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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Nano Waterproofing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson focuses on how nanotechnology has impacted the design and engineering of many everyday items from paint to fabrics. Learners explore the hydrophobic effect and how similar properties can be introduced by reengineering products at the nano level. Learners work in teams to develop a waterproof material and compare their results with nano waterproof materials developed recently by engineers and scientists.

Ieee

2013-07-30

2

Insulated waterproof drainage material  

Microsoft Academic Search

An insulative waterproof drainage material is described comprising: a sheet of rigid material having hills and valleys therein to define a core having opposed surfaces; permeable fabric material attached to one of the opposed surfaces; and a layer of thermally insulative material on the other of the opposed surfaces. The insulative material has first surface covering the hills and valleys

Tarko

1988-01-01

3

Concrete waterproofing in nuclear industry.  

PubMed

One of the main points of aggregate safety during the transportation and storage of radioactive materials is to supply waterproofing for all constructions having direct contact with radiating substances and providing strength, seismic shielding etc. This is the problem with all waterside structures in nuclear industry and concrete installations in the treatment and storage of radioactive materials. In this connection, the problem of developing efficient techniques both for the repair of operating constructions and the waterproofing of new objects of the specified assignment is genuine. Various techniques of concrete waterproofing are widely applied in the world today. However, in conditions of radiation many of these techniques can bring not a profit but irreparable damage of durability and reliability of a concrete construction; for instance, when waterproofing materials contain organic constituents, polymers etc. Application of new technology or materials in basic construction elements requires in-depth analysis and thorough testing. The price of an error might be very large. A comparative analysis shows that one of the most promising types of waterproofing materials for radiation loaded concrete constructions is "integral capillary systems" (ICS). The tests on radiation, thermal and strength stability of ICS and ICS-treated concrete samples were initiated and fulfilled in RFNC-VNIITF. The main result is--ICS applying is increasing of waterproofing and strength properties of concrete in conditions of readiation The paper is devoted to describing the research strategy, the tests and their results and also to planning of new tests. PMID:16604701

Scherbyna, Alexander N; Urusov, Sergei V

2005-01-01

4

TryEngineering: Nano Waterproofing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson plan that explores how nanotechnology has impacted the design and engineering of many everyday items, from paint to fabrics. Students learn about the hydrophobic effect (the tendency of a substance to repel water). In this lesson for Grades 6-10, students learn about nanotechnology and its application in creating waterproof surfaces. They will then work in teams to develop a waterproof material and compare their results with nano waterproof materials developed recently by engineers and scientists. The driving question of the lesson: How are products re-engineered at the nano level to develop desired properties? The lesson includes objectives and learner outcomes, problem sets, student guides, recommended reading, illustrated procedures, worksheets, and background information. Editor's Note: The humble lotus leaf is one of nature's most water-repellant surfaces. That's because its surface sculpture has a very high static contact angle with water droplets. It features randomly oriented tiny wax tubules on top of convex-shaped cells. See Related Materials for links to an article from Scientific American describing how the lotus leaf has inspired the production of waterproofing materials, and for a link to a helpful scholarly article on Sculptured Biological Surfaces with Anti-Adhesive Properties. This collection is part of TryEngineering.org, a website maintained by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

5

Evaluation of Bentonite Clay for Waterproofing Foundation Walls Below Grade.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bentonite clay panels and bentonite spray are evaluated for waterproofing the exterior surface of foundation walls below grade. The evaluation is based on a field letter survey and contacts with users, architects, and installers of bentonite panels and ap...

S. M. Kanarowski

1975-01-01

6

Fluid-solid coupling analysis of safety of waterproof gate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A FLAC-3D fluid-solid numerical simulation was performed to analyze the stability and anti-water ability of the waterproof gate. Analysis indicates that under water pressure 10.3MPa, the structure of underground chamber of waterproof gate and surrounding rock mass are under plastic state partially, but are basically stable and usable. In case of water filling in the tunnel, water seepage amount is

Yubao Zhan; Chunan You; Xuanke Bi

2011-01-01

7

Self balancing measuring probe enclosure and method for waterproofing same  

SciTech Connect

Waterproofing standard linear position measuring transducers often requires a sacrifice in measuring accuracy when the transducer must be used at varying water depths. To obviate this disadvantage, the disclosed waterproofing structure is constructed such that increasing or decreasing forces applied to the transducer as its depth in the water changes will not apply unbalanced forces to the transducer thereby causing false readings. Similarly, the nominal gauging force developed by the instrument is unaffected by varying water depths.

Fodor, G.; Nilsen, R.J.

1991-02-13

8

TryEngineering: Waterproof that Roof!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson plan on surface engineering, developed to help teachers integrate engineering practices in the secondary classroom. Students learn about nanotechnology and its application in developing hydrophobic surfaces. (Hydrophobicity is a physical property, and is defined as the tendency of a molecule to repel water.) Students work in teams to to design a roof from simple materials that will keep the contents of a box dry during a water test. The driving question of the lesson: How do civil engineers apply principles of nanotechnology to develop waterproof roofs? This resource includes objectives and learner outcomes, problem sets, student guides, recommended reading, illustrated procedures, worksheets, and background information. This collection is part of TryEngineering.org, a website maintained by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Editor's Note: Hydrophobic molecules tend to be non-polar, whereas H2O is a polar molecule. Examples of hydophobic molecules include oils and fats. But as the size of objects is reduced to the nanoscale, the effects of surface properties become even more pronounced. To extend this lesson, see Related Materials for an article by the Nanoterra Group that provides information on newer applications of nanotechnology in surface design.

9

Waterproof versus cotton cast liners: a randomized, prospective comparison.  

PubMed

Casting injured extremities can cause complications (eg, itching, odor, rashes, skin maceration), many of which are associated with the inability to wash the extremity because of water retention and slow drying of conventional cast liners. A waterproof cast liner allows casts to become wet and perhaps improves hygiene and comfort. Fifty-nine patients (age, > or = 10 years) with upper or lower extremity injuries were randomized to a waterproof-liner group (n = 29) or a cotton-liner group (n = 30). Both groups had casts made of fiberglass tape. At each clinic visit, patients and physicians completed questionnaires evaluating comfort and skin condition, respectively. The waterproof-liner group had better scores for itch (P = .008), discomfort (P < .001), irritation (P = .002), overall patient score (P = .012), and overall physician score (P = .049). PMID:16610379

Haley, Chad A; DeJong, E Schuyler; Ward, John A; Kragh, John F

2006-03-01

10

Elevated Waterproof Access Floor System and Method of Making the Same.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An elevated waterproof access floor system having subfloor channels or compartments for power lines, gas lines or the like is adapted such that it can be opened and subsequently resealed without destroying the waterproofing and without destroying its aest...

M. M. Cohen

1983-01-01

11

The influences of gypsum water-proofing additive on gypsum crystal growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gypsum water-proofing additives were composed of organic emulsion that were emulsified by polyvinyl alcohol and stearic acid and saline water-proofing additive made of alunite, carboxylic acid sodium, aluminium sulfate, etc. Using modern testing instrument, such as SEM, EPS, the influences of gypsum water-proofing additives on the crystal growth of gypsum products and its water-proof mechanism were analyzed from the

Jianquan Li; Guozhong Li; Yanzhen Yu

2007-01-01

12

Entering the Roofing and Waterproofing Industry. Roofing Workbook and Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is one of a series of 10 units of instruction for roofing apprenticeship classes in California. It covers the following 14 topics and provides tests for them: the nature of the roofing and waterproofing industry; the apprenticeship program; apprenticeship and the public schools; collective bargaining, wages, and benefits; safety in the…

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Publications.

13

Entering the Roofing and Waterproofing Industry. Roofing Workbook and Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is one of a series of 10 units of instruction for roofing apprenticeship classes in California. It covers the following 14 topics and provides tests for them: the nature of the roofing and waterproofing industry; the apprenticeship program; apprenticeship and the public schools; collective bargaining, wages, and benefits; safety in the…

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Publications.

14

Cold-Applied Roofing Systems and Waterproofing and Dampproofing. Roofing Workbook and Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook for students in California roofing apprenticeship programs provides information for classroom work in the area of cold-applied roofing systems and waterproofing and dampproofing. Eight topics are covered: introduction to cold-applied roofing systems and waterproofing and dampproofing, tools and equipment used in cold-applied roofing,…

Brown, Arthur

15

Evaluation of capillary water absorption in rendering mortars made with powdered waterproofing additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several additives, such as powdered stearates, oleates, silanes and silicone films, are used to avoid water absorption in renders. This paper looks at the effectiveness of six powdered waterproofing additives after 28days of curing at: 0.00%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 1.00% and 2.00% w\\/w on the whole composition. The waterproofing efficiency is analyzed by capillary water absorption tests, while water immersion tests

Marcos Lanzón; P. A. García-Ruiz

2009-01-01

16

Waterproofing and Strengthening Volcanic Tuff in Waste Repositories  

SciTech Connect

Waste repositories from surface trenches and shafts at Los Alamos to drilled tunnels at Yucca Mountain are being built in volcanic Tuff, a soft compacted material that is permeable to water and air. US Department of Energy documents on repository design identify the primary design goal of 'preventing water from reaching the waste canisters, dissolving the canisters and carrying the radioactive waste particles away from the repository'. Designers expect to achieve this by use of multiple barriers along with careful placement of the repository both well above the water table and well above the ground level in a mountain. Though repositories are located in areas that have a historically dry climate to minimize the impact of rainfall infiltration, global warming phenomena may have the potential to alter regional climate patterns - potentially leading to higher infiltration rates. Conventional methods of sealing fractures within volcanic tuff may not be sufficiently robust or long lived to isolate a repository shaft from water for the required duration. A new grouting technology based on molten wax shows significant promise for producing the kind of long term sealing performance required. Molten wax is capable of permeating a significant distance through volcanic tuff, as well as sealing fractures by permeation that is thermally dependent instead of chemically or time dependent. The wax wicks into and saturates tuff even if no fractures are present, but penetrates and fills only the heated area. Heated portions of the rock fill like a vessel. The taffy-like wax has been shown to waterproof the tuff, and significantly increase its resistance to fracture. This wax was used in 2004 for grouting of buried radioactive beryllium waste at the Idaho National Laboratory, chiefly to stop the water based corrosion reactions of the waste. The thermoplastic material contains no water and does not dry out or change with age. Recent studies indicate that this kind of wax material may be inherently resistant to bio-degradation. (authors)

Carter, E.E.; Carter, P.E. [Technologies Co, Texas (United States); Cooper, D.C. [Ph.D. Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

2008-07-01

17

Effect of Waterproofing Admixtures on the Flexural Strength and Corrosion Resistance of Concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals about the flexural strength and corrosion behaviour of concrete using waterproofing admixtures. The effect of waterproofing admixtures on the corrosion behaviour of RCC specimen has been studied by conducting accelerated corrosion test. To identify the effect of corrosion in pull out strength, corrosion process was induced by means of accelerated corrosion procedure. To accelerate the reinforcement corrosion, direct electric current was impressed on the rebar embedded in the specimen using a DC power supply system that has a facility to adjust voltage. The addition of waterproofing admixtures also shows the improvement in the flexural strength of concrete has been studied by conducting flexural strength tests on the concrete prism specimen of size 100 × 100 × 500 mm with and without admixtures for various dosages and various curing periods of 7 and 28 days. The results showed that the presence of waterproofing admixtures always improves the corrosion resistance and thus increases the strength of concrete due to the hydrophobic action of waterproofing admixtures.

Geetha, A.; Perumal, P.

2012-02-01

18

Environmentally Safe, Sprayable, Waterproof, Rapid Three Minute Room Temperature Cure Resin for the Manufacturing of Aerospace Composite Sealants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Infinite Materials Products, Inc., has developed a revolutionary waterproof 3-minute cure polyurethane resin which has no shrinkage, micro-cracking, water absorption or penetration, or stress related fatigue and failure common in other resins. Testing con...

W. L. Johnson M. J. Schick

1998-01-01

19

Fire ants self-assemble into waterproof rafts to survive floods.  

PubMed

Why does a single fire ant Solenopsis invicta struggle in water, whereas a group can float effortlessly for days? We use time-lapse photography to investigate how fire ants S. invicta link their bodies together to build waterproof rafts. Although water repellency in nature has been previously viewed as a static material property of plant leaves and insect cuticles, we here demonstrate a self-assembled hydrophobic surface. We find that ants can considerably enhance their water repellency by linking their bodies together, a process analogous to the weaving of a waterproof fabric. We present a model for the rate of raft construction based on observations of ant trajectories atop the raft. Central to the construction process is the trapping of ants at the raft edge by their neighbors, suggesting that some "cooperative" behaviors may rely upon coercion. PMID:21518911

Mlot, Nathan J; Tovey, Craig A; Hu, David L

2011-04-25

20

Acute lung injury after inhalation of water-proofing spray while smoking a cigarette.  

PubMed

A 34-year-old Japanese woman developed acute lung injury soon after inhaling a water-proofing spray which she applied onto her ski suit while smoking a cigarette at the same time. She initially demonstrated arterial hypoxemia (PaO2 = 59 mm Hg) and ground-glass opacities in both lung fields on the CT scan, which both returned to normal without any medication. Several water-proofing sprays, which are easily obtainable in Japan, contain 1,1,1-trichloroethane, liquefied petroleum gas and fluoride resin. Although these components have not been reported to be toxic to the lung yet, high concentrations of these components and/or the pyrolytic products of fluoride resin may have caused acute lung injury in this case. PMID:9817966

Jinn, Y; Akizuki, N; Ohkouchi, M; Inase, N; Ichioka, M; Marumo, F

1998-01-01

21

Fire ants self-assemble into waterproof rafts to survive floods  

PubMed Central

Why does a single fire ant Solenopsis invicta struggle in water, whereas a group can float effortlessly for days? We use time-lapse photography to investigate how fire ants S. invicta link their bodies together to build waterproof rafts. Although water repellency in nature has been previously viewed as a static material property of plant leaves and insect cuticles, we here demonstrate a self-assembled hydrophobic surface. We find that ants can considerably enhance their water repellency by linking their bodies together, a process analogous to the weaving of a waterproof fabric. We present a model for the rate of raft construction based on observations of ant trajectories atop the raft. Central to the construction process is the trapping of ants at the raft edge by their neighbors, suggesting that some “cooperative” behaviors may rely upon coercion.

Mlot, Nathan J.; Tovey, Craig A.; Hu, David L.

2011-01-01

22

Science and technology of building seals, sealants, glazing, and waterproofing: Fifth volume  

SciTech Connect

The current proceedings provide reviews of technological advances and the most recent developments in the domain of significant importance to both researchers and practitioners in the sealant industry. This would include, for instance, those involved in test method and product development research and practitioners having expertise in the areas of building joint seal and waterproofing design, specification, application, failure diagnosis, maintenance and repair, and other related domains. This volume contains eighteen contributions covering a wide spectrum of areas related to the science and technology of sealants and waterproofing and cognate systems. The papers have been organized into six categories: joint design and sealant selection: joint sealant failures; design, evaluation, and application of structural silicone glazing sealants; aesthetic performance; recent advances in adhesion testing; and studies related to the long-term performance and aging of sealants and gaskets. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Lacasse, M.A. [ed.

1996-12-31

23

Transient altitude-induced compartment syndrome associated with fiberglass casts using waterproof cast padding.  

PubMed

Changes in aircraft cabin pressure and its interplay with a fixed diameter fiberglass cylindrical cast and the closed air cells in waterproof cast padding may cause a transient altitude-induced compartment syndrome. In this case series, 2 patients reported transient compartment syndromes that resolved with aircraft decent. As proof of concept, this work displays photographic and video evidence showing the difference in air cell volume from experimental data in a vacuum chamber as well as real-world volume changes at cruise altitude in a commercial airliner. Transient altitude-induced compartment syndromes associated with fiberglass casts using waterproof cast padding are real and surgeons and patients should be advised of this potentially devastating complication. PMID:23431541

Kadzielski, John; Bae, Donald S

2013-01-01

24

Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-416-1742, Roofing and Waterproofing Sites, Chicago, Illinois  

SciTech Connect

Potential exposures to organic solvents during the application of single-ply roofing and waterproofing systems were evaluated in response to a request from the United Union of Roofers, Waterproofers, and Allied Workers. The evaluation was conducted at three sites in Chicago, Illinois where roofing contractors were using two roofing systems (ARC and Carlisle) and one waterproofing (WR Grace) system. Air concentrations of toluene, xylene, hexane, acetone, and heptane were measured. Acenaphthalene, fluorene, and naphthalene were detected in air samples collected at the ARC roofing site. Potential hazards observed at both roofing sites included falls from roofs and slipping on slick roof surfaces. Another potential source of injuries was the use of torches for installation of the ARC system. The authors conclude that personal exposures were relatively low for the chemicals evaluated. Contractors should make every effort to determine the principal components of the roofing supplies they are using. Employees should receive adequate training to work safely with the materials involved. Exposure to coal tar and pitch fumes should be minimized due to the risk of cancer.

Zey, J.N.; Stephenson, R.

1986-10-01

25

Waterproof Hanky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this physics demonstration, learners will be surprised when a handkerchief holds water in an upside-down glass. They will be especially shocked when you hold the glass over their head and nothing leaks out! Use this demonstration to introduce learners to surface tension and air pressure. This instruction guide includes a helpful video illustrating each step of the demonstration.

Physics, Institute O.

2012-07-12

26

Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inorganic light-emitting diodes and photodetectors represent important, established technologies for solid-state lighting, digital imaging and many other applications. Eliminating mechanical and geometrical design constraints imposed by the supporting semiconductor wafers can enable alternative uses in areas such as biomedicine and robotics. Here we describe systems that consist of arrays of interconnected, ultrathin inorganic light-emitting diodes and photodetectors configured in mechanically optimized layouts on unusual substrates. Light-emitting sutures, implantable sheets and illuminated plasmonic crystals that are compatible with complete immersion in biofluids illustrate the suitability of these technologies for use in biomedicine. Waterproof optical-proximity-sensor tapes capable of conformal integration on curved surfaces of gloves and thin, refractive-index monitors wrapped on tubing for intravenous delivery systems demonstrate possibilities in robotics and clinical medicine. These and related systems may create important, unconventional opportunities for optoelectronic devices.

Kim, Rak-Hwan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Xiao, Jianliang; Kim, Bong Hoon; Park, Sang-Il; Panilaitis, Bruce; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Yao, Jimin; Li, Ming; Liu, Zhuangjian; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Kim, Dae Gon; Le, An-Phong; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Kaplan, David L.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.; Huang, Yonggang; Kang, Zhan; Rogers, John A.

2010-11-01

27

Science and technology of building seals, sealants, glazing, and waterproofing: Seventh volume  

SciTech Connect

This book captures papers from the Charles J. Parise Seventh Symposium on the Science and Technology of Building Seals. Sealants, Glazing, and Waterproofing. The overriding theme behind the papers is durability. This topic is fundamental to all users and specifiers of sealants. The first set of papers in this book addresses the topic of stress and fatigue. Joint designs vary from the square section to exaggerated hour-glass shapes. The joint designs are factors in the longevity of a sealant in the joint. The available work on accelerated weathering tests and how that relates to the damage caused by real weathering is summarized. Acrylic latex sealants can come in many qualities and some can be formulated to have properties that approach and in some cases match some of the chemically curing sealants. The unique sealant applications in roofs and doing the old fashion listing of the performance needed for each application is addressed. Destruction of a joint can be more than a failed sealant. It can be a fine sealant in a joint that is picked clean by birds. Destruction of weather protection offered by sealant, the diagnosis of the cause and solutions, especially in EIFS systems, was discussed in several papers. The esthetic concerns of fluid migration from sealants and sealant staining potential were addressed. Relative to sealant testing, the paper of work done at V.P.I. on adhesion testing is a landmark paper. Papers on finite element analysis are presented. These show where the stress concentration starts and maximizes in various joint designs and provides the basis for better joint design and better joint geometry. There is a concluding series of papers that address the adhesion of waterproofing membranes; firestopping from a latex viewpoint; polysulfide sealants for chemical containment; and a final paper looks at the myriad of places sealants are used in modern buildings and spaceframe structures.

Klosowski, J.M. [ed.

1998-12-31

28

Effects of waterproof covering on hand immersion tests using water at 10°C, 12°C and 15°C for diagnosis of hand–arm vibration syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To compare effects of waterproof covering on finger skin temperature (FST) and subjective hand pain during immersion tests using cold water at 10°C, 12°C and 15°C. In the (Draft International Standard) of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO\\/DIS 14835-1), a water temperature of 12°C and use of water covering are proposed. Methods: Six healthy male subjects took part in

K. Suizu; N. Harada

2005-01-01

29

Waterproof that Roof!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how engineers have improved roofing designs and materials in order to protect the contents of buildings. Learners explore the hydrophobic effect, and learn about nanotechnology. Then, they work in teams to design a roof structure both in terms of shape and materials to protect a box and its contents from a simulated rainstorm. Teams build, test, and evaluate their designs and those of other teams.

Ieee

2013-07-08

30

Waterproof active paper via laser surface micropatterning of magnetic nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Paper is one of the oldest and most abundant materials known to man. Recently, there has been a considerable interest in creating paper devices by combining paper with other functional materials. In this letter, we demonstrate a simple fabrication technique to create water-resistant ferro-patterns on wax paper using CO(2) laser ablation. A resolution of about 100 ?m is achieved which is mostly limited by the cellulose fiber size (~50 ?m) in the wax paper and can be improved by using a smaller cellulose matrix. Laser ablation results in modification of surface morphology and chemistry, leading to a change in surface energy. We also present a 2D model for ferrofluid deposition relating the size of the pattern to the amount of ferroparticles deposited on the surface. Finally, a paper gripper is presented to demonstrate advantages of our technique, which allows microscale patterning and machining in a single step. PMID:22939525

Chitnis, G; Ziaie, B

2012-09-06

31

Roofing Workbook and Tests: Entering the Roofing and Waterproofing Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is one of a series of nine individual units of instruction for use in roofing apprenticeship classes in California. The unit consists of a workbook and test, perforated for student use. Fourteen topics are covered in the workbook and corresponding multiple-choice tests. For each topic, objectives, information sheets, and study…

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Vocational Education Services.

32

Roofing Workbook and Tests: Entering the Roofing and Waterproofing Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is one of a series of nine individual units of instruction for use in roofing apprenticeship classes in California. The unit consists of a workbook and test, perforated for student use. Fourteen topics are covered in the workbook and corresponding multiple-choice tests. For each topic, objectives, information sheets, and study…

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Vocational Education Services.

33

Waterproofing mastics based on radiation-reclaimed butyl rubber  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three most widely used methods of butyl rubber waste reclamation—water-neutral, thermomechanical, and radiation—are compared.\\u000a The study of the mechanical properties of reclaimed butyl rubber prepared by different methods reveals that the radiation\\u000a method provides a reclaimed product of the best quality, whose vulcanizates are characterized by enhanced thermal stability\\u000a and improved stress-strain properties. It is shown that butyl rubber

R. R. Vagizova; Yu. N. Khakimullin; V. A. Kharlov; P. A. Stepanov; F. M. Palyutin

2007-01-01

34

Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inorganic light-emitting diodes and photodetectors represent important, established technologies for solid-state lighting, digital imaging and many other applications. Eliminating mechanical and geometrical design constraints imposed by the supporting semiconductor wafers can enable alternative uses in areas such as biomedicine and robotics. Here we describe systems that consist of arrays of interconnected, ultrathin inorganic light-emitting diodes and photodetectors configured in mechanically

Rak-Hwan Kim; Dae-Hyeong Kim; Jianliang Xiao; Bong Hoon Kim; Sang-Il Park; Bruce Panilaitis; Roozbeh Ghaffari; Jimin Yao; Ming Li; Zhuangjian Liu; Viktor Malyarchuk; Dae Gon Kim; An-Phong Le; Ralph G. Nuzzo; David L. Kaplan; Fiorenzo G. Omenetto; Yonggang Huang; Zhan Kang; John A. Rogers

2010-01-01

35

Science and technology of building seals, sealants, glazing, and waterproofing: Sixth volume  

SciTech Connect

This publication contains ten peer-reviewed papers on structural silicone glazing (SSG), sealant design, and recent sealant research. Collectively, these papers help answer some recent questions in sealant technology and provide the foundation for additional research and ASTM standards development. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

Myers, J.C. [ed.

1996-12-31

36

Analysis of the moisture diffusion transfer through fibrous porous membrane used for waterproof breathable fabrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a new fractal model to determine the moisture effective diffusivity of porous membrane such as expanded polytetrafluorethylene membrane, by taking account of both parallel and perpendicular channels to diffusion flow direction. With the consideration of both the Knudsen and bulk diffusion effect, a relationship between micro-structural parameters and effective moisture diffusivity is deduced. The effective moisture diffusivities predicted by the present fractal model are compared with moisture diffusion experiment data and calculated values obtained from other theoretical models.

Zhu, Fanglong; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Suyan

2013-10-01

37

76 FR 6614 - Notice of a Regional Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...manufactured in Surrey, British Columbia, for a hot applied membrane waterproofing system for...manufactured in Surrey, British Columbia, for a hot applied membrane waterproofing system for...is being incorporated into the reinforced hot-applied waterproofing system to...

2011-02-07

38

BREATHABLE WATER-RESISTANT LINERBOARD COATINGS BY ELECTROSPRAYING APPLICATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waterproofing of corrugated packaging with wax or polyethylene hinders recyclability and so is incompatible with current socioeconomic goals of sustainability. Therefore, alternative coating technologies are sought. This study describes our feasibility study of electrohydrodynamic spraying (EHS) towards waterproofing corrugated boxes. Water resistance properties of electro-sprayed polymer-solvent solutions and latex systems air dried onto linerboard surface are reported. Optimization of spraying

Ericka Ford; Roman E. Popil; Satish Kumar

39

Airborne Nanoparticle Concentrations in the Manufacturing of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Apparel  

Microsoft Academic Search

One form of waterproof, breathable apparel is manufactured from polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane laminated fabric using a specific process to seal seams that have been sewn with traditional techniques. The sealing process involves applying waterproof tape to the seam by feeding the seam through two rollers while applying hot air (600°C). This study addressed the potential for exposure to particulate matter

Donna J. H. Vosburgh; Dane A. Boysen; Jacob J. Oleson; Thomas M. Peters

2011-01-01

40

40 CFR 265.1201 - Design and operating standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (1) Earth-covered magazines. Earth-covered magazines must be: (i) Constructed of waterproofed, reinforced concrete or structural steel arches, with steel doors that are kept closed when not being accessed; (ii)...

2013-07-01

41

40 CFR 264.1201 - Design and operating standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (1) Earth-covered magazines. Earth-covered magazines must be: (i) Constructed of waterproofed, reinforced concrete or structural steel arches, with steel doors that are kept closed when not being accessed; (ii)...

2013-07-01

42

Effectiveness of Concrete Bridge Deck Asphalt-Membrane Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study field tests and evaluates conditions of five bridge decks in Washington rehabilitated and waterproofed by WSDOT System 'C' membrane and paved with asphalt concrete overlay. The study also reviews and evaluates the WSDOT's membrane selection crit...

K. Babaei

1986-01-01

43

Construction details of an earth-sheltered passive solar thermosiphon air house  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction details are presented for Sunrise, a passive solar, earth-sheltered house in eastern West Virginia. Particular attention is paid to the thermosiphon air system, as well as structural, waterproofing and insulation details.

R. B. Ashelman; G. C. Hagen

1980-01-01

44

46 CFR 160.050-6 - Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoy, Life Ring, Unicellular Plastic § 160.050-6 Marking. (a) Each ring buoy must have the following information in waterproof lettering: Type IV...

2012-10-01

45

Behind the Seams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of seamless flooring in areas where cleanliness, waterproofing, and slip resistance is emphasized. Areas such as locker rooms, restrooms, kitchens and cafeterias, lobbies and hallways, multipurpose-rooms, and walkways are considered. (GR)

Watt, W. Bradford

2000-01-01

46

46 CFR 160.050-4 - Construction and workmanship.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoy, Life Ring, Unicellular Plastic § 160.050-4 Construction and workmanship. (a...waterproof adhesive which is compatible with the unicellular plastic used in the buoy body. The ends of the beckets shall...

2011-10-01

47

46 CFR 160.050-6 - Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoy, Life Ring, Unicellular Plastic § 160.050-6 Marking. (a) Each ring buoy must have the following information in waterproof lettering:...

