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1

Nano Waterproofing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson focuses on how nanotechnology has impacted the design and engineering of many everyday items from paint to fabrics. Learners explore the hydrophobic effect and how similar properties can be introduced by reengineering products at the nano level. Learners work in teams to develop a waterproof material and compare their results with nano waterproof materials developed recently by engineers and scientists.

Ieee

2013-07-30

2

Making periclase cement waterproof  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions Waterproofing of pure periclase cement with 1.5% petroleum resin is due to its lower capillary and sorption water absorption; the treatment also prevents caking. The activity of periclase cement that has been waterproofed with petroleum resin remains practically unaltered during storage.

L. B. Khoroshavin; T. A. Drozdova; P. N. D'yachov

1967-01-01

3

Method for Waterproofing Ceramic Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hygroscopic ceramic materials which are difficult to waterproof with a silane, substituted silane or silazane waterproofing agent, such as an alumina containing fibrous, flexible and porous, fibrous ceramic insulation used on a reentry space vehicle, are rendered easy to waterproof if the interior porous surface of the ceramic is first coated with a thin coating of silica. The silica coating is achieved by coating the interior surface of the ceramic with a silica precursor converting the precursor to silica either in-situ or by oxidative pyrolysis and then applying the waterproofing agent to the silica coated ceramic. The silica precursor comprises almost any suitable silicon containing material such as a silane, silicone, siloxane, silazane and the like applied by solution, vapor deposition and the like. If the waterproofing is removed by e.g., burning, the silica remains and the ceramic is easily rewaterproofed. An alumina containing TABI insulation which absorbs more that five times its weight of water, absorbs less than 10 wt. % water after being waterproofed according to the method of the invention.

Cagliostro, Domenick E. (Inventor); Hsu, Ming-Ta S. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

4

TryEngineering: Nano Waterproofing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson plan that explores how nanotechnology has impacted the design and engineering of many everyday items, from paint to fabrics. Students learn about the hydrophobic effect (the tendency of a substance to repel water). In this lesson for Grades 6-10, students learn about nanotechnology and its application in creating waterproof surfaces. They will then work in teams to develop a waterproof material and compare their results with nano waterproof materials developed recently by engineers and scientists. The driving question of the lesson: How are products re-engineered at the nano level to develop desired properties? The lesson includes objectives and learner outcomes, problem sets, student guides, recommended reading, illustrated procedures, worksheets, and background information. Editor's Note: The humble lotus leaf is one of nature's most water-repellant surfaces. That's because its surface sculpture has a very high static contact angle with water droplets. It features randomly oriented tiny wax tubules on top of convex-shaped cells. See Related Materials for links to an article from Scientific American describing how the lotus leaf has inspired the production of waterproofing materials, and for a link to a helpful scholarly article on Sculptured Biological Surfaces with Anti-Adhesive Properties. This collection is part of TryEngineering.org, a website maintained by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

5

Aerogel Composites: Strong and Waterproof  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerogels are exotic materials having superior thermal and physical properties with great potential for both space and industrial uses. Although aerogels are excellent low-density insulators with unique acoustic and optical properties, their commercialization potential is currently limited by moisture absorption, fragility, and cost. This paper describes useful, easily scaled-up solutions to the first two of these three problems. The waterproofing and water-repellent method described here is a cheaper and simpler improvement over previous permanent methods.

White, Susan; Hsu, Ming-ta; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

6

Waterproofing Nanostructured Aerogel-Ceramic Fiber Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerogels are nanoporous materials which can be used to enhance the transport properties of ceramic fiber materials, to exploit their unique properties such as high porosity, large surface area, low density and low thermal conductivity. Numerous applications have been investigated. major obstacle to commercialization is that the structure of aerogels collapses due to the adsorption of water. simple and relatively cheap process has been developed to waterproof silica, alumina and alumina-silica and carbon aerogels and composites incorporating them. Previous waterproofing methods are short lived or expensive and time consuming.

White, Susan; Hsu, Ming Ta; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

7

Waterproof Breathable Polymeric Coatings Based on Polyurethanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of environmentally friendly water-based polyurethane dispersions (PUD) for waterproof breathable coating was studied. The effect of the nature of PUD, number of coatings, incorporation of additives, and processing conditions on the breathable properties of cotton fabric was evaluated. The relative proportions of hydrophilic and hydrophobic components had a direct influence on the breathable properties of the coated cotton

Manjeet Jassal; Amit Khungar; Pushpa Bajaj; T. J. M. Sinha

2004-01-01

8

49 CFR 192.189 - Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing. 192.189 Section 192.189 Transportation...STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.189 Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing. (a) Each vault must be designed...

2012-10-01

9

49 CFR 192.189 - Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing. 192.189 Section 192.189 Transportation...STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.189 Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing. (a) Each vault must be designed...

2013-10-01

10

49 CFR 192.189 - Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing. 192.189 Section 192.189 Transportation...STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.189 Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing. (a) Each vault must be designed...

2011-10-01

11

49 CFR 192.189 - Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing. 192.189 Section 192.189 Transportation...STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.189 Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing. (a) Each vault must be designed...

2010-10-01

12

MODERN COMPOSITE SPRAYED CONCRETE WATERPROOF TUNNEL LININGS USING SPRAY APPLIED WATERPROOFING MEMBRANE; DESIGN, SYSTEM LAYOUT, TECHNICAL PROPERTIES AND RECENT EXPERIENCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an innovative system for providing ground support and waterproofing for underground structures. The system consists of a composite single-shell structure based on fibre reinforced sprayed concrete with an integrated sprayable waterproofing membrane. The membrane is embedded in a sandwich structure with significant tensile and bonding strengths on both sides, hence giving the system a mechanically continuous character

Karl Gunnar Holter

13

Condensation in three-layer waterproof breathable fabrics for clothing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the behaviour of condensation in three-layer waterproof breathable fabrics for clothing. An attempt has been made to consider water vapour transfer when condensation occurs within the three-layer waterproof breathable fabrics based on the simultaneous heat and mass transfer theory developed by Motakef and El-Maher and diffusion and condensation theory developed by Wijeysundera et al. According to the

Y. J. Ren; J. E. Ruckman

2004-01-01

14

TryEngineering: Waterproof that Roof!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson plan on surface engineering, developed to help teachers integrate engineering practices in the secondary classroom. Students learn about nanotechnology and its application in developing hydrophobic surfaces. (Hydrophobicity is a physical property, and is defined as the tendency of a molecule to repel water.) Students work in teams to to design a roof from simple materials that will keep the contents of a box dry during a water test. The driving question of the lesson: How do civil engineers apply principles of nanotechnology to develop waterproof roofs? This resource includes objectives and learner outcomes, problem sets, student guides, recommended reading, illustrated procedures, worksheets, and background information. This collection is part of TryEngineering.org, a website maintained by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Editor's Note: Hydrophobic molecules tend to be non-polar, whereas H2O is a polar molecule. Examples of hydophobic molecules include oils and fats. But as the size of objects is reduced to the nanoscale, the effects of surface properties become even more pronounced. To extend this lesson, see Related Materials for an article by the Nanoterra Group that provides information on newer applications of nanotechnology in surface design.

15

Possible Concepts for Waterproofing of Norwegian TBM Railway Tunnels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to evaluate and compare the durability, life expectancy and maintenance needs of traditional Norwegian waterproofing concepts to the generally more rigid waterproofing concepts seen in other European countries. The focus will be on solutions for future Norwegian tunnel boring machine railway tunnels. Experiences from operation of newer and older tunnels with different waterproofing concepts have been gathered and analyzed. In the light of functional requirements for Norwegian rail tunnels, some preliminary conclusions about suitable concepts are drawn. Norwegian concepts such as polyethylene panels and lightweight concrete segments with membrane are ruled out. European concepts involving double shell draining systems (inner shell of cast concrete with membrane) and single shell undrained systems (waterproof concrete segments) are generally evaluated as favorable. Sprayable membranes and waterproof/insulating shotcrete are welcomed innovations, but more research is needed to verify their reliability and cost effectiveness compared to the typical European concepts. Increasing traffic and reliance on public transport systems in Norway result in high demand for durable and cost effective solutions.

Dammyr, Øyvind; Nilsen, Bjørn; Thuro, Kurosch; Grøndal, Jørn

2014-05-01

16

Waterproof versus cotton cast liners: a randomized, prospective comparison.  

PubMed

Casting injured extremities can cause complications (eg, itching, odor, rashes, skin maceration), many of which are associated with the inability to wash the extremity because of water retention and slow drying of conventional cast liners. A waterproof cast liner allows casts to become wet and perhaps improves hygiene and comfort. Fifty-nine patients (age, > or = 10 years) with upper or lower extremity injuries were randomized to a waterproof-liner group (n = 29) or a cotton-liner group (n = 30). Both groups had casts made of fiberglass tape. At each clinic visit, patients and physicians completed questionnaires evaluating comfort and skin condition, respectively. The waterproof-liner group had better scores for itch (P = .008), discomfort (P < .001), irritation (P = .002), overall patient score (P = .012), and overall physician score (P = .049). PMID:16610379

Haley, Chad A; DeJong, E Schuyler; Ward, John A; Kragh, John F

2006-03-01

17

Waterproof Silicone Coatings of Thermal Insulation and Vaporization Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal insulation composed of porous ceramic material can be waterproofed by producing a thin silicone film on the surface of the insulation by exposing it to volatile silicone precursors at ambient conditions. When the silicone precursor reactants are multi-functional siloxanes or silanes containing alkenes or alkynes carbon groups higher molecular weight films can be produced. Catalyst are usually required for the silicone precursors to react at room temperature to form the films. The catalyst are particularly useful in the single component system e.g. dimethylethoxysilane (DNMS) to accelerate the reaction and decrease the time to waterproof and protect the insulation. In comparison to other methods, the chemical vapor technique assures better control over the quantity and location of the film being deposited on the ceramic insulation to improve the waterproof coating.

Cagliostro, Domenick E. (Inventor)

1999-01-01

18

PVC waterproofing membranes and alkali-aggregated reaction in dams  

SciTech Connect

A waterproofing polyvinylchloride (PVC) based geocomposite was installed on two dams subject to alkali-aggregate reaction, to eliminate water intrusion and to protect the facing from further deterioration. The installation system allows drainage of the infiltrated water, thus accomplishing dehydration of the dam body. On one dam, the membrane also provided protection for future slot cutting.

Scuero, A.M. [C.A.R.P.I. Technologies SA, Lugano (Czech Republic)

1995-12-31

19

New Approaches to Waterproofing of Space Shuttle Insulating Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future reusable space vehicles will be in service much more frequently than current space shuttles. Therefore, rapid reconditioning of spacecraft will be required. Currently, the waterproofing of space shuttles after each re-entry takes 72 hours and requires substantial labor. In addition, the currently used waterproofing reagent, DiMethylEthoxySilane (DMES), is considered toxic, and ethanol fumes are released during its hydrolytic activation. Consequently, a long time period, which is not acceptable for future operations, is needed to ensure that 0 the excess volatile compounds are removed before further maintenance of the space vehicle can be performed. The objective of this project was to assist NASA Ames in finding improved waterproofing systems by identifying suitable waterproofing agents that can be applied by vapor phase deposition and will be less toxic, bond more rapidly to the insulation material surface, and potentially have higher thermal stability than the DMES system. Several approaches to achieve faster waterproofing with less toxicity were assessed using the following alternatives: Reactive volatile compounds that are rapidly deposited by chemical bonding at the surface and leave no toxic volatiles. Reactive reagents that are the least toxic. Nonvolatile reagents that are very reactive and bond strongly to the insulating material surface. Three specific types of potential reagents were chosen for evaluation in this project: 1. Volatile reagents with Si-Cl functional groups for vapor deposition 2. Volatile reagents with Si-H functional groups for vapor deposition 3. Nonvolatile oligomeric or polymeric reactive siloxanes that are assumed to have higher thermal stability and/or strong bonding to the insulating material. The chemistry involved in the project was targeted at the generation of intermediates having reactive Si-OH bonds for the formation of either volatile species or polymeric species that bond rapidly to the surface and also cure rapidly. We focused on two chemical reactions@-hydrolysis of Si-Cl bonds and catalytic dehydrocoupling of Si-H bonds.

Blum, Yigal D.; Johnson, Sylvia M.; Chen, Paul

1997-01-01

20

Development of Techniques for Separating Waterproof Layer from XLPE Cable Sheath by Hot Water Heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waterproof layer is used to prevent penetration of water which is one of the factors of dielectric breakdown in XLPE cables more than 66kV class. A XLPE cable sheath with waterproof layer is done landfill disposal as industrial waste because separation of waterproof layer is difficult for technology and cost. However, around 20 years passes after waterproof layer was introduced, and social consciousness for environment changes during these 20 years, and responsibility of company for environment of a society grows bigger. We report the result that examined techniques for separating waterproof layer.

Okazaki, Masato; Nakade, Masahiko; Okashita, Minoru; Tanimoto, Mihoko

21

Bored By Non-Glowing Skin? Ultra-Flexible, Waterproof LED Implants Are What You Seek  

E-print Network

Bored By Non-Glowing Skin? Ultra-Flexible, Waterproof LED Implants Are What You Seek By Alasdair LEDs Pliable: Photo courtesy of iO9 Page 1 of 4Bored By Non-Glowing Skin? Ultra-Flexible, Waterproof your spine for the sexy Cylon look!) Take your boring old household pets and stick some LEDs in them

Rogers, John A.

22

Designing waterproof breathable materials based on electrospun nanofibers and assessing the performance characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop waterproof breathable materials for diverse consumer applications, we used electrospinning to fabricate layered\\u000a fabric systems with varying composite structures. Specifically, we developed layered fabric structures based on electrospun\\u000a nanofiber webs with different levels of nanofiber web density, as well as different substrates and layer structures, and then\\u000a examined the breathability and waterproofness of the material. The breathability and

Boram Yoon; Seungsin Lee

2011-01-01

23

AMER. ZOOL., 38:471-482 (1998) Water-Proofing Properties of Cuticular Lipids1  

E-print Network

of cuticular lipids appear to depend largely on their physical properties. In most arthropods, rates of waterAMER. ZOOL., 38:471-482 (1998) Water-Proofing Properties of Cuticular Lipids1 ALLEN G. GIBBS2 upon their physical properties, which depend in turn upon their 1 From the Symposium Responses

Ahmad, Sajjad

24

Transient altitude-induced compartment syndrome associated with fiberglass casts using waterproof cast padding.  

PubMed

Changes in aircraft cabin pressure and its interplay with a fixed diameter fiberglass cylindrical cast and the closed air cells in waterproof cast padding may cause a transient altitude-induced compartment syndrome. In this case series, 2 patients reported transient compartment syndromes that resolved with aircraft decent. As proof of concept, this work displays photographic and video evidence showing the difference in air cell volume from experimental data in a vacuum chamber as well as real-world volume changes at cruise altitude in a commercial airliner. Transient altitude-induced compartment syndromes associated with fiberglass casts using waterproof cast padding are real and surgeons and patients should be advised of this potentially devastating complication. PMID:23431541

Kadzielski, John; Bae, Donald S

2013-01-01

25

Application of electrospun polyurethane web to breathable water-proof fabrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrospun web may possibly be widely applied to protective garments or specialty textiles due to its high level of protection\\u000a as well as comfort. Of particular interest in this study is to develop waterproof-breathable fabric by applying electrospun\\u000a web of polyurethane directly onto the substrate fabric. The optimal electrospinning condition was examined with regards to\\u000a the concentration, applied voltage and

Yun Kyung Kang; Chung Hee Park; Jooyoun Kim; Tae Jin Kang

2007-01-01

26

Radon diffusion coefficients in 360 waterproof materials of different chemical composition.  

PubMed

This paper summarises the results of radon diffusion coefficient measurements in 360 common waterproof materials available throughout Europe. The materials were grouped into 26 categories according to their chemical composition. It was found that the diffusion coefficients of materials used for protecting houses against radon vary within eight orders from 10(-15) to 10(-8) m(2) s(-1). The lowest values were obtained for bitumen membranes with an Al carrier film and for ethylene vinyl acetate membranes. The highest radon diffusion coefficient values were discovered for sodium bentonite membranes, rubber membranes made of ethylene propylene diene monomer and polymer cement coatings. The radon diffusion coefficients for waterproofings widely used for protecting houses, i.e. flexible polyvinyl chloride, high-, low-density polyethylene, polypropylene and bitumen membranes, vary in the range from 3 × 10(-12) to 3 × 10(-11) m(2) s(-1). Tests were performed which confirmed that the radon diffusion coefficient is also an effective tool for verifying the air-tightness of joints. PMID:21450700

Jiránek, M; Kotrbatá, M

2011-05-01

27

Does long term exposure to radon gas influence the properties of polymeric waterproof materials?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technical state of buildings and the quality of the indoor environment depend on the quality of the waterproofing course and on the properties of the insulating materials that are applied, in particular on their durability, long-term functional reliability and resistance to corrosive effects of the subsoil. Underground water chemistry and soil bacteria are well-known corrosive agents. Our investigations indicate that the ageing process of waterproof materials can be significantly accelerated by alpha particles emitted by radon and radon progenies which are present in soil gas. Materials commonly available on the building market, e.g. LDPE and HDPE of various densities, PVC, TPO (thermoplastic polyolefin), PP (polypropylene) and EPDM were selected for our experimental study. The preliminary results for 3-year exposure to radon gas show a decrease in tensile strength to 60%, elongation to 80% and hardness to 95% for samples based on PE. The diffusion coefficient of radon for samples based on PVC decreased to 20% of the initial value after 1-year exposure to radon and soil bacteria.

Navratilova Rovenska, Katerina; Jiranek, Martin; Kokes, Pavel; Wasserbauer, Richard; Kacmarikova, Veronika

2014-01-01

28

FTIR Study of Vapor Offgassing from Orbiter Tile Re-Waterproofing Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work presented in this paper was performed to identify and quantify the offgassing behavior of alternative re-waterproofmg materials under investigation for application to Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System (TPS) tile and blanket materials. The purpose was to determine whether the new materials would cause a problem with the operational analysis of residual vapors using the current portable vapor analyzer, a Miran 203. The materials investigated were limited to dimethylethoxysilane (DMES) and proposed solvent selected as suitable for use in re-waterproofing Orbiter TPS. The solvent was selected in another phase of the overall project. Obiter TPS tiles were injected with the re-waterproofing materials under constant conditions of temperature, relative humidity and air flow. The vapor concentrations of offgassing materials were monitored using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) multi-component analysis, and with the Miran 203 instruments. The procedure was to record the time dependent concentrations of offgassing materials as analyzed by the FTIR, and the time response of the Miran 203 to the materials under consideration. The FTIR was calibrated for vapor phase DMES, tetramethyldisiloxane (TMDS), ethanol and the hydrocarbon solvents to be used to dilute the DMES for application to the TPS tile. The Miran 203 was calibrated for the operational measurement of DMES airborne vapors. The FTIR data, shows for the first time that the principal product which offgases from the tile after the first hour is not DMES, but TMDS and ethanol. The Miran 203 response to TMDS is the primary reading after the re-waterproofing operation is completed. The operational use of the Miran 203 to measure DMES vapors after re-waterproofmg operations has been responding to TMDS. The results of this study suggest that the historical complaints that have contributed to the low threshold limit value (TLV) for DMES concentrations, as read with the Miran 203, are actually based on instrumental responses to TMDS, for which no other toxicology information is available at this time. While there is some interference, the use of the tested hydrocarbon solvents does not adversely affect the response of the Miran 203.

Mattson, C. B.

1999-01-01

29

The effect on the radon diffusion coefficient of long-term exposure of waterproof membranes to various degradation agents.  

PubMed

Waterproofing, usually made of bitumen or polymers with various additives, is used to protect buildings mainly against dampness, but also against radon transported from the soil beneath the building. The radon diffusion coefficient is a material property which is considered to be strongly influenced by the inner structure (chemical composition, crystallinity) of a measured sample. We have used this parameter together with measurements of mechanical properties (hardness, tensile strength, elongation at break, etc.) and FTIR spectroscopy has been used in order to describe the changes in material properties induced by long-term degradation. This paper summarizes the results of radon diffusion coefficient measurements of waterproof materials exposed to radon, soil bacteria, high temperature and combinations of these factors. We have discovered changes as high as 83 % have been discovered compared to virgin samples. PMID:24748486

Navrátilová Rovenská, Katerina

2014-07-01

30

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy as a suitable technique in the study of the materials used in waterproofing of archaeological amphorae.  

PubMed

The resinous materials from the interior surfaces of two Roman and one Iberian amphora were studied with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results were then compared with those obtained by synchrotron radiation-FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The FTIR spectra obtained by the technique of KBr micropellets, prepared directly with the materials scraped from the amphora without any further sample preparation, provided enough information to establish their diterpenoic nature, and even to differentiate between the two main materials employed for waterproofing purposes, pitch and wood tar. Methyl dehydroabietic acid (DHAM) is the main chemical marker that allows a distinction to be made between these two materials. Pitch and wood tar were prepared in the laboratory heating pine resin and resinous pine wood, respectively. These resinous waterproofing materials were compared with the coatings extracted from the amphorae. The samples whose direct FTIR spectra showed a signal at approximately 1740 cm(-1), attributed to a carbonyl group of methyl ester, presented as well a peak of DHAM in the GC-MS chromatogram of the neutral fraction of their extract. Samples without this signal in their spectra did not present DHAM in their chromatogram. This work studies, for the first time, waterproofing of an amphora attributed to the Iberian culture. PMID:17693315

Font, J; Salvadó, N; Butí, S; Enrich, J

2007-08-13

31

COST EFFICIENT WATERPROOF TUNNEL LININGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last few years, several projects have been successfully lined by sprayed concrete with an embedded double-bonded spray-applied membrane. This composite single shell liner offers significant reduction of total project cost and construction time. Especially in drill and blast tunneling major cost savings are linked to reduced consumption of concrete materials when comparing with the traditional system with sheet membrane

Knut F Garshol

2009-01-01

32

Waterproof Camera Case for Intraoperative Photographs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate photographic documentation has become essential in reconstructive and cosmetic surgery for both clinical and scientific\\u000a purposes. Intraoperative photographs are important not only for record purposes, but also for teaching, publications, and\\u000a presentations. Communication using images proves to be the superior way to persuade audiences. This article presents a simple\\u000a and easy method for taking intraoperative photographs that uses a

Mauricio Raigosa; Jesús Benito-Ruiz; Joan Fontdevila; José R. Ballesteros

2008-01-01

33

An analysis of residential window waterproofing systems  

E-print Network

The prevalence of vinyl nail-on windows in the North American new home construction market has prompted ASTM International to write ASTM E2112-01 "Standard Practice for Installation of Exterior Windows, Doors and Skylights". ...

Parsons, Austin, 1959-

2004-01-01

34

The pore structure and waterproofing properties of colloidal cement adhesive and solutions based on it  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Vibroactivation and pregrinding of cement (especially in high-fill systems with low W\\/C ratio) enable us to create homogeneous,\\u000a finely-crystalline, finely-capillary concrete.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a The structure-forming role of quartz microfiller in adhesive appears in the growth of the specific surface of the pore capillaries\\u000a and the proportion of fine pores.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a \\u000a As more quartz is added up to the optimal

A. F. Klimanova; L. M. Dubnikov; N. B. Ur'ev; N. V. Mikhailov

1970-01-01

35

Waterproof Manado: Life must be safe and secure, not only today but also in the future!  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manado City is growing, its population is increasing. This demands the city to grow outside its borders and even into the sea by using land reclamation. Introducing new challenges or making challenges bigger, which are already present. Not only growth is present in the city, going forward and becoming better and better is an on-going fight for cities. The city

R. V. Slijk; L. W. Schadee; P. P. Knook; G. L. S. Van der Salm; P. D. Notenboom

2011-01-01

36

Retrospective Exposure Assessment for Carcinogenic Agents in Bitumen Waterproofing Industry in Finland and Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The purpose of the study was (i) to identify the carcinogenic agents that may cause confounding when studying the exposure-response relationship between bitumen fume expo- sure and cancer among roofing membrane-manufacturing workers and roofers and (ii) to as- sess exposures to the identified carcinogens and bitumen fume in roofing membrane manufacturing and roofing in Finland and Denmark from 1950

PIIA ANTTILA; PIRJO HEIKKILA; MAURI MAKELA; VIVI SCHLUNSSEN; EERO PRIHA

2009-01-01

37

Roofing: Workbook and Tests. Common Roofing and Waterproofing Materials and Equipment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook on materials and equipment is one of a series of nine individual units of instruction for roofing apprenticeship classes in California. The workbook covers eight topics: production of bitumens and asphaltic roofing materials; built-up roofing materials and adhesives; asphaltic products and rigid roofing materials; elastomeric and…

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Publications.

38

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy as a suitable technique in the study of the materials used in waterproofing of archaeological amphorae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resinous materials from the interior surfaces of two Roman and one Iberian amphora were studied with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results were then compared with those obtained by synchrotron radiation-FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS).The FTIR spectra obtained by the technique of KBr micropellets, prepared directly with the materials scraped from the amphora

N. Salvadó; S. Butí; J. Enrich

2007-01-01

39

76 FR 6614 - Notice of a Regional Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...manufactured in Surrey, British Columbia, for a hot applied membrane waterproofing system for...manufactured in Surrey, British Columbia, for a hot applied membrane waterproofing system for...is being incorporated into the reinforced hot-applied waterproofing system to...

2011-02-07

40

The PennsylvaniaStateUniversity HUB-RobesonAddition and Renovation  

E-print Network

� Waterproof Plaza Deck � Waterproof Bookstore Green Roof � Install Water Main in Food Service KitchenCurtainWall #12;� Gilbane Building Co., Inc. BookstoreRoofWaterproofing #12;� Gilbane Building Co., Inc. Concrete Units 6 and 7 � Insulate Bookstore Duct Work � Waterproof Bookstore Green Roof � Install Green Roof

41

The influence of soil consistency on the location and magnitude of induced strains in cast-in-place concrete piles subjected to lateral loads  

E-print Network

Locomotive Works, Philadelphia, Pa. 21 were found which described a method for cementing gages to a concrete surface and waterproofing the gages when the concrete surface would be subject to constant wet- ting. Waterproofing the strain gages from... cement. The cement served both as an adhering and insulating agent between the gage and the brass. After the cement had dried the gage was waterproofed by covering it and the surrounding brass with 10 to 12 thin layers of melted petrosene wax. Three...

Cuneo, Victor N

2012-06-07

42

Underwater Augmented Reality Game using the DOLPHYN Abdelkader Bellarbi2  

E-print Network

be considerable. In fact, there are recent developments to extend the use of computers and computer components functions, video gaming and multisensory simulations [2]. 2. DOLPHYN DESCRIPTION The DOLPHYN (Figure 1.a modules compose the Dolphyn: Waterproof case which contains the tablet; Waterproof electronic case

Boyer, Edmond

43

46 CFR 160.037-4 - Approval and production tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...packaging in a sealed plastic waterproof bag, the...signal is in the sealed plastic waterproof bag and...case allow flame or hot gases to pass through...test. (4) Elevated temperature, humidity and storage...thermostatically controlled even-temperature oven held at...

2012-10-01

44

46 CFR 160.037-4 - Approval and production tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...packaging in a sealed plastic waterproof bag, the...signal is in the sealed plastic waterproof bag and...case allow flame or hot gases to pass through...test. (4) Elevated temperature, humidity and storage...thermostatically controlled even-temperature oven held at...

2013-10-01

45

46 CFR 160.037-4 - Approval and production tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...packaging in a sealed plastic waterproof bag, the...signal is in the sealed plastic waterproof bag and...case allow flame or hot gases to pass through...test. (4) Elevated temperature, humidity and storage...thermostatically controlled even-temperature oven held at...

2011-10-01

46

Acute pulmonary toxicity following occupational exposure to a floor stain protector in the building industry in Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWaterproofing agents are widely applied to leather and textile garments; they are also used as floor stain protectors by professionals. Acute respiratory injury is described in three cases of young healthy adults following occupational inhalation of a new waterproofing formulation containing an acrylate fluoropolymer. Within 1 or 2 h after exposure they developed a rapidly progressive dyspnoea; two of them

Catherine Lazor-Blanchet; Sophie Rusca; David Vernez; Raymond Berry; Eric Albrecht; Pierre-Olivier Droz; Marcel-André Boillat

2004-01-01

47

Water-Repellency Probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrument yielding presence or absence of waterproofing agent at any given depth in blanket developed. In original application, blankets in question part of space shuttle thermal protection system. Instrument utilized to determine extent of waterproofing "burnout" due to re-entry heating and adverse environment exposure.

Rosen, Charles D.; Mitchell, Shirley M.; Jolly, Stanley R.; Jackson, Richard G.; Fleming, Scott T.; Roberts, William J.; Bell, Daniel R., III

1996-01-01

48

Effect of dressing choice on outcomes after hip and knee arthroplasty: a literature review.  

PubMed

Selecting the right dressing for these wounds can prevent blistering, maceration and the risk of infection. Ideally, the dressing should be permeable, waterproof, transparent, absorbent and flexible enough to withstand joint movement. PMID:19901873

Tustanowski, J

2009-11-01

49

Recreating the Strength of Diamonds  

E-print Network

Extremely Strong 12 Extremely Waterproof 14 Molecules in Jail 16 Defying Traditional Behavior 18 Where requires that we abandon a host of assumptions that for decades have shaped our instincts about the limits

50

Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Marangoni convection in droplets on  

E-print Network

, such as efficient condensing design and waterproofing textiles. Since Wenzel (1936) noted seventy years ago in the present work is the high axial thermal conductivity of the graphene sheets that form the multiwall nanot

51

FLOOD RELIEF COLLECTION Look for a donation location in your building  

E-print Network

or wooden handle) · s (Handiwipes or reusable wipes; no terry cleaning towels) Scrub bru · Cleaning wipe line · 24 roll heavy duty trash bags Dust masks · Disposable waterproof gloves (rubber or latex

Manning, Sturt

52

Behind the Seams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of seamless flooring in areas where cleanliness, waterproofing, and slip resistance is emphasized. Areas such as locker rooms, restrooms, kitchens and cafeterias, lobbies and hallways, multipurpose-rooms, and walkways are considered. (GR)

Watt, W. Bradford

2000-01-01

53

GUIDELINES FOR CRITICAL RESOURCES PROTECTION FAU HURRICANE PREPAREDNESS GUIDELINES  

E-print Network

, notes) to interior rooms or place in waterproof containers or sealable plastic bags. Before leaving.). (Can be stored in secondary containers such as plastic trays or 5 gallon utility buckets.) · Store

Fernandez, Eduardo

54

TYPES OF FLOODING IN AUSTRALIA Floods are part of the natural water cycle or a "Hydrologic Cycle". In this natural cycle, the energy of the sun causes  

E-print Network

rubber gloves, and waterproof bags for clothing and valuables · prepare a checklist of important family checked for safety · beware of damaged power lines, bridges, buildings, trees, and don't enter

Greenslade, Diana

55

Charge Reversal Behavior at the CaF2/H2O/SDS Interface as Studied by Vibrational Sum Frequency Spectroscopy  

E-print Network

and separation, waste processing, and petroleum recovery. Introduction The adsorption of surfactants from colloidal stabilization, lubrication, petroleum recovery, waterproofing, waste processing, and mineral ore to the adhesion and aggregation of surfactant molecules at the solid surface. The attraction of aqueous

Richmond, Geraldine L.

56

Considerations in Construction Sequence Scheduling Pre-Construction Evaluation: Before construction, evaluate, mark, and protect trees,  

E-print Network

construction, evaluate, mark, and protect trees, areas to be preserved, and areas of vegetation suitable.hellotrade.com/aaatarps/ waterproof-sideroll-tarp-kit.html) Stockpile Management Protection of stockpiles is a year-round requirement

California at Santa Cruz, University of

57

Closed suction drain with bulb  

MedlinePLUS

... cotton swabs Gauze pads Clean soapy water Plastic trash bag Surgical tape Waterproof pad or bath towel ... old bandage. Throw the old bandage into the trash bag. Look for any new redness, swelling, bad ...

