Sample records for waterproofing

  1. Nano Waterproofing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    IEEE

    2013-07-30

    This lesson focuses on how nanotechnology has impacted the design and engineering of many everyday items from paint to fabrics. Learners explore the hydrophobic effect and how similar properties can be introduced by reengineering products at the nano level. Learners work in teams to develop a waterproof material and compare their results with nano waterproof materials developed recently by engineers and scientists.

  2. TryEngineering: Nano Waterproofing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-27

    This is a lesson plan that explores how nanotechnology has impacted the design and engineering of many everyday items, from paint to fabrics. Students learn about the hydrophobic effect (the tendency of a substance to repel water). In this lesson for Grades 6-10, students learn about nanotechnology and its application in creating waterproof surfaces. They will then work in teams to develop a waterproof material and compare their results with nano waterproof materials developed recently by engineers and scientists. The driving question of the lesson: How are products re-engineered at the nano level to develop desired properties? The lesson includes objectives and learner outcomes, problem sets, student guides, recommended reading, illustrated procedures, worksheets, and background information. Editor's Note: The humble lotus leaf is one of nature's most water-repellant surfaces. That's because its surface sculpture has a very high static contact angle with water droplets. It features randomly oriented tiny wax tubules on top of convex-shaped cells. See Related Materials for links to an article from Scientific American describing how the lotus leaf has inspired the production of waterproofing materials, and for a link to a helpful scholarly article on Sculptured Biological Surfaces with Anti-Adhesive Properties. This collection is part of TryEngineering.org, a website maintained by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

  3. 49 CFR 192.189 - Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing. 192.189...Design of Pipeline Components § 192.189 Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing. (a) Each vault must be designed so as to minimize the...

  4. 49 CFR 192.189 - Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing. 192.189...Design of Pipeline Components § 192.189 Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing. (a) Each vault must be designed so as to minimize the...

  5. 49 CFR 192.189 - Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing. 192.189...Design of Pipeline Components § 192.189 Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing. (a) Each vault must be designed so as to minimize the...

  6. 49 CFR 192.189 - Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing. 192.189...Design of Pipeline Components § 192.189 Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing. (a) Each vault must be designed so as to minimize the...

  7. 49 CFR 192.189 - Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing. 192.189...Design of Pipeline Components § 192.189 Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing. (a) Each vault must be designed so as to minimize the...

  8. Imparting waterproof properties to cotton surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. Ivanova; A. K. Zaretskaya

    2011-01-01

    Methods are suggested and compositions are selected to endow the surfaces of textile goods made of cotton fabrics with waterproof\\u000a properties. The wetting angles are measured that water drops form with the coatings, made of fluorosilanes of different structures,\\u000a on the surfaces of cover glasses and fabric. It is shown that, if the aggregation of fluorosilane molecules takes place in

  9. Entering the Roofing and Waterproofing Industry. Roofing Workbook and Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Publications.

    This book is one of a series of 10 units of instruction for roofing apprenticeship classes in California. It covers the following 14 topics and provides tests for them: the nature of the roofing and waterproofing industry; the apprenticeship program; apprenticeship and the public schools; collective bargaining, wages, and benefits; safety in the…

  10. Efficient, environmentally acceptable method for waterproofing insulation material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blohowiak, Kay Y. (Inventor); Krienke, Kenneth A. (Inventor); Olli, Larry K. (Inventor); Newquist, Charles W. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A process of waterproofing alumina-rich or silica-rich fibrous thermal insulation material, the process including the steps of: (a) providing an alumina-rich or a silica-rich fibrous material; (b) providing a waterproofing solution including: (1) a carrier solvent selected from the group consisting of aliphatic alcohols having from 1C to 6C, water, and mixtures thereof; and (2) an alkoxysilane defined by the formula R.sub.4-x -Si-(O-R').sub.x where x is 1-3 and R is selected from the group consisting of alkyl groups having from 1C to 10C, hydrogen, or fluorocarbon groups having from 1F to 15F; and where O-R' is an alkoxy group having from 1C to 5C, or a mixture of alkoxysilanes defined by the above formula R.sub.4-x -Si-(O-R').sub.x ; and optionally (3) modifiers including acids, such as acetic acid or nitric acid, or bases, such as ammonium hydroxide, RNH.sub.2, R.sub.2 NH, or R.sub.3 N, or MOH, where R is selected from the group consisting of alkyl groups having from 1C to 10C or hydrogen, and where M=Na, Li, or K; (c) contacting the fibrous material with the waterproofing solution for a sufficient amount of time to waterproof the fibrous material; and (d) curing the coated fibrous material to render it sufficiently waterproof. A chemical solution for waterproofing alumina-rich or silica-rich fibrous thermal insulation materials, the solution including: (a) a carrier solvent selected from the group consisting of aliphatic alcohols having from 1C to 6C, water, and mixtures thereof; and (b) an alkoxysilane defined by the formula R.sub.4-x -Si-(O-R').sub.x where x is 1-3 and R is selected from the group consisting of alkyl groups having from 1C to 10C, hydrogen, or fluorocarbon groups having from 1F to 15F; and where O-R' is an alkoxy group having from 1C to 5C, or a mixture of alkoxysilanes defined by the above formula R.sub.4-x -Si-(O-R').sub.x ; and optionally (c) modifiers including acids, such as acetic acid or nitric acid, or bases, such as ammonium hydroxide, RNH.sub.2, R.sub.2 NH, or R.sub.3 N, or MOH, where R is selected from the group consisting of alkyl groups having from 1C to 10C or hydrogen, and where M=Na, Li, or K.

  11. Experimental study of waterproof membranes on concrete deck: Interface adhesion under influences of critical factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qinghua Zhou; Qinwu Xu

    2009-01-01

    Waterproof membrane (WM) has been used as an interlayer between asphalt concrete (AC) overlay and concrete deck of bridges for the purpose of waterproof and interface adhesion. The interface adhesion of WM is affected by a myriad of complicated factors, and thus it is essential to study these influence factors in order to design more reliable materials and structures. Accordingly,

  12. WATERPROOFING CONCRETE: A GUIDE TO USING WATER REPELLENT SEALERS AND THICK FILM BARRIER COATINGS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jayson L. Helsel

    Concrete and other cementitious surfaces are porous materials that will allow water and soluble contaminants to penetrate the structure leading to degradation. The effects of degradation can include efflorescence, laitance and physical defects such as cracking and spalling. Waterproofing concrete can protect it from freeze\\/thaw cycles, increase chemical resistance, and provide protection to imbedded reinforcing steel. Waterproofing coatings for concrete

  13. The silkmoth cocoon as humidity trap and waterproof barrier.

    PubMed

    Horrocks, Nicholas P C; Vollrath, Fritz; Dicko, Cedric

    2013-04-01

    To better understand how silkmoth cocoons maintain the correct internal moisture levels for successful pupation, we examined cocoons from the long-domesticated mulberry silkmoth Bombyx mori as well as from two wild silkmoth species, Antheraea pernyi and Philosamia cynthia ricini. We determined fluid-independent values for the porosity, tortuosity and permeability of the inner and outer surfaces of cocoons. Permeabilities were low and, with the exception of A. pernyi cocoons, inner surfaces were less permeable than outer surfaces. B. mori cocoons exhibited the highest permeability overall, but only at the outer surface, while A. pernyi cocoons appeared to show different patterns from the other species tested. We discuss our findings in light of the ecophysiology of the various species and propose a 'tortuous path' model to help explain our results. The model describes how the structure of the inner and outer layers of the cocoon allows it to function as both a humidity trap and a waterproof barrier, providing optimum conditions for the successful development of the pupa. PMID:23388210

  14. Carbon Nanotubes Enhanced Fluorinated Polyurethane Macroporous Membranes for Waterproof and Breathable Application.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Zhu, Zhigao; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2015-06-24

    Waterproof and breathable macroporous membranes that are both completely resistant to liquid water penetration and easily allowable to vapor transmission would have significant implication for numerous applications; however, fabrication of such materials has proven to be tremendously challenging. Herein, we reported novel electrospun composite fibrous membranes with high waterproof and breathable performance, which consisted of polyurethane (PU), terminal fluorinated polyurethane (FPU), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Benefiting from the utilization of FPU and CNTs, the fibrous membranes were endowed with superhydrophobic surface, optimized pores size and porosity, along with enhanced fibers, which resulted in excellent waterproof, breathable and mechanical properties. Significantly, the relationship among waterproofness, pore structure and surface wettability has been confirmed finely accordance with Young-Laplace equation. Ultimately, the resultant membranes presented high waterproofness with hydrostatic pressure up to 108 kPa, good breathability with water vapor transmission rate over 9.2 kg m(-2) d(-1), as well as robust mechanical properties with bursting strength of 47.6 kPa and tensile strength of 12.5 MPa, suggesting them as promising alternatives for a number of potential applications, such as protective clothing. PMID:26038803

  15. AMER. ZOOL., 38:471-482 (1998) Water-Proofing Properties of Cuticular Lipids1

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    1998-01-01

    AMER. ZOOL., 38:471-482 (1998) Water-Proofing Properties of Cuticular Lipids1 ALLEN G. GIBBS2 of cuticular lipids appear to depend largely on their physical properties. In most arthropods, rates of water) that the transition in water loss rate is due to a change in the properties of the lipid layer. Specifically

  16. Transient altitude-induced compartment syndrome associated with fiberglass casts using waterproof cast padding.

    PubMed

    Kadzielski, John; Bae, Donald S

    2013-01-01

    Changes in aircraft cabin pressure and its interplay with a fixed diameter fiberglass cylindrical cast and the closed air cells in waterproof cast padding may cause a transient altitude-induced compartment syndrome. In this case series, 2 patients reported transient compartment syndromes that resolved with aircraft decent. As proof of concept, this work displays photographic and video evidence showing the difference in air cell volume from experimental data in a vacuum chamber as well as real-world volume changes at cruise altitude in a commercial airliner. Transient altitude-induced compartment syndromes associated with fiberglass casts using waterproof cast padding are real and surgeons and patients should be advised of this potentially devastating complication. PMID:23431541

  17. Application of electrospun polyurethane web to breathable water-proof fabrics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun Kyung Kang; Chung Hee Park; Jooyoun Kim; Tae Jin Kang

    2007-01-01

    Electrospun web may possibly be widely applied to protective garments or specialty textiles due to its high level of protection\\u000a as well as comfort. Of particular interest in this study is to develop waterproof-breathable fabric by applying electrospun\\u000a web of polyurethane directly onto the substrate fabric. The optimal electrospinning condition was examined with regards to\\u000a the concentration, applied voltage and

  18. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-416-1742, Roofing and Waterproofing Sites, Chicago, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Zey, J.N.; Stephenson, R.

    1986-10-01

    Potential exposures to organic solvents during the application of single-ply roofing and waterproofing systems were evaluated in response to a request from the United Union of Roofers, Waterproofers, and Allied Workers. The evaluation was conducted at three sites in Chicago, Illinois where roofing contractors were using two roofing systems (ARC and Carlisle) and one waterproofing (WR Grace) system. Air concentrations of toluene, xylene, hexane, acetone, and heptane were measured. Acenaphthalene, fluorene, and naphthalene were detected in air samples collected at the ARC roofing site. Potential hazards observed at both roofing sites included falls from roofs and slipping on slick roof surfaces. Another potential source of injuries was the use of torches for installation of the ARC system. The authors conclude that personal exposures were relatively low for the chemicals evaluated. Contractors should make every effort to determine the principal components of the roofing supplies they are using. Employees should receive adequate training to work safely with the materials involved. Exposure to coal tar and pitch fumes should be minimized due to the risk of cancer.

  19. [Lipids on the hair surface and the waterproof properties of the mammalian fur coat].

    PubMed

    Ivlev, Iu F

    1996-01-01

    Lipid-like substances incorporated in keratinized parts of the hair or appearing on its surface as sebaceous secretion act as detergents in water. At a sufficient concentration they decrease water surface tension to 0.03 N/m, and, contrary to widespread opinion, should contribute to fur wetting. The influence of these lipids on water surface tension markedly varies among both semiaquatic and land mammals, but in any case their natural concentration is too low to significantly affect the waterproof properties of the cover of the swimming animals. PMID:8723623

  20. Basic principles for the development of a common standardised method for determining the radon diffusion coefficient in waterproofing materials.

    PubMed

    Jiránek, Martin; Rovenská, Kate?ina

    2012-04-01

    Paper presents the principles for unified test methods for determining the radon diffusion coefficient in waterproof materials in order to increase the accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility of the results. We consider this very important, because an assessment of the radon diffusion coefficient is required by several national technical standards when waterproofing acts as a radon-proof membrane. The requirements for key parameters for one test method performed under non-stationary conditions and for two methods performed under stationary conditions are described in this paper. PMID:22245288

  1. Toxicity study of dimethylethoxysilane (DMSES), the waterproofing agent for the Orbiter heat protective system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.; Dodd, Darol; Stuart, Bruce; Rothenberg, Simon; Kershaw, Mary Ann; Thilagar, A.

    1993-01-01

    DMES, a volatile liquid, is used by NASA to waterproof the Orbiter thermal protective system. During waterproofing operations at the Oribter Processing Facility at KSC, workers could be exposed to DMES vapor. To assess the toxicity of DMES, acute and subchronic (2-week and 13-week) inhalation studies were conducted with rats. Studies were also conducted to assess the potential of DMES. Inhalation exposure concentrations ranged from 40 ppm to 4000 ppm. No mortality was observed during the studies. Exposures to 2100 ppm produced narcosis and ataxia. Post-exposure recovery from these CNS effects was rapid (less than 1 hr). These effects were concentration-dependent and relatively independent of exposure length. Exposure to 3000 ppm for 2 weeks (5 h/d, 5 d/wk) produced testicular toxicity. The 13-week study yielded similar results. Results from the genotoxicity assays (in vivo/in vitro unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat primary heptaocytes, chromosomal aberrations in rat bone marrow cells; reverse gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium; and forward mutation in Chinese hamster culture cells) were negative. These studies indicated that DMES is mildly to moderately toxic but not a multagen.

  2. A PDMS-Based 2-Axis Waterproof Scanner for Photoacoustic Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Changho; Park, Kyungjin; Lim, Geunbae; Kim, Chulhong

    2015-01-01

    Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is an imaging tool to provide in vivo optically sensitive images in biomedical research. To achieve a small size, fast imaging speed, wide scan range, and high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) in a water environment, we introduce a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based 2-axis scanner for a flexible and waterproof structure. The design, theoretical background, fabrication process and performance of the scanner are explained in details. The designed and fabricated scanner has dimensions of 15 × 15 × 15 mm along the X, Y and Z axes, respectively. The characteristics of the scanner are tested under DC and AC conditions. By pairing with electromagnetic forces, the maximum scanning angles in air and water are 18° and 13° along the X and Y axes, respectively. The measured resonance frequencies in air and water are 60 and 45 Hz along the X axis and 45 and 30 Hz along the Y axis, respectively. Finally, OR-PAM with high SNRs is demonstrated using the fabricated scanner, and the PA images of micro-patterned samples and microvasculatures of a mouse ear are successfully obtained with high-resolution and wide-field of view. OR-PAM equipped with the 2-axis PDMS based waterproof scanner has lateral and axial resolutions of 3.6 ?m and 26 ?m, respectively. This compact OR-PAM system could potentially and widely be used in preclinical and clinical applications. PMID:25923931

  3. A PDMS-Based 2-Axis Waterproof Scanner for Photoacoustic Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Changho; Park, Kyungjin; Lim, Geunbae; Kim, Chulhong

    2015-01-01

    Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is an imaging tool to provide in vivo optically sensitive images in biomedical research. To achieve a small size, fast imaging speed, wide scan range, and high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) in a water environment, we introduce a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based 2-axis scanner for a flexible and waterproof structure. The design, theoretical background, fabrication process and performance of the scanner are explained in details. The designed and fabricated scanner has dimensions of 15 × 15 × 15 mm along the X, Y and Z axes, respectively. The characteristics of the scanner are tested under DC and AC conditions. By pairing with electromagnetic forces, the maximum scanning angles in air and water are 18° and 13° along the X and Y axes, respectively. The measured resonance frequencies in air and water are 60 and 45 Hz along the X axis and 45 and 30 Hz along the Y axis, respectively. Finally, OR-PAM with high SNRs is demonstrated using the fabricated scanner, and the PA images of micro-patterned samples and microvasculatures of a mouse ear are successfully obtained with high-resolution and wide-field of view. OR-PAM equipped with the 2-axis PDMS based waterproof scanner has lateral and axial resolutions of 3.6 ?m and 26 ?m, respectively. This compact OR-PAM system could potentially and widely be used in preclinical and clinical applications. PMID:25923931

  4. Waterproof and translucent wings at the same time: problems and solutions in butterflies.

    PubMed

    Goodwyn, Pablo Perez; Maezono, Yasunori; Hosoda, Naoe; Fujisaki, Kenji

    2009-07-01

    Although the colour of butterflies attracts the most attention, the waterproofing properties of their wings are also extremely interesting. Most butterfly wings are considered "super-hydrophobic" because the contact angle (CA) with a water drop exceeds 150 degrees. Usually, butterfly wings are covered with strongly overlapping scales; however, in the case of transparent or translucent wings, scale cover is reduced; thus, the hydrophobicity could be affected. Here, we present a comparative analysis of wing hydrophobicity and its dependence on morphology for two species with translucent wings Parantica sita (Nymphalidae) and Parnassius glacialis (Papilionidae). These species have very different life histories: P. sita lives for up to 6 months as an adult and migrates over long distance, whereas P. glacialis lives for less than 1 month and does not migrate. We measured the water CA and analysed wing morphology with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. P. sita has super-hydrophobic wing surfaces, with CA > 160 degrees, whereas P. glacialis did not (CA = 100-135 degrees). Specialised scales were found on the translucent portions of P. sita wings. These scales were ovoid and much thinner than common scales, erect at about 30 degrees, and leaving up to 80% of the wing surface uncovered. The underlying bare wing surface had a remarkable pattern of ridges and knobs. P. glacialis also had over 80% of the wing surface uncovered, but the scales were either setae-like or spade-like. The bare surface of the wing had an irregular wavy smooth pattern. We suggest a mode of action that allows this super-hydrophobic effect with an incompletely covered wing surface. The scales bend, but do not collapse, under the pressure of a water droplet, and the elastic recovery of the structure at the borders of the droplet allows a high apparent CA. Thus, P. sita can be translucent without losing its waterproof properties. This characteristic is likely necessary for the long life and migration of this species. This is the first study of some of the effects on the hydrophobicity of translucency through scales' cover reduction in butterfly wings and on the morphology associated with improved waterproofing. PMID:19322552

  5. Ovarian Dual Oxidase (Duox) Activity Is Essential for Insect Eggshell Hardening and Waterproofing*

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Felipe A.; Gandara, Ana Caroline P.; Queiroz-Barros, Fernanda G.; Oliveira, Raquel L. L.; Sorgine, Marcos H. F.; Braz, Glória R. C.; Oliveira, Pedro L.

    2013-01-01

    In insects, eggshell hardening involves cross-linking of chorion proteins via their tyrosine residues. This process is catalyzed by peroxidases at the expense of H2O2 and confers physical and biological protection to the developing embryo. Here, working with Rhodnius prolixus, the insect vector of Chagas disease, we show that an ovary dual oxidase (Duox), a NADPH oxidase, is the source of the H2O2 that supports dityrosine-mediated protein cross-linking and eggshell hardening. RNAi silencing of Duox activity decreased H2O2 generation followed by a failure in embryo development caused by a reduced resistance to water loss, which, in turn, caused embryos to dry out following oviposition. Phenotypes of Duox-silenced eggs were reversed by incubation in a water-saturated atmosphere, simultaneous silencing of the Duox and catalase genes, or H2O2 injection into the female hemocoel. Taken together, our results show that Duox-generated H2O2 fuels egg chorion hardening and that this process plays an essential role during eggshell waterproofing. PMID:24174530

  6. Fast optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy using a 2-axis water-proofing MEMS scanner

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Changho; Park, Kyungjin; Lim, Geunbae; Kim, Chulhong

    2015-01-01

    Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is a novel label-free microscopic imaging tool to provide in vivo optical absorbing contrasts. Specially, it is crucial to equip a real-time imaging capability without sacrificing high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for identifying and tracking specific diseases in OR-PAM. Herein we demonstrate a 2-axis water-proofing MEMS scanner made of flexible PDMS. This flexible scanner results in a wide scanning range (9 × 4?mm2 in a transverse plane) and a fast imaging speed (5 B-scan images per second). Further, the MEMS scanner is fabricated in a compact footprint with a size of 15 × 15 × 15?mm3. More importantly, the scanning ability in water makes the MEMS scanner possible to confocally and simultaneously reflect both ultrasound and laser, and consequently we can maintain high SNRs. The lateral and axial resolutions of the OR-PAM system are 3.6 and 27.7??m, respectively. We have successfully monitored the flow of carbon particles in vitro with a volumetric display frame rate of 0.14?Hz. Finally, we have successfully obtained in vivo PA images of microvasculatures in a mouse ear. It is expected that our compact and fast OR-PAM system can be significantly useful in both preclinical and clinical applications. PMID:25604654

  7. Flexible and waterproof micro-sensors to uncover zebrafish circadian rhythms: The next generation of cardiac monitoring for drug screening.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Beebe, Tyler; Jen, Nelson; Lee, Chia-An; Tai, Yuchong; Hsiai, Tzung K

    2015-09-15

    Flexible electronics are the next generation of sensors for mobile health and implantation. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an emergent strategy for pre-clinical drug development and toxicity testing. To address the confounding effects from sedation of fish and removal from the aquatic habitat for micro-electrocardiogram (µECG) measurements, we developed waterproof and wearable sensors to uncover the circadian variation in heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) (Massin et al., 2000). The parylene-C based ECG sensor consisted of an ultra-soft silicone integrated jacket designed to wrap around the fish during swimming. The Young's modulus of this silicone jacket matched with the fish surface, and an extended parylene cable connected the underwater chest electrodes with the out-of water electronics. In addition, embedded micro-glass spheres in the silicone effectively reduced the effective density of the jacket to ~1gcm(-3). These innovations enabled physiological ECG telemetry in the fish's natural habitat without the need for sedation. Furthermore, a set of non-linear signal processing techniques filtered out the breathing and electromagnetic artifacts from the recorded signals. We observed a reduction in mean HR and an increase in HRV over 24h at 10dpa, accompanied by QT prolongation as well as diurnal variations, followed by normalization in mean HR and QT intervals at 26 days post ventricular amputation (dpa). We revealed Amiodarone-mediated QTc prolongation, HR reduction and HRV increase otherwise masked by sedation. The novel features of the flexible silicon jacket for µECG telemetry unraveled the biological clock and normalization of QT intervals at 26dpa, providing the first evidence of new physiological phenomena during cardiac injury and repair as well as cardiac drug-mediated aberrant rhythms. Thus, the light weight and waterproof design holds promise to advance the next generation of mobile health and drug discovery. PMID:25909335

  8. Characterizing emission and breathing-zone concentrations following exposure cases to fluororesin-based waterproofing spray mists.

    PubMed

    Vernez, David S; Droz, Pierre-Olivier; Lazor-Blanchet, Catherine; Jaques, Sylvain

    2004-09-01

    Measurements and simulations were performed to assess workers' exposure to solvent vapors and aerosols during the waterproofing of a tiled surface. This investigation followed two recent incidents in the same company where workers experienced acute respiratory illness after spraying a stain-repellent resin containing fluorinated polymers on stone-tiled walls and floors. Because the waterproofing activity had been done for years at the tile company without encountering any exposure problems prior to these cases, it was strongly suspected that the incidents were linked to a recent change in the composition of the coating mixture. Experimental measurements and simulations indicated that the emission rate of particles smaller than 10 microm may be estimated at 0.66 mg/sec (SD 0.10) for the old resin and at 0.37 mg/sec (SD 0.04) for the new one. The measurement of the solvent emission rate from surfaces coated with the two resins indicated that shortly after spraying, the emission was in the range of 18 to 20 mg/sec x m2 and was similar for both products. Solvent and overspray emission rates were introduced in a two-zone compartment model. The results obtained in the near-field indicate significant exposure to overspray mist (7 and 34 mg/m3 for new resin) and solvent vapors (80 to 350 ppm for the new resin). It was also shown that the introduction of the new resin tended to significantly decrease the levels of solvents and particulates in the workers' breathing zone. These results strongly suggest that cases of acute respiratory illness are related to the specific toxicity of the fluorinated polymer itself. The fact that the same polymer is used in various commercial products raises concern regarding other possible occupational and domestic exposures. PMID:15559330

  9. An analysis of residential window waterproofing systems

    E-print Network

    Parsons, Austin, 1959-

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of vinyl nail-on windows in the North American new home construction market has prompted ASTM International to write ASTM E2112-01 "Standard Practice for Installation of Exterior Windows, Doors and Skylights". ...

  10. Roofing Workbook and Tests: Entering the Roofing and Waterproofing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Vocational Education Services.

    This document is one of a series of nine individual units of instruction for use in roofing apprenticeship classes in California. The unit consists of a workbook and test, perforated for student use. Fourteen topics are covered in the workbook and corresponding multiple-choice tests. For each topic, objectives, information sheets, and study…

  11. Fish oil disrupts seabird feather microstructure and waterproofing.

    PubMed

    Morandin, Lora A; O'Hara, Patrick D

    2014-10-15

    Seabirds and other aquatic avifauna are highly sensitive to exposure to petroleum oils. A small amount of oil is sufficient to break down the feather barrier that is necessary to prevent water penetration and hypothermia. Far less attention has been paid to potential effects on aquatic birds of so called 'edible oils', non-petroleum oils such as vegetable and fish oils. In response to a sardine oil discharge by a vessel off the coast of British Columbia, we conducted an experiment to assess if feather exposure to sheens of sardine oil (ranging from 0.04 to 3 ?m in thickness) resulted in measurable oil and water uptake and significant feather microstructure disruption. We designed the experiment based on a previous experiment on effects of petroleum oils on seabird feathers. Feathers exposed to the thinnest fish oil sheens (0.04 ?m) resulted in measurable feather weight gain (from oil and water uptake) and significant feather microstructure disruption. Both feather weight gain and microstructure disruption increased with increasing fish oil thickness. Because of the absence of primary research on effects of edible oils on sea birds, we conducted interviews with wildlife rehabilitation professionals with experience rehabilitating sea birds after edible oil exposure. The consensus from interviews and our experiment indicated that physical contact with fish and other 'edible oils' in the marine environment is at least as harmful to seabirds as petroleum oils. PMID:25089687

  12. Fibers and fabrics with insulating, water-proofing, and flame-resistant properties

    DOEpatents

    Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Poco, John F.; Coronado, Paul R.

    2004-04-20

    Fibers, and fabrics produced from the fibers, are made water repellent, fire-retardant and/or thermally insulating by filling void spaces in the fibers and/or fabrics with a powdered material. When the powder is sufficiently finely divided, it clings tenaciously to the fabric's fibers and to itself, resisting the tendency to be removed from the fabric.

  13. Experience with waterproofness of basements constructed of concrete diaphragm walls in Singapore

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. H. Wong

    1997-01-01

    Diaphragm walls 600 to 1200 mm thick are increasingly used as both temporary and permanent supports for excavations as deep as 20 m in congested urban areas in Singapore. Spaces enclosed by diaphragm walls include basements used for shops, offices, car park, underground mass rapid transit train stations, depressed roadways and civil defense centers. Diaphragm walls are effective as a

  14. Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rak-Hwan Kim; Dae-Hyeong Kim; Jianliang Xiao; Bong Hoon Kim; Sang-Il Park; Bruce Panilaitis; Roozbeh Ghaffari; Jimin Yao; Ming Li; Zhuangjian Liu; Viktor Malyarchuk; Dae Gon Kim; An-Phong Le; Ralph G. Nuzzo; David L. Kaplan; Fiorenzo G. Omenetto; Yonggang Huang; Zhan Kang; John A. Rogers

    2010-01-01

    Inorganic light-emitting diodes and photodetectors represent important, established technologies for solid-state lighting, digital imaging and many other applications. Eliminating mechanical and geometrical design constraints imposed by the supporting semiconductor wafers can enable alternative uses in areas such as biomedicine and robotics. Here we describe systems that consist of arrays of interconnected, ultrathin inorganic light-emitting diodes and photodetectors configured in mechanically

  15. Copolymer of methacrylic acid with its diethylammonium salt: Effective waterproofing agent for oil wells

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsova, O.N.; Avvakumova, N.I. [Kazan` Chemical Engineering Inst. (Russian Federation)

    1992-08-10

    In the development of technology for the copolymerization of methacrylic acid with its diethylammonium salt (MAA-MAA{center_dot}DEA), the polymer-like reaction of polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) with diethylamine (DEA) and the polymerization of MAA in the presence of DEA have been studied. 13 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Three designs for the internal release of sealants, adhesives, and waterproofing chemicals into concrete to reduce permeability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M Dry

    2000-01-01

    Various types of hazardous wastes need engineered barriers to prevent outflow. Concrete is a brittle and porous material, which changes dramatically over its lifetime. In order to design waste barriers using any type of concrete, the most effective intervention occurs at the time when it is needed during the life of the material and at the location undergoing distress. Internally

  17. Drosophila melanogaster Acetyl-CoA-Carboxylase Sustains a Fatty Acid–Dependent Remote Signal to Waterproof the Respiratory System

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Thomas; Poidevin, Mickael; Perrin, Laurent; Wicker-Thomas, Claude; Montagne, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) metabolism plays a central role in body homeostasis and related diseases. Thus, FA metabolic enzymes are attractive targets for drug therapy. Mouse studies on Acetyl-coenzymeA-carboxylase (ACC), the rate-limiting enzyme for FA synthesis, have highlighted its homeostatic role in liver and adipose tissue. We took advantage of the powerful genetics of Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the role of the unique Drosophila ACC homologue in the fat body and the oenocytes. The fat body accomplishes hepatic and storage functions, whereas the oenocytes are proposed to produce the cuticular lipids and to contribute to the hepatic function. RNA–interfering disruption of ACC in the fat body does not affect viability but does result in a dramatic reduction in triglyceride storage and a concurrent increase in glycogen accumulation. These metabolic perturbations further highlight the role of triglyceride and glycogen storage in controlling circulatory sugar levels, thereby validating Drosophila as a relevant model to explore the tissue-specific function of FA metabolic enzymes. In contrast, ACC disruption in the oenocytes through RNA–interference or tissue-targeted mutation induces lethality, as does oenocyte ablation. Surprisingly, this lethality is associated with a failure in the watertightness of the spiracles—the organs controlling the entry of air into the trachea. At the cellular level, we have observed that, in defective spiracles, lipids fail to transfer from the spiracular gland to the point of air entry. This phenotype is caused by disrupted synthesis of a putative very-long-chain-FA (VLCFA) within the oenocytes, which ultimately results in a lethal anoxic issue. Preventing liquid entry into respiratory systems is a universal issue for air-breathing animals. Here, we have shown that, in Drosophila, this process is controlled by a putative VLCFA produced within the oenocytes. PMID:22956916

  18. 76 FR 6614 - Notice of a Regional Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ...manufactured in Surrey, British Columbia, for a hot applied membrane waterproofing system for...manufactured in Surrey, British Columbia, for a hot applied membrane waterproofing system for...is being incorporated into the reinforced hot-applied waterproofing system to...

  19. 46 CFR 160.060-8 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...No.). (b) Waterproof marking. Marking of buoyant vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while wet without printed matter becoming illegible. [CGD...

  20. 46 CFR 160.060-8 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...No.). (b) Waterproof marking. Marking of buoyant vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while wet without printed matter becoming illegible. [CGD...

  1. 46 CFR 160.052-8 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Lot No.) (b) Waterproof marking. Marking for buoyant vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while wet without the printed matter becoming illegible. [CGD...

  2. 46 CFR 160.053-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...ONLY.” (c) Waterproofness of marking tags. Marking tags shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 48 hours submergence in water, they will withstand rubbing by hand with moderate pressure while wet without the printed matter becoming...

  3. 46 CFR 160.047-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (b) Waterproof marking tags. Marking for buoyant vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while wet without the printed matter becoming illegible....

  4. 46 CFR 160.047-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (b) Waterproof marking tags. Marking for buoyant vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while wet without the printed matter becoming illegible....

  5. 46 CFR 160.052-8 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Lot No.) (b) Waterproof marking. Marking for buoyant vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while wet without the printed matter becoming illegible. [CGD...

  6. 46 CFR 160.052-8 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Lot No.) (b) Waterproof marking. Marking for buoyant vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while wet without the printed matter becoming illegible. [CGD...

  7. 46 CFR 160.047-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (b) Waterproof marking tags. Marking for buoyant vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while wet without the printed matter becoming illegible....

  8. 46 CFR 160.060-8 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...No.). (b) Waterproof marking. Marking of buoyant vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while wet without printed matter becoming illegible. [CGD...

  9. 46 CFR 160.053-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...ONLY.” (c) Waterproofness of marking tags. Marking tags shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 48 hours submergence in water, they will withstand rubbing by hand with moderate pressure while wet without the printed matter becoming...

