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1

Attenuation coefficients for water quality trading.

Water quality trading has been proposed as a cost-effective approach for reducing nutrient loads through credit generation from agricultural or point source reductions sold to buyers facing costly options. We present a systematic approach to determine attenuation coefficients and their uncertainty. Using a process-based model, we determine attenuation with safety margins at many watersheds for total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads as they transport from point of load reduction to the credit buyer. TN and TP in-stream attenuation generally increases with decreasing mean river flow; smaller rivers in the modeled region of the Ohio River Basin had TN attenuation factors per km, including safety margins, of 0.19-1.6%, medium rivers of 0.14-1.2%, large rivers of 0.13-1.1%, and very large rivers of 0.04-0.42%. Attenuation in ditches transporting nutrients from farms to receiving rivers is 0.4%/km for TN, while for TP attenuation in ditches can be up to 2%/km. A 95 percentile safety margin of 30-40% for TN and 6-10% for TP, applied to the attenuation per km factors, was determined from the in-stream sensitivity of load reductions to watershed model parameters. For perspective, over 50 km a 1% per km factor would result in 50% attenuation = 2:1 trading ratio. PMID:24866482

Keller, Arturo A; Chen, Xiaoli; Fox, Jessica; Fulda, Matt; Dorsey, Rebecca; Seapy, Briana; Glenday, Julia; Bray, Erin

2014-06-17

2

FRACTIONAL WAVE EQUATIONS WITH ATTENUATION

Fractional wave equations with attenuation have been proposed by Caputo [5], Szabo [27], Chen and Holm [7], and Kelly et al. [11]. These equations capture the power-law attenuation with frequency observed in many experimental settings when sound waves travel through inhomogeneous media. In particular, these models are useful for medical ultrasound. This paper develops stochastic solutions and weak solutions to the power law wave equation of Kelly et al. [11]. PMID:25045309

Straka, Peter; Meerschaert, Mark M.; McGough, Robert J.; Zhou, Yuzhen

2013-01-01

3

FREQUENCY DEPENDENT ULTRASONIC ATTENUATION COEFFICIENT ASSESSMENT IN FRESH

dependency of the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient ranges from f * e to fl.3 6 and its magnitude at 1 MHzFREQUENCY DEPENDENT ULTRASONIC ATTENUATION COEFFICIENT ASSESSMENT IN FRESH TISSUE Laurie A . Segal 61801 Abstract Ultrasonic attenuation coefficient measurements were made at 1.4, 4.2, 7.0 and 9.8 MHz

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

4

Temporal Variations of Seismic Coda: Attenuation-Coefficient View

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When monitoring spatial or temporal variations of the subsurface, it is important to use properties that objectively exist and are insensitive to observational uncertainties. Although the frequency-dependent seismic coda quality factor, Qc is often found to change prior and following relation to major earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, it does not represent such a property. Qc is strongly dependent on the assumed theoretical models, which are usually insufficiently accurate for constraining the actual relationships between the geometrical spreading, anelastic dissipation, and scattering of seismic waves. This inaccuracy often leads to significant exaggeration of attenuation effects, and particularly to interpretations of temporal variations in Qc as related to changes in lithospheric scattering. To overcome this bias, we use an approach based on the temporal attenuation-coefficient, ?(f), instead of Q(f) for describing coda attenuation. Several attenuation case studies suggest that ?(f) typically linearly depends on f, with both the intercept ? = ?(0) and slope d?(f)/df = ?Qe-1 being sensitive to the physical state of the subsurface. Two published examples of temporal variations of local-earthquake coda Q are revisited: non-volcanic (near Stone Canyon in central California) and volcanic (Mt. St. Helens, Washington). In both cases, linear ?(f) patterns are found, with the effects of geometrical spreading (?) on coda attenuation being significantly stronger than those of Qe-1. At Stone Canyon, ? values ranged from 0.035 to 0.06 s-1 and Qe varies from 3000 to 10000, with ? increasing and Qe decreasing during the winter season. At Mt. St. Helens, ? ? 0.18 s-1, and Qe changed from 400 before the eruption to 750 after it. The observed temporal variations are explained by near-surface effects (seasonal variations in the non-volcanic case and gas-, magma-, and geothermal-system related in the volcanic case),which mostly affect the geometrical spreading and anelastic attenuation. Scattering does not appear to be a significant attenuation factor in these areas, or otherwise it may be indistinguishable from the intrinsic attenuation in the data.

Morozov, I. B.

2010-12-01

5

Gamma ray attenuation coefficient measurement for neutron-absorbent materials

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The compounds Na 2B 4O 7, H 3BO 3, CdCl 2 and NaCl and their solutions attenuate gamma rays in addition to neutron absorption. These compounds are widely used in the shielding of neutron sources, reactor control and neutron converters. Mass attenuation coefficients of gamma related to the four compounds aforementioned, in energies 662, 778.9, 867.38, 964.1, 1085.9, 1173, 1212.9, 1299.1,1332 and 1408 keV, have been determined by the ? rays transmission method in a good geometry setup; also, these coefficients were calculated by MCNP code. A comparison between experiments, simulations and Xcom code has shown that the study has potential application for determining the attenuation coefficient of various compound materials. Experiment and computation show that H 3BO 3 with the lowest average Z has the highest gamma ray attenuation coefficient among the aforementioned compounds.

Jalali, Majid; Mohammadi, Ali

2008-05-01

6

Attenuation coefficients of body tissues using principal-components analysis

Principal-components analysis is used to obtain a set of parameters for dual-energy radiography that completely describes the attenuation coefficient of any tissue over a given energy range. These parameters are the weighted averages of the densities of the elements present in a substance. Principal-components (PC) parameters are calculated for several soft tissues from measured attenuation coefficients published by Phelps et

J. B. Weaver; A. L. Huddleston

2009-01-01

7

Measurements of spectral attenuation coefficients in the lower Chesapeake Bay

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spectral transmission was measured for water samples taken in the lower Chesapeake Bay to allow characterization of several optical properties. The coefficients of total attenuation, particle attenuation, and absorption by dissolved organic matter were determined over a wavelength range from 3500 A to 8000 A. The data were taken over a 3 year period and at a number of sites so that an indication of spatial and temporal variations could be obtained. The attenuations determined in this work are, on the average, 10 times greater than those obtained by Hulburt in 1944, which are commonly accepted in the literature for Chesapeake Bay attenuation.

Houghton, W. M.

1983-01-01

8

Measurements of Wave Attenuation Through Model and Live Vegetation in a Wave Tank

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well accepted that wetlands have an important role in shoreline protection against wave damage. However, there is still a lack of knowledge on primary mechanisms of wave attenuation though wetland vegetation. The purpose of this study was to understand these mechanisms and quantify the impact of vegetation on the waves through a series of laboratory experiments. Experiments were conducted in a wave tank at the USDA-ARS-National Sedimentation Laboratory to measure the rate of wave attenuation through emergent and submerged rigid and flexible cylindrical stems, and live vegetation. Dormant and healthy Spartina alterniflora and healthy Juncus romerianus, two common plant species in coastal areas, were used during the tests. The time series water surface elevation at five locations was recorded by wave probes and the water surface profile through the vegetation field was recorded using a digital video camera. The recorded data were analyzed with imaging techniques to identify the wave attenuation characteristic of wetland vegetation and drag coefficients.

Ozeren, Y.; Wren, D. G.

2010-12-01

9

The attenuation of strong shock waves

THE ATTENUATION OF STRONG SHOCK WAVES A Thesis By Ronald Crecelius Kirkpatrick Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... May 1963 Major Subject: Physics. THE ATTENUATION OF STRONG SHOCK WAVES A Thesis By Ronald Crecelius Kirkpatrick Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee (He of Departme ) May 1963 TABLE OF CONTENTS INT R ODU C TI ON ~Pe e...

Kirkpatrick, Ronald Crecelius

2012-06-07

10

Wave Attenuation in Mangrove Forests Numerical modelling of wave attenuation by implementation. H.J. Verhagen Drs. M. de Vries Dr. ir. M. Zijlema H.J. Opdam #12;Wave Attenuation in Mangrove of interest in this thesis is wave attenuation in vegetation and in particular in mangrove forests

Langendoen, Koen

11

Teleseismic Body Wave Attenuation and Diffraction

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using available digital seismic stations deployed since the 1980's, the largest data set based on broadband waveforms among studies on body-wave attenuation (t*) and quality factor (Q) are used in this thesis. The use of nearly 300,000 measurements of body-wave spectral ratio from globally distributed stations renders better constraints of t* and Q variations with higher spatial and depth resolutions in the mantle than have been previously available. The maps of body-wave t* correlate well with the variations of t* computed from the most recent surface-wave Q model QRFSI12 indicating that body-wave and surface-wave t* reflect the same intrinsic attenuation even though these waves sample the upper mantle entirely differently. The high correlation between body-wave t* maps and the t* inferred from a thermal interpretation of shear-wave velocity tomography S20RTS suggests that temperature controls both variations in attenuation and velocity in the upper mantle. The distance variations of P- and S-wave t* (t*P and t*S) are inverted for a radial profile of the quality factor Qmu in the lower mantle. On average, t* P and t*S increase by about 0.2 s and 0.7 s, respectively, between epicentral distances of 30° and 97°. The body-wave spectra are explained best if Qmu, increases in the lower mantle with the rate of 0.1/km. The relatively strong increase of t*S compare to t*P (t*S ? 4 t*P) suggests that intrinsic attenuation is the cause of the overall trend in our data. The ratio of P- and S-wave quality factor determined in this thesis (QP/Qmu = 2.27) confirms that intrinsic attenuation occurs mostly in shear and that bulk attenuation is negligible in the mantle. Finally, the delay of seismic waves which traversed numerical mantle plumes are calculated in this thesis for the first time. High-resolution numerical simulations of mantle plume are used to investigate the effects of numerical plumes on waveforms. The measurements of wave front delay demonstrate that the delay of shear-waves by plume tails at depths larger than 1000 km are immeasurably small (< 0.2 s) at seismic periods commonly used in waveform analysis.

Hwang, Yong Keun

12

UHF Radio Wave Attenuation Factor Database

As is known each sea-going vessel is equipped with navigation, communication and other radio engineering facilities that serve to secure the safety of navigation and are chiefly operated at UHF-wave band. In developing these systems and calculating the energy potential for a necessary coverage range one should be well aware of the radio signal attenuation processes on a propagation path.

S. I. Khomenko; V. L. Kostina; I. M. Mytsenko; A. N. Roenko

2007-01-01

13

Apparent Linear Attenuation Coefficients in Phase Contrast X-Ray Tomography

In the inline phase contrast x-ray tomography the reconstructed apparent linear attenuation coefficient values may be greatly larger than sample’s linear attenuation coefficients or even be negative. In this work we present a general formula to quantitatively relate the apparent linear attenuation coefficient values in cone-beam phase contrast tomography to sample’s linear attenuation coefficients and refractive indices. This formula overcomes the gross inaccuracy of the existing formula in the literature in analyzing high-resolution phase contrast tomography, and it will be useful for correctly interpreting and quantifying the apparent linear attenuation coefficients in cone-beam x-ray phase contrast tomography. PMID:21691420

Yan, Aimin; Wu, Xizeng

2011-01-01

14

Representative Elementary Length to Measure Soil Mass Attenuation Coefficient

With increasing demand for better yield in agricultural areas, soil physical property representative measurements are more and more essential. Nuclear techniques such as computerized tomography (CT) and gamma-ray attenuation (GAT) have been widely employed with this purpose. The soil mass attenuation coefficient (?s) is an important parameter for CT and GAT analysis. When experimentally determined (?es), the use of suitable sized samples enable to evaluate it precisely, as well as to reduce measurement time and costs. This study investigated the representative elementary length (REL) of sandy and clayey soils for ?es measurements. Two radioactive sources were employed (241Am and 137Cs), three collimators (2–4?mm diameters), and 14 thickness (x) samples (2–15?cm). Results indicated ideal thickness intervals of 12–15 and 2–4?cm for the sources 137Cs and 241Am, respectively. The application of such results in representative elementary area (REA) evaluations in clayey soil clods via CT indicated that ?es average values obtained for x?>?4?cm and source 241Am might induce to the use of samples which are not large enough for soil bulk density evaluations (?s). As a consequence, ?s might be under- or overestimated, generating inaccurate conclusions about the physical quality of the soil under study. PMID:24672338

Borges, J. A. R.; Pires, L. F.; Costa, J. C.

2014-01-01

15

Attenuation of seismic waves in Central Egypt

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attenuation of seismic waves in central Egypt had never been studied before. The results of the research on the seismic attenuation are based upon the information collected by the seismological network from 1998 to 2011. 855 earthquakes were selected from the Egyptian seismological catalog, with their epicenter distances between 15 and 150 km, their magnitudes ranging from 2 and 4.1 and focal depths reaching up to 30 km. The first systematic study of attenuation derived from the P-, S- and coda wave in the frequency range 1-24 Hz is presented. In the interpretation of the results both single and multiple scattering in a half space are considered. The single scattering model proposed by Sato (1977) was used. Two methods, the coda (Qc) and the Multiple Lapse Time Window (MLTW) method are used. The aim of this study is to validate these interpretations in the region and to try to identify the effects of attenuation due to intrinsic (Qi) and scattering attenuation (Qsc). The mean Qc value calculated was Qc = (39 ± 1)f1.0±0.009. The average Qc at 1.5 Hz is (53 ± 6) and Qc = (900 ± 195) at 24 Hz with Qo ranging between 23 and 107, where ? ranging between 0.9 and 1.3. The quality factor (Q) was estimated from spectra of P- and S-waves by applying a spectral ratio technique. The results show variations in Qp and QS as a function of frequency, according to the power law Q = 56?1.1. The seismic albedo is 0.7 at all stations and it mean that the earthquake activity is due to tectonic origin. The attenuation and frequency dependency for different paths and the correlation of the results with the geotectonic of the region are presented. The Qc values were calculated and correlated with the geology and tectonics of the area. The relatively low Qo and the high frequency dependency agree with the values of a region characterized by a low tectonic activity and vise versa.

Morsy, Mamdouh Abbas; Abed, Azza M.

2013-06-01

16

Attenuation of transverse magnetoelastic waves in a ferromagnetic plate

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The attenuation of backward transverse acoustic waves in a ferromagnetic plate is investigated. It is shown that magnetostriction in yttrium-iron-garnet plates can produce appreciable oscillations of the attenuation of magnetostatic waves, even if the acoustic waves are practically nonpropagating at the synchronism frequencies.

Nechiporenko, V. N.; Rapoport, Iu. G.

1985-06-01

17

Influences of obstacle geometries on shock wave attenuation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interactions of planar shock waves with obstacles of different geometries were investigated numerically using large eddy simulation and a high-order numerical scheme. The immersed boundary method was also employed to handle complex boundary geometries. The development and variations of shock wave structures during the interaction processes were discussed. The influences of the upper side, windward and leeward geometries of the obstacles on shock wave attenuation were also examined. Our numerical results showed that the shock wave attenuation is inversely related to the width of the upper side of the obstacles. For the windward sides of the obstacles, negative slopes have better effects on shock wave attenuation than do other values. In addition, the influence of the leeward slope on shock wave attenuation is weaker than that of the upside and windward slopes. Finally, obstacle shapes with a high efficiency for shock wave attenuation have been obtained and validated.

Sha, S.; Chen, Z.; Jiang, X.

2014-11-01

18

5. SOUND ATTENUATION 5.1 NATURE OF SOUND WAVE

5. SOUND ATTENUATION 5.1 NATURE OF SOUND WAVE Historically, acoustic is the scientific study of sound. Sound can be considered as a wave phenomenon. A sound wave is a longitudinal wave where particles the sound wave, the particles of the medium through which the sound moves is vibrating in a back and forth

Cambridge, University of

19

Nonlinear attenuation of S-waves and Love waves within ambient rock

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

obtain scaling relationships for nonlinear attenuation of S-waves and Love waves within sedimentary basins to assist numerical modeling. These relationships constrain the past peak ground velocity (PGV) of strong 3-4 s Love waves from San Andreas events within Greater Los Angeles, as well as the maximum PGV of future waves that can propagate without strong nonlinear attenuation. During each event, the shaking episode cracks the stiff, shallow rock. Over multiple events, this repeated damage in the upper few hundred meters leads to self-organization of the shear modulus. Dynamic strain is PGV divided by phase velocity, and dynamic stress is strain times the shear modulus. The frictional yield stress is proportional to depth times the effective coefficient of friction. At the eventual quasi-steady self-organized state, the shear modulus increases linearly with depth allowing inference of past typical PGV where rock over the damaged depth range barely reaches frictional failure. Still greater future PGV would cause frictional failure throughout the damaged zone, nonlinearly attenuating the wave. Assuming self-organization has taken place, estimated maximum past PGV within Greater Los Angeles Basins is 0.4-2.6 m s-1. The upper part of this range includes regions of accumulating sediments with low S-wave velocity that may have not yet compacted, rather than having been damaged by strong shaking. Published numerical models indicate that strong Love waves from the San Andreas Fault pass through Whittier Narrows. Within this corridor, deep drawdown of the water table from its currently shallow and preindustrial levels would nearly double PGV of Love waves reaching Downtown Los Angeles.

Sleep, Norman H.; Erickson, Brittany A.

2014-04-01

20

Effect of atmospheric environment on the attenuation coefficient of light in water

The attenuation coefficient of 532 nm light in water under different atmospheric conditions was investigated. Measurements were made over a two-year period at the same location and show that the attenuation coefficient is significantly influenced by the atmospheric environment. It is lowest when the atmospheric pressure is high and temperature is low, and is highest when the atmospheric pressure is low and temperature is high. The maximum attenuation coefficient of pure water in these studies was about three times the minimum value. The mechanism of the phenomena is discussed. These results are also important in underwater acoustics.

Liu, Juan; Tang, Yijun; Zhu, Kaixing; Ge, Yuan; Chen, Xuegang; He, Xingdao; Liu, Dahe

2014-01-01

21

Eddy Diffusion Coefficients due to Instabilities in Internal Gravity Waves

Internal gravity waves in the upper atmosphere tend to grow in amplitude with increasing height to maintain continuous vertical transport of wave energy. The growth of amplitude of a wave is limited by convective instabilities that must form at the heighwhere the tem- perature oscillation becomes great enough to include a superadiabatic region. This turbulence attenuates the wave by eddy

R. R. Hodges Jr.; R. R. Jr

1969-01-01

22

Shear wave speed dispersion and attenuation in granular marine sediments.

The reported compressional wave speed dispersion and attenuation could be explained by a modified gap stiffness model incorporated into the Biot model (the BIMGS model). In contrast, shear wave speed dispersion and attenuation have not been investigated in detail. No measurements of shear wave speed dispersion have been reported, and only Brunson's data provide the frequency characteristics of shear wave attenuation. In this study, Brunson's attenuation measurements are compared to predictions using the Biot-Stoll model and the BIMGS model. It is shown that the BIMGS model accurately predicts the frequency dependence of shear wave attenuation. Then, the shear wave speed dispersion and attenuation in water-saturated silica sand are measured in the frequency range of 4-20?kHz. The vertical stress applied to the sample is 17.6?kPa. The temperature of the sample is set to be 5?°C, 20?°C, and 35?°C in order to change the relaxation frequency in the BIMGS model. The measured results are compared with those calculated using the Biot-Stoll model and the BIMGS model. It is shown that the shear wave speed dispersion and attenuation are predicted accurately by using the BIMGS model. PMID:23862793

Kimura, Masao

2013-07-01

23

An elastic plate model for wave attenuation and ice floe breaking in the marginal ice zone

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a model for wave attenuation in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) based on a two-dimensional (one horizontal and one vertical dimension) multiple floating elastic plate solution in the frequency domain, which is solved exactly using a matched eigenfunction expansion. The only physical parameters that enter the model are length, mass, and elastic stiffness (of which, the latter two depend primarily on thickness) of the ice floes. The model neglects all nonlinear effects as well as floe collisions or ice creep and is therefore most applicable to floes which are large compared to the thickness and to wave conditions which are not extreme. The solution for a given arrangement of floes is fully coherent, and the results are therefore dependent on the exact geometry. We firstly show that this dependence can be removed by averaging over a distribution of floe lengths (we choose the Rayleigh distribution). We then show that after this averaging, the attenuation coefficient is a function of floe number and independent of floe length, provided the floe lengths are sufficiently large. The model predicts an exponential decay of energy, just as is shown experimentally. This enables us to provide explicit values for the attenuation coefficient, as a function of the average floe thickness and wave period. We compare our theoretical predictions of the wave attenuation with measured data and other scattering models. The limited data allows us to conclude that our model is applicable to large floes for short to medium wave periods (6 to 15 seconds). We also derive a floe breaking model, based on our wave attenuation model, which indicates that we are under-predicting the attenuation coefficients at long periods.

Kohout, A. L.; Meylan, M. H.

2008-09-01

24

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical properties of acupuncture point were important to discover the mechanism of acupuncture meridian. In this paper, we used an optical coherence tomography to monitor in vivo the changes of optical attenuation coefficients of Hegu acupuncture point and non-acupuncture point during laser irradiation on Yangxi acupuncture point. The optical attenuation coefficients of Hegu acupuncture point and non-acupuncture point were obtained by fitting the raw data according to the Beer-Lambert's law. The experimental results showed that the optical attenuation coefficient of Hegu acupuncture point decreased during the laser acupuncture, in contrast to a barely changed result in that of non-acupuncture point. The significant change of optical attenuation coefficient of Hegu acupuncture point indicated that there was a correlation between Hegu and Yangxi acupuncture points to some extent.

Huang, Yimei; Yang, Hongqin; Wang, Yuhua; Zheng, Liqin; Xie, Shusen

2010-11-01

25

NXcom – A program for calculating attenuation coefficients of fast neutrons and gamma-rays

This work is concerned with a construction and use of NXcom computer program for calculating the removal and attenuation coefficients of transmitted fast neutrons and ?-rays, respectively, through mixtures, composites, concretes and compounds. The program uses only one input data file for neutrons and ?-rays calculations. For ?-ray attenuation, the program predictions were tested by comparing them with the well-known

A. M. El-Khayatt

2011-01-01

26

Ultrasonic computed tomography reconstruction of the attenuation coefficient using a linear array.

The attenuation coefficient distribution and sound velocity distribution in the breast can be used to complement B-mode ultrasound imaging in the detection of breast cancer. This study investigated an approach for reconstructing the attenuation coefficient distribution in the breast using a linear array. The imaging setup was identical to that for conventional B-mode breast imaging, and the same setup has been used for reconstruction of sound velocity distributions in previous studies. In this study, we further developed a reconstruction method for the attenuation coefficient distribution. In particular, the proposed method incorporates the segmentation information from B-mode images and uses the sound velocity distribution to compensate for refraction effects. Experiments were conducted with a setup consisting of a 5-MHz, 128-channel linear array, a programmable digital array system, a phantom, and a computer. The constructed phantom contained materials mimicking the following breast tissues: glandular tissue, fat, cysts, high-attenuation tumors, and irregular tumors. Application of the proposed technique resulted in all the cysts and tumors (including high-attenuation and irregular tumors) being distinguished by thresholding the reconstructed attenuation coefficients. We have demonstrated that it is possible to use the same imaging setup to acquire data for B-mode image, sound velocity distribution, and attenuation coefficient distribution simultaneously. Moreover, the experimental data indicate its potential in improving the detection of breast cancer. PMID:16422413

Huang, Sheng-Wen; Li, Pai-Chi

2005-11-01

27

Measurements of linear attenuation coefficients of irregular shaped samples by two media method

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The linear attenuation coefficient values of regular and irregular shaped flyash materials have been measured without knowing the thickness of a sample using a new technique namely "two media method". These values have also been measured with a standard gamma ray transmission method and obtained theoretically with winXCOM computer code. From the comparison it is reported that the two media method has given accurate results of attenuation coefficients of flyash materials.

Singh, Sukhpal; Kumar, Ashok; Thind, Kulwant Singh; Mudahar, Gurmel S.

2008-04-01

28

The attenuation mechanism of S-waves in the source zone of the 1999 Chamoli earthquake

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study the attenuation mechanism of seismic wave energy in and around the source area of the Chamoli earthquake of 29th March 1999 is estimated using the aftershock data. Most of the analyzed events are from the vicinity of the Main Central Thrust (MCT), which is a well-defined tectonic discontinuity in the Himalayas. Separation of intrinsic (Qi-1) and scattering (Qs-1) attenuation coefficient is done over the frequencies 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 Hz using Multiple Lapse Time Window Analysis (MLTWA) method. It is observed that S-waves and their coda are primarily attenuated due to scattering attenuation and seismic albedo is very high at all the frequencies. A comparison of attenuation characteristics obtained using these aftershock data with those obtained using data of general seismicity of this region reveal that at lower frequencies both intrinsic and scattering attenuation for Chamoli was much higher compared to those for Garwhal-Kumaun region using general seismicity data. At higher frequencies intrinsic attenuation for Chamoli is lower than and scattering attenuation is comparable to those obtained using general seismicity data of Garwhal-Kumaun region.

Mukhopadhyay, S.; Kumar, A.; Garg, A.; Del-Pezzo, E.; Kayal, J. R.

2014-01-01

29

Wave energy attenuation and shoreline alteration characteristics of submerged breakwaters

WAVE ENERGY ATTENUATION AND SHORELINE ALTERATION CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBMERGED BREAKWATERS A Thesis by KATHERINE MARGARET KRAFFT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1993 Major Subject: Ocean Engineering WAVE ENERGY ATTENUATION AND SHORELINE ALTERATION CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBMERGED BREAKWATERS A Thesis by KATHERINE MARGARET KRAFFT Approved as to style and content by: John...

Krafft, Katherine Margaret

2012-06-07

30

Use of the general many-body formalism allows us to derive a system of equations describing the propagation of electromagnetic shear waves coupled to ultrasonic shear waves in normal and superconducting metals with arbitrary electron mean free paths. From this system of equations we derive general expressions in terms of correlation functions for the attenuation coefficient as well as for the

Kurt Scharnberg

1978-01-01

31

The role of the reflection coefficient in precision measurement of ultrasonic attenuation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrasonic attenuation measurements using contact, pulse-echo techniques are sensitive to surface roughness and couplant thickness variations. This can reduce considerable inaccuracies in the measurement of the attenuation coefficient for broadband pulses. Inaccuracies arise from variations in the reflection coefficient at the buffer-couplant-sample interface. The reflection coefficient is examined as a function of the surface roughness and corresponding couplant thickness variations. Interrelations with ultrasonic frequency are illustrated. Reliable attenuation measurements are obtained only when the frequency dependence of the reflection coefficient is incorporated in signal analysis. Data are given for nickel 200 samples and a silicon nitride ceramic bar having surface roughness variations in the 0.3 to 3.0 microns range for signal bandwidths in the 50 to 100 MHz range.

Generazio, E. R.

1984-01-01

32

Polymer gel as thermally responsive attenuator for ultrasonic waves

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ultrasonic attenuation in N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) gel has been measured as a function of temperature at various frequencies. It is found that at room temperature, the attenuation of a longitudinal ultrasonic wave in the gel is small and close to that of pure water. However, as the temperature increases above the spinodal phase transition point of the gel, the attenuation increases drastically. This change of the attenuation is completely reversible and due to the microdomains formed in the NIPA gel above its phase transition temperature. The increase of attenuation at 15 MHz from 26 to 45 °C is about 26 dB/cm. The attenuation varies within 5 min after the temperature change is made for a sample with diameter 1 cm and height 0.8 cm. The results reported here may have potential applications from ultrasonic assisted drug release to a switch for ultrasonic signals.

Yuan, Kaihua; Hu, Zhibing; Li, Yong

1999-04-01

33

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fundamental mode Love and Rayleigh waves generated by ten earthquakes and recorded across the Tibet Plateau, at QUE, LAH, NDI, NIL, KBL, SHL, CHG, SNG and HKG are analysed. Love- and Rayleigh-wave attenuation coefficients are obtained at time periods of 5-120 s using the spectral amplitudes of these waves for 23 different paths. Love wave attenuation coefficient varies from 0.0021 km -1, at a period of 10 s, to 0.0002 km -1 at a period of 90 s, attaining two maxima at time periods of 10 and 115 s, and two minima at time periods of 25 and 90 s. The Rayleigh-wave attenuation coefficient also shows a similar trend. The very low value for the dissipation factor, Q?, obtained in this study suggests high dissipation across the Tibetan paths. Backus-Gilbert inversion theory is applied to these surface wave attenuation data to obtain average Q?-1 models for the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Tibetan Plateau. Independent inversion of Love- and Rayleigh-wave attenuation data shows very high attenuation at a depth of ˜50-120 km ( Q ? ? 10 ). The simultaneous inversion of the Love and Rayleigh wave data yields a model which includes alternating regions of high and low Q?-1 values. This model also shows a zone of high attenuating material at a depth of ˜40-120 km. The very high inferred attenuation at a depth of ˜40-120 km supports the hypothesis that the Tibetan Plateau was formed by horizontal compression, and that thickening occurred after the collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates.

Singh, D. D.; Gupta, Harsh K.

1982-08-01

34

Wave attenuation in thick graphite/epoxy composites

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanics of wave attenuation in thick graphite/epoxy composites is examined in order to facilitate interpretation of the wave amplitudes recorded in ultrasonic experiments. The values of a small number of parameters are determined through comparison between calculated and measured waveforms for four specimens. The agreement between the measured and calculated waveforms are shown to be excellent in all four cases.

Mal, A. K.; Bar-Cohen, Y.

1992-01-01

35

The diffuse attenuation coefficient, K (m? 1), is a measure of the effective attenuation of light in the water column. It characterizes water clarity and is used as a\\u000a proxy for water quality. Mapping of shallow water benthic habitats using optical means, including daytime visible satellite\\u000a imagery, requires knowledge of K to correct for water column effects such as light

D. Palandro; C. Hu; S. Andréfouët; F. E. Muller-Karger

2004-01-01

36

The diffuse attenuation coefficient, K (m–1), is a measure of the effective attenuation of light in the water column. It characterizes water clarity and is used as a\\u000a proxy for water quality. Mapping of shallow water benthic habitats using optical means, including daytime visible satellite\\u000a imagery, requires knowledge of K to correct for water column effects such as light absorption

D. Palandro; C. Hu; S. Andréfouët; F. E. Muller-Karger

37

Measurement of atomic number and mass attenuation coefficient in magnesium ferrite

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pure magnesium ferrite sample was prepared by standard ceramic technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction method. XRD pattern revealed that the sample possess single-phase cubic spinel structure. The linear attenuation coefficient (?), mass attenuation coefficient (?/?), total atomic cross-section (?_{tot}), total electronic cross-section (?_{ele}) and the effective atomic number (Z_{eff}) were calculated for pure magnesium ferrite (MgFe_{2}O_{4}). The values of ?-ray mass attenuation coefficient were obtained using a NaI energy selective scintillation counter with radioactive ?-ray sources having energy 0.36, 0.511, 0.662, 1.17 and 1.28 MeV. The experimentally obtained values of ?/? and Z_{eff} agreed fairly well with those obtained theoretically.

Kadam, R. H.; Alone, S. T.; Bichile, G. K.; Jadhav, K. M.

2007-05-01

38

Stochastic solution to a time-fractional attenuated wave equation

The power law wave equation uses two different fractional derivative terms to model wave propagation with power law attenuation. This equation averages complex nonlinear dynamics into a convenient, tractable form with an explicit analytical solution. This paper develops a random walk model to explain the appearance and meaning of the fractional derivative terms in that equation, and discusses an application to medical ultrasound. In the process, a new strictly causal solution to this fractional wave equation is developed. PMID:23258950

Meerschaert, Mark M.; Straka, Peter; Zhou, Yuzhen; McGough, Robert J.

2012-01-01

39

Attenuation character of seismic waves in Sikkim Himalaya

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigate the seismic wave attenuation beneath Sikkim Himalaya using P, S and coda waves from 68 local earthquakes registered by eight broad-band stations of the SIKKIM network. The attenuation quality factor (Q) depends on frequency as well as lapse time and depth. The value of Q varies from (i) 141 to 639 for P waves, (ii) 143 to 1108 for S waves and (iii) 274 to 1678 for coda waves, at central frequencies of 1.5 Hz and 9 Hz, respectively. The relations that govern the attenuation versus frequency dependence are Q? = (96 ± 0.9) f (0.94 ± 0.01), Q? = (100 ± 1.4) f (1.16 ± 0.01) and Qc = (189 ± 1.5) f (1.2 ± 0.01) for P, S and coda waves, respectively. The ratio between Q? and Q? is larger than unity, implying larger attenuation of P compared to S waves. Also, the values of Qc are higher than Q?. Estimation of the relative contribution of intrinsic (Qi) and scattering (Qs) attenuation reveals that the former mechanism is dominant in Sikkim Himalaya. We note that the estimates of Qc lie in between Qi and Qs and are very close to Qi at lower frequencies. This is in agreement with the theoretical and laboratory experiments. The strong frequency and depth dependence of the attenuation quality factor suggests a highly heterogeneous crust in the Sikkim Himalaya. Also, the high Q values estimated for this region compared to the other segments of Himalaya can be reconciled in terms of moderate seismic activity, unlike rest of the Himalaya, which is seismically more active.

Hazarika, Pinki; Kumar, M. Ravi; Kumar, Dinesh

2013-10-01

40

Attenuation of coda waves in the Northeastern Region of India

Coda wave attenuation quality factor Qc is estimated in the northeastern region of India using 45 local earthquakes recorded\\u000a by regional seismic network. The quality factor Qc was estimated using the single backscattering model modified by Sato (J\\u000a Phys Earth 25:27–41, 1977), in the frequency range 1–18 Hz. The attenuation and frequency dependence for different paths and the correlation of the

Devajit Hazarika; Saurabh Baruah; Naba Kumar Gogoi

2009-01-01

41

Attenuation of acoustic waves in glacial ice and salt domes

Two classes of natural solid media (glacial ice and salt domes) are under consideration as media in which to deploy instruments for detection of neutrinos with energy >1e18 eV. Though insensitive to 1e11 to 1e16 eV neutrinos for which observatories (e.g., AMANDA and IceCube) that utilize optical Cherenkov radiation detectors are designed, radio and acoustic methods are suited for searches for the very low fluxes of neutrinos with energies >1017 eV. This is because, due to the very long attenuation lengths of radio and acoustic waves in ice and salt, detection modules can be spaced very far apart. In this paper, I calculate the absorption and scattering coefficients as a function of frequency and grain size for acoustic waves in glacial ice and salt domes and show that experimental measurements on laboratory samples and in glacial ice and salt domes are consistent with theory. For South Pole ice with grain size 0.2 cm at -51 degrees C, scattering lengths are calculated to be 2000 km and 25 km at 10 kHz and 30 kHz, respectively, and the absorption length is calculated to be 9 km at frequencies above 100 Hz. For NaCl (rock salt) with grain size 0.75 cm, scattering lengths are calculated to be 120 km and 1.4 km at 10 kHz and 30 kHz, and absorption lengths are calculated to be 30,000 km and 3300 km at 10 kHz and 30 kHz. Existing measurements are consistent with theory. For ice, absorption is the limiting factor; for salt, scattering is the limiting factor.

P. B. Price

2005-06-27

42

Some building materials, regularly used in Turkey, such as sand, cement, gas concrete (lightweight, aerated concrete), tile and brick, have been investigated in terms of mass attenuation coefficient (?/?), effective atomic, numbers (Z(eff)), effective electron densities (N(e)) and photon interaction cross section (?(a)) at 14 different energies from 81- to 1332-keV gamma-ray energies. The gamma rays were detected by using gamma-ray spectroscopy, a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The elemental compositions of samples were analysed using an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Mass attenuation coefficients of these samples have been compared with tabulations based upon the results of WinXcom. The theoretical mass attenuation coefficients were estimated using the mixture rule and the experimental values of investigated parameters were compared with the calculated values. The agreement of measured values of mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic numbers, effective electron densities and photon interaction cross section with the theory has been found to be quite satisfactory. PMID:22128356

Damla, N; Baltas, H; Celik, A; Kiris, E; Cevik, U

2012-07-01

43

and glycated chitosan Fang Xu and Hong Liua) Department of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, University of a light absorbing dye, indocyanine green, and an immunoadjuvant, glycated chitosan. In the treatment results show that glycated chitosan has a higher attenuation coefficient compared to indocyanine green

Jiang, Hangyi

44

Total photon attenuation coefficients in some rare earth elements using selective excitation method

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total mass attenuation coefficients were measured in the elements La, Nd, Sm, Gd and Dy belonging to rare earth region in the energy range 30-55 keV by employing the selective excitation method. This method facilitates selection of excitation energies near the K edge. The present experimental results were compared with the theoretical values due to Chantler and XCOM.

SitaMahalakshmi, N. V.; Kareem, M. A.; Premachand, K.

2015-01-01

45

Experimental study of wave dispersion and attenuation in concrete.

Results from an experimental study concerning wave propagation in cementitious materials are presented in this paper. Narrow band pulses at several frequencies were introduced into specimens of cement paste, mortar and concrete allowing direct measurement of longitudinal wave velocities and amplitude for each frequency. It is shown that aggregate content play an important role in wave propagation increasing considerably the wave velocity, while the aggregate size seems to control the attenuation observed. Slight velocity variations observed with frequency are discussed in relation to the degree of inhomogeneity of the materials. PMID:15950034

Philippidis, T P; Aggelis, D G

2005-06-01

46

Attenuation of seismic waves in the Jan Mayen island area

An analysis of the attenuation of seismic waves as measured by the quality factorQc (for coda waves) has been performed for the volcanic Jan Mayen island in the Norwegian Sea, using earthquakes near the Jan\\u000a Mayen Fracture Zone and local seismic stations on the Jan Mayen island.Qc values of the order of 100 at a frequency of 1 Hz are

J. Havskov; L. B. Kvamme; H. Bungum

1986-01-01

47

Estimates of millimeter wave attenuation for 18 United States cities

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brief discussions of three mechanisms that attenuate millimeter waves in the atmosphere are presented: rain attenuation, clear air absorption, and atmospheric multipath. Propagation models were combined with meteorological statistics to obtain estimates of average year attenuation distributions for 18 cities in the United States. The estimates are presented in such a way to elucidate the restrictions on system parameters required for reliable operation, i.e. frequency, path length for terrestrial paths, and path elevation angle for earth-satellite paths. The variation imposed by the diverse climates within the United States is demonstrated. Generally, in regions that have humid climates, millimeter wave systems perform less favorably than in areas where arid or semi-arid conditions prevail.

Allen, K. C.; Liebe, H. J.; Rush, C. M.

1983-05-01

48

Knife Edge Diffraction Signal attenuation caused by diffraction of waves

Knife Edge Diffraction Â· Signal attenuation caused by diffraction of waves Â Huygen's principle E E d i i d : Diffraction loss due to the presence of knife-edge wrt free space LOS E-field #12 The diffraction loss due to the presence of a knife edge, as compared to the free space E-field can be given

Cetiner, Bedri A.

49

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technique developed for the direct measurement of linear attenuation and mass attenuation (or absorption) coefficients of dilute solutions of salts has been applied to the attenuation of 662 keV gamma rays from 137Cs in dilute NH 4Cl solution.

Teli, M. T.; Chaudhari, L. M.

1996-04-01

50

Correlation equation for the marine drag coefficient and wave steepness

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work questions, starting from dimensional considerations, the generality of the belief that the marine drag coefficient levels off with increasing wind speed. Dimensional analysis shows that the drag coefficient scales with the wave steepness as opposed to a wave-age scaling. A correlation equation is employed here that uses wave steepness scaling at low aspect ratios (inverse wave steepnesses) and a constant drag coefficient at high aspect ratios. Invoked in support of the correlation are measurements sourced from the literature and at the FINO1 platform in the North Sea. The correlation equation is then applied to measurements recorded from buoys during the passage of hurricanes Rita, Katrina (2005) and Ike (2008). Results show that the correlation equation anticipates the expected levelling off in deeper water, but a drag coefficient more consistent with a Charnock type relation is also possible in more shallower water. Some suggestions are made for proceeding with a higher-order analysis than that conducted here.

Foreman, Richard J.; Emeis, Stefan

2012-09-01

51

Modeling of aqueous foam blast wave attenuation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of aqueous foams enables the mitigation of blast waves induced by the explosion of energetic materials. The two-phase confinement gives rise to interphase interactions between the gaseous and liquid phases, which role have been emphasized in shock-tube studies with solid foams [1, 2]. Multifluid formalism enables the thermo-mechanical disequilibria between phases to be taken into account. The flow model ensures the correct estimation of the acoustic impedance of the two-phase media. As for the numerical scheme, Riemann solvers are used to describe the microscopic fluid interactions, the summation of which provides the multiphase flux. The role of the different transfer mechanisms is evaluated in the case where the liquid ligaments of the foam matrix have been shattered into droplets by the shock impingement. Characteristics of blast waves in heterogeneous media leads to a decrease of overpressure. The numerical results have been compared favorably to experimental data [3, 4].

Del Prete, E.; Chinnayya, A.; Hadjadj, A.; Domergue, L.; Haas, J.-F.; Imbert, B.

52

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accuracy of attenuation correction in positron emission tomography scanners depends mainly on deriving the reliable 511-keV linear attenuation coefficient distribution in the scanned objects. In the PET/CT system, the linear attenuation distribution is usually obtained from the intensities of the CT image. However, the intensities of the CT image relate to the attenuation of photons in an energy range of 40 keV-140 keV. Before implementing PET attenuation correction, the intensities of CT images must be transformed into the PET 511-keV linear attenuation coefficients. However, the CT scan parameters can affect the effective energy of CT X-ray photons and thus affect the intensities of the CT image. Therefore, for PET/CT attenuation correction, it is crucial to determine the conversion curve with a given set of CT scan parameters and convert the CT image into a PET linear attenuation coefficient distribution. A generalized method is proposed for converting a CT image into a PET linear attenuation coefficient distribution. Instead of some parameter-dependent phantom calibration experiments, the conversion curve is calculated directly by employing the consistency conditions to yield the most consistent attenuation map with the measured PET data. The method is evaluated with phantom experiments and small animal experiments. In phantom studies, the estimated conversion curve fits the true attenuation coefficients accurately, and accurate PET attenuation maps are obtained by the estimated conversion curves and provide nearly the same correction results as the true attenuation map. In small animal studies, a more complicated attenuation distribution of the mouse is obtained successfully to remove the attenuation artifact and improve the PET image contrast efficiently.

Wang, Lu; Wu, Li-Wei; Wei, Le; Gao, Juan; Sun, Cui-Li; Chai, Pei; Li, Dao-Wu

2014-02-01

53

We report the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to determine spatially localized optical attenuation coefficients of human axillary lymph nodes and their use to generate parametric images of lymphoid tissue. 3D-OCT images were obtained from excised lymph nodes and optical attenuation coefficients were extracted assuming a single scattering model of OCT. We present the measured attenuation coefficients for several tissue regions in benign and reactive lymph nodes, as identified by histopathology. We show parametric images of the measured attenuation coefficients as well as segmented images of tissue type based on thresholding of the attenuation coefficient values. Comparison to histology demonstrates the enhancement of contrast in parametric images relative to OCT images. This enhancement is a step towards the use of OCT for in situ assessment of lymph nodes. PMID:22312589

Scolaro, Loretta; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Klyen, Blake R.; Wood, Benjamin A.; Robbins, Peter D.; Saunders, Christobel M.; Jacques, Steven L.; Sampson, David D.

2012-01-01

54

Body Wave Crustal Attenuation Characteristics in the Garhwal Himalaya, India

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We estimate frequency-dependent attenuation of P and S waves in Garhwal Himalaya using the extended coda normalization method for the central frequencies 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 16 Hz, with earthquake hypocentral distance ranging from 27 to 200 km. Forty well-located local earthquake waveforms were used to study the seismic attenuation characteristics of the Garhwal Himalaya, India, as recorded by eight stations operated by Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun, India, from 2007 to 2012. We find frequency-dependent P and S wave quality factors as defined by the relations Q P = 56 ± 8f 0.91±0.002 and Q S = 151 ± 8f 0.84±0.002 by fitting a power-law frequency dependence model for the estimated values over the whole region. Both the Q P and Q S values indicate strong attenuation in the crust of Garhwal Himalaya. The ratio of Q S/Q P > 1 obtained for the entire analyzed frequency range suggests that the scattering loss is due to a random and high degree of heterogeneities in the earth medium, playing an important role in seismic wave attenuation in the Himalayan crust.

Negi, Sanjay S.; Paul, Ajay; Joshi, Anand; Kamal

2014-11-01

55

Angular correlation function and scattering coefficient of electromagnetic waves

Angular correlation function and scattering coefficient of electromagnetic waves scattered We study three-dimensional (3-D) electromagnetic wave scattering from a buried object under a two. The study of 3-D electromagnetic scattering allows the use of azimuthal angular averaging and the study

Zhang, Guifu

56

Seismic Wave Attenuation in the Greater Cairo Region, Egypt

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, a digital waveform dataset of 216 local earthquakes recorded by the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) was used to estimate the attenuation of seismic wave energy in the greater Cairo region. The quality factor and the frequency dependence for Coda waves and S-waves were estimated and clarified. The Coda waves ( Q c) and S-waves ( Q d) quality factor were estimated by applying the single scattering model and Coda Normalization method, respectively, to bandpass-filtered seismograms of frequency bands centering at 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 Hz. Lapse time dependence was also studied for the area, with the Coda waves analyzed through four lapse time windows (10, 20, 30 and 40 s). The average quality factor as function of frequency is found to be Q c = 35 ± 9 f 0.9±0.02 and Q d = 10 ± 2 f 0.9±0.02 for Coda and S-waves, respectively. This behavior is usually correlated with the degree of tectonic complexity and the presence of heterogeneities at several scales. The variation of Q c with frequency and lapse time shows that the lithosphere becomes more homogeneous with depth. In fact, by using the Coda Normalization method we obtained low Q d values as expected for a heterogeneous and active zone. The intrinsic quality factor ( Q {i/-1}) was separated from the scattering quality factor ( Q {s/-1}) by applying the Multiple Lapse Time Domain Window Analysis (MLTWA) method under the assumption of multiple isotropic scattering with uniform distribution of scatters. The obtained results suggest that the contribution of the intrinsic attenuation ( Q {i/-1}) prevails on the scattering attenuation ( Q {s/-1}) at frequencies higher than 3 Hz.

Badawy, Ahmed; Morsy, Mamdouh A.

2012-09-01

57

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental investigations on different aspects of optical tomography require the knowledge of the optical parameters of tissues and tissue-like phantoms in order to unambiguously interpret the experimental data and specify characteristic inhomogeneities in tissue diagnostics. The main optical parameters of interest are the absorption coefficient, the scattering, backscattering, and reduced-scattering coefficients, the total attenuation (extinction) coefficient and the anisotropy factor. In this work, we extend our investigations of the optical properties of tissuemimicking phantoms, such as Intralipid-20% fat emulsion, using an approach we have developed recently based on the peculiarities of laser radiation beams propagating through semi-infinite turbid media. The dependence of the total attenuation coefficient on the Intralipid concentration, for laser radiation wavelengths ?=405, 672, 850, and 1314 nm, is studied, by using a set of phantoms consisting of different dilutions of Intralipid in distilled water. The experimental results for the extinction are in agreement with our previous results and with empiric formulae found by other authors concerning the wavelength dependence of the scattering coefficient of Intralipid -10% and Intralipid - 20%. They are also in agreement with known data of the water absorptance. As a whole, the results obtained in this work confirm the consideration of the experimental phantoms as semi-infinite media. They also confirm and extend theoretical and experimental results obtained previously, and reveal advantages of using longer wavelengths for deeper diagnostics of tissues and mimic turbid media.

Dreischuh, Tanja N.; Gurdev, Ljuan L.; Vankov, Orlin I.; Avramov, Lachezar A.; Stoyanov, Dimitar V.

2015-01-01

58

Diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance: An evaluation of remote sensing methods

The propagation of downwelling irradiance at wavelength ? from surface to a depth (z) in the ocean is governed by the diffuse attenuation coefficient, $\\\\bar{K}_{d}$(?). There are two standard methods for the derivation of $\\\\bar{K}_{d}$(?) in remote sensing, which both are based on empirical relationships involving the blue-to-green ratio of ocean color. Recently, a semianalytical method to derive $\\\\bar{K}_{d}$(?) from

Zhong-Ping Lee; Miroslaw Darecki; Kendall L. Carder; Curtiss O. Davis; Dariusz Stramski; W. Joseph Rhea

2005-01-01

59

Measurement of photon mass attenuation coefficients of plutonium from 60 to 2615 keV

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements have been made to determine plutonium photon mass attenuation coefficients by using a collimated-beam transmission method in the energy range from 60 to 2615 keV. These experimental results were compared with previous experimental and theoretical data. Good agreements are observed in the 240-800 keV energy range, whereas differences up to maximum 10% are observed out of these limits.

Rettschlag, M.; Berndt, R.; Mortreau, P.

2007-11-01

60

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic waves are attenuated by number of factors, including geometrical spreading, scattering on heterogeneities and intrinsic loss due the anelasticity of medium. Contribution of the latter two processes can be derived from the tail part of the seismogram - coda (strictly speaking S-wave coda), as these factors influence the shape and amplitudes of coda. Numerous methods have been developed for estimation of attenuation properties from the decay rate of coda amplitudes. Most of them work with the S-wave coda, some are designed for the P-wave coda (only on teleseismic distances) or for the whole waveforms. We used methods to estimate the 1/Qc - attenuation of coda waves, methods to separate scattering and intrinsic loss - 1/Qsc, Qi and methods to estimate attenuation of direct P and S wave - 1/Qp, 1/Qs. In this study, we analyzed the S-wave coda of local earthquake data recorded in the West Bohemia/Vogtland area. This region is well known thanks to the repeated occurrence of earthquake swarms. We worked with data from the 2011 earthquake swarm, which started late August and lasted with decreasing intensity for another 4 months. During the first week of swarm thousands of events were detected with maximum magnitudes ML = 3.6. Amount of high quality data (including continuous datasets and catalogues with an abundance of well-located events) is available due to installation of WEBNET seismic network (13 permanent and 9 temporary stations) monitoring seismic activity in the area. Results of the single-scattering model show seismic attenuations decreasing with frequency, what is in agreement with observations worldwide. We also found decrease of attenuation with increasing hypocentral distance and increasing lapse time, which was interpreted as a decrease of attenuation with depth (coda waves on later lapse times are generated in bigger depths - in our case in upper lithosphere, where attenuations are small). We also noticed a decrease of frequency dependence of 1/Qc with depth, where 1/Qc seems to be frequency independent in depth range of upper lithosphere. Lateral changes of 1/Qc were also reported - it decreases in the south-west direction from the Novy Kostel focal zone, where the attenuation is the highest. Results from more advanced methods that allow for separation of scattering and intrinsic loss show that intrinsic loss is a dominant factor for attenuating of seismic waves in the region. Determination of attenuation due to scattering appears ambiguous due to small hypocentral distances available for the analysis, where the effects of scattering in frequency range from 1 to 24 Hz are not significant.

