H2O2 that supports dityrosine-mediated protein cross-linking and eggshell hardening. RNAi silencing of Duox activity decreased H2O2 generation followed by a failure in embryo development caused by a reduced resistance to water loss, which, in turn, caused embryos to dry out following oviposition. Phenotypes of Duox-silenced eggs were reversed by incubation in a water-saturated atmosphere, simultaneous silencing of the Duox and catalase genes, or H2O2 injection into the female hemocoel. Taken together, our results show that Duox-generated H2O2 fuels egg chorion hardening and that this process plays an essential role during eggshell waterproofing. PMID:24174530

  7. Fast optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy using a 2-axis water-proofing MEMS scanner

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Changho; Park, Kyungjin; Lim, Geunbae; Kim, Chulhong

    2015-01-01

    Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is a novel label-free microscopic imaging tool to provide in vivo optical absorbing contrasts. Specially, it is crucial to equip a real-time imaging capability without sacrificing high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for identifying and tracking specific diseases in OR-PAM. Herein we demonstrate a 2-axis water-proofing MEMS scanner made of flexible PDMS. This flexible scanner results in a wide scanning range (9 × 4?mm2 in a transverse plane) and a fast imaging speed (5 B-scan images per second). Further, the MEMS scanner is fabricated in a compact footprint with a size of 15 × 15 × 15?mm3. More importantly, the scanning ability in water makes the MEMS scanner possible to confocally and simultaneously reflect both ultrasound and laser, and consequently we can maintain high SNRs. The lateral and axial resolutions of the OR-PAM system are 3.6 and 27.7??m, respectively. We have successfully monitored the flow of carbon particles in vitro with a volumetric display frame rate of 0.14?Hz. Finally, we have successfully obtained in vivo PA images of microvasculatures in a mouse ear. It is expected that our compact and fast OR-PAM system can be significantly useful in both preclinical and clinical applications. PMID:25604654

  8. Fast optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy using a 2-axis water-proofing MEMS scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Changho; Park, Kyungjin; Lim, Geunbae; Kim, Chulhong

    2015-01-01

    Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is a novel label-free microscopic imaging tool to provide in vivo optical absorbing contrasts. Specially, it is crucial to equip a real-time imaging capability without sacrificing high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for identifying and tracking specific diseases in OR-PAM. Herein we demonstrate a 2-axis water-proofing MEMS scanner made of flexible PDMS. This flexible scanner results in a wide scanning range (9 × 4 mm2 in a transverse plane) and a fast imaging speed (5 B-scan images per second). Further, the MEMS scanner is fabricated in a compact footprint with a size of 15 × 15 × 15 mm3. More importantly, the scanning ability in water makes the MEMS scanner possible to confocally and simultaneously reflect both ultrasound and laser, and consequently we can maintain high SNRs. The lateral and axial resolutions of the OR-PAM system are 3.6 and 27.7 ?m, respectively. We have successfully monitored the flow of carbon particles in vitro with a volumetric display frame rate of 0.14 Hz. Finally, we have successfully obtained in vivo PA images of microvasculatures in a mouse ear. It is expected that our compact and fast OR-PAM system can be significantly useful in both preclinical and clinical applications.

  9. Anti-Reflective and Waterproof Hard Coating for High Power Laser Optical Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murahara, Masataka; Yabe, Takashi; Uchida, Shigeaki; Yoshida, Kunio; Okamoto, Yoshiaki

    2006-05-01

    A hard coating method of single crystalline porous silica film is widely used for high power laser optical elements in the air. However, there is no protective hard coating method for the elements to survive high power laser irradiance while in the water. We, thus, developed a new method for a waterproof coating with photo-oxidation of silicone oil. The silicone oil was spin-coated onto the surface of optical elements, and then irradiated with a xenon excimer lamp in the air. In this treatment, a protective coating for plastic lenses, mirrors, and nonlinear optical crystals, which are highly deliquescent, was developed by taking advantage of the phenomenon in which organic silicone oil is transformed to inorganic amorphous glass by a process of photo-oxidation. This technique has enabled an optical thin coating film to transmit ultraviolet rays of wavelengths under 200 nm and possess the characteristics of homogeneity, high density, resistance to environment, anti-reflectiveness, resistance to water, and Mohs' scale of 5, which is comparable to apatite. This allows us to cool a slab laser head and use as a mirror for underwater laser welding.

  10. Ovarian Dual Oxidase (Duox) Activity Is Essential for Insect Eggshell Hardening and Waterproofing*

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Felipe A.; Gandara, Ana Caroline P.; Queiroz-Barros, Fernanda G.; Oliveira, Raquel L. L.; Sorgine, Marcos H. F.; Braz, Glória R. C.; Oliveira, Pedro L.

    2013-01-01

    In insects, eggshell hardening involves cross-linking of chorion proteins via their tyrosine residues. This process is catalyzed by peroxidases at the expense of H2O2 and confers physical and biological protection to the developing embryo. Here, working with Rhodnius prolixus, the insect vector of Chagas disease, we show that an ovary dual oxidase (Duox), a NADPH oxidase, is the source of the H2O2 that supports dityrosine-mediated protein cross-linking and eggshell hardening. RNAi silencing of Duox activity decreased H2O2 generation followed by a failure in embryo development caused by a reduced resistance to water loss, which, in turn, caused embryos to dry out following oviposition. Phenotypes of Duox-silenced eggs were reversed by incubation in a water-saturated atmosphere, simultaneous silencing of the Duox and catalase genes, or H2O2 injection into the female hemocoel. Taken together, our results show that Duox-generated H2O2 fuels egg chorion hardening and that this process plays an essential role during eggshell waterproofing. PMID:24174530

  11. Performance evaluation of waterproofing membrane protective systems for concrete bridge decks. Final report 3 January-3 November 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Babaei, K.; Terrel, R.L.

    1983-08-01

    This study develops a methodology for field appraisal and evaluates the effectiveness of three selected waterproofing membrane installations presently in service in the State of Washington. Based on the information obtained, none of the test installations had completely sealed the passage of salt into the concrete decks. 'Active' and 'uncertain' corrosion potentials existed at the rehabilitated portions; however, a decrease in corrosion activity since the time of rehabilitation was noted. Concrete deterioration after rehabilitation has occurred mainly within the boundaries of the repair work and original concrete, and it is more evident in areas with a shallower rebar depth. It is recommended that future research include a greater number of bridge decks. In addition, service life performance data should be obtained through long-range monitoring of the installations.

  12. Flexible and waterproof micro-sensors to uncover zebrafish circadian rhythms: The next generation of cardiac monitoring for drug screening.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Beebe, Tyler; Jen, Nelson; Lee, Chia-An; Tai, Yuchong; Hsiai, Tzung K

    2015-09-15

    Flexible electronics are the next generation of sensors for mobile health and implantation. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an emergent strategy for pre-clinical drug development and toxicity testing. To address the confounding effects from sedation of fish and removal from the aquatic habitat for micro-electrocardiogram (µECG) measurements, we developed waterproof and wearable sensors to uncover the circadian variation in heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) (Massin et al., 2000). The parylene-C based ECG sensor consisted of an ultra-soft silicone integrated jacket designed to wrap around the fish during swimming. The Young's modulus of this silicone jacket matched with the fish surface, and an extended parylene cable connected the underwater chest electrodes with the out-of water electronics. In addition, embedded micro-glass spheres in the silicone effectively reduced the effective density of the jacket to ~1 g cm(-3). These innovations enabled physiological ECG telemetry in the fish's natural habitat without the need for sedation. Furthermore, a set of non-linear signal processing techniques filtered out the breathing and electromagnetic artifacts from the recorded signals. We observed a reduction in mean HR and an increase in HRV over 24h at 10 dpa, accompanied by QT prolongation as well as diurnal variations, followed by normalization in mean HR and QT intervals at 26 days post ventricular amputation (dpa). We revealed Amiodarone-mediated QTc prolongation, HR reduction and HRV increase otherwise masked by sedation. The novel features of the flexible silicon jacket for µECG telemetry unraveled the biological clock and normalization of QT intervals at 26 dpa, providing the first evidence of new physiological phenomena during cardiac injury and repair as well as cardiac drug-mediated aberrant rhythms. Thus, the light weight and waterproof design holds promise to advance the next generation of mobile health and drug discovery. PMID:25909335

  13. Characterizing emission and breathing-zone concentrations following exposure cases to fluororesin-based waterproofing spray mists.

    PubMed

    Vernez, David S; Droz, Pierre-Olivier; Lazor-Blanchet, Catherine; Jaques, Sylvain

    2004-09-01

    Measurements and simulations were performed to assess workers' exposure to solvent vapors and aerosols during the waterproofing of a tiled surface. This investigation followed two recent incidents in the same company where workers experienced acute respiratory illness after spraying a stain-repellent resin containing fluorinated polymers on stone-tiled walls and floors. Because the waterproofing activity had been done for years at the tile company without encountering any exposure problems prior to these cases, it was strongly suspected that the incidents were linked to a recent change in the composition of the coating mixture. Experimental measurements and simulations indicated that the emission rate of particles smaller than 10 microm may be estimated at 0.66 mg/sec (SD 0.10) for the old resin and at 0.37 mg/sec (SD 0.04) for the new one. The measurement of the solvent emission rate from surfaces coated with the two resins indicated that shortly after spraying, the emission was in the range of 18 to 20 mg/sec x m2 and was similar for both products. Solvent and overspray emission rates were introduced in a two-zone compartment model. The results obtained in the near-field indicate significant exposure to overspray mist (7 and 34 mg/m3 for new resin) and solvent vapors (80 to 350 ppm for the new resin). It was also shown that the introduction of the new resin tended to significantly decrease the levels of solvents and particulates in the workers' breathing zone. These results strongly suggest that cases of acute respiratory illness are related to the specific toxicity of the fluorinated polymer itself. The fact that the same polymer is used in various commercial products raises concern regarding other possible occupational and domestic exposures. PMID:15559330

  14. [Comparison of the absorbed dose at calibration depth of photon beams using the Japan Society of Medical Physics 12 beam quality conversion factor in the presence or absence of a waterproofing sleeve].

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Naoki; Takemura, Akihiro; Kita, Akinobu; Murai, Emi; Nishimoto, Yasuhiro; Toi, Akiko; Shimada, Masato; Sasamoto, Kouhei; Adachi, Toshiki

    2013-10-01

    In standard external beam radiotherapy dosimetry, which is based on absorbed dose by water, the absorbed dose at any calibration depth is calculated using the same beam quality conversion factor, regardless of the presence or absence of a waterproofing sleeve. In this study, we evaluated whether there were differences between absorbed doses at calibration depths calculated using a beam quality conversion factor including a wall correction factor that corresponds to a waterproofing sleeve thickness of 0.3 mm, and without a waterproofing sleeve. The Japan Society of Medical Physics (JSMP) has reported that the uncertainty of the results using a beam quality conversion factor that included a wall correction factor corresponding to a waterproofing sleeve thickness of 0.3 mm, regardless of the presence or absence of the sleeve, was 0.2%. This uncertainty proved to be in agreement with the reported range. PMID:24140905

  15. Waterproofing the heme pocket. Role of proximal amino acid side chains in preventing hemin loss from myoglobin.

    PubMed

    Liong, E C; Dou, Y; Scott, E E; Olson, J S; Phillips, G N

    2001-03-23

    The ability of myoglobin to bind oxygen reversibly depends critically on retention of the heme prosthetic group. Globin side chains at the Leu(89)(F4), His(97)(FG3), Ile(99)(FG5), and Leu(104)(G5) positions on the proximal side of the heme pocket strongly influence heme affinity. The roles of these amino acids in preventing heme loss have been examined by determining high resolution structures of 14 different mutants at these positions using x-ray crystallography. Leu(89) and His(97) are important surface amino acids that interact either sterically or electrostatically with the edges of the porphyrin ring. Ile(99) and Leu(104) are located in the interior region of the proximal pocket beneath ring C of the heme prosthetic group. The apolar amino acids Leu(89), Ile(99), and Leu(104) "waterproof" the heme pocket by forming a barrier to solvent penetration, minimizing the size of the proximal cavity, and maintaining a hydrophobic environment. Substitutions with smaller or polar side chains at these positions result in exposure of the heme to solvent, the appearance of crystallographically defined water molecules in or near the proximal pocket, and large increases in the rate of hemin loss. Thus, the naturally occurring amino acid side chains at these positions serve to prevent hydration of the His(93)-Fe(III) bond and are highly conserved in all known myoglobins and hemoglobins. PMID:11084036

  16. 575 nm laser oscillation in Dy3+-doped waterproof fluoro-aluminate glass fiber pumped by violet GaN laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Yasushi; Ishii, Osamu; Yamazaki, Masaaki

    2011-02-01

    We successfully drew a low-loss Dy-doped optical fiber (0.3dB/m at 532nm) of a waterproof fluoro-aluminate glass system and demonstrated yellow laser oscillation in the Dy3+-doped fluoride fiber pumped by a 398.8-nm GaN laser diode. The maximum output power was 10.3 mW and the slope efficiency was 17.1% at 575 nm. Since the fluoro-aluminate- glass system has a remarkable water resistance advantage compared to ZBLAN glass, Dy-doped fluoro-aluminate glass fiber is expected to contribute to making a solid-state yellow fiber laser with high chemical durability without a frequency doubling technique.

  17. High power red laser oscillation in Pr3+-doped waterproof fluoroaluminate glass fiber excited by a GaN laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, J.; Yamada, T.; Fujimoto, Y.; Ishii, O.; Yamazaki, M.

    2011-02-01

    We have demonstrated a high power red fiber laser with a Pr-doped waterproof fluoro-aluminate glass fiber (Pr:WPFGF). When 800 mW pumping power of a blue/violet GaN laser diode (GaN-LD) was launched into the Pr:WPFGF (core diameter 8 ?m, length 40 mm) with dielectric coating on both end surfaces to construct a resonator, the maximum output laser power at 638 nm was obtained to be 311.4 mW that is higher than previously reported Pr:ZBLAN fibers. The threshold power was evaluated to be 52.1 mW, and the slope efficiency was calculated to be 41.6%. Assuming the resonator to be a Fabry-Perot resonator, we can calculate the output power to be 336 mW at 800 mW pump power and the slop efficiency to be 44.2%. These theoretical values show good agreement with experimental ones.

  18. An analysis of residential window waterproofing systems

    E-print Network

    Parsons, Austin, 1959-

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of vinyl nail-on windows in the North American new home construction market has prompted ASTM International to write ASTM E2112-01 "Standard Practice for Installation of Exterior Windows, Doors and Skylights". ...

  19. High-temperature waterproofing for tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahnsen, E. B.; Izu, Y. D.

    1978-01-01

    Vapor-deposited coating protects silica tiles against water vapor up to 800 degrees Fahrenheit. Degradation products formed do not affect optical properties of coating. Application method makes it particularly suitable for fragile components.

  20. Roofing Workbook and Tests: Entering the Roofing and Waterproofing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Vocational Education Services.

    This document is one of a series of nine individual units of instruction for use in roofing apprenticeship classes in California. The unit consists of a workbook and test, perforated for student use. Fourteen topics are covered in the workbook and corresponding multiple-choice tests. For each topic, objectives, information sheets, and study…

  1. Fish oil disrupts seabird feather microstructure and waterproofing.

    PubMed

    Morandin, Lora A; O'Hara, Patrick D

    2014-10-15

    Seabirds and other aquatic avifauna are highly sensitive to exposure to petroleum oils. A small amount of oil is sufficient to break down the feather barrier that is necessary to prevent water penetration and hypothermia. Far less attention has been paid to potential effects on aquatic birds of so called 'edible oils', non-petroleum oils such as vegetable and fish oils. In response to a sardine oil discharge by a vessel off the coast of British Columbia, we conducted an experiment to assess if feather exposure to sheens of sardine oil (ranging from 0.04 to 3 ?m in thickness) resulted in measurable oil and water uptake and significant feather microstructure disruption. We designed the experiment based on a previous experiment on effects of petroleum oils on seabird feathers. Feathers exposed to the thinnest fish oil sheens (0.04 ?m) resulted in measurable feather weight gain (from oil and water uptake) and significant feather microstructure disruption. Both feather weight gain and microstructure disruption increased with increasing fish oil thickness. Because of the absence of primary research on effects of edible oils on sea birds, we conducted interviews with wildlife rehabilitation professionals with experience rehabilitating sea birds after edible oil exposure. The consensus from interviews and our experiment indicated that physical contact with fish and other 'edible oils' in the marine environment is at least as harmful to seabirds as petroleum oils. PMID:25089687

  2. 49 CFR 192.189 - Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...connection to any other underground structure. (c) Electrical equipment in vaults must conform to the applicable requirements of Class 1, Group D, of the National Electrical Code, ANSI/NFPA 70. [35 FR 13257, Aug....

  3. 49 CFR 192.189 - Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...connection to any other underground structure. (c) Electrical equipment in vaults must conform to the applicable requirements of Class 1, Group D, of the National Electrical Code, ANSI/NFPA 70. [35 FR 13257, Aug....

  4. 49 CFR 192.189 - Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...connection to any other underground structure. (c) Electrical equipment in vaults must conform to the applicable requirements of Class 1, Group D, of the National Electrical Code, ANSI/NFPA 70. [35 FR 13257, Aug....

  5. 49 CFR 192.189 - Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...connection to any other underground structure. (c) Electrical equipment in vaults must conform to the applicable requirements of Class 1, Group D, of the National Electrical Code, ANSI/NFPA 70. [35 FR 13257, Aug....

  6. 49 CFR 192.189 - Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...connection to any other underground structure. (c) Electrical equipment in vaults must conform to the applicable requirements of Class 1, Group D, of the National Electrical Code, ANSI/NFPA 70. [35 FR 13257, Aug....

  7. Waterproof Alkyl Phosphate Coated Fluoride Phosphors for Optoelectronic Materials.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hoang-Duy; Lin, Chun Che; Liu, Ru-Shi

    2015-09-01

    A facile approach for coating red fluoride phosphors with a moisture-resistant alkyl phosphate layer with a thickness of 50-100?nm is reported. K2 SiF6 :Mn(4+) particles were prepared by co-precipitation and then coated by esterification of P2 O5 with alcohols (methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol). This route was adopted to encapsulate the prepared phosphors using transition-metal ions as cross-linkers between the alkyl phosphate moieties. The coated phosphor particles exhibited a high water tolerance and retained approximately 87?% of their initial external quantum efficiency after aging under high-humidity (85?%) and high-temperature (85?°C) conditions for one month. Warm white-light-emitting diodes that consisted of blue InGaN chips, the prepared K2 SiF6 :Mn(4+) phosphors, and either yellow Y3 Al5 O12 :Ce(3+) phosphors or green ?-SiAlON: Eu(2+) phosphors showed excellent color rendition. PMID:26214154

  8. Green Roof Media Selection forGreen Roof Media Selection for the Minimization of Pollutantthe Minimization of Pollutant

    E-print Network

    Clark, Shirley E.

    mediaGrowth media ­­ Drainage layersDrainage layers ­­ Waterproof membranesWaterproof membranes Green _____________________ · Protection layer · Waterproofing · Gravel _______________________ · Protection layer · Waterproofing

  9. Fibers and fabrics with insulating, water-proofing, and flame-resistant properties

    DOEpatents

    Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Poco, John F.; Coronado, Paul R.

    2004-04-20

    Fibers, and fabrics produced from the fibers, are made water repellent, fire-retardant and/or thermally insulating by filling void spaces in the fibers and/or fabrics with a powdered material. When the powder is sufficiently finely divided, it clings tenaciously to the fabric's fibers and to itself, resisting the tendency to be removed from the fabric.

  10. Mechanical behaviour of a sprayed concrete lining isolated by a sprayed waterproofing membrane

    E-print Network

    Nakashimaa, Masanari; Hammer, Anna-Lena; Thewes, Markus; Elshafie, Mohammed; Soga, Kenichi

    2015-01-31

    tests for data analysis Three cylindrical compression tests were also performed to evaluate the strength and the Young’s modulus of the sprayed concrete in accordance with EN 206-1. Test specimens were cut from the same sprayed concrete panel... Results and discussion 4.1 Strength and Young’s modulus of the specimens The averaged strength and the Young’s modulus of the three test samples, together with the standard deviation (the numbers in parentheses), are shown in Table 2. Those average...

  11. Formation and dynamics of "waterproof" photoluminescent complexes of rare earth ions in crowded environment.

    PubMed

    Ignatova, Tetyana; Blades, Michael; Duque, Juan G; Doorn, Stephen K; Biaggio, Ivan; Rotkin, Slava V

    2014-12-28

    Understanding behavior of rare-earth ions (REI) in crowded environments is crucial for several nano- and bio-technological applications. Evolution of REI photoluminescence (PL) in small compartments inside a silica hydrogel, mimic to a soft matter bio-environment, has been studied and explained within a solvation model. The model uncovered the origin of high PL efficiency to be the formation of REI complexes, surrounded by bile salt (DOC) molecules. Comparative study of these REI-DOC complexes in bulk water solution and those enclosed inside the hydrogel revealed a strong correlation between an up to 5×-longer lifetime of REIs and appearance of the DOC ordered phase, further confirmed by dynamics of REI solvation shells, REI diffusion experiments and morphological characterization of microstructure of the hydrogel. PMID:25379879

  12. Roofing: Workbook and Tests. Common Roofing and Waterproofing Materials and Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Publications.

    This workbook on materials and equipment is one of a series of nine individual units of instruction for roofing apprenticeship classes in California. The workbook covers eight topics: production of bitumens and asphaltic roofing materials; built-up roofing materials and adhesives; asphaltic products and rigid roofing materials; elastomeric and…

  13. Analysis of the moisture diffusion transfer through fibrous porous membrane used for waterproof breathable fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Fanglong; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Suyan

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a new fractal model to determine the moisture effective diffusivity of porous membrane such as expanded polytetrafluorethylene membrane, by taking account of both parallel and perpendicular channels to diffusion flow direction. With the consideration of both the Knudsen and bulk diffusion effect, a relationship between micro-structural parameters and effective moisture diffusivity is deduced. The effective moisture diffusivities predicted by the present fractal model are compared with moisture diffusion experiment data and calculated values obtained from other theoretical models.

  14. Science and technology of building seals, sealants, glazing, and waterproofing: Sixth volume

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    This publication contains ten peer-reviewed papers on structural silicone glazing (SSG), sealant design, and recent sealant research. Collectively, these papers help answer some recent questions in sealant technology and provide the foundation for additional research and ASTM standards development. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

  15. Evolution of ``waterproof'' photoluminescent complexes of rare earth ions in crowded environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blades, Michael; Ignatova, Tetyana; Duque, Juan; Doorn, Stephen; Biaggio, Ivan; Rotkin, Slava V.

    2015-03-01

    We report the discovery of novel nitrogen phase synthesized using laser-heated diamond anvil cells at pressures well above the stability field of cg-N. This new phase is characterized by its singly bonded, layered polymeric (LP) structure similar to the predicted Pba2 and two colossal Raman bands, arising from two groups of highly polarized nitrogen atoms in the bulk and surface of the layer, respectively. The present result also provides a new constraint for the nitrogen phase diagram, highlighting an unusual symmetry lowering 3D cg-N to 2D LP-N transition and thereby the enhanced electrostatic contribution to the stabilization of this densely packed LP-N. The work has been supported by the NSF-DMR (Grant No. 1203834) and DTRA (HDTRA1-12-01-0020).

  16. Copolymer of methacrylic acid with its diethylammonium salt: Effective waterproofing agent for oil wells

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsova, O.N.; Avvakumova, N.I.

    1992-08-10

    In the development of technology for the copolymerization of methacrylic acid with its diethylammonium salt (MAA-MAA{center_dot}DEA), the polymer-like reaction of polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) with diethylamine (DEA) and the polymerization of MAA in the presence of DEA have been studied. 13 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. 16 CFR 24.3 - Misuse of the terms “waterproof,” “dustproof,” “warpproof,” “scuffproof,” “scratchproof,” “scuff...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...indicating that the product is not subject to wear in any other respect, to describe...scratches or scuff marks, or is not subject to wear as represented. (e) Use the term...indicating that the product is resistant to wear in any other respect, unless...

  18. 16 CFR 24.3 - Misuse of the terms “waterproof,” “dustproof,” “warpproof,” “scuffproof,” “scratchproof,” “scuff...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...indicating that the product is not subject to wear in any other respect, to describe...scratches or scuff marks, or is not subject to wear as represented. (e) Use the term...indicating that the product is resistant to wear in any other respect, unless...

  19. 16 CFR 24.3 - Misuse of the terms “waterproof,” “dustproof,” “warpproof,” “scuffproof,” “scratchproof,” “scuff...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...indicating that the product is not subject to wear in any other respect, to describe...scratches or scuff marks, or is not subject to wear as represented. (e) Use the term...indicating that the product is resistant to wear in any other respect, unless...

  20. 16 CFR 24.3 - Misuse of the terms “waterproof,” “dustproof,” “warpproof,” “scuffproof,” “scratchproof,” “scuff...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...scuff resistant,” and “scratch resistant.” It is unfair...of the product is immune to scratches or scuff marks, or is not...Scuff Resistant,” “Scratch Resistant,” or...significantly resistant to scuffing, scratches, or to wear as...

  1. 16 CFR 24.3 - Misuse of the terms “waterproof,” “dustproof,” “warpproof,” “scuffproof,” “scratchproof,” “scuff...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...scuff resistant,” and “scratch resistant.” It is unfair...of the product is immune to scratches or scuff marks, or is not...Scuff Resistant,” “Scratch Resistant,” or...significantly resistant to scuffing, scratches, or to wear as...

  2. Bored By Non-Glowing Skin? Ultra-Flexible, Waterproof LED Implants Are What You Seek

    E-print Network

    Rogers, John A.

    Be Malleable: Photo courtesy of iO9 But let's be real here - the crazy awesome applications of this invention-flexible LEDs? Here are some more awesome pictures of Rogers's LEDs in action to get your creative juices going contact lenses. Awesome! Link to this comment boka 10/19/10 at 1:10 pm I think I would rather have magnets

  3. 50 CFR 17.95 - Critical habitat-fish and wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Bluff NW; Tensas Bluff SE; Tensas Bluff SW; Turnbull Island NE; Turnbull Island NW; Turnbull Island SE; Turnbull Island SW; Waterproof NE; Waterproof NW; Waterproof SE; Waterproof SW; Waverly SE NE; Waverly...

  4. 50 CFR 17.95 - Critical habitat-fish and wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Bluff NW; Tensas Bluff SE; Tensas Bluff SW; Turnbull Island NE; Turnbull Island NW; Turnbull Island SE; Turnbull Island SW; Waterproof NE; Waterproof NW; Waterproof SE; Waterproof SW; Waverly SE NE; Waverly...

  5. 50 CFR 17.95 - Critical habitat-fish and wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Bluff NW; Tensas Bluff SE; Tensas Bluff SW; Turnbull Island NE; Turnbull Island NW; Turnbull Island SE; Turnbull Island SW; Waterproof NE; Waterproof NW; Waterproof SE; Waterproof SW; Waverly SE NE; Waverly...

  6. Formation of a photo-oxidized protective thin film with waterproof and high-power laser tolerance properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murahara, Masataka; Sato, Yuji; Funatsu, Takayuki; Jitsuno, Takahisa; Okamoto, Yoshiaki

    2008-10-01

    The organic silicone oil applied over the surface of a fused silica glass or Kaliumdihydrogenphosphat (KDP) nonlinear optical crystal was changed to an inorganic glass by the photochemical oxidization using a Xe2 excimer lamp in the air. As a result, the thin film acquired a characteristic of high power laser tolerance equivalent to quartz. Dimethylsiloxane silicone oil was spin-coated on the surfaces of a fused silica substrate and KDP to form a film of 100-nm thickness; which were irradiated with the Xe2 excimer lamp light (wavelength 172 nm, power density 10 mW/cm2) for 60 minutes in oxygen atmosphere. The films were further irradiated with the Nd: YAG laser of ? (1.06 ?m) or 2? (0.503 ?m), and the laser damage test (J/cm2/10 ns) was conducted. The laser damage threshold of the photo-oxidized 100 nm thick film formed on the fused silica substrate was 72 J/cm2 in ? and 107 J/cm2 in 2?. On the KDP substrate, the laser damage threshold of the thin film was 32.4J/cm2 in ? and 32.6 J/cm2 in 2?.

  7. Comprehensive experimental study on prevention of land subsidence caused by dewatering in deep foundation pit with hanging waterproof curtain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, T. L.; Yan, X. X.; Wang, H. M.; Huang, X. L.; Zhan, G. H.

    2015-11-01

    Land subsidence caused by dewatering of deep foundations pit has currently become the focus of prevention and control of land subsidence in Shanghai. Because of the reliance on deep foundation dewatering pit projects, two comprehensive test sites were established to help prevent land subsidence. Through geological environmental monitoring during dewatering of a deep foundation pit, the analysis of the relation between artesian water level and soil subsidence, some basic features of land subsidence caused by dewatering of deep foundation pits are elucidated. The results provide a scientific basis for prevention and control of land subsidence caused by dewatering in deep foundation pits.

  8. VEGETATED ROOF STANDARDS The University of Virginia

    E-print Network

    Nagy, Eric Sándor

    , certified, experienced vegetated roof installers. Waterproofing membrane to be water-tested, witnessed system components. Before installing waterproofing membrane, the vegetated roof system contractor the vegetated roof to avoid damage to waterproofing membrane. Vegetated roofs (accepting pre-grown trays

  9. DEPARTMENT OF EARTH SCIENCES, UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD SECOND YEAR FIELD COURSE -SE FRANCE

    E-print Network

    Niocaill, Conall Mac

    weather. You must ensure that you have ample and suitable wind- and waterproof clothing, and sound boots · Waterproof pen(s), pencils and coloured pencils · Hand lens (x 10) · Clipboard and waterproof plastic sleeve

  10. 76 FR 6614 - Notice of a Regional Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ...manufactured in Surrey, British Columbia, for a hot applied membrane waterproofing system for...manufactured in Surrey, British Columbia, for a hot applied membrane waterproofing system for...is being incorporated into the reinforced hot-applied waterproofing system to...

  11. , T.V.Shymchuk , I.V.Stasyuk, T.S.Mysakovych

    E-print Network

    reserves of the stuff it is promising to use them for building waterproof ground constructions, i and waterproof properties (klinoptylolite, vermiculite). Hence, even though Ukraine possesses large reserve

  12. Scenic Yellowstone River Rafting Trip Description

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Sunscreen: SPF 15 or greater Ball Cap Water bottle Optional: Camera- a disposable, waterproof model UPPER BODY CLOTHING Waterproof bags will be provided for stowing essential items while oating (please

  13. 40 CFR 59.402 - VOC content limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...VOC content limit in table 1 of this subpart). (10) Waterproofing sealers and treatments that also meet the definition for...to the VOC content limit in table 1 of this subpart for waterproofing sealers and treatments. (11) Sanding sealers...

  14. 40 CFR 59.402 - VOC content limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...VOC content limit in table 1 of this subpart). (10) Waterproofing sealers and treatments that also meet the definition for...to the VOC content limit in table 1 of this subpart for waterproofing sealers and treatments. (11) Sanding sealers...

  15. INTRODUCTION Maternal investment in offspring ranges from minimal provisions

    E-print Network

    are not metabolized as an energy source, but rather are conserved for waterproofing the cuticle across several larval molts. Long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons waterproof insect cuticle and serve as pheromones

  16. NEW AND IMPROVED DEVICES FOR FISH CULTURISTS By Alfred E. Fuller

    E-print Network

    , is provided with a waterproof record holder and indicator projecting above the water. The nest proper of the pond. The shield and container are coated with paint. The record holder consists of a waterproof case

  17. 40 CFR 59.402 - VOC content limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...VOC content limit in table 1 of this subpart). (10) Waterproofing sealers and treatments that also meet the definition for...to the VOC content limit in table 1 of this subpart for waterproofing sealers and treatments. (11) Sanding sealers...

  18. Hillside C-type Renovation Issues and Remedies

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    waterproofing, especially utility shafts #12;To Deputy Director IIT Bombay 10 Cosmetics over function waterproofing needed before internal cosmetics · Even perfect external repairs will not fix the window leakage

  19. Supplement of Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 14891502, 2015 http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/15/1489/2015/

    E-print Network

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    coatings 0.3% TEX 40% 2010.06.01 GB/T 23446-2009 Spray polyurea waterproofing coatings 200 mg/kg TEX 1 for environmental labeling products-Waterproof coatings 0.5 g/kg TEX 80 g/kg (Epoxy and polyurethane coatings) TEX 1066-2008 Limit of harmful substances of building waterproof coatings -- (water based) 200 mg

  20. Quarterly Construction Status Report Period Ending: June 30, 2014

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    the contractor the install a waterproof membrane under the terazzo floor. 3. Epoxy flooring As with the terazzo floor, the concrete subfloor had not fully cured and would require a waterproof membrane, however not require a waterproof membrane, but take longer to install, based on a 5 step application. Exterior -The

  1. Journal of Chemical Ecology, Vol. 26, No. 5, 2000 0098-0331/00/0500-1245$18.00/0 2000 Plenum Publishing Corporation

    E-print Network

    waterproofing barrier on the cuticle of most terrestrial insects. Yet, the relationships among the type, amount on the epicuticle, were associated with higher Tm, implicating these components of the HC blend in waterproofing relations. INTRODUCTION Epicuticular lipids have a central role in waterproofing the cuticle of terrestrial

  2. +0 000 FFL Main Space -0 680 Pavement Level

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Stephan

    roof to eng's spec roof edge to architect's detail & eng approval flashing & waterproofing to detail to schedule new brickwork opening ex. roof slab to remain, waterproofing by specialist extent of ex. roof slab, new upstand & specialist waterproofing to eng's spec extent of demolished roof slab & brickworknew

  3. Chemistry of natural fuel: Use of wastes of synthetic fatty acid production for obtaining water-bitumen emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Syroezhko, A.M.; Antipova, E.I.; Paukku, A.N.

    1995-12-10

    The possibility of producing water-emulsion waterproofing mastic and waterproofing coating based on bitumen, rubber crumb, and bottoms from production of synthetic fatty acids was studied. The physicochemical properties (softening point, ductility, sorptive properties, and friability) of the waterproofing coating based on a water-emulsion mastic were measured.

  4. 40 CFR 410.60 - Applicability; description of the carpet finishing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...printing, resin treatment, waterproofing, flameproofing, soil repellency, looping, and backing with foamed and unfoamed latex and jute. Carpet backing without other carpet manufacturing operations is included in subpart...

  5. 40 CFR 410.60 - Applicability; description of the carpet finishing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...printing, resin treatment, waterproofing, flameproofing, soil repellency, looping, and backing with foamed and unfoamed latex and jute. Carpet backing without other carpet manufacturing operations is included in subpart...

  6. 40 CFR 410.60 - Applicability; description of the carpet finishing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...printing, resin treatment, waterproofing, flameproofing, soil repellency, looping, and backing with foamed and unfoamed latex and jute. Carpet backing without other carpet manufacturing operations is included in subpart...

  7. 40 CFR 410.60 - Applicability; description of the carpet finishing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...printing, resin treatment, waterproofing, flameproofing, soil repellency, looping, and backing with foamed and unfoamed latex and jute. Carpet backing without other carpet manufacturing operations is included in subpart...

  8. 40 CFR 410.60 - Applicability; description of the carpet finishing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...printing, resin treatment, waterproofing, flameproofing, soil repellency, looping, and backing with foamed and unfoamed latex and jute. Carpet backing without other carpet manufacturing operations is included in subpart...

  9. War against water

    SciTech Connect

    Fitz-Hugh, S.

    1982-01-01

    It is stressed that waterproofing should be the most important concern in an earth-sheltered home, starting with the design and continuing throughout the construction. Damage which may be caused by water leakage is discussed. Proper site selection is most important and the need for outside professionals and consultants is emphasized. The ideal waterproofing system is discussed and illustrated. Waterproofing agents are discussed in detail. They are: (1) sodium bentonite; (2) elastomers, such as isobutylene isoprene (butyl rubber), EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer), and liquid elastomers (polyurethanes); and (3) rubberized asphalt. Availability, sheet sizes and application of these waterproofing agents are discussed. (MJJ)

  10. 29 CFR 570.67 - Occupations in roofing operations and on or about a roof (Order 16).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...flashing, and applying weatherproofing materials and substances (such as waterproof membranes...pitch, asphalt prepared paper, tile, composite roofing materials, slate, metal, translucent materials, and shingles of asbestos,...

  11. 29 CFR 570.67 - Occupations in roofing operations and on or about a roof (Order 16).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...flashing, and applying weatherproofing materials and substances (such as waterproof membranes...pitch, asphalt prepared paper, tile, composite roofing materials, slate, metal, translucent materials, and shingles of asbestos,...

  12. 29 CFR 570.67 - Occupations in roofing operations and on or about a roof (Order 16).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...flashing, and applying weatherproofing materials and substances (such as waterproof membranes...pitch, asphalt prepared paper, tile, composite roofing materials, slate, metal, translucent materials, and shingles of asbestos,...

  13. 29 CFR 570.67 - Occupations in roofing operations and on or about a roof (Order 16).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...flashing, and applying weatherproofing materials and substances (such as waterproof membranes...pitch, asphalt prepared paper, tile, composite roofing materials, slate, metal, translucent materials, and shingles of asbestos,...

  14. 29 CFR 570.67 - Occupations in roofing operations and on or about a roof (Order 16).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...flashing, and applying weatherproofing materials and substances (such as waterproof membranes...pitch, asphalt prepared paper, tile, composite roofing materials, slate, metal, translucent materials, and shingles of asbestos,...

  15. Rewaterproofing Silica Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lleger, L. J.; Wade, D. C.

    1983-01-01

    Waterproofing agent, vaporized in bubbler transported by gas flowing in system and deposits in pores of tiles. Vapor carried through hole of approximately 1/16 inch (1.6.mm) diameter made in tile coating. Technique used to waterproof buildups (concrete and brick) and possibly fabrics.

  16. Water-Repellency Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Charles D.; Mitchell, Shirley M.; Jolly, Stanley R.; Jackson, Richard G.; Fleming, Scott T.; Roberts, William J.; Bell, Daniel R., III

    1996-01-01

    Instrument yielding presence or absence of waterproofing agent at any given depth in blanket developed. In original application, blankets in question part of space shuttle thermal protection system. Instrument utilized to determine extent of waterproofing "burnout" due to re-entry heating and adverse environment exposure.

  17. 46 CFR 160.021-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...coating shall be applied so none adheres to the friction striking surface. Special consideration will be given to alternate waterproofing of the signal by means of a water-resistant coating on the signal plus packaging in a sealed plastic waterproof bag...

  18. 46 CFR 160.021-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...coating shall be applied so none adheres to the friction striking surface. Special consideration will be given to alternate waterproofing of the signal by means of a water-resistant coating on the signal plus packaging in a sealed plastic waterproof bag...

  19. 46 CFR 160.021-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...coating shall be applied so none adheres to the friction striking surface. Special consideration will be given to alternate waterproofing of the signal by means of a water-resistant coating on the signal plus packaging in a sealed plastic waterproof bag...

  20. 46 CFR 160.021-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...coating shall be applied so none adheres to the friction striking surface. Special consideration will be given to alternate waterproofing of the signal by means of a water-resistant coating on the signal plus packaging in a sealed plastic waterproof bag...

  1. 46 CFR 160.037-4 - Approval and production tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... signal plus packaging in a sealed plastic waterproof bag, the 24-hour water immersion conditioning will be conducted while the signal is in the sealed plastic waterproof bag and will be followed by an additional immersion of the bare signal (i.e., after removal from the bag) 25 mm (1 in.) below the surface...

  2. 46 CFR 160.021-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... thoroughly mixed and be uniformly compressed throughout to preclude variations of density which may adversely... button shall be non-water soluble or be protected from moisture by a coating of some waterproof substance... a water-resistant coating on the signal plus packaging in a sealed plastic waterproof...

  3. 46 CFR 160.050-4 - Construction and workmanship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Plastic § 160.050-4 Construction and workmanship. (a) General. This specification covers ring life buoys... the buoy with a suitable waterproof adhesive which is compatible with the unicellular plastic used...

  4. 46 CFR 160.050-4 - Construction and workmanship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Plastic § 160.050-4 Construction and workmanship. (a) General. This specification covers ring life buoys... the buoy with a suitable waterproof adhesive which is compatible with the unicellular plastic used...

  5. Components of skin

    MedlinePLUS

    ... underlying skin layers from the outside environment and contains cells that make keratin, a substance that waterproofs ... the skin. The epidermis also has cells that contain melanin, the dark pigment that gives skin its ...

  6. 30 CFR 77.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...capacity, having a spring-closing lid and spout cover. (y) Safety fuse means a train of powder enclosed in cotton, jute yarn, and waterproofing compounds, which burns at a uniform rate; used for firing a cap containing the detonating...

  7. 30 CFR 77.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...capacity, having a spring-closing lid and spout cover. (y) Safety fuse means a train of powder enclosed in cotton, jute yarn, and waterproofing compounds, which burns at a uniform rate; used for firing a cap containing the detonating...

  8. 30 CFR 77.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...capacity, having a spring-closing lid and spout cover. (y) Safety fuse means a train of powder enclosed in cotton, jute yarn, and waterproofing compounds, which burns at a uniform rate; used for firing a cap containing the detonating...

  9. 30 CFR 77.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...capacity, having a spring-closing lid and spout cover. (y) Safety fuse means a train of powder enclosed in cotton, jute yarn, and waterproofing compounds, which burns at a uniform rate; used for firing a cap containing the detonating...

  10. 30 CFR 77.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...capacity, having a spring-closing lid and spout cover. (y) Safety fuse means a train of powder enclosed in cotton, jute yarn, and waterproofing compounds, which burns at a uniform rate; used for firing a cap containing the detonating...

  11. 49 CFR 178.356-2 - Materials of construction and other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Materials of construction and other requirements. (a) Phenolic foam insulation must be fire-resistant and...) Waterproofing. Each screw hole in the outer shell must be sealed with appropriate resin-type sealing...

  12. A Systematic Approach to Evaluating the Building Envelope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Jon F.; Stewart, Edward J.; Morand, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a process for evaluating a building's envelope (roof, walls, windows, waterproofing, and structure). Steps are grouped into the following categories: building history, field inspection, access methods, identifying defects, testing methods, and engineering analysis. (EV)

  13. An engineering student has taken out best paper award at an international conference

    E-print Network

    Waikato, University of

    in San Jose, California, earlier this year as part of an international symposium on electronic imaging-resistant (superhydrophobic). "Superhydrophobic titanium and titanium dioxide powder can be used to make textiles waterproof

  14. Extent of Sorption and Biodegradation of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid (PFOS) in Aquifer Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluoropolymers such as Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) were used provide non-stick surfaces on cookware and waterproof, breathable clothing. PFOA is very persistent in the environment and is found at low concentrations in the environment and...

  15. Extent of Sorption and Biodegradability of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in Aquifer Sediment (Maryland)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluoropolymers such as Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) were used provide non-stick surfaces on cookware and waterproof, breathable clothing. PFOA is very persistent in the environment and is found at low concentrations in the environment and...

  16. Extent of Sorption and Biodegradability of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid (PFOS) in Aquifer Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluoropolymers such as Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) were used provide non-stick surfaces on cookware and waterproof, breathable clothing. PFOA is very persistent in the environment and is found at low concentrations in the environment and...

  17. Behind the Seams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, W. Bradford

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the use of seamless flooring in areas where cleanliness, waterproofing, and slip resistance is emphasized. Areas such as locker rooms, restrooms, kitchens and cafeterias, lobbies and hallways, multipurpose-rooms, and walkways are considered. (GR)

  18. 49 CFR 177.841 - Division 6.1 and Division 2.3 materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... occur. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 177.841, see the List of CFR Sections...-proof, steel hopper-type or dump-type motor-vehicle bodies equipped with water-proof, dust-proof...

  19. 49 CFR 177.841 - Division 6.1 and Division 2.3 materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... occur. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 177.841, see the List of CFR Sections...-proof, steel hopper-type or dump-type motor-vehicle bodies equipped with water-proof, dust-proof...

  20. Hemovac drain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 6 cotton swabs Gauze pads Clean soapy water Plastic trash bag Surgical tape Waterproof pad or bath towel To ... old bandage. Throw the old bandage into a plastic trash bag. Inspect your skin where the drainage tube comes ...

  1. Surgical wound care - open

    MedlinePLUS

    ... off dry. Put the old dressing in a plastic bag and set it aside. Clean your hands again ... dressing and other used supplies in a waterproof plastic bag. Close it tightly, then double it before putting ...

  2. 78 FR 18960 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... retrieved from these modified traps would remain onboard for a short period of time to allow for sampling..., including onboard electronic calipers for length measurements, video cameras, and waterproof tablets....

