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1

Seismic wave characteristics in anisotropic attenuating media

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A synthetic seismogram is a tool to investigate seismic wave characteristics in anisotropic attenuating media. A numerical technique for the computation of synthetic seismograms in a homogeneous, as well as in a multilayered anisotropic medium was developed. Full waveform theory is used to compute the synthetic seismograms. The medium can be elastic or viscoelastic. In the latter case, attenuation is introduced by giving materials complex elastic constants. To ensure that there are no false arrivals in the synthetic seismogram, it is important to carefully control the integration kernel singularity points, especially those due to repeated roots of the associated Green-Christoffel equation. A novel approach is developed to safely track the continuity of the integration kernel and, hence, the polarization vectors in critical and supercritical zones. The reflectivity approach is followed to consider wave propagation in a multilayered medium. A simple and concise implementation of this method is developed. This approach also enables one to investigate frequency dependent reflection coefficients varying with incidence angle and azimuth. The modeling of reflection coefficients in fractured media suggests that amplitude versus offset and azimuth (AVOAz) can be helpful in detecting fractured reservoirs. In a new development, the effect of attenuation on P- and S-wave radiation patterns in viscoelastic anisotropic media is investigated. The understanding of radiation patterns in homogeneous media is applied to interpret various wave types in attenuating multilayered media. Both the amplitude and the frequency content of the synthetic seismograms are affected by attenuation properties of the media. The spectral decomposition technique is found to be useful in our understanding of the attenuation effects. Seismic anisotropy in shales is a complex phenomenon. A number of theoretical shale models are investigated to study the effects of clay orientation, aspect ratio of cracks, porosity and fluid types on the synthetic seismograms.

Sinha, Satish

2

Spatial and seasonal variation in wave attenuation over Zostera noltii

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wave attenuation is a recognized function of sea grass ecosystems which is believed to depend on plant characteristics. This paper presents field data on wave attenuance collected over a 13 month period in a Zostera noltii meadow. The meadow showed a strong seasonality with high shoot densities in summer (approximately 4,600 shoots/m2) and low densities in winter (approximately 600 shoots/m2). Wave heights and flow velocities were measured along a transect at regular intervals during which the site was exposed to wind waves and boat wakes that differ in wave period and steepness. This difference was used to investigate whether wave attenuation by sea grass changes with hydrodynamic conditions. A seasonal change in wave attenuation was observed from the data. Results suggest that a minimum shoot density is necessary to initiate wave attenuation by sea grass. Additionally, a dependence of wave attenuation on hydrodynamics was found. Results suggest that the threshold shoot density varies with wave period and a change in energy dissipation toward the shore was observed once this threshold was exceeded. An attempt was made to quantify the bed roughness of the meadow; the applicability of this roughness value in swaying vegetation is discussed. Finally, the drag coefficient for the meadow was computed: A relationship between wave attenuance and vegetation Reynolds number was found which allows comparing the wave attenuating effect of Zostera noltii to other plant species.

Paul, M.; Amos, C. L.

2011-08-01

3

Temporal Variations of Seismic Coda: Attenuation-Coefficient View

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When monitoring spatial or temporal variations of the subsurface, it is important to use properties that objectively exist and are insensitive to observational uncertainties. Although the frequency-dependent seismic coda quality factor, Qc is often found to change prior and following relation to major earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, it does not represent such a property. Qc is strongly dependent on the assumed theoretical models, which are usually insufficiently accurate for constraining the actual relationships between the geometrical spreading, anelastic dissipation, and scattering of seismic waves. This inaccuracy often leads to significant exaggeration of attenuation effects, and particularly to interpretations of temporal variations in Qc as related to changes in lithospheric scattering. To overcome this bias, we use an approach based on the temporal attenuation-coefficient, ?(f), instead of Q(f) for describing coda attenuation. Several attenuation case studies suggest that ?(f) typically linearly depends on f, with both the intercept ? = ?(0) and slope d?(f)/df = ?Qe-1 being sensitive to the physical state of the subsurface. Two published examples of temporal variations of local-earthquake coda Q are revisited: non-volcanic (near Stone Canyon in central California) and volcanic (Mt. St. Helens, Washington). In both cases, linear ?(f) patterns are found, with the effects of geometrical spreading (?) on coda attenuation being significantly stronger than those of Qe-1. At Stone Canyon, ? values ranged from 0.035 to 0.06 s-1 and Qe varies from 3000 to 10000, with ? increasing and Qe decreasing during the winter season. At Mt. St. Helens, ? ? 0.18 s-1, and Qe changed from 400 before the eruption to 750 after it. The observed temporal variations are explained by near-surface effects (seasonal variations in the non-volcanic case and gas-, magma-, and geothermal-system related in the volcanic case),which mostly affect the geometrical spreading and anelastic attenuation. Scattering does not appear to be a significant attenuation factor in these areas, or otherwise it may be indistinguishable from the intrinsic attenuation in the data.

Morozov, I. B.

2010-12-01

4

Measurements of spectral attenuation coefficients in the lower Chesapeake Bay

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spectral transmission was measured for water samples taken in the lower Chesapeake Bay to allow characterization of several optical properties. The coefficients of total attenuation, particle attenuation, and absorption by dissolved organic matter were determined over a wavelength range from 3500 A to 8000 A. The data were taken over a 3 year period and at a number of sites so that an indication of spatial and temporal variations could be obtained. The attenuations determined in this work are, on the average, 10 times greater than those obtained by Hulburt in 1944, which are commonly accepted in the literature for Chesapeake Bay attenuation.

Houghton, W. M.

1983-01-01

5

Attenuation of seismic waves at regional distances

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A report on the attenuation of seismic waves at regional distances contains the following topics: Yield estimates of Nevada Test Site explosions obtained from siesmic Lg waves; Inter-station surface wave analysis by frequency-domain Wiener deconvolution and modal isolation; New insights on crustal Q structure in stable continental regions - preliminary results.

Nuttli, O. W.; Mitchell, B. J.; Hwang, H. J.

1985-08-01

6

Seismic wave characteristics in anisotropic attenuating media

A synthetic seismogram is a tool to investigate seismic wave characteristics in anisotropic attenuating media. A numerical technique for the computation of synthetic seismograms in a homogeneous, as well as in a multilayered anisotropic medium was developed. Full waveform theory is used to compute the synthetic seismograms. The medium can be elastic or viscoelastic. In the latter case, attenuation is

Satish Sinha

2006-01-01

7

The attenuation of strong shock waves

THE ATTENUATION OF STRONG SHOCK WAVES A Thesis By Ronald Crecelius Kirkpatrick Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... May 1963 Major Subject: Physics. THE ATTENUATION OF STRONG SHOCK WAVES A Thesis By Ronald Crecelius Kirkpatrick Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee (He of Departme ) May 1963 TABLE OF CONTENTS INT R ODU C TI ON ~Pe e...

Kirkpatrick, Ronald Crecelius

2012-06-07

8

Calculation of beta-ray attenuation coefficients through thin foils

Through the use of the P1 approximation to the linear transport equation and assuming that electrons only undergo elastic interactions with atoms, the fraction of transmitted beta-rays through foils is calculated arriving at the well-known exponential dependence with foil thickness. The resulting attenuation coefficients are in good agreement with experimental values.

F. Legarda; R. Idoeta

1995-01-01

9

Compressional head waves in attenuative formations

The attenuation of compressional head waves in a fluid-filled borehole is studied with the branch-cut integration method. The borehole fluid and solid formation are both assumed lossy with quality factors Q{sub f}({omega}) for the fluid, and Q{sub c}({omega}) and Q{sub s}({omega}) for the compressional and shear waves in the solid, respectively. The branch-cut integration method used in this work is an extension of that for a lossless medium. With this branch-cut integration method, the authors can isolate the groups of individual arrivals such as the compressional head waves and shear head waves, and study the attenuation of those particular wavefields in lossy media. This study, coupled with experimental work to be performed, may result in an effective way of measuring compressional head wave attenuation in the field.

Liu, Q.H.; Chang, C. [Schlumberger-Doll Research, Ridgefield, CT (United States)

1994-12-31

10

Low attenuation waveguide for leaky surface waves

A surface wave on a liquid\\/solid interface is well-known to radiate acoustic energy into the liquid and is therefore rapidly attenuated. In this work, we have been able to show by experiments and calculations that the proximity of another surface (layer 1 to layer 3 and layer 3 to layer 1) sustains the surface wave through long distances for layers

K. Joseph; B. R. Tittmann; M. Pedrick; M. Kropf

2006-01-01

11

Attenuation coefficient estimates of mouse and rat chest wall

Attenuation coefficients of intercostal tissues were estimated from chest walls removed postmortem (pm) from 41 6-to-7-week-old female ICR mice and 27 10-to-11-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats. These values were determined from measurements through the intercostal tissues, from the surface of the skin to the parietal pleura. Mouse chest walls were sealed in plastic wrap and stored at 4\\\\°C until evaluated, and

Geraldine A. Teotico; Rita J. Miller; Leon A. Frizzell; James F. Zachary; William D. O'Brien

2001-01-01

12

Attenuation of an air shock wave by perforated baffles

One of the ways of attenuating an air shock wave (ASW) is to use a perforated shield; the parameters of the ASW behind a perforated baffle in the form of a steel sheet with holes are determined by the amplitude of the incident ASW and the sheet perforation coefficient. The authors examine the effects of the perforated shield structure on the ASW behind it and examples are given where the results can be used in the design of test chambers.

Klapovskii, V.E.; Grigor'ev, G.S.; Logvenov, A.Y.; Mineev, V.N.; Vershinin, V.Y.

1984-03-01

13

Numerical diffraction coefficients for surface waves

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The numerical uniform theory of diffraction is extended to include surface waves. A method for extracting surface wave diffraction coefficients from moment method data is given and Prony's method is applied to the problem of determining surface wave propagation constants. The method is validated through comparison with the exact solution of the problem of surface wave diffraction by a truncated dielectric slab recessed in a conducting surface. Examples are given for scattering from dielectric slabs and frequency-selective surfaces and for radiation from a conformal microstrip antenna with a truncated substrate. The accuracy obtained is demonstrated by comparison with moment method calculations.

Hurst, M. P.

1993-04-01

14

Apparent Linear Attenuation Coefficients in Phase Contrast X-Ray Tomography

In the inline phase contrast x-ray tomography the reconstructed apparent linear attenuation coefficient values may be greatly larger than sample’s linear attenuation coefficients or even be negative. In this work we present a general formula to quantitatively relate the apparent linear attenuation coefficient values in cone-beam phase contrast tomography to sample’s linear attenuation coefficients and refractive indices. This formula overcomes the gross inaccuracy of the existing formula in the literature in analyzing high-resolution phase contrast tomography, and it will be useful for correctly interpreting and quantifying the apparent linear attenuation coefficients in cone-beam x-ray phase contrast tomography. PMID:21691420

Yan, Aimin; Wu, Xizeng

2011-01-01

15

Representative Elementary Length to Measure Soil Mass Attenuation Coefficient

With increasing demand for better yield in agricultural areas, soil physical property representative measurements are more and more essential. Nuclear techniques such as computerized tomography (CT) and gamma-ray attenuation (GAT) have been widely employed with this purpose. The soil mass attenuation coefficient (?s) is an important parameter for CT and GAT analysis. When experimentally determined (?es), the use of suitable sized samples enable to evaluate it precisely, as well as to reduce measurement time and costs. This study investigated the representative elementary length (REL) of sandy and clayey soils for ?es measurements. Two radioactive sources were employed (241Am and 137Cs), three collimators (2–4?mm diameters), and 14 thickness (x) samples (2–15?cm). Results indicated ideal thickness intervals of 12–15 and 2–4?cm for the sources 137Cs and 241Am, respectively. The application of such results in representative elementary area (REA) evaluations in clayey soil clods via CT indicated that ?es average values obtained for x?>?4?cm and source 241Am might induce to the use of samples which are not large enough for soil bulk density evaluations (?s). As a consequence, ?s might be under- or overestimated, generating inaccurate conclusions about the physical quality of the soil under study. PMID:24672338

Borges, J. A. R.; Pires, L. F.; Costa, J. C.

2014-01-01

16

Representative elementary length to measure soil mass attenuation coefficient.