  10. 46 CFR 160.053-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...ONLY.” (c) Waterproofness of marking tags. Marking tags shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 48 hours submergence in water, they will withstand rubbing by hand with moderate pressure while wet without the printed matter becoming...

  11. 46 CFR 160.060-8 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...No.). (b) Waterproof marking. Marking of buoyant vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while wet without printed matter becoming illegible. [CGD...

  12. 46 CFR 160.053-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...ONLY.” (c) Waterproofness of marking tags. Marking tags shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 48 hours submergence in water, they will withstand rubbing by hand with moderate pressure while wet without the printed matter becoming...

  13. 46 CFR 160.053-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...ONLY.” (c) Waterproofness of marking tags. Marking tags shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 48 hours submergence in water, they will withstand rubbing by hand with moderate pressure while wet without the printed matter becoming...

  14. 46 CFR 160.052-8 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Lot No.) (b) Waterproof marking. Marking for buoyant vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while wet without the printed matter becoming illegible. [CGD...

  15. 46 CFR 160.052-8 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Lot No.) (b) Waterproof marking. Marking for buoyant vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while wet without the printed matter becoming illegible. [CGD...

  16. 46 CFR 160.047-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (b) Waterproof marking tags. Marking for buoyant vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while wet without the printed matter becoming illegible....

  17. Nano-structured self-cleaning superhydrophobic glass

    E-print Network

    Kim, Jin Yeol

    2010-01-01

    textiles, protective coating for telecommunication antennas, and other devices. Superhydrophobicsuperhydrophobic surfaces range from self-cleaning building exteriors, window glasses, automobile windshields, and water-proof textiles.

  18. 40 CFR 410.60 - Applicability; description of the carpet finishing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...printing, resin treatment, waterproofing, flameproofing, soil repellency, looping, and backing with foamed and unfoamed latex and jute. Carpet backing without other carpet manufacturing operations is included in subpart...

  19. 40 CFR 410.60 - Applicability; description of the carpet finishing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...printing, resin treatment, waterproofing, flameproofing, soil repellency, looping, and backing with foamed and unfoamed latex and jute. Carpet backing without other carpet manufacturing operations is included in subpart...

  20. 40 CFR 410.60 - Applicability; description of the carpet finishing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...printing, resin treatment, waterproofing, flameproofing, soil repellency, looping, and backing with foamed and unfoamed latex and jute. Carpet backing without other carpet manufacturing operations is included in subpart...

  1. 40 CFR 410.60 - Applicability; description of the carpet finishing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...printing, resin treatment, waterproofing, flameproofing, soil repellency, looping, and backing with foamed and unfoamed latex and jute. Carpet backing without other carpet manufacturing operations is included in subpart...

  2. 40 CFR 410.60 - Applicability; description of the carpet finishing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...printing, resin treatment, waterproofing, flameproofing, soil repellency, looping, and backing with foamed and unfoamed latex and jute. Carpet backing without other carpet manufacturing operations is included in subpart...

  3. Reduction of skin water loss in the newborn. I. Effect of applying topical agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Rutter; D Hull

    1981-01-01

    The waterproofing effect of a number of creams, oils, and greases was examined by measuring water loss from adult skin before and after topical application. Creams had a high water content and were ineffective, oils produced a modest fall in water loss, but paraffin in grease form had a pronounced, sustained waterproofing effect. A paraffin mixture (80% soft, 20% hard

  4. The PennsylvaniaStateUniversity HUB-RobesonAddition and Renovation

    E-print Network

    · Waterproof Plaza Deck · Waterproof Bookstore Green Roof · Install Water Main in Food Service Kitchen Glass in Bookstore Curtain Wall Frames · Millwork in Food Service · Hang Wood Ceiling in Food Service · Hang Acoustical Ceiling in Food Service · Wire Switchgear in Electrical Room Level B4 © Gilbane

  5. Water-Repellency Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Charles D.; Mitchell, Shirley M.; Jolly, Stanley R.; Jackson, Richard G.; Fleming, Scott T.; Roberts, William J.; Bell, Daniel R., III

    1996-01-01

    Instrument yielding presence or absence of waterproofing agent at any given depth in blanket developed. In original application, blankets in question part of space shuttle thermal protection system. Instrument utilized to determine extent of waterproofing "burnout" due to re-entry heating and adverse environment exposure.

  6. 46 CFR 160.037-4 - Approval and production tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...signal plus packaging in a sealed plastic waterproof bag, the 24-hour...the signal is in the sealed plastic waterproof bag and will be...igniter button. Remove the cap from the test specimen. Place head of specimen without cap about 25 mm (1 in.)...

  7. 46 CFR 160.021-4 - Approval and production tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...signal plus packaging in a sealed plastic waterproof bag, the 24-hour...the signal is in the sealed plastic waterproof bag and will be...igniter button. Remove the cap from the test specimen. Place head of specimen without cap about 25 mm (1 in .)...

  8. 46 CFR 160.021-4 - Approval and production tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...signal plus packaging in a sealed plastic waterproof bag, the 24-hour...the signal is in the sealed plastic waterproof bag and will be...igniter button. Remove the cap from the test specimen. Place head of specimen without cap about 25 mm (1 in .)...

  9. 46 CFR 160.037-4 - Approval and production tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...signal plus packaging in a sealed plastic waterproof bag, the 24-hour...the signal is in the sealed plastic waterproof bag and will be...igniter button. Remove the cap from the test specimen. Place head of specimen without cap about 25 mm (1 in.)...

  10. 64 FR 27666 - Sunscreen Drug Products For Over-The-Counter Human Use; Final Monograph

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-05-21

    ...claims such as ``water resistant'' or...reflect the inherent characteristics of specific formulations...waterproof'' and ``water resistant'' in...multiple performance characteristics, a labeling claim of ``very water resistant''...

  11. Sun Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a pool, lake, or the ocean. l Use sunscreen. Put sunscreen on 15-30 minutes before you go outside. ... lot, but it isn’t waterproof. l Reapply sunscreen. You’ll need to reapply your sunscreen about ...

  12. Extent of Sorption and Biodegradability of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid (PFOS) in Aquifer Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluoropolymers such as Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) were used provide non-stick surfaces on cookware and waterproof, breathable clothing. PFOA is very persistent in the environment and is found at low concentrations in the environment and...

  13. Extent of Sorption and Biodegradation of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid (PFOS) in Aquifer Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluoropolymers such as Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) were used provide non-stick surfaces on cookware and waterproof, breathable clothing. PFOA is very persistent in the environment and is found at low concentrations in the environment and...

  14. Extent of Sorption and Biodegradability of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in Aquifer Sediment (Maryland)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluoropolymers such as Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) were used provide non-stick surfaces on cookware and waterproof, breathable clothing. PFOA is very persistent in the environment and is found at low concentrations in the environment and...

  15. 75 FR 27775 - Kenai Hydro, LLC; Notice of Scoping Meetings, Environmental Site Review, and Soliciting Scoping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ...conditions for the entire day ( 3 miles with 200 feet of elevation gain). Participants should also pack their own lunch, snacks and water, wear waterproof, rugged footwear, and be prepared for inclement and potentially cold weather conditions....

  16. Epicuticular Compounds of Drosophila subquinaria and D. recens: Identification, Quantification, and Their Role

    E-print Network

    Rundle, Howard D.

    Epicuticular Compounds of Drosophila subquinaria and D. recens: Identification, Quantification chroma- tography and mass spectrometry, we identified and quanti- fied the epicuticular composition of D species was first characterized as a waxy layer with waterproofing properties (Beament, 1945; Wigglesworth

  17. Cycling in the wet Wet weather (or at least the threat of rain) puts a

    E-print Network

    Bristol, University of

    lubrication so you may need to check items such as chain and gears on a daily basis during a spell of bad lights; use waterproof clothing; check your bike especially brakes, tyres and gears, more regularly

  18. 46 CFR 161.013-9 - Independent power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...source is rechargeable, it must have a waterproof recharger designed for marine use. (c) If the independent power source requires external water to form an electrolyte, it must operate in sea water and fresh...

  19. 46 CFR 160.061-3 - Design and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...otherwise specified nylon lines shall be hard braided, waterproofed, and heat set to reduce “stretch”. Lines may be either camouflage or mist in color. (g) Spoons. Spoons shall be of the single-blade, egg-shaped dished type with...

  20. 46 CFR 160.061-3 - Design and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...otherwise specified nylon lines shall be hard braided, waterproofed, and heat set to reduce “stretch”. Lines may be either camouflage or mist in color. (g) Spoons. Spoons shall be of the single-blade, egg-shaped dished type with...

  1. 46 CFR 160.061-3 - Design and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...otherwise specified nylon lines shall be hard braided, waterproofed, and heat set to reduce “stretch”. Lines may be either camouflage or mist in color. (g) Spoons. Spoons shall be of the single-blade, egg-shaped dished type with...

  2. 46 CFR 160.061-3 - Design and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...otherwise specified nylon lines shall be hard braided, waterproofed, and heat set to reduce “stretch”. Lines may be either camouflage or mist in color. (g) Spoons. Spoons shall be of the single-blade, egg-shaped dished type with...

  3. 46 CFR 160.061-3 - Design and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...otherwise specified nylon lines shall be hard braided, waterproofed, and heat set to reduce “stretch”. Lines may be either camouflage or mist in color. (g) Spoons. Spoons shall be of the single-blade, egg-shaped dished type with...

  4. 9 CFR 590.520 - Breaking room facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing...of water-proof composition, reasonably free from cracks or rough surfaces, sloped for adequate...

  5. 9 CFR 590.520 - Breaking room facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing...of water-proof composition, reasonably free from cracks or rough surfaces, sloped for adequate...

  6. 9 CFR 590.520 - Breaking room facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing...of water-proof composition, reasonably free from cracks or rough surfaces, sloped for adequate...

  7. 9 CFR 590.520 - Breaking room facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing...of water-proof composition, reasonably free from cracks or rough surfaces, sloped for adequate...

  8. 9 CFR 590.520 - Breaking room facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing...of water-proof composition, reasonably free from cracks or rough surfaces, sloped for adequate...

  9. 29 CFR 570.67 - Occupations in roofing operations and on or about a roof (Order 16).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...related metal work such as flashing, and applying weatherproofing materials and substances (such as waterproof membranes, tar, slag or pitch, asphalt prepared paper, tile, composite roofing materials, slate, metal, translucent materials, and...

  10. 29 CFR 570.67 - Occupations in roofing operations and on or about a roof (Order 16).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...related metal work such as flashing, and applying weatherproofing materials and substances (such as waterproof membranes, tar, slag or pitch, asphalt prepared paper, tile, composite roofing materials, slate, metal, translucent materials, and...

  11. Emergency Preparedness and Response: Information for Pregnant Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your own plan, writing down the steps on paper. Talk about potential disasters and emergencies and how ... plastic bags that seal for water-proofing important papers, a battery-powered flashlight and radio with extra ...

  12. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart C - VOC Content Limits by Product Category

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Structural waterproof 15 Insecticides: Crawling bug 40 Flea and tick 25 Flying bug 35 Foggers 45 Lawn and Garden 20 Laundry prewash: Aerosols/solids 22 All other forms 5 Laundry starch products 5 Nail polish...

  13. An engineering student has taken out best paper award at an international conference

    E-print Network

    Waikato, University of

    -resistant (superhydrophobic). "Superhydrophobic titanium and titanium dioxide powder can be used to make textiles waterproof superhydrophobic would extend their life and reduce the need for further surgery." The former Whangarei Boys' High

  14. 40 CFR 60.591a - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Bitumen) is a black or dark brown solid or semi-solid thermo-plastic material possessing waterproofing and adhesive properties...distillation of petroleum, or through the redistillation, cracking, or reforming of unfinished petroleum derivatives....

  15. 40 CFR 60.591a - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Bitumen) is a black or dark brown solid or semi-solid thermo-plastic material possessing waterproofing and adhesive properties...distillation of petroleum, or through the redistillation, cracking, or reforming of unfinished petroleum derivatives....

  16. 40 CFR 60.591 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Bitumen) is a black or dark brown solid or semi-solid thermo-plastic material possessing waterproofing and adhesive properties...distillation of petroleum, or through the redistillation, cracking, or reforming of unfinished petroleum derivatives....

  17. 40 CFR 60.591 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Bitumen) is a black or dark brown solid or semi-solid thermo-plastic material possessing waterproofing and adhesive properties...distillation of petroleum, or through the redistillation, cracking, or reforming of unfinished petroleum derivatives....

  18. Protecting Workers from Heat Stress

    MedlinePLUS

    ... wind • Low liquid intake • Heavy physical labor • Waterproof clothing • No recent exposure to hot workplaces Symptoms of ... at risk of heat stress due to protective clothing and high temperature. • Consider protective clothing that provides ...

  19. Rules of the River. 

    E-print Network

    Anonymous,

    1980-01-01

    money-change for phone calls* towel Provisions ice chest and ice sufficient food and water* beverages paper towels stove and fuel cooking gear and eating utensils waterproof matches water purification tablets 9 Rules of Safety ? Here...

  20. How Often Do Children Need to Take a Bath?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... waterproof) toy. Listen to favorite stories. Read a book made especially for taking into the bathtub. Have ... R S T U V W X Y Z Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Site map Home ...

  1. 78 FR 40705 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Demolition and Construction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ...electric screw guns, jackhammer, concrete saw, and chop saws) to be utilized...small auger, hand/power tools, and concrete truck. Timeframe--Approximately 12...foundation: Dig/shore foundation, pour concrete, waterproofing, and remove...

  2. 30 CFR 77.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...capacity, having a spring-closing lid and spout cover. (y) Safety fuse means a train of powder enclosed in cotton, jute yarn, and waterproofing compounds, which burns at a uniform rate; used for firing a cap containing the detonating...

  3. 30 CFR 77.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...capacity, having a spring-closing lid and spout cover. (y) Safety fuse means a train of powder enclosed in cotton, jute yarn, and waterproofing compounds, which burns at a uniform rate; used for firing a cap containing the detonating...

  4. 30 CFR 77.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...capacity, having a spring-closing lid and spout cover. (y) Safety fuse means a train of powder enclosed in cotton, jute yarn, and waterproofing compounds, which burns at a uniform rate; used for firing a cap containing the detonating...

  5. 30 CFR 77.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...capacity, having a spring-closing lid and spout cover. (y) Safety fuse means a train of powder enclosed in cotton, jute yarn, and waterproofing compounds, which burns at a uniform rate; used for firing a cap containing the detonating...

  6. 30 CFR 77.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...capacity, having a spring-closing lid and spout cover. (y) Safety fuse means a train of powder enclosed in cotton, jute yarn, and waterproofing compounds, which burns at a uniform rate; used for firing a cap containing the detonating...

  7. Manufacture of flame retardant foaming board from waste papers reinforced with phenol-formaldehyde resin.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih Pong; Hung, Szu Chia

    2003-01-01

    A new flame retardant and waterproof porous fiberboard was manufactured from waste newspapers by using a foaming agent and a reinforcing phenol-formaldehyde resin. To find the optimum conditions for forming fiberboard with high mechanical properties as well as flame retardant and waterproof characteristics, a series of experiments were performed with varying weight percentages of resin (w). The results indicate that the best quality of the fiberboard was obtained for w approximately 11%. PMID:12653288

  8. A new type of photovoltaic shingle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Okuda; T. Yagiura; M. Morizane; N. Nakamura; M. Ohnishi; S. Nakano; T. Ito; S. Omoto; Y. Yamashita; H. Ito; T. Fujiwara

    1994-01-01

    The authors have proposed a new type of construction in which solar cells are unified with roofing materials. The photovoltaic (PV) shingle offers many features, such as low cost, simple construction and maintenance, good design, and fire resistance, compared with previous modules. The PV shingle was confirmed to have no major problems as a roofing material by environmental, waterproofing and

  9. Roofing system for solar heat collection and method for fabrication thereof

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1984-01-01

    A system for collecting solar heat energy includes a plurality of shingle members arranged in shingle fashion on the roof of a structure or building. Each shingle member is formed of a web of waterproof material which is folded and seamed to define a flat, water-containing cavity therein. Each shingle member includes a flange extending on at least two sides

  10. Underwater near-infrared spectroscopy measurements of muscle oxygenation: laboratory validation and preliminary observations in swimmers and triathletes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ben; Dat, Marco; Cooper, Chris E

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to waterproof a near-infrared spectroscopy device (PortaMon, Artinis Medical Systems) to enable NIR measurement during swim exercise. Candidate materials were initially tested for waterproof suitability by comparing light intensity values during phantom-based tissue assessment. Secondary assessment involved repeated isokinetic exercises ensuring reliability of the results obtained from the modified device. Tertiary assessment required analysis of the effect of water immersion and temperature upon device function. Initial testing revealed that merely covering the PortaMon light sources with waterproof materials considerably affected the NIR light intensities. Modifying a commercially available silicone covering through the addition of a polyvinyl chloride material (impermeable to NIR light transmission) produces an acceptable compromise. Bland–Altman analysis indicated that exercise-induced changes in tissue saturation index (TSI %) were within acceptable limits during laboratory exercise. Although water immersion had a small but significant effect upon NIR light intensity, this resulted in a negligible change in the measured TSI (%). We then tested the waterproof device in vivo illustrating oxygenation changes during a 100 m freestyle swim case study. Finally, a full study compared club level swimmers and triathletes. Significant changes in oxygenation profiles when comparing upper and lower extremities for the two groups were revealed, reflecting differences in swim biomechanics. PMID:25478871

  11. A comparative study of fluorinated amorphous carbon films synthesized by pulsed vacuum arc plasma deposition and by PECVD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Q. Yao; P. Yang; N. Huang; H. Sun; J. Wang

    2004-01-01

    Summary form only given. Fluorinated amorphous carbon films have received a considerable amount of attention recently due to their chemical inertness, water-proofing, low surface energy, anti-adherence of bacteria and biocompatibility. To explore the application in biomedical devices like electrosurgical tools, fluorinated amorphous carbon films with different fluorine content were fabricated on a silicon wafer by pulsed vacuum arc plasma deposition

  12. NSTA WHEELED BACKPACK

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    Gray/black, waterproof, wheeled backpack with recessed handle. Zippered main compartment is 12" wide x 18" high, and includes smaller front and side zippered pockets. Can be used as a wheeled book bag or worn as a backpack. NSTA logo is printed on the small front compartment.

  13. Hide And Seek GPS And Geocaching In The Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lary, Lynn M.

    2004-01-01

    In short, geocaching is a high-tech, worldwide treasure hunt (geocaches can now be found in more than 180 countries) where a person hides a cache for others to find. Generally, the cache is some type of waterproof container that contains a log book and an assortment of goodies, such as lottery tickets, toys, photo books for cachers to fill with…

  14. Friends of Doernbecher Circle of Friends Newsletter

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    Success Stories Women for Children Bingo Bash was a Blast The first annual Women for Children Bingo Bash of Perpetual Indulgence. They were fun, funny and very entertaining. Congratulations to the Women for Children Anyang SALE Dru's Chapter Waterproof / Fleece Blankets, $30 Contact Mallory for details Ron Brake, Ellen

  15. A numerical study of the effect of urban geometry upon the surface energy budget

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasushi Sakakibara

    1996-01-01

    This numerical study investigates the effect of urban canyon geometry upon the thermal environment using a parking lot model and an urban canyon model in identical meteorological conditions. The urban canyon model assumes two buildings on opposite sides of a street, no windows or interior anthropogenic heat source, an infinitely long east-west oriented canyon, and waterproof surfaces. The simulated surface

  16. Seismic Response of Green Roofs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. O. Carmody; M. Jasarevic; P. Omenzetter; G. C. Clifton; E. A. Fassman

    Green roofs consist of vegetation with a light-weight substrate planted over a drainage layer and waterproof membrane. The green roof retains rainwater in the plants and substrate and releases the water through evapotranspiration and some surface drainage. This research explored the green roof's ability to resist seismic forces and the potential for the green roof to be used as an

  17. Surfacing of concrete bridges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vibeke Wegan

    The estimated life for concrete bridges in Denmark is 100 years. One condition to en- sure this long lifetime is waterproofing of the bridge deck together with a high quality asphalt pavement. The surfacing of the concrete bridge deck is important because the concrete should be protected against water and de-icing salts since these factors can lead to reduction of

  18. Matrix cracking repair and filling using active and passive modes for smart timed release of chemicals from fibers into cement matrices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn Dry

    1994-01-01

    Concrete and cement permeability (due to cracking and porosity) and brittleness can be addressed by the incorporation of chemicals in fibers, which are later released. This changes the material matrix properties just in time to prevent and repair damage. The conventional method to reduce cracking is fiber reinforcing and permeability is reduced by sealants and waterproofers or creation of a

  19. Construction of a Junction Box for Use with an Inexpensive, Commercially Available Underwater Video Camera Suitable for Aquatic Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven J. Cooke; Christopher M. Bunt

    2004-01-01

    Underwater video camera apparatus is an important fisheries research tool. Such cameras, developed and marketed for recreational anglers, provide an opportunity for researchers to easily obtain cost-effective and waterproof video apparatus for fisheries research. We detail a series of modifications to an inexpensive, commercially available underwater video camera (about US$125) that provide flexibility for deploying the equipment in the laboratory

  20. Langerhans Lab Major Equipment Inventory Major Equipment Inventory

    E-print Network

    Langerhans, Brian

    Compact Cameras Canon D10 -waterproof, shockproof blue camera, 12 megapixel, 3x optical zoom, 35- 105mm f, converter for adding lenses and filters, 28-140mm f/2.8-4.5 lens; purchased 2011 - Good field camera; nice all-around SLR, HD video SLR Lenses 2 Sigma 50mm macro f2.8 lenses - photographing small specimens

  1. Effects of access to preen gland secretions on mallard plumage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraudeau, Mathieu; Duval, Camille; Guillon, Noel; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Gutierrez, Claude; Heeb, Philipp

    2010-06-01

    Preen glands exist in almost every bird species and several non-exclusive functions have been proposed for this gland and the oils that it produces. One function generally admitted is that the oily secretions of the preen gland would provide a waterproofing layer when spread over feathers. Alternatively, several authors have proposed that plumage waterproofness is mostly due to the spatial micro-structure of feathers. The purpose of this study was to examine, by manipulating the access to the preen gland, the effect of the preen oil on the plumage waterproofness and condition. To explore this question, we carried out two independent experiments where we temporarily blocked access to the preen gland secretions with a removable mechanism in one group of captive mallards ( Anas platyrhynchos), whilst a second group of birds had access to gland secretions. In a long-term experiment (3 months of treatment) and a short-term experiment (10 days), we measured plumage water retention and condition. After 3 months without access to preen glands, we found a significant decrease of plumage condition and an associated increase in plumage water retention. Moreover, we found a significant correlation between plumage condition and water retention ability. In contrast, after 10 days of treatment, no significant effect was found on plumage condition and water retention. Our study shows that preen oil acts to maintain plumage condition and suggests that feather microstructure is essential to maintain plumage waterproofness.

  2. Entm 307G: Exoskeleton.TG The Insect (Arthropod) Exoskeleton

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    Entm 307G: Exoskeleton.TG The Insect (Arthropod) Exoskeleton Appropriate Grades: 2-6 Think Ahead that insects, and other arthropods, have an external support system called an exoskeleton, which provides, in addition, the exoskeleton provides waterproofing to keep insects from drying out, protection from enemies

  3. Protected Membrane Roofs: A Sustainable Roofing Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roodvoets, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the benefits of protected membrane roofing (PMR) for school buildings. PMR uses an upside-down approach, where the insulation is placed on top of the waterproofing membrane to improve membrane effectiveness, reduce ultraviolet degradation, and improve insulation efficiency. The article explains what makes PMR sustainable, focusing on…

  4. 16/05/12 4:02 PMUC Berkeley tests floating robot sensors to track environmental concerns -Computerworld Page 1 of 5http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9227044/UC_Berkeley_tests_floating_robot_sensors_to_track_environmental_concerns

    E-print Network

    to apply to Windows 8 PCs, too Apple 'head and shoulders' above phone rivals in satisfaction survey FREE are equipped with Android smart phones inside their waterproof cases. A few of them auto-post to Twitter online black markets A security checklist for SaaS, IaaS and PaaS clouds Security at the scene

  5. Effect of Sn addition on the corrosion behavior of Ti-Ta alloy B. Guo, Y. X. Tong, F. Chen, Y. F. Zheng*, L. Li and C. Y. Chung

    E-print Network

    Zheng, Yufeng

    as its potential as shape memory alloys, indicating potential application for implant materials [1, 2 application point of view, the excellent corrosion resistance of metallic biomaterials in the body fluids with water-proof silicon carbide paper up to 2000# grid, all the samples were cleaned with acetone, ethanol

  6. Underwater near-infrared spectroscopy measurements of muscle oxygenation: laboratory validation and preliminary observations in swimmers and triathletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Ben; Dat, Marco; Cooper, Chris E.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to waterproof a near-infrared spectroscopy device (PortaMon, Artinis Medical Systems) to enable NIR measurement during swim exercise. Candidate materials were initially tested for waterproof suitability by comparing light intensity values during phantom-based tissue assessment. Secondary assessment involved repeated isokinetic exercises ensuring reliability of the results obtained from the modified device. Tertiary assessment required analysis of the effect of water immersion and temperature upon device function. Initial testing revealed that merely covering the PortaMon light sources with waterproof materials considerably affected the NIR light intensities. Modifying a commercially available silicone covering through the addition of a polyvinyl chloride material (impermeable to NIR light transmission) produces an acceptable compromise. Bland-Altman analysis indicated that exercise-induced changes in tissue saturation index (TSI %) were within acceptable limits during laboratory exercise. Although water immersion had a small but significant effect upon NIR light intensity, this resulted in a negligible change in the measured TSI (%). We then tested the waterproof device in vivo illustrating oxygenation changes during a 100 m freestyle swim case study. Finally, a full study compared club level swimmers and triathletes. Significant changes in oxygenation profiles when comparing upper and lower extremities for the two groups were revealed, reflecting differences in swim biomechanics.

  7. Protective clothing as a means of reducing nicotine absorption in tobacco harvesters.

    PubMed

    Gehlbach, S H; Williams, W A; Freeman, J I

    1979-01-01

    Green tobacco sickness is an occupational illness of tobacco illness of tobacco harvesters that is thought to be caused by dermal absorption of nicotine from contact with green tobacco leaf. Wearing of rubberized nylon rainsuits effectively prevented nicotine absorption in volunteers who picked wet tobacco. Nicotine absorption was demonstrated in workers who wore clothing that was not waterproof. PMID:434931

  8. RNA "Quality Check" with sequencing ladder. First draft by Rhiju Das on May 7, 2009.

    E-print Network

    Das, Rhiju

    substitute (the 96 well reaction plates float, and are waterproof if sealed very well.) · One set of bead mix. Summary: There are three steps: 1. Prepare RNA 2. Combine RNA with magnetic beads and fluorescent for 3 sets of bead mix. In this case you need to QC in both type of dNTPs, you have to prepare bead mix

  9. High throughput structure mapping Das lab, Stanford Biochemistry

    E-print Network

    Das, Rhiju

    is a reasonable substitute (the 96 well reaction plates float, and are waterproof if sealed.) 5) Set up the "Premix plate" for use as a reservoir of Buffer premix, Bead quench premix, Superscript II withdraw supernatant from the bead add buffer premix into each RNA add bead quench premix into RNA

  10. Environmental Health and Safety Laboratory Preparation for Tropical Storms or Hurricanes

    E-print Network

    Natelson, Douglas

    the regulator and cap the cylinder stem. 12. Close the sash on all chemical fume hoods. 13. Make sure that all door. Update this information at: http://safety.rice.edu/Chemical_Safety/Laboratory_Door_Sign_Generator/. 2. Ensure all chemical and materials are marked with a waterproof marker. 3. Cap all chemicals

  11. The PennsylvaniaStateUniversity HUB-RobesonAddition and Renovation

    E-print Network

    Building Co., Inc. July25,2014 #12;Work In Progress · Painting in Food Service · Pull Wire in Food Service · Food Service Data Install · Install Food Service Security Gates · Install Food Service Terrazzo · Install Ceramic Tile in Food Service · Install Food Service Equipment · Waterproofing East Side

  12. The PennsylvaniaStateUniversity HUB-RobesonAddition and Renovation

    E-print Network

    Building Co., Inc. July3,2014 #12;Work In Progress · Food Service Framing and Rough Ins · Food Service Drywall Installation · Food Service Ceiling and Duct Painting · Pull Wire in Food Service · Install Piping in Food Service · Hang Duct in Food Service · Install Ceramic Tile in Food Service · Waterproofing East

  13. The PennsylvaniaStateUniversity HUB-RobesonAddition and Renovation

    E-print Network

    Building Co., Inc. July11,2014 #12;Work In Progress · Hang Drywall in Food Service · Paint Ceiling and Ductwork in Food Service · Pull Wire in Food Service · Prepare for Food Service Terrazzo · Insulate Duct in Food Service · Install Ceramic Tile in Food Service · Waterproofing East Side of Bookstore

  14. Coatings for mullite insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolinger, P. N.; Rauch, H. W., Sr.

    1976-01-01

    Series of coatings provides hard, impermeable, waterproof layer. Inclusion of color oxides imparts high emittance to surface. Refractory fillers investigated include TiO2, BaO.ZrO2, SrO.TiO2 ziron, spodumene, petalite, and kryptonite. Colorants include Cr2O3, NiO, and CoO.

  15. BI 451/551 INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY SYLLABUS Summer 2014, Monday-Wednesday-Friday

    E-print Network

    your observational skills. Use graphite pencils only for the drawing; colored pencils may be used 2 HB pencils are acceptable, but you may care for a range of pencil hardness. Colored pencils are optional. - Field notebook: 5x7" (actual dimensions may vary) waterproof field notebook, plus pencil or oil

  16. Design and realization of paving machine for modified asphalt coil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bendong Liu; Desheng Li; Xiaobo Hou; Fangjun Li

    2010-01-01

    The modified asphalt coil is widely used as the waterproof material in elevated railroad, high way etc. However, most of the asphalt is paving by manual work. An automatic and wireless controlling machine for the paving modified asphalt coiled is designed and studied according to the need of improving the efficiency and paving quality. This paper introduced the system design

  17. urated alkyl linkages, suggesting that electron transfer occurs through the aqueous solvent

    E-print Network

    West, Stuart

    visiting seabirds. Jessup et al. report that the birds' plumage had become coated in a sticky green froth a detergent to strip the feathers of their natural waterproof- ing oils. Consequently, the soaking birds of these materials. Landis and Hamers report that copper click chemistry can be used to attach groups

  18. 46 CFR 160.021-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...with the igniter button. The cap shall be securely attached to...its accidental detachment. The cap shall be provided on its...consisting of tear strip, cap, casing, and handle, shall...signal plus packaging in a sealed plastic waterproof bag satisfactory...

  19. 46 CFR 160.037-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...with the igniter button. The cap shall be securely attached to...its accidental detachment. The cap shall be provided on its...consisting of tear strip, cap, casing, and handle, shall...signal plus packaging in a sealed plastic waterproof bag satisfactory...

  20. 46 CFR 160.037-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...with the igniter button. The cap shall be securely attached to...its accidental detachment. The cap shall be provided on its...consisting of tear strip, cap, casing, and handle, shall...signal plus packaging in a sealed plastic waterproof bag satisfactory...

  1. 46 CFR 160.021-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...with the igniter button. The cap shall be securely attached to...its accidental detachment. The cap shall be provided on its...consisting of tear strip, cap, casing, and handle, shall...signal plus packaging in a sealed plastic waterproof bag satisfactory...

  2. J. Fluid Mech. (2003), vol. 484, pp. 6983. c 2003 Cambridge University Press DOI: 10.1017/S0022112003004142 Printed in the United Kingdom

    E-print Network

    Duchemin, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    July 2002 and in revised form 26 December 2002) Superhydrophobic surfaces generate very high contact the surface, as in the case of super-hydrophobic surfaces on which water drops behave like pearls purposes: water or frost-repellent surfaces, #12;70 Y. Renardy and others waterproof textiles, self

  3. Further information Other leaflets in this series

    E-print Network

    Bristol, University of

    , gloves for winter cycling, puncture repair kit, lock. Longer-distance cycling: padded shorts and a pair of waterproof trousers is essential if you intend to cycle in all conditions. Gloves Your extremities are much more susceptible to cold on a bike than when you are out walking so a pair of gloves

  4. Fluid-Injection Tool for Inaccessible Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    New tool injects liquids or gases into narrow crevices. Can be used to apply caulking and waterproofing compounds, adhesives, detergent, undercoats and oil and to aerate hard-to-reach places. Nozzle can reach into opening 1/32 inch wide to depth of more than 4 inches. Although thin, device is rigid and strong.

  5. New system for bathing bedridden patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Staley, R. A.; Payne, P. A.

    1973-01-01

    Multihead shower facility can be used with minimal patient handling. Waterproof curtain allows patient to bathe with his head out of shower. He can move completely inside shower to wash his face and hair. Main advantage of shower system is time saved in giving bath.