  3. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE

    E-print Network

    cat, madtom, poison cat, tadpole cat ············· 17 Mice ··················· 21 Salmon eggs .·.·······.···.·.··· 21 Pork rind...................... 22 Water-proofing dry flies These crustaceans may be collected from the riffles of streams and from shallow-water areas of pools, ponds

  4. 30 CFR 7.504 - Refuge alternatives and components; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Containers used for storage of refuge alternative components or provisions shall be— (1) Airtight, waterproof, and rodent-proof; (2) Easy to open and close without the use of tools; and (3) Conspicuously marked with an expiration...

  5. 30 CFR 7.504 - Refuge alternatives and components; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Containers used for storage of refuge alternative components or provisions shall be— (1) Airtight, waterproof, and rodent-proof; (2) Easy to open and close without the use of tools; and (3) Conspicuously marked with an expiration...

  6. 40 CFR 60.591 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...000 square mile area extending from the Brooks Range to the Arctic Ocean. Asphalt (also known as Bitumen) is a black or dark brown solid or semi-solid thermo-plastic material possessing waterproofing and adhesive properties. It...

  7. 40 CFR 60.591a - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...000 square mile area extending from the Brooks Range to the Arctic Ocean. Asphalt (also known as Bitumen) is a black or dark brown solid or semi-solid thermo-plastic material possessing waterproofing and adhesive properties. It...

  8. 40 CFR 60.591a - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...000 square mile area extending from the Brooks Range to the Arctic Ocean. Asphalt (also known as Bitumen) is a black or dark brown solid or semi-solid thermo-plastic material possessing waterproofing and adhesive properties. It...

  9. 40 CFR 60.591a - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...000 square mile area extending from the Brooks Range to the Arctic Ocean. Asphalt (also known as Bitumen) is a black or dark brown solid or semi-solid thermo-plastic material possessing waterproofing and adhesive properties. It...

  10. 40 CFR 60.591 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...000 square mile area extending from the Brooks Range to the Arctic Ocean. Asphalt (also known as Bitumen) is a black or dark brown solid or semi-solid thermo-plastic material possessing waterproofing and adhesive properties. It...

  11. 40 CFR 60.591 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...000 square mile area extending from the Brooks Range to the Arctic Ocean. Asphalt (also known as Bitumen) is a black or dark brown solid or semi-solid thermo-plastic material possessing waterproofing and adhesive properties. It...

  12. 40 CFR 60.591a - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...000 square mile area extending from the Brooks Range to the Arctic Ocean. Asphalt (also known as Bitumen) is a black or dark brown solid or semi-solid thermo-plastic material possessing waterproofing and adhesive properties. It...

  13. 40 CFR 60.591 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...000 square mile area extending from the Brooks Range to the Arctic Ocean. Asphalt (also known as Bitumen) is a black or dark brown solid or semi-solid thermo-plastic material possessing waterproofing and adhesive properties. It...

  14. 40 CFR 60.591 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...000 square mile area extending from the Brooks Range to the Arctic Ocean. Asphalt (also known as Bitumen) is a black or dark brown solid or semi-solid thermo-plastic material possessing waterproofing and adhesive properties. It...

  15. 40 CFR 60.591a - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...000 square mile area extending from the Brooks Range to the Arctic Ocean. Asphalt (also known as Bitumen) is a black or dark brown solid or semi-solid thermo-plastic material possessing waterproofing and adhesive properties. It...

  16. Zeina EL CHLOUK Wadi Chahrour main road, Annabeh Street,

    E-print Network

    and construction Materials Seminar on concrete types and repair, flooring and waterproofing July-Aug 2011 Phone: 00 961 3 921063 E-mail: zeinachlouk@gmail.com Education 2012 Materials Engineering 5th year

  17. SheetEnvironment, Health and Safety Information for the Berkeley Campus Please post or circulate

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    the biosafety cabi- net, keep the cabinet running, add disinfectant, close the sash, and allow aerosols, but is not limited to, the following: a.) Lab coat and optional waterproof apron b.) Shoe covers, if available c

  18. Self-Sealing and Puncture Resistant Breathable Membranes for Water-Evaporation Applications.

    PubMed

    Rother, Martin; Barmettler, Jonas; Reichmuth, Andreas; Araujo, Jose V; Rytka, Christian; Glaied, Olfa; Pieles, Uwe; Bruns, Nico

    2015-11-01

    Breathable and waterproof membranes that self-seal damaged areas are prepared by modifying a poly(ether ester) membrane with an amphiphilic polymer co-network. The latter swells in water and the gel closes punctures. Damaged composite membranes remain water tight up to pressures of at least 1.6 bar. This material is useful for applications where water-vapor permeability, self-sealing properties, and waterproofness are desired, as demonstrated for a medical cooling device. PMID:26418974

  19. Thermal insulation protection means

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dotts, R. L.; Smith, J. A.; Strouhal, G. (inventors)

    1979-01-01

    A system for providing thermal insulation for portions of a spacecraft which do not exceed 900 F during ascent or reentry relative to the earth's atmosphere is described. The thermal insulation is formed of relatively large flexible sheets of needled Nomex felt having a flexible waterproof coating. The thickness of the felt is sized to protect against projected temperatures and is attached to the structure by a resin adhesive. Vent holes in the sheets allow ventilation while maintaining waterproofing. The system is heat treated to provide thermal stability.

  20. Shingle system

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L. (Piedmont, CA)

    2008-02-12

    A barrier, such as a PV module, is secured to a base by a support to create a shingle assembly with a venting region defined between the barrier and base for temperature regulation. Water resistant junctions may be formed between the bases of adjacent shingle assemblies of an array of shingle assemblies. The base may include an insulation layer underlying a water barrier. The base may also include a waterproofing element; the width and height of the barrier may be shorter than the width and height of the waterproofing element.

  1. Superhydrophobic brocades modified with aligned ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Gaocan; Zhang, Huan; Yuan, Zhihao

    2011-11-01

    A superhydrophobic ZnO oriented nanorods coating on brocade substrate was prepared by a low-temperature wet chemical route, and the corresponding waterproof properties were evaluated. From wetting measurement, the modified brocades have a water contact angle of ?152° and roll-off angle of 9° to a 10 ?L water-droplet. A direct immersion of the modified brocades in water gives a strongly water-repellent behavior. The obtained waterproof brocades offer an opportunity for fabricating some special and protective drygoods.

  2. Toward high output-power nanogenerator Peng Fei,1,2

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhong L.

    was com- pleted by packaging the device with water-proof polymer so that the testing could be carried outHz ultrasonic wave generator was used as the vibration source to excite the NG from the bottom of the water bath. The ultrasonic wave acts on the electrode and produces a vertical and/or lateral periodic relative displace- ment

  3. VERTEBRATE NATURAL HISTORY Instructors: Jim McGuire, Alan Shabel, Rauri Bowie

    E-print Network

    field notebook 100 pts. 1 independent field project 150 pts. 1 peer review exercise 20 pts. 13 field. Bring a field notebook to the first field trip (see page 118, #1). Also bring a pen with waterproof black ink. See notebook examples in the laboratory. The field notebook will be handed in on February 11

  4. ASTM and other specifications and classifications for petroleum products and lubricants. Fifth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This book includes specifications and classifications from ASTM committees on paint and related coatings and materials; road and paving materials; wood; roofing, waterproofing and bituminous materials; rubber; soaps and other detergents; aromatic hydrocarbons and related chemicals; and electrical insulating liquids and gases. Also included are several related, important specifications and classifications from other organizations.

  5. Engineered proteins stick like glue --even in water1 www.sciencedaily.com2

    E-print Network

    South Bohemia, University of

    . Scientists have previously engineered E. coli bacteria to produce individual mussel foot21 proteins waterproof adhesives, the MIT researchers engineered bacteria to6 produce a hybrid material that incorporates by bacteria growing on a surface. When combined, these proteins form even stronger underwater adhesives8 than

  6. Underwater near-infrared spectroscopy measurements of muscle oxygenation: laboratory validation and preliminary observations in swimmers and triathletes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ben; Dat, Marco; Cooper, Chris E

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to waterproof a near-infrared spectroscopy device (PortaMon, Artinis Medical Systems) to enable NIR measurement during swim exercise. Candidate materials were initially tested for waterproof suitability by comparing light intensity values during phantom-based tissue assessment. Secondary assessment involved repeated isokinetic exercises ensuring reliability of the results obtained from the modified device. Tertiary assessment required analysis of the effect of water immersion and temperature upon device function. Initial testing revealed that merely covering the PortaMon light sources with waterproof materials considerably affected the NIR light intensities. Modifying a commercially available silicone covering through the addition of a polyvinyl chloride material (impermeable to NIR light transmission) produces an acceptable compromise. Bland–Altman analysis indicated that exercise-induced changes in tissue saturation index (TSI %) were within acceptable limits during laboratory exercise. Although water immersion had a small but significant effect upon NIR light intensity, this resulted in a negligible change in the measured TSI (%). We then tested the waterproof device in vivo illustrating oxygenation changes during a 100 m freestyle swim case study. Finally, a full study compared club level swimmers and triathletes. Significant changes in oxygenation profiles when comparing upper and lower extremities for the two groups were revealed, reflecting differences in swim biomechanics. PMID:25478871

  7. 46 CFR 160.037-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...exposed for striking the friction igniter button. The...or be protected from moisture by a coating of some...positive ignition by the friction striker. The igniter...from deterioration by moisture. The protective waterproof...none adheres to the friction striking...

  8. 46 CFR 160.021-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...exposed for striking the friction igniter button. The...or be protected from moisture by a coating of some...positive ignition by the friction striker. The igniter...from deterioration by moisture. The protective waterproof...none adheres to the friction striking...

  9. 46 CFR 160.050-4 - Construction and workmanship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... be adhesive bonded along a center line through an axis passing through the flat area dimension of the body. The adhesive shall be a liquid cold setting, polymerizable, nonsolvent, containing material of... the buoy with a suitable waterproof adhesive which is compatible with the unicellular plastic used...

  10. 19 CFR 141.89 - Additional information for certain classes of merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...stitched to the leather sole wrong side out and the shoe is then turned right side out. m. Vegetable fibers include cotton, flax and ramie, but do not include either rayon or plaiting materials such as rattan or wood strips. n. Waterproof...

  11. 19 CFR 141.89 - Additional information for certain classes of merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...stitched to the leather sole wrong side out and the shoe is then turned right side out. m. Vegetable fibers include cotton, flax and ramie, but do not include either rayon or plaiting materials such as rattan or wood strips. n. Waterproof...

  12. 19 CFR 141.89 - Additional information for certain classes of merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...stitched to the leather sole wrong side out and the shoe is then turned right side out. m. Vegetable fibers include cotton, flax and ramie, but do not include either rayon or plaiting materials such as rattan or wood strips. n. Waterproof...

  13. 19 CFR 141.89 - Additional information for certain classes of merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...stitched to the leather sole wrong side out and the shoe is then turned right side out. m. Vegetable fibers include cotton, flax and ramie, but do not include either rayon or plaiting materials such as rattan or wood strips. n. Waterproof...

  14. Hide And Seek GPS And Geocaching In The Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lary, Lynn M.

    2004-01-01

    In short, geocaching is a high-tech, worldwide treasure hunt (geocaches can now be found in more than 180 countries) where a person hides a cache for others to find. Generally, the cache is some type of waterproof container that contains a log book and an assortment of goodies, such as lottery tickets, toys, photo books for cachers to fill with…

  15. Protected Membrane Roofs: A Sustainable Roofing Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roodvoets, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the benefits of protected membrane roofing (PMR) for school buildings. PMR uses an upside-down approach, where the insulation is placed on top of the waterproofing membrane to improve membrane effectiveness, reduce ultraviolet degradation, and improve insulation efficiency. The article explains what makes PMR sustainable, focusing on…

  16. 49 CFR 571.403 - Standard No. 403; Platform lift systems for motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2Test procedure. Before the test, prepare the surface of the test rubber by lightly abrading with waterproof silicon carbide paper, grade P120, weight D (120 wet and dry). Then wipe the surface clean with a dry cloth or brush. No...

  17. 49 CFR 571.403 - Standard No. 403; Platform lift systems for motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2Test procedure. Before the test, prepare the surface of the test rubber by lightly abrading with waterproof silicon carbide paper, grade P120, weight D (120 wet and dry). Then wipe the surface clean with a dry cloth or brush. No...

  18. 49 CFR 571.403 - Standard No. 403; Platform lift systems for motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2Test procedure. Before the test, prepare the surface of the test rubber by lightly abrading with waterproof silicon carbide paper, grade P120, weight D (120 wet and dry). Then wipe the surface clean with a dry cloth or brush. No...

  19. 49 CFR 571.403 - Standard No. 403; Platform lift systems for motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2Test procedure. Before the test, prepare the surface of the test rubber by lightly abrading with waterproof silicon carbide paper, grade P120, weight D (120 wet and dry). Then wipe the surface clean with a dry cloth or brush. No...

  20. 49 CFR 571.403 - Standard No. 403; Platform lift systems for motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2Test procedure. Before the test, prepare the surface of the test rubber by lightly abrading with waterproof silicon carbide paper, grade P120, weight D (120 wet and dry). Then wipe the surface clean with a dry cloth or brush. No...

  1. New system for bathing bedridden patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Staley, R. A.; Payne, P. A.

    1973-01-01

    Multihead shower facility can be used with minimal patient handling. Waterproof curtain allows patient to bathe with his head out of shower. He can move completely inside shower to wash his face and hair. Main advantage of shower system is time saved in giving bath.

  2. Applied Catalysis A: General 411412 (2012) 714 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

    E-print Network

    2012-01-01

    ,b,c a Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research & Technology-Hellas, P.O. Box 1385 waterproofing textiles [2,3]. Among other materials, the wetting properties of metal oxides, mainly of TiO2

  3. 9 CFR 354.230 - Equipment and utensils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...used in moving edible products shall be of water-proof composition. (h) Inspection...tray of seamless construction. (j) Water spray washing equipment shall be used for...rooms should be adequately equipped to freeze ready-to-cook rabbits solid in less...

  4. Swim Free. A 10 Day Program of Aquatic Exercises Adapted from Life in the Waterworld.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberhardt, Lorraine; Sanborn, Laura

    The completely waterproof book contains instructions for an alternative form of swimming exercises based on the movements of 19 water creatures. The exercises can be used by groups or individuals to enhance training programs, to serve as part of a structured synchronized swimming program, or to supplement recreational activities. The book provides…

  5. Making a Canoe-Paddle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Rob

    1996-01-01

    Instructions on making a canoe paddle include types of wood to consider, choices of tools, how to determine paddle length, various designs, blade dimensions, smoothing, waterproofing, and storage. Explains how every aspect of the design is influenced by upper body strength, paddling experience, and personal preference. (TD)

  6. 49 CFR 172.519 - General specifications for placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...tagboard. Tagboard must have a weight of at least 80 kg (176 pounds) per ream of 610 by 910 mm (24 by 36-inch) sheets, waterproofing materials included. In addition, each placard made of tagboard must be able to pass a 414 kPa (60 p.s.i.)...

  7. Effects of access to preen gland secretions on mallard plumage.

    PubMed

    Giraudeau, Mathieu; Duval, Camille; Guillon, Noel; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Gutierrez, Claude; Heeb, Philipp

    2010-06-01

    Preen glands exist in almost every bird species and several non-exclusive functions have been proposed for this gland and the oils that it produces. One function generally admitted is that the oily secretions of the preen gland would provide a waterproofing layer when spread over feathers. Alternatively, several authors have proposed that plumage waterproofness is mostly due to the spatial micro-structure of feathers. The purpose of this study was to examine, by manipulating the access to the preen gland, the effect of the preen oil on the plumage waterproofness and condition. To explore this question, we carried out two independent experiments where we temporarily blocked access to the preen gland secretions with a removable mechanism in one group of captive mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), whilst a second group of birds had access to gland secretions. In a long-term experiment (3 months of treatment) and a short-term experiment (10 days), we measured plumage water retention and condition. After 3 months without access to preen glands, we found a significant decrease of plumage condition and an associated increase in plumage water retention. Moreover, we found a significant correlation between plumage condition and water retention ability. In contrast, after 10 days of treatment, no significant effect was found on plumage condition and water retention. Our study shows that preen oil acts to maintain plumage condition and suggests that feather microstructure is essential to maintain plumage waterproofness. PMID:20437221

  8. A new type of photovoltaic shingle

    SciTech Connect

    Okuda, N.; Yagiura, T.; Morizane, M.

    1994-12-31

    The authors have proposed a new type of solar cell unified with roofing materials. The photovoltaic (PV) shingle offers many features, such as low cost, simple construction and maintenance, good design, and fire resistance, compared with previous modules. The PV shingle was confirmed to have no major problems as a roofing material by environmental, waterproofing and installation tests.

  9. 49 CFR 172.519 - General specifications for placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...tagboard. Tagboard must have a weight of at least 80 kg (176 pounds) per ream of 610 by 910 mm (24 by 36-inch) sheets, waterproofing materials included. In addition, each placard made of tagboard must be able to pass a 414 kPa (60 p.s.i.)...

  10. 49 CFR 172.519 - General specifications for placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...tagboard. Tagboard must have a weight of at least 80 kg (176 pounds) per ream of 610 by 910 mm (24 by 36-inch) sheets, waterproofing materials included. In addition, each placard made of tagboard must be able to pass a 414 kPa (60 p.s.i.)...

  11. Coatings for mullite insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolinger, P. N.; Rauch, H. W., Sr.

    1976-01-01

    Series of coatings provides hard, impermeable, waterproof layer. Inclusion of color oxides imparts high emittance to surface. Refractory fillers investigated include TiO2, BaO.ZrO2, SrO.TiO2 ziron, spodumene, petalite, and kryptonite. Colorants include Cr2O3, NiO, and CoO.

  12. Watertight low-cost electrical connector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudenhoefer, J. E.; Miraldi, M. N.

    1972-01-01

    Fabrication is described of waterproof electrical connector assembly for use with Teflon jacketed cables and constructed so that assembly will remain sealed under extreme environmental conditions. Conditions are specified as: pressure from vacuum to atmospheric; temperature from 280 K to 450 K; exposure to saturated steam; and steam suddenly introduced into vacuum.

  13. [Respiratory symptoms after the use of a painting primer product spray].

    PubMed

    Ebbehøj, Niels E; Bang, John

    2008-09-22

    The use of waterproofing spray has been associated with the development of respiratory symptoms, but the pathogenetic mechanisms are unclear. We describe a case of acute respiratory disease with impaired diffusion developed after the use of a painting primer product spray (stain stop). Further investigation in aerosol-toxicology is needed. PMID:18822236

  14. Underground Manufacturing Facility, Sterling, Virginia. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, R.M.

    1981-09-25

    The author set out to build an earth-sheltered light manufacturing plant (to produce expanded polystyrene insulation) and also an earth-sheltered passive solar residence. Results are presented of waterproofing, thermal monitoring, and life cycle study on the plant. It is concluded that the added cost of providing a support for carrying the earth deadload far outweighs the energy savings. (DLC)

  15. Roofing Workbook and Tests. Plans and Specifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mongerson, M. Duane, Comp.

    This combination workbook and set of tests on plans and specifications is one in a series of nine individually bound units of instruction for roofing apprenticeship classes. The five topics covered are (1) regulations governing the roofing and waterproofing industry, (2) an overview of blueprints, (3) an overview of specifications, (4)…

  16. Revised July 2014 USGS National Wildlife Health Center

    E-print Network

    to humans. Use rubber, vinyl, or nitrile gloves when picking up sick or dead animals. If you do not have attach a leg tag to each animal with the following information in pencil or waterproof ink: - Date absorbent material in the 3rd plastic bag to absorb any liquids that might leak during shipping. See

  17. Department of Earth Sciences Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EQ

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    by animals Lyme disease Rash on exposed skin Maintain vigilance, wear long trousers and long sleeved shirts clothing and sufficient water/carry thermal blanket Wear hat and sunscreen Carry waterproofs, extra warm immediately Wildlife and vegetation: Insects, animals Plants may cause skin irritation Bites, stings, attack

  18. S T R A W B E R R Y C R E E K UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    , cats, and wild animals. In addition, antiquated sewer lines periodically leak sewage into storm drains to Strawberry Creek requires contact with the water, we recommend that you wear waterproof gloves and rubber boots. Whether or not you wear gloves, standard good hygiene practices minimize your risk of contracting

  19. 46 CFR 160.055-3 - Materials-standard life preservers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Materials-standard life preservers. 160.055-3 Section 160.055-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION... waterproof vinyl type. (Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Co. EC-870 or EC-1070, United States Rubber Co....

  20. 46 CFR 160.049-3 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Materials. 160.049-3 Section 160.049-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... adhesive shall be an all-purpose waterproof vinyl type. Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Co. EC-870 or...

  1. 46 CFR 160.055-3 - Materials-standard life preservers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Materials-standard life preservers. 160.055-3 Section 160.055-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION... waterproof vinyl type. (Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Co. EC-870 or EC-1070, United States Rubber Co....

  2. 46 CFR 160.049-3 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Materials. 160.049-3 Section 160.049-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... adhesive shall be an all-purpose waterproof vinyl type. Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Co. EC-870 or...

  3. 46 CFR 160.055-3 - Materials-standard life preservers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Materials-standard life preservers. 160.055-3 Section 160.055-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION... waterproof vinyl type. (Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Co. EC-870 or EC-1070, United States Rubber Co....

  4. 46 CFR 160.049-3 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials. 160.049-3 Section 160.049-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... adhesive shall be an all-purpose waterproof vinyl type. Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Co. EC-870 or...

  5. Measure Guideline. Water Management at Tub and Shower Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, Bruce

    2011-12-01

    Due to the high concentrations of water and the consequential risk of water damage to the home’s structure a comprehensive water management system is imperative to protect the building assemblies underlying the finish surround of tub and shower areas. This guide shows how to install fundamental waterproofing strategies to prevent water related issues at shower and tub areas.

  6. In Wharton State Forest in New Jersey's Pine Barrens, scientists from Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, have just finished building a bridge over the Mullica River. It's so strong it not only can hold the world's heaviest elephant (14,500 pound

    E-print Network

    showed it was not only harder than oak, but it was waterproof, termite-proof and it didn't rot or bend. For bugs that is... Termites are our best- known wood-eaters. But they're not alone. In fact, the busiest's treated with a high pressure bath of poison ­ usually a type of arsenic. Termites, bugs, fungus

  7. 46 CFR 160.037-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... preclude variations of density which may adversely affect uniformity of its smoke emitting characteristics... exposed for striking the friction igniter button. The igniter button shall be non-water soluble or be... consideration will be given to alternate waterproofing of the signal by means of a water-resistant coating...

  8. Underwater near-infrared spectroscopy measurements of muscle oxygenation: laboratory validation and preliminary observations in swimmers and triathletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Ben; Dat, Marco; Cooper, Chris E.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to waterproof a near-infrared spectroscopy device (PortaMon, Artinis Medical Systems) to enable NIR measurement during swim exercise. Candidate materials were initially tested for waterproof suitability by comparing light intensity values during phantom-based tissue assessment. Secondary assessment involved repeated isokinetic exercises ensuring reliability of the results obtained from the modified device. Tertiary assessment required analysis of the effect of water immersion and temperature upon device function. Initial testing revealed that merely covering the PortaMon light sources with waterproof materials considerably affected the NIR light intensities. Modifying a commercially available silicone covering through the addition of a polyvinyl chloride material (impermeable to NIR light transmission) produces an acceptable compromise. Bland-Altman analysis indicated that exercise-induced changes in tissue saturation index (TSI %) were within acceptable limits during laboratory exercise. Although water immersion had a small but significant effect upon NIR light intensity, this resulted in a negligible change in the measured TSI (%). We then tested the waterproof device in vivo illustrating oxygenation changes during a 100 m freestyle swim case study. Finally, a full study compared club level swimmers and triathletes. Significant changes in oxygenation profiles when comparing upper and lower extremities for the two groups were revealed, reflecting differences in swim biomechanics.

  9. Defeating the Drips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Lincoln

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a holistic approach to preventing moisture penetration of exterior walls in modular school buildings. The problem of roof leaks in modular structures is examined as are approaches to water management, roof waterproofing, the problem of condensation, and the design of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems as it affects water…

  10. Fluid-Injection Tool for Inaccessible Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    New tool injects liquids or gases into narrow crevices. Can be used to apply caulking and waterproofing compounds, adhesives, detergent, undercoats and oil and to aerate hard-to-reach places. Nozzle can reach into opening 1/32 inch wide to depth of more than 4 inches. Although thin, device is rigid and strong.

  11. 1106 VOLUME 17J O U R N A L O F A T M O S P H E R I C A N D O C E A N I C T E C H N O L O G Y 2000 American Meteorological Society

    E-print Network

    Jaffe, Jules

    the most basic and simple, such as a camera pack- aged in a waterproof housing, to more elaborate systems signal is too weak for adequate detection and the system is said to be power limited. In the case where American Meteorological Society Development of a New Underwater Bathymetric Laser Imaging System: L

  12. Charge Reversal Behavior at the CaF2/H2O/SDS Interface as Studied by Vibrational Sum Frequency Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Richmond, Geraldine L.

    important insight into the adsorption mechanism that is central to processes such as mineral ore flotation colloidal stabilization, lubrication, petroleum recovery, waterproofing, waste processing, and mineral ore2O interface, demonstrate the complex nature of the adsorption process which includes monomer

  13. 9 CFR 590.520 - Breaking room facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... washing facilities which are easily accessible to all breaking personnel, an adequate supply of warm water... devices. (b) The surface of the ceiling and walls shall be smooth and made of a water-resistant material. (c) The floor shall be of water-proof composition, reasonably free from cracks or rough...

  14. Packing list for Shoals Marine Laboratory on Appledore Island, Maine The Shoals Marine Laboratory is located on an isolated island; everyone and everything arrives and

    E-print Network

    Pringle, James "Jamie"

    is responsible for handling and recycling and all forms of waste and trash, we ask all participants to "pack is recommended. · WATERPROOF your gear by packing everything in plastic bags; then pack the plastic bags inside your luggage; this means all the plastic bags can be reused for your trip home. · LABEL your luggage

  15. Asphalt and Wood Shingling. Roofing Workbook and Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Arthur

    This combination workbook and set of tests contains materials on asphalt and wood shingling that have been designed to be used by those studying to enter the roofing and waterproofing trade. It consists of seven instructional units and seven accompanying objective tests. Covered in the individual units are the following topics: shingling…

  16. Effects of access to preen gland secretions on mallard plumage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraudeau, Mathieu; Duval, Camille; Guillon, Noel; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Gutierrez, Claude; Heeb, Philipp

    2010-06-01

    Preen glands exist in almost every bird species and several non-exclusive functions have been proposed for this gland and the oils that it produces. One function generally admitted is that the oily secretions of the preen gland would provide a waterproofing layer when spread over feathers. Alternatively, several authors have proposed that plumage waterproofness is mostly due to the spatial micro-structure of feathers. The purpose of this study was to examine, by manipulating the access to the preen gland, the effect of the preen oil on the plumage waterproofness and condition. To explore this question, we carried out two independent experiments where we temporarily blocked access to the preen gland secretions with a removable mechanism in one group of captive mallards ( Anas platyrhynchos), whilst a second group of birds had access to gland secretions. In a long-term experiment (3 months of treatment) and a short-term experiment (10 days), we measured plumage water retention and condition. After 3 months without access to preen glands, we found a significant decrease of plumage condition and an associated increase in plumage water retention. Moreover, we found a significant correlation between plumage condition and water retention ability. In contrast, after 10 days of treatment, no significant effect was found on plumage condition and water retention. Our study shows that preen oil acts to maintain plumage condition and suggests that feather microstructure is essential to maintain plumage waterproofness.

  17. 77 FR 17458 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17159

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... to conduct commercial or educational photography ] on spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris). DATES... authorization to film spinner dolphins near Midway Atoll in the Pacific Ocean. Dolphins would be approached... underwater camera, and a waterproof camera used by a snorkeling cameraman. Up to 1,300 dolphins could...

  18. 46 CFR 28.350 - General requirements for electrical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements of 46 CFR part 111, subpart 111.105. (e) Metallic enclosures and frames of electrical equipment must be grounded. (f) Each vessel with a nonmetallic hull must have a continuous, non-current carrying... waterproof, watertight, or enclosed in a watertight housing. (b) Aluminum must not be used for...

  19. 46 CFR 28.350 - General requirements for electrical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... requirements of 46 CFR part 111, subpart 111.105. (e) Metallic enclosures and frames of electrical equipment must be grounded. (f) Each vessel with a nonmetallic hull must have a continuous, non-current carrying... waterproof, watertight, or enclosed in a watertight housing. (b) Aluminum must not be used for...

  20. 46 CFR 28.350 - General requirements for electrical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... requirements of 46 CFR part 111, subpart 111.105. (e) Metallic enclosures and frames of electrical equipment must be grounded. (f) Each vessel with a nonmetallic hull must have a continuous, non-current carrying... waterproof, watertight, or enclosed in a watertight housing. (b) Aluminum must not be used for...

  1. 46 CFR 28.350 - General requirements for electrical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... requirements of 46 CFR part 111, subpart 111.105. (e) Metallic enclosures and frames of electrical equipment must be grounded. (f) Each vessel with a nonmetallic hull must have a continuous, non-current carrying... waterproof, watertight, or enclosed in a watertight housing. (b) Aluminum must not be used for...

  2. 46 CFR 28.350 - General requirements for electrical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... requirements of 46 CFR part 111, subpart 111.105. (e) Metallic enclosures and frames of electrical equipment must be grounded. (f) Each vessel with a nonmetallic hull must have a continuous, non-current carrying... waterproof, watertight, or enclosed in a watertight housing. (b) Aluminum must not be used for...

  3. International Conference on Building Envelope Systems and Technologies (ICBEST-2001)

    E-print Network

    this metal roof to leak at its eaves. Because of waterproofing issues, a dead flat roof is a design mistake. Membrane roofing systems with a slope of ¼ inch/foot to internal drains are appropriate. It is not necessary to increase the slope of such roofs to ½ inch/foot in snow country. Switching from internal drains

  4. 48 CFR 652.242-72 - Shipping Instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... dimensions of lumber for struts, frame members, and single diagonal braces Up to 45 kg 19.05 × 57.15mm 46 to... (b) Each box shall be lined with waterproof paper and shall be bound with 19.05mm? steel...

  5. 9 CFR 354.230 - Equipment and utensils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... in moving edible products shall be of water-proof composition. (h) Inspection, eviscerating, and... individual metal tray of seamless construction. (j) Water spray washing equipment shall be used for washing... freeze ready-to-cook rabbits solid in less than 48 hours. Ready-to-cook rabbits should be frozen...

  6. 9 CFR 354.230 - Equipment and utensils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... in moving edible products shall be of water-proof composition. (h) Inspection, eviscerating, and... individual metal tray of seamless construction. (j) Water spray washing equipment shall be used for washing... freeze ready-to-cook rabbits solid in less than 48 hours. Ready-to-cook rabbits should be frozen...

  7. 9 CFR 354.230 - Equipment and utensils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in moving edible products shall be of water-proof composition. (h) Inspection, eviscerating, and... individual metal tray of seamless construction. (j) Water spray washing equipment shall be used for washing... freeze ready-to-cook rabbits solid in less than 48 hours. Ready-to-cook rabbits should be frozen...

  8. 9 CFR 354.230 - Equipment and utensils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in moving edible products shall be of water-proof composition. (h) Inspection, eviscerating, and... individual metal tray of seamless construction. (j) Water spray washing equipment shall be used for washing... freeze ready-to-cook rabbits solid in less than 48 hours. Ready-to-cook rabbits should be frozen...

  9. Winter Ecology of Birds Field Course -What to Bring binoculars -the best you can find; excellent binoculars will improve your experience on

    E-print Network

    Martin, Paul R.

    , waterproof winter boots (and lots of socks) · knapsack to carry equipment, clothes, etc. · water bottle and - plan for varied weather, from -30°C to +10°C, and including snow, freezing rain and rain; some of the most uncomfortable weather can be rain and damp conditions around freezing; we will be out in ALL

  10. The behavior of pre-rusted steel in concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, J.A.; Bautista, A.; Feliu, S.; Ramirez, E.

    1996-03-01

    This paper explores the possibility of an effective protection for precorroded steel by effect of the high alkalinity of the encasing mortar (by itself or in combination with the action of sodium nitrite). Application of a waterproof coating on the mortar surface was evaluated for this purpose. The behavior of clean steel electrodes and in three different pre-corrosion grades was characterized from periodic measurements of the corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) and polarization resistance (R{sub p}). Neither mortar alkalinity alone nor in combination with the effect of nitride ions was found to passivate the reinforcements in the two higher corrosion grades over 2 years of exposure in an atmosphere of a high relative humidity. Also, immersion of the specimens in a 5% NaNO{sub 2} solution was found not to passivate steel undergoing active corrosion. The effectiveness of the waterproofing treatment for diminishing reinforcement corrosion was found to rely heavily on timely application.

  11. O/W microemulsion as a vehicle for sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Carlotti, M Eugenia; Gallarate, Marina; Rossatto, Valeria

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, transparent dispersions or diluted milks have been used as sunscreens. These products contain water-soluble sunscreen agents, and quite frequently are washed away from the skin. However, O/W microemulsions are now being prepared as transparent vehicles for sunscreens. They are waterproof, nonsticky, and easily spreadable. The microemulsions are prepared by using pseudoternary diagrams, by combining lipids with surfactant blends and a polar phase. Soya lecithin and decylpolyglucose produce transparent systems with the lowest percentage of surfactants. These microemulsions contain 4-methylbenzilidene camphor or octylmethoxycinnamate as sunscreen agents. Cyclomethicone, menthol, and allantoin give products a good skin feel, and stearyl methicone gives the waterproof effect. These systems show a Newtonian flux. Little permeation of the sunscreens' trough lipophilic and hydrophilic membrane is evidenced. PMID:14605687

  12. Reduced Energy and Maintenance Costs Using Polyurethane as a Replacement Roof System 

    E-print Network

    Scott, G. D.

    1992-01-01

    with built-up roofs. Standard specifications for this replacement roof were developed, requiring the application of 2 inches of polyurethane foam and 45 mils of a urethane coating. The result being a monolithic weatherproof cover for the roof. Additionly... of foamed polyurethane insulation protected by a tough, waterproof, weather resistant coating. The overall result was a superior roof system, virtually maintenance free, reducing maintenance and repair costs. Polyurethane foam with an average R value...

  13. Building foundation design handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Labs, K.; Carmody, J.; Sterling, R.; Shen, L.; Huang, Yu Joe; Parker, D.

    1988-05-01

    This design handbook contains a concise set of typical residential foundation construction details and recommends cost-effective insulation levels for a variety of basements, crawl spaces, and slab-on-grade foundations for most US regions. The construction details are accompanied by the critical design information needed for specifying structural integrity; thermal and vapor controls; subsurface drainage; waterproofing; backfilling and compaction; and decay, termite, and radon control measures. 402 refs., 122 figs., 97 tabs.

  14. Mechanism of Action of Lung Damage Caused by a Nanofilm Spray Product

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Søren T.; Dallot, Constantin; Larsen, Susan W.; Rose, Fabrice; Poulsen, Steen S.; Nørgaard, Asger W.; Hansen, Jitka S.; Sørli, Jorid B.; Nielsen, Gunnar D.; Foged, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation of waterproofing spray products has on several occasions caused lung damage, which in some cases was fatal. The present study aims to elucidate the mechanism of action of a nanofilm spray product, which has been shown to possess unusual toxic effects, including an extremely steep concentration-effect curve. The nanofilm product is intended for application on non-absorbing flooring materials and contains perfluorosiloxane as the active film-forming component. The toxicological effects and their underlying mechanisms of this product were studied using a mouse inhalation model, by in vitro techniques and by identification of the binding interaction. Inhalation of the aerosolized product gave rise to increased airway resistance in the mice, as evident from the decreased expiratory flow rate. The toxic effect of the waterproofing spray product included interaction with the pulmonary surfactants. More specifically, the active film-forming components in the spray product, perfluorinated siloxanes, inhibited the function of the lung surfactant due to non-covalent interaction with surfactant protein B, a component which is crucial for the stability and persistence of the lung surfactant film during respiration. The active film-forming component used in the present spray product is also found in several other products on the market. Hence, it may be expected that these products may have a toxicity similar to the waterproofing product studied here. Elucidation of the toxicological mechanism and identification of toxicological targets are important to perform rational and cost-effective toxicological studies. Thus, because the pulmonary surfactant system appears to be an important toxicological target for waterproofing spray products, study of surfactant inhibition could be included in toxicological assessment of this group of consumer products. PMID:24863969

  15. Rewaterproofing Chemical For Use With Silicones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, William L.; Mitchell, Shirley M.; Massey, Howard S.

    1990-01-01

    Agent restores impermeability without degrading silicone adhesives and substructures. Dimethylethoxysilane (DMES) found to rewaterproof tiles and composite panels internally without harming materials that underlie them. Replaces hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) as postmission rewaterproofing agent for tiles of thermal-protection system on Space Shuttle. Much of original waterproofing lost during rigors of launch and reentry. Potential terrestrial application includes composite materials in such structures as bridges and submarines.

  16. Photovoltaic Roofs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, R. W., Jr.; Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Solar cells perform two functions: waterproofing roof and generating electricity. Sections through horizontal and slanting joints show overlapping modules sealed by L-section rubber strips and side-by-side modules sealed by P-section strips. Water seeping through seals of slanting joints drains along channels. Rooftop photovoltaic array used watertight south facing roof, replacing shingles, tar, and gravel. Concept reduces cost of residential solar-cell array.

  17. Silazane to silica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Gale A.

    1992-01-01

    Thin film silica and/or methyl silicone were detected on most external surfaces of the retrieved LDEF. Known sources of silicone in or on the LDEF appear inadequate to explain the ubiquitous presence of the silica and silicone films. Hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) was used as the Challenger tile waterproofing compound for the Challenger/LDEF deployment mission. HMDS releases NH3 which depolymerizes silicone RTV's. Polyurethanes were also attacked. Much of the silica/silicone contamination of LDEF resulted from HMDS.

  18. The underground house answer book

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    Note: Building codes and regulations, potential hazards, plumbing, electrical work, and interior decorating are a few of the subjects covered in this book, a compilation of answers to the most frequently asked questions about underground homes. Numerous photographs, tables, and illustrations enhance the book. Contents, abridged: Possible dangers and pitfalls. Engineering. Site inspection. Design and layout. Interior finishing and decorating. Concrete. Domes and skylights. Electrical work. Waterproofing and drainage. Index.

  19. Rob Roy`s earthwood home

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, R.

    1995-04-01

    This article describes a 2,000 square foot house near the Canadian border, heated for $75 during the winter and maintaining a steady temperature. Among the design characteristics discussed are the following: round shape; earth sheltering; cordwood masonry; insulation and thermal mass; solar orientation; masonry stove; burning waste wood; floating slab foundation; surface bonded blocks; post and beam octoagon; waterproofing walls; drainage; earth roof.

  20. Sl.No. ITEM UNIT QTY RATE AMOUNT A EARTHWORK

    E-print Network

    Giri, Ranjit K.

    by the Engineer-in-Charge. (Plinth area of the building portion will be measured for payment). Sft 503.00 B floor i) Column Shaft Cft 108.00 ii) For lintels beams Cft 75.00 iii) For Chejjas and cill slabs Sft 136) For lintels beams Cft 75.00 iii) For Chejjas and cill slabs Sft 136.50 iv) For roof beams (With waterproof

  1. Condition Assessment Survey (CAS) Program. Deficiency standards and inspections methods manual: Volume 1, 0.01 Foundations and footings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    General information is presented for asset determinant factor/CAS repair codes/CAS cost factors; guide sheet tool & material listing; testing methods; inspection frequency; standard system design life tables; system work breakdown structure; and general system/material data. Deficiency standards and inspection methods are given for footings - spread/strip/grade beams; foundation walls; foundation dampproofing/waterproofing; excavation/backfill/ and piles & caissons.

  2. Mechanism of action of lung damage caused by a nanofilm spray product.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Søren T; Dallot, Constantin; Larsen, Susan W; Rose, Fabrice; Poulsen, Steen S; Nørgaard, Asger W; Hansen, Jitka S; Sørli, Jorid B; Nielsen, Gunnar D; Foged, Camilla

    2014-08-01

    Inhalation of waterproofing spray products has on several occasions caused lung damage, which in some cases was fatal. The present study aims to elucidate the mechanism of action of a nanofilm spray product, which has been shown to possess unusual toxic effects, including an extremely steep concentration-effect curve. The nanofilm product is intended for application on non-absorbing flooring materials and contains perfluorosiloxane as the active film-forming component. The toxicological effects and their underlying mechanisms of this product were studied using a mouse inhalation model, by in vitro techniques and by identification of the binding interaction. Inhalation of the aerosolized product gave rise to increased airway resistance in the mice, as evident from the decreased expiratory flow rate. The toxic effect of the waterproofing spray product included interaction with the pulmonary surfactants. More specifically, the active film-forming components in the spray product, perfluorinated siloxanes, inhibited the function of the lung surfactant due to non-covalent interaction with surfactant protein B, a component which is crucial for the stability and persistence of the lung surfactant film during respiration. The active film-forming component used in the present spray product is also found in several other products on the market. Hence, it may be expected that these products may have a toxicity similar to the waterproofing product studied here. Elucidation of the toxicological mechanism and identification of toxicological targets are important to perform rational and cost-effective toxicological studies. Thus, because the pulmonary surfactant system appears to be an important toxicological target for waterproofing spray products, study of surfactant inhibition could be included in toxicological assessment of this group of consumer products. PMID:24863969

  3. FRHAM-TEX{trademark} cool suit - OST reference No. 1854. Deactivation and decommissioning focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This paper describes a demonstration project for the FRHAM-TEX Cool Suit{trademark} manufactured by FRHAM Safety Products. It is a one-piece, disposable, breathable, waterproof coverall designed to permit moisture generated by the wearer to be transmitted outside the suit. The performance of this suit was compared to a Tyvek{reg_sign} suit as a baseline. The suit is proposed as safety ware for workers at decontamination and decommissioning projects.

  4. The Sensor Fish: Measuring Fish Passage in Severe Hydraulic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J. ); Duncan, Joanne P. ); Gilbride, Theresa L. )

    2003-05-28

    This article describes PNNL's efforts to develop the Sensor Fish, a waterproof sensor package that travels thru the turbines of spillways of hydroelectric dam to collect pressure and acceleration data on the conditions experienced by live salmon smolts during dam passage. Sensor Fish development is sponsored by the DOE Advanced Hydropower Turbine Survival Program. The article also gave two recent examples of Sensor Fish use: turbine passage at a McNary Kaplan turbine and spill passage in topspill at Rock Island Dam.

  5. Method and apparatus for molding underground diaphragms

    SciTech Connect

    Colla, R.

    1989-09-19

    This patent describes a method for molding underground contiguous plate-like diaphragms, particularly for shallow areas. It comprises: making a hole in the ground at a depth planned for one of the diaphragms. The hole defining a long narrow cylindrical cavity and the location of the hole selected to correspond to the middle of the diaphragm to be formed; successively inserting into the cavity of a head comprising at least two elements for ejection. The elements directed in substantially opposite directions and the axes of the two elements being substantially transverse to the axis of the cavity. The head being connected by means of a flexible one-piece tube to elements which supply a reinforcing and waterproofing substance under pressure to the ejection elements; determine the coordinates of the axes of the elements; sending through the ejection elements the reinforcement and waterproofing substance while pulling the head toward the top and maintaining the axes of the ejection elements oriented in a controlled manner in the plane perpendicular to the axis of the cavity; and repeating steps above to form other diaphragms, and after the first diaphragm has been formed, maintaining the ejection elements oriented so that the jet of the reinforcing and waterproofing substance reaches the vertical end edge of a previously formed and contiguous diaphragm.

  6. Nest paper absorbency, toughness, and protein concentration of a native vs. an invasive social wasp.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Tracy R; Aponte, Yaira; Stamp, Nancy E

    2005-05-01

    The amount of proteinaceous food that was allocated to nest construction by a native wasp (Polistes fuscatus) vs. an invasive wasp (Polistes dominulus) in North America was examined following a field experiment under natural and surplus prey foraging conditions. Wasps of the surplus prey foraging conditions were provided with prey ad libitum within an enclosed area, while wasps of the natural treatment foraged in an adjacent field-woodland site. At the end of the field experiment, each nest was tested for water absorbency, toughness, and protein concentration. The hypotheses were: (1) When all nests are equally sheltered, the invasive P. dominulus (PD) allocates less protein to nest paper construction (for waterproofing and strengthening) and more protein to developing larvae than the native P. fuscatus (PF). (2) Nests of P. dominulus are more absorbent (less waterproof) and less tough than nests of P. fuscatus. Results indicate that P. fuscatus nests from surplus prey foraging conditions were more absorbent (less waterproof) to artificial rain drops than P. dominulus nests. The toughness of nests was similar between wasp species. However, nests from the natural treatment were tougher than those from the surplus prey treatment. Nests from the natural foraging conditions had half as much protein as those from surplus prey foraging conditions. There was no correlation between nest protein concentration and the number of prey taken, the number of cells, the number of adult offspring produced, or the total wasp biomass produced per colony. For PF under surplus prey conditions, protein concentration and absorbency were negatively correlated, but for PD the correlation was positive. In conclusion, when prey were scarce, Polistes wasps allocated less protein to nest construction. Also, the introduced P. dominulus may increase production of offspring by allocating less to nest construction than that of the native P. fuscatus, and so more protein to offspring production. PMID:16124234

  7. Skating and diving: Changes in functional morphology of the setal and microtrichial cover during ontogenesis in Aquarius paludum fabricius (Heteroptera, Gerridae).