58

Hemovac drain  

MedlinePLUS

... gloves Five or 6 cotton swabs Gauze pads Clean soapy water Plastic trash bag Surgical tape Waterproof pad or ... Use a cotton swab dipped in the soapy water to clean the skin around the drain. Do this 3 ...

59

Winter Weather: Outdoor Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... During a Wildfire Responders Wildfire Smoke After a Fire Worker Safety During Fire Cleanup Wildfires PSAs Related Links Winter Weather Extreme ... a two-wave radio, waterproof matches and paraffin fire starters with you. Do not use alcohol and ...

60

Keeping Your Skin Healthy  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... epidermis is the outermost layer. It contains a substance called keratin that helps waterproof the skin. The ... middle layer of the skin. It contains a substance called collagen for strength, blood vessels for nutrition, ...

61

Rules of the River.  

E-print Network

money-change for phone calls* towel Provisions ice chest and ice sufficient food and water* beverages paper towels stove and fuel cooking gear and eating utensils waterproof matches water purification tablets 9 Rules of Safety ? Here... money-change for phone calls* towel Provisions ice chest and ice sufficient food and water* beverages paper towels stove and fuel cooking gear and eating utensils waterproof matches water purification tablets 9 Rules of Safety ? Here...

Anonymous,

1980-01-01

62

The possibilities and problems of multi-unit, earth covered housing in the Dallas area  

E-print Network

of the structure and its contents. Water causes more of the housing damage and repair problems than any other single factor in residential construction. Earth covered structures compound that problem as soil will tend to deteriorate waterproofing materials... cost and care associated with proper waterproofing and drainage of earth covered structures might raise initial cost of such structures. Some of these added costs are- offset some- what by the elimination of finished exterior surfaces normally...

Beaudette, Joseph Ely

2012-06-07

63

Shingle system  

DOEpatents

A barrier, such as a PV module, is secured to a base by a support to create a shingle assembly with a venting region defined between the barrier and base for temperature regulation. Water resistant junctions may be formed between the bases of adjacent shingle assemblies of an array of shingle assemblies. The base may include an insulation layer underlying a water barrier. The base may also include a waterproofing element; the width and height of the barrier may be shorter than the width and height of the waterproofing element.

Dinwoodie, Thomas L. (Piedmont, CA)

2008-02-12

64

Thermal insulation protection means  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system for providing thermal insulation for portions of a spacecraft which do not exceed 900 F during ascent or reentry relative to the earth's atmosphere is described. The thermal insulation is formed of relatively large flexible sheets of needled Nomex felt having a flexible waterproof coating. The thickness of the felt is sized to protect against projected temperatures and is attached to the structure by a resin adhesive. Vent holes in the sheets allow ventilation while maintaining waterproofing. The system is heat treated to provide thermal stability.

Dotts, R. L.; Smith, J. A.; Strouhal, G. (inventors)

1979-01-01

65

The Vicenza Wearable Artificial Kidney for Peritoneal Dialysis (ViWAK PD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The study describes the structure and operational characteristics of a new wearable system for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) for chronic kidney disease patients. Methods: We designed a wearable system consisting of: (1) a double lumen peritoneal catheter; (2) a dialysate outflow line; (3) a miniaturized rotary pump; (4) a circuit for dialysate regeneration featuring a waterproof container with

Claudio Ronco; Luciano Fecondini

2007-01-01

66

Effects of access to preen gland secretions on mallard plumage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preen glands exist in almost every bird species and several non-exclusive functions have been proposed for this gland and the oils that it produces. One function generally admitted is that the oily secretions of the preen gland would provide a waterproofing layer when spread over feathers. Alternatively, several authors have proposed that plumage waterproofness is mostly due to the spatial micro-structure of feathers. The purpose of this study was to examine, by manipulating the access to the preen gland, the effect of the preen oil on the plumage waterproofness and condition. To explore this question, we carried out two independent experiments where we temporarily blocked access to the preen gland secretions with a removable mechanism in one group of captive mallards ( Anas platyrhynchos), whilst a second group of birds had access to gland secretions. In a long-term experiment (3 months of treatment) and a short-term experiment (10 days), we measured plumage water retention and condition. After 3 months without access to preen glands, we found a significant decrease of plumage condition and an associated increase in plumage water retention. Moreover, we found a significant correlation between plumage condition and water retention ability. In contrast, after 10 days of treatment, no significant effect was found on plumage condition and water retention. Our study shows that preen oil acts to maintain plumage condition and suggests that feather microstructure is essential to maintain plumage waterproofness.

Giraudeau, Mathieu; Duval, Camille; Guillon, Noel; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Gutierrez, Claude; Heeb, Philipp

2010-06-01

67

Short-chain carboxylic acids from gray catbird ( Dumetella carolinensis) uropygial secretions vary with testosterone levels and photoperiod  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uropygial gland of birds produces secretions that are important in maintaining the health and structural integrity of feathers. Non-volatile components of uropygial secretions are believed to serve a number of functions including waterproofing and conditioning the feathers. Volatile components have been characterized in fewer species, but are particularly interesting because of their potential importance in olfactory interactions within and

Rebecca J. Whelan; Tera C. Levin; Jennifer C. Owen; Mary C. Garvin

2010-01-01

68

40 CFR 247.3 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Latex paint means a water-based decorative...recovered from waste water which otherwise would...partition means a water-proof barrier used...gentle irrigation to plants; Sorbents ...diverse number of environmental, industrial, agricultural...tires, light- and heavy-duty truck...

2010-07-01

69

29 CFR 1910.266 - Logging operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...protection, such as heavy-duty logging boots that are waterproof or water repellant, cover...of part 1910. (5) Environmental conditions. All work...the fall of a tree, heavy rain or snow, extreme...contact with poisonous plants or animals....

2010-07-01

70

Synthesis of Modified Poly(vinyl acetate) Adhesives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modified poly(vinyl acetate) copolymers with drying oils as comonomers have been prepared. The unsaturated triglycerides can produce cross-linking and give a waterproof effect due to their hydrophobicity. The new copolymers synthesized by solution polymerization in an organic medium have been submitted to analytical characterization in order to investigate the role of the drying oils in the polymerization reaction. NMR spectroscopy

A. Salvini; L. M. Saija; M. Lugli; G. Cipriani; C. Giannelli

2010-01-01

71

These are the steps we used to complete this experiment. Jan. 18, 2002  

E-print Network

Friday we heard about Dr. Derek Lovley's experiment about microorganisms that harvest energy from marine-All waterproof adhesive · 2 10ft PVC pipes (3/4in) · 6 elbow connectors · 6 "T" connectors Mar.14 11. Received

Rosen, I. Gary

72

A study of building technology in the Natal building industry, South Africa  

E-print Network

. The section waterproofing, was found to have a major opportunity for technological improvement. Standards and building codes were found to be a major barrier to the use of new building technologies. The major constraints to the research and development of new...

Pather, Rubintheran

2012-06-07

73

Asphalt and Wood Shingling. Roofing Workbook and Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This combination workbook and set of tests contains materials on asphalt and wood shingling that have been designed to be used by those studying to enter the roofing and waterproofing trade. It consists of seven instructional units and seven accompanying objective tests. Covered in the individual units are the following topics: shingling…

Brown, Arthur

74

Suggested Packing List for Bahamian Conservation Biology Study Abroad Summer 2014  

E-print Network

bottle Sunglasses Toothbrush, soap, shampoo 2 towels (bedding provided) Waterproof sunscreen Insect Repellent Laptop* Flashlight Cash in small denominations Underwater camera (optional) Motion sickness if possible. This is because of the nature of the scientific research involved in this course--each research

Langerhans, Brian

75

Three-dimensional measurement of objects in water by using space encoding method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new method for 3-D measurement of objects in water is proposed. When observing objects in water through a camera contained in a waterproof housing or observing objects in an aquarium tank filled with preserving liquid, we should solve a problem of light refraction at the boundary surfaces of refractive index discontinuity which gives image distortion. The

Ryohei Kawai; Atsushi Yamashita; Toru Kaneko

2009-01-01

76

Grouting applications in the Istanbul metro, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first stage of the Istanbul metro construction was conducted in sandstone and mudstones of Carboniferous age. On the basis of Lugeon tests, the rock mass permeability was found to be in the range of 10?5–10?7. Since, no waterproofing system was placed in between the primary support and the final lining to maintain the imperviousness during operation of the subway,

Ahmet Varol; Süleyman Dalg?ç

2006-01-01

77

YMCA Camp Chingachgook Adventure Trips Adventure Groups Sailing Trip Packing List  

E-print Network

Flashlight/Headlamp ­ Extra batteries & bulb Sunglasses ­ With retainer cord! Water Bottle or Hydration Bag Wet Shoes* ­ Water booties, sport sandals with ankle strap, or sneakers; should have non-marking soles* Sleeping Bag* ­ (Synthetic insulation) with waterproof stuff sack or garbage bag-line stuff sack

Linhardt, Robert J.

78

YMCA Camp Chingachgook Adventure Trips Adventure Groups Rock Climbing Trip Packing List  

E-print Network

! Water Bottle or Hydration Bag System* ­ 2 (32-oz) bottles or 1 bag + 1 bottle Towel ­ 1 (or 2)* ­ 2 Pair synthetic Wet Shoes* ­ Water booties, sport sandals with ankle strap, or sneakers style with patch kit* Sleeping Bag* ­ (Synthetic insulation) with waterproof stuff sack or garbage bag

Linhardt, Robert J.

79

CNET tech sites: Product reviews Shop Tech news Daily podcast | Hot topics | E-mail alerts | News.com  

E-print Network

CNET tech sites: Product reviews Shop Tech news Daily podcast | Hot topics | E-mail alerts | NewsBackPrintE-mailTalkBack Track this story's companies and topics Create your own e-mail alert > Nanotechnology Create alert Europe Create alert Related stories Making paper waterproof--and writable August 9, 2005 In building

Leigh, David A.

80

Further information Other leaflets in this series  

E-print Network

and guides to buy on-line. Spare clothes On day trips, pack an extra layer as your body temperature may drop or underpants, layers of clothing, water bottle, snacks, maps. All-weather cycling: waterproof jacket and trousers, reflective clothing. Cover & additional photos: Chris Bahn P&S No.024071 photo: Julia Bayne

Bristol, University of

81

ZEINA EL CHLOUK Nabeh Street  

E-print Network

using hygrometers and spectrometers #12;QUALIFICATIONS WELDING: Intensive Training on TIG and excellent manipulation of coated electrode welding- 5 MONTHS LANGUAGES: GRE 1060- TOEIC 935- TOEFL (Currently under preparation) SIKA NEAR EAST TRAINING SEMINAR: Concrete Types and repair, Flooring and waterproofing- 3 DAYS

82

1 INTRODUCTION In Spain, Plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-  

E-print Network

1 INTRODUCTION In Spain, Plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC- P) geomembranes began being used in waterproof- ing of infrastructure in the seventies. Early usage of PVC-P geomembranes was not particularly for the PVC-P homogeneous geomem- branes used in roofing. Subsequently, other stan- dards were drafted

Zornberg, Jorge G.

83

Joint Continuing Education Committee 2014 Workshops (see next 2 pages for workshop descriptions) Registration  

E-print Network

, or waterproof boots and polarized sunglasses are recommended but not required. Moderate walking is expected, philosophically rewarding, good for the earth and require little work for large yields while strengthening family of wildlife and to continue our discussion of best ways to work around vernal pools. Hip waders, chest waders

New Hampshire, University of

84

Jumpstart 2014!! Welcome to UBC's Okanagan Campus  

E-print Network

winter jacket, gloves, hats and waterproof shoes or boots (there are many places to purchase these items have a chronic medical condition, get your physician to write a short medical history (preferably throughout the year on campus and can assist you with your medical needs. #12;What to bring to UBC? In your

Pulfrey, David L.

85

[Respiratory symptoms after the use of a painting primer product spray].  

PubMed

The use of waterproofing spray has been associated with the development of respiratory symptoms, but the pathogenetic mechanisms are unclear. We describe a case of acute respiratory disease with impaired diffusion developed after the use of a painting primer product spray (stain stop). Further investigation in aerosol-toxicology is needed. PMID:18822236

Ebbehøj, Niels E; Bang, John

2008-09-22

86

3-D Wizardry: Design in Papier-Mache, Plaster, and Foam.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papier-mache, plaster, and foam are inexpensive and versatile media for 3-dimensional classroom and studio art experiences. They can be used equally well by elementary, high school, or college students. Each medium has its own characteristic. Papier-mache is pliable but dries into a hard, firm surface that can be waterproofed. Plaster can be…

Wolfe, George

87

Polymerization and surface modification by low pressure plasma technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A durable water repellent, stain resistant or flame retardant character can be conferred to polyacrylonitrile (PAN) textiles by using the plasma induced graft polymerization technique. The monomers used are perfluoroalkylacrylate, (meth)acrylate phosphates, and phosphonates which are well known to be effective for the waterproofing and the fireproofing of polymeric substrates, respectively.

Tsafack, M.-J.; Hochart, F.; Levalois-Grützmacher, J.

2004-06-01

88

Axisymmetric solitary waves on the surface of a ferrofluid E. Bourdin, J.-C. Bacri, and E. Falcon  

E-print Network

predictions [9]. The experimental setup is shown in Fig. 1. It consists of a cylindrical copper tube (50 cm through hollow waterproof screws. A dc electrical current, I, in the range 0�100 A is applied to the cylindrical conductor by means of a power supply. The current generates circular magnetic field lines around

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

89

A PTFE membrane for the in situ extraction of dissolved gases in natural waters: Theory and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for extracting dissolved gases in natural waters has been developed and tested, both in the laboratory and in the field. The sampling device consists of a polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE) tube (waterproof and gas permeable) sealed at one end and connected to a glass sample holder at the other end. The device is pre-evacuated and subsequently dipped in water,

S. De Gregorio; S. Gurrieri; M. Valenza

2005-01-01

90

Web: www.astp.com E-mail: inquiry2006@astp.com  

E-print Network

adhesion ­ Oxidation identification of bonding · Nano Technology ­ Lotus effect on surface nano-chips · Interfacial Chemistry ­ Surface Tension and Wettability of Detergents and Surfactants ­ Adhesive strengthen and pre-adhesion treatment studies ­ Studies on Waterproof Agents ­ Die and color fastenization · TFT

Haller, Gary L.

91

Hide And Seek GPS And Geocaching In The Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In short, geocaching is a high-tech, worldwide treasure hunt (geocaches can now be found in more than 180 countries) where a person hides a cache for others to find. Generally, the cache is some type of waterproof container that contains a log book and an assortment of goodies, such as lottery tickets, toys, photo books for cachers to fill with…

Lary, Lynn M.

2004-01-01

92

Skilled up and Having Fun  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many teachers seem to have followed the "dunking theory." That is, they dunk their children in a variety of investigations and hope that through their practical work they will absorb a thorough understanding of enquiry skills. Children seem to have quite a good natural waterproof coating when it comes to absorbing scientific skills through…

Goldsworthy, Anne

2013-01-01

93

Cool Cast Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... may tell you to cover it with a plastic bag while you shower or you can get a special waterproof sleeve to cover it. Depending on where your cast or splint is on your body, you may find it easier to take a ...

94

Bio-inspired MEMS Pressure and Flow Sensors for Underwater Navigation and Object Imaging "  

E-print Network

Bio-inspired MEMS Pressure and Flow Sensors for Underwater Navigation and Object Imaging " MIT. - A. G. P. Kottapalli et. al., "Liquid crystal polymer membrane MEMS sensor for flow rate and flow for waterproofing. Fabrication Kayak Testing Commercial Sensors (Reference) MEMS Sensor When mounted on the side

95

Use of epoxy compounds in structural elements and insulation in the Kislogubsk tidal power station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Epoxy foam heat-and-water insulation and epoxy-pitch waterproofing have been found to be suitable for structures in regions\\u000a with a severe climate, and in particular for tidal power stations built by the floating method.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a Industrial experience in the construction of the Kislogubsk tidal power station has shown the advantages of using epoxy plastic\\u000a solutions for constructing waterproofing seams

L. A. Igonin; P. A. Pshenitsyn; V. I. Sakharov

1971-01-01

96

Micromachined thermal shear-stress sensor for underwater applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the development of micromachined thermal shear-stress sensors for underwater applications. The thermal shear-stress sensor is a polysilicon resistor sitting atop a vacuum-insulated nitride diaphragm. Special challenges for underwater measurements, such as the waterproof coating and minimization of pressure crosstalk, have been addressed. More rigid diaphragms than the aerial sensors are implemented to increase the operating range and

Yong Xu; Qiao Lin; Guoyu Lin; Rakesh B. Katragadda; Fukang Jiang; Steve Tung; Yu-Chong Tai

2005-01-01

97

BotEC: Weight of Gold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Question Let's suppose that you have a shoe box full of water (the box is waterproof, of course). The shoe box weighs about 9 kg (19.8 pounds). Suppose you emptied the box and filled it completely with rock (little or no air space). How much would it weigh? Let's empty the box again and fill it completely with pure gold. How much would the box weigh now?

Tewksbury, Barb

98

Organic residue analysis of Neolithic pottery from North Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Organic residues associated with Neolithic pottery from two Late Neolithic sites, Paliambela and Makriyalos (Northern Greece),\\u000a were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The study aimed at identifying the origin of the tar used for waterproofing\\u000a and gluing broken pots. Reference tars were prepared in laboratory conditions by pyrolysis of the bark from three tree species,\\u000a namely from Betula pendula (silver

Sophia Mitkidou; Evagelia Dimitrakoudi; Dushka Urem-Kotsou; Despina Papadopoulou; Kostas Kotsakis; John A. Stratis; Ioulia Stephanidou-Stephanatou

2008-01-01

99

Mechanism of action of lung damage caused by a nanofilm spray product.  

PubMed

Inhalation of waterproofing spray products has on several occasions caused lung damage, which in some cases was fatal. The present study aims to elucidate the mechanism of action of a nanofilm spray product, which has been shown to possess unusual toxic effects, including an extremely steep concentration-effect curve. The nanofilm product is intended for application on non-absorbing flooring materials and contains perfluorosiloxane as the active film-forming component. The toxicological effects and their underlying mechanisms of this product were studied using a mouse inhalation model, by in vitro techniques and by identification of the binding interaction. Inhalation of the aerosolized product gave rise to increased airway resistance in the mice, as evident from the decreased expiratory flow rate. The toxic effect of the waterproofing spray product included interaction with the pulmonary surfactants. More specifically, the active film-forming components in the spray product, perfluorinated siloxanes, inhibited the function of the lung surfactant due to non-covalent interaction with surfactant protein B, a component which is crucial for the stability and persistence of the lung surfactant film during respiration. The active film-forming component used in the present spray product is also found in several other products on the market. Hence, it may be expected that these products may have a toxicity similar to the waterproofing product studied here. Elucidation of the toxicological mechanism and identification of toxicological targets are important to perform rational and cost-effective toxicological studies. Thus, because the pulmonary surfactant system appears to be an important toxicological target for waterproofing spray products, study of surfactant inhibition could be included in toxicological assessment of this group of consumer products. PMID:24863969

Larsen, Søren T; Dallot, Constantin; Larsen, Susan W; Rose, Fabrice; Poulsen, Steen S; Nørgaard, Asger W; Hansen, Jitka S; Sørli, Jorid B; Nielsen, Gunnar D; Foged, Camilla

2014-08-01

100

Evaluation of Skin and Respiratory Doses and Urinary Excretion of Alkylphosphates in Workers Exposed to Dimethoate During Treatment of Olive Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a study of exposure to dimethoate during spraying of olive trees in Viterbo province in central Italy. Airborne concentrations of dimethoate were in the range 1.5 to 56.7 nmol\\/m 3. Total skin contamination was in the range 228.4 to 3200.7 nmol\\/d and averaged 96.0%?±?3.6% of the total potential dose. Cotton garments afforded less skin protection than waterproof

C. Aprea; B. Terenzoni; V. De Angelis; G. Sciarra; L. Lunghini; G. Borzacchi; D. Vasconi; D. Fani; A. Quercia; A. Salvan; L. Settimi

2004-01-01

101

Thermoplastic constructional composite material for radiation protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of synthesis of filled metallooligomer powders on the basis of lead ethylsiliconate is considered by a method\\u000a of heterophase interaction, in siloksan chains of which chemically bound lead with a high concentration of atoms of lead is\\u000a contained. Thermoplastic constructional composite materials for radiation protection on the basis of a polystyrene polymeric\\u000a matrix modified by waterproof oligomer lead

V. I. Pavlenko; I. S. Epifanovskii; R. N. Yastrebinskii; O. V. Kuprieva

2011-01-01

102

The Sensor Fish: Measuring Fish Passage in Severe Hydraulic Conditions  

SciTech Connect

This article describes PNNL's efforts to develop the Sensor Fish, a waterproof sensor package that travels thru the turbines of spillways of hydroelectric dam to collect pressure and acceleration data on the conditions experienced by live salmon smolts during dam passage. Sensor Fish development is sponsored by the DOE Advanced Hydropower Turbine Survival Program. The article also gave two recent examples of Sensor Fish use: turbine passage at a McNary Kaplan turbine and spill passage in topspill at Rock Island Dam.

Carlson, Thomas J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Duncan, Joanne P. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Gilbride, Theresa L. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2003-05-28

103

A study of the bond characteristics of concrete reinforcing bars coated with epoxy compounds  

E-print Network

of service, no signs of failure were in evidence on these epoxy shear keys. That may be because of higher strength and better bond of epoxy bonded shear keys rather than cement grout shear keys. Several bonding applications of epoxy to prestressed... for use of epoxy compounds with concrete. That committee describes proper procedures for the use of epoxy resin compounds for skid-resistant overlays, waterproofing, patching, crack and joint sealing, bonding new concrete or hardened concrete to old...

Desai, Indravadan S

2012-06-07

104

Exposure assessment for a multicentric cohort study of cancer risk among European asphalt workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a long-standing controversy about the health effects of fumes and vapors generated\\u000a during paving and waterproofing with bitumen. Such emissions may be carcinogenic. To address\\u000a this question, a historical multicentric cohort of asphalt workers was assembled by in eight\\u000a countries. Assessment of historical exposures to known and suspected carcinogens (bitumen,\\u000a organic vapour, coal tar, respirable silica, diesel exhaust,

I. Burstyn

2001-01-01

105

Photovoltaic Roofs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar cells perform two functions: waterproofing roof and generating electricity. Sections through horizontal and slanting joints show overlapping modules sealed by L-section rubber strips and side-by-side modules sealed by P-section strips. Water seeping through seals of slanting joints drains along channels. Rooftop photovoltaic array used watertight south facing roof, replacing shingles, tar, and gravel. Concept reduces cost of residential solar-cell array.

Drummond, R. W., Jr.; Shepard, N. F., Jr.

1984-01-01

106

Condition Assessment Survey (CAS) Program. Deficiency standards and inspections methods manual: Volume 1, 0.01 Foundations and footings  

SciTech Connect

General information is presented for asset determinant factor/CAS repair codes/CAS cost factors; guide sheet tool & material listing; testing methods; inspection frequency; standard system design life tables; system work breakdown structure; and general system/material data. Deficiency standards and inspection methods are given for footings - spread/strip/grade beams; foundation walls; foundation dampproofing/waterproofing; excavation/backfill/ and piles & caissons.

Not Available

1993-05-01

107

Assembling an Archival Marking Kit for Paleontological Specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Will the number you put on your specimen, its tag, box or other housing, be legible in one hundred years? Is it rub-proof, water-proof, fade-proof? Will a future worker be able to remove it if necessary? This poster will present a plan for assembling an archival marking kit, adapted for fossils from a similar kit for anthropological objects. Having a

Amy Davidson; Samantha Alderson; Marilyn Fox

108

Detail view of the leading and top edge of the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view of the leading and top edge of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery showing the thermal protection system components with the white Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) blanket and the black High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (HRSI) tiles along the outer edges. The marks seen on the HRSI tiles are injection point marks and holes for the application of waterproofing material. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

109

Fire Resistant, Moisture Barrier Membrane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A waterproof and breathable, fire-resistant laminate is provided for use in tents, garments, shoes, and covers, especially in industrial, military and emergency situations. The laminate permits water vapor evaporation while simultaneously preventing liquid water penetration. Further, the laminate is fire-resistant and significantly reduces the danger of toxic compound production when exposed to flame or other high heat source. The laminate may be applied to a variety of substrates and is comprised of a silicone rubber and plurality of fire-resistant, inherently thermally-stable polyimide particles.

St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

110

Fire Resistant, Moisture Barrier Membrane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A waterproof and breathable, fire-resistant laminate is provided for use in tents, garments, shoes, and covers, especially in industrial, military and emergency situations. The laminate permits water vapor evaporation while simultaneously preventing liquid water penetration. Further, the laminate is fire-resistant and significantly reduces the danger of toxic compound production when exposed to flame or other high heat source. The laminate may be applied to a variety of substrates and is comprised of a silicone rubber and plurality of fire-resistant, inherently thermally-stable polyimide particles.

St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

111

Give Me Some Skin: A Hands-On Science Activity Integrating Racial Sensitivity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What's the largest, fastest growing, organ in the human body? It's the tough, elastic, flexible, and waterproof covering that helps protect other organs and body parts from such things as germs, heat, cold, and sunlight--skin, of course! This life science activity engages middle school students in an exploration of the structure, function, and variety of skin. They "construct" skin layer by layer using simple materials such as felt, foam padding, yarn, and vinyl in various skin tones. This activity provides an opportunity to discuss racial diversity and to show students that skin color is, quite literally, only skin deep.

Houtz, Lynne E.; Quinn, Thomas H.

2003-02-01

112

Moisture absorption characteristics of the Orbiter thermal protection system and methods used to prevent water ingestion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Orbiter's silica tile Thermal Protection System (TPS) is beset by the moisture absorption problems inherently associated with low density, highly porous insulation systems. Attention is presently given to the comparative success of methods for the minimization and/or prevention of water ingestion by the TPS tiles, covering the development of water-repellent agents and their tile application techniques, flight test program results, and materials improvements. The use of external films for rewaterproofing of the TPS tiles after each mission have demonstrated marginal to unacceptable performance. By contrast, a tile interior waterproofing agent has shown promise.

Schomburg, C.; Dotts, R. L.; Tillian, D. J.

1983-01-01

113

New materials for solar cells - Tandem cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cost efficiency in the manufacturing processes of the solar cell panels is discussed, noting the utilization of the III-V compound semiconductors (such as InSb or Ge) instead of silicon or gallium arsenide which have a complicated and expensive technology. A computation program is presented for a p-n junction using a set of nonlinear differential equations and taking into consideration such parameters as the mobility, the life space and the forbidden band. It is concluded that new, economic technologies should be directed toward blocking the UV light, acrylic elastomers, waterproof wood and paper materials and cost efficient silicon and fluorocarbon materials.

Dolocan, V.

114

Integrated residential photovoltaic array development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design details of an optimized integrated residential photovoltaic module/array are presented. This selected design features a waterproofing and mounting scheme which was devised to simplify the installation procedures by the avoidance of complex gasketed or caulked joints, while still maintaining a high confidence that the watertight integrity of the integral roofing surface will be achieved for the design lifetime of the system. The production and installation costs for the selected module/array design are reported for a range of annual production rates as a function of the cost of solar cells.

Shepard, N. F., Jr.

1981-01-01

115

Concrete Tilt-up Construction on the Farm.  

E-print Network

for panel form construction. Concrete used with satisfactory results contained a minimum of five sacks of cement per cubic yard of mix. Clean, hard and well-graded aggregate was used. Reinforcing steel was placed in every panel to insure adequate strength... the floor level for ease in making a waterproof joint. A handle 18 inches long is provided on each roller to guide the direction in which the panel is to be moved. CASTING PROCEDURE Tilt-up construction, as every other type of construction, requires...

Hobgood, Price; Kunze, Otto R.

1957-01-01

116

Modular hydro dam approach to the economic development of ultra low-head hydropower  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential for developing economical new ultra low head sites using an innovative concept known as the modular hydro dam (MHD) were explored. This concept, combines the benefits of shop fabrication and installation of equipment in truck transportable, waterproof power modules, with prefabricated gate sections that can be located between the power modules. The technical, economic, environmental, and institutional feasibility of the MHD concept are examined. Capital and operating costs are estimated. It is concluded that the potential for power generation at ultralow head sites justifies the development of the MHD concept.

Broome, K. R.

1981-06-01

117

Sources and transport of silicone NVR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The retrieved LDEF had varying amounts of visible contamination films (brown stains) at many locations. FTIR spectra of heavy film deposits at vents and of optical windows from tray E5 indicated methyl silicone and silica in the contaminant films. Two possible sources of the methyl silicone are DC-710 phenyl methyl silicone in the shuttle-bay-liner beta cloth, and the shuttle tile waterproofing silane. It is concluded that much of the silicon and silica contamination came from ground operations and the orbiter.

Harvey, Gale A.

1992-01-01

118

Overcoming Barriers to Solar Use  

E-print Network

. An inexpensive soft urethane foam i insulation and PVC jacketing system? prOVides excellent insulation and ! minimizes damaBe in transport. ! The LIPE-LINE piping system consistt of two 6 mm nylon tubes and 3 I electrical wires in a PVC jacket. I... Considering the small tube diameter and the wall thickness of the nylonl and PVC materials, the insulation . value is greater than R9, eliminatirg the need for additional insulation br waterproof jacketing. i ~~~~~~:~Yf~~1~0~r~:ai~: ;~~a~eat I...

Halme, D. S.; Sicotte, J. R.

119

New devices for very long-term ECG monitoring.  

PubMed

Present day 24-h Holter monitors have been shown to miss many arrhythmias that may occur infrequently or under specific circumstances. The advancement in electronic and adhesive technologies have enabled the development of first generation wearable long-term 14-day patch ECG monitors that attach directly to the skin and require no electrodes and wires to operate. This new technology is unobtrusive to the patients and offers them unprecedented mobility. It enables very long-term monitoring of critical patients while they are carrying out daily activities. The monitors are waterproof, offer good adhesion to the skin and can operate as either recorders or wireless streaming devices. PMID:22461060

Lobodzinski, S Suave; Laks, Michael M

2012-01-01

120

Composite Riflescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bushnell Division of Bausch & Lomb's Armor-Sight riflescope combines the company's world-renowned optics with a graphite composite (Graphlon VI) developed for space applications. The riflescope is 10 percent lighter than aluminum scopes, and, because its thermal expansion coefficient is near zero, optical distortion from heat and cold extremes is eliminated. It is fogproof and waterproof; advanced multicoated optics provide maximum light transmission to brighten target ranges. Bushnell was assisted by NIAC/USC in searching for technical information on graphic composites and in overcoming difficulties with bonding and porosity.

1989-01-01

121

Disappearing Statues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (on page 8), learners model how marble statues and buildings are affected by acid rain. Antacid tablets made with calcium carbonate are used to represent marble (also made from calcium carbonate), and vinegar is used to represent acid rain. Learners observe the effect of adding water to one tablet and vinegar to another. The tablets can be made into slightly more realistic models by drawing on them with a pencil, or rubber stamping a design with waterproof ink. This activity could be used in connection with lessons on pollution and acid rain, or lessons on art and architecture.

Society, American C.

2008-01-01

122

PCB concentrations in Pere Marquette River and Muskegon River watersheds, 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs) are a class of209 individual compounds (known as congeners) for which there are no known natural sources. PCBs are carcinogenic and bioaccumulative compounds. For over 40 years, PCBs were manufactured in the United States. The flame resistant property of PCBs made them ideal chemicals for use as flame-retardants, and as coolants and lubricants in transformers and other electrical equipment. PCBs were also used in heating coils, carbonless paper, degreasers, varnishes, lacquers, waterproofing material, and cereal boxes. In addition, they were frequently used in the manufacturing of plastics, adhesives, and paints.

Fogarty, Lisa R.