  6. Please note: this is a comprehensive list of suggestionsyou do not need to bring all of these items! What to Bring

    E-print Network

    Brownstone, Rob

    of these items! What to Bring Personal Items Bedroom Essentials Bed pillows Alarm clock Pillowcases Tissues appliances 2 bath towels Personal tools (nail clippers, tweezers, razor, etc.) Hair products Body wash + swimwear!) waterproof shoes or boots Twin-sized bed and mattress (long) Mirror Desk and chair Waste

  7. Residential Waste Do not mix in

    E-print Network

    Nakamura, Iku

    tape, cellophane, tissue paper, waterproof paper, thermal paper, carbon paper, photos or coated paper Store them at each school. Collected in October. Dry batteries, batteries, etc. Dry batteries and spray Styrofoam Fluorescent Tube Beverage Can Used Paper Metal Junk Battery PET Bottle Unburnable Waste Spray Can

  8. Swim Free. A 10 Day Program of Aquatic Exercises Adapted from Life in the Waterworld.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberhardt, Lorraine; Sanborn, Laura

    The completely waterproof book contains instructions for an alternative form of swimming exercises based on the movements of 19 water creatures. The exercises can be used by groups or individuals to enhance training programs, to serve as part of a structured synchronized swimming program, or to supplement recreational activities. The book provides…

  9. Development of A Prototype Video-Based Fisheries Assessment Unit1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel A. Isermann; Thomas S. Jones; Kit Nelson; Gerold C. Grant

    We assessed the field performance of a prototype video-based fisheries as- sessment unit for potential use in surveying fish populations. The unit consisted of three video cameras housed within waterproof chambers extending from a rectangular aluminum frame that was placed on the lake bottom to collect video images of fish. Infrared lights were attached to the frame to capture images

  10. Overcoming Barriers to Solar Use

    E-print Network

    Halme, D. S.; Sicotte, J. R.

    Considering the small tube diameter and the wall thickness of the nylonl and PVC materials, the insulation . value is greater than R9, eliminatirg the need for additional insulation br waterproof jacketing. i ~~~~~~:~Yf~~1~0~r~:ai~: ;~~a~eat I...

  11. Design of intelligent height control system based on eddy current sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haiying Wang; Xuefei Wang; Zhenhe Sun; Yanjun Chen

    2010-01-01

    In water jet cutting process, cutting quality and speed depend on the distance between cutting head and object. To solve the problem that it is difficult to realize precise control of water jet cutting technique in height track system, this paper designs a waterproofing eddy height-adjusting system based on eddy sensor in view of metal plate. This system realizes non-contact

  12. The acoustical flows of the hydrophobic and anticeptic liquids in porous media

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    of constructions become water-repellent, do not absorb damp more and remain dry. The usage of the ultrasound makes-West State Technical University, 5, Millionnaya Street, Department of Physics, 191186 Saint water due to capillary effect. The damp pene- trates into the foundation if the waterproofing layer

  13. A lichen protected by a super-hydrophobic and breathable structure.

    PubMed

    Shirtcliffe, Neil J; Brian Pyatt, F; Newton, Michael I; McHale, Glen

    2006-11-01

    A species of lichen, Lecanora conizaeoides, is shown to be super-hydrophobic. It uses a combination of hydrophobic compounds and multi-layered roughness to shed water effectively. This is combined with gas channels to produce a biological analogue of a waterproof, breathable garment. The particular lichen grows mostly during wet seasons and is unusually resistant to acid rain [Hauck, M., 2003. The Bryologist 106(2), 257-269; Honegger, R., 1998. Lichenologist 30(3),193-212]. The waterproof, breathable surface allows this lichen to photosynthesise when other species are covered with a layer of water. In addition, rainwater runs off the surface of the organism, reducing its intake of water from above and probably contributing to its resistance to acid rain. PMID:16434121

  14. Photovoltaic Roofs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, R. W., Jr.; Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Solar cells perform two functions: waterproofing roof and generating electricity. Sections through horizontal and slanting joints show overlapping modules sealed by L-section rubber strips and side-by-side modules sealed by P-section strips. Water seeping through seals of slanting joints drains along channels. Rooftop photovoltaic array used watertight south facing roof, replacing shingles, tar, and gravel. Concept reduces cost of residential solar-cell array.

  15. A novel backpackable ice-penetrating radar system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenichi Matsuoka; Ryoji Saito; Renji Naruse

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a novel ice-penetrating radar system that can be carried on a backpack. Including batteries for a 3 hour continuous measurement, the total weight is 13 kg. In addition, it operates reliably down to -25°C, has a low power consumption of 24 W, and is semi-waterproof. The system has a built-in-one controller with a high-brightness display for reading

  16. Moulding technique demonstrates the contribution of surface geometry to the super-hydrophobic properties of the surface of a water strider

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo Perez Goodwyn; Emerson De Souza; Kenji Fujisaki; Stanislav Gorb

    2008-01-01

    Water striders (Insecta, Heteroptera, Gerridae) have a complex three-dimensional waterproof hairy cover which renders them super-hydrophobic. This paper experimentally demonstrates for the first time the mechanism of the super-hydrophobicity of the cuticle of water striders. The complex two-level microstructure of the surface, including the smallest microtrichia (200–300nm wide, 7–9?m long), was successfully replicated using a two-step moulding technique. The mould

  17. Reduced Energy and Maintenance Costs Using Polyurethane as a Replacement Roof System

    E-print Network

    Scott, G. D.

    of the maintenance problems associated with built-up roofs. Standard specifications for this replacement roof were developed, requiring the application of 2 inches of polyurethane foam and 45 mils of a urethane coating. The result being a monolithic weatherproof... Department developed a replacement roof system consisting of foamed polyurethane insulation protected by a tough, waterproof, weather resistant coating. The overall result was a superior roof system, virtually maintenance free, reducing maintenance...

  18. The Sensor Fish: Measuring Fish Passage in Severe Hydraulic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Duncan, Joanne P. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Gilbride, Theresa L. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2003-05-28

    This article describes PNNL's efforts to develop the Sensor Fish, a waterproof sensor package that travels thru the turbines of spillways of hydroelectric dam to collect pressure and acceleration data on the conditions experienced by live salmon smolts during dam passage. Sensor Fish development is sponsored by the DOE Advanced Hydropower Turbine Survival Program. The article also gave two recent examples of Sensor Fish use: turbine passage at a McNary Kaplan turbine and spill passage in topspill at Rock Island Dam.

  19. Development and characterization of poly ethyl metha acrylate–iron oxide(III) based hydrophobic liquid nanocomposite films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Munish Kumar Sharma; Sandip Roy; Kartic Chandra Khilar

    2009-01-01

    Select applications of hydrophobic nanocomposites include preparation of robust self-cleaning surfaces, water-repellent glass surfaces, and waterproofing textiles. Various nanocomposites have been reported in the literature; however, the relationship between the nanocomposite surface morphology and its hydrophobicity needs to be understood better. In the present work Fe2O3 nanoparticles and poly ethyl metha acrylate (PEMA) were used in varying proportions to obtain

  20. Proceedings of the seventh annual West Virginia surface mine drainage task force symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This conference contains several articles and papers on water pollution control methods as it relates to coal mining. Individual papers include information on the origin of acid mine drainage; success of ameliorants such as phosphate, surfactants, and bactericides; placement and treatment methods of acid materials; success of clay and plastic liners; use of waterproof mine seals for controlling water quality; and treatment of acid mine drainage after it forms. Individual papers have been entered separately into the Energy Data Base.

  1. An accurate diode thermometer for use in thermal gradient chambers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Griffiths; C. D. Stow; P. H. Syms

    1974-01-01

    A thermometer has been constructed that is suitable for use in thermal gradient chambers. The water-proof sensing element is a forward-biased constant-current Schottky-junction hot-carrier diode. The voltage across the diode decreases with temperature in an approximately linear fashion and, with suitable corrections for the diode used, enables probe temperatures to be determined to within +or-0.05 degrees C over the range

  2. Smart Aggregates: a Distributed Intelligent Multi-purpose Sensor Network (DIMSN) for Civil Structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gangbing Song; Haichang Gu; Y. L. Mo

    2007-01-01

    Early-age strength monitoring, impact detection, and structural health monitoring are important issues for concrete structures, especially concrete infrastructures such as bridges. A distributed intelligent multi-purpose sensor network (DIMSN) using innovative piezoelectric-based smart aggregates is proposed in this paper to address these important issues. The smart aggregate is fabricated by embedding a water-proofed piezoelectric patch into a small concrete block. The

  3. Polymer MEMS-based Fabry-Perot shear stress sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fan-Gang Tseng; Chun-Jun Lin

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports a novel optical fiber-based micro-shear stress sensor utilizing a flexible membrane and double SU-8 resist structures as a moving micro-mirror, together with an optical fiber as a micro-Fabry-Perot interferometer. This sensor can be employed in air or liquid environments with high sensitivity because of its waterproof design. Through UV lithography processes on thick SU-8 resist, the roughness

  4. Rewaterproofing Chemical For Use With Silicones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, William L.; Mitchell, Shirley M.; Massey, Howard S.

    1990-01-01

    Agent restores impermeability without degrading silicone adhesives and substructures. Dimethylethoxysilane (DMES) found to rewaterproof tiles and composite panels internally without harming materials that underlie them. Replaces hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) as postmission rewaterproofing agent for tiles of thermal-protection system on Space Shuttle. Much of original waterproofing lost during rigors of launch and reentry. Potential terrestrial application includes composite materials in such structures as bridges and submarines.

  5. Portable Spray Booth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Timothy D.; Bardwell, Micheal J.

    1996-01-01

    Portable spray booth provides for controlled application of coating materials with high solvent contents. Includes contoured shroud and carbon filter bed limiting concentration of fumes in vicinity. Designed to substitute spraying for brush application of solvent-based adhesive prior to installing rubber waterproof seals over joints between segments of solid-fuel rocket motor. With minor adjustments and modifications, used to apply other solvent-based adhesives, paints, and like.

  6. Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Marangoni convection in droplets on

    E-print Network

    on superhydrophobic surfaces By D A N I E L T A M1, V O L K M A R v o n A R N I M2 , G. H. M c K I N L E Y2 AND A. E superhydrophobic sur- face. A toroidal convection pattern develops in which fluid is observed to rise along, such as efficient condensing design and waterproofing textiles. Since Wenzel (1936) noted seventy years ago

  7. Taxonomic characterisation of fresh Dipterocarpaceae resins by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS): providing clues for identification of unknown archaeological resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pauline Burger; Armelle Charrié-Duhaut; Jacques Connan; Pierre Albrecht

    2011-01-01

    Plant and particularly non-wood forest products have played an important role in the evolution of human cultures all over\\u000a the world, as source of food but also of raw substances fulfilling material, spiritual, and medicinal requirements. Plant\\u000a exudates and particularly dammar resins (Dipterocarpaceae family) were widely used in the past in Asia notably as waterproofing\\u000a and caulking materials. This study

  8. Mechanism of Action of Lung Damage Caused by a Nanofilm Spray Product

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Søren T.; Dallot, Constantin; Larsen, Susan W.; Rose, Fabrice; Poulsen, Steen S.; Nørgaard, Asger W.; Hansen, Jitka S.; Sørli, Jorid B.; Nielsen, Gunnar D.; Foged, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation of waterproofing spray products has on several occasions caused lung damage, which in some cases was fatal. The present study aims to elucidate the mechanism of action of a nanofilm spray product, which has been shown to possess unusual toxic effects, including an extremely steep concentration-effect curve. The nanofilm product is intended for application on non-absorbing flooring materials and contains perfluorosiloxane as the active film-forming component. The toxicological effects and their underlying mechanisms of this product were studied using a mouse inhalation model, by in vitro techniques and by identification of the binding interaction. Inhalation of the aerosolized product gave rise to increased airway resistance in the mice, as evident from the decreased expiratory flow rate. The toxic effect of the waterproofing spray product included interaction with the pulmonary surfactants. More specifically, the active film-forming components in the spray product, perfluorinated siloxanes, inhibited the function of the lung surfactant due to non-covalent interaction with surfactant protein B, a component which is crucial for the stability and persistence of the lung surfactant film during respiration. The active film-forming component used in the present spray product is also found in several other products on the market. Hence, it may be expected that these products may have a toxicity similar to the waterproofing product studied here. Elucidation of the toxicological mechanism and identification of toxicological targets are important to perform rational and cost-effective toxicological studies. Thus, because the pulmonary surfactant system appears to be an important toxicological target for waterproofing spray products, study of surfactant inhibition could be included in toxicological assessment of this group of consumer products. PMID:24863969

  9. Langerhans Lab Protocols Camera Equipment Protocol.docx pg 1 of 2

    E-print Network

    Langerhans, Brian

    on computer o behavioral experiments in G8, dark-room use for night-time monitoring and cave fish work Memory as it has shorted out before), ok video quality Canon G12 and waterproof case (10 megapixel, lots of control, RAW images, HD video, converter for adding lenses and filters, 28-140mm f/2.8-4.5 lens; 2011) o

  10. Condition Assessment Survey (CAS) Program. Deficiency standards and inspections methods manual: Volume 1, 0.01 Foundations and footings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    General information is presented for asset determinant factor/CAS repair codes/CAS cost factors; guide sheet tool & material listing; testing methods; inspection frequency; standard system design life tables; system work breakdown structure; and general system/material data. Deficiency standards and inspection methods are given for footings - spread/strip/grade beams; foundation walls; foundation dampproofing/waterproofing; excavation/backfill/ and piles & caissons.

  11. Detail view of the leading and top edge of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the leading and top edge of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery showing the thermal protection system components with the white Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) blanket and the black High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (HRSI) tiles along the outer edges. The marks seen on the HRSI tiles are injection point marks and holes for the application of waterproofing material. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  12. Sources and transport of silicone NVR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Gale A.

    1992-01-01

    The retrieved LDEF had varying amounts of visible contamination films (brown stains) at many locations. FTIR spectra of heavy film deposits at vents and of optical windows from tray E5 indicated methyl silicone and silica in the contaminant films. Two possible sources of the methyl silicone are DC-710 phenyl methyl silicone in the shuttle-bay-liner beta cloth, and the shuttle tile waterproofing silane. It is concluded that much of the silicon and silica contamination came from ground operations and the orbiter.

  13. Measure Guideline: Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for designs and variations for retrofit hybrid assemblies in improving interior foundation insulation and water management of basements. Variations include closed cell spray foam (ccSPF) with membrane waterproofing or air gap membrane drainage layers, rigid board foam insulation at flat walls (cast concrete or CMU block), a 'partial drainage' detail making use of the bulk water drainage that occurs through the field of a rubble stone wall, and non-drained spray foam assemblies (including slab insulation).

  14. Disappearing Statues

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Chemical Society

    2008-01-01

    In this activity (on page 8), learners model how marble statues and buildings are affected by acid rain. Antacid tablets made with calcium carbonate are used to represent marble (also made from calcium carbonate), and vinegar is used to represent acid rain. Learners observe the effect of adding water to one tablet and vinegar to another. The tablets can be made into slightly more realistic models by drawing on them with a pencil, or rubber stamping a design with waterproof ink. This activity could be used in connection with lessons on pollution and acid rain, or lessons on art and architecture.

  15. PCB concentrations in Pere Marquette River and Muskegon River watersheds, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogarty, Lisa R.

    2005-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs) are a class of209 individual compounds (known as congeners) for which there are no known natural sources. PCBs are carcinogenic and bioaccumulative compounds. For over 40 years, PCBs were manufactured in the United States. The flame resistant property of PCBs made them ideal chemicals for use as flame-retardants, and as coolants and lubricants in transformers and other electrical equipment. PCBs were also used in heating coils, carbonless paper, degreasers, varnishes, lacquers, waterproofing material, and cereal boxes. In addition, they were frequently used in the manufacturing of plastics, adhesives, and paints.

  16. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The design details of an optimized integrated residential photovoltaic module/array are presented. This selected design features a waterproofing and mounting scheme which was devised to simplify the installation procedures by the avoidance of complex gasketed or caulked joints, while still maintaining a high confidence that the watertight integrity of the integral roofing surface will be achieved for the design lifetime of the system. The production and installation costs for the selected module/array design are reported for a range of annual production rates as a function of the cost of solar cells.

  17. Modular hydro dam approach to the economic development of ultra low-head hydropower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broome, K. R.

    1981-06-01

    The potential for developing economical new ultra low head sites using an innovative concept known as the modular hydro dam (MHD) were explored. This concept, combines the benefits of shop fabrication and installation of equipment in truck transportable, waterproof power modules, with prefabricated gate sections that can be located between the power modules. The technical, economic, environmental, and institutional feasibility of the MHD concept are examined. Capital and operating costs are estimated. It is concluded that the potential for power generation at ultralow head sites justifies the development of the MHD concept.

  18. Composite Riflescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Bushnell Division of Bausch & Lomb's Armor-Sight riflescope combines the company's world-renowned optics with a graphite composite (Graphlon VI) developed for space applications. The riflescope is 10 percent lighter than aluminum scopes, and, because its thermal expansion coefficient is near zero, optical distortion from heat and cold extremes is eliminated. It is fogproof and waterproof; advanced multicoated optics provide maximum light transmission to brighten target ranges. Bushnell was assisted by NIAC/USC in searching for technical information on graphic composites and in overcoming difficulties with bonding and porosity.

  19. The impact of water temperature on core body temperature of North American river otters (Lutra canadensis) during simulated oil spill recovery washing protocols.

    PubMed

    Stoskopf, M K; Spelman, L H; Sumner, P W; Redmond, D P; Jochem, W J; Levine, J F

    1997-12-01

    Ten North American river otters (Lutra canadensis) were anesthetized with Telazol and instrumented with ingestable radiotelemetry temperature sensors for measuring core body temperature. The otters were then subjected to a washing protocol to simulate rehabilitation following an oil spill contamination. This protocol consisted of a 30-min wash in a 1:16 dilution of dishwashing liquid using either cold (24 degrees C) water or water near baseline core body temperature (38.4 degrees C), followed by a 30-min rinse with water of the same temperature, followed by 10 min of forced hot air drying. Core body temperatures of the otters washed in cold water fell at a median rate of 0.1 degrees C/min, whereas otters washed in warm water maintained stable core temperatures until the completion of the protocol, at which time their core temperatures began to drop at a similar rate. Core temperatures restabilized in both groups, and no statistical difference in core temperature between groups remained 180 min after initiation of the protocol. Efforts to examine the efficacy of supplemental squalene administration to speed the recovery of fur condition and waterproofing were unsuccessful because the washing protocol did not cause loss of coat waterproofing in 8 of the 10 subjects. PMID:9523634

  20. Radiation induced changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of the granary weevil and their relationships to desiccation and adult mortality: Annual progress report, February 15, 1987 to February 14, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Sriharan, S.

    1988-03-14

    Sitophilus granarius (L) is a major pest of stroed grains and is prone to irradiation treatment. There is considerable scope for use of radiation like Cesium-137 (as a source) as an alternative to chemical treatment for pest control. Study with regard to radiation damage and the effect of environmental factors like temperature and humidity on adult weevil mortality due to radiation effect is limited. Stored-grain insects live in an enviroment where liquid water is seldom available. Waterproofing and conservation of water by the insects is a critical factor for weevil survival. In some insects it has been noted that the rate of water loss through the integument has been associated with changes in the hydrocarbon composition of the epicuticle. Epicuticular hydrocarbons play an important role in preventing desiccation. Information on the effects of irradiation on epicuticular hydrocarbon of the adult weevils is limited. The present investigation sudies the after effects of radiation damage to granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius (L.) in terms of causing increased water loss from the body, weevil nortality and concommitant changes, if any, in the cuticular hydrocarbons that waterproof the insect. 23 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Microfabricated environmental barrier using ZnO nanowire on metal mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Young-Min; Lee, Seung-Ki; Lee, Joo-Yong; Kim, Jun-Ho; Park, Jae-Hyoung; Ji, Chang-Hyeon

    2013-12-01

    In this study, a waterproof environmental barrier for microsensor package has been developed using metal mesh covered with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire. A near superhydrophobic surface with two-dimensional array of holes has been fabricated by hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowire on an off-the-shelf steel use stainless (SUS) mesh. For a twill-woven SUS wire mesh having wire thickness of 30 µm and gap of 33 µm, a maximum contact angle of 160.40° and a minimum contact angle hysteresis of 15.23° have been achieved using ZnO nanowire grown on the wire surface and further deposition of FC film. The mesh was able to withstand a maximum water pressure of 2,459.8 Pa. The measured height of ZnO nanowire was approximately 2-3 µm. The fabricated SUS mesh covered with ZnO nanowire has been assembled with a microphone package, and waterproof characteristics have been measured by cyclic dipping test at various water levels. For a microphone package having two acoustic ports on top and bottom covered with fabricated mesh, no visible change in acoustic characteristics has been observed up to 1,372.9 Pa of water pressure. Total volume of the package was 6.8 × 9.8 × 1.9 mm3.

  2. A nanoliter self-priming compartmentalization chip for point-of-care digital PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Qi; Gao, Yibo; Zhu, Qiangyuan; Tian, Qingchang; Yu, Bingwen; Song, Bofan; Xu, Yanan; Yuan, Maokai; Ma, Congcong; Jin, Wei; Zhang, Tao; Mu, Ying; Jin, Qinhan

    2015-06-01

    A nanoliter self-priming compartmentalization (SPC) microfluidic chip suited for the digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) analysis in point-of-care testing (POCT) has been developed. This dPCR chip is fabricated of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). After the dPCR chip is evacuated, there will be a negative pressure environment in the chip because of the gas solubility of PDMS. The negative pressure environment can provide a self-priming power so that the sample solutions can be sucked into each reaction chamber sequentially. The whole sampling process requires no external power and is valve-free. Channels that contain water are designed around each sample panel to prevent the solvent (water) from evaporating during dPCR process. A glass coverslip is also used as a waterproof layer, which is more convenient and more efficient than other waterproof methods seen in literature. This dPCR chip allows three samples to be amplified at the same time. Each sample is distributed into 1040 reaction chambers, and each chamber is only 2.08 nL. Human ?-actin DNA solutions of known concentrations are used as the templates for the dPCR analyses to verify the sensitivity and accuracy of the method. Template DNA solutions diluted to concentrations of 300, 100 and 10 copies/?L are tested and shown that this simple, portable and self-priming dPCR chip can be used at any clinic as a real POCT technique. PMID:26022215

  3. A nanoliter self-priming compartmentalization chip for point-of-care digital PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Qi; Gao, Yibo; Zhu, Qiangyuan; Tian, Qingchang; Yu, Bingwen; Song, Bofan; Xu, Yanan; Yuan, Maokai; Ma, Congcong; Jin, Wei; Zhang, Tao; Mu, Ying; Jin, Qinhan

    2015-06-01

    A nanoliter self-priming compartmentalization (SPC) microfluidic chip suited for the digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) analysis in point-of-care testing (POCT) has been developed. This dPCR chip is fabricated of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). After the dPCR chip is evacuated, there will be a negative pressure environment in the chip because of the gas solubility of PDMS. The negative pressure environment can provide a self-priming power so that the sample solutions can be sucked into each reaction chamber sequentially. The whole sampling process requires no external power and is valve-free. Channels that contain water are designed around each sample panel to prevent the solvent (water) from evaporating during dPCR process. A glass coverslip is also used as a waterproof layer, which is more convenient and more efficient than other waterproof methods seen in literature. This dPCR chip allows three samples to be amplified at the same time. Each sample is distributed into 1040 reaction chambers, and each chamber is only 2.08 nL. Human ?-actin DNA solutions of known concentrations are used as the templates for the dPCR analyses to verify the sensitivity and accuracy of the method. Template DNA solutions diluted to concentrations of 300, 100 and 10 copies/?L are tested and shown that this simple, portable and self-priming dPCR chip can be used at any clinic as a real POCT technique. PMID:26029750

  4. Underwater manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.

    1993-04-20

    Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is described for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer [plus minus]45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer [plus minus]10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

  5. Moist bacterial strike-through of surgical materials: confirmatory tests.

    PubMed Central

    Laufman, H; Siegal, J D; Edberg, S C

    1979-01-01

    New tests consisting of modifications of the inverted Mason jar test confirm our previously reported studies which showed that woven and nonwoven surgical materials vary greatly in their ability to serve as barriers against moist bacterial strike-through. Among the woven materials, only tightly woven Pima cloth or materials treated with Quarpel waterproofing process or with polythene layer lamination was invariably resistant. However, tight-woven Pima cloth, which had been treated with Quarpel became permeable after 100 washing-sterilizing cycles. Of the nonwoven materials, single-layer nonwoven materials tended to unevenly permeable to moist bacterial strike-through. Only the front and sleeves of nonwoven gowns reinforced with polyethelene layer were invariably resistant to moist contamination. PMID:758867

  6. High-temperature-immersion ultrasonic probe without delay line using PbTiO3/Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ultrasonic transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibe, Taiga; Inoue, Takuo; Namihira, Takao; Kobayashi, Makiko

    2015-07-01

    The behavior of a high-temperature-immersion ultrasonic probe without a delay line using a PbTiO3/Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PT/PZT) ultrasonic transducer was investigated empirically. A ?100-µm-thick PT/PZT film was fabricated on a 200-µm-thick stainless steel substrate. After PT/PZT film fabrication, the substrate was bonded to a stainless steel pipe using a high-temperature waterproof adhesive material. The probe was tested in a water bath from room temperature to 100 °C for system verification. During three thermal cycles, the ultrasonic echoes had a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and reasonable repeatability. After that, the same probe was verified by testing it in the silicone oil from room temperature to 200 °C. The test was also repeated three times and the probe successfully demonstrated high-temperature durability, a high SNR, and repeatability throughout the experiments.

  7. Detail view of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery looking at the two-piece rudder which is used to control the yaw position of orbiter on approach and landing in earth's atmosphere and upon landing the two-piece rudder splays open to both sides of the stabilizer to act as an air brake to help slow the craft to a stop. Note the thermal protection system components with the white Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation Blanket and the black High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation tiles along the outer edges (HRSI tiles). The marks seen on the HRSI tiles are injection point marks and holes for the application of waterproofing material. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  8. Detail view of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery Discovery showing the thermal protection system components with the white Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFSI) Blanket and the black High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (HRSI) tiles along the outer edges . The marks seen on the HRSI tiles are injection point marks and holes for the application of waterproofing material. This view also a good detailed view of the two-piece rudder which is used to control the yaw position of orbiter on approach and landing in earth's atmosphere and upon landing the two-piece rudder splays open to both sides of the stabilizer to act as an air brake to help slow the craft to a stop. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  9. Expression of a fungal sterol desaturase improves tomato drought tolerance, pathogen resistance and nutritional quality

    PubMed Central

    Kamthan, Ayushi; Kamthan, Mohan; Azam, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

    2012-01-01

    Crop genetic engineering mostly aims at improving environmental stress (biotic and abiotic) tolerance as well as nutritional quality. Empowering a single crop with multiple traits is highly demanding and requires manipulation of more than one gene. However, we report improved drought tolerance and fungal resistance along with the increased iron and polyunsaturated fatty acid content in tomato by expressing a single gene encoding C-5 sterol desaturase (FvC5SD) from an edible fungus Flammulina velutipes. FvC5SD is an iron binding protein involved in ergosterol biosynthesis. Morphological and biochemical analyses indicated ?23% more epicuticular wax deposition in leaves of transgenic plants that provides an effective waterproof barrier resulting in improved protection from drought and infection by phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Furthermore, the transgenic fruits have improved nutritional value attributed to enhanced level of beneficial PUFA and 2-3 fold increase in total iron content. This strategy can be extended to other economically important crops. PMID:23230516

  10. [Hygienic monitoring in a municipal solid waste incineration plant].

    PubMed

    Boccia, Antonio; Del Cimmuto, Angela; Tufi, Daniela; De Giusti, Maria; Grisolia, Massimo

    2003-01-01

    Under President's Executive Order 915/1982, the Malagrotta waste disposal plant has been surrounded by a water-proof ring. This study reflects a eight-year research activity about "the Plant's steadiness and its impact on the land; hygienic monitoring of aquifers, air quality control and sound pollution; health and safety of workers; disinfection and land reclamation". For surface subsidence to be measured, 21 spots were monitored and 30 piezometers were set up in adjacent critical areas, both inside and outside the plant. Some of them were also used to pick up water and test it for chemical and microbiological purposes. Samples of leachates were analysed, air quality assessed and sound tests carried out. Overall outcomes show good performance in terms of interaction between plant, hydro-geological regimen and possible impact on the surrounding land. PMID:14716379

  11. Modular, multi-level groundwater sampler

    DOEpatents

    Nichols, Ralph L. (812 Plantation Point Dr., N. Augusta, SC 29841); Widdowson, Mark A. (4204 Havana Ct., Columbia, SC 29206); Mullinex, Harry (10 Cardross La., Columbia, SC 29209); Orne, William H. (12 Martha Ct., Sumter, SC 29150); Looney, Brian B. (1135 Ridgemont Dr., Aiken, SC 29803)

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for taking a multiple of samples of groundwater or pressure measurements from a well simultaneously. The apparatus comprises a series of chambers arranged in an axial array, each of which is dimensioned to fit into a perforated well casing and leave a small gap between the well casing and the exterior of the chamber. Seals at each end of the container define the limits to the axial portion of the well to be sampled. A submersible pump in each chamber pumps the groundwater that passes through the well casing perforations into the gap from the gap to the surface for analysis. The power lines and hoses for the chambers farther down the array pass through each chamber above them in the array. The seals are solid, water-proof, non-reactive, resilient disks supported to engage the inside surface of the well casing. Because of the modular design, the apparatus provides flexibility for use in a variety of well configurations.

  12. Development and Characterization of CPI Surface Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, A.; Feldman, C.; Reichman, J.; Russak, M.; Varisco, A.

    1973-01-01

    A new type of reusable surface material that could find application as a component of the thermal protection system of the space shuttle orbiter is discussed. These materials consist of 20-30% dense closed cell high emittance glass ceramic foams formulated by sintering an intimate mixture of fly ash cenospheres with 4-12 wt % cobalt oxide. These unique ceramic foams exhibit: (1) High mechanical strengths; (2) no need for waterproof coating due to the non-interconnecting cell network; (3) high emissivities; (4) ability to withstand space shuttle thermal environments with no loss of reuse capability; and (5) a machinable ceramic with capability of maintaining the close tolerances required of an integrated heat shield system.

  13. Underwater manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Schrum, Phillip B. (Clairton, PA); Cohen, George H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1993-01-01

    Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is provided for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer .+-.45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer .+-.10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

  14. Development of processing techniques for advanced thermal protection materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna S.

    1995-01-01

    The main purpose of this work has been in the development and characterization of materials for high temperature applications. Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) are constantly being tested, and evaluated for increased thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental effects. Materials development was carried out through the use of many different instruments and methods, ranging from extensive elemental analysis to physical attributes testing. The six main focus areas include: (1) protective coatings for carbon/carbon composites; (2) TPS material characterization; (3) improved waterproofing for TPS; (4) modified ceramic insulation for bone implants; (5) improved durability ceramic insulation blankets; and (6) ultra-high temperature ceramics. This report describes the progress made in these research areas during this contract period.

  15. Preparation of porous super-hydrophobic and super-oleophilic polyvinyl chloride surface with corrosion resistance property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yingke; Wang, Jinyan; Yang, Guangbin; Xiong, Xiujuan; Chen, Xinhua; Yu, Laigui; Zhang, Pingyu

    2011-11-01

    Porous super-hydrophobic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surfaces were obtained via a facile solvent/non-solvent coating process without introducing compounds with low surface energy. The microstructure, wetting behavior, and corrosion resistance of resultant super-hydrophobic PVC coatings were investigated in relation to the effects of dosage of glacial acetic acid and the temperature of drying the mixed PVC solution spread over glass slide substrate. As-prepared PVC coatings had porous microstructure, and the one obtained at a glacial acetic acid to tetrahydrofuran volume ratio of 2.5:10.0 and under a drying temperature of 17 °C had a water contact angle of 150 ± 1.5°, showing super-hydrophobicity. In the meantime, it possessed very small contact angles for liquid paraffin and diiodomethane and good corrosion resistance against acid and alkali corrosive mediums, showing promising applications in self-cleaning, waterproof for outer wall of building, seawater resistant coating, and efficient separation of oil and water.

  16. Research and industrial application of series MJ-compound binders

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, G.; Gao, J.; Xu, Z. [China Coal Research Inst. (China)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents a discussion of the series MJ-compound binders studies, which were developed recently, as well as the results of industrial tests and applications. Compared with traditional binders used to produce coal briquettes such as lime, humic acid, clay, etc., the series MJ-compound binders have the advantages of low additive ratio, low price and rich resources, as well as simple production processes and low operational costs. The successful development of the MJ10/MJ11 compound binder and its industrial applications, which uses dry processing and can produce high strength and waterproof coal briquettes, has made great progress in industrial coal briquetting technologies in China. Therefore, it is now possible to produce coal briquettes locally near coal mine areas and to transport them long distance to different consumers.