    PubMed

    Goodwyn, P J Perez; Voigt, D; Fujisaki, K

    2008-06-01

    We examined the morphology of setae and microtrichia in Aquarius paludum during larval development using a scanning electron microscope. We then conducted immersion experiments with larvae and adults in oxygenated and deoxygenated water. The adult water strider body is covered by a pilose double layer consisting of upper long setae (30-80 microm) and lower filiform microtrichia (5-9 microm). Only setae are present on the legs. Microtrichia on the larval body are very short: 0.5-0.6 microm in first and second instars, and 0.8-1.7 microm in third to fifth instars. Larval body setae are approximately as long as those of adults (25-50 microm), but are much less dense at 1,800-5,750 setae per mm(2) versus 15,000-20,000 setae per mm(2) in adults. The density of setae on the legs remains relatively constant throughout development (larvae: 15,000-20,000 setae per mm(2); adults: 20,000-26,000 setae per mm(2)). Immersion experiments demonstrated that young instars may use cuticular respiration. First- and second-instar larvae survived underwater for several hours without a visible air supply, although they did not survive in deoxygenated water. We posit that the short body microtrichia have a waterproofing function in larvae, whereas they create a compressible air bubble in adults. In adults, waterproofing is accomplished by the setae. The density and length of setae on the legs of larvae was nearly the same as that on the body and legs of adults and is presumably optimized for waterproofing. Thus, a change in morphometrical parameters can result in a large functional change in the same structure. We discuss this interpretation in both ecological and physiological contexts. PMID:18302188

  8. Prefabricated brick wall panels: Economy or nightmare?

    SciTech Connect

    Louis, M.J.

    1999-07-01

    Prefabricated wall systems are becoming a popular element of building construction. Prefabricated systems lend themselves to streamlining construction schedules and reducing overall construction costs. They offer the potential for increased quality due to assembly in controlled factory environments. This paper reviews basic principles and concepts for the design of waterproofing systems for prefabricated brick wall panels. Using a project case study, the author will show that failure to adhere to certain proven conventional practices can have serious adverse consequences with respect to the performance of prefabricated brick wall panels.

  9. Encapsulation for smart textile electronics - humidity and temperature sensor.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Andreas; Tran, Thanh-Nam; Aasmundtveit, Knut E; Seeberg, Trine M

    2015-01-01

    A combined humidity and temperature sensor was packaged by vacuum casting onto three different types of textiles; cotton, nylon and a waterproof fabric. This was done in order to integrate the sensor in a jacket in a soft and reliable way without changing the sensor performance. A membrane was custom made and integrated into the device to protect the sensor from the environment. The packaged sensors performance was characterized in a climate chamber were the relative humidity and temperature ranged from 25 % to 95 % and -10 °C to 75 °C respectively. The packaged sensors showed insignificant to limited performance degradation. PMID:25980871

  10. Calibration Techniques for Accurate Measurements by Underwater Camera Systems.

    PubMed

    Shortis, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Calibration of a camera system is essential to ensure that image measurements result in accurate estimates of locations and dimensions within the object space. In the underwater environment, the calibration must implicitly or explicitly model and compensate for the refractive effects of waterproof housings and the water medium. This paper reviews the different approaches to the calibration of underwater camera systems in theoretical and practical terms. The accuracy, reliability, validation and stability of underwater camera system calibration are also discussed. Samples of results from published reports are provided to demonstrate the range of possible accuracies for the measurements produced by underwater camera systems. PMID:26690172

  11. Detail view of the leading and top edge of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the leading and top edge of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery showing the thermal protection system components with the white Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) blanket and the black High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (HRSI) tiles along the outer edges. The marks seen on the HRSI tiles are injection point marks and holes for the application of waterproofing material. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  12. Fire Resistant, Moisture Barrier Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A waterproof and breathable, fire-resistant laminate is provided for use in tents, garments, shoes, and covers, especially in industrial, military and emergency situations. The laminate permits water vapor evaporation while simultaneously preventing liquid water penetration. Further, the laminate is fire-resistant and significantly reduces the danger of toxic compound production when exposed to flame or other high heat source. The laminate may be applied to a variety of substrates and is comprised of a silicone rubber and plurality of fire-resistant, inherently thermally-stable polyimide particles.

  13. Development of Air Speed Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F

    1920-01-01

    Report describes the development of a suitable speed nozzle for the first few thousand airplanes made by the United States during the recent war in Europe, and to furnish a basis for more mature instruments in the future. Requirements for the project were to provide a suitable pressure collector for aircraft speed meters and to develop a speed nozzle which would be waterproof, powerful, unaffected by slight pitch and yaw, rugged and easy to manufacture, and uniform in structure and reading, so as not to require individual calibration.

  14. Flood Resilient Technological Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez Gonzalez, J. J.; Monnot, J. V.; Marquez Paniagua, P.; Pámpanas, P.; Paz Abuín, S.; Prendes, P.; Videra, O.; U. P. M. Smartest Team

    2012-04-01

    As a consequence of the paradigm shift of the EU water policy (Directive 2007/60/EC, EC 2003) from defense to living with flood, floods shall be faced in the future through resilient solutions, seeking to improve the permanence of flood protection, and getting thus beyond traditional temporary and human-relying solutions. But the fact is that nowadays "Flood Resilient (FRe) Building Technological Products" is an undefined concept, and concerned FRe solutions cannot be even easily identified. "FRe Building Technological materials" is a wide term involving a wide and heterogeneous range of solutions. There is an interest in offering an identification and classification of the referred products, since it will be useful for stakeholders and populations at flood risk for adopting the most adequate protections when facing floods. Thus, a previous schematic classification would enable us at least to identify most of them and to figure out autonomous FRe Technological Products categories subject all of them to intense industrial innovative processes. The flood resilience enhancement of a given element requires providing it enough water-repelling capacity, and different flood resilient solutions can be sorted out: barriers, waterproofing and anticorrosive. Barriers are palliative solutions that can be obtained either from traditional materials, or from technological ones, offering their very low weight and high maneuverability. Belonging barriers and waterproofing systems to industrial branches clearly different, from a conceptual point of view, waterproofing material may complement barriers, and even be considered as autonomous barriers in some cases. Actually, they do not only complement barriers by their application to barriers' singular weak points, like anchors, joints, but on the other hand, waterproofing systems can be applied to enhance the flood resilience of new building, as preventive measure. Anticorrosive systems do belong to a clearly different category because their function do not consist in repelling water, but in preventing damages caused by the watery contact. Finally, others preventive flood resilient technologies could also be considered, since forecasting, near-casting and warning alert are solutions getting more and more involved in flood resilience strategies.

  15. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, N.F., Jr.

    1981-08-01

    The design details of an optimized integrated residential photovoltaic module/array are presented. This selected design features a waterproofing and mounting scheme which was devised to simplify the installation procedures by the avoidance of complex gasketed or caulked joints, while still maintaining a high confidence that the watertight integrity of the integral roofing surface will be achieved for the design lifetime of the system. The production and installation costs for the selected module/array design are reported for a range of annual production rates as a function of the cost of solar cells.

  16. Low-cost encapsulation materials for terrestrial solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Baum, B.; Willis, P.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents the findings of material surveys intended to identify low cost materials which could be functional as encapsulants (by 1986) for terrestrial solar cell modules. Economic analyses have indicated that in order to meet the low cost goal of $2.70 per sq m, some or all of the following material technologies must be developed or advanced: (1) UV screening outer covers; (2) elastomeric acrylics; (3) weatherproofing and waterproofing of structural wood and paper products; (4) transparent UV stabilizers for the UV-sensitive transparent pottants; and (5) cost-effective utilization of silicone and fluorocarbon materials.

  17. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development. Quarterly report No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, N.F. Jr.

    1981-08-14

    The design details of an optimized integrated residential photovoltaic module/array are presented. This selected design features a unique waterproofing and mounting scheme which was devised to simplify the installation procedures by the avoidance of complex gasketed or caulked joints, while still maintaining a high confidence that the watertight integrity of the integral roofing surface will be achieved for the design lifetime of the system. The production and installation costs for the selected module/array design are reported for a range of annual production rates as a function of the cost of solar cells.

  18. Silazine to silica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Gale A.

    1993-01-01

    Thin film silica and/or methyl silicone were detected on most external surfaces of the retrieved LDEF. Both solar ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen can convert silicones to silica. Known sources of silicone in or on the LDEF appear inadequate to explain the ubiquitous presence of the silica and silicone films. Hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) was used as the Challenger tile waterproofing compound for the Challenger/LDEF deployment mission. HMDS is both volatile and chemically reactive at STP. In addition, HMDS releases NH3 which depolymerizes silicone RTV's. Polyurethanes are also depolymerized. Experiments are reported that indicate much of the silicone and silica contamination of LDEF resulted directly or indirectly from HMDS.

  19. Thermal Stress Analysis of RCG-Tempered TUFI Tile TPS for Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.; Squire, Thomas H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents detailed results from linear and nonlinear finite-element thermal stress analyses of a new tile, Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) concept. A very thin coating of Reaction Cured Glass (RCG) is used to "temper" the surface of Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation (TUFI) tiles to improve resistance to thermal shock and thermal cycling effects. The coating also serves to reduce catalytic heating and may improve waterproofing. Calculations include trajectory-based aerothermal heating environments for X-34 wing leading edge TPS designs and arc jet environments for TPS test articles. The nonlinear analyses include the high temperature plasticity of RCG to demonstrate the reuseability of the material.

  20. Horse rug lung: toxic pneumonitis due to fluorocarbon inhalation.

    PubMed

    Wallace, G M F; Brown, P H

    2005-06-01

    Fluorocarbons are widely used in industry, and manifestations of inhalation toxicity include polymer fume fever, reactive airways dysfunction, and bronchospasm. Only seven cases of alveolitis occurring acutely after inhalation have been reported. This paper presents four cases of toxic pneumonitis due to direct inhalation of industrial fluorocarbon used as a waterproofing spray for horse rugs. These cases differ from previous reports and show that chronic as well as acute alveolitis can result from fluorocarbon inhalation. Corticosteroid treatment may be beneficial. The need for stricter control in the workplace is emphasised. PMID:15901890

  1. Sources and transport of silicone NVR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Gale A.

    1992-01-01

    The retrieved LDEF had varying amounts of visible contamination films (brown stains) at many locations. FTIR spectra of heavy film deposits at vents and of optical windows from tray E5 indicated methyl silicone and silica in the contaminant films. Two possible sources of the methyl silicone are DC-710 phenyl methyl silicone in the shuttle-bay-liner beta cloth, and the shuttle tile waterproofing silane. It is concluded that much of the silicon and silica contamination came from ground operations and the orbiter.

  2. Biophysical and biochemical characteristics of cutin, a plant barrier biopolymer.

    PubMed

    Heredia, Antonio

    2003-03-17

    Cutin is a support biopolyester involved in waterproofing the leaves and fruits of higher plants, regulating the flow of nutrients among various plant cells and organs, and minimizing the deleterious impact of pathogens. Despite the complexity and intractable nature of this biopolymer, significant progress in chemical composition, molecular architecture and, more recently, biosynthesis have been made in the past 10 years. This review is focused in the description of these advances and their physiological impacts to improve our knowledge on plant cutin, an unusual topic in most plant physiology and biochemistry books and reviews. PMID:12595066

  3. Fire Resistant, Moisture Barrier Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A waterproof and breathable, fire-resistant laminate is provided for use in tents, garments, shoes, and covers, especially in industrial, military and emergency situations. The laminate permits water vapor evaporation while simultaneously preventing liquid water penetration. Further, the laminate is fire-resistant and significantly reduces the danger of toxic compound production when exposed to flame or other high heat source. The laminate may be applied to a variety of substrates and is comprised of a silicone rubber and plurality of fire-resistant, inherently thermally-stable polyimide particles.

  4. Cloning and expression of recombinant adhesive protein MEFP-2 of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis

    DOEpatents

    Silverman, Heather G.; Roberto, Francisco F.

    2006-02-07

    The present invention includes a Mytilus edulis cDNA having a nucleotide sequence that encodes for the Mytilus edulis foot protein-2 (Mefp-2), an example of a mollusk foot protein. Mefp-2 is an integral component of the blue mussels' adhesive protein complex, which allows the mussel to attach to objects underwater. The isolation, purification and sequencing of the Mefp-2 gene will allow researchers to produce Mefp-2 protein using genetic engineering techniques. The discovery of Mefp-2 gene sequences will also allow scientists to better understand how the blue mussel creates its waterproof adhesive protein complex.

  5. Cloning and expression of recombinant adhesive protein Mefp-1 of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis

    DOEpatents

    Silverman, Heather G.; Roberto, Francisco F.

    2006-01-17

    The present invention comprises a Mytilus edulis cDNA sequenc having a nucleotide sequence that encodes for the Mytilus edulis foot protein-1 (Mefp-1), an example of a mollusk foot protein. Mefp-1 is an integral component of the blue mussels' adhesive protein complex, which allows the mussel to attach to objects underwater. The isolation, purification and sequencing of the Mefp-1 gene will allow researchers to produce Mefp-1 protein using genetic engineering techniques. The discovery of Mefp-1 gene sequence will also allow scientists to better understand how the blue mussel creates its waterproof adhesive protein complex.

  6. Superhydrophobic Materials Technology-PVC Bonding Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, Scott R.; Efird, Marty

    2013-05-03

    The purpose of the technology maturation project was to develop an enhanced application technique for applying diatomaceous earth with pinned polysiloxane oil to PVC pipes and materials. The oil infiltration technique is applied as a spray of diluted oil in a solvent onto the superhydrophobic diatomaceous earth substrate. This makes the surface take on the following characteristics: • wet?cleanable • anti?biofouling • waterproof • anti?corrosion. The project involved obtaining input and supplies from VeloxFlow and the development of successful techniques that would quickly result in a commercial license agreement with VeloxFlow and other companies that use PVC materials in a variety of other fields of use.

  7. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The design details of an optimized integrated residential photovoltaic module/array are presented. This selected design features a waterproofing and mounting scheme which was devised to simplify the installation procedures by the avoidance of complex gasketed or caulked joints, while still maintaining a high confidence that the watertight integrity of the integral roofing surface will be achieved for the design lifetime of the system. The production and installation costs for the selected module/array design are reported for a range of annual production rates as a function of the cost of solar cells.

  8. Moisture absorption characteristics of the Orbiter thermal protection system and methods used to prevent water ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schomburg, C.; Dotts, R. L.; Tillian, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter's silica tile Thermal Protection System (TPS) is beset by the moisture absorption problems inherently associated with low density, highly porous insulation systems. Attention is presently given to the comparative success of methods for the minimization and/or prevention of water ingestion by the TPS tiles, covering the development of water-repellent agents and their tile application techniques, flight test program results, and materials improvements. The use of external films for rewaterproofing of the TPS tiles after each mission have demonstrated marginal to unacceptable performance. By contrast, a tile interior waterproofing agent has shown promise.

  9. Measure Guideline: Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for designs and variations for retrofit hybrid assemblies in improving interior foundation insulation and water management of basements. Variations include closed cell spray foam (ccSPF) with membrane waterproofing or air gap membrane drainage layers, rigid board foam insulation at flat walls (cast concrete or CMU block), a 'partial drainage' detail making use of the bulk water drainage that occurs through the field of a rubble stone wall, and non-drained spray foam assemblies (including slab insulation).

  10. Measure Guideline. Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for designs and variations for retrofit hybrid assemblies in improving interior foundation insulation and water management of basements. Variations include closed cell spray foam (ccSPF) with membrane waterproofing or air gap membrane drainage layers, rigid board foam insulation at flat walls (cast concrete or CMU block), a “partial drainage” detail making use of the bulk water drainage that occurs through the field of a rubble stone wall, and non-drained spray foam assemblies (including slab insulation).

  11. PCB concentrations in Pere Marquette River and Muskegon River watersheds, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogarty, Lisa R.

    2005-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs) are a class of209 individual compounds (known as congeners) for which there are no known natural sources. PCBs are carcinogenic and bioaccumulative compounds. For over 40 years, PCBs were manufactured in the United States. The flame resistant property of PCBs made them ideal chemicals for use as flame-retardants, and as coolants and lubricants in transformers and other electrical equipment. PCBs were also used in heating coils, carbonless paper, degreasers, varnishes, lacquers, waterproofing material, and cereal boxes. In addition, they were frequently used in the manufacturing of plastics, adhesives, and paints.

  12. Microfabricated environmental barrier using ZnO nanowire on metal mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Young-Min; Lee, Seung-Ki; Lee, Joo-Yong; Kim, Jun-Ho; Park, Jae-Hyoung; Ji, Chang-Hyeon

    2013-12-01

    In this study, a waterproof environmental barrier for microsensor package has been developed using metal mesh covered with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire. A near superhydrophobic surface with two-dimensional array of holes has been fabricated by hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowire on an off-the-shelf steel use stainless (SUS) mesh. For a twill-woven SUS wire mesh having wire thickness of 30 µm and gap of 33 µm, a maximum contact angle of 160.40° and a minimum contact angle hysteresis of 15.23° have been achieved using ZnO nanowire grown on the wire surface and further deposition of FC film. The mesh was able to withstand a maximum water pressure of 2,459.8 Pa. The measured height of ZnO nanowire was approximately 2-3 µm. The fabricated SUS mesh covered with ZnO nanowire has been assembled with a microphone package, and waterproof characteristics have been measured by cyclic dipping test at various water levels. For a microphone package having two acoustic ports on top and bottom covered with fabricated mesh, no visible change in acoustic characteristics has been observed up to 1,372.9 Pa of water pressure. Total volume of the package was 6.8 × 9.8 × 1.9 mm3.

  13. A pilot study on the refinement of acute inhalation toxicity studies: the isolated perfused rat lung as a screening tool for surface-active substances.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Monika; Koch, Wolfgang; Windt, Horst; Dasenbrock, Clemens

    2012-09-01

    New surface-active agents in waterproofing sprays are frequently tested for acute inhalation toxicity in vivo according to OECD Test Guideline 403. In order to refine and reduce the number of acute inhalation tests performed, we propose a screening test that uses isolated lungs. The test consists of the exposure of isolated, ventilated and perfused rat lungs, to aerosolised formulations of waterproofing agents (mass median aerodynamic diameter = 1?m), and on-line monitoring of respiratory parameters and gross pathology analysis. A pilot evaluation of the isolated perfused rat lung model for use in a screening test was carried out by blind testing 12 surface-active substances. The results obtained compared well with data available from in vivo acute inhalation studies. Substances that triggered harmful effects, such as impaired lung compliance and atelectasis of the isolated perfused lung, were also found to cause changes in respiratory parameters, some of which would be severe enough to lead to death in in vivo tests with rats. The changes in respiratory parameters suggest that the mode-of-action is associated with impairment of the surfactant layer. Therefore, pre-testing in the isolated perfused rat lung allows the identification of surface-active substances with the potential for causing acute inhalation toxicity. PMID:23067301

  14. Wood panel earth shelter construction

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, J.R.; Loveless, J.G.; Senkow, W.

    1986-05-27

    An earth sheltered building is described including an arch structure, the structure including footings, a floor extending between the footings and arch means extending between the footings and having a base having lower ends on the footings for defining an enclosure which is covered with earth and open at opposite ends. The arch structure consists of: joined, curved wooden panel sections arranged in tandem in adjacent rows with more than two panel sections in a row, each of the sections including circumferentially extending wooden side members; wooden sheathing sections overlying the top skins of panel sections, the sheathing including a plurality of plywood sheets lapped over the joints between the panel sections and treated with a preservative; an adhesive joining the panel sections together within each row and to adjacent rows; waterproofing means on the sheathing for waterproofing the exterior surface of the arch means; connecting means engaging the base of the arch means at the footings and within the floor for tying the base together at its lower ends; and end walls and fastener means for joining the end walls to lateral edges of the arch means, the end walls dimensioned to extend above the arch means to retain earth placed on the arch means.

  15. Constructing earth sheltered housing with concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Spears, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    This manual provides a state - of - the - art review of the design and construction of an earth - sheltered house using cast - in - place concrete, precast concrete, and concrete masonry. Based on a literature survey, theoretical work, and discussions with researchers and engineers in the concrete industry, the text is designed for use by architects, engineers, and homebuilders. The features of concrete construction that are current accepted practice for the concrete products discussed are shown to be applicable with reasonable care to building a safe, dry, and comfortable earth - sheltered house. The main considerations underlying the recommendations were the use of the earth's mass and passive solar effects to minimize energy needs, the structural capacity of the separate concrete products and their construction methods, and drainage principles and waterproofing details. Shelter ranging from those with at least 2 feet of earth cover to those with an uncovered roof of usual construction are included. To be considered an earth - sheltered residential building, at least half of the exterior wall and roof area that is in direct contact with the conditioned living space must be sheltered from the environment by earth berm or earthfill. Siting considerations, the fundamentals of passive solar heating, planning considerations, and structural considerations are discussed. Detailed guidelines are provided on concrete masonry construction, joint details in walls and floors, waterproofing, formwork and form removal, concrete construction practices, concrete masonry, and surface finishes. Numerous illustrations, tables, and a list of 32 references are provided. (Author abstract modified).

  16. NMR studies of molecular structure in fruit cuticle polyesters.

    PubMed

    Fang, X; Qiu, F; Yan, B; Wang, H; Mort, A J; Stark, R E

    2001-07-01

    The cuticle of higher plants functions primarily as a protective barrier for the leaves and fruits, controlling microbial attack as well as the diffusion of water and chemicals from the outside environment. Its major chemical constituents are waxes (for waterproofing) and cutin (a structural support polymer). However, the insolubility of cutin has hampered investigations of its covalent structure and domain architecture, which are viewed as essential for the design of crop protection strategies and the development of improved synthetic waterproofing materials. Recently developed strategies designed to meet these investigative challenges include partial depolymerization using enzymatic or chemical reagents and spectroscopic examination of the intact polyesters in a solvent-swelled form. The soluble oligomers from degradative treatments of lime fruit cutin are composed primarily of the expected 10,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic and 16-hydroxy-10-oxo-hexadecanoic acids; low-temperature HF treatments also reveal sugar units that are covalently attached to the hydroxyfatty acids. Parallel investigations of solvent-swollen cutin using 2D NMR spectroscopy assisted by magic-angle spinning yield well-resolved spectra that permit detailed comparisons to be made among chemical moieties present in the intact biopolymer, the soluble degradation products, and the unreacted solid residue. PMID:11423150

  17. Ancient wood of the Acqualadrone rostrum: materials history through gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and sulfur X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Frank, Patrick; Caruso, Francesco; Caponetti, Eugenio

    2012-05-15

    In 2008 the rostrum from an ancient warship was recovered from the Mediterranean near Acqualadrone, Sicily. To establish its provenance and condition, samples of black and brown rostrum wood were examined using sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). GC/MS of pyrolytic volatiles yielded only guaiacyl derivatives, indicating construction from pinewood. A derivatized extract of black wood yielded forms of abietic acid and sandaracopimaric acid consistent with pine pitch waterproofing. Numerical fits to the sulfur K-edge XAS spectra showed that about 65% of the endogenous sulfur consisted of thiols and disulfides. Elemental sulfur was about 2% and 7% in black and brown wood, respectively, while pyritic sulfur was about 12% and 6%. About 2% of the sulfur in both wood types was modeled as trimethylsulfonium, possibly reflecting biogenic (dimethylsulfonio)propionate. High-valent sulfur was exclusively represented by sulfate esters, consistent with bacterial sulfotransferase activity. Traces of chloride were detected, but no free sulfate ion. In summary, the rostrum was manufactured of pine wood and subsequently waterproofed with pine pitch. The subsequent 2300 years included battle, foundering, and marine burial followed by anoxia, bacterial colonization, sulfate reduction, and mobilization of transition metals, which produced pyrite and copious appended sulfur functionality. PMID:22545724

  18. Analysis of yellow "fat" deposits on Inuit boots.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Howell G M; Stern, Ben; Burgio, Lucia; Kite, Marion

    2009-08-01

    Irregular residues of a yellow deposit that was assumed to be seal fat used for waterproofing were observed in the creases of the outer surface of a pair of Inuit boots from Arctic Canada. A sample of this deposit detached from one of these areas on these boots was examined initially by FT-Raman microscopy, from which interesting and rather surprising results demanded further analysis using FT-IR and GC-MS. The non-destructive Raman spectroscopic analysis yielded spectra which indicated the presence of a tree resin from the Pinaceae sp. The Raman spectra were also characteristic of a well-preserved keratotic protein and indicative of adherent skin. Subsequent FT-IR spectroscopic analysis supported the attribution of a Pinaceae resin to the yellow deposit. GC-MS analysis of the same deposits identified the presence of pimaric, sandaracopimaric, dehydroabietic and abietic acids, all indicative of an aged Pinaceae resin. These results confirmed that the Inuit people had access to tree resins which they probably used as a waterproofing agent. PMID:19070539

  19. Stability and reactivity of dimethylethoxysilane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Richard E.; Ford, Douglas I.

    1993-01-01

    The chemistry of the compound dimethylethoxysilane (DMES) is discussed especially as it relates to waterproofing silica surfaces. Some of the desirable properties of this compound are that it readily reacts with silica in the vapor phase, it is a low boiling point liquid (54 C), and the by-product of its reaction with silica is the rather inert substances ethanol. It is currently used by NASA to re-waterproof the HRSI shuttle tiles before relaunching the vehicle. Very little information is available on this particular compound in the literature or even on related silane compounds that have both a hydride group and an alkoxy group. Since the close proximity of two groups often drastically affects the chemical behavior of each group, chemical reactions were carried out in the laboratory with DMES to verify the expected behavior of these two functional groups located on DMES. Some of the reactions tested would be potentially useful for quantitative or qualitative measurements on DMES. To study the reactions of DMES with silica surfaces, cabosil was used as a silica substrate because of its high surface area and the ease of detection by infrared spectroscopy as well as other techniques.

  20. The Ancient Wood of the Acqualadrone Rostrum: A Materials History Through GC-MS and Sulfur X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Patrick; Caruso, Francesco; Caponetti, Eugenio

    2012-01-01

    In 2008 the rostrum from an ancient warship was recovered from the Mediterranean near Acqualadrone, Sicily. To establish its provenance and condition, samples of black and brown rostrum wood were examined using sulfur K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and GC-MS. GC-MS of pyrolytic volatiles yielded only guaiacyl derivatives, indicating construction from pinewood. A derivatized extract of black wood yielded forms of abietic acid and sandaracopimaric acid consistent with pine pitch waterproofing. Numerical fits to the sulfur K-edge XAS spectra showed that about 65% of the endogenous sulfur consisted of thiols and disulfides. Elemental sulfur was about 2% and 7% in black and brown wood, respectively, while pyritic sulfur was about 12% and 6%. About 2% of the sulfur in both wood types was modeled as trimethylsulfonium, possibly reflecting biogenic dimethylsulfonio-propionate. High valent sulfur was exclusively represented by sulfate esters, consistent with bacterial sulfotransferase activity. Traces of chloride were detected, but no free sulfate ion. In summary, the rostrum was manufactured of pine wood and subsequently waterproofed with pine pitch. The subsequent 2300 years included battle, foundering, and marine burial followed by anoxia, bacterial colonization, sulfate reduction, and mobilization of transition metals, which produced pyrite and copious appended sulfur functionality. PMID:22545724

  1. Radiation induced changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of the granary weevil and their relationships to desiccation and adult mortality: Annual progress report, February 15, 1987 to February 14, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Sriharan, S.

    1988-03-14

    Sitophilus granarius (L) is a major pest of stroed grains and is prone to irradiation treatment. There is considerable scope for use of radiation like Cesium-137 (as a source) as an alternative to chemical treatment for pest control. Study with regard to radiation damage and the effect of environmental factors like temperature and humidity on adult weevil mortality due to radiation effect is limited. Stored-grain insects live in an enviroment where liquid water is seldom available. Waterproofing and conservation of water by the insects is a critical factor for weevil survival. In some insects it has been noted that the rate of water loss through the integument has been associated with changes in the hydrocarbon composition of the epicuticle. Epicuticular hydrocarbons play an important role in preventing desiccation. Information on the effects of irradiation on epicuticular hydrocarbon of the adult weevils is limited. The present investigation sudies the after effects of radiation damage to granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius (L.) in terms of causing increased water loss from the body, weevil nortality and concommitant changes, if any, in the cuticular hydrocarbons that waterproof the insect. 23 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Sealing ability of MTA used as a root end filling material: effect of the sonic and ultrasonic condensation.

    PubMed

    Bernabé, Pedro Felício Estrada; Gomes-Filho, João Eduardo; Bernabé, Daniel Galera; Nery, Mauro Juvenal; Otoboni-Filho, José Arlindo; Dezan-Jr, Eloi; Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Despite the excellent properties of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), the condensation technique may have some influence in its sealing ability. The purpose of this study was to compare the sealing ability of sonic and ultrasonic setting of MTA. Thirty-four extracted human teeth had their canals prepared and filled with Sealapex sealer and gutta-percha using the active lateral condensation technique. The teeth were rendered waterproof and apicoectomy performed at 3 mm from the apex. Root-end cavities (3.0 mm deep and 1.4 mm diameter) were prepared with diamond ultrasonic tips. The root-end cavities were filled with Pro-Root MTA® with ultrasonic vibration, sonic vibration or no vibration. The positive control group did not receive any material while the negative control group was totally rendered waterproof. After material set, the specimens were immersed in Rodhamine B for 24 h, under vacuum in the first 15 min, then washed, dried and split longitudinally for evaluating the infiltration at the dentin/material interface. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's tests at 5% significance level. Sonic vibration promoted the lowest infiltration values (p<0.05). It was concluded that sonic vibration could be considered an efficient aid to improve the sealing ability of MTA when used as root-end filling material. PMID:23780366

  3. Assessment of digital camera-derived vegetation indices in quantitative monitoring of seasonal rice growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Toshihiro; Shibayama, Michio; Kimura, Akihiko; Takada, Eiji

    2011-11-01

    A commercially available digital camera can be used in a low-cost automatic observation system for monitoring crop growth change in open-air fields. We developed a prototype Crop Phenology Recording System (CPRS) for monitoring rice growth, but the ready-made waterproof cases that we used produced shadows on the images. After modifying the waterproof cases, we repeated the fixed-point camera observations to clarify questions regarding digital camera-derived vegetation indices (VIs), namely, the visible atmospherically resistant index (VARI) based on daytime normal color images (RGB image) and the nighttime relative brightness index (NRBI NIR) based on nighttime near infrared (NIR) images. We also took frequent measurements of agronomic data such as plant length, leaf area index (LAI), and aboveground dry matter weight to gain a detailed understanding of the temporal relationship between the VIs and the biophysical parameters of rice. In addition, we conducted another nighttime outdoor experiment to establish the link between NRBI NIR and camera-to-object distance. The study produced the following findings. (1) The customized waterproof cases succeeded in preventing large shadows from being cast, especially on nighttime images, and it was confirmed that the brightness of the nighttime NIR images had spatial heterogeneity when a point light source (flashlight) was used, in contrast to the daytime RGB images. (2) The additional experiment using a forklift showed that both the ISO sensitivity and the calibrated digital number of the NIR (cDN NIR) had significant effects on the sensitivity of NRBI NIR to the camera-to-object distance. (3) Detailed measurements of a reproductive stem were collected to investigate the connection between the morphological feature change caused by the panicle sagging process and the downtrend in NRBI NIR during the reproductive stages. However, these agronomic data were not completely in accord with NRBI NIR in terms of the temporal pattern. (4) The time-series data for the LAI, plant length, and aboveground dry matter weight could be well approximated by a sigmoid curve based on NRBI NIR and VARI. The results confirmed that NRBI NIR was more sensitive to all of the agronomic data for overall season, including the early reproductive stages. VARI had an especially high correlation with LAI, unless yellow panicles appeared in the field of view.

  4. A vision-based tool for the control of hydraulic structures in sewer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, L.; Sage, D.; Kayal, S.; Jeanbourquin, D.; Rossi, L.

    2009-04-01

    During rain events, the total amount of the wastewater/storm-water mixture cannot be treated in the wastewater treatment plant; the overflowed water goes directly into the environment (lakes, rivers, streams) via devices called combined sewers overflows (CSOs). This water is untreated and is recognized as an important source of pollution. In most cases, the quantity of overflowed water is unknown due to high hydraulic turbulences during rain events; this quantity is often significant. For this reason, the monitoring of the water flow and the water level is of crucial environmental importance. Robust monitoring of sewer systems is a challenging task to achieve. Indeed, the environment inside sewers systems is inherently harsh and hostile: constant humidity of 100%, fast and large water level changes, corrosive atmosphere, presence of gas, difficult access, solid debris inside the flow. A flow monitoring based on traditional probes placed inside the water (such as Doppler flow meter) is difficult to conduct because of the solid material transported by the flow. Probes placed outside the flow such as ultrasonic water level probes are often used; however the measurement is generally done on only one particular point. Experience has shown that the water level in CSOs during rain events is far from being constant due to hydraulic turbulences. Thus, such probes output uncertain information. Moreover, a check of the data reliability is impossible to achieve. The HydroPix system proposes a novel approach to the monitoring of sewers based on video images, without contact with the water flow. The goal of this system is to provide a monitoring tool for wastewater system managers (end-users). The hardware was chosen in order to suit the harsh conditions of sewers system: Cameras are 100% waterproof and corrosion-resistant; Infra-red LED illumination systems are used (waterproof, low power consumption); A waterproof case contains the registration and communication system. The monitoring software has the following requirements: visual analysis of particular hydraulic behavior, automatic vision-based flow measurements, automatic alarm system for particular events (overflows, risk of flooding, etc), database for data management (images, events, measurements, etc.), ability to be controlled remotely. The software is implemented in modular server/client architecture under LabVIEW development system. We have conducted conclusive in situ tests in various sewers configurations (CSOs, storm-water sewerage, WWTP); they have shown the ability of the HydroPix to perform accurate monitoring of hydraulic structures. Visual information demonstrated a better understanding of the flow behavior in complex and difficult environment.

  5. The Use of Basalt, Basalt Fibers and Modified Graphite for Nuclear Waste Repository - 12150

    SciTech Connect

    Gulik, V.I.; Biland, A.B.

    2012-07-01

    New materials enhancing the isolation of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel are continuously being developed.. Our research suggests that basalt-based materials, including basalt roving chopped basalt fiber strands, basalt composite rebar and materials based on modified graphite, could be used for enhancing radioactive waste isolation during the storage and disposal phases and maintaining it during a significant portion of the post-closure phase. The basalt vitrification process of nuclear waste is a viable alternative to glass vitrification. Basalt roving, chopped basalt fiber strands and basalt composite rebars can significantly increase the strength and safety characteristics of nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel storages. Materials based on MG are optimal waterproofing materials for nuclear waste containers. (authors)

  6. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development. Quarterly report No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, N.F. Jr.

    1981-05-18

    The results of a selection process to define the conceptual design of an optimum integrated residential photovoltaic module array are discussed. Three basic module design concepts have been analyzed with respect to both production and installation costs. The results of this evaluation have been used to synthesize a fourth design which incorporates the best features of these initial concepts to produce a module/array design approach which offers the promise of a substantial reduction in the installed cost of a residential array. A unique waterproofing and mounting scheme has been used to reduce the cost of installing an integral array while still maintaining a high probability that the installed array will be watertight for the design lifetime of the system. This recommended concept will also permit the array to be mounted as a direct or stand-off installation with no changes to the module design.

  7. High-temperature-immersion ultrasonic probe without delay line using PbTiO3/Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ultrasonic transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibe, Taiga; Inoue, Takuo; Namihira, Takao; Kobayashi, Makiko

    2015-07-01

    The behavior of a high-temperature-immersion ultrasonic probe without a delay line using a PbTiO3/Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PT/PZT) ultrasonic transducer was investigated empirically. A ?100-µm-thick PT/PZT film was fabricated on a 200-µm-thick stainless steel substrate. After PT/PZT film fabrication, the substrate was bonded to a stainless steel pipe using a high-temperature waterproof adhesive material. The probe was tested in a water bath from room temperature to 100 °C for system verification. During three thermal cycles, the ultrasonic echoes had a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and reasonable repeatability. After that, the same probe was verified by testing it in the silicone oil from room temperature to 200 °C. The test was also repeated three times and the probe successfully demonstrated high-temperature durability, a high SNR, and repeatability throughout the experiments.

  8. A Flexible Ultrasound Transducer Array with Micro-Machined Bulk PZT

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhe; Xue, Qing-Tang; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Shu, Yi; Tian, He; Yang, Yi; Xie, Dan; Luo, Jian-Wen; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel flexible piezoelectric micro-machined ultrasound transducer, which is based on PZT and a polyimide substrate. The transducer is made on the polyimide substrate and packaged with medical polydimethylsiloxane. Instead of etching the PZT ceramic, this paper proposes a method of putting diced PZT blocks into holes on the polyimide which are pre-etched. The device works in d31 mode and the electromechanical coupling factor is 22.25%. Its flexibility, good conformal contacting with skin surfaces and proper resonant frequency make the device suitable for heart imaging. The flexible packaging ultrasound transducer also has a good waterproof performance after hundreds of ultrasonic electric tests in water. It is a promising ultrasound transducer and will be an effective supplementary ultrasound imaging method in the practical applications. PMID:25625905

  9. Micro/Nanostructured Films and Adhesives for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungkyu K; Kang, Sung Min; Yang, Sung Ho; Cho, Woo Kyung

    2015-12-01

    The advanced technologies available for micro/nanofabrication have opened new avenues for interdisciplinary approaches to solve the unmet medical needs of regenerative medicine and biomedical devices. This review highlights the recent developments in micro/nanostructured adhesives and films for biomedical applications, including waterproof seals for wounds or surgery sites, drug delivery, sensing human body signals, and optical imaging of human tissues. We describe in detail the fabrication processes required to prepare the adhesives and films, such as tape-based adhesives, nanofilms, and flexible and stretchable film-based electronic devices. We also discuss their biomedical functions, performance in vitro and in vivo, and the future research needed to improve the current systems. PMID:26510305

  10. Intrinsic Hydrophobicity of Rammed Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holub, M.; Stone, C.; Balintova, M.; Grul, R.

    2015-11-01

    Rammed earth is well known for its vapour diffusion properties, its ability to regulate humidity within the built environment. Rammed earth is also an aesthetically iconic material such as marble or granite and therefore is preferably left exposed. However exposed rammed earth is often coated with silane/siloxane water repellents or the structure is modified architecturally (large roof overhangs) to accommodate for the hydrophilic nature of the material. This paper sets out to find out optimal hydrophobicity for rammed earth based on natural composite fibres and surface coating without adversely affecting the vapour diffusivity of the material. The material is not required to be waterproof, but should resist at least driving rain. In order to evaluate different approaches to increase hydrophobicity of rammed earth surface, peat fibres and four types of repellents were used.

  11. Closeup view of the exterior of the starboard side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the exterior of the starboard side of the forward fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking at the forward facing observation windows of the flight deck. Note the High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (HRSI) surrounding the window openings, the Low-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (LRSI) immediately beyond the HRSI tiles and the Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation blankets just beyond the LRSI tiles. The holes in the tiles are injection points for the application of waterproofing material. The windows are composed of redundant pressure window panes of thermal glass. This image was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  12. Detail view of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery Discovery showing the thermal protection system components with the white Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFSI) Blanket and the black High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (HRSI) tiles along the outer edges . The marks seen on the HRSI tiles are injection point marks and holes for the application of waterproofing material. This view also a good detailed view of the two-piece rudder which is used to control the yaw position of orbiter on approach and landing in earth's atmosphere and upon landing the two-piece rudder splays open to both sides of the stabilizer to act as an air brake to help slow the craft to a stop. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  13. Detail view of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery looking at the two-piece rudder which is used to control the yaw position of orbiter on approach and landing in earth's atmosphere and upon landing the two-piece rudder splays open to both sides of the stabilizer to act as an air brake to help slow the craft to a stop. Note the thermal protection system components with the white Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation Blanket and the black High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation tiles along the outer edges (HRSI tiles). The marks seen on the HRSI tiles are injection point marks and holes for the application of waterproofing material. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  14. Director's Discretionary Fund Report for Fiscal Year 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Topics covered include: Waterproofing the Space Shuttle tiles, thermal protection system for Reusable Launch Vehicles, computer modeling of the thermal conductivity of cometary ice, effects of ozone depletion and ultraviolet radiation on plants, a novel telemetric biosensor to monitor blood pH on-line, ion mobility in polymer electrolytes for lithium-polymer batteries, a microwave-pumped far infrared photoconductor, and a new method for measuring cloud liquid vapor using near infrared remote sensing. Also included: laser-spectroscopic instrument for turbulence measurement, remote sensing of aircraft contrails using a field portable imaging interferometer, development of a silicon-micromachined gas chromatography system for determination of planetary surface composition, planar Doppler velocimetry, chaos in interstellar chemistry, and a limited pressure cycle engine for high-speed output.

  15. Electrostatic Spraying With Conductive Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmo, Joseph J.; Dawn, Frederic S.; Erlandson, Robert E.; Atkins, Loren E.

    1989-01-01

    Thin, uniform polymer coatings applied in water base normally impossible to charge. Electrostatic sprayer modified so applies coatings suspended or dissolved in electrically conductive liquids. Nozzle and gun constructed of nonconductive molded plastic. Liquid passageway made long enough electrical leakage through it low. Coaxial hose for liquid built of polytetrafluoroethylene tube, insulating sleeve, and polyurethane jacket. Sprayer provided with insulated seal at gun-to-hose connection, nonconductive airhose, pressure tank electrically isolated from ground, and special nozzle electrode. Supply of atomizing air reduced so particle momentum controlled by electrostatic field more effectively. Developed to apply water-base polyurethane coating to woven, shaped polyester fabric. Coating provides pressure seal for fabric, which is part of spacesuit. Also useful for applying waterproof, decorative, or protective coatings to fabrics for use on Earth.

  16. The NAVI-2: A ruggedized portable radiation analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, W.S.; Butterfield, K.B.; Frankle, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    The NAVI-2 is a rugged, lightweight, and waterproof portable radiation analyzer developed by the Advanced Nuclear Technology group at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It was originally developed for a specific application: performing confirmatory measurements on plutonium removed from dismantled nuclear weapons as part of the O`Leary-Mikhailov mutual reciprocal inspections agreement. Since that time the hardware has stabilized into a mature package while several additional software packages have been developed. Now, in addition to the original software for performing confirmatory measurements, software is available that will allow the NAVI-2 to be used for scanning of extended sources, searching for hidden sources, and monitoring of items in a portal monitoring sense. This report will provide hardware and software details for owners and users of the NAVI-2.

  17. Underwater manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus provided for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer {plus_minus} 45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer {plus_minus} 10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

  18. Preparation and luminescent properties of lanthanide (Eu3+ and Tb3+) complexes grafted to 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane by covalent bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenjun; Wang, Haiyan

    2015-12-01

    A novel precursor PMA-Si was synthesized by modifying 1,2,4,5-benzene-tetracarboxylic acid (PMA) with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). Then the hybrids were prepared by PMA-Si coordinating to lanthanide ions (Eu3+ and Tb3+) in sol-gel process. In order to improve luminescent efficiency, 1,10-Phenanthroline (Phen) was introduced to the system as the second ligand. As-prepared compounds in sol condition were coated on quartz plates to form a layer of thin film, which was different from other similar hybrids. The properties of the hybrids were characterized by FT-IR, fluorescence spectra, TG and SEM. The results showed that the obtained materials enhanced thermal stability, mechanical resistances, waterproofness as well as machining properties.