With increasing demand for better yield in agricultural areas, soil physical property representative measurements are more and more essential. Nuclear techniques such as computerized tomography (CT) and gamma-ray attenuation (GAT) have been widely employed with this purpose. The soil mass attenuation coefficient (?(s)) is an important parameter for CT and GAT analysis. When experimentally determined (?(es)), the use of suitable sized samples enable to evaluate it precisely, as well as to reduce measurement time and costs. This study investigated the representative elementary length (REL) of sandy and clayey soils for ?(es) measurements. Two radioactive sources were employed ((241)Am and (137)Cs), three collimators (2-4 mm diameters), and 14 thickness (x) samples (2-15 cm). Results indicated ideal thickness intervals of 12-15 and 2-4 cm for the sources (137)Cs and (241)Am, respectively. The application of such results in representative elementary area (REA) evaluations in clayey soil clods via CT indicated that ?(es) average values obtained for x > 4 cm and source (241)Am might induce to the use of samples which are not large enough for soil bulk density evaluations (?(s)). As a consequence, ?(s) might be under- or overestimated, generating inaccurate conclusions about the physical quality of the soil under study. PMID:24672338

Borges, J A R; Pires, L F; Costa, J C

2014-01-01

17

Measurement and calculation of shock wave attenuation in a rough duct

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shock wave attenuation a duct with rough walls was calculated using an approximate method and measured experimentally in a systematic manner, which made it possible to determine impulse losses in shock waves by comparing the analytical and experimental data. Expressions relating the loss coefficient to the regular surface roughness were then used for calculating the rate of gas detonation in ducts with rough walls.

Gel'Fand, B. E.; Frolov, S. M.; Medvedev, S. P.

1990-06-01

18

Influences of obstacle geometries on shock wave attenuation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interactions of planar shock waves with obstacles of different geometries were investigated numerically using large eddy simulation and a high-order numerical scheme. The immersed boundary method was also employed to handle complex boundary geometries. The development and variations of shock wave structures during the interaction processes were discussed. The influences of the upper side, windward and leeward geometries of the obstacles on shock wave attenuation were also examined. Our numerical results showed that the shock wave attenuation is inversely related to the width of the upper side of the obstacles. For the windward sides of the obstacles, negative slopes have better effects on shock wave attenuation than do other values. In addition, the influence of the leeward slope on shock wave attenuation is weaker than that of the upside and windward slopes. Finally, obstacle shapes with a high efficiency for shock wave attenuation have been obtained and validated.

Sha, S.; Chen, Z.; Jiang, X.

2014-11-01

19

Determining attenuation properties of interfering fast and slow ultrasonic waves in cancellous bone

Previous studies have shown that interference between fast waves and slow waves can lead to observed negative dispersion in cancellous bone. In this study, the effects of overlapping fast and slow waves on measurements of the apparent attenuation as a function of propagation distance are investigated along with methods of analysis used to determine the attenuation properties. Two methods are applied to simulated data that were generated based on experimentally acquired signals taken from a bovine specimen. The first method uses a time-domain approach that was dictated by constraints imposed by the partial overlap of fast and slow waves. The second method uses a frequency-domain log-spectral subtraction technique on the separated fast and slow waves. Applying the time-domain analysis to the broadband data yields apparent attenuation behavior that is larger in the early stages of propagation and decreases as the wave travels deeper. In contrast, performing frequency-domain analysis on the separated fast waves and slow waves results in attenuation coefficients that are independent of propagation distance. Results suggest that features arising from the analysis of overlapping two-mode data may represent an alternate explanation for the previously reported apparent dependence on propagation distance of the attenuation coefficient of cancellous bone. PMID:21973378

Nelson, Amber M.; Hoffman, Joseph J.; Anderson, Christian C.; Holland, Mark R.; Nagatani, Yoshiki; Mizuno, Katsunori; Matsukawa, Mami; Miller, James G.

2011-01-01

20

Determination of the attenuation coefficients by visible and ultraviolet radiation in heavy water

A long-path-length transmission cell has been used to measure the attenuation coefficients of purified HâO and DâO at various wavelengths between 250 and 580 nm. The principles governing the procedures and corrections for various sources of light attenuation in the transmission cell components are discussed. Detailed chemical histories of the HâO and DâO samples are given. The measured attenuation coefficients

L. P. Boivin; W. F. Davidson; R. S. Storey; D. Sinclair; E. D. Earle

1986-01-01

21

Nonlinear attenuation of S-waves and Love waves within ambient rock

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

obtain scaling relationships for nonlinear attenuation of S-waves and Love waves within sedimentary basins to assist numerical modeling. These relationships constrain the past peak ground velocity (PGV) of strong 3-4 s Love waves from San Andreas events within Greater Los Angeles, as well as the maximum PGV of future waves that can propagate without strong nonlinear attenuation. During each event, the shaking episode cracks the stiff, shallow rock. Over multiple events, this repeated damage in the upper few hundred meters leads to self-organization of the shear modulus. Dynamic strain is PGV divided by phase velocity, and dynamic stress is strain times the shear modulus. The frictional yield stress is proportional to depth times the effective coefficient of friction. At the eventual quasi-steady self-organized state, the shear modulus increases linearly with depth allowing inference of past typical PGV where rock over the damaged depth range barely reaches frictional failure. Still greater future PGV would cause frictional failure throughout the damaged zone, nonlinearly attenuating the wave. Assuming self-organization has taken place, estimated maximum past PGV within Greater Los Angeles Basins is 0.4-2.6 m s-1. The upper part of this range includes regions of accumulating sediments with low S-wave velocity that may have not yet compacted, rather than having been damaged by strong shaking. Published numerical models indicate that strong Love waves from the San Andreas Fault pass through Whittier Narrows. Within this corridor, deep drawdown of the water table from its currently shallow and preindustrial levels would nearly double PGV of Love waves reaching Downtown Los Angeles.

Sleep, Norman H.; Erickson, Brittany A.

2014-04-01

22

5. SOUND ATTENUATION 5.1 NATURE OF SOUND WAVE

5. SOUND ATTENUATION 5.1 NATURE OF SOUND WAVE Historically, acoustic is the scientific study of sound. Sound can be considered as a wave phenomenon. A sound wave is a longitudinal wave where particles to their original position [24]. Vibrating objects produces sound. Regardless of what vibrating object is creating

Cambridge, University of

23

Current-induced control of spin-wave attenuation.

The current-induced modification of the attenuation of a propagating spin wave in a magnetic nanowire is studied theoretically and numerically. The attenuation length of spin wave can increase when the spin waves and electrons move in the same direction. It is directly affected by the nonadiabaticity of the spin-transfer torque and thus can be used to estimate the nonadiabaticity. When the nonadiabatic spin torque is sufficiently large, the attenuation length becomes negative, resulting in the amplification of spin waves. PMID:19392477

Seo, Soo-Man; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Yang, Hyunsoo; Ono, Teruo

2009-04-10

24

Time-reverse modelling of acoustic wave propagation in attenuating media

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-reverse modelling (TRM) of acoustic wave propagation has been widely implemented in seismic migration and time-reversal source imaging. The basic assumption of this modelling is that the wave equation is time-invariant in non-attenuating media. In the Earth, attenuation often invalidates this assumption of time-invariance. To overcome this problem, I propose a TRM approach that compensates for attenuation and dispersion effects during the wave propagation in attenuating media. This approach is based on a viscoacoustic wave equation which explicitly separates attenuation and dispersion following a constant-Q model. Compensating for attenuation and dispersion during TRM is achieved by reversing the sign of the attenuation operator coefficient while leaving the counterpart dispersion parameter unchanged in this viscoacoustic wave equation. A low-pass filter is included to avoid amplifying high-frequency noise during TRM. I demonstrate the effects of the filter on the attenuation and the phase velocity by comparing with theoretical solutions in a 1-D Pierre shale homogeneous medium. Three synthetic examples are used to demonstrate the feasibility of attenuation compensation during TRM. The first example uses a 1-D homogeneous model to demonstrate the accuracy of the numerical implementation of the methodology. The second example shows the applicability of source location using a 2-D layering model. The last example uses a 2-D cross-well synthetic experiment to show that the methodology can also be implemented in conjunction with reverse-time migration to image subsurface reflectors. When attenuation compensation is included, I find improved estimation of the source location, the excitation timing of the point source, the magnitude of the focused source wavelet and the reflectivity image of reflectors, particularly for deep structures underneath strongly attenuating zones.

Zhu, Tieyuan

2014-04-01

25

Attenuation of high-frequency seismic waves in northeast India

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied attenuation of S and coda waves, their frequency and lapse time dependencies in northeast India in the frequency range of 1-24 Hz. We adopted theories of both single and multiple scattering to bandpass-filtered seismograms to fit coda envelopes to estimate Q for coda waves (QC) and Q for S-waves (QS) at five central frequencies of 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 24 Hz. The selected data set consists of 182 seismograms recorded at ten seismic stations within epicentral distance of 22-300 km in the local magnitude range of 2.5-5.2. We found that with the increase in lapse time window from 40 to 60 s, Q0 (QC at 1 Hz) increases from 213 to 278, while the frequency dependent coefficient n decreases from 0.89 to 0.79. Both QC and QS increase with frequency. The average value of QS obtained by using coda normalization method for NE India has the power law form of (96.8 +/- 21.5)f(1.03+/-0.04) in 1-24 Hz. We adopted energy flux model (EFM) and diffusion model for the multiple scattered wave energy in three-dimensions. The results show that the contribution of multiple scattering dominates for longer lapse time close to or larger than mean free time of about 60 s. The estimates of QC are overestimated at longer lapse time by neglecting the effects of multiple scattering. Some discrepancies have been observed between the theoretical predictions and the observations, the difference could be due to the approximation of the uniform medium especially at large hypocentral distances. Increase in QC with lapse time can be explained as the result of the depth dependent attenuation properties and multiple scattering effect.

Padhy, Simanchal; Subhadra, N.

2010-04-01

26

Pure path attenuation measurements of long-period Rayleigh waves across the Tibet Plateau

A method is presented to derive pure path attenuation coefficients of Rayleigh waves, in the period range 30-90 s, across the Tibet Plateau, using events located within Tibet and observed at teleseismic distances. This method uses data from 2 events and 2 stations simultaneously, these being aligned along a great circle path, and, for relatively small events, is practically free

Barbara Romanowicz

1984-01-01

27

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subject of this paper is the determination of attenuation coefficients of single mode optical fiber standards used in both loss and distance scales calibrations of OTDR instruments by applying "cut-back" method, and "loop transit time" measurements. In cut-back measurements a modified radiometer with InGaAs having 5 mm diameter active area, cooled to 77 K, was constructed and used. To derive attenuation coefficients after the completion of cut-back measurements, the loop transit time measurements were performed for standard fibers. Total expanded uncertainty was calculated as 3.30×10-3 for determination of attenuation coefficients.

Çelikel, Oguz; Küçüko?lu, Mehmet; Durak, Murat; Samadov, Farhad

2005-07-01

28

The laboratory study of seismic wave attenuation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent progress in the experimental investigation of the anelasticity of rocks is reviewed with particular emphasis upon studies of nearly-dry rocks at relatively low frequencies and strain amplitudes. An introduction to the phenomenology of anelasticity, illustrated with simple mechanical models, is followed by a brief outline of experimental methods. A survey of the literature is presented in order to highlight the factors which most strongly influence the internal friction of nearly-dry rocks. Included among these are the concentration of adsorbed H2O, pressure, temperature and microstructure. For practical reasons these effects have generally been studied in isolation. It is argued that the future of laboratory study of seismic wave dispersion and attenuation lies in the simultaneous control of all these important variables. A recently developed apparatus is described which will ultimately facilitate the study of rock anelasticity under conditions which closely approach those of seismic wave propagation: simultaneous high pressure (to 700 MPa) and temperature (to 1400°C), low frequency (10-3 -1 HZ) and strain amplitude (< 10-6), and controlled pore pressure of volatiles. Its performance has been tested in a series of preliminary high pressure room temperature experiments in which the specimen pore space was vented to atmosphere. Measurements on a steel standard have demonstrated the sensitivity of the apparatus to very small departures (QG-1 < 10-3) from ideal elasticity. Experimental data for a fine-grained granitic rock show that both the shear modulus G and quality factor Q increase sharply with increasing pressure below ˜100 MPa, beyond which pressure both parameters become markedly less pressure sensitive. These observations are in accord with those of previous studies at higher frequencies and larger strains, and are consistent with the view that the anelasticity of rocks at ambient pressure is dominated by mechanisms operative at open cracks and grain boundaries.

Jackson, Ian

29

Seismic Wave Attenuation in the Greater Cairo Region, Egypt

In the present study, a digital waveform dataset of 216 local earthquakes recorded by the Egyptian National Seismic Network\\u000a (ENSN) was used to estimate the attenuation of seismic wave energy in the greater Cairo region. The quality factor and the\\u000a frequency dependence for Coda waves and S-waves were estimated and clarified. The Coda waves (Q\\u000a c) and S-waves (Q\\u000a d)

Ahmed Badawy; Mamdouh A. Morsy

2011-01-01

30

Parametric studies on attenuation of cylindrical guided waves

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Guided wave techniques have been used for pipeline inspection because of their long-range inspection capability. One of main concerns of these techniques is how ones decide axial interval of sensors. This question is related to the characteristics of attenuation of cylindrical guided waves. Parametric density concept is proposed for a long-range pipeline inspection. This concept is designed to obtain the attenuation of ultrasonic guided waves propagating in underwater pipeline without complicated calculation of attenuation dispersion curves. For this study, three pipe materials are considered, then different transporting fluids are assumed, and four different pipe geometries are adopted. It is shown that the attenuation values based on the parametric density concept reasonably match with the attenuation values obtained from the dispersion curves. However, it seems that the parametric concept is only applicable for fluid-filled underwater pipes. The limitations of the parametric density concept are also discussed.