2011-10-01

48

46 CFR 161.013-9 - Independent power source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...is rechargeable, it must have a waterproof recharger designed for marine use. (c) If the independent power source requires external water to form an electrolyte, it must operate in sea water and fresh...

2012-10-01

49

46 CFR 161.013-9 - Independent power source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...is rechargeable, it must have a waterproof recharger designed for marine use. (c) If the independent power source requires external water to form an electrolyte, it must operate in sea water and fresh...

2011-10-01

50

What Consumers Need to Know About Food and Water Safety ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... well may be contaminated, contact your local or state ... Food containers that are not waterproof include those ... boxes and home canned foods if they ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/resourcesforyou/consumers

51

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart C of... - VOC Content Limits by Product Category  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Construction and panel 40 General purpose 10 Structural waterproof 15 Insecticides: Crawling bug 40 Flea and tick 25 Flying bug 35 Foggers 45 Lawn and Garden 20 Laundry prewash: Aerosols/solids 22 All other forms...

2013-07-01

52

46 CFR 160.054-4 - Contents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Waterproof adhesive compressâ1 inch 16 Single 1 Eye dressing packet, 1/8 oz. Ophthalmic ointment, adhesive strips, cotton pads. 3 Single 1 Bandage, gauze, compressed, 2 inches à 6 yards 2 Single 1 Tourniquet, forceps,...

2011-10-01

53

Athlete's Foot  

MedlinePLUS

... to dry between wearings. Protect your feet in public places. Wear waterproof sandals or shower shoes in communal showers, pools, fitness centers and other public areas. Treat your feet. Use powder, preferably ...

54

Local Flood Proofing Programs (US Army Corps of Engineers).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Flood proofing is a proven approach to reducing flood damage. It involves altering an existing building or its immediate area to prevent or minimize damage during a flood. Alterations may range from minor changes to the utilities, to waterproofing walls, ...

2005-01-01

55

Effect of dressing choice on outcomes after hip and knee arthroplasty: a literature review.  

PubMed

Selecting the right dressing for these wounds can prevent blistering, maceration and the risk of infection. Ideally, the dressing should be permeable, waterproof, transparent, absorbent and flexible enough to withstand joint movement. PMID:19901873

Tustanowski, J

2009-11-01

56

Evaluation of Bridge Deck Repair and Protective Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes efforts to control bridge deck deterioration in Colorado. A follow up testing program to determine the degree of continued effectiveness of waterproofing membranes has been underway since 1974. Results to date show that the most impo...

H. N. Swanson D. E. Donnelly

1977-01-01

57

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart C - VOC Content Limits by Product Category  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Construction and panel 40 General purpose 10 Structural waterproof 15 Insecticides: Crawling bug 40 Flea and tick 25 Flying bug 35 Foggers 45 Lawn and Garden 20 Laundry prewash: Aerosols/solids 22 All other...

2010-07-01

58

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart C - VOC Content Limits by Product Category  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Construction and panel 40 General purpose 10 Structural waterproof 15 Insecticides: Crawling bug 40 Flea and tick 25 Flying bug 35 Foggers 45 Lawn and Garden 20 Laundry prewash: Aerosols/solids 22 All other...

2009-07-01

59

Assessment of digital camera-derived vegetation indices in quantitative monitoring of seasonal rice growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commercially available digital camera can be used in a low-cost automatic observation system for monitoring crop growth change in open-air fields. We developed a prototype Crop Phenology Recording System (CPRS) for monitoring rice growth, but the ready-made waterproof cases that we used produced shadows on the images. After modifying the waterproof cases, we repeated the fixed-point camera observations to

Toshihiro Sakamoto; Michio Shibayama; Akihiko Kimura; Eiji Takada

2011-01-01

60

APPLICATION OF HH JOINT STEEL PIPE SHEET PILES IN COASTAL LANDFILL SITE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two kinds of new steel pipe sheet piles (SPSP), the H-joint SPSP and the H-H joint SPSP are proposed as a vertical cutoff barrier for application in coastal waste landfill. The H-joint SPSP exhibits excellent waterproof property, because two adjacent steel pipes are rigidly welded together onto a H-steel section. The waterproof property of the H-H joint connection is evaluated

Shinya Inazumi; Makoto Kimura; Yoshikazu Nishiyama; Masashi Kamon

61

Isolation of pervious concrete in the hydraulic structures of the Kaunas hydroelectric plant (Lithuanian SSR) by using polymer materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a To waterproof pervious construction joints and cracks having a separation of up to 0.5 mm, it is recommended to use strengthened\\u000a glass fiber, as follows: one layer for heads of up to 15 m, two layers for heads between 15 and 30 m, and three layers for\\u000a heads of over 30 m.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a The waterproofing coating should be

I. N. Solov'ev; B. F. Khasin

1972-01-01

62

ASTM and other specifications and classifications for petroleum products and lubricants. Fifth edition  

SciTech Connect

This book includes specifications and classifications from ASTM committees on paint and related coatings and materials; road and paving materials; wood; roofing, waterproofing and bituminous materials; rubber; soaps and other detergents; aromatic hydrocarbons and related chemicals; and electrical insulating liquids and gases. Also included are several related, important specifications and classifications from other organizations.

Not Available

1989-01-01

63

Excavations Around the Foundation of Friendship House.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A report on test excavations along the foundation of Friendship House, 619 D Street, S.E., Washington, D.C., to determine if archeological resources would be destroyed in waterproofing the basement. The house, part of which dates to 1796, was a D.C. Histo...

J. Haas

1979-01-01

64

Sandwich Model to Evaluate Railroad Asphalt Trackbed Performance Under Moving Loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, asphalt trackbed is gaining more attention because it effectively strengthens railroad track support, helps waterproof underlying subgrade, and securely confines the subgrade layer. Traditional analytical track models are either quasi-static or based on a continuous support assumption, which does not consider nonuniform, discrete support due to varying tie and ballast service conditions. In this paper, a discretely supported track

Hai Huang; Shihui Shen; Erol Tutumluer

2009-01-01

65

Depth of ionization chamber in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The device developed by the authors and described here enables the user to measure the depth from the water surface to the point of measurement for a cylindrical ion chamber with a waterproof plastic cap in a water phantom, free of surface-tension error with a high precision. The device seeks vertical orientation and provides the convenience of hands-free operation. The

R. C. Tailor; V. M. Tello

1995-01-01

66

Effectiveness and durability evaluation of rendering mortars made with metallic soaps and powdered silicone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metallic soaps and powdered silicones are used to control water absorption in rendering mortars. This paper looks at the effectiveness of several types of waterproofing after 7, 14 and 28 days of curing. The efficiency is analyzed by capillary water absorption experiments, while durability is evaluated after exposing the samples to different environments, including water and hydrochloric acid solutions. Finally,

Marcos Lanzón; P. A. García-Ruiz

2008-01-01

67

49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...waterproof ply or barrier, such as double-tarred kraft paper, plastics-coated kraft paper, plastics film bonded to the inner surface of the bag, or one or more inner plastics liners, must also be placed next to the substance. Seams...

2011-10-01

68

49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...waterproof ply or barrier, such as double-tarred kraft paper, plastics-coated kraft paper, plastics film bonded to the inner surface of the bag, or one or more inner plastics liners, must also be placed next to the substance. Seams...

2012-10-01

69

Biophysical and biochemical characteristics of cutin, a plant barrier biopolymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cutin is a support biopolyester involved in waterproofing the leaves and fruits of higher plants, regulating the flow of nutrients among various plant cells and organs, and minimizing the deleterious impact of pathogens. Despite the complexity and intractable nature of this biopolymer, significant progress in chemical composition, molecular architecture and, more recently, biosynthesis have been made in the past 10

Antonio Heredia

2003-01-01

70

49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...moisture, or when it is packed damp, a waterproof ply or barrier, such as double-tarred kraft paper, plastics-coated kraft paper, plastics film bonded to the inner surface of the bag, or one or more inner plastics liners, must also...

2010-10-01

71

49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...moisture, or when it is packed damp, a waterproof ply or barrier, such as double-tarred kraft paper, plastics-coated kraft paper, plastics film bonded to the inner surface of the bag, or one or more inner plastics liners, must also...

2009-10-01

72

Skilled up and Having Fun  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many teachers seem to have followed the "dunking theory." That is, they dunk their children in a variety of investigations and hope that through their practical work they will absorb a thorough understanding of enquiry skills. Children seem to have quite a good natural waterproof coating when it comes to absorbing scientific skills through…

Goldsworthy, Anne

2013-01-01

73

Protected Membrane Roofs: A Sustainable Roofing Solution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the benefits of protected membrane roofing (PMR) for school buildings. PMR uses an upside-down approach, where the insulation is placed on top of the waterproofing membrane to improve membrane effectiveness, reduce ultraviolet degradation, and improve insulation efficiency. The article explains what makes PMR sustainable, focusing on…

Roodvoets, David L.

2003-01-01

74

No Valve in Vain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acting as biomedical engineers, students design, build, test and redesign prototype heart valves using materials such as waterproof tape, plastic tubing, flexible plastic and foam sheets, clay, wire and pipe cleaners. They test them with flowing water, representing blood moving through the heart. As students creatively practice engineering problem solving, they demonstrate their understanding of how one-way heart valves work.

Techtronics Program

75

Marker and pen graffiti cleaning on diverse calcareous stones by different laser techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industries nowadays continuously produce new types of inks for markers and pens, so new different graffiti appear . In this paper laser cleaning tests on 41 new marker and pen types ( fluorescent, permanent, water-based, acrylic tempera, metallic paint, waterproof inks ), applied into laboratory on different litho- type samples (Chianca, Travertino di Roma, Tufo Carparo fine grain, Sabbie), typical

S. E. Andriani; I. M. Catalano; G. Daurelio; A. Albanese

2007-01-01

76

Development of Lightning Surge Sensor for Railway Signal Electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a new railway signal control system, which controls railway signals, switches, track circuits based on IP protocol. In this system, much electronic devices are installed along harsh railway environment. Therefore, it is required that these electronic devices have environment resistance for lightning surge, temperature, vibration, waterproof and electromagnetic noise. As a countermeasure for the lightning surge, we

Tetsunori Hattori; Takashi Kunifuji; Tamotsu Kato; Ken-Ichi Ebuchi

2008-01-01

77

NEW TEACHER WELCOME PACK: ELEMENTARY SCHOOL  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Assortment of "Best-Selling" books for Elementary School Teachers. Pack includes the following books. Picture Perfect Science, Exemplary Science Grades K-4, Uncovering Student Ideas in Science, Volume 1, Using Science Notebooks, and Everyday Science Mysteries. Books are packed into a waterproof, nylon briefcase with handle and shoulder strap. Front flap of briefcase is printed with the NSTA logo.

1900-01-01

78

Cleaning Aged EPDM Rubber Roofing Membrane Material for Patching: Laboratory Investigations and Recommendations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many U.S. Army installations are replacing old, low-slope built-up roofs using EPDM (ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer) as the waterproofing component. EPDMs are nonpolar, relatively inert rubbers, and difficult to bond with adhesive. Unaddressed in pri...

W. J. Rossiter T. Nguyen W. E. Byrd J. F. Seiler J. A. Lechner

1992-01-01

79

The thermal insulation difference of clothing ensembles on the dry and perspiration manikins  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are about a hundred manikin users around the world. Some of them use the manikin such as 'Walter' and 'Tore' to evaluate the comfort of clothing ensembles according to their thermal insulation and moisture resistance. A 'Walter' manikin is made of water and waterproof breathable fabric 'skin', which simulates the characteristics of human perspiration. So evaporation, condensation or sorption

Zhou Xiaohong; Zheng Chunqin; Qiang Yingming; Ingvar Holmér; Chuansi Gao; Kalev Kuklane

2010-01-01

80

The Sensor Fish: Measuring Fish Passage in Severe Hydraulic Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes PNNL's efforts to develop the Sensor Fish, a waterproof sensor package that travels thru the turbines of spillways of hydroelectric dam to collect pressure and acceleration data on the conditions experienced by live salmon smolts during dam passage. Sensor Fish development is sponsored by the DOE Advanced Hydropower Turbine Survival Program. The article also gave two recent

Thomas J. Carlson; Joanne P. Duncan; Theresa L. Gilbride

2003-01-01

81

A method of extracellular recording of neuronal activity in swimming mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of a removable miniature microdrive-headstage waterproof assembly for extracellular recordings of single unit activity with high-impedance electrodes in swimming mice is presented. The assembly provides perfect protection of the critical components and electric contacts from water. Neuronal activity may be recorded even if the animal is diving and swimming under the water surface. The advantages of this construction

Victor A. Korshunov; Robert G. Averkin

2007-01-01

82

NSTA WHEELED BACKPACK  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gray/black, waterproof, wheeled backpack with recessed handle. Zippered main compartment is 12" wide x 18" high, and includes smaller front and side zippered pockets. Can be used as a wheeled book bag or worn as a backpack. NSTA logo is printed on the small front compartment.

1900-01-01

83

Defeating the Drips.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a holistic approach to preventing moisture penetration of exterior walls in modular school buildings. The problem of roof leaks in modular structures is examined as are approaches to water management, roof waterproofing, the problem of condensation, and the design of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems as it affects water…

Moss, Lincoln

2000-01-01

84

3-D Wizardry: Design in Papier-Mache, Plaster, and Foam.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Papier-mache, plaster, and foam are inexpensive and versatile media for 3-dimensional classroom and studio art experiences. They can be used equally well by elementary, high school, or college students. Each medium has its own characteristic. Papier-mache is pliable but dries into a hard, firm surface that can be waterproofed. Plaster can be…

Wolfe, George

85

Defeating the Drips.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses a holistic approach to preventing moisture penetration of exterior walls in modular school buildings. The problem of roof leaks in modular structures is examined as are approaches to water management, roof waterproofing, the problem of condensation, and the design of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems as it affects water…

Moss, Lincoln

2000-01-01

86

DESIGN NOTE: Underwater optical probe for laser Doppler anemometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A slender waterproof probe containing the optical configuration for a laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) is described. The probe can easily be changed into an optical system for a multi-dimensional LDA by exchanging the configuration of pinholes on the mask and increasing the required number of optical receivers. The use of this probe brings good results, in particular for the velocity

S. Yoshida; Y. Tashiro

1986-01-01

87

Roofing Workbook and Tests. Plans and Specifications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This combination workbook and set of tests on plans and specifications is one in a series of nine individually bound units of instruction for roofing apprenticeship classes. The five topics covered are (1) regulations governing the roofing and waterproofing industry, (2) an overview of blueprints, (3) an overview of specifications, (4)…

Mongerson, M. Duane, Comp.

88

Marine organism repellent covering for protection of underwater objects and method of applying same  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of protecting the surface of underwater objects from fouling by growth of marine organisms thereon comprising the steps of: (A) applying a layer of waterproof adhesive to the surface to be protected; (B) applying to the waterproof adhesive layer, a deposit of cayenne pepper material; (C) applying a permeable layer of copper containing material to the adhesive layer in such a configuration as to leave certain areas of the outer surface of the adhesive layer exposed, through open portions of the permeable layer, to the ambient environment of the surface to be protected when such surface is submerged in water; (D) the permeable layer having the property of being a repellent to marine organisms.

Fischer, K.J.

1993-07-13

89

Use of epoxy compounds in structural elements and insulation in the Kislogubsk tidal power station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Epoxy foam heat-and-water insulation and epoxy-pitch waterproofing have been found to be suitable for structures in regions\\u000a with a severe climate, and in particular for tidal power stations built by the floating method.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a Industrial experience in the construction of the Kislogubsk tidal power station has shown the advantages of using epoxy plastic\\u000a solutions for constructing waterproofing seams

L. A. Igonin; P. A. Pshenitsyn; V. I. Sakharov

1971-01-01

90

Smart Aggregates: a Distributed Intelligent Multi-purpose Sensor Network (DIMSN) for Civil Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early-age strength monitoring, impact detection, and structural health monitoring are important issues for concrete structures, especially concrete infrastructures such as bridges. A distributed intelligent multi-purpose sensor network (DIMSN) using innovative piezoelectric-based smart aggregates is proposed in this paper to address these important issues. The smart aggregate is fabricated by embedding a water-proofed piezoelectric patch into a small concrete block. The

Gangbing Song; Haichang Gu; Y. L. Mo

2007-01-01

91

Condition Assessment Survey (CAS) Program. Deficiency standards and inspections methods manual: Volume 1, 0.01 Foundations and footings  

SciTech Connect

General information is presented for asset determinant factor/CAS repair codes/CAS cost factors; guide sheet tool & material listing; testing methods; inspection frequency; standard system design life tables; system work breakdown structure; and general system/material data. Deficiency standards and inspection methods are given for footings - spread/strip/grade beams; foundation walls; foundation dampproofing/waterproofing; excavation/backfill/ and piles & caissons.

Not Available

1993-05-01

92

Experimental evaluation of a flexible joint driven by water pressure for underwater robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe here the development a joint mechanism for underwater robotic manipulators. Arms of underwater robots require small-scale bodies and high waterproofing properties. In most of underwater robots, electric motors are used as actuators to drive the robotic arm\\/arms, but using electric motors for underwater manipulators may be problematic due to the size\\/weight of the robotic arm and need to

Mizuho Shibata; Yuusuke Onishi; Sadao Kawamura

2010-01-01

93

Building foundation design handbook  

SciTech Connect

This design handbook contains a concise set of typical residential foundation construction details and recommends cost-effective insulation levels for a variety of basements, crawl spaces, and slab-on-grade foundations for most US regions. The construction details are accompanied by the critical design information needed for specifying structural integrity; thermal and vapor controls; subsurface drainage; waterproofing; backfilling and compaction; and decay, termite, and radon control measures. 402 refs., 122 figs., 97 tabs.

Labs, K.; Carmody, J.; Sterling, R.; Shen, L.; Huang, Yu Joe; Parker, D.

1988-05-01

94

Design and implementation of high-speed communication modem using ultrasonic sensors for underwater sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater sensor networks (USN) for ocean development and disaster prevention have been emerged as one of interesting research topics recently. Since low-power, high-speed and inexpensive communication modem is a prerequisite for deployment of USN, in this paper we design and implement an underwater modem by utilizing general-purpose waterproof ultrasonic sensors. Also, we make some experiments in a water tank containing

Moo-Kwang Byeon; Bo-Won Kim; Jun-Ho Jeon; Sung-Joon Park

2008-01-01

95

Stimulator  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A stimulator for use in marital orgasmic therapy is provided. The stimulator uses a step-down transformer and a water-proof case. The stimulator oscillates at 2000-8000 (preferably 3000-3600) cycles per minute throughout an angle of operation chosen from the range of 10 to 80 (preferably 20 to 60) degrees. An integrated set includes several different detachable attachments and a handle with mechanical oscillating means.

Woog; Philippe-Guy E. (Geneva, CH); Moret; Michel A. (Geneva, CH)

1991-11-26

96

FRHAM-TEX{trademark} cool suit - OST reference No. 1854. Deactivation and decommissioning focus area  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a demonstration project for the FRHAM-TEX Cool Suit{trademark} manufactured by FRHAM Safety Products. It is a one-piece, disposable, breathable, waterproof coverall designed to permit moisture generated by the wearer to be transmitted outside the suit. The performance of this suit was compared to a Tyvek{reg_sign} suit as a baseline. The suit is proposed as safety ware for workers at decontamination and decommissioning projects.

NONE

1998-02-01

97

BotEC: Weight of Gold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Question Let's suppose that you have a shoe box full of water (the box is waterproof, of course). The shoe box weighs about 9 kg (19.8 pounds). Suppose you emptied the box and filled it completely with rock (little or no air space). How much would it weigh? Let's empty the box again and fill it completely with pure gold. How much would the box weigh now?

Tewksbury, Barb

98

Epicuticle of Blowfly Larvæ  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT is now clear that in many insects the epicuticle is the waterproofing layer of the cuticle. Although difficult to define morphologically1, it often carries a wax layer, removable by abrasion or adsorption. Rhodnius2 and Tenebrio3 undergo desiccation after removal of the wax layer by inert inorganic dusts; but blow-fly larvæ are unaffected4, suggesting a different constitution of the epicuticle.

R. Dennell

1950-01-01

99

QSAR classification models for the screening of the endocrine-disrupting activity of perfluorinated compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are a class of emerging pollutants still widely used in different materials as non-adhesives, waterproof fabrics, fire-fighting foams, etc. Their toxic effects include potential for endocrine-disrupting activity, but the amount of experimental data available for these pollutants is limited. The use of predictive strategies such as quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSARs) is recommended under the REACH regulation, to

S. Kovarich; E. Papa; J. Li; P. Gramatica

2012-01-01

100

Smart temperature-controlled water vapor permeable polyurethane film  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of this study was to develop a temperature-controlled polyurethane (PU) film for the application in film coated clothes. The PU film should be a smart one that can control its water vapor permeability (WVP) through temperature change. The study was carried out by increasing the water vapor permeability of various breathable\\/waterproof PU films through variations of their hard-to-soft-segment ratio,

Chia-Yen Lin; Ken-Hsuan Liao; Cheng-Feng Su; Chao-Hui Kuo; Kuo-Huang Hsieh

2007-01-01

101

The development of multi-functional autonomous amphibious vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses multi-purpose autonomous amphibious vehicle. It could operate 3 terrains; land-sea- air, a 3-in1 amphibious vehicle. Usually the vehicle runs as AUV in underwater. It has tracks to run on-land and seabed and works as AGV, ACV. On the pressure hull, there is a waterproof cargo with self-sealing hatch. This enables agent vehicle's launch such as UAV, on

Son-Cheol Yu; Ju Hyun; Dae-Young Kim; Myeong-Kwan Park; Ju-Hyun Pyo; Peter C. Cho; Chang-Soon Hwang

2011-01-01

102

The possibility of using radiation-reclaimed butyl rubber in the building industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies are performed to demonstrate the possibility of the valuable replacement of butyl rubber by a radiation-induced degradation\\u000a product for the production of different waterproofing and roofing materials in the building industry. The efficiency of using\\u000a nitroso compounds, such as p-dinitrobenzene and quinol ether, as vulcanizing agents is investigated. It is shown that a reclaimed product obtained at\\u000a an irradiation

Yu. N. Khakimullin; R. R. Vagizova; P. A. Stepanov

2008-01-01

103

Comparative performance of chloride attenuating and corrosion inhibiting systems for reinforced concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a laboratory-based study carried out to compare the performance of various proprietary concrete protection\\u000a systems, designed to reduce chloride ingress and reinforcement corrosion. These include: controlled permeability formwork\\u000a (CPF), a silane\\/siloxane hydrophobic surface treatment (S\\/S), an integral liquid waterproofing admixture (WP) and a corrosion-inhibiting\\u000a chemical admixture (CI). Tests were carried out on a Portland cement (PC) concrete

M. J. McCarthy; A. Giannakou; M. R. Jones

2004-01-01

104

Highly Efficient Photocatalytic Water Reduction with Robust Iridium(III) Photosensitizers Containing Arylsilyl Substituents.  

PubMed

Waterproof complexes: Cationic Ir(III) photosensitizers (PSs) with an ancillary 4,4'-bis(4-(triphenylsilyl)phenyl)-2,2'-bipyridine ligand enabled hydrogen evolution from water with high turnover numbers (TONs; see scheme). The peripheral triphenylsilyl moieties prevent ligand substitution by solvent molecules, such as water, and thus increase the durability of the complexes. SR=sacrificial reducing agent, WRC=water-reduction catalyst. PMID:24027139

Whang, Dong Ryeol; Sakai, Ken; Park, Soo Young

2013-09-11

105

Nest paper absorbency, toughness, and protein concentration of a native vs. an invasive social wasp.  

PubMed

The amount of proteinaceous food that was allocated to nest construction by a native wasp (Polistes fuscatus) vs. an invasive wasp (Polistes dominulus) in North America was examined following a field experiment under natural and surplus prey foraging conditions. Wasps of the surplus prey foraging conditions were provided with prey ad libitum within an enclosed area, while wasps of the natural treatment foraged in an adjacent field-woodland site. At the end of the field experiment, each nest was tested for water absorbency, toughness, and protein concentration. The hypotheses were: (1) When all nests are equally sheltered, the invasive P. dominulus (PD) allocates less protein to nest paper construction (for waterproofing and strengthening) and more protein to developing larvae than the native P. fuscatus (PF). (2) Nests of P. dominulus are more absorbent (less waterproof) and less tough than nests of P. fuscatus. Results indicate that P. fuscatus nests from surplus prey foraging conditions were more absorbent (less waterproof) to artificial rain drops than P. dominulus nests. The toughness of nests was similar between wasp species. However, nests from the natural treatment were tougher than those from the surplus prey treatment. Nests from the natural foraging conditions had half as much protein as those from surplus prey foraging conditions. There was no correlation between nest protein concentration and the number of prey taken, the number of cells, the number of adult offspring produced, or the total wasp biomass produced per colony. For PF under surplus prey conditions, protein concentration and absorbency were negatively correlated, but for PD the correlation was positive. In conclusion, when prey were scarce, Polistes wasps allocated less protein to nest construction. Also, the introduced P. dominulus may increase production of offspring by allocating less to nest construction than that of the native P. fuscatus, and so more protein to offspring production. PMID:16124234

Curtis, Tracy R; Aponte, Yaira; Stamp, Nancy E

2005-05-01

106

Depth of ionization chamber in water.  

PubMed

The device developed by the authors and described here enables the user to measure the depth from the water surface to the point of measurement for a cylindrical ion chamber with a waterproof plastic cap in a water phantom, free of surface-tension error with a high precision. The device seeks vertical orientation and provides the convenience of hands-free operation. The measurement process is simple and quick with a precision of 0.1 mm. (The device is currently available as a 'water phantom depth gauge' from Nuclear Associates, Division of Victoreen Inc., Clare Place, NY, USA.) PMID:7480120

Tailor, R C; Tello, V M

1995-08-01

107

PCB concentrations in Pere Marquette River and Muskegon River watersheds, 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs) are a class of209 individual compounds (known as congeners) for which there are no known natural sources. PCBs are carcinogenic and bioaccumulative compounds. For over 40 years, PCBs were manufactured in the United States. The flame resistant property of PCBs made them ideal chemicals for use as flame-retardants, and as coolants and lubricants in transformers and other electrical equipment. PCBs were also used in heating coils, carbonless paper, degreasers, varnishes, lacquers, waterproofing material, and cereal boxes. In addition, they were frequently used in the manufacturing of plastics, adhesives, and paints.

Fogarty, Lisa R.

2005-01-01

108

Measure Guideline: Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits  

SciTech Connect

This measure guideline provides recommendations for designs and variations for retrofit hybrid assemblies in improving interior foundation insulation and water management of basements. Variations include closed cell spray foam (ccSPF) with membrane waterproofing or air gap membrane drainage layers, rigid board foam insulation at flat walls (cast concrete or CMU block), a 'partial drainage' detail making use of the bulk water drainage that occurs through the field of a rubble stone wall, and non-drained spray foam assemblies (including slab insulation).

Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.

2012-05-01

109

Physical ailments attributable to HIV, not crash, court says.  

PubMed

The Tennessee Court of Appeals upheld a lower court ruling not to award monetary damages to Timothy Leonard, an HIV-positive driver who stated that he was injured in a motor vehicle accident. The other driver, Ira Casey of the Western Waterproofing Co. of America, stipulated his liability. Leonard claimed that he was physically injured as a result of the crash and argued that the defense depicted his injuries as HIV-related rather than the result of the impact of the accident. The appeals court stated that there was physical evidence in support of the jury's verdict. PMID:11364733

1997-10-01

110

Molecular Structure of Dinitrotoluene  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DNT is frequently used in the manufacture of explosives as a gelatinizing and waterproofing agent or as an intermediate in the production of polyurethane foams for the bedding and furniture industry. DNT is also used as an intermediate in the manufacturing of certain dyes. In a purified form, DNT may also be used in creating smokeless gunpowders. DNT does not persist in the environment, since it is easily degraded by sunlight or by bacteria. This molecule is also combustible and will burn, emitting poisonous, toxic gases, but will not spontaneously ignite. DNT may also be absorbed by the skin upon physical contact.