  19. Characterization by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of diterpenoid resinous materials in Roman-age amphorae from northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Dimitrakoudi, Evagelia A; Mitkidou, Sofia A; Urem-Kotsou, Dushka; Kotsakis, Kostas; Stephanidou-Stephanatou, Julia; Stratis, John A

    2011-01-01

    A combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry approach has been used for the characterization of two lumps of resin and 17 adsorbed residues on Roman-age vessels, mainly amphorae, from northern Greece. The data show that a diterpenic resin from plants of the Pinacae family is the main component of the tarry material associated with the analyzed archaeological samples. The identification and mass spectrometric fragmentation of several characteristic diterpenoid biomarkers is discussed. The abundance of secondary products identified in the archaeological samples suggests that the oxidative degradation of abietic acid and dehydroabietic acid to aromatic products was the main pathway. Of particular interest is the presence of characteristic saturated abietane hydrocarbons in one sample, which indicate that a reductive process also occurred on a small scale. The overall similarity in the composition of the residues suggests the common use of pine tar as a waterproofing and sealing agent at different sites in northern Greece during the Roman period. PMID:22274948

  20. Rad Pole Cam Development

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F. M.; Odell, D. M. C; Harpring, L. J.; Peterson, K. D.

    2005-10-05

    The RadPoleCam was developed to provide Department Of Energy (DOE) first responders the capability to assess the radiological and visual condition of remote or inaccessible locations. Real time gamma isotopic identification is provided to the first responder in the form of audio feedback (i.e. spoken through head phones) from a gamma detector mounted on a collapsible pole that can extend from 1 to 9 meters (6 to 29 feet). Simultaneously, selectable direct and side looking visual images are provided from the 5cm (2in) diameter, waterproof probe tip. The lightweight, self contained, ruggedized, system will provide a rapidly deployable field system for visual and radiological search and assessment of confined spaces and extended reach locations.

  1. Development of processing techniques for advanced thermal protection materials. Annual progress report, 1 June 1994-31 May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Selvaduray, G.S.

    1995-06-01

    The main purpose of this work has been in the development and characterization of materials for high temperature applications. Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) are constantly being tested, and evaluated for increased thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental effects. Materials development was carried out through the use of many different instruments and methods, ranging from extensive elemental analysis to physical attributes testing. The six main focus areas include: (1) protective coatings for carbon/carbon composites; (2) TPS material characterization; (3) improved waterproofing for TPS; (4) modified ceramic insulation for bone implants; (5) improved durability ceramic insulation blankets; and (6) ultra-high temperature ceramics. This report describes the progress made in these research areas during this contract period.

  2. The development and functions of oenocytes.

    PubMed

    Makki, Rami; Cinnamon, Einat; Gould, Alex P

    2014-01-01

    Oenocytes have intrigued insect physiologists since the nineteenth century. Many years of careful but mostly descriptive research on these cells highlights their diverse sizes, numbers, and anatomical distributions across Insecta. Contemporary molecular genetic studies in Drosophila melanogaster and Tribolium castaneum support the hypothesis that oenocytes are of ectodermal origin. They also suggest that, in both short and long germ-band species, oenocytes are induced from a Spalt major/Engrailed ectodermal zone by MAPK signaling. Recent glimpses into some of the physiological functions of oenocytes indicate that they involve fatty acid and hydrocarbon metabolism. Genetic studies in D. melanogaster have shown that larval oenocytes synthesize very-long-chain fatty acids required for tracheal waterproofing and that adult oenocytes produce cuticular hydrocarbons required for desiccation resistance and pheromonal communication. Exciting areas of future research include the evolution of oenocytes and their cross talk with other tissues involved in lipid metabolism such as the fat body. PMID:24397521

  3. Field-deployable monitors for volatile organic compounds in air. (Essential capabilities of a portable gas chromatograph)

    SciTech Connect

    Berkley, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds in ambient air are usually estimated by trapping them from air or collecting whole air samples and returning them to a laboratory for analysis by gas chromatography using selective detection. Immediate data can be obtained, and sampling errors minimized, by analyzing with a field-deployable instrument at the time samples are collected. Portable gas chromatographs are available, but they don't fully meet the need for quick, high-quality data under field conditions. Shortcomings include insensitive detectors, non-selective detectors, poor resolution, retention time drift, maladroit data processing schemes, excessive energy consumption, and vulnerability to weather. Improved waterproofing, temperature regulation, and energy efficiency are particularly crucial to true field-deployability. Mass spectrometric detection, high-speed chromatography, polycapillary chromatography, and peak modulation may lead to useful enhancements in future.

  4. KSC-04PD-0622

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Damon Petty, with United Space Alliance, removes an insulation blanket from a shelf prior to heat cleaning and waterproofing. The blankets fit inside the nose cap of an orbiter. They consist of layered, pure silica felt sandwiched between a layer of silica fabric (the hot side) and a layer of S-Glass fabric. The blanket is through-stitched with pure silica thread in a 1-inch grid pattern. After fabrication, the blanket is bonded directly to the vehicle structure and finally coated with a high purity silica coating that improves erosion resistance. The blankets are semi-rigid and can be made as large as 30 inches by 30 inches.

  5. Surface electromyographic measurements on land prior to and after 90 min of submersion (swimming) are highly reliable.

    PubMed

    Olstad, Bjørn Harald; Zinner, Christoph; Cabri, Jan; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of surface electromyography (sEMG) measurements after submersion (swimming) for 90min. Isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) on land and in water were collected from eight muscles on the right side of the body in 12 healthy participants (6 women and 6 men). Repeated measures analyses of variance (general linear model ANOVA) showed no significant differences in the peak amplitude MVC scores between land pre and post measurements for all muscles, p>.05. The mean of the Intraclass correlation coefficient (1,1) for land pre and land post was .985 with (95% Cl=.978-.990), for land pre and water pre .976 (95% Cl=.964-.984) and for land pre and post, water pre and post .981 (95% Cl=.974-.987). Measuring sEMG on land before and after a prolonged submersion is highly reliable without additional waterproofing when using electrodes with 57mm diameter. PMID:25008020

  6. EIFS -- Surface-sealed wall systems that need flashings

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, P.E.; Waltz, M.E. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    An exterior insulation and finish system (EIFS) is typically designed as a surface-sealed, barrier wall. Water leakage can occur through these wall systems at failed sealant joints and openings in the EIFS lamina, or from other components of the wall such as windows, HVAC through-wall units, etc. The reliability of a traditional EIFS wall can be improved by providing flashings to capture and control water that penetrates at vulnerable areas. Some recent EIFS innovations provide additional protection against water penetration by incorporating backup waterproofing membranes into the system. Proper flashing design becomes critical for these products to perform as intended by the manufacturer. This paper describes the basic considerations of flashing design for EIFS and concentrates on material selection, compatibility, durability, workmanship, and design. A workable flashing system requires a careful balance of these properties.

  7. KSC-04PD-0625

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Damon Petty, with United Space Alliance, removes another insulation blanket from a shelf prior to heat cleaning and waterproofing. The blankets fit inside the nose cap of an orbiter. They consist of layered, pure silica felt sandwiched between a layer of silica fabric (the hot side) and a layer of S-Glass fabric. The blanket is through-stitched with pure silica thread in a 1-inch grid pattern. After fabrication, the blanket is bonded directly to the vehicle structure and finally coated with a high purity silica coating that improves erosion resistance. The blankets are semi-rigid and can be made as large as 30 inches by 30 inches.

  8. Sacrificial cathodic protection of a concrete overpass using metallized zinc: Latest update

    SciTech Connect

    Brousseau, R.; Baldock, B.; Pye, G.; Gu, P.

    1997-12-01

    Removal of the salt-contaminated concrete, patching and the application of waterproofing membranes are some of the possible treatments that, alone or in combination, have been traditionally used to rehabilitate corrosion-damaged infrastructure. However, there are concerns about the effectiveness of only using such approach to mitigate reinforcement corrosion when the concrete is salt contaminated. Sacrificial cathodic protection using metallized zinc coatings is regarded by many as a possible rehabilitation alternative. In order to investigate it, seven reinforced concrete columns of a bridge in Montreal have been flame sprayed with zinc. The zinc anode has delivered adequate levels of cathodic protection for more than 24 months. Although initially the sacrificial current provided by the metallized zinc decreased, it now appears to have stabilized to an acceptable level.

  9. Textiles in dermatology: our experience and literature review.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, L; Brena, M; Tourlaki, A

    2014-11-01

    Skin protects its host from its environment and allows their interactions by providing a physical permeability barrier, protection from infectious agents, thermoregulation, and ultraviolet protection. Textiles, in particular clothing, interact with skin functions in a dynamic pattern. For years cotton has been considered as the only comfortable tissue suitable for patients with dermatologic disorders. Nowadays new synthetic fibers with important functions, for example breathability and waterproofing have leaned out and new tissues can be used as a complementary tool in dermatologic treatments. Our purpose is to report the main fibers used for dermatological problems and to review the literature on their use in dermatological field; finally, we also report our personal experience on this topic. PMID:25366891

  10. Dynamics of Wetting of Ultra Hydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad Karim, Alireza; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Rothstein, Jonathan; Kavehpour, Pirouz; Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst Collaboration

    2013-11-01

    Controlling the surface wettability of hydrophobic and super hydrophobic surfaces has extensive industrial applications ranging from coating, painting and printing technology and waterproof clothing to efficiency increase in power and water plants. This requires enhancing the knowledge about the dynamics of wetting on these hydrophobic surfaces. We have done experimental investigation on the dynamics of wetting on hydrophobic surfaces by looking deeply in to the dependency of the dynamic contact angles both advancing and receding on the velocity of the three-phase boundary (Solid/Liquid/Gas interface) using the Wilhelmy plate method with different ultra-hydrophobic surfaces. Several fluids with different surface tension and viscosity are used to study the effect of physical properties of liquids on the governing laws.

  11. [Groundwater].

    PubMed

    González De Posada, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    From the perspective of Hydrogeology, the concept and an introductory general typology of groundwater are established. From the perspective of Geotechnical Engineering works, the physical and mathematical equations of the hydraulics of permeable materials, which are implemented, by electric analogical simulation, to two unique cases of global importance, are considered: the bailing during the construction of the dry dock of the "new shipyard of the Bahia de Cádiz" and the waterproofing of the "Hatillo dam" in the Dominican Republic. From a physical fundamental perspective, the theories which are the subset of "analogical physical theories of Fourier type transport" are related, among which the one constituted by the laws of Adolf Fick in physiology occupies a historic role of some relevance. And finally, as a philosophical abstraction of so much useful mathematical process, the one which is called "the Galilean principle of the mathematical design of the Nature" is dealt with. PMID:24294719

  12. Tolerance requires the right smell: first evidence for interspecific selection on chemical recognition cues.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Florian; Schmitt, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    The integument of insects is generally covered with cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC). They serve multiple functions, most prominent among them waterproofing and-especially among social insects-as communication signal. CHC profiles are incredibly diverse within and across species. However, the causes for CHC variation between species, and potential selection pressures that may shape CHC profiles, are hardly understood. Here, we investigated potential selection pressures on ant CHC. We tested the hypotheses that living in association with another species (e.g., parabiosis), and the climate of the ant's habitat, affect CHC composition. We conducted a large-scale comparison of 37 Camponotus species from five continents. Our results demonstrate that closely associated ant species possess significantly longer hydrocarbons and higher proportions of methylbranched alkenes and alkadienes than non- or loosely associated species. In contrast, climatic factors had no effects. This study shows that the need to be tolerated by another species greatly affects CHC profiles. PMID:22380448

  13. Preparation of porous super-hydrophobic and super-oleophilic polyvinyl chloride surface with corrosion resistance property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yingke; Wang, Jinyan; Yang, Guangbin; Xiong, Xiujuan; Chen, Xinhua; Yu, Laigui; Zhang, Pingyu

    2011-11-01

    Porous super-hydrophobic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surfaces were obtained via a facile solvent/non-solvent coating process without introducing compounds with low surface energy. The microstructure, wetting behavior, and corrosion resistance of resultant super-hydrophobic PVC coatings were investigated in relation to the effects of dosage of glacial acetic acid and the temperature of drying the mixed PVC solution spread over glass slide substrate. As-prepared PVC coatings had porous microstructure, and the one obtained at a glacial acetic acid to tetrahydrofuran volume ratio of 2.5:10.0 and under a drying temperature of 17 °C had a water contact angle of 150 ± 1.5°, showing super-hydrophobicity. In the meantime, it possessed very small contact angles for liquid paraffin and diiodomethane and good corrosion resistance against acid and alkali corrosive mediums, showing promising applications in self-cleaning, waterproof for outer wall of building, seawater resistant coating, and efficient separation of oil and water.

  14. Fabrication of cotton fabric with superhydrophobicity and flame retardancy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Chengyu

    2013-07-25

    A simple and facile method for fabricating the cotton fabric with superhydrophobicity and flame retardancy is described in the present work. The cotton fabric with the maximal WCA of 160° has been prepared by the covalent deposition of amino-silica nanospheres and the further graft with (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetradecyl) trimethoxysilane. The geometric microstructure of silica spheres was measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cotton textiles before and after treatment were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The wetting behavior of cotton samples was investigated by water contact angle measurement. Moreover, diverse performances of superhydrophobic cotton textiles have been evaluated as well. The results exhibited the outstanding superhydrophobicity, excellent waterproofing durability and flame retardancy of the cotton fabric after treatment, offering a good opportunity to accelerate the large-scale production of superhydrophobic textiles materials for new industrial applications. PMID:23768579

  15. Role of Vernix caseosa in the neonate: potential application in the adult population.

    PubMed

    Haubrich, Kathleen A

    2003-11-01

    Vernix caseosa is a naturally occurring fetal barrier film produced in late pregnancy as a result of sebaceous and epidermal lipids combined with desquamation of maturing fetal corneocytes. Vernix lacks desmosomal interconnections between corneocytes as demonstrated in adult stratum corneum and is, therefore, referred to as a "mobile phase" stratum corneum. Vernix is proposed to have multiple fetal/newborn overlapping biological functions: moisturization, anti-infective, antioxidant, wound healing, and waterproofing. Patients with altered skin integrity due to burn injuries lack the protective qualities necessary for wound healing. Emerging research suggests that Vernix applied to skin cultures may enhance wound healing. Application of the fetal/neonatal skin science findings to the adult burn population offers the potential for a clinically relevant homologous substitute for impaired tissue integrity. PMID:14595204

  16. Guidelines for going underground

    SciTech Connect

    Deppen, D.

    1980-02-01

    Considerations necessary prior to construction of an underground house are discussed. Site conditions must be investigated and the water table is an important factor. Building codes should not pose problems but the design of the house should be based on the local climate and site conditions. The most common areas of heat losses in the underground house are cited and alternative designs features to reduce the losses are discussed. Underground structures require strong building materials and high quality waterproofing. Humidity may be a slight problem in the first few years as the concrete dries. The roof should be covered with 1.5-2 feet of earth cover and all slopes must be graded away from the house.

  17. [Photography of the endoscopic picture with a consumer-grade digital camera].

    PubMed

    Kakizaki, Hiroshi; Kunii, Takuya; Kato, Tomoyuki; Tomita, Yoshihiko

    2003-09-01

    In spite of the progress of digital camera technology, photography of the endoscopic picture, with a digital still camera, has not spread in the urologic setting. We attempted to photograph an endoscopic picture with a consumer-grade digital camera. An attachment was produced by pasting step-up rings for digital cameras on a coupler, or eye piece, for endoscopes. An endoscope lens, attachment, and the digital camera were connected, and the endoscopic picture was photographed. The endoscopic picture taken with the digital still camera was high definition compared to the one with the video camera for endoscopes. The conditions of the digital camera, which can be used, require having mounting threads for filters on the lens. Although a way of sterilizing and waterproofing a camera must first be discovered, a digital still camera enables one to obtain a high-definition image inexpensively, and to store and arrange the picture. PMID:14531276

  18. Scrotal and perineal flaps for anterior urethral reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Gerald H

    2002-05-01

    The use of scrotal and perineal flaps for anterior and posterior urethral reconstruction has been unfairly maligned with claims of poor waterproofing qualities, formation of diverticula, and the potential to import hair into the urethra. Actually, scrotal and perineal skin do not appear to differ from other genital skin with regards to permeability to surface liquids, and although these islands are difficult to tailor, when properly prepared they are no more likely to create diverticula than other genital skin islands. Similarly, if the flap is prepared from hirsute skin, hair will be imported into the urethra; however, hairless scrotal areas can be mobilized as skin islands, and the skin overlying the perineal artery is non-hirsute or nearly non-hirsute in many individuals. PMID:12371232

  19. Moist bacterial strike-through of surgical materials: confirmatory tests.

    PubMed Central

    Laufman, H; Siegal, J D; Edberg, S C

    1979-01-01

    New tests consisting of modifications of the inverted Mason jar test confirm our previously reported studies which showed that woven and nonwoven surgical materials vary greatly in their ability to serve as barriers against moist bacterial strike-through. Among the woven materials, only tightly woven Pima cloth or materials treated with Quarpel waterproofing process or with polythene layer lamination was invariably resistant. However, tight-woven Pima cloth, which had been treated with Quarpel became permeable after 100 washing-sterilizing cycles. Of the nonwoven materials, single-layer nonwoven materials tended to unevenly permeable to moist bacterial strike-through. Only the front and sleeves of nonwoven gowns reinforced with polyethelene layer were invariably resistant to moist contamination. PMID:758867

  20. Modular, multi-level groundwater sampler

    DOEpatents

    Nichols, Ralph L. (812 Plantation Point Dr., N. Augusta, SC 29841); Widdowson, Mark A. (4204 Havana Ct., Columbia, SC 29206); Mullinex, Harry (10 Cardross La., Columbia, SC 29209); Orne, William H. (12 Martha Ct., Sumter, SC 29150); Looney, Brian B. (1135 Ridgemont Dr., Aiken, SC 29803)

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for taking a multiple of samples of groundwater or pressure measurements from a well simultaneously. The apparatus comprises a series of chambers arranged in an axial array, each of which is dimensioned to fit into a perforated well casing and leave a small gap between the well casing and the exterior of the chamber. Seals at each end of the container define the limits to the axial portion of the well to be sampled. A submersible pump in each chamber pumps the groundwater that passes through the well casing perforations into the gap from the gap to the surface for analysis. The power lines and hoses for the chambers farther down the array pass through each chamber above them in the array. The seals are solid, water-proof, non-reactive, resilient disks supported to engage the inside surface of the well casing. Because of the modular design, the apparatus provides flexibility for use in a variety of well configurations.

  1. Analysis of asphalt-based roof systems using thermal analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Paroli, R.M.; Delgado, A.H.

    1996-12-31

    Asphalt has been used in the construction of roads and houses for thousands of years. The properties of asphalt has rendered it quite useful in roofing and waterproofing applications. The most popular use of asphalt in industrial roofing is in the form of a built-up roof or modified-bituminous sheet. This type of roof consists of asphalt, reinforcement and aggregate which is used to protect the asphalt from ultraviolet rays. All materials have their weaknesses and asphalt is no exception. A good asphalt (e.g., low asphaltene content) must be used to ensure the quality and low-temperature performance of roofing asphalts. Polymer additives can be added. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the utility of termogravimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis in establishing the durability of modified bituminous membranes.

  2. Development of processing techniques for advanced thermal protection materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna S.

    1995-01-01

    The main purpose of this work has been in the development and characterization of materials for high temperature applications. Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) are constantly being tested, and evaluated for increased thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental effects. Materials development was carried out through the use of many different instruments and methods, ranging from extensive elemental analysis to physical attributes testing. The six main focus areas include: (1) protective coatings for carbon/carbon composites; (2) TPS material characterization; (3) improved waterproofing for TPS; (4) modified ceramic insulation for bone implants; (5) improved durability ceramic insulation blankets; and (6) ultra-high temperature ceramics. This report describes the progress made in these research areas during this contract period.

  3. Methods for characterizing subsurface volatile contaminants using in-situ sensors

    DOEpatents

    Ho, Clifford K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-02-21

    An inverse analysis method for characterizing diffusion of vapor from an underground source of volatile contaminant using data taken by an in-situ sensor. The method uses one-dimensional solutions to the diffusion equation in Cartesian, cylindrical, or spherical coordinates for isotropic and homogenous media. If the effective vapor diffusion coefficient is known, then the distance from the source to the in-situ sensor can be estimated by comparing the shape of the predicted time-dependent vapor concentration response curve to the measured response curve. Alternatively, if the source distance is known, then the effective vapor diffusion coefficient can be estimated using the same inverse analysis method. A triangulation technique can be used with multiple sensors to locate the source in two or three dimensions. The in-situ sensor can contain one or more chemiresistor elements housed in a waterproof enclosure with a gas permeable membrane.

  4. The testing of balloon fabrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Junius David; Moore, Irwin L

    1920-01-01

    Report describes methods and materials used in waterproofing and fireproofing airplane fabrics using dopes. The determination of the probable life of a balloon fabric in service by experimental means is of great value in choosing the most suitable fabrics for a given purpose and in pointing the way to improvements in compounding and construction. The usefulness of exposure to the weather for this purpose has been amply demonstrated. Various attempts have been made to reproduce by artificial means the conditions promoting deterioration in service, but without marked success. Exposure to the weather remains the most satisfactory method for this purpose, and a consideration of the characteristics of such tests is therefore important. This report presents the results of a typical series of exposure tests made in 1917.

  5. NETC: New England Transportation Consortium annual report for calendar year 1998. Transportation innovations and improvements for the future

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    Partial contents include: Introduction; 1998 Accomplishments; Progress of Active Projects; Tire Chips as Lightweight Backfill for Retaining Walls, Phase 2: Full-Scale Testing; Bridge Rail Crash Test, Phase 2: Sidewalk-Mounted System; Structural Analysis of New England Subbase Materials and Structures; Nondestructive Testing of Reinforced Concrete Bridges; Using Radar Imaging Techniques; Procedures for The Evaluation of Sheet Membrane Waterproofing; Durability of Concrete Crack Repair Systems; Use of Tire Chips/Soil Mixtures to Limit Frost Heave and Pavement Damage of Paved Roads; Suitability of Non-Hydric Soils for Wetland Mitigation; Implementation and Evaluation of Traffic Marking Recesses for Application of Thermoplastic Pavement Markings on Modified Open Graded Mixes; Buried Joints in Short Span Bridges; Implementation of Superpave; Optimizing GPS Use in Transportation Projects; Effectiveness of Fiber Reinforced Composites as Structural and Protective Coverings for Bridge Elements Exposed to Deicing-Salt Chlorides; A Portable Method to Determine Chloride.

  6. An assessment of the readiness of ablative materials for preflight application to the shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, S. S.; Brewer, W. D.; Clark, R. K.; Pittman, C. M.; Brinkley, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    The shuttle orbiter relies primarily on a reusable surface insulation (RSI) thermal protection system (TPS). The RSI is very efficient in its thermal performance; however, the RSI tile system has shown poor mechanical integrity. The state-of-the-art of the ablative TPS is reviewed, and an assessment made of the ablator's readiness for use on the shuttle orbiter. Unresolved technical issues with regard to the ablative TPS are identified. Short time, highly focused analytical and experimental programs were initiated to: (1) identify candidate ablation materials; (2) assess the data base for these materials; (3) evaluate the need and kind of waterproof coating; (4) calculate thermal and other stresses in an ablator tile; (5) identify an acceptable ablator/RSI tile joint filler; and (6) assess the sensitivity of the ablator to sequential heat pulses. Results from some of these programs are discussed.

  7. Expression of a fungal sterol desaturase improves tomato drought tolerance, pathogen resistance and nutritional quality

    PubMed Central

    Kamthan, Ayushi; Kamthan, Mohan; Azam, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

    2012-01-01

    Crop genetic engineering mostly aims at improving environmental stress (biotic and abiotic) tolerance as well as nutritional quality. Empowering a single crop with multiple traits is highly demanding and requires manipulation of more than one gene. However, we report improved drought tolerance and fungal resistance along with the increased iron and polyunsaturated fatty acid content in tomato by expressing a single gene encoding C-5 sterol desaturase (FvC5SD) from an edible fungus Flammulina velutipes. FvC5SD is an iron binding protein involved in ergosterol biosynthesis. Morphological and biochemical analyses indicated ?23% more epicuticular wax deposition in leaves of transgenic plants that provides an effective waterproof barrier resulting in improved protection from drought and infection by phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Furthermore, the transgenic fruits have improved nutritional value attributed to enhanced level of beneficial PUFA and 2-3 fold increase in total iron content. This strategy can be extended to other economically important crops. PMID:23230516

  8. The Fukushima disaster and Japan's nuclear plant vulnerability in comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Lipscy, Phillip Y; Kushida, Kenji E; Incerti, Trevor

    2013-06-18

    We consider the vulnerability of nuclear power plants to a disaster like the one that occurred at Fukushima Daiichi. Examination of Japanese nuclear plants affected by the earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011 shows that three variables were crucial at the early stages of the crisis: plant elevation, sea wall elevation, and location and status of backup generators. Higher elevations for these variables, or waterproof protection of backup generators, could have mitigated or prevented the disaster. We collected information on these variables, along with historical data on run-up heights, for 89 coastal nuclear power plants in the world. The data shows that 1. Japanese plants were relatively unprotected against potential inundation in international comparison, but there was considerable variation for power plants within and outside of Japan; 2. Older power plants and plants owned by the largest utility companies appear to have been particularly unprotected. PMID:23679069

  9. Development of CVD diamond detectors for clinical dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piliero, M. A.; Hugtenburg, R. P.; Ryde, S. J. S.; Oliver, K.

    2014-11-01

    The use of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) methods for the manufacture of diamonds could lead to detectors for high-resolution radiotherapy dosimetry that are cheaper and more reproducible than detectors based on natural diamonds. In this work two prototype designs (Diamond Detectors Ltd, Poole) of CVD diamond detectors were considered. The detectors were encapsulated in a water-proof housing in a form-factor that would be suitable for dosimetry measurements in water, as well as solid material phantoms. Stability of the dosimeter over time, the dose-response, dose-rate response and angular-response were examined. The study demonstrated that the detector behaviour conformed with theory in terms of the dose-rate response and had acceptable properties for use in the clinic.

  10. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Three basic module design concepts were analyzed with respect to both production and installation costs. The results of this evaluation were used to synthesize a fourth design which incorporates the best features of these initial concepts to produce a module/array design approach which offers the promise of a substantial reduction in the installed cost of a residential array. A unique waterproofing and mounting scheme was used to reduce the cost of installing an integral array while still maintaining a high probability that the installed array will be watertight for the design lifetime of the system. This recommended concept will also permit the array to be mounted as a direct or stand-off installation with no changes to the module design.

  11. Positively-charged reduced graphene oxide as an adhesion promoter for preparing a highly-stable silver nanowire film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qijun; Lee, Seong Jun; Kang, Hyungseok; Gim, Yuseong; Park, Ho Seok; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2015-04-01

    An ultrathin conductive adhesion promoter using positively charged reduced graphene oxide (rGO-NH3+) has been demonstrated for preparing highly stable silver nanowire transparent conductive electrodes (AgNW TCEs). The adhesion promoter rGO-NH3+, spray coated between the substrate and AgNWs, significantly enhances the chemical and mechanical stabilities of the AgNW TCEs. Besides, the ultrathin thickness of the rGO-NH3+ ensures excellent optical transparency and mechanical flexibility for TCEs. The AgNW films prepared using the adhesion promoter are extremely stable under harsh conditions, including ultrasonication in a variety of solvents, 3M Scotch tape detachment test, mechanical bending up to 0.3% strain, or fatigue over 1000 cycles. The greatly enhanced adhesion force is attributed to the ionic interactions between the positively charged protonated amine groups in rGO-NH3+ and the negatively charged hydroxo- and oxo-groups on the AgNWs. The positively charged GO-NH3+ and commercial polycationic polymer (poly allylamine hydrochloride) are also prepared as adhesion promoters for comparison with rGO-NH3+. Notably, the closely packed hexagonal atomic structure of rGO offers better barrier properties to water permeation and demonstrates promising utility in durable waterproof electronics. This work offers a simple method to prepare high-quality TCEs and is believed to have great potential application in flexible waterproof electronics.An ultrathin conductive adhesion promoter using positively charged reduced graphene oxide (rGO-NH3+) has been demonstrated for preparing highly stable silver nanowire transparent conductive electrodes (AgNW TCEs). The adhesion promoter rGO-NH3+, spray coated between the substrate and AgNWs, significantly enhances the chemical and mechanical stabilities of the AgNW TCEs. Besides, the ultrathin thickness of the rGO-NH3+ ensures excellent optical transparency and mechanical flexibility for TCEs. The AgNW films prepared using the adhesion promoter are extremely stable under harsh conditions, including ultrasonication in a variety of solvents, 3M Scotch tape detachment test, mechanical bending up to 0.3% strain, or fatigue over 1000 cycles. The greatly enhanced adhesion force is attributed to the ionic interactions between the positively charged protonated amine groups in rGO-NH3+ and the negatively charged hydroxo- and oxo-groups on the AgNWs. The positively charged GO-NH3+ and commercial polycationic polymer (poly allylamine hydrochloride) are also prepared as adhesion promoters for comparison with rGO-NH3+. Notably, the closely packed hexagonal atomic structure of rGO offers better barrier properties to water permeation and demonstrates promising utility in durable waterproof electronics. This work offers a simple method to prepare high-quality TCEs and is believed to have great potential application in flexible waterproof electronics. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00777a

  12. Highly Stretchable 2D Fabrics for Wearable Triboelectric Nanogenerator under Harsh Environments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeong Nam; Chun, Jinsung; Kim, Jin Woong; Lee, Keun Young; Park, Jang-Ung; Kim, Sang-Woo; Wang, Zhong Lin; Baik, Jeong Min

    2015-06-23

    Highly stretchable 2D fabrics are prepared by weaving fibers for a fabric-structured triboelectric nanogenerator (FTENG). The fibers mainly consist of Al wires and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) tubes with a high-aspect-ratio nanotextured surface with vertically aligned nanowires. The fabrics were produced by interlacing the fibers, which was bonded to a waterproof fabric for all-weather use for fabric-structured triboelectric nanogenerator (FTENG). It showed a stable high-output voltage and current of 40 V and 210 ?A, corresponding to an instantaneous power output of 4 mW. The FTENG also exhibits high robustness behavior even after 25% stretching, enough for use in smart clothing applications and other wearable electronics. For wearable applications, the nanogenerator was successfully demonstrated in applications of footstep-driven large-scale power mats during walking and power clothing attached to the elbow. PMID:26051679

  13. Wet-work Exposure: A Main Risk Factor for Occupational Hand Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Behroozy, Ali; Keegel, Tessa G.

    2014-01-01

    Wet-work can be defined as activities where workers have to immerse their hands in liquids for >2 hours per shift, or wear waterproof (occlusive) gloves for a corresponding amount of time, or wash their hands >20 times per shift. This review considers the recent literature on wet-work exposure, and examines wet-work as a main risk factor for developing irritant contact dermatitis of the hands. The aim of this paper is to provide a detailed description of wet-work exposure among specific occupational groups who extensively deal with water and other liquids in their occupations. Furthermore, it highlights the extent and importance of the subsequent adverse health effects caused by exposure to wet-work. PMID:25516808

  14. Green Roofs: Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Federal Technology Alert

    SciTech Connect

    Scholz-Barth, K.; Tanner, S.

    2004-09-01

    In a ''green roof,'' a layer of vegetation (e.g., a roof garden) covers the surface of a roof to provide shade, cooler indoor and outdoor temperatures, and effective storm-water management to reduce runoff. The main components are waterproofing, soil, and plants. There are two basic kinds: intensive and extensive. An intensive green roof often features large shrubs and trees, and it can be expensive to install and maintain. An extensive green roof features shallow soil and low-growing, horizontally spreading plants that can thrive in the alpine conditions of many rooftops. These plants do not require a lot of water or soil, and they can tolerate a significant amount of exposure to the sun and wind. This Federal Technology Alert focuses on the benefits, design, and implementation of extensive green roofs and includes criteria for their use on federal facilities.

  15. A Robust Uniaxial Force Sensor for Minimally Invasive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Michael C.; Yuen, Shelten G.; Howe, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel miniature uniaxial force sensor for use within a beating heart during mitral valve annuloplasty. The sensor measures 5.5 mm in diameter and 12 mm in length and provides a hollow core to pass instrumentation. A soft elastomer flexure design maintains a waterproof seal. Fiber optic transduction eliminates electrical circuitry within the heart, and acetal components minimize ultrasound-imaging artifacts. Calibration uses a nonlinear viscoelastic method, and in vitro tests demonstrate a 0–4-N force range with rms errors of 0.13 N (<3.2%). In vivo tests provide the first endocardial measurements of tissue-minimally invasive surgery instrument interaction forces in a beating heart. PMID:20172798

  16. Photochemical adhesion of fused silica optical elements with no adhesive strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murahara, Masataka; Funatsu, Takayuki; Okamoto, Yoshiaki

    2007-01-01

    An adhesive method that creates properties of heatproof, waterproof, and transparent to ultraviolet ray of 200 nm and under in the wavelength without adhesive strain was developed by putting one silica glass to another with the silicone oil that had been photo-oxidized by Xe2 excimer lamp. The measurement by the ZYGO interferometer showed that there was neither adhesive strain nor bubbles, and the bonding strength of 18MPa was achieved. To compare the heat resistance of the photo-oxidized silicone oil with that of general-purpose adhesives such as silicone rubber, water glass, and epoxy resin, the shearing tensile strength test was conducted after exposing at high temperatures from 25 to 500 °C. As a result, the silicone rubber adhesive exfoliated at 110 °C, and the epoxy resin adhesive, at 150 °C however, the photo-oxidized silicone oil had the bonding strength of 6.5MPa at 500 °C.

  17. Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Conkle, H.N.

    1992-09-29

    Battelle-Columbus and Amax Research & Development conducted a program to develop a process to transport, handle, store, and utilize ultra-fine, ultra-clean (UFUC) coals. The primary objective was to devise a cost-effective method, based on conventional pelletization techniques, to transform the sludge-like filter cake produced in advanced flotation cleaning processes into a product which could be used like lump coal. A secondary objective was the production of a pellet which could be readily converted into a coal water fuel (CWF) because the UFUC coal would ultimately be used as CWF. The resulting product would be a hard, waterproof pellet which could be easily reduced to small particle sizes and formulated with water into a liquid fuel.

  18. Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Conkle, H.N.

    1992-09-29

    Battelle-Columbus and Amax Research Development conducted a program to develop a process to transport, handle, store, and utilize ultra-fine, ultra-clean (UFUC) coals. The primary objective was to devise a cost-effective method, based on conventional pelletization techniques, to transform the sludge-like filter cake produced in advanced flotation cleaning processes into a product which could be used like lump coal. A secondary objective was the production of a pellet which could be readily converted into a coal water fuel (CWF) because the UFUC coal would ultimately be used as CWF. The resulting product would be a hard, waterproof pellet which could be easily reduced to small particle sizes and formulated with water into a liquid fuel.

  19. Expression of a fungal sterol desaturase improves tomato drought tolerance, pathogen resistance and nutritional quality.

    PubMed

    Kamthan, Ayushi; Kamthan, Mohan; Azam, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

    2012-01-01

    Crop genetic engineering mostly aims at improving environmental stress (biotic and abiotic) tolerance as well as nutritional quality. Empowering a single crop with multiple traits is highly demanding and requires manipulation of more than one gene. However, we report improved drought tolerance and fungal resistance along with the increased iron and polyunsaturated fatty acid content in tomato by expressing a single gene encoding C-5 sterol desaturase (FvC5SD) from an edible fungus Flammulina velutipes. FvC5SD is an iron binding protein involved in ergosterol biosynthesis. Morphological and biochemical analyses indicated ?23% more epicuticular wax deposition in leaves of transgenic plants that provides an effective waterproof barrier resulting in improved protection from drought and infection by phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotiniasclerotiorum. Furthermore, the transgenic fruits have improved nutritional value attributed to enhanced level of beneficial PUFA and 2-3 fold increase in total iron content. This strategy can be extended to other economically important crops. PMID:23230516

  20. [Work and mental health: risk groups].

    PubMed

    Vézina, M; Gingras, S

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of the Quebec Health survey identified those Quebec industrial sectors and professions in which workers are at risk of higher psychological distress and lower psychological well-being. Risk levels were measured by odds ratio, controlling for: health status, sex, social support and stressful life events. Results show that those at risk are blue collar workers and less qualified workers of traditional sectors. Lower job latitude could explain those results. Results show that risk of mental health problems is significantly higher in the following industrial sectors: leather, chemicals, paint and varnish industries; urban bus transport and taxi; shoe, clothing and textile retail stores; department stores; restaurant services; insurance and public administration (excluding defence). Risk of mental health problems is higher in the following professions road transport (excluding truck drivers); textile, leather, fur manufacturing and repairing; housekeeping and maintenance; painters, tapestry-workers, insulation and waterproofing, food and beverages sector; data processors; editors and university professors. PMID:8753644

  1. NuFab{trademark} anti-contamination suit - OST reference No. 1855. Deactivation and decommissioning focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    Radiation workers at all US Department of Energy (DOE) sites require some form of protective clothing when performing radiological work. A large number of contaminated facilities at DOE site are currently or will eventually undergo some form of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), requiring some type of protective clothing, often in multiple layers. Protective clothing that does not allow perspiration to escape causes heat stress, which lowers worker comfort and productivity. This report describes the NuFab{trademark} anti-contamination. The suit is a one-piece, disposable, breathable, waterproof coverall with a single front zipper. Constructed of tri-laminated composite material using spun-bonded polypropylene and microporous film layers, the suit is certified as incineratorable.

  2. Invisible photonic printing: computer designing graphics, UV printing and shown by a magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Haibo; Tang, Jian; Zhong, Hao; Xi, Zheng; Chen, Changle; Chen, Qianwang

    2013-01-01

    Invisible photonic printing, an emerging printing technique, is particularly useful for steganography and watermarking for anti-counterfeiting purposes. However, many challenges exist in order to realize this technique. Herein, we describe a novel photonic printing strategy targeting to overcome these challenges and realize fast and convenient fabrication of invisible photonic prints with good tenability and reproducibility. With this novel photonic printing technique, a variety of graphics with brilliant colors can be perfectly hidden in a soft and waterproof photonic-paper. The showing and hiding of the latent photonic prints are instantaneous with magnet as the only required instrument. In addition, this strategy has excellent practicality and allows end-user control of the structural design utilizing simple software on a PC. PMID:23508071

  3. Development of strain gages for use to 1311 K (1900 F)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemcoe, M. M.

    1974-01-01

    A high temperature electric resistance strain gage system was developed and evaluated to 1366 K (2000 F) for periods of at least one hour. Wire fabricated from a special high temperature strain gage alloy (BCL-3), was used to fabricate the gages. Various joining techniques (NASA butt welding, pulse arc, plasma needle arc, and dc parallel gap welding) were investigated for joining gage filaments to each other, gage filaments to lead-tab ribbons, and lead-tab ribbons to lead wires. The effectiveness of a clad-wire concept as a means of minimizing apparent strain of BCL-3 strain gages was investigated by sputtering platinum coatings of varying thicknesses on wire samples and establishing the optimum coating thickness--in terms of minimum resistivity changes with temperature. Finally, the moisture-proofing effectiveness of barrier coatings subjected to elevated temperatures was studied, and one commercial barrier coating (BLH Barrier H Waterproofing) was evaluated.

  4. Underwater manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Schrum, Phillip B. (Clairton, PA); Cohen, George H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1993-01-01

    Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is provided for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer .+-.45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer .+-.10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

  5. Underwater manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.

    1993-04-20

    Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is described for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer [plus minus]45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer [plus minus]10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

  6. Development of a measurement system for the online inspection of microstructured surfaces in harsh industrial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Thomas; Langmann, Benjamin; Reithmeier, Eduard

    2014-05-01

    Microscopic imaging techniques are usually applied for the inspection of microstructured surfaces. These techniques require clean measurement conditions. Soilings, e.g. dust or splashing liquids, can disturb the measurement process or even damage instruments. Since these soilings occur in the majority of manufacturing processes, microscopic inspection usually must be carried out in a separate laboratory. We present a measurement system which allows for a microscopic inspection and a 3D reconstruction of microstructured surfaces in harsh industrial conditions. The measurement system also enables precise positioning, e.g. of a grinding wheel, with an accuracy of 5 ?m. The main component of the measurement system is a CCD camera with a high-magnification telecentric lens. By means of this camera it is even possible to measure structures with dimensions in the range of 30 to 50 ?m. The camera and the lens are integrated into a waterproof and dustproof enclosure. The inspection window of the enclosure has an air curtain which serves as a splash guard. The workpiece illumination is crucial in order to obtain good measurement results. The measuring system includes high-power LEDs which are integrated in a waterproof enclosure. The measurement system also includes a laser with a specially designed lens system to form an extremely narrow light section on the workpiece surface. It is possible to obtain a line width of 25 ?m. This line and the camera with the high-magnification telecentric lens are used to perform a laser triangulation of the microstructured surface. This paper describes the system as well as the development and evaluation of the software for the automatic positioning of the workpiece and the automatic three-dimensional surface analysis.

  7. Visible fiber lasers excited by GaN laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Yasushi; Nakanishi, Jun; Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Ishii, Osamu; Yamazaki, Masaaki

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes and discusses visible fiber lasers that are excited by GaN laser diodes. One of the attractive points of visible light is that the human eye is sensitive to it between 400 and 700 nm, and therefore we can see applications in display technology. Of course, many other applications exist. First, we briefly review previously developed visible lasers in the gas, liquid, and solid-state phases and describe the history of primary solid-state visible laser research by focusing on rare-earth doped fluoride media, including glasses and crystals, to clarify the differences and the merits of primary solid-state visible lasers. We also demonstrate over 1 W operation of a Pr:WPFG fiber laser due to high-power GaN laser diodes and low-loss optical fibers (0.1 dB/m) made by waterproof fluoride glasses. This new optical fiber glass is based on an AlF3 system fluoride glass, and its waterproof property is much better than the well known fluoride glass of ZBLAN. The configuration of primary visible fiber lasers promises highly efficient, cost-effective, and simple laser systems and will realize visible lasers with photon beam quality and quantity, such as high-power CW or tunable laser systems, compact ultraviolet lasers, and low-cost ultra-short pulse laser systems. We believe that primary visible fiber lasers, especially those excited by GaN laser diodes, will be effective tools for creating the next generation of research and light sources.

  8. Functional properties of whey protein and its application in nanocomposite materials and functional foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Helen

    Whey is a byproduct of cheese making; whey proteins are globular proteins which can be modified and polymerized to add functional benefits, these benefits can be both nutritional and structural in foods. Modified proteins can be used in non-foods, being of particular interest in polymer films and coatings. Food packaging materials, including plastics, can linings, interior coatings of paper containers, and beverage cap sealing materials, are generally made of synthetic petroleum based compounds. These synthetic materials may pose a potential human health risk due to presence of certain chemicals such as Bisphenol A (BPA). They also add to environmental pollution, being difficult to degrade. Protein-based materials do not have the same issues as synthetics and so can be used as alternatives in many packaging types. As proteins are generally hydrophilic they must be modified structurally and their performance enhanced by the addition of waterproofing agents. Polymerization of whey proteins results in a network, adding both strength and flexibility. The most interesting of the food-safe waterproofing agents are the (large aspect ratio) nanoclays. Nanoclays are relatively inexpensive, widely available and have low environmental impact. The clay surface can be modified to make it organophilic and so compatible with organic polymers. The objective of this study is the use of polymerized whey protein (PWP), with reinforcing nanoclays, to produce flexible surface coatings which limit the transfer of contents while maintaining food safety. Four smectite and kaolin type clays, one treated and three natural were assessed for strengthening qualities and the potential waterproofing and plasticizing benefits of other additives were also analyzed. The nutritional benefits of whey proteins can also be used to enhance the protein content of various foodstuffs. Drinkable yogurt is a popular beverage in the US and other countries and is considered a functional food, especially when produced with probiotic bacteria. Carbonation was applied to a drinkable yogurt to enhance its benefits. This process helps reduce the oxygen levels in the foodstuff thus potentially being advantageous to the microaerophilic probiotic bacteria while simultaneously producing a product, somewhat similar to kefir, which has the potential to fill a niche in the functional foods market. Yogurt was combined with a syrup to reduce its viscosity, making it drinkable, and also to allow infusion of CO2. This dilution reduced the protein content of the drink and so whey protein concentrate was added to increase levels in the final product. High-methoxyl pectins were used to provide stability by reducing the tendency of the proteins to sediment out. The objectives of this study were to develop a manufacturing technology for drinkable carbonated symbiotic yogurts, and to evaluate their physicochemical properties. Two flavors of yogurt drink, pomegranate and vanilla, were formulated containing inulin as prebiotic, along with probiotic bacteria, producing symbiotic dairy beverages.