  17. Status and outlook of industrial coal briquetting technology in China

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S.; Xu, Z.; Li, W. [China Coal Research Inst. (China); Tian, B. [Taiyuan Coal Gasification Corp. (China)

    1997-12-31

    Considering that the lump coal supply falls short of demands, great amounts of fine coal and slime are stockpiled, waste energy is extensive, and environmental pollution is serious, this paper summarizes the present situation of industrial coal briquetting technologies and their applications, and evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of several different coal briquette technologies widely used. The authors think that the energetic development of industrial coal briquetting technology is an effective and feasible option to fully utilize fine coal and slime, mitigate the contradiction between supply and demand for lump coal, reduce the production cost of users, as well as decrease and control environmental pollution caused by coal utilization. It is a practical solution for clean coal in China. At present, the research for developing industrial coal briquetting technologies is in the selection and adoption of suitable binders which need dry processing and can produce high strength and waterproof briquettes.

  18. Moisture design to improve durability of low-slope roofing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Desjarlais, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Byars, N. [Univ. of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The roofing industry has traditionally held that moisture control in low-slope roofing comprises two independent elements: (1) provide a waterproof exterior covering (or membrane) to protect the low-slope roof from external sources of moisture and (2) perform a condensation calculation to determine if a vapor retarder is required to protect a roof system from internal moisture sources. The first criterion is assumed to be satisfied if a membrane system is specified; in reality, all membrane systems eventually fail, and existing moisture control strategies offer no mechanism for analyzing the inevitable failure. The means of assessing the second criterion, the need for a vapor retarder, has evolved in recent years. The criteria have become more liberal with time because it has been observed that roofing systems installed in a geographic area in which the old criteria required a vapor retarder, have performed well without one.

  19. Dynamics of Wetting of Ultra Hydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad Karim, Alireza; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Rothstein, Jonathan; Kavehpour, Pirouz; Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst Collaboration

    2013-11-01

    Controlling the surface wettability of hydrophobic and super hydrophobic surfaces has extensive industrial applications ranging from coating, painting and printing technology and waterproof clothing to efficiency increase in power and water plants. This requires enhancing the knowledge about the dynamics of wetting on these hydrophobic surfaces. We have done experimental investigation on the dynamics of wetting on hydrophobic surfaces by looking deeply in to the dependency of the dynamic contact angles both advancing and receding on the velocity of the three-phase boundary (Solid/Liquid/Gas interface) using the Wilhelmy plate method with different ultra-hydrophobic surfaces. Several fluids with different surface tension and viscosity are used to study the effect of physical properties of liquids on the governing laws.

  20. Underwater manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus provided for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer {plus_minus} 45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer {plus_minus} 10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

  1. Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Conkle, H.N.

    1992-09-29

    Battelle-Columbus and Amax Research Development conducted a program to develop a process to transport, handle, store, and utilize ultra-fine, ultra-clean (UFUC) coals. The primary objective was to devise a cost-effective method, based on conventional pelletization techniques, to transform the sludge-like filter cake produced in advanced flotation cleaning processes into a product which could be used like lump coal. A secondary objective was the production of a pellet which could be readily converted into a coal water fuel (CWF) because the UFUC coal would ultimately be used as CWF. The resulting product would be a hard, waterproof pellet which could be easily reduced to small particle sizes and formulated with water into a liquid fuel.

  2. Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Conkle, H.N.

    1992-09-29

    Battelle-Columbus and Amax Research & Development conducted a program to develop a process to transport, handle, store, and utilize ultra-fine, ultra-clean (UFUC) coals. The primary objective was to devise a cost-effective method, based on conventional pelletization techniques, to transform the sludge-like filter cake produced in advanced flotation cleaning processes into a product which could be used like lump coal. A secondary objective was the production of a pellet which could be readily converted into a coal water fuel (CWF) because the UFUC coal would ultimately be used as CWF. The resulting product would be a hard, waterproof pellet which could be easily reduced to small particle sizes and formulated with water into a liquid fuel.

  3. Long-term reliability of screen printed CdS/CdTe solar-cell modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, A.; Ikegami, S.; Matsumoto, H.; Uda, H.; Komatsu, Y.

    1986-05-01

    Long-term reliability tests have been carried out screen-printed CdS/CdTe solar-cell modules under rooftop conditions in three countries at different latitudes (Japan, India and Australia). Test results on 118 modules, over periods of 140 to 800 days, have shown that such modules are fundamentally stable under these conditions. The only exception was one large module tested in India. The degradation of this module appears to have resulted from water which was able to enter because of poor sealing. Studies on waterproofing are necessary if the long-term reliability of screen-printed CdS/CdTe solar-cell modules is to be improved.

  4. THROUGH-THE-EARTH (TTE) COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM AND THE IN-MINE POWER LINE (IMPL) COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Zvi H. Meiksin

    2002-01-01

    Work has progressed on both subsystems: the Through-the-Earth (TTE) Communications system and the In-Mine Power Line (IMPL) Communications system. The TTE system: The system was fabricated and repackaged as an industrial product enclosed in a commercial rugged, waterproof housing suitable for installation in mines. Features were added to the system to appeal to the preferences of different mine managers. Arrangements were made with NIOSH to install the system in the Lake Lynn underground mine for evaluation and demonstration to potential users. The IMPL system: Voice compression was successfully implemented and incorporated into the laboratory model. Compressed voice was transmitted through a power line, expanded at the receiving end, and received with high clarity.

  5. A flexible ultrasound transducer array with micro-machined bulk PZT.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Xue, Qing-Tang; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Shu, Yi; Tian, He; Yang, Yi; Xie, Dan; Luo, Jian-Wen; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel flexible piezoelectric micro-machined ultrasound transducer, which is based on PZT and a polyimide substrate. The transducer is made on the polyimide substrate and packaged with medical polydimethylsiloxane. Instead of etching the PZT ceramic, this paper proposes a method of putting diced PZT blocks into holes on the polyimide which are pre-etched. The device works in d31 mode and the electromechanical coupling factor is 22.25%. Its flexibility, good conformal contacting with skin surfaces and proper resonant frequency make the device suitable for heart imaging. The flexible packaging ultrasound transducer also has a good waterproof performance after hundreds of ultrasonic electric tests in water. It is a promising ultrasound transducer and will be an effective supplementary ultrasound imaging method in the practical applications. PMID:25625905

  6. Methods for characterizing subsurface volatile contaminants using in-situ sensors

    DOEpatents

    Ho, Clifford K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-02-21

    An inverse analysis method for characterizing diffusion of vapor from an underground source of volatile contaminant using data taken by an in-situ sensor. The method uses one-dimensional solutions to the diffusion equation in Cartesian, cylindrical, or spherical coordinates for isotropic and homogenous media. If the effective vapor diffusion coefficient is known, then the distance from the source to the in-situ sensor can be estimated by comparing the shape of the predicted time-dependent vapor concentration response curve to the measured response curve. Alternatively, if the source distance is known, then the effective vapor diffusion coefficient can be estimated using the same inverse analysis method. A triangulation technique can be used with multiple sensors to locate the source in two or three dimensions. The in-situ sensor can contain one or more chemiresistor elements housed in a waterproof enclosure with a gas permeable membrane.

  7. A method of extracellular recording of neuronal activity in swimming mice.

    PubMed

    Korshunov, Victor A; Averkin, Robert G

    2007-09-30

    The design of a removable miniature microdrive-headstage waterproof assembly for extracellular recordings of single unit activity with high-impedance electrodes in swimming mice is presented. The assembly provides perfect protection of the critical components and electric contacts from water. Neuronal activity may be recorded even if the animal is diving and swimming under the water surface. The advantages of this construction include simple installation and removal of the electrodes, rapid attachment of the assembly to the animal's skull, and rapid removal after recording. The device provides precise vertical positioning of the electrode without rotation or lateral shift, stable recordings of single units for several hours and the possibility to change the penetration track many times in the same animal. The assembly weight is less than 160mg. This work is the first successful attempt to record neuronal activity in mice performing spatial task in water maze. PMID:17669505

  8. Closeup view of the exterior of the starboard side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the exterior of the starboard side of the forward fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking at the forward facing observation windows of the flight deck. Note the High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (HRSI) surrounding the window openings, the Low-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (LRSI) immediately beyond the HRSI tiles and the Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation blankets just beyond the LRSI tiles. The holes in the tiles are injection points for the application of waterproofing material. The windows are composed of redundant pressure window panes of thermal glass. This image was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  9. Expression of a fungal sterol desaturase improves tomato drought tolerance, pathogen resistance and nutritional quality.

    PubMed

    Kamthan, Ayushi; Kamthan, Mohan; Azam, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

    2012-01-01

    Crop genetic engineering mostly aims at improving environmental stress (biotic and abiotic) tolerance as well as nutritional quality. Empowering a single crop with multiple traits is highly demanding and requires manipulation of more than one gene. However, we report improved drought tolerance and fungal resistance along with the increased iron and polyunsaturated fatty acid content in tomato by expressing a single gene encoding C-5 sterol desaturase (FvC5SD) from an edible fungus Flammulina velutipes. FvC5SD is an iron binding protein involved in ergosterol biosynthesis. Morphological and biochemical analyses indicated ?23% more epicuticular wax deposition in leaves of transgenic plants that provides an effective waterproof barrier resulting in improved protection from drought and infection by phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotiniasclerotiorum. Furthermore, the transgenic fruits have improved nutritional value attributed to enhanced level of beneficial PUFA and 2-3 fold increase in total iron content. This strategy can be extended to other economically important crops. PMID:23230516

  10. Wet-work Exposure: A Main Risk Factor for Occupational Hand Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Behroozy, Ali; Keegel, Tessa G.

    2014-01-01

    Wet-work can be defined as activities where workers have to immerse their hands in liquids for >2 hours per shift, or wear waterproof (occlusive) gloves for a corresponding amount of time, or wash their hands >20 times per shift. This review considers the recent literature on wet-work exposure, and examines wet-work as a main risk factor for developing irritant contact dermatitis of the hands. The aim of this paper is to provide a detailed description of wet-work exposure among specific occupational groups who extensively deal with water and other liquids in their occupations. Furthermore, it highlights the extent and importance of the subsequent adverse health effects caused by exposure to wet-work. PMID:25516808

  11. Rad Pole Cam Development

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F. M.; Odell, D. M. C; Harpring, L. J.; Peterson, K. D.

    2005-10-05

    The RadPoleCam was developed to provide Department Of Energy (DOE) first responders the capability to assess the radiological and visual condition of remote or inaccessible locations. Real time gamma isotopic identification is provided to the first responder in the form of audio feedback (i.e. spoken through head phones) from a gamma detector mounted on a collapsible pole that can extend from 1 to 9 meters (6 to 29 feet). Simultaneously, selectable direct and side looking visual images are provided from the 5cm (2in) diameter, waterproof probe tip. The lightweight, self contained, ruggedized, system will provide a rapidly deployable field system for visual and radiological search and assessment of confined spaces and extended reach locations.

  12. Director's Discretionary Fund Report for Fiscal Year 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Topics covered include: Waterproofing the Space Shuttle tiles, thermal protection system for Reusable Launch Vehicles, computer modeling of the thermal conductivity of cometary ice, effects of ozone depletion and ultraviolet radiation on plants, a novel telemetric biosensor to monitor blood pH on-line, ion mobility in polymer electrolytes for lithium-polymer batteries, a microwave-pumped far infrared photoconductor, and a new method for measuring cloud liquid vapor using near infrared remote sensing. Also included: laser-spectroscopic instrument for turbulence measurement, remote sensing of aircraft contrails using a field portable imaging interferometer, development of a silicon-micromachined gas chromatography system for determination of planetary surface composition, planar Doppler velocimetry, chaos in interstellar chemistry, and a limited pressure cycle engine for high-speed output.

  13. Invisible photonic printing: computer designing graphics, UV printing and shown by a magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Hu, Haibo; Tang, Jian; Zhong, Hao; Xi, Zheng; Chen, Changle; Chen, Qianwang

    2013-01-01

    Invisible photonic printing, an emerging printing technique, is particularly useful for steganography and watermarking for anti-counterfeiting purposes. However, many challenges exist in order to realize this technique. Herein, we describe a novel photonic printing strategy targeting to overcome these challenges and realize fast and convenient fabrication of invisible photonic prints with good tenability and reproducibility. With this novel photonic printing technique, a variety of graphics with brilliant colors can be perfectly hidden in a soft and waterproof photonic-paper. The showing and hiding of the latent photonic prints are instantaneous with magnet as the only required instrument. In addition, this strategy has excellent practicality and allows end-user control of the structural design utilizing simple software on a PC. PMID:23508071

  14. Fabrication of cotton fabric with superhydrophobicity and flame retardancy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Chengyu

    2013-07-25

    A simple and facile method for fabricating the cotton fabric with superhydrophobicity and flame retardancy is described in the present work. The cotton fabric with the maximal WCA of 160° has been prepared by the covalent deposition of amino-silica nanospheres and the further graft with (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetradecyl) trimethoxysilane. The geometric microstructure of silica spheres was measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cotton textiles before and after treatment were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The wetting behavior of cotton samples was investigated by water contact angle measurement. Moreover, diverse performances of superhydrophobic cotton textiles have been evaluated as well. The results exhibited the outstanding superhydrophobicity, excellent waterproofing durability and flame retardancy of the cotton fabric after treatment, offering a good opportunity to accelerate the large-scale production of superhydrophobic textiles materials for new industrial applications. PMID:23768579

  15. The Use of Basalt, Basalt Fibers and Modified Graphite for Nuclear Waste Repository - 12150

    SciTech Connect

    Gulik, V.I. [Institute for Nuclear Research, pr. Nauky 47, Kyiv, 03680 (Ukraine); Biland, A.B. [HHK Technologies, 3535 Wilcreast Dr., Houston TX 77042 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    New materials enhancing the isolation of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel are continuously being developed.. Our research suggests that basalt-based materials, including basalt roving chopped basalt fiber strands, basalt composite rebar and materials based on modified graphite, could be used for enhancing radioactive waste isolation during the storage and disposal phases and maintaining it during a significant portion of the post-closure phase. The basalt vitrification process of nuclear waste is a viable alternative to glass vitrification. Basalt roving, chopped basalt fiber strands and basalt composite rebars can significantly increase the strength and safety characteristics of nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel storages. Materials based on MG are optimal waterproofing materials for nuclear waste containers. (authors)

  16. A novel backpackable ice-penetrating radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Kenichi; Saito, Ryoji; Naruse, Renji

    We have developed a novel ice-penetrating radar system that can be carried on a backpack. Including batteries for a 3 hour continuous measurement, the total weight is 13 kg. In addition, it operates reliably down to -25°C, has a low power consumption of 24 W, and is semi-waterproof. The system has a built-in-one controller with a high-brightness display for reading data quickly, a receiver with 12-bit digitizing, and a 1 kV pulse transmitter in which the pulse amplitude varies by <0.2%. Optical communications between components provides low-noise data acquisition and allows synchronizing of the pulse transmission with sampling. Measurements with the system revealed the 300 m deep bed topography of a temperate valley glacier in the late ablation season.

  17. Highly Stretchable 2D Fabrics for Wearable Triboelectric Nanogenerator under Harsh Environments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeong Nam; Chun, Jinsung; Kim, Jin Woong; Lee, Keun Young; Park, Jang-Ung; Kim, Sang-Woo; Wang, Zhong Lin; Baik, Jeong Min

    2015-06-23

    Highly stretchable 2D fabrics are prepared by weaving fibers for a fabric-structured triboelectric nanogenerator (FTENG). The fibers mainly consist of Al wires and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) tubes with a high-aspect-ratio nanotextured surface with vertically aligned nanowires. The fabrics were produced by interlacing the fibers, which was bonded to a waterproof fabric for all-weather use for fabric-structured triboelectric nanogenerator (FTENG). It showed a stable high-output voltage and current of 40 V and 210 ?A, corresponding to an instantaneous power output of 4 mW. The FTENG also exhibits high robustness behavior even after 25% stretching, enough for use in smart clothing applications and other wearable electronics. For wearable applications, the nanogenerator was successfully demonstrated in applications of footstep-driven large-scale power mats during walking and power clothing attached to the elbow. PMID:26051679

  18. Development of strain gages for use to 1311 K (1900 F)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemcoe, M. M.

    1974-01-01

    A high temperature electric resistance strain gage system was developed and evaluated to 1366 K (2000 F) for periods of at least one hour. Wire fabricated from a special high temperature strain gage alloy (BCL-3), was used to fabricate the gages. Various joining techniques (NASA butt welding, pulse arc, plasma needle arc, and dc parallel gap welding) were investigated for joining gage filaments to each other, gage filaments to lead-tab ribbons, and lead-tab ribbons to lead wires. The effectiveness of a clad-wire concept as a means of minimizing apparent strain of BCL-3 strain gages was investigated by sputtering platinum coatings of varying thicknesses on wire samples and establishing the optimum coating thickness--in terms of minimum resistivity changes with temperature. Finally, the moisture-proofing effectiveness of barrier coatings subjected to elevated temperatures was studied, and one commercial barrier coating (BLH Barrier H Waterproofing) was evaluated.

  19. The application of PCMMcs and SiC by commercially direct dual-complex coating on textile polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Kang; Choe, Jongdeok; Park, Youngmi

    2009-07-01

    To enhance the thermal insulation effect, waterproof/breathable fabrics were directly top dual-coated by the dry coating method with ceramic materials (silicon carbide, SiC). The fabric was base coated by the wet coating method with 5 wt% phase-change material microcapsules (PCMMcs) and tested for the emission of far-infrared (FIR) radiation. With increasing SiC content, the fabric altered some of the physical properties by increasing the FIR emissivity, emission power, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) and heat release capacity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed the presence of the PCMMcs and SiC particles at the cross-section and surface of the coating, respectively, which exhibited a rugged and blocky shape. The results indicated that SiC addition did not affect the water entry pressure (WEP) in the fabric structure, but did alter the following physical properties: WVTR, interactions between the macromolecule chains and the susceptibility to humidity.

  20. A convenient first aid kit for chemical and biological agents and for radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, R; Bhaskar, A S B; Gautam, Anshoo; Gopalan, N; Singh, A K; Singh, Beer; Flora, S J S

    2012-05-01

    The chemical and biological warfare agents are extremely toxic in nature. They act rapidly even in very small quantities and death may occur in minutes. Hence, physical and medical protection must be provided immediately to save life or avoid serious injury. A first aid kit has thus been developed for providing immediate relief from chemical and biological warfare agents (FAKCBW) with the objective of easy detection, personal decontamination, antidote for chemical warfare agents (like nerve agents, sulphur mustard, phosgene, cyanide, radiation exposure and bacterial agents), along with basic medication aid for pain, fever and inflammation. The kit box also includes a user friendly handbook with a simple standard operating procedure. In addition, the kit is rugged to withstand normal jerks, vibration and is water-proof. PMID:23029921

  1. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development. Quarterly report No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, N.F. Jr.

    1981-05-18

    The results of a selection process to define the conceptual design of an optimum integrated residential photovoltaic module array are discussed. Three basic module design concepts have been analyzed with respect to both production and installation costs. The results of this evaluation have been used to synthesize a fourth design which incorporates the best features of these initial concepts to produce a module/array design approach which offers the promise of a substantial reduction in the installed cost of a residential array. A unique waterproofing and mounting scheme has been used to reduce the cost of installing an integral array while still maintaining a high probability that the installed array will be watertight for the design lifetime of the system. This recommended concept will also permit the array to be mounted as a direct or stand-off installation with no changes to the module design.

  2. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Three basic module design concepts were analyzed with respect to both production and installation costs. The results of this evaluation were used to synthesize a fourth design which incorporates the best features of these initial concepts to produce a module/array design approach which offers the promise of a substantial reduction in the installed cost of a residential array. A unique waterproofing and mounting scheme was used to reduce the cost of installing an integral array while still maintaining a high probability that the installed array will be watertight for the design lifetime of the system. This recommended concept will also permit the array to be mounted as a direct or stand-off installation with no changes to the module design.

  3. Mascara Induced Milphosis, an Etiological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Kadri, Rajani; Achar, Asha; Tantry, Thrivikrama Padur; Parameshwar, Devika; Kudva, Ajay; Hegde, Sudhir

    2013-01-01

    Context: Eyelashes play an important role in one's personality and builds confidence. Now-a- days, mascaras are used very commonly as an eye cosmetic. Mascara induced loss of eyelashes has been evaluated in this study. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the effect of mascara on eyelashes and to find an association between the usage of mascara and fall of eyelashes. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional questionnaire based study done on medical students. Subjects and Methods: Medical students were interviewed with a semi-structured questionnaire on mascara usage. Statistical Analysis: MedCalc 9.3.6.0 version. Results: A total of 128 medical students who used mascara were included in this study. Mean (standard deviation) age of the students was 23.7 ± 2.0 years. Nearly 31% of the subjects faced the eye problems. Eyelash fall was observed in 19%. Higher mean years of use of mascara (5.17 ± 3.8 vs. 3.19 ± 2.6, P = 0.027, t-test) influenced the fall of eyelashes in the subjects. Itching of the eye prior to fall of eyelashes was observed in all subjects (P = 0.0002, Fisher exact test). A higher percentage of eyelash falls was observed in subjects who used water for removal of waterproof mascara (27%). Conclusion: There is a significant positive association between long-term use of eye cosmetics like mascara and fall of eyelashes. Furthermore, use of water for removal of waterproof mascara was associated with a higher incidence of eyelash fall. PMID:24574694

  4. Development of a measurement system for the online inspection of microstructured surfaces in harsh industrial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Thomas; Langmann, Benjamin; Reithmeier, Eduard

    2014-05-01

    Microscopic imaging techniques are usually applied for the inspection of microstructured surfaces. These techniques require clean measurement conditions. Soilings, e.g. dust or splashing liquids, can disturb the measurement process or even damage instruments. Since these soilings occur in the majority of manufacturing processes, microscopic inspection usually must be carried out in a separate laboratory. We present a measurement system which allows for a microscopic inspection and a 3D reconstruction of microstructured surfaces in harsh industrial conditions. The measurement system also enables precise positioning, e.g. of a grinding wheel, with an accuracy of 5 ?m. The main component of the measurement system is a CCD camera with a high-magnification telecentric lens. By means of this camera it is even possible to measure structures with dimensions in the range of 30 to 50 ?m. The camera and the lens are integrated into a waterproof and dustproof enclosure. The inspection window of the enclosure has an air curtain which serves as a splash guard. The workpiece illumination is crucial in order to obtain good measurement results. The measuring system includes high-power LEDs which are integrated in a waterproof enclosure. The measurement system also includes a laser with a specially designed lens system to form an extremely narrow light section on the workpiece surface. It is possible to obtain a line width of 25 ?m. This line and the camera with the high-magnification telecentric lens are used to perform a laser triangulation of the microstructured surface. This paper describes the system as well as the development and evaluation of the software for the automatic positioning of the workpiece and the automatic three-dimensional surface analysis.

  5. Measure Guideline: Water Management at Tub and Shower Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, B.

    2011-12-01

    Due to the high concentrations of water and the consequential risk of water damage to the home's structure a comprehensive water management system is imperative to protect the building assemblies underlying the finish surround of tub and shower areas. This guide shows how to install fundamental waterproofing strategies to prevent water related issues at shower and tub areas. When conducting a total gut rehab of a structure or constructing a new home, best practice installation and detailing for effective waterproofing are critically important at bathtub and shower assemblies. Water management issues in a structure may go unrecognized for long periods, so that when they are finally observed, the damage from long-term water exposure is extensive. A gut rehab is often undertaken when a home has experienced a natural disaster or when the homeowners are interested in converting an old, high-energy-use building into a high-quality, efficient structure that meets or exceeds one of the national energy standards, such as ENERGY STAR or LEED for homes. During a gut rehab, bath areas need to be replaced with diligent attention to detail. Employing effective water management practices in the installation and detailing of tub and shower assemblies will minimize or eliminate water issues within the building cavities and on the finished surfaces. A residential tub-and-shower surround or shower-stall assembly is designed to handle a high volume of water - 2.5 gallons per minute, with multiple baths occurring during a typical day. Transitions between dissimilar materials and connections between multiple planes must be installed with care to avoid creating a pathway for water to enter the building assemblies. Due to the high volume of water and the consequential risk of water damage to the home's structure, a comprehensive water management system is imperative to protect the building assemblies underlying the finish surround of tub and shower areas. At each stage of construction, successive trades must take care not to create a defect nor to compound or cover up a previous trade's defect. Covering a defect hides the inevitable point of failure and may even exacerbate the situation.

  6. Ants cushion applied stress by active rearrangements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhongyang; Hyatt, John; Mlot, Nathan; Gerov, Michael; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto; Hu, David

    2013-11-01

    Fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, link their bodies together to form waterproof rafts, which in turn drip, spread, and coagulate, demonstrating properties of an active material that can change state from a liquid to a solid. This soft-matter phase transition is important when the raft interacts with environmental forces such as raindrops and crashing waves. We study this active behavior through plate-on-plate rheology on the ants, extracting the active components by comparison with the rheological behavior of a collection of dead ants. In controlled shear tests, both and live and dead ants show properties of a non-Newtonian fluid, specifically, shear-thinning behavior. In oscillatory tests, live ants exhibit a rare behavior in which their storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G'') have approximately the same value over three orders magnitudes of frequency and two orders of magnitude of strain, indicating the ants are neither fluid nor solid. In comparison, dead ants are more solid-like, with a storage modulus twice as large as their loss modulus. This striking active behavior arises from rearrangement of their bodies and storage and dissipation of energy with the ants' muscles.

  7. "Smart pebble" designs for sediment transport monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Alexakis, Athanasios; Pavlovskis, Edgars

    2015-04-01

    Sediment transport, due to primarily the action of water, wind and ice, is one of the most significant geomorphic processes responsible for shaping Earth's surface. It involves entrainment of sediment grains in rivers and estuaries due to the violently fluctuating hydrodynamic forces near the bed. Here an instrumented particle, namely a "smart pebble", is developed to investigate the exact flow conditions under which individual grains may be entrained from the surface of a gravel bed. This could lead in developing a better understanding of the processes involved, focusing on the response of the particle during a variety of flow entrainment events. The "smart pebble" is a particle instrumented with MEMS sensors appropriate for capturing the hydrodynamic forces a coarse particle might experience during its entrainment from the river bed. A 3-axial gyroscope and accelerometer registers data to a memory card via a microcontroller, embedded in a 3D-printed waterproof hollow spherical particle. The instrumented board is appropriately fit and centred into the shell of the pebble, so as to achieve a nearly uniform distribution of the mass which could otherwise bias its motion. The "smart pebble" is powered by an independent power to ensure autonomy and sufficiently long periods of operation appropriate for deployment in the field. Post-processing and analysis of the acquired data is currently performed offline, using scientific programming software. The performance of the instrumented particle is validated, conducting a series of calibration experiments under well-controlled laboratory conditions.

  8. Breathable and Stretchable Temperature Sensors Inspired by Skin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Lu, Bingwei; Chen, Yihao; Feng, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Flexible electronics attached to skin for healthcare, such as epidermal electronics, has to struggle with biocompatibility and adapt to specified environment of skin with respect to breath and perspiration. Here, we report a strategy for biocompatible flexible temperature sensors, inspired by skin, possessing the excellent permeability of air and high quality of water-proof by using semipermeable film with porous structures as substrate. We attach such temperature sensors to underarm and forearm to measure the axillary temperature and body surface temperature respectively. The volunteer wears such sensors for 24?hours with two times of shower and the in vitro test shows no sign of maceration or stimulation to the skin. Especially, precise temperature changes on skin surface caused by flowing air and water dropping are also measured to validate the accuracy and dynamical response. The results show that the biocompatible temperature sensor is soft and breathable on the human skin and has the excellent accuracy compared to mercury thermometer. This demonstrates the possibility and feasibility of fully using the sensors in long term body temperature sensing for medical use as well as sensing function of artificial skin for robots or prosthesis. PMID:26095941

  9. Development and testing of bio-inspired microelectromechanical pressure sensor arrays for increased situational awareness for marine vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusek, J.; Kottapalli, A. G. P.; Woo, M. E.; Asadnia, M.; Miao, J.; Lang, J. H.; Triantafyllou, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    The lateral line found on most species of fish is a sensory organ without analog in humans. Using sensory feedback from the lateral line, fish are able to track prey, school, avoid obstacles, and detect vortical flow structures. Composed of both a superficial component, and a component contained within canals beneath the fish’s skin, the lateral line acts in a similar fashion to an array of differential pressure sensors. In an effort to enhance the situational and environmental awareness of marine vehicles, lateral-line-inspired pressure sensor arrays were developed to mimic the enhanced sensory capabilities observed in fish. Three flexible and waterproof pressure sensor arrays were fabricated for use as a surface-mounted ‘smart skin’ on marine vehicles. Two of the sensor arrays were based around the use of commercially available piezoresistive sensor dies, with innovative packaging schemes to allow for flexibility and underwater operation. The sensor arrays employed liquid crystal polymer and flexible printed circuit board substrates with metallic circuits and silicone encapsulation. The third sensor array employed a novel nanocomposite material set that allowed for the fabrication of a completely flexible sensor array. All three sensors were surface mounted on the curved hull of an autonomous kayak vehicle, and tested in both pool and reservoir environments. Results demonstrated that all three sensors were operational while deployed on the autonomous vehicle, and provided an accurate means for monitoring the vehicle dynamics.

  10. Structure and properties of thermoplastic polyurethanes based on poly(dimethylsiloxane): assessment of biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Pergal, Marija V; Nestorov, Jelena; Tovilovi?, Gordana; Ostoji?, Sanja; Go?evac, Dejan; Vasiljevi?-Radovi?, Dana; Djonlagi?, Jasna

    2014-11-01

    Properties and biocompatibility of a series of thermoplastic poly(urethane-siloxane)s (TPUSs) based on ?,?-dihydroxy ethoxy propyl poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) for potential biomedical application were studied. Thin films of TPUSs with a different PDMS soft segment content were characterized by (1) H NMR, quantitative (13) C NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), contact angle, and water absorption measurements. Different techniques (FTIR, AFM, and DMA) showed that decrease of PDMS content promotes microphase separation in TPUSs. Samples with a higher PDMS content have more hydrophobic surface and better waterproof performances, but lower degree of crystallinity. Biocompatibility of TPUSs was examined after attachment of endothelial cells to the untreated copolymer surface or surface pretreated with multicomponent protein mixture, and by using competitive protein adsorption assay. TPUSs did not exhibit any cytotoxicity toward endothelial cells, as measured by lactate dehydrogenase and 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assays. The untreated and proteins preadsorbed TPUS samples favored endothelial cells adhesion and growth, indicating good biocompatibility. All TPUSs adsorbed more albumin than fibrinogen in competitive protein adsorption experiment, which is feature regarded as beneficial for biocompatibility. The results indicate that TPUSs have good surface, thermo-mechanical, and biocompatible properties, which can be tailored for biomedical application requirements by adequate selection of the soft/hard segments ratio of the copolymers. PMID:24376027

  11. Analysis of streambed temperatures in ephemeral channels to determine streamflow frequency and duration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantz, J.; Stonestrom, D.; Stewart, A.E.; Niswonger, R.; Smith, T.R.

    2001-01-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns in streamflow are rarely monitored for ephemeral streams. Flashy, erosive streamflows common in ephemeral channels create a series of operational and maintenance problems, which makes it impractical to deploy a series of gaging stations along ephemeral channels. Streambed temperature is a robust and inexpensive parameter to monitor remotely, leading to the possibility of analyzing temperature patterns to estimate streamflow frequency and duration along ephemeral channels. A simulation model was utilized to examine various atmospheric and hydrological upper boundary conditions compared with a series of hypothetical temperature-monitoring depths within the streambed. Simulation results indicate that streamflow events were distinguished from changing atmospheric conditions with greater certainty using temperatures at shallow depths (e.g., 10-20 cm) as opposed to the streambed surface. Three ephemeral streams in the American Southwest were instrumented to monitor streambed temperature for determining the accuracy of using this approach to ascertain the long-term temporal and spatial extent of streamflow along each stream channel. Streambed temperature data were collected at the surface or at shallow depth along each stream channel, using thermistors encased in waterproof, single-channel data loggers tethered to anchors in the channel. On the basis of comparisons with site information, such as direct field observations and upstream flow records, diurnal temperature variations successfully detected the presence and duration of streamflow for all sites.

  12. Experimental study of the influence of refraction on underwater three-dimensional reconstruction using the SVP camera model.