Na, Won-Bae; Kim, Jeong-Tae; Lee, Juwon; Hong, Dong-Soo

2007-04-01

31

Effective density and mass attenuation coefficient for building material in Brazil

This paper presents values for density and mass attenuation coefficient of building materials commonly used in Brazil. Transmission measurements were performed to provide input information for simulations with MCNP4B code. The structure for the clay bricks was simulated as a mix of all material layers and an effective density determined. The mass attenuation coefficients were determined for the 50–3000keV gamma-ray

I. C. P. Salinas; C. C. Conti; R. T. Lopes

2006-01-01

32

Wave energy attenuation and shoreline alteration characteristics of submerged breakwaters

WAVE ENERGY ATTENUATION AND SHORELINE ALTERATION CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBMERGED BREAKWATERS A Thesis by KATHERINE MARGARET KRAFFT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1993 Major Subject: Ocean Engineering WAVE ENERGY ATTENUATION AND SHORELINE ALTERATION CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBMERGED BREAKWATERS A Thesis by KATHERINE MARGARET KRAFFT Approved as to style and content by: John...

Krafft, Katherine Margaret

2012-06-07

33

PP spherical-wave reflection coefficients for viscoelastic media

PP spherical-wave reflection coefficients for viscoelastic media Vlastislav CervenÂ´y 1) , Ivan at a plane interface between two homoge- neous viscoelastic media are studied. Mostly, the plane-wave reflection coefficients have been used in such studies in the past. For viscoelastic media, however

Cerveny, Vlastislav

34

Comparison of RNFL thickness and RPE-normalized RNFL attenuation coefficient for glaucoma diagnosis

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, a method to determine the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) attenuation coefficient, based on normalization on the retinal pigment epithelium, was introduced. In contrast to conventional RNFL thickness measures, this novel measure represents a scattering property of the RNFL tissue. In this paper, we compare the RNFL thickness and the RNFL attenuation coefficient on 10 normal and 8 glaucomatous eyes by analyzing the correlation coefficient and the receiver operator curves (ROCs). The thickness and attenuation coefficient showed moderate correlation (r=0.82). Smaller correlation coefficients were found within normal (r=0.55) and glaucomatous (r=0.48) eyes. The full separation between normal and glaucomatous eyes based on the RNFL attenuation coefficient yielded an area under the ROC (AROC) of 1.0. The AROC for the RNFL thickness was 0.9875. No statistically significant difference between the two measures was found by comparing the AROC. RNFL attenuation coefficients may thus replace current RNFL thickness measurements or be combined with it to improve glaucoma diagnosis.

Vermeer, K. A.; van der Schoot, J.; Lemij, H. G.; de Boer, J. F.

2013-03-01

35

The first direct measurements of upper oceanic crustal compressional wave attenuation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first direct measurement of compressional wave attenuation of the uppermost 650 m of oceanic crust was performed using data recorded by seafloor hydrophones and large (56-116 kg), deep, explosive sources. The site was 13 km east of the southernmost Juan de Fuca Ridge on crust 0.4 m.y. old Spectral ratios were performed between bottom refracting waves and direct water waves, adjusted for spreading losses and transmission coefficient losses. Several tests of the data were performed, demonstrating that attenuation is linearly related to frequency between 15 and 140 Hz, but frequency-independent components of attenuation are also evident. Values of compressional wave Q cluster between 20 and 50 and do not show any systematic variation with depth over 650 m. The attenuation results also indicate the presence of heterogeneities within the crust, as the solutions for each receiver's data set are significantly different. No evidence for azimuthal variations of attenuation are supported by the data, although the data do not optimally sample a wide variation of azimuths. Our attenuation values are judged to be normal to higher than expected for the whole oceanic crust, based upon comparisons to results from synthetic seismogram modeling by others and by modeling signal to noise ratios of typical seismic refraction profiles. The results are consistent with recent laboratory measurements at ultrasonic frequencies for dry and saturated basalts at seafloor pressures and temperatures.

Jacobson, R. S.; Lewis, B. T. R.

1990-10-01

36

Stress-associated scattering attenuation and intrinsic attenuation of laboratory ultrasonic waves

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In comparison with seismic velocity and static moduli connected with the large-scale heterogeneous structure, seismic coda attenuation, in response to the small-scale random heterogeneities, has proved to be more sensitive to stress changes. Thus, it has a better chance to become one of the critical values for examining the state of stress changes in rocks. We perform an experiment on ultrasonic scattering using a cylindrical rock sample associated with intra-grain pores and fractures to study the effect of pore-pressure induced stress changes on coda attenuation as a combination of intrinsic attenuation and scattering attenuation. The main problem is to handle multiple side-reflected waves from the rock sample boundaries that may contaminate the ultrasonic coda waves. We analyze the ultrasonic coda data by employing a strongly scattering cylindrical model with two types of extreme boundary conditions. The study confirms that the induced heterogeneous cracks in cylindrical rock make a great impact on estimate of scattering parameters and lead to different stress or frequency dependence of coda attenuation. Comparisons of scattering attenuation and intrinsic attenuation indicate the ultrasonic coda attenuation is mainly contributed by scattering attenuation especially at high frequencies or high stresses.

Wei, W.; Fu, L.

2012-12-01

37

Modeling spectral diffuse attenuation, absorption, and scattering coefficients in a turbid estuary

Spectral diffuse attenuation coefficients were measured in the Rhode River and Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, on 28 occasions in 1988 and 1989. The model of Kirk was used to extract scattering and absorption coefficients from the measurements in waters considerably more turbid than those in which the model was previously applied. Estimated scattering coefftcients were linearly related to mineral suspended solids.

CHARLES L. GALLEGOS; DAVID L. CORRELL; J. W. PIERCE

1990-01-01

38

The role of the reflection coefficient in precision measurement of ultrasonic attenuation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrasonic attenuation measurements using contact, pulse-echo techniques are sensitive to surface roughness and couplant thickness variations. This can reduce considerable inaccuracies in the measurement of the attenuation coefficient for broadband pulses. Inaccuracies arise from variations in the reflection coefficient at the buffer-couplant-sample interface. The reflection coefficient is examined as a function of the surface roughness and corresponding couplant thickness variations. Interrelations with ultrasonic frequency are illustrated. Reliable attenuation measurements are obtained only when the frequency dependence of the reflection coefficient is incorporated in signal analysis. Data are given for nickel 200 samples and a silicon nitride ceramic bar having surface roughness variations in the 0.3 to 3.0 microns range for signal bandwidths in the 50 to 100 MHz range.

Generazio, E. R.

1984-01-01

39

Seismic wave attenuation in carbonates L. Adam,1,2

) of the complex modulus is small. Different waves and flexural modes allow us to study the shear wave (QS Ã?1) and ultrasonic frequencies (0.8 MHz) and reservoir pressures. Attenuation modeled from the modulus data using be defined as QÃ?1 = Im[M*]/Re[M*], where M* is the complex modulus or velocity; and the imaginary part (Im

Boise State University

40

Seismic attenuation due to wave-induced flow

Three P wave attenuation models for sedimentary rocks are given a unified theoretical treatment. Two of the models concern wave-induced flow due to heterogeneity in the elastic moduli at “mesoscopic” scales (scales greater than grain sizes but smaller than wavelengths). In the first model, the heterogeneity is due to lithological variations (e.g., mixtures of sands and clays) with a single

S. R. Pride; J. G. Berryman; J. M. Harris

2004-01-01

41

We analyse dispersion and attenuation of surface waves at free surfaces of possible vacuum/poroelastic media: permeable-'open pore', impermeable-'closed pore' and partially permeable boundaries, which have not been previously reported in detail by researchers, under different surface-permeable, viscous-damping, elastic and fluid-flowing conditions. Our discussion is focused on their characteristics in the exploration-seismic frequency band (a few through 200 Hz) for near-surface applications. We find two surface-wave modes exist, R1 waves for all conditions, and R2 waves for closed-pore and partially permeable conditions. For R1 waves, velocities disperse most under partially permeable conditions and least under the open-pore condition. High-coupling damping coefficients move the main dispersion frequency range to high frequencies. There is an f1 frequency dependence as a constant-Q model for attenuation at high frequencies. R1 waves for the open pore are most sensitive to elastic modulus variation, but least sensitive to tortuosities variation. R1 waves for partially permeable surface radiate as non-physical waves (Im(k) < 0) at low frequencies. For R2 waves, velocities are slightly lower than the bulk slow P2 waves. At low frequencies, both velocity and attenuation are diffusive of f1/2 frequency dependence, as P2 waves. It is found that for partially permeable surfaces, the attenuation displays -f1 frequency dependence as frequency increasing. High surface permeability, low-coupling damping coefficients, low Poisson's ratios, and low tortuosities increase the slope of the -f1 dependence. When the attenuation coefficients reach 0, R2 waves for partially permeable surface begin to radiate as non-physical waves. ?? 2011 The Authors Geophysical Journal International ?? 2011 RAS.

Zhang, Y.; Xu, Y.; Xia, J.

2011-01-01

42

On attenuation of seismic waves associated with flow in fractures

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterogeneity of porous media induces a number of fluid-flow mechanisms causing attenuation of seismic waves. Attenuation induced by squirt-type mechanisms has previously been analyzed for aspect ratios smaller or equal to 103. Using a hybrid-dimensional modeling approach, particularly apt for large aspect ratio conduits, we numerically simulated deformation-induced fluid flow along two intersecting fractures to investigate the physics of attenuation related to the interaction of fracture-induced fluid flow and to leak-off. Attenuation related to fracture flow increases in magnitude with increasing geometrical aspect ratio of the fracture. The inherent time scales of both flow mechanisms do not influence each other, but the faster process is associated with stronger attenuation than the slower process. Models relying on simple diffusion equations have rather limited potential for approximation of pressure transients.

Vinci, C.; Renner, J.; Steeb, H.

2014-11-01

43

Correlation equation for the marine drag coefficient and wave steepness

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work questions, starting from dimensional considerations, the generality of the belief that the marine drag coefficient levels off with increasing wind speed. Dimensional analysis shows that the drag coefficient scales with the wave steepness as opposed to a wave-age scaling. A correlation equation is employed here that uses wave steepness scaling at low aspect ratios (inverse wave steepnesses) and a constant drag coefficient at high aspect ratios. Invoked in support of the correlation are measurements sourced from the literature and at the FINO1 platform in the North Sea. The correlation equation is then applied to measurements recorded from buoys during the passage of hurricanes Rita, Katrina (2005) and Ike (2008). Results show that the correlation equation anticipates the expected levelling off in deeper water, but a drag coefficient more consistent with a Charnock type relation is also possible in more shallower water. Some suggestions are made for proceeding with a higher-order analysis than that conducted here.

Foreman, Richard J.; Emeis, Stefan

2012-09-01

44

Attenuation of propagating spin wave induced by layered nanostructures

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spin wave attenuation in the layered [FeNi/Pt]6/FeNi thin films was investigated by the time-domain electrical measurement. The spin-wave waveform was detected with an asymmetric coplanar strip transmission line, as an induced voltage flowing into a fast oscilloscope. We report that the amplitude of a spin-wave packet was systematically changed by controlling the thickness of a platinum layer, up to a maximum change of 50%. The virtues of spin wave, ultrafast propagation velocity and non-reciprocal emission, are preserved in this manner. This means that the Pt layer can manipulate an arbitral power-level of spin-wave input signal (reliable attenuator).

Sekiguchi, K.; Vader, T. N.; Yamada, K.; Fukami, S.; Ishiwata, N.; Seo, S. M.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, K. J.; Ono, T.