  9. Gait Kinematic Analysis in Water Using Wearable Inertial Magnetic Sensors.

    PubMed

    Fantozzi, Silvia; Giovanardi, Andrea; Borra, Davide; Gatta, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Walking is one of the fundamental motor tasks executed during aquatic therapy. Previous kinematics analyses conducted using waterproofed video cameras were limited to the sagittal plane and to only one or two consecutive steps. Furthermore, the set-up and post-processing are time-consuming and thus do not allow a prompt assessment of the correct execution of the movements during the aquatic session therapy. The aim of the present study was to estimate the 3D joint kinematics of the lower limbs and thorax-pelvis joints in sagittal and frontal planes during underwater walking using wearable inertial and magnetic sensors. Eleven healthy adults were measured during walking both in shallow water and in dry-land conditions. Eight wearable inertial and magnetic sensors were inserted in waterproofed boxes and fixed to the body segments by means of elastic modular bands. A validated protocol (Outwalk) was used. Gait cycles were automatically segmented and selected if relevant intraclass correlation coefficients values were higher than 0.75. A total of 704 gait cycles for the lower limb joints were normalized in time and averaged to obtain the mean cycle of each joint, among participants. The mean speed in water was 40% lower than that of the dry-land condition. Longer stride duration and shorter stride distance were found in the underwater walking. In the sagittal plane, the knee was more flexed (? 23°) and the ankle more dorsiflexed (? 9°) at heel strike, and the hip was more flexed at toe-off (? 13°) in water than on land. On the frontal plane in the underwater walking, smoother joint angle patterns were observed for thorax-pelvis and hip, and ankle was more inversed at toe-off (? 7°) and showed a more inversed mean value (? 7°). The results were mainly explained by the effect of the speed in the water as supported by the linear mixed models analysis performed. Thus, it seemed that the combination of speed and environment triggered modifications in the joint angles in underwater gait more than these two factors considered separately. The inertial and magnetic sensors, by means of fast set-up and data analysis, can supply an immediate gait analysis report to the therapist during the aquatic therapy session. PMID:26368131

  10. Measure Guideline: Water Management at Tub and Shower Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, B.

    2011-12-01

    Due to the high concentrations of water and the consequential risk of water damage to the home's structure a comprehensive water management system is imperative to protect the building assemblies underlying the finish surround of tub and shower areas. This guide shows how to install fundamental waterproofing strategies to prevent water related issues at shower and tub areas. When conducting a total gut rehab of a structure or constructing a new home, best practice installation and detailing for effective waterproofing are critically important at bathtub and shower assemblies. Water management issues in a structure may go unrecognized for long periods, so that when they are finally observed, the damage from long-term water exposure is extensive. A gut rehab is often undertaken when a home has experienced a natural disaster or when the homeowners are interested in converting an old, high-energy-use building into a high-quality, efficient structure that meets or exceeds one of the national energy standards, such as ENERGY STAR or LEED for homes. During a gut rehab, bath areas need to be replaced with diligent attention to detail. Employing effective water management practices in the installation and detailing of tub and shower assemblies will minimize or eliminate water issues within the building cavities and on the finished surfaces. A residential tub-and-shower surround or shower-stall assembly is designed to handle a high volume of water - 2.5 gallons per minute, with multiple baths occurring during a typical day. Transitions between dissimilar materials and connections between multiple planes must be installed with care to avoid creating a pathway for water to enter the building assemblies. Due to the high volume of water and the consequential risk of water damage to the home's structure, a comprehensive water management system is imperative to protect the building assemblies underlying the finish surround of tub and shower areas. At each stage of construction, successive trades must take care not to create a defect nor to compound or cover up a previous trade's defect. Covering a defect hides the inevitable point of failure and may even exacerbate the situation.

  11. The case for using a sacrificial layer of absorbent insulation in the design of flat and low-sloped roofing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockton, Gregory R.

    2013-05-01

    Beginning about twenty-five years ago, there was a marked increase in the number of single-ply membrane roof designs used to cover and waterproof flat and low-sloped building roofs. Over the past ten years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of installations of white and more reflective single-ply roof systems, mostly using high density cellular foam insulation in the substrate for insulation. A major factor in the increase in the popularity of these highly insulated and more reflective roof systems is the fact that many governments began offering incentives for building owners to use reflective coverings and better insulated roofs. Now, owing to the energy efficient requirements for the design and construction of new buildings put forth in ASHRAE Standard 90.1, "Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings" and the world's apparent desire to be "green" (or at least appear to be), more and more roof designs will include these reflective single-ply membranes, which use the cellular foam insulation boards to meet these requirements. Using a lower density traditional insulation will mean that the roof will have to be very thick to comply, increasing the costs of installation. High density cellular foams do not absorb water until time, vapor pressure drive, UV and thermal shock break down the foam and it becomes more absorbent. This could be 5-7 years or longer, depending on the roof construction and other factors. This means that any water that enters the roof through a breach (leak) in the membrane goes straight into the building. This is not a good consequence since the failure mode of any roof is water entering the building. Keeping the water out of the building is the purpose of the waterproofing layer. This paper reviews the techniques of moisture testing on building roofs and infrared (IR) thermography, and puts forth the idea and reasoning behind having a sacrificial layer of very absorbent insulation installed in every flat and low-sloped roof so that when a breach occurs, it can easily be found, documented and repaired during an annual infrared inspection; as IR is an effective predictive maintenance technique and condition monitoring best practice for roof maintenance.

  12. Gait Kinematic Analysis in Water Using Wearable Inertial Magnetic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Fantozzi, Silvia; Giovanardi, Andrea; Borra, Davide; Gatta, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Walking is one of the fundamental motor tasks executed during aquatic therapy. Previous kinematics analyses conducted using waterproofed video cameras were limited to the sagittal plane and to only one or two consecutive steps. Furthermore, the set-up and post-processing are time-consuming and thus do not allow a prompt assessment of the correct execution of the movements during the aquatic session therapy. The aim of the present study was to estimate the 3D joint kinematics of the lower limbs and thorax-pelvis joints in sagittal and frontal planes during underwater walking using wearable inertial and magnetic sensors. Eleven healthy adults were measured during walking both in shallow water and in dry-land conditions. Eight wearable inertial and magnetic sensors were inserted in waterproofed boxes and fixed to the body segments by means of elastic modular bands. A validated protocol (Outwalk) was used. Gait cycles were automatically segmented and selected if relevant intraclass correlation coefficients values were higher than 0.75. A total of 704 gait cycles for the lower limb joints were normalized in time and averaged to obtain the mean cycle of each joint, among participants. The mean speed in water was 40% lower than that of the dry-land condition. Longer stride duration and shorter stride distance were found in the underwater walking. In the sagittal plane, the knee was more flexed (? 23°) and the ankle more dorsiflexed (? 9°) at heel strike, and the hip was more flexed at toe-off (? 13°) in water than on land. On the frontal plane in the underwater walking, smoother joint angle patterns were observed for thorax-pelvis and hip, and ankle was more inversed at toe-off (? 7°) and showed a more inversed mean value (? 7°). The results were mainly explained by the effect of the speed in the water as supported by the linear mixed models analysis performed. Thus, it seemed that the combination of speed and environment triggered modifications in the joint angles in underwater gait more than these two factors considered separately. The inertial and magnetic sensors, by means of fast set-up and data analysis, can supply an immediate gait analysis report to the therapist during the aquatic therapy session. PMID:26368131

  13. Roles of silica and lignin in horsetail (Equisetum hyemale), with special reference to mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Shigeru; Sato, Kanna; Ito, Fuyu; Komatsubara, Satoshi; Ohata, Hiroshi; Yoshino, Katsumi

    2012-02-01

    This research deals with detailed analyses of silica and lignin distribution in horsetail with special reference to mechanical strength. Scanning electron images of a cross-section of an internode showed silica deposited densely only around the outer epidermis. Detailed histochemical analyses of lignin showed no lignin deposition in the silica-rich outer internodes of horsetail, while a characteristic lignin deposition was noticed in the vascular bundle in inner side of internodes. To analyze the structure of horsetail from a mechanical viewpoint, we calculated the response of a model structure of horsetail to a mechanical force applied perpendicularly to the long axis by a finite element method. We found that silica distributed in the outer epidermis may play the major structural role, with lignin's role being limited ensuring that the vascular bundle keep waterproof. These results were in contrast to more modern tall trees like gymnosperms, for which lignin provides mechanical strength. Lignin has the advantage of sticking to cellulose, hemicellulose, and other materials. Such properties make it possible for plants containing lignin to branch. Branching of tree stems aids in competing for light and other atmospheric resources. This type of branching was impossible for ancient horsetails, which relied on the physical properties of silica. From the evolutional view points, over millennia in trees with high lignin content, true branching, and many chlorophyll-containing leaves developed.

  14. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    SciTech Connect

    Reichelt, R.; Clay, M.; Eichorst, J.

    1996-10-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination (anti-C) material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-C clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant, disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled.

  15. Surprising high hydrophobicity of polymer networks from hydrophilic components.

    PubMed

    Attanasio, Agnese; Bayer, Ilker S; Ruffilli, Roberta; Ayadi, Farouk; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2013-06-26

    We report a simple and inexpensive method of fabricating highly hydrophobic novel materials based on interpenetrating networks of polyamide and poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) hydrophilic components. The process is a single-step solution casting from a common solvent, formic acid, of polyamide and ethyl cyanoacrylate monomers. After casting and subsequent solvent evaporation, the in situ polymerization of ethyl cyanoacrylate monomer forms polyamide-poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) interpenetrating network films. The interpenetrating networks demonstrate remarkable waterproof properties allowing wettability control by modulating the concentration of the components. In contrast, pure polyamide and poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) films obtained from formic acid solutions are highly hygroscopic and hydrophilic, respectively. The polymerization of ethyl cyanoacrylate in the presence of polyamide promotes molecular interactions between the components, which reduce the available hydrophilic moieties and render the final material hydrophobic. The wettability, morphology, and thermo-physical properties of the polymeric coatings were characterized. The materials developed in this work take advantage of the properties of both polymers in a single blend and above all, due to their hydrophobic nature and minimal water uptake, can extend the application range of the individual polymers where water repellency is required. PMID:23713478

  16. Neuroendocrine and psychological assessment in a guinness 10 days scuba dive.

    PubMed

    Revelli, L; Addolorato, G; D'Amore, A; Carrozza, C; Giubileo, G; Puiu, A; Lombardi, C P; Bellantone, R; Gasbarrini, G

    2007-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate physiological and psychological stress parameters in 2 professional trained scuba divers, using a unique physiopathologic model, offered by the guinness 240 hours scuba dive. Two scuba dive masters have spent 240 hours at 6 - 8 meters depth (26.4 ft) in Ponza Island water (Italy). Blood samples were collected daily in the underwater bell; samples were carried out of water in waterproof bags. Breath samples were collected, measuring ethylene release. Psychological assessment was performed using the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Zung self-rating depression scale. In the studied subjects, cortisol and prolactin showed physiological pulsatile secretion. Breath ethylene didn't exceed normal values. At the start of the study, no subjects showed high levels of state anxiety, trait anxiety and current depression. Psychometric scales scores remained steady during the diving period and no subjects showed anxiety and/or depression and/or panic symptoms during the time of observation. The present study shows that, although the long-time diving, well trained professional divers did not develop anxiety and/or depression. No subject discontinued the diving due to occurred psychological disorders or systemic events. The present report shows that the long-term diving permanence is possible, at least in well trained scuba divers. PMID:17497574

  17. Possibility of using waste tire rubber and fly ash with Portland cement as construction materials.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Arin; Degirmenci, Nurhayat

    2009-05-01

    The growing amount of waste rubber produced from used tires has resulted in an environmental problem. Recycling waste tires has been widely studied for the last 20 years in applications such as asphalt pavement, waterproofing systems and membrane liners. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing fly ash and rubber waste with Portland cement as a composite material for masonry applications. Class C fly ash and waste automobile tires in three different sizes were used with Portland cement. Compressive and flexural strength, dry unit weight and water absorption tests were performed on the composite specimens containing waste tire rubber. The compressive strength decreased by increasing the rubber content while increased by increasing the fly ash content for all curing periods. This trend is slightly influenced by particle size. For flexural strength, the specimens with waste tire rubber showed higher values than the control mix probably due to the effect of rubber fibers. The dry unit weight of all specimens decreased with increasing rubber content, which can be explained by the low specific gravity of rubber particles. Water absorption decreased slightly with the increase in rubber particles size. These composite materials containing 10% Portland cement, 70% and 60% fly ash and 20% and 30% tire rubber particles have sufficient strength for masonry applications. PMID:19110410

  18. NASA Tech Briefs, September 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Topics include: Oxygen-Partial-Pressure Sensor for Aircraft Oxygen Mask; Three-Dimensional Venturi Sensor for Measuring Extreme Winds; Swarms of Micron-Sized Sensors; Monitoring Volcanoes by Use of Air-Dropped Sensor Packages; Capacitive Sensors for Measuring Masses of Cryogenic Fluids; UHF Microstrip Antenna Array for Synthetic- Aperture Radar; Multimode Broad-Band Patch Antennas; 164-GHz MMIC HEMT Frequency Doubler; GPS Position and Heading Circuitry for Ships; Software for Managing Parametric Studies; Software Aids Visualization of Computed Unsteady Flow; Software for Testing Electroactive Structural Components; Advanced Software for Analysis of High-Speed Rolling-Element Bearings; Web Program for Development of GUIs for Cluster Computers; XML-Based Generator of C++ Code for Integration With GUIs; Oxide Protective Coats for Ir/Re Rocket Combustion Chambers; Simplified Waterproofing of Aerogels; Improved Thermal-Insulation Systems for Low Temperatures; Device for Automated Cutting and Transfer of Plant Shoots; Extension of Liouville Formalism to Postinstability Dynamics; Advances in Thrust-Based Emergency Control of an Airplane; Ultrasonic/Sonic Mechanisms for Drilling and Coring; Exercise Device Would Exert Selectable Constant Resistance; Improved Apparatus for Measuring Distance Between Axles; Six Classes of Diffraction-Based Optoelectronic Instruments; Modernizing Fortran 77 Legacy Codes; Active State Model for Autonomous Systems; Shields for Enhanced Protection Against High-Speed Debris; Scaling of Two-Phase Flows to Partial-Earth Gravity; Neutral-Axis Springs for Thin-Wall Integral Boom Hinges.

  19. Could the Health Decline of Prehistoric California Indians be Related to Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Natural Bitumen?

    PubMed Central

    Sholts, Sabrina B.; Erlandson, Jon M.; Gjerdrum, Thor; Westerholm, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Background: The negative health effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are well established for modern human populations but have so far not been studied in prehistoric contexts. PAHs are the main component of fossil bitumen, a naturally occurring material used by past societies such as the Chumash Indians in California as an adhesive, as a waterproofing agent, and for medicinal purposes. The rich archaeological and ethnohistoric record of the coastal Chumash suggests that they were exposed to multiple uptake pathways of bituminous PAHs, including direct contact, fume inhalation, and oral uptake from contaminated water and seafood. Objectives: We investigated the possibility that PAHs from natural bitumen compromised the health of the prehistoric Chumash Indians in California. Conclusions: Exposure of the ancient Chumash Indians to toxic PAHs appears to have gradually increased across a period of 7,500 years because of an increased use of bitumen in the Chumash technology, together with a dietary shift toward PAH-contaminated marine food. Skeletal analysis indicates a concurrent population health decline that may be related to PAH uptake. However, establishing such a connection is virtually impossible without knowing the actual exposure levels experienced by these populations. Future methodological research may provide techniques for determining PAH levels in ancient skeletal material, which would open new avenues for research on the health of prehistoric populations and on the long-term effects of human PAH exposure. PMID:21596651

  20. Design and Construction of a Cost Effective Headstage for Simultaneous Neural Stimulation and Recording in the Water Maze

    PubMed Central

    Shirvalkar, Prasad R.; Shapiro, Mathew L.

    2010-01-01

    Headstage preamplifiers and source followers are commonly used to study neural activity in behavioral neurophysiology experiments. Available commercial products are often expensive, not easily customized, and not submersible. Here we describe a method to design and build a customized, integrated circuit headstage for simultaneous 4-channel neural recording and 2-channel simulation in awake, behaving animals. The headstage is designed using a free, commercially available CAD-type design package, and can be modified easily to accommodate different scales (e.g. to add channels). A customized printed circuit board is built using surface mount resistors, capacitors and operational amplifiers to construct the unity gain source follower circuit. The headstage is made water-proof with a combination of epoxy, parafilm and a synthetic rubber putty. We have successfully used this device to record local field potentials and stimulate different brain regions simultaneously via independent channels in rats swimming in a water maze. The total cost is < $30/unit and can be manufactured readily. PMID:20972415

  1. CFD Lagrangian Modeling of Water Droplet Transport for ISS Hygiene Activity Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Son, Chang H.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the impacts of free water propagation in the Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) installed in Node 3. Free water can be generated inside the WHC in small quantities due to crew hygiene activity. To mitigate potential impact of free water in Node 3 cabin the WHC doorway is enclosed by a waterproof bump-out, Kabin, with openings at the top and bottom. At the overhead side of the rack, there is a screen that prevents large drops of water from exiting. However, as the avionics fan in the WHC causes airflow toward the deck side of the rack, small quantities of free water may exit at the bottom of the Kabin. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of Node 3 cabin airflow enable identifying the paths of water transport. To simulate the droplet transport the Lagrangian discrete phase approach was used. Various initial droplet distributions were considered in the study. The droplet diameter was varied in the range of 5-20 mm. The results of the computations showed that most of the drops fall to the rack surface not far from the WHC curtain.

  2. Lightweight, Miniature Inertial Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Liang; Crassidis, Agamemnon

    2012-01-01

    A miniature, lighter-weight, and highly accurate inertial navigation system (INS) is coupled with GPS receivers to provide stable and highly accurate positioning, attitude, and inertial measurements while being subjected to highly dynamic maneuvers. In contrast to conventional methods that use extensive, groundbased, real-time tracking and control units that are expensive, large, and require excessive amounts of power to operate, this method focuses on the development of an estimator that makes use of a low-cost, miniature accelerometer array fused with traditional measurement systems and GPS. Through the use of a position tracking estimation algorithm, onboard accelerometers are numerically integrated and transformed using attitude information to obtain an estimate of position in the inertial frame. Position and velocity estimates are subject to drift due to accelerometer sensor bias and high vibration over time, and so require the integration with GPS information using a Kalman filter to provide highly accurate and reliable inertial tracking estimations. The method implemented here uses the local gravitational field vector. Upon determining the location of the local gravitational field vector relative to two consecutive sensors, the orientation of the device may then be estimated, and the attitude determined. Improved attitude estimates further enhance the inertial position estimates. The device can be powered either by batteries, or by the power source onboard its target platforms. A DB9 port provides the I/O to external systems, and the device is designed to be mounted in a waterproof case for all-weather conditions.

  3. Development of LWR Fuels with Enhanced Accident Tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Lahoda, Edward J.; Boylan, Frank A.

    2015-10-30

    Significant progress was made on the technical, licensing, and business aspects of the Westinghouse Electric Company’s Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) by the Westinghouse ATF team. The fuel pellet options included waterproofed U15N and U3Si2 and the cladding options SiC composites and zirconium alloys with surface treatments. Technology was developed that resulted in U3Si2 pellets with densities of >94% being achieved at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The use of U3Si2 will represent a 15% increase in U235 loadings over those in UO2 fuel pellets. This technology was then applied to manufacture pellets for 6 test rodlets which were inserted in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) in early 2015 in zirconium alloy cladding. The first of these rodlets are expected to be removed in about 2017. Key characteristics to be determined include verification of the centerline temperature calculations, thermal conductivity, fission gas release, swelling and degree of amorphization

  4. Design and control of multi-actuated atomic force microscope for large-range and high-speed imaging.

    PubMed

    Soltani Bozchalooi, I; Careaga Houck, A; AlGhamdi, J; Youcef-Toumi, K

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design and control of a high-speed and large-range atomic force microscopy (AFM). A multi-actuation scheme is proposed where several nano-positioners cooperate to achieve the range and speed requirements. A simple data-based control design methodology is presented to effectively operate the AFM scanner components. The proposed controllers compensate for the coupled dynamics and divide the positioning responsibilities between the scanner components. As a result, the multi-actuated scanner behavior is equivalent to that of a single X-Y-Z positioner with large range and high speed. The scanner of the designed AFM is composed of five nano-positioners, features 6?m out-of-plane and 120?m lateral ranges and is capable of high-speed operation. The presented AFM has a modular design with laser spot size of 3.5?m suitable for small cantilever, an optical view of the sample and probe, a conveniently large waterproof sample stage and a 20MHz data throughput for high resolution image acquisition at high imaging speeds. This AFM is used to visualize etching of calcite in a solution of sulfuric acid. Layer-by-layer dissolution and pit formation along the crystalline lines in a low pH environment is observed in real time. PMID:26547505

  5. SUPERVISORS' TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND BULLYING IN THE WORKPLACE.

    PubMed

    Dussault, Marc; Frenette, Éric

    2015-12-01

    -The study tests the relationship between supervisors' transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership and perceived bullying in the workplace. Transformational and transactional leaders can create conditions that make bullying at work less frequent but laissez-faire leadership may cause conflict that can result in bullying. The participants were 288 adults (122 women, 164 men; M age = 38.9 yr., SD = 11.7; M tenure = 7.2 yr.) employed across several organizations. Of the participants, 53.2% were contacted during an evening class in organizational behavior, and the others were workers from a waterproofing company. Scales measuring perceived leadership of a supervisor and perceived bullying at work were administered. Supervisor's transformational and transactional leadership were negatively related to work-related bullying, person-related bullying, and physically intimidating bullying. Transactional leadership was also negatively related to Work-related bullying, perceived Person-related bullying, and perceived Physically intimidating bullying. Supervisor's laissez-faire leadership was positively related to Work-related bullying, perceived Person-related bullying, and perceived Physically intimidating bullying. The use of Bass's model of transformational leadership in relation with the three-factor structure of the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised is unique in research on leadership and bullying. The relationship between laissez-faire leadership and leadership support results from previous studies: transactional or transformational leadership is likely to provide an environment that makes bullying more rare than under a negative or passive leadership. PMID:26652889

  6. Rugged target standards for HSI remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morey, Mark; O'Neill, Mary; Hahn, Mark; DiBenedetto, John

    2015-05-01

    There is a need for stable test standards for many remote sensing applications that can be used both in the laboratory and in rugged test environments. Ideally these standards would be stable over time such that the same standard could be used from year to year for comparison of system performance. While ink-jet and spray gun methods can disperse controlled doses of dissolved analytes, methods to maintain particle size spectral variations are lacking. In addition, standards that are environmentally robust and stable over time are limited. As part of the recent Lighthouse work toward a Hyperspectral Imagery (HSI) proximal handheld sensor, Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) was tasked to do preliminary work toward a rugged, transportable, waterproof target board. This involved developing test standards using minerals of known particle sizes that have spectrally relevant features. Mineral powders were dispersed in binders that did not change their spectral characteristics. These standards were packaged such that they could be transported and used repeatedly. This paper discusses the methodology for developing this preliminary set of targets. Target sizes were limited to the proximal case, and further work is required to finalize the optimum binder and examine other possible appropriate minerals.

  7. Subsea electrical power for marginal-well systems

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    Many remaining offshore oil and gas fields are too small, remote or deep to be exploited economically using existing technology. But economics would be more attractive if electrical power could be made available on the ocean floor. Hence, step-out distances and access to marginal wells in both shallow and deep water, should markedly increase with the advent of subsea electrical power. Distribution will be easier and costs lower, by comparison with existing systems, because it will be possible to site transformers, switchgear and variable-speed controllers near wellheads to drive equipment such as pumps and valves. In a project run by GEC Alsthom Engineering Systems Ltd., testing of underwater power-distribution equipment started in fall 1996, and submerged trials will begin at the end of the year. The project is sponsored by Amerada Hess, BP, Shell, Texaco, GEC Alsthom and the UK Department of Trade and Industry. It will address problems such as siting equipment at various depths and heat removal through waterproof enclosures.

  8. Underground Water Cherenkov Muon Detector Array with the Tibet Air Shower Array for Gamma-Ray Astronomy in the 100 TeV Region

    E-print Network

    The Tibet AS Gamma Collaboration; M. Amenomori

    2006-11-01

    We propose to build a large water-Cherenkov-type muon-detector array (Tibet MD array) around the 37,000 m$^{2}$ Tibet air shower array (Tibet AS array) already constructed at 4,300 m above sea level in Tibet, China. Each muon detector is a waterproof concrete pool, 6 m wide $\\times$ 6 m long $\\times$ 1.5 m deep in size, equipped with a 20 inch-in-diameter PMT. The Tibet MD array consists of 240 muon detectors set up 2.5 m underground. Its total effective area will be 8,640 m$^{2}$ for muon detection. The Tibet MD array will significantly improve gamma-ray sensitivity of the Tibet AS array in the 100 TeV region (10-1000 TeV) by means of gamma/hadron separation based on counting the number of muons accompanying an air shower. The Tibet AS+MD array will have the sensitivity to gamma rays in the 100 TeV region by an order of magnitude better than any other previous existing detectors in the world.

  9. Direct Observation of a Carbon Filament in Water-Resistant Organic Memory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Hyun; Bae, Hagyoul; Seong, Hyejeong; Lee, Dong-Il; Park, Hongkeun; Choi, Young Joo; Im, Sung-Gap; Kim, Sang Ouk; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2015-07-28

    The memory for the Internet of Things (IoT) requires versatile characteristics such as flexibility, wearability, and stability in outdoor environments. Resistive random access memory (RRAM) to harness a simple structure and organic material with good flexibility can be an attractive candidate for IoT memory. However, its solution-oriented process and unclear switching mechanism are critical problems. Here we demonstrate iCVD polymer-intercalated RRAM (i-RRAM). i-RRAM exhibits robust flexibility and versatile wearability on any substrate. Stable operation of i-RRAM, even in water, is demonstrated, which is the first experimental presentation of water-resistant organic memory without any waterproof protection package. Moreover, the direct observation of a carbon filament is also reported for the first time using transmission electron microscopy, which puts an end to the controversy surrounding the switching mechanism. Therefore, reproducibility is feasible through comprehensive modeling. Furthermore, a carbon filament is superior to a metal filament in terms of the design window and selection of the electrode material. These results suggest an alternative to solve the critical issues of organic RRAM and an optimized memory type suitable for the IoT era. PMID:26056735

  10. Analysis of movement for unmanned underwater vehicle using a low cost integrated sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aras, Mohd Shahrieel Mohd; Abdullah, Shahrum Shah; Rahman, Ahmad Fadzli Nizam Abdul; Basar, Mohd Farriz; Kassim, Anuar Mohamed; Jaafar, Hazriq Izzuan

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the development of low cost integrated Smart Sensor for Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV) namely as underwater Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV). In the underwater industries, the most crucial issues are the sensors that are needed for the underwater task. The sensors that are utilized in this area are quite expensive and sensitive. Every sensors used in the underwater vehicle are not in the form of integrated sensors and most of them based on case to case basis. However, nowadays, a lot of industries are involved in the development of the integrated sensor in order to reduce the production cost as well as to increase accuracies, efficiencies and productivities. Therefore, this research proposes an integrated sensor to be applied in the underwater operations. The integrated sensor is designed based on three goal performances which are; the accuracies; the sensitivities and the cost efficiencies. This integrated sensor is the combination of pressure sensor, inertial measurement unit (IMU), digital compass and temperature sensor that are placed in a waterproof casing. This integrated sensor is targeted to be used to control the movement of ROV to maintain its position called station keeping. The purpose of the station keeping is to ensure the ROV to remain stationary at the desired depth by utilizing the pressure sensor. The experimental studies have been carried out in order to see the responses of each sensor.

  11. Analysis of streambed temperatures in ephemeral channels to determine streamflow frequency and duration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantz, J.; Stonestrom, D.; Stewart, A.E.; Niswonger, R.; Smith, T.R.

    2001-01-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns in streamflow are rarely monitored for ephemeral streams. Flashy, erosive streamflows common in ephemeral channels create a series of operational and maintenance problems, which makes it impractical to deploy a series of gaging stations along ephemeral channels. Streambed temperature is a robust and inexpensive parameter to monitor remotely, leading to the possibility of analyzing temperature patterns to estimate streamflow frequency and duration along ephemeral channels. A simulation model was utilized to examine various atmospheric and hydrological upper boundary conditions compared with a series of hypothetical temperature-monitoring depths within the streambed. Simulation results indicate that streamflow events were distinguished from changing atmospheric conditions with greater certainty using temperatures at shallow depths (e.g., 10-20 cm) as opposed to the streambed surface. Three ephemeral streams in the American Southwest were instrumented to monitor streambed temperature for determining the accuracy of using this approach to ascertain the long-term temporal and spatial extent of streamflow along each stream channel. Streambed temperature data were collected at the surface or at shallow depth along each stream channel, using thermistors encased in waterproof, single-channel data loggers tethered to anchors in the channel. On the basis of comparisons with site information, such as direct field observations and upstream flow records, diurnal temperature variations successfully detected the presence and duration of streamflow for all sites.

  12. Micro packaged MEMS pressure sensor for intracranial pressure measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Liu; Yan, Yao; Jiahao, Ma; Yanhang, Zhang; Qian, Wang; Zhaohua, Zhang; Tianling, Ren

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a micro packaged MEMS pressure sensor for intracranial pressure measurement which belongs to BioMEMS. It can be used in lumbar puncture surgery to measure intracranial pressure. Miniaturization is key for lumbar puncture surgery because the sensor must be small enough to allow it be placed in the reagent chamber of the lumbar puncture needle. The size of the sensor is decided by the size of the sensor chip and package. Our sensor chip is based on silicon piezoresistive effect and the size is 400 × 400 ?m2. It is much smaller than the reported polymer intracranial pressure sensors such as liquid crystal polymer sensors. In terms of package, the traditional dual in-line package obviously could not match the size need, the minimal size of recently reported MEMS-based intracranial pressure sensors after packaging is 10 × 10 mm2. In this work, we are the first to introduce a quad flat no-lead package as the package form of piezoresistive intracranial pressure sensors, the whole size of the sensor is minimized to only 3 × 3 mm2. Considering the liquid measurement environment, the sensor is gummed and waterproof performance is tested; the sensitivity of the sensor is 0.9 × 10-2 mV/kPa. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61025021, 61434001), and the ‘Thousands Talents’ Program for Pioneer Researchers and Its Innovation Team, China.

  13. Exstrophy–Epispadias Complex in a Newborn: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Valerio, Enrico; Vanzo, Valentina; Zaramella, Patrizia; Salvadori, Sabrina; Castagnetti, Marco; Baraldi, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    Aim?The aim of this report is to present a brief review of the current literature on the management of EEC. Case Report?A term male neonate presented at birth with classic bladder exstrophy, a variant of the exstrophy-epispadias complex (EEC). The defect was covered with sterile silicon gauzes and waterproof dressing; at 72 hours of life, primary closure without osteotomy of bladder, pelvis, and abdominal wall was successfully performed. Discussion?EEC incidence is approximately 2.15 per 1,00,000 live births; several urological, musculocutaneous, spinal, orthopedic, gastrointestinal, and gynecological anomalies may be associated to EEC. Initial medical management includes use of occlusive dressings to prevent air contact and dehydration of the open bladder template. Umbilical catheters should not be positioned. Surgical repair stages include initial closure of the bladder and abdominal wall with or without osteotomy, followed by epispadias repair at 6 to 12 months, and bladder neck repair around 5 years of life. Those who fail to attain continence eventually undergo bladder augmentation and placement of a catheterizable conduit. Conclusion?Modern-staged repair of EEC guarantees socially acceptable urinary continence in up to 80% of cases; sexual function can be an issue in the long term, but overall quality of life can be good. PMID:26495181

  14. CFD Model of Water Droplet Transport for ISS Hygiene Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Son, Chang H.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the study is to assess the impacts of free water propagation in the Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC). Free water can be generated inside the WHC in small quantities due to crew hygiene activity. To mitigate potential impact of free water in Node 3 cabin the WHC doorway is enclosed by a waterproof bump-out, Kabin, with openings at the top and bottom. At the overhead side of the rack, there is a screen that prevents large drops of water from exiting. However, as the avionics fan in the WHC causes airflow toward the deck side of the rack, small quantities of free water may exit at the bottom of the Kabin. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of Node 3 cabin airflow made possible to identify the paths of water transport. The Node 3 airflow was computed for several ventilation scenarios. To simulate the droplet transport the Lagrangian discrete phase approach was used. Various initial droplet distributions were considered in the study. The droplet diameter was varied in the range of 2-20 mm. The results of the computations showed that most of the drops fall to the rack surface not far from the WHC curtain. The probability of the droplet transport to the adjacent rack surface with electronic equipment was predicted.

  15. Modular, multi-level groundwater sampler

    DOEpatents

    Nichols, R.L.; Widdowson, M.A.; Mullinex, H.; Orne, W.H.; Looney, B.B.

    1994-03-15

    An apparatus is described for taking a multiple of samples of groundwater or pressure measurements from a well simultaneously. The apparatus comprises a series of chambers arranged in an axial array, each of which is dimensioned to fit into a perforated well casing and leave a small gap between the well casing and the exterior of the chamber. Seals at each end of the container define the limits to the axial portion of the well to be sampled. A submersible pump in each chamber pumps the groundwater that passes through the well casing perforations into the gap from the gap to the surface for analysis. The power lines and hoses for the chambers farther down the array pass through each chamber above them in the array. The seals are solid, water-proof, non-reactive, resilient disks supported to engage the inside surface of the well casing. Because of the modular design, the apparatus provides flexibility for use in a variety of well configurations. 3 figures.

  16. A small-size pulsed lidar designed for obstacles detection in natural underwater environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xianjiang; Xia, Min; Cheng, Zao; Li, Lei; Chen, Junyao; Du, Peng; Yang, Kecheng

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we designed a pint-sized underwater pulsed lidar system for underwater obstacles detection based on a 532nm Nd-YAG pulsed laser as a source and a Hamamatsu photomultiplier tube (PMT) as a detector. In order to acquire the location of the obstacles, an algorithm was devised to handle the echo signal. Through this algorithm, the background noise was suppressed and the accurate range information of the target was obtained. A high-capacity lithium battery was employed to support this lidar system operating as long as eight hours continuously. To ensure our lidar system working steady in the natural underwater environment, a stable waterproof housing was designed for the system which has good water-tightness at 40m depth underwater. This system is small, compact and hand-held. An experiment was conducted in laboratory which proof that the system can achieve target detection within 25m. At last, this lidar system was tested in natural underwater environment of Fuxian Lake in Yunnan Province. There are lots of organic particles and other impurity particles in Fuxian Lake and the attenuation coefficient of the lake is about 0.67m-1. The results showed that this small-size lidar system was able to catch sight of the target within 20 meters and perform smoothly in the natural underwater environment.

  17. An insect-specific P450 oxidative decarbonylase for cuticular hydrocarbon biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yue; Tittiger, Claus; Wicker-Thomas, Claude; Le Goff, Gaëlle; Young, Sharon; Wajnberg, Eric; Fricaux, Thierry; Taquet, Nathalie; Blomquist, Gary J; Feyereisen, René

    2012-09-11

    Insects use hydrocarbons as cuticular waterproofing agents and as contact pheromones. Although their biosynthesis from fatty acyl precursors is well established, the last step of hydrocarbon biosynthesis from long-chain fatty aldehydes has remained mysterious. We show here that insects use a P450 enzyme of the CYP4G family to oxidatively produce hydrocarbons from aldehydes. Oenocyte-directed RNAi knock-down of Drosophila CYP4G1 or NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase results in flies deficient in cuticular hydrocarbons, highly susceptible to desiccation, and with reduced viability upon adult emergence. The heterologously expressed enzyme converts C(18)-trideuterated octadecanal to C(17)-trideuterated heptadecane, showing that the insect enzyme is an oxidative decarbonylase that catalyzes the cleavage of long-chain aldehydes to hydrocarbons with the release of carbon dioxide. This process is unlike cyanobacteria that use a nonheme diiron decarbonylase to make alkanes from aldehydes with the release of formate. The unique and highly conserved insect CYP4G enzymes are a key evolutionary innovation that allowed their colonization of land. PMID:22927409

  18. Ants cushion applied stress by active rearrangements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhongyang; Hyatt, John; Mlot, Nathan; Gerov, Michael; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto; Hu, David

    2013-11-01

    Fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, link their bodies together to form waterproof rafts, which in turn drip, spread, and coagulate, demonstrating properties of an active material that can change state from a liquid to a solid. This soft-matter phase transition is important when the raft interacts with environmental forces such as raindrops and crashing waves. We study this active behavior through plate-on-plate rheology on the ants, extracting the active components by comparison with the rheological behavior of a collection of dead ants. In controlled shear tests, both and live and dead ants show properties of a non-Newtonian fluid, specifically, shear-thinning behavior. In oscillatory tests, live ants exhibit a rare behavior in which their storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G'') have approximately the same value over three orders magnitudes of frequency and two orders of magnitude of strain, indicating the ants are neither fluid nor solid. In comparison, dead ants are more solid-like, with a storage modulus twice as large as their loss modulus. This striking active behavior arises from rearrangement of their bodies and storage and dissipation of energy with the ants' muscles.

  19. Macrophyte monitoring along the Trentino side of the Lake Garda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, Giovanna; Monauni, Catia; Fedrizzi, Fabio; Laura, Fravezzi; Paola, Testa; Silvia, Costaraoss; Mario, Mazzurana; Gaetano, Patti; Barbara, Zennaro

    2013-04-01

    Macrophytes, that grow along the Trentino shorezone of the Lake Garda, were sampled and mapped during summer 2010. The sampling protocol foresees a lake bottom survey until the depth of 15 using GPS system, for identifying sampling sites and transects, waterproof camcorder, batiscope and a rake. The proof of 13/14 meters is the internal limit for macrophyte development. The area between 6 and 13/14 meters was surveyed with a robot camcorder placed on a boat of the fireworks brigade of Trento. This boat was used to track the 14 km of the shorezone of the Trentino part of the Lake Garda. The investigation result is a survey of a wide carex prairie that has no interruption all along the lake perimeter. An inflatable boat was used to inspect the shorezone using a batiscope. The macrophyte samples were collected using a rake. The number of mapped sites is 15, transects are 15 and identified 18 different species. During 2011, in conjunction with the flight MIVIS within the EULAKES project, the macrophyte distribution was confirmed and further inspection was carried out for sampling and classifying caracee. Among the species collected, Chara globularis was present in all sites sampled, while sites 0 and 12, corresponding respectively to local reserve Val Gola and the bay of Torbole, showed the highest biodiversity among sites, with 11 species collected of the 18 total. Within each site, higher number of species were collected between 2 and 5 meters depth's.

  20. Underwater green laser vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anto?czak, Arkadiusz J.; Kozio?, Pawe?; W??, Adam T.; Sotor, Jaros?aw Z.; Dudzik, Grzegorz; Kaczmarek, Pawe? R.; Abramski, Krzysztof M.

    2012-06-01

    We have developed a laser vibrometer based on an monolithic single-frequency green laser operating at 532 nm. This wavelength can be particularly useful in the case of underwater vibrometry, especially with regard to the minimum of water absorption for this wavelength range (blue-green window). Using polarizing optics, we proposed a configuration that allows the elimination of parasitic reflections at the air-glass-water boundary. A measurement of heterodyne signals as a mixing result of scattered and reference beams has been performed. The study was conducted in aqueous medium for the scattering waterproof paper and retro-reflective surface. In both configurations we have obtained signals with a relatively high S/N ratio > 20 dB (for scattering surface) and > 31 dB (for retro-reflective tape) with the Resolution Bandwidth RBW 10 kHz for a vibrometer output power of 5 mW and the distance to the moving object 1.2 m (including 0.3 m in air). In our opinion, laser Doppler vibrometry LDV based on high-performance single frequency solid-state lasers with a wavelength range corresponding to the blue-green window allows effective measurement of vibration in the underwater environment.

  1. A new technique for the deep-sea mating of inexpensive connectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beurthey, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Deep-sea electric and optical connections can often be problematic. Several manufacturers propose wet-mateable connectors based on integrated valve systems but the complexity and precision needed to reach the required reliability result in high cost. We are therefore developing a new type of tooling for connecting cheap standard wet-mateable connectors under oil in deep sea water pressure conditions. Complexity is delocalised from the connector to the easily recoverable and reparable tooling. The cost of wet connections is consequently expected to be drastically reduced, with reliability enhanced. The tooling contains 2 carriers sliding on a linear stage together with a second perpendicular stage intersecting the line between the carriers. The carriers and linear stages are enclosed in a clam-shelled oil-fillable volume. Each half of the connector to be mated is fixed to its respective carrier in a ROV operation. The waterproof caps of the two connectors automatically attach to the third carrier on the perpendicular stage. Seawater around the connectors is replaced with non-conductive oil, and both halves of the connector are detached from their sealing caps, which are then moved sideways to allow the connector to be mated under oil. The clamshells are then opened, allowing the mated connector to be removed by the ROV. A reverse capping procedure is applied for disconnection.

  2. Does the volatile hydrocarbon profile differ between the sexes: a case study on five aphidophagous ladybirds.

    PubMed

    Pattanayak, Rojalin; Mishra, Geetanjali; Omkar; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Rout, Prasant Kumar; Mohanty, Chandra Sekhar

    2014-11-01

    Insect hydrocarbons (HCs) primarily serve as a waterproofing cuticular layer and function extensively in chemical communication by facilitating species, sex, and colony recognition. In this study, headspace solid-phase microextraction is employed for investigating the sex-specific volatile HC profile of five ladybirds collected from Lucknow, India namely, Coccinella septempunctata (L.), Coccinella transversalis (Fabr.), Menochilus sexmaculatus (Fabr.), Propylea dissecta (Mulsant), and Anegleis cardoni (Weise) for the first time. Major compounds reported in C. septempunctata, C. transversalis, and A. cardoni are methyl-branched saturated HCs, whereas in M. sexmaculatus, and P. dissecta, they are unsaturated HCs. Other than A. cardoni, both the sexes of the other four ladybirds had similar compounds at highest peak but with statistically significant differences. However, in A. cardoni, which is a beetle with a narrow niche, the major compound in both male and female was different. The difference in volatile HC profile of the sexes of the five ladybirds indicates that gender-specific differences primarily exist due to quantitative differences in chemicals with only very few chemicals being unique to a gender. This variation in semiochemicals might have a role in behavioral or ecological aspects of the studied ladybirds. PMID:25060353

  3. Assessment of the state of urban ecosystems on the basis of remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorokhova, I. N.; Borisochkina, T. I.; Shishkonakova, E. A.

    2013-04-01

    The results of the soil-ecological monitoring of the Novovladykino (Moscow) key site are presented. The monitoring included the interpretation of aerospace information collected in 2000 and 2010, terrestrial route observations, and mapping of the key site. The data obtained confirm the possibility to use the remote sensing information in the investigation of urban ecosystems and to recognize the arboreal vegetation, shrubs, and lawn grass in images. The approximate identification of the tree species; the assessment of the state of the green belts and the natural, anthropogenic, and technogenic soils and their complexes; the identification of the overcompacted, mechanically destroyed, and sealed soils under the waterproof and permeable surface horizons are also possible. The determination of the species composition of the trees in small groups, the poor state of the individual trees and small groves, and the causes of the changes in the state of the green belts and polluted areas turned out to be impossible. Additional field and laboratory investigations were performed in order to verify and refine information obtained from the satellite images.

  4. Thermal ecology on an exposed algal reef: infrared imagery a rapid tool to survey temperature at local spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, T. E.; Smith, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    We tested the feasibility of infra-red (IR) thermography as a tool to survey in situ temperatures in intertidal habitats. We employed this method to describe aspects of thermal ecology for an exposed algal reef in the tropics (O`ahu, Hawai`i). In addition, we compared temperatures of the surrounding habitat as determined by IR thermography and traditional waterproof loggers. Images of reef organisms (6 macroalgae, 9 molluscs, 1 anthozoan, and 2 echinoderms), loggers, and landscapes were taken during two diurnal low tides. Analysis of IR thermographs revealed remarkable thermal complexity on a narrow tropical shore, as habitats ranged from 18.1 to 38.3°C and surfaces of organisms that ranged from 21.1 to 33.2°C. The near 20°C difference between abiotic habitats and the mosaic of temperatures experienced by reef organisms across the shore are similar to findings from temperate studies using specialized longterm loggers. Further, IR thermography captured rapid temperature fluctuations that were related to tidal height and cross-correlated to wave action. Finally, we gathered evidence that tidal species were associated with particular temperature ranges and that two species possess morphological characteristics that limit thermal stress. Loggers provided similar results as thermography but lack the ability to resolve variation in fine-scale spatial and temporal patterns. Our results support the utility of IR thermography in exploring thermal ecology, and demonstrate the steps needed to calibrate data leading to establishment of baseline conditions in a changing and heterogeneous environment.