Bachura, Martin; Fischer, Tomas

2014-05-01

61

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study the doses received by patient submitted to ionizing radiation, several materials are used to simulate the human tissue and organs. The total mass attenuation coefficient is a reasonable way for evaluating the usage in dosimetry of these materials. The total mass attenuation coefficient is determined by photon energy and constituent elements of the material. Currently, the human phantoms are composed by a unique material that presents characteristics similar to the mean proprieties of the different tissues within the region. Therefore, the phantoms are usually homogeneous and filled with a material similar to soft tissue. We studied ten materials used as soft tissue-simulating. These materials were named: bolus, nylon®, orange articulation wax, red articulation wax, PMMA, modelling clay, bee wax, paraffin 1, paraffin 2 and pitch. The objective of this study was to verify the best material to simulate the human cerebral tissue. We determined the elementary composition, mass density and, therefore, calculated the total mass attenuation coefficient of each material. The results were compared to the values established by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements - ICRU, report n° 44, and by the International Commission on Radiation Protection - ICRP, report n° 89, to determine the best material for this energy interval. These results indicate that new head phantoms can be constructed with nylon®.

Ferreira, C. C.; Ximenes, R. E.; Garcia, C. A. B.; Vieira, J. W.; Maia, A. F.

2010-11-01

62

Wave attenuation over coastal salt marshes under storm surge conditions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal communities around the world face an increasing risk from flooding as a result of rising sea level, increasing storminess and land subsidence. Salt marshes can act as natural buffer zones, providing protection from waves during storms. However, the effectiveness of marshes in protecting the coastline during extreme events when water levels are at a maximum and waves are highest is poorly understood. Here we experimentally assess wave dissipation under storm surge conditions in a 300-metre-long wave flume tank that contains a transplanted section of natural salt marsh. We find that the presence of marsh vegetation causes considerable wave attenuation, even when water levels and waves are highest. From a comparison with experiments without vegetation, we estimate that up to 60% of observed wave reduction is attributed to vegetation. We also find that although waves progressively flatten and break vegetation stems and thereby reduce dissipation, the marsh substrate remained stable and resistant to surface erosion under all conditions. The effectiveness of storm wave dissipation and the resilience of tidal marshes even at extreme conditions suggest that salt marsh ecosystems can be a valuable component of coastal protection schemes.

Möller, Iris; Kudella, Matthias; Rupprecht, Franziska; Spencer, Tom; Paul, Maike; van Wesenbeeck, Bregje K.; Wolters, Guido; Jensen, Kai; Bouma, Tjeerd J.; Miranda-Lange, Martin; Schimmels, Stefan

2014-10-01

63

Seismic wave attenuation and dispersion in thin layer sequences

The propagation of plane waves in thin layer sequences in which the velocity variation is approxmiately cyclic is characterized by both absorption and attenuation. Both factors contain important sub- surface information. Absorption is related to the nature... with velocity layering. In cyclic sequences the transmission losses caused by propaga tion through large numbers of interfaces may be considerable. How- ever, short path multiples which are reflected from the top and bottom of the same layer combine...

Edwards, Clifford Murray

1975-01-01

64

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simultaneous PET data reconstruction of emission activity and attenuation coefficient distribution is presented, where the attenuation image is constrained by exploiting an external transmission source. Data are acquired in time-of-flight (TOF) mode, allowing in principle for separation of emission and transmission data. Nevertheless, here all data are reconstructed at once, eliminating the need to trace the position of the transmission source in sinogram space. Contamination of emission data by the transmission source and vice versa is naturally modeled. Attenuated emission activity data also provide additional information about object attenuation coefficient values. The algorithm alternates between attenuation and emission activity image updates. We also proposed a method of estimation of spatial scatter distribution from the transmission source by incorporating knowledge about the expected range of attenuation map values. The reconstruction of experimental data from the Siemens mCT scanner suggests that simultaneous reconstruction improves attenuation map image quality, as compared to when data are separated. In the presented example, the attenuation map image noise was reduced and non-uniformity artifacts that occurred due to scatter estimation were suppressed. On the other hand, the use of transmission data stabilizes attenuation coefficient distribution reconstruction from TOF emission data alone. The example of improving emission images by refining a CT-based patient attenuation map is presented, revealing potential benefits of simultaneous CT and PET data reconstruction.

Panin, V. Y.; Aykac, M.; Casey, M. E.

2013-06-01

65

Seismic Attenuation Technology for the Advanced Virgo Gravitational Wave Detector

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current interferometric gravitational wave detectors are being upgraded to what are termed 'second generation' devices. Sensitivities will be increased by an order of magnitude and these new instruments are expected to uncover the ?eld of gravitational astronomy. A main challenge in this endeavor is the mitigation of noise induced by seismic motion. Detailed studies with Virgo show that seismic noise can be reinjected into the dark fringe signal. For example, laser beam jitter and backscattered light limit the sensitivity of the interferometer. Here, we focus on seismic attenuators based on compact inverted pendulums in combination with geometric anti-prings to obtain 40 dB of attenuation above 4 Hz in six degrees of freedom. Low frequency resonances (< 0.5 Hz) are damped by using a control system based on input from LVDTs and geophones. Such systems are under development for the seismic attenuation of optical benches operated both in air and vacuum. The design and realization of the seismic attenuation system for the Virgo external injection bench, including its control scheme, will be discussed and stand-alone performance presented.

Beker, M. G.; Blom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Bulten, H. J.; Hennes, E.; Rabeling, D. S.

66

An experimental model of ice floe induced attenuation of ocean waves

An experimental model of ocean wave attenuation due to interactions with an ice floe is presented. Evolution of mechanically-generated, regular waves is monitored in front and in the lee of a solitary, square floe, made of a synthetic material. Results confirm dependence of attenuation on the period of the incident wave. Results also indicate dependence of attenuation on the depth of wave overwash on the floe.

Toffoli, Alessandro; Bennetts, Luke G; Meylan, Michael H; Cavaliere, Claudio; Babanin, Alexandr

2014-01-01

67

The linear and mass attenuation coefficients of different types of soil, sand, building materials and heavy beach mineral samples from the Chittagong and Cox's Bazar area of Bangladesh were measured using a high-resolution HPGe detector and the gamma-ray energies 276.1, 302.8, 356.0, 383.8, 661.6 and 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV emitted from point sources of 133Ba, 137Cs and 60Co, respectively. The linear attenuation coefficients show a linear relationship with the corresponding densities of the samples studied. The variations of the mass attenuation coefficient with gamma-ray energy were exponential in nature. The measured mass attenuation coefficient values were compared with measurements made in other countries for similar kinds of materials. The values are in good agreement with each other in most cases. PMID:11300413

Alam, M N; Miah, M M; Chowdhury, M I; Kamal, M; Ghose, S; Rahman, R

2001-06-01

68

Electromagnetic Shock Tube capable of producing a Well-formed shock Wave of Low Attenuation

WHILE present electromagnetic shock tubes1,2 will generate very strong shock waves frequently and in a simple manner, many designs suffer from pronounced attenuation of the shock wave together with the formation of secondary shock waves.

P. R. Smy

1962-01-01

69

Millimeter-wave attenuation and delay rates due to fog/cloud conditions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Propagation properties of suspended water and ice particles which make up atmospheric haze, fog, and clouds were examined for microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies. Rates of attenuation alpha (dB/km) and delay tau (ps/km) are derived from a complex refractivity based on the Rayleigh absorption approximation of Mie's scattering theory. Key variables are particle mass content and permittivity, which depends on frequency and temperature both for liquid and ice states. Water droplet attenuation can be estimated within a restricted (10 + or - 10 C) temperature range using a simple two-coefficient approximation. Experimental data on signal loss and phase delay caused by fog at four frequencies (50, 82, 141, and 246 GHz) over a 0.81-km line-of-sight path were found to be consistent with the model.

Liebe, Hans J.; Hufford, George A.; Manabe, Takeshi

1989-12-01

70

Parameterization of X-ray mass attenuation coefficients in the energy range of 1-150 keV

Knowledge of X-ray mass attenuation coefficients is necessary when the thick target PIXE method is applied for quantitative elemental analysis of materials. For this purpose, the X-ray mass attenuation coefficients of Veigele [Atom. Data Tables 5 (1973) 51] ave been parameterized in the photon energy range of 1-150 keV for all elements from hydrogen to plutonium (Z = 1-94), taking

J. Braziewicz; E. Braziewicz; M. Pajek

1993-01-01

71

There are several empirical and semianalytical models for the satellite-based estimation of the diffuse attenuation coefficient for the downwelling spectral irradiance at the wavelength 490 nm, Kd(490), or the diffuse attenuation coefficient for the downwelling photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), Kd(PAR). An empirical algorithm has been used to routinely produce NASA standard Kd(490) product from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS).

Menghua Wang; SeungHyun Son; Lawrence W. Harding Jr

2009-01-01

72

Background This study investigated the dynamic changes of tissue attenuation coefficients before, during, and after high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment at different total acoustic powers (TAP) in ex vivo porcine muscle tissue. It further assessed the reliability of employing changes in tissue attenuation coefficient parameters as potential indicators of tissue thermal damage. Methods Two-dimensional pulse-echo radio frequency (RF) data were acquired before, during, and after HIFU exposure to estimate changes in least squares attenuation coefficient slope (??) and attenuation coefficient intercept (??0). Using the acquired RF data, ?? and ??0 images, along with conventional B-mode ultrasound images, were constructed. The dynamic changes of ?? and ??0, averaged in the region of interest, were correlated with B-mode images obtained during the HIFU treatment process. Results At a HIFU exposure duration of 40 s and various HIFU intensities (737–1,068 W/cm2), ?? and ??0 increased rapidly to values in the ranges 1.5–2.5 dB/(MHz.cm) and 4–5 dB/cm, respectively. This rapid increase was accompanied with the appearance of bubble clouds in the B-mode images. Bubble activities appeared as strong hyperechoic regions in the B-mode images and caused fluctuations in the estimated ?? and ??0 values. After the treatment, ?? and ??0 values gradually decreased, accompanied by fade-out of hyperechoic spots in the B-mode images. At 10 min after the treatment, they reached values in ranges 0.75–1 dB/(MHz.cm) and 1–1.5 dB/cm, respectively, and remained stable within those ranges. At a long HIFU exposure duration of around 10 min and low HIFU intensity (117 W/cm2), ?? and ??0 gradually increased to values of 2.2 dB/(MHz.cm) and 2.2 dB/cm, respectively. This increase was not accompanied with the appearance of bubble clouds in the B-mode images. After HIFU treatment, ?? and ??0 gradually decreased to values of 1.8 dB/(MHz.cm) and 1.5 dB/cm, respectively, and remained stable at those values. Conclusions ?? and ??0 estimations were both potentially reliable indicators of tissue thermal damage. In addition, ?? and ??0 images both had significantly higher contrast-to-speckle ratios compared to the conventional B-mode images and outperformed the B-mode images in detecting HIFU thermal lesions at all investigated TAPs and exposure durations. PMID:25516802

2013-01-01

73

Local energy decay for linear wave equations with variable coefficients

A uniform local energy decay result is derived to the linear wave equation with spatial variable coefficients. We deal with this equation in an exterior domain with a star-shaped complement. Our advantage is that we do not assume any compactness of the support on the initial data, and its proof is quite simple. This generalizes a previous famous result due

Ryo Ikehata

2005-01-01

74

Estimation of coda wave attenuation in East Central Iran

The attenuation of coda waves, Q\\u000a \\u000a c\\u000a , has been estimated in Zarand, Jiroft, and Bam regions of east central Iran using a single back-scattering model of S-coda\\u000a envelopes. For this purpose, the recordings of 97 earthquakes by three seismic networks and a local strong ground motion network\\u000a have been used. In this research, the frequency-dependent Q\\u000a \\u000a c\\u000a values are

M. Ma’hood; H. Hamzehloo

2009-01-01

75

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Biot's poroelasticity theory, we derive expressions for the reflection and transmission coefficients for a plane shear wave incident on an interface separating two different poroelastic solids. The coefficients are formulated as a function of the wave incidence angle, frequency and rock properties. Specific cases calculated include the boundary between water-saturated sand and water-saturated sandstone and the gas-water interface in sand. The results show a very different interface response to that of an incident P wave. Plane SV wave incidence does not significantly excite the Biot slow P wave if the frequency of the wave is below the transition frequency. Above this frequency, an incident plane SV wave can generate a mode-converted slow Biot P wave which is actually a normal propagating wave and not highly attenuating as in the usual (diffusive) case. For an incident SV wave onto a gas-water interface, even at very high frequency, there is no significant Biot second P wave produced. For small incident angles, the gas-water interface is essentially transparent. With increasing angles, there can arise an unusual "definitive angle" in the reflection/transmission coefficient curves which is related to the change of fluid viscosity on both sides of the interface and provides a possible new means for underground fluid assessment.

Liu, Xu; Greenhalgh, Stewart

2014-09-01

76

Wave Dispersion and Attenuation on Human Femur Tissue

Cortical bone is a highly heterogeneous material at the microscale and has one of the most complex structures among materials. Application of elastic wave techniques to this material is thus very challenging. In such media the initial excitation energy goes into the formation of elastic waves of different modes. Due to “dispersion”, these modes tend to separate according to the velocities of the frequency components. This work demonstrates elastic wave measurements on human femur specimens. The aim of the study is to measure parameters like wave velocity, dispersion and attenuation by using broadband acoustic emission sensors. First, four sensors were placed at small intervals on the surface of the bone to record the response after pencil lead break excitations. Next, the results were compared to measurements on a bulk steel block which does not exhibit heterogeneity at the same wave lengths. It can be concluded that the microstructure of the tissue imposes a dispersive behavior for frequencies below 1 MHz and care should be taken for interpretation of the signals. Of particular interest are waveform parameters like the duration, rise time and average frequency, since in the next stage of research the bone specimens will be fractured with concurrent monitoring of acoustic emission. PMID:25196011

Strantza, Maria; Louis, Olivia; Polyzos, Demosthenes; Boulpaep, Frans; van Hemelrijck, Danny; Aggelis, Dimitrios G.

2014-01-01

77

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mass attenuation coefficients of some amino acids, such as DL-aspartic acid-LR(C4H7NO4), L-glutamine (C4H10N2O3), creatine monohydrate LR(C4H9N3O2H2O), creatinine hydrochloride (C4H7N3O·HCl) L-asparagine monohydrate(C4H9N3O2H2O), L-methionine LR(C5H11NO2S), were measured at 122, 356, 511, 662, 1170, 1275 and 1330 keV photon energies using a well-collimated narrow beam good geometry set-up. The gamma-rays were detected using NaI (Tl) scintillation detection system with a resolution of 0.101785 at 662 keV. The attenuation coefficient data were then used to obtain the effective atomic numbers (Zeff), and effective electron densities (Neff) of amino acids. It was observed that the effective atomic number (Zeff) and effective electron densities (Neff) initially decrease and tend to be almost constant as a function of gamma-ray energy. Zeff and Neff experimental values showed good agreement with the theoretical values with less than 1% error for amino acids.

Kore, Prashant S.; Pawar, Pravina P.

2014-05-01

78

Seismic attenuation due to wave-induced flow

Analytical expressions for three P-wave attenuation mechanisms in sedimentary rocks are given a unified theoretical framework. Two of the models concern wave-induced flow due to heterogeneity in the elastic moduli at mesoscopic scales (scales greater than grain sizes but smaller than wavelengths). In the first model, the heterogeneity is due to lithological variations (e.g., mixtures of sands and clays) with a single fluid saturating all the pores. In the second model, a single uniform lithology is saturated in mesoscopic ''patches'' by two immiscible fluids (e.g., air and water). In the third model, the heterogeneity is at ''microscopic'' grain scales (broken grain contacts and/or micro-cracks in the grains) and the associated fluid response corresponds to ''squirt flow''. The model of squirt flow derived here reduces to proper limits as any of the fluid bulk modulus, crack porosity, and/or frequency is reduced to zero. It is shown that squirt flow is incapable of explaining the measured level of loss (10{sup -2} < Q{sup -1} < 10{sup -1}) within the seismic band of frequencies (1 to 10{sup 4} Hz); however, either of the two mesoscopic scale models easily produce enough attenuation to explain the field data.

Pride, S.R.; Berryman, J.G.; Harris, J.M.

2003-10-09

79

Millimeter wave attenuation in moist air: Laboratory measurements and analysis

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were performed with a millimeter wave resonance-spectrometer capable of measuring absolute attenuation rates alpha (dB/km) by water vapor up to saturation pressures. Vapor (e) and air (p) pressures were varied at constant temperature and set frequency. Anomalous absorption behavior (i.e., high rates alpha, extreme temperature dependences, hystereses in pressure and temperature cycles) could be identified as being caused largely by instrumental condensation effects. Uncorrupted data at 138 GHz display, in addition to air-broadening, a strong self-broadening component. Based upon these results, a practical atmospheric millimeter wave propagation model was formulated that predicts attenuation, delay and noise properties of moist air over the frequency range of 1 to 1000 GHz and a height range of 0 to 100 km. The main spectroscopic data base consists of 48 O2 and 30 H2O local absorption lines complemented by continuum spectra for dry air and water vapor. Model input relies upon distributions of meteorological variables along an anticipated radio path. These variables are pressure, temperature, and relative humidity for moist air; suspended droplet concentration for haze, fog, cloud conditions; and a rain rate. In special cases, trace gas concentrations for ozone and carbon monoxide and the geomagnetic field strength can be added.

Liebe, H. J.

1984-03-01

80

Lg waves attenuation studies over the Iranian Plateau and Zagros

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waveforms from regional events collected over the last 15 years by the permanent seismological networks and temporary deployments deployed within the Iranian plateau provide a unique and unprecedented opportunity to investigate the crustal and mantle attenuation characteristics by analysis of the regional phases including Lg and Pg waves. We have investigated the crustal attenuation using Lg waveforms available from 305 stations consisting of 101 permanent and 204 temporary stations. This study is performed within the framework of a larger project aimed at developing high-resolution seismic attenuation models for the Iranian plateau and the Zagros mountains using different data and approaches. We have combined the Iranian data set with data from numerous networks across Turkey, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Syria, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. This combination provides us with waveforms from over 550 stations spanning most of the Northern Middle East. Simultaneous inversion of the Lg Q values calculated using two-station paths gives us a model of Lg Q that extends from the western Anatolian plate to the eastern edge of the Iranian plateau. Prior studies have suggested strong complexity in the crustal and uppermost mantle attenuation structure beneath much of the Iranian plateau and the surrounding regions. Lg waves propagating over different paths in this region show strong variations in amplitude and frequency content due to this very complex structure. We have created a frequency dependent Lg Q model that covers most of the Iranian plateau using instrument corrected two station method that eliminates the contributions from the source. Our model maps Lg Q around 200 for most part of the central Iranian plateau and Alborz mountains whereas it is lower than 150 for the western Anatolian plateau. Relatively high Q values (>300) are observed in the Zagros belt that abruptly changes across the Zagros suture. We have also found unexpected results, including a high Q zone that surrounds the Caspian Sea. We argue that it originates from energy that is bending around the south Caspian Sea oceanic crust as well as efficient Lg propagation through the Alborz mountain crust.

Kaviani, A.; Sandvol, E. A.; Rumpker, G.; Ku, W.; Gok, R.

2012-12-01

81

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the 'European protocol for the quality control of the physical and technical aspects of mammography screening' (EPQC) image quality digital mammography units has to be evaluated at different breast thicknesses. At the standard thickness of 50 mm polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) image quality is determined by the analysis of CDMAM contrast detail phantom images where threshold contrasts are calculated for different gold disc diameters. To extend these results to other breast thicknesses contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) and threshold contrast (TC) visibilities have to be calculated for all required thicknesses. To calculate the latter the mass attenuation coefficient (MAC) of gold has to be known for all possible beam qualities in the tube voltage range between 26 and 32 kV. In this paper we first determined the threshold contrast visibility using the CDMAM phantom with the same beam quality at different current-time products (mAs). We can derive from Rose theory that CNR • CT • ? = const, where ? is the diameter of the gold cylinder. From this the corresponding attenuation coefficients can be calculated. This procedure was repeated for four different beam qualities (Mo/Mo 27kV, Rh/Rh 29kV, Rh/Rh 31 kV, and W/Rh 29 kV)). Next, we measured the aluminium half value layer (HVL) of all x-ray spectra relevant for mammography. Using a first order Taylor expansion of MAC as a function of HVL, all other desired MAC can be calculated. The MAC as a function of the HVL was derived to MAChvl = -286.97 * hvl+186.03 with R2 = 0.997, where MAChvl indicates the MAC for all specific x-ray spectrum defined by its aluminium half value layer. Based on this function all necessary MACs needed for quality assurance (QA) were calculated. The results were in good agreement with the data found in the protocol.

Hummel, Johann; Semturs, Friedrich; Menhart, Susanne; Figl, Michael

2010-04-01

82

Attenuation of coda waves in the Garhwal Himalaya, India

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Qc estimates have been obtained by analysing coda waves of seven local earthquakes recorded in the Garhwal Himalaya. The earthquakes have their epicentral distances within 100 km, focal depths up to 20 km with 2.4 ? ML ? 4.9. Qc values have been computed at central frequencies of 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, 12.0 and 18.0 Hz for different earthquake stations falling in the lapse time window of 30-60 s using a single backscattering model. The mean value of Qc shows a dependence on frequency, varying from 206 at 1.5 Hz to 2090 at 18 Hz. The frequency-dependence average Qc relationship ( Qc = Q0fn) has been obtained for the region as Qc = 126 f0.95 which indicates that attenuation at higher frequencies is less pronounced. Qc values estimated for the region represent the average attenuation properties for a surface area of about 20 000 km 2 in a circular shape with a radius of about 80 km assuming single backscattering.

Gupta, S. C.; Singh, V. N.; Kumar, Ashwani

1995-01-01

83

As banked human tissues are not widely available, the development of new non-destructive and contactless techniques to evaluate the quality of allografts before distribution for transplantation is very important. Also, tissues will be processed accordingly to standard procedures and to minimize disease transmission most tissue banks will include a decontamination or sterilization step such as ionizing radiation. In this work, we present a new method to evaluate the internal structure of frozen or glycerol processed human cartilages, submitted to various dosis of irradiation, using the total optical attenuation coefficient retrieved from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. Our results show a close relationship between tensile properties and the total optical attenuation coefficient of cartilages. Therefore, OCT associated with the total optical attenuation coefficient open a new window to evaluate quantitatively biological changes in processed tissues. PMID:23887800

Martinho, A C; Freitas, A Z; Raele, M P; Santin, S P; Soares, F A N; Herson, M R; Mathor, M B

2014-09-01

84

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has become a promising alternative for treatment of skin lesions such as squamous cell carcinoma. We propose a method to monitor the effects of PDT in a noninvasive way by using the optical attenuation coefficient (OAC) calculated from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. We conducted a study on mice with chemically induced neoplastic lesions and performed PDT on these lesions using homemade photosensitizers. The response of neoplastic lesions to therapy was monitored using, at the same time, macroscopic clinical visualization, histopathological analysis, OCT imaging, and OCT-based attenuation coefficient measurement. Results with all four modalities demonstrated a positive response to treatment. The attenuation coefficient was found to be 1.4 higher in skin lesions than in healthy tissue and it decreased after therapy. This study shows that the OAC is a potential tool to noninvasively assess the evolution of skin neoplastic lesions with time after treatment. PMID:25415566

Goulart, Viviane P; dos Santos, Moisés O; Latrive, Anne; Freitas, Anderson Z; Correa, Luciana; Zezell, Denise M

2015-05-01

85

Seismic waves attenuation in the lithosphere of the northern Basin and Range Province

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismic quality factor of the direct body waves (P- and S-waves) and coda and their frequency dependence (n) were estimated for the northern Basin and Range Province using traces of 66 local earthquakes and explosions recorded during 1988-1989 PASSCAL Basin and Range Passive Seismic Experiment. For calculation of Q-coda the single backscattering model by Aki was used. Q-coda values were estimated for six central frequencies (f): 0.3±0.1, 0.75±0.25, 1.5±0.5, 3.0±1.0, 6.0±2.0 and 12.0±4.0 Hz and for 18 lapse time windows (W) - from 10 to 95 sec with a step 5 sec. The Qp and Qs values were obtained by the method of the maximum amplitudes for the frequency bands 0.5-1.0, 1.0-2.0, 2.0-4.0 ? 4.0-8.0 Hz. Also we tired to evaluate the part of the intrinsic and scattering attenuation (Qi and Qsc respectively) in the total attenuation using Wennerberg's method. The Q-coda increases and the frequency parameter n and the attenuation coefficient ? decrease with increasing of frequency and lapse time windows. This fact shows that the upper part of the lithosphere is more heterogeneous compared to its lower layers. The deep variations of the frequency parameter n and the attenuation coefficient ? show the sharp change at the depth about 150 km - at the same depth the boundary of the low velocity anomaly is observed (Bensen et al., 2009; Wagner et al., 2012; Shen et al., 2012). The Qs and Qp values also increase with frequency: Qs varies from 42 (0.84 Hz) to 298 (5.52 Hz) and Qp - from 60 (0.84 Hz) to 279 (6.05 Hz). The following empirical relations of Q vs. f are deduced for P- and S-waves respectively: Qp(f)=69*f0.78 and Qs(f)=53*f1.08. The Q-values, describing the intrinsic and scattering attenuation, also show a significant dependence on frequency and lapse time windows: the empirical relations of Q vs. f are: Qi(f)=8*f1.2 and Qsc(f)=13*f1.1 (for W=10 sec) and Qi(f)=5*f1.2 and Qsc(f)=102*f1.0 (for W=95 sec) respectively. The comparison of the intrinsic and scattering attenuation shows that the intrinsic attenuation is dominant over scattering attenuation in the frequency range analyzed for all deep levels. The reported study was supported by RFBR, research project No. 12-05-31038.

Dobrynina, Anna

2013-04-01

86

The so-called Localized Waves (LW), and the "Frozen Waves" (FW), have raised significant attention in the areas of Optics and Ultrasound, because of their surprising energy localization properties. The LWs resist the effects of diffraction for large distances, and possess an interesting self-reconstruction -self-healing- property (after obstacles with size smaller than the antenna's); while the FWs, a sub-class of LWs, offer the possibility of arbitrarily modeling the longitudinal field intensity pattern inside a prefixed interval, for instance 0?z?L, of the wave propagation axis. More specifically, the FWs are localized fields "at rest", that is, with a static envelope (within which only the carrier wave propagates), and can be endowed moreover with a high transverse localization. In this paper we investigate, by simulated experiments, various cases of generation of ultrasonic FW fields, with the frequency of f0=1 MHz in a water-like medium, taking account of the effects of attenuation. We present results of FWs for distances up to L=80 mm, in attenuating media with absorption coefficient ? in the range 70???170 dB/m. Such simulated FW fields are constructed by using a procedure developed by us, via appropriate finite superpositions of monochromatic ultrasonic Bessel beams. We pay due attention to the selection of the FW parameters, constrained by the rather tight restrictions imposed by experimental Acoustics, as well as to some practical implications of the transducer design. The energy localization properties of the Frozen Waves can find application even in many medical apparatus, such as bistouries or acoustic tweezers, as well as for treatment of diseased tissues (in particular, for the destruction of tumor cells, without affecting the surrounding tissues; also for kidney stone shuttering, etc.). PMID:24709072

Prego-Borges, José L; Zamboni-Rached, Michel; Recami, Erasmo; Costa, Eduardo Tavares

2014-08-01

87

Shear wave speed and attenuation in water-saturated glass beads and sand

Shear wave speed and attenuation in water-saturated glass beads and sand N. P. Chotiros and M. J dependence of shear wave attenuation in water-saturated glass beads and sand contains distinguishable, in the frequency band from 200 Hz to 2 kHz, indicated that the constant-Q model may be applicable to dry sand

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

88

Absolute measurement of activity implies a determination of effective depths and effective attenuation coefficients. In order to define restoration filters, it is necessary to measure the transfer function, i.e. position a line source at an effective depth for the specific measurement situation. A phantom was designed which can simulate an organ with a certain thickness at a certain depth. The phantom was used to measure transfer functions and a comparison was made with transfer functions from a line source to determine effective depths. Effective attenuation coefficients were calculated for 99mTc, 111In and 201Tl for different organ thicknesses and depths of simulated organs. The effective attenuation coefficient for 99mTc was found to be 0.124 +/- 0.006 cm-1, in good agreement with previously published values. For 111In, the attenuation coefficient decreased with the depth of an organ due to the use of two energy windows in the measurements and a corresponding change in mean photon energy by depth. For 201Tl, the attenuation coefficient decreased with increasing organ thickness due to the increasing fraction of scattered radiation in the 40% energy window used. Using attenuation coefficients of 0.124, 0.184 and 0.11 cm-1 for 99mTc, 201Tl and 111In respectively, the derived equations can be used to calculate the position of a conventional line source for measurements of transfer functions for a specific organ with a certain thickness at a certain depth for definition of different types of restoration filter. PMID:9364591

Starck, S A; Carlsson, S

1997-10-01

89

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray fluorescence technique plays an important role in nondestructive analysis nowadays. The development of equipment, including portable ones, enables a wide assortment of possibilities for analysis of stable elements, even in trace concentrations. Nevertheless, despite of the advantages, one important drawback is radiation self-attenuation in the sample being measured, which needs to be considered in the calculation for the proper determination of elemental concentration. The mass attenuation coefficient can be determined by transmission measurement, but, in this case, the sample must be in slab shape geometry and demands two different setups and measurements. The Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio, determined from the X-ray fluorescence spectrum, provides a link to the mass attenuation coefficient by means of a polynomial type equation. This work presents a way to construct a Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio versus mass attenuation coefficient curve by using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo computer code. The comparison between the calculated and literature values of the mass attenuation coefficient for some known samples showed to be within 15%. This calculation procedure is available on-line at www.macx.net.br.

Conti, C. C.; Anjos, M. J.; Salgado, C. M.

2014-09-01

90

Attenuation coefficients of different varieties of gamma irradiated potato (Kufri Chandramukhi, Kufri Jyoti, and Kufri Sindhuri), mango (Himsagar, Langra, Dashehri and Fazli) and prawn (Tiger prawn and Fresh water prawn) of different storage time and physiological stages were determined. After six months storage attenuation coefficient of Kufri Chandramukhi was decreased by 30.8% with decrease of density and moisture content. Decreasing trend of attenuation coefficient during storage was more prominent (almost 50%) in other two varieties of potato. On the other hand in all four varieties, unripe mango consisted of significantly less (p ? 0.05) attenuation coefficient (around 11-14%) than the ripe one due to changes in physiological properties and density. Different varieties of prawn had different attenuation coefficients due to subtle differences in their proximate composition. Due to having different attenuation coefficients, different food components, even different varieties of same food component absorbed different gamma radiation energy though exposed to same radiation dose. PMID:24128533

Ghosh, Sayanti; Das, M K

2014-02-15

91

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

diel variability of the particulate beam attenuation coefficient, cp, and of the particulate backscattering coefficient, bbp, were investigated during five seasonal cycles at an oceanic site in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, covering contrasting physical and trophic situations. We observed a diel cycle in cp and bbp, related to changes in phytoplankton properties (i.e., size and refractive index) induced by the accumulation of carbon within phytoplankton cells associated with photosynthetic processes, during the winter mixing of the water column, the development of the spring phytoplankton bloom, its decline, and during the summer oligotrophy. The relative amplitude of the cp diel variability was much larger during the spring bloom (20-50%) than during other seasons (10-20%), whereas that of bbp is steadily around 20% and does not show significant seasonal variability. The minimal cp and bbp occurred at sunrise and are synchronized, whereas maximum bbp values are often reached 3-6 h before those for cp (except during bloom conditions), which occur near sunset. These different amplitudes and timing are tentatively explained using Mie computations, which allow discerning the respective roles of changes in the particle size distribution and refractive index. The differences observed here in the diel cycles of cp and bbp show that they cannot be used interchangeably to determine the daily increase of the particle pool. This result has implications on the feasibility to determine net community production from the bbp diel changes, when only bbp is measured in situ or available from ocean color observations.

Kheireddine, Malika; Antoine, David

2014-08-01

92

Tide Effects on Wave Attenuation and Wave Set-up on a Caribbean Coral Reef

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of tides on wave attenuation and wave set-up were investigated at Great Pond Bay, a Caribbean reef located in St Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Measurements of wave pressure fluctuations were made at three stations across the reef profile. Total wave set-up was measured between the forereef and the reef crest or backreef lagoon. Wave spectra indicate significant filtering of energy at the peak frequencies as waves traveled across the reef. The energy dissipation calculations imply an average energy reduction of 62% between the forereef and reef crest. Mean energy reduction between the forereef and lagoon was 90%. Energy dissipation between the forereef and reef crest increased 15% between high and low tide and 6% between forereef and lagoon. Tidal reduction of water depth at the reef crest intensified wave breaking and this condition increased energy dissipation. Measurements of wave set-up ranged from 0·8 to 1·5 cm. Calculations of wave set-up using Tait's 1972 model showed good agreement with observations.

Lugo-Fernández, A.; Roberts, H. H.; Wiseman, W. J., Jr.

1998-10-01

93

Broadband attenuation of Lamb waves through a periodic array of thin rectangular junctions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study theoretically subwavelength physical phenomena, such as resonant transmission and broadband sound shielding for Lamb waves propagating in an acoustic metamaterial made of a thin plate drilled with one or two row(s) of rectangular holes. The resonances and antiresonances of periodically arranged rectangular junctions separated by holes are investigated as a function of the geometrical parameters of the junctions. With one and two row(s) of holes, high frequency specific features in the transmission coefficient are explained in terms of a coupling of incident waves with both Fabry-Perot oscillations inside the junctions and induced surface acoustic waves between the homogeneous part of the plate and the row of holes. With two rows of holes, low frequency peaks and dips appear in the transmission spectrum. The choice of the distance between the two rows of holes allows the realization of a broadband low frequency acoustic shielding with attenuation over 99% for symmetric waves in a wide low frequency range and over 90% for antisymmetric ones. The origin of the transmission gap is discussed in terms of localized modes of the "H" element made by the junctions, connecting the two homogeneous parts of the plate.

Moiseyenko, Rayisa P.; Pennec, Yan; Marchal, Rémi; Bonello, Bernard; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram

2014-10-01

94

Investigation of the Attenuation of Plane Shock Waves Moving over very Rough Surfaces

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental measurements of the attenuation of plane shock waves moving over rough walls have been made in a shock tube. Measurements of the boundary-layer characteristics, including thickness and velocity distribution behind the shock, have also been made with the aid of new cal techniques which provide direct information on the local boundary-layer conditions at the rough walls. Measurements of shock speed and shock pressure ratio are presented for both smooth-wall and rough-wall flow over lengths of machined-smooth and rough strips which lined all four walls of the shock tube. A simplified theory based on Von Karman's expression for skin-friction coefficient for flow over rough walls, along with a wave-model concept and extensions to include time effects, is presented. In this theory, the shock-tube flow is assumed to be one-dimensional at all times and the wave-model concept is used to relate the local layer growth to decreases in shock strength. This concept assumes that local boundary-layer growths act as local mass-flow sinks, which give rise to expansion waves which, in turn, overtake the shock and lower its mass flow accordingly.

Huber, Paul W.; McFarland, Donald R.; Levine, Philip

1953-01-01

95

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the new quantitative approach developed by De Siena et al., 2011, to calculate the scattering attenuation coefficient at Tenerife (Canary Island, Spain) from the space distribution of the P-wave seismic velocity. We calculate the space autocorrelation function (ACF) of the vertical velocity fluctuations, as a function of depth and for any couple of surface coordinates from the velocity tomography obtained by Garcia-Yeguas et al. (2012). We then fit the measured velocity random fluctuations with the theoretical exponential ACF, and estimate from the fit both spatially averaged the mean square (MS) fractional fluctuations and correlation distance, in turn associated with the inverse scattering quality factor, assuming a Born scattering fluctuations. In this way for any couple of space surface coordinates we associate an average (over depth) inverse quality factor, Q-1PSc. The Q-1PSc map shows that the largest scattering attenuation is located in the middle of the island, in a zone almost coincident with the caldera structure. The S-wave scattering attenuation shows an opposite pattern (Prudencio et al., 2013) with the minimum scattering attenuation coinciding with the caldera structure. This (preliminary) result may appear as contradictory, but in reality shows that most the of scattering phenomena at high frequency are associated with the shear waves.

Garcia-Yeguas, Araceli; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Prudencio, Ianire; Ibañez, Jesús M.; De Siena, Luca; Diaz, Alejandro

2014-05-01

96

P-Wave to Rayleigh-wave conversion coefficients for wedge corners; model experiments

An analytic solution is not available for the diffraction of elastic waves by wedges; however, numerical solutions of finite-difference type are available for selected wedge angles. The P- to Rayleigh-wave conversion coefficients at wedge tips have been measured on two-dimensional seismic models for stress-free wedges with wedge angles, ??0, of 10, 30, 60, 90 and 120??. The conversion coefficients show two broad peaks and a minimum as a function of the angle between the wedge face and the direction of the incident P-wave. The minimum occurs for the P wave incident parallel to the wedge face and one maximum is near an incidence angle of 90?? to the wedge face. The amplitude of this maximum, relative to the other, decreases as the wedge angle increases. The asymmetry of the conversion coefficients, CPR(??; ??0), relative to parallel incidence (?? = 0) increases as the wedge angle increases. The locations of the maxima and the minimum as well as the asymmetry can be explained qualitatively. The conversion coefficients are measured with an accuracy of ??5% in those regions where there are no interfering waves. A comparison of the data for the 10?? wedge with the theoretical results for a half plane (0?? wedge) shows good correlation. ?? 1978.

Gangi, A.F.; Wesson, R.L.

1978-01-01

97

Measurement of mass attenuation coefficients for YBaCuO superconductor at different energies

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mass attenuation coefficients for Y2O3, BaCO3, CuO compounds, and solid-state forms of YBa2Cu3O7 superconductor were determined at energies of 57.5, 59.5, 65.2, 74.8, 77.1, 87.3, 94.6, 98.4, 122, and 136 keV. The samples were irradiated using a 241Am point source emitting 59.5 keV photon energies and a 57Co point source emitting 122 and 136 keV photon energies. The other energies were obtained using secondary targets such as Ta, Bi2O3, and (CH3COO)2UO22H2O. The gamma- and x-rays were counted by a Si(Li) detector with a resolution of 160 eV at 5.9 keV. Samples were selected on the basis of known composition and mass densities were measured using a densitometer. The experimental results obtained in this study are compared with theoretical values.

Çevik, U.; Baltas, H.; Çelik, S.; Karaca, I.; Kopya, I.

2005-01-01

98

Analytical Method for Guided Waves Propagating in a Fluid-Filled Pipe with Attenuation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To ensure the safety of nuclear power plants, a relatively rapid nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of cylindrical pipes that carry water is needed. NDE methods that use guided waves are a possible solution because a guided wave has a long propagation range. In this study, we developed an analytical method of modeling guided waves that propagate in a fluid-filled cylindrical pipe with attenuation. The analytical method was used to determine the dispersion curves affected by the attenuation of the pipe or fluid itself. We calculated the dispersion curves and amplitudes of displacements, and discussed the effect of attenuation.

Sato, Harumichi; Ogiso, Hisato

2013-07-01

99

X-ray absorption and backscattered electron (BSE) microscopies are two commonly used techniques for estimating mineral contents in calcified tissues. The resolution in BSE images is usually higher than in x-ray images, but due to the previous lack of good standards to quantify the grey levels in BSE images of bones and teeth, x-ray microtomography (XMT) images of the same specimens have been used for calibration. However, the physics of these two techniques is different: for a specimen with a given composition, the x-ray linear attenuation coefficient is proportional to density, but there is no such relation with the BSE coefficient. To understand the reason that this calibration appears to be valid, the behaviour of simulated bone samples was investigated. In this, the bone samples were modelled as having three phases: hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), protein, and void (either empty or completely filled with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), a resin which is usually used for embedding bones and teeth in microscopic studies). The x-ray linear attenuation coefficients (calculated using published data) and the BSE coefficients (calculated using Monte Carlo simulation) were compared for samples of various phase proportions. It was found that the BSE coefficient correlated only with the x-ray attenuation coefficient for samples with PMMA infiltration. This was attributed to the properties of PMMA (density and mean atomic number) being very similar to those of the protein; therefore, the sample behaves like a two-phase system which allows the establishment of a monotonic relation between density and BSE coefficient. With the newly developed standards (brominated and iodinated dimethacrylate esters) for BSE microscopy of bone, grey levels can be converted to absolute BSE coefficients by linear interpolation, from which equivalent densities can be determined. PMID:9418207

Wong, F S; Elliott, J C

1997-11-01

100

Attenuation anisotropy and the relative frequency content of split shear waves

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variation of frequency-dependent seismic wave attenuation with direction (attenuation anisotropy) contains additional information to that contained in velocity anisotropy. In particular, it has the potential to distinguish between different mechanisms that can cause velocity anisotropy. For example, aligned fracturing might be expected to cause measurable velocity and attenuation anisotropy, while preferred crystal orientation leads to significant velocity anisotropy but may cause only small amounts of attenuation. Attenuation anisotropy may also contain useful information about pore-fluid content and properties. We present a methodology for analysis of attenuation anisotropy, and apply it to a microseismic data set previously analysed for shear-wave splitting by Teanby et al. (2004). Attenuation anisotropy values obtained show a temporal variation which appears to correlate with the temporal variation in the velocity anisotropy. The comparison of the relative frequency content of fast (S1) and slow (S2) split shear waves is a convenient method for examining seismic attenuation anisotropy. Provided that S1 and S2 initially have the same spectral colouring, that no spectral distortion is introduced by the differences between receiver responses of geophone components, and that spectral distortion due to background noise can be ignored or corrected for, we can attribute any differences in their frequency content to attenuation anisotropy. Attenuation anisotropy, where present, should be detected by the different (approximately orthogonal) polarizations of S1 and S2 as they pass through the anisotropic medium. In the presence of attenuation anisotropy S1 and S2 should experience different levels of frequency-dependent attenuation. We quantify the differential attenuation of S1 and S2 using a scheme based on a spectral ratio method. We present results from a microseismic data set acquired in an abandoned oil well at Valhall, a North Sea oil field. The results are surprising in that sometimes the slower arrival, S2, is richer in high frequencies than the faster, S1. This appears to be contrary to results predicted by theoretical crack models for attenuation anisotropy (e.g. Hudson 1981). The mechanism responsible for these observations is not clear. Our differential attenuation attribute correlates with the angle between the strike of the inferred initial shear-wave source polarization and the fast shear-wave polarization, which suggests that the split shear wave with the larger amplitude is preferentially attenuated. Our attribute also correlates with the event backazimuth, and the minimum percentage anisotropy.

Carter, Andrew J.; Kendall, J.-Michael

2006-06-01

101

WAVELET BASED CHARACTERIZATION OF ACOUSTIC ATTENUATION IN POLYMERS USING LAMB WAVE MODES

. Acoustical properties like attenuation of propagating ultrasonic waves through polymers vary in a broad of acrylic (PMMA, polymethyl methacrylate), thermoplastic, using guided Lamb wave. Lamb waves are generated. In industrial applications, ultrasonic testing is commonly used on metals, plastics, composites, and ceramics

Boyer, Edmond

102

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With advances in 3D in vivo imaging technology, non-invasive procedures can be used to characterize tissues to identify tumors and monitor changes over time. Using a dedicated breast CT system with a quasi-monochromatic cone-beam x-ray source and flat-panel digital detector, this study was performed in an effort to directly characterize different materials in vivo based on their absolute attenuation coefficients. CT acquisitions were first acquired using a multi-material rod phantom with acrylic, delrin, polyethylene, fat-equivalent, and glandular-equivalent plastic rods, and also with a human cadaver breast. Projections were collected with and without a beam stop array for scatter correction. For each projection, the 2D scatter was estimated with cubic spline interpolation of the average values behind the shadow of each beam stop overlapping the object. Scatter-corrected projections were subsequently calculated by subtracting the scatter images containing only the region of the object from corresponding projections (consisting of primary and scatter x-rays) without the beam stop array. Iterative OSTR was used to reconstruct the data and estimate the non-uniform attenuation distribution. Preliminary results show that with reduced beam hardening from the x-ray beam, scatter correction further reduces the cupping artifact, improves image contrast, and yields attenuation coefficients < 8% of narrow-beam values of the known materials (range 1.2 - 7.8%). Peaks in the histogram showed clear separation between the different material attenuation coefficients. These findings indicate that minimizing beam hardening and applying scatter correction make it practical to directly characterize different tissues in vivo using absolute attenuation coefficients.

Madhav, Priti; Li, Christina M.; Tornai, Martin P.

2010-04-01

103

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immersion grating is a next-generation diffraction grating which has the immersed the diffraction surface in an optical material with high refractive index of n > 2, and can provide higher spectral resolution than a classical reflective grating. Our group is developing various immersion gratings from the near- to mid-infrared region (Ikeda et al.1, 2, 3, 4, Sarugaku et al.5, and Sukegawa et al.6). The internal attenuation ?att of the candidate materials is especially very important to achieve the high efficiency immersion gratings used for astronomical applications. Nevertheless, because there are few available data as ?att < 0.01cm-1 in the infrared region, except for measurements of CVD-ZnSe, CVD-ZnS, and single-crystal Si in the short near-infrared region reported by Ikeda et al.7, we cannot select suitable materials as an immersion grating in an aimed wavelength range. Therefore, we measure the attenuation coefficients of CdTe, CdZnTe, Ge, Si, ZnSe, and ZnS that could be applicable to immersion gratings. We used an originally developed optical unit attached to a commercial FTIR which covers the wide wavelength range from 1.3?m to 28?m. This measurement system achieves the high accuracy of (triangle)?att ~ 0.01cm-1. As a result, high-resistivity single-crystal CdZnTe, single-crystal Ge, single-crystal Si, CVD-ZnSe, and CVD-ZnS show ?att < 0.01cm-1 at the wavelength range of 5.5 - 19.0?m, 2.0 - 10.5?m, 1.3 - 5.4?m, 1.7 - 13.2?m, and 1.9 - 9.2?m, respectively. This indicates that these materials are good candidates for high efficiency immersion grating covering those wavelength ranges. We plan to make similar measurement under the cryogenic condition as T <= 10K for the infrared, especially mid-infrared applications.

Kaji, Sayumi; Sarugaku, Yuki; Ikeda, Yuji; Kobayashi, Naoto; Nakanishi, Kenshi; Kondo, Sohei; Yasui, Chikako; Kawakita, Hideyo

2014-07-01

104

Giant Quantum Oscillations in the Attenuation of Rayleigh Waves in Gallium

Giant quantum oscillations in the attenuation of Rayleigh waves with the magnetic field normal to the metal surface are reported. These oscillations have a spikelike character. The experiments are made at frequencies up to 120 MHz and temperatures down to 0.4 K. The line shape is studied and compared with that of the giant quantum oscillations in the attenuation of

G. Bellessa

1975-01-01

105

The Attenuation of Electromagnetic Waves By Multiple Knife-Edge Diffraction

ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 1 l. INTRODUCTION 2. , NUMERICAL EVALUATION,9 4. EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS,13 5. SUMt1ARY,18 6. ACKNmILEDG~1ENTS,19 7. REFERENCES,19 iii THE ATTENUATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES BY

L. E. Vogler

1981-01-01

106

Shear wave attenuation and dispersion in melt-bearing olivine polycrystals

: Plasticity, diffusion, and creep; 5144 Physical Properties of Rocks: Wave attenuation; KEYWORDS: anelasticity imposed stress field. As a consequence of the distortion of the matrix, each fluid inclusion is exposed

107

Near-surface seismic attenuation of P-waves in West Texas

(Member) Robert R. Berg (Member) el S. Watkins (Head of Department) August 1992 ABSTRACT Near-surface Seismic Attenuation of P-Waves in West Texas. (August 1992) Said Awdhah AI-Zahrani, B. S, University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi... Arabia Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Steven H. Harder Field experiments were conducted near Monahans, Texas, to measure the seismic P-wave attenuation of near-surface sediments. The field measurements consisted of recording two dynamite shots at a...

Al-Zahrani, Said Awdhah

1992-01-01

108

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Management of water resources such as a reservoir requires using analytical models which describe such parameters as the suspended sediment field. To select or develop an appropriate model requires making many measurements to describe the distribution of this parameter in the water column. One potential method for making those measurements expeditiously is to measure light transmission or turbidity and relate that parameter to total suspended solids concentrations. An instrument which may be used for this purpose was calibrated by generating curves of transmission measurements plotted against measured values of total suspended solids concentrations and beam attenuation coefficients. Results of these experiments indicate that field measurements made with this instrument using curves generated in this study should correlate with total suspended solids concentrations and beam attenuation coefficients in the water column within 20 percent.

Usry, J. W.; Whitlock, C. H.

1981-01-01

109

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The half-value thicknesses, linear and mass attenuation coefficients of biological samples such as bone, muscle, fat and water have been measured at 140, 364 and 662 keV ?-ray energies by using the ATOMLABTM-930 medical spectrometer. The ?-rays were obtained from 99mTc, 131I and 137Cs ?-ray point sources. Also theoretical calculations have been performed in order to obtain the half-value thicknesses and, mass and linear attenuation coefficients at photon energies 0.001 keV 20 MeV for bone, muscle and water samples. The calculated value and the experimental results of this work and the other results in literature are found to be in good agreement.