2005-01-01

123

Measure Guideline: Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits  

SciTech Connect

This measure guideline provides recommendations for designs and variations for retrofit hybrid assemblies in improving interior foundation insulation and water management of basements. Variations include closed cell spray foam (ccSPF) with membrane waterproofing or air gap membrane drainage layers, rigid board foam insulation at flat walls (cast concrete or CMU block), a 'partial drainage' detail making use of the bulk water drainage that occurs through the field of a rubble stone wall, and non-drained spray foam assemblies (including slab insulation).

Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.

2012-05-01

124

Analysis of yellow ``fat'' deposits on Inuit boots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irregular residues of a yellow deposit that was assumed to be seal fat used for waterproofing were observed in the creases of the outer surface of a pair of Inuit boots from Arctic Canada. A sample of this deposit detached from one of these areas on these boots was examined initially by FT-Raman microscopy, from which interesting and rather surprising results demanded further analysis using FT-IR and GC-MS. The non-destructive Raman spectroscopic analysis yielded spectra which indicated the presence of a tree resin from the Pinaceae sp. The Raman spectra were also characteristic of a well-preserved keratotic protein and indicative of adherent skin. Subsequent FT-IR spectroscopic analysis supported the attribution of a Pinaceae resin to the yellow deposit. GC-MS analysis of the same deposits identified the presence of pimaric, sandaracopimaric, dehydroabietic and abietic acids, all indicative of an aged Pinaceae resin. These results confirmed that the Inuit people had access to tree resins which they probably used as a waterproofing agent.

Edwards, Howell G. M.; Stern, Ben; Burgio, Lucia; Kite, Marion

2009-08-01

125

Sealing ability of MTA used as a root end filling material: effect of the sonic and ultrasonic condensation.  

PubMed

Despite the excellent properties of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), the condensation technique may have some influence in its sealing ability. The purpose of this study was to compare the sealing ability of sonic and ultrasonic setting of MTA. Thirty-four extracted human teeth had their canals prepared and filled with Sealapex sealer and gutta-percha using the active lateral condensation technique. The teeth were rendered waterproof and apicoectomy performed at 3 mm from the apex. Root-end cavities (3.0 mm deep and 1.4 mm diameter) were prepared with diamond ultrasonic tips. The root-end cavities were filled with Pro-Root MTA® with ultrasonic vibration, sonic vibration or no vibration. The positive control group did not receive any material while the negative control group was totally rendered waterproof. After material set, the specimens were immersed in Rodhamine B for 24 h, under vacuum in the first 15 min, then washed, dried and split longitudinally for evaluating the infiltration at the dentin/material interface. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's tests at 5% significance level. Sonic vibration promoted the lowest infiltration values (p<0.05). It was concluded that sonic vibration could be considered an efficient aid to improve the sealing ability of MTA when used as root-end filling material. PMID:23780366

Bernabé, Pedro Felício Estrada; Gomes-Filho, João Eduardo; Bernabé, Daniel Galera; Nery, Mauro Juvenal; Otoboni-Filho, José Arlindo; Dezan-Jr, Eloi; Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo

2013-01-01

126

Radiation induced changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of the granary weevil and their relationships to desiccation and adult mortality: Annual progress report, February 15, 1987 to February 14, 1988  

SciTech Connect

Sitophilus granarius (L) is a major pest of stroed grains and is prone to irradiation treatment. There is considerable scope for use of radiation like Cesium-137 (as a source) as an alternative to chemical treatment for pest control. Study with regard to radiation damage and the effect of environmental factors like temperature and humidity on adult weevil mortality due to radiation effect is limited. Stored-grain insects live in an enviroment where liquid water is seldom available. Waterproofing and conservation of water by the insects is a critical factor for weevil survival. In some insects it has been noted that the rate of water loss through the integument has been associated with changes in the hydrocarbon composition of the epicuticle. Epicuticular hydrocarbons play an important role in preventing desiccation. Information on the effects of irradiation on epicuticular hydrocarbon of the adult weevils is limited. The present investigation sudies the after effects of radiation damage to granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius (L.) in terms of causing increased water loss from the body, weevil nortality and concommitant changes, if any, in the cuticular hydrocarbons that waterproof the insect. 23 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

Sriharan, S.

1988-03-14

127

Microfabricated environmental barrier using ZnO nanowire on metal mesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a waterproof environmental barrier for microsensor package has been developed using metal mesh covered with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire. A near superhydrophobic surface with two-dimensional array of holes has been fabricated by hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowire on an off-the-shelf steel use stainless (SUS) mesh. For a twill-woven SUS wire mesh having wire thickness of 30 µm and gap of 33 µm, a maximum contact angle of 160.40° and a minimum contact angle hysteresis of 15.23° have been achieved using ZnO nanowire grown on the wire surface and further deposition of FC film. The mesh was able to withstand a maximum water pressure of 2,459.8 Pa. The measured height of ZnO nanowire was approximately 2-3 µm. The fabricated SUS mesh covered with ZnO nanowire has been assembled with a microphone package, and waterproof characteristics have been measured by cyclic dipping test at various water levels. For a microphone package having two acoustic ports on top and bottom covered with fabricated mesh, no visible change in acoustic characteristics has been observed up to 1,372.9 Pa of water pressure. Total volume of the package was 6.8 × 9.8 × 1.9 mm3.

Shin, Young-Min; Lee, Seung-Ki; Lee, Joo-Yong; Kim, Jun-Ho; Park, Jae-Hyoung; Ji, Chang-Hyeon

2013-12-01

128

The Ancient Wood of the Acqualadrone Rostrum: A Materials History Through GC-MS and Sulfur X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

In 2008 the rostrum from an ancient warship was recovered from the Mediterranean near Acqualadrone, Sicily. To establish its provenance and condition, samples of black and brown rostrum wood were examined using sulfur K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and GC-MS. GC-MS of pyrolytic volatiles yielded only guaiacyl derivatives, indicating construction from pinewood. A derivatized extract of black wood yielded forms of abietic acid and sandaracopimaric acid consistent with pine pitch waterproofing. Numerical fits to the sulfur K-edge XAS spectra showed that about 65% of the endogenous sulfur consisted of thiols and disulfides. Elemental sulfur was about 2% and 7% in black and brown wood, respectively, while pyritic sulfur was about 12% and 6%. About 2% of the sulfur in both wood types was modeled as trimethylsulfonium, possibly reflecting biogenic dimethylsulfonio-propionate. High valent sulfur was exclusively represented by sulfate esters, consistent with bacterial sulfotransferase activity. Traces of chloride were detected, but no free sulfate ion. In summary, the rostrum was manufactured of pine wood and subsequently waterproofed with pine pitch. The subsequent 2300 years included battle, foundering, and marine burial followed by anoxia, bacterial colonization, sulfate reduction, and mobilization of transition metals, which produced pyrite and copious appended sulfur functionality. PMID:22545724

Frank, Patrick; Caruso, Francesco; Caponetti, Eugenio

2012-01-01

129

The impact of water temperature on core body temperature of North American river otters (Lutra canadensis) during simulated oil spill recovery washing protocols.  

PubMed

Ten North American river otters (Lutra canadensis) were anesthetized with Telazol and instrumented with ingestable radiotelemetry temperature sensors for measuring core body temperature. The otters were then subjected to a washing protocol to simulate rehabilitation following an oil spill contamination. This protocol consisted of a 30-min wash in a 1:16 dilution of dishwashing liquid using either cold (24 degrees C) water or water near baseline core body temperature (38.4 degrees C), followed by a 30-min rinse with water of the same temperature, followed by 10 min of forced hot air drying. Core body temperatures of the otters washed in cold water fell at a median rate of 0.1 degrees C/min, whereas otters washed in warm water maintained stable core temperatures until the completion of the protocol, at which time their core temperatures began to drop at a similar rate. Core temperatures restabilized in both groups, and no statistical difference in core temperature between groups remained 180 min after initiation of the protocol. Efforts to examine the efficacy of supplemental squalene administration to speed the recovery of fur condition and waterproofing were unsuccessful because the washing protocol did not cause loss of coat waterproofing in 8 of the 10 subjects. PMID:9523634

Stoskopf, M K; Spelman, L H; Sumner, P W; Redmond, D P; Jochem, W J; Levine, J F

1997-12-01

130

Make a Watershed Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will create a three-dimensional model from a two-dimensional topographic map. They will use the model to trace the path that a water droplet takes across the watershed and into the watercourse, and will describe the relationship between the physical features of the watershed and the location of human activities. Resources needed vary, depending on the kind of model that is to be build, but may include: a topographic map of the local watershed, tracing paper, tempera paints, paint brushes, cutting knife or saw, plaster of Paris or paper maché, plasticene or other waterproofing, and corrugated cardboard, plywood or other media from which to cut layers representing each of the contour intervals. This activity is part of the Ground Truth Studies Teacher Handbook, which provides more than 20 activities to build student understanding of global change and remote sensing, and includes background chapters for teachers, glossary, and appendices. Resources needed vary, depending on the kind of model that is to be build, but may include: a topographic map of the local watershed, tracing paper, tempera paints, paint brushes, cutting knife or saw, plaster of Paris or paper maché, plasticene or other waterproofing, and corrugated cardboard, plywood or other media from which to cut layers representing each of the contour intervals.

131

Assessment of digital camera-derived vegetation indices in quantitative monitoring of seasonal rice growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A commercially available digital camera can be used in a low-cost automatic observation system for monitoring crop growth change in open-air fields. We developed a prototype Crop Phenology Recording System (CPRS) for monitoring rice growth, but the ready-made waterproof cases that we used produced shadows on the images. After modifying the waterproof cases, we repeated the fixed-point camera observations to clarify questions regarding digital camera-derived vegetation indices (VIs), namely, the visible atmospherically resistant index (VARI) based on daytime normal color images (RGB image) and the nighttime relative brightness index (NRBI NIR) based on nighttime near infrared (NIR) images. We also took frequent measurements of agronomic data such as plant length, leaf area index (LAI), and aboveground dry matter weight to gain a detailed understanding of the temporal relationship between the VIs and the biophysical parameters of rice. In addition, we conducted another nighttime outdoor experiment to establish the link between NRBI NIR and camera-to-object distance. The study produced the following findings. (1) The customized waterproof cases succeeded in preventing large shadows from being cast, especially on nighttime images, and it was confirmed that the brightness of the nighttime NIR images had spatial heterogeneity when a point light source (flashlight) was used, in contrast to the daytime RGB images. (2) The additional experiment using a forklift showed that both the ISO sensitivity and the calibrated digital number of the NIR (cDN NIR) had significant effects on the sensitivity of NRBI NIR to the camera-to-object distance. (3) Detailed measurements of a reproductive stem were collected to investigate the connection between the morphological feature change caused by the panicle sagging process and the downtrend in NRBI NIR during the reproductive stages. However, these agronomic data were not completely in accord with NRBI NIR in terms of the temporal pattern. (4) The time-series data for the LAI, plant length, and aboveground dry matter weight could be well approximated by a sigmoid curve based on NRBI NIR and VARI. The results confirmed that NRBI NIR was more sensitive to all of the agronomic data for overall season, including the early reproductive stages. VARI had an especially high correlation with LAI, unless yellow panicles appeared in the field of view.

Sakamoto, Toshihiro; Shibayama, Michio; Kimura, Akihiko; Takada, Eiji

2011-11-01

132

A vision-based tool for the control of hydraulic structures in sewer systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During rain events, the total amount of the wastewater/storm-water mixture cannot be treated in the wastewater treatment plant; the overflowed water goes directly into the environment (lakes, rivers, streams) via devices called combined sewers overflows (CSOs). This water is untreated and is recognized as an important source of pollution. In most cases, the quantity of overflowed water is unknown due to high hydraulic turbulences during rain events; this quantity is often significant. For this reason, the monitoring of the water flow and the water level is of crucial environmental importance. Robust monitoring of sewer systems is a challenging task to achieve. Indeed, the environment inside sewers systems is inherently harsh and hostile: constant humidity of 100%, fast and large water level changes, corrosive atmosphere, presence of gas, difficult access, solid debris inside the flow. A flow monitoring based on traditional probes placed inside the water (such as Doppler flow meter) is difficult to conduct because of the solid material transported by the flow. Probes placed outside the flow such as ultrasonic water level probes are often used; however the measurement is generally done on only one particular point. Experience has shown that the water level in CSOs during rain events is far from being constant due to hydraulic turbulences. Thus, such probes output uncertain information. Moreover, a check of the data reliability is impossible to achieve. The HydroPix system proposes a novel approach to the monitoring of sewers based on video images, without contact with the water flow. The goal of this system is to provide a monitoring tool for wastewater system managers (end-users). The hardware was chosen in order to suit the harsh conditions of sewers system: Cameras are 100% waterproof and corrosion-resistant; Infra-red LED illumination systems are used (waterproof, low power consumption); A waterproof case contains the registration and communication system. The monitoring software has the following requirements: visual analysis of particular hydraulic behavior, automatic vision-based flow measurements, automatic alarm system for particular events (overflows, risk of flooding, etc), database for data management (images, events, measurements, etc.), ability to be controlled remotely. The software is implemented in modular server/client architecture under LabVIEW development system. We have conducted conclusive in situ tests in various sewers configurations (CSOs, storm-water sewerage, WWTP); they have shown the ability of the HydroPix to perform accurate monitoring of hydraulic structures. Visual information demonstrated a better understanding of the flow behavior in complex and difficult environment.

Nguyen, L.; Sage, D.; Kayal, S.; Jeanbourquin, D.; Rossi, L.

2009-04-01

133

The Fukushima disaster and Japan's nuclear plant vulnerability in comparative perspective.  

PubMed

We consider the vulnerability of nuclear power plants to a disaster like the one that occurred at Fukushima Daiichi. Examination of Japanese nuclear plants affected by the earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011 shows that three variables were crucial at the early stages of the crisis: plant elevation, sea wall elevation, and location and status of backup generators. Higher elevations for these variables, or waterproof protection of backup generators, could have mitigated or prevented the disaster. We collected information on these variables, along with historical data on run-up heights, for 89 coastal nuclear power plants in the world. The data shows that 1. Japanese plants were relatively unprotected against potential inundation in international comparison, but there was considerable variation for power plants within and outside of Japan; 2. Older power plants and plants owned by the largest utility companies appear to have been particularly unprotected. PMID:23679069

Lipscy, Phillip Y; Kushida, Kenji E; Incerti, Trevor

2013-06-18

134

Invisible photonic printing: computer designing graphics, UV printing and shown by a magnetic field.  

PubMed

Invisible photonic printing, an emerging printing technique, is particularly useful for steganography and watermarking for anti-counterfeiting purposes. However, many challenges exist in order to realize this technique. Herein, we describe a novel photonic printing strategy targeting to overcome these challenges and realize fast and convenient fabrication of invisible photonic prints with good tenability and reproducibility. With this novel photonic printing technique, a variety of graphics with brilliant colors can be perfectly hidden in a soft and waterproof photonic-paper. The showing and hiding of the latent photonic prints are instantaneous with magnet as the only required instrument. In addition, this strategy has excellent practicality and allows end-user control of the structural design utilizing simple software on a PC. PMID:23508071

Hu, Haibo; Tang, Jian; Zhong, Hao; Xi, Zheng; Chen, Changle; Chen, Qianwang

2013-01-01

135

Invisible photonic printing: computer designing graphics, UV printing and shown by a magnetic field  

PubMed Central

Invisible photonic printing, an emerging printing technique, is particularly useful for steganography and watermarking for anti-counterfeiting purposes. However, many challenges exist in order to realize this technique. Herein, we describe a novel photonic printing strategy targeting to overcome these challenges and realize fast and convenient fabrication of invisible photonic prints with good tenability and reproducibility. With this novel photonic printing technique, a variety of graphics with brilliant colors can be perfectly hidden in a soft and waterproof photonic-paper. The showing and hiding of the latent photonic prints are instantaneous with magnet as the only required instrument. In addition, this strategy has excellent practicality and allows end-user control of the structural design utilizing simple software on a PC. PMID:23508071

Hu, Haibo; Tang, Jian; Zhong, Hao; Xi, Zheng; Chen, Changle; Chen, Qianwang

2013-01-01

136

Detail view of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery Discovery showing the thermal protection system components with the white Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFSI) Blanket and the black High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (HRSI) tiles along the outer edges . The marks seen on the HRSI tiles are injection point marks and holes for the application of waterproofing material. This view also a good detailed view of the two-piece rudder which is used to control the yaw position of orbiter on approach and landing in earth's atmosphere and upon landing the two-piece rudder splays open to both sides of the stabilizer to act as an air brake to help slow the craft to a stop. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

137

Detail view of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery looking at the two-piece rudder which is used to control the yaw position of orbiter on approach and landing in earth's atmosphere and upon landing the two-piece rudder splays open to both sides of the stabilizer to act as an air brake to help slow the craft to a stop. Note the thermal protection system components with the white Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation Blanket and the black High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation tiles along the outer edges (HRSI tiles). The marks seen on the HRSI tiles are injection point marks and holes for the application of waterproofing material. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

138

Closeup view of the exterior of the starboard side of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Close-up view of the exterior of the starboard side of the forward fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking at the forward facing observation windows of the flight deck. Note the High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (HRSI) surrounding the window openings, the Low-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (LRSI) immediately beyond the HRSI tiles and the Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation blankets just beyond the LRSI tiles. The holes in the tiles are injection points for the application of waterproofing material. The windows are composed of redundant pressure window panes of thermal glass. This image was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

139

Green Roofs: Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Federal Technology Alert  

SciTech Connect

In a ''green roof,'' a layer of vegetation (e.g., a roof garden) covers the surface of a roof to provide shade, cooler indoor and outdoor temperatures, and effective storm-water management to reduce runoff. The main components are waterproofing, soil, and plants. There are two basic kinds: intensive and extensive. An intensive green roof often features large shrubs and trees, and it can be expensive to install and maintain. An extensive green roof features shallow soil and low-growing, horizontally spreading plants that can thrive in the alpine conditions of many rooftops. These plants do not require a lot of water or soil, and they can tolerate a significant amount of exposure to the sun and wind. This Federal Technology Alert focuses on the benefits, design, and implementation of extensive green roofs and includes criteria for their use on federal facilities.

Scholz-Barth, K.; Tanner, S.

2004-09-01

140

Development of CVD diamond detectors for clinical dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) methods for the manufacture of diamonds could lead to detectors for high-resolution radiotherapy dosimetry that are cheaper and more reproducible than detectors based on natural diamonds. In this work two prototype designs (Diamond Detectors Ltd, Poole) of CVD diamond detectors were considered. The detectors were encapsulated in a water-proof housing in a form-factor that would be suitable for dosimetry measurements in water, as well as solid material phantoms. Stability of the dosimeter over time, the dose-response, dose-rate response and angular-response were examined. The study demonstrated that the detector behaviour conformed with theory in terms of the dose-rate response and had acceptable properties for use in the clinic.

Piliero, M. A.; Hugtenburg, R. P.; Ryde, S. J. S.; Oliver, K.

2014-11-01

141

Integrated residential photovoltaic array development. Quarterly report No. 2  

SciTech Connect

The results of a selection process to define the conceptual design of an optimum integrated residential photovoltaic module array are discussed. Three basic module design concepts have been analyzed with respect to both production and installation costs. The results of this evaluation have been used to synthesize a fourth design which incorporates the best features of these initial concepts to produce a module/array design approach which offers the promise of a substantial reduction in the installed cost of a residential array. A unique waterproofing and mounting scheme has been used to reduce the cost of installing an integral array while still maintaining a high probability that the installed array will be watertight for the design lifetime of the system. This recommended concept will also permit the array to be mounted as a direct or stand-off installation with no changes to the module design.

Shepard, N.F. Jr.

1981-05-18

142

EIFS -- Surface-sealed wall systems that need flashings  

SciTech Connect

An exterior insulation and finish system (EIFS) is typically designed as a surface-sealed, barrier wall. Water leakage can occur through these wall systems at failed sealant joints and openings in the EIFS lamina, or from other components of the wall such as windows, HVAC through-wall units, etc. The reliability of a traditional EIFS wall can be improved by providing flashings to capture and control water that penetrates at vulnerable areas. Some recent EIFS innovations provide additional protection against water penetration by incorporating backup waterproofing membranes into the system. Proper flashing design becomes critical for these products to perform as intended by the manufacturer. This paper describes the basic considerations of flashing design for EIFS and concentrates on material selection, compatibility, durability, workmanship, and design. A workable flashing system requires a careful balance of these properties.

Nelson, P.E.; Waltz, M.E. Jr. [Simpson Gumpertz and Heger Inc., Arlington, MA (United States). Building Technology Div.

1996-12-31

143

[Photography of the endoscopic picture with a consumer-grade digital camera].  

PubMed

In spite of the progress of digital camera technology, photography of the endoscopic picture, with a digital still camera, has not spread in the urologic setting. We attempted to photograph an endoscopic picture with a consumer-grade digital camera. An attachment was produced by pasting step-up rings for digital cameras on a coupler, or eye piece, for endoscopes. An endoscope lens, attachment, and the digital camera were connected, and the endoscopic picture was photographed. The endoscopic picture taken with the digital still camera was high definition compared to the one with the video camera for endoscopes. The conditions of the digital camera, which can be used, require having mounting threads for filters on the lens. Although a way of sterilizing and waterproofing a camera must first be discovered, a digital still camera enables one to obtain a high-definition image inexpensively, and to store and arrange the picture. PMID:14531276

Kakizaki, Hiroshi; Kunii, Takuya; Kato, Tomoyuki; Tomita, Yoshihiko

2003-09-01

144

Development of processing techniques for advanced thermal protection materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main purpose of this work has been in the development and characterization of materials for high temperature applications. Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) are constantly being tested, and evaluated for increased thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental effects. Materials development was carried out through the use of many different instruments and methods, ranging from extensive elemental analysis to physical attributes testing. The six main focus areas include: (1) protective coatings for carbon/carbon composites; (2) TPS material characterization; (3) improved waterproofing for TPS; (4) modified ceramic insulation for bone implants; (5) improved durability ceramic insulation blankets; and (6) ultra-high temperature ceramics. This report describes the progress made in these research areas during this contract period.

Selvaduray, Guna S.

1995-01-01

145

Characterization by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of diterpenoid resinous materials in Roman-age amphorae from northern Greece.  

PubMed

A combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry approach has been used for the characterization of two lumps of resin and 17 adsorbed residues on Roman-age vessels, mainly amphorae, from northern Greece. The data show that a diterpenic resin from plants of the Pinacae family is the main component of the tarry material associated with the analyzed archaeological samples. The identification and mass spectrometric fragmentation of several characteristic diterpenoid biomarkers is discussed. The abundance of secondary products identified in the archaeological samples suggests that the oxidative degradation of abietic acid and dehydroabietic acid to aromatic products was the main pathway. Of particular interest is the presence of characteristic saturated abietane hydrocarbons in one sample, which indicate that a reductive process also occurred on a small scale. The overall similarity in the composition of the residues suggests the common use of pine tar as a waterproofing and sealing agent at different sites in northern Greece during the Roman period. PMID:22274948

Dimitrakoudi, Evagelia A; Mitkidou, Sofia A; Urem-Kotsou, Dushka; Kotsakis, Kostas; Stephanidou-Stephanatou, Julia; Stratis, John A

2011-01-01

146

Local drainage analyses of the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants during an extreme storm  

SciTech Connect

Local drainage analyses have been performed for the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants during an extreme storm having an approximate 10,000-yr recurrence interval. This review discusses the methods utilized to accomplish the analyses in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) design and evaluation guidelines, and summarizes trends, results, generalizations, and uncertainties applicable to other DOE facilities. Results indicate that some culverts may be undersized, and that the storm sewer system cannot drain the influx of precipitation from the base of buildings. Roofs have not been designed to sustain ponding when the primary drainage system is clogged. Some underground tunnels, building entrances, and ground level air intakes may require waterproofing.

Johnson, R.O.; Wang, J.C.; Lee, D.W.

1993-11-01

147

The testing of balloon fabrics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes methods and materials used in waterproofing and fireproofing airplane fabrics using dopes. The determination of the probable life of a balloon fabric in service by experimental means is of great value in choosing the most suitable fabrics for a given purpose and in pointing the way to improvements in compounding and construction. The usefulness of exposure to the weather for this purpose has been amply demonstrated. Various attempts have been made to reproduce by artificial means the conditions promoting deterioration in service, but without marked success. Exposure to the weather remains the most satisfactory method for this purpose, and a consideration of the characteristics of such tests is therefore important. This report presents the results of a typical series of exposure tests made in 1917.

Edwards, Junius David; Moore, Irwin L

1920-01-01

148

[Work and mental health: risk groups].  

PubMed

Analysis of the Quebec Health survey identified those Quebec industrial sectors and professions in which workers are at risk of higher psychological distress and lower psychological well-being. Risk levels were measured by odds ratio, controlling for: health status, sex, social support and stressful life events. Results show that those at risk are blue collar workers and less qualified workers of traditional sectors. Lower job latitude could explain those results. Results show that risk of mental health problems is significantly higher in the following industrial sectors: leather, chemicals, paint and varnish industries; urban bus transport and taxi; shoe, clothing and textile retail stores; department stores; restaurant services; insurance and public administration (excluding defence). Risk of mental health problems is higher in the following professions road transport (excluding truck drivers); textile, leather, fur manufacturing and repairing; housekeeping and maintenance; painters, tapestry-workers, insulation and waterproofing, food and beverages sector; data processors; editors and university professors. PMID:8753644

Vézina, M; Gingras, S

1996-01-01

149

Tolerance requires the right smell: first evidence for interspecific selection on chemical recognition cues.  

PubMed

The integument of insects is generally covered with cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC). They serve multiple functions, most prominent among them waterproofing and-especially among social insects-as communication signal. CHC profiles are incredibly diverse within and across species. However, the causes for CHC variation between species, and potential selection pressures that may shape CHC profiles, are hardly understood. Here, we investigated potential selection pressures on ant CHC. We tested the hypotheses that living in association with another species (e.g., parabiosis), and the climate of the ant's habitat, affect CHC composition. We conducted a large-scale comparison of 37 Camponotus species from five continents. Our results demonstrate that closely associated ant species possess significantly longer hydrocarbons and higher proportions of methylbranched alkenes and alkadienes than non- or loosely associated species. In contrast, climatic factors had no effects. This study shows that the need to be tolerated by another species greatly affects CHC profiles. PMID:22380448

Menzel, Florian; Schmitt, Thomas

2012-03-01

150

Director's Discretionary Fund Report for Fiscal Year 1996  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics covered include: Waterproofing the Space Shuttle tiles, thermal protection system for Reusable Launch Vehicles, computer modeling of the thermal conductivity of cometary ice, effects of ozone depletion and ultraviolet radiation on plants, a novel telemetric biosensor to monitor blood pH on-line, ion mobility in polymer electrolytes for lithium-polymer batteries, a microwave-pumped far infrared photoconductor, and a new method for measuring cloud liquid vapor using near infrared remote sensing. Also included: laser-spectroscopic instrument for turbulence measurement, remote sensing of aircraft contrails using a field portable imaging interferometer, development of a silicon-micromachined gas chromatography system for determination of planetary surface composition, planar Doppler velocimetry, chaos in interstellar chemistry, and a limited pressure cycle engine for high-speed output.

1997-01-01

151

A Robust Uniaxial Force Sensor for Minimally Invasive Surgery  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a novel miniature uniaxial force sensor for use within a beating heart during mitral valve annuloplasty. The sensor measures 5.5 mm in diameter and 12 mm in length and provides a hollow core to pass instrumentation. A soft elastomer flexure design maintains a waterproof seal. Fiber optic transduction eliminates electrical circuitry within the heart, and acetal components minimize ultrasound-imaging artifacts. Calibration uses a nonlinear viscoelastic method, and in vitro tests demonstrate a 0–4-N force range with rms errors of 0.13 N (<3.2%). In vivo tests provide the first endocardial measurements of tissue-minimally invasive surgery instrument interaction forces in a beating heart. PMID:20172798

Yip, Michael C.; Yuen, Shelten G.; Howe, Robert D.

2010-01-01

152

Impacts of Some Building Design Parameters on Heat Pump Applications  

E-print Network

mortar 0,02 1 0,493 3 Porous light brick 0,19 0,23 8 Extruded polystyrene foam 0,04 0,04 2 Cement mortar 0,02 1,6 Ceiling 1 (Pitched Roof-with roof space) 7 Glass wool 0,13 0,04 0,283 4 Concrete slab 0,12 2,5 1 Lime mortar 0,02 1 Ceiling 2... (Flat Roof) 14 Gravel 0,05 0,7 0,291 11 Felt 0,007 0,19 8 Extruded polystyrene foam 0,12 0,04 10 Polymer Bituminous waterproofing 0,007 0,19 5 Light weight concrete for slopes 0,8 1,65 4 Concrete slab 0,12 2,5 1 Lime mortar 0,02 1 Floor...

Erdim, B.; Manioglu, G.

2011-01-01

153

Underwater manipulator  

SciTech Connect

This invention is comprised of a self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus provided for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer {plus_minus} 45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer {plus_minus} 10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.

1992-12-31

154

NETC: New England Transportation Consortium annual report for calendar year 1998. Transportation innovations and improvements for the future  

SciTech Connect

Partial contents include: Introduction; 1998 Accomplishments; Progress of Active Projects; Tire Chips as Lightweight Backfill for Retaining Walls, Phase 2: Full-Scale Testing; Bridge Rail Crash Test, Phase 2: Sidewalk-Mounted System; Structural Analysis of New England Subbase Materials and Structures; Nondestructive Testing of Reinforced Concrete Bridges; Using Radar Imaging Techniques; Procedures for The Evaluation of Sheet Membrane Waterproofing; Durability of Concrete Crack Repair Systems; Use of Tire Chips/Soil Mixtures to Limit Frost Heave and Pavement Damage of Paved Roads; Suitability of Non-Hydric Soils for Wetland Mitigation; Implementation and Evaluation of Traffic Marking Recesses for Application of Thermoplastic Pavement Markings on Modified Open Graded Mixes; Buried Joints in Short Span Bridges; Implementation of Superpave; Optimizing GPS Use in Transportation Projects; Effectiveness of Fiber Reinforced Composites as Structural and Protective Coverings for Bridge Elements Exposed to Deicing-Salt Chlorides; A Portable Method to Determine Chloride.

NONE

1999-01-01

155

Modular, multi-level groundwater sampler  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for taking a multiple of samples of groundwater or pressure measurements from a well simultaneously. The apparatus comprises a series of chambers arranged in an axial array, each of which is dimensioned to fit into a perforated well casing and leave a small gap between the well casing and the exterior of the chamber. Seals at each end of the container define the limits to the axial portion of the well to be sampled. A submersible pump in each chamber pumps the groundwater that passes through the well casing perforations into the gap from the gap to the surface for analysis. The power lines and hoses for the chambers farther down the array pass through each chamber above them in the array. The seals are solid, water-proof, non-reactive, resilient disks supported to engage the inside surface of the well casing. Because of the modular design, the apparatus provides flexibility for use in a variety of well configurations.

Nichols, Ralph L. (812 Plantation Point Dr., N. Augusta, SC 29841); Widdowson, Mark A. (4204 Havana Ct., Columbia, SC 29206); Mullinex, Harry (10 Cardross La., Columbia, SC 29209); Orne, William H. (12 Martha Ct., Sumter, SC 29150); Looney, Brian B. (1135 Ridgemont Dr., Aiken, SC 29803)

1994-01-01

156

The NAVI-2: A ruggedized portable radiation analyzer  

SciTech Connect

The NAVI-2 is a rugged, lightweight, and waterproof portable radiation analyzer developed by the Advanced Nuclear Technology group at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It was originally developed for a specific application: performing confirmatory measurements on plutonium removed from dismantled nuclear weapons as part of the O`Leary-Mikhailov mutual reciprocal inspections agreement. Since that time the hardware has stabilized into a mature package while several additional software packages have been developed. Now, in addition to the original software for performing confirmatory measurements, software is available that will allow the NAVI-2 to be used for scanning of extended sources, searching for hidden sources, and monitoring of items in a portal monitoring sense. This report will provide hardware and software details for owners and users of the NAVI-2.

Murray, W.S.; Butterfield, K.B.; Frankle, C.M.