  5. Preparation of superhydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate)-silicon dioxide nanocomposite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinyan; Chen, Xinhua; Kang, Yingke; Yang, Guangbin; Yu, Laigui; Zhang, Pingyu

    2010-12-01

    Superhydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate)-SiO 2 (coded as PMMA-SiO 2) nanocomposite films with micro-nanohierarchical structure were prepared via a simple approach in the absence of low surface-energy compounds. By spin-coating the suspension of hydrophobic silica (SiO 2) nanoparticles dispersed in PMMA solution, target nanocomposite films were obtained on glass slides. The wetting behavior of PMMA-SiO 2 nanocomposite films was investigated in relation to the dosage of SiO 2 nanoparticles dispersed in PMMA solution. It was found that hydrophilic PMMA film was transferred to superhydrophobic PMMA-SiO 2 nanocomposite films when hydrophobic SiO 2 nanoparticles were introduced into the PMMA solution at a high enough dosage (0.2 g and above). Resultant PMMA-SiO 2 nanocomposite films had a static water contact angle of above 162°, showing promising applications in selfcleaning and waterproof for outer wall of building, outer covering for automobile, sanitary wares, and so forth.

  6. Influence of initial hydration conditions on GCL leachate permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Didier, G.; Comeaga, L.

    1997-11-01

    Modern landfill liners typically contain several geosynthetics and natural components integrated into a system whose primary function is the containment of waste and leachate. One of these hydraulic barrier components is represented by Geosynthetic Clay Liners (GCL). The GCLs are factory manufactured hydraulic barriers consisting of bentonite clay supported by geotextiles or geomembranes. Since the waterproofing function is assured by the bentonite clay it is therefore advisable to verify its chemical compatibility with the leachate and its effect upon the hydraulic conductivity value. According to the climatic situations occurring between the GCLs and waste installation, the leachate exposure moment can correspond to various GCLs hydration degrees. In this context, this paper aims at analyzing the total or partially hydrated GCL`s behavior after a long time exposure to leachate. The permeability tests carried out for two needle-punched GCLs in three situations (saturated with water, water partially hydrated and saturated with leachate) show an important variation of the permeability with the hydration degree.

  7. Afocal viewport optics for underwater imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Dan

    2014-09-01

    A conventional camera can be adapted for underwater use by enclosing it in a sealed waterproof pressure housing with a viewport. The viewport, as an optical interface between water and air needs to consider both the camera and water optical characteristics while also providing a high pressure water seal. Limited hydrospace visibility drives a need for wide angle viewports. Practical optical interfaces between seawater and air vary from simple flat plate windows to complex water contact lenses. This paper first provides a brief overview of the physical and optical properties of the ocean environment along with suitable optical materials. This is followed by a discussion of the characteristics of various afocal underwater viewport types including flat windows, domes and the Ivanoff corrector lens, a derivative of a Galilean wide angle camera adapter. Several new and interesting optical designs derived from the Ivanoff corrector lens are presented including a pair of very compact afocal viewport lenses that are compatible with both in water and in air environments and an afocal underwater hyper-hemispherical fisheye lens.

  8. Feather mites and birds: an interaction mediated by uropygial gland size?

    PubMed

    Galván, I; Barba, E; Piculo, R; Cantó, J L; Cortés, V; Monrós, J S; Atiénzar, F; Proctor, H

    2008-01-01

    Feather mites (Arachnida: Acari: Astigmata) feed mainly on secretions of the uropygial gland of birds. Here, we use analyses corrected for phylogeny and body size to show that there is a positive correlation between the size of this gland and mite abundance in passerine birds at an interspecific level during the breeding season, suggesting that the gland mediates interactions between mites and birds. As predicted on the basis of hypothesized waterproofing and antibiotic functions of uropygial gland secretions, riparian/marsh bird species had larger glands and higher mite loads than birds living in less mesic terrestrial environments. An unexpected pattern was a steeper relationship between mite load and gland size in migratory birds than in residents. If moderate mite loads are beneficial to a host but high loads detrimental, this could create complex selection regimes in which gland size influences mite load and vice versa. Mites may exert selective pressures on gland size of their hosts that has resulted in smaller glands among migratory bird species, suggesting that smaller glands may have evolved in these birds to attenuate a possible detrimental effect of feather mites when present in large numbers. PMID:18028353

  9. Development and testing of bio-inspired microelectromechanical pressure sensor arrays for increased situational awareness for marine vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusek, J.; Kottapalli, A. G. P.; Woo, M. E.; Asadnia, M.; Miao, J.; Lang, J. H.; Triantafyllou, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    The lateral line found on most species of fish is a sensory organ without analog in humans. Using sensory feedback from the lateral line, fish are able to track prey, school, avoid obstacles, and detect vortical flow structures. Composed of both a superficial component, and a component contained within canals beneath the fish’s skin, the lateral line acts in a similar fashion to an array of differential pressure sensors. In an effort to enhance the situational and environmental awareness of marine vehicles, lateral-line-inspired pressure sensor arrays were developed to mimic the enhanced sensory capabilities observed in fish. Three flexible and waterproof pressure sensor arrays were fabricated for use as a surface-mounted ‘smart skin’ on marine vehicles. Two of the sensor arrays were based around the use of commercially available piezoresistive sensor dies, with innovative packaging schemes to allow for flexibility and underwater operation. The sensor arrays employed liquid crystal polymer and flexible printed circuit board substrates with metallic circuits and silicone encapsulation. The third sensor array employed a novel nanocomposite material set that allowed for the fabrication of a completely flexible sensor array. All three sensors were surface mounted on the curved hull of an autonomous kayak vehicle, and tested in both pool and reservoir environments. Results demonstrated that all three sensors were operational while deployed on the autonomous vehicle, and provided an accurate means for monitoring the vehicle dynamics.

  10. Pyromorphite formation in a fungal biofilm community growing on lead metal.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Young Joon; Hillier, Stephen; Pendlowski, Helen; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2014-05-01

    Lead is a priority pollutant, and lead metal is widely found in the environment as a waterproofing structural component in roofing, fence post covers, venting and flashing, as well as in industrial and urban waste. However, little is known of microbial interactions with metallic lead. The objective of this research was to investigate fungal roles in transformations of lead in a surface biofilm community growing on lead sheeting. The lead surface was found to support a diverse fungal community with several members, such as Aureobasidum pullulans, Phoma macrostoma, Penicillium sp. and Botryotinia fuckeliana, probably originating from adjacent phylloplane communities. Many fungal isolates showed tolerance to lead compounds in growth inhibition assays and were able to mediate production of lead-containing secondary minerals in the presence of metallic lead. These exhibited widely differing morphologies to the lead-containing secondary minerals produced under abiotic conditions. The presence of pyromorphite (Pb5 (PO4 )3 Cl) (approximately 50?wt%) was detected in the lead sheet biofilm, and we speculate that animal (bird) faeces could be a significant source of phosphorus in this location. Pyromorphite formation represents biomineralization of mobile lead species into a very stable form, and this research provides the first demonstration of its occurrence in the natural environment. PMID:24707856

  11. The development and manufacture of coal briquettes

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xinshen; Wei Tingfu; Hao Aimin; Ning Weiyun; Liu Fuhua

    1997-12-31

    Three different kinds of coal briquettes, i.e., gasification briquette, boiler briquette and easy ignition roast briquette, have been developed and produced with the authors` patent binder. The gasification briquette is made from fines of anthracite or coke, hot stability agent and patent binder. It has been used as a substitute of anthracite lump in gasifiers to produce fuel gas and syngas. The three year`s performance of this briquettes in the TG-3MI gasifier has given good economic benefits. The boiler briquette is made from bituminous coal fines, sulphur-fixing agent, combustion-supporting agent, waterproofing agent and patent binder. It can keep its original shape in water for one month. The combustion results of the boiler briquette in a 4t/h coal-fired boiler have shown that heat efficiency increased by 20%, the total suspended particles decreased by 80%, and emission of both SO{sub 2} and Hap were reduced as compared with the raw coal. The easy ignition roast briquette is made from fines of charcoal, anthracite or coke, oxidant and binder. It is convenient and safe to use in that it can be lit with a match or a piece of paper easily and burn continuously for 90 minutes without smoke and odor. It can be used as a fuel for roasting food for a picnic.

  12. Use of high-resolution mass spectrometry to identify precursors and biodegradation products of perfluorinated and polyfluorinated compounds in end-user products.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Atsushi; Hisatomi, Hirotaka; Ando, Tomoshige; Takemine, Shusuke; Terao, Tomoko; Tojo, Toshiki; Yagi, Masahiro; Ono, Daisuke; Kawasaki, Hideya; Arakawa, Ryuichi

    2014-07-01

    Structural identification of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances found in end-user products and their biodegradation products was performed using ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry. Little attention has so far been paid to the environmental burden of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid from compounds with a molar mass of ~2,000. Analysis of end-user waterproofing and stain repellent products revealed the presence of numerous ions with molar masses ranging from 1,000 to 2,000 and complex mass spectra. Ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry determined the accurate mass of the observed ions, allowing the cleavage position and fragment structure to be determined. The precursor structures were determined based on reconstitution of the retrieved fragments. Products of fluorochemical manufacturers before voluntary regulation comprised compounds with plural perfluorooctyl chains. In the current product lines, compounds comprising perfluorobutyl chains were detected. Biodegradation tests using activated sludge revealed that biodegradation products consistent with those reported previously were generated even from complex end-user products. For example, the biodegradation test revealed the formation of N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamido acetic acid and various fluorotelomer acids in the samples. The results of the present study suggest that the environmental burden of these compounds should be reevaluated. PMID:24828983

  13. Isotopic characterization of the Precambrian carbonate aquifers under the city of Bangui (Central African Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huneau, Frederic; Djebebe-Ndjiguim, Chantal-Laure; Foto, Eric; Ito, Mari; Celle-Jeanton, Helene; Garel, Emilie; Mabingui, Joseph

    2013-04-01

    The city of Bangui, the capital of the Central African Republic, is located on the right bank of the Ubangi River which is the northernmost tributary of the Congo River. From its foundation in 1889 this city has always suffered from serious problems of water management. This is related to the specificity of the site configuration (steep hills surrounding a large swampy flat valley poorly drained) and to the urbanisation process responsible for the waterproofing of soils and the associated increased runoff processes under tropical humid condition.This paper presents the results of a geochemical and isotopic survey carried out in 2011 aiming at evaluating the type and chemical quality of the groundwater resources of the Bangui region. By combining geological, hydrogeochemical and isotopic data it appears that the underground of Bangui seems favourable to the development of a secured and sustainable water supply from groundwater provided that the conditions of exploitation would be constrained by the local authorities. The deep fractured (and locally kastified) Precambrian carbonate aquifers known as Bimbo and Fatima formations are identified as target resources considering the relatively good quality of the resource from the chemical point of view, and the semi-confined structure of the aquifer preventing the mixing with shallow aquifers already strongly impacted by domestic and industrial pollutions.

  14. Responses of alpine grassland on Qinghai-Tibetan plateau to climate warming and permafrost degradation: a modeling perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Shuhua; Wang, Xiaoyun; Qin, Yu; Xiang, Bo; Ding, Yongjian

    2014-07-01

    Permafrost plays a critical role in soil hydrology. Thus, the degradation of permafrost under warming climate conditions may affect the alpine grassland ecosystem on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Previous space-for-time studies using plot and basin scales have reached contradictory conclusions. In this study, we applied a process-based ecosystem model (DOS-TEM) with a state-of-the-art permafrost hydrology scheme to examine this issue. Our results showed that 1) the DOS-TEM model could properly simulate the responses of soil thermal and hydrological dynamics and of ecosystem dynamics to climate warming and spatial differences in precipitation; 2) the simulated results were consistent with plot-scale studies showing that warming caused an increase in maximum unfrozen thickness, a reduction in vegetation and soil carbon pools as a whole, and decreases in soil water content, net primary production, and heterotrophic respiration; and 3) the simulated results were also consistent with basin-scale studies showing that the ecosystem responses to warming were different in regions with different combinations of water and energy constraints. Permafrost prevents water from draining into water reservoirs. However, the degradation of permafrost in response to warming is a long-term process that also enhances evapotranspiration. Thus, the degradation of the alpine grassland ecosystem on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (releasing carbon) cannot be mainly attributed to the disappearing waterproofing function of permafrost.

  15. PROVING EXPERIMENTS AND ANALYSIS OF ROOFTOP HEAT SHIELD EXPERIMENT WITH WATER CONTAIN CONCRETE BOAD THAT USES ELEMENTARY SCHOOL BUILDING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Akinori; ??, ??; Okuda, Yoshio; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Hada, Yuuichi

    In this study, the reduction effect of the heat inflow on the rooftop and the indoor thermal environment was measured by using the elementary school building, the rooftop of the bilding was covered with the water contain concrete boards. And, conserve energy effect and effectiveness for the indoor thermal environment improvement were evaluated. The effect of the decrease of the surface temperature and the slab side temperature at water contain concrete boad plot remarkably from the measurement result during the July-September of 2010, the temperatures decrease 22°C at the surface, 15°C at the waterproof layer surface that was caused compared with the gravel covered roof. The water contain concrete boards plot always drove the ceiling side temperature and the indoor temperature low as a result of comparing with the indoor condition of the control plot. The temperature fluctuate was small at time that opened the window and ventilated, and ventilation was discontinued, it became big temperatures fluctuate. The effect of the decrease of 0.5°C in PMV and 0.5 in WBGT was caused while the room had sealed up, and the effect of the decrease of 0.3 in WBGT was caused while the ventilated state.

  16. Cuticular pheromones and water balance in the house fly, Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Montooth, Kristi L; Gibbs, Allen G

    2003-07-01

    Epicuticular lipids serve two major roles in insects. Their waterproofing properties are crucial to survival in terrestrial environments, and they serve as contact pheromones in a wide array of taxa. Both functions may be affected by the physical properties of the surface lipids. This provides the opportunity for natural selection on water conservation, mediated by lipid phase behavior, to interact with and perhaps conflict with sexual selection on communication and mate recognition. We used the common house fly, Musca domestica, as a model for these interacting selective forces. Male house flies preferred female models treated with a high melting-point lipid mixture, suggesting that sexual and natural selection may both act to favor longer-chain, more saturated hydrocarbons. However, higher melting points did not result in lower rates of water loss. We propose a working model in which phase separation between the unsaturated female pheromone and saturated hydrocarbons results in areas of melted, pheromone-rich lipids and regional variation in cuticular permeability. PMID:12829053

  17. Biocides used in building materials and their leaching behavior to sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, M; Kupper, T; Hean, S; Haag, R; Schmid, P; Kohler, M; Boller, M

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing concern about diffuse pollution of aquatic systems by biocides used in urban areas. We investigated sources and pathways of biocides significant for the pollution of storm water runoff. Main sources seem to be building envelopes, i.e. facades (paints, plasters) and roof sealing membranes. First results from a defined urban catchment drained by a separated sewer system without any agricultural activities reveal a substantial occurrence. Even after the first flush, concentrations of terbutryn, carbendazim, mecoprop as well as Irgarol 1051 and its metabolite exceeded the Swiss water quality standard of 0.1 microg/L. In laboratory experiments, leaching of mecoprop used as a root protection agent in bitumen sheets for roof waterproofing was determined. The concentrations differed in 16 different sheets two orders of magnitude, depending on the product composition. Using optimized products, it is expected to be the most efficient and sustainable way to reduce the environmental impact. To understand transport dynamics and environmental risk, further storm water events will be analyzed. Based on the ongoing project URBIC, first measures will be proposed to limit the release to surface and ground water. PMID:18075180

  18. Short-chain carboxylic acids from gray catbird (Dumetella carolinensis) uropygial secretions vary with testosterone levels and photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Rebecca J; Levin, Tera C; Owen, Jennifer C; Garvin, Mary C

    2010-07-01

    The uropygial gland of birds produces secretions that are important in maintaining the health and structural integrity of feathers. Non-volatile components of uropygial secretions are believed to serve a number of functions including waterproofing and conditioning the feathers. Volatile components have been characterized in fewer species, but are particularly interesting because of their potential importance in olfactory interactions within and across species. We used solid-phase microextraction headspace sampling with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to detect and identify volatiles in uropygial secretions of gray catbirds (Dumetella carolinensis), a North American migratory bird. We consistently detected the following carboxylic acids: acetic, propanoic, 2-methylpropanoic, butanoic, and 3-methylbutanoic. We tested for the effect of lengthened photoperiod and/or exogenous testosterone on volatile signal strength and found a negative effect of lengthened photoperiod on the signal strength of propanoic, 2-methylpropanoic, and butanoic acids, suggesting a trade-off between their production and heightened night-time activity associated with lengthened photoperiod. Signal strength of propanoic and 2-methylpropanoic acids was lower in birds treated with exogenous testosterone than in birds treated with placebos. Sex did not affect signal strength of any of the volatile compounds. PMID:20346408

  19. Two-stage repair in hypospadias.

    PubMed

    Haxhirexha, K N; Castagnetti, M; Rigamonti, W; Manzoni, G A

    2008-04-01

    We provide the reader with a nonsystematic review concerning the use of the two-stage approach in hypospadias repairs. A one-stage approach using the tubularized incised plate urethroplasty is a well-standardized approach for the most cases of hypospadias. Nevertheless, in some primary severe cases, in most hypospadias failures and in selected patients with balanitis xerotica obliterans a two-stage approach is preferable. During the first stage the penis is straightened, if necessary and the urethral plate is substituted with a graft of either genital (prepuce) or extragenital origin (oral mucosa or postauricular skin). During the second stage, performed around 6 months later, urethroplasty is accomplished by graft tubulization. Graft take is generally excellent, with only few cases requiring an additional inlay patch at second stage due to graft contracture. A staged approach allows for both excellent cosmetic results and a low morbidity including an overall 6% fistula rate and 2% stricture rate. Complications usually occur in the first year after the second stage and are higher in secondary repairs. Complications tend to decrease as experience increases and use of additional waterproofing layers contributes to reduce the fistula rate significantly. Long-term cosmetic results are excellent, but voiding and ejaculatory problems may occur in as much as 40% of cases if a long urethral tube is constructed. The procedure has a step learning curve but because of its technical simplicity does not require to be confined only to highly specialized centers. PMID:19468402

  20. Task group differences in cuticular lipids in the honey bee Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Kather, Ricarda; Drijfhout, Falko P; Martin, Stephen J

    2011-02-01

    Social insects are defined by their ability to divide labor among their numerous nestmates. This is achieved via a complex system of chemical communication that allows colonies to organize task activity so as to maximize the productivity of the colony. However, the mechanism by which social insects distinguish task groups among morphologically identical individuals remains unknown. Using the honey bee, Apis mellifera, as our model species, we investigated the presence of task-specific patterns in the cuticular lipids (n-alkanes, fatty acids, and alkenes) of bees. Cuticular lipids are known to play an essential role in the recognition processes of insects. We found task-specific features in the n-alkane and alkene profiles of bees, but no task-specific patterns in the fatty acid profile. Foragers, in particular, had elevated levels of n-alkanes relative to nurse and newly emerged bees, suggesting increased waterproofing. Newly emerged bees had low levels of cuticular lipids, supporting the Blank Slate theory and potentially explaining their acceptance into foreign colonies. PMID:21271278

  1. Roofing research and standards development: Fourth volume. ASTM special technical publication 1349

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, T.J.; Rossiter, W.J. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    As the roofing industry has stabilized, a broad variety of roof systems have found general acceptance by the building owners, architects, engineers, contractors, and others who select and install roofs. These roof systems include those based on conventional built-up membranes using glass and synthetic reinforcements, synthetic polymeric membranes using elastomers and thermoplastics, polymer-modified membranes, and sprayed polyurethane foam. ASTM Committee D8 on Roofing, Waterproofing, and Bituminous Materials has contributed significantly in many important ways to the roofing community's stabilization including issuing standard specifications to assist consumers in the selection and use of these systems. This is not surprising, as it has always been among the purpose of D8 to provide standards to assist in the selection and use of low-sloped and steep roofing. The Committee's scope includes development of standards associated with application, inspection, maintenance, and analyses. Some of the issues facing the roofing community today--for example, enhanced system durability, better methods of material characterization, environmental impact, recycling of materials and systems, industry conversation to the S.I. system metric--readily fall within D8's scope. The availability of sound standard can contribute to the resolution of many of these issues.

  2. Corrosion detection by induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roddenberry, Joshua L.

    Bridges in Florida are exposed to high amounts of humidity due to the state's geography. This excess moisture results in a high incidence of corrosion on the bridge's steel support cables. Also, the inclusion of ineffective waterproofing has resulted in additional corrosion. As this corrosion increases, the steel cables, responsible for maintaining bridge integrity, deteriorate and eventually break. If enough of these cables break, the bridge will experience a catastrophic failure resulting in collapse. Repairing and replacing these cables is very expensive and only increases with further damage. As each of the cables is steel, they have strong conductive properties. By inducing a current along each group of cables and measuring its dissipation over distance, a picture of structural integrity can be determined. The purpose of this thesis is to prove the effectiveness of using electromagnetic techniques to determine cable integrity. By comparing known conductive values (determined in a lab setting) to actual bridge values, the tester will be able to determine the location and severity of any damage, if present.

  3. The physical action of three diatomaceous earths against the cuticle of the flour mite Acarus siro L. (Acari: Acaridae).

    PubMed

    Cook, Dean A; Wakefield, Maureen E; Bryning, Gareth P

    2008-02-01

    Experiments examined the accepted modes of action of the desiccant dust, diatomaceous earth (DE), against the flour mite, Acarus siro (L.) (Astigmata). Adult mites were exposed to three DE products for periods of 3, 18 and 72 h under conditions designed to allow partial desiccation of the mites without causing mortality. After exposure, the DE dust particles were washed off the mite bodies, and both the DE and the mites were examined for presence of cuticular hydrocarbons by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis. GC-MS identified seven major cuticular lipids of chain length C(13)--C(26) that may have a role in the waterproofing of A. siro. After 18 h exposure, n-tridecane and several different long-chain fatty acid ethyl esters were detected on one of the DE products. After 72 h, n-tridecane was detected on all three DE products. Mite samples retained after removal of the DEs were examined by microscopy. Tentative evidence was observed by conventional low-power microscopy that might indicate uniform removal of the epicuticle. However, a detailed examination by scanning electron microscopy showed no signs of abrasion. PMID:17972301

  4. The thermal insulation difference of clothing ensembles on the dry and perspiration manikins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaohong, Zhou; Chunqin, Zheng; Yingming, Qiang; Holmér, Ingvar; Gao, Chuansi; Kuklane, Kalev

    2010-08-01

    There are about a hundred manikin users around the world. Some of them use the manikin such as 'Walter' and 'Tore' to evaluate the comfort of clothing ensembles according to their thermal insulation and moisture resistance. A 'Walter' manikin is made of water and waterproof breathable fabric 'skin', which simulates the characteristics of human perspiration. So evaporation, condensation or sorption and desorption are always accompanied by heat transfer. A 'Tore' manikin only has dry heat exchange by conduction, radiation and convection from the manikin through clothing ensembles to environments. It is an ideal apparatus to measure the thermal insulation of the clothing ensemble and allows evaluation of thermal comfort. This paper compares thermal insulation measured with dry 'Tore' and sweating 'Walter' manikins. Clothing ensembles consisted of permeable and impermeable clothes. The results showed that the clothes covering the 'Walter' manikin absorbed the moisture evaporated from the manikin. When the moisture transferred through the permeable clothing ensembles, heat of condensation could be neglected. But it was observed that heavy condensation occurred if impermeable clothes were tested on the 'Walter' manikin. This resulted in a thermal insulation difference of clothing ensembles on the dry and perspiration manikins. The thermal insulation obtained from the 'Walter' manikin has to be modified when heavy condensation occurs. The modified equation is obtained in this study.

  5. Large thermal protection system panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Franklin K. (Inventor); Weinberg, David J. (Inventor); Tran, Tu T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A protective panel for a reusable launch vehicle provides enhanced moisture protection, simplified maintenance, and increased temperature resistance. The protective panel includes an outer ceramic matrix composite (CMC) panel, and an insulative bag assembly coupled to the outer CMC panel for isolating the launch vehicle from elevated temperatures and moisture. A standoff attachment system attaches the outer CMC panel and the bag assembly to the primary structure of the launch vehicle. The insulative bag assembly includes a foil bag having a first opening shrink fitted to the outer CMC panel such that the first opening and the outer CMC panel form a water tight seal at temperatures below a desired temperature threshold. Fibrous insulation is contained within the foil bag for protecting the launch vehicle from elevated temperatures. The insulative bag assembly further includes a back panel coupled to a second opening of the foil bag such that the fibrous insulation is encapsulated by the back panel, the foil bag, and the outer CMC panel. The use of a CMC material for the outer panel in conjunction with the insulative bag assembly eliminates the need for waterproofing processes, and ultimately allows for more efficient reentry profiles.

  6. Quantitative genetic analysis suggests causal association between cuticular hydrocarbon composition and desiccation survival in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Foley, B R; Telonis-Scott, M

    2011-01-01

    Survival to low relative humidity is a complex adaptation, and many repeated instances of evolution to desiccation have been observed among Drosophila populations and species. One general mechanism for desiccation resistance is Cuticular Hydrocarbon (CHC) melting point. We performed the first Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) map of population level genetic variation in desiccation resistance in D. melanogaster. Using a panel of Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs) derived from a single natural population, we mapped QTL in both sexes throughout the genome. We found that in both sexes, CHCs correlated strongly with desiccation resistance. At most desiccation resistance loci there was a significant association between CHCs and desiccation resistance of the sort predicted from clinal patterns of CHC variation and biochemical properties of lipids. This association was much stronger in females than males, perhaps because of greater overall abundance of CHCs in females, or due to correlations between CHCs used for waterproofing and sexual signalling in males. CHC evolution may be a common mechanism for desiccation resistance in D. melanogaster. It will be interesting to compare patterns of CHC variation and desiccation resistance in species which adapt to desiccation, and rainforest restricted species which cannot. PMID:20389309

  7. Hydrocarbon circulation and colonial signature in Pachycondyla villosa.

    PubMed

    Lucas, C; Pho, D B; Fresneau, D; Jallon, J M

    2004-07-01

    In ants, both cuticular and postpharyngeal gland (PPG) hydrocarbons (HCs) have been involved in nestmate recognition. However, no detailed comparison is available. A comparative study including also high density lipophorin (HDLp), an internal HC carrier, was therefore undertaken on Pachycondyla villosa. Purified HDLp is an 820 kDa lipoprotein with a density of 1.114 g/ml and two 245 and 80 kDa apo-proteins. Its hydrocarbon profile is very similar with the cuticular one, in agreement with its hydrocarbon carrier function. Conversely, n-alkanes and externally branched monomethylalkanes are markedly decreased in the PPG. According to their physical properties, this suggests that they are involved in waterproofing on the cuticle. The PPG actually contains only internally branched mono-, dimethylalkanes or monomethylalkenes; their greater fluidity is more adequate for chemical communication. The percentages of some of them are statistically not different between the cuticle and PPG. Their mixtures vary with colonies and they may thus be involved in colonial signature. A scheme for hydrocarbon circulation is discussed, involving lipophorin, cuticle, PPG and self-grooming in one individual, a pathway complementary or alternative to the selective delivery by lipophorin in some other insects. HCs are then distributed between nestmates' cuticles through allo-grooming and physical contacts. PMID:15234620

  8. Benchmarking numerical predictions with force and moment measurements on slender, supercavitating bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Hailey, C.E.; Clark, E.L.; Cole, J.K.

    1991-01-01

    High-speed water-entry is a very complex, dynamic process. As a first attempt at modeling the process, a numerical solution was developed at Sandia National Laboratories for predicting the forces and moments acting on a body with a steady supercavity, that is, a cavity which extends beyond the base of the body. The solution is limited to supercavities on slender, axisymmetric bodies at small angles of attack. Limited data were available with which to benchmark the axial force predictions at zero angle of attack. Even less data were available with which to benchmark the pitching moment and normal force predictions at nonzero angles of attack. A water tunnel test was conducted to obtain force and moment data on a slender shape. This test produced limited data because of waterproofing problems with the balance. A new balance was designed and a second water tunnel test was conducted at Tracor Hydronautics, Inc. This paper describes the numerical solution, the experimental equipment and test procedures, and the results of the second test. 8 refs., 11 figs.

  9. Final environmental and regulatory assessment of using asphalt as a sealant in mine shafts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This report discusses the properties of asphalt, the current regulatory status governing asphalt and future regulatory implications which may be pertinent in using asphalt as a waterproof shaft sealant. An understanding of the inherent organic composition of asphalt, an increase in the number of health and environmental research publications conducted on asphalt and an examination of the apparent trend of regulatory agencies toward more stringent environmental regulation governing the use of organic materials suggests asphalt could become regulated at a future time. This would only occur, however, if asphalt was found to conform to the present regulatory definitions of pollutants, contaminants or hazardous substances or if asphalt was included on a regulated substance list. In this regard, the study points out that asphalt contains very low levels of hazardous poly-nuclear aromatics (PNA's). These levels are significantly lower than the levels present in coal tars, a substance known to contain high levels of hazardous PNA's. Asphalt, however, has the inherent potential of producing higher concentrations of PNA's if the adverse condition of cracking should occur during the refinery production stage or on-site preparation of the asphalt. Also, unless existing control technology is applied, emission levels of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulates and volatile organic carbons from the on-site preparation facilities could approach the permissible health standard levels of EPA. The study indicates, however, that available literature is limited on these issues.

  10. Influence of the processed sunflower oil on the cement properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleysher, A. U.; Tokarchuk, V. V.; Sviderskiy, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Used oils (vegetable oil, animal oil, engine oil, etc.), which are essentially industrial wastes, have found application as secondary raw materials in some braches of industry. In particular, the only well-known and commonly-used way of utilizing wastes of vegetable oils is to apply them as raw materials in the production of biodiesel. The goal of the present study is to develop a conceptually new way of vegetable oil wastes utilization in the building industry. The test admixture D-148 was obtained from the processing of wastes of sunflower oil and it mainly consists of fatty acid diethanolamide. The test admixture was added to the cement system for the purpose of studying its influence on water demand, flowability, setting times, compressive strength and moisture adsorption. The test admixture D-148 at the optimal content 0. 2 weight % causes 10% decrease in water demand, 1.7 time increase in flowability (namely spread diameter), 23% increase in grade strength and 34% decrease in moisture adsorption. The results of the present investigation make it possible to consider the final product of the waste sunflower oil processing as multifunctional plasticizing-waterproofing admixture.

  11. Airplane dopes and doping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W H

    1919-01-01

    Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate are the important constituents of airplane dopes in use at the present time, but planes were treated with other materials in the experimental stages of flying. The above compounds belong to the class of colloids and are of value because they produce a shrinking action on the fabric when drying out of solution, rendering it drum tight. Other colloids possessing the same property have been proposed and tried. In the first stages of the development of dope, however, shrinkage was not considered. The fabric was treated merely to render it waterproof. The first airplanes constructed were covered with cotton fabric stretched as tightly as possible over the winds, fuselage, etc., and flying was possible only in fine weather. The necessity of an airplane which would fly under all weather conditions at once became apparent. Then followed experiments with rubberized fabrics, fabrics treated with glue rendered insoluble by formaldehyde or bichromate, fabrics treated with drying and nondrying oils, shellac, casein, etc. It was found that fabrics treated as above lost their tension in damp weather, and the oil from the motor penetrated the proofing material and weakened the fabric. For the most part the film of material lacked durability. Cellulose nitrate lacquers, however were found to be more satisfactory under varying weather conditions, added less weight to the planes, and were easily applied. On the other hand, they were highly inflammable, and oil from the motor penetrated the film of cellulose nitrate, causing the tension of the fabric to be relaxed.

  12. Marker and pen graffiti cleaning on diverse calcareous stones by different laser techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriani, S. E.; Catalano, I. M.; Daurelio, G.; Albanese, A.

    2007-05-01

    Industries nowadays continuously produce new types of inks for markers and pens, so new different graffiti appear . In this paper laser cleaning tests on 41 new marker and pen types ( fluorescent, permanent, water-based, acrylic tempera, metallic paint, waterproof inks ), applied into laboratory on different litho- type samples (Chianca, Travertino di Roma, Tufo Carparo fine grain, Sabbie), typical stones employed in much more monuments in Puglia and Italian architectures were carried out. The same ones, were exposed for twelve months to outdoor ageing, subject to sunshine, rain, wind, IR and UV solar radiations. Ablation experiments and tests by using different cleaning techniques, each one in Dry and Wet condition (classic technique, Daurelio technique 1 and Daurelio technique 2 and others new techniques) and two different Nd:YAG laser systems (Palladio by QUANTA SYSTEM and SMART CLEAN II by EL.EN.), were adopted. The experimental modes, N-Mode (1064nm - 150, 300 and 500 ?s pulse duration), Q-Switch (1064nm - 8 ns pulse duration) and SFR (Short Free Running - 1064 nm - 40 to 110?s pulse duration) were tested on each marked stones. It was found that according to the different ink types and stone substrate, Q-Switch laser cleaning ablation with optimized laser technique are the best solution to marker an pen graffiti removal. The work is still in progress.

  13. Functional morphology of the hyolaryngeal complex of the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena): implications for its role in sound production and respiration.

    PubMed

    Huggenberger, Stefan; Rauschmann, Michael A; Oelschläger, Helmut H A

    2008-10-01

    In several publications, it was shown that echolocation sound generation in the nasal (epicranial) complex of toothed whales (Odontoceti) is pneumatically driven. Modern hypotheses consider the larynx and its surrounding musculature to produce the initial air pressure: (a) contraction of the strong pipelike palatopharyngeal sphincter muscle complex, which connects the choanae with the epiglottic spout of the larynx, should provide much of the power for this process and (b) muscles suspending the larynx/hyoid complex from the skull base and the mandibles may support these pistonlike laryngeal movements. Here, we describe the morphology and topography of the larynx, the hyoid apparatus, and the relevant musculature in the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) with respect to odontocete vocalization and respiration. We demonstrate that the hyoid apparatus, reminiscent of a "swinging cage," may not only be a stable framework in which the larynx can move but should support laryngeal actions by its own movements. Rostrocaudal relocations of the hyoid apparatus may thus support pistonlike actions of the larynx creating air flow into the nasal complex for sound production. The lift of the hyoid apparatus with the thick larynx in the direction of the skull base may squeeze the pharynx in the region of the piriform recesses and thus help to secure the (waterproof) tracheochoanal connection during respiration when the palatopharyngeal sphincter cannot be contracted maximally, because the air passage must remain open at the epiglottic spout. PMID:18780307

  14. Breathable and Stretchable Temperature Sensors Inspired by Skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Lu, Bingwei; Chen, Yihao; Feng, Xue

    2015-06-01

    Flexible electronics attached to skin for healthcare, such as epidermal electronics, has to struggle with biocompatibility and adapt to specified environment of skin with respect to breath and perspiration. Here, we report a strategy for biocompatible flexible temperature sensors, inspired by skin, possessing the excellent permeability of air and high quality of water-proof by using semipermeable film with porous structures as substrate. We attach such temperature sensors to underarm and forearm to measure the axillary temperature and body surface temperature respectively. The volunteer wears such sensors for 24?hours with two times of shower and the in vitro test shows no sign of maceration or stimulation to the skin. Especially, precise temperature changes on skin surface caused by flowing air and water dropping are also measured to validate the accuracy and dynamical response. The results show that the biocompatible temperature sensor is soft and breathable on the human skin and has the excellent accuracy compared to mercury thermometer. This demonstrates the possibility and feasibility of fully using the sensors in long term body temperature sensing for medical use as well as sensing function of artificial skin for robots or prosthesis.

  15. Acetylation of cell wall is required for structural integrity of the leaf surface and exerts a global impact on plant stress responses

    PubMed Central

    Nafisi, Majse; Stranne, Maria; Fimognari, Lorenzo; Atwell, Susanna; Martens, Helle J.; Pedas, Pai R.; Hansen, Sara F.; Nawrath, Christiane; Scheller, Henrik V.; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.; Sakuragi, Yumiko

    2015-01-01

    The epidermis on leaves protects plants from pathogen invasion and provides a waterproof barrier. It consists of a layer of cells that is surrounded by thick cell walls, which are partially impregnated by highly hydrophobic cuticular components. We show that the Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutants of REDUCED WALL ACETYLATION 2 (rwa2), previously identified as having reduced O-acetylation of both pectins and hemicelluloses, exhibit pleiotrophic phenotype on the leaf surface. The cuticle layer appeared diffused and was significantly thicker and underneath cell wall layer was interspersed with electron-dense deposits. A large number of trichomes were collapsed and surface permeability of the leaves was enhanced in rwa2 as compared to the wild type. A massive reprogramming of the transcriptome was observed in rwa2 as compared to the wild type, including a coordinated up-regulation of genes involved in responses to abiotic stress, particularly detoxification of reactive oxygen species and defense against microbial pathogens (e.g., lipid transfer proteins, peroxidases). In accordance, peroxidase activities were found to be elevated in rwa2 as compared to the wild type. These results indicate that cell wall acetylation is essential for maintaining the structural integrity of leaf epidermis, and that reduction of cell wall acetylation leads to global stress responses in Arabidopsis. PMID:26257757

  16. Exstrophy-Epispadias Complex in a Newborn: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Enrico; Vanzo, Valentina; Zaramella, Patrizia; Salvadori, Sabrina; Castagnetti, Marco; Baraldi, Eugenio

    2015-10-01

    Aim?The aim of this report is to present a brief review of the current literature on the management of EEC. Case Report?A term male neonate presented at birth with classic bladder exstrophy, a variant of the exstrophy-epispadias complex (EEC). The defect was covered with sterile silicon gauzes and waterproof dressing; at 72 hours of life, primary closure without osteotomy of bladder, pelvis, and abdominal wall was successfully performed. Discussion?EEC incidence is approximately 2.15 per 1,00,000 live births; several urological, musculocutaneous, spinal, orthopedic, gastrointestinal, and gynecological anomalies may be associated to EEC. Initial medical management includes use of occlusive dressings to prevent air contact and dehydration of the open bladder template. Umbilical catheters should not be positioned. Surgical repair stages include initial closure of the bladder and abdominal wall with or without osteotomy, followed by epispadias repair at 6 to 12 months, and bladder neck repair around 5 years of life. Those who fail to attain continence eventually undergo bladder augmentation and placement of a catheterizable conduit. Conclusion?Modern-staged repair of EEC guarantees socially acceptable urinary continence in up to 80% of cases; sexual function can be an issue in the long term, but overall quality of life can be good. PMID:26495181

  17. Dynamics and shape of large fire ant rafts

    PubMed Central

    Mlot, Nathan J.; Tovey, Craig; Hu, David L.

    2012-01-01

    To survive floods, fire ants link their bodies together to build waterproof rafts. Such rafts can be quite large, exceeding 100,000 individuals in size. In this study, we make two improvements on a previously reported model on the construction rate of rafts numbering between 3,000 and 10,000 individuals. That model was based upon experimental observations of randomly-directed linear ant trajectories atop the raft. Here, we report anomalous behavior of ants atop larger rafts of up to 23,000 ants. As rafts increase in size, the behavior of ants approaches diffusion, which is in closer alignment with other studies on the foraging and scouting patterns of ants. We incorporate this ant behavior into the model. Our modified model predicts more accurately the growth of large rafts. Our previous model also relied on an assumption of raft circularity. We show that this assumption is not necessary for large rafts, because it follows from the random directionality of the ant trajectories. Our predicted relationship between raft size and circularity closely fits experimental data. PMID:23336030

  18. The Polaris-H imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, Christopher G.; Kaye, Willy R.; Wang, Weiyi; Zhang, Feng; Jaworski, Jason M.; King, Alexis; Boucher, Y. Andy; He, Zhong

    2015-06-01

    Recently, H3D has designed and introduced a gamma-ray imaging spectrometer system named Polaris-H. Polaris-H was designed to perform gamma spectroscopy and imaging throughout nuclear power plants. It integrates a 3D-position-sensitive pixelated CZT detector (20 mm×20 mm×15 mm), associated readout electronics, an embedded computer, a 5-h battery, and an optical camera in a portable water-proof enclosure. The total mass is about 4 kg, and the system startup time is 2 min. Additionally, it has a connection for a tablet, which displays a gamma-ray spectrum and isotope-specific images of the gamma-ray distribution in all directions in real time. List-mode data is saved to an external USB memory stick. Based on pixelated depth-sensing technology, spectroscopy is routinely better than 1.1% FWHM at 662 keV, and imaging efficiency at 662 keV varies less than a factor of two for all directions, except through the battery. Measurements have been performed in contaminated environments, in high radiation fields, and in cramped quarters.

  19. Use of admixtures in organic-contaminated cement-clay pastes.

    PubMed

    Gallo Stampino, Paola; Zampori, Luca; Dotelli, Giovanni; Meloni, Paola; Sora, Isabella Natali; Pelosato, Renato

    2009-01-30

    In this work microstructure, porosity and hydration degree of cement-based solidified/stabilized wasteforms were studied before assessing their leaching behaviour. 2-Chloroaniline was chosen as a model liquid organic pollutant and included into cement pastes, which were also modified with different admixtures for concrete: a superplasticizer based on acrylic-modified polymer, a synthetic rubber latex and a waterproofing agent. An organoclay, modified with an ammonium quaternary salt (benzyl-dimethyl-tallowammonium, BDMTA), was added to the pastes as pre-sorbent agent of the organic matter. All the samples were dried up to constant weight in order to stop the hydration process at different times during the first 28 days of curing, typically, after 1 day (1d), 7 days (7d) and 28 days. Then, the microstructure of the hardened cement-clay pastes was investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The hydration degree and porosity were studied by thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), respectively. For samples cured for 28 days a short-term leach test set by Italian regulation for industrial waste recycling (D.M. 5 February 1998) was performed. The best results showed a 5% release of the total initial amount of organic pollutant. PMID:18514398

  20. A hydrodynamically suspended, magnetically sealed mechanically noncontact axial flow blood pump: design of a hydrodynamic bearing.

    PubMed

    Mitamura, Yoshinori; Kido, Kazuyuki; Yano, Tetsuya; Sakota, Daisuke; Yambe, Tomoyuki; Sekine, Kazumitsu; OKamoto, Eiji

    2007-03-01

    To overcome the drive shaft seal and bearing problem in rotary blood pumps, a hydrodynamic bearing, a magnetic fluid seal, and a brushless direct current (DC) motor were employed in an axial flow pump. This enabled contact-free rotation of the impeller without material wear. The axial flow pump consisted of a brushless DC motor, an impeller, and a guide vane. The motor rotor was directly connected to the impeller by a motor shaft. A hydrodynamic bearing was installed on the motor shaft. The motor and the hydrodynamic bearing were housed in a cylindrical casing and were waterproofed by a magnetic fluid seal, a mechanically noncontact seal. Impeller shaft displacement was measured using a laser sensor. Axial and radial displacements of the shaft were only a few micrometers for motor speed up to 8500 rpm. The shaft did not make contact with the bearing housing. A flow of 5 L/min was obtained at 8000 rpm at a pressure difference of 100 mm Hg. In conclusion, the axial flow blood pump consisting of a hydrodynamic bearing, a magnetic fluid seal, and a brushless DC motor provided contact-free rotation of the impeller without material wear. PMID:17343698

  1. Breathable and Stretchable Temperature Sensors Inspired by Skin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Lu, Bingwei; Chen, Yihao; Feng, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Flexible electronics attached to skin for healthcare, such as epidermal electronics, has to struggle with biocompatibility and adapt to specified environment of skin with respect to breath and perspiration. Here, we report a strategy for biocompatible flexible temperature sensors, inspired by skin, possessing the excellent permeability of air and high quality of water-proof by using semipermeable film with porous structures as substrate. We attach such temperature sensors to underarm and forearm to measure the axillary temperature and body surface temperature respectively. The volunteer wears such sensors for 24?hours with two times of shower and the in vitro test shows no sign of maceration or stimulation to the skin. Especially, precise temperature changes on skin surface caused by flowing air and water dropping are also measured to validate the accuracy and dynamical response. The results show that the biocompatible temperature sensor is soft and breathable on the human skin and has the excellent accuracy compared to mercury thermometer. This demonstrates the possibility and feasibility of fully using the sensors in long term body temperature sensing for medical use as well as sensing function of artificial skin for robots or prosthesis. PMID:26095941

  2. Detection of water content inhomogeneities in a dike model using invasive GPR guided wave sounding and TRIME-TDR® technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preko, Kwasi; Wilhelm, Helmut

    2012-06-01

    Guided wave sounding (GWS), an invasive application of ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry with intelligible micro elements (TRIME-TDR®) were used to investigate the distribution of volumetric water content (VWC) in a dike model under controlled conditions in order to detect possible dike damage. The dike model, which was constructed with soil of the texture class loamy sand, was flooded at different levels of water between 0.3 and 1.25 m high from a waterproof baseline. The two techniques were applied to retrieve VWC information from the same location at the crest of the dike model. Both techniques assessed reflection data from the lower end of a metal probe lowered through a common access borehole and successfully detected a water content inhomogeneity in the model at a depth of about 0.6 m from the crest. Comparison of the colocated VWC measurements from the two techniques showed almost identical trends with a root mean square deviation of 0.018 m3 m-3. GWS, however, showed a much higher depth resolution than TRIME-TDR®. Accompanying analytical and numerical modelling show that GWS sounding should be applicable to water content exploration in existing, 10-20 m deep boreholes.