2002-09-20

111

Disappearing Statues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners model how marble statues and buildings are affected by acid rain. Antacid tablets made with calcium carbonate are used to represent marble (also made from calcium carbonate), and vinegar is used to represent acid rain. Learners observe the effect of adding water to one tablet and vinegar to another. The tablets can be made into slightly more realistic models by drawing on them with a pencil, or rubber stamping a design with waterproof ink. This activity could be used in connection with lessons on pollution and acid rain, or lessons on art and architecture.

Society, American C.

2008-01-01

112

Spectrochemical analysis of hard metals by a rotating disc technique: effect of impregnation and complexing agents.  

PubMed

A spectrographic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of the constituents W, Co, Ti, Ta and Nb and contaminants Fe, Ni, Or, Mn, Mg and Ca in hard metals. The samples were dissolved in hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid and the solutions stabilized with citric acid. Graphite discs were waterproofed in order to ensure control of the introduction of solution into the source. For the five types of hard metal samples studied no inter-element effect was observed. Titanium has also been determined by means of a double-beam optical spectrometer. PMID:18960851

Kántor, T; Erdey, L; Szabó-Akos, Z

1970-12-01

113

Give Me Some Skin: A Hands-On Science Activity Integrating Racial Sensitivity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What's the largest, fastest growing, organ in the human body? It's the tough, elastic, flexible, and waterproof covering that helps protect other organs and body parts from such things as germs, heat, cold, and sunlight--skin, of course! This life science activity engages middle school students in an exploration of the structure, function, and variety of skin. They "construct" skin layer by layer using simple materials such as felt, foam padding, yarn, and vinyl in various skin tones. This activity provides an opportunity to discuss racial diversity and to show students that skin color is, quite literally, only skin deep.

Houtz, Lynne E.; Quinn, Thomas H.

2003-02-01

114

Environmental planning and management in an age of uncertainty: the case of the Water Framework Directive.  

PubMed

Scenario planning is one of the most prominent methods applied by organisations to assist long-term decision making. This paper uses a case study method to demonstrate how scenarios can be operationalised to inform future strategies and to challenge rigid silo-based decision making approaches. The WaterProof Northwest scenarios developed by the authors in collaboration with a range of stakeholders, and described within this paper, offer a platform for considering the future of the water environment. The scenarios were developed in the context of meeting the goals of the European Water Framework Directive. This Directive has the core aim of improving the chemical and ecological status of Europe's water bodies. The scenarios highlight that water bodies in the case study area (the region of Northwest England) are impacted directly by a wide array of driving forces which will affect the state of the water environment over the coming decades. This analysis demonstrates that organisations responsible for creating and implementing long-term plans and policies to manage water are often far removed from the forces that will influence the effectiveness of the exercises that they are engaged in. The WaterProof Northwest scenarios highlight that organisations need different decision making approaches in order to adapt to modern environmental challenges. They also raise questions over whether environmental legislation such as the Water Framework Directive should incorporate a futures perspective in recognition of the wide ranging forces influencing their implementation. PMID:23047323

Carter, Jeremy G; White, Iain

2012-10-06

115

Ancient wood of the Acqualadrone rostrum: materials history through gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and sulfur X-ray absorption spectroscopy.  

PubMed

In 2008 the rostrum from an ancient warship was recovered from the Mediterranean near Acqualadrone, Sicily. To establish its provenance and condition, samples of black and brown rostrum wood were examined using sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). GC/MS of pyrolytic volatiles yielded only guaiacyl derivatives, indicating construction from pinewood. A derivatized extract of black wood yielded forms of abietic acid and sandaracopimaric acid consistent with pine pitch waterproofing. Numerical fits to the sulfur K-edge XAS spectra showed that about 65% of the endogenous sulfur consisted of thiols and disulfides. Elemental sulfur was about 2% and 7% in black and brown wood, respectively, while pyritic sulfur was about 12% and 6%. About 2% of the sulfur in both wood types was modeled as trimethylsulfonium, possibly reflecting biogenic (dimethylsulfonio)propionate. High-valent sulfur was exclusively represented by sulfate esters, consistent with bacterial sulfotransferase activity. Traces of chloride were detected, but no free sulfate ion. In summary, the rostrum was manufactured of pine wood and subsequently waterproofed with pine pitch. The subsequent 2300 years included battle, foundering, and marine burial followed by anoxia, bacterial colonization, sulfate reduction, and mobilization of transition metals, which produced pyrite and copious appended sulfur functionality. PMID:22545724

Frank, Patrick; Caruso, Francesco; Caponetti, Eugenio

2012-04-30

116

Visible fiber lasers excited by GaN laser diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes and discusses visible fiber lasers that are excited by GaN laser diodes. One of the attractive points of visible light is that the human eye is sensitive to it between 400 and 700 nm, and therefore we can see applications in display technology. Of course, many other applications exist. First, we briefly review previously developed visible lasers in the gas, liquid, and solid-state phases and describe the history of primary solid-state visible laser research by focusing on rare-earth doped fluoride media, including glasses and crystals, to clarify the differences and the merits of primary solid-state visible lasers. We also demonstrate over 1 W operation of a Pr:WPFG fiber laser due to high-power GaN laser diodes and low-loss optical fibers (0.1 dB/m) made by waterproof fluoride glasses. This new optical fiber glass is based on an AlF3 system fluoride glass, and its waterproof property is much better than the well known fluoride glass of ZBLAN.

Fujimoto, Yasushi; Nakanishi, Jun; Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Ishii, Osamu; Yamazaki, Masaaki

2013-07-01

117

The Ancient Wood of the Acqualadrone Rostrum: A Materials History Through GC-MS and Sulfur X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

In 2008 the rostrum from an ancient warship was recovered from the Mediterranean near Acqualadrone, Sicily. To establish its provenance and condition, samples of black and brown rostrum wood were examined using sulfur K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and GC-MS. GC-MS of pyrolytic volatiles yielded only guaiacyl derivatives, indicating construction from pinewood. A derivatized extract of black wood yielded forms of abietic acid and sandaracopimaric acid consistent with pine pitch waterproofing. Numerical fits to the sulfur K-edge XAS spectra showed that about 65% of the endogenous sulfur consisted of thiols and disulfides. Elemental sulfur was about 2% and 7% in black and brown wood, respectively, while pyritic sulfur was about 12% and 6%. About 2% of the sulfur in both wood types was modeled as trimethylsulfonium, possibly reflecting biogenic dimethylsulfonio-propionate. High valent sulfur was exclusively represented by sulfate esters, consistent with bacterial sulfotransferase activity. Traces of chloride were detected, but no free sulfate ion. In summary, the rostrum was manufactured of pine wood and subsequently waterproofed with pine pitch. The subsequent 2300 years included battle, foundering, and marine burial followed by anoxia, bacterial colonization, sulfate reduction, and mobilization of transition metals, which produced pyrite and copious appended sulfur functionality.

Frank, Patrick; Caruso, Francesco; Caponetti, Eugenio

2012-01-01

118

A vision-based tool for the control of hydraulic structures in sewer systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During rain events, the total amount of the wastewater/storm-water mixture cannot be treated in the wastewater treatment plant; the overflowed water goes directly into the environment (lakes, rivers, streams) via devices called combined sewers overflows (CSOs). This water is untreated and is recognized as an important source of pollution. In most cases, the quantity of overflowed water is unknown due to high hydraulic turbulences during rain events; this quantity is often significant. For this reason, the monitoring of the water flow and the water level is of crucial environmental importance. Robust monitoring of sewer systems is a challenging task to achieve. Indeed, the environment inside sewers systems is inherently harsh and hostile: constant humidity of 100%, fast and large water level changes, corrosive atmosphere, presence of gas, difficult access, solid debris inside the flow. A flow monitoring based on traditional probes placed inside the water (such as Doppler flow meter) is difficult to conduct because of the solid material transported by the flow. Probes placed outside the flow such as ultrasonic water level probes are often used; however the measurement is generally done on only one particular point. Experience has shown that the water level in CSOs during rain events is far from being constant due to hydraulic turbulences. Thus, such probes output uncertain information. Moreover, a check of the data reliability is impossible to achieve. The HydroPix system proposes a novel approach to the monitoring of sewers based on video images, without contact with the water flow. The goal of this system is to provide a monitoring tool for wastewater system managers (end-users). The hardware was chosen in order to suit the harsh conditions of sewers system: Cameras are 100% waterproof and corrosion-resistant; Infra-red LED illumination systems are used (waterproof, low power consumption); A waterproof case contains the registration and communication system. The monitoring software has the following requirements: visual analysis of particular hydraulic behavior, automatic vision-based flow measurements, automatic alarm system for particular events (overflows, risk of flooding, etc), database for data management (images, events, measurements, etc.), ability to be controlled remotely. The software is implemented in modular server/client architecture under LabVIEW development system. We have conducted conclusive in situ tests in various sewers configurations (CSOs, storm-water sewerage, WWTP); they have shown the ability of the HydroPix to perform accurate monitoring of hydraulic structures. Visual information demonstrated a better understanding of the flow behavior in complex and difficult environment.

Nguyen, L.; Sage, D.; Kayal, S.; Jeanbourquin, D.; Rossi, L.

2009-04-01

119

Underwater manipulator  

DOEpatents

Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is described for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer [plus minus]45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer [plus minus]10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.

1993-04-20

120

Tolerance requires the right smell: first evidence for interspecific selection on chemical recognition cues.  

PubMed

The integument of insects is generally covered with cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC). They serve multiple functions, most prominent among them waterproofing and-especially among social insects-as communication signal. CHC profiles are incredibly diverse within and across species. However, the causes for CHC variation between species, and potential selection pressures that may shape CHC profiles, are hardly understood. Here, we investigated potential selection pressures on ant CHC. We tested the hypotheses that living in association with another species (e.g., parabiosis), and the climate of the ant's habitat, affect CHC composition. We conducted a large-scale comparison of 37 Camponotus species from five continents. Our results demonstrate that closely associated ant species possess significantly longer hydrocarbons and higher proportions of methylbranched alkenes and alkadienes than non- or loosely associated species. In contrast, climatic factors had no effects. This study shows that the need to be tolerated by another species greatly affects CHC profiles. PMID:22380448

Menzel, Florian; Schmitt, Thomas

2011-11-18

121

Underground coal miners' foot and boot problems.  

PubMed

The New South Wales (NSW) Joint Coal Board Health and Safety Trust funded an investigation into foot problems reported by 400 randomly selected underground coal miners from 15 mines in NSW. Miners were interviewed and their responses were entered directly into laptop computers. Digital cameras were also used to take pictures of skin conditions and miners' posture. Observations of the skin results indicate that miners find gumboots to be hot, sweaty and uncomfortable. Skin breakdown and tinea, is frequent and disabling and responsible for absences from the workforce that are costly for both miner and employer. A more comfortable and better designed boot is needed, fabricated in waterproof leather together with socks that 'wick' the moisture away from the foot. Socks worn were of varying components and washed at irregular intervals, indicating a need for regular changes of socks and improved hygiene. PMID:10570554

Wood, G; Marr, S; Berry, G; Nubé, V; Cole, J

1999-11-01

122

Long-term outcome of modified radical mastoidectomy.  

PubMed

The primary aim of treatment of cholesteatoma is to attain a dry, safe, stable ear, free of disease. Maintaining or improving hearing is important but the pursuit of a hearing result should not compromise this primary aim. This study reviews the long-term outcome of 133 patients, suffering from advanced disease, who underwent modified radical mastoidectomy between 1995 and 2000. Of these, 49 per cent had had previous mastoid surgery elsewhere. A dry, waterproof ear was attained in 95 per cent of patients. In 77 per cent of patients, hearing was unchanged or improved. In this period, there were two cases of significant post-operative loss in bone conduction, including one dead ear secondary to suppurative labyrinthitis. There were epithelial pearls on follow up in two per cent. These results indicate that when properly performed, modified radical mastoidectomy provides safe surgical access and clears disease with low recurrence rates while mostly maintaining or improving hearing. PMID:15453936

Mukherjee, Payal; Saunders, Nicholas; Liu, Richard; Fagan, Paul

2004-08-01

123

A novel wearable apnea dive computer for continuous plethysmographic monitoring of oxygen saturation and heart rate.  

PubMed

We describe the development of a novel wrist-mounted apnea dive computer. The device is able to measure and display transcutaneous oxygen saturation, heart rate, plethysmographic pulse waveform, depth, time and temperature during breath-hold dives. All measurements are stored in an external memory chip. The data-processing software reads from the chip and writes the processed data into a comma-separated values file which can be analysed by applications such as Microsoft Excel™ or Open Office™. The housing is waterproof and pressure-resistant to more than 20 bar (2.026 MPa) (breath-hold divers have already exceeded 200 metres' sea water depth). It is compact, lightweight, has low power requirements and is easy to use. PMID:23111837

Kuch, Benjamin; Koss, Bernhard; Dujic, Zeljko; Buttazzo, Giorgio; Sieber, Arne

2010-03-01

124

Modular, multi-level groundwater sampler  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for taking a multiple of samples of groundwater or pressure measurements from a well simultaneously. The apparatus comprises a series of chambers arranged in an axial array, each of which is dimensioned to fit into a perforated well casing and leave a small gap between the well casing and the exterior of the chamber. Seals at each end of the container define the limits to the axial portion of the well to be sampled. A submersible pump in each chamber pumps the groundwater that passes through the well casing perforations into the gap from the gap to the surface for analysis. The power lines and hoses for the chambers farther down the array pass through each chamber above them in the array. The seals are solid, water-proof, non-reactive, resilient disks supported to engage the inside surface of the well casing. Because of the modular design, the apparatus provides flexibility for use in a variety of well configurations.

Nichols, Ralph L. (812 Plantation Point Dr., N. Augusta, SC 29841); Widdowson, Mark A. (4204 Havana Ct., Columbia, SC 29206); Mullinex, Harry (10 Cardross La., Columbia, SC 29209); Orne, William H. (12 Martha Ct., Sumter, SC 29150); Looney, Brian B. (1135 Ridgemont Dr., Aiken, SC 29803)

1994-01-01

125

Rad Pole Cam Development  

SciTech Connect

The RadPoleCam was developed to provide Department Of Energy (DOE) first responders the capability to assess the radiological and visual condition of remote or inaccessible locations. Real time gamma isotopic identification is provided to the first responder in the form of audio feedback (i.e. spoken through head phones) from a gamma detector mounted on a collapsible pole that can extend from 1 to 9 meters (6 to 29 feet). Simultaneously, selectable direct and side looking visual images are provided from the 5cm (2in) diameter, waterproof probe tip. The lightweight, self contained, ruggedized, system will provide a rapidly deployable field system for visual and radiological search and assessment of confined spaces and extended reach locations.

Heckendorn, F. M.; Odell, D. M. C; Harpring, L. J.; Peterson, K. D.

2005-10-05

126

Modeling and experimental study on wire tension of diamond-bead wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A beads wire-based setup has been devised to satisfy the operation conditions of the underwater diamond wire saw. The mechanical model is established based on micro components when the string bead wire keeps stable cutting. The proper tension can be obtained according to the model under the current conditions, which provides a theoretical foundation for selecting the drive components of the annular frame design. The basic structure and the working principle of the tension sensor are introduced, and its performance index is analyzed, which meets the design demand. Tension detection test shows that the mechanical model is correct and the force feedback-based control of the radial feeding velocity is feasible, which is beneficial for working efficiency. The tension sensor is waterproof and shockproof which satisfies the demand for underwater inspection and control.

Zhang, Lan; Lu, Zesheng; Wang, Haibo; Meng, Qingxin; Wang, Liquan

2008-12-01

127

Green Roofs: Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Federal Technology Alert  

SciTech Connect

In a ''green roof,'' a layer of vegetation (e.g., a roof garden) covers the surface of a roof to provide shade, cooler indoor and outdoor temperatures, and effective storm-water management to reduce runoff. The main components are waterproofing, soil, and plants. There are two basic kinds: intensive and extensive. An intensive green roof often features large shrubs and trees, and it can be expensive to install and maintain. An extensive green roof features shallow soil and low-growing, horizontally spreading plants that can thrive in the alpine conditions of many rooftops. These plants do not require a lot of water or soil, and they can tolerate a significant amount of exposure to the sun and wind. This Federal Technology Alert focuses on the benefits, design, and implementation of extensive green roofs and includes criteria for their use on federal facilities.

Scholz-Barth, K.; Tanner, S.

2004-09-01

128

Overlays for plain jointed concrete pavements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes the construction and performance of 4 concrete and 16 asphalt overlay test sections after nine years of traffic. The test sections were placed on I-85 which carries a substantial number of heavy trucks to determine what treatments and overlay type and thickness would give acceptable performance. The concrete overlay sections were placed in 1975 and consisted of 3 inch, 4 1/2 inch, and 6 inch CRC and 6 inch jointed PCC with 15 ft. and 30 ft. joint spacing. The asphalt sections were placed in 1976 with the variables being overlay thickness of 2 inches, 4 inches, and 6 inches and the placement of two geotextiles and strips of a waterproofing membrane for each overlay thickness. An Arkansas base test section was also included in the experiment.

Gulden, W.; Brown, D.

1984-09-01

129

Underwater manipulator  

DOEpatents

Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is provided for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer .+-.45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer .+-.10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

Schrum, Phillip B. (Clairton, PA); Cohen, George H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1993-01-01

130

Robotics development for the enhancement of space endeavors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Telerobotics and robotics development activities to support NASA's goal of increasing opportunities in space commercialization and exploration are described. The Rockwell International activities center is using robotics to improve efficiency and safety in three related areas: remote control of autonomous systems, automated nondestructive evaluation of aspects of vehicle integrity, and the use of robotics in space vehicle ground reprocessing operations. In the first area, autonomous robotic control, Rockwell is using the control architecture, NASREM, as the foundation for the high level command of robotic tasks. In the second area, we have demonstrated the use of nondestructive evaluation (using acoustic excitation and lasers sensors) to evaluate the integrity of space vehicle surface material bonds, using Orbiter 102 as the test case. In the third area, Rockwell is building an automated version of the present manual tool used for Space Shuttle surface tile re-waterproofing. The tool will be integrated into an orbiter processing robot being developed by a KSC-led team.

Mauceri, A. J.; Clarke, Margaret M.

131

Expression of a fungal sterol desaturase improves tomato drought tolerance, pathogen resistance and nutritional quality  

PubMed Central

Crop genetic engineering mostly aims at improving environmental stress (biotic and abiotic) tolerance as well as nutritional quality. Empowering a single crop with multiple traits is highly demanding and requires manipulation of more than one gene. However, we report improved drought tolerance and fungal resistance along with the increased iron and polyunsaturated fatty acid content in tomato by expressing a single gene encoding C-5 sterol desaturase (FvC5SD) from an edible fungus Flammulina velutipes. FvC5SD is an iron binding protein involved in ergosterol biosynthesis. Morphological and biochemical analyses indicated ?23% more epicuticular wax deposition in leaves of transgenic plants that provides an effective waterproof barrier resulting in improved protection from drought and infection by phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Furthermore, the transgenic fruits have improved nutritional value attributed to enhanced level of beneficial PUFA and 2-3 fold increase in total iron content. This strategy can be extended to other economically important crops.

Kamthan, Ayushi; Kamthan, Mohan; Azam, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

2012-01-01

132

The NAVI-2: A ruggedized portable radiation analyzer  

SciTech Connect

The NAVI-2 is a rugged, lightweight, and waterproof portable radiation analyzer developed by the Advanced Nuclear Technology group at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It was originally developed for a specific application: performing confirmatory measurements on plutonium removed from dismantled nuclear weapons as part of the O`Leary-Mikhailov mutual reciprocal inspections agreement. Since that time the hardware has stabilized into a mature package while several additional software packages have been developed. Now, in addition to the original software for performing confirmatory measurements, software is available that will allow the NAVI-2 to be used for scanning of extended sources, searching for hidden sources, and monitoring of items in a portal monitoring sense. This report will provide hardware and software details for owners and users of the NAVI-2.

Murray, W.S.; Butterfield, K.B.; Frankle, C.M.

1996-01-01

133

Development of a power control system for AUVs probing for underwater mineral resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Valuable mineral resources are widely distributed throughout the seabed. autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are preferable to remotely-operated vehicles (ROVs) when probing for such mineral resources as the extensive exploration area makes it difficult to maintain contact with operators. AUVs depend on batteries, so their power consumption should be reduced to extend exploration time. Power for conventional marine instrument systems is incorporated in their waterproof sealing. External intermittent control of this power source until termination of exploration is challenging due to limitations imposed by the underwater environment. Thus, the AUV must have a power control system that can improve performance and maximize use of battery capacity. The authors developed such a power control system with a three-step algorithm. It automatically detects underwater operational states and can limit power, effectively decreasing power consumption by about 15%.

Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Hyung Tae; Cho, Young June; Lee, Kang Won

2009-12-01

134

Surgery, surgical pathology and HIV infection: lessons learned in Zambia.  

PubMed

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is prevalent in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Seropositivity rates reach 10-15% in urban adults, 21% in critically ill adults and 30% in surgical inpatients aged 21-40 years. AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is a multisystem disease which presents to the surgeon with a wide range of pathologies including Kaposi's sarcoma, lymphadenopathy and sepsis. The more common sites for sepsis are the female genital tract, anorectum, pleural cavity, soft tissues (necrotizing fasciitis) and bone and joints. To prevent iatrogenic HIV infection more use should be made of autologous blood. Occupational exposure to HIV infection can be minimized by double-gloving, protecting the eyes when operating and ensuring that theatre gowns are waterproof. The risk of HIV infection from a needlestick injury is 0.4%. Although contact with blood during a surgical procedure is common, the risk is lower than for a hollow needlestick injury. PMID:7863725

Watters, D A

1994-03-01

135

Design and development of a 3D scanning MEMS OCT probe using a novel SiOB package assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A MEMS optical coherence tomography (OCT) probe prototype was developed using a unique assembly based on silicon optical bench (SiOB) methodology. The probe is formed by integrating a three-dimensional (3D) scanning micromirror, gradient refractive index (GRIN) lens and optical fiber on SiOB substrates having prefabricated self-aligned slots. The two-axis scanning micromirror is based on electrothermal actuation with required voltage less than 2 V for mechanical deflections up to 17°. The optical probe was enclosed within a biocompatible, transparent and waterproof polycarbonate tube with a view of in vivo diagnostic applications. The diameter of the miniature probe is less than 4 mm and the length of its rigid part is about 25 mm. The probe engineering and proof of concept of the probe were demonstrated by obtaining en face and three-dimensional OCT images of an IR card used as a standard sample.

Xu, Y.; Singh, J.; Premachandran, C. S.; Khairyanto, A.; Chen, K. W. S.; Chen, N.; Sheppard, C. J. R.; Olivo, M.

2008-12-01

136

Method for constructing a lined underground cavity by underreaming, grouting, and boring through the grouting  

DOEpatents

A method is described for constructing a lined underground cavity. The process includes the steps of securing a casing in a borehole by grouting, underreaming the casing, filling the underreamed region with additional grouting, and then drilling through and underreaming the added grouting, thereby forming a room having a lining formed of the grouting. By using a structurally strong grouting that is impervious to water, the resulting room is waterproof and is suitable for on-site storage of an atomic device and its associated equipment prior to an underground atomic event. Such cavities also have other uses; for example, the cavities may be made very deep and used for storage of various fluids such as natural gas storage. (5 claims)

Johnson, W.H.

1971-02-02

137

The Chemistry of Paper Preservation: Part 4. Alkaline Paper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inherent instability of old papers is largely due to the presence of acids which catalyze the hydrolytic degradation of cellulose. The use of alkaline paper can minimize the problem of acidity for new papers. This study focuses on the chemistry involved in the sizing of both acid and alkaline papers and the types of fillers used. The waterproofing agent that is used in acid paper is alum-precipitated rosin size, which tends to spread and create a hydrophobic surfaces over the cellulose fibers. Alkaline paper uses the synthetic sizing agents, alkyl ketene dimers(AKD) and alkyl succinic anhydrides (ASA). These alkaline sizing agents become chemically bound to the cellulose fibers with hydrophobic chains pointing outward, producing a water repellent surface. The sizing reactions take place in a neutral-to-alkaline medium. Calcium carbonate can then be used as a filler to replace expensive titanium dioxide. Finally, the advantages and potential problems in alkaline paper making are discussed.

Carter, Henry A.

1997-05-01

138

Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Battelle-Columbus and Amax Research & Development conducted a program to develop a process to transport, handle, store, and utilize ultra-fine, ultra-clean (UFUC) coals. The primary objective was to devise a cost-effective method, based on conventional pelletization techniques, to transform the sludge-like filter cake produced in advanced flotation cleaning processes into a product which could be used like lump coal. A secondary objective was the production of a pellet which could be readily converted into a coal water fuel (CWF) because the UFUC coal would ultimately be used as CWF. The resulting product would be a hard, waterproof pellet which could be easily reduced to small particle sizes and formulated with water into a liquid fuel.

Conkle, H.N.

1992-09-29

139

Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal  

SciTech Connect

Battelle-Columbus and Amax Research Development conducted a program to develop a process to transport, handle, store, and utilize ultra-fine, ultra-clean (UFUC) coals. The primary objective was to devise a cost-effective method, based on conventional pelletization techniques, to transform the sludge-like filter cake produced in advanced flotation cleaning processes into a product which could be used like lump coal. A secondary objective was the production of a pellet which could be readily converted into a coal water fuel (CWF) because the UFUC coal would ultimately be used as CWF. The resulting product would be a hard, waterproof pellet which could be easily reduced to small particle sizes and formulated with water into a liquid fuel.

Conkle, H.N.

1992-09-29

140

Methods for characterizing subsurface volatile contaminants using in-situ sensors  

DOEpatents

An inverse analysis method for characterizing diffusion of vapor from an underground source of volatile contaminant using data taken by an in-situ sensor. The method uses one-dimensional solutions to the diffusion equation in Cartesian, cylindrical, or spherical coordinates for isotropic and homogenous media. If the effective vapor diffusion coefficient is known, then the distance from the source to the in-situ sensor can be estimated by comparing the shape of the predicted time-dependent vapor concentration response curve to the measured response curve. Alternatively, if the source distance is known, then the effective vapor diffusion coefficient can be estimated using the same inverse analysis method. A triangulation technique can be used with multiple sensors to locate the source in two or three dimensions. The in-situ sensor can contain one or more chemiresistor elements housed in a waterproof enclosure with a gas permeable membrane.

Ho, Clifford K. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-02-21

141

Invisible photonic printing: computer designing graphics, UV printing and shown by a magnetic field  

PubMed Central

Invisible photonic printing, an emerging printing technique, is particularly useful for steganography and watermarking for anti-counterfeiting purposes. However, many challenges exist in order to realize this technique. Herein, we describe a novel photonic printing strategy targeting to overcome these challenges and realize fast and convenient fabrication of invisible photonic prints with good tenability and reproducibility. With this novel photonic printing technique, a variety of graphics with brilliant colors can be perfectly hidden in a soft and waterproof photonic-paper. The showing and hiding of the latent photonic prints are instantaneous with magnet as the only required instrument. In addition, this strategy has excellent practicality and allows end-user control of the structural design utilizing simple software on a PC.

Hu, Haibo; Tang, Jian; Zhong, Hao; Xi, Zheng; Chen, Changle; Chen, Qianwang

2013-01-01

142

[Basic studies of ultrasound surgery. VIII. Experimental animal studies of power ultrasound surgery of the swine pancreas].  

PubMed

The technique of the power ultrasound was tested in vitro and in vivo in 20 porcine pancreas. Simultaneous temperature measurements and laboratory tests do not produce any restriction. Enzymatic disorders were provable adequate to the clinical course. The ultrasonic effect guarantees a nearly riskless dissection in the layer. Joining processes, by adding Ligament-FIMOMED, produced a waterproof occlusion of parenchymal wounds. The cross-section of the pancreas with the pancreatic duct was sealed sufficiently. Also the jointed pancreato-jejunostomy remained sufficient. The reaction of the pancreatic parenchyma to the power ultrasound was small. A scarred metaplasia evolved immediately at the adhesive as a chronic atrophic interstitial pancreatitis. Only in case of occlusion of the pancreatic duct this alteration comprehended the whole pancreas. PMID:2623913

Nowotny, K; Fritzsch, G; Füssel, J; Vetter, J; Wehner, W; Ludwig, P; Kühnert, R; Morgenstern, R; Daniel, P

1989-01-01

143

NuFab{trademark} anti-contamination suit - OST reference No. 1855. Deactivation and decommissioning focus area  

SciTech Connect

Radiation workers at all US Department of Energy (DOE) sites require some form of protective clothing when performing radiological work. A large number of contaminated facilities at DOE site are currently or will eventually undergo some form of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), requiring some type of protective clothing, often in multiple layers. Protective clothing that does not allow perspiration to escape causes heat stress, which lowers worker comfort and productivity. This report describes the NuFab{trademark} anti-contamination. The suit is a one-piece, disposable, breathable, waterproof coverall with a single front zipper. Constructed of tri-laminated composite material using spun-bonded polypropylene and microporous film layers, the suit is certified as incineratorable.