Akar, A.; Balta?, H.; Çevik, U.; Korkmaz, F.; Okumu?o?lu, N. T.

2006-11-01

110

Attenuation of Lamb waves in the vicinity of a forbidden band in a phononic crystal

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a Lamb wave propagates on a plate engraved by a periodic grating, it may exhibit attenuation. This attenuation is related to a coupling of this incident mode with other propagating modes. As the propagation takes place in a periodic medium, the dispersion curves of the modes are of interest because they exhibit pass bands and stop bands related to the geometry of the waveguide. The goal of this work is to quantitatively establish the relation between the value of the attenuation of the propagating waves and the width of the forbidden bands appearing inside the Brillouin zone. This study is performed by using a finite element method (ATILA® code).

Bavencoffe, M.; Hladky-Hennion, A.-C.; Morvan, B.; Izbickil, J.-L.

111

Exploring mediated reality to approximate x-ray attenuation coefficients from radiographs

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimation of the x-ray attenuation properties of an object with respect to the energy emitted from the source is a challenging task for traditional Bremsstrahlung sources. This exploratory work attempts to estimate the x-ray attenuation profile for the energy range of a given Bremsstrahlung profile. Previous work has shown that calculating a single effective attenuation value for a polychromatic source is not accurate due to the non-linearities associated with the image formation process. Instead, we completely characterize the imaging system virtually and utilize an iterative search method/constrained optimization technique to approximate the attenuation profile of the object of interest. This work presents preliminary results from various approaches that were investigated. The early results illustrate the challenges associated with these techniques and the potential for obtaining an accurate estimate of the attenuation profile for objects composed of homogeneous materials.

Jimenez, Edward S.; Orr, Laurel J.; Morgan, Megan L.; Thompson, Kyle R.

2014-09-01

112

Attenuation and distortion of compression waves propagating in very long tube

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lot of phenomena related to propagating various waves are seen when the high-speed train goes through the tunnel, the gas pipeline is broken due to an accident or the air brake of the wagon operates. For instance, a compression wave generated ahead of a high-speed train entering a tunnel propagates to the tunnel exit and spouts as a micro pressure wave, which causes an exploding sound. In order to estimate the magnitude correctly, the mechanism of the attenuation and distortion of a compression wave propagating along a very long tunnel must be understood and the experimental information on these phenomena is required. An experimental investigation is carried out to clarify the attenuation and distortion of the propagating compression wave in a very long tube. Experimental results show that the strength of a compression wave decreases with distance. The attenuation and distortion of compression waves are affected by the initial waveform of the compression wave and by the unsteady boundary layer induced by the propagating wave. The shape of a compression wave becomes different with the propagating distance; that is, a shock wave appears just head of a wavefront and an overshoot on pressure distribution is observed behind a shock wave due to the transition of the unsteady boundary layer.

Nakamura, Shinya; Sasa, Daisuke; Aoki, Toshiyuki

2011-03-01

113

Change of polarity for periodic waves in the variable-coefficient Korteweg-de Vries equation

coefficient of the linear dis- persive term. This change of polarity causes a solitary wave of depression, but a phase change is generated causing the wave to reverse its polarity. 1 Introduction The Kortweg-de Vries

114

Laboratory Measurements of Seismic Wave Attenuation in Natural Dunite

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to examine the processes responsible for the attenuation of seismic shear waves in the Earth's upper mantle, torsional forced-oscillation and microcreep experiements have been conducted on a natural dunite specimen at high temperatures to 1300° C and seismic frequencies from 0.001 to 1Hz. The dunite specimen (from Anita Bay, NZ) consists mainly of olivine (olivine 94%, orthopyroxene 5%, chromite 1%) of about 100 micron average grain size, but some olivine crystals of size up to several millimeters occur randomly. It also contains trace amounts of hydrous phases (loss on ignition is 0.2 wt.%). We measured both untreated and prefired (1200° C, 15hrs) specimens to assess the possible role of water on viscoelasticity. Water weakening of olivine aggregates in creep is currently interpreted in terms of increased concentrations of point defects, resulting in enhanced rates of ionic diffusion and dislocation climb. By analogy, it has been speculated that water significantly affects low-strain viscoelastic behavior as well. Our measurements suggest that shear modulus (G) and dissipation (Q-1) of the prefired specimen are generally larger than those of untreated one. In addition, frequency-dependence of G and Q-1 for the prefired specimen is substantially larger than those of the untreated one. Compared to calculations based on melt-free olivine polycrystals with an average grain size of 100 microns, the measured G and Q-1 are smaller than those calculated. On the other hand, the frequency-dependence of G and Q-1 for the untreated specimen is consistent with those of calculations, although frequency-dependence for the prefired specimen is generally larger relative to the calculations. No distinct dissipation peaks are observed related to the presence of melt, even though the untreated specimen has on the order of 1% melt, and the prefired one also contains a trace amount of melt. Because the measurements were mostly performed at temperatures higher than solidus temperatures, physical properties and distributions of melt may play major roles on interpreting the present experimental results. In the untreated specimen, melt is localized and the dimension of melt pockets is highly heterogeneous. Microstructures and water contents for both specimens will be discussed in detail.

Aizawa, Y.; Barnhoorn, A.; Fitzgerald, J. D.; Faul, U. H.; Jackson, I.

2005-12-01

115

Information about X-ray mass attenuation coefficients in different materials is necessary for accurate X-ray fluorescent analysis. The X-ray mass attenuation coefficients for energy of 7-12keV were measured in biological (Mussel and Oyster tissues, blood, hair, liver, and Cabbage leaves) and geological (Baikal sludge, soil, and Alaskite granite) samples. The measurements were carried out at the EXAFS Station of Siberian Synchrotron Radiation Center (VEPP-3). Obtained experimental mass attenuation coefficients were compared with theoretical values calculated for some samples. PMID:25464176

Trunova, Valentina; Sidorina, Anna; Kriventsov, Vladimir

2014-10-17

116

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The linearized attenuation theory of NACA Technical Note 3375 is modified in the following manner: (a) an unsteady compressible local skin-friction coefficient is employed rather than the equivalent steady-flow incompressible coefficient; (b) a nonlinear approach is used to permit application of the theory to large attenuations; and (c) transition effects are considered. Curves are presented for predicting attenuation for a shock pressure ratio up to 20 and a range of shock-tube Reynolds numbers. Comparison of theory and experimental data for shock-wave strengths between 1.5 and 10 over a wide range of Reynolds numbers shows good agreement with the nonlinear theory evaluated for a transition Reynolds number of 2.5 X 10(exp 5).

Trimpi, Robert L.; Cohen, Nathaniel B.

1961-01-01

117

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimation of seismic wave attenuation in the shallow crust in terms of coda wave Q structure previously investigated in the vicinity of Cairo Metropolitan Area was improved using seismograms of local earthquakes recorded by the Egyptian National Seismic Network. The seismic wave attenuation was measured from the time decay of coda wave amplitudes on narrow bandpass filtered seismograms based on the single scattering theory. The frequency bands of interest are from 1.5 to 18 Hz. In general, the values obtained for various events recorded at El-Fayoum and Wadi Hagul stations are very similar for all frequency bands. A regional attenuation law Q c = 85.66 f 0.79 was obtained.

El-Hadidy, Salah; Adel, M. E. Mohamed; Deif, Ahmed; Abu El-Ata, Ahmed Sayed; Sayed, S. R. Moustafa

2006-06-01

118

Heterogeneous porous media such as hydrocarbon reservoir rocks are effectively described as anisotropic viscoelastic solids. They show characteristic velocity dispersion and attenuation of seismic waves within a broad frequency band, and an explanation for this observation is the mechanism of wave-induced pore fluid flow. Various theoretical models quantify dispersion and attenuation of normal incident compressional waves in finely layered porous

F. Wenzlau; J. B. Altmann; T. M. Müller

2010-01-01

119

Laboratory measurements of wave attenuation through model and live vegetation

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Surge and waves generated by hurricanes and tropical storms often cause severe damage and loss of life in coastal areas. It is widely recognized that wetlands along coastal fringes reduce storm surge and waves. Yet, the potential role and primary mechanisms of wave mitigation by wetland vegetation a...

120

The large-scale influence of the Great Barrier Reef matrix on wave attenuation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Offshore reef systems consist of individual reefs, with spaces in between, which together constitute the reef matrix. This is the first comprehensive, large-scale study, of the influence of an offshore reef system on wave climate and wave transmission. The focus was on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia, utilizing a 16-yr record of wave height from seven satellite altimeters. Within the GBR matrix, the wave climate is not strongly dependent on reef matrix submergence. This suggests that after initial wave breaking at the seaward edge of the reef matrix, wave energy that penetrates the matrix has little depth modulation. There is no clear evidence to suggest that as reef matrix porosity (ratio of spaces between individual reefs to reef area) decreases, wave attenuation increases. This is because individual reefs cast a wave shadow much larger than the reef itself; thus, a matrix of isolated reefs is remarkably effective at attenuating wave energy. This weak dependence of transmitted wave energy on depth of reef submergence, and reef matrix porosity, is also evident in the lee of the GBR matrix. Here, wave conditions appear to be dependent largely on local wind speed, rather than wave conditions either seaward, or within the reef matrix. This is because the GBR matrix is a very effective wave absorber, irrespective of water depth and reef matrix porosity.

Gallop, Shari L.; Young, Ian R.; Ranasinghe, Roshanka; Durrant, Tom H.; Haigh, Ivan D.

2014-12-01

121

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The periodic theory of solid-state physics is introduced to study the reduction characteristics of periodic pile barriers. The attenuation zones of a two-dimensional infinite periodic pile barrier subjected to plane waves are analyzed by plane wave expansion method. Influences of soil parameters and pile configurations on the first no-directional attenuation zone are discussed. The screening effectiveness of finite periodic pile barriers is simulated by the finite element method. The present theoretical results are in well agreement with experimental data, which validates the existence of attenuation zones in the periodic structures. The results show that vibrations with frequencies in the attenuation zones can be reduced significantly. The present investigation provides a new concept for designing pile barriers to block mid-frequency vibration.

Huang, Jiankun; Shi, Zhifei

2013-09-01

122

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mass attenuation coefficients, ?/?, total interaction cross-section, ?t, and mean free path (MFP) of some Heavy Metal Oxides (HMO) glasses, with potential applications as gamma ray shielding materials, have been investigated using the MCNP-4C code. Appreciable variations are noted for all parameters by changing the photon energy and the chemical composition of HMO glasses. The numerical simulations parameters are compared with experimental data wherever possible. Comparisons are also made with predictions from the XCOM program in the energy region from 1 keV to 100 MeV. Good agreement noticed indicates that the chosen Monte Carlo method may be employed to make additional calculations on the photon attenuation characteristics of different glass systems, a capability particularly useful in cases where no analogous experimental data exist.

El-Khayatt, A. M.; Ali, A. M.; Singh, Vishwanath P.

2014-01-01

123

The Effect of Methane Hydrate Formation on Seismic Wave Attenuation in Sand

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of seismic wave attenuation in hydrate-bearing sediments can potentially improve the geophysical quantification of seafloor methane hydrates with applications to climate change, geohazards and economic resource studies. With this aim, we conducted a series of small strain (< 10-6), seismic frequency (50 - 550 Hz), laboratory resonant column experiments on synthetic methane hydrate-bearing sands, created under excess-gas and excess-water conditions, at an effective pressure of 500 kPa, for controlled hydrate saturations Sh between 0 - 0.43. The excess-gas method resulted in predominantly methane saturated, hydrate-bearing sand (water saturation Sw = 0.01), while the excess-water method produced a water saturated (Sw = 1.0), hydrate-bearing sand. Previously reported velocity results for P- and S-waves can be explained by grain coating hydrate for excess-gas formation, and by pore-filling hydrate for excess-water formation, based on theoretical velocity models. Both hydrate formation methods gave elevated P- and S-wave attenuations (here denoted as inverse quality factor Qp-1 and Qs-1 respectively) up to, for excess-gas 0.036 (Qp-1) and 0.025 (Qs-1), and for excess-water 0.1 (Qp-1) and 0.03 (Qs-1.). These values are always greater than those for sand without any hydrate, either water or partially water saturated; excess-water attenuation is always higher than excess-gas attenuation values above Sh = 0.1 (note that data were collected at discrete hydrate saturations between Sh = 0 - 0.43 only). Despite experimental errors of ± 10%, the attenuations show significant variations with hydrate saturation, and evidence for attenuation peaks at Sh = 0.05 for excess-gas, and at Sh = 0.13, 0.32 for excess-water, formation. Theoretical attenuation modelling with grain coating hydrate cement or load-bearing hydrate or pore-filling hydrate, based on extant velocity models, suggests that load-bearing hydrate is an important cause of heightened attenuation for both P- and S-waves in gas and water saturated sand, while pore-filling hydrate also contributes significantly to P-wave attenuation in water saturated sand. A poro-viscoelastic attenuation mechanism related to microporous hydrate and the formation of low aspect ratio pores adjacent to sand grains is thought to be responsible for the heightened levels of attenuation, whether in gas or water saturated sand. The model can be extended to clay-rich sediments.

Best, A. I.; Priest, J.; Clayton, C. R.; Rees, E. V.

2012-12-01

124

Measurement of alkali-silica reaction progression by ultrasonic waves attenuation

Development of non-destructive methods, developed specifically for assessing the damage induced by alkali-silica reaction (ASR) in concrete structures, is needed in order to carry out a systematic evaluation of the concrete condition. The aim of this study is to monitor the evolution of the ASR-damage in laboratory with concrete samples with ultrasonic pulse velocity and attenuation of ultrasonic waves methods. For this study, results of both methods were compared with expansion and mass variation. One reactive concrete mixture was made with reactive aggregate, and one other mixture, incorporating non-reactive aggregate, was made as a control. Specimens were kept at 38 deg. C in a 1 mol l{sup -1} NaOH solution to accelerate the reaction. Attenuation of transmitted ultrasonic waves appeared to be more appropriate for the evaluation of ASR-damage compared with pulse velocity. The attenuation of accelerated reactive concrete cylinders increased by 90% after 1 year while it increased by 40% for the non-reactive concrete used as a control. Major part of the attenuation increase in the non-reactive concrete is due to liquid absorption. This work suggests that in-situ non-destructive techniques based on ultrasonic wave attenuation, like ultrasonic attenuation tomography, should be developed in order to evaluate the development of ASR in concrete structures. Petrographic examination confirmed that damage to concrete is associated with ASR.

Saint-Pierre, Francois [Centre de Recherche sur les Infrastructures en beton - CRIB, Civil Engineering Department, Universite de Sherbrooke, J1K 2R1 (Canada); Rivard, Patrice [Centre de Recherche sur les Infrastructures en beton - CRIB, Civil Engineering Department, Universite de Sherbrooke, J1K 2R1 (Canada)]. E-mail: Patrice.Rivard@Usherbrooke.ca; Ballivy, Gerard [Centre de Recherche sur les Infrastructures en beton - CRIB, Civil Engineering Department, Universite de Sherbrooke, J1K 2R1 (Canada)

2007-06-15

125

Deriving attenuation coefficients from 3D CT data for SPECT Monte Carlo simulations

Quantitation of nuclear medicine data is a major goal in medical imaging. It implies that photon attenuation, scatter and depth dependent spatial resolution be corrected for. Realistic, anthropomorphic numerical phantoms are needed to understand how these phenomena degrade nuclear medicine images, and to validate correction methods. We developed a Monte Carlo simulator which simulates photon transport in an anthropomorphic phantom.

Veronique Baccarne; A. Turzo; Y. Bizais; M. Farine

1997-01-01

126

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Pressure Wave Attenuation due to Bubbly Layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the effects of dispersed microbubbles on a steep pressure wave and its attenuation are investigated both numerically and experimentally. Numerical simulations were carried out using a compressible Euler equation solver, where the liquid-gas mixture was modeled using direct numerical simulations involving discrete deforming bubbles. To reduce computational costs a 1D configuration is used and the bubbles are assumed distributed in layers and the initial pressure profile is selected similar to that of a one-dimensional shock tube problem. Experimentally, the pressure pulse was generated using a submerged spark electric discharge, which generates a large vapor bubble, while the microbubbles in the bubbly layer are generated using electrolysis. High speed movies were recorded in tandem with high fidelity pressure measurements. The dependence of pressure wave attenuation on the bubble radii, the void fraction, and the bubbly layer thickness were parametrically studied. It has been found that the pressure wave attenuation can be seen as due to waves reflecting and dispersing in the inter-bubble regions, with the energy absorbed by bubble volume oscillations and re-radiation. Layer thickness and small bubble sizes were also seen as having a strong effect on the attenuation with enhanced attenuation as the bubble size is reduced for the same void fraction.

Jayaprakash, Arvind; Fourmeau, Tiffany; Hsiao, Chao-Tsung; Chahine, Georges

2013-03-01

127

Experimental investigation of wave attenuation through model and live vegetation

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hurricanes and tropical storms often cause severe damage and loss of life in coastal areas. It is widely recognized that wetlands along coastal fringes reduce storm surge and waves. Yet, the potential role and primary mechanisms of wave mitigation by wetland vegetation are not fully understood. K...

128

Grain-size dependence of shear wave speed dispersion and attenuation in granular marine sediments.

The author has shown that measured shear wave speed dispersion and attenuation in water-saturated silica sand can be predicted by using a gap stiffness model incorporated into the Biot model (the BIMGS model) [Kimura, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134, 144-155 (2013)]. In this study, the grain-size dependence of shear wave speed dispersion and attenuation in four kinds of water-saturated silica sands with different grain sizes is measured and calculated. As a result, the grain-size dependence of the aspect ratio in the BIMGS model can be validated and the effects of multiple scattering for larger grain sizes are demonstrated. PMID:24993238

Kimura, Masao

2014-07-01

129

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For medical applications of ultrasound inside the brain, it is necessary to understand the relationship between the apparent density of skull bone and its corresponding speed of sound and attenuation coefficient. Although there have been previous studies exploring this phenomenon, there is still a need to extend the measurements to cover more of the clinically relevant frequency range. The results of measurements of the longitudinal speed of sound and attenuation coefficient are presented for specimens of human calvaria. The study was performed for the frequencies of 0.27, 0.836, 1.402, 1.965 and 2.525 MHz. Specimens were obtained from fresh cadavers through a protocol with the Division of Anatomy of the University of Toronto. The protocol was approved by the Research Ethics Board of Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. The specimens were mounted in polycarbonate supports that were marked for stereoscopic positioning. Computer tomography (CT) scans of the skulls mounted on their supports were performed, and a three-dimensional skull surface was reconstructed. This surface was used to guide a positioning system to ensure the normal sound incidence of an acoustic signal. This signal was produced by a focused device with a diameter of 5 cm and a focal length of 10 cm. Measurements of delay in time of flight were carried out using a needle hydrophone. Measurements of effective transmitted energy were carried out using a radiation force method with a 10 µg resolution scale. Preliminary functions of speed of sound and attenuation coefficient, both of which are related to apparent density, were established using a multi-layer propagation model that takes into account speed of sound, density and thickness of the layer. An optimization process was executed from a large set of random functions and the best functions were chosen for those ones that closest reproduced the experimental observations. The final functions were obtained after a second pass of the optimization process was executed, but this time using a finite-difference time-difference solution of the Westervelt equation, which is more precise than the multi-layer model but much more time consuming for computation. For six of seven specimens, measurements were carried out on five locations on the calvaria, and for the other specimen three measurements were made. In total, measurements were carried out on 33 locations. Results indicated the presence of dispersion effects and that these effects are different according to the type of bone in the skull (cortical and trabecular). Additionally, both the speed of sound and attenuation showed dependence on the skull density that varied with the frequency. Using the optimal functions and the information of density from the CT scans, the average values (±s.d.) of the speed of sound for cortical bone were estimated to be 2384(± 130), 2471(± 90), 2504(± 120), 2327(± 90) and 2053(± 40) m s-1 for the frequencies of 270, 836, 1402, 1965 and 2526 kHz, respectively. For trabecular bone, and in the same order of frequency values, the speeds of sound were 2140(± 130), 2300(± 100), 2219(± 200), 2133(± 130) and 1937(± 40) m s-1, respectively. The average values of the attenuation coefficient for cortical bone were 33(± 9), 240(± 9) and 307(± 30) Np m-1 for the frequencies of 270, 836, and 1402, respectively. For trabecular bone, and in the same order of frequency values, the average values of the attenuation coefficient were 34(± 13), 216(± 16) and 375(± 30) Np m-1, respectively. For frequencies of 1.965 and 2.525 MHz, no measurable radiation force was detected with the setup used.

Pichardo, Samuel; Sin, Vivian W.; Hynynen, Kullervo

2011-01-01

130

Comparison of fractional wave equations for power law attenuation in ultrasound and elastography.

A set of wave equations with fractional loss operators in time and space are analyzed. The fractional Szabo equation, the power law wave equation and the causal fractional Laplacian wave equation are all found to be low-frequency approximations of the fractional Kelvin-Voigt wave equation and the more general fractional Zener wave equation. The latter two equations are based on fractional constitutive equations, whereas the former wave equations have been derived from the desire to model power law attenuation in applications like medical ultrasound. This has consequences for use in modeling and simulation, especially for applications that do not satisfy the low-frequency approximation, such as shear wave elastography. In such applications, the wave equations based on constitutive equations are the viable ones. PMID:24433745

Holm, Sverre; Näsholm, Sven Peter

2014-04-01

131

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fundamental-mode Love and Rayleigh waves generated by 57 earthquakes which occurred in the north and central Indian Ocean (extending to 40°S) and recorded at Indian seismograph and other WWSSN stations such as HOW, SHL, VIS, MDR, HYB, KOD, CHG, TRD, POO, BOM, GOA, NDI, NIL and QUE are analysed. Love and Rayleigh wave attenuation coefficients are estimated at periods of 15-100 s using the spectral amplitude of these waves for 98 different paths across the Bay of Bengal Fan, the Arabian Fan, and the north and central Indian Ocean. The large standard deviations observed in the surface wave attenuation coefficients may be a result of regional variation of the attenuative properties of the crust and upper mantle beneath these regions. Love wave attenuation coefficients are found to vary from 0.000 03 to 0.000 45 km -1 for the Bay of Bengal Fan; from 0.000 03 to 0.000 85 km -1 for the Arabian Fan; and from 0.000 03 to 0.000 35 km -1 for the north and central Indian Ocean. Similarly, Rayleigh wave attenuation coefficients vary from 0.000 03 to 0.0004 km -1 for the Bay of Bengal Fan; from 0.000 06 to 0.0007 km -1 for the Arabian Fan; and from 0.000 03 to 0.0007 km -1 for the north and central Indian Ocean. Backus and Gilbert inversion theory is applied to these surface wave attenuation data to obtain average Q-1 models for the crust and upper mantle beneath the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Fan, and the north and central Indian Ocean. Inversion of Love and Rayleigh wave attenuation data shows a high-attenuation zone centred at a depth of > 120 km ( Q? ? 125) for the Bay of Bengal Fan. Similarly, a high-attenuation zone ( Q? ? 40-70) occurs at a depth of 60-160 km for the Arabian Fan at 100-160 km ( Q? ? 115) for the Indian Ocean off Ninetyeast Ridge, and at 80-160 km ( Q? ? 80) for the Indian Ocean across the Ninetyeast Ridge. The Q?-1 models show a lithosphere thickness of 120 km beneath the Bay of Bengal Fan. Similarly, lithosphere thickness of 70, 100 and 80 km is estimated beneath the Arabian Fan, and the Indian Ocean off Ninetyeast Ridge and across Ninetyeast Ridge, respectively. The base of the lithosphere is identified as the depth at which there is a significant increase in the Q?-1 value, which attains its maximum value in the asthenosphere. The thinning of Indian lithosphere beneath the Arabian Fan suggests high temperature below Moho depth (60 km from surface) which has caused a high-attenuation zone at this shallow depth.

Singh, D. D.

132

Dynamic aspects of apparent attenuation and wave localization in layered media

We present a theory for multiply-scattered waves in layered media which takes into account wave interference. The inclusion of interference in the theory leads to a new description of the phenomenon of wave localization and its impact on the apparent attenuation of seismic waves. We use the theory to estimate the localization length at a CO2 sequestration site in New Mexico at sonic frequencies (2 kHz) by performing numerical simulations with a model taken from well logs. Near this frequency, we find a localization length of roughly 180 m, leading to a localization-induced quality factor Q of 360.

Haney, M.M.; Van Wijk, K.

2008-01-01

133

Study of transmission line attenuation in broad band millimeter wave frequency range

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broad band millimeter wave transmission lines are used in fusion plasma diagnostics such as electron cyclotron emission (ECE), electron cyclotron absorption, reflectometry and interferometry systems. In particular, the ECE diagnostic for ITER will require efficient transmission over an ultra wide band, 100 to 1000 GHz. A circular corrugated waveguide transmission line is a prospective candidate to transmit such wide band with low attenuation. To evaluate this system, experiments of transmission line attenuation were performed and compared with theoretical loss calculations. A millimeter wave Michelson interferometer and a liquid nitrogen black body source are used to perform all the experiments. Atmospheric water vapor lines and continuum absorption within this band are reported. Ohmic attenuation in corrugated waveguide is very low; however, there is Bragg scattering and higher order mode conversion that can cause significant attenuation in this transmission line. The attenuation due to miter bends, gaps, joints, and curvature are estimated. The measured attenuation of 15 m length with seven miter bends and eighteen joints is 1 dB at low frequency (300 GHz) and 10 dB at high frequency (900 GHz), respectively.

Pandya, Hitesh Kumar B.; Austin, M. E.; Ellis, R. F.

2013-10-01

134

Frequency-dependent attenuation of S-waves in the Kanto region, Japan

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apparent, scattering, and intrinsic S-wave attenuations (QS-1, Qscat-1 and Qint-1) of the upper lithosphere in the Kanto region of Japan were measured in the 1- to 32-Hz frequency range using Multiple Lapse Time Window Analysis (MLTWA) for 115 borehole seismograms of local earthquakes. A new set of time windows for MLTWA, in which multiple isotropic scattering is assumed, was proposed and employed to estimate the frequency dependence of S-wave attenuation parameters. Scattering attenuation was found to dominate intrinsic attenuation in the S-wave attenuation mechanism at low frequencies (<2 Hz), whereas the opposite relation was observed at high frequencies. The transition is caused by the different frequency dependences of Qscat-1(? f -1.5) and Qint-1(? f -0.7) at this frequency. Interestingly, Qscat-1 is almost frequency independent at frequencies >8 Hz, which implies the self-similar nature of short-wavelength heterogeneities in the upper lithosphere. In terms of the upper lithosphere of the Kanto region, these results may indicate that the random heterogeneities characterized by the Gaussian autocorrelation function with a fractional fluctuation ? ? 10% and a correlation length a ? 2 km are superimposed on the weak background self-similar heterogeneity.

Yoshimoto, K.; Okada, M.

2009-09-01

135

Attenuation of high-frequency P and S waves in Garhwal Himalaya, India

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tectonics of a region plays important role on the attenuation characteristics of the region. Attenuation characteristics have been estimated to understand the effect of the heterogeneity of the region in a tectonically active Garhwal region of Himalaya. Seismic body wave attenuation characteristics in the region is studied using 234 short-period, seismic observations from local events. The P-wave attenuation (QP- 1) and S-wave attenuation (QS- 1) were estimated by applying the state-of-the-art, extended coda normalization method for the frequency range from 1.5 to 24 Hz. Estimates of QP- 1 and QS- 1 decrease from (15.86 ± 0.90) × 10- 3 and (5.35 ± 0.51) × 10- 3 at 1.5 Hz to (0.54 ± 0.11) × 10- 3 and (0.34 ± 0.06) × 10- 3 at 24 Hz, respectively. The values of QP- 1 and QS- 1 show strong frequency dependence and fit the power-law relation QP- 1(f) = (27.43 ± 3.15) × 10- 3f(- 1.16 ± 0.06) and QS- 1(f) = (8.05 ± 0.74) × 10- 3f(- 0.93 ± 0.05), respectively. Obtained results are in the range of those reported for QP- 1 and QS- 1 of the other seismically active regions. The ratio of QP- 1/QS- 1 is larger than unity in the entire analyzed frequency range and may suggest high degree of heterogeneity in the region.

Tripathi, Jayant N.; Singh, Priyamvada; Sharma, Mukat L.

2014-12-01

136

Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 151 (2005) 243Â258 Estimation of coda wave attenuation, India b H. No. 360, Sector 71, SAS Nagar (Mohali), Ropar, Punjab 160071, India Received 6 October 2004; received in revised form 2 January 2005; accepted 20 March 2005 Abstract The attenuation of seismic wave

Parvez, Imtiyaz Ahmed

137

Radio-wave attenuation and sulfuric-acid vapor content in the Venus atmosphere

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio-wave absorption in the Venus atmosphere is investigated using radio probing data on variations of the field strengths of 5-cm and 32-cm signals. It is shown that the most probable cause of cm-wave attenuation at altitudes below 50 km is absorption by sulfuric-acid vapor. Sulfuric-acid vapor contents equal to 15 ppm at 48 km and 19 ppm at 47 km were determined, which agree well with Pioneer-Venus measurements at 13 cm.

Gubenko, V. N.; Iakovlev, O. I.; Matiugov, S. S.; Kucheriavenkov, A. I.; Vaganov, I. R.

1989-11-01

138

Attenuation of P, S, and coda waves in Koyna region, India

The attenuation properties of the crust in the Koyna region of the Indian shield have been investigated using 164 seismograms\\u000a from 37 local earthquakes that occurred in the region. The extended coda normalization method has been used to estimate the\\u000a quality factors for P waves $$ {\\\\left( {Q_{\\\\alpha } } \\\\right)} $$ and S waves $$ {\\\\left( {Q_{\\\\beta } }

Babita Sharma; S. S. Teotia; Dinesh Kumar

2007-01-01

139

Water saturation effects on elastic wave attenuation in porous rocks with aligned fractures

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elastic wave attenuation anisotropy in porous rocks with aligned fractures is of interest to seismic remote sensing of the Earth's structure and to hydrocarbon reservoir characterization in particular. We investigated the effect of partial water saturation on attenuation in fractured rocks in the laboratory by conducting ultrasonic pulse-echo measurements on synthetic, silica-cemented, sandstones with aligned penny-shaped voids (fracture density of 0.0298 ± 0.0077), chosen to simulate the effect of natural fractures in the Earth according to theoretical models. Our results show, for the first time, contrasting variations in the attenuation (Q-1) of P and S waves with water saturation in samples with and without fractures. The observed Qs/Qp ratios are indicative of saturation state and the presence or absence of fractures, offering an important new possibility for remote fluid detection and characterization.

Amalokwu, Kelvin; Best, Angus I.; Sothcott, Jeremy; Chapman, Mark; Minshull, Tim; Li, Xiang-Yang

2014-05-01

140

Anelastic Attenuation and Elastic Scattering of Seismic Waves in the Los Angeles Region

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accuracy of earthquake simulations needed for physics-based seismic hazard analysis depends on good information about crustal structure. For low-frequency (f < 0.3 Hz) simulations, the most important structural parameters are the seismic wave velocities, but as the frequencies increase, seismic wave attenuation becomes more important. We compare attenuation models that have been recently used in the CyberShake hazard model (Graves et al., 2011) and other simulation studies for the Los Angeles region (Olsen et al., 2009; Taborda & Bielak, 2013) with constraints from local earthquake data out to 10 Hz, which include those from Hauksson & Shearer's (2006) attenuation tomography as well as our own measurements. We show that the velocity-attenuation scaling relationship for shear waves employed by CyberShake (QS = 50VS, where VS is in km/s) provides a good approximation to the average crustal structure at f = 0.3 Hz, but it does not capture the lateral variations in QS at shallow depths. Moreover, this frequency-independent model is inconsistent with the high QS values observed throughout most of the crust at f > 1 Hz. The data indicate a frequency-dependent attenuation of the form QS ~ f ?, where 0.5 ? ? ? 0.8. Anomalously low QS factors are observed at very shallow depths, which can be explained by a combination of anelastic attenuation and elastic scattering. The scattering parameters are roughly consistent with small-scale, near-surface heterogeneities observed in well-logs and seismic reflection surveys in the Los Angeles basin. High-frequency scattering may also play a role in explaining Hauksson & Shearer's (2006) observation that the QP/QS ratio is anomalously low (~ unity). We summarize the observations in a new attenuation and scattering model for the CyberShake region that is laterally heterogeneous and frequency dependent.

Song, X.; Jordan, T. H.

2013-12-01

141

Parameters affecting water-hammer wave attenuation, shape and timing—Part 1: Mathematical tools

This two-part paper investigates key parameters that may affect the pressurewaveform predicted by the classical theory ofwater-hammer. Shortcomings in the prediction of pressure wave attenuation, shape and timing originate from violation of assumptions made in the derivation of the classical waterhammer equations. Possible mechanisms that may significantly affect pressure waveforms include unsteady friction, cavitation (including column separation and trapped air

Anton Bergant; Arris S. Tijsseling; John P. Vítkovský; Dídia I. C. Covas; Angus R. Simpson; Martin F. Lambert

2008-01-01

142

Attenuation of acoustic waves in glacial ice and salt domes P. B. Price

Cl (rock salt) with grain size 0.75 cm, scattering lengths are calculated to be 120 and 1.4 km at 10 and 30Attenuation of acoustic waves in glacial ice and salt domes P. B. Price Physics Department and salt domes, are under consideration as media in which to deploy instruments for detection of neutrinos

Price, P. Buford

143

Attenuation, transport and diffusion of scalar waves in textured random media

Most theoretical investigations of seismic wave scattering rely on the assumption that the underlying medium is statistically isotropic. However, deep seismic soundings of the crust as well as geological observations often reveal the existence of elongated or preferentially oriented scattering structures. In this paper, we develop mean field and radiative transfer theories to describe the attenuation and multiple scattering of

L. Margerin

2006-01-01

144

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive time-domain apparent-attenuation operators from both laboratory data and a single-scattering theory. The scattering medium consists of a homogeneous elastic block containing parallel cylindrical voids, with volume fractions in the range from 0.66% to 3.75%. The attenuation operators were computed by first measuring (or theoretically predicting) the attenuation of spectral amplitude and then constructing a causal seismogram using the Kramers-Kronig (KK) relation. Theory and experiment broadly agree, with the following exceptions: theory underestimated the overall level of attenuation, compressional wave attenuation is more poorly predicted than shear wave attenuation, and the theoretical attenuation operators tend to be larger in amplitude and less oscillatory than is observed. The KK attenuation operators are compared with attenuation operators derived from a least squares deconvolution (LSD) of the attenuated and unattenuated time series. The KK and LSD attenuation operators are superficially very different, reflecting different limitations in the methods. The LSD attenuation operators tend to be narrower than the KK attenuation operators and should not be used to measure pulse width.

Dubendorff, Bruce; Menke, William

1986-12-01

145

Patterns of spiral wave attenuation by low-frequency periodic planar fronts

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is evidence that spiral waves and their breakup underlie mechanisms related to a wide spectrum of phenomena ranging from spatially extended chemical reactions to fatal cardiac arrhythmias [A. T. Winfree, The Geometry of Biological Time (Springer-Verlag, New York, 2001); J. Schutze, O. Steinbock, and S. C. Muller, Nature 356, 45 (1992); S. Sawai, P. A. Thomason, and E. C. Cox, Nature 433, 323 (2005); L. Glass and M. C. Mackey, From Clocks to Chaos: The Rhythms of Life (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1988); R. A. Gray et al., Science 270, 1222 (1995); F. X. Witkowski et al., Nature 392, 78 (1998)]. Once initiated, spiral waves cannot be suppressed by periodic planar fronts, since the domains of the spiral waves grow at the expense of the fronts [A. N. Zaikin and A. M. Zhabotinsky, Nature 225, 535 (1970); A. T. Stamp, G. V. Osipov, and J. J. Collins, Chaos 12, 931 (2002); I. Aranson, H. Levine, and L. Tsimring, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1170 (1996); K. J. Lee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2907 (1997); F. Xie, Z. Qu, J. N. Weiss, and A. Garfinkel, Phys. Rev. E 59, 2203 (1999)]. Here, we show that introducing periodic planar waves with long excitation duration and a period longer than the rotational period of the spiral can lead to spiral attenuation. The attenuation is not due to spiral drift and occurs periodically over cycles of several fronts, forming a variety of complex spatiotemporal patterns, which fall into two distinct general classes. Further, we find that these attenuation patterns only occur at specific phases of the descending fronts relative to the rotational phase of the spiral. We demonstrate these dynamics of phase-dependent spiral attenuation by performing numerical simulations of wave propagation in the excitable medium of myocardial cells. The effect of phase-dependent spiral attenuation we observe can lead to a general approach to spiral control in physical and biological systems with relevance for medical applications.

de la Casa, Miguel A.; de la Rubia, F. Javier; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

2007-03-01

146

Attenuation of coda waves in the Garhwal Himalaya, India

Qc estimates have been obtained by analysing coda waves of seven local earthquakes recorded in the Garhwal Himalaya. The earthquakes have their epicentral distances within 100 km, focal depths up to 20 km with 2.4 ? ML ? 4.9. Qc values have been computed at central frequencies of 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, 12.0 and 18.0 Hz for different earthquake stations falling

S. C. Gupta; V. N. Singh; Ashwani Kumar

1995-01-01

147

The attenuation of Love waves and toroidal oscillations of the earth.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attempt has been made to invert a large set of attenuation data for Love waves and toroidal oscillations in the earth, using a recent method by Backus and Gilbert. The difficulty in finding an acceptable model of internal friction which explains the data, under the assumption that the internal friction is independent of frequency, casts doubt on the validity of this assumption. A frequency-dependent model of internal friction is presented which is in good agreement with the seismic data and with recent experimental measurements of attenuation in rocks.

Jackson, D. D.

1971-01-01

148

Numerical investigation of wave attenuation by vegetation using a 3D RANS model

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation has been recognized as an important natural shoreline protection against storm surges and waves. Understanding of wave-vegetation interaction is essential for assessing the ability of vegetation patches, such as wetlands, to mitigate storm damages. In this study the wave attenuation by vegetation is investigated numerically using a 3-D model which solves the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) by means of a finite-volume method based on collocated hexahedron mesh. A mixing length model is used for turbulence closure of the RANS equations. The water surface boundary is tracked using the Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) method with the Compressive Interface Capturing Scheme for Arbitrary Meshes (CICSAM) to solve the VOF advection equation. The presence of vegetation is taken into account by adding the vegetation drag and inertia forces to the momentum equations. The model is validated by several laboratory experiments of short wave propagation through vegetation over flat and sloping beds. The comparisons show good agreement between the measured data and calculated results, but the swaying motion of flexible vegetation which is neglected in this study can influence the accuracy of the wave height predictions. The model is then applied to one of the validation tests with different vegetation properties, revealing that the wave height attenuation by vegetation depends not only on the wave conditions, but also the vegetation characteristics such as vegetation height and density.

Marsooli, Reza; Wu, Weiming

2014-12-01

149

Calibration methods are investigated for the determination of bone density by the Compton scattering method. The scattered radiation from materials of different densities and dimensions is measured for this purpose. A function for the dependence of the intensity on these parameters is derived and compared with the experimental results. The influence of the surrounding soft tissue is studied by simulation experiments with water. It is found that the 'effective attenuation coefficient' of water for the incident and scattered radiation depends on the thickness of the surrounding water layer itself, as well as on the density of the scattering material. The implications of these findings for the evaluation of bone density measurements are discussed. PMID:7454760

Leichter, I; Weinreb, A; Hazan, G

1980-07-01

150

Periodic wave solutions to a coupled KdV equations with variable coefficients

The periodic wave solutions to a coupled KdV equations with variable coefficients are obtained by using F-expansion method which can be thought of as an over-all generalization of Jacobi elliptic function expansion method. In the limit cases, the solitary wave solutions are obtained as well.

Yubin Zhou; Mingliang Wang; Yueming Wang

2003-01-01

151

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dual-energy x-ray computed tomography (DECT) has the capability to decompose attenuation coefficients using two basis functions and has proved its potential in reducing beam-hardening artifacts from reconstructed images. The method typically involves two successive scans with different x-ray tube voltage settings. This work proposes an approach to dual-energy imaging through x-ray beam filtration that requires only one scan and a single tube voltage setting. It has been implemented in a preclinical microCT tomograph with minor modifications. Retrofitting of the microCT scanner involved the addition of an automated filter wheel and modifications to the acquisition and reconstruction software. Results show that beam-hardening artifacts are reduced to noise level. Acquisition of a ?-Compton image is well suited for attenuation-correction of PET images while dynamic energy selection (4D viewing) offers flexibility in image viewing by adjusting contrast and noise levels to suit the task at hand. All dual-energy and single energy reference scans were acquired at the same soft tissue dose level of 50 mGy.

Taschereau, R.; Silverman, R. W.; Chatziioannou, A. F.

2010-02-01

152

Dual-energy x-ray computed tomography (DECT) has the capability to decompose attenuation coefficients using two basis functions and has proved its potential in reducing beam-hardening artifacts from reconstructed images. The method typically involves two successive scans with different x-ray tube voltage settings. This work proposes an approach to dual-energy imaging through x-ray beam filtration that requires only one scan and a single tube voltage setting. It has been implemented in a preclinical microCT tomograph with minor modifications. Retrofitting of the microCT scanner involved the addition of an automated filter wheel and modifications to the acquisition and reconstruction software. Results show that beam-hardening artifacts are reduced to noise level. Acquisition of a ?-Compton image is well suited for attenuation-correction of PET images while dynamic energy selection (4D viewing) offers flexibility in image viewing by adjusting contrast and noise levels to suit the task at hand. All dual-energy and single energy reference scans were acquired at the same soft tissue dose level of 50 mGy. PMID:20107245

Taschereau, R; Silverman, R W; Chatziioannou, A F

2010-01-01

153

We present the assessment of ex vivo mouse muscle tissue by quantitative parametric imaging of the near-infrared attenuation coefficient µt using optical coherence tomography. The resulting values of the local total attenuation coefficient µt (mean ± standard error) from necrotic lesions in the dystrophic skeletal muscle tissue of mdx mice are higher (9.6 ± 0.3 mm?1) than regions from the same tissue containing only necrotic myofibers (7.0 ± 0.6 mm?1), and significantly higher than values from intact myofibers, whether from an adjacent region of the same sample (4.8 ± 0.3 mm?1) or from healthy tissue of the wild-type C57 mouse (3.9 ± 0.2 mm?1) used as a control. Our results suggest that the attenuation coefficient could be used as a quantitative means to identify necrotic lesions and assess skeletal muscle tissue in mouse models of human Duchenne muscular dystrophy. PMID:24761302

Klyen, Blake R.; Scolaro, Loretta; Shavlakadze, Tea; Grounds, Miranda D.; Sampson, David D.

2014-01-01

154

Rayleigh waves measurements are used to characterise cover concrete and mortar in the frequency range 60-180 kHz. At these frequencies, the wavelength is comparable to the size of the aggregates, and waves propagate in a multiple scattering regime. Acquired signals are then difficult to interpret due to an important incoherent part. The method proposed here is the study of the coherent waves, obtained by averaging signals over several configurations of disorder. Coherent waves give information on an equivalent homogeneous medium. To acquire a large amount of measurements with accuracy, an optimised piezoelectric source is used with a laser interferometer for reception. Adapted signal processing technique are presented to evaluate the coherent phase and group velocities and also the coherent attenuation parameter. The sensitivity of these three parameters with the properties of concrete is discussed, as well as the necessity to use coherent waves to obtain accurate results. PMID:19545883

Chekroun, M; Le Marrec, L; Abraham, O; Durand, O; Villain, G

2009-12-01

155

Objective: X-ray attenuation coefficients are used in common radiological, pathological and spectroscopic examinations and in the determination of the radiation dose distribution in biological tissues. In radiology, these coefficients enable diagnosis by differentiating the abnormal tissues from the normal ones using their morphological structure and contrast differences. In this study, our aim is to precisely determine the linear x-ray attenuation coefficients of pathological brain tissues and to use x-ray beam filters to enhance the tissue contrast in computed tomography. Materials and Methods: To directly measure the relative linear attenuation coefficients, an energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy system (EDXRS-Canberra, Si(Li) with DSA-1000 spectrum analyzer 1998; CT, USA) was used with collimators and a medical-purpose x-ray tube (Siemens, Siremobil, 1985; Erlangen, Germany) in a linear geometry. Results: Using a Mo filter with Computed Tomography CT and photon energies from 15 to 25 keV, EDXRS acquisitions were found to significantly distinguish grades of brain tumors (p<0.05). For the data acquired from CT systems with the decreasing filtered photon mean energy, the x-ray attenuation coefficients (i.e., the Hounsfield units) show that the ratio of EDXRS to CT for water’s attenuation coefficient are increased. With our suggested x-ray filters, the tissue contrast has been found to be increased in ex vivo brain tumor slices compared with slices scanned in conventional CT scanners. Conclusion: X-ray attenuations measured with the EDXRS are found to be statistically more reliable because of the length of acquisition times in this study.

Sagsoz, M. Erdem; Erdogan, Fazl?; Erzeneoglu, Salih Z.; Yuce, ?hsan

2010-01-01

156

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dual energy computed tomography (DECT) can provide simultaneous estimation of relative electron density ?e and effective atomic number Zeff. The ability to obtain these quantities (?e, Zeff) has been shown to benefit selected radiotherapy applications where tissue characterization is required. The conventional analysis method (spectral method) relies on knowledge of the CT scanner photon spectra which may be difficult to obtain accurately. Furthermore an approximate empirical attenuation correction of the photon spectrum through the patient is necessary. We present an alternative approach based on a parameterization of the measured ratio of low and high kVp linear attenuation coefficients for deriving Zeff which does not require the estimation of the CT scanner spectra. In a first approach, the tissue substitute method (TSM), the Rutherford parameterization of the linear attenuation coefficients was employed to derive a relation between Zeff and the ratio of the linear attenuation coefficients measured at the low and high kVp of the CT scanner. A phantom containing 16 tissue mimicking inserts was scanned with a dual source DECT scanner at 80 and 140 kVp. The data from the 16 inserts phantom was used to obtain model parameters for the relation between Zeff and \\mu \\big|_{140kVp}^{80kVp}. The accuracy of the method was evaluated with a second phantom containing 4 tissue mimicking inserts. The TSM was compared to a more complex approach, the reference tissue method (RTM), which requires the derivation of stoichiometric fit parameters. These were derived from the 16 inserts phantom scans and used to calculate CT numbers at 80 and 140 kVp for a set of tabulated reference human tissues. Model parameters for the parameterization of \\mu \\big|_{140\\;kVp}^{80\\;kVp} were estimated for this reference tissue dataset and compared to the results of the TSM. Residuals on Zeff for the reference tissue dataset for both TSM and RTM were compared to those obtained from the spectral method. The tissue substitutes were well fitted by the TSM with R2 = 0.9930. Residuals on Zeff for the phantoms were similar between the TSM and spectral methods for Zeff < 8 while they were improved by the TSM for higher Zeff. The RTM fitted the reference tissue dataset well with R2 = 0.9999. Comparing the Zeff extracted from TSM and the more complex RTM to the known values from the reference tissue dataset yielded errors of up to 0.3 and 0.15 units of Zeff respectively. The parameterization approach yielded standard deviations which were up to 0.3 units of Zeff higher than those observed with the spectral method for Zeff around 7.5. Procedures for the DECT estimation of Zeff removing the need for estimates of the CT scanner spectra have been presented. Both the TSM and the more complex RTM performed better than the spectral method. The RTM yielded the best results for the reference human tissue dataset reducing errors from up to 0.3 to 0.15 units of Zeff compared to the simpler TSM. Both TSM and RTM are simpler to implement than the spectral method which requires estimates of the CT scanner spectra.

Landry, Guillaume; Seco, Joao; Gaudreault, Mathieu; Verhaegen, Frank

2013-10-01

157

Dual energy computed tomography (DECT) can provide simultaneous estimation of relative electron density ?e and effective atomic number Zeff. The ability to obtain these quantities (?e, Zeff) has been shown to benefit selected radiotherapy applications where tissue characterization is required. The conventional analysis method (spectral method) relies on knowledge of the CT scanner photon spectra which may be difficult to obtain accurately. Furthermore an approximate empirical attenuation correction of the photon spectrum through the patient is necessary. We present an alternative approach based on a parameterization of the measured ratio of low and high kVp linear attenuation coefficients for deriving Zeff which does not require the estimation of the CT scanner spectra. In a first approach, the tissue substitute method (TSM), the Rutherford parameterization of the linear attenuation coefficients was employed to derive a relation between Zeff and the ratio of the linear attenuation coefficients measured at the low and high kVp of the CT scanner. A phantom containing 16 tissue mimicking inserts was scanned with a dual source DECT scanner at 80 and 140 kVp. The data from the 16 inserts phantom was used to obtain model parameters for the relation between Zeff and [Formula: see text]. The accuracy of the method was evaluated with a second phantom containing 4 tissue mimicking inserts. The TSM was compared to a more complex approach, the reference tissue method (RTM), which requires the derivation of stoichiometric fit parameters. These were derived from the 16 inserts phantom scans and used to calculate CT numbers at 80 and 140 kVp for a set of tabulated reference human tissues. Model parameters for the parameterization of [Formula: see text] were estimated for this reference tissue dataset and compared to the results of the TSM. Residuals on Zeff for the reference tissue dataset for both TSM and RTM were compared to those obtained from the spectral method. The tissue substitutes were well fitted by the TSM with R(2) = 0.9930. Residuals on Zeff for the phantoms were similar between the TSM and spectral methods for Zeff < 8 while they were improved by the TSM for higher Zeff. The RTM fitted the reference tissue dataset well with R(2) = 0.9999. Comparing the Zeff extracted from TSM and the more complex RTM to the known values from the reference tissue dataset yielded errors of up to 0.3 and 0.15 units of Zeff respectively. The parameterization approach yielded standard deviations which were up to 0.3 units of Zeff higher than those observed with the spectral method for Zeff around 7.5. Procedures for the DECT estimation of Zeff removing the need for estimates of the CT scanner spectra have been presented. Both the TSM and the more complex RTM performed better than the spectral method. The RTM yielded the best results for the reference human tissue dataset reducing errors from up to 0.3 to 0.15 units of Zeff compared to the simpler TSM. Both TSM and RTM are simpler to implement than the spectral method which requires estimates of the CT scanner spectra. PMID:24025623

Landry, Guillaume; Seco, Joao; Gaudreault, Mathieu; Verhaegen, Frank

2013-10-01

158

Numerical Analysis of Pulsed Pressure Waves in Attenuative and Dispersive Media.