    PubMed

    Kang, Lai; Wu, Lingda; Yang, Yee-Hong

    2012-11-01

    In an underwater imaging system, a perspective camera is often placed outside a tank or in waterproof housing with a flat glass window. The refraction of light occurs when a light ray passes through the water-glass and air-glass interface, rendering the conventional multiple view geometry based on the single viewpoint (SVP) camera model invalid. While most recent underwater vision studies mainly focus on the challenging topic of calibrating such systems, no previous work has systematically studied the influence of refraction on underwater three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. This paper demonstrates the possibility of using the SVP camera model in underwater 3D reconstruction through theoretical analysis of refractive distortion and simulations. Then, the performance of the SVP camera model in multiview underwater 3D reconstruction is quantitatively evaluated. The experimental results reveal a rather surprising and useful yet overlooked fact that the SVP camera model with radial distortion correction and focal length adjustment can compensate for refraction and achieve high accuracy in multiview underwater 3D reconstruction (within 0.7 mm for an object of dimension 200 mm) compared with the results of land-based systems. Such an observation justifies the use of the SVP camera model in underwater application for reconstructing reliable 3D scenes. Our results can be used to guide the selection of system parameters in the design of an underwater 3D imaging setup. PMID:23128708

  13. Use of admixtures in organic-contaminated cement-clay pastes.

    PubMed

    Gallo Stampino, Paola; Zampori, Luca; Dotelli, Giovanni; Meloni, Paola; Sora, Isabella Natali; Pelosato, Renato

    2009-01-30

    In this work microstructure, porosity and hydration degree of cement-based solidified/stabilized wasteforms were studied before assessing their leaching behaviour. 2-Chloroaniline was chosen as a model liquid organic pollutant and included into cement pastes, which were also modified with different admixtures for concrete: a superplasticizer based on acrylic-modified polymer, a synthetic rubber latex and a waterproofing agent. An organoclay, modified with an ammonium quaternary salt (benzyl-dimethyl-tallowammonium, BDMTA), was added to the pastes as pre-sorbent agent of the organic matter. All the samples were dried up to constant weight in order to stop the hydration process at different times during the first 28 days of curing, typically, after 1 day (1d), 7 days (7d) and 28 days. Then, the microstructure of the hardened cement-clay pastes was investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The hydration degree and porosity were studied by thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), respectively. For samples cured for 28 days a short-term leach test set by Italian regulation for industrial waste recycling (D.M. 5 February 1998) was performed. The best results showed a 5% release of the total initial amount of organic pollutant. PMID:18514398

  14. The Campaign GPS Component of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO): New Tools, New Strategies and New Opportunities to Support EarthScope Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, D. A.; Greenberg, J.; Sklar, J.; Meertens, C. M.; Andreatta, V.; Feaux, K.

    2004-12-01

    The UNAVCO Facility is charged with implementing the campaign GPS component of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) to support EarthScope investigators through a pool of approximately one hundred mobile GPS systems. In contrast to the PBO continuous GPS network, the PBO campaign systems are designed for temporary deployments with periods ranging from several minutes to several months per site. This allows researchers to conduct spatially and temporally focused investigations into a wide range of phenomena, including volcano monitoring, post-seismic deformation monitoring, and ground control for airborne LIDAR surveys. A standard PBO campaign system consists of a Topcon GB-1000 dual-frequency GPS receiver, a Topcon PG-A1 compact GPS antenna, an 18 Ah battery, cabling, a portable and waterproof Pelican case enclosure, and a Tech 2000 GPS antenna mast or tripod and tribrach. Available ancillary equipment includes solar panels, additional batteries, enclosures and mounting hardware. Communications equipment such as radio modems and cellular modems are also available to allow remote data retrieval during longer term deployments. We present an overview of the PBO campaign equipment available to investigators, technical specifications of the system, examples of current and planned EarthScope research projects utilizing the campaign equipment, and a hands-on demonstration of a PBO campaign system.

  15. Analysis of movement for unmanned underwater vehicle using a low cost integrated sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aras, Mohd Shahrieel Mohd; Abdullah, Shahrum Shah; Rahman, Ahmad Fadzli Nizam Abdul; Basar, Mohd Farriz; Kassim, Anuar Mohamed; Jaafar, Hazriq Izzuan

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the development of low cost integrated Smart Sensor for Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV) namely as underwater Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV). In the underwater industries, the most crucial issues are the sensors that are needed for the underwater task. The sensors that are utilized in this area are quite expensive and sensitive. Every sensors used in the underwater vehicle are not in the form of integrated sensors and most of them based on case to case basis. However, nowadays, a lot of industries are involved in the development of the integrated sensor in order to reduce the production cost as well as to increase accuracies, efficiencies and productivities. Therefore, this research proposes an integrated sensor to be applied in the underwater operations. The integrated sensor is designed based on three goal performances which are; the accuracies; the sensitivities and the cost efficiencies. This integrated sensor is the combination of pressure sensor, inertial measurement unit (IMU), digital compass and temperature sensor that are placed in a waterproof casing. This integrated sensor is targeted to be used to control the movement of ROV to maintain its position called station keeping. The purpose of the station keeping is to ensure the ROV to remain stationary at the desired depth by utilizing the pressure sensor. The experimental studies have been carried out in order to see the responses of each sensor.

  16. Development of the Valvo pump: an axial flow pump implanted at the heart valve position.

    PubMed

    Mitamura, Y; Nakamura, H; Okamoto, E; Yozu, R; Kawada, S; Kim, D W

    1999-06-01

    Pulsatile artificial hearts having a relatively large volume are difficult to implant in a small patient, but rotary blood pumps can be easily implanted. The objective of this study was to show the feasibility of using the Valvo pump, an axial flow pump implanted at the heart valve position, in such cases. The Valvo pump consists of an impeller and a motor. The motor is waterproofed with a ferrofluidic seal. A blood flow of 5 L/min was obtained at a pressure difference of 13.3 kPa (100 mm Hg) at 7,000 rpm. The normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) was 0.030 +/- 0.003 (n = 3) for a blood flow of 5 L/min at a pressure difference of 13.3 kPa. The pressure resistance of the ferrofluidic seal was 37.5 kPa in a static condition and 26.3 kPa at 10,000 rpm. The seal exhibited no leaks for 41+ days against 20.0 kPa. The results showed that the Valvo pump can maintain systemic circulation with an acceptable level of hemolysis. PMID:10392286

  17. What Hazards Do Humans Encounter in Antarctica?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    After investigating the challenges of living and working in Antarctica and how researchers prepare for them, students evaluate the insulating properties of a variety of fabrics. Throughout this six-day unit, they collect their findings in a portfolio. The comprehensive curriculum materials contain teacher tools, which include individually downloadable readings, detailed daily breakdowns of tasks, teacher strategies for using the activities, a portfolio grading sheet, a project rubric sheet, and additional readings; an online activity in which students review the preparation materials given to researchers before traveling to Antarctica; two classroom activities,an experiment to test the insulation and waterproof properties of a variety of fabrics, and a Jeopardy-style game in which students write the answers and questions; several readings that provide a broad perspective, including an excerpt from Edmund Hillary's journal and Q&A interviews with a safety engineer and a field support services manager. A student handout with guidance for putting together their portfolios and examples of creative final projects is included.

  18. Moulding technique demonstrates the contribution of surface geometry to the super-hydrophobic properties of the surface of a water strider.

    PubMed

    Goodwyn, Pablo Perez; De Souza, Emerson; Fujisaki, Kenji; Gorb, Stanislav

    2008-05-01

    Water striders (Insecta, Heteroptera, Gerridae) have a complex three-dimensional waterproof hairy cover which renders them super-hydrophobic. This paper experimentally demonstrates for the first time the mechanism of the super-hydrophobicity of the cuticle of water striders. The complex two-level microstructure of the surface, including the smallest microtrichia (200-300 nm wide, 7-9 microm long), was successfully replicated using a two-step moulding technique. The mould surface exhibited super-hydrophobic properties similar to the original insect surface. The average water contact angle (CA) of the mould was 164.7 degrees , whereas the CA of the flat polymer was about 92 degrees . These results show that (i) in water striders, the topography of the surface plays a dominant role in super-hydrophobicity, (ii) very low surface energy bulk material (typically smaller than 0.020 N m(-1)) is not necessary to achieve super-hydrophobicity; and (3) the two-step moulding technique may be used to mimic quite complex biological functional surfaces. PMID:18296131

  19. Final environmental and regulatory assessment of using asphalt as a sealant in mine shafts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This report discusses the properties of asphalt, the current regulatory status governing asphalt and future regulatory implications which may be pertinent in using asphalt as a waterproof shaft sealant. An understanding of the inherent organic composition of asphalt, an increase in the number of health and environmental research publications conducted on asphalt and an examination of the apparent trend of regulatory agencies toward more stringent environmental regulation governing the use of organic materials suggests asphalt could become regulated at a future time. This would only occur, however, if asphalt was found to conform to the present regulatory definitions of pollutants, contaminants or hazardous substances or if asphalt was included on a regulated substance list. In this regard, the study points out that asphalt contains very low levels of hazardous poly-nuclear aromatics (PNA's). These levels are significantly lower than the levels present in coal tars, a substance known to contain high levels of hazardous PNA's. Asphalt, however, has the inherent potential of producing higher concentrations of PNA's if the adverse condition of cracking should occur during the refinery production stage or on-site preparation of the asphalt. Also, unless existing control technology is applied, emission levels of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulates and volatile organic carbons from the on-site preparation facilities could approach the permissible health standard levels of EPA. The study indicates, however, that available literature is limited on these issues.

  20. Quantitative genetic analysis suggests causal association between cuticular hydrocarbon composition and desiccation survival in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Foley, B R; Telonis-Scott, M

    2011-01-01

    Survival to low relative humidity is a complex adaptation, and many repeated instances of evolution to desiccation have been observed among Drosophila populations and species. One general mechanism for desiccation resistance is Cuticular Hydrocarbon (CHC) melting point. We performed the first Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) map of population level genetic variation in desiccation resistance in D. melanogaster. Using a panel of Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs) derived from a single natural population, we mapped QTL in both sexes throughout the genome. We found that in both sexes, CHCs correlated strongly with desiccation resistance. At most desiccation resistance loci there was a significant association between CHCs and desiccation resistance of the sort predicted from clinal patterns of CHC variation and biochemical properties of lipids. This association was much stronger in females than males, perhaps because of greater overall abundance of CHCs in females, or due to correlations between CHCs used for waterproofing and sexual signalling in males. CHC evolution may be a common mechanism for desiccation resistance in D. melanogaster. It will be interesting to compare patterns of CHC variation and desiccation resistance in species which adapt to desiccation, and rainforest restricted species which cannot. PMID:20389309

  1. Wettability control of a transparent substrate using ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Hoon; You, Xueqiu; Chang, Jong-Hyeon; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Pak, James Jungho

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a simple way of controlling the wettability of a structured surface with ZnO nanorods on a transparent substrate. A combination of ZnO nanostructures and stearic acid was used to create superhydrophobic surfaces with the potential properties of being self-cleaning, waterproof, and antifog. ZnO nanorods were uniformly covered on glass substrates through a simple hydrothermal method with varying growth time which affects the surface morphology. When a substrate is dipped into 10 mM stearic acid in ethanol for 24 h, chemisorption of the stearic acid takes place on the ZnO nanorod surface, after which the hydrophilic ZnO nanorod surfaces are modified into hydrophobic ones. The contact angle of a water droplet on this superhydrophobic ZnO nanorod surface increased from 110 degrees to 150 degrees depending on the growth time (from 3 to 6 h) with a high transparency of above 60%. In addition, the water contact angle can be made to as low as 27 degrees after exposing the substrate to 10-mW/cm2 UV for 1 h. PMID:22121636

  2. An O2 smart plastic film for packaging.

    PubMed

    Mills, Andrew; Lawrie, Katherine; Bardin, Julie; Apedaile, Alistair; Skinner, Graham A; O'Rourke, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The preparation and characterisation of a novel, water-proof, irreversible, reusable, UV-activated, O(2) sensitive, smart plastic film is described. A pigment, consisting of a redox dye, methylene blue (MB), and a sacrificial electron donor, DL-threitol, coated onto an inorganic support with semiconductor functionality, TiO(2), has been extruded in low-density polyethylene (LDPE). The blue-coloured indicator is readily photobleached in <90 s using UVA light (4 mW cm(-2)), whereby MB is converted to its colourless, leuco form, leuco-methylene blue (LMB). This form persists in the absence of oxygen, but is re-oxidised to MB in ~2.5 days in air under ambient conditions (?21 °C, ~65% RH) within the O(2) smart plastic film. The rate of recovery is linearly dependent upon the ambient level of O(2). At the lower temperature of 5 °C, the kinetics of the photobleaching activation step is largely unchanged, whereas that of recovery is markedly reduced to t(1/2) = 36 h at 5 °C (cf. 9 h at 21 °C); the activation energy for the recovery step was calculated as 28 kJ mol(-1). The O(2)-sensitive recovery step was found to be moderately dependent upon humidity at 21 °C, but not significantly dependent upon humidity at 5 °C. The possible application of this type of indicator in food packaging is illustrated and discussed briefly. PMID:22076639

  3. The development and manufacture of coal briquettes

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xinshen; Wei Tingfu; Hao Aimin; Ning Weiyun; Liu Fuhua [Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    1997-12-31

    Three different kinds of coal briquettes, i.e., gasification briquette, boiler briquette and easy ignition roast briquette, have been developed and produced with the authors` patent binder. The gasification briquette is made from fines of anthracite or coke, hot stability agent and patent binder. It has been used as a substitute of anthracite lump in gasifiers to produce fuel gas and syngas. The three year`s performance of this briquettes in the TG-3MI gasifier has given good economic benefits. The boiler briquette is made from bituminous coal fines, sulphur-fixing agent, combustion-supporting agent, waterproofing agent and patent binder. It can keep its original shape in water for one month. The combustion results of the boiler briquette in a 4t/h coal-fired boiler have shown that heat efficiency increased by 20%, the total suspended particles decreased by 80%, and emission of both SO{sub 2} and Hap were reduced as compared with the raw coal. The easy ignition roast briquette is made from fines of charcoal, anthracite or coke, oxidant and binder. It is convenient and safe to use in that it can be lit with a match or a piece of paper easily and burn continuously for 90 minutes without smoke and odor. It can be used as a fuel for roasting food for a picnic.

  4. Does the volatile hydrocarbon profile differ between the sexes: a case study on five aphidophagous ladybirds.

    PubMed

    Pattanayak, Rojalin; Mishra, Geetanjali; Omkar; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Rout, Prasant Kumar; Mohanty, Chandra Sekhar

    2014-11-01

    Insect hydrocarbons (HCs) primarily serve as a waterproofing cuticular layer and function extensively in chemical communication by facilitating species, sex, and colony recognition. In this study, headspace solid-phase microextraction is employed for investigating the sex-specific volatile HC profile of five ladybirds collected from Lucknow, India namely, Coccinella septempunctata (L.), Coccinella transversalis (Fabr.), Menochilus sexmaculatus (Fabr.), Propylea dissecta (Mulsant), and Anegleis cardoni (Weise) for the first time. Major compounds reported in C. septempunctata, C. transversalis, and A. cardoni are methyl-branched saturated HCs, whereas in M. sexmaculatus, and P. dissecta, they are unsaturated HCs. Other than A. cardoni, both the sexes of the other four ladybirds had similar compounds at highest peak but with statistically significant differences. However, in A. cardoni, which is a beetle with a narrow niche, the major compound in both male and female was different. The difference in volatile HC profile of the sexes of the five ladybirds indicates that gender-specific differences primarily exist due to quantitative differences in chemicals with only very few chemicals being unique to a gender. This variation in semiochemicals might have a role in behavioral or ecological aspects of the studied ladybirds. PMID:25060353

  5. Responses of alpine grassland on Qinghai-Tibetan plateau to climate warming and permafrost degradation: a modeling perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Shuhua; Wang, Xiaoyun; Qin, Yu; Xiang, Bo; Ding, Yongjian

    2014-07-01

    Permafrost plays a critical role in soil hydrology. Thus, the degradation of permafrost under warming climate conditions may affect the alpine grassland ecosystem on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Previous space-for-time studies using plot and basin scales have reached contradictory conclusions. In this study, we applied a process-based ecosystem model (DOS-TEM) with a state-of-the-art permafrost hydrology scheme to examine this issue. Our results showed that 1) the DOS-TEM model could properly simulate the responses of soil thermal and hydrological dynamics and of ecosystem dynamics to climate warming and spatial differences in precipitation; 2) the simulated results were consistent with plot-scale studies showing that warming caused an increase in maximum unfrozen thickness, a reduction in vegetation and soil carbon pools as a whole, and decreases in soil water content, net primary production, and heterotrophic respiration; and 3) the simulated results were also consistent with basin-scale studies showing that the ecosystem responses to warming were different in regions with different combinations of water and energy constraints. Permafrost prevents water from draining into water reservoirs. However, the degradation of permafrost in response to warming is a long-term process that also enhances evapotranspiration. Thus, the degradation of the alpine grassland ecosystem on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (releasing carbon) cannot be mainly attributed to the disappearing waterproofing function of permafrost.

  6. FLASH: a rapid method for prototyping paper-based microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Andres W; Phillips, Scott T; Wiley, Benjamin J; Gupta, Malancha; Whitesides, George M

    2008-12-01

    This article describes FLASH (Fast Lithographic Activation of Sheets), a rapid method for laboratory prototyping of microfluidic devices in paper. Paper-based microfluidic devices are emerging as a new technology for applications in diagnostics for the developing world, where low cost and simplicity are essential. FLASH is based on photolithography, but requires only a UV lamp and a hotplate; no clean-room or special facilities are required (FLASH patterning can even be performed in sunlight if a UV lamp and hotplate are unavailable). The method provides channels in paper with dimensions as small as 200 microm in width and 70 microm in height; the height is defined by the thickness of the paper. Photomasks for patterning paper-based microfluidic devices can be printed using an ink-jet printer or photocopier, or drawn by hand using a waterproof black pen. FLASH provides a straightforward method for prototyping paper-based microfluidic devices in regions where the technological support for conventional photolithography is not available. PMID:19023478

  7. Can preening contribute to influenza A virus infection in wild waterbirds?

    PubMed

    Delogu, Mauro; De Marco, Maria A; Di Trani, Livia; Raffini, Elisabetta; Cotti, Claudia; Puzelli, Simona; Ostanello, Fabio; Webster, Robert G; Cassone, Antonio; Donatelli, Isabella

    2010-01-01

    Wild aquatic birds in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are the main reservoir hosts perpetuating the genetic pool of all influenza A viruses, including pandemic viruses. High viral loads in feces of infected birds permit a fecal-oral route of transmission. Numerous studies have reported the isolation of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) from surface water at aquatic bird habitats. These isolations indicate aquatic environments have an important role in the transmission of AIV among wild aquatic birds. However, the progressive dilution of infectious feces in water could decrease the likelihood of virus/host interactions. To evaluate whether alternate mechanisms facilitate AIV transmission in aquatic bird populations, we investigated whether the preen oil gland secretions by which all aquatic birds make their feathers waterproof could support a natural mechanism that concentrates AIVs from water onto birds' bodies, thus, representing a possible source of infection by preening activity. We consistently detected both viral RNA and infectious AIVs on swabs of preened feathers of 345 wild mallards by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and virus-isolation (VI) assays. Additionally, in two laboratory experiments using a quantitative real-time (qR) RT-PCR assay, we demonstrated that feather samples (n = 5) and cotton swabs (n = 24) experimentally impregnated with preen oil, when soaked in AIV-contaminated waters, attracted and concentrated AIVs on their surfaces. The data presented herein provide information that expands our understanding of AIV ecology in the wild bird reservoir system. PMID:20593026

  8. Operating manual for the U.S. Geological Survey minimonitor, 1988 revised edition; punched-paper-tape model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ficken, James H.; Scott, Carl T.

    1988-01-01

    This manual describes the U.S. Geological Survey Minimonitor Water Quality Data Measuring and Recording System. Instructions for calibrating, servicing, maintaining, and operating the system are provided. The Survey Minimonitor is a battery-powered , multiparameter water quality monitoring instrument designed for field use. A watertight can containing signal conditioners is connected with cable and waterproof connectors to various water quality sensors. Data are recorded on a punched paper-tape recorder. An external battery is required. The operation and maintenance of various sensors and signal conditioners are discussed, for temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and pH. Calibration instructions are provided for each parameter, along with maintenance instructions. Sections of the report explain how to connect the Minimonitor to measure direct-current voltages, such as signal outputs from other instruments. Instructions for connecting a satellite data-collection platform or a solid-state data recorder to the Minimonitor are given also. Basic information is given for servicing the Minimonitor and trouble-shooting some of its electronic components. The use of test boxes to test sensors, isolate component problems, and verify calibration values is discussed. (USGS)

  9. Lightweight, Miniature Inertial Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Liang; Crassidis, Agamemnon

    2012-01-01

    A miniature, lighter-weight, and highly accurate inertial navigation system (INS) is coupled with GPS receivers to provide stable and highly accurate positioning, attitude, and inertial measurements while being subjected to highly dynamic maneuvers. In contrast to conventional methods that use extensive, groundbased, real-time tracking and control units that are expensive, large, and require excessive amounts of power to operate, this method focuses on the development of an estimator that makes use of a low-cost, miniature accelerometer array fused with traditional measurement systems and GPS. Through the use of a position tracking estimation algorithm, onboard accelerometers are numerically integrated and transformed using attitude information to obtain an estimate of position in the inertial frame. Position and velocity estimates are subject to drift due to accelerometer sensor bias and high vibration over time, and so require the integration with GPS information using a Kalman filter to provide highly accurate and reliable inertial tracking estimations. The method implemented here uses the local gravitational field vector. Upon determining the location of the local gravitational field vector relative to two consecutive sensors, the orientation of the device may then be estimated, and the attitude determined. Improved attitude estimates further enhance the inertial position estimates. The device can be powered either by batteries, or by the power source onboard its target platforms. A DB9 port provides the I/O to external systems, and the device is designed to be mounted in a waterproof case for all-weather conditions.

  10. [Action proposals to Japanese Neurological Society from Fukushima Medical University: based on our three years' experiences].

    PubMed

    Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I make several proposals of what Japanese Neurological Society is able to do or should do in preparing future disaster in Japan. I mention several points separately.Patient education: Patients usually try to visit their hospital as soon as possible for the safety, especially in Japan. Is it true? The traffic jams actually blocked this action in March 11, 2011, which made more serious problems in some patients. We should ask them to prepare matters necessary for staying at home at least for a week when no medical emergency is present.Disaster prevention training: We should make a list of hospitals which accept emergent patients at disaster. We should have some methods of communication still active at disaster (internet, satellite phone) and make society network for communication and patient transportation. How to transfer required drugs to patients is another issue we should consider.Name tag: We sometimes treated unidentified patients in the disaster because the name tag or reference papers was gone or not specified to a certain patient. It is due to great mechanical power of injury or rains. For not detached from the patient and waterproofed, I recommend writing the patient's name on the chest with a permanent marker used in the triathlon when transferring the patients to other hospitals or other places. PMID:24291912

  11. Shear bond strength of three resin based sealers to dentin with and without the smear layer.

    PubMed

    Eldeniz, Ayce Unverdi; Erdemir, Ali; Belli, Sema

    2005-04-01

    Bond strength of root canal sealers to dentin is an important property for the integrity of the sealings of root-canals. The purpose of this study was to test shear bond strength of three endodontic sealers (Diaket, AH Plus and Endo-REZ). The coronal two thirds of ninety extracted human third molars were removed. The smear layer of the exposed dentin surfaces were removed using 17% EDTA followed by 5.25% NaOCl and the teeth were randomly divided into two groups (n = 45). Group 1 was kept as control and in group 2, uniform smear layer was created using waterproof polishing papers. Three-mm long sections of polyethylene tubing were filled with freshly mixed sealer and placed on the dentin surfaces for conducting a shear bond strength test. The data was calculated as MPa and was statistically analyzed using a two way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. A significant difference was found among the bond strength of the sealers, smear layer, and control groups. AH Plus sealer showed the highest bond strength in smear layer removed surfaces (p < 0.05). Pretreatment with EDTA/NaOCl affected bond strength of AH Plus. AH Plus had the highest bond to dentin with or without smear layer. PMID:15793387

  12. Evaluation of milk quality in delivering sterilized milk with soft tank transportation system.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, C; Rula, Sa; Asano, H; Ando, K

    2009-09-01

    A new transportation system is proposed recently to improve the defects of liquid transportation by tank trucks. This method is called "soft tank transportation system"; a driver installs a sac-like container (soft tank), which is made from a tarpaulin with high-pressure resistant-waterproof zippers, in a general cargo vehicle. To evaluate the quality of sterilized milk by using the soft tank transportation system, ground and marine transportation for a long distance which took about 36 h from the shipper's loading to the receiver's unloading in a high-temperature summer season (average outside temperature was 33.4 degrees C) were carried out. Although the difference of milk temperature before and after the delivery varied from -0.7 to +1.4 degrees C, there was no difference in milk quality (fat, nonfat solids, total dissolved solids, and pH) and no coliform bacteria were detected. It can be evaluated that sterilized milk was carried in keeping good conditions by soft tank transportation system. PMID:19895495

  13. Underwater sediment-contact radiation survey method

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.R.; St. Aubin, M.; Welch, S.J. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, Ontario (Canada))

    1991-11-01

    The authors are striving to produce a practical system for mapping lateral distributions in gamma activity on submerged sediments. This is in response to the need for quality control and interpretation of data obtainable by sediment sampling and analyses near nuclear utilities. A prototype gamma probe has been constructed and tested. The prototype is essentially a background survey meter packaged in a 53-cm-long {times} 5.4-cm-diam waterproof vehicle. This usage-shaped vehicle is connected to a cable for towing in contact with bottom sediments of lakes, rivers, and coastal waters. This vehicle, or sediment probe as it is called, was initially developed for measuring sediment electrical conductances, a parameter that can be used to locate underwater areas of groundwater and contaminant upwelling. During towing, the probe does not roll or twist around its longitudinal axis by more than 10 deg, so that sensors, which have been fixed within the vehicle, can be oriented to look up, down, or sideways. In over 450 lin-km of underwater survey, only a single sediment probe has been irretrievably snagged on sunken rocks or other debris. Work in the Ottawa River near the Chalk River Laboratories has shown good agreement among point measurements of river sediment with continuous measurements using the moving probe.

  14. Neuroendocrine and psychological assessment in a guinness 10 days scuba dive.

    PubMed

    Revelli, L; Addolorato, G; D'Amore, A; Carrozza, C; Giubileo, G; Puiu, A; Lombardi, C P; Bellantone, R; Gasbarrini, G

    2007-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate physiological and psychological stress parameters in 2 professional trained scuba divers, using a unique physiopathologic model, offered by the guinness 240 hours scuba dive. Two scuba dive masters have spent 240 hours at 6 - 8 meters depth (26.4 ft) in Ponza Island water (Italy). Blood samples were collected daily in the underwater bell; samples were carried out of water in waterproof bags. Breath samples were collected, measuring ethylene release. Psychological assessment was performed using the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Zung self-rating depression scale. In the studied subjects, cortisol and prolactin showed physiological pulsatile secretion. Breath ethylene didn't exceed normal values. At the start of the study, no subjects showed high levels of state anxiety, trait anxiety and current depression. Psychometric scales scores remained steady during the diving period and no subjects showed anxiety and/or depression and/or panic symptoms during the time of observation. The present study shows that, although the long-time diving, well trained professional divers did not develop anxiety and/or depression. No subject discontinued the diving due to occurred psychological disorders or systemic events. The present report shows that the long-term diving permanence is possible, at least in well trained scuba divers. PMID:17497574

  15. Isotopic characterization of the Precambrian carbonate aquifers under the city of Bangui (Central African Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huneau, Frederic; Djebebe-Ndjiguim, Chantal-Laure; Foto, Eric; Ito, Mari; Celle-Jeanton, Helene; Garel, Emilie; Mabingui, Joseph

    2013-04-01

    The city of Bangui, the capital of the Central African Republic, is located on the right bank of the Ubangi River which is the northernmost tributary of the Congo River. From its foundation in 1889 this city has always suffered from serious problems of water management. This is related to the specificity of the site configuration (steep hills surrounding a large swampy flat valley poorly drained) and to the urbanisation process responsible for the waterproofing of soils and the associated increased runoff processes under tropical humid condition.This paper presents the results of a geochemical and isotopic survey carried out in 2011 aiming at evaluating the type and chemical quality of the groundwater resources of the Bangui region. By combining geological, hydrogeochemical and isotopic data it appears that the underground of Bangui seems favourable to the development of a secured and sustainable water supply from groundwater provided that the conditions of exploitation would be constrained by the local authorities. The deep fractured (and locally kastified) Precambrian carbonate aquifers known as Bimbo and Fatima formations are identified as target resources considering the relatively good quality of the resource from the chemical point of view, and the semi-confined structure of the aquifer preventing the mixing with shallow aquifers already strongly impacted by domestic and industrial pollutions.

  16. Can Preening Contribute to Influenza A Virus Infection in Wild Waterbirds?

    PubMed Central

    Delogu, Mauro; De Marco, Maria A.; Di Trani, Livia; Raffini, Elisabetta; Cotti, Claudia; Puzelli, Simona; Ostanello, Fabio; Webster, Robert G.; Cassone, Antonio; Donatelli, Isabella

    2010-01-01

    Wild aquatic birds in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are the main reservoir hosts perpetuating the genetic pool of all influenza A viruses, including pandemic viruses. High viral loads in feces of infected birds permit a fecal-oral route of transmission. Numerous studies have reported the isolation of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) from surface water at aquatic bird habitats. These isolations indicate aquatic environments have an important role in the transmission of AIV among wild aquatic birds. However, the progressive dilution of infectious feces in water could decrease the likelihood of virus/host interactions. To evaluate whether alternate mechanisms facilitate AIV transmission in aquatic bird populations, we investigated whether the preen oil gland secretions by which all aquatic birds make their feathers waterproof could support a natural mechanism that concentrates AIVs from water onto birds' bodies, thus, representing a possible source of infection by preening activity. We consistently detected both viral RNA and infectious AIVs on swabs of preened feathers of 345 wild mallards by using reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and virus-isolation (VI) assays. Additionally, in two laboratory experiments using a quantitative real-time (qR) RT-PCR assay, we demonstrated that feather samples (n?=?5) and cotton swabs (n?=?24) experimentally impregnated with preen oil, when soaked in AIV-contaminated waters, attracted and concentrated AIVs on their surfaces. The data presented herein provide information that expands our understanding of AIV ecology in the wild bird reservoir system. PMID:20593026

  17. Underground Water Cherenkov Muon Detector Array with the Tibet Air Shower Array for Gamma-Ray Astronomy in the 100 TeV Region

    E-print Network

    Amenomori, M; Bi, X J; Chen, D; Cui, S W; Feng Zhao Yang; Danzengluobu; Ding, L K; Feng Cun Feng; Feng, Z; Feng, Z Y; Gao, X Y; Geng, Q X; Guo, H W; He, H H; He, M; Hibino, K; Hotta, N; Haibing, H; Hu, H B; Huang, J; Jia, H Y; Kajino, F; Kasahara, K; Katayose, Y; Kato, C; Kawata, K; Labaciren; Le, G M; Li, A F; Li, J Y; Lü, H; Lu, S L; Meng, X R; Mizutani, K; Mu, J; Munakata, K; Nagai, A; Nanj, H; Nishizawa, M; Ohnishi, M; Ohta, I; Onuma, H; Ouchi, T; Ozawa, S; Ren, J R; Saitô, T; Saito, T Y; Sakata, M; Sako, T K; Sasaki, T; Shibata, M; Shiomi, A; Shirai, T; Sugimoto, H; Takita, M; Tan, Y H; Tateyama, N; Tori, S; Wang, B; Tsuchiya, H; Udo, S; Wang, X; Wang, Y G; Wu, H R; Xue Liang; Yamamoto, Y; Yan, C T; Yang, X C; Yasue, S; Ye, Z H; Yu, G C; Yuan, A F; Yuda, T; Zhang, H M; Zhamg, N J; Zhamg, X, Y; Zhamg, Y; Zhamg, Yi; Zha Xisang Zhu; Zhou, X X; al, et

    2006-01-01

    We propose to build a large water-Cherenkov-type muon-detector array (Tibet MD array) around the 37,000 m$^{2}$ Tibet air shower array (Tibet AS array) already constructed at 4,300 m above sea level in Tibet, China. Each muon detector is a waterproof concrete pool, 6 m wide $\\times$ 6 m long $\\times$ 1.5 m deep in size, equipped with a 20 inch-in-diameter PMT. The Tibet MD array consists of 240 muon detectors set up 2.5 m underground. Its total effective area will be 8,640 m$^{2}$ for muon detection. The Tibet MD array will significantly improve gamma-ray sensitivity of the Tibet AS array in the 100 TeV region (10-1000 TeV) by means of gamma/hadron separation based on counting the number of muons accompanying an air shower. The Tibet AS+MD array will have the sensitivity to gamma rays in the 100 TeV region by an order of magnitude better than any other previous existing detectors in the world.

  18. A food contaminant detection system based on high-Tc SQUIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Saburo; Fujita, H.; Hatsukade, Y.; Nagaishi, T.; Nishi, K.; Ota, H.; Otani, T.; Suzuki, S.

    2006-05-01

    We have designed and constructed a computer controlled food contaminant detection system for practical use, based on high-Tc SQUID detectors. The system, which features waterproof stainless steel construction, is acceptable under the HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) programme guidelines. The outer dimensions of the system are 1500 mm length × 477 mm width × 1445 mm height, and it can accept objects up to 200 mm wide × 80 mm high. An automatic liquid nitrogen filling system was installed in the standard model. This system employed a double-layered permeable metallic shield with a thickness of 1 mm as a magnetically shielded box. The distribution of the magnetic field in the box was simulated by FEM; the gap between each shield layer was optimized before fabrication. A shielding factor of 732 in the Z-component was achieved. This value is high enough to safely operate the system in a non-laboratory environment, i.e., a factory. During testing, we successfully detected a steel contaminant as small as 0.3 mm in diameter at a distance of 75 mm.