NONE

1998-02-01

144

Pritt Tak: another hazard of grommets and swimming.  

PubMed

There is argument about whether, whilst swimming, water should be excluded from ears which have middle ear ventilation tubes in place in the tympanic membrane. The adhesive putty substance BLU-TACK (registered Trade Mark, Bostik Ltd, Leicester, England, LE4 6BW) has been suggested as an effective ear plug for this purpose. A case is described in which an alternative adhesive putty substance was used as a waterproof plug. The result was that the plug became semi-solid and impossible to remove without the use of micro instruments and removal would have required general anaesthetic in a less co-operative patient. Patients should be warned of this risk. PMID:3209940

Clark, D R

1988-11-01

145

A convenient first aid kit for chemical and biological agents and for radiation exposure.  

PubMed

The chemical and biological warfare agents are extremely toxic in nature. They act rapidly even in very small quantities and death may occur in minutes. Hence, physical and medical protection must be provided immediately to save life or avoid serious injury. A first aid kit has thus been developed for providing immediate relief from chemical and biological warfare agents (FAKCBW) with the objective of easy detection, personal decontamination, antidote for chemical warfare agents (like nerve agents, sulphur mustard, phosgene, cyanide, radiation exposure and bacterial agents), along with basic medication aid for pain, fever and inflammation. The kit box also includes a user friendly handbook with a simple standard operating procedure. In addition, the kit is rugged to withstand normal jerks, vibration and is water-proof. PMID:23029921

Vijayaraghavan, R; Bhaskar, A S B; Gautam, Anshoo; Gopalan, N; Singh, A K; Singh, Beer; Flora, S J S

2012-05-01

146

Local drainage analyses of the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants during an extreme storm  

SciTech Connect

Local drainage analyses have been performed for the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants during an extreme storm having an approximate 10,000-yr recurrence interval. This review discusses the methods utilized to accomplish the analyses in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) design and evaluation guidelines, and summarizes trends, results, generalizations, and uncertainties applicable to other DOE facilities. Results indicate that some culverts may be undersized, and that the storm sewer system cannot drain the influx of precipitation from the base of buildings. Roofs have not been designed to sustain ponding when the primary drainage system is clogged. Some underground tunnels, building entrances, and ground level air intakes may require waterproofing.

Johnson, R.O.; Wang, J.C.; Lee, D.W.

1993-11-01

147

A Robust Uniaxial Force Sensor for Minimally Invasive Surgery  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a novel miniature uniaxial force sensor for use within a beating heart during mitral valve annuloplasty. The sensor measures 5.5 mm in diameter and 12 mm in length and provides a hollow core to pass instrumentation. A soft elastomer flexure design maintains a waterproof seal. Fiber optic transduction eliminates electrical circuitry within the heart, and acetal components minimize ultrasound-imaging artifacts. Calibration uses a nonlinear viscoelastic method, and in vitro tests demonstrate a 0–4-N force range with rms errors of 0.13 N (<3.2%). In vivo tests provide the first endocardial measurements of tissue-minimally invasive surgery instrument interaction forces in a beating heart.

Yip, Michael C.; Yuen, Shelten G.; Howe, Robert D.

2010-01-01

148

THROUGH-THE-EARTH (TTE) COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM AND THE IN-MINE POWER LINE (IMPL) COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Work has progressed on both subsystems: the Through-the-Earth (TTE) Communications system and the In-Mine Power Line (IMPL) Communications system. The TTE system: The system was fabricated and repackaged as an industrial product enclosed in a commercial rugged, waterproof housing suitable for installation in mines. Features were added to the system to appeal to the preferences of different mine managers. Arrangements were made with NIOSH to install the system in the Lake Lynn underground mine for evaluation and demonstration to potential users. The IMPL system: Voice compression was successfully implemented and incorporated into the laboratory model. Compressed voice was transmitted through a power line, expanded at the receiving end, and received with high clarity.

Zvi H. Meiksin

2002-01-01

149

Waste drum refurbishment  

SciTech Connect

Low-carbon steel, radioactive waste containers (55-gallon drums) are experiencing degradation due to moisture and temperature fluctuations. With thousands of these containers currently in use; drum refurbishment becomes a significant issue for the taxpayer and stockholders. This drum refurbishment is a non-intrusive, portable process costing between 1/2 and 1/25 the cost of repackaging, depending on the severity of degradation. At the INEL alone, there are an estimated 9,000 drums earmarked for repackaging. Refurbishing drums rather than repackaging can save up to $45,000,000 at the INEL. Based on current but ever changing WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), this drum refurbishment process will restore drums to a WIPP acceptable condition plus; drums with up to 40% thinning o the wall can be refurbished to meet performance test requirements for DOT 7A Type A packaging. A refurbished drum provides a tough, corrosion resistant, waterproof container with longer storage life and an additional containment barrier. Drums are coated with a high-pressure spray copolymer material approximately .045 inches thick. Increase in internal drum temperature can be held to less than 15 F. Application can be performed hands-on or the equipment is readily adaptable and controllable for remote operations. The material dries to touch in seconds, is fully cured in 48 hours and has a service temperature of {minus}60 to 500 F. Drums can be coated with little or no surface preparation. This research was performed on drums however research results indicate the coating is very versatile and compatible with most any material and geometry. It could be used to provide abrasion resistance, corrosion protection and waterproofing to almost anything.

Whitmill, L.J.

1996-10-18

150

Process development for production of coal/sorbent agglomerates  

SciTech Connect

Current coal mining and processing procedures produce significant quantities of fine coal with limited marketability. The objective of this work is to utilize these fines to economically produce a fuel which will meet anticipated sulfur dioxide emission levels. To accomplish this, the process of pelletizing fine coal with a sulfur capturing sorbent such as calcium hydroxide is being studied. Carbonation, which is the reaction of calcium hydroxide with carbon dioxide to produce a bonding matrix of calcium carbonate, is being investigated as a method for improving pellet quality and decreasing binder costs. Two potential combustion options are being considered - fluidized bed combustors and industrial stoker boilers. This project represents phase 2 of research in this area. Previous test results indicate that carbonation can improve compressive strength, impact and attrition resistance and essentially waterproofs pellets having a 14% lime content. Binders such as corn starch or molasses do not produce waterproof pellets capable of withstanding rainfall that might occur during shipping or outdoor storage. The past years work was conducted using IBC-106 ground to a particle size of 90% minus 90 microns. In this years work, testing will be performed using a flotation concentrate collected from an operating preparation plant. The sample was collected this quarter and is currently being processed. Also during this quarter, a carbonation reactor has been designed and will be fabricated early next quarter. To aid in pelletization work, an undergraduate civil engineering student has been hired and trained. Some pelletization work has been completed but results are too preliminary to report. 2 refs.

Rapp, D.M.; Lytle, J.M.; Hackley, K.C.; Moran, D.L. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (USA)); Berger, R.L. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA)); Griggs, K. (Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (USA))

1990-01-01

151

Surprising high hydrophobicity of polymer networks from hydrophilic components.  

PubMed

We report a simple and inexpensive method of fabricating highly hydrophobic novel materials based on interpenetrating networks of polyamide and poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) hydrophilic components. The process is a single-step solution casting from a common solvent, formic acid, of polyamide and ethyl cyanoacrylate monomers. After casting and subsequent solvent evaporation, the in situ polymerization of ethyl cyanoacrylate monomer forms polyamide-poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) interpenetrating network films. The interpenetrating networks demonstrate remarkable waterproof properties allowing wettability control by modulating the concentration of the components. In contrast, pure polyamide and poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) films obtained from formic acid solutions are highly hygroscopic and hydrophilic, respectively. The polymerization of ethyl cyanoacrylate in the presence of polyamide promotes molecular interactions between the components, which reduce the available hydrophilic moieties and render the final material hydrophobic. The wettability, morphology, and thermo-physical properties of the polymeric coatings were characterized. The materials developed in this work take advantage of the properties of both polymers in a single blend and above all, due to their hydrophobic nature and minimal water uptake, can extend the application range of the individual polymers where water repellency is required. PMID:23713478

Attanasio, Agnese; Bayer, Ilker S; Ruffilli, Roberta; Ayadi, Farouk; Athanassiou, Athanassia

2013-06-10

152

LWA demonstration applications using Illinois coal gasification slag: Phase 2. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this program are to demonstrate the feasibility of producing ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from solid residues (slag) generated during the gasification of Illinois coals, and to test the products as substitutes for conventional aggregates produced by pyroprocessing of perlite ores. In Phase 1 of this project, Praxis developed a pilotscale production technique and produced a large batch of expanded aggregates from an Illinois coal slag feed. The Phase 2 work focuses on characterization and applications-oriented testing of the expanded slag products as substitutes for conventional ULWAs. Target applications include high-volume uses such as loose fill insulation, insulating concrete, lightweight precast products (blocks), waterproof wallboard, rooftiles, and filtration media. The precast products will be subjected to performance and characterization testing in conjunction with a commercial manufacturer of such products in order to obtain input from a potential user. The production of value-added products from slag will eliminate a solid waste and possibly enhance the overall gasification process economics, especially when the avoided costs of disposal are taken into consideration.

Choudhry, V. [Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States); Steck, P. [Harvey Cement Products, Inc. (United States)

1993-12-31

153

Benchmarking numerical predictions with force and moment measurements on slender, supercavitating bodies  

SciTech Connect

High-speed water-entry is a very complex, dynamic process. As a first attempt at modeling the process, a numerical solution was developed at Sandia National Laboratories for predicting the forces and moments acting on a body with a steady supercavity, that is, a cavity which extends beyond the base of the body. The solution is limited to supercavities on slender, axisymmetric bodies at small angles of attack. Limited data were available with which to benchmark the axial force predictions at zero angle of attack. Even less data were available with which to benchmark the pitching moment and normal force predictions at nonzero angles of attack. A water tunnel test was conducted to obtain force and moment data on a slender shape. This test produced limited data because of waterproofing problems with the balance. A new balance was designed and a second water tunnel test was conducted at Tracor Hydronautics, Inc. This paper describes the numerical solution, the experimental equipment and test procedures, and the results of the second test. 8 refs., 11 figs.

Hailey, C.E.; Clark, E.L.; Cole, J.K.

1991-01-01

154

The Fading Electricity Theory of Ageing: the missing biophysical principle?  

PubMed

Since a few years convincing data are accumulating showing that some of the premises of the master integrative theory of ageing, namely Harman's Reactive Oxygen Species or free radical theory, are less well founded than originally assumed. In addition, none of the about another dozen documented ageing mechanisms seems to hold the final answer as to the ultimate cause and evolutionary significance of ageing. This review raises the question whether, perhaps, something important has been overlooked, namely a biophysical principle, electrical in nature. The first cell on earth started to be alive when its system for generating its own electricity, carried by inorganic ions, became operational. Any cell dies at the very moment that this system irreversibly collapses. In between birth and death, the system is subject to wear and tear because any cell's overall repair system is not 100 percent waterproof; otherwise adaptation would not be an option. The Fading Electricity Theory of Ageing has all necessary properties for acting as a universal major integrative concept. The advent of novel methods will facilitate the study of bioelectrical phenomena with molecular biological methods in combination with optogenetics, thereby offering challenging possibilities for innovative research in evo-gero. PMID:22940501

De Loof, Arnold; De Haes, Wouter; Boerjan, Bart; Schoofs, Liliane

2012-08-23

155

Chemical and physical analyses of wax ester properties  

PubMed Central

Wax esters are major constituents of the surface lipids in many terrestrial arthropods, but their study is complicated by their diversity. We developed a procedure for quantifying isomers in mixtures of straight-chain saturated and unsaturated wax esters having the same molecular weights, using single-ion monitoring of the total ion current data from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We examined the biological consequences of structural differences by measuring the melting temperatures, Tm, of >60 synthetic wax esters, containing 26–48 carbon atoms. Compounds containing saturated alcohol and acid moieties melted at 38–73°C. The main factor affecting Tm was the total chain length of the wax ester, but the placement of the ester bond also affected Tm. Insertion of a double bond into either the alcohol or acid moiety decreased Tm by ?30°C. Simple mixtures of wax esters with n-alkanes melted several °C lower than predicted from the melting points of the component lipids. Our results indicate that the wax esters of primary alcohols that are most typically found on the cuticle of terrestrial arthropods occur in a solid state under physiological conditions, thereby conferring greater waterproofing. Wax esters of secondary alcohols, which occur on melanopline grasshoppers, melted >60°C below primary esters of the same molecular weight and reduced Tm of the total surface lipids to environmental values.

Patel, Sejal; Nelson, Dennis R.; Gibbs, Allen G.

2001-01-01

156

Investigations of a large scale eared grebe (Podiceps nigricollis) die-off at the Salton Sea, California in 1992  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An estimated 150,000 Eared Grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) died at the Salton Sea between 16 December 1991 and 21 April 1992. This represented the largest documented mortality event of Eared Grebes at the time and approximately 6% of the North American population. During the die-off, grebes exhibited several uncharacteristic behaviors, such as congregating at freshwater tributaries, repeatedly gulping freshwater, preening excessively, moving onto land, and allowing close approach and/or capture. Avian cholera was diagnosed in Eared Grebes collected along the north and west shoreline of the Sea late in the die-off but not from the majority of the Eared Grebes dying along the south shore. Gross and histological examinations and diagnostic testing for viruses, bacteria, and parasites did not identify the cause of mortality in the majority of Eared Grebes examined from the south shore of the Sea. Liver concentrations of arsenic, chromium, DDE, mercury, selenium, and zinc were elevated in some Eared Grebes, but none of those contaminants exceeded known thresholds for independent lethality. Poisoning by heavy metals, organochlorine, organophosphorus, or carbamate pesticides, avian botulism, and salt were ruled out as the cause of mortality. Hypotheses for the die-off are interactive effects of contaminants, immunosuppression, a yet unidentified biotoxin or pathogen present in the Salton Sea, impairment of feather waterproofing leading to hypothermia, or a unique manifestation of avian cholera that evades laboratory detection.

Meteyer, C. U.; Audet, D. J.; Rocke, T. E.; Radke, W.; Creekmore, L. H.; Duncan, R.

2004-01-01

157

[Design of plant leaf bionic camouflage materials based on spectral analysis].  

PubMed

The influence of structure parameters and contents of plant leaves on their reflectance spectra was analyzed using the PROSPECT model. The result showed that the bionic camouflage materials should be provided with coarse surface and spongy inner structure, the refractive index of main content must be close to that of plant leaves, the contents of materials should contain chlorophyll and water, and the content of C-H bond must be strictly controlled. Based on the analysis above, a novel camouflage material, which was constituted by coarse transparent waterproof surface, chlorophyll, water and spongy material, was designed. The result of verifiable experiment showed that the reflectance spectra of camouflage material exhibited the same characteristics as those of plant leaves. The similarity coefficient of reflectance spectrum of the camouflage material and camphor leaves was 0.988 1, and the characteristics of camouflage material did not change after sunlight treatment for three months. The bionic camouflage material, who exhibited a high spectral similarity with plant leaves and a good weather resistance, will be an available method for reconnaissance of hyperspectral imaging hopefully. PMID:21847955

Yang, Yu-Jie; Liu, Zhi-Ming; Hu, Bi-Ru; Wu, Wen-Jian

2011-06-01

158

FLASH: A rapid method for prototyping paper-based microfluidic devices‡  

PubMed Central

This article describes FLASH (Fast Lithographic Activation of Sheets), a rapid method for laboratory prototyping of microfluidic devices in paper. Paper-based microfluidic devices are emerging as a new technology for applications in diagnostics for the developing world, where low cost and simplicity are essential. FLASH is based on photolithography, but requires only a UV lamp and a hotplate; no clean-room or special facilities are required (FLASH patterning can even be performed in sunlight if a UV lamp and hotplate are unavailable). The method provides channels in paper with dimensions as small as 200 ?m in width and 70 ?m in height; the height is defined by the thickness of the paper. Photomasks for patterning paper-based microfluidic devices can be printed using an ink-jet printer or photocopier, or drawn by hand using a waterproof black pen. FLASH provides a straightforward method for prototyping paper-based microfluidic devices in regions where the technological support for conventional photolithography is not available.

Martinez, Andres W.; Phillips, Scott T.; Wiley, Benjamin J.; Gupta, Malancha

2011-01-01

159

Underwater green laser vibrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a laser vibrometer based on an monolithic single-frequency green laser operating at 532 nm. This wavelength can be particularly useful in the case of underwater vibrometry, especially with regard to the minimum of water absorption for this wavelength range (blue-green window). Using polarizing optics, we proposed a configuration that allows the elimination of parasitic reflections at the air-glass-water boundary. A measurement of heterodyne signals as a mixing result of scattered and reference beams has been performed. The study was conducted in aqueous medium for the scattering waterproof paper and retro-reflective surface. In both configurations we have obtained signals with a relatively high S/N ratio > 20 dB (for scattering surface) and > 31 dB (for retro-reflective tape) with the Resolution Bandwidth RBW 10 kHz for a vibrometer output power of 5 mW and the distance to the moving object 1.2 m (including 0.3 m in air). In our opinion, laser Doppler vibrometry LDV based on high-performance single frequency solid-state lasers with a wavelength range corresponding to the blue-green window allows effective measurement of vibration in the underwater environment.

Anto?czak, Arkadiusz J.; Kozio?, Pawe?; Wa?, Adam T.; Sotor, Jaros?aw Z.; Dudzik, Grzegorz; Kaczmarek, Pawe? R.; Abramski, Krzysztof M.

2012-06-01

160

Roles of silica and lignin in horsetail (Equisetum hyemale), with special reference to mechanical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research deals with detailed analyses of silica and lignin distribution in horsetail with special reference to mechanical strength. Scanning electron images of a cross-section of an internode showed silica deposited densely only around the outer epidermis. Detailed histochemical analyses of lignin showed no lignin deposition in the silica-rich outer internodes of horsetail, while a characteristic lignin deposition was noticed in the vascular bundle in inner side of internodes. To analyze the structure of horsetail from a mechanical viewpoint, we calculated the response of a model structure of horsetail to a mechanical force applied perpendicularly to the long axis by a finite element method. We found that silica distributed in the outer epidermis may play the major structural role, with lignin's role being limited ensuring that the vascular bundle keep waterproof. These results were in contrast to more modern tall trees like gymnosperms, for which lignin provides mechanical strength. Lignin has the advantage of sticking to cellulose, hemicellulose, and other materials. Such properties make it possible for plants containing lignin to branch. Branching of tree stems aids in competing for light and other atmospheric resources. This type of branching was impossible for ancient horsetails, which relied on the physical properties of silica. From the evolutional view points, over millennia in trees with high lignin content, true branching, and many chlorophyll-containing leaves developed.

Yamanaka, Shigeru; Sato, Kanna; Ito, Fuyu; Komatsubara, Satoshi; Ohata, Hiroshi; Yoshino, Katsumi

2012-02-01

161

Development and application of computer software for cell culture laboratory management.  

PubMed

Prototype computer software for a Cell Culture Laboratory Management System (CCLMS) has been developed to relieve cell culture specialists of the burden of manual recordkeeping. Conventional data archives in cell culture laboratories are prone to error and expensive to maintain. The reliance upon cell culture to provide models for biochemical and molecular biological research serves to magnify errors at great expense. The CCLMS prototype encapsulates a modular software application that manages the many aspects of cell culture laboratory recordkeeping. A transaction-based database stores detailed information on subcultures, freezes and thaws, prints waterproof labels for culture vessels, and provides for immediate historical trace-back of any cultured cell line. Linked database files store information specific to an individual culture flask while removing redundancy between similar groups of flasks. A frozen cell log maintains locations of all vials within any type of cryogenic storage unit, locates spaces for newly frozen cell lines, and generates alphabetical or numerical reports. Finally, modules for maintaining cell counts, user records, and culture vessel specifications to support a comprehensive automation process are incorporated within this software. The developed CCLMS prototype has been demonstrated to be an adaptable, reliable tool for improving training, efficiency, and historical rigor for two independent cell culture facilities. PMID:11249207

Selznick, S H; Thatcher, M L; Brown, K S; Haussler, C A

2001-01-01

162

Hydrocarbon circulation and colonial signature in Pachycondyla villosa.  

PubMed

In ants, both cuticular and postpharyngeal gland (PPG) hydrocarbons (HCs) have been involved in nestmate recognition. However, no detailed comparison is available. A comparative study including also high density lipophorin (HDLp), an internal HC carrier, was therefore undertaken on Pachycondyla villosa. Purified HDLp is an 820 kDa lipoprotein with a density of 1.114 g/ml and two 245 and 80 kDa apo-proteins. Its hydrocarbon profile is very similar with the cuticular one, in agreement with its hydrocarbon carrier function. Conversely, n-alkanes and externally branched monomethylalkanes are markedly decreased in the PPG. According to their physical properties, this suggests that they are involved in waterproofing on the cuticle. The PPG actually contains only internally branched mono-, dimethylalkanes or monomethylalkenes; their greater fluidity is more adequate for chemical communication. The percentages of some of them are statistically not different between the cuticle and PPG. Their mixtures vary with colonies and they may thus be involved in colonial signature. A scheme for hydrocarbon circulation is discussed, involving lipophorin, cuticle, PPG and self-grooming in one individual, a pathway complementary or alternative to the selective delivery by lipophorin in some other insects. HCs are then distributed between nestmates' cuticles through allo-grooming and physical contacts. PMID:15234620

Lucas, C; Pho, D B; Fresneau, D; Jallon, J M

2004-07-01

163

Modular, multi-level groundwater sampler  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is described for taking a multiple of samples of groundwater or pressure measurements from a well simultaneously. The apparatus comprises a series of chambers arranged in an axial array, each of which is dimensioned to fit into a perforated well casing and leave a small gap between the well casing and the exterior of the chamber. Seals at each end of the container define the limits to the axial portion of the well to be sampled. A submersible pump in each chamber pumps the groundwater that passes through the well casing perforations into the gap from the gap to the surface for analysis. The power lines and hoses for the chambers farther down the array pass through each chamber above them in the array. The seals are solid, water-proof, non-reactive, resilient disks supported to engage the inside surface of the well casing. Because of the modular design, the apparatus provides flexibility for use in a variety of well configurations. 3 figures.

Nichols, R.L.; Widdowson, M.A.; Mullinex, H.; Orne, W.H.; Looney, B.B.

1994-03-15

164

Latherin and other biocompatible surfactant proteins.  

PubMed

Horses and other equids are unusual in producing protein-rich sweat for thermoregulation, a major component of which is latherin, a highly surface-active, non-glycosylated protein that is a member of the PLUNC (palate, lung and nasal epithelium clone) family. Latherin produces a significant reduction in water surface tension at low concentrations (?1 mg/ml), and probably acts as a wetting agent to facilitate evaporative cooling through a thick, waterproofed pelt. Latherin binds temporarily to hydrophobic surfaces, and so may also have a disruptive effect on microbial biofilms. It may consequently have a dual role in horse sweat in both evaporative cooling and controlling microbial growth in the pelt that would otherwise be resourced by nutrients in sweat. Latherin is also present at high levels in horse saliva, where its role could be to improve mastication of the fibrous diet of equids, and also to reduce microbial adherence to teeth and oral surfaces. Neutron reflection experiments indicate that latherin adsorbs to the air/water interface, and that the protein undergoes significant conformational change and/or partial unfolding during incorporation into the interfacial layer. PMID:21787340

Kennedy, Malcolm W

2011-08-01

165

Revisions included in HUD Intermediate Minimum Property Standards Supplement 4930. 2, 1977 edition: solar heating and domestic hot-water systems  

SciTech Connect

This addendum to a 1977 HUD publication contains revisions and additions to the existing intermediate minimum property standards supplment for solar heating and cooling systems. Building design revisions cover fire protection, penetrations, and roof coverings. Changes to guidelines for materials, such as those for thermal and ultraviolet stability and moisture resistance, are detailed. Flash points of toxic and combustive fluids, chemical and physical compatibility, and flame spread and resistance of insulation materials are also explained. Construction standards were revised for hail loads; waterproofing insulated exterior storage containers, pipes, and ducts; and for passive systems. Standards also were revised for power-operated protection, dust and dirt prevention, and chimney and vent heights. Radiation temperature, draft control, and thermal energy storage and loss standards were deleted. Other standards for insulation values for thermal devices, lighting protection, and sealing and testing air distribution systems were added. Appended materials contain revisions to calculation procedures for determining the thermal performance of active, solar space heating, and domestic hot water systems. A revised materials list for properties of typical cover materials, absorptive coatings, thermal storage unit containers, and heat-transfer liquids is provided. Revisions to acceptable engineering practice standards are also included.

Not Available

1984-04-01

166

Exposure to and precautions for blood and body fluids among workers in the funeral home franchises of Fort Worth, Texas.  

PubMed

In 1982 the Centers for Disease Control published a set of recommendations and measures to protect persons working in health care settings or performing mortician services from possible exposure to the human immunodeficiency virus. This study of a number of funeral homes in the Fort Worth area was designed to determine the level of exposure of funeral home workers to blood and other body fluids and also to assess existing protective measures and practices in the industry. Workers in 22 funeral home franchises were surveyed with a predesigned questionnaire. Eighty-five responses from 20 of the 22 establishments were received. All 85 respondents admitted exposure of varying degrees to blood and body fluids. Sixty persons (70%) admitted heavy exposure, that is, frequent splashes. Analysis of the responses showed that 81 of 85 (95.3%) persons consistently wore gloves while performing tasks that might expose them to blood or other body fluids. Of the 60 persons who were heavily exposed, 43 wore long-sleeved gowns, 27 wore waterproof aprons, 17 surgical masks, and 15 goggles. The study further revealed that 52.9% (45/85) of the respondents had sustained accidental cuts or puncture wounds on the job. In light of these findings it is important to target educational efforts to persons in this industry to help them minimize their risks of infection with blood and body fluid borne infections. PMID:2549820

Nwanyanwu, O C; Tabasuri, T H; Harris, G R

1989-08-01

167

Builder's foundation handbook  

SciTech Connect

This handbook contains a worksheet for selecting insulation levels based on specific building construction, climate, HVAC equipment, insulation cost, and other economic considerations. The worksheet permits optimization of foundation insulation levels for new or retrofit applications. Construction details representing good practices for the design and installation of energy efficient basement, crawl space, and slab-n-grade foundations are the focal point of the handbook. The construction details are keyed to lists of critical design information useful for specifying structural integrity; thermal and vapor control; subsurface drainage; waterproofing; and mold, mildew, odor, decay, termite, and radon control strategies. Another useful feature are checklist chapter summaries covering major design considerations for each foundation type--basement, crawl space, and slab-on-grade. These checklist summaries are useful during design and construction inspection. The information in this handbook is drawn heavily from the first foundation handbook from the DOE/ORNL Building Envelope Systems and Materials Program, the Building Foundation Design Handbook (Labs et al., 1988), which is an extensive technical reference manual. This book presents what to do in foundation design'' in an inviting, concise format. This handbook is intended to serve the needs of active home builders; however, the information is pertinent to anyone involved in foundation design and construction decisions including homeowners, architects, and engineers. 17 refs., 49 figs., 18 tabs.

Carmody, J. (Minnesota Univ., St. Paul, MN (United States). Underground Space Center); Christian, J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Labs, K. (Undercurrent Design Research, New Haven, CT (United States))

1991-05-01

168

Development of the Valvo pump: an axial flow pump implanted at the heart valve position.  