1996-01-01

157

Development and Characterization of CPI Surface Insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new type of reusable surface material that could find application as a component of the thermal protection system of the space shuttle orbiter is discussed. These materials consist of 20-30% dense closed cell high emittance glass ceramic foams formulated by sintering an intimate mixture of fly ash cenospheres with 4-12 wt % cobalt oxide. These unique ceramic foams exhibit: (1) High mechanical strengths; (2) no need for waterproof coating due to the non-interconnecting cell network; (3) high emissivities; (4) ability to withstand space shuttle thermal environments with no loss of reuse capability; and (5) a machinable ceramic with capability of maintaining the close tolerances required of an integrated heat shield system.

Tobin, A.; Feldman, C.; Reichman, J.; Russak, M.; Varisco, A.

1973-01-01

158

Magnetic inclination measurement and signal transmission system for trench wall constructions  

SciTech Connect

A NdFeB permanent magnet pendulum varies the output voltage of a semiconductor Hall-effect potentiometer. The angle dependent dc-voltage is converted into a signal of variable frequency (2--15kHz). The angle sensors, the electronic circuits, and batteries are mounted in water-proof (20bar) and shock protected (100g) cases on the gripper. It is operated by two steel cables which are used for the signal transmission by enclosing ring-core transformers of high initial permeability. The received angular information is decoded by a microprocessor and displayed together with the excavation depth on a screen in the operation cabin of the excavator. The measurement system provides an angular resolution of 5 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] degrees and an absolute accuracy of 7 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] degrees at [+-]2 degrees total range.

Vorlicek, K.; Hauser, H.; Franz, M. (Technische Univ. Wien, Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik)

1994-11-01

159

The application of PCMMcs and SiC by commercially direct dual-complex coating on textile polymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To enhance the thermal insulation effect, waterproof/breathable fabrics were directly top dual-coated by the dry coating method with ceramic materials (silicon carbide, SiC). The fabric was base coated by the wet coating method with 5 wt% phase-change material microcapsules (PCMMcs) and tested for the emission of far-infrared (FIR) radiation. With increasing SiC content, the fabric altered some of the physical properties by increasing the FIR emissivity, emission power, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) and heat release capacity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed the presence of the PCMMcs and SiC particles at the cross-section and surface of the coating, respectively, which exhibited a rugged and blocky shape. The results indicated that SiC addition did not affect the water entry pressure (WEP) in the fabric structure, but did alter the following physical properties: WVTR, interactions between the macromolecule chains and the susceptibility to humidity.

Koo, Kang; Choe, Jongdeok; Park, Youngmi

2009-07-01

160

Development of strain gages for use to 1311 K (1900 F)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high temperature electric resistance strain gage system was developed and evaluated to 1366 K (2000 F) for periods of at least one hour. Wire fabricated from a special high temperature strain gage alloy (BCL-3), was used to fabricate the gages. Various joining techniques (NASA butt welding, pulse arc, plasma needle arc, and dc parallel gap welding) were investigated for joining gage filaments to each other, gage filaments to lead-tab ribbons, and lead-tab ribbons to lead wires. The effectiveness of a clad-wire concept as a means of minimizing apparent strain of BCL-3 strain gages was investigated by sputtering platinum coatings of varying thicknesses on wire samples and establishing the optimum coating thickness--in terms of minimum resistivity changes with temperature. Finally, the moisture-proofing effectiveness of barrier coatings subjected to elevated temperatures was studied, and one commercial barrier coating (BLH Barrier H Waterproofing) was evaluated.

Lemcoe, M. M.

1974-01-01

161

Development of Heat-resistant XLPE Cable and Accessories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed heat-resistant XLPE cable and accessories that can be operated at 105°C as the maximum permissible conductor temperature in normal operation. Through this cable system, greater transmission capacity can be achieved using existing cable ducts and without increasing the conductor size of the cable. We have developed heat-resistant XLPE insulation material which has a higher melting point than that of conventional XLPE. The breakdown strength of heat-resistant XLPE cable at 105°C is almost the same as that of conventional XLPE cable at 90°C. The heat deformation of the new cable at 105°C is almost the same as that of conventional XLPE cable at 90°C. Conventional self-pressurized rubber joints can be applied to heat-resistant cable lines with the new waterproof joint compound with low heat resistivity.

Yamada, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Murata, Yoshinao; Kishi, Kouji; Katakai, Shoshi

162

A novel backpackable ice-penetrating radar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a novel ice-penetrating radar system that can be carried on a backpack. Including batteries for a 3 hour continuous measurement, the total weight is 13 kg. In addition, it operates reliably down to -25°C, has a low power consumption of 24 W, and is semi-waterproof. The system has a built-in-one controller with a high-brightness display for reading data quickly, a receiver with 12-bit digitizing, and a 1 kV pulse transmitter in which the pulse amplitude varies by <0.2%. Optical communications between components provides low-noise data acquisition and allows synchronizing of the pulse transmission with sampling. Measurements with the system revealed the 300 m deep bed topography of a temperate valley glacier in the late ablation season.

Matsuoka, Kenichi; Saito, Ryoji; Naruse, Renji

163

Expression of a fungal sterol desaturase improves tomato drought tolerance, pathogen resistance and nutritional quality  

PubMed Central

Crop genetic engineering mostly aims at improving environmental stress (biotic and abiotic) tolerance as well as nutritional quality. Empowering a single crop with multiple traits is highly demanding and requires manipulation of more than one gene. However, we report improved drought tolerance and fungal resistance along with the increased iron and polyunsaturated fatty acid content in tomato by expressing a single gene encoding C-5 sterol desaturase (FvC5SD) from an edible fungus Flammulina velutipes. FvC5SD is an iron binding protein involved in ergosterol biosynthesis. Morphological and biochemical analyses indicated ?23% more epicuticular wax deposition in leaves of transgenic plants that provides an effective waterproof barrier resulting in improved protection from drought and infection by phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Furthermore, the transgenic fruits have improved nutritional value attributed to enhanced level of beneficial PUFA and 2-3 fold increase in total iron content. This strategy can be extended to other economically important crops. PMID:23230516

Kamthan, Ayushi; Kamthan, Mohan; Azam, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

2012-01-01

164

Methods for characterizing subsurface volatile contaminants using in-situ sensors  

DOEpatents

An inverse analysis method for characterizing diffusion of vapor from an underground source of volatile contaminant using data taken by an in-situ sensor. The method uses one-dimensional solutions to the diffusion equation in Cartesian, cylindrical, or spherical coordinates for isotropic and homogenous media. If the effective vapor diffusion coefficient is known, then the distance from the source to the in-situ sensor can be estimated by comparing the shape of the predicted time-dependent vapor concentration response curve to the measured response curve. Alternatively, if the source distance is known, then the effective vapor diffusion coefficient can be estimated using the same inverse analysis method. A triangulation technique can be used with multiple sensors to locate the source in two or three dimensions. The in-situ sensor can contain one or more chemiresistor elements housed in a waterproof enclosure with a gas permeable membrane.

Ho, Clifford K. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-02-21

165

Pritt Tak: another hazard of grommets and swimming.  

PubMed

There is argument about whether, whilst swimming, water should be excluded from ears which have middle ear ventilation tubes in place in the tympanic membrane. The adhesive putty substance BLU-TACK (registered Trade Mark, Bostik Ltd, Leicester, England, LE4 6BW) has been suggested as an effective ear plug for this purpose. A case is described in which an alternative adhesive putty substance was used as a waterproof plug. The result was that the plug became semi-solid and impossible to remove without the use of micro instruments and removal would have required general anaesthetic in a less co-operative patient. Patients should be warned of this risk. PMID:3209940

Clark, D R

1988-11-01

166

Development of a measurement system for the online inspection of microstructured surfaces in harsh industrial conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microscopic imaging techniques are usually applied for the inspection of microstructured surfaces. These techniques require clean measurement conditions. Soilings, e.g. dust or splashing liquids, can disturb the measurement process or even damage instruments. Since these soilings occur in the majority of manufacturing processes, microscopic inspection usually must be carried out in a separate laboratory. We present a measurement system which allows for a microscopic inspection and a 3D reconstruction of microstructured surfaces in harsh industrial conditions. The measurement system also enables precise positioning, e.g. of a grinding wheel, with an accuracy of 5 ?m. The main component of the measurement system is a CCD camera with a high-magnification telecentric lens. By means of this camera it is even possible to measure structures with dimensions in the range of 30 to 50 ?m. The camera and the lens are integrated into a waterproof and dustproof enclosure. The inspection window of the enclosure has an air curtain which serves as a splash guard. The workpiece illumination is crucial in order to obtain good measurement results. The measuring system includes high-power LEDs which are integrated in a waterproof enclosure. The measurement system also includes a laser with a specially designed lens system to form an extremely narrow light section on the workpiece surface. It is possible to obtain a line width of 25 ?m. This line and the camera with the high-magnification telecentric lens are used to perform a laser triangulation of the microstructured surface. This paper describes the system as well as the development and evaluation of the software for the automatic positioning of the workpiece and the automatic three-dimensional surface analysis.

Mueller, Thomas; Langmann, Benjamin; Reithmeier, Eduard

2014-05-01

167

Functional properties of whey protein and its application in nanocomposite materials and functional foods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whey is a byproduct of cheese making; whey proteins are globular proteins which can be modified and polymerized to add functional benefits, these benefits can be both nutritional and structural in foods. Modified proteins can be used in non-foods, being of particular interest in polymer films and coatings. Food packaging materials, including plastics, can linings, interior coatings of paper containers, and beverage cap sealing materials, are generally made of synthetic petroleum based compounds. These synthetic materials may pose a potential human health risk due to presence of certain chemicals such as Bisphenol A (BPA). They also add to environmental pollution, being difficult to degrade. Protein-based materials do not have the same issues as synthetics and so can be used as alternatives in many packaging types. As proteins are generally hydrophilic they must be modified structurally and their performance enhanced by the addition of waterproofing agents. Polymerization of whey proteins results in a network, adding both strength and flexibility. The most interesting of the food-safe waterproofing agents are the (large aspect ratio) nanoclays. Nanoclays are relatively inexpensive, widely available and have low environmental impact. The clay surface can be modified to make it organophilic and so compatible with organic polymers. The objective of this study is the use of polymerized whey protein (PWP), with reinforcing nanoclays, to produce flexible surface coatings which limit the transfer of contents while maintaining food safety. Four smectite and kaolin type clays, one treated and three natural were assessed for strengthening qualities and the potential waterproofing and plasticizing benefits of other additives were also analyzed. The nutritional benefits of whey proteins can also be used to enhance the protein content of various foodstuffs. Drinkable yogurt is a popular beverage in the US and other countries and is considered a functional food, especially when produced with probiotic bacteria. Carbonation was applied to a drinkable yogurt to enhance its benefits. This process helps reduce the oxygen levels in the foodstuff thus potentially being advantageous to the microaerophilic probiotic bacteria while simultaneously producing a product, somewhat similar to kefir, which has the potential to fill a niche in the functional foods market. Yogurt was combined with a syrup to reduce its viscosity, making it drinkable, and also to allow infusion of CO2. This dilution reduced the protein content of the drink and so whey protein concentrate was added to increase levels in the final product. High-methoxyl pectins were used to provide stability by reducing the tendency of the proteins to sediment out. The objectives of this study were to develop a manufacturing technology for drinkable carbonated symbiotic yogurts, and to evaluate their physicochemical properties. Two flavors of yogurt drink, pomegranate and vanilla, were formulated containing inulin as prebiotic, along with probiotic bacteria, producing symbiotic dairy beverages.

Walsh, Helen

168

Skin structure and cornification proteins in the soft-shelled turtle Trionyx spiniferus.  

PubMed

In contrast to most chelonians, the fully aquatic soft-shelled turtles have a smooth, unscaled, and pliable shell. The skin of the shell, tail, limbs, and neck of juveniles of Trionyx spiniferus has been studied by ultrastructural, immunocytochemical, and immunoblotting methods. The epidermis of the carapace and plastron has a thick corneous layer composed of alpha-corneocytes surrounded by a cornified cell envelope. The softer epidermis is similar to that of the shell but the epidermis and corneous layer are much thinner. Pre-corneous cells in both soft and shell epidermis are rich in vesicles produced in the Golgi apparatus and smooth endoplasmic vesicles, and contain numerous dense-core mucus-like and vesicular (lamellar) bodies. Secreted material is present among corneocytes where it probably forms an extensive intercellular lipid-mucus waterproof barrier. The dermis is very thick and composed of several layers of collagen bundles that form a plywood-patterned dermis. This dermis constitutes a strong mechanical barrier that compensates for the low content in beta-keratin, and lack of cornified scutes and dermal bones. The growth of the shell mainly occurs along the lateral margins. Immunocytochemistry reveals the presence of some beta-keratin in soft and shell epidermis, and this is confirmed by immunoblotting where bands at 18 and 32-35 kDa are present. Other proteins of the cornified cell envelope (loricrin and sciellin) or associated to lipid trafficking (caveolin-1) are also detected by immunoblotting. Loricrin positive bands at 24 and 57 kDa are present while bands cross-reactive for sciellin are seen at 45 and 53 kDa. Caveolin-1 positive bands are seen at 21-22 kDa. The presence of these proteins indicates that the epidermis is both coriaceous and waterproof. These results suggest that the shell of Trionyx is tough enough to be as mechanically efficient as the hard shell of the other turtles. At the same time, a soft shell is lighter, its shape is more easily controlled by muscles, and it allows a more controlled closure and retraction of limbs and neck inside the shell. Thus, the shell makes the animal more streamlined for swimming. PMID:16600580

Alibardi, Lorenzo; Toni, Mattia

2006-01-01

169

Measure Guideline: Water Management at Tub and Shower Assemblies  

SciTech Connect

Due to the high concentrations of water and the consequential risk of water damage to the home's structure a comprehensive water management system is imperative to protect the building assemblies underlying the finish surround of tub and shower areas. This guide shows how to install fundamental waterproofing strategies to prevent water related issues at shower and tub areas. When conducting a total gut rehab of a structure or constructing a new home, best practice installation and detailing for effective waterproofing are critically important at bathtub and shower assemblies. Water management issues in a structure may go unrecognized for long periods, so that when they are finally observed, the damage from long-term water exposure is extensive. A gut rehab is often undertaken when a home has experienced a natural disaster or when the homeowners are interested in converting an old, high-energy-use building into a high-quality, efficient structure that meets or exceeds one of the national energy standards, such as ENERGY STAR or LEED for homes. During a gut rehab, bath areas need to be replaced with diligent attention to detail. Employing effective water management practices in the installation and detailing of tub and shower assemblies will minimize or eliminate water issues within the building cavities and on the finished surfaces. A residential tub-and-shower surround or shower-stall assembly is designed to handle a high volume of water - 2.5 gallons per minute, with multiple baths occurring during a typical day. Transitions between dissimilar materials and connections between multiple planes must be installed with care to avoid creating a pathway for water to enter the building assemblies. Due to the high volume of water and the consequential risk of water damage to the home's structure, a comprehensive water management system is imperative to protect the building assemblies underlying the finish surround of tub and shower areas. At each stage of construction, successive trades must take care not to create a defect nor to compound or cover up a previous trade's defect. Covering a defect hides the inevitable point of failure and may even exacerbate the situation.

Dickson, B.

2011-12-01

170

Lightweight, Miniature Inertial Measurement System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A miniature, lighter-weight, and highly accurate inertial navigation system (INS) is coupled with GPS receivers to provide stable and highly accurate positioning, attitude, and inertial measurements while being subjected to highly dynamic maneuvers. In contrast to conventional methods that use extensive, groundbased, real-time tracking and control units that are expensive, large, and require excessive amounts of power to operate, this method focuses on the development of an estimator that makes use of a low-cost, miniature accelerometer array fused with traditional measurement systems and GPS. Through the use of a position tracking estimation algorithm, onboard accelerometers are numerically integrated and transformed using attitude information to obtain an estimate of position in the inertial frame. Position and velocity estimates are subject to drift due to accelerometer sensor bias and high vibration over time, and so require the integration with GPS information using a Kalman filter to provide highly accurate and reliable inertial tracking estimations. The method implemented here uses the local gravitational field vector. Upon determining the location of the local gravitational field vector relative to two consecutive sensors, the orientation of the device may then be estimated, and the attitude determined. Improved attitude estimates further enhance the inertial position estimates. The device can be powered either by batteries, or by the power source onboard its target platforms. A DB9 port provides the I/O to external systems, and the device is designed to be mounted in a waterproof case for all-weather conditions.

Tang, Liang; Crassidis, Agamemnon

2012-01-01

171

Underground Water Cherenkov Muon Detector Array with the Tibet Air Shower Array for Gamma-Ray Astronomy in the 100 TeV Region  

E-print Network

We propose to build a large water-Cherenkov-type muon-detector array (Tibet MD array) around the 37,000 m$^{2}$ Tibet air shower array (Tibet AS array) already constructed at 4,300 m above sea level in Tibet, China. Each muon detector is a waterproof concrete pool, 6 m wide $\\times$ 6 m long $\\times$ 1.5 m deep in size, equipped with a 20 inch-in-diameter PMT. The Tibet MD array consists of 240 muon detectors set up 2.5 m underground. Its total effective area will be 8,640 m$^{2}$ for muon detection. The Tibet MD array will significantly improve gamma-ray sensitivity of the Tibet AS array in the 100 TeV region (10-1000 TeV) by means of gamma/hadron separation based on counting the number of muons accompanying an air shower. The Tibet AS+MD array will have the sensitivity to gamma rays in the 100 TeV region by an order of magnitude better than any other previous existing detectors in the world.

The Tibet AS Gamma Collaboration; M. Amenomori

2006-11-01

172

Underground Water Cherenkov Muon Detector Array with the Tibet Air Shower Array for Gamma-Ray Astronomy in the 100 TeV Region  

E-print Network

We propose to build a large water-Cherenkov-type muon-detector array (Tibet MD array) around the 37,000 m$^{2}$ Tibet air shower array (Tibet AS array) already constructed at 4,300 m above sea level in Tibet, China. Each muon detector is a waterproof concrete pool, 6 m wide $\\times$ 6 m long $\\times$ 1.5 m deep in size, equipped with a 20 inch-in-diameter PMT. The Tibet MD array consists of 240 muon detectors set up 2.5 m underground. Its total effective area will be 8,640 m$^{2}$ for muon detection. The Tibet MD array will significantly improve gamma-ray sensitivity of the Tibet AS array in the 100 TeV region (10-1000 TeV) by means of gamma/hadron separation based on counting the number of muons accompanying an air shower. The Tibet AS+MD array will have the sensitivity to gamma rays in the 100 TeV region by an order of magnitude better than any other previous existing detectors in the world.

Amenomori, M; Bi, X J; Chen, D; Cui, S W; Feng Zhao Yang; Danzengluobu; Ding, L K; Feng Cun Feng; Feng, Z; Feng, Z Y; Gao, X Y; Geng, Q X; Guo, H W; He, H H; He, M; Hibino, K; Hotta, N; Haibing, H; Hu, H B; Huang, J; Jia, H Y; Kajino, F; Kasahara, K; Katayose, Y; Kato, C; Kawata, K; Labaciren; Le, G M; Li, A F; Li, J Y; Lü, H; Lu, S L; Meng, X R; Mizutani, K; Mu, J; Munakata, K; Nagai, A; Nanj, H; Nishizawa, M; Ohnishi, M; Ohta, I; Onuma, H; Ouchi, T; Ozawa, S; Ren, J R; Saitô, T; Saito, T Y; Sakata, M; Sako, T K; Sasaki, T; Shibata, M; Shiomi, A; Shirai, T; Sugimoto, H; Takita, M; Tan, Y H; Tateyama, N; Tori, S; Wang, B; Tsuchiya, H; Udo, S; Wang, X; Wang, Y G; Wu, H R; Xue Liang; Yamamoto, Y; Yan, C T; Yang, X C; Yasue, S; Ye, Z H; Yu, G C; Yuan, A F; Yuda, T; Zhang, H M; Zhamg, N J; Zhamg, X, Y; Zhamg, Y; Zhamg, Yi; Zha Xisang Zhu; Zhou, X X; al, et

2006-01-01

173

Attenuation study for Tibet Water Cherenkov Muon Detector Array-A  

E-print Network

This work aims at online calibrating the signal attenuation of the long cable used in Tibet Water Cherenkov Muon detector array-A (Tibet MD-A) under the 37 000 m2 Tibet air shower array. Based on the waterproof connection of the PMT (R3600_06) with the signal cable, and the characters of the high voltage divider, terminal reflection method is explored and used for measuring the signal attenuation with a practical way to eliminate the contribution of the pulse baseline (pedestal). Comparison measurement between it and QDC (Charge-to-Digital Conversion) data taking method are carried out by using open-ended cables, confirming that terminal reflection method is a fast and convenient method, and suitable to online calibrate the signal attenuation for Tibet MD-A. At 26\\degree C, the measured attenuation coefficient with the 250-m cable, permanently connected to the PMT, is ~13.9%. Also, the cable frequency response is measured by using the sinusoidal signals, which could be used to study the time dispersion of the real signal produced with Tibet MD-A detector via Fourier analysis.

Quanbu Gou; Yiqing Guo; Cheng Liu; Xiangli Qian; Zhengtao Hou

2011-03-22

174

Dynamics and shape of large fire ant rafts  

PubMed Central

To survive floods, fire ants link their bodies together to build waterproof rafts. Such rafts can be quite large, exceeding 100,000 individuals in size. In this study, we make two improvements on a previously reported model on the construction rate of rafts numbering between 3,000 and 10,000 individuals. That model was based upon experimental observations of randomly-directed linear ant trajectories atop the raft. Here, we report anomalous behavior of ants atop larger rafts of up to 23,000 ants. As rafts increase in size, the behavior of ants approaches diffusion, which is in closer alignment with other studies on the foraging and scouting patterns of ants. We incorporate this ant behavior into the model. Our modified model predicts more accurately the growth of large rafts. Our previous model also relied on an assumption of raft circularity. We show that this assumption is not necessary for large rafts, because it follows from the random directionality of the ant trajectories. Our predicted relationship between raft size and circularity closely fits experimental data. PMID:23336030

Mlot, Nathan J.; Tovey, Craig; Hu, David L.

2012-01-01

175

Solid phantom material for radiation theory electron-beam calibration  

SciTech Connect

In clinical dosimetry, the output of an electron beam is always specified in terms of absorbed dose in water rather than in tissue because water is homogeneous, constant in composition, and is readily available everywhere. However, a water phantom is not convenient to use in practice. There are problems like mechanical instability, the necessity for waterproofing of an ionization chamber, breakage, and leakage of the container, etc. Furthermore, it is difficult to make depth-dose measurements with horizontal beams of low-energy electrons in a water phantom because the container wall then provides an appreciable part of the electron range. For electron-beam dosimetry, the absorption and scattering of electrons in a water substitute must be as close as possible to the values in water. Consideration must be given to the interaction processes characterized by the mass stopping power and angular scattering power. Neither polystyrene nor PMMA are ideal water-equivalent materials. The solid-phantom materials developed in this research is based on an epoxy resin system originated by White (1974), composed of the epoxy resin, curing agent, filler, and phenolic microspheres. Evaluation is done by Monte Carlo calculation and experimental measurements with an ionization chamber.

Ho, A.K.W.

1988-01-01

176

What Hazards Do Humans Encounter in Antarctica?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This six-day unit has students investigate the challenges of living and working in Antarctica and how researchers prepare for them, and then evaluate the insulating properties of a variety of fabrics, collecting their findings in a portfolio. The comprehensive curriculum materials at this site include an online activity in which students review the preparation materials given to researchers before traveling to Antarctica, two classroom activities - an experiment to test the insulation and waterproof properties of a variety of fabrics, and a Jeopardy-style game in which students write answers and questions - and several readings that provide a broad perspective, including an excerpt from Edmund Hillary's journal and question and answer interviews with a safety engineer and a field support services manager. Teacher tools for this unit include individually downloadable readings, detailed daily breakdowns of tasks, teacher strategies for using the activities, a portfolio grading sheet, a project rubric sheet, additional readings, and a student handout with guidance for putting together their portfolios and examples of creative final projects.

177

Can Preening Contribute to Influenza A Virus Infection in Wild Waterbirds?  

PubMed Central

Wild aquatic birds in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are the main reservoir hosts perpetuating the genetic pool of all influenza A viruses, including pandemic viruses. High viral loads in feces of infected birds permit a fecal-oral route of transmission. Numerous studies have reported the isolation of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) from surface water at aquatic bird habitats. These isolations indicate aquatic environments have an important role in the transmission of AIV among wild aquatic birds. However, the progressive dilution of infectious feces in water could decrease the likelihood of virus/host interactions. To evaluate whether alternate mechanisms facilitate AIV transmission in aquatic bird populations, we investigated whether the preen oil gland secretions by which all aquatic birds make their feathers waterproof could support a natural mechanism that concentrates AIVs from water onto birds' bodies, thus, representing a possible source of infection by preening activity. We consistently detected both viral RNA and infectious AIVs on swabs of preened feathers of 345 wild mallards by using reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and virus-isolation (VI) assays. Additionally, in two laboratory experiments using a quantitative real-time (qR) RT-PCR assay, we demonstrated that feather samples (n?=?5) and cotton swabs (n?=?24) experimentally impregnated with preen oil, when soaked in AIV-contaminated waters, attracted and concentrated AIVs on their surfaces. The data presented herein provide information that expands our understanding of AIV ecology in the wild bird reservoir system. PMID:20593026

Delogu, Mauro; De Marco, Maria A.; Di Trani, Livia; Raffini, Elisabetta; Cotti, Claudia; Puzelli, Simona; Ostanello, Fabio; Webster, Robert G.; Cassone, Antonio; Donatelli, Isabella

2010-01-01

178

Corrosion detection by induction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bridges in Florida are exposed to high amounts of humidity due to the state's geography. This excess moisture results in a high incidence of corrosion on the bridge's steel support cables. Also, the inclusion of ineffective waterproofing has resulted in additional corrosion. As this corrosion increases, the steel cables, responsible for maintaining bridge integrity, deteriorate and eventually break. If enough of these cables break, the bridge will experience a catastrophic failure resulting in collapse. Repairing and replacing these cables is very expensive and only increases with further damage. As each of the cables is steel, they have strong conductive properties. By inducing a current along each group of cables and measuring its dissipation over distance, a picture of structural integrity can be determined. The purpose of this thesis is to prove the effectiveness of using electromagnetic techniques to determine cable integrity. By comparing known conductive values (determined in a lab setting) to actual bridge values, the tester will be able to determine the location and severity of any damage, if present.

Roddenberry, Joshua L.

179

Shuttle antenna radome technology test program. Volume 2: Development of S-band antenna interface design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of the Thermal Protection Subsystem (TPS) contamination on the space shuttle orbiter S band quad antenna due to multiple mission buildup are discussed. A test fixture was designed, fabricated and exposed to ten cycles of simulated ground and flight environments. Radiation pattern and impedance tests were performed to measure the effects of the contaminates. The degradation in antenna performance was attributed to the silicone waterproofing in the TPS tiles rather than exposure to the contaminating sources used in the test program. Validation of the accuracy of an analytical thermal model is discussed. Thermal vacuum tests with a test fixture and a representative S band quad antenna were conducted to evaluate the predictions of the analytical thermal model for two orbital heating conditions and entry from each orbit. The results show that the accuracy of predicting the test fixture thermal responses is largely dependent on the ability to define the boundary and ambient conditions. When the test conditions were accurately included in the analytical model, the predictions were in excellent agreement with measurements.

Kuhlman, E. A.; Baranowski, L. C.

1977-01-01

180

Design of Inorganic Water Repellent Coatings for Thermal Protection Insulation on an Aerospace Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this report, thin film deposition of one of the model candidate materials for use as water repellent coating on the thermal protection systems (TPS) of an aerospace vehicle was investigated. The material tested was boron nitride (BN), the water-repellent properties of which was detailed in our other investigation. Two different methods, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD), were used to prepare the BN films on a fused quartz substrate (one of the components of thermal protection systems on aerospace vehicles). The deposited films were characterized by a variety of techniques including X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The BN films were observed to be amorphous in nature, and a CVD-deposited film yielded a contact angle of 60 degrees with water, similar to the pellet BN samples investigated previously. This demonstrates that it is possible to use the bulk sample wetting properties as a guideline to determine the candidate waterproofing material for the TPS.

Fuerstenau, D. W.; Ravikumar, R.

1997-01-01

181

Effect of nano BaCO3 on pyrolytic reaction of phenol-formaldehyde resin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenol-formaldehyde resin is used as the most adhesive to produce waterproof plant-based composite. However, this product contains phenol and formaldehyde which can be easily released to pollute air and water. Based on the single-factor method, the effect of nano BaCO3 on situabtion of pyrolytic reaction of PF resin was studied by Py-GC/MS. There were components including carbon dioxide, D,.alpha.-tocopherol, 1,3-bis(trimethylsilyl) benzene, phenol from PF resin in 590(see manuscript) He gas. However, the 17 compounds including phenol, 2-methyl-, phenol, carbon dioxide, p-xylene, toluene, phenol, 2-ethyl-, phenol, 2,3-dimethyl-, benzene, 1,2,3-trimethyl-, etc were identified by Py-GC/MS after PF/BaCO3 composite was pyrolyzed in 590(see manuscript) He gas, and phenol and phenol derivants were found in the compounds. The result showed that nano BaCO3 could effectively delay the pyrolysis of PF resin.

Zhang, Xu; Ma, Qing-zhi; Zhang, Zhong-feng; Peng, Wan-xi; Zhang, Ming-long

2009-07-01

182

Chemical and physical analyses of wax ester properties  

PubMed Central

Wax esters are major constituents of the surface lipids in many terrestrial arthropods, but their study is complicated by their diversity. We developed a procedure for quantifying isomers in mixtures of straight-chain saturated and unsaturated wax esters having the same molecular weights, using single-ion monitoring of the total ion current data from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We examined the biological consequences of structural differences by measuring the melting temperatures, Tm, of >60 synthetic wax esters, containing 26–48 carbon atoms. Compounds containing saturated alcohol and acid moieties melted at 38–73°C. The main factor affecting Tm was the total chain length of the wax ester, but the placement of the ester bond also affected Tm. Insertion of a double bond into either the alcohol or acid moiety decreased Tm by ?30°C. Simple mixtures of wax esters with n-alkanes melted several °C lower than predicted from the melting points of the component lipids. Our results indicate that the wax esters of primary alcohols that are most typically found on the cuticle of terrestrial arthropods occur in a solid state under physiological conditions, thereby conferring greater waterproofing. Wax esters of secondary alcohols, which occur on melanopline grasshoppers, melted >60°C below primary esters of the same molecular weight and reduced Tm of the total surface lipids to environmental values. PMID:15455064

Patel, Sejal; Nelson, Dennis R.; Gibbs, Allen G.

2001-01-01

183

Final environmental and regulatory assessment of using asphalt as a sealant in mine shafts  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the properties of asphalt, the current regulatory status governing asphalt and future regulatory implications which may be pertinent in using asphalt as a waterproof shaft sealant. An understanding of the inherent organic composition of asphalt, an increase in the number of health and environmental research publications conducted on asphalt and an examination of the apparent trend of regulatory agencies toward more stringent environmental regulation governing the use of organic materials suggests asphalt could become regulated at a future time. This would only occur, however, if asphalt was found to conform to the present regulatory definitions of pollutants, contaminants or hazardous substances or if asphalt was included on a regulated substance list. In this regard, the study points out that asphalt contains very low levels of hazardous poly-nuclear aromatics (PNA's). These levels are significantly lower than the levels present in coal tars, a substance known to contain high levels of hazardous PNA's. Asphalt, however, has the inherent potential of producing higher concentrations of PNA's if the adverse condition of cracking should occur during the refinery production stage or on-site preparation of the asphalt. Also, unless existing control technology is applied, emission levels of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulates and volatile organic carbons from the on-site preparation facilities could approach the permissible health standard levels of EPA. The study indicates, however, that available literature is limited on these issues.