2012-03-01

45

The measurement of the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues is of fundamental importance in the field of breast x-ray diagnostic imaging. Different groups have evaluated the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues by carrying out direct attenuation measurements in which the specimens were thin and selected as homogeneous as possible. Here, we use monochromatic and high-intensity synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SR CT) to evaluate the linear attenuation coefficients of surgical breast tissues in the energy range from 15 to 26.5 keV. X-ray detection is performed by a custom digital silicon micro-strip device, developed in the framework of the PICASSO INFN experiment. Twenty-three human surgical breast samples were selected for SR CT and histological study. Six of them underwent CT, both as fresh tissue and after formalin fixation, while the remaining 17 were imaged only as formalin-fixed tissues. Our results for fat and fibrous tissues are in good agreement with the published values. However, in contrast to the published data, our measurements show no significant differences between fibrous and tumor tissues. Moreover, our results for fresh and formalin-fixed tissues demonstrate a reduction of the linear attenuation coefficient for fibrous and tumor tissues after fixation. PMID:20702925

Chen, R C; Longo, R; Rigon, L; Zanconati, F; De Pellegrin, A; Arfelli, F; Dreossi, D; Menk, R-H; Vallazza, E; Xiao, T Q; Castelli, E

2010-09-01

46

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues is of fundamental importance in the field of breast x-ray diagnostic imaging. Different groups have evaluated the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues by carrying out direct attenuation measurements in which the specimens were thin and selected as homogeneous as possible. Here, we use monochromatic and high-intensity synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SR CT) to evaluate the linear attenuation coefficients of surgical breast tissues in the energy range from 15 to 26.5 keV. X-ray detection is performed by a custom digital silicon micro-strip device, developed in the framework of the PICASSO INFN experiment. Twenty-three human surgical breast samples were selected for SR CT and histological study. Six of them underwent CT, both as fresh tissue and after formalin fixation, while the remaining 17 were imaged only as formalin-fixed tissues. Our results for fat and fibrous tissues are in good agreement with the published values. However, in contrast to the published data, our measurements show no significant differences between fibrous and tumor tissues. Moreover, our results for fresh and formalin-fixed tissues demonstrate a reduction of the linear attenuation coefficient for fibrous and tumor tissues after fixation.

Chen, R. C.; Longo, R.; Rigon, L.; Zanconati, F.; De Pellegrin, A.; Arfelli, F.; Dreossi, D.; Menk, R.-H.; Vallazza, E.; Xiao, T. Q.; Castelli, E.

2010-09-01

47

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attenuation of Stoneley waves and higher Lamb modes propagating along an irregular surface of a fluid-filled borehole is investigated. This problem generalizes the problem on the attenuation of Rayleigh waves by an irregular surface of an empty borehole [10]. The technique used to evaluate the attenuation coefficient is based on the perturbation method (surface irregularity heights are considered to be small in comparison with the wavelength) and the mean field method. As a result, an expression is obtained for the partial coefficients of the eigenmode attenuation due to the scattering of eigenmodes by the irregularities of the borehole walls into the same or other eigenmodes, as well as into the bulk longitudinal and transverse waves. The frequency-dependent behavior of the partial attenuation coefficients of both Stoneley waves and higher modes is analyzed against the ratio between the irregularity correlation length and the borehole radius for different correlation functions of irregularities.

Maximov, G. A.; Ortega, E.; Pod”Yachev, E. V.

2007-02-01

48

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An alternative approach is used to measure normalized mass attenuation coefficients (µ/?) of materials with unknown thickness and density. The adopted procedure is based on the use of simultaneous emission of K? and K? X-ray lines as well as gamma peaks from radioactive sources in transmission geometry. 109Cd and 60Co radioactive sources were used for the purpose of the investigation. It has been observed that using the simultaneous X- and/or gamma rays of different energy allows accurate determination of relative mass attenuation coefficients by eliminating the dependence of µ/? on thickness and density of the material.

Kurudirek, M.; Medhat, M. E.

2014-07-01

49

Effective density and mass attenuation coefficient for building material in Brazil.

This paper presents values for density and mass attenuation coefficient of building materials commonly used in Brazil. Transmission measurements were performed to provide input information for simulations with MCNP4B code. The structure for the clay bricks was simulated as a mix of all material layers and an effective density determined. The mass attenuation coefficients were determined for the 50-3,000 keV gamma-ray energy range. A comparison with results for similar materials found in the literature showed good agreement. PMID:16257357

Salinas, I C P; Conti, C C; Lopes, R T

2006-01-01

50

Coupling OGCM and Wave model trough the drag coefficient

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modelling air-sea interaction is a key issue in numerical model studies of the ocean. In this work we focus our attention in momentum flux exchange using a coupled OGCM-Wave model implemented in the Mediterranean Sea region. The model chosen are NEMO and WAM for the primitive equation describing the ocean and the wave processes modelization respectively. The models are two ways coupled as the following: surface currents and SST computed by the ocean model are transferred to the wave model with 6 hour and1 hour frequency respectively; the wave model, solving the wave equations, computes the neutral drag coefficient and passes it to the ocean model with 1 hr frequency; as the last interaction NEMO, starting from the neutral drag coefficient, computes the turbulent component which takes into account also the stability of the air-sea interface. A set of twin experiment of two years of simulation starting from Jan 2009 have been performed changing the drag coefficient parameterization. The scope of this work is to better understand the influence on the drag coefficient from the roughness of the sea state and from air-sea thermal stability. Model results are evaluated using in situ and remote observation. The Ocean model simulations are compared with temperature and salinity profiles, current meter, drifting buoys, and satellite derived altimetry and SST estimates. WAM model results are compared with wave buoys observations for the most common wave fields: significant wave height, mean and peak period and wave direction. Preliminary results show that the drag coefficient parameterization changes mesoscale circulation and the improvement of the coupling with respect to the stand alone model depend on the hydrodynamic and gravity wave regimes. WAM results seem to confirm that the wave current interaction gives benefit in simulating the wave spectrum.

Adani, M.; Korres, G.; Oddo, P.; Pinardi, N.

2012-04-01

51

Attenuation of acoustic waves in glacial ice and salt domes

Two classes of natural solid media (glacial ice and salt domes) are under consideration as media in which to deploy instruments for detection of neutrinos with energy >1e18 eV. Though insensitive to 1e11 to 1e16 eV neutrinos for which observatories (e.g., AMANDA and IceCube) that utilize optical Cherenkov radiation detectors are designed, radio and acoustic methods are suited for searches for the very low fluxes of neutrinos with energies >1017 eV. This is because, due to the very long attenuation lengths of radio and acoustic waves in ice and salt, detection modules can be spaced very far apart. In this paper, I calculate the absorption and scattering coefficients as a function of frequency and grain size for acoustic waves in glacial ice and salt domes and show that experimental measurements on laboratory samples and in glacial ice and salt domes are consistent with theory. For South Pole ice with grain size 0.2 cm at -51 degrees C, scattering lengths are calculated to be 2000 km and 25 km at 10 kHz and 30 kHz, respectively, and the absorption length is calculated to be 9 km at frequencies above 100 Hz. For NaCl (rock salt) with grain size 0.75 cm, scattering lengths are calculated to be 120 km and 1.4 km at 10 kHz and 30 kHz, and absorption lengths are calculated to be 30,000 km and 3300 km at 10 kHz and 30 kHz. Existing measurements are consistent with theory. For ice, absorption is the limiting factor; for salt, scattering is the limiting factor.

P. B. Price

2005-06-27

52

Angular correlation function and scattering coefficient of electromagnetic waves

Angular correlation function and scattering coefficient of electromagnetic waves scattered Engineering, Box 352500, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-2500 Kyung Pak Jet Propulsion We study three-dimensional (3-D) electromagnetic wave scattering from a buried object under a two

Zhang, Guifu

53

Attenuation of acoustic waves in glacial ice and salt domes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two classes of natural solid media, glacial ice and salt domes, are under consideration as media in which to deploy instruments for detection of neutrinos with energy ?1018 eV. Though insensitive to 1011 to 1016 eV neutrinos for which observatories (e.g., AMANDA and IceCube) that utilize optical Cherenkov radiation detectors are designed, radio and acoustic methods are suited for searches for the very low fluxes of neutrinos with energies >1017 eV. This is because owing to the very long attenuation lengths of radio and acoustic waves produced by interactions of such neutrinos in ice and salt, detection modules can be spaced at horizontal distances ˜1 km, in contrast to the 0.12 km distances between strings of IceCube modules. In this paper, I calculate the absorption and scattering coefficients as a function of frequency and grain size for acoustic waves in glacial ice and salt domes and show that experimental measurements on laboratory samples and in glacial ice and salt domes are consistent with theory. For South Pole ice with grain size ˜0.2 cm at depths ?600 m, scattering lengths are calculated to be 2000 and 25 km at frequencies 10 and 30 kHz, respectively; for grain size ˜0.4 cm at 1500 m (the maximum depth to be instrumented acoustically), scattering lengths are calculated to be 250 and 3 km. These are within the range of frequencies where most of the energy of the acoustic wave is concentrated. The absorption length is calculated to be 9 ± 3 km at all frequencies above ˜100 Hz. For NaCl (rock salt) with grain size 0.75 cm, scattering lengths are calculated to be 120 and 1.4 km at 10 and 30 kHz, and absorption lengths are calculated to be 3 × 104 and 3300 km at 10 and 30 kHz. Existing measurements are consistent with theory. For ice, absorption is the limiting factor; for salt, scattering is the limiting factor. Both media would be suitable for detection of acoustic waves from ultrahigh-energy neutrino interactions.

Price, P. B.

2006-02-01

54

The paper presents a Fourier transform-based signal processing procedure for quantifying the reflection and transmission coefficients and mode conversion of guided waves diffracted by defects in plates made of viscoelastic materials. The case of the S(0) Lamb wave mode incident on a notch in a Perspex plate is considered. The procedure is applied to numerical data produced by a finite element code that simulates the propagation of attenuated guided modes and their diffraction by the notch, including mode conversion. Its validity and precision are checked by the way of the energy balance computation and by comparison with results obtained using an orthogonality relation-based processing method. PMID:17552692

Hosten, Bernard; Moreau, Ludovic; Castaings, Michel

2007-06-01

55

Fault-zone attenuation of high-frequency seismic waves

The authors have developed a technique to measure seismic attenuation within an active fault-zone at seismogenic depths. Utilizing a pair of stations and pairs of earthquakes, spectral ratios are performed to isolate attenuation produced by wave-propagation within the fault-zone. The empirical approach eliminates common source, propagation, instrument and near-surface site effects. The technique was applied to a cluster of 19 earthquakes recorded by a pair of downhole instruments located within the San Andreas fault-zone, at instruments located within the San Andreas fault-zone, at Parkfield, California. Over the 1-40 Hz bandwidth used in this analysis, amplitudes are found to decrease exponentially with frequency. Furthermore, the fault-zone propagation distance correlates with severity of attenuation. Assuming a constant Q attenuation operator, the S-wave quality factor within the fault-zone at a depth of 5-6 kilometers is 31 (+7,{minus}5). If fault-zones are low-Q environments, then near-source attenuation of high-frequency seismic waves may help to explain phenomenon such as f{sub max}. Fault-zone Q may prove to be a valuable indicator of the mechanical behavior and rheology of fault-zones. Specific asperities can be monitored for precursory changes associated with the evolving stress-field within the fault-zone. The spatial and temporal resolution of the technique is fundamentally limited by the uncertainty in earthquake location and the interval time between earthquakes.

Blakeslee, S.; Malin, P.; Alvarez, M. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (USA))

1989-11-01

56

form 16 October 2012 Accepted 4 December 2012 Available online xxxx Keywords: Ocean color Remote sensing MODIS SeaWiFS Bio-optical algorithm Diffuse attenuation coefficient Euphotic depth Optical data 2010 were used to evaluate products derived with three bio-optical inversion algorithms applied

Meyers, Steven D.

57

for a set of multi-wall carbon nanotube MWCNT -nylon composites from pure nylon to 20% MWCNT by weight conductivity of copper. Incorporating nano-scale particles into a matrix to construct a macro-scale compositeDetermination of power-law attenuation coefficient and dispersion spectra in multi-wall carbon

Gladden, Josh

58

Millimeter Wave Attenuation in Moist Air: Laboratory Measurements and Analysis.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments were performed with a millimeter wave resonance-spectrometer capable of measuring absolute attenuation rates alpha (dB/km) by water vapor up to saturation pressures. Vapor (e) and air (p) pressures were varied at constant temperature and set f...

H. J. Liebe

1984-01-01

59

ULF wave derived radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waves in the ultra-low-frequency (ULF) band have frequencies which can be drift resonant with electrons in the outer radiation belt, suggesting the potential for strong interactions and enhanced radial diffusion. Previous radial diffusion coefficient models such as those presented by Brautigam and Albert (2000) have typically used semiempirical representations for both the ULF wave's electric and magnetic field power spectral densities (PSD) in space in the magnetic equatorial plane. In contrast, here we use ground- and space-based observations of ULF wave power to characterize the electric and magnetic diffusion coefficients. Expressions for the electric field power spectral densities are derived from ground-based magnetometer measurements of the magnetic field PSD, and in situ AMPTE and GOES spacecraft measurements are used to derive expressions for the compressional magnetic field PSD as functions of Kp, solar wind speed, and L-shell. Magnetic PSD results measured on the ground are mapped along the field line to give the electric field PSD in the equatorial plane assuming a guided Alfvén wave solution and a thin sheet ionosphere. The ULF wave PSDs are then used to derive a set of new ULF-wave driven diffusion coefficients. These new diffusion coefficients are compared to estimates of the electric and magnetic field diffusion coefficients made by Brautigam and Albert (2000) and Brautigam et al. (2005). Significantly, our results, derived explicitly from ULF wave observations, indicate that electric field diffusion is much more important than magnetic field diffusion in the transport and energization of the radiation belt electrons.