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis examines the behavior of pulsed pressure waves as they propagate through dissipative fluids whose attenuation is characterized by a frequency power law. This means that the degree of attenuation increases as the frequency of a sinusoidal input signal increases where the rate of change is a physical property of the substance. Previously published experimental data indicates that this form of attenuation is typical of many viscous materials including biological tissues and fluids, adhesive glues, etc. The model developed to describe this behavior is based on the assumption that the pulsed waves have finite amplitude and can therefore be uniquely represented in the Fourier frequency domain in which the attenuation is equal to the imaginary part of the complex wavenumber. To ensure causality of the system impulse response, it is shown that the real part of the wavenumber must be nonlinearly dependent on frequency. This means that the physical system must be dispersive as well as attenuative and consequently pulsed waves are distorted as they propagate. Based on the complex wavenumber, a dispersive version of the wave equation which satisfies continuity conditions at material interfaces is derived. A spatial and temporal discretization of this equation allows for the analysis of realistic imaging regions. Due to noninteger powers of frequency in the wavenumber a continuous time version of the wave equation is not easily obtained making traditional finite difference time domain operators inapplicable. The interdependence of imaginary and real parts of the wavenumber, however, makes it possible to combine the corresponding terms in the wave equation into a single factor. This factor can then be mapped into discrete time frequency. In this domain noninteger exponents can be eliminated via a power series expansion and the resulting equations transform naturally to discrete time operators. The validity of this method is verified by comparing the results with those obtained through a numerical frequency domain implementation. The algorithm is demonstrated in two dimensions by simulating pulsed pressure waves radiating from a finite aperture through an adhesive bond layer in which case a thin dispersive layer is sandwiched between two lossless fluids.

Wismer, Margaret Gertrude

159

Extraction of surface wave attenuation from ambient noise: approaches to simulated and real data

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attenuation, or its inverse, quality factor (Q), is one of the most fundamental parameters of the Earth's media. Measurement of attenuation at regional distances traditionally uses seismic waves generated by earthquakes, which generally requires either a good knowledge of the source or a special choice of geometries to cancel out source effects. Seismic ambient noise correlation methodology has been demonstrated to be highly effective at extracting seismic velocities. Extracting amplitude information is more challenging. The greatest challenge is that the Earth's ambient noise field is highly anisotropic, non-uniform, and variable with time. Here, we explore the methodologies and procedures for extracting surface wave attenuation from empirical Green functions (EGFs) constructed from seismic ambient noise. Our approaches are to combine sound theoretical understanding and practical considerations with real data. Recent theoretical derivations and numerical simulations show that even in the case of incompletely diffuse noise fields, we can robustly recover not only travel times, but also ray arrival amplitudes, the ambient field's specific intensity, the strength and density of its scatterers if any, site amplification factors, and most importantly attenuation. In applications to the Earth, we propose two approaches with detailed formulations: linear array methods and more general methods for 2D station networks, each to be developed through applications to numerically simulated data, and to real data. In the preprocessing of real data, we explore a temporal "flattening" procedure, which speeds up EGF convergence and, in the mean time, preserves amplitudes.

Song, X.; Zhou, L.; Weaver, R. L.

2012-12-01

160

Attenuation and localization of bending waves in a periodic/disordered fourfold composite beam

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using the transfer matrix method this paper presents a study of the complex band structure, attenuation spectra and localization of bending waves in a periodic/disordered fourfold composite beam constructed by inserting thin piezoelectric or soft rubber layer at each interface of original elastic composite structures. Numerical examples are presented and the accuracy is validated by the wavelet method. The results show that the piezoelectricity can adjust the band gaps and the soft rubber can enlarge the degree of the localization and the frequency ranges of the complex band gaps. The localization factor resembles the shape of the attenuation curve in the complex band gaps. Subtle differences between the random disorder and the deterministic disorder are observed, except at lower frequencies. The behavior of the wave propagation and localization in random disordered beams can be altered by tuning different inserting position. The existence of piezoelectricity and/or soft rubber layers lends new insight into the vibration control of composite beams.

Yan, Zhi-Zhong; Zhang, Chuanzeng; Wang, Yue-Sheng

2009-10-01

161

Parameters affecting water-hammer wave attenuation, shape and timing—Part 2: Case studies

This two-part paper investigates parameters that may significantly affect water-hammer wave attenuation, shape and timing. Possible sources that may affect the waveform predicted by classical water-hammer theory include unsteady friction, cavitation (including column separation and trapped air pockets), a number of fluid–structure interaction effects, viscoelastic behaviour of the pipe-wall material, leakages and blockages. Part 1 of this two-part paper presents

Anton Bergant; Arris S. Tijsseling; John P. Vítkovský; Dídia I. C. Covas; Angus R. Simpson; Martin F. Lambert

2008-01-01

162

Ultrasonic attenuation in pearlitic steel.

Expressions for the attenuation coefficients of longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic waves are developed for steel with pearlitic microstructure. This type of lamellar duplex microstructure influences attenuation because of the lamellar spacing. In addition, longitudinal attenuation measurements were conducted using an unfocused transducer with 10 MHz central frequency on the cross section of a quenched railroad wheel sample. The dependence of longitudinal attenuation on the pearlite microstructure is observed from the changes of longitudinal attenuation from the quenched tread surface to deeper locations. The results show that the attenuation value is lowest and relatively constant within the quench depth, then increases linearly. The experimental results demonstrate a reasonable agreement with results from the theoretical model. Ultrasonic attenuation provides an important non-destructive method to evaluate duplex microstructure within grains which can be implemented for quality control in conjunction with other manufacturing processes. PMID:24268679

Du, Hualong; Turner, Joseph A

2014-03-01

163

Seismic attenuation in the eastern Australian and Antarctic plates, from multiple ScS waves

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The attenuation of seismic shear waves in the mantle beneath the eastern Australian and Antarctic plates is analysed using a large data set of multiple ScSn waves, reflected n times at the core-mantle boundary and (n-1) times at the surface. The data are the transverse components of deep earthquakes from the subduction zones north and east of Australia, recorded at stations in Antarctica, Australia, Indonesia, New Caledonia and New Zealand. The data are filtered with narrow bandpass filters at five frequencies in the range 0.013-0.040 Hz. The ScSn+1/ScSn amplitude ratios of successive ScS phases are compared to the ratios computed for synthetic seismograms for the same paths and same focal mechanisms, to eliminate the effects of source radiation and geometric attenuation. The synthetic seismograms are computed from a summation of toroidal modes for the 1-D reference model PREM. The observed to computed spectral ratios appear consistent for similar paths. They reveal that the attenuation is not frequency dependent, that the contribution of scattering to attenuation is low, and that the PREM model is a valuable reference model for the study region at the considered frequencies. An inversion of the data at 0.026 Hz is performed to retrieve the quality factor Q in the upper mantle, in regions defined using a priori constraints inferred from seismic shear velocities. Q-values close to those of PREM are found beneath the Australian and Antarctic cratons, lower values beneath the Eastern Australian Phanerozoic margin, and very low values beneath the oceanic region between Australia and Antarctica, where ridges and a triple junction are present. The Australian-Antarctic Discordance along the South-Indian ridge appears as an exception with a Q-value close to those of stable continents. The highest Q-values are found beneath the subduction zones, a feature which is not apparent in global attenuation models possibly because of its narrow lateral extension, and because it extends at depths larger than those sampled by surface waves. Despite limitations due to the uneven distribution of the ScSn bounce points at the surface and to the difficulty of collecting a large number of high quality data, our approach appears very promising. It is complementary to the more widely used determination of seismic attenuation using surface waves because it provides increased depth coverage, and a broader spectral coverage. It therefore has a considerable potential in future investigations of mantle structure and dynamics.

Souriau, Annie; Rivera, Luis; Maggi, Alessia; Lévêque, Jean-Jacques

2012-07-01

164

In this study, a quantitative estimate is derived for the uncertainty in the XCOM photon mass attenuation coefficients in the energy range of interest to external beam radiation therapy-i.e. 100 keV (orthovoltage) to 25 MeV-using direct comparisons of experimental data against Monte Carlo models and theoretical XCOM data. Two independent datasets are used. The first dataset is from our recent transmission measurements and the corresponding EGSnrc calculations (Ali et al 2012 Med. Phys. 39 5990-6003) for 10-30 MV photon beams from the research linac at the National Research Council Canada. The attenuators are graphite and lead, with a total of 140 data points and an experimental uncertainty of ?0.5% (k = 1). An optimum energy-independent cross section scaling factor that minimizes the discrepancies between measurements and calculations is used to deduce cross section uncertainty. The second dataset is from the aggregate of cross section measurements in the literature for graphite and lead (49 experiments, 288 data points). The dataset is compared to the sum of the XCOM data plus the IAEA photonuclear data. Again, an optimum energy-independent cross section scaling factor is used to deduce the cross section uncertainty. Using the average result from the two datasets, the energy-independent cross section uncertainty estimate is 0.5% (68% confidence) and 0.7% (95% confidence). The potential for energy-dependent errors is discussed. Photon cross section uncertainty is shown to be smaller than the current qualitative 'envelope of uncertainty' of the order of 1-2%, as given by Hubbell (1999 Phys. Med. Biol 44 R1-22). PMID:25622289

Ali, E S M; Spencer, B; McEwen, M R; Rogers, D W O

2015-02-21

165

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a quantitative estimate is derived for the uncertainty in the XCOM photon mass attenuation coefficients in the energy range of interest to external beam radiation therapy—i.e. 100 keV (orthovoltage) to 25 MeV—using direct comparisons of experimental data against Monte Carlo models and theoretical XCOM data. Two independent datasets are used. The first dataset is from our recent transmission measurements and the corresponding EGSnrc calculations (Ali et al 2012 Med. Phys. 39 5990–6003) for 10–30 MV photon beams from the research linac at the National Research Council Canada. The attenuators are graphite and lead, with a total of 140 data points and an experimental uncertainty of ?0.5% (k = 1). An optimum energy-independent cross section scaling factor that minimizes the discrepancies between measurements and calculations is used to deduce cross section uncertainty. The second dataset is from the aggregate of cross section measurements in the literature for graphite and lead (49 experiments, 288 data points). The dataset is compared to the sum of the XCOM data plus the IAEA photonuclear data. Again, an optimum energy-independent cross section scaling factor is used to deduce the cross section uncertainty. Using the average result from the two datasets, the energy-independent cross section uncertainty estimate is 0.5% (68% confidence) and 0.7% (95% confidence). The potential for energy-dependent errors is discussed. Photon cross section uncertainty is shown to be smaller than the current qualitative ‘envelope of uncertainty’ of the order of 1–2%, as given by Hubbell (1999 Phys. Med. Biol 44 R1–22).

Ali, E. S. M.; Spencer, B.; McEwen, M. R.; Rogers, D. W. O.

2015-02-01

166

Gamma-ray transmission methods have been used accurately for the study of the properties of soil in the agricultural purposes. In this study, photon attenuation coefficient, porosity and field capacity of soil are determined by using gamma-ray transmission method. To this end, the soil sample was collected from Erzurum and a 2 x 2 in NaI (Tl) scintillation detector measured the attenuation of strongly collimated monoenergetic gamma beam through soil sample. The radioactive sources used in the experiment were (241)Am, (133)Ba and (137)Cs. The mass attenuation coefficients of dry soil samples were calculated from the transmission measurements. The soil samples were irrigated by adding known quantities of water and the soil-water properties were examined. It was observed that gamma-ray transmission method for determination of the soil parameters has advantages such as practical, inexpensive, non-destructive and fast analysis. PMID:18554919

Demir, D; Un, A; Ozgül, M; Sahin, Y

2008-12-01

167

EE334 -Reflection Coefficient & Standing Waves 4 Lecture: pp 53-61 2-5

4-1 EE334 - Reflection Coefficient & Standing Waves 4 Lecture: pp 53-61 2-5 The voltage at the load if the plus phasor voltage is the input to the load then the Â phasor will be the reflect voltage phasor and their ratio will be the reflection coefficient. load L L ZZ ZZ V V = + - =+ - 0 0 0 0 voltage reflection

Kaiser, Todd J.

168

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiative transfer modelling in atmosphere, water, and on the air-water surface was used to create an algorithm and computer code for satellite monitoring Chinese estuarine and coastal waters. The atmospheric part of the algorithm is based on the Reference Evaluation of Solar Transmittance (REST) model for calculation of optical properties of the atmosphere from the top of the atmosphere to the target; for modelling optical properties from target towards satellite's sensor, an optical reciprocity principle has been used. An algorithm uses estimates derived from three different sources: 1) the MODIS-based software; 2) radiative transfer equations, and 3) well-known empirical relationships between measured parameters and optical depths and transmittances for such atmospheric components as molecules, aerosols, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, precipitable water vapor and uniformly mixed gases. Using this model allowed us to derive a reliable relationship relating an important parameter, the diffuse-to-global solar incoming irradiance ratio, to the aerosol optical thickness, solar zenith angle and wavelength. The surface and underwater parts of the algorithm contained theoretical and semi-empirical relationships between inherent (such as absorption, scattering and backscattering coefficients) and apparent (remote-sensing reflectance and diffuse attenuation coefficient, Kd) optical properties, and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) measured in the Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent coastal area. The first false colour maps of SSC and Kd demonstrated a well accordance with the multi-year field observations in the region, and suggest promise for use of this algorithm for the regular monitoring of Chinese and worldwide natural waters.

Sokoletsky, Leonid; Yang, Xianping; Shen, Fang

2014-11-01

169

Transmission, attenuation and reflection of shear waves in the human brain.

Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are caused by acceleration of the skull or exposure to explosive blast, but the processes by which mechanical loads lead to neurological injury remain poorly understood. We adapted motion-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging methods to measure the motion of the human brain in vivo as the skull was exposed to harmonic pressure excitation (45, 60 and 80 Hz). We analysed displacement fields to quantify the transmission, attenuation and reflection of distortional (shear) waves as well as viscoelastic material properties. Results suggest that internal membranes, such as the falx cerebri and the tentorium cerebelli, play a key role in reflecting and focusing shear waves within the brain. The skull acts as a low-pass filter over the range of frequencies studied. Transmissibility of pressure waves through the skull decreases and shear wave attenuation increases with increasing frequency. The skull and brain function mechanically as an integral structure that insulates internal anatomic features; these results are valuable for building and validating mathematical models of this complex and important structural system. PMID:22675163

Clayton, Erik H; Genin, Guy M; Bayly, Philip V

2012-11-01

170

Transmission, attenuation and reflection of shear waves in the human brain

Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are caused by acceleration of the skull or exposure to explosive blast, but the processes by which mechanical loads lead to neurological injury remain poorly understood. We adapted motion-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging methods to measure the motion of the human brain in vivo as the skull was exposed to harmonic pressure excitation (45, 60 and 80 Hz). We analysed displacement fields to quantify the transmission, attenuation and reflection of distortional (shear) waves as well as viscoelastic material properties. Results suggest that internal membranes, such as the falx cerebri and the tentorium cerebelli, play a key role in reflecting and focusing shear waves within the brain. The skull acts as a low-pass filter over the range of frequencies studied. Transmissibility of pressure waves through the skull decreases and shear wave attenuation increases with increasing frequency. The skull and brain function mechanically as an integral structure that insulates internal anatomic features; these results are valuable for building and validating mathematical models of this complex and important structural system. PMID:22675163

Clayton, Erik H.; Genin, Guy M.; Bayly, Philip V.

2012-01-01

171

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

bandwidths and coherence coefficients of lower band whistler mode waves are analyzed using Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) waveform data for rising tones, falling tones, and hiss-like emissions separately. We also evaluate their dependences on the spatial location, electron density, the ratio of plasma frequency to local electron gyrofrequency (fpe/fce), and the wave amplitude. Our results show that the bandwidth normalized by the local electron gyrofrequency (fce) of rising and falling tones is very narrow (~0.01 fce), smaller than that of the hiss-like emissions (~0.025 fce). Meanwhile, the normalized bandwidth of discrete emissions gradually decreases with increasing wave amplitude, whereas that of hiss-like emissions increases slowly. The coherence coefficient of rising and falling tones is extremely large (~1), while the coherence coefficient of hiss-like emissions is smaller but is still larger than 0.5. For all categories of whistler mode waves, the normalized bandwidth increases at larger L shells. Furthermore, the normalized bandwidth is positively correlated with local fpe/fce but is inversely correlated with the electron density. Interactions between radiation belt electrons and whistler mode waves have been widely described by quasi-linear diffusion theory. Our results suggest that although quasi-linear theory is not entirely applicable for modeling electron interactions with rising and falling tones due to their narrow bandwidth and high coherence coefficient, it is suitable to treat wave-particle interactions between electrons and low-amplitude hiss-like emissions. Moreover, the correlations between the normalized bandwidth of chorus waves (especially the discrete emissions) and other parameters may provide insights for the generation mechanism of chorus waves.

Gao, X.; Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Bortnik, J.; Angelopoulos, V.; Lu, Q.; Tao, X.; Wang, S.

2014-11-01

172

Northeastern Venezuela has been studied in terms of coda wave attenuation using seismograms from local earthquakes recorded by a temporary short-period seismic network. The studied area has been separated into two subregions in order to investigate lateral variations in the attenuation parameters. Coda-Q-1 (Q(c)-1) has been obtained using the single-scattering theory. The contribution of the intrinsic absorption (Q(i)-1) and scattering (Q(s)-1) to total attenuation (Q(t)-1) has been estimated by means of a multiple lapse time window method, based on the hypothesis of multiple isotropic scattering with uniform distribution of scatterers. Results show significant spatial variations of attenuation: the estimates for intermediate depth events and for shallow events present major differences. This fact may be related to different tectonic characteristics that may be due to the presence of the Lesser Antilles subduction zone, because the intermediate depth seismic zone may be coincident with the southern continuation of the subducting slab under the arc.

Ugalde, A.; Pujades, L.G.; Canas, J.A.; Villasenor, A.

1998-01-01

173

Viscoelastic characteristics of low-frequency seismic wave attenuation in porous media

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoscopic fluid flow is the major cause of wave attenuation and velocity dispersion at seismic frequencies in porous rocks. The Johnson model provides solutions for the frequency-dependent quality factor and phase velocity in partially saturated porous media with pore patches of arbitrary shapes. We use the Johnson model to derive approximations for the quality factor Q at the high and low frequency limit, and obtain the approximate equation for Q min based on geophysical and geometric parameters. A more accurate equation for Q min is obtained after correcting for the linear errors between the exact and approximate Q values. The complexity of the pore patch shape affects the maximum attenuation of Q min and the transition frequency ftr; furthermore, the effect on f tr is stronger than that on Q min . Numerical solutions to Biot's equation are computationally intensive; thus, we build an equivalent viscoelastic model on the basis of the Zener model, which well approximates the wave attenuation and dispersion in porous rocks in the seismic band.

Ling, Yun; Han, Li-Guo; Zhang, Yi-Ming

2014-12-01

174

Velocity Dispersion and Attenuation of Acoustic Waves in Granular Sedimentary Media.

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental and theoretical investigation of the effects of stress, frequency, and clay content on compressional and shear wave velocities and attenuations has been conducted using tight gas sandstone samples. The ultrasonic pulse transmission technique (~ 1 MHz) was used to measure velocities and attenuations and calculate dynamic moduli of fully brine saturated samples with porosities from 3 to 11.9 percent and clay contents from 1 to 38 percent. Simultaneous measurements were carried out to record axial and radial deformation under a biaxial stress state in order to calculate the static elastic moduli. The static moduli were found to be 1 to 6 times smaller than the dynamic moduli under the stress state. The velocities measured at ultrasonic frequency were also compared to the sonic log velocities (~20 KHz) in order to investigate dispersion effects. The trend observed in P and S wave velocities in homogeneous intervals shows that clean sandstone velocities measured in the ultrasonic frequency range deviate systematically from the log derived velocities. Compressional and shear wave amplitude data exhibited a shift in peak frequency toward lower frequencies for clay rich samples as compared to clean samples showing the important role clays play in the dissipative behavior of sandstones. The deviations from the log derived velocities are correlatable in most cases to the clay content and dispersion. The presence of clay softens the rock grain contacts and causes larger contact area values compared to the values for nearly clean rock under the same applied load. The frame moduli of sedimentary rocks are strongly influenced by the properties of the grain contacts. A modified Hertz contact theory is presented for the self consistent calculation of contact deformation, equilibrium separation distance (film thickness) and contact area for two spherical asperities in contact and subjected to an external load. It is shown that surface forces, i.e. electrostatic repulsion, Born, structural, and Van der Waals forces can be incorporated into the contact deformation problem. These forces play an important role in determining seismic wave velocities and attenuations at low confining stresses. The computed equilibrium separation distances and contact radii were used to calculate velocities and attenuations as a function of frequency and compared with measured values for glass beads, Navajo, Berea, Obernkirchner and Fort Union sandstones. The velocities and attenuations calculated as functions of stress, frequency, fluid type and saturation are all in good agreement with reported experimental data.

Tutuncu, Azra Nur

175

Numerical simulation of ultrasonic wave propagation in anisotropic and attenuative solid materials

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The axisymmetric elastodynamic finite element code developed is capable of predicting quantitatively accurate displacement fields for elastic wave propagation in isotropic and transversely isotropic materials. The numerical algorithm incorporates viscous damping by adding a time-dependent tensor to Hooke's law. Amplitude comparisons are made between the geometric attenuation in the far field and the corresponding finite element predictions to investigate the quality and validity of the code. Through-transmission experimental measurements made with a 1-MHz L-wave transducer attached to an aluminum sample support the code predictions. The algorithm successfully models geometric beam spreading dispersion and energy absorption due to viscous damping. Extension of the model to include anisotropy, inhomogeneities and the awkward boundaries associated with finite aperture transducers, and realistic defect shapes makes this numerical model a viable tool for the study of elastic wave propagation in nondestructive testing applications.

You, Zhongqing; Lusk, M.; Ludwig, Reinhold; Lord, William

1991-09-01

176

Attenuation and localization of an electromagnetic wave on the surface of a cylindrical conductor

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical study of the linear attenuation and the rate of localization of the energy of an electromagnetic wave propagating on the surface of a cylinder coated with a dielectric and imbedded in another dielectric is presented. The system is described in cylindrical coordinates, and the second dielectric is regarded as being possibly air, as would happen in an antenna configuration. The attenuation of the signal is calculated for all values of the ratio of the radius of the external layer to the first, conductive cylinder radius, and the phase shift is shown to vary with the ratio. The losses of energy through the dielectric layer are shown to have a negligible impact on the distribution of energy on the cylinder surface.

Zepp, G.; Wick, A.; Fabre, G.; Ritoux, G.

1982-10-01

177

This report considers and prioritizes the primary potential technical cost__reduction pathways for offshore wave activated body attenuators designed for ocean resources. This report focuses on technical research and development costreduction pathways related to the device technology rather than environmental monitoring or permitting opportunities. Three sources of information were used to understand current cost drivers and develop a prioritized list of potential cost reduction pathways: a literature review of technical work related to attenuators, a reference device compiled from literature sources, and a webinar with each of three industry device developers. Data from these information sources were aggregated and prioritized with respect to the potential impact on the lifetime levelized cost of energy, the potential for progress, the potential for success, and the confidence in success. Results indicate the five most promising costreduction pathways include advanced controls, an optimized structural design, improved power conversion, planned maintenance scheduling, and an optimized device profile.__

Bull, Diana L; Ochs, Margaret Ellen

2013-09-01

178

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Guided THz wave characteristics in a parallel-plate waveguide (PPWG) consisting of ferroelectric film (LiNbO3 and LiTaO3) and multilayer graphene (MLG) is studied in this paper, with their low and tunable attenuation valley predicted. The electrical conductivity of MLG is calculated by a set of closed-form equations with the coupling effect between the bottom graphene layer (BGL) and its substrate taken into account carefully, while the dispersive behavior of ferroelectric film itself is described by the Lorentz model over an ultra-wide THz band. It is shown that the guided TM-mode propagation can be adjusted effectively by changing temperature, frequency, optical pumping intensity, MLG layer number, film thickness and its transverse optical-phonon frequency. Moreover, one low attenuation valley of TM-mode in such ferroelectric-graphene waveguide is captured, which can be exploited for developing some THz planar tunable waveguides with ultra-low loss.

Gu, Xiao-Qiang; Yin, Wen-Yan; Zheng, Ting

2014-11-01

179

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A propagation experiment has been carried out at Penang using the SUPERBIRD-C satellite beacon. Cloud occurrences were observed during different months and it is seen that the low cloud occurrences over Penang is very significant from October to January. The cloud attenuation results that are presented, which include the testing of models, have been obtained from the data gathered over five years. The specific attenuation of radio wave due to clouds at various frequencies 12 GHz, 20 GHz, 75 GHz, 50 GHz and 100 GHz has been estimated whereby the values varies from 0.14 dB/km at 12 GHz to 10.1 dB/km at 100 GHz.

Mandeep, J. S.; Hassan, S. I. S.

2008-02-01

180

Attenuation Of Current Wave Propagating Along A Perfectly Conducting Wire: Application To Lightning

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for solving Maxwell_fs equations, we demonstrate that a vertical phased array of current sources above perfectly conducting ground, activated as prescribed by the transmission line (TL) model with return-stroke speed equal to the speed of light (v = c), produces a spherical TEM wave, identical to that analytically derived for the TL model with v = c by Thottappillil et al. [2001]. (This can be viewed as a proof of validity of the FDTD method used here.) Then, we apply the same approach to the case of a lumped current source at the bottom of a vertical perfectly conducting wire above perfectly conducting ground and show that the current wave launched by the current source propagates upward with attenuation and that the resultant field structure is non-TEM, as also follows from other lightning return stroke models based on solving Maxwell_fs equations. The attenuation is stronger for shorter current pulses and for current sources of smaller length. Thus, it appears that the basic assumption of the TL model (no current attenuation with height) is inconsistent with Maxwell_fs equations, unless the lightning channel is viewed as a phased array of current sources. It is inconsistent with the transmission line theory either, since a vertical wire above ground constitutes a non-uniform transmission line, whose characteristic impedance varies with height. We will try to explain the mechanism of current attenuation on a vertical perfectly conducting wire above perfectly conducting ground, usually attributed to radiation losses, on the basis of the electromagnetic field theory. In particular, we will discuss the interaction of the electromagnetic field produced by the source with the vertical conductor and ground and the direction of resultant Poynting vector. Thottappillil, R., J. Schoene, and M. A. Uman, Return stroke transmission line model for stroke speed near and equal that of light, Geophys. Res. Lett, 28(18), 3593-3596, 2001.

Baba, Y.; Rakov, V. A.

2003-12-01

181

Study of Spectral Attenuation Laws of Seismic Waves for Michoacán state, México

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several attenuation relationships have been developed for Mexico, mostly after the earthquake of September 19, 1985, an event that gave great impetus to the development of engineering seismology in Mexico. Since 1985, the number of seismic stations in the country has increased significantly, especially between the Coast of Guerrero and Mexico City. This is due to the infamous large amplifications observed in the lake area of Mexico City with respect to hard ground sites. Some studies have analyzed how seismic waves are attenuated or amplified from the Pacific Coast toward the inland. The attenuation relationship used for seismic hazard assessment in Mexico is that of Ordaz (1989), which uses data from the Guerrero acceleration network. Another recent study is that of García et al. (2005), which uses more recent data from intraplate earthquakes recorded at the Guerrero acceleration network. It is important to note that, since these relations were derived for only part of the Mexican subduction zone and for certain types of seismic sources, caution should be exercised when using them for earthquake risk studies in other regions of Mexico. In the present work, we study the state of Michoacán, one of the most important seimogenic zones in Mexico. Three kinds of sources exist in the state, producing tectonic earthquakes, volcanic earthquakes, and events due to local faults in the region. For this reason, it is of vital importance to study the propagation of seismic waves within Michoacán state, and in this paper in particular we study their attenuation. We installed a temporary network consisting of 7 accelerograph stations across the state, at the following locations: Faro de Brucerías, Aguililla, Apatzingán, Taretán, Pátzcuaro, Morelia, and Maravatío. The stations form a line that is perpendicular to the coastline and has a total length of 366 km, while the distance between neighboring stations varies from 60 to 80 km. Among all the seismic events recorded at this temporary network, we select 8 events that originated along the coastline of Michoacán, with moment magnitudes ranging from 4.3 to 5.1 Mw. Using these records, we calculate Q values for frequencies between 0.1 and 10 Hz, which is the frequency range of interest for Earthquake Engineering. According to our preliminary results, the attenuation estimated is significantly larger than what the attenuation laws predict for the states of Guerrero and Colima. One limitation of this study is that we used relatively small-magnitude earthquakes. This was a consequence of the relatively short operation period of the temporary network, which had to be limited to 3 months.

Vazquez Rosas, R.; Aguirre, J.; Mijares Arellano, H.

2009-12-01

182

Laboratory ultrasonic measurements of compressional wave velocity and attenuation were made as a function of effective pressure on samples of limestone, sandstone and siltstone taken from a shallow borehole test site. The results indicate that the sandstones are pervaded by grain contact microcracks which dramatically affect their compressional wave attenuations. Clean sandstone shows a compressional wave quality factor (Q{sub p}) of 24 {+-} 2 at 5 MPa effective pressure (close to the estimated in situ burial pressure) and a Q{sub p} of 83 {+-} 29 at 60 MPa. The Q{sub p} of limestones and siltstones at the site show negligible and small increases with pressure in the laboratory, respectively. The strong pressure dependence of Q{sub p} in clean sandstone was used to infer the presence of in situ microcracks. Sediment velocities measured in the laboratory at about 1 MHz were compared with those from the full waveform sonic log at about 10 kHz implies that they must also be highly attenuating over a significant part of the frequency range 10 kHz to 1 MHz, to account for the magnitude of the observed velocity dispersion. Assuming the laboratory Q{sub p} values measured at 5 MPa remain constant down to 10 kHz predicts the observed dispersion quite well. Furthermore, the sonic log velocities of sandstones, limestones and siltstones (after normalizing each lithology for porosity and clay content) were found to reflect the same pressure (depth) trends observed in the laboratory. The results provide evidence for the existence of in situ microcracks in near-surface sediments.

Best, A.I. [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom). Postgraduate Research Inst. for Sedimentology] [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom). Postgraduate Research Inst. for Sedimentology; Sams, M.S. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology] [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology

1997-03-01

183

Attenuation of High-Frequency Lg Waves in the Crust of the Southeastern S. Korea

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The attenuation study of Lg is very important in the southeastern South Korea because the Yangsan fault, an active fault lies in the industrial region where nuclear power plants are located. It is generally observed that QLg-1 is higher for seismically active areas than stable ones. In this study, using vertical-component recordings of the short-period velocity network data, we analyze the attenuation of Lg by means of a reversed two-station method (RSTM) devised by Chun et al. (1987). 32 combinations of 6 interstation paths are possible for RSTM from 18 earthquakes with the epicentral distances from 87 to 359 km, and the interstation path length from 58 to 84 km. The attenuation coefficient ? (f) of Lg are fitted to be of the form ? = (0.009 \\pm 0.0004) f {0.62 +/- 0.03} between 0.6 and 10 Hz. This value is comparable to seismically active region such as South California (Frankel et al., 1990). However, very low QP-1 and QS-1 was reported recently for this area, derived from the coda-normalization method for the same seismic network data (Chung and Sato, 2001). This contradiction may be due to the block of Lg propagation near the East Sea (Japan Sea), which has a typical oceanic crust. Furumura and Kennett (2001) show blockage of Lg for the oceanic crustal region deeper than the 1000-m contour.

Chung, T.; Lee, K.

2002-05-01

184

In the past several decades, the fields of ultrasound and magnetic resonance elastography have shown promising results in noninvasive estimates of mechanical properties of soft tissues. These techniques often rely on measuring shear wave velocity due to an external or internal source of force and relating the velocity to viscoelasticity of the tissue. The mathematical relationship between the measured velocity and material properties of the myocardial wall, arteries, and other organs with non-negligible boundary conditions is often complicated and computationally expensive. A simple relationship between the Lamb-Rayleigh dispersion and the shear wave dispersion is derived for both the velocity and attenuation. The relationship shows that the shear wave velocity is around 20% higher than the Lamb-Rayleigh velocity and that the shear wave attenuation is about 20% lower than the Lamb-Rayleigh attenuation. Results of numerical simulations in the frequency range 0-500 Hz are presented. PMID:22225009

Nenadic, Ivan Z; Urban, Matthew W; Bernal, Miguel; Greenleaf, James F

2011-12-01

185

Differential shear wave attenuation and its lateral variation in the North Atlantic region

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A digital data base of over 150 seismograms and a spectral radio technique are used to measure SS-S differential attenuation in the North Atlantic region. Differential attenuation is positively correlated with SS-S travel time residual, and both differential attentuation and travel time residual decrease with increasing seafloor age. Models are developed for seismic Q in which lateral variations include contributions from the asthenospheric low-Q zone as well as from lithospheric cooling. The Q models obtained under this assumption are in good agreement with those obtained from surface wave studies and are therefore preferred over those models with lateral variations confined to the upper 125 km. Systematic long-wavelength (1000-7000 km) variations in differential attenuation, corrected for seafloor age, are evident along the axis of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. These variations can be qualitatively correlated with long-wavelength variations in SS-S differential travel time residuals and are attributed to along-axis differences in upper mantle temperature.

Sheehan, Anne F.; Solomon, Sean C.

1992-01-01

186

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a review of the literature on the current status of the problem of calculating radio-wave attenuation on communications links. The calculation of the mean values of probability distributions of radio-wave attenuation due to different factors is considered together with the ranges of possible variations of these distributions with respect to the calculated mean. Particular attention is given to the fading statistics of radio waves on surface links associated with anomalies of the air refractive index in the atmospheric surface layer.

Pozhidaev, V. N.

1992-10-01

187

Air-ground interface: Surface waves, surface impedance and acoustic-to-seismic coupling coefficient

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In atmospheric acoustics, the subject of surface waves has been an area of discussion for many years. The existence of an acoustic surface wave is now well established theoretically. The mathematical solution for spherical wave propagation above an impedance boundary includes the possibility of a contribution that possesses all the standard properties for a surface wave. Surface waves exist when the surface is sufficiently porous, relative to its acoustical resistance, that it can influence the airborne particle velocity near the surface and reduce the phase velocity of sound waves in air at the surface. This traps some of the sound energy in the air to remain near the surface as it propagates. Above porous grounds, the existence of surface waves has eluded direct experimental confirmation (pulse experiments have failed to show a separate arrival expected from the reduced phase speed) and indirect evidence for its existence has appeared contradictory. The experimental evidence for the existence of an acoustical surface wave above porous boundaries is reviewed. Recent measurements including pulse experiments are also described. A few years ago the acoustic impedance of a grass-covered surface was measured in the frequency range 30 to 300 Hz. Here, further measurements on the same site are discussed. These measurements include core samples, a shallow refractive survey to determine the seismic velocities, and measurements of the acoustic-to-seismic coupling coefficient.

Daigle, Gilles; Embleton, Tony

1990-01-01

188

Lg Wave Attenuation in the Isparta Angle and Anatolian Plateau (Turkey)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We estimate Lg wave attenuation using local and regional seismic phases in the Isparta Angle and the Anatolian Plateau (Turkey). The Isparta Angle (IA) is a tectonically active zone forming the boundary between the African Plate and the Anatolian Plateau, and is currently undergoing N-S extensional deformation. The Anatolian Plateau contains many intra-continental faults including the North Anatolian Fault Zone and the East Anatolian Fault Zone as well as the Menderes Massif. A large waveform data set was compiled from a variety of local and regional seismic networks including 121 digital seismic stations (broad-band and short period) between 1999 and 2008 spanning the IA, the Anatolian Plateau and Azerbaijan. The data set was used to determine the nature of Lg wave propagation and characterize the nature of seismic attenuation within the crust of these regions. Lg waveforms were used to calculate the frequency-dependent Lg- Q o and Lg- ? . A wide range of Lg- Q o values was obtained between ~52 ± 6 and 524 ± 227. Low Lg- Q o values (~90-155) are calculated towards the north of IA, Iskenderun Gulf and its vicinity, Bingöl-Karl?ova, Izmit and its vicinity. Lg- Q o values are especially low (<90) along the Menderes Massif and the Aksehir-Simav Fault Zones. This may be due to intrinsic attenuation of Lg associated with the partially molten crust and young volcanism. The high Lg- Q o values (~350) are probably caused by the crust not being subject to large amounts of extensional deformation like the Antalya Gulf and apparently being thick enough to support Lg propagation. Relatively higher values along the border of this subduction zone and plate boundary might be related to the Taurus Mountain belts and Bitlis-Zagros Suture Zone. The lateral frequency dependency Lg- ? is also consistent with high tectonic activity in this region.

Sahin, Sakir; Bao, Xueyang; Turkelli, Niyazi; Sandvol, Eric; Teoman, Ugur; Kahraman, Metin

2013-03-01

189

Determination of Stress-Acoustic Coefficients of Rayleigh Wave by Use of Laser Doppler Velocimetry

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper, 1) a new non-contact ultrasonic stress measurement technique is proposed based on acoustoelasticity, in which ultrasonic wave motion is detected by use of a laser Doppler velocimeter, and 2) the stress-acoustic coefficients of Rayleigh wave for aluminum alloy and structural steel are determined by the technique. In the measurement system, Rayleigh waves are emitted into the specimen by a wedge-type piezoelectric transducer and vertical velocities of the surface motions of the traveling Rayleigh waves are detected by the laser Doppler velocimeter at two points of 4 cm apart. In order to measure the traveling time of the wave between the two points, the converted voltage signals are supplied both to i) a sing-around unit and ii) to a digital oscilloscope. The time-of-flight over the distance between the two points is obtained either by subtracting the sing-around periods measured at the two points or by direct reading at zero-cross of the overlapped images of the two waves on the CR display of the oscilloscope. Both measurements are made at the same time under increasing or decreasing loads. The stress-acoustic coefficients obtained are -1.2×10-5/MPa and -0.21×10-5/MPa for aluminum alloy 5052 and structural steel SS400, respectively. These results are in good agreement with those determined using two knife-edge contact piezoelectric transducers. This study shows that the proposed non-contact measuring technique by use of laser velocimetry is applicable to determining the stress-acoustic coefficients.

He, Lingfeng; Kobayashi, Shoichi

190

The mass attenuation and energy-absorption coefficients (radiation interaction data), which are widely used in the shielding and dosimetry of X-rays used for medical diagnostic and orthovoltage therapeutic procedures, are strongly dependent on the energy of photons, elements and percentage by weight of elements in body tissues and substitutes. Significant disparities exist in the values of percentage by weight of elements reported in literature for body tissues and substitutes for individuals of different ages, genders and states of health. Often, interested parties are in need of these radiation interaction data for body tissues or substitutes with percentage by weight of elements and intermediate energies that are not tabulated in literature. To provide for the use of more precise values of these radiation interaction data, parameters and computer programs, MUA_T and MUEN_T are presented for the computation of mass attenuation and energy-absorption coefficients for body tissues and substitutes of arbitrary percentage-by-weight elemental composition and photon energy ranging between 1 keV (or k-edge) and 400 keV. Results are presented, which show that the values of mass attenuation and energy-absorption coefficients obtained from computer programs are in good agreement with those reported in literature. PMID:21157532

Okunade, Akintunde A.

2007-01-01

191

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total mass attenuation coefficients of some amino acids, such as Glycine (C2H5NO2), DL-Alanine (C3H7NO2), Proline (C5H9NO2), L-Leucine (C6H13NO2 ), L-Arginine (C6H14N4O2) and L-Arginine Monohydrochloride (C6H15ClN4O2), were measured at 122, 356, 511, 662, 1170, 1275 and 1330 keV photon energies using a well-collimated narrow beam good geometry set-up. The gamma rays were detected using NaI (Tl) scintillation detection system with a resolution of 10.2% at 662 keV. The attenuation coefficient data were then used to obtain the effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and effective electron densities (Neff) of amino acids. It was observed that the effective atomic number (Zeff) and effective electron densities (Neff) tend to be almost constant as a function of gamma-ray energy. The results show that, the experimental values of mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and effective electron densities are in good agreement with the theoretical values with less than 1% error.

Pawar, Pravina P.; Bichile, Govind K.

2013-11-01

192

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analytic expressions for the mean field propagated through a stratified ocean with random volume or sufrace inhomogeneities of arbitrary size compared to the wavelength are derived from a wave guide scattering model stemming from Green's theorem. It is found that multiple scattering through inhomogeneities in the forward direction can be succinctly expressed in terms of modal attenuation and dispersion coefficients under widely satisfied conditions. The inhomogeneities can have an arbitrary distribution in depth so that the model can realistically apply to scattering from internal waves, bubbles, fish, seafloor and seasurface roughness as well as sub-bottom anomalies. An understanding of the coherence of the forward scattered field can be gained by analogy with the formation of optical mirages in low-grazing angle forward scatter from random surfaces.

Ratilal, Purnima; Makris, Nicholas C.

2002-11-01

193

The so-called Localized Waves (LW), and the "Frozen Waves" (FW), have arisen significant attention in the areas of Optics and Ultrasound, because of their surprising energy localization properties. The LWs resist the effects of diffraction for large distances, and possess an interesting self-reconstruction (self-healing) property, after obstacles with size smaller than the antenna's; while the FWs, a sub-class of theirs, offer the possibility of arbitrarily modeling the field longitudinal intensity pattern inside a prefixed interval, for instance 0 < z < L, of the wave propagation axis. More specifically, the FWs are localized fields "at rest", that is, with a static envelope (within which only the carrier wave propagates), and can be endowed moreover with a high transverse localization. In this paper we investigate by simulated experiments, various cases of generation of ultrasonic FW fields, with frequency f_o = 1 MHz in a water-like medium, taking account of the effects of attenuation. We present res...

Prego-Borges, Jose' L; Recami, Erasmo; Tavares-Costa, Eduardo

2013-01-01

194

Analysis of P-wave attenuation in hydrate-bearing sediments in the Shenhu area, South China Sea

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to analyze the wave attenuation characteristics in hydrate-bearing sediments, the Biot-Squirt (BISQ) porous medium model was implemented in the Shenhu area, South China Sea. Theoretical studies indicated that decrease of P-wave attenuation at seismic frequency range is observed with the increasing hydrate saturation. In the case studies in the Shenhu area, we estimated the quality factor from seismic reflection data after spectral correction by using the centroid-frequency method. The quality factor in the hydrate-bearing sediments is greater than 30, and with the hydrate saturation increasing to 40 % the quality factor increases from 30 to 50. This shows good agreement with the theoretical results based on the BISQ model. The field data example indicated that seismic wave attenuation is an effective attribute to identify the distribution of gas hydrates.

Li, Chuanhui; Feng, Kai; Liu, Xuewei

2014-11-01

195

The authors apply optimal control techniques to find approximate solutions to an inverse problem for the acoustic wave equation. The inverse problem (assumed here to have a solution) is to determine the boundary reflection coefficient from partial measurements of the acoustic signal. The sought reflection coefficient is treated as a control and the goal--quantified by an approximate functional--is to drive the model solution close to the experimental data by adjusting this coefficient. The problem is solved by finding the optimal control that minimizes the approximate functional. Then by driving the cost of the control to zero one proves that the corresponding sequence of optimal controls represents a converging sequence of estimates for the solution of the inverse problem. Compared to classical regularization methods (e.g., Tikhonov coupled with optimization schemes), their approach yields: (1) a systematic procedure to solve inverse problems of identification type and (ii) an explicit expression for the approximations of the solution.

Lenhart, S. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Mathematics Dept.]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Div.; Protopopescu, V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Div.; Yong, J. [Fudan Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Mathematics

1997-12-31

196

Modeling attenuation and phase of radio waves in air at frequencies below 1000 GHz

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Moist air is characterized for the frequency range 1-1000 GHz as a nonturbulent propagation medium described by meteorological parameters. An adequate spectroscopic data base for air consists of three terms: (1) resonance information for 29 H2O lines up to 1097 GHz and 44 O2 lines up to 834 GHz in the form of intensity coefficients and center frequency for each line; (2) an empirical water vapor continuum spectrum; and (3) a liquid water attenuation term for haze and cloud conditions. This data base is the heart of two computer programs which calculate and plot attenuation rates (in decibels per kilometer), refractivity (in parts per million), and refractive dispersion (in parts per million). The first covers the troposphere and requires pressure, temperature, and relative humidity as input data. The second addresses isolated line behavior in the mesosphere wherein the geomagnetic field strength H is an additional input parameter due to the Zeeman effect of the O2 molecules. Each oxygen line splits proportionally with H into numerous sublines, which are juxtaposed to form Zeeman patterns spread over a megahertz scale. Patterns of three main polarization cases are considered. Various typical examples for a model atmosphere demonstrate the utility of the approach, provide new information, and underline the serious role that water vapor plays above 120 GHz.

Liebe, Hans J.

1981-11-01

197

Experimental Studies on Role of Scattering Centers on Wave Energy Attenuation

In accelerator-driven neutron sources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) with powers in the 2 MW range (time-averaged), the interaction of the energetic proton beam with the mercury target can lead to very high heating rates in the target. Although the resulting temperature rise is relatively small (a few C), the rate of temperature rise is enormous (ca.10{sup 7} C/s) during the very brief beam pulse (-0.58 ps). The resulting thermal-shock induced compression of the mercury leads to the production of large amplitude pressure waves in the mercury that interact with the walls of the mercury target and the bulk flow field. Understanding and predicting propagation of pressure pulses in the target are considered critical for establishing the feasibility of constructing and safely operating such devices. Safety-related operational concerns exist in two main areas, viz., (1) possible target enclosure failure from impact of thermal shocks on the wall due to its direct heating from the proton beam and the loads transferred from the mercury compression waves, and (2) impact of the compression-cumrarefaction wave-induced effects such as cavitation bubble emanation and fluid surging. Preliminary stress evaluations indicate stress levels approaching yielding conditions and beyond in selected regions of the target. Also, the induction of cavitation (that could assist in attenuation) can also release gases that may accumulate at undesirable locations and impair heat transfer.

Kim, S.H.; Knaff, C.L.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.

2000-06-18

198

Attenuation in the Australian-Antarctic region from multiple ScS waves

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shear attenuation in the mantle beneath the Australian-Antarctic region is analyzed using a large data set of multiple ScSn waves. The data are the transverse components of deep earthquakes from the subduction zones North and East of Australia, recorded at stations in Antarctica, Australia, Indonesia, New Caledonia and New Zealand. The ScS(n+1)/ScSn amplitude ratios of successive ScS phases are compared to the ratios computed for PREM synthetic seismograms for the same paths and same focal mechanisms, in order to eliminate the effects of source radiation and geometric attenuation. A possible Q frequency dependence is investigated using narrow band-pass filters at several frequencies in the range 0.013-0.040 Hz. Assuming that Q heterogeneities are concentrated in the upper mantle, close to the upper bounce points, an inversion of the data at 0.026 Hz is performed to retrieve the quality factor in 5 regions defined using a priori constraints inferred from seismic shear velocities. Most stable results are obtained when restricting the analysis to ScS3/ScS2 and ScS4/ScS3 ratios, for which seismic phases can be properly isolated and whose bounce points sample sufficiently 4 of the 5 regions. Q values close to PREM's one are found beneath the Australian and Antarctic cratons, lower values beneath the Eastern Australian Phanerozoic margin, and very low values beneath the oceanic region between Australia and Antarctica, where ridges and a triple junction are present. The highest Q values are found beneath the subduction zones, a feature which is not apparent in global attenuation models. In the frequency range considered (0.013-0.040 Hz), our data do not require a frequency dependent quality factor. This result is robust and is consistent with previous results based on the decay of ScSn spectral ratios, obtained for various regions of the world.

Souriau, A.; Rivera, L.; Maggi, A.; Lévêque, J.-J.

2012-04-01

199

Attenuation of seismic waves and the universal rheological model of the Earth's mantle

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of results of laboratory studies on creep of mantle rocks, data on seismic wave attenuation in the mantle, and rheological micromechanisms shows that the universal, i.e., relevant to all time scales, rheological model of the mantle can be represented as four rheological elements connected in series. These elements account for elasticity, diffusion rheology, high temperature dislocation rheology, and low temperature dislocation rheology. The diffusion rheology element is described in terms of a Newtonian viscous fluid. The high temperature dislocation rheology element is described by the rheological model previously proposed by the author. This model is a combination of a power-law non-Newtonian fluid model for stationary flows and the linear hereditary Andrade model for flows associated with small strains. The low temperature dislocation rheology element is described by the linear hereditary Lomnitz model.

Birger, B. I.

2007-08-01

200

Wave scattering by small bodies and creating materials with a desired refraction coefficient

Asymptotic solution to many-body wave scattering problem is given in the case of many small scatterers. The small scatterers can be particles whose physical properties are described by the boundary impedances, or they can be small inhomogeneities, whose physical properties are described by their refraction coefficients. Equations for the effective field in the limiting medium are derived. The limit is considered as the size $a$ of the particles or inhomogeneities tends to zero while their number $M(a)$ tends to infinity. These results are applied to the problem of creating materials with a desired refraction coefficient. For example, the refraction coefficient may have wave-focusing property, or it may have negative refraction, i.e., the group velocity may be directed opposite to the phase velocity. This paper is a review of the author's results presented in MR2442305 (2009g:78016), MR2354140 (2008g:82123), MR2317263 (2008a:35040), MR2362884 (2008j:78010), and contains new results.

A. G. Ramm

2011-01-23

201

We have generalized the methodology of our regional amplitude tomography from the Lg phase to the four primary regional phases (Pn, Pg, Sn, Lg). Differences in the geometrical spreading, source term, site term, and travel paths are accounted for, while event source parameters such as seismic moment are consistent among phases. In the process, we have developed the first regional attenuation model that uses the amplitudes of four regional phases to determine a comprehensive P-wave and S-wave attenuation model of the crust and upper mantle. When applied to an area encompassing the Middle East, eastern Europe, western Asia, south Asia, and northeast Africa for the 1-2 Hz passband, we find large differences in the attenuation of the lithosphere across the region. The tectonic Tethys collision zone has high attenuation, while stable outlying regions have low attenuation. While crust and mantle Q variations are often consistent, we do find several notable areas where they differ considerably, but are appropriate given the region's tectonic history. Lastly, the relative values of Qp and Qs indicate that scattering Q is likely the dominant source of attenuation in the crust at these frequencies.