Not Available

1987-01-01

184

Large thermal protection system panel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A protective panel for a reusable launch vehicle provides enhanced moisture protection, simplified maintenance, and increased temperature resistance. The protective panel includes an outer ceramic matrix composite (CMC) panel, and an insulative bag assembly coupled to the outer CMC panel for isolating the launch vehicle from elevated temperatures and moisture. A standoff attachment system attaches the outer CMC panel and the bag assembly to the primary structure of the launch vehicle. The insulative bag assembly includes a foil bag having a first opening shrink fitted to the outer CMC panel such that the first opening and the outer CMC panel form a water tight seal at temperatures below a desired temperature threshold. Fibrous insulation is contained within the foil bag for protecting the launch vehicle from elevated temperatures. The insulative bag assembly further includes a back panel coupled to a second opening of the foil bag such that the fibrous insulation is encapsulated by the back panel, the foil bag, and the outer CMC panel. The use of a CMC material for the outer panel in conjunction with the insulative bag assembly eliminates the need for waterproofing processes, and ultimately allows for more efficient reentry profiles.

Myers, Franklin K. (Inventor); Weinberg, David J. (Inventor); Tran, Tu T. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

185

Short-chain carboxylic acids from gray catbird (Dumetella carolinensis) uropygial secretions vary with testosterone levels and photoperiod.  

PubMed

The uropygial gland of birds produces secretions that are important in maintaining the health and structural integrity of feathers. Non-volatile components of uropygial secretions are believed to serve a number of functions including waterproofing and conditioning the feathers. Volatile components have been characterized in fewer species, but are particularly interesting because of their potential importance in olfactory interactions within and across species. We used solid-phase microextraction headspace sampling with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to detect and identify volatiles in uropygial secretions of gray catbirds (Dumetella carolinensis), a North American migratory bird. We consistently detected the following carboxylic acids: acetic, propanoic, 2-methylpropanoic, butanoic, and 3-methylbutanoic. We tested for the effect of lengthened photoperiod and/or exogenous testosterone on volatile signal strength and found a negative effect of lengthened photoperiod on the signal strength of propanoic, 2-methylpropanoic, and butanoic acids, suggesting a trade-off between their production and heightened night-time activity associated with lengthened photoperiod. Signal strength of propanoic and 2-methylpropanoic acids was lower in birds treated with exogenous testosterone than in birds treated with placebos. Sex did not affect signal strength of any of the volatile compounds. PMID:20346408

Whelan, Rebecca J; Levin, Tera C; Owen, Jennifer C; Garvin, Mary C

2010-07-01

186

Attenuation study for Tibet Water Cherenkov Muon Detector Array-A  

E-print Network

The attenuation study of the long cable used in Tibet Water Cherenkov Muon Detector Array-A, called Tibet MD-A (one of 12 Tibet MD detectors), under the 37000 m2 Tibet air shower array, is reported. The cable frequency response is measured by using the sinusoidal signals, with which the influence of the cable on the pulse rise time is obtained. For the reason that the commercial 20 inch PMT (R3600_06) has a waterproof connection with the signal cable, one end of the signal cable is permanently connected to the PMT. Terminal reflection method is tested and used for measuring the signal attenuation. During the measurement, a practical way to eliminate the uncertainty caused by the baseline of the signal is achieved. To check the terminal reflection method, comparison measurement between it and QDC data taking method are carried out by using open-ended cables. The confirmed terminal reflection method is a fast and convenient method being suitable to online measure the signal attenuation for Tibet MD-A. The measu...

Gou, Quanbu; Liu, Cheng; Feng, Zhaoyang; Qian, Xiangli; Hou, Zhengtao

2011-01-01

187

Use of admixtures in organic-contaminated cement-clay pastes.  

PubMed

In this work microstructure, porosity and hydration degree of cement-based solidified/stabilized wasteforms were studied before assessing their leaching behaviour. 2-Chloroaniline was chosen as a model liquid organic pollutant and included into cement pastes, which were also modified with different admixtures for concrete: a superplasticizer based on acrylic-modified polymer, a synthetic rubber latex and a waterproofing agent. An organoclay, modified with an ammonium quaternary salt (benzyl-dimethyl-tallowammonium, BDMTA), was added to the pastes as pre-sorbent agent of the organic matter. All the samples were dried up to constant weight in order to stop the hydration process at different times during the first 28 days of curing, typically, after 1 day (1d), 7 days (7d) and 28 days. Then, the microstructure of the hardened cement-clay pastes was investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The hydration degree and porosity were studied by thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), respectively. For samples cured for 28 days a short-term leach test set by Italian regulation for industrial waste recycling (D.M. 5 February 1998) was performed. The best results showed a 5% release of the total initial amount of organic pollutant. PMID:18514398

Gallo Stampino, Paola; Zampori, Luca; Dotelli, Giovanni; Meloni, Paola; Sora, Isabella Natali; Pelosato, Renato

2009-01-30

188

LWA demonstration applications using Illinois coal gasification slag: Phase 2. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this program are to demonstrate the feasibility of producing ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from solid residues (slag) generated during the gasification of Illinois coals, and to test the products as substitutes for conventional aggregates produced by pyroprocessing of perlite ores. In Phase 1 of this project, Praxis developed a pilotscale production technique and produced a large batch of expanded aggregates from an Illinois coal slag feed. The Phase 2 work focuses on characterization and applications-oriented testing of the expanded slag products as substitutes for conventional ULWAs. Target applications include high-volume uses such as loose fill insulation, insulating concrete, lightweight precast products (blocks), waterproof wallboard, rooftiles, and filtration media. The precast products will be subjected to performance and characterization testing in conjunction with a commercial manufacturer of such products in order to obtain input from a potential user. The production of value-added products from slag will eliminate a solid waste and possibly enhance the overall gasification process economics, especially when the avoided costs of disposal are taken into consideration.

Choudhry, V. [Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States); Steck, P. [Harvey Cement Products, Inc. (United States)

1993-12-31

189

Analysis of streambed temperatures in ephemeral channels to determine streamflow frequency and duration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spatial and temporal patterns in streamflow are rarely monitored for ephemeral streams. Flashy, erosive streamflows common in ephemeral channels create a series of operational and maintenance problems, which makes it impractical to deploy a series of gaging stations along ephemeral channels. Streambed temperature is a robust and inexpensive parameter to monitor remotely, leading to the possibility of analyzing temperature patterns to estimate streamflow frequency and duration along ephemeral channels. A simulation model was utilized to examine various atmospheric and hydrological upper boundary conditions compared with a series of hypothetical temperature-monitoring depths within the streambed. Simulation results indicate that streamflow events were distinguished from changing atmospheric conditions with greater certainty using temperatures at shallow depths (e.g., 10-20 cm) as opposed to the streambed surface. Three ephemeral streams in the American Southwest were instrumented to monitor streambed temperature for determining the accuracy of using this approach to ascertain the long-term temporal and spatial extent of streamflow along each stream channel. Streambed temperature data were collected at the surface or at shallow depth along each stream channel, using thermistors encased in waterproof, single-channel data loggers tethered to anchors in the channel. On the basis of comparisons with site information, such as direct field observations and upstream flow records, diurnal temperature variations successfully detected the presence and duration of streamflow for all sites.

Constantz, J.; Stonestrom, D.; Stewart, A. E.; Niswonger, R.; Smith, T. R.

2001-01-01

190

Reconstitution of Plant Alkane Biosynthesis in Yeast Demonstrates That Arabidopsis ECERIFERUM1 and ECERIFERUM3 Are Core Components of a Very-Long-Chain Alkane Synthesis Complex[C][W  

PubMed Central

In land plants, very-long-chain (VLC) alkanes are major components of cuticular waxes that cover aerial organs, mainly acting as a waterproof barrier to prevent nonstomatal water loss. Although thoroughly investigated, plant alkane synthesis remains largely undiscovered. The Arabidopsis thaliana ECERIFERUM1 (CER1) protein has been recognized as an essential element of wax alkane synthesis; nevertheless, its function remains elusive. In this study, a screen for CER1 physical interaction partners was performed. The screen revealed that CER1 interacts with the wax-associated protein ECERIFERUM3 (CER3) and endoplasmic reticulum–localized cytochrome b5 isoforms (CYTB5s). The functional relevance of these interactions was assayed through an iterative approach using yeast as a heterologous expression system. In a yeast strain manipulated to produce VLC acyl-CoAs, a strict CER1 and CER3 coexpression resulted in VLC alkane synthesis. The additional presence of CYTB5s was found to enhance CER1/CER3 alkane production. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that CER1 His clusters are essential for alkane synthesis, whereas those of CER3 are not, suggesting that CYTB5s are specific CER1 cofactors. Collectively, our study reports the identification of plant alkane synthesis enzymatic components and supports a new model for alkane production in which CER1 interacts with both CER3 and CYTB5 to catalyze the redox-dependent synthesis of VLC alkanes from VLC acyl-CoAs. PMID:22773744

Bernard, Amelie; Domergue, Frederic; Pascal, Stephanie; Jetter, Reinhard; Renne, Charlotte; Faure, Jean-Denis; Haslam, Richard P.; Napier, Johnathan A.; Lessire, Rene; Joubes, Jerome

2012-01-01

191

Afocal viewport optics for underwater imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conventional camera can be adapted for underwater use by enclosing it in a sealed waterproof pressure housing with a viewport. The viewport, as an optical interface between water and air needs to consider both the camera and water optical characteristics while also providing a high pressure water seal. Limited hydrospace visibility drives a need for wide angle viewports. Practical optical interfaces between seawater and air vary from simple flat plate windows to complex water contact lenses. This paper first provides a brief overview of the physical and optical properties of the ocean environment along with suitable optical materials. This is followed by a discussion of the characteristics of various afocal underwater viewport types including flat windows, domes and the Ivanoff corrector lens, a derivative of a Galilean wide angle camera adapter. Several new and interesting optical designs derived from the Ivanoff corrector lens are presented including a pair of very compact afocal viewport lenses that are compatible with both in water and in air environments and an afocal underwater hyper-hemispherical fisheye lens.

Slater, Dan

2014-09-01

192

Development and testing of bio-inspired microelectromechanical pressure sensor arrays for increased situational awareness for marine vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lateral line found on most species of fish is a sensory organ without analog in humans. Using sensory feedback from the lateral line, fish are able to track prey, school, avoid obstacles, and detect vortical flow structures. Composed of both a superficial component, and a component contained within canals beneath the fish’s skin, the lateral line acts in a similar fashion to an array of differential pressure sensors. In an effort to enhance the situational and environmental awareness of marine vehicles, lateral-line-inspired pressure sensor arrays were developed to mimic the enhanced sensory capabilities observed in fish. Three flexible and waterproof pressure sensor arrays were fabricated for use as a surface-mounted ‘smart skin’ on marine vehicles. Two of the sensor arrays were based around the use of commercially available piezoresistive sensor dies, with innovative packaging schemes to allow for flexibility and underwater operation. The sensor arrays employed liquid crystal polymer and flexible printed circuit board substrates with metallic circuits and silicone encapsulation. The third sensor array employed a novel nanocomposite material set that allowed for the fabrication of a completely flexible sensor array. All three sensors were surface mounted on the curved hull of an autonomous kayak vehicle, and tested in both pool and reservoir environments. Results demonstrated that all three sensors were operational while deployed on the autonomous vehicle, and provided an accurate means for monitoring the vehicle dynamics.

Dusek, J.; Kottapalli, A. G. P.; Woo, M. E.; Asadnia, M.; Miao, J.; Lang, J. H.; Triantafyllou, M. S.

2013-01-01

193

Evaluation of reusable surface insulation for space shuttle over a range of heat-transfer rate and surface temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reusable surface insulation materials, which were developed as heat shields for the space shuttle, were tested over a range of conditions including heat-transfer rates between 160 and 620 kW/sq m. The lowest of these heating rates was in a range predicted for the space shuttle during reentry, and the highest was more than twice the predicted entry heating on shuttle areas where reusable surface insulation would be used. Individual specimens were tested repeatedly at increasingly severe conditions to determine the maximum heating rate and temperature capability. A silica-base material experienced only minimal degradation during repeated tests which included conditions twice as severe as predicted shuttle entry and withstood cumulative exposures three times longer than the best mullite material. Mullite-base materials cracked and experienced incipient melting at conditions within the range predicted for shuttle entry. Neither silica nor mullite materials consistently survived the test series with unbroken waterproof surfaces. Surface temperatures for a silica and a mullite material followed a trend expected for noncatalytic surfaces, whereas surface temperatures for a second mullite material appeared to follow a trend expected for a catalytic surface.

Chapman, A. J.

1973-01-01

194

Does the volatile hydrocarbon profile differ between the sexes: a case study on five aphidophagous ladybirds.  

PubMed

Insect hydrocarbons (HCs) primarily serve as a waterproofing cuticular layer and function extensively in chemical communication by facilitating species, sex, and colony recognition. In this study, headspace solid-phase microextraction is employed for investigating the sex-specific volatile HC profile of five ladybirds collected from Lucknow, India namely, Coccinella septempunctata (L.), Coccinella transversalis (Fabr.), Menochilus sexmaculatus (Fabr.), Propylea dissecta (Mulsant), and Anegleis cardoni (Weise) for the first time. Major compounds reported in C. septempunctata, C. transversalis, and A. cardoni are methyl-branched saturated HCs, whereas in M. sexmaculatus, and P. dissecta, they are unsaturated HCs. Other than A. cardoni, both the sexes of the other four ladybirds had similar compounds at highest peak but with statistically significant differences. However, in A. cardoni, which is a beetle with a narrow niche, the major compound in both male and female was different. The difference in volatile HC profile of the sexes of the five ladybirds indicates that gender-specific differences primarily exist due to quantitative differences in chemicals with only very few chemicals being unique to a gender. This variation in semiochemicals might have a role in behavioral or ecological aspects of the studied ladybirds. PMID:25060353

Pattanayak, Rojalin; Mishra, Geetanjali; Omkar; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Rout, Prasant Kumar; Mohanty, Chandra Sekhar

2014-11-01

195

Macrophyte monitoring along the Trentino side of the Lake Garda  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Macrophytes, that grow along the Trentino shorezone of the Lake Garda, were sampled and mapped during summer 2010. The sampling protocol foresees a lake bottom survey until the depth of 15 using GPS system, for identifying sampling sites and transects, waterproof camcorder, batiscope and a rake. The proof of 13/14 meters is the internal limit for macrophyte development. The area between 6 and 13/14 meters was surveyed with a robot camcorder placed on a boat of the fireworks brigade of Trento. This boat was used to track the 14 km of the shorezone of the Trentino part of the Lake Garda. The investigation result is a survey of a wide carex prairie that has no interruption all along the lake perimeter. An inflatable boat was used to inspect the shorezone using a batiscope. The macrophyte samples were collected using a rake. The number of mapped sites is 15, transects are 15 and identified 18 different species. During 2011, in conjunction with the flight MIVIS within the EULAKES project, the macrophyte distribution was confirmed and further inspection was carried out for sampling and classifying caracee. Among the species collected, Chara globularis was present in all sites sampled, while sites 0 and 12, corresponding respectively to local reserve Val Gola and the bay of Torbole, showed the highest biodiversity among sites, with 11 species collected of the 18 total. Within each site, higher number of species were collected between 2 and 5 meters depth's.

Pellegrini, Giovanna; Monauni, Catia; Fedrizzi, Fabio; Laura, Fravezzi; Paola, Testa; Silvia, Costaraoss; Mario, Mazzurana; Gaetano, Patti; Barbara, Zennaro

2013-04-01

196

An insect-specific P450 oxidative decarbonylase for cuticular hydrocarbon biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Insects use hydrocarbons as cuticular waterproofing agents and as contact pheromones. Although their biosynthesis from fatty acyl precursors is well established, the last step of hydrocarbon biosynthesis from long-chain fatty aldehydes has remained mysterious. We show here that insects use a P450 enzyme of the CYP4G family to oxidatively produce hydrocarbons from aldehydes. Oenocyte-directed RNAi knock-down of Drosophila CYP4G1 or NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase results in flies deficient in cuticular hydrocarbons, highly susceptible to desiccation, and with reduced viability upon adult emergence. The heterologously expressed enzyme converts C18-trideuterated octadecanal to C17-trideuterated heptadecane, showing that the insect enzyme is an oxidative decarbonylase that catalyzes the cleavage of long-chain aldehydes to hydrocarbons with the release of carbon dioxide. This process is unlike cyanobacteria that use a nonheme diiron decarbonylase to make alkanes from aldehydes with the release of formate. The unique and highly conserved insect CYP4G enzymes are a key evolutionary innovation that allowed their colonization of land. PMID:22927409

Qiu, Yue; Tittiger, Claus; Wicker-Thomas, Claude; Le Goff, Gaelle; Young, Sharon; Wajnberg, Eric; Fricaux, Thierry; Taquet, Nathalie; Blomquist, Gary J.; Feyereisen, Rene

2012-01-01

197

Thermal ecology on an exposed algal reef: infrared imagery a rapid tool to survey temperature at local spatial scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We tested the feasibility of infra-red (IR) thermography as a tool to survey in situ temperatures in intertidal habitats. We employed this method to describe aspects of thermal ecology for an exposed algal reef in the tropics (O`ahu, Hawai`i). In addition, we compared temperatures of the surrounding habitat as determined by IR thermography and traditional waterproof loggers. Images of reef organisms (6 macroalgae, 9 molluscs, 1 anthozoan, and 2 echinoderms), loggers, and landscapes were taken during two diurnal low tides. Analysis of IR thermographs revealed remarkable thermal complexity on a narrow tropical shore, as habitats ranged from 18.1 to 38.3°C and surfaces of organisms that ranged from 21.1 to 33.2°C. The near 20°C difference between abiotic habitats and the mosaic of temperatures experienced by reef organisms across the shore are similar to findings from temperate studies using specialized longterm loggers. Further, IR thermography captured rapid temperature fluctuations that were related to tidal height and cross-correlated to wave action. Finally, we gathered evidence that tidal species were associated with particular temperature ranges and that two species possess morphological characteristics that limit thermal stress. Loggers provided similar results as thermography but lack the ability to resolve variation in fine-scale spatial and temporal patterns. Our results support the utility of IR thermography in exploring thermal ecology, and demonstrate the steps needed to calibrate data leading to establishment of baseline conditions in a changing and heterogeneous environment.

Cox, T. E.; Smith, C. M.

2011-12-01

198

Leaching-resistant carrageenan-based colorimetric oxygen indicator films for intelligent food packaging.  

PubMed

Visual oxygen indicators can give information on the quality and safety of packaged food in an economic and simple manner by changing color based on the amount of oxygen in the packaging, which is related to food spoilage. In particular, ultraviolet (UV)-activated oxygen indicators have the advantages of in-pack activation and irreversibility; however, these dye-based oxygen indicator films suffer from dye leaching upon contact with water. In this work, we introduce carrageenans, which are natural sulfated polysaccharides, to develop UV-activated colorimetric oxygen indicator films that are resistant to dye leakage. Carrageenan-based indicator films were fabricated using redox dyes [methylene blue (MB), azure A, and thionine], a sacrificial electron donor (glycerol), an UV-absorbing photocatalyst (TiO2), and an encapsulation polymer (carrageenan). They showed even lower dye leakage in water than conventional oxygen indicator films, owing to the electrostatic interaction of anionic carrageenan with cationic dyes. The MB/TiO2/glycerol/carrageenan oxygen indicator film was successfully bleached upon UV irradiation, and it regained color very rapidly in the presence of oxygen compared to the other waterproof oxygen indicator films. PMID:24979322

Vu, Chau Hai Thai; Won, Keehoon

2014-07-23

199

Kestrel 2 Program: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Kestrel 2 program began in 1986 as an outgrowth of the original Kestrel program, which used conventional balloon techniques and facilities, and was completed in 1988. It was undertaken to extend operational and geographic flexibility beyond that achievable using traditional techniques observed in the original program. During that time, we developed a tandem-balloon system that can be launched from any single launch site in winds up to 20 knots. We also developed a fast-fill tow balloon, which we tested by filling a tow balloon directly from it shipping container without laying it out on a long clean surface. To test the endurance of the tow balloon, we filled and repackaged the same balloon four times, once while at sea, at a fill rate of 3000 to 4000 ft/sup 3//min, using helium gas. This testing showed that the tow balloon is indeed quite rugged. We also demonstrated how to control the tow balloon with handling lines and rig the balloon in winds up to 26 knots at sea on a small ship. The tandem-balloon deployment system includes a lightweight, high-strength, waterproof payload containment canister and an explosive flight-termination system. The launch release mechanism that we designed was tested at sea. An electronics and power supply system provided tracking and command termination and was used to perform simple command functions.

Duke, P.O.

1988-05-01

200

Pyromorphite formation in a fungal biofilm community growing on lead metal.  

PubMed

Lead is a priority pollutant, and lead metal is widely found in the environment as a waterproofing structural component in roofing, fence post covers, venting and flashing, as well as in industrial and urban waste. However, little is known of microbial interactions with metallic lead. The objective of this research was to investigate fungal roles in transformations of lead in a surface biofilm community growing on lead sheeting. The lead surface was found to support a diverse fungal community with several members, such as Aureobasidum pullulans, Phoma macrostoma, Penicillium sp. and Botryotinia fuckeliana, probably originating from adjacent phylloplane communities. Many fungal isolates showed tolerance to lead compounds in growth inhibition assays and were able to mediate production of lead-containing secondary minerals in the presence of metallic lead. These exhibited widely differing morphologies to the lead-containing secondary minerals produced under abiotic conditions. The presence of pyromorphite (Pb5 (PO4 )3 Cl) (approximately 50?wt%) was detected in the lead sheet biofilm, and we speculate that animal (bird) faeces could be a significant source of phosphorus in this location. Pyromorphite formation represents biomineralization of mobile lead species into a very stable form, and this research provides the first demonstration of its occurrence in the natural environment. PMID:24707856

Rhee, Young Joon; Hillier, Stephen; Pendlowski, Helen; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

2014-05-01

201

Marker and pen graffiti cleaning on diverse calcareous stones by different laser techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industries nowadays continuously produce new types of inks for markers and pens, so new different graffiti appear . In this paper laser cleaning tests on 41 new marker and pen types ( fluorescent, permanent, water-based, acrylic tempera, metallic paint, waterproof inks ), applied into laboratory on different litho- type samples (Chianca, Travertino di Roma, Tufo Carparo fine grain, Sabbie), typical stones employed in much more monuments in Puglia and Italian architectures were carried out. The same ones, were exposed for twelve months to outdoor ageing, subject to sunshine, rain, wind, IR and UV solar radiations. Ablation experiments and tests by using different cleaning techniques, each one in Dry and Wet condition (classic technique, Daurelio technique 1 and Daurelio technique 2 and others new techniques) and two different Nd:YAG laser systems (Palladio by QUANTA SYSTEM and SMART CLEAN II by EL.EN.), were adopted. The experimental modes, N-Mode (1064nm - 150, 300 and 500 ?s pulse duration), Q-Switch (1064nm - 8 ns pulse duration) and SFR (Short Free Running - 1064 nm - 40 to 110?s pulse duration) were tested on each marked stones. It was found that according to the different ink types and stone substrate, Q-Switch laser cleaning ablation with optimized laser technique are the best solution to marker an pen graffiti removal. The work is still in progress.

Andriani, S. E.; Catalano, I. M.; Daurelio, G.; Albanese, A.

2007-05-01

202

Investigations of a large scale eared grebe (Podiceps nigricollis) die-off at the Salton Sea, California in 1992  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An estimated 150,000 Eared Grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) died at the Salton Sea between 16 December 1991 and 21 April 1992. This represented the largest documented mortality event of Eared Grebes at the time and approximately 6% of the North American population. During the die-off, grebes exhibited several uncharacteristic behaviors, such as congregating at freshwater tributaries, repeatedly gulping freshwater, preening excessively, moving onto land, and allowing close approach and/or capture. Avian cholera was diagnosed in Eared Grebes collected along the north and west shoreline of the Sea late in the die-off but not from the majority of the Eared Grebes dying along the south shore. Gross and histological examinations and diagnostic testing for viruses, bacteria, and parasites did not identify the cause of mortality in the majority of Eared Grebes examined from the south shore of the Sea. Liver concentrations of arsenic, chromium, DDE, mercury, selenium, and zinc were elevated in some Eared Grebes, but none of those contaminants exceeded known thresholds for independent lethality. Poisoning by heavy metals, organochlorine, organophosphorus, or carbamate pesticides, avian botulism, and salt were ruled out as the cause of mortality. Hypotheses for the die-off are interactive effects of contaminants, immunosuppression, a yet unidentified biotoxin or pathogen present in the Salton Sea, impairment of feather waterproofing leading to hypothermia, or a unique manifestation of avian cholera that evades laboratory detection.

Meteyer, C.U.; Audet, D.J.; Rocke, T.E.; Radke, W.; Creekmore, L.H.; Duncan, R.

2004-01-01

203

Reconstitution of plant alkane biosynthesis in yeast demonstrates that Arabidopsis ECERIFERUM1 and ECERIFERUM3 are core components of a very-long-chain alkane synthesis complex.  

PubMed

In land plants, very-long-chain (VLC) alkanes are major components of cuticular waxes that cover aerial organs, mainly acting as a waterproof barrier to prevent nonstomatal water loss. Although thoroughly investigated, plant alkane synthesis remains largely undiscovered. The Arabidopsis thaliana ECERIFERUM1 (CER1) protein has been recognized as an essential element of wax alkane synthesis; nevertheless, its function remains elusive. In this study, a screen for CER1 physical interaction partners was performed. The screen revealed that CER1 interacts with the wax-associated protein ECERIFERUM3 (CER3) and endoplasmic reticulum-localized cytochrome b5 isoforms (CYTB5s). The functional relevance of these interactions was assayed through an iterative approach using yeast as a heterologous expression system. In a yeast strain manipulated to produce VLC acyl-CoAs, a strict CER1 and CER3 coexpression resulted in VLC alkane synthesis. The additional presence of CYTB5s was found to enhance CER1/CER3 alkane production. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that CER1 His clusters are essential for alkane synthesis, whereas those of CER3 are not, suggesting that CYTB5s are specific CER1 cofactors. Collectively, our study reports the identification of plant alkane synthesis enzymatic components and supports a new model for alkane production in which CER1 interacts with both CER3 and CYTB5 to catalyze the redox-dependent synthesis of VLC alkanes from VLC acyl-CoAs. PMID:22773744

Bernard, Amélie; Domergue, Frédéric; Pascal, Stéphanie; Jetter, Reinhard; Renne, Charlotte; Faure, Jean-Denis; Haslam, Richard P; Napier, Johnathan A; Lessire, René; Joubès, Jérôme

2012-07-01

204

Modular, multi-level groundwater sampler  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is described for taking a multiple of samples of groundwater or pressure measurements from a well simultaneously. The apparatus comprises a series of chambers arranged in an axial array, each of which is dimensioned to fit into a perforated well casing and leave a small gap between the well casing and the exterior of the chamber. Seals at each end of the container define the limits to the axial portion of the well to be sampled. A submersible pump in each chamber pumps the groundwater that passes through the well casing perforations into the gap from the gap to the surface for analysis. The power lines and hoses for the chambers farther down the array pass through each chamber above them in the array. The seals are solid, water-proof, non-reactive, resilient disks supported to engage the inside surface of the well casing. Because of the modular design, the apparatus provides flexibility for use in a variety of well configurations. 3 figures.

Nichols, R.L.; Widdowson, M.A.; Mullinex, H.; Orne, W.H.; Looney, B.B.

1994-03-15

205

Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing  

SciTech Connect

The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work, (2) working conditions, (3) type of anti-contamination material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-contamination clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Reichelt, R.A.; Clay, M.E.; Eichorst, A.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1998-01-01

206

Apparatus for ``in vivo'' exposure at 1.8 GHz microwaves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a previous study, an apparatus generating 1.8 GHz electromagnetic radiation for ``in vivo'' biomedical study was designed and implemented. The apparatus consisted of a reverberation chamber and it reproduced a habitat similar to the usual one for the laboratory animals. Plexiglas boxes with 300 cc physiological liquid were utilized as simple phantoms. For the measurements a small Electric Field Probe was used. The maximum SAR (Specific Absorption Rate) and average Power Efficiency Pe (SAR/input power) values obtained were quite low (``in vivo experiments'') and this was the drawback of the apparatus. In the present work, different modifications introduced in order to increase SAR and Power Efficiency are presented. In the new configuration, the dosimetry for the previous phantoms and for oil-in-gelatine phantoms was investigated and quite satisfactory SAR and Power Efficiency values were obtained, overcoming the previous drawback. In the first case the sensor was waterproofed, as in the previous study; in the other case a Plexiglas box with inside a tight shaped allocation for the measurement probe was realized. These measurement technologies could be applied to other media used for the phantoms.

Biagi, P. Francesco; Righetti, F.; Maggipinto, T.; Maggipinto, G.; Ligonzo, T.; Schiavulli, L.; Loiacono, D.; Casamassima, G.; De Carne, G.; Laterza, G.; Ermini, A.; Lasalvia, M.; Perna, G.; Capozzi, V.

2011-07-01

207

Roles of silica and lignin in horsetail (Equisetum hyemale), with special reference to mechanical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research deals with detailed analyses of silica and lignin distribution in horsetail with special reference to mechanical strength. Scanning electron images of a cross-section of an internode showed silica deposited densely only around the outer epidermis. Detailed histochemical analyses of lignin showed no lignin deposition in the silica-rich outer internodes of horsetail, while a characteristic lignin deposition was noticed in the vascular bundle in inner side of internodes. To analyze the structure of horsetail from a mechanical viewpoint, we calculated the response of a model structure of horsetail to a mechanical force applied perpendicularly to the long axis by a finite element method. We found that silica distributed in the outer epidermis may play the major structural role, with lignin's role being limited ensuring that the vascular bundle keep waterproof. These results were in contrast to more modern tall trees like gymnosperms, for which lignin provides mechanical strength. Lignin has the advantage of sticking to cellulose, hemicellulose, and other materials. Such properties make it possible for plants containing lignin to branch. Branching of tree stems aids in competing for light and other atmospheric resources. This type of branching was impossible for ancient horsetails, which relied on the physical properties of silica. From the evolutional view points, over millennia in trees with high lignin content, true branching, and many chlorophyll-containing leaves developed.

Yamanaka, Shigeru; Sato, Kanna; Ito, Fuyu; Komatsubara, Satoshi; Ohata, Hiroshi; Yoshino, Katsumi

2012-02-01

208

A Feasibility Study of Wearable Activity Monitors for Pre-Adolescent School-Age Children  

PubMed Central

Introduction Understanding physical activity is key in the fight against childhood obesity. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using certain wearable devices to measure physical activity among children. Methods A qualitative study was conducted with 25 children aged 7 to 10 years to assess acceptability and compliance of wearable activity devices in this age group. During March through August 2012, children participated in a 4-week study of 3 accelerometer models and a heart rate monitor. Children were asked to use a different device each week for 7 consecutive days. Children and their parents completed structured interviews after using each device; they also completed a final exit interview. Results The wrist-worn Polar Active was the device most preferred by children and was associated with the highest level of compliance. Devices that are comfortable to wear, fit properly, have engaging features, and are waterproof increase feasibility and are associated with higher levels of compliance. Conclusion The wrist-worn device was the most feasible for measuring physical activity among children aged 7 to 10 years. These findings will inform researchers in selecting tools for measuring children’s physical activity. PMID:24854236

Van Loan, Marta; German, J. Bruce

2014-01-01

209

Ex situ reconstitution of the plant biopolyester suberin as a film.  