Ozeke, Louis G.; Mann, Ian R.; Murphy, Kyle R.; Rae, I. Jonathan; Milling, David K.; Elkington, Scot R.; Chan, Anthony A.; Singer, Howard J.

2012-04-01

60

Quantitative RNFL attenuation coefficient measurements by RPE-normalized OCT data

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate significantly different scattering coefficients of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) between normal and glaucoma subjects. In clinical care, SD-OCT is routinely used to assess the RNFL thickness for glaucoma management. In this way, the full OCT data set is conveniently reduced to an easy to interpret output, matching results from older (non- OCT) instruments. However, OCT provides more data, such as the signal strength itself, which is due to backscattering in the retinal layers. For quantitative analysis, this signal should be normalized to adjust for local differences in the intensity of the beam that reaches the retina. In this paper, we introduce a model that relates the OCT signal to the attenuation coefficient of the tissue. The average RNFL signal (within an A-line) was then normalized based on the observed RPE signal, resulting in normalized RNFL attenuation coefficient maps. These maps showed local defects matching those found in thickness data. The average (normalized) RNFL attenuation coefficient of a fixed band around the optic nerve head was significantly lower in glaucomatous eyes than in normal eyes (3.0mm-1 vs. 4.9mm-1, P<0.01, Mann-Whitney test).

Vermeer, K. A.; van der Schoot, J.; Lemij, H. G.; de Boer, J. F.

2012-03-01

61

Attenuation of seismic shear wave energy in Switzerland

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modelling the attenuation of shear wave energy is an important component of seismic hazard analysis. Previous studies have shown how attenuation, particularly in the uppermost layers of the crust, is regionally dependent. The impact of this is that the decay of energy radiating from an earthquake will vary from place to place. To quantify the regional attenuation in Switzerland we model the Fourier spectral amplitude of small-to-moderate earthquakes, recorded on the local seismic networks. High-frequency decay is parametrized by Q and ?, while apparent geometrical spreading models account for the frequency-independent decay of energy. We analyse ground motion encompassing the significant duration of shaking to provide models that are useful for the purpose of seismic hazard analysis. Two methods are used to estimate the whole path attenuation parameter, t*: first, a simultaneous fit of the source model and attenuation effects across the entire spectral bandwidth for earthquakes with M > 2; and secondly, a linear fit of an attenuation model to the high-frequency part of the spectrum for earthquakes with M > 3.5. The t* parameter is found to vary with hypocentral distance consistent with a weakly attenuating crust and strongly attenuating uppermost layer. 1-D tomographic inversions indicate a profile of increasing Q with depth down to the Moho. Frequency-independent decay is parametrized using a three-part model which allows for the inclusion of Moho reflection phases in the spectrum in the range of 20-140 km in the Swiss Foreland and from 70 to 140 km in the Swiss Alps.

Edwards, Benjamin; Fäh, Donat; Giardini, Domenico

2011-05-01

62

TOWARD A RAYLEIGH WAVE ATTENUATION MODEL FOR CENTRAL ASIA Anatoli L. Levshin1

TOWARD A RAYLEIGH WAVE ATTENUATION MODEL FOR CENTRAL ASIA Anatoli L. Levshin1 , Xiaoning (David for short-period (10-25s) Rayleigh waves in Central Asia. This model will be defined by maps of attenuation-period (10 Â 18s), two-dimensional (2-D) Rayleigh-wave attenuation models for Central Asia along

Ritzwolle, Mike

63

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic waves are attenuated by number of factors, including geometrical spreading, scattering on heterogeneities and intrinsic loss due the anelasticity of medium. Contribution of the latter two processes can be derived from the tail part of the seismogram - coda (strictly speaking S-wave coda), as these factors influence the shape and amplitudes of coda. Numerous methods have been developed for estimation of attenuation properties from the decay rate of coda amplitudes. Most of them work with the S-wave coda, some are designed for the P-wave coda (only on teleseismic distances) or for the whole waveforms. We used methods to estimate the 1/Qc - attenuation of coda waves, methods to separate scattering and intrinsic loss - 1/Qsc, Qi and methods to estimate attenuation of direct P and S wave - 1/Qp, 1/Qs. In this study, we analyzed the S-wave coda of local earthquake data recorded in the West Bohemia/Vogtland area. This region is well known thanks to the repeated occurrence of earthquake swarms. We worked with data from the 2011 earthquake swarm, which started late August and lasted with decreasing intensity for another 4 months. During the first week of swarm thousands of events were detected with maximum magnitudes ML = 3.6. Amount of high quality data (including continuous datasets and catalogues with an abundance of well-located events) is available due to installation of WEBNET seismic network (13 permanent and 9 temporary stations) monitoring seismic activity in the area. Results of the single-scattering model show seismic attenuations decreasing with frequency, what is in agreement with observations worldwide. We also found decrease of attenuation with increasing hypocentral distance and increasing lapse time, which was interpreted as a decrease of attenuation with depth (coda waves on later lapse times are generated in bigger depths - in our case in upper lithosphere, where attenuations are small). We also noticed a decrease of frequency dependence of 1/Qc with depth, where 1/Qc seems to be frequency independent in depth range of upper lithosphere. Lateral changes of 1/Qc were also reported - it decreases in the south-west direction from the Novy Kostel focal zone, where the attenuation is the highest. Results from more advanced methods that allow for separation of scattering and intrinsic loss show that intrinsic loss is a dominant factor for attenuating of seismic waves in the region. Determination of attenuation due to scattering appears ambiguous due to small hypocentral distances available for the analysis, where the effects of scattering in frequency range from 1 to 24 Hz are not significant.

Bachura, Martin; Fischer, Tomas

2014-05-01

64

Frequency-Dependent Attenuation of Coda Waves in the Crust in Southwest Anatolia (Turkey)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The attenuation of coda waves in the earth's crust in southwest (SW) Anatolia is estimated by using the coda wave method, which is based on the decrease of coda wave amplitude in time and distance. A total of 159 earthquakes were recorded between 1997 and 2010 by 11 stations belonging to the KOERI array. The coda quality factor Q c is determined from the properties of scattered coda waves in a heterogeneous medium. Firstly, the quality factor Q 0 (the value of Q c at 1 Hz.) and its frequency dependency ? are determined from this method depending on the attenuation properties of scattered coda waves for frequencies of 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, 8.0, 12 and 20 Hz. Secondly, the attenuation coefficients ( ?) are estimated. The shape of the curve is controlled by the scattering and attenuation in the crustal volume sampled by the coda waves. The average Q c values vary from 110 ± 15 to 1,436 ± 202 for the frequencies above. The Q 0 and ? values vary from 63 ± 7 to 95 ± 10 and from 0.87 ± 0.03 to 1.04 ± 0.09, respectively, for SW Anatolia. In this region, the average coda Q- f relation is described by Q c = (78 ± 9) f 0.98±0.07 and ? = 0.012 km-1. The low Q 0 and high ? are consistent with a region characterized by high tectonic activity. The Q c values were correlated with the tectonic pattern in SW Anatolia.

?ahin, ?akir; Çinar, Mutlu

2014-07-01

65

Lateral variations of coda wave attenuation in the Alps

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore lateral variations of coda wave attenuation in the French Alps and surrounding regions. The area of investigation extends from the Rhine Graben in the north, to the northern Apennine Range in the south, and includes the Eastern and Western Alps. Following the classical work of Aki and Chouet (1975), coda wave attenuation has been characterized by measuring the coda quality factor of short-period S waves (Qc). We have selected about 2000 weak to moderate earthquakes, with magnitudes ranging from 3 to 5. Waveform data recorded by permanent seismic networks have been collected at the ORFEUS data center through the ArcLink protocol. Qc has been measured in five frequency bands [1-2], [2-4], [4-8], [8-16], [16-32] Hz, by applying a simple linear regression to the smooth energy envelopes of seismograms in the time domain. Various choices of coda window length (Lw), and coda onset time (tw, as measured from the origin time) have been tested to ensure that our measurements are free from any systematic effects of lapse-time dependence in the range of epicentral distance considered. The optimal choice, which simultaneously maximizes the geographical coverage and minimizes the measurement biases, is obtained for Lw=50s and tw=70s, for epicentral distances smaller than 180 km. The map of Qc is obtained by discretizing the Alpine region into pixels of dimension (20km x 20km). For each source/receiver pair, the estimated value of Qc is distributed along the direct ray path. An average over all paths that cross an individual pixel is performed to obtain the local value of Qc. A spatial smoothing over an area covering a square of 9 pixels is subsequently applied. The maps of Qc display strong lateral variations of attenuation in the Alpine area. At all frequencies, the ratio between the lowest and largest value of Qc is typically larger than 2. The attenuation pattern is complex but relatively independent of frequency. A notable exception is a low attenuation region located between Torino and Geneva, which is clearly visible in the 1-2 Hz frequency band and disappears at higher frequencies. Some geological formations such as the Upper Rhine Graben and the eastern Alps show up clearly on the maps and systematically exhibit lower attenuation than the Po Valley and the Apennines. The French Alps are characterized by an attenuation gradient increasing from the north-west to the south-east. The typical scale of the spatial variations of the coda quality factor is of the order of 100km, which suggests rapid lateral variation of attenuation properties in the crust.

Mayor, Jessie; Calvet, Marie; Margerin, Ludovic; Traversa, Paola

2014-05-01

66

Wave attenuation over coastal salt marshes under storm surge conditions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal communities around the world face an increasing risk from flooding as a result of rising sea level, increasing storminess and land subsidence. Salt marshes can act as natural buffer zones, providing protection from waves during storms. However, the effectiveness of marshes in protecting the coastline during extreme events when water levels are at a maximum and waves are highest is poorly understood. Here we experimentally assess wave dissipation under storm surge conditions in a 300-metre-long wave flume tank that contains a transplanted section of natural salt marsh. We find that the presence of marsh vegetation causes considerable wave attenuation, even when water levels and waves are highest. From a comparison with experiments without vegetation, we estimate that up to 60% of observed wave reduction is attributed to vegetation. We also find that although waves progressively flatten and break vegetation stems and thereby reduce dissipation, the marsh substrate remained stable and resistant to surface erosion under all conditions. The effectiveness of storm wave dissipation and the resilience of tidal marshes even at extreme conditions suggest that salt marsh ecosystems can be a valuable component of coastal protection schemes.

Möller, Iris; Kudella, Matthias; Rupprecht, Franziska; Spencer, Tom; Paul, Maike; van Wesenbeeck, Bregje K.; Wolters, Guido; Jensen, Kai; Bouma, Tjeerd J.; Miranda-Lange, Martin; Schimmels, Stefan

2014-10-01

67

Measurements have been made of the total attenuation coefficient sigma t and the scattering phase function, S(theta), of 632.8 nm of light for a number of animal model tissues, blood, and inert scattering and absorbing media. Polystyrene microspheres of known size and refractive index, for which sigma t and S(theta) can be calculated by Mie theory, were used to test the experimental methods. The purpose of the study was to define typical ranges for these optical properties of tissues, as a contribution to the development of experimental and theoretical methods of light dosimetry in tissue, particularly related to photodynamic therapy of solid tumors. The results demonstrate that, for the representative tissues studied, the total attenuation coefficients are of the order of 10-100 mm-1, and that the scattering is highly forward peaked, with average cosine of scatter in the range 0.6-0.97.

Flock, S.T.; Wilson, B.C.; Patterson, M.S.

1987-09-01

68

Effective atomic numbers for total gamma-ray interaction with some selected thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds such as barium acetate, barium sulfate, calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, calcium sulfate dihydrate, cadmium sulfate (anhydrous), cadmium sulfate, strontium sulfate, and lithium fluoride have been calculated in the 1-keV to 20-MeV energy region. Experimental mass attenuation coefficients and effective atomic numbers for these compounds at selected photon

Shivaramu; R. Amutha; V. Ramprasath

1999-01-01

69

Attenuation of Coda Waves in the Saurashtra Region, Gujarat (India)

The attenuation characteristics based on coda waves of two areas—Jamnagar and Junagarh of Saurashtra, Gujarat (India)—have\\u000a been investigated in the present study. The frequency dependent relationships have been developed for both the areas using\\u000a single back scattering model. The broadband waveforms of the vertical components of 33 earthquakes (Mw 1.5–3.5) recorded at\\u000a six stations of the Jamnagar area, and broadband

Babita Sharma; Dinesh Kumar; S. S. Teotia; B. K. Rastogi; Arun K. Gupta; Srichand Prajapati

2011-01-01

70

Extended capillary wave theory and the ellipsometric coefficient

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extended capillary wave theory (ECW) proposed by Robledo et al. and formulated in terms of the unknown direct correlation function C of the two-phase system with a planar interface between liquid and its vapor, is applied to our simulation data on the full inhomogeneous two-point correlation function H from which C is also obtained. The required projection, C¯(q), is shown and discussed. The coefficient of q4, the apparent bending coefficient, was inequivocally negative, in agreement with the view that the true bending coefficient may be absent in one-component interfaces. The ellipsometric coefficient diverged and its calculation still required an ultraviolet cutoff. It is thus demonstrated that ECW is but the first step and further terms, some discovered earlier, as well as mode-mode coupling, are required. These are discussed.