  19. Physical and Histologic Properties of Substitutes Used for the Anterior Fossa Region Dural Repair

    PubMed Central

    Vrankovic, Djuro; Mrcela, T.; Mursic, B.; Splavski, B.; Dmitrovic, B.; Mrcela, M.; Blagus, G.

    1999-01-01

    During the last 10 years, 41 patients with dural tear caused by anterior cranial fossa bone fracture were treated surgically. Those treated conservatively were not included in this series. The patients' mean age was 36 years. The average time of postoperative observation was 15 months. Traffic accidents, as well as wounds caused by missiles (shell fragments or bullets), blows, and falls were the mechanisms of injury. An autogenous graft, followed by homologous (lyodura) and most recently by heterologous (lyoplant; B. Braun Melsungen AG, Melsungen, Germany) implants, was used to repair the dural lacerations. Fibrin adhesive was used to seal the sutures inserted between graft and dural defect margins in a majority of cases. The following criteria are required for the best dural substitute: uncontaminated tissue, histologic similarity to the local dura mater, adaptability, quick rehidratation, waterproof closure and the dural margins fast healing, and tensile strength easily resisting cerebrospinal fluid pressurization in physiological and pathological conditions. To define the effects of different tissue that could meet the above-mentioned criteria, we have undertaken a mechanical testing of the dural substitutes' tensile strength followed by histologic examination, and comparison with the dura mater of the anterior fossa region. Finally, we have paid particular attention to the clinical results of these substitutes. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:17171076

  20. Influence of the processed sunflower oil on the cement properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleysher, A. U.; Tokarchuk, V. V.; Sviderskiy, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Used oils (vegetable oil, animal oil, engine oil, etc.), which are essentially industrial wastes, have found application as secondary raw materials in some braches of industry. In particular, the only well-known and commonly-used way of utilizing wastes of vegetable oils is to apply them as raw materials in the production of biodiesel. The goal of the present study is to develop a conceptually new way of vegetable oil wastes utilization in the building industry. The test admixture D-148 was obtained from the processing of wastes of sunflower oil and it mainly consists of fatty acid diethanolamide. The test admixture was added to the cement system for the purpose of studying its influence on water demand, flowability, setting times, compressive strength and moisture adsorption. The test admixture D-148 at the optimal content 0. 2 weight % causes 10% decrease in water demand, 1.7 time increase in flowability (namely spread diameter), 23% increase in grade strength and 34% decrease in moisture adsorption. The results of the present investigation make it possible to consider the final product of the waste sunflower oil processing as multifunctional plasticizing-waterproofing admixture.

  1. Could the Health Decline of Prehistoric California Indians be Related to Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Natural Bitumen?

    PubMed Central

    Sholts, Sabrina B.; Erlandson, Jon M.; Gjerdrum, Thor; Westerholm, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Background: The negative health effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are well established for modern human populations but have so far not been studied in prehistoric contexts. PAHs are the main component of fossil bitumen, a naturally occurring material used by past societies such as the Chumash Indians in California as an adhesive, as a waterproofing agent, and for medicinal purposes. The rich archaeological and ethnohistoric record of the coastal Chumash suggests that they were exposed to multiple uptake pathways of bituminous PAHs, including direct contact, fume inhalation, and oral uptake from contaminated water and seafood. Objectives: We investigated the possibility that PAHs from natural bitumen compromised the health of the prehistoric Chumash Indians in California. Conclusions: Exposure of the ancient Chumash Indians to toxic PAHs appears to have gradually increased across a period of 7,500 years because of an increased use of bitumen in the Chumash technology, together with a dietary shift toward PAH-contaminated marine food. Skeletal analysis indicates a concurrent population health decline that may be related to PAH uptake. However, establishing such a connection is virtually impossible without knowing the actual exposure levels experienced by these populations. Future methodological research may provide techniques for determining PAH levels in ancient skeletal material, which would open new avenues for research on the health of prehistoric populations and on the long-term effects of human PAH exposure. PMID:21596651

  2. Breathable and Stretchable Temperature Sensors Inspired by Skin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Lu, Bingwei; Chen, Yihao; Feng, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Flexible electronics attached to skin for healthcare, such as epidermal electronics, has to struggle with biocompatibility and adapt to specified environment of skin with respect to breath and perspiration. Here, we report a strategy for biocompatible flexible temperature sensors, inspired by skin, possessing the excellent permeability of air and high quality of water-proof by using semipermeable film with porous structures as substrate. We attach such temperature sensors to underarm and forearm to measure the axillary temperature and body surface temperature respectively. The volunteer wears such sensors for 24?hours with two times of shower and the in vitro test shows no sign of maceration or stimulation to the skin. Especially, precise temperature changes on skin surface caused by flowing air and water dropping are also measured to validate the accuracy and dynamical response. The results show that the biocompatible temperature sensor is soft and breathable on the human skin and has the excellent accuracy compared to mercury thermometer. This demonstrates the possibility and feasibility of fully using the sensors in long term body temperature sensing for medical use as well as sensing function of artificial skin for robots or prosthesis. PMID:26095941

  3. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    SciTech Connect

    Reichelt, R.; Clay, M.; Eichorst, J.

    1996-10-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination (anti-C) material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-C clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant, disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled.

  4. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    SciTech Connect

    Reichelt, R.A.; Clay, M.E.; Eichorst, A.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work, (2) working conditions, (3) type of anti-contamination material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-contamination clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. LWA demonstration applications using Illinois coal gasification slag: Phase 2. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhry, V. [Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States); Steck, P. [Harvey Cement Products, Inc. (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The objectives of this program are to demonstrate the feasibility of producing ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from solid residues (slag) generated during the gasification of Illinois coals, and to test the products as substitutes for conventional aggregates produced by pyroprocessing of perlite ores. In Phase 1 of this project, Praxis developed a pilotscale production technique and produced a large batch of expanded aggregates from an Illinois coal slag feed. The Phase 2 work focuses on characterization and applications-oriented testing of the expanded slag products as substitutes for conventional ULWAs. Target applications include high-volume uses such as loose fill insulation, insulating concrete, lightweight precast products (blocks), waterproof wallboard, rooftiles, and filtration media. The precast products will be subjected to performance and characterization testing in conjunction with a commercial manufacturer of such products in order to obtain input from a potential user. The production of value-added products from slag will eliminate a solid waste and possibly enhance the overall gasification process economics, especially when the avoided costs of disposal are taken into consideration.

  6. Specification of epidermal cell fate in plant shoots.

    PubMed

    Takada, Shinobu; Iida, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Land plants have evolved a single layer of epidermal cells, which are characterized by mostly anticlinal cell division patterns, formation of a waterproof coat called cuticle, and unique cell types such as stomatal guard cells and trichomes. The shoot epidermis plays important roles not only to protect plants from dehydration and pathogens but also to ensure their proper organogenesis and growth control. Extensive molecular genetic studies in Arabidopsis and maize have identified a number of genes that are required for epidermal cell differentiation. However, the mechanism that specifies shoot epidermal cell fate during plant organogenesis remains largely unknown. Particularly, little is known regarding positional information that should restrict epidermal cell fate to the outermost cell layer of the developing organs. Recent studies suggested that certain members of the HD-ZIP class IV homeobox genes are possible master regulators of shoot epidermal cell fate. Here, we summarize the roles of the regulatory genes that are involved in epidermal cell fate specification and discuss the possible mechanisms that limit the expression and/or activity of the master transcriptional regulators to the outermost cell layer in plant shoots. PMID:24616724

  7. Occupational and environmental exposure to tribromophenol used for wood surface protection in sawmills.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Manuel; Becerra, José; Godoy, Juan; Barra, Ricardo

    2005-06-01

    This study analyses the occupational and environmental conditions of sawmills where the lumber is protected from microorganism action by dipping it in 2,4,6 tribromophenol (TBP). Three processes were evaluated: hydraulic immersion, chain conveyor system and manual immersion. The biggest occupational exposure to TBP was registered in manual and chain conveyor systems. The average values in the workers' urine for TBP were 6.9 and 5.7 mg/g creatinine, respectively. For environmental exposure, the highest value in well waters was 25.1 microg/L and in soil was 4,602 mg/kg. It could be established that the hydraulic immersion system presents less occupational TBP exposure. Nevertheless, the hydraulic system, as well as the other two anti-stain alternatives, requires the introduction of pollution prevention efforts. To reduce the environmental exposure to TBP, the lumber-dipping tank area, the forklift traffic areas, and the storage areas need to be waterproofed. It is also necessary to implement a TBP solution recovery system to eliminate dripping from the lumber once it is removed from the fungicide dipping tanks. PMID:16134480

  8. Evaluation of reusable surface insulation for space shuttle over a range of heat-transfer rate and surface temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    Reusable surface insulation materials, which were developed as heat shields for the space shuttle, were tested over a range of conditions including heat-transfer rates between 160 and 620 kW/sq m. The lowest of these heating rates was in a range predicted for the space shuttle during reentry, and the highest was more than twice the predicted entry heating on shuttle areas where reusable surface insulation would be used. Individual specimens were tested repeatedly at increasingly severe conditions to determine the maximum heating rate and temperature capability. A silica-base material experienced only minimal degradation during repeated tests which included conditions twice as severe as predicted shuttle entry and withstood cumulative exposures three times longer than the best mullite material. Mullite-base materials cracked and experienced incipient melting at conditions within the range predicted for shuttle entry. Neither silica nor mullite materials consistently survived the test series with unbroken waterproof surfaces. Surface temperatures for a silica and a mullite material followed a trend expected for noncatalytic surfaces, whereas surface temperatures for a second mullite material appeared to follow a trend expected for a catalytic surface.

  9. Preparation and evaluation of colon adhesive pellets of 5-aminosalicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meixia; Sun, Minjie; Qiao, Hongzhi; Ping, Qineng; Elamin, Eltayeb Suliman

    2014-07-01

    Oral modified-release delivery systems, such as bio-adhesive one, enable drug delivery to affected regions and minimize the side effects by reducing the systemic absorption. Our aim was to develop colon adhesive pellets of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. The core of the pellet was formulated from bioadhesive agents, Carbomer 940 and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), by extrusion/spheronization method and coated with Surelease(®) as inner layer for waterproof and with Eudragit(®) S100 as outer layer for pH control. The rat model of ulcerative colitis was used to evaluate the efficiency of our loaded pellets as a drug carrier. Microcrystalline cellulose 101 (PH 301) was found to be the best agent for pellet core. The ratio of CP940 to HPC should be kept as (1:1) to achieve high bioadhesion. When the amount of Surelease(®) was from 16% to 20% and of Eudragit(®) S100 was 28%, the dissolution profiles of coated pellets revealed no drug release in the artificial gastric fluid (pH 1.0) within 2h and less than 10% was released in phosphate buffer (pH 6.0) within 2h whereas complete dissolution was observed in colonic fluid of pH 7.4 for 20 h. The animal experiment showed that 5-ASA loaded colon adhesive pellets had optimal therapeutic effect. We showed a novel approach to prepare effective bioadhesive pellets as colon targeted drug delivery system. PMID:24746693

  10. Coastal Changes in Temperature and Salinity Observed during Hurricane Isaac Recorded and Downloaded by NASA DRIFTERs Moored in Heron Bay and at Half Moon Island, Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalcic, Maria; Iturriaga, Rodolfo H.; Kuper, Philip D.; O'Neal, Stanford Duane; Underwood, Lauren; Fletcher, Rose

    2012-01-01

    Major changes in salinity (approx.14 ppt.) and temperature (approx.40C) were continuously registered by two prototype NASA DRIFTERs, surface moored floaters, that NASA's Applied Science and Technology Project Office (ASTPO) has developed. The DRIFTER floating sensor module is equipped with an Arduino open-source electronics prototyping platform and programming language (http://www.arduino.cc), a GPS (Global Positioning System) module with antenna, a cell phone SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) card and a cellular antenna which is used to transmit data, and a probe to measure temperature and conductivity (from which salinity can be derived). The DRIFTER is powered by a solar cell panel and all the electronic components are mounted and sealed in [ waterproof encasement. Position and measurement data are transmitted via short message service (SMS) messaging to a Twitter site (DRIFTER 002@NASADRIFTER_002 and DRIFTER 004@NASADRIFTER_004), which provides a live feed. These data are the imported into a Google spreadsheet where conductivity is converted to salinity, and graphed in real-time. The spreadsheet data will be imported into a webpage maintained by ASTPO, where it will be displayed available for dO\\\\1lload.

  11. Simple battery armor to protect against gastrointestinal injury from accidental ingestion.

    PubMed

    Laulicht, Bryan; Traverso, Giovanni; Deshpande, Vikram; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M

    2014-11-18

    Inadvertent battery ingestion in children and the associated morbidity and mortality results in thousands of emergency room visits every year. Given the risk for serious electrochemical burns within hours of ingestion, the current standard of care for the treatment of batteries in the esophagus is emergent endoscopic removal. Safety standards now regulate locked battery compartments in toys, which have resulted in a modest reduction in inadvertent battery ingestion; specifically, 3,461 ingestions were reported in 2009, and 3,366 in 2013. Aside from legislation, minimal technological development has taken place at the level of the battery to limit injury. We have constructed a waterproof, pressure-sensitive coating, harnessing a commercially available quantum tunneling composite. Quantum tunneling composite coated (QTCC) batteries are nonconductive in the low-pressure gastrointestinal environment yet conduct within the higher pressure of standard battery housings. Importantly, this coating technology enables most battery-operated equipment to be powered without modification. If these new batteries are swallowed, they limit the external electrolytic currents responsible for tissue injury. We demonstrate in a large-animal model a significant decrease in tissue injury with QTCC batteries compared with uncoated control batteries. In summary, here we describe a facile approach to increasing the safety of batteries by minimizing the risk for electrochemical burn if the batteries are inadvertently ingested, without the need for modification of most battery-powered devices. PMID:25368176

  12. Swimmers can train in hypoxia at sea level through voluntary hypoventilation.

    PubMed

    Woorons, Xavier; Gamelin, François-Xavier; Lamberto, Christine; Pichon, Aurélien; Richalet, Jean Paul

    2014-01-01

    This study used an innovative technique of pulse oximetry to investigate whether swimmers can train under hypoxic conditions through voluntary hypoventilation (VH). Ten trained subjects performed a front crawl swimming series with normal breathing (NB), VH at high (VHhigh) and low pulmonary volume (VHlow). Arterial oxygen saturation was continuously measured via pulse oximetry (SpO2) with a waterproofed forehead sensor. Gas exchanges were recorded continuously and lactate concentration ([La]) was assessed at the end of each test. In VHlow, SpO2 fell down to 87% at the end of the series whereas it remained above 94% in VHhigh during most part of the series. Ventilation, oxygen uptake and end-tidal O2 pressure were lower in both VHhigh and VHlow than in NB. Compared to NB, [La] significantly increased in VHlow and decreased in VHhigh. This study demonstrated that swimmers can train under hypoxic conditions at sea level and can accentuate the glycolytic stimulus of their training if they perform VH at low but not high pulmonary volume. PMID:24012989

  13. Cyanoacrylate glue burn in a child--lessons to be learned.

    PubMed

    Clarke, T F E

    2011-07-01

    Cyanoacrylate is the generic name for cyanoacrylate based 'fast-acting' adhesives such as methyl-2-cyanoacrylate and ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate(commonly sold under trade names like Super Glue and Krazy Glue). Other forms have been developed as medical grade glues to be non-toxic and less irritating to skin tissue. Cyanoacrylate has a multitude of uses, ranging from simple domestic applications, to those for industrial purposes. It is an acrylic resin which rapidly polymerises in the presence of water (specifically hydroxide ions), forming long, strong chains, joining the bonded surfaces together. Cyanoacrylate sets quickly, often in less than a minute and a normal bond reaches full strength in two hours and is waterproof. This case report outlines an interesting case of a full thickness burn resulting from skin in contact with cyanoacrylate glue, including highlighting several areas where the management was not appropriate. This was likely due to the novel presentation of this patient, and lack of education of staff. Although there have been cases of burns resulting from this type of glue documented in the literature, there are none of this exact nature and depth. [See figure in text]. Polymerization of methyl-2-cyanoacrylate. PMID:21481658

  14. Micro packaged MEMS pressure sensor for intracranial pressure measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Liu; Yan, Yao; Jiahao, Ma; Yanhang, Zhang; Qian, Wang; Zhaohua, Zhang; Tianling, Ren

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a micro packaged MEMS pressure sensor for intracranial pressure measurement which belongs to BioMEMS. It can be used in lumbar puncture surgery to measure intracranial pressure. Miniaturization is key for lumbar puncture surgery because the sensor must be small enough to allow it be placed in the reagent chamber of the lumbar puncture needle. The size of the sensor is decided by the size of the sensor chip and package. Our sensor chip is based on silicon piezoresistive effect and the size is 400 × 400 ?m2. It is much smaller than the reported polymer intracranial pressure sensors such as liquid crystal polymer sensors. In terms of package, the traditional dual in-line package obviously could not match the size need, the minimal size of recently reported MEMS-based intracranial pressure sensors after packaging is 10 × 10 mm2. In this work, we are the first to introduce a quad flat no-lead package as the package form of piezoresistive intracranial pressure sensors, the whole size of the sensor is minimized to only 3 × 3 mm2. Considering the liquid measurement environment, the sensor is gummed and waterproof performance is tested; the sensitivity of the sensor is 0.9 × 10?2 mV/kPa. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61025021, 61434001), and the ‘Thousands Talents’ Program for Pioneer Researchers and Its Innovation Team, China.

  15. Residual sludge from dimensional stones: characterisation for their exploitation in civil and environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Clemente, Paolo; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela

    2013-04-01

    Residual sludge coming from dimensional stones working plants (diamond framesaw and ganguesaw with abrasive shots processes) represents a problem for Stone Industries. In fact the cost connected to their landfilling amounts to more than 3% of operating costs of dimensional stone working plants. Furthermore their strict feature as waste to dump (CER code 010413) contrasts the EU principles of "resource preservation" and "waste recovery". The main problems related to their management are: size distribution (fine materials, potentially asphyxial), presence of heavy metals (due to the working processes) and TPH content (due to oil machines losses). Residual sludge, considered according to Italian Legislative Decree n.152/06, can be used, as waste, for environmental restoration of derelict land or in cement plants. It is also possible to think about their systematic treatment in consortium plats for the production of Secondary Raw Materials (SRM) or "New Products" (NP, eg. artificial loam, waterproofing materials, ....). The research evidences that, on the basis of a correct sludge management, treatment and characterization, economic and environmental benefits are possible (NP or SRM in spite of waste to dump). To individuate different applications of residual sludge in civil and environmental contexts, a geotechnical (size distribution, permeability, Atterberg limits, cohesion and friction angle evaluation, Proctor soil test) characterization was foreseen. The geotechnical tests were conducted on sludge as such and on three different mixes: - Mix 1 - Bentonite clay (5-10%) added to sludge a.s (90-95%); - Mix 2 - Sludge a.s. (90-80-70%) added to coarse materials coming from crushed dimensional stones (10-20-30%); - Mix 3 - Sludge a.s. (50-70%) mixed with sand, compost, natural loam (50-30% mixture of sand, compost, natural loam). The results obtained from the four sets of tests were fundamental to evaluate: - the characteristics of the original materials; - the chance to obtain new products for dumps waterproofing (Mix 1). In this case the permeability has to be at least 10-9 m/s; - the opportunity to use them for land rehabilitation and reclamation (fine and coarse materials to fill quarry or civil works pits - Mix2; artificial loam to use for quarry and civil works revegetation - Mix 3). In Mix 3 phytotoxicity tests have been performed in cooperation with Agricultural Dept. - University of Turin. In this case the "cradle to grave principle" would be applied: "waste" coming from dimensional stone working plants could return to quarries. The results coming from geotechnical tests are promising, but to exploit sludge mixtures in civil and environmental applications it is necessary to guarantee, by means of appropriate chemical analysis, that there are no problems connected to soil, water and air pollution (connected to heavy metals and TPH contents). Magnetic or hydrogravimetric separation can be performed to reduce heavy metal content, instead TPH decrement can be reached by mean of specific agronomic treatments (eg. Bioremediation). Several in situ tests will be performed to compare the laboratory results to the "pre-industrial" ones: the obtained results will be potentially useful to propose some integration to the present Italian legislation.

  16. Red to blue high electrochromic contrast and rapid switching poly(3,4-ethylenedioxypyrrole)-Au/Ag nanocomposite devices for smart windows.

    PubMed

    Kharkwal, Aneeta; Deepa, Melepurath; Joshi, Amish G; Srivastava, Avanish Kumar

    2011-04-18

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxypyrrole) (PEDOP)-Ag and PEDOP-Au nanocomposite films have been synthesized for the first time by electropolymerization of the conducting-polymer precursor in a waterproof ionic liquid, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, followed by Ag/Au nanoparticle incorporation. That the Ag/Au nanoparticles are not adventitious entities in the film is confirmed by a) X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which provides evidence of Ag/Au-PEDOP interactions through chemical shifts of the Ag/Au core levels and new signals due to Ag-N(H) and Au-N(H) components, and b) electron microscopy, which reveals Au nanoparticles with a face-centered-cubic crystalline structure associated with the amorphous polymer. Spectroelectrochemistry of electrochromic devices based on PEDOP-Au show a large coloring efficiency (?(max) =270 cm(2) C(-1), ?=458 nm) in the visible region, for an orange/red to blue reversible transition, followed by a second, remarkably high ?(max) of 490 cm(2) C(-1) (?=1000 nm) in the near-infrared region as compared to the much lower values achieved for the neat PEDOP analogue. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies reveal that the metal nanoparticles lower charge-transfer resistance and facilitate ion intercalation-deintercalation, which manifests in enhanced performance characteristics. In addition, significantly faster color-bleach kinetics (five times of that of neat PEDOP!) and a larger electrochemical ion insertion capacity unambiguously demonstrate the potential such conducting-polymer nanocomposites have for smart window applications. PMID:21480457

  17. Support of EarthScope GPS Campaigns at the UNAVCO Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, E.; Blume, F.; Normandeau, J.

    2008-12-01

    In order to support portable GPS deployments funded by the NSF's EarthScope Science panel, PBO has purchased 100 campaign GPS systems. Based Topcon GB-1000 equipment, the systems have been designed for stand-alone temporary or semi-permanent deployment that will be used for densifying areas not sufficiently covered by continuous GPS, and responding to volcanic and tectonic crises. UNAVCO provides support for all aspects of these projects, including proposal and budget development, project planning, equipment design, field support, and data archiving. Ten of the 100 systems have been equipped with real-time kinematic (RTK) capability requiring additional radio and data logging equipment. RTK systems can be used to rapidly map fault traces and profile fault escarpments and collect precise position information for GIS based geologic mapping. Each portable self-contained campaign systems include 18 Ah batteries, a regulated 32 watt solar charging system, and a low-power dual frequency GPS receiver and antenna in a waterproof case with security enhancements. The receivers have redundant memory sufficient for storing over a year's worth of data as well as IP and serial communications capabilities for longer-term deployments. Monumentation options are determined on a project-by-project basis, with options including Tech2000 masts, low-profile spike mounts, and traditional tripods and optical tribrachs. Drilled-braced monuments or masts can be installed for "semi- permanent" style occupations. The systems have been used to support several projects to date, including the University of Washington's 30-unit deployment to monitor the Episodic Tremor and Slip event in November, 2005 and the ongoing Rio Grande Rift experiment, run by the Universities of Colorado, Utah State, and New Mexico, which has seen the construction of 25 permanent monuments in 2006 and 2007 and a 26-site campaign reoccupation in 2008.

  18. Support of EarthScope GPS Campaigns at the UNAVCO Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blume, F.; Feldl, N.

    2005-12-01

    In order to support portable GPS deployments funded by the NSF's EarthScope Science panel, PBO has purchased 100 campaign GPS systems. Based Topcon GB-1000 equipment, the systems have been designed for stand-alone temporary or semi-permanent deployment that will be used for densifying areas not sufficiently covered by continuous GPS, and responding to volcanic and tectonic crises. UNAVCO provides support for all aspects of these projects, including proposal and budget development, project planning, equipment design, field support, and data archiving. Ten of the 100 systems will be purchased with real-time kinematic (RTK) capability requiring additional radio and data logging equipment. RTK systems can be used to rapidly map fault traces and profile fault escarpments and collect precise position information for GIS based geologic mapping. Each portable self-contained campaign systems include 18 Ah batteries, a regulated 32 watt solar charging system, and a low-power dual frequency GPS receiver and antenna in a waterproof case with security enhancements. The receivers have redundant memory sufficient for storing over a year's worth of data as well as IP and serial communications capabilities for longer-term deployments. Monumentation options will be determined on a project-by-project basis, with options including Tech2000 masts, low-profile spike mounts, and traditional tripods and optical tribrachs. The systems have been used to support three projects to date, including the University of Washington's 30-unit deployment to monitor the Episodic Tremor and Slip event this past November and they will be used for ongoing support of the ongoing Rio Grande Rift experiment, run by the Universities of Colorado and New Mexico.

  19. Support of EarthScope GPS Campaigns at the UNAVCO Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, E.; Blume, F.; Normandeau, J.

    2007-12-01

    In order to support portable GPS deployments funded by the NSF's EarthScope Science panel, PBO has purchased 100 campaign GPS systems. Based Topcon GB-1000 equipment, the systems have been designed for stand-alone temporary or semi-permanent deployment that will be used for densifying areas not sufficiently covered by continuous GPS, and responding to volcanic and tectonic crises. UNAVCO provides support for all aspects of these projects, including proposal and budget development, project planning, equipment design, field support, and data archiving. Ten of the 100 systems will be purchased with real-time kinematic (RTK) capability requiring additional radio and data logging equipment. RTK systems can be used to rapidly map fault traces and profile fault escarpments and collect precise position information for GIS based geologic mapping. Each portable self-contained campaign systems include 18 Ah batteries, a regulated 32 watt solar charging system, and a low-power dual frequency GPS receiver and antenna in a waterproof case with security enhancements. The receivers have redundant memory sufficient for storing over a year's worth of data as well as IP and serial communications capabilities for longer-term deployments. Monumentation options are determined on a project-by-project basis, with options including Tech2000 masts, low-profile spike mounts, and traditional tripods and optical tribrachs. Drilled-braced monuments or masts can be installed for "semi-permanent" style occupations. The systems have been used to support several projects to date, including the University of Washington's 30- unit deployment to monitor the Episodic Tremor and Slip event in November, 2005 and the ongoing Rio Grande Rift experiment, run by the Universities of Colorado, Utah State, and New Mexico, which has seen the construction of 25 permanent monuments in 2006 and 2007.

  20. Latherin: a surfactant protein of horse sweat and saliva.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Rhona E; Fleming, Rachel I; Beeley, John G; Bovell, Douglas L; Lu, Jian R; Zhao, Xiubo; Cooper, Alan; Kennedy, Malcolm W

    2009-01-01

    Horses are unusual in producing protein-rich sweat for thermoregulation, a major component of which is latherin, a highly surface-active, non-glycosylated protein. The amino acid sequence of latherin, determined from cDNA analysis, is highly conserved across four geographically dispersed equid species (horse, zebra, onager, ass), and is similar to a family of proteins only found previously in the oral cavity and associated tissues of mammals. Latherin produces a significant reduction in water surface tension at low concentrations (< or = 1 mg ml(-1)), and therefore probably acts as a wetting agent to facilitate evaporative cooling through a waterproofed pelt. Neutron reflection experiments indicate that this detergent-like activity is associated with the formation of a dense protein layer, about 10 A thick, at the air-water interface. However, biophysical characterization (circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry) in solution shows that latherin behaves like a typical globular protein, although with unusual intrinsic fluorescence characteristics, suggesting that significant conformational change or unfolding of the protein is required for assembly of the air-water interfacial layer. RT-PCR screening revealed latherin transcripts in horse skin and salivary gland but in no other tissues. Recombinant latherin produced in bacteria was also found to be the target of IgE antibody from horse-allergic subjects. Equids therefore may have adapted an oral/salivary mucosal protein for two purposes peculiar to their lifestyle, namely their need for rapid and efficient heat dissipation and their specialisation for masticating and processing large quantities of dry food material. PMID:19478940

  1. A fibre optic scintillator dosemeter for absorbed dose measurements of low-energy X-ray-emitting brachytherapy sources.

    PubMed

    Sliski, Alan; Soares, Christopher; Mitch, Michael G

    2006-01-01

    A newly developed dosemeter using a 0.5 mm diameter x 0.5 mm thick cylindrical plastic scintillator coupled to the end of a fibre optic cable is capable of measuring the absorbed dose rate in water around low-activity, low-energy X-ray emitters typically used in prostate brachytherapy. Recent tests of this dosemeter showed that it is possible to measure the dose rate as a function of distance in water from 2 to 30 mm of a (103)Pd source of air-kerma strength 3.4 U (1 U = 1 microGy m(2) h(-1)), or 97 MBq (2.6 mCi) apparent activity, with good signal-to-noise ratio. The signal-to-noise ratio is only dependent on the integration time and background subtraction. The detector volume is enclosed in optically opaque, nearly water-equivalent materials so that there is no polar response other than that due to the shape of the scintillator volume chosen, in this case cylindrical. The absorbed dose rate very close to commercial brachytherapy sources can be mapped in an automated water phantom, providing a 3-D dose distribution with sub-millimeter spatial resolution. The sensitive volume of the detector is 0.5 mm from the end of the optically opaque waterproof housing, enabling measurements at very close distances to sources. The sensitive detector electronics allow the measurement of very low dose rates, as exist at centimeter distances from these sources. The detector is also applicable to mapping dose distributions from more complex source geometries such as eye applicators for treating macular degeneration. PMID:16782747

  2. Rotating Balances Used for Fluid Pump Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelley, Stephen; Mulder, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center has developed and demonstrated two direct read force and moment balances for sensing and resolving the hydrodynamic loads on rotating fluid machinery. These rotating balances consist of a series of stainless steel flexures instrumented with semiconductor type, unidirectional strain gauges arranged into six bridges, then sealed and waterproofed, for use fully submerged in degassed water at rotational speeds up to six thousand revolutions per minute. The balances are used to measure the forces and moments due to the onset and presence of cavitation or other hydrodynamic phenomena on subscale replicas of rocket engine turbomachinery, principally axial pumps (inducers) designed specifically to operate in a cavitating environment. The balances are inserted into the drive assembly with power to and signal from the sensors routed through the drive shaft and out through an air-cooled twenty-channel slip ring. High frequency data - balance forces and moments as well as extensive, flush-mounted pressures around the rotating component periphery - are acquired via a high-speed analog to digital data acquisition system while the test rig conditions are varied continuously. The data acquisition and correction process is described, including the in-situ verifications that are performed to quantify and correct for known system effects such as mechanical imbalance, "added mass," buoyancy, mechanical resonance, and electrical bias. Examples of four types of cavitation oscillations for two typical inducers are described in the laboratory (pressure) and rotating (force) frames: 1) attached, symmetric cavitation, 2) rotating cavitation, 3) attached, asymmetric cavitation, and 4) cavitation surge. Rotating and asymmetric cavitation generate a corresponding unbalanced radial force on the rotating assembly while cavitation surge generates an axial force. Attached, symmetric cavitation induces no measurable force. The frequency of the forces can be determined a priori from the pressure environment while the magnitude of the hydrodynamic force is proportional to the pressure unsteadiness.

  3. Simple and reliable method to incorporate the Janus property onto arbitrary porous substrates.

    PubMed

    You, Jae Bem; Yoo, Youngmin; Oh, Myung Seok; Im, Sung Gap

    2014-03-26

    Economical fabrication of waterproof/breathable substrates has many potential applications such as clothing or improved medical dressing. In this work, a facile and reproducible fabrication method was developed to render the Janus property to arbitrary porous substrates. First, a hydrophobic surface was obtained by depositing a fluoropolymer, poly(3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,9,9,10,10,10-heptadecafluorodecyl methacrylate) (PHFDMA), on various porous substrates such as polyester fabric, nylon mesh, and filter paper. With a one-step vapor-phase deposition process, termed as initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD), a conformal coating of hydrophobic PHFDMA polymer film was achieved on both faces of the porous substrate. Since the hydrophobic perfluoroalkyl functionality is tethered on PHFDMA via hydrolyzable ester functionality, the hydrophobic functionality on PHFDMA was readily released by hydrolysis reaction. Here, by simply floating the PHFDMA-coated substrates on KOH(aq) solution, only the face of the PHFDMA-coated substrate in contact with the KOH(aq) solution became hydrophilic by the conversion of the fluoroalkyl ester group in the PHFDMA to hydrophilic carboxylic acid functionality. The hydrophilized face was able to easily absorb water, showing a contact angle of less than 37°. However, the top side of the PHFDMA-coated substrate was unaffected by the exposure to KOH(aq) solution and remained hydrophobic. Moreover, the carboxylated surface was further functionalized with aminated polystyrene beads. The porous Janus substrates fabricated using this method can be applied to various kinds of clothing such as pants and shirts, something that the lamination process for Gore-tex has not allowed. PMID:24568214

  4. Molecular Structure of Oleic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-05-08

    A mono-unsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid is a component of almost all natural fats. It is obtained from any of various vegetable and animal oils and fats, particularly the seeds of castor, sunflower, safflower, parsley, soybean, flax, perilla, and celery. A colorless or yellow-to-red oily liquid with a lard-like odor, it solidifies to a crystalline mass at four degrees Celsius. When exposed to air it oxidizes and acquires a yellow to brown color and rancid odor; for this reason it should be kept sealed in a container and away from sunlight. It is almost completely insoluble in water but is soluble in alcohol, benzene chloroform, ether, and fixed and volatile oils. Although oleic acid has a low level of toxicity when absorbed orally, it is mildly irritating to the skin and mucous membranes. It also is combustible. Oleic acid is used as a soap base and in the production of food-grade additives, ointments, cosmetics, fragrance products, polishing compounds, surface coatings, and manufacturing driers. It is used for waterproofing textiles and for thickening lubricating oils. It also is used as a solvent in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals. It contributes to the flavor of foods and is found in sweet cider apples. One of the "good" or unsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid has proven helpful to cell and heart function. It has shown anti-inflammatory effects in the body and has been used to treat arthritis, asthma, allergies, and skin conditions. Its inclusion in the diet has improved cases of diabetes, depression, menopausal problems, obesity, memory and learning disabilities, eye problems, and digestive disorders. It is considered to lower the incidence of cancer (as an antioxidant), multiple sclerosis, and lupus as well.