PubMed

Biopolymers often have unique properties of considerable interest as a basis for new materials. It is however not evident how to extract them from plants without destroying their chemical skeleton and inherent properties. Here we report the ex situ reconstitution of the biopolyester suberin as a new waterproof and antimicrobial material. In plant cell walls, suberin, a cross-linked network of aromatic and aliphatic monomers, builds up a hydrophobic protective and antimicrobial barrier. Recently we succeeded in extracting suberin from the plant cell wall using the ionic liquid cholinium hexanoate. During extraction the native three-dimensional structure of suberin was partially preserved. In this study, we demonstrate that this preservation is the key for its ex situ reconstitution. Without any chemical additives or purification, the suberin composing macromolecules undergo self-association on the casting surface forming a film. Suberin films obtained show barrier properties similar to those of the suberin barrier in plants, including a potentially broad bactericidal effect. PMID:24670155

Garcia, Helga; Ferreira, Rui; Martins, Celso; Sousa, Andreia F; Freire, Carmen S R; Silvestre, Armando J D; Kunz, Werner; Rebelo, Luís Paulo N; Silva Pereira, Cristina

2014-05-12

210

Simple battery armor to protect against gastrointestinal injury from accidental ingestion.  

PubMed

Inadvertent battery ingestion in children and the associated morbidity and mortality results in thousands of emergency room visits every year. Given the risk for serious electrochemical burns within hours of ingestion, the current standard of care for the treatment of batteries in the esophagus is emergent endoscopic removal. Safety standards now regulate locked battery compartments in toys, which have resulted in a modest reduction in inadvertent battery ingestion; specifically, 3,461 ingestions were reported in 2009, and 3,366 in 2013. Aside from legislation, minimal technological development has taken place at the level of the battery to limit injury. We have constructed a waterproof, pressure-sensitive coating, harnessing a commercially available quantum tunneling composite. Quantum tunneling composite coated (QTCC) batteries are nonconductive in the low-pressure gastrointestinal environment yet conduct within the higher pressure of standard battery housings. Importantly, this coating technology enables most battery-operated equipment to be powered without modification. If these new batteries are swallowed, they limit the external electrolytic currents responsible for tissue injury. We demonstrate in a large-animal model a significant decrease in tissue injury with QTCC batteries compared with uncoated control batteries. In summary, here we describe a facile approach to increasing the safety of batteries by minimizing the risk for electrochemical burn if the batteries are inadvertently ingested, without the need for modification of most battery-powered devices. PMID:25368176

Laulicht, Bryan; Traverso, Giovanni; Deshpande, Vikram; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M

2014-11-18

211

A food contaminant detection system based on high-Tc SQUIDs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed and constructed a computer controlled food contaminant detection system for practical use, based on high-Tc SQUID detectors. The system, which features waterproof stainless steel construction, is acceptable under the HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) programme guidelines. The outer dimensions of the system are 1500 mm length × 477 mm width × 1445 mm height, and it can accept objects up to 200 mm wide × 80 mm high. An automatic liquid nitrogen filling system was installed in the standard model. This system employed a double-layered permeable metallic shield with a thickness of 1 mm as a magnetically shielded box. The distribution of the magnetic field in the box was simulated by FEM; the gap between each shield layer was optimized before fabrication. A shielding factor of 732 in the Z-component was achieved. This value is high enough to safely operate the system in a non-laboratory environment, i.e., a factory. During testing, we successfully detected a steel contaminant as small as 0.3 mm in diameter at a distance of 75 mm.

Tanaka, Saburo; Fujita, H.; Hatsukade, Y.; Nagaishi, T.; Nishi, K.; Ota, H.; Otani, T.; Suzuki, S.

2006-05-01

212

The Fading Electricity Theory of Ageing: the missing biophysical principle?  

PubMed

Since a few years convincing data are accumulating showing that some of the premises of the master integrative theory of ageing, namely Harman's Reactive Oxygen Species or free radical theory, are less well founded than originally assumed. In addition, none of the about another dozen documented ageing mechanisms seems to hold the final answer as to the ultimate cause and evolutionary significance of ageing. This review raises the question whether, perhaps, something important has been overlooked, namely a biophysical principle, electrical in nature. The first cell on earth started to be alive when its system for generating its own electricity, carried by inorganic ions, became operational. Any cell dies at the very moment that this system irreversibly collapses. In between birth and death, the system is subject to wear and tear because any cell's overall repair system is not 100 percent waterproof; otherwise adaptation would not be an option. The Fading Electricity Theory of Ageing has all necessary properties for acting as a universal major integrative concept. The advent of novel methods will facilitate the study of bioelectrical phenomena with molecular biological methods in combination with optogenetics, thereby offering challenging possibilities for innovative research in evo-gero. PMID:22940501

De Loof, Arnold; De Haes, Wouter; Boerjan, Bart; Schoofs, Liliane

2013-01-01

213

Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing  

SciTech Connect

The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination (anti-C) material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-C clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant, disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled.

Reichelt, R.; Clay, M.; Eichorst, J.

1996-10-01

214

Preparation and evaluation of colon adhesive pellets of 5-aminosalicylic acid.  

PubMed

Oral modified-release delivery systems, such as bio-adhesive one, enable drug delivery to affected regions and minimize the side effects by reducing the systemic absorption. Our aim was to develop colon adhesive pellets of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. The core of the pellet was formulated from bioadhesive agents, Carbomer 940 and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), by extrusion/spheronization method and coated with Surelease(®) as inner layer for waterproof and with Eudragit(®) S100 as outer layer for pH control. The rat model of ulcerative colitis was used to evaluate the efficiency of our loaded pellets as a drug carrier. Microcrystalline cellulose 101 (PH 301) was found to be the best agent for pellet core. The ratio of CP940 to HPC should be kept as (1:1) to achieve high bioadhesion. When the amount of Surelease(®) was from 16% to 20% and of Eudragit(®) S100 was 28%, the dissolution profiles of coated pellets revealed no drug release in the artificial gastric fluid (pH 1.0) within 2h and less than 10% was released in phosphate buffer (pH 6.0) within 2h whereas complete dissolution was observed in colonic fluid of pH 7.4 for 20 h. The animal experiment showed that 5-ASA loaded colon adhesive pellets had optimal therapeutic effect. We showed a novel approach to prepare effective bioadhesive pellets as colon targeted drug delivery system. PMID:24746693

Xu, Meixia; Sun, Minjie; Qiao, Hongzhi; Ping, Qineng; Elamin, Eltayeb Suliman

2014-07-01

215

NASA Tech Briefs, September 2003  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics include: Oxygen-Partial-Pressure Sensor for Aircraft Oxygen Mask; Three-Dimensional Venturi Sensor for Measuring Extreme Winds; Swarms of Micron-Sized Sensors; Monitoring Volcanoes by Use of Air-Dropped Sensor Packages; Capacitive Sensors for Measuring Masses of Cryogenic Fluids; UHF Microstrip Antenna Array for Synthetic- Aperture Radar; Multimode Broad-Band Patch Antennas; 164-GHz MMIC HEMT Frequency Doubler; GPS Position and Heading Circuitry for Ships; Software for Managing Parametric Studies; Software Aids Visualization of Computed Unsteady Flow; Software for Testing Electroactive Structural Components; Advanced Software for Analysis of High-Speed Rolling-Element Bearings; Web Program for Development of GUIs for Cluster Computers; XML-Based Generator of C++ Code for Integration With GUIs; Oxide Protective Coats for Ir/Re Rocket Combustion Chambers; Simplified Waterproofing of Aerogels; Improved Thermal-Insulation Systems for Low Temperatures; Device for Automated Cutting and Transfer of Plant Shoots; Extension of Liouville Formalism to Postinstability Dynamics; Advances in Thrust-Based Emergency Control of an Airplane; Ultrasonic/Sonic Mechanisms for Drilling and Coring; Exercise Device Would Exert Selectable Constant Resistance; Improved Apparatus for Measuring Distance Between Axles; Six Classes of Diffraction-Based Optoelectronic Instruments; Modernizing Fortran 77 Legacy Codes; Active State Model for Autonomous Systems; Shields for Enhanced Protection Against High-Speed Debris; Scaling of Two-Phase Flows to Partial-Earth Gravity; Neutral-Axis Springs for Thin-Wall Integral Boom Hinges.

2003-01-01

216

Residual sludge from dimensional stones: characterisation for their exploitation in civil and environmental applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Residual sludge coming from dimensional stones working plants (diamond framesaw and ganguesaw with abrasive shots processes) represents a problem for Stone Industries. In fact the cost connected to their landfilling amounts to more than 3% of operating costs of dimensional stone working plants. Furthermore their strict feature as waste to dump (CER code 010413) contrasts the EU principles of "resource preservation" and "waste recovery". The main problems related to their management are: size distribution (fine materials, potentially asphyxial), presence of heavy metals (due to the working processes) and TPH content (due to oil machines losses). Residual sludge, considered according to Italian Legislative Decree n.152/06, can be used, as waste, for environmental restoration of derelict land or in cement plants. It is also possible to think about their systematic treatment in consortium plats for the production of Secondary Raw Materials (SRM) or "New Products" (NP, eg. artificial loam, waterproofing materials, ....). The research evidences that, on the basis of a correct sludge management, treatment and characterization, economic and environmental benefits are possible (NP or SRM in spite of waste to dump). To individuate different applications of residual sludge in civil and environmental contexts, a geotechnical (size distribution, permeability, Atterberg limits, cohesion and friction angle evaluation, Proctor soil test) characterization was foreseen. The geotechnical tests were conducted on sludge as such and on three different mixes: - Mix 1 - Bentonite clay (5-10%) added to sludge a.s (90-95%); - Mix 2 - Sludge a.s. (90-80-70%) added to coarse materials coming from crushed dimensional stones (10-20-30%); - Mix 3 - Sludge a.s. (50-70%) mixed with sand, compost, natural loam (50-30% mixture of sand, compost, natural loam). The results obtained from the four sets of tests were fundamental to evaluate: - the characteristics of the original materials; - the chance to obtain new products for dumps waterproofing (Mix 1). In this case the permeability has to be at least 10-9 m/s; - the opportunity to use them for land rehabilitation and reclamation (fine and coarse materials to fill quarry or civil works pits - Mix2; artificial loam to use for quarry and civil works revegetation - Mix 3). In Mix 3 phytotoxicity tests have been performed in cooperation with Agricultural Dept. - University of Turin. In this case the "cradle to grave principle" would be applied: "waste" coming from dimensional stone working plants could return to quarries. The results coming from geotechnical tests are promising, but to exploit sludge mixtures in civil and environmental applications it is necessary to guarantee, by means of appropriate chemical analysis, that there are no problems connected to soil, water and air pollution (connected to heavy metals and TPH contents). Magnetic or hydrogravimetric separation can be performed to reduce heavy metal content, instead TPH decrement can be reached by mean of specific agronomic treatments (eg. Bioremediation). Several in situ tests will be performed to compare the laboratory results to the "pre-industrial" ones: the obtained results will be potentially useful to propose some integration to the present Italian legislation.

Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Clemente, Paolo; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela

2013-04-01

217

Impact of Megacity Shanghai on the Urban Heat-Island Effects over the Downstream City Kunshan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of upstream urbanization on the enhanced urban heat-island (UHI) effects between Shanghai and Kunshan is investigated by analyzing seven years of surface observations and results from mesoscale model simulations. The observational analysis indicates that, under easterly and westerly winds, the temperature difference between Shanghai and Kunshan increases with wind speed when the wind speed 5 m s. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) numerical model, coupled with a one-layer urban canopy model (UCM), is used to examine the UHI structure and upstream effects by replacing the urban surface of Shanghai and/or Kunshan with cropland. The WRF/UCM modelling system is capable of reproducing the surface temperature and wind field reasonably well. The simulated urban canopy wind speed is a better representation of the near-surface wind speed than is the 10-m wind speed at the centre of Shanghai. Without the urban landscape of Shanghai, the surface air temperature over downstream Kunshan would decrease by 0.2-0.4 C in the afternoon and 0.4-0.6 C in the evening. In the simulation with the urban landscape of Shanghai, a shallow cold layer is found above the UHI, with a minimum temperature of about to 0.5 C during the afternoon hours. Strong horizontal divergence is found in this cold layer. The easterly breeze over Shanghai is strengthened at the surface by strong UHI effects, but weakened at upper levels. With the appearance of the urban landscape specific humidity decreases by 0.5-1 g kg within the urban area because of the waterproof property of an urban surface. On the other hand, the upper-level specific humidity is increased because of water vapour transferred by the strong upward vertical motions.

Kang, Han-Qing; Zhu, Bin; Zhu, Tong; Sun, Jia-Li; Ou, Jian-Jun

2014-09-01

218

Blue-Violet Laser Modification of Titania Treated Titanium: Antibacterial and Osteo-Inductive Effects  

PubMed Central

Background Many studies on surface modifications of titanium have been performed in an attempt to accelerate osseointegration. Recently, anatase titanium dioxide has been found to act as a photocatalyst that expresses antibiotic properties and exhibits hydrophilicity after ultraviolet exposure. A blue-violet semiconductor laser (BV-LD) has been developed as near-ultraviolet light. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exposure to this BV-LD on surface modifications of titanium with the goal of enhancing osteoconductive and antibacterial properties. Methods The surfaces of pure commercial titanium were polished with #800 waterproof polishing papers and were treated with anatase titania solution. Specimens were exposed using BV-LD (? = 405 nm) or an ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV-LED, ? = 365 nm) at 6 mW/cm2 for 3 h. The surface modification was evaluated physically and biologically using the following parameters or tests: surface roughness, surface temperature during exposure, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, contact angle, methylene blue degradation tests, adherence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, osteoblast and fibroblast proliferation, and histological examination after implantation in rats. Results No significant changes were found in the surface roughness or XRD profiles after exposure. BV-LD exposure did not raise the surface temperature of titanium. The contact angle was significantly decreased, and methylene blue was significantly degraded. The number of attached P. gingivalis organisms was significantly reduced after BV-LD exposure compared to that in the no exposure group. New bone was observed around exposed specimens in the histological evaluation, and both the bone-to-specimen contact ratio and the new bone area increased significantly in exposed groups. Conclusions This study suggested that exposure of titanium to BV-LD can enhance the osteoconductivity of the titanium surface and induce antibacterial properties, similar to the properties observed following exposure to UV-LED. PMID:24358355

Kawano, Takanori; Prananingrum, Widyasri; Ishida, Yuichi; Goto, Takaharu; Naito, Yoshihito; Watanabe, Megumi; Tomotake, Yoritoki; Ichikawa, Tetsuo

2013-01-01

219

Short-term survival and effects of transmitter implantation into western grebes using a modified surgical procedure.  

PubMed

Two pilot trials and one study in a closely related grebe species suggest that Western grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis) will not tolerate intracoelomic transmitter implantation with percutaneous antennae and often die within days of surgery. Wild Western grebes (n = 21) were captured to evaluate a modified surgical technique. Seven birds were surgically implanted with intracoelomic transmitters with percutaneous antennae by using the modified technique (transmitter group), 7 received the same surgery without transmitter implantation (celiotomy group), and 7 served as controls (only undergoing anesthesia). Modifications included laterally offsetting the body wall incision from the skin incision, application of absorbable cyanoacrylate tissue glue to the subcutaneous space between the body wall and skin incisions, application of a waterproof sealant to the skin incision after suture closure, and application of a piece of porcine small intestine submucosa to the antenna egress. Survival did not differ among the 3 groups with 7 of 7 control, 6 of 7 celiotomy, and 6 of 7 transmitter birds surviving the 9-day study. Experimental birds were euthanized at the end of the study, and postmortem findings indicated normal healing. Significant differences in plasma chemistry or immune function were not detected among the 3 groups, and only minor differences were detected in red blood cell indices and plasma proteins. After surgery, the birds in the transmitter group spent more time preening tail feathers than those in the control and celiotomy groups. These results demonstrate that, in a captive situation, celiotomy and intracoelomic transmitter implantation caused minimal detectable homeostatic disturbance in this species and that Western grebes can survive implantation of intracoelomic transmitters with percutaneous antennae. It remains to be determined what potential this modified surgical procedure has to improve postoperative survival of Western grebes that are intracelomically implanted with transmitters with percutaneous antennae and released into the wild. PMID:22950313

Gaydos, Joseph K; Massey, J Gregory; Mulcahy, Daniel M; Gaskins, Lori A; Nysewander, David; Evenson, Joseph; Siegel, Paul B; Ziccardi, Michael H

2011-09-01

220

DUCKS: A continuous thermal presence on the rim of Pu'u 'O'o  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past 2 years we have been monitoring the persistent activity at the Pu'u 'O'o crater (Kilauea, Hawaii) with a permanent system of infrared thermometers. Our intent has been to implement a cheap, robust, modular real-time thermal system capable of surviving the harshest of conditions. The system cost \\10,000 to construct and consists of three modules: field-based sensors, a repeater station and a reception site. The field-based component consists of three thermal infrared thermometers, housed in pelican cases with selenium-germanium-arsenic windows. Two 1 degree field of view (FOV) instruments allow specific but small areas to be monitored, and a 60 degree FOV provides an overview for all crater floor activity. A hard wire connection extends 25 m to a pelican-case-housed microprocessor, modem, and power module. From here, data are transmitted using Yagi antennas, via the repeater site, to a dedicated PC in the lobby of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. Here, the three channels of data are displayed on-screen, with a delay of ~3 seconds between data acquisition and display. Data are also used to automatically update web-based plots for general access. Aside from some minor glitches, such has sensor damage during probable tampering and unresolved data stream failures, the system has been in continuous operation since March 2001. In this regard, careful waterproofing of connectors, cables and protective cases has kept out the extremely wet and acidic atmosphere encountered at the crater edge. We have also constructed self-contained versions with internal loggers for \\1500/unit. These have been deployed in a temporary fashion at Stromboli, Masaya and Erta Ale. Together these instruments have proved capable of detecting thermal signals associated with (1) gas puffing and jetting, (2) spattering, (3) lava effusion, (4) crater floor collapse, (5) vent blockage-and-clearing, and (6) lava lake overturn.

Harris, A. J.; Pirie, D. J.; Horton, K.; Flynn, L. P.; Garbeil, H.; Johnson, J. B.; Ramm, H.; Pilger, E.

2002-12-01

221

Design and characterization of a piezoelectric sensor for monitoring scour hole evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scour occurring near bridge piers and abutments jeopardizes the stability and safety of overwater bridges. In fact, bridge scour is responsible for a significant portion of overwater bridge failures in the United States and around the world. As a result, numerous methods have been developed for monitoring bridge scour by measuring scour depth at locations near bridge piers and foundations. Besides visual inspections conducted by trained divers, other technologies include sonar, float-out devices, magnetic sliding collars, tilt sensors, and fiber optics, to name a few. These systems each offer unique advantages, but most of them share fundamental limitations (e.g., high costs, low reliability, limited accuracy, low reliability, etc.) that have limited their implementation in practice. Thus, the goal of this study is to present a low-cost and simple scour depth sensor fabricated using piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer strips. Unlike current piezoelectric scour sensors that are based on mounting multiple and equidistantly spaced transducers on a rod, the proposed sensor is formed by coating one continuous PVDF film onto a substrate, followed by waterproofing the sensor. The PVDF-based sensor can then be buried in the streambed and at a location where scour depth measurements are desired. When scour occurs and exposes a portion of the PVDF sensor, water flow excites the sensor to cause the generation of a time-varying voltage signal. Since the dynamics of the voltage time history response is related to the exposed length of the sensor, scour depth can be determined. This work presents the design and fabrication of the sensor. Then, the sensor's performance and accuracy is characterized through extensive laboratory testing.

Azhari, Faezeh; Tom, Caroline; Benassini, Joseph; Loh, Kenneth J.; Bombardelli, Fabian A.

2014-03-01

222

Latherin: A Surfactant Protein of Horse Sweat and Saliva  

PubMed Central

Horses are unusual in producing protein-rich sweat for thermoregulation, a major component of which is latherin, a highly surface-active, non-glycosylated protein. The amino acid sequence of latherin, determined from cDNA analysis, is highly conserved across four geographically dispersed equid species (horse, zebra, onager, ass), and is similar to a family of proteins only found previously in the oral cavity and associated tissues of mammals. Latherin produces a significant reduction in water surface tension at low concentrations (?1 mg ml?1), and therefore probably acts as a wetting agent to facilitate evaporative cooling through a waterproofed pelt. Neutron reflection experiments indicate that this detergent-like activity is associated with the formation of a dense protein layer, about 10 Å thick, at the air-water interface. However, biophysical characterization (circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry) in solution shows that latherin behaves like a typical globular protein, although with unusual intrinsic fluorescence characteristics, suggesting that significant conformational change or unfolding of the protein is required for assembly of the air-water interfacial layer. RT-PCR screening revealed latherin transcripts in horse skin and salivary gland but in no other tissues. Recombinant latherin produced in bacteria was also found to be the target of IgE antibody from horse-allergic subjects. Equids therefore may have adapted an oral/salivary mucosal protein for two purposes peculiar to their lifestyle, namely their need for rapid and efficient heat dissipation and their specialisation for masticating and processing large quantities of dry food material. PMID:19478940

Beeley, John G.; Bovell, Douglas L.; Lu, Jian R.; Zhao, Xiubo; Cooper, Alan; Kennedy, Malcolm W.

2009-01-01

223

Novel electrodes for underwater ECG monitoring.  

PubMed

We have developed hydrophobic electrodes that provide all morphological waveforms without distortion of an ECG signal for both dry and water-immersed conditions. Our electrode is comprised of a mixture of carbon black powder (CB) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). For feasibility testing of the CB/PDMS electrodes, various tests were performed. One of the tests included evaluation of the electrode-to-skin contact impedance for different diameters, thicknesses, and different pressure levels. As expected, the larger the diameter of the electrodes, the lower the impedance and the difference between the large sized CB/PDMS and the similarly-sized Ag/AgCl hydrogel electrodes was at most 200 k?, in favor of the latter. Performance comparison of CB/PDMS electrodes to Ag/AgCl hydrogel electrodes was carried out in three different scenarios: a dry surface, water immersion, and postwater immersion conditions. In the dry condition, no statistical differences were found for both the temporal and spectral indices of the heart rate variability analysis between the CB/PDMS and Ag/AgCl hydrogel (p > 0.05) electrodes. During water immersion, there was significant ECG amplitude reduction with CB/PDMS electrodes when compared to wet Ag/AgCl electrodes kept dry by their waterproof adhesive tape, but the reduction was not severe enough to obscure the readability of the recordings, and all morphological waveforms of the ECG signal were discernible even when motion artifacts were introduced. When water did not penetrate tape-wrapped Ag/AgCl electrodes, high fidelity ECG signals were observed. However, when water penetrated the Ag/AgCl electrodes, the signal quality degraded to the point where ECG morphological waveforms were not discernible. PMID:24845297

Reyes, Bersain A; Posada-Quintero, Hugo F; Bales, Justin R; Clement, Amanda L; Pins, George D; Swiston, Albert; Riistama, Jarno; Florian, John P; Shykoff, Barbara; Qin, Michael; Chon, Ki H

2014-06-01

224

Molecular Structure of Oleic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A mono-unsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid is a component of almost all natural fats. It is obtained from any of various vegetable and animal oils and fats, particularly the seeds of castor, sunflower, safflower, parsley, soybean, flax, perilla, and celery. A colorless or yellow-to-red oily liquid with a lard-like odor, it solidifies to a crystalline mass at four degrees Celsius. When exposed to air it oxidizes and acquires a yellow to brown color and rancid odor; for this reason it should be kept sealed in a container and away from sunlight. It is almost completely insoluble in water but is soluble in alcohol, benzene chloroform, ether, and fixed and volatile oils. Although oleic acid has a low level of toxicity when absorbed orally, it is mildly irritating to the skin and mucous membranes. It also is combustible. Oleic acid is used as a soap base and in the production of food-grade additives, ointments, cosmetics, fragrance products, polishing compounds, surface coatings, and manufacturing driers. It is used for waterproofing textiles and for thickening lubricating oils. It also is used as a solvent in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals. It contributes to the flavor of foods and is found in sweet cider apples. One of the "good" or unsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid has proven helpful to cell and heart function. It has shown anti-inflammatory effects in the body and has been used to treat arthritis, asthma, allergies, and skin conditions. Its inclusion in the diet has improved cases of diabetes, depression, menopausal problems, obesity, memory and learning disabilities, eye problems, and digestive disorders. It is considered to lower the incidence of cancer (as an antioxidant), multiple sclerosis, and lupus as well.

2003-05-08

225

Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System and its application to emergency response involving chemical, biological or radiological contamination. The Idaho National Laboratory designed the Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System to assist the National Guard Weapons of Mass Destruction - Civil Support Teams during their mission of emergency response to incidents involving weapons of mass destruction. The lightweight, handheld camera transmits encrypted, real-time video from inside a contaminated area, or hot-zone, to a command post located a safe distance away. The system includes a small wireless video camera, a true-diversity receiver, viewing console, and an optional extension link that allows the command post to be placed up to five miles from danger. It can be fully deployed by one person in a standalone configuration in less than 10 minutes. The complete system is battery powered. Each rechargeable camera battery powers the camera for 3 hours with the receiver and video monitor battery lasting 22 hours on a single charge. The camera transmits encrypted, low frequency analog video signals to a true-diversity receiver with three antennas. This unique combination of encryption and transmission technologies delivers encrypted, interference-free images to the command post under conditions where other wireless systems fail. The lightweight camera is completely waterproof for quick and easy decontamination after use. The Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System is currently being used by several National Guard Teams, the US Army, and by fire fighters. The system has been proven to greatly enhance situational awareness during the crucial, initial phase of a hazardous response allowing commanders to make better, faster, safer decisions.

Kevin L. Young

2006-02-01

226

Interpretation of 3D void measurements with Tripoli4.6/JEFF3.1.1 Monte Carlo code  

SciTech Connect

The present work details the first analysis of the 3D void phase conducted during the EPICURE/UM17x17/7% mixed UOX/MOX configuration. This configuration is composed of a homogeneous central 17x17 MOX-7% assembly, surrounded by portions of 17x17 1102 assemblies with guide-tubes. The void bubble is modelled by a small waterproof 5x5 fuel pin parallelepiped box of 11 cm height, placed in the centre of the MOX assembly. This bubble, initially placed at the core mid-plane, is then moved in different axial positions to study the evolution in the core of the axial perturbation. Then, to simulate the growing of this bubble in order to understand the effects of increased void fraction along the fuel pin, 3 and 5 bubbles have been stacked axially, from the core mid-plane. The C/E comparison obtained with the Monte Carlo code Tripoli4 for both radial and axial fission rate distributions, and in particular the reproduction of the very important flux gradients at the void/water interfaces, changing as the bubble is displaced along the z-axis are very satisfactory. It demonstrates both the capability of the code and its library to reproduce this kind of situation, as the very good quality of the experimental results, confirming the UM-17x17 as an excellent experimental benchmark for 3D code validation. This work has been performed within the frame of the V and V program for the future APOLL03 deterministic code of CEA starting in 2012, and its V and V benchmarking database. (authors)

Blaise, P.; Colomba, A. [CEA, DEN, DER/SPRC/LEPh, F-13108 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

2012-07-01

227

"Smart pebble" design for environmental monitoring applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment transport, due to primarily the action of water, wind and ice, is one of the most significant geomorphic processes responsible for shaping Earth's surface. It involves entrainment of sediment grains in rivers and estuaries due to the violently fluctuating hydrodynamic forces near the bed. Here an instrumented particle, namely a "smart pebble", is developed to investigate the exact flow conditions under which individual grains may be entrained from the surface of a gravel bed. This could lead in developing a better understanding of the processes involved, while focusing on the response of the particle during a variety of flow entrainment events. The "smart pebble" is a particle instrumented with MEMS sensors appropriate for capturing the hydrodynamic forces a coarse particle might experience during its entrainment from the river bed. A 3-axial gyroscope and accelerometer registers data to a memory card via a microcontroller, embedded in a 3D-printed waterproof hollow spherical particle. The instrumented board is appropriately fit and centred into the shell of the pebble, so as to achieve a nearly uniform distribution of the mass which could otherwise bias its motion. The "smart pebble" is powered by an independent power to ensure autonomy and sufficiently long periods of operation appropriate for deployment in the field. Post-processing and analysis of the acquired data is currently performed offline, using scientific programming software. The performance of the instrumented particle is validated, conducting a series of calibration experiments under well-controlled laboratory conditions. "Smart pebble" allows for a wider range of environmental sensors (e.g. for environmental/pollutant monitoring) to be incorporated so as to extend the range of its application, enabling accurate environmental monitoring which is required to ensure infrastructure resilience and preservation of ecological health.

Valyrakis, Manousos; Pavlovskis, Edgars

2014-05-01

228

A new RF package suitable for aeronautical commercial and DSCS satellite applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Higher levels of integration through the use of GaAs and silicon MMIC devices, a die-cast housing, and the reduction of the number of subassemblies has enabled a large reduction of the size and weight of the electronics package for commercial and military satellite communications. This paper presents an electronics architecture and hardware that utilizes many new integrated circuits and design techniques, and allows flexibility for future satellite frequency changes and expansion. Key features of the radio are extended C-band, InSat, Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS), and Ku-band coverage options; 70 (or 140) MHz transponder bandwidth or L-band block bandwidth IFs; integrated RS-232 control through local handheld terminal or remote computer; remote control of crystal reference oscillator for aging and temperature compensation; integrated 2 or 5 watt solid-state power amplifiers (SSPA); optional integrated solid-state booster amplifiers to 40 watts; optional external amplifiers to 100 watts; integral beacon tracking with second integrated downcoverter for antenna positioning; radio, including low-noise block converter (LNB) and SSPA, weighs 8.5 kg and measures 32 x 23 x 16.5 cm; environmentally ruggedized for -40 to +60 C; O-ring sealed for waterproofing; passive (convection) cooling; and simple cabling and installation, with a single cable between radio and LNB, and two cables between radio and IF interface. The small size and light weight of the radio make it ideal for mounting on stabilized antenna platforms (gyroscopic or servo). Several input power options (110 or 220 VAC; +48, +12, or -24 VDC) facilitate operation on multiple platforms.

Hamilton, Robert J., Jr.

1995-01-01

229

Pollination and Reproductive Biology of Twelve Species of Neotropical Malpighiaceae: Stigma Morphology and its Implications for the Breeding System  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims This study on reproductive biology examines the stigmatic morphology of 12 Brazilian Malpighiaceae species with regard to their pollination and breeding system. • Methods The species were studied in natural populations of a semi?deciduous forest fragment. Style tips were processed for observation by SEM and pollen?tube growth was analyzed under fluorescence microscopy. The breeding system was investigated by isolating flowers within waterproof bags. Floral visitors were recorded through notes and photographs. • Key Results Flowers are yellow, pink or white, protogynous, herkogamous and sometimes lack oil glands. While Banisteriopsis pubipetala has functional female flowers (with indehiscent anthers), 11 species present hermaphrodite flowers. Stigmas of these species may be terminal, with a slightly concave surface, or internal, consisting of a circular cavity with a large orifice, and are covered with a thin, impermeable cuticle that prevents pollen from adhering, hydrating, or germinating. Malpighiaceae have a special type of ‘wet’ stigma, where a secretion accumulates under the cuticle and is released by mechanical means—mainly rupture by pollinators. Even though six species show a certain degree of self?compatibility, four of them present a form of late?acting self?incompatibility, and the individual of B. pubipetala is agamospermous. Species of Centris, Epicharis and Monoeca bees pollinate these flowers, mainly collecting oil. Some Epicharis and Monoeca species collected pollen by vibration. Paratetrapedia and Tetrapedia bees are pollen and oil thieves. • Conclusions The Malpiguiaceae species studied are pollinator?dependent, as spontaneous self?pollination is limited by herkogamy, protogyny and the stigmatic cuticle. Both the oil? and pollen?collecting behaviours of the pollinators favour the rupture of the stigmatic cuticle and the deposition of pollen on or inside the stigmas. As fruit?set rates in natural conditions are low, population fragmentation may have limited the sexual reproduction of these species. PMID:15194562

SIGRIST, MARIA ROSÂNGELA; SAZIMA, MARLIES

2004-01-01

230

An unusual case of organophosphate intoxication of a worker in a plastic bottle recycling plant: an important reminder.  