Stecki, J.

1998-09-01

71

Results of a monte carlo investigation of the diffuse attenuation coefficient.

There has been a large effort to relate the apparent optical properties of ocean water to the inherent optical properties, which are the absorption coefficient a, the scattering coefficient b, and the scattering phase function rho(theta). The diffuse attenuation coefficient kdiff' has most often been considered an apparent optical property. However, kdiff' can be considered a quasi-inherent property kdiff' when defined as a steady-state light distribution attenuation coefficient. The Honey-Wilson research empirically relates kdiff' to a and b. The Honey-Wilson relation most likely applies to a limited range of water types because it does not include dependence on rho(theta). A series of Monte Carlo simulations were initiated to calculate kdiff' in an unstratified water column. The calculations, which reflected open ocean water types, used ranges of the single-scattering albedo omega(0) and the mean forward-scattering angle theta(m) for two analytic phase functions with different shapes. It was found that kdiff' is nearly independent of the shape of rho(theta) and can be easily parameterized in terms of a, b, and theta(m) for 0.11

Concannon, B M; Davis, J P

1999-08-20

72

Reflection, radiation and attenuation of Stoneley guided waves in fluid-filled finite cracks

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding wave propagation in fractured fluid-rock systems is important for estimating, for example, fluid properties or fracture densities from geophysical measurements such as ground motion. In this study, the reflection, radiation and attenuation of Stoneley guided waves in fluid-filled cracks is studied numerically. Stoneley guided waves have been used, for example, to explain long-period volcanic tremor signals or to propose potential methods for estimating the fluid properties in fractured rocks. However, direct numerical simulations of Stoneley guided waves in fluid-filled fractured rocks are rare. In this study, the finite element method (FEM) is used to model two-dimensional wave propagation in an elastic rock with an elliptically shaped finite crack (aspect ratio of length to thickness is 333.3) filled either with a viscous or inviscid fluid. The surrounding rock is fully elastic with non-dispersive P- and S-waves able to propagate without attenuation. The fluid filling the crack is elastic in its bulk deformation behavior but viscous in its shear deformation behavior. Therefore, only P-waves are able to propagate in the crack, which are dispersive and attenuated. The crack geometry, especially the crack tips, is resolved in detail by the applied unstructured finite element mesh using 7-node triangles. The presence of a fluid filled crack in the elastic rock gives rise to a so called Stoneley guided wave that is bound to and propagates along the crack walls with a much smaller velocity than all other waves in the system. Its amplitude decreases exponentially away from the crack and is therefore not detectable anymore at a certain distance. At the tip of the crack the Stoneley guided wave is reflected. The interference of incoming and reflected Stoneley guided waves leads to nodes (zero amplitude) and anti-nodes (maximum amplitude). One of the nodes is exactly at the crack tip. Therefore, the reflection is similar to a one-dimensional reflection of a wave propagating in a medium with lower impedance at the interface to a medium with higher impedance. At anti-nodes the amplitude is increased. However, the exponential decay away from the crack is stronger compared to an undisturbed Stoneley guided wave propagating along an infinite crack. Therefore, the reflection by itself does not enhance the detectability of Stoneley guided waves away from the crack. However, the reflection coefficient at the crack tip for cracks filled with common natural fluids (water, oil, hydrocarbon gas, magma) is around 0.8. In other words, a part of the Stoneley guided wave energy is transferred at the crack tip into the surrounding elastic rock in the form of P- and S-waves. The decay of these P- and S-waves away from the crack tip due to geometrical spreading is smaller than that of the Stoneley guided wave and they can eventually be detected. The relatively high reflection coefficient of 0.8 at the crack tip enables the Stoneley guided wave to travel several times back and forth along a finite crack before it lost too much of its initial energy. This leads to a periodic radiation of P- and S-waves at the crack tip each time the Stoneley guided wave is reflected. This periodic radiation can have very low frequencies in relatively small cracks due to the small velocity of Stoneley guided waves. Such low frequency signals may explain low frequency volcanic tremor, long-period volcanic earthquakes or low frequency tremor related to fractured hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Frehner, M.; Schmalholz, S. M.

2009-04-01

73

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VLF waves excited by powerful ground-based transmitters propagate in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide and leak through the ionosphere to the magnetosphere, where they are often recorded by satellites. Simulations of the propagation of whistler waves using coupled transionospheric VLF propagation and three-dimensional ray-tracing models have shown systematic overestimates of the VLF wavefield strength near 20 kHz in the magnetosphere by about 20 dB in the night and 10 dB during the day. The paper presents numerical simulations of the conversion between whistler and lower hybrid waves interactions in the presence of short-scale field-aligned density irregularities (striations) in Earth's lower ionosphere. The simulations, which incorporate a realistic ionospheric density profile, show that the mode conversion of whistler waves to lower hybrid waves leads to significant attenuation of whistler waves at altitudes between 90 and 150 km. The striation width plays an important role in the conversion efficiency between whistler and lower hybrid wave. Uniformly distributed striations with 8 m transverse size result in 15 dB attenuation in the 90-150 km propagation range, while a spectrum from 2 to 10 m results in 9 dB attenuation. It is argued that the attenuation of whistler waves in the presence of short-scale density striations in Earth's ionosphere can account for most of the observed ˜20 dB loss in VLF intensity. Furthermore, it predicts that VLF/ELF waves with frequencies below 5 kHz will not suffer similar attenuation.

Shao, X.; Eliasson, B.; Sharma, A. S.; Milikh, G.; Papadopoulos, K.

2012-04-01

74

An experimental model of ice floe induced attenuation of ocean waves

An experimental model of ocean wave attenuation due to interactions with an ice floe is presented. Evolution of mechanically-generated, regular waves is monitored in front and in the lee of a solitary, square floe, made of a synthetic material. Results confirm dependence of attenuation on the period of the incident wave. Results also indicate dependence of attenuation on the depth of wave overwash on the floe.

Toffoli, Alessandro; Bennetts, Luke G; Meylan, Michael H; Cavaliere, Claudio; Babanin, Alexandr

2014-01-01

75

Nondestructive scheme for measuring the attenuation coefficient of polymer optical fiber.

Based on the fiber macrobending and the refractive index matching technologies, a measurement scheme is proposed to gauge the attenuation coefficient of polymer optical fibers in this Letter. It is noteworthy that, by realizing both the light injecting into and the light extracting out the fiber core via the fiber cladding, this scheme will not induce any destruction during the whole measurement. Some related experiments and the theoretical verifications are given together with the nondestructive measurement principle. The comparison between the experimental results of this scheme and that of the cut-back scheme indicates a good feasibility of our scheme. As a result, it is promised to have a potential application for achieving the on-line attenuation monitoring that has never been introduced. PMID:23455125

Lin, Xiao; Ren, Liyong; Liang, Jian

2013-02-15

76

Measurement of mass attenuation coefficients around the K absorption edge by parametric X-rays

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When electrons at relativistic velocities pass through a crystal plate, such as silicon, photons are emitted around the Bragg angle for X-ray diffraction. This phenomenon is called parametric X-ray radiation (PXR). The monochromaticity and directivity of PXR are adequate and the energy can be changed continuously by rotating the crystal. This study measured the mass attenuation coefficient around the K-shell absorption edge of Nb, Zr and Mo as a PXR application of monochromatic hard X-ray radiation sources.

Tamura, Masaya; Akimoto, Tadashi; Aoki, Yohei; Ikeda, Jiro; Sato, Koichi; Fujita, Fumiyuki; Homma, Akira; Sawamura, Teruko; Narita, Masakuni

2002-05-01

77

Attenuation of shock waves propagating in polyurethane foams

Shock wave attenuation in polyurethane foams is investigated experimentally and numerically. This study is a part of research\\u000a project regarding shock propagation in polyurethane foams with high-porosities\\u000a $$\\\\phi_{g}$$ = 0.951 ~ 0.977 and low densities of ?c = 27.6 ~55.8 kg\\/m3. Sixty Millimeter long cylindrical foams with various cell numbers and foam insertion condition were installed in a horizontal\\u000a shock tube

K. Kitagawa; M. Yasuhara; K. Takayama

2006-01-01

78

Wave Dispersion and Attenuation on Human Femur Tissue

Cortical bone is a highly heterogeneous material at the microscale and has one of the most complex structures among materials. Application of elastic wave techniques to this material is thus very challenging. In such media the initial excitation energy goes into the formation of elastic waves of different modes. Due to “dispersion”, these modes tend to separate according to the velocities of the frequency components. This work demonstrates elastic wave measurements on human femur specimens. The aim of the study is to measure parameters like wave velocity, dispersion and attenuation by using broadband acoustic emission sensors. First, four sensors were placed at small intervals on the surface of the bone to record the response after pencil lead break excitations. Next, the results were compared to measurements on a bulk steel block which does not exhibit heterogeneity at the same wave lengths. It can be concluded that the microstructure of the tissue imposes a dispersive behavior for frequencies below 1 MHz and care should be taken for interpretation of the signals. Of particular interest are waveform parameters like the duration, rise time and average frequency, since in the next stage of research the bone specimens will be fractured with concurrent monitoring of acoustic emission. PMID:25196011

Strantza, Maria; Louis, Olivia; Polyzos, Demosthenes; Boulpaep, Frans; van Hemelrijck, Danny; Aggelis, Dimitrios G.

2014-01-01

79

TOWARD A RAYLEIGH WAVE ATTENUATION MODEL FOR CENTRAL ASIA AND SURROUNDING REGIONS

TOWARD A RAYLEIGH WAVE ATTENUATION MODEL FOR CENTRAL ASIA AND SURROUNDING REGIONS Anatoli L model for short-period (10-20 s) Rayleigh waves in Central Asia and surrounding regions. This model), two-dimensional (2-D) Rayleigh-wave attenuation models for Central Asia along with associated

Ritzwolle, Mike

80

A seismic attenuation zone below Popocatépetl volcano inferred from coda waves of local earthquakes

Using a single scattering model, weighted averages of the quality factor were estimated at 6 Hz for coda wave windows 25s after S-wave arrival at depths ranging from 2 to 10 km and magnitudes between 2 and 3. Considering Q c -1 as intrinsic attenuation, we find a zone of seismic wave attenuation between 6 and 8

D. A. Novelo-Casanova; A. Martínez-Bringas

2005-01-01

81

Wave velocity dispersion and attenuation in media exhibiting internal oscillations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the dynamical and acoustical behavior of porous and heterogeneous rocks is of great importance in geophysics, e.g. earthquakes, and for various seismic engineering applications, e.g. hydrocarbon exploration. Within a heterogeneous medium oscillations with a characteristic resonance frequency, depending on the mass and internal length of the heterogeneity, can occur. When excited, heterogeneities can self-oscillate with their natural frequency. Another example of internal oscillations is the dynamical behavior of non-wetting fluid blobs or fluid patches in residually saturated pore spaces. Surface tension forces or capillary forces act as the restoring force that drives the oscillation. Whatever mechanism is involved, an oscillatory phenomena within a heterogeneous medium will have an effect on acoustic or seismic waves propagating through such a medium, i.e. wave velocity dispersion and frequency-dependent attenuation. We present two models for media exhibiting internal oscillations and discuss the frequency-dependent wave propagation mechanism. Both models give similar results: (1) The low-frequency (i.e. quasi-static) limit for the phase velocity is identical with the Gassmann-Wood limit and the high-frequency limit is larger than this value and (2) Around the resonance frequency a very strong phase velocity change and the largest attenuation occurs. (1) Model for a homogeneous medium exhibiting internal oscillations We present a continuum model for an acoustic medium exhibiting internal damped oscillations. The obvious application of this model is water containing oscillating gas bubbles, providing the material and model parameters for this study. Two physically based momentum interaction terms between the two inherent constituents are used: (1) A purely elastic term of oscillatory nature that scales with the volume of the bubbles and (2) A viscous term that scales with the specific surface of the bubble. The model is capable of taking into account an arbitrary number of oscillators with different resonance frequencies. Exemplarily, we show a log-normal distribution of resonance frequencies. Such a distribution changes the acoustic properties significantly compared to the case with only one resonance frequency. The dispersion and attenuation resulting from our model agree well with the dispersion and attenuation (1) derived with a more exact mathematical treatment and (2) measured in laboratory experiments. (2) Three-phase model for residually saturated porous media We present a three-phase model describing wave propagation phenomena in residually saturated porous media. The model consists of a continuous non-wetting phase and a discontinuous wetting phase and is an extension of classical biphasic (Biot-type) models. The model includes resonance effects of single liquid bridges or liquid clusters with miscellaneous eigenfrequencies taking into account a visco-elastic restoring force (pinned oscillations and/or sliding motion of the contact line). In the present investigation, our aim is to study attenuation due to fluid oscillations and due to wave-induced flow with a macroscopic three-phase continuum model, i.e. a mixture consisting of one solid constituent building the elastic skeleton and two immiscible fluid constituents. Furthermore, we study monochromatic waves in transversal and longitudinal direction and discuss the resulting dispersion relations for a typical reservoir sandstone equivalent (Berea sandstone).