PubMed

Pulsatile artificial hearts having a relatively large volume are difficult to implant in a small patient, but rotary blood pumps can be easily implanted. The objective of this study was to show the feasibility of using the Valvo pump, an axial flow pump implanted at the heart valve position, in such cases. The Valvo pump consists of an impeller and a motor. The motor is waterproofed with a ferrofluidic seal. A blood flow of 5 L/min was obtained at a pressure difference of 13.3 kPa (100 mm Hg) at 7,000 rpm. The normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) was 0.030 +/- 0.003 (n = 3) for a blood flow of 5 L/min at a pressure difference of 13.3 kPa. The pressure resistance of the ferrofluidic seal was 37.5 kPa in a static condition and 26.3 kPa at 10,000 rpm. The seal exhibited no leaks for 41+ days against 20.0 kPa. The results showed that the Valvo pump can maintain systemic circulation with an acceptable level of hemolysis. PMID:10392286

Mitamura, Y; Nakamura, H; Okamoto, E; Yozu, R; Kawada, S; Kim, D W

1999-06-01

169

Macrophyte monitoring along the Trentino side of the Lake Garda  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Macrophytes, that grow along the Trentino shorezone of the Lake Garda, were sampled and mapped during summer 2010. The sampling protocol foresees a lake bottom survey until the depth of 15 using GPS system, for identifying sampling sites and transects, waterproof camcorder, batiscope and a rake. The proof of 13/14 meters is the internal limit for macrophyte development. The area between 6 and 13/14 meters was surveyed with a robot camcorder placed on a boat of the fireworks brigade of Trento. This boat was used to track the 14 km of the shorezone of the Trentino part of the Lake Garda. The investigation result is a survey of a wide carex prairie that has no interruption all along the lake perimeter. An inflatable boat was used to inspect the shorezone using a batiscope. The macrophyte samples were collected using a rake. The number of mapped sites is 15, transects are 15 and identified 18 different species. During 2011, in conjunction with the flight MIVIS within the EULAKES project, the macrophyte distribution was confirmed and further inspection was carried out for sampling and classifying caracee. Among the species collected, Chara globularis was present in all sites sampled, while sites 0 and 12, corresponding respectively to local reserve Val Gola and the bay of Torbole, showed the highest biodiversity among sites, with 11 species collected of the 18 total. Within each site, higher number of species were collected between 2 and 5 meters depth's.

Pellegrini, Giovanna; Monauni, Catia; Fedrizzi, Fabio; Laura, Fravezzi; Paola, Testa; Silvia, Costaraoss; Mario, Mazzurana; Gaetano, Patti; Barbara, Zennaro

2013-04-01

170

Could the Health Decline of Prehistoric California Indians be Related to Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Natural Bitumen?  

PubMed Central

Background: The negative health effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are well established for modern human populations but have so far not been studied in prehistoric contexts. PAHs are the main component of fossil bitumen, a naturally occurring material used by past societies such as the Chumash Indians in California as an adhesive, as a waterproofing agent, and for medicinal purposes. The rich archaeological and ethnohistoric record of the coastal Chumash suggests that they were exposed to multiple uptake pathways of bituminous PAHs, including direct contact, fume inhalation, and oral uptake from contaminated water and seafood. Objectives: We investigated the possibility that PAHs from natural bitumen compromised the health of the prehistoric Chumash Indians in California. Conclusions: Exposure of the ancient Chumash Indians to toxic PAHs appears to have gradually increased across a period of 7,500 years because of an increased use of bitumen in the Chumash technology, together with a dietary shift toward PAH-contaminated marine food. Skeletal analysis indicates a concurrent population health decline that may be related to PAH uptake. However, establishing such a connection is virtually impossible without knowing the actual exposure levels experienced by these populations. Future methodological research may provide techniques for determining PAH levels in ancient skeletal material, which would open new avenues for research on the health of prehistoric populations and on the long-term effects of human PAH exposure.

Sholts, Sabrina B.; Erlandson, Jon M.; Gjerdrum, Thor; Westerholm, Roger

2011-01-01

171

Marker and pen graffiti cleaning on diverse calcareous stones by different laser techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industries nowadays continuously produce new types of inks for markers and pens, so new different graffiti appear . In this paper laser cleaning tests on 41 new marker and pen types ( fluorescent, permanent, water-based, acrylic tempera, metallic paint, waterproof inks ), applied into laboratory on different litho- type samples (Chianca, Travertino di Roma, Tufo Carparo fine grain, Sabbie), typical stones employed in much more monuments in Puglia and Italian architectures were carried out. The same ones, were exposed for twelve months to outdoor ageing, subject to sunshine, rain, wind, IR and UV solar radiations. Ablation experiments and tests by using different cleaning techniques, each one in Dry and Wet condition (classic technique, Daurelio technique 1 and Daurelio technique 2 and others new techniques) and two different Nd:YAG laser systems (Palladio by QUANTA SYSTEM and SMART CLEAN II by EL.EN.), were adopted. The experimental modes, N-Mode (1064nm - 150, 300 and 500 ?s pulse duration), Q-Switch (1064nm - 8 ns pulse duration) and SFR (Short Free Running - 1064 nm - 40 to 110?s pulse duration) were tested on each marked stones. It was found that according to the different ink types and stone substrate, Q-Switch laser cleaning ablation with optimized laser technique are the best solution to marker an pen graffiti removal. The work is still in progress.

Andriani, S. E.; Catalano, I. M.; Daurelio, G.; Albanese, A.

2007-05-01

172

Current progress in the development of a totally implantable Gyro centrifugal artificial heart.  

PubMed

A totally implantable centrifugal artificial heart has been developed using a miniaturized pivot bearing supported centrifugal pump (Gyro PI pump). The authors report current progress in its development. The Gyro PI-601 has a priming volume of 20 ml, weighs 100 g, has a height of 60 mm, and has a diameter of 65 mm. This pump can provide 8 L/min against 150 mmHg at 2,250 rpm. It is driven by an miniaturized DC brushless motor with the coils fixed in a plastic mold that is waterproof and made of titanium (weight, 204 g; height, 18 mm; diameter, 65 mm). In this centrifugal artificial heart, two Gyro PI pumps are implanted independently to replace cardiac function without resecting the native heart. Its anatomic and surgical feasibility were confirmed experimentally. The Gyro PI-601 was implanted as a right or left ventricular assist device in the preperitoneal space of five calves. All five tests proceeded without any thromboembolic symptoms. One of five tests was extended more than 1 month to confirm the long-term feasibility of the Gyro PI-601 pump system. Based on the satisfactory results of the in vivo tests, the material conversion of the Gyro PI from polycarbonate to titanium alloy (Ti-6A1-4V) was undertaken to improve its biocompatibility for long-term implantation. PMID:9617953

Takami, Y; Ohtsuka, G; Mueller, J; Ebner, M; Tayama, E; Ohashi, Y; Taylor, D; Fernandes, J; Schima, H; Schmallegger, H; Wolner, E; Nosé, Y

173

A hydrodynamically suspended, magnetically sealed mechanically noncontact axial flow blood pump: design of a hydrodynamic bearing.  

PubMed

To overcome the drive shaft seal and bearing problem in rotary blood pumps, a hydrodynamic bearing, a magnetic fluid seal, and a brushless direct current (DC) motor were employed in an axial flow pump. This enabled contact-free rotation of the impeller without material wear. The axial flow pump consisted of a brushless DC motor, an impeller, and a guide vane. The motor rotor was directly connected to the impeller by a motor shaft. A hydrodynamic bearing was installed on the motor shaft. The motor and the hydrodynamic bearing were housed in a cylindrical casing and were waterproofed by a magnetic fluid seal, a mechanically noncontact seal. Impeller shaft displacement was measured using a laser sensor. Axial and radial displacements of the shaft were only a few micrometers for motor speed up to 8500 rpm. The shaft did not make contact with the bearing housing. A flow of 5 L/min was obtained at 8000 rpm at a pressure difference of 100 mm Hg. In conclusion, the axial flow blood pump consisting of a hydrodynamic bearing, a magnetic fluid seal, and a brushless DC motor provided contact-free rotation of the impeller without material wear. PMID:17343698

Mitamura, Yoshinori; Kido, Kazuyuki; Yano, Tetsuya; Sakota, Daisuke; Yambe, Tomoyuki; Sekine, Kazumitsu; OKamoto, Eiji

2007-03-01

174

Tethered acoustic doppler current profiler platforms for measuring streamflow  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey tested and refined tethered-platform designs for measuring streamflow. Platform specifications were developed, radio-modem telemetry of acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data and potential platform-hull sources were investigated, and hulls were tested and evaluated. Different platforms, which included a variety of hull configurations, were tested for drag and stability at the U.S. Geological Survey tow tank and at a field site below a reservoir. The testing indicated that, although any of the designs could be used under certain conditions, trimaran designs provided the best all-around performance under a range of conditions. The trimaran designs housed the ADCP in the center hull; this resulted in lower drag than the catamaran designs and retained the stability advantage of catamarans over monohull designs. Waterproof radio modems that operate at 900 megahertz were used to communicate wirelessly with instruments at high baud rates. A tethered-platform design with a tri-maran hull and 900-megahertz radio modems is now commercially available. Continued field use has resulted in U.S. Geological Survey procedures for making tethered-platform discharge measurements, including methods for tethered-boat deployment, moving-bed tests, and measurement of edge distances.

Rehmel, Michael S.; Stewart, James A.; Morlock, Scott E.

2003-01-01

175

Do Eurasian beavers smear their pelage with castoreum and anal gland secretion?  

PubMed

The scent-matching hypothesis postulates that scent marks provide an olfactory link between a resident owner and his territory, and that this enables intruding animals to recognize the chance of escalated conflicts. However, it is unclear if Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) mark their own pelage with castoreum from their castor sacs (i.e., the same material used in territorial marking); and/or if beavers mark their pelage with anal gland secretion (AGS) from the anal glands to waterproof the pelage and to act as a "living-scent mark." Chemical analysis (gas chromatography and mass spectrometry) of hair samples from 22 live-trapped beavers revealed that castoreum compounds were not present in any samples, AGS compounds were found from 3 animals (13.6%) around the cloaca, and the compound squalene was found in all the samples. Beavers may release castoreum directly into the water when it meets an intruder. Thereby, the "scent mark" in the water can provide an olfactory link between a resident owner and his territory. Squalene, in contrast to AGS, may be essential for keeping beaver pelts water-repellant. PMID:12371821

Rosell, Frank

2002-08-01

176

Genetic control of cuticle formation during embryonic development of Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

The embryonic cuticle of Drosophila melanogaster is deposited by the epidermal epithelium during stage 16 of development. This tough, waterproof layer is essential for maintaining the structural integrity of the larval body. We have characterized mutations in a set of genes required for proper deposition and/or morphogenesis of the cuticle. Zygotic disruption of any one of these genes results in embryonic lethality. Mutant embryos are hyperactive within the eggshell, resulting in a high proportion reversed within the eggshell (the "retroactive" phenotype), and all show poor cuticle integrity when embryos are mechanically devitellinized. This last property results in embryonic cuticle preparations that appear grossly inflated compared to wild-type cuticles (the "blimp" phenotype). We find that one of these genes, krotzkopf verkehrt (kkv), encodes the Drosophila chitin synthase enzyme and that a closely linked gene, knickkopf (knk), encodes a novel protein that shows genetic interaction with the Drosophila E-cadherin, shotgun. We also demonstrate that two other known mutants, grainy head (grh) and retroactive (rtv), show the blimp phenotype when devitellinized, and we describe a new mutation, called zeppelin (zep), that shows the blimp phenotype but does not produce defects in the head cuticle as the other mutations do. PMID:12019232

Ostrowski, Stephen; Dierick, Herman A; Bejsovec, Amy

2002-05-01

177

The thermal insulation difference of clothing ensembles on the dry and perspiration manikins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are about a hundred manikin users around the world. Some of them use the manikin such as 'Walter' and 'Tore' to evaluate the comfort of clothing ensembles according to their thermal insulation and moisture resistance. A 'Walter' manikin is made of water and waterproof breathable fabric 'skin', which simulates the characteristics of human perspiration. So evaporation, condensation or sorption and desorption are always accompanied by heat transfer. A 'Tore' manikin only has dry heat exchange by conduction, radiation and convection from the manikin through clothing ensembles to environments. It is an ideal apparatus to measure the thermal insulation of the clothing ensemble and allows evaluation of thermal comfort. This paper compares thermal insulation measured with dry 'Tore' and sweating 'Walter' manikins. Clothing ensembles consisted of permeable and impermeable clothes. The results showed that the clothes covering the 'Walter' manikin absorbed the moisture evaporated from the manikin. When the moisture transferred through the permeable clothing ensembles, heat of condensation could be neglected. But it was observed that heavy condensation occurred if impermeable clothes were tested on the 'Walter' manikin. This resulted in a thermal insulation difference of clothing ensembles on the dry and perspiration manikins. The thermal insulation obtained from the 'Walter' manikin has to be modified when heavy condensation occurs. The modified equation is obtained in this study.

Xiaohong, Zhou; Chunqin, Zheng; Yingming, Qiang; Holmér, Ingvar; Gao, Chuansi; Kuklane, Kalev

2010-08-01

178

Tubularized Penile-Flap Urethroplasty Using a Fasciocutaneous Random Pedicled Flap for Recurrent Anterior Urethral Stricture  

PubMed Central

This report describes the use of a tubularized random flap for the curative treatment of recurrent anterior urethral stricture. Under the condition of pendulous lithotomy and suprapubic cystostomy, the urethral stricture was removed via a midline ventral penile incision followed by elevation of the flap and insertion of an 18-Fr catheter. Subcutaneous buried interrupted sutures were used to reapproximate the waterproof tubularized neourethra and to coapt with the neourethra and each stump of the urethra, first proximally and then distally. The defect of the penile shaft was covered by advancement of the surrounding scrotal flap. The indwelling catheter was maintained for 21 days. A 9 month postoperative cystoscopy showed no flap necrosis, no mechanical stricture, and no hair growth on the lumen of the neourethra. The patient showed no voiding discomfort 6 months after the operation. The advantages of this procedure are the lack of need for microsurgery, shortening of admission, the use of only spinal anesthesia (no general anesthesia), and a relatively short operative time. The tubularized unilateral penile fasciocutaneous flap should be considered an option for initial flap urethroplasty as a curative technique.

Lee, Byung Kwon

2012-01-01

179

Quantitative genetic analysis suggests causal association between cuticular hydrocarbon composition and desiccation survival in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Survival to low relative humidity is a complex adaptation, and many repeated instances of evolution to desiccation have been observed among Drosophila populations and species. One general mechanism for desiccation resistance is Cuticular Hydrocarbon (CHC) melting point. We performed the first Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) map of population level genetic variation in desiccation resistance in D. melanogaster. Using a panel of Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs) derived from a single natural population, we mapped QTL in both sexes throughout the genome. We found that in both sexes, CHCs correlated strongly with desiccation resistance. At most desiccation resistance loci there was a significant association between CHCs and desiccation resistance of the sort predicted from clinal patterns of CHC variation and biochemical properties of lipids. This association was much stronger in females than males, perhaps because of greater overall abundance of CHCs in females, or due to correlations between CHCs used for waterproofing and sexual signalling in males. CHC evolution may be a common mechanism for desiccation resistance in D. melanogaster. It will be interesting to compare patterns of CHC variation and desiccation resistance in species which adapt to desiccation, and rainforest restricted species which cannot.

Foley, B R; Telonis-Scott, M

2011-01-01

180

Sonotube compatible unmanned aerial vehicle and system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention is generally comprised of a sonotube-compatible unmanned aerial vehicle apparatus, hereinafter referred to as a UAV, and systems for launch and control of the UAV. The UAV is generally comprised of modular sections including a nose section, a payload section, a wing and fuel tank section, and a powerplant section. The modular sections are attached to adjacent sections by uniform lock sealing rings and related components. The present invention comprises an apparatus enabling very small, man portable, ballistically launched, autonomously or semi-autonomously controlled vehicle to be deployed with preprogrammed, communicated, or telemetry mission programming. A wide range of payload packages, including emergency supplies, sensors, and antenna assemblies, may be carried, used or deployed in flight. Man-portable operation is accomplished by the use of a launch canister apparatus. The launch canister comprises retractable launch stabilizing legs, turbine engine exhaust orifices, and various antennas. The launch canister apparatus alternatively comprises a modified type "A", "B", or "C" sonotube launch canister. The system of the invention also comprises a portable Command, Control, Communications, Computer, and Intelligence (C4I) control and sensing analysis console. The console is preferably ruggedized, waterproof, shockproof, and comprises necessary control and analysis computers, input/output devices, antennas, and related hardware and software for vehicle and mission control. A C4I console and/or launch canisters may be transported by means of a backpack adapted for man portability.

Woodland; Richard L. K. (Victoria, B.C., CA)

2000-05-02

181

Can Preening Contribute to Influenza A Virus Infection in Wild Waterbirds?  

PubMed Central

Wild aquatic birds in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are the main reservoir hosts perpetuating the genetic pool of all influenza A viruses, including pandemic viruses. High viral loads in feces of infected birds permit a fecal-oral route of transmission. Numerous studies have reported the isolation of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) from surface water at aquatic bird habitats. These isolations indicate aquatic environments have an important role in the transmission of AIV among wild aquatic birds. However, the progressive dilution of infectious feces in water could decrease the likelihood of virus/host interactions. To evaluate whether alternate mechanisms facilitate AIV transmission in aquatic bird populations, we investigated whether the preen oil gland secretions by which all aquatic birds make their feathers waterproof could support a natural mechanism that concentrates AIVs from water onto birds' bodies, thus, representing a possible source of infection by preening activity. We consistently detected both viral RNA and infectious AIVs on swabs of preened feathers of 345 wild mallards by using reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and virus-isolation (VI) assays. Additionally, in two laboratory experiments using a quantitative real-time (qR) RT-PCR assay, we demonstrated that feather samples (n?=?5) and cotton swabs (n?=?24) experimentally impregnated with preen oil, when soaked in AIV-contaminated waters, attracted and concentrated AIVs on their surfaces. The data presented herein provide information that expands our understanding of AIV ecology in the wild bird reservoir system.

Delogu, Mauro; De Marco, Maria A.; Di Trani, Livia; Raffini, Elisabetta; Cotti, Claudia; Puzelli, Simona; Ostanello, Fabio; Webster, Robert G.; Cassone, Antonio; Donatelli, Isabella

2010-01-01

182

MEMS-based non-rotatory circumferential scanning optical probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a non-rotatory circumferential scanning optical probe integrated with a MEMS scanner for in vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT). OCT is an emerging optical imaging technique that allows high resolution cross-sectional imaging of tissue microstructure. To extend its usage to endoscopic applications, a miniaturized optical probe based on Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) fabrication techniques is currently desired. A 3D electrothermally actuated micromirror realized using micromachining single crystal silicon (SCS) process highlights its very large angular deflection, about 45 degree, with low driving voltage for safety consideration. The micromirror is integrated with a GRIN lens into a waterproof package which is compatible with requirements for minimally invasive endoscopic procedures. To implement circumferential scanning substantially for diagnosis on certain pathological conditions, such as Barret's esophagus, the micromirror is mounted on 90 degree to optical axis of GRIN lens. 4 Bimorph actuators that are connected to the mirror on one end via supporting beams and springs are selected in this micromirror design. When actuators of the micromirror are driven by 4 channels of sinusoidal waveforms with 90 degree phase differences, beam focused by a GRIN is redirected out of the endoscope by 45 degree tilting mirror plate and achieve circumferential scanning pattern. This novel driving method making full use of very large angular deflection capability of our micromirror is totally different from previously developed or developing micromotor-like rotatory MEMS device for circumferential scanning.

Xu, Yingshun; Singh, Janak; Siang, Teo Hui; Ramakrishna, Kotlanka; Premchandran, C. S.; Sheng, Chen Wei; Kuan, Chuah Tong; Chen, Nanguang; Olivo, Malini C.; Sheppard, Colin J. R.

2007-08-01

183

Advanced piggyback water power generator  

SciTech Connect

A power generating system is described including: a central boat containing gearing and electric and/or power generation equipment, with a forward angled-back deflection screen and a rear non-angled deflection screen, with a smaller outrigger pontoon on each respective side of the central boat, with closed cell, waterproof, plastic foam filling in the central boat and pontoons, and with the bow of the respective outrigger pontoons angled so as to completely turn water away from, and to the outside of, the space and/or incoming water area between each such respective pontooon and the central boat. There are legs with cone shaped bottoms and with wheels attached, with the wheels extending slightly below the cone shaped bottoms; paddle wheels on each side of the central boat, between the central boat, and respective outrigger pontoons, with 90 degree spaced, flat, paddle blades, and with a solid, disk division vertically dividing each respective side paddle wheel in half and extending at right angles to, and from, the central axle, to the outside extreme end of the paddle blades, with each such half of the equally divided paddle wheel being constructed so that the 90 degree spaced paddle blades in one half are offset by 45 degrees from the 90 degree space paddle blades in the other half, and with the extreme ends of each such set of divided paddle wheels being enclosed via a similar solid.

Wiggs, B.R.

1988-02-16

184

Experimental study of the influence of refraction on underwater three-dimensional reconstruction using the SVP camera model.  

PubMed

In an underwater imaging system, a perspective camera is often placed outside a tank or in waterproof housing with a flat glass window. The refraction of light occurs when a light ray passes through the water-glass and air-glass interface, rendering the conventional multiple view geometry based on the single viewpoint (SVP) camera model invalid. While most recent underwater vision studies mainly focus on the challenging topic of calibrating such systems, no previous work has systematically studied the influence of refraction on underwater three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. This paper demonstrates the possibility of using the SVP camera model in underwater 3D reconstruction through theoretical analysis of refractive distortion and simulations. Then, the performance of the SVP camera model in multiview underwater 3D reconstruction is quantitatively evaluated. The experimental results reveal a rather surprising and useful yet overlooked fact that the SVP camera model with radial distortion correction and focal length adjustment can compensate for refraction and achieve high accuracy in multiview underwater 3D reconstruction (within 0.7 mm for an object of dimension 200 mm) compared with the results of land-based systems. Such an observation justifies the use of the SVP camera model in underwater application for reconstructing reliable 3D scenes. Our results can be used to guide the selection of system parameters in the design of an underwater 3D imaging setup. PMID:23128708

Kang, Lai; Wu, Lingda; Yang, Yee-Hong

2012-11-01

185

Physical and Histologic Properties of Substitutes Used for the Anterior Fossa Region Dural Repair  

PubMed Central

During the last 10 years, 41 patients with dural tear caused by anterior cranial fossa bone fracture were treated surgically. Those treated conservatively were not included in this series. The patients' mean age was 36 years. The average time of postoperative observation was 15 months. Traffic accidents, as well as wounds caused by missiles (shell fragments or bullets), blows, and falls were the mechanisms of injury. An autogenous graft, followed by homologous (lyodura) and most recently by heterologous (lyoplant; B. Braun Melsungen AG, Melsungen, Germany) implants, was used to repair the dural lacerations. Fibrin adhesive was used to seal the sutures inserted between graft and dural defect margins in a majority of cases. The following criteria are required for the best dural substitute: uncontaminated tissue, histologic similarity to the local dura mater, adaptability, quick rehidratation, waterproof closure and the dural margins fast healing, and tensile strength easily resisting cerebrospinal fluid pressurization in physiological and pathological conditions. To define the effects of different tissue that could meet the above-mentioned criteria, we have undertaken a mechanical testing of the dural substitutes' tensile strength followed by histologic examination, and comparison with the dura mater of the anterior fossa region. Finally, we have paid particular attention to the clinical results of these substitutes. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4

Vrankovic, Djuro; Mrcela, T.; Mursic, B.; Splavski, B.; Dmitrovic, B.; Mrcela, M.; Blagus, G.

1999-01-01

186

Occupational and environmental exposure to tribromophenol used for wood surface protection in sawmills.  

PubMed

This study analyses the occupational and environmental conditions of sawmills where the lumber is protected from microorganism action by dipping it in 2,4,6 tribromophenol (TBP). Three processes were evaluated: hydraulic immersion, chain conveyor system and manual immersion. The biggest occupational exposure to TBP was registered in manual and chain conveyor systems. The average values in the workers' urine for TBP were 6.9 and 5.7 mg/g creatinine, respectively. For environmental exposure, the highest value in well waters was 25.1 microg/L and in soil was 4,602 mg/kg. It could be established that the hydraulic immersion system presents less occupational TBP exposure. Nevertheless, the hydraulic system, as well as the other two anti-stain alternatives, requires the introduction of pollution prevention efforts. To reduce the environmental exposure to TBP, the lumber-dipping tank area, the forklift traffic areas, and the storage areas need to be waterproofed. It is also necessary to implement a TBP solution recovery system to eliminate dripping from the lumber once it is removed from the fungicide dipping tanks. PMID:16134480

Gutiérrez, Manuel; Becerra, José; Godoy, Juan; Barra, Ricardo

2005-06-01

187

Superhydrophobic nickel micromesh with microfences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ni micromeshes with array-type microfences formed along the circumference of the microholes were designed and fabricated, and their characteristics, including their surface wettability and waterproofness, were theoretically and experimentally evaluated. To evaluate the wettability effect of the microfences, micromeshes without microfences were also fabricated and characterized. The microfences in the micromesh contribute to two important features: superhydrophobicity and self-cleaning. While all of the contact angles measured from the micromesh with microfences were higher than 146°, those measured from the micromesh without microfences were lower than 115°. While natural soils sprinkled on the micromesh with microfences were removed along the trace of a rolling water drop, those on the micromesh without microfences were not removed. The maximum allowable hydraulic pressure was not seriously affected by the presence of the microfences, but rather is determined by the hole diameter. The proposed micromesh with microfences would be applicable for various products requiring water repellency and water blocking while allowing the passage of material waves including sound and light.

Lee, Jae Min; Lee, Sang Min; Jung, Phill Gu; Ko, Jong Soo

2011-10-01

188

Modular hydro dam approach to the economic development of ultra low-head hydropower  

SciTech Connect

The solution to developing economical ultra low-head (10 ft. -6 ft., 3m-2m hydrpower lies in being able to reduce equipment and construction costs at new dams to less than $4000/KW, while maintaining an operating efficiency of 80% or more. The purpose of this investigation was to explore the potential for developing economical new ultra low-head sites using an innovative concept known as the Modular Hydro Dam (MHD). This concept, combines the benefits of shop fabrication and installation of equipment in truck transportable, waterproof power modules, with prefabricated gate sections that can be located between the power modules. Lateral support to withstand the static head pressure is provided by an upstream tension cable system anchored at each bank. Foundation design for vertical support varies with subsurface conditions. The technical, economic, environmental, and institutional feasibility of the MHD concept were examined. The module selected contains an axial-flow type turbine, rated at 300 kW under a 10-ft head, a generator driven by a belt drive, vertical intake gate, and electrical control system and switchgear. Capital and operating costs are estimated. It is concluded that the US potential for power generation at ultralow-head sites justifies the development of the MHD concept, and that a full scale demonstration of the concept could be completed by 1986. (LCL)

Broome, K.R.

1981-01-01

189

A field trail for sealing abandoned mine shafts and adits with lightweight concrete  

SciTech Connect

An abandoned mine shaft near Omar, in Logan County, WV, was permanently sealed through a cooperative agreement between the West Virginia Department of Commerce, Labor, and Environmental Resources, Division of Environmental Protection, and the US Bureau of Mines (USBM), Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) Program. An engineered shaft seal design was developed and demonstrated that featured lightweight concrete as a key material component at a wet density of about 45 lb/ft[sup 3]. A reinforced concrete cap designed for 5 psi live load was placed over the shaft seal. Applicable new concrete technologies relating to a 100-yr design life were utilized to assure future integrity of the shaft seal. Waterproofing methods were included in the shaft seal design to provide protection from ambient moisture and corrosive mine waters and to increase the long-term durability of the shaft seal. All construction methods used in the field trial are fully adaptable for the mine-reclamation contractor. The USBM research objectives were to develop a broad generic design that will be widely applicable to other adit-sealing and shaft-sealing problems throughout the mining industry.

Skinner, E.H.; Beckett, L.A.