PubMed

A young man was sent to our emergency unit because he had suffered from vomiting and cold sweating for 2 days. At the time he was admitted, he had no acute abdominal pains or gastrointestinal symptoms, and a physical examination revealed nothing but a faster heart rate and moist, flushing skin. The patient had worked for 6 years at a plastic bottle-recycling factory, but none of his co-workers had the same symptoms. Nevertheless, because the plant also recycled pesticide bottles, we suspected organophosphate pesticide intoxication. The patient's plasma acetylcholinesterase level was checked, revealing 1498.6 microU/L (normal range: 2,000-5, 000) on the first day and 1,379 microU/L on the second day. Upon questioning, the patient recalled that one of his shoe soles had been damaged and that his foot had been wet from walking all day in rain collected on the factory floor on the day that his symptoms first occurred. We conducted a study in the change of preshift and postshift acetylcholinesterase levels among six of his co-workers on a rainy day. We used the Wilcoxon signed rank test to compare the preshift and postshift plasma acetylcholinesterase levels; no significant difference was revealed (p = 0.600), leaving contamination via the damaged shoe sole suspect. We reviewed the literature on organophosphate intoxication; pesticide bottle-recycling factories were reported to be at a low risk of organophosphate toxicity in the working environment. However, because the potential risk of intoxication is still present, protective equipment such as clothing, gloves, and water-proof shoes should be worn, and employees should be educated on the potential risks. PMID:11102304

Wang, C L; Chuang, H Y; Chang, C Y; Liu, S T; Wu, M T; Ho, C K

2000-11-01

231

A de-epithelialised 'turnover dartos flap' in the repair of urethral fistula.  

PubMed

We report our experience in the management of urethrocutaneous fistulae following hypospadias repair by using a turnover, de-epithelialiszed dartos flap. From May 2003 to June 2007 we operated on 10 patients with urethral fistulae following hypospadias repair. Their ages ranged from 4 to 25 years (mean: 7 years). Four of these patients had their urethroplasty done elsewhere and reported for fistula repair alone. These four patients had no record of the urethroplasty procedure that was used. A solitary fistula was located at the corona in two patients, on the mid-shaft in three patients, and proximal penile in one patient. Two patients had multiple fistulae on the shaft, one patient had two fistulae on the shaft, and one patient had a long fistula from the proximal penile to peno-scrotal region. The technique involves using a circumscribing incision around the fistula and closing the inner skin edges by an inverting subcuticular stitch to form the urethral layer. A flap is marked on the skin adjacent to the circumscribing incision and de-epithelialised. It is raised with underlying dartos fascia/muscle and turned over the first layer of closure and secured. The vascular supply to the flap is based on a hinge of tissue around the defect. A long skin flap developed from shaft or the scrotum is approximated over this layer to complete the repair. Alternatively, the skin is closed in a 'pants over vest' technique. An indwelling catheter is placed for 3-4 days. Nine patients healed without complications, and one patient with multiple fistulae on the shaft had a residual tiny pin-point fistula which closed spontaneously. Thus, the success rate with this technique was 100%. Although dartos flaps have been used for many years as a waterproofing layer in urethroplasties or while repairing urethrocutaneous fistulae, their use as a 'de-epithelialised turnover flap' provides another reliable tool in the surgical repertoire. PMID:18640885

Ahuja, Rajeev B

2009-03-01

232

Applications of Spectroscopy to Studying Atmospheric Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroscopic techniques are finding increased applications in studies of atmospheric chemistry because of inherent advantages in the techniques and technological improvements in optical and computer components. There are many advantages of using spectroscopy for study of chemistry. Spectroscopy is absolutely calibrated and thus requires only validation, reducing the need for consumable standards and reducing size and weight. Generally, spectroscopic instruments can be built from inexpensive solid-state components with few or no moving parts, improving long-term reliability. Huge advances in optoelectronic components, such as availability of diode lasers, cheap imaging detectors, light emitting diodes, have widened the breadth of applications and reduced costs. In this presentation, we discuss two recent applications of atmospheric spectroscopy that exploit these advantages. In the first application, our group has used off-axis Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (oaCRDS) to make a small and inexpensive detector for nitrate radicals (NO3) and dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5), which are atmospherically important nitrogen oxides the dominate reactivity during nighttime. This instrument fits in a small waterproof case that is (98cm x 40cm x 15cm), weighs less than 25kg, and uses an inexpensive diode laser. The instrument was recently incompared to a number of other techniques for measuring these gases and showed excellent performance. In a second application, we have used multiple-axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAXDOAS) to measure halogen oxides and other UV-absorbing gases at remote locations. This instrument will be a part of an autonomous chemical-measuring buoy that will be deployed on the Arctic Ice. The instrument will make measurements and telemeter the data back via an iridium satellite modem. Our MAXDOAS instrument is very small, inexpensive, and uses only 2 watts of power, allowing long life when operating on batteries. Many features were built into the instrument to ensure long-term reliability without physical access the the instrument.

Simpson, W. R.; Apodaca, R.; Carlson, D. A.

2007-12-01

233

Epicuticular compounds of Drosophila subquinaria and D. recens: identification, quantification, and their role in female mate choice.  

PubMed

The epicuticle of various Drosophila species consists of long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) and their derivatives that play a role in waterproofing and a dynamic means of chemical communication. Here, via gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, we identified and quantified the epicuticular composition of D. recens and D. subquinaria, two closely related species that show a pattern of reproductive character displacement in nature. Twenty-four compounds were identified with the most abundant, 11-cis-Vaccenyl acetate, present only in males of each species. Also exclusive to males were five tri-acylglycerides. The 18 remaining compounds were CHCs, all shared between the sexes and species. These CHCs were composed of odd carbon numbers (C29, C31, C33, and C35), with an increase in structural isomers in the C33 and C35 groups. Saturated hydrocarbons comprise only methyl-branched alkanes and were found only in the C29 and C31 groups. Alkenes were the least prevalent, with alkadienes dominating the chromatographic landscape in the longer chain lengths. Sexual dimorphism was extensive with 6/8 of the logcontrast CHCs differing significantly in relative concentration between males and females in D. recens and D. subquinaria, respectively. Males of the two species also differed significantly in relative concentration of six CHCs, while females differed in none. Female-choice mating trials revealed directional sexual selection on male CHCs in a population of each species, consistent with female mate preferences for these traits. The sexual selection vectors differed significantly in multivariate trait space, suggesting that different pheromone blends determine male attractiveness in each species. PMID:23604703

Curtis, Sharon; Sztepanacz, Jacqueline L; White, Brooke E; Dyer, Kelly A; Rundle, Howard D; Mayer, Paul

2013-05-01

234

Histological and MS spectrometric analyses of the modified tissue of bulgy form tadpoles induced by salamander predation  

PubMed Central

Summary The rapid induction of a defensive morphology by a prey species in face of a predation risk is an intriguing in ecological context; however, the physiological mechanisms that underlie this phenotypic plasticity remain uncertain. Here we investigated the phenotypic changes shown by Rana pirica tadpoles in response to a predation threat by larvae of the salamander Hynobius retardatus. One such response is the bulgy morph phenotype, a relatively rapid swelling in size by the tadpoles that begins within 4 days and reaches a maximum at 8 to 10 days. We found that although the total volume of bodily fluid increased significantly (P<0.01) in bulgy morph tadpoles, osmotic pressure was maintained at the same level as control tadpoles by a significant increase (P<0.01) in Na and Cl ion concentrations. In our previous report, we identified a novel frog gene named pirica that affects the waterproofing of the skin membrane in tadpoles. Our results support the hypothesis that predator-induced expression of pirica on the skin membrane causes retention of absorbed water. Midline sections of bulgy morph tadpoles showed the presence of swollen connective tissue beneath the skin that was sparsely composed of cells containing hyaluronic acid. Mass spectrographic (LC-MS/MS) analysis identified histone H3 and 14-3-3 zeta as the most abundant constituents in the liquid aspirated from the connective tissue of bulgy tadpoles. Immunohistochemistry using antibodies against these proteins showed the presence of non-chromatin associated histone H3 in the swollen connective tissue. Histones and 14-3-3 proteins are also involved in antimicrobial activity and secretion of antibacterial proteins, respectively. Bulgy tadpoles have a larger surface area than controls, and their skin often has bite wounds inflicted by the larval salamanders. Thus, formation of the bulgy morph may also require and be supported by activation of innate immune systems. PMID:23213421

Mori, Tsukasa; Kitani, Yoichiro; Ogihara, Jun; Sugiyama, Manabu; Yamamoto, Goshi; Kishida, Osamu; Nishimura, Kinya

2012-01-01

235

Development of a semi-permanent mascara technology.  

PubMed

Many women would like their mascara beauty benefits to be available all day, every day. One way to address this desire is through a semi-permanent mascara technology that provides full mascara benefits of long, dark beautiful lashes for multiple days. To date, products promising multi-day benefits have acted more as either 'lash dyes', providing a lash darkening benefit but failing to provide fullness and length, or waterproof mascaras that do not maintain the initial beauty look over multiple days. Here, a formulation approach is described for a mascara product that is designed to be abrasion resistant, flexible and insoluble in soap and water so that the initial beauty look is maintained for multiple days. The new semi-permanent formula technology uses rosinate polymers that have a superior combination of flexibility, abrasion resistance and water and surfactant resistance. Based on principles used by the paint industry for creating durable films, the levels of the polymers and other non-volatile ingredients are balanced such that the product forms a continuous polymer film on the eyelash. Cryo-SEM is used to demonstrate that the new semi-permanent formula technology forms a film different from those formed by current mascara products. A stretch test and rub test are used to demonstrate that the new semi-permanent formula technology has superior flexibility and abrasion resistance to current mascara products. Finally, a multi-day consumer study with daily imaging of the eyes is used to demonstrate the superior wear performance of the new semi-permanent formula technology in actual usage. PMID:21834943

Dempsey, J H; Fabula, A M; Rabe, T E; Lubbers, J M; Ye, M

2012-02-01

236

Variation in preen oil composition pertaining to season, sex, and genotype in the polymorphic white-throated sparrow.  

PubMed

Evidence for the the ability of birds to detect olfactory signals is now well documented, yet it remains unclear whether birds secrete chemicals that can be used as social cues. A potential source of chemical cues in birds is the secretion from the uropygial gland, or preen gland, which is thought to waterproof, maintain, and protect feathers from ectoparasites. However, it is possible that preen oil also may be used for individual recognition, mate choice, and signalling social/sexual status. If preen oil secretions can be used as socio-olfactory signals, we should be able to identify the volatile components that could make the secretions more detectable, determine the seasonality of these secretions, and determine whether olfactory signals differ among relevant social groups. We examined the seasonal differences in volatile compounds of the preen oil of captive white-throated sparrows, Zonotrichia albicollis. This species is polymorphic and has genetically determined morphs that occur in both sexes. Mating is almost exclusively disassortative with respect to morph, suggesting strong mate choice. By sampling the preen oil from captive birds in breeding and non-breeding conditions, we identified candidate chemical signals that varied according to season, sex, morph, and species. Linear alcohols with a 10-18 carbon chains, as well as methyl ketones and carboxylic acids, were the most abundant volatile compounds. Both the variety and abundances of some of these compounds were different between the sexes and morphs, with one morph secreting more volatile compounds in the non-breeding season than the other. In addition, 12 compounds were seasonally elevated in amount, and were secreted in high amounts in males. Finally, we found that preen oil signatures tended to be species-specific, with white-throated sparrows differing from the closely related Junco in the abundances and/or prevalence of at least three compounds. Our data suggest roles for preen oil secretions and avian olfaction in both non-social as well as social interactions. PMID:25236380

Tuttle, Elaina M; Sebastian, Peter J; Posto, Amanda L; Soini, Helena A; Novotny, Milos V; Gonser, Rusty A

2014-09-01

237

Absorption and thermal study of dental enamel when irradiated with Nd:YAG laser with the aim of caries prevention  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely recognized that Nd:YAG can increase enamel resistance to demineralization; however, the safe parameters and conditions that enable the application of Nd:YAG laser irradiation in vivo are still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine a dye as a photoabsorber for Nd:YAG laser and to verify in vitro a safe condition of Nd:YAG irradiation for caries prevention. Fifty-eight human teeth were selected. In a first morphological study, four dyes (waterproof India ink., iron oxide, caries indicator and coal paste) were tested before Nd:YAG laser irradiation, under two different irradiation conditions: 60 mJ/pulse and 10 Hz (84.9 J/cm2); 80 mJ/pulse and 10 Hz (113.1 J/cm2). In a second study, the enamel surface and pulp chamber temperatures were evaluated during laser irradiations. All dyes produced enamel surface melting, with the exception of the caries indicator, and coal paste was the only dye that could be completely removed. All irradiation conditions produced temperature increases of up to 615.08°C on the enamel surface. Nd:YAG laser irradiation at 60 mJ/pulse, 10 Hz and 84.9 J/cm2 promoted no harmful temperature increase in the pulp chamber (ANOVA, p < 0.05). Among all dyes tested, the coal paste was an efficient photoabsorber for Nd:YAG irradiation, considered feasible for clinical practice. Nd:YAG laser at 84.9 J/cm2 can be indicated as a safe parameter for use in caries prevention.

Boari, H. G. D.; Ana, P. A.; Eduardo, C. P.; Powell, G. L.; Zezell, D. M.

2009-07-01

238

A first global production, emission, and environmental inventory for perfluorooctane sulfonate.  

PubMed

This study makes a new estimate of the global historical production for perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride (POSF), and then focuses on producing a first estimate of the global historical environmental releases of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). The total historical worldwide production of POSF was estimated to be 96,000 t (or 122,500 t, including unusable wastes) between 1970-2002, with an estimated global release of 45,250 t to air and water between 1970-2012 from direct (manufacture, use, and consumer products) and indirect (PFOS precursors and/or impurities) sources. Estimates indicate that direct emissions from POSF-derived products are the major source to the environment resulting in releases of 450-2700 t PFOS into wastewater streams, primarily through losses from stain repellent treated carpets, waterproof apparel, and aqueous fire fighting foams. Large uncertainties surround indirect sources and have not yet been estimated due to limited information on environmental degradation, although it can be assumed that some POSF-derived chemicals will degrade to PFOS over time. The properties of PFOS (high water solubility, negligible vapor pressure, and limited sorption to particles) imply it will reside in surface waters, predominantly in oceans. Measured oceanic data suggests approximately 235-1770 t of PFOS currently reside in ocean surface waters, similar to the estimated PFOS releases. Environmental monitoring from the 1970s onward shows strong upward trends in biota, in broad agreement with the estimates of use and emissions made here. Since cessation of POSF production by 3M in 2002, a reduction in some compartments has been observed, although current and future exposure is dependent on emission routes, subsequent transport and degradation. PMID:19238969

Paul, Alexander G; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

2009-01-15

239

Simple and reliable method to incorporate the Janus property onto arbitrary porous substrates.  

PubMed

Economical fabrication of waterproof/breathable substrates has many potential applications such as clothing or improved medical dressing. In this work, a facile and reproducible fabrication method was developed to render the Janus property to arbitrary porous substrates. First, a hydrophobic surface was obtained by depositing a fluoropolymer, poly(3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,9,9,10,10,10-heptadecafluorodecyl methacrylate) (PHFDMA), on various porous substrates such as polyester fabric, nylon mesh, and filter paper. With a one-step vapor-phase deposition process, termed as initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD), a conformal coating of hydrophobic PHFDMA polymer film was achieved on both faces of the porous substrate. Since the hydrophobic perfluoroalkyl functionality is tethered on PHFDMA via hydrolyzable ester functionality, the hydrophobic functionality on PHFDMA was readily released by hydrolysis reaction. Here, by simply floating the PHFDMA-coated substrates on KOH(aq) solution, only the face of the PHFDMA-coated substrate in contact with the KOH(aq) solution became hydrophilic by the conversion of the fluoroalkyl ester group in the PHFDMA to hydrophilic carboxylic acid functionality. The hydrophilized face was able to easily absorb water, showing a contact angle of less than 37°. However, the top side of the PHFDMA-coated substrate was unaffected by the exposure to KOH(aq) solution and remained hydrophobic. Moreover, the carboxylated surface was further functionalized with aminated polystyrene beads. The porous Janus substrates fabricated using this method can be applied to various kinds of clothing such as pants and shirts, something that the lamination process for Gore-tex has not allowed. PMID:24568214

You, Jae Bem; Yoo, Youngmin; Oh, Myung Seok; Im, Sung Gap

2014-03-26

240

Characterization of Glossy1-homologous genes in rice involved in leaf wax accumulation and drought resistance.  

PubMed

The outermost surfaces of plants are covered with an epicuticular wax layer that provides a primary waterproof barrier and protection against different environmental stresses. Glossy 1 (GL1) is one of the reported genes controlling wax synthesis. This study analyzed GL1-homologous genes in Oryza sativa and characterized the key members of this family involved in wax synthesis and stress resistance. Sequence analysis revealed 11 homologous genes of GL1 in rice, designated OsGL1-1 to OsGL1-11. OsGL1-1, -2 and -3 are closely related to GL1. OsGL1-4, -5, -6, and -7 are closely related to Arabidopsis CER1 that is involved in cuticular wax biosynthesis. OsGL1-8, -9, -10 and -11 are closely related to SUR2 encoding a putative sterol desaturase also involved in epicuticular wax biosynthesis. These genes showed variable expression levels in different tissues and organs of rice, and most of them were induced by abiotic stresses. Compared to the wild type, the OsGL1-2-over-expression rice exhibited more wax crystallization and a thicker epicuticular layer; while the mutant of this gene showed less wax crystallization and a thinner cuticular layer. Chlorophyll leaching experiment suggested that the cuticular permeability was decreased and increased in the over-expression lines and the mutant, respectively. Quantification analysis of wax composition by GC-MS revealed a significant reduction of total cuticular wax in the mutant and increase of total cuticular wax in the over-expression plants. Compared to the over-expression and wild type plants, the osgl1-2 mutant was more sensitive to drought stress at reproductive stage, suggesting an important role of this gene in drought resistance. PMID:19322663

Islam, Mohammad Asadul; Du, Hao; Ning, Jing; Ye, Haiyan; Xiong, Lizhong

2009-07-01

241

Genes involved in thoracic exoskeleton formation during the pupal-to-adult molt in a social insect model, Apis mellifera  

PubMed Central

Background The insect exoskeleton provides shape, waterproofing, and locomotion via attached somatic muscles. The exoskeleton is renewed during molting, a process regulated by ecdysteroid hormones. The holometabolous pupa transforms into an adult during the imaginal molt, when the epidermis synthe3sizes the definitive exoskeleton that then differentiates progressively. An important issue in insect development concerns how the exoskeletal regions are constructed to provide their morphological, physiological and mechanical functions. We used whole-genome oligonucleotide microarrays to screen for genes involved in exoskeletal formation in the honeybee thoracic dorsum. Our analysis included three sampling times during the pupal-to-adult molt, i.e., before, during and after the ecdysteroid-induced apolysis that triggers synthesis of the adult exoskeleton. Results Gene ontology annotation based on orthologous relationships with Drosophila melanogaster genes placed the honeybee differentially expressed genes (DEGs) into distinct categories of Biological Process and Molecular Function, depending on developmental time, revealing the functional elements required for adult exoskeleton formation. Of the 1,253 unique DEGs, 547 were upregulated in the thoracic dorsum after apolysis, suggesting induction by the ecdysteroid pulse. The upregulated gene set included 20 of the 47 cuticular protein (CP) genes that were previously identified in the honeybee genome, and three novel putative CP genes that do not belong to a known CP family. In situ hybridization showed that two of the novel genes were abundantly expressed in the epidermis during adult exoskeleton formation, strongly implicating them as genuine CP genes. Conserved sequence motifs identified the CP genes as members of the CPR, Tweedle, Apidermin, CPF, CPLCP1 and Analogous-to-Peritrophins families. Furthermore, 28 of the 36 muscle-related DEGs were upregulated during the de novo formation of striated fibers attached to the exoskeleton. A search for cis-regulatory motifs in the 5?-untranslated region of the DEGs revealed potential binding sites for known transcription factors. Construction of a regulatory network showed that various upregulated CP- and muscle-related genes (15 and 21 genes, respectively) share common elements, suggesting co-regulation during thoracic exoskeleton formation. Conclusions These findings help reveal molecular aspects of rigid thoracic exoskeleton formation during the ecdysteroid-coordinated pupal-to-adult molt in the honeybee. PMID:23981317

2013-01-01

242

A tactical, permanent telemetered volcano monitoring station design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The USGS-USAID Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) designs, constructs and installs telemetered volcano-monitoring stations for use in developing countries, at a wide range of latitudes and elevations, weather and environmental conditions. The stations typically house seismometers, GPS and webcams, singly or in combination. They are frequently installed quickly during a volcanic crisis, but are expected to function over the long term as permanent stations. The primary design goal is for a simple, highly portable station that can be installed in less than a day, but not require maintenance until the natural end of battery life, usually 2-5 years. The station consists of a pair of aluminum boxes (43x46x71cm, approx.) placed on the ground facing each other, 2-3m apart, forming the lower part of a metal framework made of 2" pipe to mount solar panels and antennae. Vertical sections of 2" pipe, 3-4m long, are clamped to each end of both the boxes, the lower ends buried into cement-filled holes. This makes 4 masts on a rectangular footprint of 1m X 3-4m. Two horizontal crosspieces of 2" pipe 3-4m long are clamped across the masts. Solar panels are laid across the crosspieces, mounted with 2" angle aluminum extending from the high crosspiece to the low one. Relative height of the crosspieces controls the angle of the solar panels. The crosspieces can be lengthened to increase mounting space for additional solar panels. Inside the aluminum boxes, the radios and electronics are housed in plastic boxes. All external cables are protected by flexible aluminum conduit. Important elements of the design include: -Redundant dual solar power supplies of expandable capacity for loads from 1W to 10W or more. -Robust lightning protection afforded by grounded metal footlockers and framework, and a built-in common grounding point. -Strongly resistant to ice loads. -Waterproof, insect-proof plastic boxes for radios and electronics. -Aluminum boxes are easily fabricated, fit within postal and airline baggage size and weight limitations. -2" pipe can be procured locally, everywhere VDAP has worked. -Clamps for 2" pipe are made of U-bolts that can be readily obtained or procured locally if necessary. This design can be easily replicated and installed by relatively inexperienced and unskilled workers. A USGS Open-File Report detailing the construction is in production.

Lockhart, A. B.; LaFevers, M.; Couchman, M. R.

2012-12-01

243

Rainfall interception by the vegetation in a Mediterranean type climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of rainfall interception by the canopy of the vegetation is of great importance in the basin water balance, because a large part returns to the atmosphere as evaporation. The presence or absence of vegetation not only affects the amount of rainfall that reaches the ground level also affects the moisture content in soil and surface runoff. In arid or semiarid regions there are few studies related to the Mediterranean vegetation and its relationship to hydrological processes. Furthermore, most studies have characterized the interception by rainfall simulators in the laboratory. The aim of this study was to evaluate in situ the amount and distribution of rainfall through the process of interception by the canopy of trees and shrubs present in the hydrologic watershed of "The Cabril" (Córdoba, southern Spain). The predominant vegetation is scrub, composed mostly of rockrose (Cistus ladanifer), and arboreal formations of tree pines (Pinus pinea). The record of precipitation was performed using a rain gauge tipping bowl Eijkelkamp mark during periods of rain occurred in 2010 and 2011. The amount of precipitation intercepted by the canopy has been determined indirectly from the difference between incident precipitation and rain that passes through the canopy of vegetation, which is divided into the flow of throughfall and cortical flow. To measure the throughfall the soil surface was waterproofed. Throughfall volume that is generated after each rain event is collected in four tanks of 200 liters capacity interconnected. For measurement of cortical flow a spiral hose previously cut lengthwise was placed around the trunk in the case of tree pines. In rockrose, a container was installed around it at its base. Monitoring soil moisture was determined by moisture probes 6 Delta-T SM200 randomly distributed, which records the water content of the topsoil. Compared with rockrose, there is a higher percentage of interception in pine and lowest percentage of cortical runoff. This is due to the architecture of the rockrose and the resin secreted by the stem and leaves, acting as a water repellent and reducing the retention of intercepted rainfall. Besides, in both species decreases the capacity of interception with increasing rainfall.

Moreno-Pérez, M. F.; Roldán-Cañas, J.; Cienfuegos, I.

2012-04-01

244

Energy balance measurements over a small reservoir in Ghana's Upper East Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near the small village of Binaba (10.778927 deg N, 0.464859 deg E), a small irrigation reservoir has been instrumented to measure different parts of the energy balance of this water body. Instruments were placed on, or attached to, a spar platform. This platform consisted of a long PVC pipe, the spar, which is closed at the bottom. On the PVC pipe rests an aluminum frame platform that carries instrumentation and solar power panel. In turn, the platform rests partially on a large inflated tire. At the bottom of the PVC pipe, lead weights and batteries were placed to ensure a very low point of gravity to minimize wave impact on the platform movement. The tire ensures a large second moment of the water plane. The combination of large second momentum of the water plane and small displacement, ensures a high placement of the metacenter. The distance between the point of gravity and the metacenter is relatively long and the weight is large due to the weights and batteries. This ensures that the eigenfrequency of the platform is very low. On the platform, we fixed a WindMaster Pro (sonic anemometer for 3D wind speed and air temperature to perform eddy covariance measurements of sensible heat flux), a NR Lite (net radiometer), and air temperature and relative humidity sensors. Water temperature at different depths was measured with a string of TidbiT's (waterproof temperature sensors and loggers). The platform had a wind vane and the spar could turn freely around its anchor cable to ensure that the anemometer always faced upwind. A compass in the logger completed this setup. First results suggest, as expected, that the sensible heat flux is relatively small with on average 20 W/m2 over the course of a day. Sensible heat flux peaked around midnight at 35 W/m2, when the warm water warmed up the air from the colder surrounding land. The dynamics of heat storage during the daytime and longwave radiation during the night time, are important to calculate the latent heat flux.

van de Giesen, Nick; Ohene Annor, Frank

2013-04-01

245

Variations on a theme: diversification of cuticular hydrocarbons in a clade of cactophilic Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Background We characterized variation and chemical composition of epicuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) in the seven species of the Drosophila buzzatii cluster with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Despite the critical role of CHCs in providing resistance to desiccation and involvement in communication, such as courtship behavior, mating, and aggregation, few studies have investigated how CHC profiles evolve within and between species in a phylogenetic context. We analyzed quantitative differences in CHC profiles in populations of the D. buzzatii species cluster in order to assess the concordance of CHC differentiation with species divergence. Results Thirty-six CHC components were scored in single fly extracts with carbon chain lengths ranging from C29 to C39, including methyl-branched alkanes, n-alkenes, and alkadienes. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that CHC amounts were significantly different among all species and canonical discriminant function (CDF) analysis resolved all species into distinct, non-overlapping groups. Significant intraspecific variation was found in different populations of D. serido suggesting that this taxon is comprised of at least two species. We summarized CHC variation using CDF analysis and mapped the first five CHC canonical variates (CVs) onto an independently derived period (per) gene + chromosome inversion + mtDNA COI gene for each sex. We found that the COI sequences were not phylogenetically informative due to introgression between some species, so only per + inversion data were used. Positive phylogenetic signal was observed mainly for CV1 when parsimony methods and the test for serial independence (TFSI) were used. These results changed when no outgroup species were included in the analysis and phylogenetic signal was then observed for female CV3 and/or CV4 and male CV4 and CV5. Finally, removal of divergent populations of D. serido significantly increased the amount of phylogenetic signal as up to four out of five CVs then displayed positive phylogenetic signal. Conclusions CHCs were conserved among species while quantitative differences in CHC profiles between populations and species were statistically significant. Most CHCs were species-, population-, and sex-specific. Mapping CHCs onto an independently derived phylogeny revealed that a significant portion of CHC variation was explained by species' systematic affinities indicating phylogenetic conservatism in the evolution of these hydrocarbon arrays, presumptive waterproofing compounds and courtship signals as in many other drosophilid species. PMID:21699713

2011-01-01

246

Measurement of ionization chamber absorbed dose k{sub Q} factors in megavoltage photon beams  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Absorbed dose beam quality conversion factors (k{sub Q} factors) were obtained for 27 different types of ionization chamber. The aim was to obtain objective evidence on the performance of a wide range of chambers currently available, and potentially used for reference dosimetry, and to investigate the accuracy of the k{sub Q} calculation algorithm used in the TG-51 protocol. Methods: Measurements were made using the {sup 60}Co irradiator and Elekta Precise linac facilities at the National Research Council of Canada. The objective was to characterize the chambers over the range of energies applicable to TG-51 and determine whether each chamber met the requirements of a reference-class instrument. Chamber settling, leakage current, ion recombination and polarity, and waterproofing sleeve effects were investigated, and absorbed dose calibration coefficients were obtained for {sup 60}Co and 6, 10, and 25 MV photon beams. Only thimble-type chambers were considered in this investigation and were classified into three groups: (i) Reference chambers (''standard''0.6 cm{sup 3} Farmer-type chambers and their derivatives traditionally used for beam output calibration); (ii) scanning chambers (typically 0.1 cm{sup 3} volume chambers used for beam commissioning with 3-D scanning phantoms); and (iii) microchambers (very small volume ion chambers ({<=}0.01 cm{sup 3}) used for small field dosimetry). Results: As might be expected, 0.6 cm{sup 3} thimble chambers showed the most predictable performance and experimental k{sub Q} factors were obtained with a relative uncertainty of 0.1%. The performance of scanning and microchambers was somewhat variable. Some chambers showed very good behavior but others showed anomalous polarity and recombination corrections that are not fully explained at present. For the well-behaved chambers, agreement between measured and calculated k{sub Q} factors was within 0.4%; for some chambers, differences of more than 1% were seen that may be related to the recombination/polarity results. Use of such chambers could result in significant errors in the determination of reference dose in the clinic. Conclusions: Based on the experimental evidence obtained here, specification for a reference-class ionization chamber could be developed that would minimize the error in using a dosimetry protocol with calculated beam quality conversion factors. The experimental k{sub Q} data obtained here for a wide range of thimble chambers can be used when choosing suitable detectors for reference dosimetry and are intended to be used in the upcoming update/addendum to the AAPM TG-51 dosimetry protocol.

McEwen, Malcolm R. [Institute for National Measurement Standards, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)

2010-05-15

247

Real-time Remote Data Online For Norris Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perry, John, Lowenstern, Jacob, Cervelli, Peter, Clor, Laura, Heasler, Henry, Allen, Scott, Moloney, Tim During June 2010, ten 900MHz wireless temperature data loggers (nodes) were installed around the Norris Geyser Basin to monitor geothermal features, streams and soil temperatures. The loggers can provide near real-time updates on temperature variations within 0.2 deg C due to hydrothermal discharges or subsurface fluid migration. Each sensor node is programmed to measure the temperature every two minutes and automatically upload data to the base station computer daily. The hardware consists of a waterproof case containing an M5 logger (made by Marathon Products, Inc.®) with internal memory, lithium D-cell batteries and a 900 MHz, 1-W-transceiver and 5 meter long Teflon-coated probe with a thermistor sensor. Tethered stub or panel antennas are oriented to optimize signal strength to the base station near the Norris Museum. A 0.61 meter-long base-station antenna located 10m high provides signal to the furthest node over 850 meters away with most being “line-of-sight”. A 20-meter coaxial cable and lightning grounding wire connects the base-station antenna to an Ethernet-radio connected to the YNP local-area network. A server located 26-km north at Mammoth Hot Springs requests data at regular intervals (normally daily), archives the information, and then sends it to the USGS for further archiving and internet distribution. During periods of unusual hydrothermal behavior, data can be requested as needed, and it is possible to set user-programmable alarm limits for notification. The RF network is designed to monitor changes from three different sub-basins at Norris (Gray Lakes, Steamboat-Echinus and Porcelain Basin), the main Tantalus Creek drainage, and five individual thermal features (Constant, Porkchop, Steamboat and Echinus Geysers, and Opalescent Spring). The logger installed in Nuphar Lake provides ambient temperatures controlled solely by local meteorological conditions. Soil temperature is measured near Vixen Geyser. The system will permit land managers, scientists and the public to keep track of changes to the hydrothermal system, including geyser eruptions, periodic basin-wide disturbances, or fluid-release events that may accompany or follow seismic activity.