Pasyanos, M E; Walter, W R; Matzel, E M

2009-02-26

202

Wave field synthesis of a sound field described by spherical harmonics expansion coefficients.

Near-field compensated higher order Ambisonics (NFC-HOA) and wave field synthesis (WFS) constitute the two best-known analytic sound field synthesis methods. While WFS is typically used for the synthesis of virtual sound scenes, NFC-HOA is typically employed in order to synthesize sound fields that have been captured with appropriate microphone arrays. Such recorded sound fields are essentially represented by the coefficients of the underlying surface spherical harmonics expansion. A sound field described by such coefficients cannot be straightforwardly synthesized in WFS. This is a consequence of the fact that, unlike in NFC-HOA, it is critical in WFS to carefully select those loudspeakers that contribute to the synthesis of a given sound source in a sound field under consideration. In order to enable such a secondary source selection, it is proposed to employ the well-known concept of decomposing the sound field under consideration into a continuum of plane waves, for which the secondary source selection is straightforward. The plane wave representation is projected onto the horizontal plane and a closed form expression of the secondary source driving signals for horizontal WFS systems of arbitrary convex shape is derived. PMID:22423715

Ahrens, Jens; Spors, Sascha

2012-03-01

203

of cervical ripening in human pregnancy Yassin Labyed a,*, Timothy A. Bigelow a , Barbara L. McFarlin b online 19 May 2010 Keywords: Quantitative ultrasound Attenuation estimation Cervical ripening a b s t r to diagnose symptoms prior to uterine contractions. Cervical ripening is a long period that precedes

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

204

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical and experimental studies were made of the attenuation of the stress waves during passage through single and multilayer structures. The investigation included studies on elastic and plastic stress wave propagation in the composites and those on shock mitigating material characteristics such as dynamic stress-strain relations and energy absorbing properties. The results of the studies are applied to methods for reducing the stresses imposed on a spacecraft during planetary or ocean landings.

Yang, J. C. S.; Tsui, C. Y.

1972-01-01

205

The use of bubble resonance effects to attenuate low-frequency underwater sound was investigated experimentally in a large water tank. A compact electromechanical sound source was used to excite standing wave fields at frequencies ranging between 50 and 200 Hz in the tank. The source was then surrounded by a stationary array of tethered encapsulated air bubbles, and reduction in standing wave amplitude by as much as 26?dB was observed. The bubbles consisted of either thin-shelled latex balloons with approximately 5?cm radii or thicker-shelled vinyl boat fenders with 6.9?cm radii. The effects of changing the material and thickness of the bubble shells were found to be in qualitative agreement with predictions from Church's model for sound propagation in a liquid containing encapsulated bubbles [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 97, 1510-1521 (1995)]. Although demonstrated here for low frequency noise abatement within a tank, which is useful for quieting acoustic test facilities and large tanks used for marine life husbandry, the eventual aim of this work is to use stationary arrays of large tethered encapsulated bubbles to abate low frequency underwater noise from anthropogenic sources in the marine environment. PMID:25234970

Lee, Kevin M; Wilson, Preston S; Wochner, Mark S

2014-04-01

206

Explicit use of the Biot coefficient in predicting shear-wave velocity of water-saturated sediments

Predicting the shear-wave (S-wave) velocity is important in seismic modelling, amplitude analysis with offset, and other exploration and engineering applications. Under the low-frequency approximation, the classical Biot-Gassmann theory relates the Biot coefficient to the bulk modulus of water-saturated sediments. If the Biot coefficient under in situ conditions can be estimated, the shear modulus or the S-wave velocity can be calculated. The Biot coefficient derived from the compressional-wave (P-wave) velocity of water-saturated sediments often differs from and is less than that estimated from the S-wave velocity, owing to the interactions between the pore fluid and the grain contacts. By correcting the Biot coefficients derived from P-wave velocities of water-saturated sediments measured at various differential pressures, an accurate method of predicting S-wave velocities is proposed. Numerical results indicate that the predicted S-wave velocities for consolidated and unconsolidated sediments agreewell with measured velocities. ?? 2006 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

Lee, M.W.

2006-01-01

207

Study of the absorption coefficient of alpha particles to lower hybrid waves in tokamak

Part of the energy of the Lower Hybrid (LH) waves may be absorbed by the ? particles via the so-called perpendicular landau damping mechanism, which depends on various parameters of fusion reactors and the LH waves. In this article, we calculate the absorption coefficient ?{sub ?} of LH waves due to ? particles. Results show that, the ?{sub ?} increases with the parallel refraction index n{sub ?} while deceases with increasing the frequency of LH waves ?{sub LH} over a wide range. Higher background plasma temperature and toroidal magnetic field will increase the absorption, and there is a peak value of ?{sub ?} when n{sub e}?8×10{sup 19}m{sup ?3} for ITER-like scenario. The thermal corrections to the cold plasma dispersion relation will change the damping rate to a certain extent under some specific conditions. We have also evaluated the fraction of LH power absorbed by the alpha particles, ? ? 0.47% and 4.1% for an LH frequency of 5 GHz and 3.7 GHz respectively for ITER-like scenario. This work gives the effective reference for the choice of parameters of future fusion reactors.

Wang, Jianbing, E-mail: zhangxm@ecust.edu.cn; Zhang, Xianmei, E-mail: zhangxm@ecust.edu.cn; Yu, Limin, E-mail: zhangxm@ecust.edu.cn; Zhao, Xiang, E-mail: zhangxm@ecust.edu.cn [Department of Physics, East China University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 385, Shanghai 200237 (China)

2014-02-12

208

2-D Coda and Direct Wave Attenuation Tomography in Northern Italy

A 1-D coda method was proposed by Mayeda et al. (2003) in order to obtain stable seismic source moment-rate spectra using narrowband coda envelope measurements. That study took advantage of the averaging nature of coda waves to derive stable amplitude measurements taking into account all propagation, site, and Sto-coda transfer function effects. Recently this methodology was applied to micro earthquake data sets from three sub-regions of northern Italy (i.e., western Alps, northern Apennines and eastern Alps). Since the study regions were small, ranging between local-to-near-regional distances, the simple 1-D path assumptions used in the coda method worked very well. The lateral complexity of this region would suggest, however, that a 2-D path correction might provide even better results if the datasets were combined, especially when paths traverse larger distances and complicated regions. The structural heterogeneity of northern Italy makes the region ideal to test the extent to which coda variance can be reduced further by using a 2-D Q tomography technique. The approach we use has been developed by Phillips et al. (2005) and is an extension of previous amplitude ratio techniques to remove source effects from the inversion. The method requires some assumptions such as isotropic source radiation which is generally true for coda waves. Our results are compared against direct Swave inversions for 1/Q and results from both share very similar attenuation features that coincide with known geologic structures. We compare our results with those derived from direct waves as well as some recent results from northern California obtained by Mayeda et al. (2005) which tested the same tomographic methodology applied in this study to invert for 1/Q. We find that 2-D coda path corrections for this region significantly improve upon the 1-D corrections, in contrast to California where only a marginal improvement was observed. We attribute this difference to stronger lateral variations in Q for northern Italy relative to California.

Morasca, P; Mayeda, K; Gok, R; Phillips, W S; Malagnini, L

2007-10-17

209

The Velocity and Attenuation of Acoustic Emission Waves in SiC/SiC Composites Loaded in Tension

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The behavior of acoustic waves produced by microfracture events and from pencil lead breaks was studied for two different silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix composites. The two composite systems both consisted of Hi-Nicalon (trademark) fibers and carbon interfaces but had different matrix compositions that led to considerable differences in damage accumulation and acoustic response. This behavior was primarily due to an order of magnitude difference in the interfacial shear stress for the two composite systems. Load/unload/reload tensile tests were performed and measurements were made over the entire stress range in order to determine the stress-dependence of acoustic activity for increasing damage states. It was found that using the extensional wave velocities from acoustic emission (AE) events produced from pencil lead breaks performed outside of the transducers enabled accurate measurements of the stiffness of the composite. The extensional wave velocities changed as a function of the damage state and the stress where the measurement was taken. Attenuation for AE waveforms from the pencil lead breaks occurred only for the composite possessing the lower interfacial shear stress and only at significantly high stresses. At zero stress after unloading from a peak stress, no attenuation occurred for this composite because of crack closure. For the high interfacial stress composite no attenuation was discernable at peak or zero stress over the entire stress-range of the composite. From these observations, it is believed that attenuation of AE waveforms is dependent on the magnitude of matrix crack opening.

Morscher, Gregory N.; Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

210

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent reports have suggested that spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is a useful tool for quantifying the permeability of hyperosmotic agents in various tissues. We report our preliminary results on quantification of glucose diffusion and assessment of the optical attenuation change due to the diffusion of glucose in normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro by using a SD-OCT and then calculated the permeability coefficients (PC) and optical attenuation coefficients (AC). The PC of a 30% aqueous solution of glucose was 3.37±0.23×10-6 cm/s in normal tissue and 5.65±0.16×10-6 cm/s in cancerous colon tissue. Optical AC in a normal colon ranged from 3.48±0.37 to 2.68±0.82 mm-1 and was significantly lower than those seen in the cancerous tissue (8.48±0.95 to 3.16±0.69 mm-1, p<0.05). The results suggest that quantitative measurements of using PC and AC from OCT images could be a potentially powerful method for colon cancer detection.

Zhao, Qingliang; Zhou, Chuanqing; Wei, Huajiang; He, Yonghong; Chai, Xinyu; Ren, Qiushi

2012-10-01

211

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oncogenesis and metastasis of tumor are difficult to detect during the clinic therapy. To explore the optical properties of tumorigenesis and metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), we assessed the NPC cell lines 5-8F and 6-10B by optical coherence tomography (OCT): first, the OCT images of the two different types of cell pellets were captured. Second, by fitting Beer's law to the averaged A-scans in these OCT datasets, the attenuation coefficients (?t) of the cells were extracted. The median attenuation coefficients (interquartile range (IQR)) of 5-8F and 6-10B were 6.79 mm-1 (IQR 6.52 to 7.23 mm-1) versus 8.06 mm-1 (IQR 7.65 to 8.40 mm-1), respectively (p < 0.01, df = 39). Subsequently, the results were compared with those obtained by polarization sensitive OCT, which further confirmed that the quantitative OCT analysis (by ?t) could differentiate the oncogenesis and metastasis NPC cell lines in real time non-invasively.

Li, Jianghua; Shen, Zhiyuan; He, Yonghong; Tu, Ziwei; Xia, Yunfei; Chen, Changshui; Liu, Songhao

2012-10-01

212

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The K?/K? intensity ratios for pure Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, La and Ce elements and for some of their compounds were investigated. The vacancies in the K shell were created by 59.5-keV ?-rays from a heavily filtered 241Am radioactive source. K X-rays were measured using a Si(Li) detector with a resolution of 155 eV at 5.9 keV. We observed chemical effects on K?/K? intensity ratios of Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, La and Ce compounds. Detailed interpretation of data obtained from X-ray transmission measurements usually depends on the assumption that the contribution of each element is additive. This assumption yields the mixture rule for X-ray attenuation coefficients which is valid if molecular and chemical effects are negligible. We measured the total mass attenuation coefficients of Fe and Cu in various compounds. Self-absorption corrections were carried out on data for ligands in the different compounds. Our values were compared with the theoretical values for pure elements.

Sögüt, Ö.; Seven, S.; Baydas, E.; Büyükkasap, E.; Küçükönder, A.

2001-08-01

213

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total mass attenuation coefficients for elements Cr, Co and Fe and compounds CrCl_{2}, CrCl_{3}, Cr_{2}(SO_{4})_{3}K_{2}SO_{4}\\cdot24H_{2}O, CoO, CoCl_{2}, Co(CH_{3}COO)_{2}, FePO_{4}, FeCl_{3}\\cdot6H_{2}O, Fe(SO_{4})_{2}NH_{4}\\cdot12H_{2}O were measured at different energies between 4.508 and 14.142 keV using secondary excitation method. Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr were chosen as secondary exciters. 59.5 keV ?-rays emitted from a ^{241}Am annular source were used to excite a secondary exciter and K_{?}(K-L_{3}, L_{2}) lines emitted by the secondary exciter were counted by a Si(Li) detector with a resolution of 160 eV at 5.9 keV. It was observed that mixture rule method is not a suitable method for determination of the mass attenuation coefficients of compounds, especially at an energy that is near the absorption edge. The obtained values were compared with theoretical values.

Turgut, U.; Simsek, O.; Büyükkasap, E.

2007-08-01

214

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Monolithic Geometric Anti-Spring (GAS) filter is one of the most efficient vertical seismic isolation devices for Gravitational Wave (GW) interferometers. However, the attenuation of this filter was previously limited to around 60 dB due to the high frequency saturation associated with the filter's distributed mass—a problem typical of passive mechanical filters. We show that it is possible to circumvent this limit using a compensation wand based on the Center Of Percussion (COP) effect. When this device is mounted in parallel with the blade springs of a GAS filter, attenuation improves to 80 dB in the region above 10 Hz. Using this device it is therefore possible to design simpler attenuation chains consisting of fewer stages.

Stochino, Alberto; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Huang, Yumei; Sannibale, Virginio

2007-10-01

215

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time, a regional seismic attenuation for the Israel region is quantitatively estimated as a combination of intrinsic and scattering attenuations. We use a multiple lapse time windows analysis (MLTWA) to determinate the relative contributions of intrinsic absorption and scattering processes to the total regional attenuation in the crust. A single isotropic scattering model assuming a uniform half-space lithosphere is used to fit MLTWA predicted and measured energies from the records of 232 regional earthquakes recorded at 17 short-period and 5 broad-band local seismic stations. Analysis is performed for a set of 10 frequencies between 0.5 and 10 Hz. The frequency-dependent quality factor Q obtained by MLTWA ranges between Q = 77f0.96 in the Northern Israel and Q = 132f0.96 in Southern Israel. Independent estimates of regional coda Q value based on S-wave coda decay rate obtained by averaging of five broad-band Israel Seismic Network stations are approximated by the relation Qc = 126f1.05. As a whole, our findings indicate that in the Israel region, intrinsic absorption prevails over scattering attenuation. Separate analysis for three tectonically different regions in Israel region-Galilee-Lebanon, Judea-Samaria and Eastern Sinai-shows a regional dependence of attenuation parameters. The variation of attenuation characteristics implies different physical mechanisms of seismic attenuation in the Israel region and is related to the differences of structure in the Earth's crust beneath Israel. Such variation in the attenuation patterns is in agreement with the assumption that Northern Israel is tectonically more active than Southern Israel and that in the northern and central parts of Israel the upper crust is more heterogeneous than in the southern part.

Meirova, Tatiana; Pinsky, Vladimir

2014-04-01

216

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic wave attenuation in southeastern Sicily was investigated by using a data set of about 180 local earthquakes (1.5 <=ML<= 4.6) recorded in the period 1994-2003. We first estimated the quality factor of S waves (QS) and clarified its frequency dependence by means of the coda-normalization method, applied in the frequency range 1.5-15 Hz. The average QS as function of frequency is given by QS= 49f0.88. A detailed separation of scattering attenuation (Q-1s) from intrinsic absorption (Q-1i) was also attempted by applying the multiple lapse time window analysis (MLTWA), under the hypothesis of multiple isotropic scattering with uniform distribution of scatterers. Intrinsic absorption dominates over scattering in the attenuation process at high frequencies (above 3 Hz). Below 3 Hz scattering is the predominant attenuation effect in the region, at the scale length of these frequencies. However, some discrepancies have been observed between the theoretical model and the observations. This indicates that models with depth-dependent velocity structure and/or non isotropic scattering should be taken into account in order to remove ambiguities in the interpretation of the results.

Giampiccolo, E.; Tuvè, T.; Gresta, S.; Patanè, D.

2006-04-01

217

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An evaluation is performed for two millimeter wave propagation models: the LIEBE model, developed at the Institute for Telecommunications, Boulder, CO, under the guidance of Dr. H. Liebe; and the EOSAEL model, developed at the U. S. Army Atmospheric Laboratory at White Sands Missile Range, NM. This evaluation is conducted for horizontal attenuation due to both clear atmosphere and hydrometer effects under typical surface meteorological conditions, and within the frequency range 70-115 GHz. Intercomparisons of model theories and predictions show slight differences for molecular oxygen and fog attenuations, but significant differences for water vapor and rain attenuations. Results indicate that, while the qualitative agreement between either the EOSAEL or LIEBE model predictions, and measurements, for horizontal attenuation due to oxygen, water vapor, fog and rain is certainly satisfactory, there is a definite need for improvement. Overall, no clear preference for either the EOSAEL or LIEBE model for operational use is ascertained. Data comparisons suggest that, for several attenuation types, model preference is dependent on either the frequency or meteorological conditions.

Vogel, Gerard N.

1988-02-01

218

Centimeter and millimeter wave attenuation by atmospheric gases and rainfall at a tropical station

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mean surface air pressure, temperature, and water temperature for a site in southern Nigeria are used to compute the radio wavelength attenuation due to oxygen and water vapor over the 3-350 GHz range. Attenuation is found to be generally higher at this tropical location than at temperate climates. A similar analysis was performed for rainfall attenuation using rainfall intensity measurements, and results obtained with three different expressions for rain height led to a 3-km value for the estimation of earth-space rainfall attenuation at this location. Results indicate that while the contributions of oxygen and water vapor to the total atmospheric attenuation could be neglected when compared with rainfall attenuation, up to about 150 GHz, the contribution becomes significant above 190 GHz.

Ajayi, G. O.; Kolawole, L. B.

1984-07-01

219

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper analyzes and compares existing methods for calculating radio-wave attenuation statistics at frequencies above 10 GHz associated with anomalies of the air refractive index. An algorithm is proposed for calculating the sum distributions.

Pozhidaev, V. N.; Sviatogor, V. V.

1992-07-01

220

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A better understanding of seismic wave attenuation in hydrate-bearing sediments is needed for the improved geophysical quantification of seafloor methane hydrates, important for climate change, geohazard and economic resource assessment. Hence, we conducted a series of small strain (<10-6), seismic frequency (50-550 Hz), laboratory resonant column experiments on synthetic methane hydrate-bearing sands under excess-water seafloor conditions. The results show a complex dependence of P- and S-wave attenuation on hydrate saturation and morphology. P- and S-wave attenuation in excess-water hydrate-bearing sand is much higher than in excess-gas hydrate-bearing sand and increases with hydrate saturation between 0 and 0.44 (the experimental range). Theoretical modelling suggests that load-bearing hydrate is an important cause of heightened attenuation for both P- and S-waves in gas and water saturated sands, while pore-filling hydrate also contributes significantly to P-wave attenuation in water saturated sands. A squirt flow attenuation mechanism, related to microporous hydrate and low aspect ratio pores at the interface between sand grains and hydrate, is thought to be responsible for the heightened levels of attenuation in hydrate-bearing sands at low hydrate saturations (<0.44).

Best, Angus I.; Priest, Jeffrey A.; Clayton, Christopher R. I.; Rees, Emily V. L.

2013-04-01

221

Measurement of acoustic absorption coefficient with phase-conjugate ultrasonic waves

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental results on measurements of the acoustic absorption coefficient in test objects that were obtained with two methods, i.e., a standard insert-substitution method and a modification thereof using phase-conjugate waves, are given. Samples of gelatin and biological tissue in vitro (porcine muscle fibers) were used as test objects. Gelatin objects were manufactured that were both homogeneous and with inhomogeneities in the form of a rough surface or inclusions (air bubbles) distributed over the volume. A rough surface leads mainly to phase distortions of a probe beam, while bubble inclusions cause additional field scattering. For all homogeneous samples, both compared methods produce identical results. In the case of inhomogeneous samples including biological tissues, absorption measurement by a standard method may lead to significant errors. It is demonstrated that the use of properties of phase-conjugate waves provides an opportunity to eliminate almost completely the measurement error connected with phase distortions and reduce the error in the case of a medium with scatterers.

Smagin, N. V.; Krutyansky, L. M.; Brysev, A. P.; Bunkin, F. V.

2011-07-01

222

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, element analysis and the mass attenuation coefficient for matrixes of gold, bronze and water with various impurities and the concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) are evaluated and calculated by the MCNP simulation code for photons emitted from Barium-133, Americium-241 and sources with energies between 1 and 100 keV. The MCNP data are compared with the experimental data and WinXCom code simulated results by Medhat. The results showed that the obtained results of bronze and gold matrix are in good agreement with the other methods for energies above 40 and 60 keV, respectively. However for water matrixes with various impurities, there is a good agreement between the three methods MCNP, WinXCom and the experimental one in low and high energies.

Esfandiari, M.; Shirmardi, S. P.; Medhat, M. E.

2014-06-01

223

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The X-ray linear attenuation coefficient was measured for materials containing elements hydrogen to calcium. Characteristic X-rays with energies 32- 66 keV were produced by X-ray fluorescence using a secondary target system, and 140 keV gamma rays were obtained from an unsealed 99 mTc source. The photon beams were highly collimated and recorded using energy dispersive detection. A high-purity germanium detector was utilised to distinguish between measurements with K ? and K ? characteristic X-rays, and the gamma ray measurements used a sodium iodide detector. Samples were selected on the basis of having known composition and mass densities were measured using a pycnometer. The samples comprised six plastics, seven crystalline materials, three tissue substitute materials, three liquids and six salt solutions. Our results have an uncertainty of less than 2% and are a few percent lower than values predicted by the tabulations.

Midgley, S. M.

2005-03-01

224

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a method for modeling global seismic wave propagation through an attenuative Earth model including the center. This method enables accurate and efficient computations since it is based on the 2.5-D approach, which solves wave equations only on a 2-D cross section of the whole Earth and can correctly model 3-D geometrical spreading. We extend a numerical scheme for the elastic waves in spherical coordinates using the finite-difference method (FDM), to solve the viscoelastodynamic equation. For computation of realistic seismic wave propagation, incorporation of anelastic attenuation is crucial. Since the nature of Earth material is both elastic solid and viscous fluid, we should solve stress-strain relations of viscoelastic material, including attenuative structures. These relations represent the stress as a convolution integral in time, which has had difficulty treating viscoelasticity in time-domain computation such as the FDM. However, we now have a method using so-called memory variables, invented in the 1980s, followed by improvements in Cartesian coordinates. Arbitrary values of the quality factor (Q) can be incorporated into the wave equation via an array of Zener bodies. We also introduce the multi-domain, an FD grid of several layers with different grid spacings, into our FDM scheme. This allows wider lateral grid spacings with depth, so as not to perturb the FD stability criterion around the Earth center. In addition, we propose a technique to avoid the singularity problem of the wave equation in spherical coordinates at the Earth center. We develop a scheme to calculate wavefield variables on this point, based on linear interpolation for the velocity-stress, staggered-grid FDM. This scheme is validated through a comparison of synthetic seismograms with those obtained by the Direct Solution Method for a spherically symmetric Earth model, showing excellent accuracy for our FDM scheme. As a numerical example, we apply the method to simulate seismic waves affected by hemispherical variations of P-wavespeed and attenuation in the top 300 km of the inner core.

Toyokuni, Genti; Takenaka, Hiroshi

2012-06-01

225

The vertical spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient of Kd is an important optical property related to the penetration and availability of light underwater, which is of fundamental interest in studies of ocean physics and biology. Models developed in the recent decades were mainly based on theoretical analyses and numerical (radiative transfer) simulations to estimate this property in optically deep waters, thus leaving inadequate knowledge of its variability at multiple depths and wavelengths, covering a wide range of solar incident geometry, in turbid coastal waters. In the present study, a new model is developed to quantify the vertical, spatial and temporal variability of K(d) at multiple wavelengths and to quantify its dependence with respect to solar incident geometry under differing sky conditions. Thus, the new model is derived as a function of inherent optical properties (IOPs - absorption a and backscattering b(b)), solar zenith angle and depth parameters. The model results are rigorously evaluated using time-series and discrete in situ data from clear and turbid coastal waters. The K(d) values derived from the new model are found to agree with measured data within the mean relative error 0.02~6.24% and R² 0.94~0.99. By contrast, the existing models have large errors when applied to the same data sets. Statistical results of the new model for the vertical spectral distribution of K(d) in clear oceanic waters (for different solar zenith and in-water conditions) are also good when compared to those of the existing models. These results suggest that the new model can provide an improved interpretation about the variation of the vertical spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance, which will have important implications for ocean physics, biogeochemical cycles and underwater applications in both relatively clear and turbid coastal waters. PMID:24514558

Simon, Arthi; Shanmugam, Palanisamy

2013-12-01

226

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each year spatial patterns of ocean color in the Baltic Sea differ in temporal evolution and magnitude. We have investigated the interannual variability of the spatially averaged vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490 nm, Kd(490), in response to atmospheric forcing and river discharge. Our results indicate that atmospheric forcing does not have a significant influence on the interannual anomalies of Kd(490) in the Baltic Sea. This is in contrast to the North Atlantic site located at similar latitudes, were interannual variability of phytoplankton blooms (and ocean color) is to a large degree controlled by a local weather. Instead, in the Baltic Sea, the interannual variability of Kd(490) is significantly influenced by the river runoff. Higher values of Kd(490) are observed in years with larger inflow of water from rivers. Without an access to more detailed information about the concentrations of various optically significant water components, we can only speculate about the possible reasons for this correlation, but it is most likely a combination of several factors. These include: development of more intense phytoplankton blooms associated with larger supply of nutrients delivered by rivers, advection of optically important material with river water, as well as different physical condition for phytoplankton growth due to more stable water stratification. The diffuse attenuation coefficient plays a critical role in many oceanographic processes. For example, Kd is essential for quantification of radiative heating of the ocean, in models of primary production and other photoprocesses, and in studies discussing water turbidity and water quality. Better understanding of the variability of Kd in the Baltic Sea can impove our knowledge of this marine environment.

Stramska, Malgorzata

2013-04-01

227

Traveling wave solutions for fifth-order KdV type equations with time-dependent coefficients

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate two families of fifth-order KdV equations with time-dependent coefficients and linear damping term. These models apply to the description of envelope wave dynamics in inhomogeneous systems modeled by KdV-type equation. The modified sine-cosine method is used to construct exact periodic solutions and solitons solutions for the wave equations. The conditions of existence and uniqueness of exact solutions are also presented. The obtained results show that the sine-cosine.method provides a powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear equations with variable coefficients.

Triki, Houria; Wazwaz, Abdul-Majid

2014-03-01

228

Influence of the surface drag coefficient (young waves) on the current structure of the Berre lagoon

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the shallowness, currents and hydrodynamics of Berre lagoon (South of France) are closely conditioned by the bottom topography, and wind affects the entire water column, as for many other Mediterranean lagoons (Perez-Ruzafa, 2011). Wind stress, which is caused by moving atmospheric disturbance, is known to have a major influence in lagoon water circulation. According to the numerical simulation for the main directions of the wind: N-NW, S-SE and W (wind speed of 80 km/h) it is observed that the current is maximal alongshore in the wind direction; the bottom nearshore current being larger in shallower area. This fact is coherent with fundamental principle of wind-driven flows in closed or partially closed basins which states that in shallow water the dominant force balance is between surface wind stress and bottom friction, yielding a current in the direction of the wind (Mathieu et al, 2002, Hunter and Hearn, 1987; Hearn and Hunter,1990). A uniform wind stress applied at the surface of a basin of variable depth sets up a circulation pattern characterized by relatively strong barotropic coastal currents in the direction of the wind, with return flow occurring over the deeper regions (Csanady, 1967; Csanady, 1971). One of the key parameters characterizing the wind stress formulation is a surface drag coefficient (Cds). Thus, an effect of a surface drag coefficient, in the range 0.0016 - 0.0032, will be analyzed in this work. The value of surface drag coefficient Cds = 0.0016 used in our previous studies (Alekseenko et al., 2012), would correspond to mature waves (open sea). But, in the case of semi-closed lagoonal ecosystem, it would be more appropriate to consider "young waves" mechanism. A dependency of this coefficient in terms of the wind speed is given by Young (1999) in both cases of mature waves and young waves. For "young waves" generated at a wind speed of 80 km/h, Cds = 0.0032. So, the influence of Cds on the vertical profile of the velocity in the water column is analyzed in the range 0.0016 - 0.0032. For the three main wind directions considered in this work, for a wind speed of 80 km/h, the complex current structure of the Berre lagoon is analysed. In the nearshore zones, strong alongshore downwind currents are generated, reaching values of the order of 1m/s (up to 1.5 m/s) at the free surface, and 0.5 - 0.6 m/s at the bottom. References Alekseenko E., B. Roux, A. Sukhinov, R. Kotarba, D. Fougere. Coastal hydrodynamics in a windy lagoon; submitted to Computers and Fluids, oct. 2012 Csanady G. T.: Large-scale motion in the Great Lakes, Journal of Geophysical Research, 72(16), 4151-4161, 1967. Csanady G. T. : Baroclinic boundary currents and long edge-waves in basins with sloping shores. J. Physical Oceanography 1(2):92-104, 1971. Hunter, J.R. and Hearn, C.J.: Lateral and vertical variations in the wind-driven circulations in long, shallow lakes, Journal of Geophysical Research, 92 (C12), 1987. Hearn, C.J. and Hunter, J.R.: A note on the equivalence of some two- and three-dimensional models of wind-driven barotropic flow in shallow seas, Applied Mathematical Modelling, 14, 553-556, 1990. Mathieu P.P., Deleersnijder E., Cushman-Roisin B., Beckers J.M. and Bolding K.: The role of topography in small well-mixed bays, with application to the lagoon of Mururoa. Continental Shelf research, 22(9), 1379-1395, 2002. A. Pérez-Ruzafa, C. Marcos, I.M. Pérez-Ruzafa (2011). Mediterranean coastal lagoons in an ecosystem and aquatic resources management context//Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 36, Issues 5-6, 2011, Pages 160-166 Young I.R., Wind generated ocean waves. Ocean Engineering Series Editors. Elsevier, 1999, ISBN: 0-08-043317-0.

Alekseenko, Elena; Roux, Bernard; Kharif, Christian; Sukhinov, Alexander; Kotarba, Richard; Fougere, Dominique; Chen, Paul Gang

2013-04-01

229

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Vrancea seismogenic zone (SE Carpathians), where very strong earthquakes (Mw > 7) are reported several times a century, the seismotectonics is very complex. It develops beneath the contact between the Moldavian East European Platform, the Scythian Platform, and the Moesian Platform, to the east and southeast, and terranes of the Transylvania Basin lying within the Carpathian arc. Several hypothesis have been considered by scientists in order to explain the clustered foci of crustal and intermediate events (as deep as 200 km). However, until now, there is no tectonic scenario which could explain all geological and geophysical observations. We try to integrate long-term permanent and campaign GPS outcomes with contributions from seismic attenuation and S-wave splitting results. GPS contributions mainly refer to determination of velocity vectors. 15 campaigns and seven permanent stations are being used in order to determine the detailed kinematics of an area characterized by very small velocities (1-2 mm/y), bringing the satellite technique to almost its limit. The results suggest a counterclockwise mantle flow around the Vrancea seismogenic zone, which is a high velocity body developed in an almost vertical position, developing deeper than 200 km. This results is also supported by seismic attenuation studies. We found that models like delamination and subduction could be supported by seismic attenuation studies in this zone. The delamination model implies strong upwelling and horizontal inflow of asthenosphere into the gap between the delaminating and remnant lithosphere. The other model implies downwelling and perhaps lateral-horizontal inflow along the slab detachment or tear. The models imply different distributions of density and rheological properties associated with the different lithosphere - asthenosphere structures. We use the ratio of spectral amplitudes of P and S waves from vertical and transverse seismograms to estimate the S to P ratio in the frequency domain, and then we calculate Qs, the relative shear wave attenuation via two complementary techniques: We find that stations located near and above the Vrancea zone and in the Transylvanian Basin, attenuation is high (low Q). Stations situated on the East European, Moesian, and Scythian Platforms are characterized by higher Qs (low attenuation). We interpret the high attenuation in the Vrancea and Transylvanian Basin is the result of shallow hot asthenosphere present in this area. Observations of source-side shear wave splitting clearly show that upper mantle anisotropy is strongly variable in the region of the tightly curved Carpathian Arc: shear waves taking off from Vrancea along paths that sample the East and Southern Carpathians have fast anisotropy axes parallel to these ranges, whereas those leaving the source region to traverse the upper mantle beneath the Transylvanian Basin (i.e., mantle wedge side) trend NE-SW. Shear waves sampling the East European and Scythian Platforms are separable into two groups, one characterized by fast shear trends to the NE-SW, and a second, deeper group, with trends to NW-SE; also, the majority of null splits occur along paths leaving Vrancea in these NE-E azimuths. Deeper fabric with E-W trend marking asthenospheric flow beneath the craton's base. This more complex anisotropy beneath the western edge of the East European Platform would account for both the variability of observed splitting of waves that sample this volume.

Mocanu, Victor; Russo, Raymond; Ambrosius, Boudewijn

2010-05-01

230

The effective nonlinearity coefficients for three-wave interactions in the orthorhombic biaxial crystal of mm2 point group symmetry for six different assignments between the crystallophysical (optical) and crystallographic (piezoelectric) coordinate systems have been obtained. In the former coordinate system the dielectric permeability tensor is the diagonal one, in the latter the square nonlinearity tensor is defined. The point group mm2 includes

V. G. Dmitriev; D. N. Nikogosyan

1993-01-01

231

Seismic-Wave Attenuation and Partial Melting in the Upper Mantle of North America

A model of Q-X based on Walsh's theory for attenuation in partially melted rock is proposed for the upper mantle of western North America. The asthenosphere (or low-Q zone), in which attenuation is attributed to a superposition of thermally activated relaxation processes, is 300 km thick in the model and must be vertically inhomogeneous. The lithosphere (or high-Q lid) is

Sean C. Solomon

1972-01-01

232

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parameters related to seismic and ultrasonic elastic waves traveling through a porous rock material with compliant pores, cracks and isometric pores are subject to variations which are dependent on the physical properties of the rock such as density, porosity, permeability, frame work moduli, fluid moduli, micro structural variation, and effective pressure. Our goal is to understand these variations through experiments completed using Berea sandstone, rhyolites, coal, and carbonate samples. Understanding these lithologies are relevant to enhanced oil recovery, enhanced geothermal, and CO2 storage activities. Working in the COREFLOW laboratory at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) we performed several experiments on these rock types with various different pore filling fluids, effective pressures, and temperatures. We measured P, S1 and S2 ultrasonic velocities using an New England Research (NER) Autolab 1500 device and calculated the lame parameters (Bulk modulus (K), Young's modulus (E), Lamè's first parameter (?), Shear modulus (G), Poisson's ratio ( ), P-wave modulus (M)). Using an aluminum reference core and the P, S1, and S2 ultrasonic waveform data collected, we employed the spectral ratio method to estimate Q. This method uses the ratio of the amplitude-frequency spectrum (obtained via fast Fourier Transform and processed using Matlab) of the rock core compared with the amplitude-frequency spectrum of the aluminum reference core to calculate the quality factor (Q). The quality factor is a dimensionless value that represents the attenuation of a seismic wave as it travels through a rock. Seismic attenuation is dependent on wave velocity, the path length or time the wave is in the rock, and of course the physical properties of the rock through which the wave travels. Effective pressures used in our experiments varied between 0.01 MPa and 50 MPa and temperatures varied between 21 C to 80 C which allowed us to more accurately represent subsurface conditions. Pore filling fluids consisted of deionized water, oil, gas, and supercritical CO2. We have found that Q for the P, S1, and S2 seismic waves is strongly dependent on and proportional to the effective pressure of the rock. Also our experiments indicate that the presence of different pore filling fluids such as water, oil, and CO2 alter the value of Q. Carbonate samples were tested dry (atmospheric gas as pore fluid) and with deionized water, oil, and CO2. With the substitution of each of these fluids into the dry rock core sample, we see the value of Q shift as much as 20% lower for the P, S1, and S2 seismic waves. Our experiments indicate that the presence of oil, water, or CO2 lowers the value of Q of a rock. For all effective pressures we see this shift in the value of Q, it would seem that with the introduction of these pore-filling fluids the quality factor value is typically lowered, however at higher effective pressures (about 40 MPa) the shift in Q is less. By understanding how seismic waves attenuate we can better understand what collected seismic signals traveled through. This knowledge and understanding of seismic wave attenuation could prove to be a powerful tool for better subsurface imaging, tracking of sequestrated CO2, and energy exploration.

Delaney, D.; Purcell, C. C.; Mur, A. J.; Haljasmaa, I.; Soong, Y.; Harbert, W.

2012-12-01

233

Attenuation of electromagnetic waves at the frequency ~1.7 kHz in the upper ionosphere observed was the first satellite specifically dedicated to the recording of electromagnetic phenomena connected frequency electromagnetic waves recorded in the upper ionosphere. Robust two-step data processing has been

Santolik, Ondrej

234

Additional attenuation of natural VLF electromagnetic waves observed by the DEMETER spacecraft resulting from VLF electromagnetic wave data measured by the DEMETER (Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions has been made in the field of seismo-electromagnetic effects. The main aim of this study is to look

Santolik, Ondrej

235

1 Attenuation of electromagnetic waves at the frequency ~1.7 kHz in the vicinity of earthquakes is the first satellite specially dedicated to observe the electromagnetic10 phenomena connected of VLF electromagnetic waves observed in the upper ionosphere. A robust two-step data processing has been

Santolik, Ondrej

236

This paper deals with characteristics of the short period S-wave attenuation field in the rupture zones of 37 large and great earthquakes with M\\u000a s\\u000a = 7.0–8.6, as well as in low seismicity areas. We estimate the effective quality factor from Sn and Lg coda envelopes in two time intervals (Q\\u000a 1 and Q\\u000a 2). The quantity Q\\u000a 1 is

Yu. F. Kopnichev; D. D. Gordienko; I. N. Sokolova

2009-01-01

237

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dispersion, attenuation and wavefronts in a class of linear viscoelastic media proposed by Strick and Mainardi (Geophys J R Astr Soc 69:415-429, 1982) and a related class of models due to Lomnitz, Jeffreys and Strick are studied by a new method due to the author. Unlike the previously studied explicit models of relaxation modulus or creep compliance, these two classes support propagation of discontinuities. Due to an extension made by Strick, either of these two classes of models comprise both viscoelastic solids and fluids. We also discuss the Andrade viscoelastic media. The Andrade media do not support discontinuity waves and exhibit the pedestal effect.

Hanyga, Andrzej

2014-09-01

238

The x-ray mass attenuation coefficients of zinc are measured in a high-accuracy experiment between 7.2 and 15.2 keV with an absolute accuracy of 0.044% and 0.197%. This is the most accurate determination of any attenuation coefficient on a bending-magnet beamline and reduces the absolute uncertainty by a factor of 3 compared to earlier work by advances in integrated column density determination and the full-foil mapping technique described herein. We define a relative accuracy of 0.006%, which is not the same as either the precision or the absolute accuracy. Relative accuracy is the appropriate parameter for standard implementation of analysis of near-edge spectra. Values of the imaginary components f'' of the x-ray form factor of zinc are derived. Observed differences between the measured mass attenuation coefficients and various theoretical calculations reach a maximum of about 5% at the absorption edge and up to 2% further than 1 keV away from the edge. The measurements invite improvements in the theoretical calculations of mass attenuation coefficients of zinc.

Rae, Nicholas A.; Chantler, Christopher T.; Barnea, Zwi; Jonge, Martin D. de; Tran, Chanh Q.; Hester, James R. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Australian Synchrotron, Victoria 3168 (Australia); La Trobe University, Victoria 3086 (Australia); Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New South Wales 2234 (Australia)

2010-02-15

239

beam mass attenuation coefficient pip, with units of cm2/g is defined by the relation where I of 30 torr to 3 600 torr were used. The solid angle subtended by the detector at the source varied intervals between the source and the detector to minimize scattering from the walls of the pipe and from

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

240

Shallow S wave attenuation and actively degassing magma beneath Taal Volcano, Philippines

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcano, Philippines, is one of the world's most dangerous volcanoes given its history of explosive eruptions and its close proximity to populated areas. A real-time broadband seismic network was recently deployed and has detected volcano-tectonic events beneath Taal. Our source location analysis of these volcano-tectonic events, using onset arrival times and high-frequency seismic amplitudes, points to the existence of a region of strong attenuation near the ground surface beneath the east flank of Volcano Island in Taal Lake. This region is beneath the active fumarolic area and above sources of pressure contributing inflation and deflation, and it coincides with a region of high electrical conductivity. The high-attenuation region matches that inferred from an active-seismic survey conducted at Taal in 1993. These features strongly suggest that the high-attenuation region represents an actively degassing magma body near the surface that has existed for more than 20 years.

Kumagai, Hiroyuki; Lacson, Rudy; Maeda, Yuta; Figueroa, Melquiades S.; Yamashina, Tadashi

2014-10-01

241

Laboratory experiments and numerical modeling of wave attenuation through artificial vegetation

It is commonly known that coastal vegetation dissipates energy and aids in shoreline protection by damping incoming waves and depositing sediment in vegetated regions. However, this critical role of vegetation to dampen wave forces is not fully...

Augustin, Lauren Nicole

2009-05-15

242

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fractures are present in most geological formations and they tend to dominate not only their mechanical but also, and in particular, their hydraulic properties. For these reasons, the detection and characterization of fractures are of great interest in several fields of Earth sciences. Seismic attenuation has been recognized as a key attribute for this purpose, as both laboratory and field experiments indicate that the presence of fractures typically produces significant energy dissipation and that this attribute tends to increase with increasing fracture density. This energy loss is generally considered to be primarily due to wave-induced pressure diffusion between the fractures and the embedding porous matrix. That is, due to the strong compressibility contrast between these two domains, the propagation of seismic waves can generate a strong fluid pressure gradient and associated pressure diffusion, which leads to fluid flow and in turn results in frictional energy dissipation. Numerical simulations based on Biot's poroelastic wave equations are computationally very expensive. Alternative approaches consist in performing numerical relaxation or creep tests on representative elementary volumes (REV) of the considered medium. These tests are typically based on Biot's consolidation equations. Assuming that the heterogeneous poroelastic medium can be replaced by an effective, homogeneous viscoelastic solid, these numerical creep and relaxation tests allow for computing the equivalent seismic P-wave attenuation and phase velocity. From a practical point of view, an REV is typically characterized by the smallest volume for which rock physical properties are statistically stationary and representative of the probed medium in its entirety. A more general definition in the context of wavefield attributes is to consider an REV as the smallest volume over which the P-wave attenuation and phase velocity dispersion are independent of the applied boundary conditions. That is, the corresponding results obtained from creep and relaxation tests must be equivalent. For most analyses of media characterized by patchy saturation or double-porosity-type structures these two definitions are equivalent. It is, however, not clear whether this equivalence remains true in the presence of strong material contrasts as those prevailing in fractured rocks. In this work, we explore this question for periodically fractured media. To this end, we build a medium composed of infinite replicas of a unit volume containing one fracture. This unit volume coincides with the smallest possible volume that is statistically representative of the whole. Then, we perform several creep and relaxation tests on samples composed of an increasing number of these unit volumes. We find that the wave field signatures determined from relaxation tests are independent from the number of unit volumes. Conversely, the P-wave attenuation and phase velocity characteristics inferred from creep tests are different and vary with the number of unit volumes considered. Quite interestingly, the creep test results converge with those of the relaxation tests as the number of unit volumes increases. These findings are expected to have direct implications for corresponding laboratory measurements as well as for our understanding of seismic wave propagation in fractured media.

Milani, Marco; Germán Rubino, J.; Müller, Tobias M.; Quintal, Beatriz; Holliger, Klaus

2014-05-01

243

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A one-dimensional drift of spherical particle in standing sinusoidal wave is studied numerically. The impact of stationary and non-stationary forces of viscous drag, as well as Archimedes, added masses and Basset forces on particle drift direction is investigated. For various Reynolds and Strouhal numbers the dependencies of the threshold particle drag coefficient on density parameter have been found. These dependencies show that with increasing Reynolds and Strouhal numbers the threshold value of the squared drag coefficient decreases markedly. Impact of Basset force on threshold values is especially strong for low- density particles.

Gubaidullin, D. A.; Osipov, P. P.; Zakirov, A. N.

2014-11-01

244

We present an analysis of a number of different approximations for the plane transmittance Tp and diffuse attenuation coefficient Kd of a semi-infinite, unbounded, plane-parallel, and optically homogeneous layer. The maximally wide optical conditions (from the full absorption to the full scattering and from the fully forward to the fully backward scattering) were considered. The approximations were analyzed from the point of view of their physical limitations and closeness to the numerical solution of the radiative transfer equation for the plane transmittance. The main criterion for inclusion of the models for analysis was the possibility of practical use, i.e., approximations were well parameterized and included only easily measured or estimated parameters. A detailed analysis of errors for different Tp and Kd models showed that the two-stream radiative transfer Ben-David model yields the best results over all optical conditions and depths. However, the quasi-single-scattering and polynomial Gordon's approximations proved to be the best for the depths close to zero. PMID:24514134

Sokoletsky, Leonid G; Budak, Vladimir P; Shen, Fang; Kokhanovsky, Alexander A

2014-01-20

245

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The K-shell absorption jump factors and jump ratios were derived from new mass attenuation coefficients measured using an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer for Tm, Yb elements being Tm 2O 3, Yb 2O 3 compounds and pure Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re and Os. The measurements, in the region 56-77 keV, were done in a transmission geometry utilizing the K ?1 , K ?2 , K ?1 and K ?2 X- rays from different secondary source targets (Yb, Ta, Os, W, Re and Ir, etc.) excited by the 123.6 keV ?-photons from an 57Co annular source and detected by an Ultra-LEGe solid state detector with a resolution of 150 eV at 5.9 keV. Experimental results have been compared with theoretically calculated values. The measured values of Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re and Os are reported here for the first time.

Kaya, Necati; T?ra?o?lu, Engin; Apayd?n, Gökhan; Ayl?kc?, Volkan; Cengiz, Erhan

2007-08-01

246

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mass attenuation coefficients for Bi, Pb, Sr, Ca, Cu metals, Bi 2O 3, PbO, SrCO 3, CaO, CuO compounds and solid-state forms of Bi 1.7Pb 0.3Sr 2Ca 2Cu 3O 10 superconductor were determined at 57.5, 65.2, 77.1, 87.3, 94.6, 122 and 136 keV energies. The samples were irradiated using a 57Co point source emitted 122 and 136 keV ?-ray energies. The X-ray energies were obtained using secondary targets such as Ta, Bi 2O 3 and (CH 3COO) 2UO 22H 2O. The ?- and X-rays were counted by a Si(Li) detector with a resolution of 0.16 keV at 5.9 keV. The effect of absorption edges on electron density, effective atomic numbers and their variation with photon energy in composite superconductor samples was discussed. Obtained values were compared with theoretical values.

Çevik, U.; Balta?, H.

2007-03-01

247

Change of polarity for periodic waves in the variable-coefficient Korteweg-de Vries equation

term. This change of polarity causes a solitary wave of depression to transform into a train the critical point, but a phase change is generated causing the wave to reverse its polarity. 1. Introduction

248

Work was completed on yield determination at the Soviet test site on Novaya Zemlya. Magnitudes and yields, determined for 30 explosions using Lg amplitudes recorded in northwestern Europe, ranged between 2.5 and 4900 kt, the largest since April 1976 being about 145 kt. Studies were completed on seismic wave attenuation of surface waves at intermediate periods and of Lg waves at 1 Hz in several regions of the world. Limits were determined for the degree of frequency dependence of Q (sub beta) which can occur in the crust in stable and tectonically active regions. A stochastic convolution model was proposed for Lg coda at distances > 200 km which considers the effects of dispersion scattering and mode conversions at those distances. A back-projection tomographic method was developed to regionalize large-scale lateral variations of coda Q for Lg waves which traverse long continental paths. A seismically active region in the New Madrid seismic zone was found to be characterized by lower than normal Q values. In the western United States, Q values in the upper mantle vary laterally, becoming smaller from east to west. Crust of the Basin and Range province has a low-Q upper crust overlying a lower crust with higher Q values.

Mitchell, B.J.; Nuttli, O.W.; Xie, J.K.; Al-Shukri, H.; Correig, A.

1989-05-25

249

The third-order elastic constants of a material are believed to be sensitive to residual stress, fatigue, and creep damage. The acoustoelastic coefficient is directly related to these third-order elastic constants. Several techniques have been developed to monitor the acoustoelastic coefficient using ultrasound. In this article, two techniques to impose stress on a sample are compared, one using the classical method of applying a static strain using a bending jig and the other applying a dynamic stress due to the presence of an acoustic wave. Results on aluminum samples are compared. Both techniques are found to produce similar values for the acoustoelastic coefficient. The dynamic strain technique however has the advantages that it can be applied to large, real world components, in situ, while ensuring the measurement takes place in the nondestructive, elastic regime. PMID:24606250

Ellwood, R; Stratoudaki, T; Sharples, S D; Clark, M; Somekh, M G

2014-03-01

250

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In tokamaks, fusion generated ? particles may absorb lower hybrid (LH) wave energy, thus reducing the LH current drive efficiency. The absorption coefficient ?? of LH waves due to ? particles changing with some typical parameters is calculated in this paper. Results show that ?? increases with the parallel refraction index n ?, while decreases with the frequency of LH waves ? over a wide range. Higher background plasma temperature and toroidal magnetic field will increase the absorption. The absorption coefficient ?? increases with n e when n e ? 8 × 1019 m-3, while decreases with n e when n e becomes larger, and there is a peak value of ?? when n e ? 8 × 1019 m-1 for the ITER-like scenario. The influence of spectral broadening in parametric decay instabilities on the absorption coefficient is evaluated. The value of ?? with n ? being 2.5 is almost two times larger than that with n ? being 2.0 and is even lager in the case of 2.9, which will obviously increase the absorption of the LH power by alpha particles.

Wang, J.; Zhang, X.; Yu, L.; Zhao, X.