1994-01-01

190

A new technique for the deep-sea mating of inexpensive connectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep-sea electric and optical connections can often be problematic. Several manufacturers propose wet-mateable connectors based on integrated valve systems but the complexity and precision needed to reach the required reliability result in high cost. We are therefore developing a new type of tooling for connecting cheap standard wet-mateable connectors under oil in deep sea water pressure conditions. Complexity is delocalised from the connector to the easily recoverable and reparable tooling. The cost of wet connections is consequently expected to be drastically reduced, with reliability enhanced. The tooling contains 2 carriers sliding on a linear stage together with a second perpendicular stage intersecting the line between the carriers. The carriers and linear stages are enclosed in a clam-shelled oil-fillable volume. Each half of the connector to be mated is fixed to its respective carrier in a ROV operation. The waterproof caps of the two connectors automatically attach to the third carrier on the perpendicular stage. Seawater around the connectors is replaced with non-conductive oil, and both halves of the connector are detached from their sealing caps, which are then moved sideways to allow the connector to be mated under oil. The clamshells are then opened, allowing the mated connector to be removed by the ROV. A reverse capping procedure is applied for disconnection.

Beurthey, Stephan

2011-01-01

191

Thermal ecology on an exposed algal reef: infrared imagery a rapid tool to survey temperature at local spatial scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We tested the feasibility of infra-red (IR) thermography as a tool to survey in situ temperatures in intertidal habitats. We employed this method to describe aspects of thermal ecology for an exposed algal reef in the tropics (O`ahu, Hawai`i). In addition, we compared temperatures of the surrounding habitat as determined by IR thermography and traditional waterproof loggers. Images of reef organisms (6 macroalgae, 9 molluscs, 1 anthozoan, and 2 echinoderms), loggers, and landscapes were taken during two diurnal low tides. Analysis of IR thermographs revealed remarkable thermal complexity on a narrow tropical shore, as habitats ranged from 18.1 to 38.3°C and surfaces of organisms that ranged from 21.1 to 33.2°C. The near 20°C difference between abiotic habitats and the mosaic of temperatures experienced by reef organisms across the shore are similar to findings from temperate studies using specialized longterm loggers. Further, IR thermography captured rapid temperature fluctuations that were related to tidal height and cross-correlated to wave action. Finally, we gathered evidence that tidal species were associated with particular temperature ranges and that two species possess morphological characteristics that limit thermal stress. Loggers provided similar results as thermography but lack the ability to resolve variation in fine-scale spatial and temporal patterns. Our results support the utility of IR thermography in exploring thermal ecology, and demonstrate the steps needed to calibrate data leading to establishment of baseline conditions in a changing and heterogeneous environment.

Cox, T. E.; Smith, C. M.

2011-12-01

192

Flow rate logging seepage meter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An apparatus for remotely measuring and logging the flow rate of groundwater seepage into surface water bodies is described. As groundwater seeps into a cavity created by a bottomless housing, it displaces water through an inlet and into a waterproof sealed upper compartment, at which point, the water is collected by a collection bag, which is contained in a bag chamber. A magnet on the collection bag approaches a proximity switch as the collection bag fills, and eventually enables the proximity switch to activate a control circuit. The control circuit then rotates a three-way valve from the collection path to a discharge path, enables a data logger to record the time, and enables a pump, which discharges the water from the collection bag, through the three-way valve and pump, and into the sea. As the collection bag empties, the magnet leaves the proximity of the proximity switch, and the control circuit turns off the pump, resets the valve to provide a collection path, and restarts the collection cycle.

Reay, William G.; Walthall, Harry G.

1992-12-01

193

Effect of nano BaCO3 on pyrolytic reaction of phenol-formaldehyde resin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenol-formaldehyde resin is used as the most adhesive to produce waterproof plant-based composite. However, this product contains phenol and formaldehyde which can be easily released to pollute air and water. Based on the single-factor method, the effect of nano BaCO3 on situabtion of pyrolytic reaction of PF resin was studied by Py-GC/MS. There were components including carbon dioxide, D,.alpha.-tocopherol, 1,3-bis(trimethylsilyl) benzene, phenol from PF resin in 590(see manuscript) He gas. However, the 17 compounds including phenol, 2-methyl-, phenol, carbon dioxide, p-xylene, toluene, phenol, 2-ethyl-, phenol, 2,3-dimethyl-, benzene, 1,2,3-trimethyl-, etc were identified by Py-GC/MS after PF/BaCO3 composite was pyrolyzed in 590(see manuscript) He gas, and phenol and phenol derivants were found in the compounds. The result showed that nano BaCO3 could effectively delay the pyrolysis of PF resin.

Zhang, Xu; Ma, Qing-Zhi; Zhang, Zhong-Feng; Peng, Wan-Xi; Zhang, Ming-Long

2009-07-01

194

Automatic front-crawl temporal phase detection using adaptive filtering of inertial signals.  

PubMed

This study introduces a novel approach for automatic temporal phase detection and inter-arm coordination estimation in front-crawl swimming using inertial measurement units (IMUs). We examined the validity of our method by comparison against a video-based system. Three waterproofed IMUs (composed of 3D accelerometer, 3D gyroscope) were placed on both forearms and the sacrum of the swimmer. We used two underwater video cameras in side and frontal views as our reference system. Two independent operators performed the video analysis. To test our methodology, seven well-trained swimmers performed three 300 m trials in a 50 m indoor pool. Each trial was in a different coordination mode quantified by the index of coordination. We detected different phases of the arm stroke by employing orientation estimation techniques and a new adaptive change detection algorithm on inertial signals. The difference of 0.2 ± 3.9% between our estimation and video-based system in assessment of the index of coordination was comparable to experienced operators' difference (1.1 ± 3.6%). The 95% limits of agreement of the difference between the two systems in estimation of the temporal phases were always less than 7.9% of the cycle duration. The inertial system offers an automatic easy-to-use system with timely feedback for the study of swimming. PMID:23560703

Dadashi, Farzin; Crettenand, Florent; Millet, Grégoire P; Seifert, Ludovic; Komar, John; Aminian, Kamiar

2013-04-05

195

Residual sludge from dimensional stones: characterisation for their exploitation in civil and environmental applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Residual sludge coming from dimensional stones working plants (diamond framesaw and ganguesaw with abrasive shots processes) represents a problem for Stone Industries. In fact the cost connected to their landfilling amounts to more than 3% of operating costs of dimensional stone working plants. Furthermore their strict feature as waste to dump (CER code 010413) contrasts the EU principles of "resource preservation" and "waste recovery". The main problems related to their management are: size distribution (fine materials, potentially asphyxial), presence of heavy metals (due to the working processes) and TPH content (due to oil machines losses). Residual sludge, considered according to Italian Legislative Decree n.152/06, can be used, as waste, for environmental restoration of derelict land or in cement plants. It is also possible to think about their systematic treatment in consortium plats for the production of Secondary Raw Materials (SRM) or "New Products" (NP, eg. artificial loam, waterproofing materials, ....). The research evidences that, on the basis of a correct sludge management, treatment and characterization, economic and environmental benefits are possible (NP or SRM in spite of waste to dump). To individuate different applications of residual sludge in civil and environmental contexts, a geotechnical (size distribution, permeability, Atterberg limits, cohesion and friction angle evaluation, Proctor soil test) characterization was foreseen. The geotechnical tests were conducted on sludge as such and on three different mixes: - Mix 1 - Bentonite clay (5-10%) added to sludge a.s (90-95%); - Mix 2 - Sludge a.s. (90-80-70%) added to coarse materials coming from crushed dimensional stones (10-20-30%); - Mix 3 - Sludge a.s. (50-70%) mixed with sand, compost, natural loam (50-30% mixture of sand, compost, natural loam). The results obtained from the four sets of tests were fundamental to evaluate: - the characteristics of the original materials; - the chance to obtain new products for dumps waterproofing (Mix 1). In this case the permeability has to be at least 10-9 m/s; - the opportunity to use them for land rehabilitation and reclamation (fine and coarse materials to fill quarry or civil works pits - Mix2; artificial loam to use for quarry and civil works revegetation - Mix 3). In Mix 3 phytotoxicity tests have been performed in cooperation with Agricultural Dept. - University of Turin. In this case the "cradle to grave principle" would be applied: "waste" coming from dimensional stone working plants could return to quarries. The results coming from geotechnical tests are promising, but to exploit sludge mixtures in civil and environmental applications it is necessary to guarantee, by means of appropriate chemical analysis, that there are no problems connected to soil, water and air pollution (connected to heavy metals and TPH contents). Magnetic or hydrogravimetric separation can be performed to reduce heavy metal content, instead TPH decrement can be reached by mean of specific agronomic treatments (eg. Bioremediation). Several in situ tests will be performed to compare the laboratory results to the "pre-industrial" ones: the obtained results will be potentially useful to propose some integration to the present Italian legislation.

Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Clemente, Paolo; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela

2013-04-01

196

Water depression storage under different tillage conditions: measuring and modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water storage in surface depressions (DS) is an important process which affects infiltration, runoff and erosion. Since DS is driven by micro relief, in agricultural soils DS is much affected by tillage and by the direction of tillage rows in relation to the main slope. A direct and accurate measurement of DS requires making the soil surface waterproof -soil is very permeable especially under tillage- but preserving all details of the soil roughness including aggregates over the soil surface (micro-roughness). All this is a very laborious and time-consuming task. That is why hydrological and erosion models for DS estimation normally use either empirical relationships based on some roughness index or numerical approaches. The aim of this work was (i) to measure directly in the field the DS of a soil under different tillage conditions and (ii) to assess the performance of existing empirical 2D models and of a numerical 2D algorithm for DS estimation. Three types of tillage classes (mouldbard+roller, roller compacted and chisel) in 2 tillage directions (parallel and perpendicular to the main slope) were assessed in an experimental hillslope (10% slope) which defines then 6 treatments. Experiments were carried out in 12, 1-m2 micro-plots delimited by metal sheets; that is, a pair of repetitions for each treatment. In each plot, soil surface was gently impregnated with a waterproof, white paint but without altering micro-roughness. A known amount of water (stained with a blue dye) was poured all over the surface with a measuring cup. The excess water was captured in a gutter and measured. Soon after finishing the experiment, pictures of the surface was taken in order to analyze water storage pattern (from stained water) by image processing. Besides, longitudinal height profiles were measured using a laser profilemeter. Finally, infiltration rate was measured near the plot using a double ring infiltrometer. For all the treatments, DS ranged from 2 mm to 17 mm. For the same tillage direction, clear differences in DS were observed among tillage types. Besides and as expected, DS much increased (up to 3 times) in those treatments were tillage rows were perpendicular to the main slope. The performance of the models in DS prediction was in general rather limited with deviations from reference values ranging from 45% to over 100%. The results suggest the inadequacy of 2D approaches to depict the complexity of the water surface storage pattern. On the other hand, some tillage operations lead to a rather small DS but with a relative high infiltration rate (up to 3 times that of the non-tilled soil); whereas in others the opposite was true. This fact should be taken into account in hydrological management of agricultural soils.

Giménez, R.; Campo, M. A.; González-Audicana, M.; Álvarez-Mozos, J.; Casalí, J.

2012-04-01

197

Support of EarthScope GPS Campaigns at the UNAVCO Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to support portable GPS deployments funded by the NSF's EarthScope Science panel, PBO has purchased 100 campaign GPS systems. Based Topcon GB-1000 equipment, the systems have been designed for stand-alone temporary or semi-permanent deployment that will be used for densifying areas not sufficiently covered by continuous GPS, and responding to volcanic and tectonic crises. UNAVCO provides support for all aspects of these projects, including proposal and budget development, project planning, equipment design, field support, and data archiving. Ten of the 100 systems will be purchased with real-time kinematic (RTK) capability requiring additional radio and data logging equipment. RTK systems can be used to rapidly map fault traces and profile fault escarpments and collect precise position information for GIS based geologic mapping. Each portable self-contained campaign systems include 18 Ah batteries, a regulated 32 watt solar charging system, and a low-power dual frequency GPS receiver and antenna in a waterproof case with security enhancements. The receivers have redundant memory sufficient for storing over a year's worth of data as well as IP and serial communications capabilities for longer-term deployments. Monumentation options will be determined on a project-by-project basis, with options including Tech2000 masts, low-profile spike mounts, and traditional tripods and optical tribrachs. The systems have been used to support three projects to date, including the University of Washington's 30-unit deployment to monitor the Episodic Tremor and Slip event this past November and they will be used for ongoing support of the ongoing Rio Grande Rift experiment, run by the Universities of Colorado and New Mexico.

Blume, F.; Feldl, N.

2005-12-01

198

Methodology for calibration and use of heat flux transducers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The direct assessment of heat flux from the body is a basic measurement in thermal physiology. Heat flux transducers (HFTs) are being used increasingly for that purpose under different environmental conditions. However, questions have been raised regarding the accuracy of the manufacturer's constant of calibration, and also about the effect of the thermal resistance of the device on the true thermal flux from the skin. Two different types of waterproofed HFTs were checked for their calibration using the Rapid-k thermal conductivity instrument. A detailed description of the methodology used during the calibration is given. A model capable of simulating a large range of tissue insulation was used to study the effect of the underlying tissue insulation on the relative error in thermal flux due to the thermal resistance of the HFTs. The data show that the deviation from the true value of thermal flux increases with the reciprocal of the underlying tissue insulation (r = 0.99, p less than 0.001). The underestimation of the heat flux through the skin measured by an HFT is minimal when the device is used on vasoconstricted skin in cool subjects (3 to 13 pct. error), but becomes important when used on warm vasodilated subjects (29 to 35 pct. error), and even more important on metallic skin mannequins (greater than 60 pct. error). In order to optimize the accuracy of the heat flux measurements by HFTs, it is important to recalibrate the HFTs and to correct the heat flux values for the thermal resistance of the HFT when used on vasodilated tissues.

Ducharme, Michel B.; Frim, John

1991-05-01

199

Histological and MS spectrometric analyses of the modified tissue of bulgy form tadpoles induced by salamander predation  

PubMed Central

Summary The rapid induction of a defensive morphology by a prey species in face of a predation risk is an intriguing in ecological context; however, the physiological mechanisms that underlie this phenotypic plasticity remain uncertain. Here we investigated the phenotypic changes shown by Rana pirica tadpoles in response to a predation threat by larvae of the salamander Hynobius retardatus. One such response is the bulgy morph phenotype, a relatively rapid swelling in size by the tadpoles that begins within 4 days and reaches a maximum at 8 to 10 days. We found that although the total volume of bodily fluid increased significantly (P<0.01) in bulgy morph tadpoles, osmotic pressure was maintained at the same level as control tadpoles by a significant increase (P<0.01) in Na and Cl ion concentrations. In our previous report, we identified a novel frog gene named pirica that affects the waterproofing of the skin membrane in tadpoles. Our results support the hypothesis that predator-induced expression of pirica on the skin membrane causes retention of absorbed water. Midline sections of bulgy morph tadpoles showed the presence of swollen connective tissue beneath the skin that was sparsely composed of cells containing hyaluronic acid. Mass spectrographic (LC-MS/MS) analysis identified histone H3 and 14-3-3 zeta as the most abundant constituents in the liquid aspirated from the connective tissue of bulgy tadpoles. Immunohistochemistry using antibodies against these proteins showed the presence of non-chromatin associated histone H3 in the swollen connective tissue. Histones and 14-3-3 proteins are also involved in antimicrobial activity and secretion of antibacterial proteins, respectively. Bulgy tadpoles have a larger surface area than controls, and their skin often has bite wounds inflicted by the larval salamanders. Thus, formation of the bulgy morph may also require and be supported by activation of innate immune systems.

Mori, Tsukasa; Kitani, Yoichiro; Ogihara, Jun; Sugiyama, Manabu; Yamamoto, Goshi; Kishida, Osamu; Nishimura, Kinya

2012-01-01

200

Epicuticular compounds of Drosophila subquinaria and D. recens: identification, quantification, and their role in female mate choice.  

PubMed

The epicuticle of various Drosophila species consists of long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) and their derivatives that play a role in waterproofing and a dynamic means of chemical communication. Here, via gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, we identified and quantified the epicuticular composition of D. recens and D. subquinaria, two closely related species that show a pattern of reproductive character displacement in nature. Twenty-four compounds were identified with the most abundant, 11-cis-Vaccenyl acetate, present only in males of each species. Also exclusive to males were five tri-acylglycerides. The 18 remaining compounds were CHCs, all shared between the sexes and species. These CHCs were composed of odd carbon numbers (C29, C31, C33, and C35), with an increase in structural isomers in the C33 and C35 groups. Saturated hydrocarbons comprise only methyl-branched alkanes and were found only in the C29 and C31 groups. Alkenes were the least prevalent, with alkadienes dominating the chromatographic landscape in the longer chain lengths. Sexual dimorphism was extensive with 6/8 of the logcontrast CHCs differing significantly in relative concentration between males and females in D. recens and D. subquinaria, respectively. Males of the two species also differed significantly in relative concentration of six CHCs, while females differed in none. Female-choice mating trials revealed directional sexual selection on male CHCs in a population of each species, consistent with female mate preferences for these traits. The sexual selection vectors differed significantly in multivariate trait space, suggesting that different pheromone blends determine male attractiveness in each species. PMID:23604703

Curtis, Sharon; Sztepanacz, Jacqueline L; White, Brooke E; Dyer, Kelly A; Rundle, Howard D; Mayer, Paul

2013-04-19

201

Experimental investigation of thermal effects in HIFU-based external valvuloplasty with a non-spherical transducer, using high-resolution MR thermometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time image-guided extracorporeal high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been suggested for minimally invasive treatment of valvular dysfunction in the saphenous vein. Local application of heat on the perimeter of the valve zone was previously reported to induce a partial shrinkage of the collagen, which may correct valvular function. In our study, a novel MR compatible HIFU device has been investigated. This device is based on a non-spherical geometry, with two active elements that create a focusing line which is orthogonal to the beam main axis, aiming to cover the valve longitudinally. The prototype performance was characterized by electro-acoustical measurements of the pressure field and by high-resolution MR thermometry. Pressure and thermal fields were found in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. To investigate the therapeutic potential, fresh samples of excised human veins were filled with an agarose gel, embedded in porcine muscle and exposed to HIFU. The power level applied during a fixed duration of 30 s was varied such that the absolute temperature at focus ranged between 52 °C and 83 °C. Targeting was achieved under MR guidance using a MR compatible XZ positioning system. A dedicated waterproof miniature loop coil was specifically built to achieve high-resolution MRI image-based targeting (0.25 mm × 0.25 mm × 3 mm voxel) and thermometry (0.4 mm × 0.4 mm × 4 mm voxel). The vein wall was clearly identified on MR images before and after HIFU treatment. The thermal buildup created by the non-spherical transducer could be characterized from MR thermometry data. Shrinkage of the vein wall (above 65 °C) was determined by absolute temperature and was not a cumulative thermal dose effect.

Petrusca, Lorena; Salomir, Rares; Milleret, Réné; Pichot, Olivier; Rata, Mihaela; Cotton, François; Chapelon, Jean-Yves

2009-09-01

202

Ionization chamber volume averaging effects in dynamic intensity modulated radiation therapy beams.  

PubMed

The commercial cylindrical ionization chamber ionization integration accuracy of dynamically moving fields was evaluated. The ionization chambers were exposed to long (14 cm), narrow (0.6, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 cm) 6 MV and 18 MV fields. Rather than rely on the linear accelerator to reproducibly scan across the chamber, the chambers were scanned beneath fixed portals. A water-equivalent phantom was constructed with cavities that matched the chambers and placed on a computer-controlled one-dimensional table. Computer-controlled electrometers were utilized in continuous charge integrate mode, with 10 samples of the charge, along with time stamps, acquired for each chamber location. A reference chamber was placed just beneath the linear accelerator jaws to adjust for variations in linear accelerator dose rate. The scan spatial resolution was selected to adequately sample regions of steep dose gradient and second spatial derivative (curvature). A fixed measurement in a 10 x 10 cm2 field was used to normalize the profiles to absolute chamber response. Three ionization chambers were tested, a microchamber (0.009 cm3), a Farmer chamber (0.6 cm3) and a waterproof scanning chamber (0.125 cm3). The larger chambers exhibited severe under-response at the small field's centers, but all of the chambers, independent of orientation, accurately integrated the ionization across the scanned portal. This indicates that the tested ionization chambers provide accurate integrated charges in regions of homogeneous dose regions. Partial integration (less than the field width plus the chamber length plus 2 cm), yielded integration errors of greater than 1% and 2% for 6 MV and 18 MV, respectively, with errors for the Farmer chamber of greater than 10% even for the 4 cm wide field. PMID:12906187

Low, Daniel A; Parikh, Parag; Dempsey, James F; Wahab, Sasha; Huq, Saiful

2003-07-01

203

Identification of acyltransferases required for cutin biosynthesis and production of cutin with suberin-like monomers  

PubMed Central

Cutin and suberin are the two major lipid-based polymers of plants. Cutin is the structural polymer of the epidermal cuticle, the waterproof layer covering primary aerial organs and which is often the structure first encountered by phytopathogens. Suberin contributes to the control of diffusion of water and solutes across internal root tissues and in periderms. The enzymes responsible for assembly of the cutin polymer are largely unknown. We have identified two Arabidopsis acyltransferases essential for cutin biosynthesis, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) 4 and GPAT8. Double knockouts gpat4/gpat8 were strongly reduced in cutin and were less resistant to desiccation and to infection by the fungus Alternaria brassicicola. They also showed striking defects in stomata structure including a lack of cuticular ledges between guard cells, highlighting the importance of cutin in stomatal biology. Overexpression of GPAT4 or GPAT8 in Arabidopsis increased the content of C16 and C18 cutin monomers in leaves and stems by 80%. In order to modify cutin composition, the acyltransferase GPAT5 and the cytochrome P450-dependent fatty acyl oxidase CYP86A1, two enzymes associated with suberin biosynthesis, were overexpressed. When both enzymes were overexpressed together the epidermal polyesters accumulated new C20 and C22 ?-hydroxyacids and ?,?-diacids typical of suberin, and the fine structure and water-barrier function of the cuticle were altered. These results identify GPATs as partners of fatty acyl oxidases in lipid polyester synthesis and indicate that their cooverexpression provides a strategy to probe the role of cutin composition and quantity in the function of plant cuticles.

Li, Yonghua; Beisson, Fred; Koo, Abraham J. K.; Molina, Isabel; Pollard, Mike; Ohlrogge, John

2007-01-01

204

A first global production, emission, and environmental inventory for perfluorooctane sulfonate.  

PubMed

This study makes a new estimate of the global historical production for perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride (POSF), and then focuses on producing a first estimate of the global historical environmental releases of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). The total historical worldwide production of POSF was estimated to be 96,000 t (or 122,500 t, including unusable wastes) between 1970-2002, with an estimated global release of 45,250 t to air and water between 1970-2012 from direct (manufacture, use, and consumer products) and indirect (PFOS precursors and/or impurities) sources. Estimates indicate that direct emissions from POSF-derived products are the major source to the environment resulting in releases of 450-2700 t PFOS into wastewater streams, primarily through losses from stain repellent treated carpets, waterproof apparel, and aqueous fire fighting foams. Large uncertainties surround indirect sources and have not yet been estimated due to limited information on environmental degradation, although it can be assumed that some POSF-derived chemicals will degrade to PFOS over time. The properties of PFOS (high water solubility, negligible vapor pressure, and limited sorption to particles) imply it will reside in surface waters, predominantly in oceans. Measured oceanic data suggests approximately 235-1770 t of PFOS currently reside in ocean surface waters, similar to the estimated PFOS releases. Environmental monitoring from the 1970s onward shows strong upward trends in biota, in broad agreement with the estimates of use and emissions made here. Since cessation of POSF production by 3M in 2002, a reduction in some compartments has been observed, although current and future exposure is dependent on emission routes, subsequent transport and degradation. PMID:19238969

Paul, Alexander G; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

2009-01-15

205

Experimental investigation of thermal effects in HIFU-based external valvuloplasty with a non-spherical transducer, using high-resolution MR thermometry.  

PubMed

Real-time image-guided extracorporeal high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been suggested for minimally invasive treatment of valvular dysfunction in the saphenous vein. Local application of heat on the perimeter of the valve zone was previously reported to induce a partial shrinkage of the collagen, which may correct valvular function. In our study, a novel MR compatible HIFU device has been investigated. This device is based on a non-spherical geometry, with two active elements that create a focusing line which is orthogonal to the beam main axis, aiming to cover the valve longitudinally. The prototype performance was characterized by electro-acoustical measurements of the pressure field and by high-resolution MR thermometry. Pressure and thermal fields were found in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. To investigate the therapeutic potential, fresh samples of excised human veins were filled with an agarose gel, embedded in porcine muscle and exposed to HIFU. The power level applied during a fixed duration of 30 s was varied such that the absolute temperature at focus ranged between 52 degrees C and 83 degrees C. Targeting was achieved under MR guidance using a MR compatible XZ positioning system. A dedicated waterproof miniature loop coil was specifically built to achieve high-resolution MRI image-based targeting (0.25 mm x 0.25 mm x 3 mm voxel) and thermometry (0.4 mm x 0.4 mm x 4 mm voxel). The vein wall was clearly identified on MR images before and after HIFU treatment. The thermal buildup created by the non-spherical transducer could be characterized from MR thermometry data. Shrinkage of the vein wall (above 65 degrees C) was determined by absolute temperature and was not a cumulative thermal dose effect. PMID:19661567

Petrusca, Lorena; Salomir, Rares; Milleret, Réné; Pichot, Olivier; Rata, Mihaela; Cotton, François; Chapelon, Jean-Yves

2009-08-06

206

Use of a Noninvasive Continuous Monitoring Device in the Management of Atrial Fibrillation: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background Outpatient ambulatory cardiac rhythm monitoring is a routine part of the management of patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). Current systems are limited by patient convenience and practicality. Methods We compared the Zio® Patch, a single-use, noninvasive waterproof long-term continuous monitoring patch, with a 24-hour Holter monitor in 74 consecutive patients with paroxysmal AF referred for Holter monitoring for detection of arrhythmias. Results The Zio® Patch was well tolerated, with a mean monitoring period of 10.8 ± 2.8 days (range 4–14 days). Over a 24-hour period, there was excellent agreement between the Zio® Patch and Holter for identifying AF events and estimating AF burden. Although there was no difference in AF burden estimated by the Zio® Patch and the Holter monitor, AF events were identified in 18 additional individuals, and the documented pattern of AF (persistent or paroxysmal) changed in 21 patients after Zio® Patch monitoring. Other clinically relevant cardiac events recorded on the Zio® Patch after the first 24 hours of monitoring, including symptomatic ventricular pauses, prompted referrals for pacemaker placement or changes in medications. As a result of the findings from the Zio® Patch, 28.4% of patients had a change in their clinical management. Conclusions The Zio® Patch was well tolerated, and allowed significantly longer continuous monitoring than a Holter, resulting in an improvement in clinical accuracy, the detection of potentially malignant arrhythmias, and a meaningful change in clinical management. Further studies are necessary to examine the long-term impact of the use of the Zio® Patch in AF management.

Rosenberg, Michael A; Samuel, Michelle; Thosani, Amit; Zimetbaum, Peter J

2013-01-01

207

Facility design and associated services for the study of amphibians.  

PubMed

The role of facilities and associated services for amphibians has recently undergone diversification. Amphibians traditionally used as research models adjust well to captivity and thrive with established husbandry techniques. However, it is now necessary to maintain hundreds of novel amphibian species in captive breeding, conservation research, and biomedical research programs. These diverse species have a very wide range of husbandry requirements, and in many cases the ultimate survival of threatened species will depend on captive populations. Two critical factors have emerged in the maintenance of amphibians, stringent quarantine and high-quality water. Because exotic diseases such as chytridiomycosis have devastated both natural and captive populations of amphibians, facilities must provide stringent quarantine. The provision of high-quality water is also essential to maintain amphibian health and condition due to the intimate physiological relationship of amphibians to their aquatic environment. Fortunately, novel technologies backed by recent advances in the scientific knowledge of amphibian biology and disease management are available to overcome these challenges. For example, automation can increase the reliability of quarantine and maintain water quality, with a corresponding decrease in handling and the associated disease-transfer risk. It is essential to build facilities with appropriate nontoxic waterproof materials and to provide quarantined amphibian rooms for each population. Other spaces and services include live feed rooms, quarantine stations, isolation rooms, laboratory space, technical support systems, reliable energy and water supplies, high-quality feed, and security. Good husbandry techniques must include reliable and species-specific management by trained staff members who receive support from the administration. It is possible to improve husbandry techniques for many species by sharing knowledge through common information systems. Overall, good facility design corresponds to the efficient use of space, personnel, energy, materials, and other resources. PMID:17592183

Browne, Robert K; Odum, R Andrew; Herman, Timothy; Zippel, Kevin

2007-01-01

208

Chemiresistor microsensors for in-situ monitoring of volatile organic compounds : final LDRD report.  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a summary of the three-year LDRD (Laboratory Directed Research and Development) project aimed at developing microchemical sensors for continuous, in-situ monitoring of volatile organic compounds. A chemiresistor sensor array was integrated with a unique, waterproof housing that allows the sensors to be operated in a variety of media including air, soil, and water. Numerous tests were performed to evaluate and improve the sensitivity, stability, and discriminatory capabilities of the chemiresistors. Field tests were conducted in California, Nevada, and New Mexico to further test and develop the sensors in actual environments within integrated monitoring systems. The field tests addressed issues regarding data acquisition, telemetry, power requirements, data processing, and other engineering requirements. Significant advances were made in the areas of polymer optimization, packaging, data analysis, discrimination, design, and information dissemination (e.g., real-time web posting of data; see www.sandia.gov/sensor). This project has stimulated significant interest among commercial and academic institutions. A CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) was initiated in FY03 to investigate manufacturing methods, and a Work for Others contract was established between Sandia and Edwards Air Force Base for FY02-FY04. Funding was also obtained from DOE as part of their Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative program from FY01 to FY03, and a DOE EMSP contract was awarded jointly to Sandia and INEEL for FY04-FY06. Contracts were also established for collaborative research with Brigham Young University to further evaluate, understand, and improve the performance of the chemiresistor sensors.