Perry, J. E.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Clor, L.; Cervelli, P. F.; Allen, S. T.; Heasler, H.; Moloney, T.

2010-12-01

248

DUCKS: Low cost thermal monitoring units for near-vent deployment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1999 we designed and tested a thermal monitoring system to provide a cheap, robust, modular, real-time system capable of surviving the hostile conditions encountered proximal to active volcanic vents. In November 2000 the first system was deployed at Pu'u 'O'o (Kilauea, Hawai'i) to target persistently active vents. Aside from some minor problems, such as sensor damage due to tampering, this system remained operational until January 2004. The success of the prototype system led us to use the blueprint for a second installation at Stromboli (Aeolian Islands, Italy). This was deployed, dug into a bomb-proof bunker, during May 2002 and survived the April 2003 paroxysmal eruption despite being located just 250 m from the vent. In both cases, careful waterproofing of connectors and selection of suitable protection has prevented water damage and corrosion in the harsh atmosphere encountered at the crater rim. The Pu'u 'O'o system cost ???US$10,000 and comprises four modules: sensors, transmission and power hub, repeater station and reception site. The sensor component consists of three thermal infrared thermometers housed in Pelican??? cases fitted with Germanium-Arsenide-Selenium windows. Two 1?? field of view (FOV) sensors allow specific vents to be targeted and a 60?? FOV sensor provides a crater floor overview. A hard wire connection links to a Pelican???-case-housed microprocessor, modem and power module. From here data are transmitted, via a repeater site, to a dedicated PC at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. Here data are displayed with a delay of ???3 s between acquisition and display. The modular design allows for great flexibility. At Stromboli, 1?? and 15?? FOV sensor modules can be switched depending changes in activity style and crater geometry. In addition a direct line of site to the Stromboli reception center negates the repeater site requirement, reducing the cost to US$5500 for a single sensor system. We have also constructed self-contained units w ith internal data loggers for US$1500/unit. These have been tested at Kilauea, Stromboli, Etna, Masaya, Santiaguito, Fuego, Pacaya, Poas, Soufriere Hills, Villarrica and Erta Ale. These instruments have proved capable of detecting thermal signals associated with: (1) gas emission; (2) gas jetting events; (3) crater floor collapse; (4) lava effusion; (5) lava flow in tubes; (6) lava lake activity; (7) lava dome activity; and (8) crater lake skin temperature. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Harris, A.; Pirie, D.; Horton, K.; Garbeil, H.; Pilger, E.; Ramm, H.; Hoblitt, R.; Thornber, C.; Ripepe, M.; Marchetti, E.; Poggi, P.

2005-01-01

249

The perturbation correction factors for cylindrical ionization chambers in high-energy photon beams.  

PubMed

In this study, we calculated perturbation correction factors for cylindrical ionization chambers in high-energy photon beams by using Monte Carlo simulations. We modeled four Farmer-type cylindrical chambers with the EGSnrc/Cavity code and calculated the cavity or electron fluence correction factor, P (cav), the displacement correction factor, P (dis), the wall correction factor, P (wall), the stem correction factor, P (stem), the central electrode correction factor, P (cel), and the overall perturbation correction factor, P (Q). The calculated P (dis) values for PTW30010/30013 chambers were 0.9967 +/- 0.0017, 0.9983 +/- 0.0019, and 0.9980 +/- 0.0019, respectively, for (60)Co, 4 MV, and 10 MV photon beams. The value for a (60)Co beam was about 1.0% higher than the 0.988 value recommended by the IAEA TRS-398 protocol. The P (dis) values had a substantial discrepancy compared to those of IAEA TRS-398 and AAPM TG-51 at all photon energies. The P (wall) values were from 0.9994 +/- 0.0020 to 1.0031 +/- 0.0020 for PTW30010 and from 0.9961 +/- 0.0018 to 0.9991 +/- 0.0017 for PTW30011/30012, in the range of (60)Co-10 MV. The P (wall) values for PTW30011/30012 were around 0.3% lower than those of the IAEA TRS-398. Also, the chamber response with and without a 1 mm PMMA water-proofing sleeve agreed within their combined uncertainty. The calculated P (stem) values ranged from 0.9945 +/- 0.0014 to 0.9965 +/- 0.0014, but they are not considered in current dosimetry protocols. The values were no significant difference on beam qualities. P (cel) for a 1 mm aluminum electrode agreed within 0.3% with that of IAEA TRS-398. The overall perturbation factors agreed within 0.4% with those for IAEA TRS-398. PMID:20821090

Yoshiyama, Fumiaki; Araki, Fujio; Ono, Takeshi

2010-07-01

250

Characterization of a new MOSFET detector configuration for in vivo skin dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

The dose released to the patient skin during a radiotherapy treatment is important when the skin is an organ at risk, or on the contrary, is included in the target volume. Since most treatment planning programs do not predict dose within several millimeters of the body surface, it is important to have a method to verify the skin dose for the patient who is undergoing radiotherapy. A special type of metal oxide semiconductors field-effect transistors (MOSFET) was developed to perform in vivo skin dosimetry for radiotherapy treatments. Water-equivalent depth (WED), both manufacturing and sensor reproducibility, dependence on both field size and angulation of the sensor were investigated using 6 MV photon beams. Patient skin dosimetries were performed during 6 MV total body irradiations (TBI). The resulting WEDs ranged from 0.04 and 0.15 mm (0.09 mm on average). The reproducibility of the sensor response, for doses of 50 cGy, was within {+-}2% (maximum deviation) and improves with increasing sensitivity or dose level. As to the manufacturing reproducibility, it was found to be {+-}0.055 mm. No WED dependence on the field size was verified, but possible variations of this quantity with the field size could be hidden by the assessment uncertainty. The angular dependence, for both phantom-surface and in-air setups, when referred to the mean response, is within {+-}27% until 80 deg. rotations. The results of the performed patient skin dosimetries showed that, normally, our TBI setup was suitable to give skin the prescribed dose, but, for some cases, interventions were necessary: as a consequence the TBI setup was corrected. The water-equivalent depth is, on average, less than the thinnest thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). In addition, when compared with TLDs, the skin MOSFETs have significant advantages, like immediate both readout and reuse, as well as the permanent storage of dose. These sensors are also waterproof. The in vivo dosimetries performed prove the importance of verifying the dose to the skin of the patient undergoing radiotherapy.

Scalchi, Paolo; Francescon, Paolo; Rajaguru, Priyadarshini [Department of Medical Physics, San Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza (Italy)

2005-06-15

251

Pesticide personal protective clothing.  

PubMed

A fairly large established data base provides information on clothing worn by U.S. and Canadian farmers to work with pesticides, their attitudes and beliefs about pesticide risk, and clothing as a dermal barrier. Very limited similar data are available for farmers in less developed countries. Clearly, farmers perceive the benefits of pesticides to far exceed any risks. While few report poisoning symptoms, most believe that their usual work clothing offers a sufficient pesticide barrier, and few wear special-purpose protective clothing. Gloves of various materials, including cotton and leather, appear to be the major protective clothing item. Although farmers feel that their usual work clothing provides excellent protection, fabric penetration research does not support this. Shirting-weight fabrics offer some limited protection against light spray of field-strenght pesticides. Heavier-weight fabrics, such as denim and twill, are better barriers. With a heavier spray or a spill, usual work clothing does not give sufficient protection. Greater protection can usually be achieved with the use of a fluorocarbon finished fabric, such as Scotchgard or Zepel. Scotchgard can readily be applied at home. A durable-press finish does not appear to improve fabric's pesticide-barrier resistance and some data suggest that it may decrease barrier properties. A second alternative for increased protection is the use of a special-purpose fabric, such as a coated nonwoven or possibly Gore-Tex. Numerous other new "waterproof breathable" fabrics have recently come to the market. Many of these are finished or coated fabrics and one would expect them to be at least somewhat resistant to pesticides. However, they have not been tested. Wearing an additional layer also appears to be another clothing strategy to minimize exposure. Fabric penetration research also shows that pesticide formulation, volume or spray regime, concentration, and active ingredients influence the barrier properties of fabrics. Clothing evaluation studies have shown that protective clothing and coveralls of various materials and designs were effective in reducing exposure. Results of some of these studies suggested that the farmer's typical work clothing was more effective than fabric penetration results suggested. This apparent conflict is not surprising, given the methods used in both types of research. The field studies use pads placed in various areas under the clothing. This method assumes that exposure is uniform over entire body regions. But fluorescent tracer research has shown that this is not a valid assumption (DeJonge et al. 1985; Fenske 1988). Also, the way in which the pads are attached may make a difference, although no research has examined this issue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1771275

Branson, D H; Sweeney, M

1991-01-01

252

Coastal Seafloor Observatory Of The East China Sea At Xiaoqushan And Its Primary Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seafloor observation system becomes increasingly important infrastructure in ocean sciences, which transforms oceanic research from temporal investigation to long term observation. The East China Sea coastal seafloor observatory, located between 30°31'44"N,122°15'12"E and 30°31'34"N,122°14'40"E, is built near the Xiaoqushan island outside the Yangtze River estuary, on the inner East China Sea continental shelf. The East China Sea coastal seafloor observatory is part of the East China Sea seafloor observational network. The observatory consists of a composite power cable made of optical fiber and extending for more than 1 kilometer and a special junction box, which provide power and signal communication for different instruments. The special junction box, which has various waterproof plugs, connects to three different instruments installed in a trawl preventer. The submarine optical fiber composite power cable is landed on the platform by The East China Sea Branch, State Oceanic Administration of the People’s Republic of China, and the power is continuously supplied by the solar panels and solar battery on the top of the platform. The real time data are directly sent through the cable to the platform and are transmitted by CDMA wireless to the receiver at the State Key Laboratory of Marine Geology of Tongji University. Measurements at the observatory have been taken since 26 April, 2009. The observations include current speeds and their directions at different depths, suspended sediment concentration, temperature and salinity nearby the seabed. The more than one year preliminary results show that the current field and fine suspended sediment transport of East China Sea are complex and show considerable seasonal variation affected by the integrated influence of Changjiang diluted water, Taiwan warm current and the Yellow Sea coastal current. The successful establishment of the coastal seafloor observatory is the first step toward future development of the East China Sea seafloor observational network. It not only accumulates experiences in technology and engineering, but also paves the way for performing important sciences using the long term continuous observation platform.

Xu, H.; Xu, C.; Qin, R.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, H.

2010-12-01

253

Cuticular differences associated with aridity acclimation in African malaria vectors carrying alternative arrangements of inversion 2La  

PubMed Central

Background Principal malaria vectors in Africa, An. gambiae and An. coluzzii, share an inversion polymorphism on the left arm of chromosome 2 (2La/2L+a) that is distributed non-randomly in the environment. Genomic sequencing studies support the role of strong natural selection in maintaining steep clines in 2La inversion frequency along environmental gradients of aridity, and physiological studies have directly implicated 2La in heat and desiccation tolerance, but the precise genetic basis and the underlying behavioral and physiological mechanisms remain unknown. As the insect cuticle is the primary barrier to water loss, differences in cuticle thickness and/or epicuticular waterproofing associated with alternative 2La arrangements might help explain differences in desiccation resistance. Methods To test that hypothesis, two subcolonies of both An. gambiae and An. coluzzii were established that were fixed for alternative 2La arrangements (2La or 2L+a) on an otherwise homosequential and shared genetic background. Adult mosquitoes reared under controlled environmental conditions (benign or arid) for eight days post-eclosion were collected and analyzed. Measurements of cuticle thickness were made based on scanning electron microscopy, and cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) composition was evaluated by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results After removing the allometric effects of body weight, differences in mean cuticle thickness were found between alternative 2La karyotypes, but not between alternative environments. Moreover, the thicker cuticle of the An. coluzzii 2La karyotype was contrary to the known higher rate of water loss of this karyotype relative to 2L+a. On the other hand, quantitative differences in individual CHCs and overall CHC profiles between alternative karyotypes and environmental conditions were consistent with expectation based on previous physiological studies. Conclusions Our results suggest that alternative arrangements of the 2La inversion are associated with differences in cuticle thickness and CHC composition, but that only CHC composition appears to be relevant for desiccation resistance. Differences in the CHC composition were consistent with previous findings of a lower rate of water loss for the 2L+a karyotype at eight days post-eclosion, suggesting that CHC composition is an important strategy for maintaining water balance in this genetic background, but not for 2La. Despite a higher rate of water loss at eight days, higher body water content of the 2La karyotype confers a level of desiccation resistance equivalent to that of the 2L+a karyotype. PMID:24721548

2014-01-01

254

Gas hydrates - new source of energy and new Geotechnical hazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constantly growing demand for energy carriers, limitation and irretrievability of their now in use resources have forced to turn in the end of XX century the close attention on searches of the no conventional sources possessing both more significant potential resources, and an opportunity of their constant completion. Sources of the energy carrier of organic carbon most widespread by the Earth resources of gas hydrates are prevailing and by different estimations on the order or exceed resources of hydrocarbon raw material used nowadays more. Gas hydrates - the firm crystal connections formed water (liquid water, an ice, water vapor) and low-molecular waterproof natural gases such as carbohydrates (mainly methane), 2, N2 and others, whose crystal structure effectively compresses gas: each cubic meter of hydrate can yield over 160 m3 of methane. Natural gas hydrates occur on earth in three kinds of environments: deep-water subaquactic regions, permafrost and glacier shields. The current estimates show that the amount of energy in these gas hydrates is twice total fossil fuel reserves, indicating a huge source of energy, which can be exploited in the right economical conditions. Despite of appeal of use gas hydrates as the perspective and ecologically more pure fuel with possessing huge resources, investigation and development of their deposits can lead to a number of the negative consequences connected with hazards arising difficulties for maintenance of their technical and ecological safety of carrying out. Furthermore, these gas hydrates are a safety hazard to drilling operation, as they could become unstable under typical wellborn conditions and produce large quantities of gas. The decomposition of natural gas hydrates in porous media could also be responsible for sub sea landslides and global weather changes. Recent studies show that they might provide an opportunity for CO2 sequestering. Scales of arising problems including Geoethical can change from local up to regional and even global. Obviously, in the future, much greater dangers should be taken into consideration in many territories and a strong respect for them has to become a new priority in many activities including Geoetics. Key words: Gas hydrates, Geoethical, geotechnical, hazard, methane.

Chistyakov, V.

2012-04-01

255

The fur of mammals in exposed environments; do crypsis and thermal needs necessarily conflict? The polar bear and marsupial koala compared.  

PubMed

The furs of mammals have varied and complex functions. Other than for thermoregulation, fur is involved in physical protection, sensory input, waterproofing and colouration, the latter being important for crypsis or camouflage. Some of these diverse functions potentially conflict. We have investigated how variation in cryptic colouration and thermal features may interact in the coats of mammals and influence potential heat inflows from solar radiation, much of which is outside the visible spectral range. The coats of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and the marsupial koala (Phascolarctus cinereus) have insulative similarities but, while they feature cryptic colouration, they are of contrasting colour, i.e. whitish and dark grey. The reflectance of solar radiation by coats was measured across the full solar spectrum using a spectroradiometer. The modulation of incident solar radiation and resultant heat flows in these coats were determined at a range of wind speeds by mounting them on a heat flux transducer/temperature-controlled plate apparatus in a wind tunnel. A lamp with a spectral distribution of radiation similar to the solar spectrum was used as a proxy for the sun. Crypsis by colour matching was apparent within the visible spectrum for the two species, U. maritimus being matched against snow and P. cinereus against Eucalyptus forest foliage. While reflectances across the full solar spectrum differed markedly, that of U. maritimus being 66 % as opposed to 10 % for P. cinereus, the heat influxes from solar radiation reaching the skin were similar. For both coats at low wind speed (1 m s(-1)), 19 % of incident solar radiation impacted as heat at the skin surface; at higher wind speed (10 m s(-1)) this decreased to approximately 10 %. Ursus maritimus and P. cinereus have high and comparable levels of fur insulation and although the patterns of reflectance and depths of penetrance of solar radiation differ for the coats, the considerable insulation limited the radiant heat reaching the skin. These data suggest that generally, if mammal coats have high insulation then heat flow from solar radiation into an animal is much restricted and the impact of coat colour is negligible. However, comparisons with published data from other species suggest that as fur insulation decreases, colour increasingly influences the heat inflow associated with solar radiation. PMID:24366474

Dawson, Terence J; Webster, Koa N; Maloney, Shane K

2014-02-01

256

SoundProof: A Smartphone Platform for Wireless Monitoring of Wildlife and Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing an open-source, low-cost wildlife and environmental monitoring solution based on Android smartphones. Using a smartphone instead of a traditional microcontroller or single board computer has several advantages: smartphones are single integrated devices with multiple radios and a battery; they have a robust software interface which enables customization; and are field-tested by millions of users daily. Consequently, smartphones can improve the cost, configurability, and real-time access to data for environmental monitoring, ultimately replacing existing monitoring solutions which are proprietary, difficult to customize, expensive, and require labor-intensive maintenance. While smartphones can radically change environmental and wildlife monitoring, there are a number of technical challenges to address. We present our smartphone-based platform, SoundProof, discuss the challenges of building an autonomous system based on Android phones, and our ongoing efforts to enable environmental monitoring. Our system is built using robust off-the-shelf hardware and mature open-source software where available, to increase scalability and ease of installation. Key features include: * High-quality acoustic signal collection from external microphones to monitor wildlife populations. * Real-time data access, remote programming, and configuration of the field sensor via wireless cellular or WiFi channels, accessible from a website. * Waterproof packaging and solar charger setup for long-term field deployments. * Rich instrumentation of the end-to-end system to quickly identify and debug problems. * Supplementary mesh networking system with long-range wireless antennae to provide coverage when no cell network is available. We have deployed this system to monitor Rufous Crowned Sparrows on Anacapa Island, Chinese Crested Turns on the Matsu Islands in Taiwan, and Ashy Storm Petrels on South East Farallon Island. We have testbeds at two UC Natural Reserves to field-test new or exploratory features before deployment. Side-by-side validation data collected in the field using SoundProof and state-of-the-art wildlife monitoring solutions, including the Cornell ARU and Wildlife Acoustic's Songmeter, demonstrate that acoustic signals collected with cellphones provide sufficient data integrity for measuring the success of bird conservation efforts, measuring bird relative abundance and detecting elusive species. We are extending this platform to numerous other areas of environmental monitoring. Recent developments such as the Android Open Accessory, the IOIO Board, MicroBridge, Amarino, and Cellbots enable microcontrollers to talk with Android applications, making it affordable and feasible to extend our platform to operate with the most common sensors.

Lukac, M.; Monibi, M.; Lane, M. L.; Howell, L.; Ramanathan, N.; Borker, A.; McKown, M.; Croll, D.; Terschy, B.

2011-12-01

257

Modeling Leptospirosis in Trinidad, West Indies: A Waterborne Zoonosis of Increasing Public Health Importance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leptospirosis is a waterborne disease which is considered one of the most common and widely spread bacterial zoonosis and a growing global public health problem. Transmission in humans is caused by direct or indirect contact with contaminated water, soil or infected urine, blood or tissue of carrier animals. Because of the similarity with influenza, dengue and viral hepatitis symptoms it is often misdiagnosed with these diseases, but as the leptospirosis progresses, internal organs can be compromised, causing severe syndromes (e.g. Weil's disease), and potentially can cause death. In less developed countries, leptospirosis is often poorly recognized. In humid tropics and subtropics, where this disease has a high impact, climatic and environmental factors, such as rainfall, floods, land cover and their modifications have been frequently related to the occurrence of leptospirosis. In these regions one of the main problems for the study of the role of environmental factors on disease dynamics is the lack of accurate data since, in many cases, data are either unavailable or do not exist at all. Between 1980 and 2005 a total of 12,475 cases of leptospirosis were reported from all Caribbean countries, with 2,370 (19%) of these corresponding to Trinidad and Tobago, where the current average annual incidence rate is 1.84 per 100,000 population based on confirmed cases. In order to explore the underlying spatial variability of leptospirosis occurrence as related to environmental and socio-economic factors, a series of Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) models were developed. GWR was used to examine the determinants of leptospirosis in the communities of Trinidad using a total of 1,549 reported cases and 250 confirmed cases from 1998 to 2008. MODIS satellite imagery and GIS analysis were used to develop a series of covariables for each community including land cover, vegetation indices, wetness index (ln (?/tan?)), river length per Ha, topography, percentage of free draining soils, percentage of imperfectly draining soils, percentage of impeded draining soils and mean annual rainfall. These covariables together with socio-economic data were used to set up the GWR models. Local model correlation (R^{2}) was 0.78, higher than the global correlation of 0.58 and there was found to be a clear spatial correlation between covariables and leptospirosis cases. Percentage of draining soils and topography were found to be significant (p<0.01 and 0.00) indicating spatial variability in the influence of these factors on the occurrence of leptospirosis in Trinidad communities. Composition of the soils and their lack of drainage may be an important factor influencing leptospirosis occurrence. Leptospires do not have a waterproof membrane therefore for their survival they must remain submersed in water. Previous studies have found leptospires to be associated with soils of high moisture and organic matter content.

Vega, M. C.; Opadeyi, J.

2012-12-01

258

Surface assessment and modification of concrete using abrasive blasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composite systems are applied to concrete substrates to strengthen and extend the service life. Successful restoration or rehabilitation requires surface preparation prior to the application of the overlay. Surface coatings, waterproofing systems, and other external surface applications also require surface preparation prior to application. Abrasive blast media is often used to clean and uniformly roughen the substrate. The appropriate surface roughness is necessary to facilitate a strong bond between the existing substrate and overlay. Thus, surface modification using abrasive blast media (sand and dry ice), their respective environmental effects, surface roughness characterization prior to and after blasting, and the adhesion between the substrate and overlay are the focus of this dissertation. This dissertation is comprised of an introduction, a literature review, and four chapters, the first of which addresses the environmental effects due to abrasive blasting using sand, water, and dry ice. The assessment considered four response variables: carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, fuel and energy consumption, and project duration. The results indicated that for sand blasting and water jetting, the primary factor contributing to environmental detriment was CO22 emissions from vehicular traffic near the construction site. The second chapter is an analysis of the International Concrete Repair Institute's (ICRI) concrete surface profiles (CSPs) using 3-D optical profilometry. The primary objective was to evaluate the suitability of approximating the 3-D surface (areal) parameters with those extracted from 2-D (linear) profiles. Four profile directions were considered: two diagonals, and lines parallel and transverse to the longitudinal direction of the mold. For any CSP mold, the estimation of the 3-D surface roughness using a 2-D linear profile resulted in underestimation and overestimation errors exceeding 50%, demonstrating the inadequacy of 2-D linear profiles to approximate the 3-D concrete surface profiles. The errors were reduced when a weighted average of the four linear profiles approximated the corresponding 3-D parameter. The following chapter considers the parametric and sensitivity of concrete surface topography measurements. The weighted average of the four 2-D profiles consistently resulted in underestimation of the corresponding 3-D parameters: the dispersion of surface elevations (Sq) and the roughness (Sa). Results indicated the 3-D parameter, Sq, had the least sensitivity to data point reduction. The final chapter investigated surface modification using dry ice and sand blasting. The overall objective was to evaluate the change in the 3-D surface roughness (Sa) following blasting as functions of mix design and as induced by freeze-thaw cycling, and to compare the results obtained using dry ice with those obtained using sand as the blasting media. In general, sand blasting produced larger changes in Sa compared to dry ice blasting for the concrete mix designs considered. The primary mechanism responsible for altering the surface topography of the concrete was the scaling of the superficial cement paste layer on the exposed surface, which was due to freeze-thaw cycling. The largest relative change in roughness following blasting occurred in the control samples, which had not undergone freeze-thaw cycling.

Millman, Lauren R.

259

Consistency in reference radiotherapy dosimetry: resolution of an apparent conundrum when 60Co is the reference quality for charged-particle and photon beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Substantial changes in ion chamber perturbation correction factors in 60Co ?-rays, suggested by recent Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, would cause a decrease of about 1.5% in the reference dosimetry of all types of charged particles (electrons, protons and heavier ions) based on calculated kQ values. It has gone largely unnoticed that the ratio of calibration coefficients ND, w, Co60 and NK, air, Co60 yields an experimental value of Fch, Co60 =?(sw-air?pch)Co60 through ND, air, Co60. Coefficients provided by the IAEA and traceable to the BIPM for 91 NE-2571 chambers result in an average Fch, Co60 which is compared with published (and new) MC simulations and with the value in IAEA TRS-398. It is shown that TRS-398 agrees within 0.12% with the experimental Fch, Co60. The 1.5% difference resulting from MC calculations (1.1% for the new simulations) cannot be justified using current fundamental data and BIPM standards if consistency in the entire dosimetry chain is sought. For photons, MC kQ factors are compared with TRS-398. Using the same uncertainty for Wair, the two sets of data overlap considerably. Experimental kQ values from standards laboratories lie between the two sets of calculated values, showing no preference for one set over the other. Observed chamber-to-chamber differences, that include the effect of waterproof sleeves (also seen for 60Co), justify the recommendation in TRS-398 for kQ values specifically measured for the user chamber. Current developments on I-values for the stopping powers of water and graphite are presented. A weighted average Iwater = 78 ± 2?eV is obtained from published experimental and DRF-based values; this would decrease sw-air for all types of radiotherapy beams between 0.3% and 0.6%, and would consequently decrease the MC derived Fch, Co60. The implications of a recent proposal for Igraphite = 81?eV are analysed, resulting in a potential decrease of 0.7% in NK, air, Co60 which would raise the experimental Fch, Co60; this would result in an increase of about 0.8% in the current TRS-398 value when referred to the BIPM standards. MC derived Fch, Co60 using new stopping powers would then agree at a level of 0.1% with the experimental value, confirming the need for consistency in the dosimetry chain data. Should world average standards be used as reference, the figures would become +0.4% for TRS-398 and -0.3% for the MC calculation. Fch, Q calculated for megavoltage photons using new stopping powers would decrease by between 0.2% and 0.5%. When they enter as a ratios in kQ, differences with MC values based on current key data would be within 0.2% but their discrepancy with kQ experimental photon values remains unresolved. For protons the new data would require an increase in Wair, Q of about 0.6%, as this is inferred from a combination of calorimetry and ionometry. This consistent scenario would leave unchanged the current TRS-398 kQ (NE-2571) data for protons, as well as for ions heavier than protons unless new independent Wair, Q values become available. Also in these advanced radiotherapy modalities, the need for maintaining data consistency in an analysis that unavoidably must include the complete dosimetry chain is demonstrated.

Andreo, Pedro; Wulff, Jörg; Burns, David T.; Palmans, Hugo

2013-10-01

260

Transmediterranean flights,in the edge of two centuries.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transmediterranean flights program goal is to perform stratospheric balloons flights carrying scientific/technological payloads at 40 Km altitude and approximate 38°N latitude.ASI and INTA continued the early ASI-CNES-INTA program with several stratospheric flights since 1993.The network comprises three stations located at Trapani-Milo (Italy),Palma de Mallorca and El Arenosillo(Spain). Nine successful transmediterranean crossings were performed in this program stage. Four new transmediterranean flights are scheduled for summer 2002 .These include astronomical,biological and technological experiments .Beside , three local flights will be performed at Trapani-Milo next summer. Technical tracking that encompasses telemetry,telecommand and localization uses allocated UHF band,in the old classical and the new Mini Telemetry configurations. Flight qualification of a S-band TM/TC equipment was realised ,using local flights, in 1997 and 1998.In summer 2002,a S band flight will be realised over the Mediterranean with the UHF telemetry as a backup. A summary of system requirements , that would assure state-of-the-art open stratospheric balloons flights is presented . When flying over the Iberian Peninsula , the time of land overflight diminishes , in direct relationship , with the balloon drift toward the South.A latitude control , applied in our case , should enhance the flight feasibility. Trajectory predictions,must incorporate radiosoundings of more places,to take into account several possibilities of descent.Also El Arenosillo soundings ,usually three days a week,should be increased ,in order to validate the new atmospheric models. Beside altitude control handled mainly by the ballast , in the future "boomerang" flights of a transmediterranean scale,opening/closing of the valves will be used. Active floating system,comb ined with waterproof electronic and experiment boxes and a minimal time of arrival to the gondola , become critical points in case of an unplanned overwater descent for recovery.With regard to power storage subsystems Ni-H2,NiMH and Li-ion batteries,should be embarked onboard new flights to gain experiences,acting in this way,as in others,as a technological testbed of industry designs. Thermal control subsystems,should withstand the cycle sunrise-sunset-sunrise,if the usual 1 day flights are to be extended 10 hours , under the "boomerang" principle.In summer 2002 , a High Performance Gondola experiment will carry an azimuthal stabilization system using GPS phase variation.Parachutes employed were either in- dividual or a bunch of three,in the ASI-CNES-INTA program stage. A payload precision descent,involving GPS to aim at a preselected descent point,will help to reduce the risk index over land zones.

Cosentino, O.; Caballero, F.; Ibba, R.; Gerardi, G.; Cecchini, G.; Fernandez Abad, A.; Vazquez, M.

261

Consistency in reference radiotherapy dosimetry: resolution of an apparent conundrum when (60)Co is the reference quality for charged-particle and photon beams.  

PubMed

Substantial changes in ion chamber perturbation correction factors in (60)Co ?-rays, suggested by recent Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, would cause a decrease of about 1.5% in the reference dosimetry of all types of charged particles (electrons, protons and heavier ions) based on calculated kQ values. It has gone largely unnoticed that the ratio of calibration coefficients ND, w, Co60 and NK, air, Co60 yields an experimental value of Fch, Co60 =?(sw-air?pch)Co60 through ND, air, Co60. Coefficients provided by the IAEA and traceable to the BIPM for 91 NE-2571 chambers result in an average Fch, Co60 which is compared with published (and new) MC simulations and with the value in IAEA TRS-398. It is shown that TRS-398 agrees within 0.12% with the experimental Fch, Co60. The 1.5% difference resulting from MC calculations (1.1% for the new simulations) cannot be justified using current fundamental data and BIPM standards if consistency in the entire dosimetry chain is sought. For photons, MC kQ factors are compared with TRS-398. Using the same uncertainty for Wair, the two sets of data overlap considerably. Experimental kQ values from standards laboratories lie between the two sets of calculated values, showing no preference for one set over the other. Observed chamber-to-chamber differences, that include the effect of waterproof sleeves (also seen for (60)Co), justify the recommendation in TRS-398 for kQ values specifically measured for the user chamber. Current developments on I-values for the stopping powers of water and graphite are presented. A weighted average Iwater = 78 ± 2?eV is obtained from published experimental and DRF-based values; this would decrease sw-air for all types of radiotherapy beams between 0.3% and 0.6%, and would consequently decrease the MC derived Fch, Co60. The implications of a recent proposal for Igraphite = 81?eV are analysed, resulting in a potential decrease of 0.7% in NK, air, Co60 which would raise the experimental Fch, Co60; this would result in an increase of about 0.8% in the current TRS-398 value when referred to the BIPM standards. MC derived Fch, Co60 using new stopping powers would then agree at a level of 0.1% with the experimental value, confirming the need for consistency in the dosimetry chain data. Should world average standards be used as reference, the figures would become +0.4% for TRS-398 and -0.3% for the MC calculation. Fch, Q calculated for megavoltage photons using new stopping powers would decrease by between 0.2% and 0.5%. When they enter as a ratios in kQ, differences with MC values based on current key data would be within 0.2% but their discrepancy with kQ experimental photon values remains unresolved. For protons the new data would require an increase in Wair, Q of about 0.6%, as this is inferred from a combination of calorimetry and ionometry. This consistent scenario would leave unchanged the current TRS-398 kQ (NE-2571) data for protons, as well as for ions heavier than protons unless new independent Wair, Q values become available. Also in these advanced radiotherapy modalities, the need for maintaining data consistency in an analysis that unavoidably must include the complete dosimetry chain is demonstrated. PMID:24018471

Andreo, Pedro; Wulff, Jörg; Burns, David T; Palmans, Hugo

2013-10-01