  3. Shuttle antenna radome technology test program. Volume 2: Development of S-band antenna interface design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, E. A.; Baranowski, L. C.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of the Thermal Protection Subsystem (TPS) contamination on the space shuttle orbiter S band quad antenna due to multiple mission buildup are discussed. A test fixture was designed, fabricated and exposed to ten cycles of simulated ground and flight environments. Radiation pattern and impedance tests were performed to measure the effects of the contaminates. The degradation in antenna performance was attributed to the silicone waterproofing in the TPS tiles rather than exposure to the contaminating sources used in the test program. Validation of the accuracy of an analytical thermal model is discussed. Thermal vacuum tests with a test fixture and a representative S band quad antenna were conducted to evaluate the predictions of the analytical thermal model for two orbital heating conditions and entry from each orbit. The results show that the accuracy of predicting the test fixture thermal responses is largely dependent on the ability to define the boundary and ambient conditions. When the test conditions were accurately included in the analytical model, the predictions were in excellent agreement with measurements.

  4. Structure and properties of thermoplastic polyurethanes based on poly(dimethylsiloxane): assessment of biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Pergal, Marija V; Nestorov, Jelena; Tovilovi?, Gordana; Ostoji?, Sanja; Go?evac, Dejan; Vasiljevi?-Radovi?, Dana; Djonlagi?, Jasna

    2014-11-01

    Properties and biocompatibility of a series of thermoplastic poly(urethane-siloxane)s (TPUSs) based on ?,?-dihydroxy ethoxy propyl poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) for potential biomedical application were studied. Thin films of TPUSs with a different PDMS soft segment content were characterized by (1) H NMR, quantitative (13) C NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), contact angle, and water absorption measurements. Different techniques (FTIR, AFM, and DMA) showed that decrease of PDMS content promotes microphase separation in TPUSs. Samples with a higher PDMS content have more hydrophobic surface and better waterproof performances, but lower degree of crystallinity. Biocompatibility of TPUSs was examined after attachment of endothelial cells to the untreated copolymer surface or surface pretreated with multicomponent protein mixture, and by using competitive protein adsorption assay. TPUSs did not exhibit any cytotoxicity toward endothelial cells, as measured by lactate dehydrogenase and 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assays. The untreated and proteins preadsorbed TPUS samples favored endothelial cells adhesion and growth, indicating good biocompatibility. All TPUSs adsorbed more albumin than fibrinogen in competitive protein adsorption experiment, which is feature regarded as beneficial for biocompatibility. The results indicate that TPUSs have good surface, thermo-mechanical, and biocompatible properties, which can be tailored for biomedical application requirements by adequate selection of the soft/hard segments ratio of the copolymers. PMID:24376027

  5. Do Eurasian beavers smear their pelage with castoreum and anal gland secretion?

    PubMed

    Rosell, Frank

    2002-08-01

    The scent-matching hypothesis postulates that scent marks provide an olfactory link between a resident owner and his territory, and that this enables intruding animals to recognize the chance of escalated conflicts. However, it is unclear if Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) mark their own pelage with castoreum from their castor sacs (i.e., the same material used in territorial marking); and/or if beavers mark their pelage with anal gland secretion (AGS) from the anal glands to waterproof the pelage and to act as a "living-scent mark." Chemical analysis (gas chromatography and mass spectrometry) of hair samples from 22 live-trapped beavers revealed that castoreum compounds were not present in any samples, AGS compounds were found from 3 animals (13.6%) around the cloaca, and the compound squalene was found in all the samples. Beavers may release castoreum directly into the water when it meets an intruder. Thereby, the "scent mark" in the water can provide an olfactory link between a resident owner and his territory. Squalene, in contrast to AGS, may be essential for keeping beaver pelts water-repellant. PMID:12371821

  6. [Action proposals to Japanese Neurological Society from Fukushima Medical University: based on our three years' experiences].

    PubMed

    Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I make several proposals of what Japanese Neurological Society is able to do or should do in preparing future disaster in Japan. I mention several points separately.Patient education: Patients usually try to visit their hospital as soon as possible for the safety, especially in Japan. Is it true? The traffic jams actually blocked this action in March 11, 2011, which made more serious problems in some patients. We should ask them to prepare matters necessary for staying at home at least for a week when no medical emergency is present.Disaster prevention training: We should make a list of hospitals which accept emergent patients at disaster. We should have some methods of communication still active at disaster (internet, satellite phone) and make society network for communication and patient transportation. How to transfer required drugs to patients is another issue we should consider.Name tag: We sometimes treated unidentified patients in the disaster because the name tag or reference papers was gone or not specified to a certain patient. It is due to great mechanical power of injury or rains. For not detached from the patient and waterproofed, I recommend writing the patient's name on the chest with a permanent marker used in the triathlon when transferring the patients to other hospitals or other places. PMID:24291912

  7. "Smart pebble" designs for sediment transport monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Alexakis, Athanasios; Pavlovskis, Edgars

    2015-04-01

    Sediment transport, due to primarily the action of water, wind and ice, is one of the most significant geomorphic processes responsible for shaping Earth's surface. It involves entrainment of sediment grains in rivers and estuaries due to the violently fluctuating hydrodynamic forces near the bed. Here an instrumented particle, namely a "smart pebble", is developed to investigate the exact flow conditions under which individual grains may be entrained from the surface of a gravel bed. This could lead in developing a better understanding of the processes involved, focusing on the response of the particle during a variety of flow entrainment events. The "smart pebble" is a particle instrumented with MEMS sensors appropriate for capturing the hydrodynamic forces a coarse particle might experience during its entrainment from the river bed. A 3-axial gyroscope and accelerometer registers data to a memory card via a microcontroller, embedded in a 3D-printed waterproof hollow spherical particle. The instrumented board is appropriately fit and centred into the shell of the pebble, so as to achieve a nearly uniform distribution of the mass which could otherwise bias its motion. The "smart pebble" is powered by an independent power to ensure autonomy and sufficiently long periods of operation appropriate for deployment in the field. Post-processing and analysis of the acquired data is currently performed offline, using scientific programming software. The performance of the instrumented particle is validated, conducting a series of calibration experiments under well-controlled laboratory conditions.

  8. Automatic front-crawl temporal phase detection using adaptive filtering of inertial signals.

    PubMed

    Dadashi, Farzin; Crettenand, Florent; Millet, Grégoire P; Seifert, Ludovic; Komar, John; Aminian, Kamiar

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces a novel approach for automatic temporal phase detection and inter-arm coordination estimation in front-crawl swimming using inertial measurement units (IMUs). We examined the validity of our method by comparison against a video-based system. Three waterproofed IMUs (composed of 3D accelerometer, 3D gyroscope) were placed on both forearms and the sacrum of the swimmer. We used two underwater video cameras in side and frontal views as our reference system. Two independent operators performed the video analysis. To test our methodology, seven well-trained swimmers performed three 300 m trials in a 50 m indoor pool. Each trial was in a different coordination mode quantified by the index of coordination. We detected different phases of the arm stroke by employing orientation estimation techniques and a new adaptive change detection algorithm on inertial signals. The difference of 0.2 ± 3.9% between our estimation and video-based system in assessment of the index of coordination was comparable to experienced operators' difference (1.1 ± 3.6%). The 95% limits of agreement of the difference between the two systems in estimation of the temporal phases were always less than 7.9% of the cycle duration. The inertial system offers an automatic easy-to-use system with timely feedback for the study of swimming. PMID:23560703

  9. Integrated Microbatteries for Implantable Medical Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitacre, Jay; West, William

    2008-01-01

    Integrated microbatteries have been proposed to satisfy an anticipated need for long-life, low-rate primary batteries, having volumes less than 1 mm3, to power electronic circuitry in implantable medical devices. In one contemplated application, such a battery would be incorporated into a tubular hearing-aid device to be installed against an eardrum. This device is based on existing tube structures that have already been approved by the FDA for use in human ears. As shown in the figure, the battery would comprise a single cell at one end of the implantable tube. A small volume of Li-based primary battery cathode material would be compacted and inserted in the tube near one end, followed by a thin porous separator, followed by a pressed powder of a Li-containing alloy. Current-collecting wires would be inserted, with suitably positioned insulators to prevent a short circuit. The battery would contain a liquid electrolyte consisting of a Li-based salt in an appropriate solvent. Hermetic seals would be created by plugging both ends with a waterproof polymer followed by deposition of parylene.

  10. An O2 smart plastic film for packaging.

    PubMed

    Mills, Andrew; Lawrie, Katherine; Bardin, Julie; Apedaile, Alistair; Skinner, Graham A; O'Rourke, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The preparation and characterisation of a novel, water-proof, irreversible, reusable, UV-activated, O(2) sensitive, smart plastic film is described. A pigment, consisting of a redox dye, methylene blue (MB), and a sacrificial electron donor, DL-threitol, coated onto an inorganic support with semiconductor functionality, TiO(2), has been extruded in low-density polyethylene (LDPE). The blue-coloured indicator is readily photobleached in <90 s using UVA light (4 mW cm(-2)), whereby MB is converted to its colourless, leuco form, leuco-methylene blue (LMB). This form persists in the absence of oxygen, but is re-oxidised to MB in ~2.5 days in air under ambient conditions (?21 °C, ~65% RH) within the O(2) smart plastic film. The rate of recovery is linearly dependent upon the ambient level of O(2). At the lower temperature of 5 °C, the kinetics of the photobleaching activation step is largely unchanged, whereas that of recovery is markedly reduced to t(1/2) = 36 h at 5 °C (cf. 9 h at 21 °C); the activation energy for the recovery step was calculated as 28 kJ mol(-1). The O(2)-sensitive recovery step was found to be moderately dependent upon humidity at 21 °C, but not significantly dependent upon humidity at 5 °C. The possible application of this type of indicator in food packaging is illustrated and discussed briefly. PMID:22076639

  11. Design of Inorganic Water Repellent Coatings for Thermal Protection Insulation on an Aerospace Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuerstenau, D. W.; Ravikumar, R.

    1997-01-01

    In this report, thin film deposition of one of the model candidate materials for use as water repellent coating on the thermal protection systems (TPS) of an aerospace vehicle was investigated. The material tested was boron nitride (BN), the water-repellent properties of which was detailed in our other investigation. Two different methods, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD), were used to prepare the BN films on a fused quartz substrate (one of the components of thermal protection systems on aerospace vehicles). The deposited films were characterized by a variety of techniques including X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The BN films were observed to be amorphous in nature, and a CVD-deposited film yielded a contact angle of 60 degrees with water, similar to the pellet BN samples investigated previously. This demonstrates that it is possible to use the bulk sample wetting properties as a guideline to determine the candidate waterproofing material for the TPS.

  12. Flow rate logging seepage meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reay, William G. (Inventor); Walthall, Harry G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely measuring and logging the flow rate of groundwater seepage into surface water bodies. As groundwater seeps into a cavity created by a bottomless housing, it displaces water through an inlet and into a waterproof sealed upper compartment, at which point, the water is collected by a collection bag, which is contained in a bag chamber. A magnet on the collection bag approaches a proximity switch as the collection bag fills, and eventually enables the proximity switch to activate a control circuit. The control circuit then rotates a three-way valve from the collection path to a discharge path, enables a data logger to record the time, and enables a pump, which discharges the water from the collection bag, through the three-way valve and pump, and into the sea. As the collection bag empties, the magnet leaves the proximity of the proximity switch, and the control circuit turns off the pump, resets the valve to provide a collection path, and restarts the collection cycle.

  13. A Feasibility Study of Wearable Activity Monitors for Pre-Adolescent School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Van Loan, Marta; German, J. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Understanding physical activity is key in the fight against childhood obesity. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using certain wearable devices to measure physical activity among children. Methods A qualitative study was conducted with 25 children aged 7 to 10 years to assess acceptability and compliance of wearable activity devices in this age group. During March through August 2012, children participated in a 4-week study of 3 accelerometer models and a heart rate monitor. Children were asked to use a different device each week for 7 consecutive days. Children and their parents completed structured interviews after using each device; they also completed a final exit interview. Results The wrist-worn Polar Active was the device most preferred by children and was associated with the highest level of compliance. Devices that are comfortable to wear, fit properly, have engaging features, and are waterproof increase feasibility and are associated with higher levels of compliance. Conclusion The wrist-worn device was the most feasible for measuring physical activity among children aged 7 to 10 years. These findings will inform researchers in selecting tools for measuring children’s physical activity. PMID:24854236

  14. Simple battery armor to protect against gastrointestinal injury from accidental ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Laulicht, Bryan; Deshpande, Vikram; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Inadvertent battery ingestion in children and the associated morbidity and mortality results in thousands of emergency room visits every year. Given the risk for serious electrochemical burns within hours of ingestion, the current standard of care for the treatment of batteries in the esophagus is emergent endoscopic removal. Safety standards now regulate locked battery compartments in toys, which have resulted in a modest reduction in inadvertent battery ingestion; specifically, 3,461 ingestions were reported in 2009, and 3,366 in 2013. Aside from legislation, minimal technological development has taken place at the level of the battery to limit injury. We have constructed a waterproof, pressure-sensitive coating, harnessing a commercially available quantum tunneling composite. Quantum tunneling composite coated (QTCC) batteries are nonconductive in the low-pressure gastrointestinal environment yet conduct within the higher pressure of standard battery housings. Importantly, this coating technology enables most battery-operated equipment to be powered without modification. If these new batteries are swallowed, they limit the external electrolytic currents responsible for tissue injury. We demonstrate in a large-animal model a significant decrease in tissue injury with QTCC batteries compared with uncoated control batteries. In summary, here we describe a facile approach to increasing the safety of batteries by minimizing the risk for electrochemical burn if the batteries are inadvertently ingested, without the need for modification of most battery-powered devices. PMID:25368176

  15. Preparation of hydrophobic organic aeorgels

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Gash, Alexander E.

    2004-10-19

    Synthetic methods for the preparation of hydrophobic organics aerogels. One method involves the sol-gel polymerization of 1,3-dimethoxybenzene or 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene with formaldehyde in non-aqueous solvents. Using a procedure analogous to the preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels, this approach generates wet gels that can be dried using either supercritical solvent extraction to generate the new organic aerogels or air dried to produce an xerogel. Other methods involve the sol-gel polymerization of 1,3,5 trihydroxy benzene (phloroglucinol) or 1,3 dihydroxy benzene (resorcinol) and various aldehydes in non-aqueous solvents. These methods use a procedure analogous to the one-step base and two-step base/acid catalyzed polycondensation of phloroglucinol and formaldehyde, but the base catalyst used is triethylamine. These methods can be applied to a variety of other sol-gel precursors and solvent systems. These hydrophobic organics aerogels have numerous application potentials in the field of material absorbers and water-proof insulation.

  16. Preparation of hydrophobic organic aeorgels

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Theodore F. (Tracy, CA); Satcher, Jr., Joe H. (Patterson, CA); Gash, Alexander E. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-11-06

    Synthetic methods for the preparation of hydrophobic organics aerogels. One method involves the sol-gel polymerization of 1,3-dimethoxybenzene or 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene with formaldehyde in non-aqueous solvents. Using a procedure analogous to the preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels, this approach generates wet gels that can be dried using either supercritical solvent extraction to generate the new organic aerogels or air dried to produce an xerogel. Other methods involve the sol-gel polymerization of 1,3,5 trihydroxy benzene (phloroglucinol) or 1,3 dihydroxy benzene (resorcinol) and various aldehydes in non-aqueous solvents. These methods use a procedure analogous to the one-step base and two-step base/acid catalyzed polycondensation of phloroglucinol and formaldehyde, but the base catalyst used is triethylamine. These methods can be applied to a variety of other sol-gel precursors and solvent systems. These hydrophobic organics aerogels have numerous application potentials in the field of material absorbers and water-proof insulation.

  17. Coastal Changes in Temperature and Salinity Observed during Hurricane Isaac Recorded and Downloaded by NASA DRIFTERs Moored in Heron Bay and at Half Moon Island, Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalcic, Maria; Iturriaga, Rodolfo H.; Kuper, Philip D.; O'Neal, Stanford Duane; Underwood, Lauren; Fletcher, Rose

    2012-01-01

    Major changes in salinity (approx.14 ppt.) and temperature (approx.40C) were continuously registered by two prototype NASA DRIFTERs, surface moored floaters, that NASA's Applied Science and Technology Project Office (ASTPO) has developed. The DRIFTER floating sensor module is equipped with an Arduino open-source electronics prototyping platform and programming language (http://www.arduino.cc), a GPS (Global Positioning System) module with antenna, a cell phone SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) card and a cellular antenna which is used to transmit data, and a probe to measure temperature and conductivity (from which salinity can be derived). The DRIFTER is powered by a solar cell panel and all the electronic components are mounted and sealed in [ waterproof encasement. Position and measurement data are transmitted via short message service (SMS) messaging to a Twitter site (DRIFTER 002@NASADRIFTER_002 and DRIFTER 004@NASADRIFTER_004), which provides a live feed. These data are the imported into a Google spreadsheet where conductivity is converted to salinity, and graphed in real-time. The spreadsheet data will be imported into a webpage maintained by ASTPO, where it will be displayed available for dO\\\\1lload.

  18. The Campaign GPS Component of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO): New Tools, New Strategies and New Opportunities to Support EarthScope Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, D. A.; Greenberg, J.; Sklar, J.; Meertens, C. M.; Andreatta, V.; Feaux, K.

    2004-12-01

    The UNAVCO Facility is charged with implementing the campaign GPS component of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) to support EarthScope investigators through a pool of approximately one hundred mobile GPS systems. In contrast to the PBO continuous GPS network, the PBO campaign systems are designed for temporary deployments with periods ranging from several minutes to several months per site. This allows researchers to conduct spatially and temporally focused investigations into a wide range of phenomena, including volcano monitoring, post-seismic deformation monitoring, and ground control for airborne LIDAR surveys. A standard PBO campaign system consists of a Topcon GB-1000 dual-frequency GPS receiver, a Topcon PG-A1 compact GPS antenna, an 18 Ah battery, cabling, a portable and waterproof Pelican case enclosure, and a Tech 2000 GPS antenna mast or tripod and tribrach. Available ancillary equipment includes solar panels, additional batteries, enclosures and mounting hardware. Communications equipment such as radio modems and cellular modems are also available to allow remote data retrieval during longer term deployments. We present an overview of the PBO campaign equipment available to investigators, technical specifications of the system, examples of current and planned EarthScope research projects utilizing the campaign equipment, and a hands-on demonstration of a PBO campaign system.

  19. Can Preening Contribute to Influenza A Virus Infection in Wild Waterbirds?

    PubMed Central

    Delogu, Mauro; De Marco, Maria A.; Di Trani, Livia; Raffini, Elisabetta; Cotti, Claudia; Puzelli, Simona; Ostanello, Fabio; Webster, Robert G.; Cassone, Antonio; Donatelli, Isabella

    2010-01-01

    Wild aquatic birds in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are the main reservoir hosts perpetuating the genetic pool of all influenza A viruses, including pandemic viruses. High viral loads in feces of infected birds permit a fecal-oral route of transmission. Numerous studies have reported the isolation of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) from surface water at aquatic bird habitats. These isolations indicate aquatic environments have an important role in the transmission of AIV among wild aquatic birds. However, the progressive dilution of infectious feces in water could decrease the likelihood of virus/host interactions. To evaluate whether alternate mechanisms facilitate AIV transmission in aquatic bird populations, we investigated whether the preen oil gland secretions by which all aquatic birds make their feathers waterproof could support a natural mechanism that concentrates AIVs from water onto birds' bodies, thus, representing a possible source of infection by preening activity. We consistently detected both viral RNA and infectious AIVs on swabs of preened feathers of 345 wild mallards by using reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and virus-isolation (VI) assays. Additionally, in two laboratory experiments using a quantitative real-time (qR) RT-PCR assay, we demonstrated that feather samples (n?=?5) and cotton swabs (n?=?24) experimentally impregnated with preen oil, when soaked in AIV-contaminated waters, attracted and concentrated AIVs on their surfaces. The data presented herein provide information that expands our understanding of AIV ecology in the wild bird reservoir system. PMID:20593026

  20. Current progress in the development of a totally implantable Gyro centrifugal artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Takami, Y; Ohtsuka, G; Mueller, J; Ebner, M; Tayama, E; Ohashi, Y; Taylor, D; Fernandes, J; Schima, H; Schmallegger, H; Wolner, E; Nosé, Y

    1998-01-01

    A totally implantable centrifugal artificial heart has been developed using a miniaturized pivot bearing supported centrifugal pump (Gyro PI pump). The authors report current progress in its development. The Gyro PI-601 has a priming volume of 20 ml, weighs 100 g, has a height of 60 mm, and has a diameter of 65 mm. This pump can provide 8 L/min against 150 mmHg at 2,250 rpm. It is driven by an miniaturized DC brushless motor with the coils fixed in a plastic mold that is waterproof and made of titanium (weight, 204 g; height, 18 mm; diameter, 65 mm). In this centrifugal artificial heart, two Gyro PI pumps are implanted independently to replace cardiac function without resecting the native heart. Its anatomic and surgical feasibility were confirmed experimentally. The Gyro PI-601 was implanted as a right or left ventricular assist device in the preperitoneal space of five calves. All five tests proceeded without any thromboembolic symptoms. One of five tests was extended more than 1 month to confirm the long-term feasibility of the Gyro PI-601 pump system. Based on the satisfactory results of the in vivo tests, the material conversion of the Gyro PI from polycarbonate to titanium alloy (Ti-6A1-4V) was undertaken to improve its biocompatibility for long-term implantation. PMID:9617953

  1. Investigations of a large scale eared grebe (Podiceps nigricollis) die-off at the Salton Sea, California in 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meteyer, C.U.; Audet, D.J.; Rocke, T.E.; Radke, W.; Creekmore, L.H.; Duncan, R.

    2004-01-01

    An estimated 150,000 Eared Grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) died at the Salton Sea between 16 December 1991 and 21 April 1992. This represented the largest documented mortality event of Eared Grebes at the time and approximately 6% of the North American population. During the die-off, grebes exhibited several uncharacteristic behaviors, such as congregating at freshwater tributaries, repeatedly gulping freshwater, preening excessively, moving onto land, and allowing close approach and/or capture. Avian cholera was diagnosed in Eared Grebes collected along the north and west shoreline of the Sea late in the die-off but not from the majority of the Eared Grebes dying along the south shore. Gross and histological examinations and diagnostic testing for viruses, bacteria, and parasites did not identify the cause of mortality in the majority of Eared Grebes examined from the south shore of the Sea. Liver concentrations of arsenic, chromium, DDE, mercury, selenium, and zinc were elevated in some Eared Grebes, but none of those contaminants exceeded known thresholds for independent lethality. Poisoning by heavy metals, organochlorine, organophosphorus, or carbamate pesticides, avian botulism, and salt were ruled out as the cause of mortality. Hypotheses for the die-off are interactive effects of contaminants, immunosuppression, a yet unidentified biotoxin or pathogen present in the Salton Sea, impairment of feather waterproofing leading to hypothermia, or a unique manifestation of avian cholera that evades laboratory detection.

  2. Integration of a Strapdown Gravimeter System in AN Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussel, C.; Verdun, J.; Cali, J.; Maia, M.; d'EU, J. F.

    2015-04-01

    We present a new mobile instrument for measuring dynamically the gravity vector and its gradients in underwater environment, named GRAVIMOB. Our instrument is a strapdown sensor, consisted of electrostatic accelerometers installed in a waterproof sphere. It is designed to be embedded in an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). Since the positioning of an AUV is approximate in underwater environment, the key issue raised here is to estimate the uncertainty in the gravity field resulting from the use of such position data. This paper focuses on the assessment of the system performances. The latter have been studied by simulation with reference data calculated from actual submarine geological structures, on which different noise models have been added. Results show that spatial evolutions of the gravity field and statistical properties of stochastic processes affecting the measurements have to be considered carefully in order the minimize the error. The Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) has been favored to the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) by its ease of implementation and its better robustness to non-linearities.

  3. Simple battery armor to protect against gastrointestinal injury from accidental ingestion.

    PubMed

    Laulicht, Bryan; Traverso, Giovanni; Deshpande, Vikram; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M

    2014-11-18

    Inadvertent battery ingestion in children and the associated morbidity and mortality results in thousands of emergency room visits every year. Given the risk for serious electrochemical burns within hours of ingestion, the current standard of care for the treatment of batteries in the esophagus is emergent endoscopic removal. Safety standards now regulate locked battery compartments in toys, which have resulted in a modest reduction in inadvertent battery ingestion; specifically, 3,461 ingestions were reported in 2009, and 3,366 in 2013. Aside from legislation, minimal technological development has taken place at the level of the battery to limit injury. We have constructed a waterproof, pressure-sensitive coating, harnessing a commercially available quantum tunneling composite. Quantum tunneling composite coated (QTCC) batteries are nonconductive in the low-pressure gastrointestinal environment yet conduct within the higher pressure of standard battery housings. Importantly, this coating technology enables most battery-operated equipment to be powered without modification. If these new batteries are swallowed, they limit the external electrolytic currents responsible for tissue injury. We demonstrate in a large-animal model a significant decrease in tissue injury with QTCC batteries compared with uncoated control batteries. In summary, here we describe a facile approach to increasing the safety of batteries by minimizing the risk for electrochemical burn if the batteries are inadvertently ingested, without the need for modification of most battery-powered devices. PMID:25368176

  4. An insect-specific P450 oxidative decarbonylase for cuticular hydrocarbon biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yue; Tittiger, Claus; Wicker-Thomas, Claude; Le Goff, Gaëlle; Young, Sharon; Wajnberg, Eric; Fricaux, Thierry; Taquet, Nathalie; Blomquist, Gary J.; Feyereisen, René

    2012-01-01

    Insects use hydrocarbons as cuticular waterproofing agents and as contact pheromones. Although their biosynthesis from fatty acyl precursors is well established, the last step of hydrocarbon biosynthesis from long-chain fatty aldehydes has remained mysterious. We show here that insects use a P450 enzyme of the CYP4G family to oxidatively produce hydrocarbons from aldehydes. Oenocyte-directed RNAi knock-down of Drosophila CYP4G1 or NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase results in flies deficient in cuticular hydrocarbons, highly susceptible to desiccation, and with reduced viability upon adult emergence. The heterologously expressed enzyme converts C18-trideuterated octadecanal to C17-trideuterated heptadecane, showing that the insect enzyme is an oxidative decarbonylase that catalyzes the cleavage of long-chain aldehydes to hydrocarbons with the release of carbon dioxide. This process is unlike cyanobacteria that use a nonheme diiron decarbonylase to make alkanes from aldehydes with the release of formate. The unique and highly conserved insect CYP4G enzymes are a key evolutionary innovation that allowed their colonization of land. PMID:22927409

  5. The Short-term Protective Effects of ‘Non-PPE’ Gloves Used by Greenhouse Workers

    PubMed Central

    Roff, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Task-based worker exposure assessments are used in regulatory product approval for pesticides. Some agricultural workers may be exposed to pesticide residues predominantly via transfer to the hands during plant tending or crop harvesting. They may use thin ‘splash-resistant single-use’ (SRSU) gloves or cotton gloves as good industry practice, for example, to protect a delicate crop from bruising, rather than specifically for chemical protection. These ‘non-personal protective equipment (PPE)’ gloves may or may not have been tested for chemical resistance, but can nevertheless give limited protection from chemicals. This paper reports experiments to assess the protection factors (PFs) of ‘non-PPE’ gloves against chemicals, to better inform the regulatory exposure assessments. One type of lightweight cotton and three types of 0.1 mm SRSU gloves 25cm long (latex, nitrile, and vinyl) that might be used as ‘non-PPE’ gloves and one type of 0.4 mm PPE nitrile gauntlet 33cm long were worn by 36 volunteers in greenhouses at four nurseries, handling plants sprayed with transferable but non-permeating strontium acetate in four consecutive 1-h sessions, including one session in which no gloves were worn. Dislodgeable foliar residues were measured by rinsing leaves in bags. Each subject carried out their task such as weeding or trimming, for their four sessions on their set of plants. Handwashes followed each session, and the washings were sampled and analysed for strontium. Unprotected hand contamination was taken to be the within-subject ‘challenge’ in the absence of gloves. It ranged from 166 to 4091 µg equivalent of strontium acetate on the hands and increased with increasing foliar residues. Geometric mean PFs were 60 (95% CI 38–87, n = 22) for PPE gauntlets, 32 (25–41, n = 65) for SRSU gloves and 5.3 (3.5–8, n = 21) for lightweight cotton. The PFs offered by the waterproof gloves (gauntlets and SRSU) increased with challenge, but for the absorbent cotton gloves it decreased. The measurement of protection is restricted by the limit of quantification (LOQ) such that protection must apparently increase with challenge, nevertheless the above trends remained even after removal of data waterproof gloves, protection was similar for dry and wet tasks. For cotton gloves, protection was lower for wet tasks, although this might have been consistent with that decreasing trend, because the ungloved hand challenges were higher for wet tasks than dry. Default PF values for cotton and SRSU non-PPE gloves may be taken for regulatory exposure assessments from lower quantiles of the distributions of PF results, being 1.3 and 7–10 respectively. The lower quantiles for cotton gloves are close to one, indicating no protection at all. PMID:26240197

  6. Residual sludge from dimensional stones: characterisation for their exploitation in civil and environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Clemente, Paolo; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela

    2013-04-01

    Residual sludge coming from dimensional stones working plants (diamond framesaw and ganguesaw with abrasive shots processes) represents a problem for Stone Industries. In fact the cost connected to their landfilling amounts to more than 3% of operating costs of dimensional stone working plants. Furthermore their strict feature as waste to dump (CER code 010413) contrasts the EU principles of "resource preservation" and "waste recovery". The main problems related to their management are: size distribution (fine materials, potentially asphyxial), presence of heavy metals (due to the working processes) and TPH content (due to oil machines losses). Residual sludge, considered according to Italian Legislative Decree n.152/06, can be used, as waste, for environmental restoration of derelict land or in cement plants. It is also possible to think about their systematic treatment in consortium plats for the production of Secondary Raw Materials (SRM) or "New Products" (NP, eg. artificial loam, waterproofing materials, ....). The research evidences that, on the basis of a correct sludge management, treatment and characterization, economic and environmental benefits are possible (NP or SRM in spite of waste to dump). To individuate different applications of residual sludge in civil and environmental contexts, a geotechnical (size distribution, permeability, Atterberg limits, cohesion and friction angle evaluation, Proctor soil test) characterization was foreseen. The geotechnical tests were conducted on sludge as such and on three different mixes: - Mix 1 - Bentonite clay (5-10%) added to sludge a.s (90-95%); - Mix 2 - Sludge a.s. (90-80-70%) added to coarse materials coming from crushed dimensional stones (10-20-30%); - Mix 3 - Sludge a.s. (50-70%) mixed with sand, compost, natural loam (50-30% mixture of sand, compost, natural loam). The results obtained from the four sets of tests were fundamental to evaluate: - the characteristics of the original materials; - the chance to obtain new products for dumps waterproofing (Mix 1). In this case the permeability has to be at least 10-9 m/s; - the opportunity to use them for land rehabilitation and reclamation (fine and coarse materials to fill quarry or civil works pits - Mix2; artificial loam to use for quarry and civil works revegetation - Mix 3). In Mix 3 phytotoxicity tests have been performed in cooperation with Agricultural Dept. - University of Turin. In this case the "cradle to grave principle" would be applied: "waste" coming from dimensional stone working plants could return to quarries. The results coming from geotechnical tests are promising, but to exploit sludge mixtures in civil and environmental applications it is necessary to guarantee, by means of appropriate chemical analysis, that there are no problems connected to soil, water and air pollution (connected to heavy metals and TPH contents). Magnetic or hydrogravimetric separation can be performed to reduce heavy metal content, instead TPH decrement can be reached by mean of specific agronomic treatments (eg. Bioremediation). Several in situ tests will be performed to compare the laboratory results to the "pre-industrial" ones: the obtained results will be potentially useful to propose some integration to the present Italian legislation.

  7. Water depression storage under different tillage conditions: measuring and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giménez, R.; Campo, M. A.; González-Audicana, M.; Álvarez-Mozos, J.; Casalí, J.

    2012-04-01

    Water storage in surface depressions (DS) is an important process which affects infiltration, runoff and erosion. Since DS is driven by micro relief, in agricultural soils DS is much affected by tillage and by the direction of tillage rows in relation to the main slope. A direct and accurate measurement of DS requires making the soil surface waterproof -soil is very permeable especially under tillage- but preserving all details of the soil roughness including aggregates over the soil surface (micro-roughness). All this is a very laborious and time-consuming task. That is why hydrological and erosion models for DS estimation normally use either empirical relationships based on some roughness index or numerical approaches. The aim of this work was (i) to measure directly in the field the DS of a soil under different tillage conditions and (ii) to assess the performance of existing empirical 2D models and of a numerical 2D algorithm for DS estimation. Three types of tillage classes (mouldbard+roller, roller compacted and chisel) in 2 tillage directions (parallel and perpendicular to the main slope) were assessed in an experimental hillslope (10% slope) which defines then 6 treatments. Experiments were carried out in 12, 1-m2 micro-plots delimited by metal sheets; that is, a pair of repetitions for each treatment. In each plot, soil surface was gently impregnated with a waterproof, white paint but without altering micro-roughness. A known amount of water (stained with a blue dye) was poured all over the surface with a measuring cup. The excess water was captured in a gutter and measured. Soon after finishing the experiment, pictures of the surface was taken in order to analyze water storage pattern (from stained water) by image processing. Besides, longitudinal height profiles were measured using a laser profilemeter. Finally, infiltration rate was measured near the plot using a double ring infiltrometer. For all the treatments, DS ranged from 2 mm to 17 mm. For the same tillage direction, clear differences in DS were observed among tillage types. Besides and as expected, DS much increased (up to 3 times) in those treatments were tillage rows were perpendicular to the main slope. The performance of the models in DS prediction was in general rather limited with deviations from reference values ranging from 45% to over 100%. The results suggest the inadequacy of 2D approaches to depict the complexity of the water surface storage pattern. On the other hand, some tillage operations lead to a rather small DS but with a relative high infiltration rate (up to 3 times that of the non-tilled soil); whereas in others the opposite was true. This fact should be taken into account in hydrological management of agricultural soils.

  8. The Short-term Protective Effects of 'Non-PPE' Gloves Used by Greenhouse Workers.

    PubMed

    Roff, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Task-based worker exposure assessments are used in regulatory product approval for pesticides. Some agricultural workers may be exposed to pesticide residues predominantly via transfer to the hands during plant tending or crop harvesting. They may use thin 'splash-resistant single-use' (SRSU) gloves or cotton gloves as good industry practice, for example, to protect a delicate crop from bruising, rather than specifically for chemical protection. These 'non-personal protective equipment (PPE)' gloves may or may not have been tested for chemical resistance, but can nevertheless give limited protection from chemicals. This paper reports experiments to assess the protection factors (PFs) of 'non-PPE' gloves against chemicals, to better inform the regulatory exposure assessments.One type of lightweight cotton and three types of 0.1 mm SRSU gloves 25cm long (latex, nitrile, and vinyl) that might be used as 'non-PPE' gloves and one type of 0.4 mm PPE nitrile gauntlet 33cm long were worn by 36 volunteers in greenhouses at four nurseries, handling plants sprayed with transferable but non-permeating strontium acetate in four consecutive 1-h sessions, including one session in which no gloves were worn. Dislodgeable foliar residues were measured by rinsing leaves in bags. Each subject carried out their task such as weeding or trimming, for their four sessions on their set of plants. Handwashes followed each session, and the washings were sampled and analysed for strontium. Unprotected hand contamination was taken to be the within-subject 'challenge' in the absence of gloves. It ranged from 166 to 4091 µg equivalent of strontium acetate on the hands and increased with increasing foliar residues. Geometric mean PFs were 60 (95% CI 38-87, n = 22) for PPE gauntlets, 32 (25-41, n = 65) for SRSU gloves and 5.3 (3.5-8, n = 21) for lightweight cotton. The PFs offered by the waterproof gloves (gauntlets and SRSU) increased with challenge, but for the absorbent cotton gloves it decreased. The measurement of protection is restricted by the limit of quantification (LOQ) such that protection must apparently increase with challenge, nevertheless the above trends remained even after removal of data waterproof gloves, protection was similar for dry and wet tasks. For cotton gloves, protection was lower for wet tasks, although this might have been consistent with that decreasing trend, because the ungloved hand challenges were higher for wet tasks than dry.Default PF values for cotton and SRSU non-PPE gloves may be taken for regulatory exposure assessments from lower quantiles of the distributions of PF results, being 1.3 and 7-10 respectively. The lower quantiles for cotton gloves are close to one, indicating no protection at all. PMID:26240197

  9. An Endosperm-Associated Cuticle Is Required for Arabidopsis Seed Viability, Dormancy and Early Control of Germination

    PubMed Central

    Loubery, Sylvain; Utz-Pugin, Anne; Bailly, Christophe; Mène-Saffrané, Laurent; Lopez-Molina, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Cuticular layers and seeds are prominent plant adaptations to terrestrial life that appeared early and late during plant evolution, respectively. The cuticle is a waterproof film covering plant aerial organs preventing excessive water loss and protecting against biotic and abiotic stresses. Cutin, consisting of crosslinked fatty acid monomers, is the most abundant and studied cuticular component. Seeds are dry, metabolically inert structures promoting plant dispersal by keeping the plant embryo in an arrested protected state. In Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, the embryo is surrounded by a single cell endosperm layer itself surrounded by a seed coat layer, the testa. Whole genome analyses lead us to identify cutin biosynthesis genes as regulatory targets of the phytohormones gibberellins (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathways that control seed germination. Cutin-containing layers are present in seed coats of numerous species, including Arabidopsis, where they regulate permeability to outer compounds. However, the role of cutin in mature seed physiology and germination remains poorly understood. Here we identify in mature seeds a thick cuticular film covering the entire outer surface of the endosperm. This seed cuticle is defective in cutin-deficient bodyguard1 seeds, which is associated with alterations in endospermic permeability. Furthermore, mutants affected in cutin biosynthesis display low seed dormancy and viability levels, which correlates with higher levels of seed lipid oxidative stress. Upon seed imbibition cutin biosynthesis genes are essential to prevent endosperm cellular expansion and testa rupture in response to low GA synthesis. Taken together, our findings suggest that in the course of land plant evolution cuticular structures were co-opted to achieve key physiological seed properties. PMID:26681322

  10. Impact of Megacity Shanghai on the Urban Heat-Island Effects over the Downstream City Kunshan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Han-Qing; Zhu, Bin; Zhu, Tong; Sun, Jia-Li; Ou, Jian-Jun

    2014-09-01

    The impact of upstream urbanization on the enhanced urban heat-island (UHI) effects between Shanghai and Kunshan is investigated by analyzing seven years of surface observations and results from mesoscale model simulations. The observational analysis indicates that, under easterly and westerly winds, the temperature difference between Shanghai and Kunshan increases with wind speed when the wind speed 5 m s. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) numerical model, coupled with a one-layer urban canopy model (UCM), is used to examine the UHI structure and upstream effects by replacing the urban surface of Shanghai and/or Kunshan with cropland. The WRF/UCM modelling system is capable of reproducing the surface temperature and wind field reasonably well. The simulated urban canopy wind speed is a better representation of the near-surface wind speed than is the 10-m wind speed at the centre of Shanghai. Without the urban landscape of Shanghai, the surface air temperature over downstream Kunshan would decrease by 0.2-0.4 C in the afternoon and 0.4-0.6 C in the evening. In the simulation with the urban landscape of Shanghai, a shallow cold layer is found above the UHI, with a minimum temperature of about to 0.5 C during the afternoon hours. Strong horizontal divergence is found in this cold layer. The easterly breeze over Shanghai is strengthened at the surface by strong UHI effects, but weakened at upper levels. With the appearance of the urban landscape specific humidity decreases by 0.5-1 g kg within the urban area because of the waterproof property of an urban surface. On the other hand, the upper-level specific humidity is increased because of water vapour transferred by the strong upward vertical motions.

  11. Chemiresistor microsensors for in-situ monitoring of volatile organic compounds : final LDRD report.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Michael Loren; Hughes, Robert Clark; Kooser, Ara S.; McGrath, Lucas K.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Wright, Jerome L.; Davis, Chad Edward

    2003-09-01

    This report provides a summary of the three-year LDRD (Laboratory Directed Research and Development) project aimed at developing microchemical sensors for continuous, in-situ monitoring of volatile organic compounds. A chemiresistor sensor array was integrated with a unique, waterproof housing that allows the sensors to be operated in a variety of media including air, soil, and water. Numerous tests were performed to evaluate and improve the sensitivity, stability, and discriminatory capabilities of the chemiresistors. Field tests were conducted in California, Nevada, and New Mexico to further test and develop the sensors in actual environments within integrated monitoring systems. The field tests addressed issues regarding data acquisition, telemetry, power requirements, data processing, and other engineering requirements. Significant advances were made in the areas of polymer optimization, packaging, data analysis, discrimination, design, and information dissemination (e.g., real-time web posting of data; see www.sandia.gov/sensor). This project has stimulated significant interest among commercial and academic institutions. A CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) was initiated in FY03 to investigate manufacturing methods, and a Work for Others contract was established between Sandia and Edwards Air Force Base for FY02-FY04. Funding was also obtained from DOE as part of their Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative program from FY01 to FY03, and a DOE EMSP contract was awarded jointly to Sandia and INEEL for FY04-FY06. Contracts were also established for collaborative research with Brigham Young University to further evaluate, understand, and improve the performance of the chemiresistor sensors.

  12. Heterogeneous films of ionotropic hydrogels fabricated from delivery templates of patterned paper.

    PubMed

    Bracher, Paul J; Gupta, Malancha; Mack, Eric T; Whitesides, George M

    2009-08-01

    The use of delivery templates makes it possible to fabricate shaped, millimeter-thick heterogeneously patterned films of ionotropic hydrogels. These structures include two-dimensional (2-D) patterns of a polymer cross-linked by different ions (e.g., alginic acid cross-linked with Ca2+ and Fe3+) and patterns of step gradients in the concentration of a single cross-linking ion. The delivery templates consist of stacked sheets of chromatography paper patterned with hydrophobic barriers (waterproof tape, transparency film, or toner deposited by a color laser printer). Each layer of paper serves as a reservoir for a different solution of cross-linking ions, while the hydrophobic barriers prevent solutions on adjacent sheets from mixing. Holes cut through the sheets expose different solutions of cross-linking ions to the surface of the templates. Films with shaped regions of hydrogels cross-linked by paramagnetic ions can be oriented with a bar magnet. Variations in the concentrations of cations used to cross-link the gel can control the mechanical properties of the film: for single alginate films composed of areas cross-linked with different concentrations of Fe3+, the regions cross-linked with high concentrations of Fe3+ are more rigid than regions cross-linked with low concentrations of Fe3+. The heterogeneous hydrogel films can be used to culture bacteria in various 2-D designs. The pattern of toxic and nontoxic ions used to cross-link the polymer determines the pattern of viable colonies of Escherichia coli within the film. PMID:20046855

  13. Development of polymer concrete vaults for natural gas regulator stations

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, J.J.; Miller, C.A.; Reams, W.; Elling, D.