Thomas, Michael Loren; Hughes, Robert Clark; Kooser, Ara S.; McGrath, Lucas K.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Wright, Jerome L.; Davis, Chad Edward

2003-09-01

209

Development of a semi-permanent mascara technology.  

PubMed

Many women would like their mascara beauty benefits to be available all day, every day. One way to address this desire is through a semi-permanent mascara technology that provides full mascara benefits of long, dark beautiful lashes for multiple days. To date, products promising multi-day benefits have acted more as either 'lash dyes', providing a lash darkening benefit but failing to provide fullness and length, or waterproof mascaras that do not maintain the initial beauty look over multiple days. Here, a formulation approach is described for a mascara product that is designed to be abrasion resistant, flexible and insoluble in soap and water so that the initial beauty look is maintained for multiple days. The new semi-permanent formula technology uses rosinate polymers that have a superior combination of flexibility, abrasion resistance and water and surfactant resistance. Based on principles used by the paint industry for creating durable films, the levels of the polymers and other non-volatile ingredients are balanced such that the product forms a continuous polymer film on the eyelash. Cryo-SEM is used to demonstrate that the new semi-permanent formula technology forms a film different from those formed by current mascara products. A stretch test and rub test are used to demonstrate that the new semi-permanent formula technology has superior flexibility and abrasion resistance to current mascara products. Finally, a multi-day consumer study with daily imaging of the eyes is used to demonstrate the superior wear performance of the new semi-permanent formula technology in actual usage. PMID:21834943

Dempsey, J H; Fabula, A M; Rabe, T E; Lubbers, J M; Ye, M

2011-08-11

210

Design and performance of personal cooling garments based on three-layer laminates.  

PubMed

Personal cooling systems are mainly based on cold air or liquids circulating through a tubing system. They are weighty, bulky and depend on an external power source. In contrast, the laminate-based technology presented here offers new flexible and light weight cooling garments integrated into textiles. It is based on a three-layer composite assembled from two waterproof, but water vapor permeable membranes and a hydrophilic fabric in between. Water absorbed in the fabric will be evaporated by the body temperature resulting in cooling energy. The laminate's high adaptiveness makes it possible to produce cooling garments even for difficult anatomic topologies. The determined cooling energy of the laminate depends mainly on the environmental conditions (temperature, relative humidity, wind): heat flux at standard climatic conditions (20 degrees C, 65% R.H., wind 5 km/h) has measured 423.2 +/- 52.6 W/m(2), water vapor transmission resistance, R (et), 10.83 +/- 0.38 m(2) Pa/W and thermal resistance, R (ct), 0.010 +/- 0.002 m(2) K/W. Thermal conductivity, k, changed from 0.048 +/- 0.003 (dry) to 0.244 +/- 0.018 W/m K (water added). The maximum fall in skin temperature, Delta T (max), under the laminate was 5.7 +/- 1.2 degrees C, taken from a 12 subject study with a thigh cooling garment during treadmill walking (23 degrees C, 50% R.H., no wind) and a significant linear correlation (R = 0.85, P = 0.01) between body mass index and time to reach 67% of Delta T (max) could be determined. PMID:18581156

Rothmaier, M; Weder, M; Meyer-Heim, A; Kesselring, J

2008-06-25

211

Development of polymer concrete vaults for natural gas regulator stations  

SciTech Connect

Vaults for natural gas regulator stations have traditionally been fabricated with steel-reinforced portland cement concrete. Since these vaults are installed below ground level, they are usually coated with a water-proofing material to prevent the ingress of moisture into the vault. In some cases, penetrations for piping that are normally cast into the vault do not line up with the gas lines in the streets. This necessitates off-setting the lines to line up with the penetrations in the vault or breaking out new penetrations which could weaken the structure and/or allow water ingress. By casting the vaults using a new material of construction such as polymer concrete, a longer maintenance free service life is possible because the physical and durability properties of polymer concrete composites are much superior to those of portland cement concrete. The higher strengths of polymer concrete allow the design engineer to reduce the wall, floor, and ceiling thicknesses making the vaults lighter for easier transportation and installation. Penetrations can be cut after casting to match existing street lines, thus making the vault more universal and reducing the number of vaults that are normally in stock. The authors developed a steel-fiber reinforced polymer concrete composite that could be used for regulator vaults. Based on the physical properties of his new composite, vaults were designed to replace the BUG PV-008 and Con Ed GR-6 regulator vaults made of reinforced portland cement concrete. Quarter-scale models of the polymer concrete vaults were tested and the results reaffirmed the reduced wall thickness design. Two sets of vaults, cast by Hardinge Bros., were inspected by representatives of the utilities and BNL (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and were accepted for delivery. 6 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

Fontana, J.J.; Miller, C.A.; Reams, W.; Elling, D.

1990-08-01

212

Solid Phantom Material for Radiation Theory Electron - Calibration.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In clinical dosimetry, the output of an electron beam is always specified in terms of absorbed dose in water rather than in tissue because water is homogeneous, constant in composition, and is readily available everywhere. However, a water phantom is not convenient to use in practice. There are problems like mechanical instability, the necessity for waterproofing of an ionization chamber, breakage and leakage of the container, etc. Furthermore, it is difficult to make depth-dose measurements with horizontal beams of low-energy electrons in a water phantom because the container wall then provides an appreciable part of the electron range. Solid phantom material is sometimes used as a water substitute, which eliminates all the problems water possesses (although it may substitute others). The dose to water is then calculated from the dose to the water substitute. The two most commonly used solid phantom materials in radiotherapy dosimetry are polystyrene and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). For electron beam dosimetry, the absorption and scattering of electrons in a water substitute must be as close as possible to the values in water. Consideration must be given to the interaction processes characterized by the mass stopping power and angular scattering power. Neither polystyrene nor PMMA are ideal water-equivalent materials. Fluence correction factors are used in a common radiotherapy dosimetry protocol (TG-21, 1983) to account for dose discrepancies between water and the water substitutes in the d _{rm max} region, while scaling factors are used in the d_{50} region for different materials. The solid phantom material developed in the present research is based on an epoxy resin system originated by White (1974), which is composed of the epoxy resin, curing agent, filler and phenolic microspheres. Evaluation is done by Monte Carlo calculation and experimental measurements with an ionization chamber. Monte Carlo calculations show the absorbed dose curves and the energy spectral distributions. Experimental evaluations include transmission relative to water, relative ionization measurements and charge storage in the phantom material.

Ho, Anthony Kwok-Wah

213

TOPICAL REVIEW: Smart aggregates: multi-functional sensors for concrete structures—a tutorial and a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarizes the authors' recent pioneering research work in piezoceramic-based smart aggregates and their innovative applications in concrete civil structures. The basic operating principle of smart aggregates is first introduced. The proposed smart aggregate is formed by embedding a waterproof piezoelectric patch with lead wires into a small concrete block. The proposed smart aggregates are multi-functional and can perform three major tasks: early-age concrete strength monitoring, impact detection and structural health monitoring. The proposed smart aggregates are embedded into the desired location before the casting of the concrete structure. The concrete strength development is monitored by observing the high frequency harmonic wave response of the smart aggregate. Impact on the concrete structure is detected by observing the open-circuit voltage of the piezoceramic patch in the smart aggregate. For structural health monitoring purposes, a smart aggregate-based active sensing system is designed for the concrete structure. Wavelet packet analysis is used as a signal-processing tool to analyze the sensor signal. A damage index based on the wavelet packet analysis is used to determine the structural health status. To better describe the time-history and location information of damage, two types of damage index matrices are proposed: a sensor-history damage index matrix and an actuator-sensor damage index matrix. To demonstrate the multi-functionality of the proposed smart aggregates, different types of concrete structures have been used as test objects, including concrete bridge bent-caps, concrete cylinders and a concrete frame. Experimental results have verified the effectiveness and the multi-functionality of the proposed smart aggregates. The multi-functional smart aggregates have the potential to be applied to the comprehensive monitoring of concrete structures from their earliest stages and throughout their lifetime.

Song, Gangbing; Gu, Haichang; Mo, Yi-Lung

2008-06-01

214

Water conservation features of ova of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, has destroyed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America since first identified in Detroit in 2002. With species of ash distributed throughout North America, it is easy to speculate the extinction of all susceptible species of ash on the continent given a lack of physical, environmental, or climactic barrier for dispersal of the insect. We investigated water balance characteristics of emerald ash borer ova by using gravimetric methods in an effort to measure their response to heat- and water-stress and explore possible influences this stress may have on the ecology and physiology of the ovum. We also explored the possible water balance benefit of a peculiar, "clustering," oviposition behavior, as well as the difference in responses to stress between ova from a laboratory colony and ova from two wild populations. We found no evidence of water vapor absorption as a water balance strategy; rather enhanced water retention, resistance to desiccation, and viability with low water content were important survival strategies for these ova. Surface lipids resist thermal breakdown as indicated by ova having no detectable critical transition temperature, maintaining their water-proofing function as temperature rises. The observed "clustering" behavior had no desiccation-avoidance benefit and ova from the wild populations behaved almost identically to the ova from the lab colony, although the lab ova were slightly larger and more sensitive to dehydration. Given this new information, there appears to be no heat- or water-stress barriers for the dispersal of this devastating pest at the ovum stage. PMID:23575027

Rigsby, Chad M; Cipollini, Don; Amstutz, Evan M; Smith, Terrance J; Yoder, Jay A

2013-04-01

215

Heterogeneous Films of Ionotropic Hydrogels Fabricated From Delivery Templates of Patterned Paper  

PubMed Central

The use of delivery templates makes it possible to fabricate shaped, millimeter-thick heterogeneously patterned films of ionotropic hydrogels. These structures include 2-D patterns of a polymer cross-linked by different ions (e.g., alginic acid cross-linked with Ca2+ and Fe3+) and patterns of step-gradients in the concentration of a single cross-linking ion. The delivery templates consist of stacked sheets of chromatography paper patterned with hydrophobic barriers (waterproof tape, transparency film, or toner deposited by a color laser printer). Each layer of paper serves as a reservoir for a different solution of cross-linking ions, while the hydrophobic barriers prevent solutions on adjacent sheets from mixing. Holes cut through the sheets expose different solutions of cross-linking ions to the surface of the templates. Films with shaped regions of hydrogels cross-linked by paramagnetic ions can be oriented with a bar magnet. Variations in the concentrations of cations used to cross-link the gel can control the mechanical properties of the film: for single alginate films composed of areas cross-linked with different concentrations of Fe3+, the regions cross-linked with high concentrations of Fe3+ are more rigid than regions cross-linked with low concentrations of Fe3+. The heterogeneous hydrogel films can be used to culture bacteria in various 2-D designs. The pattern of toxic and nontoxic ions used to cross-link the polymer determines the pattern of viable colonies of E. coli within the film.

Bracher, Paul J.; Gupta, Malancha; Mack, Eric T.; Whitesides, George M.

2009-01-01

216

Rainfall interception by the vegetation in a Mediterranean type climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of rainfall interception by the canopy of the vegetation is of great importance in the basin water balance, because a large part returns to the atmosphere as evaporation. The presence or absence of vegetation not only affects the amount of rainfall that reaches the ground level also affects the moisture content in soil and surface runoff. In arid or semiarid regions there are few studies related to the Mediterranean vegetation and its relationship to hydrological processes. Furthermore, most studies have characterized the interception by rainfall simulators in the laboratory. The aim of this study was to evaluate in situ the amount and distribution of rainfall through the process of interception by the canopy of trees and shrubs present in the hydrologic watershed of "The Cabril" (Córdoba, southern Spain). The predominant vegetation is scrub, composed mostly of rockrose (Cistus ladanifer), and arboreal formations of tree pines (Pinus pinea). The record of precipitation was performed using a rain gauge tipping bowl Eijkelkamp mark during periods of rain occurred in 2010 and 2011. The amount of precipitation intercepted by the canopy has been determined indirectly from the difference between incident precipitation and rain that passes through the canopy of vegetation, which is divided into the flow of throughfall and cortical flow. To measure the throughfall the soil surface was waterproofed. Throughfall volume that is generated after each rain event is collected in four tanks of 200 liters capacity interconnected. For measurement of cortical flow a spiral hose previously cut lengthwise was placed around the trunk in the case of tree pines. In rockrose, a container was installed around it at its base. Monitoring soil moisture was determined by moisture probes 6 Delta-T SM200 randomly distributed, which records the water content of the topsoil. Compared with rockrose, there is a higher percentage of interception in pine and lowest percentage of cortical runoff. This is due to the architecture of the rockrose and the resin secreted by the stem and leaves, acting as a water repellent and reducing the retention of intercepted rainfall. Besides, in both species decreases the capacity of interception with increasing rainfall.

Moreno-Pérez, M. F.; Roldán-Cañas, J.; Cienfuegos, I.

2012-04-01

217

Pesticide personal protective clothing.  

PubMed

A fairly large established data base provides information on clothing worn by U.S. and Canadian farmers to work with pesticides, their attitudes and beliefs about pesticide risk, and clothing as a dermal barrier. Very limited similar data are available for farmers in less developed countries. Clearly, farmers perceive the benefits of pesticides to far exceed any risks. While few report poisoning symptoms, most believe that their usual work clothing offers a sufficient pesticide barrier, and few wear special-purpose protective clothing. Gloves of various materials, including cotton and leather, appear to be the major protective clothing item. Although farmers feel that their usual work clothing provides excellent protection, fabric penetration research does not support this. Shirting-weight fabrics offer some limited protection against light spray of field-strenght pesticides. Heavier-weight fabrics, such as denim and twill, are better barriers. With a heavier spray or a spill, usual work clothing does not give sufficient protection. Greater protection can usually be achieved with the use of a fluorocarbon finished fabric, such as Scotchgard or Zepel. Scotchgard can readily be applied at home. A durable-press finish does not appear to improve fabric's pesticide-barrier resistance and some data suggest that it may decrease barrier properties. A second alternative for increased protection is the use of a special-purpose fabric, such as a coated nonwoven or possibly Gore-Tex. Numerous other new "waterproof breathable" fabrics have recently come to the market. Many of these are finished or coated fabrics and one would expect them to be at least somewhat resistant to pesticides. However, they have not been tested. Wearing an additional layer also appears to be another clothing strategy to minimize exposure. Fabric penetration research also shows that pesticide formulation, volume or spray regime, concentration, and active ingredients influence the barrier properties of fabrics. Clothing evaluation studies have shown that protective clothing and coveralls of various materials and designs were effective in reducing exposure. Results of some of these studies suggested that the farmer's typical work clothing was more effective than fabric penetration results suggested. This apparent conflict is not surprising, given the methods used in both types of research. The field studies use pads placed in various areas under the clothing. This method assumes that exposure is uniform over entire body regions. But fluorescent tracer research has shown that this is not a valid assumption (DeJonge et al. 1985; Fenske 1988). Also, the way in which the pads are attached may make a difference, although no research has examined this issue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1771275

Branson, D H; Sweeney, M

1991-01-01

218

Alone in Kano.  

PubMed

The Federal Ministry of Health of Nigeria needs to support the prevention of VVF disease in girls and the care of those already afflicted. One 8-bed ward at Kano General Hospital has treated VVF patients since 1987. The ward is staffed by 1 doctor and 2 nurses. Since the doctor is in attendance on only Mondays and Tuesdays, only 8 operations may be completed per week. His salary is paid by the Ford Foundation and not the Ministry of Health, while the lack of resources demands that he use implements and operating materials bought by patients. The Ministry of Social Welfare agreed to provide free lodging for patients who come for treatment in Kano. A hostel was therefore established to house 30 patients in 2 dormitories. The facility was conceived as a halfway house for VVF patients awaiting treatment and recuperating from treatment. Literacy classes are organized for the girls by the National Commission for Women. The steady supply of incoming patients and their subsequent slow turnover, however, have swollen the halfway house population to 80 at last visit. These girls often reside in the house for years while waiting for and recuperating from multiple operations against VVF. An additional doctor is sorely needed to treat patients at the clinic. Moreover, funds are needed to expand the hostel; to replace the 8 year-old patient transport bus; and to procure more waterproof materials and nappies to contain leaking urine from patients' bladders and protect the mattresses. The women also need opportunities to earn personal income while in the hostel. It is suggested that increasing the prevalence and improving the quality of antenatal care while reducing the occurrence of home deliveries will help reduce the incidence of VVF. Striking more at the root of the problem, information, education, and communication could stress to parents the value of education and functional literacy for girls. School-age girls can be encouraged to make soaps, pomade, arts and crafts for sale after school. Girls who would otherwise be married off by parents at extremely young ages can therefore remain in the household and contribute to the ongoing income of their families. Although families may receive significant sums of money for their young daughters, the long-term financial outlay for the family to care for them once they develop VVF is greater. PMID:12318636

Olunloyo, S

219

Measurement of ionization chamber absorbed dose k{sub Q} factors in megavoltage photon beams  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Absorbed dose beam quality conversion factors (k{sub Q} factors) were obtained for 27 different types of ionization chamber. The aim was to obtain objective evidence on the performance of a wide range of chambers currently available, and potentially used for reference dosimetry, and to investigate the accuracy of the k{sub Q} calculation algorithm used in the TG-51 protocol. Methods: Measurements were made using the {sup 60}Co irradiator and Elekta Precise linac facilities at the National Research Council of Canada. The objective was to characterize the chambers over the range of energies applicable to TG-51 and determine whether each chamber met the requirements of a reference-class instrument. Chamber settling, leakage current, ion recombination and polarity, and waterproofing sleeve effects were investigated, and absorbed dose calibration coefficients were obtained for {sup 60}Co and 6, 10, and 25 MV photon beams. Only thimble-type chambers were considered in this investigation and were classified into three groups: (i) Reference chambers (''standard''0.6 cm{sup 3} Farmer-type chambers and their derivatives traditionally used for beam output calibration); (ii) scanning chambers (typically 0.1 cm{sup 3} volume chambers used for beam commissioning with 3-D scanning phantoms); and (iii) microchambers (very small volume ion chambers ({<=}0.01 cm{sup 3}) used for small field dosimetry). Results: As might be expected, 0.6 cm{sup 3} thimble chambers showed the most predictable performance and experimental k{sub Q} factors were obtained with a relative uncertainty of 0.1%. The performance of scanning and microchambers was somewhat variable. Some chambers showed very good behavior but others showed anomalous polarity and recombination corrections that are not fully explained at present. For the well-behaved chambers, agreement between measured and calculated k{sub Q} factors was within 0.4%; for some chambers, differences of more than 1% were seen that may be related to the recombination/polarity results. Use of such chambers could result in significant errors in the determination of reference dose in the clinic. Conclusions: Based on the experimental evidence obtained here, specification for a reference-class ionization chamber could be developed that would minimize the error in using a dosimetry protocol with calculated beam quality conversion factors. The experimental k{sub Q} data obtained here for a wide range of thimble chambers can be used when choosing suitable detectors for reference dosimetry and are intended to be used in the upcoming update/addendum to the AAPM TG-51 dosimetry protocol.

McEwen, Malcolm R. [Institute for National Measurement Standards, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)

2010-05-15

220

Ref Tek Ultra-low Power Seismic Recorder With Low-cost High Speed Internet Telemetry U An Advanced Real-time Seismological Data Acquisition System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3rd Generation Seismic Recorder, Model 130-01, has been designed to be easier to use - more compact, lighter in weight, lower power, and requires less maintenance than other recorders. Not only is the hardware optimized for field deployments, soft- ware tools as well have been specially developed to support both field and base station operation. The 130's case is a clamshell design, inherently waterproof, with easy access to all user features on the top of the unit. The 130 has 6 input/output connectors, an LCD display, and a removable lid on top of the case. There are two Channel input connectors on a 6-channel unit (only one on a 3-channel unit), a Terminal connector for setup and control, a Net connector combining Ethernet and Serial PPP for network access, a 12 VDC Power connector, and a GPS receiver connector. The LCD display allows the user to monitor the status of various sub systems within the 130 without having a terminal device attached. For storing large amounts of data the IBM MicrodriveTM is offered. User setup, control and status monitoring is done either with a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) (Palm OS compatible) using our Palm Field Controller (PFC) software or from a PC/workstation using our REF TEK Network Controller (RNC) GUI interface. StarBand VSAT is the premier two-way, always-on, high-speed satellite Internet ser- vice. StarBand means high-speed Internet without the constraints and congestion of land-based cable or telephone networks. StarBand uses a single satellite dish antenna for receiving and for sending dataUno telephone connection is needed. The hardware ° cost is much less than standard VSAT equipment with double or single hop transmis- sion. REF TEK protocol (RTP) provides end-to-end error-correcting data transmission and command/control. StarBandSs low cost VSAT provides two-way, always-on, high speed satellite Internet data availability. REF TEK and StarBand create the most ad- vanced real-time seismological data acquisition system. 1 Results of data transmission and availability is discussed. 2

Passmore, P.; Zimakov, L.; Rozhkov, M.

221

Variations on a theme: diversification of cuticular hydrocarbons in a clade of cactophilic Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Background We characterized variation and chemical composition of epicuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) in the seven species of the Drosophila buzzatii cluster with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Despite the critical role of CHCs in providing resistance to desiccation and involvement in communication, such as courtship behavior, mating, and aggregation, few studies have investigated how CHC profiles evolve within and between species in a phylogenetic context. We analyzed quantitative differences in CHC profiles in populations of the D. buzzatii species cluster in order to assess the concordance of CHC differentiation with species divergence. Results Thirty-six CHC components were scored in single fly extracts with carbon chain lengths ranging from C29 to C39, including methyl-branched alkanes, n-alkenes, and alkadienes. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that CHC amounts were significantly different among all species and canonical discriminant function (CDF) analysis resolved all species into distinct, non-overlapping groups. Significant intraspecific variation was found in different populations of D. serido suggesting that this taxon is comprised of at least two species. We summarized CHC variation using CDF analysis and mapped the first five CHC canonical variates (CVs) onto an independently derived period (per) gene + chromosome inversion + mtDNA COI gene for each sex. We found that the COI sequences were not phylogenetically informative due to introgression between some species, so only per + inversion data were used. Positive phylogenetic signal was observed mainly for CV1 when parsimony methods and the test for serial independence (TFSI) were used. These results changed when no outgroup species were included in the analysis and phylogenetic signal was then observed for female CV3 and/or CV4 and male CV4 and CV5. Finally, removal of divergent populations of D. serido significantly increased the amount of phylogenetic signal as up to four out of five CVs then displayed positive phylogenetic signal. Conclusions CHCs were conserved among species while quantitative differences in CHC profiles between populations and species were statistically significant. Most CHCs were species-, population-, and sex-specific. Mapping CHCs onto an independently derived phylogeny revealed that a significant portion of CHC variation was explained by species' systematic affinities indicating phylogenetic conservatism in the evolution of these hydrocarbon arrays, presumptive waterproofing compounds and courtship signals as in many other drosophilid species.

2011-01-01

222

Coastal Seafloor Observatory Of The East China Sea At Xiaoqushan And Its Primary Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seafloor observation system becomes increasingly important infrastructure in ocean sciences, which transforms oceanic research from temporal investigation to long term observation. The East China Sea coastal seafloor observatory, located between 30°31'44"N,122°15'12"E and 30°31'34"N,122°14'40"E, is built near the Xiaoqushan island outside the Yangtze River estuary, on the inner East China Sea continental shelf. The East China Sea coastal seafloor observatory is part of the East China Sea seafloor observational network. The observatory consists of a composite power cable made of optical fiber and extending for more than 1 kilometer and a special junction box, which provide power and signal communication for different instruments. The special junction box, which has various waterproof plugs, connects to three different instruments installed in a trawl preventer. The submarine optical fiber composite power cable is landed on the platform by The East China Sea Branch, State Oceanic Administration of the People’s Republic of China, and the power is continuously supplied by the solar panels and solar battery on the top of the platform. The real time data are directly sent through the cable to the platform and are transmitted by CDMA wireless to the receiver at the State Key Laboratory of Marine Geology of Tongji University. Measurements at the observatory have been taken since 26 April, 2009. The observations include current speeds and their directions at different depths, suspended sediment concentration, temperature and salinity nearby the seabed. The more than one year preliminary results show that the current field and fine suspended sediment transport of East China Sea are complex and show considerable seasonal variation affected by the integrated influence of Changjiang diluted water, Taiwan warm current and the Yellow Sea coastal current. The successful establishment of the coastal seafloor observatory is the first step toward future development of the East China Sea seafloor observational network. It not only accumulates experiences in technology and engineering, but also paves the way for performing important sciences using the long term continuous observation platform.

Xu, H.; Xu, C.; Qin, R.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, H.

2010-12-01

223

A novel Multi-Fiber Optode sensor system (MuFO) for monitoring oxygen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the marine environment, dissolved oxygen concentrations often vary significantly spatially as well as temporally. Monitoring these variations is essential for our understanding of the biological and chemical processes controlling the oxygen dynamics in water columns and sediments. Such investigations require a high number of measuring points and a high temporal resolution. A Multi-Fiber Optode sensor system (MuFO) was designed to assess these requirements. The MuFO system simultaneously controls 100 fiber optodes enabling continuous monitoring of oxygen in 100 positions within a 5-10m radius. The measurements are based on quenching of an oxygen sensitive luminophore, which is immobilised at the end of each fiber optode. The optical oxygen measurements are based on lifetime-imaging, which are converted into oxygen concentrations using a multipoint calibration. At a constant temperature of 21C, the system overall had a mean accuracy of 1.3%, a precision of 0.2% air saturation, the average 90% response time was 16 seconds and the detection limit was 0.1% air saturation. The MuFO set-up was build into a waterproof titanium casing for marine field applications. The system is battery-powered and has a maximum operational capacity of 15 hours for continuous measurements. The MuFO system was recently used for various research tasks in the marine environment: Mounted on a lander, the in situ MuFO system was used for investigations of oxygen dynamics in marine water columns placing the fiber optodes in a vertical line on a 7m high pole. For studies of oxygen dynamics in marine wetland rhizospheres, the sensing ends of the fiber optodes were covered with a 50cm protective sleeve made from stainless steel tubing, and the sensors were manually pushed into the rhizosphere. For laboratory measurements of sediment oxygen demand, the MuFO system was used to simultaneously monitor the oxygen consumption in multiple sediment slurry incubations. The MuFO system proved to be a useful tool for field studies as well as in the laboratory and the system has multiple applications in marine research. This work was supported by the 7th framework EU-projects SENSEnet and HYPOX.

Koop-Jakobsen, K.; Fischer, J.; Wenzhöfer, F.