Frehner, Marcel; Steeb, Holger; Schmalholz, Stefan M.

2010-05-01

82

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mass attenuation coefficients of some amino acids, such as DL-aspartic acid-LR(C4H7NO4), L-glutamine (C4H10N2O3), creatine monohydrate LR(C4H9N3O2H2O), creatinine hydrochloride (C4H7N3O·HCl) L-asparagine monohydrate(C4H9N3O2H2O), L-methionine LR(C5H11NO2S), were measured at 122, 356, 511, 662, 1170, 1275 and 1330 keV photon energies using a well-collimated narrow beam good geometry set-up. The gamma-rays were detected using NaI (Tl) scintillation detection system with a resolution of 0.101785 at 662 keV. The attenuation coefficient data were then used to obtain the effective atomic numbers (Zeff), and effective electron densities (Neff) of amino acids. It was observed that the effective atomic number (Zeff) and effective electron densities (Neff) initially decrease and tend to be almost constant as a function of gamma-ray energy. Zeff and Neff experimental values showed good agreement with the theoretical values with less than 1% error for amino acids.

Kore, Prashant S.; Pawar, Pravina P.

2014-05-01

83

Remote sensing of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water. [coastal zone color scanner

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique was devised which uses remotely sensed spectral radiances from the sea to assess the optical diffuse attenuation coefficient, K (lambda) of near-surface ocean water. With spectral image data from a sensor such as the coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) carried on NIMBUS-7, it is possible to rapidly compute the K (lambda) fields for large ocean areas and obtain K "images" which show synoptic, spatial distribution of this attenuation coefficient. The technique utilizes a relationship that has been determined between the value of K and the ratio of the upwelling radiances leaving the sea surface at two wavelengths. The relationship was developed to provide an algorithm for inferring K from the radiance images obtained by the CZCS, thus the wavelengths were selected from those used by this sensor, viz., 443, 520, 550 and 670 nm. The majority of the radiance arriving at the spacecraft is the result of scattering in the atmospheric and is unrelated to the radiance signal generated by the water. A necessary step in the processing of the data received by the sensor is, therefore, the effective removal of these atmospheric path radiance signals before the K algorithm is applied. Examples of the efficacy of these removal techniques are given together with examples of the spatial distributions of K in several ocean areas.

Austin, R. W.

1981-01-01

84

Attenuation of High-Frequency Seismic Waves in Eastern Iran

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the frequency-dependent attenuation of the crust in Eastern Iran by analysis data from 132 local earthquakes having focal depths in the range of 5-25 km. We estimated the quality factor of coda waves ( Q c) and body waves ( Q p and Q s) in the frequency band of 1.5-24 Hz by applying the single backscattering theory of S-coda envelopes and the extended coda-normalization method, respectively. Considering records from recent earthquakes (Rigan M w 6.5, 2010/12/20, Goharan M w 6.2, 2013/5/11 and Sirch M w 5.5, 2013/1/21), the estimated values of Q c, Q p and Q s vary from 151 ± 49, 63 ± 6, and 93 ± 14 at 1.5 Hz to 1,994 ± 124, 945 ± 84 and 1,520 ± 123 at 24 Hz, respectively. The average frequency-dependent relationships ( Q = Q o f n ) estimated for the region are Q c = (108 ± 10) f (0.96±0.01), Q p = (50 ± 5) f (1.01±0.04), and Q s = (75 ± 6) f (1.03±0.06). These results evidenced a frequency dependence of the quality factors Q c, Q p, and Q s, as commonly observed in tectonically active zones characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity, and the low value of Q indicated an attenuative crust beneath the entire region.

Mahood, M.

2014-09-01

85

Attenuation of High-Frequency Seismic Waves in Eastern Iran

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the frequency-dependent attenuation of the crust in Eastern Iran by analysis data from 132 local earthquakes having focal depths in the range of 5-25 km. We estimated the quality factor of coda waves (Q c) and body waves (Q p and Q s) in the frequency band of 1.5-24 Hz by applying the single backscattering theory of S-coda envelopes and the extended coda-normalization method, respectively. Considering records from recent earthquakes (Rigan M w 6.5, 2010/12/20, Goharan M w 6.2, 2013/5/11 and Sirch M w 5.5, 2013/1/21), the estimated values of Q c, Q p and Q s vary from 151 ± 49, 63 ± 6, and 93 ± 14 at 1.5 Hz to 1,994 ± 124, 945 ± 84 and 1,520 ± 123 at 24 Hz, respectively. The average frequency-dependent relationships (Q = Q o f n ) estimated for the region are Q c = (108 ± 10)f (0.96±0.01), Q p = (50 ± 5)f (1.01±0.04), and Q s = (75 ± 6)f (1.03±0.06). These results evidenced a frequency dependence of the quality factors Q c, Q p, and Q s, as commonly observed in tectonically active zones characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity, and the low value of Q indicated an attenuative crust beneath the entire region.

Mahood, M.

2014-03-01

86

Mass attenuation coefficients of various soil and sediment samples (density range between 1.0 and 1.7 g cm(-3)) collected from 60 sites distributed in Syrian land have been determined for gamma lines of 46.5, 59.5, 88, 122, 165, 392, 661, 1173, and 1332 keV using gamma spectrometry and simulation software program X-com. The average mass attenuation coefficients for the studied samples were found to be 0.513, 0.316, 0.195, 0.155, 0.134, 0.096, 0.077, 0.058, and 0.055 cm(2) g(-1) at previous energies, respectively. The results have shown that Ca and Fe contents of the samples have strong effect on the mass attenuation coefficient at lower energies. In addition, self-attenuation correction factors determined using mass attenuation coefficient was in good agreement with addition spiked reference material method provided that the sample thickness is 2.7 cm. However, mass attenuation coefficients determined in this study can be used for determination of gamma emitters at energy ranges from 46.5 to 1332 keV in any soil and sediment samples having density of 1.0-1.7 g cm(-3). PMID:23103572

Al-Masri, M S; Hasan, M; Al-Hamwi, A; Amin, Y; Doubal, A W

2013-02-01

87

Seismic-wave attenuation associated with crustal faults in the New Madrid seismic zone

The attenuation of upper crustal seismic waves that are refracted with a velocity of about 6 kilometers per second varies greatly among profiles in the area of the New Madrid seismic zone in the central Mississippi Valley. The waves that have the strongest attenuation pass through the seismic trend along the axis of the Reelfoot rift in the area of the Blytheville arch. Defocusing of the waves in a low-velocity zone and/ or seismic scattering and absorption could cause the attenuation; these effects are most likely associated with the highly deformed rocks along the arch. Consequently, strong seismic-wave attenuation may be a useful criterion for identifying seismogenic fault zones.

Hamilton, R.M.; Mooney, W.D.

1990-01-01

88

Attenuation of coda waves in the Northeastern Region of India

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coda wave attenuation quality factor Qc is estimated in the northeastern region of India using 45 local earthquakes recorded by regional seismic network. The quality factor Qc was estimated using the single backscattering model modified by Sato (J Phys Earth 25:27-41, 1977), in the frequency range 1-18 Hz. The attenuation and frequency dependence for different paths and the correlation of the results with geotectonics of the region are described in this paper. A total of 3,890 Qc measurements covering 187 varying paths are made for different lapse time window of 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 s in coda wave. The magnitudes of the analyzed events range from 1.2 to 3.9 and focal depths range between 7 and 38 km. The source-receiver distances of the selected events range between 16 and 270 km. For 30-s duration, the mean values of the estimated Qc vary from 50 ± 12 (at 1 Hz) to 2,078 ± 211(at 18 Hz) for the Arunachal Himalaya, 49 ± 14 (at 1 Hz) to 2,466 ± 197 (at 18 Hz) for the Indo-Burman, and 45 ± 13 (at 1 Hz) to 2,069 ± 198 (at 18 Hz) for Shillong group of earthquakes. It is observed that Qc increases with frequency portraying an average attenuation relation Qc=52.315± 1.07f ^{left( {1.32 ± 0.036} right)} for the region. Moreover, the pattern of Qc - 1 with frequency is analogous to the estimates obtained in other tectonic areas in the world, except with the observation that the Qc - 1 is much higher at 1 Hz for the northeastern region. The Qc - 1 is about 10 - 1.8 at 1 Hz and decreases to about 10 - 3.6 at 18 Hz indicating clear frequency dependence. Pertaining to the spatial distribution of Qc values, Mikir Hills and western part of Shillong Plateau are characterized by lower attenuation.

Hazarika, Devajit; Baruah, Saurabh; Gogoi, Naba Kumar

2009-01-01

89

Effective atomic numbers for total gamma-ray interaction with some selected thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds such as barium acetate, barium sulfate, calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, calcium sulfate dihydrate, cadmium sulfate (anhydrous), cadmium sulfate, strontium sulfate, and lithium fluoride have been calculated in the 1-keV to 20-MeV energy region. Experimental mass attenuation coefficients and effective atomic numbers for these compounds at selected photon energies of 26.3, 33.2, 59.54, and 661.6 keV have been obtained from good geometry transmission measurements and compared with theoretical values. The effect of absorption edge on effective atomic numbers and its variation with energy, and nonvalidity of the Bragg`s mixture rule at incident photon energies closer to the absorption edges of constituent elements of compounds are discussed.

Shivaramu; Amutha, R.; Ramprasath, V. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Safety Research and Health Physics Group

1999-05-01

90

P-Wave to Rayleigh-wave conversion coefficients for wedge corners; model experiments

An analytic solution is not available for the diffraction of elastic waves by wedges; however, numerical solutions of finite-difference type are available for selected wedge angles. The P- to Rayleigh-wave conversion coefficients at wedge tips have been measured on two-dimensional seismic models for stress-free wedges with wedge angles, ??0, of 10, 30, 60, 90 and 120??. The conversion coefficients show two broad peaks and a minimum as a function of the angle between the wedge face and the direction of the incident P-wave. The minimum occurs for the P wave incident parallel to the wedge face and one maximum is near an incidence angle of 90?? to the wedge face. The amplitude of this maximum, relative to the other, decreases as the wedge angle increases. The asymmetry of the conversion coefficients, CPR(??; ??0), relative to parallel incidence (?? = 0) increases as the wedge angle increases. The locations of the maxima and the minimum as well as the asymmetry can be explained qualitatively. The conversion coefficients are measured with an accuracy of ??5% in those regions where there are no interfering waves. A comparison of the data for the 10?? wedge with the theoretical results for a half plane (0?? wedge) shows good correlation. ?? 1978.

Gangi, A.F.; Wesson, R.L.

1978-01-01

91

Tide Effects on Wave Attenuation and Wave Set-up on a Caribbean Coral Reef

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of tides on wave attenuation and wave set-up were investigated at Great Pond Bay, a Caribbean reef located in St Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Measurements of wave pressure fluctuations were made at three stations across the reef profile. Total wave set-up was measured between the forereef and the reef crest or backreef lagoon. Wave spectra indicate significant filtering of energy at the peak frequencies as waves traveled across the reef. The energy dissipation calculations imply an average energy reduction of 62% between the forereef and reef crest. Mean energy reduction between the forereef and lagoon was 90%. Energy dissipation between the forereef and reef crest increased 15% between high and low tide and 6% between forereef and lagoon. Tidal reduction of water depth at the reef crest intensified wave breaking and this condition increased energy dissipation. Measurements of wave set-up ranged from 0·8 to 1·5 cm. Calculations of wave set-up using Tait's 1972 model showed good agreement with observations.

Lugo-Fernández, A.; Roberts, H. H.; Wiseman, W. J., Jr.