2014-12-01

251

Radar reflectivity and attenuation of radio waves in the melting layer of precipitation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The melting layer in precipitation is physically modeled and compared with high resolution Doppler radar data. The model includes a new formulation of the dielectric properties and can handle all ice particles with densities ranging between pure snow and hail. The air temperature is calculated from the vertical air velocity. The model can handle aggregation, breakup, and collapse of the melting particles. The results of the model are in good agreement with the Doppler radar observations. The model shows that the reflectivity and attenuation are very sensitive to the dielectric properties and density of the melting particles, and that the influence of aggregation and the collapse is restricted. Simple relations between the attenuation and the rain intensity and maximum reflectivity are derived from a statistical analysis.

Klaassen, W.

1987-05-01

252

Attenuation of High-Frequency Lg Waves in the Crust of the Southeastern S. Korea

The attenuation study of Lg is very important in the southeastern South Korea because the Yangsan fault, an active fault lies in the industrial region where nuclear power plants are located. It is generally observed that QLg-1 is higher for seismically active areas than stable ones. In this study, using vertical-component recordings of the short-period velocity network data, we analyze

T. Chung; K. Lee

2002-01-01

253

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the study, the averaging technique of diffusion coefficients in the two-dimensional nonlinear diffusive wave equation applied to the floodplain inundation is presented. As a method of solution, the splitting technique and the modified finite element method with linear shape functions are used. On the stage of spatial integration, it is often assumed that diffusion coefficient is constant over element and equal to its average value. However, the numerical experiments indicate that in the case of the flow over the dry floodplain with sudden changes in depths an inadequate averaging of these coefficients can lead to a non-physical solution or even to its instability. In the paper, the averaging techniques for estimation of diffusion coefficients were examined using the arithmetic, geometric, harmonic and the direction dependent means. The numerical tests were carried out for the flows over initially dry floodplain with varied elevation of bottom. It was shown that the averaging method based on the arithmetic mean with respect to the diffusion coefficients provides the satisfactory results in comparison to other techniques.

G?siorowski, Dariusz

2014-09-01

254

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface wave tomography, using the fundamental Rayleigh wave velocities and those of higher modes between 1 and 4 and periods between 50 and 160 s, is used to image structures with a horizontal resolution of ˜250 km and a vertical resolution of ˜50 km to depths of ˜300 km in the mantle. A new model, PM_v2_2012, obtained from 3×106 seismograms, agrees well with earlier lower resolution models. It is combined with temperature estimates from oceanic plate models and with pressure and temperature estimates from the mineral compositions of garnet peridotite nodules to generate a number of estimates of SV(P,T) based on geophysical and petrological observations alone. These are then used to estimate the unrelaxed shear modulus and its derivatives with respect to pressure and temperature, which agree reasonably with values from laboratory experiments. At high temperatures relaxation occurs, causing the shear wave velocity to depend on frequency. This behaviour is parameterised using a viscosity to obtain a Maxwell relaxation time. The relaxation behaviour is described using a dimensionless frequency, which depends on an activation energy E and volume Va. The values of E and Va obtained from the geophysical models agree with those from laboratory experiments on high temperature creep. The resulting expressions are then used to determine the lithospheric thickness from the shear wave velocity variations. The resolution is improved by about a factor of two with respect to earlier models, and clearly resolves the thick lithosphere beneath active intracontinental belts that are now being shortened. The same expressions allow the three dimensional variations of the shear wave attenuation and viscosity to be estimated.

Priestley, Keith; McKenzie, Dan

2013-11-01

255

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea ice is a two-phase porous medium consisting of a solid matrix of pure ice and a salty liquid phase. At spring when ice permeability increases, it has been observed that pressure gradients induced at the ice-water interface upstream and downstream of pressure ridge keels can cause sea water and brine to be forced through the ice water boundary. It suggests that salt and heat fluxes through the bottom ice layers may be a major factor controlling the decay of an ice sheet. Knowing how water flows through the ice matrix is fundamental to a modeling of ocean-ice heat exchanges integrating the advective import/export of latent heat that result from melting/freezing within the ice. Permeability is the measurement of the ease with which fluids flow through a porous medium, however one of the most tricky to measure without altering the porosity of the sampled medium. To further complicate the challenge, horizontal and vertical permeability of the ice, referred as ice anisotropy, is significant. Acoustic wave propagation through porous media have been theorized to relate the acoustic velocity and attenuation to the physical properties of the tested material. It is a non-invasive technique, and as such could provide more reliable measurements of sea ice permeability than anything presently used. Simulations combining the Biot's and squirt flow mechanisms are performed to investigate the effect of permeability on the attenuation and phase velocity as a function of frequency. We first present the attenuation dispersion curves for an isotropic sea ice, then low-frequency and high-frequency limits are determined. Optimal frequency range and resolution requirements are evaluated for testing.

Hudier, E. J.; Bahoura, M.

2012-12-01

256

Measurement of the speed and attenuation of the Biot slow wave using a large ultrasonic transmitter

Two compressional wave modes, a fast P1 and a slow P2, propagate through fluid-saturated porous and permeable media. This contribution focuses on new experimental tests of existing theories describing wave propagation in such media. Updated observations of this P2 mode are obtained through a water-loaded, porous sintered glass bead plate with a novel pair of ultrasonic transducers consisting of a

Youcef Bouzidi; Douglas R. Schmitt

2009-01-01

257

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Wave Propagation Laboratory (WPL) presently operates five dual-channel microwave radiometers, one triple-channel microwave radiometer, and one six-channel microwave radiometer. The dual-channel radiometers operate at frequencies of 20.6 or 23.87 GHz and 31.4 or 31.65 GHz. The triple-channel radiometer operates at 20.6, 31.65, and 90.0 GHz. The six-channel radiometer operates at frequencies of 20.6, 31.65, 52.85, 53.85, 55.45, and 58.8 GHz. Recent brightness temperature measurements and attenuation values from some of the above radiometers are presented. These radiometric measurements, taken in different locations throughout the world, have given WPL a diverse set of measurements under a variety of atmospheric conditions. We propose to do a more complete attenuation analysis on these measurements in the future. In addition, a new spinning reflector was installed recently for the dual-channel radiometer at the Platteville, Colorado site. This reflector will extend our measurement capabilities during precipating conditions. Locating the three-channel and portable dual-channel radiometers at or near Greeley, Colorado to support the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) program is discussed.

Jacobson, Mark D.; Snider, J. B.; Westwater, E. R.

1993-01-01

258

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements have been made to determine ?-rays attenuation coefficients very accurately by using an extremely narrow-collimated-beam transmission method. The effect of the sample thickness on the measured values of the mass attenuation coefficients (?/?) cm2/ g of perspex, bakelite, paraffin, Al, Cu, Pb and Hg have been investigated at three different ?-ray energies (59.54, 661.6 and 1332.5 keV). It is seen that for these chosen materials ( ?/ ?) remains constant in good agreement with the theoretical values up to 3 mean free paths and after that ( ?/ ?) values for Cu, Pb and Hg decrease with further increase in the absorber thickness. This result may be attributed to the increase in the number of coherent small-angle scattering photons which reach the detector.

Abdel-Rahman, M. A.; Badawi, E. A.; Abdel-Hady, Y. L.; Kamel, N.

2000-06-01

259

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the S-wave spectral amplitude decay with distance using strong-motion records from the 20 May 2012 Emilia-Romagna earthquake (Mw6.1) and five aftershocks with magnitudes ranging between 4.9 and 5.9. The data set consist of 6 earthquakes, 44 stations and 248 records with hypocentral distances in the range 10 < r < 100 km. We rotated the accelerograms to calculate transversal and radial components of the acceleration spectrum. We found nonparametric attenuation functions that describe the spectral amplitude decay of SH and SV waves with distance at 60 different frequencies between 0.1 and 40 Hz. These attenuation functions provide an estimate of the quality factor Q at each frequency analyzed. Assuming that geometrical spreading is 1-r for r ˜ rx and 1/(rxr)0.5 for r>rx with rx= 60 km and normalizing at 15 km (the recording distance where the attenuation functions start to decay), we find that the average Q for SH waves can be approximated by QSH = 82f1.2 and by QSV = 79f1.2 for SV waves in the frequency range 0.10 ˜ f ˜ 10.7 Hz. At higher frequencies, 11.8 ˜ f ˜ 40 Hz, the frequency dependence of Q weakens and is approximated by QSH = 301f0.36 and QSV = 384f0.28. These results indicate that the S-wave attenuation is isotropic at local distances in the epicenter area. The estimates of total Q obtained (intrinsic and scattering attenuation) coincide with the estimates of total Q determined by Del Pezzo et al. (2011) in north central Italy using coda waves and Multiple Lapse Time Window Analysis (MLTWA).

Castro, Raul; Pacor, Francesca; Puglia, Rodolfo; Ameri, Gabriele; Letort, Jean; Massa, Marco; Luzi, Lucia; Augliera, Paolo

2013-04-01

260

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An accurate and efficient modeling of regional seismic wave propagation can be achieved by the axisymmetric modeling using the cylindrical coordinates (r, ? , z). It assumes the structural model as rotationally symmetric along the vertical axis (z) including a seismic source, and then solves the 3-D wave equation in cylindrical coordinates only on a 2-D structural cross section. Therefore, this method, a kind of the 2.5-D modeling, can correctly model 3-D geometrical spreading effects and the pulse shape, with computation time and memory comparable to 2-D modeling. On the other hand, application of the conventional purely axisymmetric approximation is difficult in practice because the structure along the measurement line of the seismic survey is rarely symmetric with respect to the source location. To overcome this difficulty, Takenaka et al. (2003, GRL) proposed a 'quasi-cylindrical approach'. It solves the wave equation not in the usual cylindrical domain (0 ? r < ? , -? ? ? ? ? , 0 ? z < ? ), but instead in a newly defined ``quasi-cylindrical domain'' (-? < r < ? , -? /2 ? ? ? ? /2, 0 ? z < ? ). They developed a numerical scheme with the finite-difference method (FDM). The quasi-cylindrical FDM enables modeling of regional seismic wave propagation in a 2-D slice of a structural model of arbitrary lateral heterogeneity, with full consideration of the 3-D geometrical spreading effects. Since the quasi-cylindrical approach was developed for seismic exploration, the FDM code has only treated axisymmetric source mechanisms. In this work we have improved this scheme to include an arbitrary moment-tensor point source and the anelastic attenuation for further realistic modeling. The moment-tensor source can be treated by the Fourier expansion of all wavefield variables in ? direction considering source radiation patterns. This process corresponds to decomposing an arbitrary source mechanism into five moment-tensor elements. Synthesizing all contributions enables us to model wavefields by the asymetric excitation. The anelastic attenuation is also adopted by the so-called memory variables (e.g., Emmerich & Korn, 1987, Geophysics). In the presentation, we will show realistic numerical examples using tomography models of plate subduction zone and shear dislocation sources.

Toyokuni, G.; Takenaka, H.; Okamoto, T.; Zhao, D.

2013-12-01

261

We use the x-ray extended-range technique (XERT) [C. T. Chantler et al., Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001)] to measure the mass attenuation coefficients of tin in the x-ray energy range of 29-60 keV to 0.04-3 % accuracy, and typically in the range 0.1-0.2 %. Measurements made over an extended range of the measurement parameter space are critically examined to identify, quantify, and correct a number of potential experimental systematic errors. These results represent the most extensive experimental data set for tin and include absolute mass attenuation coefficients in the regions of x-ray absorption fine structure, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, and x-ray absorption near-edge structure. The imaginary component of the atomic form factor f{sub 2} is derived from the photoelectric absorption after subtracting calculated Rayleigh and Compton scattering cross sections from the total attenuation. Comparison of the result with tabulations of calculated photoelectric absorption coefficients indicates that differences of 1-2 % persist between calculated and observed values.

de Jonge, M. D.; Tran, C. Q.; Chantler, C. T.; Barnea, Z.; Dhal, B. P.; Paterson, D.; Kanter, E. P.; Southworth, S. H.; Young, L.; Beno, M. A.; Linton, J. A.; Jennings, G.; Univ. of Melbourne; Australian Synchrotron Project

2007-01-01

262

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations have been made and reported that the experimental normal force coefficients at a constant angle of attack were constant with a variation of more than 2 orders of magnitude of Reynolds number at a free-stream Mach number M(sub infinity) of 8.00 and more than 1 order of magnitude variation at M(sub infinity) = 6.00 on the same body-wing hypersonic cruise configuration. These data were recorded under laminar, transitional, and turbulent boundary layer conditions with both hot-wall and cold-wall models. This report presents experimental data on 25 configurations of 17 models of both simple and complex geometry taken at M(sub infinity) = 6.00, 6.86, and 8.00 in 4 different hypersonic facilities. Aerodynamic calculations were made by computational fluid dynamics (CID) and engineering methods to analyze these data. The conclusions were that the normal force coefficients at a given altitude are constant with Reynolds numbers at hypersonic speeds and that the axial force coefficients recorded under laminar boundary-layer conditions at several Reynolds numbers may be plotted against the laminar parameter (the reciprocal of the Reynolds number to the one-half power) and extrapolated to the ordinate axis to determine the inviscid-wave-drag coefficient at the intercept.

Hawkins, Richard; Penland, Jim A.

1997-01-01

263

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AlN and AlScN thin films with 27% scandium (Sc) were synthesized by DC magnetron sputtering deposition and used to fabricate surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices. Compared with AlN-based devices, the AlScN SAW devices exhibit much better transmission properties. Scandium doping results in electromechanical coupling coefficient, K2, in the range of 2.0% ˜ 2.2% for a wide normalized thickness range, more than a 300% increase compared to that of AlN-based SAW devices, thus demonstrating the potential applications of AlScN in high frequency resonators, sensors, and high efficiency energy harvesting devices. The coupling coefficients of the present AlScN based SAW devices are much higher than that of the theoretical calculation based on some assumptions for AlScN piezoelectric material properties, implying there is a need for in-depth investigations on the material properties of AlScN.

Wang, Wenbo; Mayrhofer, Patrick M.; He, Xingli; Gillinger, Manuel; Ye, Zhi; Wang, Xiaozhi; Bittner, Achim; Schmid, Ulrich; Luo, J. K.

2014-09-01

264

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Q structure in the southern part of the Netherlands is determined using the coda Q model. Two models are tested, the single scattering and the multiple scattering model. In the coda Q method as originally proposed by Aki and Chouet (1975), the problem is the ambiguity in interpreting Qc (coda Q) in terms of Qt (total attenuation), Qs (scattering) and Qi (intrinsic absorption). The Multiple Lapse Time Window Analysis (MLTWA), assumes multiple scattering and suggest a possibility to separate the intrinsic attenuation from the scattering effect. However it assumes a simplified model of the crust and upper mantle. We have used both methods for data in the southern part of The Netherlands, as it provides reasonable first order approximations for Q. The single scattering interpretation shows a significant difference between small (< 25 km) epicentral distances and larger ones, while the assumption is that Qc is independent of epicentral distance. The Qc for the larger distances is significantly higher than Qc for the small distances. The multiple scattering interpretation suggests that intrinsic absorption dominates over scattering. A combined interpretation of both analysis methods shows that for small epicentral distances Qc approaches Qt and the single scattering interpretation seems valid. For larger epicentral distances (>25 km) Qc aproaches neither Qt nor Qi and consequently neither the single nor the multiple scattering model. Further, we observe that Qc is higher for larger distances than for small distances and the MLTWA method provides Qi > Qs. Together, these observations suggest that the lower crust and the upper mantle have a significant effect on the seismic coda and require better modelling.

Goutbeek, F. H.; Dost, B.; van Eck, T.

2003-04-01

265

4 Abstract. Fluid infiltration and pore fluid pressure changes are known to have a significant effect on the occurrence of earthquakes. Yet, for most damaging earthquakes, with nucleation zones below a few kilometers depth, direct measurements of fluid pressure variations are not available. Instead, pore fluid pressures are inferred primarily from seismic wave propagation characteristics such as V p\\/Vs ratio,

Sergei A. Stanchits; David A. Lockner; Alexander V. Ponomarev

2003-01-01

266

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Propagation of seismic waves in partially saturated porous media depends on various material properties, e.g. saturation, porosity, elastic properties of the skeleton, viscous properties of the pore fluids and, additionally, capillary pressure and effective permeability. If the wetting fluid is in a discontinuous state, i.e. residual-saturated configuration, phase velocities and frequency-dependent attenuation additionally depend on microscopical (pore-scale) properties such as droplet and/or ganglia size. To model wave propagation in residual-saturated porous media, we developed a three-phase model based on an enriched continuum mixture theory capturing the strong coupling between the micro- and the macroscale. The three-phase model comprises the porous solid skeleton, a continuous fluid part and a discontinuous fluid part. The discontinuous part describes the movement of blobs/clusters of the wetting fluid and is based on an oscillator rheology. On the microscale, the oscillators are determined by their mass, damping and eigenfrequency. Amongst others, these properties depend on the microscopic geometry and surface tension. To embed the microscopic oscillators into a macroscopic poroelastic description of the non-wetting fluid and the skeleton, a scale bridging between both spatial scales is applied conserving density, eigenfrequency and damping. This homogenization approach accounts for the discontinuous character of the wetting fluid. Furthermore, probability density functions are used to describe the size distribution of different kinds of fluid clusters. The discontinuous fluid part is linked to the continuous solid phase by momentum exchange in the form of pinned or sliding oscillators. The non-wetting continuous fluid phase exhibits similar behavior as the poroelastic model introduced by Biot. The final model delivers insight into the behavior of propagating waves on the macroscale, influenced by different properties of the microscopic oscillating fluid clusters. Furthermore, the dispersion relations allow for a comparison with continuous models, such as the Biot model, and for the calculation of characteristic values, which might be helpful for the comparison with experimental studies. We define a dimensionless parameter that determines if the overall motion of the residual fluid is dominated by oscillations (underdamped, resonance) or not (overdamped). Our results show that the residual fluid has a significant impact on the velocity dispersion and attenuation, no matter if it oscillates or not. For long wavelengths, our model coincides with the Biot-Gassmann equations. We show under which conditions and how the classical biphasic models can be used to approximate the dynamic behavior of residual-saturated porous media.

Steeb, H.; Kurzeja, P.; Frehner, M.; Schmalholz, S. M.

2012-04-01

267

Depth dependent seismic scattering attenuation in the Nuevo Cuyo region (southern central Andes)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work we separated intrinsic from scattering attenuation coefficients both for the crust and the upper mantle in the tectonically highly active areas of the Southern-Central Andes - Nuevo Cuyo region, analyzing two groups of earthquakes, well separated in depth. This region is characterized by the presence of flat subduction. We apply MLTWA (Multiple Lapse Time Window Analysis), coda normalization and Q-coda techniques to measure the scattering and intrinsic attenuation coefficient and the total Q for S waves. We find that intrinsic attenuation does not decrease with depth whereas scattering attenuation is higher in the crust than in the upper mantle, and that intrinsic attenuation predominates over scattering attenuation. We interpret this observation in terms of the release of water and other fluids into the overlying lithosphere due to the dynamics of the subduction process, in agreement with most of the prevalent geodynamic models.

Badi, G.; Del Pezzo, E.; Ibanez, J. M.; Bianco, F.; Sabbione, N.; Araujo, M.

2009-12-01

268

Ultrasonic attenuation in superconducting borocarbides YNi 2B 2C

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently we have proposed s+g-wave superconductor in order to describe unusual superconductivity in borocarbides YNi 2B 2C and LuNi 2B 2C. In the present paper we study both the longitudinal and the transverse ultrasonic attenuation coefficients in the hydrodynamic limit. Indeed, such experiments have been reported very recently. The present model appears to describe the attenuation coefficients of L100, L001, T110 and T001 modes in the superconducting YNi 2B 2C very well. On the other hand, for L110 and T100 modes, the experimental results are somewhat different from the theoretical prediction.

Won, H.; Maki, K.

2004-08-01

269

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A time-domain numerical modeling of transversely isotropic Biot poroelastic waves is proposed in two dimensions. The viscous dissipation occurring in the pores is described using the dynamic permeability model developed by Johnson-Koplik-Dashen (JKD). Some of the coefficients in the Biot-JKD model are proportional to the square root of the frequency. In the time-domain, these coefficients introduce shifted fractional derivatives of order 1/2, involving a convolution product. Based on a diffusive representation, the convolution kernel is replaced by a finite number of memory variables that satisfy local-in-time ordinary differential equations, resulting in the Biot-DA (diffusive approximation) model. The properties of both the Biot-JKD and the Biot-DA models are analyzed: hyperbolicity, decrease of energy, dispersion. To determine the coefficients of the diffusive approximation, two approaches are analyzed: Gaussian quadratures and optimization methods in the frequency range of interest. The nonlinear optimization is shown to be the better way of determination. A splitting strategy is then applied to approximate numerically the Biot-DA equations. The propagative part is discretized using a fourth-order ADER scheme on a Cartesian grid, whereas the diffusive part is solved exactly. An immersed interface method is implemented to take into account heterogeneous media on a Cartesian grid and to discretize the jump conditions at interfaces. Numerical experiments are presented. Comparisons with analytical solutions show the efficiency and the accuracy of the approach, and some numerical experiments are performed to investigate wave phenomena in complex media, such as multiple scattering across a set of random scatterers.

Blanc, Emilie; Chiavassa, Guillaume; Lombard, Bruno

2014-10-01

270

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of a small basaltic melt fraction (0.004--0.037) on the seismic properties of fine-grained synthetic polycrystals of Fo90 olivine has been explored at seismic frequencies with torsional forced oscillation/microcreep methods. The presence of a broad dissipation peak superimposed on the monotonically frequency and temperature dependent background clearly distinguishes melt-bearing from melt-free materials containing as little as ˜0.5% melt. In both types of material the observed dissipation is attributed to grain-boundary sliding involving a mixture of elastic and diffusional accommodation. The difference in mechanical behaviour is ascribed to the rounding of olivine grain edges at melt-bearing grain-edge tubules -- allowing sufficient localisation of dissipation in frequency-temperature space to produce a resolvable peak representing mainly elastically accommodated sliding. The grain-boundary triple junction geometry imposed at high temperature is retained during staged cooling and crystallisation to form an intergrowth of crystallites of plagioclase and residual glass. An empirical model has been developed that adequately describes the dependence of 1/Q upon period, temperature, grain size and maximum melt fraction. This model has been extrapolated to the larger grainsizes and P-T conditions (2 GPa, 1300^oC) representative of decompression melting in the mantle. The inferred levels of attenuation are generally somewhat higher than those measured seismologically, but the low spatial resolution of seismological studies means that the latter may average the properties of melt-free and partially molten parts of the upper mantle. The superposition of the melt-related dissipation peak upon the monotonic background is such that, for appropriate combinations of grain size, melt fraction and temperature, nearly frequency-independent attenuation is to be expected. Progress will be reported in the development of a procedure for the simultaneous inversion of dissipation and associated shear modulus dispersion data for the creep function that provides a complete description of the viscoelastic behaviour. Knowledge of the creep function will allow an internally consistent treatment of the impact of partial melting on wave speeds and attenuation in the interpretation of seismological models.

Faul, U. H.; Fitz Gerald, J. D.; Jackson, I.

2003-04-01

271

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present highly accurate solutions of the Schrödinger equation for three fermions in two different spin states with zero-range s-wave interactions under harmonic confinement. Our approach covers spherically symmetric, strictly two-dimensional, strictly one-dimensional, cigar-shaped, and pancake-shaped traps. In particular, we discuss the transition from quasi-one-dimensional to strictly one-dimensional and from quasi-two-dimensional to strictly two-dimensional geometries. We determine and interpret the eigenenergies of the system as a function of the trap geometry and the strength of the zero-range interactions. The eigenenergies are used to investigate the dependence of the second- and third-order virial coefficients, which play an important role in the virial expansion of the thermodynamic potential, on the geometry of the trap. We show that the second- and third-order virial coefficients for anisotropic confinement geometries are, for experimentally relevant temperatures, very well approximated by those for the spherically symmetric confinement for all s-wave scattering lengths.

Gharashi, Seyed Ebrahim; Daily, K. M.; Blume, D.

2012-10-01

272

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reflection and transmission coefficients for quasi-monochromatic radio waves incident at an arbitrary angle on an arbitrary number of identical piecewise-homogeneous plane plasma layers are calculated analytically and numerically. It is shown that alternating transparency and opacity stripes in the spectrum of radio waves passing through such a plasma structure (the zebra pattern effect) can be observed at any angle of incidence. The opacity stripes for ordinary waves are wider than those for extraordinary waves. For the zebra pattern to be well pronounced, the radio wave flux in the Sun's atmosphere should be narrowly directed, which is possible during bursts.

Laptukhov, A. I.; Chernov, G. P.

2012-07-01

273

The attenuation of microwave radiation by fog and rain

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this report, the equations which describe the attenuation of long-wavelength electromagnetic radiation by water fogs and rain are briefly reviewed and explained under the assumption that the aerosol droplets are spherical and that the irradiance of the beam is in the 'linear' regime. Calculations of water fog attenuation coefficients are made using the Rayleigh approximation, and an approximate error analysis of this approximation is made by comparing Rayleigh approximation calculations of absorption efficiency with exact Mie theory calculations of extinction efficiency. Numerical integration of the Mie extinction efficiency is used to compute the attenuation coefficient for rain with a Marshall-Palmer drop size distribution for various rain rates and temperatures. These results are compared with those given by a power law relationship with coefficients given by Olsen, Rogers, and Hodge which was used in the Near Milimeter Wave (NMMW) Module of the Electro- Optical Systems Atmospheric Effects Library (EOSAEL).

Pendleton, J. D.; Niles, Stanley

1994-08-01

274

Delamination of southern Puna lithosphere revealed by body wave attenuation tomography

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

southern Puna Plateau has been proposed to result from a major Pliocene delamination event that has previously been inferred from geochemical, geological, and some preliminary geophysical data. Seventy-five seismic stations were deployed across the southern Puna Plateau in 2007-2009 by scientists from the U.S., Germany, Chile, and Argentina to test the delamination model for the region. The Puna passive seismic stations were located between 25 and 28°S. Using the seismic waveform data collected from the PUNA experiment, we employ attenuation tomography methods to resolve both compressional and shear quality factors (Qp and Qs, respectively) in the crust and uppermost mantle. The images clearly show a high-Q Nazca slab subducting eastward beneath the Puna plateau and another high-Q block with a westward dip beneath the Eastern Cordillera. We suggest that the latter is a piece of delaminated South American lithosphere. A significant low-Q zone lies between the Nazca slab and the South American lithosphere and extends southward from the northern margin of the seismic array at 25°S before vanishing around 27.5°S. This low-Q zone extends farther west in the crust and uppermost mantle at the southern end of the seismic array. The low-Q zone reaches ~100 km depth beneath the northern part of the array but only ~50 km depth in the south. Lateral variations of the low-Q zone reflect the possible mechanism conversion between mantle upwelling related to delamination and dehydration. The depth of the Nazca slab as defined by Q images decreases from north to south beneath the plateau, which is consistent with the steep-flat transition of the angle of the subducting slab as defined by previous earthquake studies.

Liang, Xiaofeng; Sandvol, Eric; Kay, Suzanne; Heit, Benjamin; Yuan, Xiaohui; Mulcahy, Patrick; Chen, Chen; Brown, Larry; Comte, Diana; Alvarado, Patricia

2014-01-01

275

The mass attenuation coefficients of Rhizophora spp. binderless particleboard with four different particle sizes (samples A, B, C and D) and natural raw Rhizophora spp. wood (sample E) were determined using single-beam photon transmission in the energy range between 16.59 and 25.26 keV. This was done by determining the attenuation of K(?1) X-ray fluorescent (XRF) photons from niobium, molybdenum, palladium, silver and tin targets. The results were compared with theoretical values of young-age breast (Breast 1) and water calculated using a XCOM computer program. It was found that the mass attenuation coefficient of Rhizophora spp. binderless particleboards to be close to the calculated XCOM values in water than natural Rhizophora spp. wood. Computed tomography (CT) scans were then used to determine the density profile of the samples. The CT scan results showed that the Rhizophora spp. binderless particleboard has uniform density compared to natural Rhizophora spp. wood. In general, the differences in the variability of the profile density decrease as the particle size of the pellet samples decreases. PMID:22304963

Marashdeh, M W; Bauk, S; Tajuddin, A A; Hashim, R

2012-04-01

276

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optimization inversion method based on derivatives is an important inversion technique in seismic data processing, where the key problem is how to compute the Jacobian matrix. The computational precision of the Jacobian matrix directly influences the success of the optimization inversion method. Currently, most of the AVO (amplitude versus offset) inversions are based on approximate expressions for the Zoeppritz equations to obtain the derivatives of the seismic wave reflection coefficients (SWRCs) with respect to the stratum parameters. As a result, the computational precision and range of applications of these AVO inversions are restricted undesirably. In order to improve the computational precision and to extend the range of applications of AVO inversions, the partial derivative equations of the Zoeppritz equations are established, with respect to the ratios of wave velocities and medium densities. By solving the partial derivative equations of the Zoeppritz equations accurately, we obtained the partial derivative of SWRCs with respect to the ratios of seismic wave velocities and medium densities. With the help of the chain rule for derivatives, the gradient of the SWRCs can be accurately computed. To better understand the behavior of the gradient of the SWRCs, we plotted the partial derivative curves of the SWRCs, analyzed the characteristics of these curves, and gained some new insight into the derivatives. Because only a linear system of equations is solved in our method without adding any new restrictions, the new computational method has both high precision and a quick running speed; it is not only suitable for small incident angles and weak reflection seismic waves but also for large incident angles and strong reflection seismic waves. With the theoretical foundations established in the article, we can further study inversion problems for layered stratum structures and we can further improve the computational speed and precision of the inversions.

Liu, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Fu-Ping; Meng, Xian-Jun; Xiao, Jia-Qi

2012-03-01

277

Extended Capillary Waves and the Negative Rigidity Coefficient in the d=2 SOS model

The solid-on-solid (SOS) model of an interface separating two phases is exactly soluble in two dimensions (d=2) when the interface becomes a one-dimensional string. The exact solution in terms of the transfer matrix is recalled and the density-density correlation function $H(z_1,z_2;\\Delta x)$ together with its projections, is computed. It is demonstrated that the shape fluctuations follow the (extended) capillary-wave theory expression $S(q)=kT/(D+\\gamma q^2 +\\kappa q^4) $ for sufficiently small wave vectors $q$. We find $\\kappa$ {\\it negative}, $\\kappa <0$ . At $q=2\\pi$ there is a strong nearest-neighbor peak. Both these results confirm the earlier findings as established in simulations in d=3 and in continuous space, but now in an exactly soluble lattice model.

J. Stecki

2006-02-15

278

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic interferometry can retrieve the Green's function between receivers from the cross-correlation and summation of recordings from a boundary of surrounding sources. Having the sources only along a boundary is sufficient if the medium is lossless. If the medium is dissipative, the retrieved result using cross-correlation contains non-physical (ghost) arrivals. When using receivers at the surface and transient sources in the subsurface for the retrieval of the reflection response in a dissipative medium, it has been shown that the retrieved ghost reflections are characteristic of the quality factor of the subsurface. The ghost reflections are caused by internal reflections inside subsurface layers. It has been shown with numerical examples for recordings in a borehole from a surface source that a ghost reflection can be discriminated from physical reflections and tied to a specific subsurface layer. After connecting the ghost reflection to a specific layer, the quality factor of the medium above this layer and the reflection coefficient at the layer interface can be estimated. In this article, we show how the above principles can be adapted and applied for surface waves. Due to intrinsic losses in the medium, surface-wave ghost reflections are retrieved from internal scattering between subvertical boundaries. We demonstrate the method on an ultrasonic dataset recorded on a sample composed of a PVC block and an aluminum block. The aluminum block has a groove parallel to the PVC/aluminum interface. Using a surface-wave ghost reflection between the groove and the PVC/aluminum interface, we estimate the quality factor of the PVC and the reflection coefficient at the PVC/aluminum interface. We also show that the ghost reflection can be identified and tied to the layer between the groove and the PVC/aluminum interface, thus confirming previous numerical findings.

Draganov, Deyan; Ruigrok, Elmer; Ghose, Ranajit; Mikesell, Dylan; van Wijk, Kasper

2015-01-01

279

Purpose: Accurate patient-specific photon cross-section information is needed to support more accurate model-based dose calculation for low energy photon-emitting modalities in medicine such as brachytherapy and kilovoltage x-ray imaging procedures. A postprocessing dual-energy CT (pDECT) technique for noninvasive in vivo estimation of photon linear attenuation coefficients has been experimentally implemented on a commercial CT scanner and its accuracy assessed in idealized phantom geometries. Methods: Eight test materials of known composition and density were used to compare pDECT-estimated linear attenuation coefficients to NIST reference values over an energy range from 10 keV to 1 MeV. As statistical image reconstruction (SIR) has been shown to reconstruct images with less random and systematic error than conventional filtered backprojection (FBP), the pDECT technique was implemented with both an in-house polyenergetic SIR algorithm, alternating minimization (AM), as well as a conventional FBP reconstruction algorithm. Improvement from increased spectral separation was also investigated by filtering the high-energy beam with an additional 0.5 mm of tin. The law of propagated uncertainty was employed to assess the sensitivity of the pDECT process to errors in reconstructed images. Results: Mean pDECT-estimated linear attenuation coefficients for the eight test materials agreed within 1% of NIST reference values for energies from 1 MeV down to 30 keV, with mean errors rising to between 3% and 6% at 10 keV, indicating that the method is unbiased when measurement and calibration phantom geometries are matched. Reconstruction with FBP and AM algorithms conferred similar mean pDECT accuracy. However, single-voxel pDECT estimates reconstructed on a 1 × 1 × 3 mm3 grid are shown to be highly sensitive to reconstructed image uncertainty; in some cases pDECT attenuation coefficient estimates exhibited standard deviations on the order of 20% around the mean. Reconstruction with the statistical AM algorithm led to standard deviations roughly 40% to 60% less than FBP reconstruction. Additional tin filtration of the high energy beam exhibits similar pDECT estimation accuracy as the unfiltered beam, even when scanning with only 25% of the dose. Using the law of propagated uncertainty, low Z materials are found to be more sensitive to image reconstruction errors than high Z materials. Furthermore, it is estimated that reconstructed CT image uncertainty must be limited to less than 0.25% to achieve a target linear-attenuation coefficient estimation uncertainty of 3% at 28 keV. Conclusions: That pDECT supports mean linear attenuation coefficient measurement accuracies of 1% of reference values for energies greater than 30 keV is encouraging. However, the sensitivity of the pDECT measurements to noise and systematic errors in reconstructed CT images warrants further investigation in more complex phantom geometries. The investigated statistical reconstruction algorithm, AM, reduced random measurement uncertainty relative to FBP owing to improved noise performance. These early results also support efforts to increase DE spectral separation, which can further reduce the pDECT sensitivity to measurement uncertainty. PMID:24320525

Evans, Joshua D.; Whiting, Bruce R.; O’Sullivan, Joseph A.; Politte, David G.; Klahr, Paul H.; Yu, Yaduo; Williamson, Jeffrey F.

2013-01-01

280

Purpose: Accurate patient-specific photon cross-section information is needed to support more accurate model-based dose calculation for low energy photon-emitting modalities in medicine such as brachytherapy and kilovoltage x-ray imaging procedures. A postprocessing dual-energy CT (pDECT) technique for noninvasivein vivo estimation of photon linear attenuation coefficients has been experimentally implemented on a commercial CT scanner and its accuracy assessed in idealized phantom geometries. Methods: Eight test materials of known composition and density were used to compare pDECT-estimated linear attenuation coefficients to NIST reference values over an energy range from 10 keV to 1 MeV. As statistical image reconstruction (SIR) has been shown to reconstruct images with less random and systematic error than conventional filtered backprojection (FBP), the pDECT technique was implemented with both an in-house polyenergetic SIR algorithm, alternating minimization (AM), as well as a conventional FBP reconstruction algorithm. Improvement from increased spectral separation was also investigated by filtering the high-energy beam with an additional 0.5 mm of tin. The law of propagated uncertainty was employed to assess the sensitivity of the pDECT process to errors in reconstructed images. Results: Mean pDECT-estimated linear attenuation coefficients for the eight test materials agreed within 1% of NIST reference values for energies from 1 MeV down to 30 keV, with mean errors rising to between 3% and 6% at 10 keV, indicating that the method is unbiased when measurement and calibration phantom geometries are matched. Reconstruction with FBP and AM algorithms conferred similar mean pDECT accuracy. However, single-voxel pDECT estimates reconstructed on a 1 × 1 × 3 mm{sup 3} grid are shown to be highly sensitive to reconstructed image uncertainty; in some cases pDECT attenuation coefficient estimates exhibited standard deviations on the order of 20% around the mean. Reconstruction with the statistical AM algorithm led to standard deviations roughly 40% to 60% less than FBP reconstruction. Additional tin filtration of the high energy beam exhibits similar pDECT estimation accuracy as the unfiltered beam, even when scanning with only 25% of the dose. Using the law of propagated uncertainty, low Z materials are found to be more sensitive to image reconstruction errors than high Z materials. Furthermore, it is estimated that reconstructed CT image uncertainty must be limited to less than 0.25% to achieve a target linear-attenuation coefficient estimation uncertainty of 3% at 28 keV. Conclusions: That pDECT supports mean linear attenuation coefficient measurement accuracies of 1% of reference values for energies greater than 30 keV is encouraging. However, the sensitivity of the pDECT measurements to noise and systematic errors in reconstructed CT images warrants further investigation in more complex phantom geometries. The investigated statistical reconstruction algorithm, AM, reduced random measurement uncertainty relative to FBP owing to improved noise performance. These early results also support efforts to increase DE spectral separation, which can further reduce the pDECT sensitivity to measurement uncertainty.

Evans, Joshua D., E-mail: jevans2@mcvh-vcu.edu; Yu, Yaduo; Williamson, Jeffrey F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Whiting, Bruce R. [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); O’Sullivan, Joseph A. [Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Politte, David G. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)] [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Klahr, Paul H. [Philips Healthcare, 595 Miner Rd., Highland Hts., Ohio 44143 (United States)] [Philips Healthcare, 595 Miner Rd., Highland Hts., Ohio 44143 (United States)

2013-12-15

281

Spreading waves of a reduced diffusion coefficient of water in normal and ischemic rat brain.

Using echo planar diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, we measured three-dimensional changes in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of water in eight contiguous coronal slices, encompassing the entire rat brain, before and after local cortical stimulation. We applied chemical (potassium chloride application; n = 6) and mechanical (needle stab; n = 4) stimulations to the right posterior parietal rat cortex. In all animals in which potassium chloride or the needle stab was applied, a region of decreased ADC values to a mean of 0.45 +/- 0.03 x 10(-5)cm2/s occurred. These reduced ADC levels appeared in the posterior parietal cortex within 1 min after cortical stimulation and the change recovered within 1 min. Then a ripple-like movement of similar changes developed across the unilateral cortex. This change was localized to the cortex and no significant ADC changes occurred in subcortical structures. The propagating speed of this movement was 3.4 +/- 0.5 mm/min. These findings are compatible with spreading depression as observed electrophysiologically. Similar ADC changes occurred in areas distinct from the ischemic lesion in 3 of 12 animals subjected to focal cerebral ischemia. This magnetic resonance method could detect spreading ADC decline if it occurred in human diseases including brain ischemia. PMID:7860651

Hasegawa, Y; Latour, L L; Formato, J E; Sotak, C H; Fisher, M

1995-03-01

282

Spreading waves of decreased diffusion coefficient after cortical stimulation in the rat brain.

A method is demonstrated for the noninvasive detection and study of spreading cortical depression. Spreading depression (SD) was elicited in rats by topical application of potassium chloride to the exposed cortex. The apparent diffusion coefficient (Dapp) of water in a region of the cortex, measured using a PFG-NMR spin echo sequence with an observation time of 40 ms, declines 35% within 30 s and recovers to the normal value within the next 30 s. The region of decreased Dapp was shown to be 2 mm in size and to move in the cortex, away from the point of application, with a uniform velocity of 3.3 +/- 0.5 mm/min. The behavior of the affected region is consistent with other reports of the behavior of SD as monitored by electrophysiological means. The technique can be implemented on currently available MRI equipment and makes possible the noninvasive study of SD in animal models of neurological disorders, their therapeutic intervention, and possibly the study of SD in humans. PMID:7968441

Latour, L L; Hasegawa, Y; Formato, J E; Fisher, M; Sotak, C H

1994-08-01

283

The electromechanical coupling coefficient of Rayleigh-type surface acoustic waves in semi-infinite piezoelectrics/non-piezoelectrics superlattices is investigated by the transfer matrix method. Research results show the high electromechanical coupling coefficient can be obtained in these systems. The optimization design of it is also discussed fully. It is significantly influenced by electrical boundary conditions on interfaces, thickness ratios of piezoelectric and non-piezoelectric layers, and material parameters (such as velocities of pure longitudinal and transversal bulk waves in non-piezoelectric layers). In order to obtain higher electromechanical coupling coefficient, shorted interfaces, non-piezoelectric materials with large velocities of longitudinal and transversal bulk waves, and proper thickness ratios should be chosen. PMID:24035609

Chen, Shi; Zhang, Yinhong; Lin, Shuyu; Fu, Zhiqiang

2014-02-01

284

Second coefficient of viscosity in air

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acoustic attenuation measurements in air were analyzed in order to estimate the second coefficient of viscosity. Data over a temperature range of 11 C to 50 C and at relative humidities between 6 percent and 91 percent were used. This analysis showed that the second coefficient of viscosity varied between 1900 and 20,000 times larger than the dynamic or first coefficient of viscosity over the temperature and humidity range of the data. In addition, the data showed that the molecular relaxation effects, which are responsible for the magnitude of the second coefficient of viscosity, place severe limits on the use of time-independent, thermodynamic equations of state. Compressible flows containing large streamwise velocity gradients, like shock waves, which cause significant changes in particle properties to occur during time intervals shorter than hundredths of seconds, must be modeled using dynamic equations of state. The dynamic model approach is described briefly.

Ash, Robert L.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Zheng, Zhonquan

1991-01-01

285

The modified Beer-Lambert law (MBL) and the spatially resolved spectroscopy are used to measure the tissue oxidation in muscles and brains by the continuous wave near-infrared spectroscopy. The spatially resolved spectroscopy predicts the change in the concentration of the absorber by measuring the slope of attenuation data according to the separation and calculating the absorption coefficients of tissue on the basis of the slop in attenuation at the separation distance satisfying the linearity of this slop. This study analyzed the appropriate source-detector separation distance by using the diffuse approximation resolution for photon migration when predicting the absorption coefficient by the spatially resolved spectroscopy on the basis of the reflective image of the tissue. We imagine the 3 dimensional attenuation image with the absorption coefficient, reduced scattering coefficient and separation distance as its axes and obtained the attenuation data cube by calculating the attenuation on a certain interva...

Ri, Yong-Wu; Im, Song-Jin

2014-01-01

286

On the apparent attenuation in the spatial coherence estimated from seismic arrays

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several recent studies have used the coherence of seismic noise between stations to retrieve the phase slowness and attenuation. However, there is considerable debate on the feasibility of attenuation retrieval, its interpretation, and its dependence on the noise directionality and has been the subject of several analytical and numerical studies. In this article, we perform a detailed analysis of the various factors that play a role in the estimation of spatial coherence and attenuation from seismic arrays using data from the Southern California Seismic Network. For instance, certain common preprocessing steps such as averaging neighboring frequencies to improve the estimate are sufficient to introduce attenuation-like effects. The presence of first-mode surface Rayleigh wave and P waves in addition to the fundamental mode in Southern California (at frequencies 0.05-0.2 Hz) suggests that the underlying spatial coherence is better modeled as a linear combination of the above wave types. Although this describes the observed coherence better than a simple zeroth-order Bessel function, the resulting phase cancelations due to the multiple seismic waves can be misconstrued as attenuation if not taken into consideration. Using simulations, we show that due to the slowness inhomogeneity, azimuthally averaging the coherence is not equivalent to homogenizing the medium and instead introduces apparent attenuation in the coherence due to interference. Trying to fit an exponential decay model to this apparent attenuation results in an attenuation coefficient which is similar to previously published results.

Menon, Ravishankar; Gerstoft, Peter; Hodgkiss, William S.

2014-04-01

287

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the variable-coefficient diffusion—advection (DA) equation, which arises in modeling various physical phenomena, is studied by the Lie symmetry approach. The similarity reductions are derived by determining the complete sets of point symmetries of this equation, and then exact and numerical solutions are reported for the reduced second-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Further, an extended (G'/G)-expansion method is applied to the DA equation to construct some new non-traveling wave solutions.

Vikas, Kumar; K. Gupta, R.; Ram, Jiwari

2014-03-01

288

Modeling ultrasonic noise and attenuation in elongated duplex polycrystalline materials

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between ultrasonic waves and the polycrystalline microstructure of metals leads to structural noise and attenuation, which can cause significant losses in detection performances. Taking these phenomena into account in UT simulation can help designing suitable inspection procedures. It is possible to model them based on the intrinsic scattering coefficients of a material. Expressions of this coefficient valid for duplex elongated materials and for any mode and scattering direction are given in this communication. Structural noise from a titanium alloy was computed based on these expressions and is compared to measurement.

Dorval, V.; Ganjehi, L.; Chatillon, S.; Jenson, F.

2013-01-01

289

Sound Attenuation in Magnetic Metals

The anomalous sound attenuation due to spin fluctuations near the magnetic phase transition temperatures in itinerant magnets and the rare earth metals is theoretically studied. By applying Tsuneto and Kadanoff and Falko's formulas, the attenuation coefficient is calculated. The calculated results explain the critical anomalies observed in magnetic metals such as Ni and Gd. By comparing the results with that

Sadamichi Maekawa; Masashi Tachiki

1977-01-01

290

Frequency Dependent Attenuation Revisited

The work is inspired by thermo-and photoacoustic imaging, where recent efforts are devoted to take into account attenuation and varying wave speed parameters. In this paper we study causal equations describing propagation of attenuated pressure waves. We review standard models like frequency power laws and and the thermo-viscous equation. The lack of causality of standard models in the parameter range relevant for photoacoustic imaging requires to derive novel equations. The main ingredients for deriving causal equations are the Kramers-Kronig relation and the mathematical concept of linear system theory. The theoretical results of this work are underpined by numerical experiments.

Richard, Kowar; Xavier, Bonnefond

2009-01-01

291

Effect of phase change on shock wave attenuation in GeO2 and T. J. Ahrens

February 2002 Stress-wave profiles in vitreous GeO2 induced by planar and spherical projectile impact were wave achieving the final shock state forms when peak pressure is 6 GPa specified by linear shock- teraction with rock of nuclear explosions in the Earth, a de- tailed series of shock measurements on SiO2

Stewart, Sarah T.

292

SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

Wave-induced variations of pore pressure in a partially-saturated reservoir result in oscillatory liquid flow. The viscous losses during this flow are responsible for wave attenuation. The same viscous effects determine the changes in the dynamic bulk modulus of the system versus frequency. These changes are necessarily linked to attenuation via the causality condition. We analytically quantify the frequency dependence of the bulk modulus of a partially saturated rock by assuming that saturation is patchy and then link these changes to the inverse quality factor. As a result, the P-wave attenuation is quantitatively linked to saturation and thus can serve as a saturation indicator.

Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

2002-04-01

293

The crystal field effects on sound attenuation for a spin-1 Ising model on the Bethe lattice

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sound attenuation phenomenon is investigated by using the Onsager theory of irreversible thermodynamics for a spin-1 Ising model with the inclusion of the crystal field effects on the Bethe lattice. The recursion relations are calculated in a transcendental form to obtain the order-parameters and then the sound attenuation is analyzed. The relationships of sound attenuation with temperature, frequency and Onsager coefficient are examined near the second- and first-order phase transition temperatures, Tc and Tt respectively, for given negative crystal field values and coordination numbers on the Bethe lattice. The sound wave couples to the order-parameter fluctuations which decay mainly via the order-parameter relaxation process. Thus, two relaxation times are obtained which are used to find an expression for the sound attenuation coefficient. The attenuation maxima are found near the second- and first-order phase transition temperatures in the ferromagnetic and quadrupole phase regions, respectively, for the coordination numbers q = 3,4 and 6. The attenuation peaks are observed at the same temperature before Tt and are found to be shifted to lower (higher) temperatures with increasing value of frequency (Onsager coefficient) before Tc for any crystal field values. The attenuation peaks are found at lower values and at higher temperatures with negatively increasing crystal field values in the quadrupolar phase regions. In addition, the sound attenuation peaks are also studied at some tricritical points for q = 3,4 and 6 for some critical values of the crystal field.

Cengiz, Tunç; Albayrak, Erhan

2012-07-01

294

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thin film heat transfer gauge is applied to the measurement of heat transfer coefficients in the interaction regions of incident shock waves and fully developed turbulent boundary layers. It was developed to measure heat flux with high spatial resolution and fast response for wind tunnels with long flow duration. To measure the heat transfer coefficients in the interaction region in detail, experiments were performed under the conditions of Mach number = 4, total pressure = 1.2 MPa, 0.59 to approximately 0.65. Reynolds number = 1.3 to approximately 1.5 x 10 to the 7th power and incident shock angles from 17.8 to 22.8 degrees. The results show that the heat transfer coefficient changes complicatedly in the interaction region. At the beginning the interaction region, the heat transfer coefficient decreases at first, reaches its minimum value at the point where the pressure begins to increase, and then increases sharply. When the boundary layer begins to separate, even a small separation bubble causes significant changes in the heat transfer coefficient, while the pressure does not show any changes which suggests that the boundary layer begins to separate.

Hayashi, M.; Sakurai, A.; Aso, S.