2012-04-01

224

Characterization of a new MOSFET detector configuration for in vivo skin dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

The dose released to the patient skin during a radiotherapy treatment is important when the skin is an organ at risk, or on the contrary, is included in the target volume. Since most treatment planning programs do not predict dose within several millimeters of the body surface, it is important to have a method to verify the skin dose for the patient who is undergoing radiotherapy. A special type of metal oxide semiconductors field-effect transistors (MOSFET) was developed to perform in vivo skin dosimetry for radiotherapy treatments. Water-equivalent depth (WED), both manufacturing and sensor reproducibility, dependence on both field size and angulation of the sensor were investigated using 6 MV photon beams. Patient skin dosimetries were performed during 6 MV total body irradiations (TBI). The resulting WEDs ranged from 0.04 and 0.15 mm (0.09 mm on average). The reproducibility of the sensor response, for doses of 50 cGy, was within {+-}2% (maximum deviation) and improves with increasing sensitivity or dose level. As to the manufacturing reproducibility, it was found to be {+-}0.055 mm. No WED dependence on the field size was verified, but possible variations of this quantity with the field size could be hidden by the assessment uncertainty. The angular dependence, for both phantom-surface and in-air setups, when referred to the mean response, is within {+-}27% until 80 deg. rotations. The results of the performed patient skin dosimetries showed that, normally, our TBI setup was suitable to give skin the prescribed dose, but, for some cases, interventions were necessary: as a consequence the TBI setup was corrected. The water-equivalent depth is, on average, less than the thinnest thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). In addition, when compared with TLDs, the skin MOSFETs have significant advantages, like immediate both readout and reuse, as well as the permanent storage of dose. These sensors are also waterproof. The in vivo dosimetries performed prove the importance of verifying the dose to the skin of the patient undergoing radiotherapy.

Scalchi, Paolo; Francescon, Paolo; Rajaguru, Priyadarshini [Department of Medical Physics, San Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza (Italy)

2005-06-15

225

[Water births and the exposure to HIV].  

PubMed

The risk of a work related HIV-exposure or infection to midwives, or other HCW, in attending waterbirths of (possible unrecognized) HIV-positive women is unknown. Our goal was the quantification of the loss of blood of the childbearing woman after a waterbirth into the waterpool, in taking pool-water-samples of 14 different waterbirths and measuring the hemoglobin in the plasma, and then correlating the mean found loss of blood and the mean quantity of poolwater with a hypothetical HIV-RNA viral load of 10(3)-10(6) copies per milliliters (ml) blood. All attended waterbirths were evaluated with a questionnaire regarding: parity of the child-bearing woman; serostatus for HIV/Hepatitis-B (HBV) and Hepatitis-C (HCV); length of the birth-process; perineum-rupture or not, etc. Questions concerning the HCW in implementing universal precautions like: type of gloves and garment used, if at all; duration of water contact with the hands; existing skin lesions; HBV-vaccination-status; years of professional experiences as a midwife; how many waterbirths attended etc. were also evaluated. The mean calculated loss of blood into the pool was 300 ml, the mean pool-water content 633 liters. With a hypothetical (maximal) HIV-RNA viral load of 10(6) copies per ml blood, we calculated a mean HIV-RNA viral load of 476 copies per ml pool-water. We also found 37% of the interviewed midwives (n = 14) to have skin lesions on hands or fingers; 1 received splashes into her (unprotected) face and 1 was not immunized against HBV. The mean loss of blood of 300 ml into the pool is a relevant amount. The skin-contact of the HCW with the potentially contaminated water is the norm, because of the failure of the type of used gloves. Because of the diluting effect of the poolwater, we estimate the potential risk for a HIV-exposure to intact skin as minimal and, therefore a potential HIV-infection as "low level" and to be unlikely. However, a risk for nosocomial HBV-infection is significantly higher. We recommend wearing long-sleeved gloves, waterproofed garment, and HBV-vaccination to all HCW. PMID:10969581

Colombo, C; Pei, P; Jost, J

2000-06-01

226

Energy balance measurements over a small reservoir in Ghana's Upper East Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near the small village of Binaba (10.778927 deg N, 0.464859 deg E), a small irrigation reservoir has been instrumented to measure different parts of the energy balance of this water body. Instruments were placed on, or attached to, a spar platform. This platform consisted of a long PVC pipe, the spar, which is closed at the bottom. On the PVC pipe rests an aluminum frame platform that carries instrumentation and solar power panel. In turn, the platform rests partially on a large inflated tire. At the bottom of the PVC pipe, lead weights and batteries were placed to ensure a very low point of gravity to minimize wave impact on the platform movement. The tire ensures a large second moment of the water plane. The combination of large second momentum of the water plane and small displacement, ensures a high placement of the metacenter. The distance between the point of gravity and the metacenter is relatively long and the weight is large due to the weights and batteries. This ensures that the eigenfrequency of the platform is very low. On the platform, we fixed a WindMaster Pro (sonic anemometer for 3D wind speed and air temperature to perform eddy covariance measurements of sensible heat flux), a NR Lite (net radiometer), and air temperature and relative humidity sensors. Water temperature at different depths was measured with a string of TidbiT's (waterproof temperature sensors and loggers). The platform had a wind vane and the spar could turn freely around its anchor cable to ensure that the anemometer always faced upwind. A compass in the logger completed this setup. First results suggest, as expected, that the sensible heat flux is relatively small with on average 20 W/m2 over the course of a day. Sensible heat flux peaked around midnight at 35 W/m2, when the warm water warmed up the air from the colder surrounding land. The dynamics of heat storage during the daytime and longwave radiation during the night time, are important to calculate the latent heat flux.

van de Giesen, Nick; Ohene Annor, Frank

2013-04-01

227

Consistency in reference radiotherapy dosimetry: resolution of an apparent conundrum when 60Co is the reference quality for charged-particle and photon beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Substantial changes in ion chamber perturbation correction factors in 60Co ?-rays, suggested by recent Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, would cause a decrease of about 1.5% in the reference dosimetry of all types of charged particles (electrons, protons and heavier ions) based on calculated kQ values. It has gone largely unnoticed that the ratio of calibration coefficients ND, w, Co60 and NK, air, Co60 yields an experimental value of Fch, Co60 =?(sw-air?pch)Co60 through ND, air, Co60. Coefficients provided by the IAEA and traceable to the BIPM for 91 NE-2571 chambers result in an average Fch, Co60 which is compared with published (and new) MC simulations and with the value in IAEA TRS-398. It is shown that TRS-398 agrees within 0.12% with the experimental Fch, Co60. The 1.5% difference resulting from MC calculations (1.1% for the new simulations) cannot be justified using current fundamental data and BIPM standards if consistency in the entire dosimetry chain is sought. For photons, MC kQ factors are compared with TRS-398. Using the same uncertainty for Wair, the two sets of data overlap considerably. Experimental kQ values from standards laboratories lie between the two sets of calculated values, showing no preference for one set over the other. Observed chamber-to-chamber differences, that include the effect of waterproof sleeves (also seen for 60Co), justify the recommendation in TRS-398 for kQ values specifically measured for the user chamber. Current developments on I-values for the stopping powers of water and graphite are presented. A weighted average Iwater = 78 ± 2?eV is obtained from published experimental and DRF-based values; this would decrease sw-air for all types of radiotherapy beams between 0.3% and 0.6%, and would consequently decrease the MC derived Fch, Co60. The implications of a recent proposal for Igraphite = 81?eV are analysed, resulting in a potential decrease of 0.7% in NK, air, Co60 which would raise the experimental Fch, Co60; this would result in an increase of about 0.8% in the current TRS-398 value when referred to the BIPM standards. MC derived Fch, Co60 using new stopping powers would then agree at a level of 0.1% with the experimental value, confirming the need for consistency in the dosimetry chain data. Should world average standards be used as reference, the figures would become +0.4% for TRS-398 and -0.3% for the MC calculation. Fch, Q calculated for megavoltage photons using new stopping powers would decrease by between 0.2% and 0.5%. When they enter as a ratios in kQ, differences with MC values based on current key data would be within 0.2% but their discrepancy with kQ experimental photon values remains unresolved. For protons the new data would require an increase in Wair, Q of about 0.6%, as this is inferred from a combination of calorimetry and ionometry. This consistent scenario would leave unchanged the current TRS-398 kQ (NE-2571) data for protons, as well as for ions heavier than protons unless new independent Wair, Q values become available. Also in these advanced radiotherapy modalities, the need for maintaining data consistency in an analysis that unavoidably must include the complete dosimetry chain is demonstrated.

Andreo, Pedro; Wulff, Jörg; Burns, David T.; Palmans, Hugo

2013-10-01

228

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using semitendinosus and gracilis tendons, bone patellar tendon, or quadriceps tendon-graft with press-fit fixation without hardware. A new and innovative procedure.  

PubMed

BONE--PATELLAR TENDON: The "no hardware" technique for ACL reconstruction is a new method that offers many advantages and is straightforward to perform. Its main innovative feature is that it does not require bone-block harvesting from the patella. This reduces donor site morbidity and prevents patellar fractures. The bone tunnels are made using tube harvesters and compaction drilling. This minimizes trauma and obviates the risk of bone necrosis. The articular entrance of the tibial tunnel is completely occupied by the grafts. This prevents a windshield-wiper effect and synovial fluid ingress into the tunnel, and enhances graft incorporation. The fact that no hardware is used with both patellar tendon or hamstring grafts significantly reduces the overall cost of the operation and facilitates revision surgery. The quadriceps tendon is also a very good graft. It is thick and has good biomechanical properties and low donor site morbidity. Its disadvantages are: weakness of quadriceps after the operation, an unsightly scar, and some difficulty in graft harvesting [58]. Also, postoperative MRI is not fraught with the problem of metal artifacts. It is difficult to decide which of the methods currently available for ACL reconstruction is the best because most of them give satisfactory results. In the future, assessments of knee ligament reconstruction techniques should look at long-term stability combined with low complication rates. Ease of revision surgery and low cost should also be taken into consideration, given the large annual volume of knee ligament reconstructions (50,000 in the United States alone) [59]. We believe that our technique addresses most of these issues, and that it constitutes a useful alternative method for ACL reconstruction. SEMITENDINOSUS--GRACILIS: This technique, which was used with 915 patients from June 1998 to February 2002, shows a particularly low rate of postoperative morbidity. The reason is probably to be found in the "waterproofing" of the bone tunnels, which lead to less postoperative bleeding and swelling. No drains were used. Rehabilitation follows the same protocol as used for the reconstruction using patellar tendon grafts (accelerated/functional). As expected, there was no widening of the femoral tunnels and little widening of the tibial tunnels. Interestingly, tibial tunnel enlargement was significantly less in a nonaccelarated rehabilitation group than in the accelerated group [60] without affecting stability. The measured internal torque of the hamstrings, as well as their flexion force, already had returned to normal 12 months postoperatively. In a prospective randomized (unpublished) study comparing this technique with ACL reconstruction with BPT grafts with medial or lateral third with only one bone plug (from the tibial tuberosity, see technique described above), we found no significant difference between both groups in subjective scores, stability, KT-1000 values, Tegner activity score, and IKDC at 1-year follow-up. Only the results of kneeling and knee walking testing were significantly better in the hamstring group [61]. In summary, the advantages of this presented technique are: (1) the knot of the graft is close proximally to the anatomic site of the insertion of the ACL, thus avoiding the Bungee effect.; (2) the press-fit tunnel fixation prevents synovial fluid entering the bone tunnels, windshield-wiper effect, and longitudinal motion within the tunnel; the intensive contact between the bony wall of the tunnel and graft collagen over a long distance without any suture material results in quick and complete graft incorporation; and (3) no fixation material means no hardware problems, facilitates revision surgery, and lowers overall costs. PMID:12735201

Paessler, Hans H; Mastrokalos, Dimitrios S

2003-01-01

229

Strain gage installation and survivability on geosynthetics used in flexible pavements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of foil type strain gages on geosynthetics is poorly documented. In addition, very few individuals are versed in proper installation techniques or calibration methods. Due to the limited number of knowledgeable technicians there is no information regarding the susceptibility of theses gages to errors in installation by inexperienced installers. Also lacking in the documentation related to the use of foil type strain gages on geosynthetics is the survivability of the gages in field conditions. This research documented procedures for installation, calibration, and survivability used by the project team to instruments a full scale field installation in Marked Tree, AR. This research also addressed sensitivity to installation errors on both geotextile and geogrid. To document the process of gage installation an experienced technician, Mr. Joe Ables, formerly of the UASCE Waterways Experiment Station, was consulted. His techniques were combined with those discovered in related literature and those developed by the research team to develop processes that were adaptable to multiple gage geometries and parent geosynthetics. These processes were described and documented in a step by step manner with accompanying photographs, which should allow virtually anyone with basic electronics knowledge to install these gages properly. Calibration of the various geosynthetic / strain gage combinations was completed using wide width tensile testing on multiple samples of each material. The tensile testing process was documented and analyzed using digital photography to analyze strain on the strain gage itself. Calibration factors for each geosynthtics used in the full scale field testing were developed. In addition, the process was thoroughly documented to allow future researchers to calibrate additional strain gage and geosynthetic combinations. The sensitivity of the strain gages to installation errors was analyzed using wide width tensile testing and digital photography to determine the variability of the data collected from gages with noticeable installation errors as compared to properly installed gages. Induced errors varied based on the parent geosynthetics material, but included excessive and minimal waterproofing, gage rotation, gage shift, excessive and minimal adhesive, and excessive and minimal adhesive impregnation loads. The results of this work indicated that minor errors in geotextile gage installation that are noticeable and preventable by the experienced installer have no statistical significance on the data recorded during the life span of geotextile gages; however the lifespan of the gage may be noticeably shortened by such errors. Geogrid gage installation errors were found to cause statistically significant changes in the data recorded from improper installations. The issue of gage survivability was analyzed using small scale test sections instrumented and loaded similarly to field conditions anticipated during traditional roadway construction. Five methods of protection were tested for both geotextile and geogrid including a sand blanket, inversion, semi-hemispherical PCV sections, neoprene mats, and geosynthetic wick drain. Based on this testing neoprene mats were selected to protect geotextile installed gages, and wick drains were selected to protect geogrid installed gages. These methods resulted in survivability rates of 73% and 100% in the full scale installation respectively. This research and documentation may be used to train technicians to install and calibrate geosynthetic mounted foil type strain gages. In addition, technicians should be able to install gages in the field with a high probability of gage survivability using the protection methods recommended.

Brooks, Jeremy A.

230

Adaptive prosthetics for the lower extremity.  

PubMed

The potential for lifestyle recovery is tremendous for most lower extremity amputees. The amazing and ever-expanding array of adaptive prosthetics can help make the devastating loss of amputation more bearable for patients, their families, and their health care team. The new amputee, in a state of shock and grief, does not know what his or her prosthetic options are. It is crucial that the surgeon is knowledgeable about what the patient can have and what the patient needs to ask for. Dana Bowman stated: Ideally, the new amputee should say to their doctor, "I'd like my leg to be lightweight, flexible, durable, comfortable. I want to do sports or I want to ride bikes with my kids." Whatever it is they like to do. I was told I would never be able to wear two dynamic feet and that my sky diving days were over. I said, "Well how do you know? Can't I try?" It took years to find out what I could have and then to find people to help me get it. The prosthetic prescription the physician writes is the patient's gateway to the kind of prosthetics that will enable him or her to pursue the activities of their life. Often, new amputees end up with the bare minimum prosthesis, which can cause problems with comfort and mobility. A poorly designed or badly fitting prosthesis is as disabling as the actual amputation. When the surgeon can help the amputee and his or her family understand what kind of prosthetic choices are available, it establishes an optimistic outlook that is highly beneficial to the entire recovery process physically and mentally. "When I lost my leg, if someone would have told me that I could at least try to run again, that would have meant a lot," said Brian Frasure. "Getting that positive mental attitude is every bit as important as having good medical and prosthetic care." By asking probing questions about the patient's preamputation lifestyle and postamputation goals, the physician can write a prescription for truly adaptive prosthetics. The surgeon should consider the economic benefits of asking for a waterproof leg for an older adult that he or she can use for more stability in the shower and that can go a long way toward preventing fracture and other injuries. There are economic considerations for a younger amputee, asking for an energy-storing foot or an adjustable ankle so that he or she can be more active and independent and probably avoid the health risks associated with depression, inactivity, or obesity. If all patients received a contoured, flexible, dynamic socket from the beginning, years of medical problems and treatment for injury to the residual limb could be avoided. The initial prosthetic prescription is probably the best opportunity the patient ever will have to get the adaptive prosthetics that can meet his or her needs best. It also establishes a precedent with the payer for quality prosthetic care and begins educating all payers about what prosthetic patients can and should have. Insurance companies may resist the idea of a second prosthesis or of specialized components that increase the cost of the initial prosthesis. Physicians, patients, and the multidisciplinary team can work together, however, to pursue the most complete prosthetic coverage possible. For the prosthetic user, it is the difference between being restored to a full and active life or sitting back and becoming a spectator. PMID:11488061

Carroll, K

2001-06-01

231

Transmediterranean flights,in the edge of two centuries.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transmediterranean flights program goal is to perform stratospheric balloons flights carrying scientific/technological payloads at 40 Km altitude and approximate 38°N latitude.ASI and INTA continued the early ASI-CNES-INTA program with several stratospheric flights since 1993.The network comprises three stations located at Trapani-Milo (Italy),Palma de Mallorca and El Arenosillo(Spain). Nine successful transmediterranean crossings were performed in this program stage. Four new transmediterranean flights are scheduled for summer 2002 .These include astronomical,biological and technological experiments .Beside , three local flights will be performed at Trapani-Milo next summer. Technical tracking that encompasses telemetry,telecommand and localization uses allocated UHF band,in the old classical and the new Mini Telemetry configurations. Flight qualification of a S-band TM/TC equipment was realised ,using local flights, in 1997 and 1998.In summer 2002,a S band flight will be realised over the Mediterranean with the UHF telemetry as a backup. A summary of system requirements , that would assure state-of-the-art open stratospheric balloons flights is presented . When flying over the Iberian Peninsula , the time of land overflight diminishes , in direct relationship , with the balloon drift toward the South.A latitude control , applied in our case , should enhance the flight feasibility. Trajectory predictions,must incorporate radiosoundings of more places,to take into account several possibilities of descent.Also El Arenosillo soundings ,usually three days a week,should be increased ,in order to validate the new atmospheric models. Beside altitude control handled mainly by the ballast , in the future "boomerang" flights of a transmediterranean scale,opening/closing of the valves will be used. Active floating system,comb ined with waterproof electronic and experiment boxes and a minimal time of arrival to the gondola , become critical points in case of an unplanned overwater descent for recovery.With regard to power storage subsystems Ni-H2,NiMH and Li-ion batteries,should be embarked onboard new flights to gain experiences,acting in this way,as in others,as a technological testbed of industry designs. Thermal control subsystems,should withstand the cycle sunrise-sunset-sunrise,if the usual 1 day flights are to be extended 10 hours , under the "boomerang" principle.In summer 2002 , a High Performance Gondola experiment will carry an azimuthal stabilization system using GPS phase variation.Parachutes employed were either in- dividual or a bunch of three,in the ASI-CNES-INTA program stage. A payload precision descent,involving GPS to aim at a preselected descent point,will help to reduce the risk index over land zones.

Cosentino, O.; Caballero, F.; Ibba, R.; Gerardi, G.; Cecchini, G.; Fernandez Abad, A.; Vazquez, M.

232

Biotic survival in the cryobiosphere on geological scale: implication for astro/terrestrial biogeoscience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In current opinion the most fundamental aspect of any environment, the temperature regime, acts as a regulator of all of the physical-chemical reactions and forms the basis of all biological processes. Now hard data indicate the biotic survival over geological periods from subzero temperatures (down to -27oC in permafrost and to -50oC in ice) to positive one in amber and halite. All these very different environments have, nevertheless, common features: complete isolation, stability and waterproof. In such unique physical-chemical complexes, the dehydration of macromolecules and the reorganization of membrane components apparently lead to a considerable decrease or stop of metabolic activity independently of temperature. This allowed the prolonged survival of ancient microbial lineage that realize unknown possibilities of physiological and biochemical adaptation incomparably longer than any other known habitat. The ability of microorganisms to survive on geological scale within the broad limits of natural systems forces us to redefine the spatial and temporal limits of the terrestrial and extraterrestrial biospheres and suggested that universal mechanisms of such adaptation might operate for millions of years. Among new scientific directions formed on this base, the most general is the fundamental question: how long the life might be preserved and what mechanisms could ensure survival? Because the length of lifetime cannot be reproduced, this highlights the natural storages that make possible the observation of the results of biotic survival on geological scale. Of special interest is the interaction of knowledge to understanding of the limits of the deep cold biosphere as a depository of ancient active biosignatures (biogases, biominerals, pigments, lipids, enzymes, proteins, RNA/DNA fragments) and viable cells. The last are the only known a huge mass of organisms that have retained viability over geological periods and upon thawing, renew physiological activity and exposes ancient life to modern ecosystems. It is now possible for the first time to use actual functional indices of viable organisms and the most complete pollen spectrum based on RNA sequences for paleoreconstructions in the frozen mantle of the Earth. Unique to the permafrost, the good preservation DNA the wide implications may have the development of a microbiological time-scale using the progress in molecular biology. The phylogenetic trees of the same organisms from the modern layers to the several millions years old, will help to find out what are the differences among members of the same species as we go back in time. This would be a beginning of studies concerning the rate of evolution and biological clocks extending back the duration of the permanently frozen state in the soils and the age of biota. From an exobiological point of view, the terrestrial permafrost and ice, inhabited by cold adapted microbes and protecting the cells against unfavorable conditions can be considered as an extraterrestrial model. The cells and their metabolic end-products found in the Earth's permafrost provide a range of analogues that could be used in the search for possible ecosystems and potential inhabitants on extraterrestrial cryogenic bodies. If life should be found to have distribution in the Cosmos beyond the Earth and existed on other planets during the early stages of development, then its traces may consist of primitive cryogenic forms at the cell level within the extraterrestrial permanently frozen materials. That is more, it could be hypothesized, for example, that subsurface Martian permafrost might survive the genetic resources of preexisting life that vanished due the catastrophic events on the planet. The main difference between Earth's and Martian permafrost is their age: few million and few billion years, correspondingly. This difference in time scale have a significant impact on the possibility for life preservation and terrestrial frozen sediments inhabited by microbes are only approximate model for Mars. At the same time, viable microorganisms 40-2

Gilichinsky, D.

2003-04-01

233

Consistency in reference radiotherapy dosimetry: resolution of an apparent conundrum when (60)Co is the reference quality for charged-particle and photon beams.  

PubMed

Substantial changes in ion chamber perturbation correction factors in (60)Co ?-rays, suggested by recent Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, would cause a decrease of about 1.5% in the reference dosimetry of all types of charged particles (electrons, protons and heavier ions) based on calculated kQ values. It has gone largely unnoticed that the ratio of calibration coefficients ND, w, Co60 and NK, air, Co60 yields an experimental value of Fch, Co60 =?(sw-air?pch)Co60 through ND, air, Co60. Coefficients provided by the IAEA and traceable to the BIPM for 91 NE-2571 chambers result in an average Fch, Co60 which is compared with published (and new) MC simulations and with the value in IAEA TRS-398. It is shown that TRS-398 agrees within 0.12% with the experimental Fch, Co60. The 1.5% difference resulting from MC calculations (1.1% for the new simulations) cannot be justified using current fundamental data and BIPM standards if consistency in the entire dosimetry chain is sought. For photons, MC kQ factors are compared with TRS-398. Using the same uncertainty for Wair, the two sets of data overlap considerably. Experimental kQ values from standards laboratories lie between the two sets of calculated values, showing no preference for one set over the other. Observed chamber-to-chamber differences, that include the effect of waterproof sleeves (also seen for (60)Co), justify the recommendation in TRS-398 for kQ values specifically measured for the user chamber. Current developments on I-values for the stopping powers of water and graphite are presented. A weighted average Iwater = 78 ± 2?eV is obtained from published experimental and DRF-based values; this would decrease sw-air for all types of radiotherapy beams between 0.3% and 0.6%, and would consequently decrease the MC derived Fch, Co60. The implications of a recent proposal for Igraphite = 81?eV are analysed, resulting in a potential decrease of 0.7% in NK, air, Co60 which would raise the experimental Fch, Co60; this would result in an increase of about 0.8% in the current TRS-398 value when referred to the BIPM standards. MC derived Fch, Co60 using new stopping powers would then agree at a level of 0.1% with the experimental value, confirming the need for consistency in the dosimetry chain data. Should world average standards be used as reference, the figures would become +0.4% for TRS-398 and -0.3% for the MC calculation. Fch, Q calculated for megavoltage photons using new stopping powers would decrease by between 0.2% and 0.5%. When they enter as a ratios in kQ, differences with MC values based on current key data would be within 0.2% but their discrepancy with kQ experimental photon values remains unresolved. For protons the new data would require an increase in Wair, Q of about 0.6%, as this is inferred from a combination of calorimetry and ionometry. This consistent scenario would leave unchanged the current TRS-398 kQ (NE-2571) data for protons, as well as for ions heavier than protons unless new independent Wair, Q values become available. Also in these advanced radiotherapy modalities, the need for maintaining data consistency in an analysis that unavoidably must include the complete dosimetry chain is demonstrated. PMID:24018471

Andreo, Pedro; Wulff, Jörg; Burns, David T; Palmans, Hugo

2013-09-09

234

IMPROVED NATURAL GAS STORAGE WELL REMEDIATION  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the research conducted during Budget Period One on the project ''Improved Natural Gas Storage Well Remediation''. The project team consisted of Furness-Newburge, Inc., the technology developer; TechSavants, Inc., the technology validator; and Nicor Technologies, Inc., the technology user. The overall objectives for the project were: (1) To develop, fabricate and test prototype laboratory devices using sonication and underwater plasma to remove scale from natural gas storage well piping and perforations; (2) To modify the laboratory devices into units capable of being used downhole; (3) To test the capability of the downhole units to remove scale in an observation well at a natural gas storage field; (4) To modify (if necessary) and field harden the units and then test the units in two pressurized injection/withdrawal gas storage wells; and (5) To prepare the project's final report. This report covers activities addressing objectives 1-3. Prototype laboratory units were developed, fabricated, and tested. Laboratory testing of the sonication technology indicated that low-frequency sonication was more effective than high-frequency (ultrasonication) at removing scale and rust from pipe sections and tubing. Use of a finned horn instead of a smooth horn improves energy dispersal and increases the efficiency of removal. The chemical data confirmed that rust and scale were removed from the pipe. The sonication technology showed significant potential and technical maturity to warrant a field test. The underwater plasma technology showed a potential for more effective scale and rust removal than the sonication technology. Chemical data from these tests also confirmed the removal of rust and scale from pipe sections and tubing. Focusing of the underwater plasma's energy field through the design and fabrication of a parabolic shield will increase the technology's efficiency. Power delivered to the underwater plasma unit by a sparkplug repeatedly was interrupted by sparkplug failure. The lifecycle for the plugs was less than 10 hours. An electrode feed system for delivering continuous power needs to be designed and developed. As a result, further work on the underwater plasma technology was terminated. It needs development of a new sparking system and a redesign of the pulsed power supply system to enable the unit to operate within a well diameter of less than three inches. Both of these needs were beyond the scope of the project. Meanwhile, the laboratory sonication unit was waterproofed and hardened, enabling the unit to be used as a field prototype, operating at temperatures to 350 F and depths of 15,000 feet. The field prototype was extensively tested at a field service company's test facility before taking it to the field site. The field test was run in August 2001 in a Nicor Gas storage field observation well at Pontiac, Illinois. Segmented bond logs, gamma ray neutron logs, water level measurements and water chemistry samples were obtained before and after the downhole demonstration. Fifteen tests were completed in the field. Results from the water chemistry analysis showed an increase in the range of calcium from 1755-1984 mg/l before testing to 3400-4028 mg/l after testing. For magnesium, the range increased from 285-296 mg/l to 461-480 mg/l. The change in pH from a range of 3.11-3.25 to 8.23-8.45 indicated a buffering of the acidic well water, probably due to the increased calcium available for buffering. The segmented bond logs showed no damage to the cement bond in the well and the gamma ray neutron log showed no increase in the amount of hydrocarbons present in the formation where the testing took place. Thus, the gas storage bubble in the aquifer was not compromised. A review of all the field test data collected documents the fact that the application of low-frequency sonication technology definitely removes scale from well pipe. Phase One of this project took sonication technology from the concept stage through a successful ''proof-of-concept'' downhole application in a natural gas storage field

James C. Furness; Donald O. Johnson; Michael L. Wilkey; Lynn Furness; Keith Vanderlee; P. David Paulsen

2001-12-01