  5. Blue-Violet Laser Modification of Titania Treated Titanium: Antibacterial and Osteo-Inductive Effects

    PubMed Central

    Kawano, Takanori; Prananingrum, Widyasri; Ishida, Yuichi; Goto, Takaharu; Naito, Yoshihito; Watanabe, Megumi; Tomotake, Yoritoki; Ichikawa, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    Background Many studies on surface modifications of titanium have been performed in an attempt to accelerate osseointegration. Recently, anatase titanium dioxide has been found to act as a photocatalyst that expresses antibiotic properties and exhibits hydrophilicity after ultraviolet exposure. A blue-violet semiconductor laser (BV-LD) has been developed as near-ultraviolet light. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exposure to this BV-LD on surface modifications of titanium with the goal of enhancing osteoconductive and antibacterial properties. Methods The surfaces of pure commercial titanium were polished with #800 waterproof polishing papers and were treated with anatase titania solution. Specimens were exposed using BV-LD (? = 405 nm) or an ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV-LED, ? = 365 nm) at 6 mW/cm2 for 3 h. The surface modification was evaluated physically and biologically using the following parameters or tests: surface roughness, surface temperature during exposure, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, contact angle, methylene blue degradation tests, adherence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, osteoblast and fibroblast proliferation, and histological examination after implantation in rats. Results No significant changes were found in the surface roughness or XRD profiles after exposure. BV-LD exposure did not raise the surface temperature of titanium. The contact angle was significantly decreased, and methylene blue was significantly degraded. The number of attached P. gingivalis organisms was significantly reduced after BV-LD exposure compared to that in the no exposure group. New bone was observed around exposed specimens in the histological evaluation, and both the bone-to-specimen contact ratio and the new bone area increased significantly in exposed groups. Conclusions This study suggested that exposure of titanium to BV-LD can enhance the osteoconductivity of the titanium surface and induce antibacterial properties, similar to the properties observed following exposure to UV-LED. PMID:24358355

  6. Novel electrodes for underwater ECG monitoring.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Bersain A; Posada-Quintero, Hugo F; Bales, Justin R; Clement, Amanda L; Pins, George D; Swiston, Albert; Riistama, Jarno; Florian, John P; Shykoff, Barbara; Qin, Michael; Chon, Ki H

    2014-06-01

    We have developed hydrophobic electrodes that provide all morphological waveforms without distortion of an ECG signal for both dry and water-immersed conditions. Our electrode is comprised of a mixture of carbon black powder (CB) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). For feasibility testing of the CB/PDMS electrodes, various tests were performed. One of the tests included evaluation of the electrode-to-skin contact impedance for different diameters, thicknesses, and different pressure levels. As expected, the larger the diameter of the electrodes, the lower the impedance and the difference between the large sized CB/PDMS and the similarly-sized Ag/AgCl hydrogel electrodes was at most 200 k?, in favor of the latter. Performance comparison of CB/PDMS electrodes to Ag/AgCl hydrogel electrodes was carried out in three different scenarios: a dry surface, water immersion, and postwater immersion conditions. In the dry condition, no statistical differences were found for both the temporal and spectral indices of the heart rate variability analysis between the CB/PDMS and Ag/AgCl hydrogel (p > 0.05) electrodes. During water immersion, there was significant ECG amplitude reduction with CB/PDMS electrodes when compared to wet Ag/AgCl electrodes kept dry by their waterproof adhesive tape, but the reduction was not severe enough to obscure the readability of the recordings, and all morphological waveforms of the ECG signal were discernible even when motion artifacts were introduced. When water did not penetrate tape-wrapped Ag/AgCl electrodes, high fidelity ECG signals were observed. However, when water penetrated the Ag/AgCl electrodes, the signal quality degraded to the point where ECG morphological waveforms were not discernible. PMID:24845297

  7. An unusual case of organophosphate intoxication of a worker in a plastic bottle recycling plant: an important reminder.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C L; Chuang, H Y; Chang, C Y; Liu, S T; Wu, M T; Ho, C K

    2000-01-01

    A young man was sent to our emergency unit because he had suffered from vomiting and cold sweating for 2 days. At the time he was admitted, he had no acute abdominal pains or gastrointestinal symptoms, and a physical examination revealed nothing but a faster heart rate and moist, flushing skin. The patient had worked for 6 years at a plastic bottle-recycling factory, but none of his co-workers had the same symptoms. Nevertheless, because the plant also recycled pesticide bottles, we suspected organophosphate pesticide intoxication. The patient's plasma acetylcholinesterase level was checked, revealing 1498.6 microU/L (normal range: 2,000-5, 000) on the first day and 1,379 microU/L on the second day. Upon questioning, the patient recalled that one of his shoe soles had been damaged and that his foot had been wet from walking all day in rain collected on the factory floor on the day that his symptoms first occurred. We conducted a study in the change of preshift and postshift acetylcholinesterase levels among six of his co-workers on a rainy day. We used the Wilcoxon signed rank test to compare the preshift and postshift plasma acetylcholinesterase levels; no significant difference was revealed (p = 0.600), leaving contamination via the damaged shoe sole suspect. We reviewed the literature on organophosphate intoxication; pesticide bottle-recycling factories were reported to be at a low risk of organophosphate toxicity in the working environment. However, because the potential risk of intoxication is still present, protective equipment such as clothing, gloves, and water-proof shoes should be worn, and employees should be educated on the potential risks. PMID:11102304

  8. Short-term survival and effects of transmitter implantation into western grebes using a modified surgical procedure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaydos, Joseph K.; Massey, J. Gregory; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Gaskins, Lori A.; Nysewander, David; Evenson, Joseph; Siegel, Paul B.; Ziccardi, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    Two pilot trials and one study in a closely related grebe species suggest that Western grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis) will not tolerate intracoelomic transmitter implantation with percutaneous antennae and often die within days of surgery. Wild Western grebes (n = 21) were captured to evaluate a modified surgical technique. Seven birds were surgically implanted with intracoelomic transmitters with percutaneous antennae by using the modified technique (transmitter group), 7 received the same surgery without transmitter implantation (celiotomy group), and 7 served as controls (only undergoing anesthesia). Modifications included laterally offsetting the body wall incision from the skin incision, application of absorbable cyanoacrylate tissue glue to the subcutaneous space between the body wall and skin incisions, application of a waterproof sealant to the skin incision after suture closure, and application of a piece of porcine small intestine submucosa to the antenna egress. Survival did not differ among the 3 groups with 7 of 7 control, 6 of 7 celiotomy, and 6 of 7 transmitter birds surviving the 9-day study. Experimental birds were euthanized at the end of the study, and postmortem findings indicated normal healing. Significant differences in plasma chemistry or immune function were not detected among the 3 groups, and only minor differences were detected in red blood cell indices and plasma proteins. After surgery, the birds in the transmitter group spent more time preening tail feathers than those in the control and celiotomy groups. These results demonstrate that, in a captive situation, celiotomy and intracoelomic transmitter implantation caused minimal detectable homeostatic disturbance in this species and that Western grebes can survive implantation of intracoelomic transmitters with percutaneous antennae. It remains to be determined what potential this modified surgical procedure has to improve postoperative survival of Western grebes that are intracelomically implanted with transmitters with percutaneous antennae and released into the wild.

  9. Dynamics of the Macular Hole-Silicone Oil Tamponade Interface with Patient Positioning as Imaged by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Oster, Stephen F.; Mojana, Francesca; Bartsch, Dirk-Uwe G.; Goldbaum, Michael; Freeman, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) the relationship between the retina and overlying silicone oil tamponade after macular hole surgery, and to evaluate how this relationship changes with patient positioning. Patients and Methods Retrospective consecutive case series of 10 eyes from 9 patients who underwent macular hole surgery with silicone oil tamponade and subsequent SD-OCT scans. Four of the included eyes were also imaged with patients in face-down posture to determine if the silicone-retina apposition changes with prone positioning. Finally, a single patient was additionally scanned in the lateral and supine positions. Results The posterior surface of the silicone oil bubble was well visualized in all 10 eyes. In the majority of eyes (7/10) the oil tamponade bridged across the macular hole creating a pre-foveal fluid space, but in 3 eyes the silicone oil filled the macular hole and was seen in touch with the underlying foveal depression or retinal pigment epithelium. In 75% of eyes (3/4) the silicone oil-retinal approximation did not vary with face-down position. Supine positioning clearly floated the silicone tamponade anteriorly and off of the retinal surface. Conclusions Silicone oil tamponade can either bridge across macular holes, or in a novel finding, can fill the underlying foveal depression or macular hole space. Generally, the oil position is stable between face-forward and prone SD-OCT images, suggesting that either of these patient positions allows waterproofing of the underlying macular hole. Finally, our images confirm that supine positioning should be avoided post-operatively as it leads to loss of oil-retinal tamponade. PMID:20531144

  10. Water conservation features of ova of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Rigsby, Chad M; Cipollini, Don; Amstutz, Evan M; Smith, Terrance J; Yoder, Jay A

    2013-04-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, has destroyed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America since first identified in Detroit in 2002. With species of ash distributed throughout North America, it is easy to speculate the extinction of all susceptible species of ash on the continent given a lack of physical, environmental, or climactic barrier for dispersal of the insect. We investigated water balance characteristics of emerald ash borer ova by using gravimetric methods in an effort to measure their response to heat- and water-stress and explore possible influences this stress may have on the ecology and physiology of the ovum. We also explored the possible water balance benefit of a peculiar, "clustering," oviposition behavior, as well as the difference in responses to stress between ova from a laboratory colony and ova from two wild populations. We found no evidence of water vapor absorption as a water balance strategy; rather enhanced water retention, resistance to desiccation, and viability with low water content were important survival strategies for these ova. Surface lipids resist thermal breakdown as indicated by ova having no detectable critical transition temperature, maintaining their water-proofing function as temperature rises. The observed "clustering" behavior had no desiccation-avoidance benefit and ova from the wild populations behaved almost identically to the ova from the lab colony, although the lab ova were slightly larger and more sensitive to dehydration. Given this new information, there appears to be no heat- or water-stress barriers for the dispersal of this devastating pest at the ovum stage. PMID:23575027

  11. Characterization of Glossy1-homologous genes in rice involved in leaf wax accumulation and drought resistance.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Asadul; Du, Hao; Ning, Jing; Ye, Haiyan; Xiong, Lizhong

    2009-07-01

    The outermost surfaces of plants are covered with an epicuticular wax layer that provides a primary waterproof barrier and protection against different environmental stresses. Glossy 1 (GL1) is one of the reported genes controlling wax synthesis. This study analyzed GL1-homologous genes in Oryza sativa and characterized the key members of this family involved in wax synthesis and stress resistance. Sequence analysis revealed 11 homologous genes of GL1 in rice, designated OsGL1-1 to OsGL1-11. OsGL1-1, -2 and -3 are closely related to GL1. OsGL1-4, -5, -6, and -7 are closely related to Arabidopsis CER1 that is involved in cuticular wax biosynthesis. OsGL1-8, -9, -10 and -11 are closely related to SUR2 encoding a putative sterol desaturase also involved in epicuticular wax biosynthesis. These genes showed variable expression levels in different tissues and organs of rice, and most of them were induced by abiotic stresses. Compared to the wild type, the OsGL1-2-over-expression rice exhibited more wax crystallization and a thicker epicuticular layer; while the mutant of this gene showed less wax crystallization and a thinner cuticular layer. Chlorophyll leaching experiment suggested that the cuticular permeability was decreased and increased in the over-expression lines and the mutant, respectively. Quantification analysis of wax composition by GC-MS revealed a significant reduction of total cuticular wax in the mutant and increase of total cuticular wax in the over-expression plants. Compared to the over-expression and wild type plants, the osgl1-2 mutant was more sensitive to drought stress at reproductive stage, suggesting an important role of this gene in drought resistance. PMID:19322663

  12. An unusual case of organophosphate intoxication of a worker in a plastic bottle recycling plant: an important reminder.

    PubMed

    Wang, C L; Chuang, H Y; Chang, C Y; Liu, S T; Wu, M T; Ho, C K

    2000-11-01

    A young man was sent to our emergency unit because he had suffered from vomiting and cold sweating for 2 days. At the time he was admitted, he had no acute abdominal pains or gastrointestinal symptoms, and a physical examination revealed nothing but a faster heart rate and moist, flushing skin. The patient had worked for 6 years at a plastic bottle-recycling factory, but none of his co-workers had the same symptoms. Nevertheless, because the plant also recycled pesticide bottles, we suspected organophosphate pesticide intoxication. The patient's plasma acetylcholinesterase level was checked, revealing 1498.6 microU/L (normal range: 2,000-5, 000) on the first day and 1,379 microU/L on the second day. Upon questioning, the patient recalled that one of his shoe soles had been damaged and that his foot had been wet from walking all day in rain collected on the factory floor on the day that his symptoms first occurred. We conducted a study in the change of preshift and postshift acetylcholinesterase levels among six of his co-workers on a rainy day. We used the Wilcoxon signed rank test to compare the preshift and postshift plasma acetylcholinesterase levels; no significant difference was revealed (p = 0.600), leaving contamination via the damaged shoe sole suspect. We reviewed the literature on organophosphate intoxication; pesticide bottle-recycling factories were reported to be at a low risk of organophosphate toxicity in the working environment. However, because the potential risk of intoxication is still present, protective equipment such as clothing, gloves, and water-proof shoes should be worn, and employees should be educated on the potential risks. PMID:11102304

  13. Groundwater System Investigation of the Cheonggyecheon Watershed Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, D.; Lee, K.; Hyun, Y.; Kim, Y.

    2004-12-01

    The Cheonggyecheon is an urban stream in the center of the Seoul, Korea. Because of fundamental solution of the deterioration on covering structure and expressway, the Seoul Metropolis decided 'Cheonggyecheon restoration' and began on July 1, 2003. The purpose of the Cheonggyecheon restoration is a plan for the afforestation in Seoul, but the Cheonggyecheon needs more water for the maintenance of flow. The Cheonggyecheon is a disconnected stream because of a urban stream which has many influenced factors such as pumping out, groundwater leakages into subway stations and leaking water from water supply and sewage line. So, the objectives of this study are analyzing influenced factors in the groundwater budget in the Cheonggyecheon watershed and suggesting the amount of input and output water. There are many factors influenced by the infiltration in this study area such as a flow rate of the stream, a thickness of the stream bed, a grain size of the stream bed, and a permeability of a waterproof material after restoration. For investigation of the hydrogeologic parameter in the study area, we perform the hydraulic tests; pumping test, slug test, and infiltration test. Groundwater quality data were collected for an investigation of the origin of groundwater in the study area and the index parameter after restoration. For estimating a level of sensitive factors after restoration construction, we conduct sand tank test and numerical test. In comparison of the results of the sand tank test and the numerical test, we decide the prime control factor of infiltration water in the Cheonggyecheon watershed, and suggest the amount of water budget in this study site.

  14. Soils of the southwestern part of the Dzhulukul Depression in the Altai Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopp, N. V.

    2015-06-01

    Soils of the southwestern part of the Dzhulukul Depression in Ulagan district of the Altai Republic have been studied. They belong to two soil divisions: Al-Fe-humus soils (with various types of podburs) and iron-metamorphic soils (rzhavozems). The soils within the eluvial part of the studied catena—iron-illuvial soddy podburs—are developed from the residuum of magmatic and metamorphic rocks with high (up to 80 vol %) content of gravels and coarse rock fragments. Their high porosity favors downward migration and precipitation of humus-iron compounds on the surface of gravels and mineral grains in the illuvial horizon. The soils of the accumulative part of the catena—permafrost-affected raw-humus pod-burs and gleyic podburs)—are developed from moraine deposits of loamy-sandy texture with up to 30 vol % of gravels. In these soils, the features of the Al-Fe-humus migration are weakly pronounced; the soils are underlain by the waterproof frozen horizon (permafrost), have high humus content, and have thixotropic properties in the lower horizons. Their reaction is slightly acid to neutral, and their base saturation is up to 80%. These characteristics do not meet the criteria of podburs as defined in the new Russian soil classification system. Their origin may be related to the local mixing of weathering products of different bedrock materials, including magmatic, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks during the deposition of moraine sediments. Iron-metamorphic soils (rzhavozems) are formed on convex parts of slopes from the residuum and colluvial derivatives of magmatic and metamorphic rocks (granite, metamorphic slates, red-colored sandstone, etc.). A distinctive feature of these soils is their ocherous-brown color and a considerable content of gravels in the entire profile. The chemical properties of rzhavozems resemble those of the Al-Fe-humus soils of automorphic positions: acid and slightly acid reaction, low base saturation, and a relatively high content of organic carbon in the organic and mineral horizons.

  15. Development of a retrofit coal combustor for industrial applications, (Phase 1-A). Technical progress report, July--September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    During this past quarter, two tandem-fired pulse combustors were designed to fire at a nominal rate of 3.5 to 5.5 MMBtu/hr under continuation of Phase I work on DOE project DE-AC22-87PC79654. In prior work, MTCI demonstrated the operation of a 1--2 MMBtu/h coal-fired tandem pulse combustor that is intended for small industrial applications. These component tests emphasized verification of key design issues such as combustor coupling, slag rejection, and staged air addition. The current work, which represents an extension of the Phase I effort, focuses on integrated testing of the tandem pulse combustor with a fire-tube boiler, and the addition of a slag quench vessel. A tandem-fired pulse combustion unit designed to fire at a nominal rate of 3.5-5 MMBtu/hr was designed and fabricated. The configuration includes two combustion chambers cast in a single monolith, tailpipes cast separately with annular air preheating capability, and a cyclonic decoupler. Design analysis and evaluations were performed to optimize the system with respect to minimizing heat losses, size, and cost. Heat losses from the combustor and decoupler walls are predicted to be approximately 3 percent. The final designs for the ancillary items (slag quench, tertiary air addition, scrubber and sampling system) were completed and fabrication and installation initiated. A Cleaver-Brooks 150 hp-4 pass boiler was delivered and installed and modifications for interfacing with the retrofit pulse combustor unit completed. A below-ground slag collection pit was excavated to permit direct in-line coupling of the combustor to the boiler and to reduce head-room requirements. The pit is 30 inches deep and lined with waterproof and fireproof siding.

  16. Development of a retrofit coal combustor for industrial applications, (Phase 1-A)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    During this past quarter, two tandem-fired pulse combustors were designed to fire at a nominal rate of 3.5 to 5.5 MMBtu/hr under continuation of Phase I work on DOE project DE-AC22-87PC79654. In prior work, MTCI demonstrated the operation of a 1--2 MMBtu/h coal-fired tandem pulse combustor that is intended for small industrial applications. These component tests emphasized verification of key design issues such as combustor coupling, slag rejection, and staged air addition. The current work, which represents an extension of the Phase I effort, focuses on integrated testing of the tandem pulse combustor with a fire-tube boiler, and the addition of a slag quench vessel. A tandem-fired pulse combustion unit designed to fire at a nominal rate of 3.5-5 MMBtu/hr was designed and fabricated. The configuration includes two combustion chambers cast in a single monolith, tailpipes cast separately with annular air preheating capability, and a cyclonic decoupler. Design analysis and evaluations were performed to optimize the system with respect to minimizing heat losses, size, and cost. Heat losses from the combustor and decoupler walls are predicted to be approximately 3 percent. The final designs for the ancillary items (slag quench, tertiary air addition, scrubber and sampling system) were completed and fabrication and installation initiated. A Cleaver-Brooks 150 hp-4 pass boiler was delivered and installed and modifications for interfacing with the retrofit pulse combustor unit completed. A below-ground slag collection pit was excavated to permit direct in-line coupling of the combustor to the boiler and to reduce head-room requirements. The pit is 30 inches deep and lined with waterproof and fireproof siding.

  17. Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L. Young

    2006-02-01

    This paper describes the Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System and its application to emergency response involving chemical, biological or radiological contamination. The Idaho National Laboratory designed the Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System to assist the National Guard Weapons of Mass Destruction - Civil Support Teams during their mission of emergency response to incidents involving weapons of mass destruction. The lightweight, handheld camera transmits encrypted, real-time video from inside a contaminated area, or hot-zone, to a command post located a safe distance away. The system includes a small wireless video camera, a true-diversity receiver, viewing console, and an optional extension link that allows the command post to be placed up to five miles from danger. It can be fully deployed by one person in a standalone configuration in less than 10 minutes. The complete system is battery powered. Each rechargeable camera battery powers the camera for 3 hours with the receiver and video monitor battery lasting 22 hours on a single charge. The camera transmits encrypted, low frequency analog video signals to a true-diversity receiver with three antennas. This unique combination of encryption and transmission technologies delivers encrypted, interference-free images to the command post under conditions where other wireless systems fail. The lightweight camera is completely waterproof for quick and easy decontamination after use. The Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System is currently being used by several National Guard Teams, the US Army, and by fire fighters. The system has been proven to greatly enhance situational awareness during the crucial, initial phase of a hazardous response allowing commanders to make better, faster, safer decisions.

  18. Chemiresistor microsensors for in-situ monitoring of volatile organic compounds : final LDRD report.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Michael Loren; Hughes, Robert Clark; Kooser, Ara S.; McGrath, Lucas K.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Wright, Jerome L.; Davis, Chad Edward

    2003-09-01

    This report provides a summary of the three-year LDRD (Laboratory Directed Research and Development) project aimed at developing microchemical sensors for continuous, in-situ monitoring of volatile organic compounds. A chemiresistor sensor array was integrated with a unique, waterproof housing that allows the sensors to be operated in a variety of media including air, soil, and water. Numerous tests were performed to evaluate and improve the sensitivity, stability, and discriminatory capabilities of the chemiresistors. Field tests were conducted in California, Nevada, and New Mexico to further test and develop the sensors in actual environments within integrated monitoring systems. The field tests addressed issues regarding data acquisition, telemetry, power requirements, data processing, and other engineering requirements. Significant advances were made in the areas of polymer optimization, packaging, data analysis, discrimination, design, and information dissemination (e.g., real-time web posting of data; see www.sandia.gov/sensor). This project has stimulated significant interest among commercial and academic institutions. A CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) was initiated in FY03 to investigate manufacturing methods, and a Work for Others contract was established between Sandia and Edwards Air Force Base for FY02-FY04. Funding was also obtained from DOE as part of their Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative program from FY01 to FY03, and a DOE EMSP contract was awarded jointly to Sandia and INEEL for FY04-FY06. Contracts were also established for collaborative research with Brigham Young University to further evaluate, understand, and improve the performance of the chemiresistor sensors.

  19. Development of a semi-permanent mascara technology.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, J H; Fabula, A M; Rabe, T E; Lubbers, J M; Ye, M

    2012-02-01

    Many women would like their mascara beauty benefits to be available all day, every day. One way to address this desire is through a semi-permanent mascara technology that provides full mascara benefits of long, dark beautiful lashes for multiple days. To date, products promising multi-day benefits have acted more as either 'lash dyes', providing a lash darkening benefit but failing to provide fullness and length, or waterproof mascaras that do not maintain the initial beauty look over multiple days. Here, a formulation approach is described for a mascara product that is designed to be abrasion resistant, flexible and insoluble in soap and water so that the initial beauty look is maintained for multiple days. The new semi-permanent formula technology uses rosinate polymers that have a superior combination of flexibility, abrasion resistance and water and surfactant resistance. Based on principles used by the paint industry for creating durable films, the levels of the polymers and other non-volatile ingredients are balanced such that the product forms a continuous polymer film on the eyelash. Cryo-SEM is used to demonstrate that the new semi-permanent formula technology forms a film different from those formed by current mascara products. A stretch test and rub test are used to demonstrate that the new semi-permanent formula technology has superior flexibility and abrasion resistance to current mascara products. Finally, a multi-day consumer study with daily imaging of the eyes is used to demonstrate the superior wear performance of the new semi-permanent formula technology in actual usage. PMID:21834943

  20. Characterization of a new MOSFET detector configuration for in vivo skin dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Scalchi, Paolo; Francescon, Paolo; Rajaguru, Priyadarshini [Department of Medical Physics, San Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza (Italy)

    2005-06-15

    The dose released to the patient skin during a radiotherapy treatment is important when the skin is an organ at risk, or on the contrary, is included in the target volume. Since most treatment planning programs do not predict dose within several millimeters of the body surface, it is important to have a method to verify the skin dose for the patient who is undergoing radiotherapy. A special type of metal oxide semiconductors field-effect transistors (MOSFET) was developed to perform in vivo skin dosimetry for radiotherapy treatments. Water-equivalent depth (WED), both manufacturing and sensor reproducibility, dependence on both field size and angulation of the sensor were investigated using 6 MV photon beams. Patient skin dosimetries were performed during 6 MV total body irradiations (TBI). The resulting WEDs ranged from 0.04 and 0.15 mm (0.09 mm on average). The reproducibility of the sensor response, for doses of 50 cGy, was within {+-}2% (maximum deviation) and improves with increasing sensitivity or dose level. As to the manufacturing reproducibility, it was found to be {+-}0.055 mm. No WED dependence on the field size was verified, but possible variations of this quantity with the field size could be hidden by the assessment uncertainty. The angular dependence, for both phantom-surface and in-air setups, when referred to the mean response, is within {+-}27% until 80 deg. rotations. The results of the performed patient skin dosimetries showed that, normally, our TBI setup was suitable to give skin the prescribed dose, but, for some cases, interventions were necessary: as a consequence the TBI setup was corrected. The water-equivalent depth is, on average, less than the thinnest thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). In addition, when compared with TLDs, the skin MOSFETs have significant advantages, like immediate both readout and reuse, as well as the permanent storage of dose. These sensors are also waterproof. The in vivo dosimetries performed prove the importance of verifying the dose to the skin of the patient undergoing radiotherapy.

  1. Coastal Seafloor Observatory Of The East China Sea At Xiaoqushan And Its Primary Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H.; Xu, C.; Qin, R.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, H.

    2010-12-01

    The seafloor observation system becomes increasingly important infrastructure in ocean sciences, which transforms oceanic research from temporal investigation to long term observation. The East China Sea coastal seafloor observatory, located between 30°31'44"N,122°15'12"E and 30°31'34"N,122°14'40"E, is built near the Xiaoqushan island outside the Yangtze River estuary, on the inner East China Sea continental shelf. The East China Sea coastal seafloor observatory is part of the East China Sea seafloor observational network. The observatory consists of a composite power cable made of optical fiber and extending for more than 1 kilometer and a special junction box, which provide power and signal communication for different instruments. The special junction box, which has various waterproof plugs, connects to three different instruments installed in a trawl preventer. The submarine optical fiber composite power cable is landed on the platform by The East China Sea Branch, State Oceanic Administration of the People’s Republic of China, and the power is continuously supplied by the solar panels and solar battery on the top of the platform. The real time data are directly sent through the cable to the platform and are transmitted by CDMA wireless to the receiver at the State Key Laboratory of Marine Geology of Tongji University. Measurements at the observatory have been taken since 26 April, 2009. The observations include current speeds and their directions at different depths, suspended sediment concentration, temperature and salinity nearby the seabed. The more than one year preliminary results show that the current field and fine suspended sediment transport of East China Sea are complex and show considerable seasonal variation affected by the integrated influence of Changjiang diluted water, Taiwan warm current and the Yellow Sea coastal current. The successful establishment of the coastal seafloor observatory is the first step toward future development of the East China Sea seafloor observational network. It not only accumulates experiences in technology and engineering, but also paves the way for performing important sciences using the long term continuous observation platform.

  2. Direct burial and vault emplacement data quality comparison at Dotson Ranch, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, B. C.; Aderhold, K.; Anderson, K.; Pfeifer, M.; Parker, T.; Miller, P. E.; Slad, G. W.; Reusch, A.

    2013-12-01

    We compare the data quality of two emplacement methods for portable broadband seismic stations, traditional vault and direct burial, using power spectral density analysis to examine temporal trends in noise, the ratio of signal-to-noise for local, regional and teleseismic earthquakes, coherence of both noise and earthquake signal recordings as well as overall data return. Sensor emplacement in the past has been overwhelmingly dominated by traditional vaults requiring more materials, manpower and time. A new technique of directly burying sensors drastically reduces the expense, personnel and time required to install a seismic station. Comparisons between the data quality of vault and direct buried sensors are needed to show that the time and money saved in emplacement does not downgrade the quality of the data collected. Two identical shallow vaults were installed adjacent to two identical direct burial sites at Dotson Ranch in San Antonio, New Mexico, in a deliberately-chosen noisy, wet and generally inhospitable location. These four sites each used a Guralp 3T sensor retrofitted with a waterproof lid and connector. Eight months of data recorded during 2012 from these four sensors are compared in order to determine if the emplacement method has a profound and systematic effect on data quality using several different metrics that mimic the actual use of seismic data in research. A posthole installation with a Nanometrics Trillium 120PH sensor was also installed at the site for a portion of the study and six months of data are included in the analysis. Overall the variability in data quality metrics used in this study is comparable between sites with differing emplacement method as it is between sites with the same emplacement method. Noise in the vaults is higher in amplitude during the transition from spring to summer as compared to the direct burials and is especially evident on the horizontal components at long periods between 20-170 seconds. Diurnal changes in noise levels are similar at all sensors and are likely due to cultural activity and temperature fluctuations. The conclusion from this study is that the shallow vault emplacement method does not provide significant improvement in data quality compared to direct burial emplacement method. Further experiments are underway in a less noisy environment at Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska.