1986-01-01

295

The lithosphere beneath a continental rift should be significantly modified due to extension. To image the lithosphere beneath the Rio Grande rift (RGR), we analyzed teleseismic travel time delays of both P and S wave arrivals and solved for the attenuation of P and S waves for four seismic experiments spanning the Rio Grande rift. Two tomographic inversions of the P wave travel time data are given: an Aki-Christofferson-Husebye (ACH) block model inversion and a downward projection inversion. The tomographic inversions reveal a NE-SW to NNE-SSW trending feature at depths of 35 to 145 km with a velocity reduction of 7 to 8% relative to mantle velocities beneath the Great Plains. This region correlates with the transition zone between the Colorado Plateau and the Rio Grande rift and is bounded on the NW by the Jemez lineament, a N52??E trending zone of late Miocene to Holocene volcanism. S wave delays plotted against P wave delays are fit with a straight line giving a slope of 3.0??0.4. This correlation and the absolute velocity reduction imply that temperatures in the lithosphere are close to the solidus, consistent with, but not requiring, the presence of partial melt in the mantle beneath the Rio Grande rift. The attenuation data could imply the presence of partial melt. We compare our results with other geophysical and geologic data. We propose that any north-south trending thermal (velocity) anomaly that may have existed in the upper mantle during earlier (Oligocene to late Miocene) phases of rifting and that may have correlated with the axis of the rift has diminished with time and has been overprinted with more recent structure. The anomalously low-velocity body presently underlying the transition zone between the core of the Colorado Plateau and the rift may reflect processes resulting from the modern (Pliocene to present) regional stress field (oriented WNW-ESE), possibly heralding future extension across the Jemez lineament and transition zone.

Slack, P.D.; Davis, P.M.; Baldridge, W.S.; Olsen, K.H.; Glahn, A.; Achauer, U.; Spence, W.

1996-01-01

296

Multi-wave amplitude-preserved AVO modeling considering wave propagation effects

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional AVO forward modeling only considers the impact of reflection coefficients at the interface on seismic wave field amplitude and ignores various propagation effects. Introducing wave propagation effects including geometric spreading, transmission loss, attenuation into seismic wave propagation, multi-wave amplitude-preserved AVO forward modeling for horizontally layered media based on ray theory is proposed in this paper. We derived the multi-wave geometric spreading correction formulas for horizontally layered media in order to describe the geometric spreading effect of multi-wave propagation. Introducing the complex traveltime directly, we built the relationship between complex traveltime and quality factor without the help of complex velocity to describe the attenuation of viscoelastic media. Multi-wave transmission coefficients, obtained by solving the Zoeppritz equations directly, is used to describe the transmission loss. Numerical results show that the effects of geometric spreading, attenuation, and transmission loss on multi-wave amplitude varies with offset and multi-wave amplitude-preserved AVO forward modeling should consider the reconstructive effect of wave propagation on reflection amplitude.

Hou, Bo; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Li, Jing-Ye; Zhang, Xiao-Zhen

2011-09-01

297

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A general method was established for precisely measuring velocity dispersion and attenuation in solid specimens with acoustic losses in the very high frequency (VHF) range, using the complex-mode measurement method and the diffraction correction method. Experimental procedures were presented for implementing such a method and demonstrated this measurement method in the frequency range of 50-230 MHz, using borosilicate glass (C-7740) as a dispersive specimen and synthetic silica glass (C-7980) as a nondispersive standard specimen. C-7980 exhibited no velocity dispersion; velocity was constant at 5929.14+/-0.03 m/s. C-7740 exhibited velocity dispersion, from 5542.27 m/s at 50 MHz to 5544.47 m/s at 230 MHz with an increase of about 2 m/s in the measured frequency range. When frequency dependence of attenuation was expressed as ?=?0f?, the results were as follows: ?0=1.07×10-16 s2/m and ?=2 for C-7980 and ?0=5.16×10-9 s1.25/m and ?=1.25 for C-7740.

Kushibiki, Jun-Ichi; Okabe, Ryoichi; Arakawa, Mototaka

2003-06-01

298

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiparameter full waveform inversion (FWI) is a challenging quantitative seismic imaging method for lithological characterization and reservoir monitoring. The difficulties in multiparameter FWI arise from the variable influence of the different parameter classes on the phase and amplitude of the data, and the trade-off between these. In this framework, choosing a suitable parametrization of the subsurface and designing the suitable FWI workflow are two key methodological issues in non-linear waveform inversion. We assess frequency-domain visco-acoustic FWI to reconstruct the compressive velocity (VP), the density (?) or the impedance (IP) and the quality factor (QP), from the hydrophone component, using a synthetic data set that is representative of the Valhall oil field in the North Sea. We first assess which of the (VP, ?) and (VP, IP) parametrizations provides the most reliable FWI results when dealing with wide-aperture data. Contrary to widely accepted ideas, we show that the (VP, ?) parametrization allows a better reconstruction of both the VP, ? and IP parameters, first because it favours the broad-band reconstruction of the dominant VP parameter, and secondly because the trade-off effects between velocity and density at short-to-intermediate scattering angles can be removed by multiplication, to build an impedance model. This allows for the matching of the reflection amplitudes, while the broad-band velocity model accurately describes the kinematic attributes of both the diving waves and reflections. Then, we assess different inversion strategies to recover the quality factor QP, in addition to parameters VP and ?. A difficulty related to attenuation estimation arises because, on the one hand the values of QP are on average one order of magnitude smaller than those of VP and ?, and on the other hands model perturbations relative to the starting models can be much higher for QP than for VP and ? during FWI. In this framework, we show that an empirical tuning of the FWI regularization, which is adapted to each parameter class, is a key issue to correctly account for the attenuation in the inversion. We promote a hierarchical approach where the dominant parameter VP is reconstructed first from the full data set (i.e. without any data preconditioning) to build a velocity model as kinematically accurate as possible before performing the joint update of the three parameter classes during a second step. This hierarchical imaging of compressive wave speed, density and attenuation is applied to a real wide-aperture ocean-bottom-cable data set from the Valhall oil field. Several geological features, such as accumulation of gas below barriers of claystone and soft quaternary sediment are interpreted in the FWI models of density and attenuation. The models of VP, ? and QP that have been developed by visco-acoustic FWI of the hydrophone data can be used as initial models to perform visco-elastic FWI of the geophone data for the joint update of the compressive and shear wave speeds.

Prieux, Vincent; Brossier, Romain; Operto, Stéphane; Virieux, Jean

2013-09-01

299

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model of the microwave and millimeter wave link in the presence of atmospheric turbulence is presented with emphasis on satellite communications systems. The analysis is based on standard methods of statistical theory. The results are directly usable by the design engineer.

Devasirvatham, D. M. J.; Hodge, D. B.

1981-01-01

300

On the anomalously low attenuation of the leaky Rayleigh wave in a fluid-filled cylindrical cavity

for ultrasonic nondestructive testing of inaccessible airframe structures for fatigue cracking. One particular such application of great in- terest in the aerospace industry is the inspection of weep holes drilled through. The conventional ultrasonic creeping wave tech- nique shown in Fig. 1 a experiences a strong specular re- flection

Nagy, Peter B.

301

The lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) is one of the promising methods not only for driving the non-inductive current required for steady-state tokamak operation, but also for controlling the plasma current profile to improve confinement in tokamak experiments. A direct consequence of experimental imperfection is difficult to obtain reliable estimate of the radial diffusion coefficient (D{sub st}) of the lower hybrid driven current. In this paper, the radial profile of D{sub st} is estimated to investigate its effect on the current driven by lower hybrid wave (LHW) in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. Compared with the case of the constant radial diffusion coefficient, the efficiency of LHW driven current with the radial dependent diffusion coefficient D{sub st} ({rho}) becomes either higher or lower with respect to the plasma parameters, such as the density and the magnetic fluctuation. It is also found that the profiles of the LHW driven current are different. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the radial dependence of D{sub st} in order to get an accurate and reliable result in the numerical simulation of LHCD.

Zhang Xianmei; Wang Yanhui; Yu Limin; Shen Xin; Wang Jianbin [Department of Physics, East China University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 385, Shanghai 200237 (China)

2012-07-15

302

Inverse problems of ultrasound tomography in models with attenuation.

We develop efficient methods for solving inverse problems of ultrasound tomography in models with attenuation. We treat the inverse problem as a coefficient inverse problem for unknown coordinate-dependent functions that characterize both the speed cross section and the coefficients of the wave equation describing attenuation in the diagnosed region. We derive exact formulas for the gradient of the residual functional in models with attenuation, and develop efficient algorithms for minimizing the gradient of the residual by solving the conjugate problem. These algorithms are easy to parallelize when implemented on supercomputers, allowing the computation time to be reduced by a factor of several hundred compared to a PC. The numerical analysis of model problems shows that it is possible to reconstruct not only the speed cross section, but also the properties of the attenuating medium. We investigate the choice of the initial approximation for iterative algorithms used to solve inverse problems. The algorithms considered are primarily meant for the development of ultrasound tomographs for differential diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:24694653

Goncharsky, Alexander V; Romanov, Sergey Y

2014-04-21

303

Inverse problems of ultrasound tomography in models with attenuation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop efficient methods for solving inverse problems of ultrasound tomography in models with attenuation. We treat the inverse problem as a coefficient inverse problem for unknown coordinate-dependent functions that characterize both the speed cross section and the coefficients of the wave equation describing attenuation in the diagnosed region. We derive exact formulas for the gradient of the residual functional in models with attenuation, and develop efficient algorithms for minimizing the gradient of the residual by solving the conjugate problem. These algorithms are easy to parallelize when implemented on supercomputers, allowing the computation time to be reduced by a factor of several hundred compared to a PC. The numerical analysis of model problems shows that it is possible to reconstruct not only the speed cross section, but also the properties of the attenuating medium. We investigate the choice of the initial approximation for iterative algorithms used to solve inverse problems. The algorithms considered are primarily meant for the development of ultrasound tomographs for differential diagnosis of breast cancer.

Goncharsky, Alexander V.; Romanov, Sergey Y.

2014-04-01

304

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We will review some basic properties of waves and then further explore sound and light. For a quick overview of some properties of all waves, click on this first site. Make sure you fill out your hand out as you work! Waves and Wave Motion : Describing Waves Practice what you've already learned about waves with this site: Waves This site will let you play around some more with transverse waves: Wave on a String Sound waves are mechanical waves, ...

Petersen, Mrs.

2014-05-27

305

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from two vertical seismic profiles (VSPs) from the Nankai Trough exploratory well, offshore Tokai, central Japan, are used to estimate compressional attenuation in methane hydrate (MH)-bearing sediments at seismic frequencies of 30-110 Hz. We compare spectral ratio and centroid frequency shift methods for measuring attenuation. To isolate intrinsic attenuation from total attenuation, attenuation is computed from multiples using one-dimensional synthetic VSP data from sonic and density logs. The use of two different measurement methods and two VSPs recorded at just 100 m separation provides an opportunity to validate the attenuation measurements. No significant compressional attenuation was observed in MH-bearing sediments at seismic frequencies. Macroscopically, the peaks of highest attenuation in the seismic frequency range correspond to low-saturation gas zones. In contrast, high compressional attenuation zones in the sonic frequency range (10-20 kHz) are affected by the presence of methane hydrates in the same well locations. Thus this study demonstrated the frequency dependence of attenuation in MH-bearing sediments; MH-bearing sediments cause attenuation in the sonic frequency range rather than the seismic frequency range.

Matsushima, Jun

2006-10-01

306

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five melt-bearing polycrystalline olivine aggregates have been newly prepared by hot isostatic pressing and tested at high temperature and pressure with torsional forced-oscillation and microcreep methods. Cylindrical specimens, varying in average grain size from 7 to 52 ?m, were annealed and then tested during slow staged cooling under 200 MPa pressure from maximum temperatures of 1240-1300°C where they contained basaltic melt fractions ranging from ˜0.0001 to 0.037. For temperatures ?1000°C, pronounced departures from elastic behavior are evident in strain energy dissipation Q-1 and associated dispersion of the shear modulus G. In marked contrast with the high-temperature viscoelastic behavior of melt-free materials, a broad dissipation peak is observed for each of the melt-bearing specimens - superimposed upon a melt-enhanced level of monotonically frequency- and temperature-dependent "background" dissipation. The oscillation period at which the peak is centered decreases systematically with increasing temperature. A "global" model comprising an Andrade-pseudoperiod background plus Gaussian peak accounts adequately for the variation of Q-1 with frequency, temperature, average grain size and melt fraction. In the following paper (Part II) a microstructural explanation for the observed viscoelastic behavior is sought and the global model is used to extrapolate the experimental data to the conditions of teleseismic wave propagation in the Earth's upper mantle.

Jackson, Ian; Faul, Ulrich H.; Fitz Gerald, John D.; Tan, Ben H.

2004-06-01

307

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from two vertical seismic profiles (VSPs) from the Nankai Trough exploratory well, offshore Tokai, central Japan, are used to estimate compressional attenuation in methane hydrate (MH)-bearing sediments at seismic frequencies of 30-110 Hz. We compare spectral ratio and centroid frequency shift methods for measuring attenuation. To isolate intrinsic attenuation from total attenuation, attenuation is computed from multiples using one-dimensional synthetic VSP data from sonic and density logs. The use of two different measurement methods and two VSPs recorded at just 100 m separation provides an opportunity to validate the attenuation measurements. Macroscopically, the peaks of highest attenuation in the seismic frequency range correspond to low-saturation gas zones. This interpretation is supported by raw-level data such as the centroid frequency. No significant compressional attenuation was observed in MH-bearing sediments at seismic frequencies. In contrast, high compressional attenuation zones in the sonic frequency range (10-20 kHz) are affected by the presence of methane hydrates in the same well locations. Thus, this study demonstrated the frequency-dependence of attenuation in MH-bearing sediments.

Matsushima, J.

2005-12-01

308

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional attenuation structure based on frequency-dependent shear wave quality factor, Q ? ( f), has been determined for the Kumaon region of the Himalayas. An algorithm based on inversion of strong motion data developed by J oshi (Curr Sci 90:581-585, 2006a) and later modified by K umar et al. (Pure Appl Geophys, doi: 10.1007/s00024-013-0658-x, 2013) was used for determination of three-dimensional attenuation coefficients. The input of this algorithm is the spectral acceleration of the S phase of the accelerogram and the outcome is the attenuation coefficient and the source acceleration spectra. A dense network monitoring strong ground motion in the Kumaon region of the Uttarakhand Himalayas has been operating since 2006. This network recorded 287 earthquakes up to July, 2013, of which 18 were used for this work. Shear-wave quality-factors were estimated for frequencies of 1.0, 5.0, and 10.0 Hz for two rectangular blocks of surface of dimensions 85 × 55 and 90 × 30 km2 in the Kumaon region of the Himalayas. Both blocks were divided into 25 three-dimensional blocks of uniform thickness with different Q ? ( f) values. The spatial distribution of frequency-dependent shear-wave quality factors in two different blocks reveal the attenuation properties of the region. The profiles of the contours of shear-wave quality factors observed were comparable with those of major tectonic units present in the region.

Kumar, Parveen; Joshi, A.; Sandeep; Kumar, Ashvini

2015-02-01

309

Ultrasonic attenuation peak in steel and aluminum alloy during rotating bending fatigue

Using electromagnetic acoustic resonance (EMAR), the authors studied the evolution of the surface shear wave attenuation and phase velocity in a 0.45 pct C steel and a 5052 aluminum alloy exposed to rotating bending fatigue. In the EMAR method, they used electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) for the contactless measurements of the axial shear wave, which is a surface shear wave that propagates along a cylindrical surface in the circumferential direction, with an axial polarization. There has been no precious report of continuous and contactless monitoring of the surface wave attenuation and velocity being performed without interrupting the fatigue. The attenuation coefficient always showed sharp peaks around 90 pct of the fatigue life, independent of the fatigue-stress amplitude. To interpret this phenomenon, the authors made crack-growth observations using replicas and measurements of recovery of attenuation and velocity by stopping the cyclic loading before and after the peak. From these results, they concluded that the evolution of the ultrasonic properties is caused by a drastic change in dislocation mobility being accompanied by the crack growth at the final stage of the fatigue life.

Ogi, Hirotsugu; Hamaguchi, Takayuki; Hirao, Masahiko

2000-04-01

310

A fundamental assumption embraced in conventional use of the ultrasonic pulse-echo immersion technique to measure attenuation in solid materials is revisited. The cited assumption relies on perfect and immutable adhesion at the water to sample interface, a necessary condition that allows calculating the reflection coefficient at any interface from elastic wave propagation theory. This parameter is then used to correct the measured signal and obtain the real attenuation coefficient of the sample under scrutiny. In this paper, cases in which the perfectly cohesive interfacial condition is not satisfied are presented. It is shown also that in those cases, the repeatability of the conditions at the interface is always uncertain. This implies that the reflection coefficients are unknown, even when density is known. A new method of simultaneously measuring the reflection coefficients for both exposed interfaces that are normal to the transducer, and the attenuation coefficient of the specimen is developed and is presented here. The robustness of the new method is proven, as we demonstrate that the proper value of attenuation is achieved independently of the continuously varying interfacial conditions of these non-ideal cases. PMID:23998204

Goñi, Miguel A; Rousseau, Carl-Ernst

2014-02-01

311

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wideband acoustic spectroscopy with a laser ultrasound source for quantitative analysis of the effect of porosity on the attenuation coefficient of longitudinal acoustic waves in carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite materials was experimentally implemented. The samples under study had different bulk-porosity levels (up to 10%), which were determined using X-ray computer tomography. A resonance ultrasound attenuation peak associated with the one-dimensional periodicity of the layered composite structure was observed for all samples. The absolute value of the resonance-peak maximum and its width depend on the local concentration of microscopic isolated pores and extended delaminations in the sample structure. The obtained empirical relationships between these parameters of the frequency dependence of the ultrasound attenuation coefficient and the type of inhomogeneities and their volume concentration can be used for rapid evaluation of the structural quality of CFRP composites.

Karabutov, A. A.; Podymova, N. B.; Belyaev, I. O.

2013-11-01

312

Generating attenuation maps using differential attenuation data

A method is proposed to estimate attenuation from differential attenuation information (DAI) contained solely in SPECT emission data produced by 201Tl or other multiple emission isotopes. The total attenuation along each projection line is shown to be related to the difference in attenuation for two emissions at distinct energies (low energy gamma rays are attenuated more than high energy gamma

M. S. Kaplan; D. R. Haynor; R. S. Miyaoka; T. K. Lewellen

1996-01-01

313

Tested and confirmed the hypothesis that scopolamine attenuates habituation occurring within a training session as well as that occurring between training sessions. Subcutaneous scopolamine injections (.5 mg\\/kg) reduced spontaneous wheel running in 8 female prairie dogs. The same dosage did not affect the threshold for wheel running induced by electrical brain stimulation (EBS) in 6 Ss in Exp II. Exp

R. H. Carlson; M. G. Sanders; A. Tal; W. G. Wood

1975-01-01

314

Prediction of spectral acceleration response ordinates based on PGA attenuation

Developed herein is a new peak ground acceleration (PGA)-based predictive model for 5% damped pseudospectral acceleration (SA) ordinates of free-field horizontal component of ground motion from shallow-crustal earthquakes. The predictive model of ground motion spectral shape (i.e., normalized spectrum) is generated as a continuous function of few parameters. The proposed model eliminates the classical exhausted matrix of estimator coefficients, and provides significant ease in its implementation. It is structured on the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) database with a number of additions from recent Californian events including 2003 San Simeon and 2004 Parkfield earthquakes. A unique feature of the model is its new functional form explicitly integrating PGA as a scaling factor. The spectral shape model is parameterized within an approximation function using moment magnitude, closest distance to the fault (fault distance) and VS30 (average shear-wave velocity in the upper 30 m) as independent variables. Mean values of its estimator coefficients were computed by fitting an approximation function to spectral shape of each record using robust nonlinear optimization. Proposed spectral shape model is independent of the PGA attenuation, allowing utilization of various PGA attenuation relations to estimate the response spectrum of earthquake recordings.

Graizer, V.; Kalkan, E.

2009-01-01

315

Seismic Attenuation Inversion with t* Using tstarTomog.

Seismic attenuation is defined as the loss of the seismic wave amplitude as the wave propagates excluding losses strictly due to geometric spreading. Information gleaned from seismic waves can be utilized to solve for the attenuation properties of the earth. One method of solving for earth attenuation properties is called t*. This report will start by introducing the basic theory behind t* and delve into inverse theory as it pertains to how the algorithm called tstarTomog inverts for attenuation properties using t* observations. This report also describes how to use the tstarTomog package to go from observed data to a 3-D model of attenuation structure in the earth.

Preston, Leiph

2014-09-01

316

Acoustic waves in polydispersed bubbly liquids

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The propagation of acoustic waves in polydispersed mixtures of liquid with two sorts of gas bubbles each of which has its own bubble size distribution function is studied. The system of the differential equations of the perturbed motion of a mixture is presented, the dispersion relation is obtained. Equilibrium speed of sound, low-frequency and high-frequency asymptotes of the attenuation coefficient are found. Comparison of the developed theory with known experimental data is presented.

Gubaidullin, D. A.; Gubaidullina, D. D.; Fedorov, Yu V.

2014-11-01

317

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We undertook laboratory-based seismic measurements with dense sensor array at ultrasonic frequencies during the injection of CO 2 into a water-saturated sandstone specimen. The resulting high-quality seismic data enabled detailed determination of the relative velocity and attenuation coefficient of the compressional wave using difference seismic tomography, which directly inverses time-lapse changes in rock properties from time-lapse changes in observed data. CO 2 migration and water displacement were clearly mapped using tomographic images of relative velocity and the attenuation coefficient. The final and largely stabilised volume fraction of CO 2 in the pore space of the sample is about 30-40%. On average, the P-velocity fell by 7.5, 12, and 14.5% and the attenuation coefficient Q-1 increased by factors of 3.3, 2.7, and 3.7 as a result of the replacement of water with CO 2 during the injection of gaseous, liquid, and supercritical CO 2, respectively. As a function of gas saturation, both the velocity and attenuation data are in good agreement with results obtained using the White and Dutta-Odé model for partial saturation, indicating that viscous losses due to fluid diffusion are of significant importance for compressional waves travelling at ultrasonic frequencies in porous rocks.

Lei, Xinglin; Xue, Ziqiu

2009-10-01

318

Seismic Rheological Model and Reflection Coefficients of the Brittle-Ductile Transition

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well established that the upper—cooler—part of the crust is brittle, while deeper zones present ductile behaviour. In some cases, this brittle-ductile transition is a single seismic reflector with an associated reflection coefficient. We first develop a stress-strain relation including the effects of crust anisotropy, seismic attenuation and ductility in which deformation takes place by shear plastic flow. Viscoelastic anisotropy is based on the eigenstrain model and the Zener and Burgers mechanical models are used to model the effects of seismic attenuation, velocity dispersion, and steady-state creep flow, respectively. The stiffness components of the brittle and ductile media depend on stress and temperature through the shear viscosity, which is obtained by the Arrhenius equation and the octahedral stress criterion. The P- and S-wave velocities decrease as depth and temperature increase due to the geothermal gradient, an effect which is more pronounced for shear waves. We then obtain the reflection and transmission coefficients of a single brittle-ductile interface and of a ductile thin layer. The PP scattering coefficient has a Brewster angle (a sign change) in both cases, and there is substantial PS conversion at intermediate angles. The PP coefficient is sensitive to the layer thickness, unlike the SS coefficient. Thick layers have a well-defined Brewster angle and show higher reflection amplitudes. Finally, we compute synthetic seismograms in a homogeneous medium as a function of temperature.

Carcione, José M.; Poletto, Flavio

2013-12-01

319

Multipass welds made of 316L stainless steel are specific welds of the primary circuit of pressurized water reactors in nuclear power plants. Because of their strong heterogeneous and anisotropic nature due to grain growth during solidification, ultrasonic waves may be greatly deviated, split and attenuated. Thus, ultrasonic assessment of the structural integrity of such welds is quite complicated. Numerical codes exist that simulate ultrasonic propagation through such structures, but they require precise and realistic input data, as attenuation coefficients. This paper presents rigorous measurements of attenuation in austenitic weld as a function of grain orientation. In fact attenuation is here mainly caused by grain scattering. Measurements are based on the decomposition of experimental beams into plane-wave angular spectra and on the modeling of the ultrasonic propagation through the material. For this, the transmission coefficients are calculated for any incident plane wave on an anisotropic plate. Two different hypotheses on the welded material are tested: first it is considered as monoclinic, and then as triclinic. Results are analyzed, and validated through comparison to theoretical predictions of related literature. They underline the great importance of well-describing the anisotropic structure of austenitic welds for UT modeling issues. PMID:24759567

Ploix, Marie-Aude; Guy, Philippe; Chassignole, Bertrand; Moysan, Joseph; Corneloup, Gilles; El Guerjouma, Rachid

2014-09-01

320

Attenuation correction for the NIH ATLAS small animal PET scanner

We evaluated an analytic attenuation correction method for the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Advanced Technology Laboratory Animal Scanner (ATLAS) small animal positron emission tomography (PET) scanner. This method is based on the body outline of emission images and an average empirical ? (linear attenuation coefficient) value. We evaluated this method using a computed tomography (CT)-based attenuation correction (ACs) as

Rutao Yao; Jürgen Seidel; Jeih-San Liow; Michael V. Green

2005-01-01

321

Seismic attenuation in fractured media

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prime objective of this paper is to quantitatively estimate seismic attenuation caused by fractures with different physical parameters. In seismic wave simulation, the fractured media are treated as the anisotropic media and fractures are represented by frequency-dependent elastic constants. Based on numerical experiments with three different parameters, namely viscosity, porosity and the Lamé parameters, this paper has the following observations. First, seismic attenuation is not affected by the viscosity within fractures, although it increases with the increase of porosity and decreases with the increase of the Lamé parameters within fractures. Among the latter two parameters, seismic attenuation is more sensitive to the Lamé parameters than to the porosity. Second, for the attenuation anisotropy, low frequencies have more anisotropic effect than high frequencies. For example, a 50?Hz wavefield has the strongest anisotropy effect if compared to 100 and 150?Hz wavefields. The attenuation anisotropy for low frequency (say 50?Hz) is more sensitive to the viscosity than the porosity and the Lamé parameters have the weakest effect among these three parameters. These observations suggest that low-frequency seismic attenuation, and especially the attenuation anisotropy in low frequency, would have great potential for fluid discrimination within fractured media.

Rao, Ying; Wang, Yanghua

2015-02-01

322

A linear model approach for ultrasonic inverse problems with attenuation and dispersion.

Ultrasonic inverse problems such as spike train deconvolution, synthetic aperture focusing, or tomography attempt to reconstruct spatial properties of an object (discontinuities, delaminations, flaws, etc.) from noisy and incomplete measurements. They require an accurate description of the data acquisition process. Dealing with frequency-dependent attenuation and dispersion is therefore crucial because both phenomena modify the wave shape as the travel distance increases. In an inversion context, this paper proposes to exploit a linear model of ultrasonic data taking into account attenuation and dispersion. The propagation distance is discretized to build a finite set of radiation impulse responses. Attenuation is modeled with a frequency power law and then dispersion is computed to yield physically consistent responses. Using experimental data acquired from attenuative materials, this model outperforms the standard attenuation-free model and other models of the literature. Because of model linearity, robust estimation methods can be implemented. When matched filtering is employed for single echo detection, the model that we propose yields precise estimation of the attenuation coefficient and of the sound velocity. A thickness estimation problem is also addressed through spike deconvolution, for which the proposed model also achieves accurate results. PMID:24960708

Carcreff, Ewen; Bourguignon, Sébastien; Idier, Jérôme; Simon, Laurent

2014-07-01

323

Ultrasonic attenuation peak in steel and aluminum alloy during rotating bending fatigue

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using electromagnetic acoustic resonance (EMAR), we studied the evolution of the surface shearwave attenuation and phase velocity in a 0.45 pct C steel and a 5052 aluminum alloy exposed to rotating bending fatigue. In the EMAR method, we used electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) for the contactless measurements of the axial shear wave, which is a surface shear wave that propagates along a cylindrical surface in the circumferential direction, with an axial polarization. There has been no previous report of continuous and contactless monitoring of the surface wave attenuation and velocity being performed without interrupting the fatigue. The attenuation coefficient always showed sharp peaks around 90 pct of the fatigue life, independent of the fatigue-stress amplitude. To interpret this phenomenon, we made crack-growth observations using replicas and measurements of recovery of attenuation and velocity by stopping the cyclic loading before and after the peak. From these results, we concluded that the evolution of the ultrasonic properties is caused by a drastic change in dislocation mobility being accompanied by the crack growth at the final stage of the fatigue life.

Ogi, Hirotsugu; Hamaguchi, Takayuki; Hirao, Masahiko

2000-04-01

324

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers an inverse problem for the classical wave equation in an exterior domain. It is a mathematical interpretation of an inverse obstacle problem which employs the dynamical scattering data of an acoustic wave over a finite time interval. It is assumed that the wave satisfies a Robin-type boundary condition with an unknown variable coefficient. The wave is generated from the initial data localized outside the obstacle and observed over a finite time interval at the same place as the support of the initial data. It is already known that, using the enclosure method, one can extract the maximum sphere whose exterior encloses the obstacle, from the data. In this paper, it is shown that the enclosure method enables us to extract also: (i) a quantity which indicates the deviation of the geometry between the maximum sphere and the boundary of the obstacle at the first-reflection points of the wave; (ii) the value of the coefficient of the boundary condition at an arbitrary first-reflection point of the wave provided, for example, that the surface of the obstacle is known in a neighbourhood of the point. Further new knowledge is obtained as follows: the enclosure method can cover the case where the data are taken over a sphere whose centre coincides with that of the support of an initial datum, and yields results corresponding to (i) and (ii).

Ikehata, Masaru

2014-04-01

325

Modeling mesoscopic attenuation in a highly heterogeneous Biot's ...

One of the most important mechanisms of P-wave attenuation at seis- mic frequencies is ... discretization of the viscoelastic wave equation formulated in the space- frequency ..... mic modeling for monitoring co2 storage: Pure Appl. Geophys.,.

2008-04-04

326

X-ray emission computed tomography with attenuation correction for ICF research

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An attenuation correction method was proposed for laser-produced plasma emission computed tomography (ECT), which is based on relation of attenuation coefficient and emission coefficient in plasma. Simulation results show that the reconstructed images are dramatically improved in comparison to reconstructions without attenuation correction.

Chen, Yen-Wei

1996-05-01

327

The Physics of the Gas Attenuator for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)

A systematic assessment of a variety of physics issues affecting the performance of the LCLS X-ray beam attenuator is presented. Detailed analysis of the gas flow in the gas attenuator and in the apertures is performed. A lot of attention is directed towards the gas ionization and heating by intense X-ray pulses. The role of these phenomena in possible deviations of the attenuation coefficient from its 'dialed in' value is evaluated and found small in most cases. Other sources of systematic and statistical errors are also discussed. The regimes where the errors may reach a few percent correspond to the lower X-ray energies (less than 2 keV) and highest beam intensities. Other effects discussed include chemical interaction of the gas with apertures, shock formation in the transonic flow in the apertures of the attenuator, generation of electromagnetic wakes in the gas, and head-to-tail variation of the attenuation caused by the ionization of gas or solid. Possible experimental tests of the consistency of the physics assumptions used in the concept of the gas attenuator are discussed. Interaction of X-rays with the solid attenuator (that will be used at higher X-ray energies, from 2.5 to 8 keV) is considered and thermo-mechanical effects caused by the beam heating are evaluated. Wave-front distortions induced by non-uniform heating of both the solid and the gas are found to be small. An overall conclusion drawn from the analysis presented is that the attenuator will be a reliable and highly versatile device, provided that some caution is exercised in its use for highest beam intensities at lowest X-ray energies.

Ryutov, D.D.; Bionta, R.M.; Hau-Riege, S.P.; Kishiyama, K.I.; McMahon, D.; Roeben, M.D.; Shen, S.; /LLNL, Livermore; Stefan, P.M.; /SLAC; ,

2011-02-07

328

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses and provides an example of reflectivity approximation to determine whether reflection will occur. Provides a method to show thin-film interference on a projection screen. Also applies the reflectivity concepts to electromagnetic wave systems. (MVL)

Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

1994-01-01

329

Polymer Gels as Temperature-responsive Attenuator

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ultrasonic attenuation in N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) gel has been measured as a function of temperature at various frequencies. It is found that at room temperature, the attenuation of a longitudinal ultrasonic wave in the gel is small and close to that of pure water. However, as the temperature increases above the spinodal phase transition point of the gel, the attenuation increases drastically. This change of the attenuation is completely reversible and due to the micro-domains formed in the NIPA gel above its phase transition temperature. The change of attenuation at 15 MHz in the temperature range between 26 and 45 ^0C is about 26 dB/cm. The rate of attenuation change is within 5 minutes for a sample with diameter 1 cm and height 0.8 cm. The results reported here may have potential applications from ultrasonic assistant drug-release to a switch for ultrasonic signals.

Yuan, Kaihua; Hu, Zhibing; Li, Yong

1998-10-01

330

Acoustic waves in a Biot-type porous snow model: The fast slow wave in light snow

Wave velocities, attenuation and reflection coefficients in snow can not be explained by the widely used elastic or viscoelastic models for wave propagation. Instead, Biot's model of wave propagation in porous materials should be used. However, the application of Biot's model is difficult due to the large property space of the underlying porous material. Here we use the properties of ice and air as well as empirical relationships to define the properties of snow as a function of porosity. This reduction allows to predict phase velocities and attenuation of the shear- and compressional-waves as functions of porosity or density. For light snow the peculiarity was found that the velocity of the compressional wave of the first kind is lower than the compressional wave of the second kind that is commonly referred to as the "slow" wave. The reversal of the velocities comes with an increase of attenuation for the first compressional wave. This is in line with the common observation that sound is strongly absorbed af...

Sidler, Rolf

2015-01-01

331

Shear waves in vegetal tissues at ultrasonic frequencies

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shear waves are investigated in leaves of two plant species using air-coupled ultrasound. Magnitude and phase spectra of the transmission coefficient around the first two orders of the thickness resonances (normal and oblique incidence) have been measured. A bilayer acoustic model for plant leaves (comprising the palisade parenchyma and the spongy mesophyll) is proposed to extract, from measured spectra, properties of these tissues like: velocity and attenuation of longitudinal and shear waves and hence Young modulus, rigidity modulus, and Poisson's ratio. Elastic moduli values are typical of cellular solids and both, shear and longitudinal waves exhibit classical viscoelastic losses. Influence of leaf water content is also analyzed.

Fariñas, M. D.; Sancho-Knapik, D.; Peguero-Pina, J. J.; Gil-Pelegrín, E.; Gómez Álvarez-Arenas, T. E.

2013-03-01

332

Separation of intrinsic and scattering attenuation in southern California using TERRAscope data

A multiple lapse time window analysis was applied to three-component broadband seismograms recorded at five TERRAscope stations in southern California to separate scattering and intrinsic attenuation. Seismic energies were integrated over three consecutive lapse time intervals: 0-15, 15-30, and 30-45 s (measured from the S arrival for approximately 30 earthquakes with hypocentral distances of less than 70 km from each station). Using the fundamental separability of source, site, and path effects for coda waves, the integrated energies for different magnitude earthquakes were normalized to a common source size at each station, and the effect of near-site amplification is removed. Subsequently, the authors constructed a group of geometric spreading-corrected normalized energy-distance curves for each station region over frequency bands 0.5-1, 1-2, 2-4, and 4-8 Hz for all five stations. Two more frequency bands, 8-16 and 16-32 Hz, were added at stations PAS and SVD, for which higher sample rate data were available. A theoretical model of body wave energy propagation in a randomly heterogeneous elastic medium was employed to interpret the observation. Two parameters describe the medium in this model. These are the scattering attenuation coefficients {eta}{sub s} and the intrinsic attenuation coefficient {eta}{sub i}. By assuming that scattering is isotropic and including all orders of multiple scattering, this model predicts the spatial and temporal distribution of seismic energy. A two-step least squares fitting procedure was used to find the best fitting model parameters. The results show the following: (1) the seismic albedo, B{sub 0} = {eta}{sub s}/({eta}{sub i} + {eta}{sub s}), increases with decreasing frequency for all station regions. (2) Significant differences exist for the scattering attenuation coefficient {eta}{sub s} and seismic albedo B{sub 0} among stations at lower frequencies. 21 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Jin, Anshu; Adams, D.; Aki, Keiiti [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Mayeda, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1994-09-10

333

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The attenuation of P waves, the site responses, and the source parameters (seismic moment, corner frequency, source dimension) of 490 seismic events that occurred during the 1997 Colfiorito, Umbria-Marche seismic sequence have been inferred from the inversion of P wave velocity spectra. The Boatwright source model has been assumed to model the source spectra. A global nonlinear inversion scheme was developed to avoid any a priori selection of the initial QP and the corner frequency. To establish if a frequency-dependent QP model fits the data better than a constant QP model, two inversion results have been compared. Application of the Akaike information criterion indicates that the constant QP model represents the best compromise between model simplicity and data misfit. The station QP values are small: in the range of 50 to 200. A one-dimensional QP model is obtained by back projecting the inverted t*. Our results indicate both well-defined near-site attenuation effects at some sites and heterogeneity in the inelastic properties of the crust. With the exception of the amplification response at five seismic stations, most of the recording sites did not show amplification peaks at particular frequencies. The stress drop clearly increases as a function of the seismic moment, which indicates a deviation from self-similarity, whereas it does not show an increase with depth, probably owing to the effects of fluid pressurization in the crust. A stress drop of about 39 MPa is inferred. The relationship between the seismic moment and the local magnitude for P waves has been calibrated.

de Lorenzo, Salvatore; Zollo, Aldo; Zito, Giammaria

2010-09-01

334

Attenuation Measurements in Cement-Based Materials Using Laser Ultrasonics

This research uses laser ultrasonic techniques to quantify the frequency-dependent attenuation losses of Rayleigh waves in cement-based materials; these materials are heterogeneous in nature, and this heterogeneity is seen at multiple length scales. As a result, ultrasonic waves that propagate in cement-based materials exhibit a high degree of (material) attenuation losses. Physically, these attenuation losses are a com- bination of

Joseph O. Owino; Laurence J. Jacobs

1999-01-01

335

Theory of Ultrasonic Attenuation in Metals

A quantum mechanical theory of the attenuation of the longitudinal ultrasonic wave in metals due to the conduction electrons is developed according to the general theory of linear response given by Kubo. When the mean free path of electrons is longer than the wavelength of the ultrasonic wave, the result is reduced to that given by the ordinary perturbational treatment

Yosuke Nagaoka

1961-01-01

336

Study on laser and infrared attenuation performance of carbon nanotubes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the weapon systems of laser and infrared (IR) imaging guidance have been widely used in modern warfare because of their high precision and strong anti-interference. However, military smoke, a rapid and effective passive jamming method, can effectively counteract the attack of precision-guided weapons by their scattering and absorbing effects. The traditional smoke has good visible light (0.4-0.76?m) obscurant performance, but hardly any effects to other electromagnetic wave bands while the weapon systems of laser and IR imaging guidance usually work in broad band, including the near-infrared (1-3?m), middle-infrared (3-5?m), far-infrared (8-14?m), and so on. Accordingly, exploiting new effective obscurant materials has attracted tremendous interest worldwide nowadays. As is known, the nano-structured materials have lots of unique properties comparing with the traditional materials suggesting that they might be the perfect alternatives to solve the problems above. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are well-ordered, all-carbon hollow graphitic nano-structured materials with a high aspect ratio, lengths from several hundred nanometers to several millimeters. CNTs possess many unique intrinsic physical-chemical properties and are investigated in many areas reported by the previous studies. However, no application research about CNTs in smoke technology field is reported yet. In this paper, the attenuation performances of CNTs smoke to laser and IR were assessed in 20m3 smoke chamber. The testing wavebands employed in experiments are 1.06?m and 10.6?m laser, 3-5?m and 8-14?m IR radiation. The main parameters were obtained included the attenuation rate, transmission rate, mass extinction coefficient, etc. The experimental results suggest that CNTs smoke exhibits excellent attenuation ability to the broadband IR radiation. Their mass extinction coefficients are all above 1m2·g-1. Nevertheless, the mass extinction coefficients vary with the sampling time and smoke particles concentrations, even in the same testing waveband. With the time going the mass extinction coefficients will increase gradually. Based on the above results, theoretical calculations are also carried out for further exploitations. In general, CNTs smoke behaves excellent attenuation ability toward laser and IR under the experimental conditions. Therefore, they have great potentials to develop new smoke obscurant materials which could effectively interfere with broadband IR radiation including 1.06?m, 10.6?m, 3-5?m and 8-12?m IR waveband.

Liu, Xiang-cui; Liu, Qing-hai; Dai, Meng-yan; Cheng, Xiang; Fang, Guo-feng; Zhang, Tong; Liu, Haifeng

2014-11-01

337

Long-Time Simulation of Calcium Waves in a Heart Cell to Study the Effects of Calcium Release Flux and Statistics, University of Maryland, Baltimore County Abstract Spontaneous calcium sparks can lead to propagation of a self-initiated calcium wave under certain conditions in a heart cell. A model for diffusion

Gobbert, Matthias K.

338

Light attenuation characteristics of glacially-fed lakes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

is a fundamental characteristic of aquatic ecosystems and is highly responsive to changes in climate and land use. The transparency of glacially-fed lakes may be a particularly sensitive sentinel characteristic of these changes. However, little is known about the relative contributions of glacial flour versus other factors affecting light attenuation in these lakes. We sampled 18 glacially-fed lakes in Chile, New Zealand, and the U.S. and Canadian Rocky Mountains to characterize how dissolved absorption, algal biomass (approximated by chlorophyll a), water, and glacial flour contributed to attenuation of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm). Variation in attenuation across lakes was related to turbidity, which we used as a proxy for the concentration of glacial flour. Turbidity-specific diffuse attenuation coefficients increased with decreasing wavelength and distance from glaciers. Regional differences in turbidity-specific diffuse attenuation coefficients were observed in short UVR wavelengths (305 and 320 nm) but not at longer UVR wavelengths (380 nm) or PAR. Dissolved absorption coefficients, which are closely correlated with diffuse attenuation coefficients in most non-glacially-fed lakes, represented only about one quarter of diffuse attenuation coefficients in study lakes here, whereas glacial flour contributed about two thirds across UVR and PAR. Understanding the optical characteristics of substances that regulate light attenuation in glacially-fed lakes will help elucidate the signals that these systems provide of broader environmental changes and forecast the effects of climate change on these aquatic ecosystems.

Rose, Kevin C.; Hamilton, David P.; Williamson, Craig E.; McBride, Chris G.; Fischer, Janet M.; Olson, Mark H.; Saros, Jasmine E.; Allan, Mathew G.; Cabrol, Nathalie

2014-07-01

339

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To find variations in the dynamics of the surface M 2 tide in the White Sea induced by the spatially inhomogeneity of the resistance coefficient, we use a modified version of the QUODDY-4 three-dimensional finite-element hydrostatic model. This version differs from the original version in that it has a module introduced to calculate the resistance coefficient in the bottom boundary layer (BBL). The resistance coefficient is found from resistance laws for an oscillating rotating turbulent BBL over hydrodynamically rough and partially rough (smoothly rough) underlying surfaces describing the dependence of the resistance coefficient and other integral characteristics of resistance on dimensionless similarity parameters: the sea-bottom Rossby number Ro, the streaming Reynolds number Re, and the relative (normalized to tidal frequency) inertial frequency f/?. The use of spatial inhomogeneity of the resistance coefficient was shown not to lead to considerable changes in tidal characteristics. The values of these characteristics are several times larger than the instrumental measurement errors for the level and velocity but less than the errors in their calculation.

Kagan, B. A.; Timofeev, A. A.; Rashidi, E. H. A.

2012-07-01

340

Creating materials with a desired refraction coefficient

A method is given for creating material with a desired refraction coefficient. The method consists of embedding into a material with known refraction coefficient many small particles of size $a$. The number of particles per unit volume around any point is prescribed, the distance between neighboring particles is $O(a^{\\frac{2-\\kappa}{3}})$ as $a\\to 0$, $0refraction coefficient is the coefficient $n^2(x)$ in the wave equation $[\

A. G. Ramm

2009-09-02

341

Electromagnetic Attenuation by Solid Particle Aerosols

Theories of electromagnetic attenuation by absorption and scattering from aerosols of solid particles were evaluated and experimentally verified. Particles having specific physical and morphological properties were tested to maximize the mass extinction coefficients of the aerosols in several bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. Particulate materials were chosen based on theoretical predictions and compatible aerosolization schemes were developed for each material.

Erica Ray Petersen

1991-01-01

342

Wave transformations across a Caribbean fringing-barrier Coral Reef

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wave measurements during three experiments at Tague Reef, St. Croix (U.S.V.I.) in April 1987 showed a net energy decrease across the reef profile of 65-71% between the forereef and crest, wave propagation to the backreef increased energy reduction to 78-88%. Tidally induced water depth changes (range of 0.3 m) increased wave energy dissipation by 15% between forereef and crest and 20% between forereef and backreef. Significant wave heights throughout the experiment were low (<0.5 m) and exhibited a tidal modulation in the backreef or lagoon. Wave transmission over the reef averaged 0.46 and modulated by the tide (0.32 at low tide vs 0.62 at high tide). The spectral time-delay model applied to analyzed wave transformations across the reef produced attenuation coefficients that averaged 0.62 between 0.05 and 0.1 cps (20-10 s) and afterwards oscillate between 0.22 and 0.35. For waves between the forereef and backreef, the attenuation coefficients from the time-delay model decay exponentially between 0.05 and 0.1 cps, afterwards they oscillate between 0.13 and 0.2. The steady wave-energy model with bottom friction, essentially form drag, and wave breaking dissipation yield wave heights modulated by the tides and errors of <19% in the crest and >20% at the backreef. The model revealed that while frictional and wave-breaking dissipation are equally important, frictional dissipation is greater.

Lugo-Fernández, Alexis; Roberts, Harry H.; Suhayda, Joseph N.

1998-08-01

343

A pressure surge attenuation system for pipes having a fluted region opposite crushable metal foam. As adapted for nuclear reactor vessels and heads, crushable metal foam is disposed to attenuate pressure surges.

Christie, Alan M. (Swissvale, PA); Snyder, Kurt I. (Murrysville, PA)

1985-01-01

344

Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine

\\u000a The development of the live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV), based on the cold-adapted (ca), attenuated ca A\\/Ann Arbor\\/6\\/60 and ca B\\/Ann Arbor\\/1\\/66 backbones, has spanned several decades. The vaccine contains three vaccine strains, two attenuated influenza\\u000a A strains and one attenuated influenza B strain; these vaccine strains are genetic reassortants, each harboring two gene segments\\u000a from the currently circulating wild

Harry Greenberg; George Kemble

345

Attenuation Tomography Based on Strong Motion Data: Case Study of Central Honshu Region, Japan

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional frequency dependent S-wave quality factor (Q?(f)) value for the central Honshu region of Japan has been determined in this paper using an algorithm based on inversion of strong motion data. The method of inversion for determination of three-dimensional attenuation coefficients is proposed by H ashida and S himazaki (J Phys Earth. 32, 299-316, 1984) and has been used and modified by J oshi (Curr Sci. 90, 581-585, 2006; Nat Hazards. 43, 129-146, 2007) and J oshi et al. (J. Seismol. 14, 247-272, 2010). Twenty-one earthquakes digitally recorded on strong motion stations of Kik-net network have been used in this work. The magnitude of these earthquake ranges from 3.1 to 4.2 and depth ranging from 5 to 20 km, respectively. The borehole data having high signal to noise ratio and minimum site effect is used in the present work. The attenuation structure is determined by dividing the entire area into twenty-five three-dimensional blocks of uniform thickness having different frequency-dependent shear wave quality factor. Shear wave quality factor values have been determined at frequencies of 2.5, 7.0 and 10 Hz from record in a rectangular grid defined by 35.4°N to 36.4°N and 137.2°E to 138.2°E. The obtained attenuation structure is compared with the available geological features in the region and comparison shows that the obtained structure is capable of resolving important tectonic features present in the area. The proposed attenuation structure is compared with the probabilistic seismic hazard map of the region and shows that it bears some remarkable similarity in the patterns seen in seismic hazard map.

Kumar, Parveen; Joshi, A.; Verma, O. P.

2013-12-01

346

Effects of hydrometeors on electromagnetic wave propagation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attenuation of electromagnetic (EM) waves by Hydrometers such as rain, snow, clouds, and fog, can cause serious degradation of EM wave systems. This report describes such attenuation of radio waves to X-rays, with primary applications to communications in the microwave and millimeter wave portions of the EM spectrum.

Ebersole, J. F.; Cheng, W. K.; Hallett, J.; Hohlfeld, R. G.

1985-01-01

347

Tracer attenuation in groundwater

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The self-purifying capacity of aquifers strongly depends on the attenuation of waterborne contaminants, i.e., irreversible loss of contaminant mass on a given scale as a result of coupled transport and transformation processes. A general formulation of tracer attenuation in groundwater is presented. Basic sensitivities of attenuation to macrodispersion and retention are illustrated for a few typical retention mechanisms. Tracer recovery is suggested as an experimental proxy for attenuation. Unique experimental data of tracer recovery in crystalline rock compare favorably with the theoretical model that is based on diffusion-controlled retention. Non-Fickian hydrodynamic transport has potentially a large impact on field-scale attenuation of dissolved contaminants.

Cvetkovic, Vladimir

2011-12-01

348

Thermal Conductivity and Noise Attenuation in

OF SOUND 5.1 NATURE OF SOUND WAVE 29 5.2 MEASURING SOUND WAVES 29 5.3 MECHANISM OF SOUND 30 5.3.1 Sound 32 5.3.3 Isolation 32 5.4 SOUND ABSORPTION MEASUREMENTS 32 5.6 SOUND ABSORPTION IN METAL FOAMS 33 6. MODEL DEVELOPED FOR SOUND ATTENUATION 37 7. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 39 8. SUMMARY AND FUTURE WORK 41 9

Cambridge, University of

349

Study on BMT Millimeter Wave Dielectric Resonators

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microwave dielectric properties and microstructures of Ba(Mg1/3Ta2/3)O3 (BMT) ceramics were investigated. In order to reduce the evaporation of MgO at high temperature, burying in MgO powders sintered BMT ceramics. The relationship between the composition and Q value of BMT ceramics was discussed. Dielectric resonators using in millimeter wave band have been designed and fabricated. Their attenuations at central resonation frequency (?f) are less than 35dB. Temperature coefficients of resonant frequency are adjustable and less than 2 ppm/°C.