    1990-08-01

    Vaults for natural gas regulator stations have traditionally been fabricated with steel-reinforced portland cement concrete. Since these vaults are installed below ground level, they are usually coated with a water-proofing material to prevent the ingress of moisture into the vault. In some cases, penetrations for piping that are normally cast into the vault do not line up with the gas lines in the streets. This necessitates off-setting the lines to line up with the penetrations in the vault or breaking out new penetrations which could weaken the structure and/or allow water ingress. By casting the vaults using a new material of construction such as polymer concrete, a longer maintenance free service life is possible because the physical and durability properties of polymer concrete composites are much superior to those of portland cement concrete. The higher strengths of polymer concrete allow the design engineer to reduce the wall, floor, and ceiling thicknesses making the vaults lighter for easier transportation and installation. Penetrations can be cut after casting to match existing street lines, thus making the vault more universal and reducing the number of vaults that are normally in stock. The authors developed a steel-fiber reinforced polymer concrete composite that could be used for regulator vaults. Based on the physical properties of his new composite, vaults were designed to replace the BUG PV-008 and Con Ed GR-6 regulator vaults made of reinforced portland cement concrete. Quarter-scale models of the polymer concrete vaults were tested and the results reaffirmed the reduced wall thickness design. Two sets of vaults, cast by Hardinge Bros., were inspected by representatives of the utilities and BNL (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and were accepted for delivery. 6 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. SU-E-T-446: Evaluation of the Dosimetric Properties of a Diode Detector to Proton Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Teran, A; McAuley, G; Slater, J M; Slater, J D; Wroe, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To test the PTW PR60020 proton dosimetry diode in radiation fields relevant to proton radiosurgery applications and evaluate its suitability as a high resolution, real time dosimetry device. Methods: Data was collected using our standard nominal radiosurgery energies of 126 MeV and 155 MeV through a single stage scattering system, corresponding to a range of 9.7 and 15 cm in water respectively. Various beam modulations were tested as part of this study. Depth dose and beam profile measurements were completed with the PTW PR60020 dosimetry diode with comparative measurements using a PTW Markus ionization chamber and EBT2 Gafchromic film. Monte Carlo simulations were also completed for comparison. Results: The single 1 mm{sup 2} by 20 ?m thick sensitive volume allowed for high spatial resolution measurements while maintaining sufficient sensitive volume to ensure that measurements could be completed without excessive beam delivery. Depth dose profiles exhibited negligible LET dependence which typically impacts film and other solid state dosimetry devices, while beam ranges measured with the PTW diode were within 1 mm of ion chamber data. In an edge on arrangement beam profiles were also measured within 0.5 mm full-width at half-maximum at various depths as compared to film and simulation data. Conclusion: The PTW PR60020 proved to be a very useful radiation metrology apparatus for proton radiosurgery applications. Its waterproof and rugged construction allowed for easy deployment in phantoms or water tanks that are commonly used in proton radiosurgery QA. Dosimetrically, the diode exhibited negligible LET dependence as a function of depth, while in edge on arrangement to the incident proton beam it facilitated the measurement of beam profiles with a spatial resolution comparable to both Monte Carlo and film measurements. This project was sponsored in part by funding from the Department of Defense (DOD# W81XWH-BAA-10-1)

  15. Three generations of wireless sensor networks to monitor the soil ecosystem (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szlavecz, K. A.

    2013-12-01

    Capturing soil spatio-temporal heterogeneity is a considerable challenge. We designed, built and deployed three generations of wireless sensor networks to measure soil temperature, moisture, CO2 concentration and efflux. In the past eight years the system was tested in a high altitude desert, tropical and temperate forests, and in croplands. We developed Grazor, a graphic web interface for visualizing, exploring, and downloading data. Since 2005, our first field deployment, we have collected over 160 million data points, all stored in our persistent database. Our largest and longest experiment took place in a residential neighborhood in Baltimore, MD. A total of 108 soil moisture sensors were installed in urban soils covered by forest and grass. The system successfully captured spatial heterogeneity, transient events, such as Hurricane Irene, and highlighted habitat differences. However, issues such as waterproofing, battery consumption, mote failure and scale of deployment still need to be addressed. Improvements in our third generation hardware and software are based upon lessons learned from earlier deployments. In the new hardware, rather than having a single device that does everything (analog sensing, data storage, and routing), we have developed an analog sensor board and a separate wireless sensor mote. The latter can be configured as a leaf (with an antenna printed directly on the circuit board) or as a router (with a power amplifier and an external antenna connector). Additional sensors with an industry standard I2C interface can also be connected to the mote. The cost of each unit is 20$, and the software is user friendly for the non-computer scientist. We are currently testing this system in the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, MD. Cumulative number of data collected in the Life Under Your Feet project. Major hardware changes are marked with vertical lines, while horizontal lines show the start and end of deployments.

  16. Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in consumer products in Norway - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Herzke, Dorte; Olsson, Elisabeth; Posner, Stefan

    2012-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are used in numerous industrial and consumer products because of their special chemical properties, for instance the ability to repel both water and oil. A broad variety of PFAS have been introduced into the Norwegian market through industrial use (e.g. via fire fighting foams and paints) as well as in treated customer products such as textiles and coated paper. Our present knowledge of the exact chemical PFAS compositions in preparations using perfluorinated compounds is limited. This lack of knowledge means that it is difficult to provide an accurate assessment of human exposure to these compounds or to the amount of waste that may contain treated products. It is a growing concern that these potentially harmful compounds can now be found throughout the global environment. Samples of consumer products and preparations were collected in Norway, with supplemental samples from Sweden. In 27 of the 30 analyzed consumer products and preparations a number of polyfluorinated substances that were analyzed were detected but this does not exclude the occurrence of unknown PFAS. Notable was that perfluorooctanesulphonate (PFOS), which has been strictly regulated in Norway since 2007, was found in amounts close to or exceeding the EU regulatory level in 4 of the 30 analyzed products, all within the leather or carpet product groups. High amounts of fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) were found in waterproofing agents, carpets and textiles, consistent with earlier findings by Fiedler et al. (2010). The presence of PFAS in a broad range of consumer products can give rise to a constant diffuse human exposure that might eventually result in harm to humans. PMID:22483730

  17. Midazolam as an adjunctive therapy for capture myopathy in Bar-tailed Godwits (Limosa lapponica baueri) with prognostic indicators.

    PubMed

    Ward, Janelle M; Gartrell, Brett D; Conklin, Jesse R; Battley, Phil F

    2011-10-01

    Capture myopathy is a complication of capture and handling in many species of birds and mammals. Muscular necrosis leads to ataxia, paralysis, and pain, whereas metabolic disturbances can result in death. We conducted an opportunistic clinical trial on Bar-tailed Godwits (Limosa lapponica baueri) that developed capture myopathy after a cannon-net capture in New Zealand in October 2008. We assessed the beneficial effects of midazolam, a benzodiazepine with the effects of anxiolysis, muscle relaxation, and sedation, in the adjunctive treatment of capture myopathy. Physical and biochemical parameters were analyzed retrospectively for their potential as indicators for survival until release. Birds (n=16) were treated with subcutaneous fluid therapy, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (meloxicam), gavage feeding, and sling therapy twice daily. The treatment group (n=8) was treated twice daily with intramuscular midazolam injections, 1.5 mg/kg. Surviving godwits were released over 1-9 days, with 6 of 8 treated birds (75%) surviving to release, compared with 3 of 8 controls (38%). Inability to counteract weight loss in captivity was the most significant problem for both groups. Lack of waterproofing and predation were contributing causes of death for at least two godwits after release. Birds treated with midazolam showed subjective benefits including improved tolerance of handling and sling therapy. Clinical parameters (change in body mass, packed cell volume [PCV], plasma creatine kinase [CK], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], total protein, and uric acid [UA] over time) were not statistically different between groups, although peak average values for CK, AST, and UA were lower in the treatment group. Decline in body mass (%), PCV, final plasma UA, and peak plasma CK were the most useful prognostic indicators. Midazolam shows potential as an ancillary treatment for capture myopathy in birds and is worthy of continued study and use. PMID:22102663

  18. Epicuticular compounds of Drosophila subquinaria and D. recens: identification, quantification, and their role in female mate choice.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Sharon; Sztepanacz, Jacqueline L; White, Brooke E; Dyer, Kelly A; Rundle, Howard D; Mayer, Paul

    2013-05-01

    The epicuticle of various Drosophila species consists of long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) and their derivatives that play a role in waterproofing and a dynamic means of chemical communication. Here, via gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, we identified and quantified the epicuticular composition of D. recens and D. subquinaria, two closely related species that show a pattern of reproductive character displacement in nature. Twenty-four compounds were identified with the most abundant, 11-cis-Vaccenyl acetate, present only in males of each species. Also exclusive to males were five tri-acylglycerides. The 18 remaining compounds were CHCs, all shared between the sexes and species. These CHCs were composed of odd carbon numbers (C29, C31, C33, and C35), with an increase in structural isomers in the C33 and C35 groups. Saturated hydrocarbons comprise only methyl-branched alkanes and were found only in the C29 and C31 groups. Alkenes were the least prevalent, with alkadienes dominating the chromatographic landscape in the longer chain lengths. Sexual dimorphism was extensive with 6/8 of the logcontrast CHCs differing significantly in relative concentration between males and females in D. recens and D. subquinaria, respectively. Males of the two species also differed significantly in relative concentration of six CHCs, while females differed in none. Female-choice mating trials revealed directional sexual selection on male CHCs in a population of each species, consistent with female mate preferences for these traits. The sexual selection vectors differed significantly in multivariate trait space, suggesting that different pheromone blends determine male attractiveness in each species. PMID:23604703

  19. Comparison and reproducibility of sEMG during manual muscle testing on land and in water.

    PubMed

    Silvers, W Matthew; Dolny, Dennis G

    2011-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) compare the sEMG recordings from maximal voluntary contractions (MVC), and (2) examine the reproducibility of sEMG recordings from MVCs for selected lower extremity muscles derived from manual muscle testing (MMT) on dry land, and in water prior to and following aquatic treadmill running. Twelve healthy recreational male runners participated. The selected muscles were: M. quadriceps-vastus medialis (VM) and rectus femoris (RF), M. biceps femoris (BF), M. tibialis anterior (TA) and the M. gastrocnemius caput mediale (GAS) of the right leg. The MVC testing conditions were: dry land, underwater prior to (Water 1) and following an aquatic exercise trial (Water 2). For each muscle, a one-way analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to compare MVC scores between testing conditions, and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and typical error (CV%) were calculated to determine the reproducibility and precision of MVC scores, respectively, between conditions. For all muscles, no significant differences were observed between land and water MVC scores (p=0.88-0.97), and high reliability (ICC=0.96-0.98) and precision (CV%=7.4-12.6%) were observed between MVC conditions. Under MMT conditions it appears that comparable MVC sEMG values were achieved on land and in water and the integrity of the EMG recordings were maintained during water immersion. Future studies using sEMG waterproofing procedures should conduct MVC testing in water for data normalization and perform post-exercise verification of sEMG signal integrity. PMID:20965128

  20. Histological and MS spectrometric analyses of the modified tissue of bulgy form tadpoles induced by salamander predation.

    PubMed

    Mori, Tsukasa; Kitani, Yoichiro; Ogihara, Jun; Sugiyama, Manabu; Yamamoto, Goshi; Kishida, Osamu; Nishimura, Kinya

    2012-04-15

    The rapid induction of a defensive morphology by a prey species in face of a predation risk is an intriguing in ecological context; however, the physiological mechanisms that underlie this phenotypic plasticity remain uncertain. Here we investigated the phenotypic changes shown by Rana pirica tadpoles in response to a predation threat by larvae of the salamander Hynobius retardatus. One such response is the bulgy morph phenotype, a relatively rapid swelling in size by the tadpoles that begins within 4 days and reaches a maximum at 8 to 10 days. We found that although the total volume of bodily fluid increased significantly (P<0.01) in bulgy morph tadpoles, osmotic pressure was maintained at the same level as control tadpoles by a significant increase (P<0.01) in Na and Cl ion concentrations. In our previous report, we identified a novel frog gene named pirica that affects the waterproofing of the skin membrane in tadpoles. Our results support the hypothesis that predator-induced expression of pirica on the skin membrane causes retention of absorbed water. Midline sections of bulgy morph tadpoles showed the presence of swollen connective tissue beneath the skin that was sparsely composed of cells containing hyaluronic acid. Mass spectrographic (LC-MS/MS) analysis identified histone H3 and 14-3-3 zeta as the most abundant constituents in the liquid aspirated from the connective tissue of bulgy tadpoles. Immunohistochemistry using antibodies against these proteins showed the presence of non-chromatin associated histone H3 in the swollen connective tissue. Histones and 14-3-3 proteins are also involved in antimicrobial activity and secretion of antibacterial proteins, respectively. Bulgy tadpoles have a larger surface area than controls, and their skin often has bite wounds inflicted by the larval salamanders. Thus, formation of the bulgy morph may also require and be supported by activation of innate immune systems. PMID:23213421

  1. A de-epithelialised 'turnover dartos flap' in the repair of urethral fistula.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Rajeev B

    2009-03-01

    We report our experience in the management of urethrocutaneous fistulae following hypospadias repair by using a turnover, de-epithelialiszed dartos flap. From May 2003 to June 2007 we operated on 10 patients with urethral fistulae following hypospadias repair. Their ages ranged from 4 to 25 years (mean: 7 years). Four of these patients had their urethroplasty done elsewhere and reported for fistula repair alone. These four patients had no record of the urethroplasty procedure that was used. A solitary fistula was located at the corona in two patients, on the mid-shaft in three patients, and proximal penile in one patient. Two patients had multiple fistulae on the shaft, one patient had two fistulae on the shaft, and one patient had a long fistula from the proximal penile to peno-scrotal region. The technique involves using a circumscribing incision around the fistula and closing the inner skin edges by an inverting subcuticular stitch to form the urethral layer. A flap is marked on the skin adjacent to the circumscribing incision and de-epithelialised. It is raised with underlying dartos fascia/muscle and turned over the first layer of closure and secured. The vascular supply to the flap is based on a hinge of tissue around the defect. A long skin flap developed from shaft or the scrotum is approximated over this layer to complete the repair. Alternatively, the skin is closed in a 'pants over vest' technique. An indwelling catheter is placed for 3-4 days. Nine patients healed without complications, and one patient with multiple fistulae on the shaft had a residual tiny pin-point fistula which closed spontaneously. Thus, the success rate with this technique was 100%. Although dartos flaps have been used for many years as a waterproofing layer in urethroplasties or while repairing urethrocutaneous fistulae, their use as a 'de-epithelialised turnover flap' provides another reliable tool in the surgical repertoire. PMID:18640885

  2. Design and characterization of a piezoelectric sensor for monitoring scour hole evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhari, Faezeh; Tom, Caroline; Benassini, Joseph; Loh, Kenneth J.; Bombardelli, Fabian A.

    2014-03-01

    Scour occurring near bridge piers and abutments jeopardizes the stability and safety of overwater bridges. In fact, bridge scour is responsible for a significant portion of overwater bridge failures in the United States and around the world. As a result, numerous methods have been developed for monitoring bridge scour by measuring scour depth at locations near bridge piers and foundations. Besides visual inspections conducted by trained divers, other technologies include sonar, float-out devices, magnetic sliding collars, tilt sensors, and fiber optics, to name a few. These systems each offer unique advantages, but most of them share fundamental limitations (e.g., high costs, low reliability, limited accuracy, low reliability, etc.) that have limited their implementation in practice. Thus, the goal of this study is to present a low-cost and simple scour depth sensor fabricated using piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer strips. Unlike current piezoelectric scour sensors that are based on mounting multiple and equidistantly spaced transducers on a rod, the proposed sensor is formed by coating one continuous PVDF film onto a substrate, followed by waterproofing the sensor. The PVDF-based sensor can then be buried in the streambed and at a location where scour depth measurements are desired. When scour occurs and exposes a portion of the PVDF sensor, water flow excites the sensor to cause the generation of a time-varying voltage signal. Since the dynamics of the voltage time history response is related to the exposed length of the sensor, scour depth can be determined. This work presents the design and fabrication of the sensor. Then, the sensor's performance and accuracy is characterized through extensive laboratory testing.

  3. Variation in quantity and composition of cuticular hydrocarbons in the scorpion Buthus occitanus (Buthidae) in response to acute exposure to desiccation stress.

    PubMed

    Gefen, E; Talal, S; Brendzel, O; Dror, A; Fishman, A

    2015-04-01

    Scorpions exhibit some of the lowest recorded water loss rates among terrestrial arthropods. Evaporative water loss to the surrounding environment occurs mainly through the integument, and thus its resistance to water loss has paramount significance for the ability of scorpions to tolerate extremely dry habitats. Cuticular hydrocarbons (HCs) deposited on the outer epicuticle play an important role in determining cuticular waterproofing, and seasonal variation in both cuticular HC quantity and composition has been shown to correlate with water loss rates. Precursor incorporation rates into cuticle HCs have been observed to be extremely low in scorpions compared with insects. We therefore used adult male Buthus occitanus (Buthidae) in order to test HC profile plasticity during acute exposure to 14 d and 28 d of experimental desiccation. Cuticular HC profile of hydrated scorpions was similar to that reported for several other scorpion species, consisting of similar fractions of n-alkanes and branched alkanes, with no evidence for unsaturation. Most abundant of the n-alkanes were n-heptacosane (C27; 19±2% of total HCs), n-nonacosane (C29; 16±1%) and n-hentriacontane (C31; 11±1%). Exposure to desiccation stress resulted in a significant increase in the total amount of extracted HCs, and in the relative abundance of branched alkanes at the expense of n-alkanes. Together with an increase in HC chain lengths, these changes mimic previously-reported seasonal variation among freshly-collected specimens. This indicates that scorpions respond to water shortage by regulating the properties of their passive integumental barrier to water loss. PMID:25499238

  4. Physicochemical characterization and evaluation of buccal adhesive tablets containing omeprazole.

    PubMed

    Yong, C S; Jung, J H; Rhee, J D; Kim, C K; Choi, H G

    2001-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an effective omeprazole buccal adhesive tablet with excellent bioadhesive force and good drug stability in human saliva. The omeprazole buccal adhesive tablets were prepared with various bioadhesive polymers, alkali materials, and croscarmellose sodium. Their physicochemical properties, such as bioadhesive force and drug stability in human saliva, were investigated. The release and bioavailability of omeprazole delivered by the buccal adhesive tablets were studied. As bioadhesive additives for the omeprazole tablet, a mixture of sodium alginate and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) was selected. The omeprazole tablets prepared with bioadhesive polymers alone had bioadhesive forces suitable for a buccal adhesive tablet, but the stability of omeprazole in human saliva was not satisfactory. Among alkali materials, only magnesium oxide could be an alkali stabilizerfor omeprazole buccal adhesive tablets due to its strong waterproofing effect. Croscarmellose sodium enhanced the release of omeprazole from the tablets; however, it decreased the bioadhesive forces and stability of omeprazole tablets in human saliva. The tablet composed of omeprazole/sodium alginate/HPMC/magnesium oxide/croscarmellose sodium (20/24/6/50/10 mg) could be attached on the human cheek without disintegration, and it enhanced the stability of omeprazole in human saliva for at least 4 h and gave fast release of omeprazole. The plasma concentration of omeprazole in hamsters increased to a maximum of 370 ng/ml at 45 min after buccal administration and continuously maintained a high level of 146-366 ng/ml until 6 h. The buccal bioavailability of omeprazole in hamsters was 13.7% +/- 3.2%. These results demonstrate that the omeprazole buccal adhesive tablet would be useful for delivery of an omeprazole that degrades very rapidly in acidic aqueous medium and undergoes hepatic first-pass metabolism after oral administration. PMID:11448052

  5. Outcome of hypospadias fistula repair.

    PubMed

    Shankar, K R; Losty, P D; Hopper, M; Wong, L; Rickwood, A M K

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To examine the long-term results of hypospadias fistula repair, the factors involved in recurrence and the outcome in cases where this has occurred. Patients and methods The study comprised 113 children undergoing urethrocutaneous fistula repair between 1984 and 1996. Most of the fistulae were closed in two to three layers, with or without a transpositional skin flap. Tunica vaginalis or a scrotal dartos flap was used in patients with inadequate vascularized tissue adjacent to the fistula. Success rates were calculated for each attempt at fistula repair until the patient was cured. Results The median (range) age at primary fistula repair was 40 (18-169) months and the median follow-up after the most recent repair 7.5 (2.3-17) years. The overall success rate of primary fistula repair was 71%. Fistulae which were >2 mm (11 of 21, 52%) were more likely to recur than were those < or = 2 mm (22 of 92, 24%). Recurrence did not relate to the initial form of hypospadias repair, to the means of skin closure nor, with the exception of multiple lesions, to the location of the fistula. The success rates of subsequent repairs were 70% at the second and 50% at the third, fourth and fifth repairs. One child was cured at the sixth attempt. The use of tunica vaginalis or scrotal dartos as a 'waterproofing' layer was limited to the third or subsequent repairs and was successful in five of six cases. Conclusion A simple layered closure with or with no transpositional skin flap is effective in 71% of repairs. For recurrent fistulae, tissues from an unscarred area (tunica vaginalis or scrotal dartos layer) should be used to cover the fistula. PMID:11849173

  6. Soils of the southwestern part of the Dzhulukul Depression in the Altai Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopp, N. V.

    2015-06-01

    Soils of the southwestern part of the Dzhulukul Depression in Ulagan district of the Altai Republic have been studied. They belong to two soil divisions: Al-Fe-humus soils (with various types of podburs) and iron-metamorphic soils (rzhavozems). The soils within the eluvial part of the studied catena—iron-illuvial soddy podburs—are developed from the residuum of magmatic and metamorphic rocks with high (up to 80 vol %) content of gravels and coarse rock fragments. Their high porosity favors downward migration and precipitation of humus-iron compounds on the surface of gravels and mineral grains in the illuvial horizon. The soils of the accumulative part of the catena—permafrost-affected raw-humus pod-burs and gleyic podburs)—are developed from moraine deposits of loamy-sandy texture with up to 30 vol % of gravels. In these soils, the features of the Al-Fe-humus migration are weakly pronounced; the soils are underlain by the waterproof frozen horizon (permafrost), have high humus content, and have thixotropic properties in the lower horizons. Their reaction is slightly acid to neutral, and their base saturation is up to 80%. These characteristics do not meet the criteria of podburs as defined in the new Russian soil classification system. Their origin may be related to the local mixing of weathering products of different bedrock materials, including magmatic, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks during the deposition of moraine sediments. Iron-metamorphic soils (rzhavozems) are formed on convex parts of slopes from the residuum and colluvial derivatives of magmatic and metamorphic rocks (granite, metamorphic slates, red-colored sandstone, etc.). A distinctive feature of these soils is their ocherous-brown color and a considerable content of gravels in the entire profile. The chemical properties of rzhavozems resemble those of the Al-Fe-humus soils of automorphic positions: acid and slightly acid reaction, low base saturation, and a relatively high content of organic carbon in the organic and mineral horizons.

  7. A new RF package suitable for aeronautical commercial and DSCS satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Robert J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Higher levels of integration through the use of GaAs and silicon MMIC devices, a die-cast housing, and the reduction of the number of subassemblies has enabled a large reduction of the size and weight of the electronics package for commercial and military satellite communications. This paper presents an electronics architecture and hardware that utilizes many new integrated circuits and design techniques, and allows flexibility for future satellite frequency changes and expansion. Key features of the radio are extended C-band, InSat, Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS), and Ku-band coverage options; 70 (or 140) MHz transponder bandwidth or L-band block bandwidth IFs; integrated RS-232 control through local handheld terminal or remote computer; remote control of crystal reference oscillator for aging and temperature compensation; integrated 2 or 5 watt solid-state power amplifiers (SSPA); optional integrated solid-state booster amplifiers to 40 watts; optional external amplifiers to 100 watts; integral beacon tracking with second integrated downcoverter for antenna positioning; radio, including low-noise block converter (LNB) and SSPA, weighs 8.5 kg and measures 32 x 23 x 16.5 cm; environmentally ruggedized for -40 to +60 C; O-ring sealed for waterproofing; passive (convection) cooling; and simple cabling and installation, with a single cable between radio and LNB, and two cables between radio and IF interface. The small size and light weight of the radio make it ideal for mounting on stabilized antenna platforms (gyroscopic or servo). Several input power options (110 or 220 VAC; +48, +12, or -24 VDC) facilitate operation on multiple platforms.

  8. Characterization of Fast-Scan Cyclic Voltammetric Electrodes Using Paraffin as an Effective Sealant with In Vitro and In Vivo Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ramsson, Eric S.; Cholger, Daniel; Dionise, Albert; Poirier, Nicholas; Andrus, Avery; Curtiss, Randi

    2015-01-01

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is a powerful technique for measuring sub-second changes in neurotransmitter levels. A great time-limiting factor in the use of FSCV is the production of high-quality recording electrodes; common recording electrodes consist of cylindrical carbon fiber encased in borosilicate glass. When the borosilicate is heated and pulled, the molten glass ideally forms a tight seal around the carbon fiber cylinder. It is often difficult, however, to guarantee a perfect seal between the glass and carbon. Indeed, much of the time spent creating electrodes is in an effort to find a good seal. Even though epoxy resins can be useful in this regard, they are irreversible (seals are permanent), wasteful (epoxy cannot be reused once hardener is added), hazardous (hardeners are often caustic), and require curing. Herein we characterize paraffin as an electrode sealant for FSCV microelectrodes. Paraffin boasts the advantages of near-immediate curing times, simplicity in use, long shelf-life and stable waterproof seals capable of withstanding extended cycling. Borosilicate electrode tips were left intact or broken and dipped in paraffin embedding wax. Excess wax was removed from the carbon surface with xyelenes or by repeated cycling at an extended waveform (-0.4 to 1.4V, 400 V/s, 60 Hz). Then, the waveform was switched to a standard waveform (-0.4 to 1.3V, 400 V/s, 10 Hz) and cycled until stable. Wax-sealing does not inhibit electrode sensitivity, as electrodes detected linear changes in dopamine before and after wax (then xylenes) exposure. Paraffin seals are intact after 11 days of implantation in the mouse, and still capable of measuring transient changes in in vivo dopamine. From this it is clear that paraffin wax is an effective sealant for FSCV electrodes that provides a convenient substitute to epoxy sealants. PMID:26505195

  9. Rotating Balances Used for Fluid Pump Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelley, Stephen; Mulder, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center has developed and demonstrated two direct read force and moment balances for sensing and resolving the hydrodynamic loads on rotating fluid machinery. These rotating balances consist of a series of stainless steel flexures instrumented with semiconductor type, unidirectional strain gauges arranged into six bridges, then sealed and waterproofed, for use fully submerged in degassed water at rotational speeds up to six thousand revolutions per minute. The balances are used to measure the forces and moments due to the onset and presence of cavitation or other hydrodynamic phenomena on subscale replicas of rocket engine turbomachinery, principally axial pumps (inducers) designed specifically to operate in a cavitating environment. The balances are inserted into the drive assembly with power to and signal from the sensors routed through the drive shaft and out through an air-cooled twenty-channel slip ring. High frequency data - balance forces and moments as well as extensive, flush-mounted pressures around the rotating component periphery - are acquired via a high-speed analog to digital data acquisition system while the test rig conditions are varied continuously. The data acquisition and correction process is described, including the in-situ verifications that are performed to quantify and correct for known system effects such as mechanical imbalance, "added mass," buoyancy, mechanical resonance, and electrical bias. Examples of four types of cavitation oscillations for two typical inducers are described in the laboratory (pressure) and rotating (force) frames: 1) attached, symmetric cavitation, 2) rotating cavitation, 3) attached, asymmetric cavitation, and 4) cavitation surge. Rotating and asymmetric cavitation generate a corresponding unbalanced radial force on the rotating assembly while cavitation surge generates an axial force. Attached, symmetric cavitation induces no measurable force. The frequency of the forces can be determined a priori from the pressure environment while the magnitude of the hydrodynamic force is proportional to the pressure unsteadiness.

  10. Problems with telemetry monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Haslam, K R

    1978-01-01

    The purchaser of telemetry monitoring systems for operating and recovery rooms has little information available on the practical aspects of ownership and usage. To explore this problem, we recorded 76 telemetry failures (both operator and machine failure) occurring over six months among 18 telemetry channels located in operating and recovery rooms. We experienced approximately one telemetry failure every three days or every 60 surgical procedures. Factory repairs were required on 29 transmitters and 19 receivers during a two-year period. We observed that 28% of the failures were attributable to lead and electrode problems, 25% to battery depletion, 22% to mechanical or electronic component failures, 12% to inappropriate control settings and frequency mismatching, and 13% to miscellaneous difficulties. The following problems were observed. Transmitters were dropped frequently and occasionally immersed in liquids. Thus, waterproofing is recommended for OR use, and lead-failure warning circuitry is mandatory. Inappropriate control settings and frequency mismatching led to a previously unrecognized hazard: that is, it is possible to receive and display ECG data from the wrong patient located in a distant room. (Stethoscopic monitoring can be used to confirm that the data being displayed are from the correct patient.) Battery failure can occur at inopportune times, e.g., during cardiac arrest. Transmitters are frequently "lost" because of their small size and high mobility. This study indicated to us that, in the operating room, telemetry is not desirable because of its high cost compared to hard wired systems, poor reliability, and the possible hazard of displaying data from the wrong patient if improperly used. PMID:10239827

  11. Histological and MS spectrometric analyses of the modified tissue of bulgy form tadpoles induced by salamander predation

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Tsukasa; Kitani, Yoichiro; Ogihara, Jun; Sugiyama, Manabu; Yamamoto, Goshi; Kishida, Osamu; Nishimura, Kinya

    2012-01-01

    Summary The rapid induction of a defensive morphology by a prey species in face of a predation risk is an intriguing in ecological context; however, the physiological mechanisms that underlie this phenotypic plasticity remain uncertain. Here we investigated the phenotypic changes shown by Rana pirica tadpoles in response to a predation threat by larvae of the salamander Hynobius retardatus. One such response is the bulgy morph phenotype, a relatively rapid swelling in size by the tadpoles that begins within 4 days and reaches a maximum at 8 to 10 days. We found that although the total volume of bodily fluid increased significantly (P<0.01) in bulgy morph tadpoles, osmotic pressure was maintained at the same level as control tadpoles by a significant increase (P<0.01) in Na and Cl ion concentrations. In our previous report, we identified a novel frog gene named pirica that affects the waterproofing of the skin membrane in tadpoles. Our results support the hypothesis that predator-induced expression of pirica on the skin membrane causes retention of absorbed water. Midline sections of bulgy morph tadpoles showed the presence of swollen connective tissue beneath the skin that was sparsely composed of cells containing hyaluronic acid. Mass spectrographic (LC-MS/MS) analysis identified histone H3 and 14-3-3 zeta as the most abundant constituents in the liquid aspirated from the connective tissue of bulgy tadpoles. Immunohistochemistry using antibodies against these proteins showed the presence of non-chromatin associated histone H3 in the swollen connective tissue. Histones and 14-3-3 proteins are also involved in antimicrobial activity and secretion of antibacterial proteins, respectively. Bulgy tadpoles have a larger surface area than controls, and their skin often has bite wounds inflicted by the larval salamanders. Thus, formation of the bulgy morph may also require and be supported by activation of innate immune systems. PMID:23213421

  12. Short-term survival and effects of transmitter implantation into western grebes using a modified surgical procedure.

    PubMed

    Gaydos, Joseph K; Massey, J Gregory; Mulcahy, Daniel M; Gaskins, Lori A; Nysewander, David; Evenson, Joseph; Siegel, Paul B; Ziccardi, Michael H

    2011-09-01

    Two pilot trials and one study in a closely related grebe species suggest that Western grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis) will not tolerate intracoelomic transmitter implantation with percutaneous antennae and often die within days of surgery. Wild Western grebes (n = 21) were captured to evaluate a modified surgical technique. Seven birds were surgically implanted with intracoelomic transmitters with percutaneous antennae by using the modified technique (transmitter group), 7 received the same surgery without transmitter implantation (celiotomy group), and 7 served as controls (only undergoing anesthesia). Modifications included laterally offsetting the body wall incision from the skin incision, application of absorbable cyanoacrylate tissue glue to the subcutaneous space between the body wall and skin incisions, application of a waterproof sealant to the skin incision after suture closure, and application of a piece of porcine small intestine submucosa to the antenna egress. Survival did not differ among the 3 groups with 7 of 7 control, 6 of 7 celiotomy, and 6 of 7 transmitter birds surviving the 9-day study. Experimental birds were euthanized at the end of the study, and postmortem findings indicated normal healing. Significant differences in plasma chemistry or immune function were not detected among the 3 groups, and only minor differences were detected in red blood cell indices and plasma proteins. After surgery, the birds in the transmitter group spent more time preening tail feathers than those in the control and celiotomy groups. These results demonstrate that, in a captive situation, celiotomy and intracoelomic transmitter implantation caused minimal detectable homeostatic disturbance in this species and that Western grebes can survive implantation of intracoelomic transmitters with percutaneous antennae. It remains to be determined what potential this modified surgical procedure has to improve postoperative survival of Western grebes that are intracelomically implanted with transmitters with percutaneous antennae and released into the wild. PMID:22950313

  13. Genome investigation suggests MdSHN3, an APETALA2-domain transcription factor gene, to be a positive regulator of apple fruit cuticle formation and an inhibitor of russet development

    PubMed Central

    Lashbrooke, Justin; Aharoni, Asaph; Costa, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The outer epidermal layer of apple fruit is covered by a protective cuticle. Composed of a polymerized cutin matrix embedded with waxes, the cuticle is a natural waterproof barrier and protects against several abiotic and biotic stresses. In terms of apple production, the cuticle is essential to maintain long post-harvest storage, while severe failure of the cuticle can result in the formation of a disorder known as russet. Apple russet results from micro-cracking of the cuticle and the formation of a corky suberized layer. This is typically an undesirable consumer trait, and negatively impacts the post-harvest storage of apples. In order to identify genetic factors controlling cuticle biosynthesis (and thus preventing russet) in apple, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping survey was performed on a full-sib population. Two genomic regions located on chromosomes 2 and 15 that could be associated with russeting were identified. Apples with compromised cuticles were identified through a novel and high-throughput tensile analysis of the skin, while histological analysis confirmed cuticle failure in a subset of the progeny. Additional genomic investigation of the determined QTL regions identified a set of underlying genes involved in cuticle biosynthesis. Candidate gene expression profiling by quantitative real-time PCR on a subset of the progeny highlighted the specific expression pattern of a SHN1/WIN1 transcription factor gene (termed MdSHN3) on chromosome 15. Orthologues of SHN1/WIN1 have been previously shown to regulate cuticle formation in Arabidopsis, tomato, and barley. The MdSHN3 transcription factor gene displayed extremely low expression in lines with improper cuticle formation, suggesting it to be a fundamental regulator of cuticle biosynthesis in apple fruit. PMID:26220084

  14. An Endosperm-Associated Cuticle Is Required for Arabidopsis Seed Viability, Dormancy and Early Control of Germination.

    PubMed

    De Giorgi, Julien; Piskurewicz, Urszula; Loubery, Sylvain; Utz-Pugin, Anne; Bailly, Christophe; Mène-Saffrané, Laurent; Lopez-Molina, Luis

    2015-12-01

    Cuticular layers and seeds are prominent plant adaptations to terrestrial life that appeared early and late during plant evolution, respectively. The cuticle is a waterproof film covering plant aerial organs preventing excessive water loss and protecting against biotic and abiotic stresses. Cutin, consisting of crosslinked fatty acid monomers, is the most abundant and studied cuticular component. Seeds are dry, metabolically inert structures promoting plant dispersal by keeping the plant embryo in an arrested protected state. In Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, the embryo is surrounded by a single cell endosperm layer itself surrounded by a seed coat layer, the testa. Whole genome analyses lead us to identify cutin biosynthesis genes as regulatory targets of the phytohormones gibberellins (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathways that control seed germination. Cutin-containing layers are present in seed coats of numerous species, including Arabidopsis, where they regulate permeability to outer compounds. However, the role of cutin in mature seed physiology and germination remains poorly understood. Here we identify in mature seeds a thick cuticular film covering the entire outer surface of the endosperm. This seed cuticle is defective in cutin-deficient bodyguard1 seeds, which is associated with alterations in endospermic permeability. Furthermore, mutants affected in cutin biosynthesis display low seed dormancy and viability levels, which correlates with higher levels of seed lipid oxidative stress. Upon seed imbibition cutin biosynthesis genes are essential to prevent endosperm cellular expansion and testa rupture in response to low GA synthesis. Taken together, our findings suggest that in the course of land plant evolution cuticular structures were co-opted to achieve key physiological seed properties. PMID:26681322

  15. "Smart pebble" design for environmental monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Pavlovskis, Edgars

    2014-05-01

    Sediment transport, due to primarily the action of water, wind and ice, is one of the most significant geomorphic processes responsible for shaping Earth's surface. It involves entrainment of sediment grains in rivers and estuaries due to the violently fluctuating hydrodynamic forces near the bed. Here an instrumented particle, namely a "smart pebble", is developed to investigate the exact flow conditions under which individual grains may be entrained from the surface of a gravel bed. This could lead in developing a better understanding of the processes involved, while focusing on the response of the particle during a variety of flow entrainment events. The "smart pebble" is a particle instrumented with MEMS sensors appropriate for capturing the hydrodynamic forces a coarse particle might experience during its entrainment from the river bed. A 3-axial gyroscope and accelerometer registers data to a memory card via a microcontroller, embedded in a 3D-printed waterproof hollow spherical particle. The instrumented board is appropriately fit and centred into the shell of the pebble, so as to achieve a nearly uniform distribution of the mass which could otherwise bias its motion. The "smart pebble" is powered by an independent power to ensure autonomy and sufficiently long periods of operation appropriate for deployment in the field. Post-processing and analysis of the acquired data is currently performed offline, using scientific programming software. The performance of the instrumented particle is validated, conducting a series of calibration experiments under well-controlled laboratory conditions. "Smart pebble" allows for a wider range of environmental sensors (e.g. for environmental/pollutant monitoring) to be incorporated so as to extend the range of its application, enabling accurate environmental monitoring which is required to ensure infrastructure resilience and preservation of ecological health.

  16. Water conservation features of ova of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Rigsby, Chad M; Cipollini, Don; Amstutz, Evan M; Smith, Terrance J; Yoder, Jay A

    2013-04-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, has destroyed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America since first identified in Detroit in 2002. With species of ash distributed throughout North America, it is easy to speculate the extinction of all susceptible species of ash on the continent given a lack of physical, environmental, or climactic barrier for dispersal of the insect. We investigated water balance characteristics of emerald ash borer ova by using gravimetric methods in an effort to measure their response to heat- and water-stress and explore possible influences this stress may have on the ecology and physiology of the ovum. We also explored the possible water balance benefit of a peculiar, "clustering," oviposition behavior, as well as the difference in responses to stress between ova from a laboratory colony and ova from two wild populations. We found no evidence of water vapor absorption as a water balance strategy; rather enhanced water retention, resistance to desiccation, and viability with low water content were important survival strategies for these ova. Surface lipids resist thermal breakdown as indicated by ova having no detectable critical transition temperature, maintaining their water-proofing function as temperature rises. The observed "clustering" behavior had no desiccation-avoidance benefit and ova from the wild populations behaved almost identically to the ova from the lab colony, although the lab ova were slightly larger and more sensitive to dehydration. Given this new information, there appears to be no heat- or water-stress barriers for the dispersal of this devastating pest at the ovum stage. PMID:23575027

  17. DUCKS: A continuous thermal presence on the rim of Pu'u 'O'o

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, A. J.; Pirie, D. J.; Horton, K.; Flynn, L. P.; Garbeil, H.; Johnson, J. B.; Ramm, H.; Pilger, E.

    2002-12-01

    For the past 2 years we have been monitoring the persistent activity at the Pu'u 'O'o crater (Kilauea, Hawaii) with a permanent system of infrared thermometers. Our intent has been to implement a cheap, robust, modular real-time thermal system capable of surviving the harshest of conditions. The system cost \\10,000 to construct and consists of three modules: field-based sensors, a repeater station and a reception site. The field-based component consists of three thermal infrared thermometers, housed in pelican cases with selenium-germanium-arsenic windows. Two 1 degree field of view (FOV) instruments allow specific but small areas to be monitored, and a 60 degree FOV provides an overview for all crater floor activity. A hard wire connection extends 25 m to a pelican-case-housed microprocessor, modem, and power module. From here, data are transmitted using Yagi antennas, via the repeater site, to a dedicated PC in the lobby of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. Here, the three channels of data are displayed on-screen, with a delay of ~3 seconds between data acquisition and display. Data are also used to automatically update web-based plots for general access. Aside from some minor glitches, such has sensor damage during probable tampering and unresolved data stream failures, the system has been in continuous operation since March 2001. In this regard, careful waterproofing of connectors, cables and protective cases has kept out the extremely wet and acidic atmosphere encountered at the crater edge. We have also constructed self-contained versions with internal loggers for \\1500/unit. These have been deployed in a temporary fashion at Stromboli, Masaya and Erta Ale. Together these instruments have proved capable of detecting thermal signals associated with (1) gas puffing and jetting, (2) spattering, (3) lava effusion, (4) crater floor collapse, (5) vent blockage-and-clearing, and (6) lava lake overturn.

  18. Irradiated lanoline as a prospective substance for biomedical applications: A spectroscopic and thermal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanzlikova, Zuzana; Hybler, Peter; Fülop, Marko; Ondruska, Jan; Jomova, Klaudia; Porubska, Maria; Valko, Marian

    2015-08-01

    Refined wool wax products, such as lanoline and lanoline derivatives are key ingredients in some of the ointments, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, waterproof coatings and other products. Beneficial medicinal effects along with melting point near normal human body temperature designated lanoline to be used in pharmacotherapy and medical treatments. Since the general requirements for sterility of medicinal substances are very strict, especially in cases of skin contact, radiation technologies represent a valuable tool to sterilize the materials for medicinal purposes. In this work, lanoline was irradiated with accelerated electron beam in air within 0-400 kG dose to simulate sterilization for medical purposes. The irradiated lanoline showed considerable fluctuation of chemical structure. The most significant fluctuation was observed for etheric species, followed by ethylene sequences with n<4. While primary and secondary alcohols, as well as epoxides species, decreased below the initial concentration within whole range of the doses, aliphatic esters and ethylene sequences (CH2)n with n?4 indicated the most stable species. A trace amount of organic-in origin radicals was observed and that increased slightly with dose. Depending on dose, the melting temperature varied from 39.7 to 45.7 °C and the highest values were reached for 25 kGy and 156 kGy. For these same doses the highest thermal stability was also observed and, simultaneously the thermal stability was related inversely to the destruction rate. We propose, that the chemical transformation of lanoline within 0-25 kGy dose should be tested for prospective medical purposes as well as for the need to eliminate remaining outlasting organic-in-origin radicals which were detected in the lanoline even one year after the irradiation.

  19. Applications of Spectroscopy to Studying Atmospheric Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, W. R.; Apodaca, R.; Carlson, D. A.

    2007-12-01

    Spectroscopic techniques are finding increased applications in studies of atmospheric chemistry because of inherent advantages in the techniques and technological improvements in optical and computer components. There are many advantages of using spectroscopy for study of chemistry. Spectroscopy is absolutely calibrated and thus requires only validation, reducing the need for consumable standards and reducing size and weight. Generally, spectroscopic instruments can be built from inexpensive solid-state components with few or no moving parts, improving long-term reliability. Huge advances in optoelectronic components, such as availability of diode lasers, cheap imaging detectors, light emitting diodes, have widened the breadth of applications and reduced costs. In this presentation, we discuss two recent applications of atmospheric spectroscopy that exploit these advantages. In the first application, our group has used off-axis Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (oaCRDS) to make a small and inexpensive detector for nitrate radicals (NO3) and dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5), which are atmospherically important nitrogen oxides the dominate reactivity during nighttime. This instrument fits in a small waterproof case that is (98cm x 40cm x 15cm), weighs less than 25kg, and uses an inexpensive diode laser. The instrument was recently incompared to a number of other techniques for measuring these gases and showed excellent performance. In a second application, we have used multiple-axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAXDOAS) to measure halogen oxides and other UV-absorbing gases at remote locations. This instrument will be a part of an autonomous chemical-measuring buoy that will be deployed on the Arctic Ice. The instrument will make measurements and telemeter the data back via an iridium satellite modem. Our MAXDOAS instrument is very small, inexpensive, and uses only 2 watts of power, allowing long life when operating on batteries. Many features were built into the instrument to ensure long-term reliability without physical access the the instrument.

  20. Development of testing and training simulator for CEDMCS in KSNP

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, C. H.; Park, C. Y.; Nam, J. I.; Yook, S. K.; Cho, C. I.

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a newly developed testing and training simulator (TTS) for automatically diagnosing and tuning the Control Element Drive Mechanism Control System (CEDMCS). TTS includes a new automatic, diagnostic, method for logic control cards and a new tuning method for phase synchronous pulse cards. In Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plants (KSNP). reactor trips occasionally occur due to a damaged logic control card in CEDMCS. However, there is no pre-diagnostic tester available to detect a damaged card in CEDMCS before it causes a reactor trip. Even after the reactor trip occurs, it is difficult to find the damaged card. To find the damaged card. ICT is usually used. ICT is an automated, computer-controlled testing system with measurement capabilities for testing active and passive components, or clusters of components, on printed circuit boards (PCB) and/or assemblies. However, ICT cannot detect a time dependent fault correctly and requires removal of the waterproof mating to perform the test. Therefore, the additional procedure of re-coating the PCB card is required after the test. TTS for CEDMCS is designed based on real plant conditions, both electrically and mechanically. Therefore, the operator can operate the Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM), which is mounted on the closure head of the reactor vessel (RV) using the soft control panel in ITS, which duplicates the Main Control Board (MCB) in the Main Control Room (MCR). However, during the generation of electric power in a nuclear power plant, it is difficult to operate the CEDM so a CEDM and Control Element Assembly (CEA) mock-up facility was developed to simulate a real plant CEDM. ITS was used for diagnosing and tuning control logic cards in CEDMCS in the Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant No. 4 during the plant overhaul period. It exhibited good performance in detecting the damaged cards and tuning the phase synchronous pulse cards. In addition, TTS was useful in training the CEDMCS operator by supplying detail signal information from the logic cards. (authors)