  3. The fur of mammals in exposed environments; do crypsis and thermal needs necessarily conflict? The polar bear and marsupial koala compared.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Terence J; Webster, Koa N; Maloney, Shane K

    2014-02-01

    The furs of mammals have varied and complex functions. Other than for thermoregulation, fur is involved in physical protection, sensory input, waterproofing and colouration, the latter being important for crypsis or camouflage. Some of these diverse functions potentially conflict. We have investigated how variation in cryptic colouration and thermal features may interact in the coats of mammals and influence potential heat inflows from solar radiation, much of which is outside the visible spectral range. The coats of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and the marsupial koala (Phascolarctus cinereus) have insulative similarities but, while they feature cryptic colouration, they are of contrasting colour, i.e. whitish and dark grey. The reflectance of solar radiation by coats was measured across the full solar spectrum using a spectroradiometer. The modulation of incident solar radiation and resultant heat flows in these coats were determined at a range of wind speeds by mounting them on a heat flux transducer/temperature-controlled plate apparatus in a wind tunnel. A lamp with a spectral distribution of radiation similar to the solar spectrum was used as a proxy for the sun. Crypsis by colour matching was apparent within the visible spectrum for the two species, U. maritimus being matched against snow and P. cinereus against Eucalyptus forest foliage. While reflectances across the full solar spectrum differed markedly, that of U. maritimus being 66 % as opposed to 10 % for P. cinereus, the heat influxes from solar radiation reaching the skin were similar. For both coats at low wind speed (1 m s(-1)), 19 % of incident solar radiation impacted as heat at the skin surface; at higher wind speed (10 m s(-1)) this decreased to approximately 10 %. Ursus maritimus and P. cinereus have high and comparable levels of fur insulation and although the patterns of reflectance and depths of penetrance of solar radiation differ for the coats, the considerable insulation limited the radiant heat reaching the skin. These data suggest that generally, if mammal coats have high insulation then heat flow from solar radiation into an animal is much restricted and the impact of coat colour is negligible. However, comparisons with published data from other species suggest that as fur insulation decreases, colour increasingly influences the heat inflow associated with solar radiation. PMID:24366474

  4. Characterization of Antimicrobial Substances Produced by Enterococcus faecalis MRR 10-3, Isolated from the Uropygial Gland of the Hoopoe (Upupa epops)

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Platero, Antonio M.; Valdivia, Eva; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Soler, Juan J.; Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Maqueda, Mercedes; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    The uropygial gland (preen gland) is a holocrine secretory gland situated at the base of the tail in birds which produces a hydrophobic fatty secretion. In certain birds, such as the hoopoe, Upupa epops, the composition of this secretion is influenced by both seasonal and sexual factors, becoming darker and more malodorous in females and in their nestlings during the nesting phase. The secretion is spread throughout the plumage when the bird preens itself, leaving its feathers flexible and waterproof. It is also thought to play a role in defending the bird against predators and parasites. We have isolated from the uropygial secretion of a nestling a bacterium that grows in monospecific culture which we have identified unambiguously by phenotypic and genotypic means as Enterococcus faecalis. The strain in question produces antibacterial substances that are active against all gram-positive bacteria assayed and also against some gram-negative strains. Its peptide nature identifies it as a bacteriocin within the group known as enterocins. Two peptides were purified to homogeneity (MR10A and MR10B), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (mass spectrometry) analysis showed masses of 5201.58 and 5207.7 Da, respectively. Amino acid sequencing of both peptides revealed high similarity with enterocin L50A and L50B (L. M. Cintas, P. Casaus, H. Holo, P. E. Hernández, I. F. Nes, and L. S. Håvarstein, J. Bacteriol. 180:1988-1994, 1998). PCR amplification of total DNA from strain MRR10-3 with primers for the L50A/B structural genes and sequencing of the amplified fragment revealed almost identical sequences, except for a single conservative change in residue 38 (Glu?Asp) in MR10A and two changes in residues 9 (Thr?Ala) and 15 (Leu?Phe) in MR10B. This is the first time that the production of bacteriocins by a bacterium isolated from the uropygial gland has been described. The production of these broad-spectrum antibacterial substances by an enterococcal strain living in the uropygial gland may be important to the hygiene of the nest and thus to the health of the eggs and chicks. PMID:16751538

  5. The perturbation correction factors for cylindrical ionization chambers in high-energy photon beams.

    PubMed

    Yoshiyama, Fumiaki; Araki, Fujio; Ono, Takeshi

    2010-07-01

    In this study, we calculated perturbation correction factors for cylindrical ionization chambers in high-energy photon beams by using Monte Carlo simulations. We modeled four Farmer-type cylindrical chambers with the EGSnrc/Cavity code and calculated the cavity or electron fluence correction factor, P (cav), the displacement correction factor, P (dis), the wall correction factor, P (wall), the stem correction factor, P (stem), the central electrode correction factor, P (cel), and the overall perturbation correction factor, P (Q). The calculated P (dis) values for PTW30010/30013 chambers were 0.9967 +/- 0.0017, 0.9983 +/- 0.0019, and 0.9980 +/- 0.0019, respectively, for (60)Co, 4 MV, and 10 MV photon beams. The value for a (60)Co beam was about 1.0% higher than the 0.988 value recommended by the IAEA TRS-398 protocol. The P (dis) values had a substantial discrepancy compared to those of IAEA TRS-398 and AAPM TG-51 at all photon energies. The P (wall) values were from 0.9994 +/- 0.0020 to 1.0031 +/- 0.0020 for PTW30010 and from 0.9961 +/- 0.0018 to 0.9991 +/- 0.0017 for PTW30011/30012, in the range of (60)Co-10 MV. The P (wall) values for PTW30011/30012 were around 0.3% lower than those of the IAEA TRS-398. Also, the chamber response with and without a 1 mm PMMA water-proofing sleeve agreed within their combined uncertainty. The calculated P (stem) values ranged from 0.9945 +/- 0.0014 to 0.9965 +/- 0.0014, but they are not considered in current dosimetry protocols. The values were no significant difference on beam qualities. P (cel) for a 1 mm aluminum electrode agreed within 0.3% with that of IAEA TRS-398. The overall perturbation factors agreed within 0.4% with those for IAEA TRS-398. PMID:20821090

  6. Energy balance measurements over a small reservoir in Ghana's Upper East Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Giesen, Nick; Ohene Annor, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Near the small village of Binaba (10.778927 deg N, 0.464859 deg E), a small irrigation reservoir has been instrumented to measure different parts of the energy balance of this water body. Instruments were placed on, or attached to, a spar platform. This platform consisted of a long PVC pipe, the spar, which is closed at the bottom. On the PVC pipe rests an aluminum frame platform that carries instrumentation and solar power panel. In turn, the platform rests partially on a large inflated tire. At the bottom of the PVC pipe, lead weights and batteries were placed to ensure a very low point of gravity to minimize wave impact on the platform movement. The tire ensures a large second moment of the water plane. The combination of large second momentum of the water plane and small displacement, ensures a high placement of the metacenter. The distance between the point of gravity and the metacenter is relatively long and the weight is large due to the weights and batteries. This ensures that the eigenfrequency of the platform is very low. On the platform, we fixed a WindMaster Pro (sonic anemometer for 3D wind speed and air temperature to perform eddy covariance measurements of sensible heat flux), a NR Lite (net radiometer), and air temperature and relative humidity sensors. Water temperature at different depths was measured with a string of TidbiT's (waterproof temperature sensors and loggers). The platform had a wind vane and the spar could turn freely around its anchor cable to ensure that the anemometer always faced upwind. A compass in the logger completed this setup. First results suggest, as expected, that the sensible heat flux is relatively small with on average 20 W/m2 over the course of a day. Sensible heat flux peaked around midnight at 35 W/m2, when the warm water warmed up the air from the colder surrounding land. The dynamics of heat storage during the daytime and longwave radiation during the night time, are important to calculate the latent heat flux.

  7. Development of a Testing Platform for Scaled-Laboratory Studies of Marine Hydrokinetic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beninati, M. L.; Volpe, M. A.; Riley, D. R.; Krane, M. H.

    2010-12-01

    A small-scale platform for testing model hydrokinetic devices in riverine environments has been developed for the hydraulic flume facility (32 ft long, 4 ft wide, 1.5 ft deep) in the Environmental Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics Laboratory (EFM&H) at Bucknell University. This platform is being used to advance development of marine hydrokinetic technologies by providing scaled-laboratory testing in a controlled environment. The results will provide validation of numerical predictions for device effects on the local substrate. Specifically, the flume is being used to model the effect of an underwater turbine on the sediment transport through its wake flow as it converts hydrokinetic energy to power. A test bed has been designed and assembled to hold sediment of varying size and material, where a single model turbine or an array formation, can be rooted within an erodible bed to conduct scour and erosion studies. Additionally, the facility is equipped with contraction inserts to increase the range of flow speeds available for turbine testing. For accurate flow field measurements the testing platform is instrumented with a Sontek Horizon 16 MHz Micro Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) which is used to characterize the mean velocity field of the wake generated by the turbine to correlate the strength of the wake with changes in the sediment bed. Finally, the testing platform includes an HR Wallingford 2D Sediment Bed Profiler with a low-powered laser distance sensor mounted inside a waterproof housing to enable characterization of changes in bed form topology for various turbine performance regimes. The flume is equipped with a track that allows a precision 3D traversing system to position measurement probes along the length, width and depth of the flume. Model turbine performance in terms of torque and power are characterized. This testing platform for laboratory-scaled studies are instrumental in yielding physical measurements of the alteration of sediment caused by variations in flow and wake structures due to the presence of marine hydrokinetic devices. These results will facilitate siting assessment for green energy technologies.

  8. Loss of function of the yellow-e gene causes dehydration-induced mortality of adult Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Noh, Mi Young; Kramer, Karl J; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Beeman, Richard W; Kanost, Michael R; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2015-03-15

    Yellow protein (dopachrome conversion enzyme, DCE) is involved in the melanin biosynthetic pathway that significantly accelerates pigmentation reactions in insects. Recent studies have suggested that the insect yellow genes represent a rapidly evolving gene family generating functionally diverse paralogs, but the exact physiological functions of several yellow genes are still not understood. To study the function(s) of one of the yellow genes, yellow-e (TcY-e), in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, we performed real-time PCR to analyze its developmental and tissue-specific expression, and utilized immunohistochemistry to identify the localization of the TcY-e protein in adult cuticle. Injection of double-stranded RNA for TcY-e (dsTcY-e) into late instar larvae had no effect on larval-pupal molting or pupal development. The pupal cuticle, including that lining the setae, gin traps and urogomphi, underwent normal tanning. Adult cuticle tanning including that of the head, mandibles and legs viewed through the translucent pupal cuticle was initiated on schedule (pupal days 4-5), indicating that TcY-e is not required for pupal or pharate adult cuticle pigmentation in T. castaneum. The subsequent pupal-adult molt, however, was adversely affected. Although pupal cuticle apolysis and slippage were evident, some of the adults (~25%) were unable to shed their exuvium and died entrapped in their pupal cuticle. In addition, the resulting adults rapidly became highly desiccated. Interestingly, both the failure of the pupal-adult molt and desiccation-induced mortality were prevented by maintaining the dsTcY-e-treated insects at 100% relative humidity (rh). However, when the high humidity-rescued adults were removed from 100% rh and transferred to 50% rh, they rapidly dehydrated and died, whereas untreated beetles thrived throughout development at 50% rh. We also observed that the body color of the high humidity-rescued dsTcY-e-adults was slightly darker than that of control animals. These results support the hypothesis that TcY-e has a role not only in normal body pigmentation in T. castaneum adults but also has a vital waterproofing function. PMID:25614237

  9. Cuticular differences associated with aridity acclimation in African malaria vectors carrying alternative arrangements of inversion 2La

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Principal malaria vectors in Africa, An. gambiae and An. coluzzii, share an inversion polymorphism on the left arm of chromosome 2 (2La/2L+a) that is distributed non-randomly in the environment. Genomic sequencing studies support the role of strong natural selection in maintaining steep clines in 2La inversion frequency along environmental gradients of aridity, and physiological studies have directly implicated 2La in heat and desiccation tolerance, but the precise genetic basis and the underlying behavioral and physiological mechanisms remain unknown. As the insect cuticle is the primary barrier to water loss, differences in cuticle thickness and/or epicuticular waterproofing associated with alternative 2La arrangements might help explain differences in desiccation resistance. Methods To test that hypothesis, two subcolonies of both An. gambiae and An. coluzzii were established that were fixed for alternative 2La arrangements (2La or 2L+a) on an otherwise homosequential and shared genetic background. Adult mosquitoes reared under controlled environmental conditions (benign or arid) for eight days post-eclosion were collected and analyzed. Measurements of cuticle thickness were made based on scanning electron microscopy, and cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) composition was evaluated by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results After removing the allometric effects of body weight, differences in mean cuticle thickness were found between alternative 2La karyotypes, but not between alternative environments. Moreover, the thicker cuticle of the An. coluzzii 2La karyotype was contrary to the known higher rate of water loss of this karyotype relative to 2L+a. On the other hand, quantitative differences in individual CHCs and overall CHC profiles between alternative karyotypes and environmental conditions were consistent with expectation based on previous physiological studies. Conclusions Our results suggest that alternative arrangements of the 2La inversion are associated with differences in cuticle thickness and CHC composition, but that only CHC composition appears to be relevant for desiccation resistance. Differences in the CHC composition were consistent with previous findings of a lower rate of water loss for the 2L+a karyotype at eight days post-eclosion, suggesting that CHC composition is an important strategy for maintaining water balance in this genetic background, but not for 2La. Despite a higher rate of water loss at eight days, higher body water content of the 2La karyotype confers a level of desiccation resistance equivalent to that of the 2L+a karyotype. PMID:24721548

  10. DUCKS: Low cost thermal monitoring units for near-vent deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Andrew; Pirie, Dawn; Horton, Keith; Garbeil, Harold; Pilger, Eric; Ramm, Hans; Hoblitt, Rick; Thornber, Carl; Ripepe, Maurizio; Marchetti, Emanuele; Poggi, Pasquale

    2005-05-01

    During 1999 we designed and tested a thermal monitoring system to provide a cheap, robust, modular, real-time system capable of surviving the hostile conditions encountered proximal to active volcanic vents. In November 2000 the first system was deployed at Pu'u 'O'o (Kilauea, Hawai'i) to target persistently active vents. Aside from some minor problems, such as sensor damage due to tampering, this system remained operational until January 2004. The success of the prototype system led us to use the blueprint for a second installation at Stromboli (Aeolian Islands, Italy). This was deployed, dug into a bomb-proof bunker, during May 2002 and survived the April 2003 paroxysmal eruption despite being located just 250 m from the vent. In both cases, careful waterproofing of connectors and selection of suitable protection has prevented water damage and corrosion in the harsh atmosphere encountered at the crater rim. The Pu'u 'O'o system cost ˜US10,000 and comprises four modules: sensors, transmission and power hub, repeater station and reception site. The sensor component consists of three thermal infrared thermometers housed in Pelican™ cases fitted with Germanium-Arsenide-Selenium windows. Two 1° field of view (FOV) sensors allow specific vents to be targeted and a 60° FOV sensor provides a crater floor overview. A hard wire connection links to a Pelican™-case-housed microprocessor, modem and power module. From here data are transmitted, via a repeater site, to a dedicated PC at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. Here data are displayed with a delay of ˜3 s between acquisition and display. The modular design allows for great flexibility. At Stromboli, 1° and 15° FOV sensor modules can be switched depending changes in activity style and crater geometry. In addition a direct line of site to the Stromboli reception center negates the repeater site requirement, reducing the cost to US5500 for a single sensor system. We have also constructed self-contained units with internal data loggers for US$1500/unit. These have been tested at Kilauea, Stromboli, Etna, Masaya, Santiaguito, Fuego, Pacaya, Poas, Soufriere Hills, Villarrica and Erta Ale. These instruments have proved capable of detecting thermal signals associated with: (1) gas emission; (2) gas jetting events; (3) crater floor collapse; (4) lava effusion; (5) lava flow in tubes; (6) lava lake activity; (7) lava dome activity; and (8) crater lake skin temperature.

  11. Wetting, superhydrophobicity, and icephobicity in biomimetic composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazi, Vahid

    Recent developments in nano- and bio-technology require new materials. Among these new classes of materials which have emerged in the recent years are biomimetic materials, which mimic structure and properties of materials found in living nature. There are a large number of biological objects including bacteria, animals and plants with properties of interest for engineers. Among these properties is the ability of the lotus leaf and other natural materials to repel water, which has inspired researchers to prepare similar surfaces. The Lotus effect involving roughness-induced superhydrophobicity is a way to design nonwetting, self-cleaning, omniphobic, icephobic, and antifouling surfaces. The range of actual and potential applications of superhydrophobic surfaces is diverse including optical, building and architecture, textiles, solar panels, lab-on-a-chip, microfluidic devices, and applications requiring antifouling from biological and organic contaminants. In this thesis, in chapter one, we introduce the general concepts and definitions regarding the wetting properties of the surfaces. In chapter two, we develop novel models and conduct experiments on wetting of composite materials. To design sustainable superhydrophobic metal matrix composite (MMC) surfaces, we suggest using hydrophobic reinforcement in the bulk of the material, rather than only at its surface. We experimentally study the wetting properties of graphite-reinforced Al- and Cu-based composites and conclude that the Cu-based MMCs have the potential to be used in the future for the applications where the wear-resistant superhydrophobicity is required. In chapter three, we introduce hydrophobic coating at the surface of concrete materials making them waterproof to prevent material failure, because concretes and ceramics cannot stop water from seeping through them and forming cracks. We create water-repellant concretes with CA close to 160o using superhydrophobic coating. In chapter four, experimental data are collected in terms of oleophobicity especially when underwater applications are of interest. We develop models for four-phase rough interface of underwater oleophobicity and develop a novel approach to predict the CA of organic liquid on the rough surfaces immersed in water. We investigate wetting transition on a patterned surface in underwater systems, using a phase field model. We demonstrated that roughening on an immersed solid surface can drive the transition from Wenzel to Cassie-Baxter state. This discovery improves our understanding of underwater systems and their surface interactions during the wetting phenomenon and can be applied for the development of underwater oil-repellent materials which are of interest for various applications in the water industry, and marine devices. In chapter five, we experimentally and theoretically investigate the icephobicity of composite materials. A novel comprehensive definition of icephobicity, broad enough to cover a variety of situations including low adhesion strength, delayed ice crystallization, and bouncing is determined. Wetting behavior and ice adhesion properties of various samples are theoretically and experimentally compared. We conclude superhydrophobic surfaces are not necessarily icephobic. The models are tested against the experimental data to verify the good agreement between them. The models can be used for the design of novel superhydrophobic, oleophobic, omniphobic and icephobic composite materials. Finally we conclude that creating surface micro/nanostructures using mechanical abrasion or chemical etching as well as applying low energy materials are the most simple, inexpensive, and durable techniques to create superhydrophobic, oleophobic, and icephobic materials.

  12. Consistency in reference radiotherapy dosimetry: resolution of an apparent conundrum when 60Co is the reference quality for charged-particle and photon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreo, Pedro; Wulff, Jörg; Burns, David T.; Palmans, Hugo

    2013-10-01

    Substantial changes in ion chamber perturbation correction factors in 60Co ?-rays, suggested by recent Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, would cause a decrease of about 1.5% in the reference dosimetry of all types of charged particles (electrons, protons and heavier ions) based on calculated kQ values. It has gone largely unnoticed that the ratio of calibration coefficients ND, w, Co60 and NK, air, Co60 yields an experimental value of Fch, Co60 =?(sw-air?pch)Co60 through ND, air, Co60. Coefficients provided by the IAEA and traceable to the BIPM for 91 NE-2571 chambers result in an average Fch, Co60 which is compared with published (and new) MC simulations and with the value in IAEA TRS-398. It is shown that TRS-398 agrees within 0.12% with the experimental Fch, Co60. The 1.5% difference resulting from MC calculations (1.1% for the new simulations) cannot be justified using current fundamental data and BIPM standards if consistency in the entire dosimetry chain is sought. For photons, MC kQ factors are compared with TRS-398. Using the same uncertainty for Wair, the two sets of data overlap considerably. Experimental kQ values from standards laboratories lie between the two sets of calculated values, showing no preference for one set over the other. Observed chamber-to-chamber differences, that include the effect of waterproof sleeves (also seen for 60Co), justify the recommendation in TRS-398 for kQ values specifically measured for the user chamber. Current developments on I-values for the stopping powers of water and graphite are presented. A weighted average Iwater = 78 ± 2?eV is obtained from published experimental and DRF-based values; this would decrease sw-air for all types of radiotherapy beams between 0.3% and 0.6%, and would consequently decrease the MC derived Fch, Co60. The implications of a recent proposal for Igraphite = 81?eV are analysed, resulting in a potential decrease of 0.7% in NK, air, Co60 which would raise the experimental Fch, Co60; this would result in an increase of about 0.8% in the current TRS-398 value when referred to the BIPM standards. MC derived Fch, Co60 using new stopping powers would then agree at a level of 0.1% with the experimental value, confirming the need for consistency in the dosimetry chain data. Should world average standards be used as reference, the figures would become +0.4% for TRS-398 and -0.3% for the MC calculation. Fch, Q calculated for megavoltage photons using new stopping powers would decrease by between 0.2% and 0.5%. When they enter as a ratios in kQ, differences with MC values based on current key data would be within 0.2% but their discrepancy with kQ experimental photon values remains unresolved. For protons the new data would require an increase in Wair, Q of about 0.6%, as this is inferred from a combination of calorimetry and ionometry. This consistent scenario would leave unchanged the current TRS-398 kQ (NE-2571) data for protons, as well as for ions heavier than protons unless new independent Wair, Q values become available. Also in these advanced radiotherapy modalities, the need for maintaining data consistency in an analysis that unavoidably must include the complete dosimetry chain is demonstrated.

  13. Hydraulic description of a flood event with optical remote sensors: a constructive constraint on modelling uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Stéphanie; Allenbach, Bernard

    2010-05-01

    The exceptional characteristics of the December 2003 Rhône flood event (particularly high water flows, extent of the affected area, important damages especially in the region of Arles) make it be considered as a reference flood episode of this French river and a very well-known event. During the crisis, the International Charter "Space and Major Disasters" was triggered by the French Civil Protection for the rapid mapping of the flooding using Earth Observation imagery in order to facilitate crisis operations. As a result, more than 60 satellite images covering the flood were acquired over a 10 days period following the peak flow. Using the opportunity provided by this incomparable data coverage, the French Ministry of the Environment ordered a study on the evaluation of remote sensing's potential benefits for flood management. One of the questions asked by the risk managers was: what type of flood information can be provided by the different remote sensing platforms? Elements of response were delivered mainly in the form of a comprehensive compilation of maps and illustrations, displaying the main hydraulic elements (static ones as well as dynamic ones), initially listed and requested by hydrologists (more precisely, by a regional engineering society specialised in hydraulics and hydrology and in charge of a field campaign during the event), observed on different optical images of the flood event having affected the plain between Tarascon (upstream) and Arles (downstream). It is seen that a careful mapping of all flood traces visible on remote sensing event imagery - apparent water, moisture traces, breaches, overflows, stream directions, impermeable boundaries … - delivers a valuable vision of the flood's occurrence combining accuracy and comprehensiveness. In fact, optical imagery offers a detailed vision of the event : moisture traces complete flood traces extent; the observation of draw-off directions through waterproof barriers reveals hydraulic compartments; high resolution optical imagery allow the exhaustive inventory of breaches and overflows; turbidity variations and draw-off give information on stream directions. These facts are of primary interest to help in deriving a firm understanding of the flooding processes, but also comprise a powerful source for the necessary parameterization and/or calibration of hydraulic models. Thus the accuracy of flood extents derived from remote sensing data could, on the one hand, be valuable inputs to historical flood info-bases within overall risk-linked databases, and on the other hand, test the validity of hydrological modelling, while helping to lift equifinality uncertainties. These first investigations highlight that space imagery of events constitutes an unrivalled tool for flood disaster observation. This 2D record is complementary to all field measurements and the integration of "space derived flood products" is valuable for all stages of risk management. This potential of EO optical sensors for flood monitoring is also confirmed in a detailed analysis making a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the results, confronting ten optical and radar remote sensing platforms with field observations.

  14. Consistency in reference radiotherapy dosimetry: resolution of an apparent conundrum when (60)Co is the reference quality for charged-particle and photon beams.

    PubMed

    Andreo, Pedro; Wulff, Jörg; Burns, David T; Palmans, Hugo

    2013-10-01

    Substantial changes in ion chamber perturbation correction factors in (60)Co ?-rays, suggested by recent Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, would cause a decrease of about 1.5% in the reference dosimetry of all types of charged particles (electrons, protons and heavier ions) based on calculated kQ values. It has gone largely unnoticed that the ratio of calibration coefficients ND, w, Co60 and NK, air, Co60 yields an experimental value of Fch, Co60 =?(sw-air?pch)Co60 through ND, air, Co60. Coefficients provided by the IAEA and traceable to the BIPM for 91 NE-2571 chambers result in an average Fch, Co60 which is compared with published (and new) MC simulations and with the value in IAEA TRS-398. It is shown that TRS-398 agrees within 0.12% with the experimental Fch, Co60. The 1.5% difference resulting from MC calculations (1.1% for the new simulations) cannot be justified using current fundamental data and BIPM standards if consistency in the entire dosimetry chain is sought. For photons, MC kQ factors are compared with TRS-398. Using the same uncertainty for Wair, the two sets of data overlap considerably. Experimental kQ values from standards laboratories lie between the two sets of calculated values, showing no preference for one set over the other. Observed chamber-to-chamber differences, that include the effect of waterproof sleeves (also seen for (60)Co), justify the recommendation in TRS-398 for kQ values specifically measured for the user chamber. Current developments on I-values for the stopping powers of water and graphite are presented. A weighted average Iwater = 78 ± 2?eV is obtained from published experimental and DRF-based values; this would decrease sw-air for all types of radiotherapy beams between 0.3% and 0.6%, and would consequently decrease the MC derived Fch, Co60. The implications of a recent proposal for Igraphite = 81?eV are analysed, resulting in a potential decrease of 0.7% in NK, air, Co60 which would raise the experimental Fch, Co60; this would result in an increase of about 0.8% in the current TRS-398 value when referred to the BIPM standards. MC derived Fch, Co60 using new stopping powers would then agree at a level of 0.1% with the experimental value, confirming the need for consistency in the dosimetry chain data. Should world average standards be used as reference, the figures would become +0.4% for TRS-398 and -0.3% for the MC calculation. Fch, Q calculated for megavoltage photons using new stopping powers would decrease by between 0.2% and 0.5%. When they enter as a ratios in kQ, differences with MC values based on current key data would be within 0.2% but their discrepancy with kQ experimental photon values remains unresolved. For protons the new data would require an increase in Wair, Q of about 0.6%, as this is inferred from a combination of calorimetry and ionometry. This consistent scenario would leave unchanged the current TRS-398 kQ (NE-2571) data for protons, as well as for ions heavier than protons unless new independent Wair, Q values become available. Also in these advanced radiotherapy modalities, the need for maintaining data consistency in an analysis that unavoidably must include the complete dosimetry chain is demonstrated. PMID:24018471

  15. Surface assessment and modification of concrete using abrasive blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millman, Lauren R.

    Composite systems are applied to concrete substrates to strengthen and extend the service life. Successful restoration or rehabilitation requires surface preparation prior to the application of the overlay. Surface coatings, waterproofing systems, and other external surface applications also require surface preparation prior to application. Abrasive blast media is often used to clean and uniformly roughen the substrate. The appropriate surface roughness is necessary to facilitate a strong bond between the existing substrate and overlay. Thus, surface modification using abrasive blast media (sand and dry ice), their respective environmental effects, surface roughness characterization prior to and after blasting, and the adhesion between the substrate and overlay are the focus of this dissertation. This dissertation is comprised of an introduction, a literature review, and four chapters, the first of which addresses the environmental effects due to abrasive blasting using sand, water, and dry ice. The assessment considered four response variables: carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, fuel and energy consumption, and project duration. The results indicated that for sand blasting and water jetting, the primary factor contributing to environmental detriment was CO22 emissions from vehicular traffic near the construction site. The second chapter is an analysis of the International Concrete Repair Institute's (ICRI) concrete surface profiles (CSPs) using 3-D optical profilometry. The primary objective was to evaluate the suitability of approximating the 3-D surface (areal) parameters with those extracted from 2-D (linear) profiles. Four profile directions were considered: two diagonals, and lines parallel and transverse to the longitudinal direction of the mold. For any CSP mold, the estimation of the 3-D surface roughness using a 2-D linear profile resulted in underestimation and overestimation errors exceeding 50%, demonstrating the inadequacy of 2-D linear profiles to approximate the 3-D concrete surface profiles. The errors were reduced when a weighted average of the four linear profiles approximated the corresponding 3-D parameter. The following chapter considers the parametric and sensitivity of concrete surface topography measurements. The weighted average of the four 2-D profiles consistently resulted in underestimation of the corresponding 3-D parameters: the dispersion of surface elevations (Sq) and the roughness (Sa). Results indicated the 3-D parameter, Sq, had the least sensitivity to data point reduction. The final chapter investigated surface modification using dry ice and sand blasting. The overall objective was to evaluate the change in the 3-D surface roughness (Sa) following blasting as functions of mix design and as induced by freeze-thaw cycling, and to compare the results obtained using dry ice with those obtained using sand as the blasting media. In general, sand blasting produced larger changes in Sa compared to dry ice blasting for the concrete mix designs considered. The primary mechanism responsible for altering the surface topography of the concrete was the scaling of the superficial cement paste layer on the exposed surface, which was due to freeze-thaw cycling. The largest relative change in roughness following blasting occurred in the control samples, which had not undergone freeze-thaw cycling.

  16. Reuse of residual sludge from stone-processing: differences and similarities between sludge coming from carbonate and silicate stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Careddu, Nicola; Antonella Dino, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    Residual sludge coming from dimension stone working activities represents a serious environmental and economic problem both for Stone Industry and citizens. Indeed, most of time, residual sludge is landfilled because of the difficulties to recover it; such difficulties are mainly connected to local legislation and a lack of proper protocols. In general, it is possible to individuate two different categories of sludge: residual sludge coming from carbonate rocks (CS) and those coming from silicate rocks (SS). Both of them are characterised by a very fine size distribution. CS is composed mainly by the same compounds of the processed stones (marble, limestone, travertine). The reason of this is related to the very slow wear of diamond tools during processing which entails a negligible content of heavy metals. CS becomes very interesting, from an economic point of view, when it has a CaCO3 grade > 95 %. On the contrary, SS is characterised by high heavy metal and TPH content. Residual sludge from the processing of silicate rocks can be split in three different sub-categories, depending on the way they are produced, and in particular: sludge from gangsaw using abrasive steel shot (GSS), sludge from multi diamond-saw block cutter (DBC), and mixed sludge (MS) from gangsaw and block cutter. These three sub-categories show different problems connected to heavy metal content, indeed on the one hand GSS is characterised by a high percentage of Ni, Cr, Cu, etc., on the other hand DBC is characterised by Co and Cu high content. In general, sludge, management of which in Italy is administered in accordance with the Italian Legislative Decree 152/06, can be used as waste from for environmental restoration or for cement plants. Several researches investigate the possible reuse of these materials but, at present time, there is no evidence of its systematic recovery as "recycled product" or "by-product". On the basis of the results of these researches it is possible to highlight its recovery, after a proper treatment, mainly as: landfill waterproofing material; filler material for civil works; artificial soil for land rehabilitation and high value added products from carbonate rocks. Such "new products", obtained from the treatment of residual sludge, have to be certified not only on the basis of their technical and physical characteristics but also by means of appropriate chemical analyses to guarantee that the products are not polluted. The research will show a comparison between the characteristics of the two main sludge categories (similarities and differences), the environmental problems connected to sludge management, the potential applications for both the categories (CS and SS), highlighting the most promising ones (e.g., SS: artificial soil for land rehabilitation and filler material for civil works; CS: filler in high value added products as paper, rubber and paints), the problems connected to "new products" certification and selling, and some suggestions for executive protocols to boost their systematic recovery.

  17. IMPROVED NATURAL GAS STORAGE WELL REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Furness; Donald O. Johnson; Michael L. Wilkey; Lynn Furness; Keith Vanderlee; P. David Paulsen

    2001-12-01

    This report summarizes the research conducted during Budget Period One on the project ''Improved Natural Gas Storage Well Remediation''. The project team consisted of Furness-Newburge, Inc., the technology developer; TechSavants, Inc., the technology validator; and Nicor Technologies, Inc., the technology user. The overall objectives for the project were: (1) To develop, fabricate and test prototype laboratory devices using sonication and underwater plasma to remove scale from natural gas storage well piping and perforations; (2) To modify the laboratory devices into units capable of being used downhole; (3) To test the capability of the downhole units to remove scale in an observation well at a natural gas storage field; (4) To modify (if necessary) and field harden the units and then test the units in two pressurized injection/withdrawal gas storage wells; and (5) To prepare the project's final report. This report covers activities addressing objectives 1-3. Prototype laboratory units were developed, fabricated, and tested. Laboratory testing of the sonication technology indicated that low-frequency sonication was more effective than high-frequency (ultrasonication) at removing scale and rust from pipe sections and tubing. Use of a finned horn instead of a smooth horn improves energy dispersal and increases the efficiency of removal. The chemical data confirmed that rust and scale were removed from the pipe. The sonication technology showed significant potential and technical maturity to warrant a field test. The underwater plasma technology showed a potential for more effective scale and rust removal than the sonication technology. Chemical data from these tests also confirmed the removal of rust and scale from pipe sections and tubing. Focusing of the underwater plasma's energy field through the design and fabrication of a parabolic shield will increase the technology's efficiency. Power delivered to the underwater plasma unit by a sparkplug repeatedly was interrupted by sparkplug failure. The lifecycle for the plugs was less than 10 hours. An electrode feed system for delivering continuous power needs to be designed and developed. As a result, further work on the underwater plasma technology was terminated. It needs development of a new sparking system and a redesign of the pulsed power supply system to enable the unit to operate within a well diameter of less than three inches. Both of these needs were beyond the scope of the project. Meanwhile, the laboratory sonication unit was waterproofed and hardened, enabling the unit to be used as a field prototype, operating at temperatures to 350 F and depths of 15,000 feet. The field prototype was extensively tested at a field service company's test facility before taking it to the field site. The field test was run in August 2001 in a Nicor Gas storage field observation well at Pontiac, Illinois. Segmented bond logs, gamma ray neutron logs, water level measurements and water chemistry samples were obtained before and after the downhole demonstration. Fifteen tests were completed in the field. Results from the water chemistry analysis showed an increase in the range of calcium from 1755-1984 mg/l before testing to 3400-4028 mg/l after testing. For magnesium, the range increased from 285-296 mg/l to 461-480 mg/l. The change in pH from a range of 3.11-3.25 to 8.23-8.45 indicated a buffering of the acidic well water, probably due to the increased calcium available for buffering. The segmented bond logs showed no damage to the cement bond in the well and the gamma ray neutron log showed no increase in the amount of hydrocarbons present in the formation where the testing took place. Thus, the gas storage bubble in the aquifer was not compromised. A review of all the field test data collected documents the fact that the application of low-frequency sonication technology definitely removes scale from well pipe. Phase One of this project took sonication technology from the concept stage through a successful ''proof-of-concept'' downhole application in a natural gas storage field