Chen, Hongwei; Yang, Chuanren; Fu, Chunlin; Zhou, Dayu

2005-02-01

350

Yellowstone Attenuation Tomography from Ambient Seismic Noise

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this study is to create a tomographic attenuation image for the Yellowstone region by analyzing ambient seismic noise. An attenuation image generated from ambient noise should provide more information about the structure and properties beneath Yellowstone, especially the caldera, which is known to be active. I applied the method of Lawrence & Prieto [2011] to examine lateral variations in the attenuation structure of Yellowstone. Ambient noise data were collected from broadband seismic stations located around Yellowstone National Park from 1999-2013. Noise correlation functions derived from cross correlations of the ambient noise at two stations were used to calculate a distance dependent decay (an attenuation coefficient) at each period and distance. An inversion was then performed to isolate and localize the spatial attenuation coefficients within the study area. I observe high amplitude decay of the ambient noise at the Yellowstone caldera, most likely due to elevated temperature and crustal melts caused by volcanism, geothermal heat flow, and hydrothermal activity such as geysers.

Doungkaew, N.; Seats, K.; Lawrence, J. F.

2013-12-01

351

Electromagnetic generation and attenuation of ultrasound in ferromagnetic metals. II

For pt.I see ibid., vol.10, p.2041 (1980). The generation and attenuation of ultrasonic waves due to incident radio frequency magnetic fields at the surface of a ferromagnetic metal are studied. Measurements are made of the attenuation and generation of longitudinal and shear waves as a function of the applied magnetic fields, frequencies and temperature (below 300K) for propagation along the

M. J. W. Povey; E. R. Dobbs; D. J. Meredith

1980-01-01

352

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A seismic waveform inversion algorithm is demonstrated for the estimation of elastic soil properties from one-dimensional downhole array recordings. For a given bedrock motion, scarcity of near-surface geotechnical information, error propagation and limited resolution of the continuum usually result in predictions of surface ground motion that poorly compare with low amplitude observations. This discrepancy is further aggravated for strong ground motion, associated with hysteretic, nonlinear, and potentially irreversible material deformations. Seismogram inversion is a nonlinear multi-parameter optimization problem. Traditional search techniques that use characteristics of the problem to determine the next sampling point (e.g. gradients, Hessians, linearity and continuity) are computationally efficient, yet limited to convex regular functions. As a result, they fail to identify the best fit solution in seismogram inversion problems, when the starting model is too far from the global optimal solution. On the other hand, stochastic search techniques (e.g. genetic algorithms, simulated annealing) have been shown to efficiently identify promising regions in the search space, but perform very poorly in a localized search. The proposed inversion technique is a two-step process, namely a genetic algorithm in the wavelet domain in series with a nonlinear least-square fit in the frequency domain; we thus improve the computational efficiency of the former, while avoiding the pitfalls of using local linearization techniques such as the latter for the optimization of multi-modal, discontinuous and non-differentiable functions. The parameters to be estimated are stepwise variations of the shear modulus, attenuation and density with depth, for horizontally layered media with refined near-surface discretization. Equality constrains are imposed on the vector of unknowns to bound the search space, based on the available soil investigation. For the genetic algorithm, the objective function is defined as the normalized cross-correlation between the observed data and the synthetics. We perform the inversion in the wavelet domain to allow for equal weighting of the information across all frequency bands. Since ground motion is non-stationary in time and frequency, a time-domain inversion would inevitably emphasize the larger amplitude signals. The process is repeated in series for a subset of the available borehole and surface waveform pairs, selected on the basis of signal quality. The mean estimated soil properties from the genetic algorithm are then used as a starting model for the local minimization scheme. The target function in this stage is the empirical transfer function in the frequency domain, estimated using the average spectral ratio between surface and borehole pairs. The global-local inversion technique can efficiently identify the optimal solution vicinity in the search space by means of the hybrid genetic algorithm, whereas the use of nonlinear least-square fit accelerates substantially the detection of the best fit model. The algorithm has been implemented in MATLAB, and inversion results are illustrated for stations in the Japanese strong motion borehole array Kik-Net, as well as for borehole stations in Southern California jointly operated by the California Integrated Seismic Network, the Southern California Earthquake Center, and the University of California at Santa Barbara.

Assimaki, D.; Tsuda, K.; Oakes, J.; Steidl, J.

2004-12-01

353

Site response and attenuation analyses using strong motion and short-period data

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Site amplification and seismic attenuation are analyzed in this study using strong ground motion records and short period records. Site amplification factors at instrumented free-field sites are inferred from recorded motions using: (1) Generalized Inversion of S-waves; (2) the H/V method (i.e., the ratio of the spectral amplitudes of the horizontal and vertical components of motion); (3) Coda-wave Inversion; (4) the Standard Spectral Ratio method; and (5) the Coda Normalization method. The site amplification factors inferred from the above methods are compared to each other. The amplification factors obtained from the Generalized Inversion are validated by the other four methods. The correlation of site amplification to site condition is also analyzed and the results demonstrate that site amplification appears to be stronger for the geologically younger (and thus softer) sediments, and the site classification in conformance with UBC provisions provides smaller scatter than the classification based on geological formation. The site amplification factors for the different site classes of the NEHRP classification (i.e., site class C, D and E), which is important for engineering application, are provided and compared with the values proposed by Borcherdt (1994) and adopted in the 1997 UBC and 2003 IBC design codes. The agreement between the site amplification obtained in this study and those proposed by Borcherdt (1994) and adopted by the design codes is good. The nonlinearity of site amplification, resulting from the intensity of ground motion, is clearly identified at selected station where this is feasible. The intrinsic and scattering attenuation are analyzed at stations SML and TYC using the Multiple Lapse Time Window (MLTW) method. The total attenuation is derived from the intrinsic and scattering attenuation. The coda attenuation is analyzed for 14 stations from coda decay curves using linear regression. The S-wave attenuation is analyzed using the coda normalization method at the stations SML and TYC. The coda attenuation estimated from the coda decay curves is close to the intrinsic attenuation. The intrinsic attenuation is the dominant component in the total attenuation. The total attenuation, estimated using the MLTW method, closely agrees with the results from the Coda Normalization Method. The scattering coefficient is estimated to be 3--8 x 10 -3km-1, consistent with estimates of this parameter for other tectonically active regions (see figure 3.10 in Sato and Fehler, 1998). The data sets used in this study are collected from a strong motion network and a short period network in Taiwan province, China. The strong motion data set contains: (1) 2751 motions recorded at 407 stations from 33 aftershocks ranging from ML = 4.11--6.80 and depths from 1.05km to 21.28km, following 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake; and (2) 410 motions recorded at 410 stations from the main event of 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. The short period data set contains 5499 records recorded by 71 stations instrumented with the Teledyne S-13 seismometers. The 108 events have a magnitude ranging from ML = 2.90--4.97, and depths from 2.21km to 30.82km; these events occurred over a period of time from 2000 to 2003.

Zhang, Fangyin

354

Medicine Lake volcano is a basalt through rhyolite shield volcano of the Cascade Range, lying east of the range axis. The Pg wave from eight explosive sources which has traveled upward through the target volume to a dense array of 140 seismographs provides 1- to 2-km resolution in the upper 5 to 7 km of the crust beneath the volcano. The experiment tests the hypothesis that Cascade Range volcanoes of this type are underlain only by small silicic magma chambers. We image a low-velocity low-Q region not larger than a few tens of cubic kilometers in volume beneath the summit caldera, supporting the hypothesis. A shallower high-velocity high-density feature, previously known to be present, is imaged for the first time in full plan view; it is east-west elongate, paralleling a topographic lineament between Medicine Lake volcano and Mount Shasta. Differences between this high-velocity feature and the equivalent feature at Newberry volcano, a volcano in central regon resembling Medicine Lake volcano, may partly explain the scarcity of surface hydrothermal features at Medicine Lake volcano. A major low-velocity low-Q feature beneath the southeast flank of the volcano, in an area with no Holocene vents, is interpreted as tephra, flows, and sediments from the volcano deeply ponded on the downthrown side of the Gillem fault. A high-Q normal-velocity feature beneath the north rim of the summit caldera may be a small, possibly hot, subsolidus intrusion. A high-velocity low-Q region beneath the eastern caldera may be an area of boiling water between the magma chamber and the ponded east flank material. -from Authors

Evans, J.R.; Zucca, J.J.

1988-01-01

355

The Study of Rain Specific Attenuation for the Prediction of Satellite Propagation in Malaysia

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specific attenuation is the fundamental quantity in the calculation of rain attenuation for terrestrial path and slant paths representing as rain attenuation per unit distance (dB/km). Specific attenuation is an important element in developing the predicted rain attenuation model. This paper deals with the empirical determination of the power law coefficients which allow calculating the specific attenuation in dB/km from the knowledge of the rain rate in mm/h. The main purpose of the paper is to obtain the coefficients of k and ? of power law relationship between specific attenuation. Three years (from 1st January 2006 until 31st December 2008) rain gauge and beacon data taken from USM, Nibong Tebal have been used to do the empirical procedure analysis of rain specific attenuation. The data presented are semi-empirical in nature. A year-to-year variation of the coefficients has been indicated and the empirical measured data was compared with ITU-R provided regression coefficient. The result indicated that the USM empirical measured data was significantly vary from ITU-R predicted value. Hence, ITU-R recommendation for regression coefficients of rain specific attenuation is not suitable for predicting rain attenuation at Malaysia.

Mandeep, J. S.; Ng, Y. Y.; Abdullah, H.; Abdullah, M.

2010-06-01

356

The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprng one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength.

Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01

357

The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprising one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength. 9 figs.

Foltyn, S.R.

1987-05-29

358

K SHELL INTERNAL CONVERSION COEFFICIENTS AT THRESHOLD

Coulomb field effects on K shell internal conversion coefficients for ; threshold values of the gamma-ray energy are investigated using exact wave ; functions to describe both the bound and the continuum state electrons. Exact ; results for the internal conversion coefficients are obtained in terms of gamma ; functions and confluent hypergeometric functions. To facilitate numerical ; evaluation, the

OConnell

1963-01-01

359

Inversion for Anisotropic Frequency-Dependent Spreading of Body Waves in a VSP Dataset

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP), body waves are often known to show spreading significantly different from the theoretical geometric-spreading behavior. This difference can be explained by ray bending, scattering, and attenuation, which need to be accurately measured in each specific case. Here, we invert for an anisotropic, combined amplitude spreading and attenuation model using a 1-D tomographic approach. The model is derived from first arrivals of a multi-offset, 3-D VSP dataset from Weyburn oilfield in southeast Saskatchewan. Using interpreted well-log data and geologic model of the study area, we constructed a six-layer interval velocity model. Unlike the traditional approaches based on the frequency-dependent quality factor (Q), our attenuation model is formulated without Q and in terms of the frequency-dependent attenuation/scattering coefficients attributed to these layers . Multi-offset, frequency-dependent first-arrival amplitudes also require that these attenuation parameters are anisotropic. Inversion of 35 shot records, reveals variations of geometric attenuation (focusing, defocusing and scattering, denoted ?) and the effective attenuation (Qe) with depth. Scattering and geometric spreading play significant roles at lower frequencies and shallower depths, with negative ? (i.e., focusing) to ~430-m depths, which gradually increase and become positive (defocusing) from 1360 m to 1390 m. Positive values of ? are also close to those predicted theoretically for back-scattering on the reflectivity structure derived from the log. The geometric attenuation shows significant anisotropy, with predominantly horizontal refraction and forward-scattering (focusing) within the structure. Statistical analysis of model uncertainties quantitatively measures the significance of these results. The resulting model of frequency-dependent body-wave amplitude correctly predicts the observed first-arrival VSP amplitudes at all frequencies. This and similar models can be applied to other types of waves and should be useful for true-amplitude studies, including inversion, Q-compensation, and the analysis of reflection amplitude variations with offset (AVO).

Baharvand Ahmadi, A.; Morozov, I. B.

2012-12-01

360

Compensation for non-uniform attenuation in SPECT brain imaging

Photon attenuation is a major limitation in performing quantitative SPECT brain imaging. A number of methods have been proposed for compensation of attenuation in regions of the body that can be modelled as a uniform attenuator. The magnitude of the errors introduced into reconstructed brain images by assuming the head to be a uniform attenuator are uncertain (the skull, sinus cavities and head holder all have different attenuation properties than brain tissue). Brain imaging is unique in that the radioisotope, for the most part, is taken up within a uniform attenuation medium (i.e., brain tissue) which is surrounded by bone (i.e., the skull) of a different density. Using this observation, Bellini`s method for attenuation compensation (which is an exact solution to the exponential Radon transform) has been modified to account for the different attenuation properties of the skull. To test this modified Bellini method, a simple mathematical phantom was designed to model the brain and a skull of varying thickness less than 7.5 mm. To model brain imaging with Tc-99m HMPAO, the attenuation coefficient of the brain tissue and skull were set to 0.15 cm{sup -1} and 0.22 cm{sup -1} respectively. A ray-driven projector which accounted for non-uniform attenuation was used to simulate projection data from 128 views. The detector response and scatter were not simulated. It was observed that reconstructions processed with uniform attenuation compensation (i.e., where it was assumed that the brain tissue and the skull had the same attenuation coefficient) provided errors of 6-20%, whereas those processed with the non-uniform Bellini algorithm were biased by only 0-5%.

Glick, S.J.; King, M.A.; Pan, T.S. [Univ. of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA (United States)] [and others

1994-05-01

361

By performing multiple precision pseudospectral calculations using two different basis sets, we compute the radiation coefficient {alpha}({epsilon}) for very small {epsilon} to resolve discrepancies between earlier numerical work of the author`s and a small-{epsilon} perturbation theory of Grimshaw and Joshi. Multiple precision is needed because {alpha} is asymptotically proportional to exp({minus}{pi}/2{epsilon}), and is therefore below the single precision roundoff threshold when {epsilon}{lt}1/25. Because {alpha} decreases exponentially with 1/{epsilon}, we use a numerical method whose error decreases exponentially fast with the number of grid points {ital N}: a pseudospectral method or finite differences of as high as twenty-fourth order. Richardson iteration, preconditioning by high order finite differences, parity symmetry, Aitken and Richardson extrapolation, and the fast Fourier transform are all crucial in reducing our longest runs to about 24 h on a Unix workstation. Although preconditioning by second order differences is the norm, we find that high order preconditioning---as large as 14th order---is more efficient for our one-dimensional problem. We find that the discrepancies are mostly due to differences in convention for (i) definition of the parameter {epsilon} and (ii) choice of the far field phase. When these are accounted for, we obtain very good agreement with Grimshaw and Joshi`s first order term. However, their second order term, which is predicted to be {pi}{sup 2}/2{approx}4.94, is about {ital O}(0.0 to {minus}0.2) in our computations. The reason for this difference is still a mystery.

Boyd, J.P. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic & Space Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic & Space Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

1995-05-01

362

Dispersion-sensitive surface plasmon wave assisted by incoherent gain

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-level system with pumped electric-dipole allowed transition for incoherent-gain negative permittivity is suggested in order to realize dispersion-sensitive surface plasmon wave. The present surface wave modes occurring at an interface between an incoherent-gain negative-permittivity “plasmonic” medium (e.g., a semiconductor-quantum-dot material) and an ordinary dielectric can be amplified due to population transfer in the three-level system of the negative-permittivity medium. The issues of complex phase constant and the attenuation coefficients in the adjacent media are considered for addressing the problem of loss compensation of surface plasmon wave. The effect of incoherent-gain amplification exhibited by the dispersion-sensitive surface plasmon wave can be utilized for designing new quantum optical and photonic devices, e.g., photonic transistors and logic gates.

Shen, Jian Qi

2014-10-01

363

Recently Common Depth Point Stacking has become the general rule for seismic evaluation. Stack shooting is carried out to enhance the' primary event as well as to attenuate the multiple. Actual multiple attenuation can only take place providing the multiple event is stacked out of phase. Such out of stacking can only take place providing there is an increase of

W. HRYHOR

364

Wave Simulation in Frozen Porous Media

We propose a numerical algorithm for simulation of wave propagation in frozen porous media, where the pore space is filled with ice and water. The model, based on a Biot-type three-phase theory, predicts three compressional waves and two shear waves and models the attenuation level observed in rocks. Attenuation is modeled with exponential relaxation functions which allow a differential formulation

José M. Carcione; Géza Seriani

2001-01-01

365

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground motion prediction is traditionally estimated in seismic hazard analysis using parametric scaling relations, which are often referred to as "attenuation relations." Increasingly, seismologists are turning to simulation-based hazard analysis. There are at least two reasons for this. First, it allows seismologists to overcome the scarcity of data from large events in the data. Second, it exploits our growing knowledge of the geological complexity of the Earth's crust and our ability to model wave propagation through it. The accuracy of these simulations is critical to their use for risk reduction, but is limited by our incomplete knowledge of the elastic and anelastic structure of the subsurface. The situation is particularly acute for sedimentary basins that underlie densely populated urban centers such as Los Angeles and Tokyo, both because the exposure is so high, and because it is difficult to obtain new images of Earth structure in urban settings. In this study, we show how ambient seismic field analysis can improve this situation. We take the advantage of the dense seismic networks in those areas and use 9 months of continuous records for about 180 stations from the Southern Californian Seismic Networks for Los Angeles and 6 months of a combination of 190 MeSO-net stations and 110 Hi-net instruments in Tokyo area. We estimate the basin amplification of these comparable urban centers with ambient field transfer function, or impulse response. The ambient seismic field also provides constraints on the attenuation signal in surface waves, and hence on the anelastic structure of the Earth. We exploit this by using the real part of the complex coherence to estimate the attenuation coefficient of Rayleigh waves, and from it variations in the anelastic structure. We acknowledge the support by the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.

Denolle, M.; Prieto, G.; Lawrence, J. F.; Beroza, G. C.; Hirata, N.; Nakagawa, S.; Miyake, H.; Kasahara, K.; Sakai, S.; Aketagawa, T.; Kimura, H.

2010-12-01

366

A numeric evaluation of attenuation from ambient noise correlation functions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ambient noise correlation function (NCF) calculated between seismic stations contains, under appropriate conditions, accurate travel time information. However, NCF amplitudes are highly debated due to noise source intensity and distribution, seismic intrinsic attenuation, scattering, and elastic path effects such as focusing and defocusing. We prove with various numerical simulations that the NCFs calculated for a uniformly dispersive medium using the coherency method preserve accurate geometrical spreading and attenuation decay. We show that for a wide range of noise source distributions, the coherency of the noise correlation functions matches a Bessel function decaying exponentially with a specific attenuation coefficient. Conditions needed to obtain these results include averaging over long enough time intervals, a uniformly distributed seismic network, and a good distribution of far-field noise sources. We also show that the estimated attenuation coefficient corresponds to the interstation and not the noise-source-to-receiver structure.

Lawrence, Jesse F.; Denolle, Marine; Seats, Kevin J.; Prieto, Germán. A.

2013-12-01

367

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the intrinsic dissipation and scattering properties of the lithosphere beneath the northeast India by using the seismic waves recorded by a network of ten broadband stations in the region with hypocentral distances ranging from 31 to 200 km. First, we determined coda Q from the amplitude decay rate of the S-wave coda envelopes in five frequency bands from 1.5 to 24 Hz based on single scattering theory and QS by means of the coda normalization method. Assuming a frequency dependent power-law of the form , we found a low Q0 (Q0 < 200) and a high frequency dependent parameter n (n ~ 1) for the whole study area, which indicates that the lithosphere beneath NE India is seismically active and heterogeneous. Then we applied the multiple lapse time window (MLTW) analysis in the hypothesis of velocity and scattering coefficients constant with depth. We calculated the variation of integrated spectral energy with hypocentral distance for three consecutive lapse time windows (0-15, 15-30, 30-45 sec), starting from the onset of the S-wave arrival. The spectral energies over an octave bandwidth with central frequencies at 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 24 Hz were calculated to obtain the frequency dependence of attenuation parameters. The results show that intrinsic absorption dominates over scattering in the attenuation process at high frequencies. However, in the hypothesis of uniform medium, the estimates of scattering attenuations obtained by MLTW analysis are overestimated. So the present results are correct to a first order approximation. To obtain more reliable and unbiased estimates of the attenuation parameters and their frequency dependences by considering the probable influence of crustal-mantel heterogeneities, we analyze the events by using the depth dependent MLTW method.

Padhy, S.

2010-12-01

368

Landing gear noise attenuation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

2011-01-01

369

Absorption coefficient instrument for turbid natural waters

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents an instrument that directly measures multispectral absorption coefficient of turbid natural water. Attention is given to the design, which is shown to incorporate methods for the compensation of variation in the internal light source intensity, correction of the spectrally dependent nature of the optical elements, and correction for variation in the background light level. In addition, when used in conjunction with a spectrally matched total attenuation instrument, the spectrally dependent scattering coefficient can also be derived. Finally, it is reported that systematic errors associated with multiple scattering have been estimated using Monte Carlo techniques.

Friedman, E.; Cherdak, A.; Poole, L.; Houghton, W.

1980-01-01

370

Effect of finite absorber dimensions on ?-ray attenuation measurements

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using 137Cs ? rays, the effect of finite absorber dimensions on attenuation measurements has been studied. Copper and mercury targets were used. Absorber dimensions up to five mean free paths were used. A correlated effect was observed in the measurements due to absorber thickness and its dimensions in the transverse directions. The values of the attenuation coefficients for copper and mercury have also been determined.

Varier, K. M.; Kunju, S. Nasiruddeen; Madhusudanan, K.

1986-04-01

371

Implications of NGA for NEHRP site coefficients

Three proposals are provided to update tables 11.4-1 and 11.4-2 of Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (7-10), by the American Society of Civil Engineers (2010) (ASCE/SEI 7-10), with site coefficients implied directly by NGA (Next Generation Attenuation) ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs). Proposals include a recommendation to use straight-line interpolation to infer site coefficients at intermediate values of ?vs (average shear velocity). Site coefficients are recommended to ensure consistency with ASCE/SEI 7-10 MCER (Maximum Considered Earthquake) seismic-design maps and simplified site-specific design spectra procedures requiring site classes with associated tabulated site coefficients and a reference site class with unity site coefficients. Recommended site coefficients are confirmed by independent observations of average site amplification coefficients inferred with respect to an average ground condition consistent with that used for the MCER maps. The NGA coefficients recommended for consideration are implied directly by the NGA GMPEs and do not require introduction of additional models.

Borcherdt, Roger D.

2012-01-01

372

Is there seismic attenuation in the mantle?

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The small scale heterogeneity of the mantle is mostly due to the mixing of petrological heterogeneities by a smooth but chaotic convection and should consist in a laminated structure (marble cake) with a power spectrum S(k) varying as 1/k, where k is the wavenumber of the anomalies. This distribution of heterogeneities during convective stirring with negligible diffusion, called Batchelor regime is documented by fluid dynamic experiments and corresponds to what can be inferred from geochemistry and seismic tomography. This laminated structure imposes density, seismic velocity and potentially, anisotropic heterogeneities with similar 1/k spectra. A seismic wave of wavenumber k0 crossing such a medium is partly reflected by the heterogeneities and we show that the scattered energy is proportional to k0S(2k0). The reduction of energy for the propagating wave appears therefore equivalent to a quality factor 1/Q?k0S(2k0). With the specific 1/k spectrum of the mantle, the resulting apparent attenuation should therefore be frequency independent. We show that the total contribution of 6-9% RMS density, velocity and anisotropy would explain the observed S and P attenuation of the mantle. Although these values are large, they are not unreasonable and we discuss how they depend on the range of frequencies over which the attenuation is explained. If such a level of heterogeneity were present, most of the attenuation of the Earth would be due to small scale scattering by laminations, not by intrinsic dissipation. Intrinsic dissipation must certainly exist but might correspond to a larger, yet unobserved Q. This provocative result would explain the very weak frequency dependence of the attenuation, and the fact that bulk attenuation seems negligible, two observations that have been difficult to explain for 50 years.

Ricard, Y.; Durand, S.; Montagner, J.-P.; Chambat, F.

2014-02-01

373

Backscatter and attenuation properties of mammalian brain tissues

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a common category of brain injuries, which contributes to a substantial number of deaths and permanent disability all over the world. Ultrasound technology plays a major role in tissue characterization due to its low cost and portability that could be used to bridge a wide gap in the TBI diagnostic process. This research addresses the ultrasonic properties of mammalian brain tissues focusing on backscatter and attenuation. Orientation dependence and spatial averaging of data were analyzed using the same method resulting from insertion of tissue sample between a transducer and a reference reflector. Apparent backscatter transfer function (ABTF) at 1 to 10 MHz, attenuation coefficient and backscatter coefficient (BSC) at 1 to 5 MHz frequency ranges were measured on ovine brain tissue samples. The resulting ABTF was a monotonically decreasing function of frequency and the attenuation coefficient and BSC generally were increasing functions of frequency, results consistent with other soft tissues such as liver, blood and heart.

Wijekularatne, Pushpani Vihara

374

A direct measurement of skull attenuation for quantitative SPECT

The attenuation of 140 keV photons was measured in three empty skulls by placing a [sup 99m]Tc line source inside each one and acquiring projection data. These projections were compared to projections of the line source alone to determine the transmission through each point in the skull surrounding the line source. The effective skull thickness was calculated for each point using an assumed dense bone attenuation coefficient. The relative attenuation for this thickness of bone was compared to that of an equivalent amount of soft tissue to evaluate the increased attenuation of photons in brain SPECT relative to a uniform soft tissue approximation. For the skull regions surrounding most of the brain, the effective bone thickness varied considerably, but was generally less than 6 mm, resulting in a relative attenuation increases of less than 6%.

Turkington, T.G.; Gilland, D.R.; Jaszczak, R.J.; Greer, K.L.; Coleman, R.E. (Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Radiology); Smith, M.F. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Biomedical Engineering)

1993-08-01

375

Model-based tomographic optoacoustic reconstructions in acoustically attenuating media

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustic attenuation influences the transmission of the ultrasonic waves excited optoacoustically in biological samples, in a way that the amplitude of the waves is reduced as they propagate through acoustically attenuating tissues. Furthermore, being dependent on frequency, acoustic attenuation also causes broadening of the time-resolved optoacoustic signals, which in turn leads to blurring of features and overall deterioration of image quality. The effects of acoustic attenuation are more prominent for the high frequency components of the optoacoustic waves and they must be taken into account for high resolution imaging. In this work, we modify a model-based reconstruction algorithm to incorporate the effects of acoustic attenuation in tomographic optoacoustic imaging set-ups. As the waves propagate from the excitation until the measurement points, they undergo space and frequency dependent attenuation, which can be effectively accounted for using the suggested model-based approach. The simulation results obtained showcase a good performance of the introduced method in terms of resolution improvement.

Deán-Ben, X. Luís.; Razansky, Daniel

2014-03-01

376

Factor Scores, Structure Coefficients, and Communality Coefficients

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents heuristic explanations of factor scores, structure coefficients, and communality coefficients. Common misconceptions regarding these topics are clarified. In addition, (a) the regression (b) Bartlett, (c) Anderson-Rubin, and (d) Thompson methods for calculating factor scores are reviewed. Syntax necessary to execute all four…

Goodwyn, Fara

2012-01-01

377

An apparatus and method of attenuating and/or conditioning optical energy for an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module is disclosed. An apparatus for attenuating the optical output of an optoelectronic connector including: a mounting surface; an array of optoelectronic devices having at least a first end; an array of optical elements having at least a first end; the first end of the array of optical elements optically aligned with the first end of the array of optoelectronic devices; an optical path extending from the first end of the array of optoelectronic devices and ending at a second end of the array of optical elements; and an attenuator in the optical path for attenuating the optical energy emitted from the array of optoelectronic devices. Alternatively, a conditioner may be adapted in the optical path for conditioning the optical energy emitted from the array of optoelectronic devices.

Anderson, Gene R. (Albuquerque, NM); Armendariz, Marcelino G. (Albuquerque, NM); Carson, Richard F. (Albuquerque, NM); Bryan, Robert P. (Albuquerque, NM); Duckett, III, Edwin B. (Albuquerque, NM); Kemme, Shanalyn Adair (Albuquerque, NM); McCormick, Frederick B. (Albuquerque, NM); Peterson, David W. (Sandia Park, NM)

2006-04-04

378

A pulse wave is the displacement wave which arises because of ejection of blood from the heart and reflection at vascular bed and distal point. The investigation of pressure waves leads to understanding the propagation characteristics of a pulse wave. To investigate the pulse wave behavior, an experimental study was performed using an artificial polymer tube and viscous liquid. A polyurethane tube and glycerin solution were used to simulate a blood vessel and blood, respectively. In the case of the 40 wt% glycerin solution, which corresponds to the viscosity of ordinary blood, the attenuation coefficient of a pressure wave in the tube decreased from 4.3 to 1.6 dB/m because of the tube stiffness (Young's modulus: 60 to 200 kPa). When the viscosity of liquid increased from approximately 4 to 10 mPa·s (the range of human blood viscosity) in the stiff tube, the attenuation coefficient of the pressure wave changed from 1.6 to 3.2 dB/m. The hardening of the blood vessel caused by aging and the increase of blood viscosity caused by illness possibly have opposite effects on the intravascular pressure wave. The effect of the viscosity of a liquid on the amplitude of a pressure wave was then considered using a phantom simulating human blood vessels. As a result, in the typical range of blood viscosity, the amplitude ratio of the waves obtained by the experiments with water and glycerin solution became 1:0.83. In comparison with clinical data, this value is much smaller than that seen from blood vessel hardening. Thus, it can be concluded that the blood viscosity seldom affects the attenuation of a pulse wave. PMID:24158293

Ikenaga, Yuki; Nishi, Shohei; Komagata, Yuka; Saito, Masashi; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves; Asada, Takaaki; Matsukawa, Mami

2013-11-01

379

SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

We have developed and tested technology for a new type of direct hydrocarbon detection. The method uses inelastic rock properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic methods to the presence of oil and gas saturation. These methods include use of energy absorption, dispersion, and attenuation (Q) along with traditional seismic attributes like velocity, impedance, and AVO. Our approach is to combine three elements: (1) a synthesis of the latest rock physics understanding of how rock inelasticity is related to rock type, pore fluid types, and pore microstructure, (2) synthetic seismic modeling that will help identify the relative contributions of scattering and intrinsic inelasticity to apparent Q attributes, and (3) robust algorithms that extract relative wave attenuation attributes from seismic data. This project provides: (1) Additional petrophysical insight from acquired data; (2) Increased understanding of rock and fluid properties; (3) New techniques to measure reservoir properties that are not currently available; and (4) Provide tools to more accurately describe the reservoir and predict oil location and volumes. These methodologies will improve the industry's ability to predict and quantify oil and gas saturation distribution, and to apply this information through geologic models to enhance reservoir simulation. We have applied for two separate patents relating to work that was completed as part of this project.

Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

2003-12-01

380

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A train of large amplitude infrasound wave packets was observed by multipoint Continuous Doppler sounding system in the ionosphere over the Czech Republic on 11 March 2011. It is shown that these infrasound wave packets originated from vertical motion of the ground surface that was caused by arrival of seismic waves generated by the strong Tohoku earthquake. The infrasound wave packets were observed in the ionosphere at heights of ˜210-220 km about 9 min after the detection of corresponding wave packets on the ground, which is consistent with the calculated time for vertically propagating infrasound waves. Absolute values of cross-correlation coefficients between ionospheric and ground measurements are typically higher than 0.9 (for two wave packets ˜0.98). The individual wave packets recorded on the ground have different observed horizontal velocities and correspond to different types of seismic waves. A comparison of vertical velocities of ground motion with oscillation velocities of air particles in the ionosphere indicates that almost 1/10 of the infrasound energy flux excited at the ground reached the altitudes of ˜210-220 km for wave periods longer than ˜30 s. Estimates of sound attenuation are performed. It is also shown that it is necessary to consider the value of electron density gradient at the reflection height of the sounding radio wave, and air (plasma) compression owing to the infrasound wave to get reasonable estimates of oscillation velocities of air particles from Doppler shift frequencies.

Chum, J.; Hruska, F.; Zednik, J.; Lastovicka, J.

2012-08-01

381

Wave forces on a submerged sphere by bichromatic waves

This paper discusses experimentally the wave forces acting on a submerged sphere due to bichromatic waves. Discussion is centered on the drag and inertia coefficients of the Morison equation, determined by the least square method. In the analysis, two interpretations of the drag and inertia coefficients are determined. One set determined is for each wave determined by the zero-downcrossing method while the other set is for whole waves in a wave train. Based on the results, it is shown that the time variation of wave height plays an important role on the wave forces for zero-downcrossing waves. The maximum wave force and the inertia coefficient of the waves whose heights are increasing are larger than those corresponding to waves whose heights arc decreasing. Differences of the drag coefficient between the waves in these two stages are also recognized, however, tendencies depend on flow separation. The differences of these quantities become large with increasing variation coefficient of wave height and decreasing correlation coefficient of wave height of successive waves, and it is pointed out that the effect of irregularity in the wave train should be taken into consideration for accurate estimation of wave forces.

Mizutani, Norimi; Iwata, Koichiro [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1995-12-31

382

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relative contribution of intrinsic ( Qi-1) and scattering ( Qs-1) attenuation to seismic wave attenuation was estimated for the Garwhal-Kumaun Himalayas using Multiple Lapse Time Window Analysis (MLTWA) method under the assumption of isotropic scattering. Local earthquake data recorded by an array operated by Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology (WIHG), India was used for this purpose. It is observed that scattering attenuation primarily contributes to seismic wave attenuation in this region and its value is much higher compared to that of intrinsic attenuation at around 1 Hz frequency. As frequency increases the relative contribution of scattering attenuation to total attenuation starts decreasing. However, as seismic albedo is higher than 0.5 for all the frequencies considered, it is concluded that the medium here is highly heterogeneous in nature.

Mukhopadhyay, S.; Sharma, J.; Del-Pezzo, E.; Kumar, N.

2010-05-01

383

Fracture compliance estimation using borehole tube waves

We tested two models, one for tube-wave generation and the other for tube-wave attenuation at a fracture intersecting a borehole that can be used to estimate fracture compliance, fracture aperture, and lateral extent. In ...

Bakku, Sudhish Kumar

384

Superheterodyne three-wave detection of gravitation waves

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A superheterodyne method of mutual transformation of wave energies in the non-linear three wave process involving a gravitational wave is considered. A flexible possibility of Transferring the great external gain coefficient from an electromagnetic or acoustic wave to the gravitation one is shown. It can facilitate generation and detection of this wave.

Pisarev, A. F.; Pisareva, S. A.

385

Radiofrequency attenuator and method

Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3 C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ); Hall, Simon B. (Palmerston North, NZ)

2009-11-10

386

Vortex attenuation flight experiments

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight tests evaluating the effects of altered span loading, turbulence ingestion, combinations of mass and turbulence ingestion, and combinations of altered span loading turbulance ingestion on trailed wake vortex attenuation were conducted. Span loadings were altered in flight by varying the deflections of the inboard and outboard flaps on a B-747 aircraft. Turbulence ingestion was achieved in flight by mounting splines on a C-54G aircraft. Mass and turbulence ingestion was achieved in flight by varying the thrust on the B-747 aircraft. Combinations of altered span loading and turbulence ingestion were achieved in flight by installing a spoiler on a CV-990 aircraft and by deflecting the existing spoilers on a B-747 aircraft. The characteristics of the attenuated and unattenuated vortexes were determined by probing them with smaller aircraft. Acceptable separation distances for encounters with the attenuated and unattenuated vortexes are presented.

Barber, M. R.; Hastings, E. C., Jr.; Champine, R. A.; Tymczyszyn, J. J.

1977-01-01

387

Radiofrequency attenuator and method

Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ); Hall, Simon B. (Palmerston North, NZ)

2009-01-20

388

The attenuation of sound by turbulence in internal flows.

The attenuation of sound waves due to interaction with low Mach number turbulent boundary layers in internal flows (channel or pipe flow) is examined. Dynamic equations for the turbulent Reynolds stress on the sound wave are derived, and the analytical solution to the equation provides a frequency dependent eddy viscosity model. This model is used to predict the attenuation of sound propagating in fully developed turbulent pipe flow. The predictions are shown to compare well with the experimental data. The proposed dynamic equation shows that the turbulence behaves like a viscoelastic fluid in the interaction process, and that the ratio of turbulent relaxation time near the wall and the sound wave period is the parameter that controls the characteristics of the attenuation induced by the turbulent flow. PMID:23742331

Weng, Chenyang; Boij, Susann; Hanifi, Ardeshir

2013-06-01

389

Effect of collimator size and absorber thickness on gamma ray attenuation measurements

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass attenuation coefficients have been measured in extended media of soil and water for 662 keV gamma rays under different collimation conditions. A correlation effect due to absorber thickness and collimator size has been observed.

Sidhu, Gurdeep S.; Singh, Karamjit; Singh, Parjit S.; Mudahar, Gurmel S.

1999-11-01

390

Investigation of Radiation Attenuation Properties for Baryte Concrete

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work the authors have studied the attenuation properties of baryte concrete as a biological shield for nuclear power plants, particle accelerators, research reactors, laboratory hot cells and different radiation sources. Investigation has been performed by measuring the transmitted fast neutron and gamma ray spectra through cylindrical samples of baryte concrete (?=3.49 g\\cdotcm-3). A reactor-collimated beam and neutron-gamma spectrometer with stilbene scintillator were used during measurements. A pulse shape discriminating technique based on zero cross over method was used to discriminate between neutron and gamma pulses. Removal cross-section ?R,eff and total attenuation coefficient ?eff of neutrons and gamma rays were evaluated from the obtained results. Also, slow neutron fluxes have been measured using a collimated reactor beam and BF3 counter, where the macroscopic cross section ?(En) has been evaluated using the attenuation relation. The total macroscopic cross sections ?T(En) and total attenuation coefficient ?(Eg) of neutrons and gamma rays have been calculated based on the database cross sections. Also, the total mass attenuation coefficient ?eff(Eg)/? and ?(Eg)/? of gamma ray have been estimated and calculated using the measured results and XCOM code respectively. Measured and calculated results were compared and a reasonable agreement was found.

Abdo, A. El-Sayed; Kansouh, W. A.; Megahid, R. M.

2002-12-01

391

Electromagnetic Attenuation by Solid Particle Aerosols.

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theories of electromagnetic attenuation by absorption and scattering from aerosols of solid particles were evaluated and experimentally verified. Particles having specific physical and morphological properties were tested to maximize the mass extinction coefficients of the aerosols in several bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. Particulate materials were chosen based on theoretical predictions and compatible aerosolization schemes were developed for each material. Direct measurements of attenuation by the resulting aerosols were conducted in instrumented cloud chambers and a new measurement system using "stationary aerosols" was developed. The method of producing the stationary aerosols was optimized experimentally and results of the two measurement techniques were compared, validating the stationary aerosol approach as a viable alternative to chamber testing. Theoretical results were used to determine ideal particles for maximizing attenuation and particles with the appropriate parameters were designed and produced in the laboratory. A combination of aerosol and stationary aerosol testing was used to measure attenuations and extinction coefficients were computed as the figures of merit in evaluating the efficacy of each material. Materials with less than ideal parameters were tested to further validate the theoretical predictions. Materials produced as testing particulates included deflagrated graphitic oxides, charge transfer salts, iron whiskers, and aluminum flake with varying levels of passivation. Product characterizations were done using electron microscopies and image analysis, x-ray spectroscopies and electron spectroscopies. The same methods were used to verify manufacturers' specifications for commercially available materials tested. Characterization results were used to calculate theoretical predictions. Dissemination schemes investigated included sonic velocity pneumatic nozzles, mechanical systems, magnetic systems and material specific reaction systems. Figures of merit for dissemination systems were determined in terms of aerosolized yields, fall rates, and extents of agglomeration.

Petersen, Erica Ray

1991-02-01

392

Laser Measurement Of Convective-Heat-Transfer Coefficient

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coefficient of convective transfer of heat at spot on surface of wind-tunnel model computed from measurements acquired by developmental laser-induced-heat-flux technique. Enables non-intrusive measurements of convective-heat-transfer coefficients at many points across surfaces of models in complicated, three-dimensional, high-speed flows. Measurement spot scanned across surface of model. Apparatus includes argon-ion laser, attenuator/beam splitter electronic shutter infrared camera, and subsystem.

Porro, A. Robert; Hingst, Warren R.; Chriss, Randall M.; Seablom, Kirk D.; Keith, Theo G., Jr.

1994-01-01

393

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mass attenuation coefficient (m m ) of 662 keV gamma rays have been measured in the extended media of bakelite and perspex under different collimation conditions. The increase in attenuation coefficient is seen with increase in sample thickness as well as with collimator size due to the contribution of multiple scattered photons in the uncollided beam of 662 keV gamma rays.

Sidhu, Gurdeep S.; Singh, Karamjit; Singh, Parjit S.; Mudahar, Gurmel S.

1999-11-01

394

Results of a pilot survey in the central, northern region of Surinam indicate that yaws is prevalent (hypoendemic) in this part of the country. No classical symptoms of yaws were seen. The observed lesions were scanty or solitary, dry papillomatous, or macular and scaly, which fits into the clinical picture of attenuated endemic treponematosis. PMID:445127

Niemel, P L; Brunings, E A; Menke, H E

1979-04-01

395

NEUTRON ATTENUATION IN CONCRETE

The observed behavior of the penetrating neutrons in a concrete shield ; is accounted for by a simple theory making use of a calculated transport' cross ; section for fast neutrons. This method is then linked with conventional age ; theory in an empirical manner so that a good fit is obtained to the observed ; neutron attenuation at all

Spinney

1955-01-01

396

Extracting Laterally Varying Attenuation from Microseisms

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noise cross-correlation (NCC) has been successfully used in constructing empirical Green's functions (EGFs) for seismic velocity tomography. However, extracting reliable EGF amplitudes for attenuation estimation remains a challenge despite the fact that there are studies that derive spatially averaged attenuation from noise. In this work we use microseisms recorded by the USArray stations to explore the techniques that may accomplish the task to accurately measure EGF amplitudes and thus provide reliable input to the tomographic mapping of the laterally varying attenuation. Traditional NCC processing often trades amplitude information for phases with a better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). An equally efficient method, temporal flattening, which removes the dominance of high-level noise in particular time intervals, and yet keeps the relative amplitudes among stations, is to normalize the narrow-band signals at each station by an average of the noise energy level at all stations. In addition to the effect of traditional NCC processing, EGF amplitude can also be biased by the uneven distribution of noise-field intensity in space, time and direction. To mitigate the effect of anisotropic noise field, we calculate EGFs using beam cross-correlation (BCC). Namely we construct beams according to the strike of a station pair and the surface-wave velocity, so that the beam signal contains mainly the energy flux along the strike. We validate our methods by comparing the surface-wave amplitudes from an earthquake with relative EGF amplitudes from a "source" station near the earthquake.

Zhang, J.; Yang, X.; Weaver, R. L.

2011-12-01

397

Crustal attenuation characteristics in western Turkey

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analysed 1764 records produced by 322 micro- and moderate-size local earthquakes in western Turkey to estimate crustal attenuation characteristics in the frequency range of 1.0 ? f ? 10 Hz. In the first step, we obtained non-parametric attenuation functions and they show that seismic recordings of transverse and radial S waves exhibit different characteristics at short and long hypocentral distances. Applying a two-step inversion, we parametrized Q( f ) and geometrical spreading exponent b( f ) for the entire distance range between 10 and 200 km and then we estimated separately Q and b values for short (10-70 km) and large (120-200 km) distance ranges. We could not observe significant frequency dependencies of b for short distance range, whereas the significant frequency dependence of b was observed for large distances. Low Q0 values (˜60) with strong frequency dependence of Q (˜1.4) for short distances suggest that scattering might be an important factor contributing to the attenuation of body waves in the region, which could be associated to a high degree of fracturing, fluid filled cracks, young volcanism and geothermal activity in the crust. Weak Q frequency dependence and higher Q0 values for large distances manifest more homogenous medium because of increasing pressure and enhanced healing of cracks with increasing temperature and depth. Q anisotropy was also observed for large hypocentral distance ranges.

Kurtulmu?, Tevfik Özgür; Akyol, Nihal

2013-11-01

398

Attenuation Measurements of Cell Pellets Using Through Transmission

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A better understanding of differences in ultrasound tissue characteristics (such as speed of sound, attenuation, and backscatter coefficients) of benign compared to malignant cells could lead to improved cancer detection and diagnosis. A narrow band technique for measuring ultrasonic speed of sound and attenuation of small biological materials was developed and tested. Several mechanical improvements were made to the system to drastically improve alignment, allowing for accurate measurements of small cell pellets. Narrow band attenuation measurements were made first with tissue-mimicking phantoms and then with three different types of cell pellets: Chinese hamster ovary cells, healthy human prostate cells, and cancerous human prostate cells. Attenuation and speed of sound results for all three cell types, as well as the culture medium and tissue mimicking phantoms, are presented for a frequency range of 5 to 25 MHz.

Vadas, Justin; Greene, Claudia; Grygotis, Emma; Kuhn, Stephen; Mahlalela, Sanele; Newland, Tinisha; Ovutmen, Idil; Herd, Maria-Teresa

2011-10-01

399

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The probability matching method (PMM) is used as a basis for estimating attenuation in tropical rains near Darwin, Australia. PMM provides a climatological relationship between measured radar reflectivity and rain rate, which includes the effects of rain and cloud attenuation. When the radar sample is representative, PMM estimates the rainfall without bias. When the data are stratified for greater than average rates, the method no longer compensates for the higher attenuation and the radar rainfall estimates are biased low. The uncompensated attenuation is used to estimate the climatological attenuation coefficient. The two-way attenuation coefficient was found to be 0.0085 dB/km ( mm/h) exp -1.08 for the tropical rains and associated clouds in Darwin for the first two months of the year for horizontally polarized radiation at 5.63 GHz. This unusually large value is discussed. The risks of making real-time corrections for attenuation are also treated.

Atlas, David; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Wolff, David B.

1993-01-01

400

Wave attenuation by vegetation is a highly dynamic process and its quantification is important for accurately understanding and predicting coastal hydrodynamics. However, the influence of vegetation on wave dissipation is not yet fully established...

Anderson, Mary Elizabeth

2011-10-21

401

Live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine

The development of a live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine is currently the best strategy to obtain a vaccine against dengue viruses. The Mahidol University group developed candidate live attenuated vaccines by attenuation through serial passages in certified primary cell cultures. Dengue serotype 1, 2 and 4 viruses were developed in primary dog kidney cells, whereas dengue serotype 3 was serially

N Bhamarapravati; Y Sutee

2000-01-01

402

Numerical support of laboratory experiments: Attenuation and velocity estimations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that numerical support of laboratory experiments can significantly increase the understanding and simplify the interpretation of the obtained laboratory results. First we perform simulations of the Seismic Wave Attenuation Module to measure seismic attenuation of reservoir rocks. Our findings confirm the accuracy of this system. However, precision can be further improved by optimizing the sensor positions. Second, we model wave propagation for an ultrasonic pulse transmission experiment used to determine pressure- and temperature-dependent seismic velocities in the rock. Multiple waves are identified in our computer experiment, including bar waves. The metal jacket that houses the sample assembly needs to be taken into account for a proper estimation of the ultrasonic velocities. This influence is frequency-dependent.

Saenger, Erik H.; Madonna, Claudio; Frehner, Marcel; Almqvist, Bjarne S. G.

2014-02-01

403

Interaction of vortices with acoustic waves

An interaction of vortices in superconductors with acoustic waves is very unusual. In a clean sample helicon waves interact with the transverse sound resulting in the additional sound attenuation [1]. Interaction of a vortex lattice with ultrasound may produce the acoustic Faraday effect and nonstationary magnetic field, acting on vortices, may generate ultrasonic waves [2]. Vortices interact with acoustic waves

Boris Ivlev

2003-01-01

404

Control algorithms for dynamic attenuators

Purpose: The authors describe algorithms to control dynamic attenuators in CT and compare their performance using simulated scans. Dynamic attenuators are prepatient beam shaping filters that modulate the distribution of x-ray fluence incident on the patient on a view-by-view basis. These attenuators can reduce dose while improving key image quality metrics such as peak or mean variance. In each view, the attenuator presents several degrees of freedom which may be individually adjusted. The total number of degrees of freedom across all views is very large, making many optimization techniques impractical. The authors develop a theory for optimally controlling these attenuators. Special attention is paid to a theoretically perfect attenuator which controls the fluence for each ray individually, but the authors also investigate and compare three other, practical attenuator designs which have been previously proposed: the piecewise-linear attenuator, the translating attenuator, and the double wedge attenuator. Methods: The authors pose and solve the optimization problems of minimizing the mean and peak variance subject to a fixed dose limit. For a perfect attenuator and mean variance minimization, this problem can be solved in simple, closed form. For other attenuator designs, the problem can be decomposed into separate problems for each view to greatly reduce the computational complexity. Peak variance minimization can be approximately solved using iterated, weighted mean variance (WMV) minimization. Also, the authors develop heuristics for the perfect and piecewise-linear attenuators which do not requirea priori knowledge of the patient anatomy. The authors compare these control algorithms on different types of dynamic attenuators using simulated raw data from forward projected DICOM files of a thorax and an abdomen. Results: The translating and double wedge attenuators reduce dose by an average of 30% relative to current techniques (bowtie filter with tube current modulation) without increasing peak variance. The 15-element piecewise-linear dynamic attenuator reduces dose by an average of 42%, and the perfect attenuator reduces dose by an average of 50%. Improvements in peak variance are several times larger than improvements in mean variance. Heuristic control eliminates the need for a prescan. For the piecewise-linear attenuator, the cost of heuristic control is an increase in dose of 9%. The proposed iterated WMV minimization produces results that are within a few percent of the true solution. Conclusions: Dynamic attenuators show potential for significant dose reduction. A wide class of dynamic attenuators can be accurately controlled using the described methods.

Hsieh, Scott S., E-mail: sshsieh@stanford.edu [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Pelc, Norbert J. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford California 94305 and Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford California 94305 and Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2014-06-15

405

Flexible graphene based microwave attenuators.

We demonstrate flexible 3 dB and 6 dB microwave attenuators using multilayer graphene grown by the chemical vapor deposition method. On the basis of the characterized results of multilayer graphene and graphene-Au ohmic contacts, the graphene attenuators are designed and measured. The flexible graphene-based attenuators have 3 dB and 6 dB attenuation with a return loss of less than -15 dB at higher than 5 GHz. The devices have shown durability in a bending cycling test of 100 times. The circuit model of the attenuator<