1998-10-01

92

Laboratory velocities and attenuation of P-waves in limestones during freeze-thaw cycles

The velocity and the attenuation of compressional P-waves, measured in the laboratory at ultrasonic frequencies during a series of freezing and thawing cycles, are used as a method for predicting frost damage in a bedded limestone. Pulse transmission and spectral ratio techniques are used to determine the P-wave velocities and the attenuation values relative to an aluminum reference samples with

Jean-Michel Remy; M. Bellanger; F. Homand-Etienne

1994-01-01

93

FURTHER INVESTIGATION OF PARAMETERS AFFECTING WATER HAMMER WAVE ATTENUATION, SHAPE AND TIMING

FURTHER INVESTIGATION OF PARAMETERS AFFECTING WATER HAMMER WAVE ATTENUATION, SHAPE AND TIMING PART that may affect water hammer wave attenuation, shape and timing (Bergant and Tijsseling 2001). New sources that may affect the waveform predicted by classical water hammer theory include viscoelastic behaviour

Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

94

Parameters Affecting Water Hammer Wave Attenuation, Shape by Anton Bergant1

Parameters Affecting Water Hammer Wave Attenuation, Shape and Timing by Anton Bergant1 and Arris.s.tijsseling@TUE.nl This paper investigates parameters that may affect water hammer wave attenuation, shape and timing. Possible sources that may affect the waveform predicted by the classical water hammer theory include unsteady

Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

95

Seismic waves attenuation in the lithosphere of the northern Basin and Range Province

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismic quality factor of the direct body waves (P- and S-waves) and coda and their frequency dependence (n) were estimated for the northern Basin and Range Province using traces of 66 local earthquakes and explosions recorded during 1988-1989 PASSCAL Basin and Range Passive Seismic Experiment. For calculation of Q-coda the single backscattering model by Aki was used. Q-coda values were estimated for six central frequencies (f): 0.3±0.1, 0.75±0.25, 1.5±0.5, 3.0±1.0, 6.0±2.0 and 12.0±4.0 Hz and for 18 lapse time windows (W) - from 10 to 95 sec with a step 5 sec. The Qp and Qs values were obtained by the method of the maximum amplitudes for the frequency bands 0.5-1.0, 1.0-2.0, 2.0-4.0 ? 4.0-8.0 Hz. Also we tired to evaluate the part of the intrinsic and scattering attenuation (Qi and Qsc respectively) in the total attenuation using Wennerberg's method. The Q-coda increases and the frequency parameter n and the attenuation coefficient ? decrease with increasing of frequency and lapse time windows. This fact shows that the upper part of the lithosphere is more heterogeneous compared to its lower layers. The deep variations of the frequency parameter n and the attenuation coefficient ? show the sharp change at the depth about 150 km - at the same depth the boundary of the low velocity anomaly is observed (Bensen et al., 2009; Wagner et al., 2012; Shen et al., 2012). The Qs and Qp values also increase with frequency: Qs varies from 42 (0.84 Hz) to 298 (5.52 Hz) and Qp - from 60 (0.84 Hz) to 279 (6.05 Hz). The following empirical relations of Q vs. f are deduced for P- and S-waves respectively: Qp(f)=69*f0.78 and Qs(f)=53*f1.08. The Q-values, describing the intrinsic and scattering attenuation, also show a significant dependence on frequency and lapse time windows: the empirical relations of Q vs. f are: Qi(f)=8*f1.2 and Qsc(f)=13*f1.1 (for W=10 sec) and Qi(f)=5*f1.2 and Qsc(f)=102*f1.0 (for W=95 sec) respectively. The comparison of the intrinsic and scattering attenuation shows that the intrinsic attenuation is dominant over scattering attenuation in the frequency range analyzed for all deep levels. The reported study was supported by RFBR, research project No. 12-05-31038.

Dobrynina, Anna

2013-04-01

96

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

diel variability of the particulate beam attenuation coefficient, cp, and of the particulate backscattering coefficient, bbp, were investigated during five seasonal cycles at an oceanic site in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, covering contrasting physical and trophic situations. We observed a diel cycle in cp and bbp, related to changes in phytoplankton properties (i.e., size and refractive index) induced by the accumulation of carbon within phytoplankton cells associated with photosynthetic processes, during the winter mixing of the water column, the development of the spring phytoplankton bloom, its decline, and during the summer oligotrophy. The relative amplitude of the cp diel variability was much larger during the spring bloom (20-50%) than during other seasons (10-20%), whereas that of bbp is steadily around 20% and does not show significant seasonal variability. The minimal cp and bbp occurred at sunrise and are synchronized, whereas maximum bbp values are often reached 3-6 h before those for cp (except during bloom conditions), which occur near sunset. These different amplitudes and timing are tentatively explained using Mie computations, which allow discerning the respective roles of changes in the particle size distribution and refractive index. The differences observed here in the diel cycles of cp and bbp show that they cannot be used interchangeably to determine the daily increase of the particle pool. This result has implications on the feasibility to determine net community production from the bbp diel changes, when only bbp is measured in situ or available from ocean color observations.

Kheireddine, Malika; Antoine, David

2014-08-01

97

WAVELET BASED CHARACTERIZATION OF ACOUSTIC ATTENUATION IN POLYMERS USING LAMB WAVE MODES

of acrylic (PMMA, polymethyl methacrylate), thermoplastic, using guided Lamb wave. Lamb waves are generated the attenuative properties of the thermoplastic from selective propagating Lamb wave modes. KEYWORDS : Lamb wave, Gabor Transform, Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), thermoplastic, wavelet transform. 1.0 INTRODUCTION

Boyer, Edmond

98

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray fluorescence technique plays an important role in nondestructive analysis nowadays. The development of equipment, including portable ones, enables a wide assortment of possibilities for analysis of stable elements, even in trace concentrations. Nevertheless, despite of the advantages, one important drawback is radiation self-attenuation in the sample being measured, which needs to be considered in the calculation for the proper determination of elemental concentration. The mass attenuation coefficient can be determined by transmission measurement, but, in this case, the sample must be in slab shape geometry and demands two different setups and measurements. The Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio, determined from the X-ray fluorescence spectrum, provides a link to the mass attenuation coefficient by means of a polynomial type equation. This work presents a way to construct a Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio versus mass attenuation coefficient curve by using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo computer code. The comparison between the calculated and literature values of the mass attenuation coefficient for some known samples showed to be within 15%. This calculation procedure is available on-line at www.macx.net.br.

Conti, C. C.; Anjos, M. J.; Salgado, C. M.

2014-09-01

99

Investigation of the Attenuation of Plane Shock Waves Moving over very Rough Surfaces

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental measurements of the attenuation of plane shock waves moving over rough walls have been made in a shock tube. Measurements of the boundary-layer characteristics, including thickness and velocity distribution behind the shock, have also been made with the aid of new cal techniques which provide direct information on the local boundary-layer conditions at the rough walls. Measurements of shock speed and shock pressure ratio are presented for both smooth-wall and rough-wall flow over lengths of machined-smooth and rough strips which lined all four walls of the shock tube. A simplified theory based on Von Karman's expression for skin-friction coefficient for flow over rough walls, along with a wave-model concept and extensions to include time effects, is presented. In this theory, the shock-tube flow is assumed to be one-dimensional at all times and the wave-model concept is used to relate the local layer growth to decreases in shock strength. This concept assumes that local boundary-layer growths act as local mass-flow sinks, which give rise to expansion waves which, in turn, overtake the shock and lower its mass flow accordingly.

Huber, Paul W.; McFarland, Donald R.; Levine, Philip

1953-01-01

100

Broadband attenuation of Lamb waves through a periodic array of thin rectangular junctions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study theoretically subwavelength physical phenomena, such as resonant transmission and broadband sound shielding for Lamb waves propagating in an acoustic metamaterial made of a thin plate drilled with one or two row(s) of rectangular holes. The resonances and antiresonances of periodically arranged rectangular junctions separated by holes are investigated as a function of the geometrical parameters of the junctions. With one and two row(s) of holes, high frequency specific features in the transmission coefficient are explained in terms of a coupling of incident waves with both Fabry-Perot oscillations inside the junctions and induced surface acoustic waves between the homogeneous part of the plate and the row of holes. With two rows of holes, low frequency peaks and dips appear in the transmission spectrum. The choice of the distance between the two rows of holes allows the realization of a broadband low frequency acoustic shielding with attenuation over 99% for symmetric waves in a wide low frequency range and over 90% for antisymmetric ones. The origin of the transmission gap is discussed in terms of localized modes of the "H" element made by the junctions, connecting the two homogeneous parts of the plate.

Moiseyenko, Rayisa P.; Pennec, Yan; Marchal, Rémi; Bonello, Bernard; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram

2014-10-01

101

Out-of-field activity in the estimation of mean lung attenuation coefficient in PET/MR

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In clinical PET/MR, photon attenuation is a source of potentially severe image artifacts. Correction approaches include those based on MR image segmentation, in which image voxels are classified and assigned predefined attenuation coefficients to obtain an attenuation map. In whole-body imaging, however, mean lung attenuation coefficients (LAC) can vary by a factor of 2, and the choice of inappropriate mean LAC can have significant impact on PET quantification. Previously, we proposed a method combining MR image segmentation, tissue classification and Maximum Likelihood reconstruction of Attenuation and Activity (MLAA) to estimate mean LAC values. In this work, we quantify the influence of out-of-field (OOF) accidental coincidences when acquiring data in a single bed position. We therefore carried out GATE simulations of realistic, whole-body activity and attenuation distributions derived from data of three patients. A bias of 15% was found and significantly reduced by removing OOF accidentals from our data, suggesting that OOF accidentals are the major contributor to the bias. We found approximately equal contributions from OOF scatter and OOF randoms, and present results after correction of the bias by rescaling of results. Results using temporal subsets suggest that 30-second acquisitions may be sufficient for estimation mean LAC with less than 5% uncertainty if mean bias can be corrected for.

Berker, Yannick; Salomon, André; Kiessling, Fabian; Schulz, Volkmar

2014-01-01

102

In this study, time-resolved optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning images of the process of water diffusion in the skin that illustrate the enhancement in the backscattered intensities due to the increased water concentration are presented. In our experiments, the water concentration in the skin was increased by soaking the hand in water, and the same region of the skin was scanned and measured with the OCT system and a commercial moisture monitor every three minutes. To quantitatively analyze the moisture-related optical properties and the velocity of water diffusion in human skin, the attenuation coefficients of the skin, including the epidermis and dermis layers, were evaluated. Furthermore, the evaluated attenuation coefficients were compared with the measurements made using the commercial moisture monitor. The results demonstrate that the attenuation coefficient increases as the water concentration increases. Furthermore, by evaluating the positions of center-of mass of the backscattered intensities from OCT images, the diffusion velocity can be estimated. In contrast to the commercial moisture monitor, OCT can provide three-dimensional structural images of the skin and characterize its optical property, which together can be used to observe morphological changes and quantitatively evaluate the moisture-related attenuation coefficients in different skin layers. PMID:23529149

Lee, Cheng-Kuang; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Chang, Feng-Yu; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Shen, Su-Chin; Yuan, Ouyang; Yang, Chih-He

2013-01-01

103

For medical applications of ultrasound inside the brain, it is necessary to understand the relationship between the apparent density of skull bone and its corresponding speed of sound and attenuation coefficient. Although there have been previous studies exploring this phenomenon, there is still a need to extend the measurements to cover more of the clinically relevant frequency range. The results

Samuel Pichardo; Vivian W. Sin; Kullervo Hynynen

2011-01-01

104

Extensional wave attenuation and velocity in partially-saturated sand in the sonic frequency range

Extensional wave attenuation and velocity measurements on a high permeability Monterey sand were performed over a range of gas saturations for imbibition and degassing conditions. These measurements were conducted using extensional wave pulse propagation and resonance over a 1 - 9 kHz frequency range for a hydrostatic confining pressure of 8.3 MPa. Analysis of the extensional wave data and the corresponding X-ray CT images of the gas saturation show strong attenuation resulting from the presence of the gas (QE dropped from 300 for the dry sand to 30 for the partially-saturated sand), with larger attenuation at a given saturation resulting from heterogeneous gas distributions. The extensional wave velocities are in agreement with Gassmann theory for the test with near-homogeneous gas saturation and with a patchy saturation model for the test with heterogeneous gas saturation. These results show that partially-saturated sands under moderate confining pressure can produce strong intrinsic attenuation for extensional waves.

Liu, Z.; Rector, J.W.; Nihei, K.T.; Tomutsa, L.; Myer, L.R.; Nakagawa, S.

2002-06-17

105

Measurements of seismic wave attenuation for frequencies between 0.1 and 100 Hz in a Paterson Rig

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of wave attenuation in partially saturated porous rocks over a broad frequency range provides valuable information about reservoir fluid systems, which are inherently composed of multiple phase fluid. Following an original idea initiated by Luigi, we designed and set up a specific instrument, the Seismic Wave Attenuation Module (SWAM), to experimentally measure the bulk attenuation on partially saturated rocks at frequencies between 0.01 and 100 Hz, using natural rock samples under in situ conditions. We present its bench-top calibration, a series of data collected from different kind of rocks at different confing pressure and the numerical simulations, supporting the obtained results. We employ the sub-resonance test. Assuming that the rock behaves as a linear time invariant (LTI) system, the attenuation factor 1/Q (Q is the quality factor) is equal to the tangent of the phase shift between the stress and the strain signal. The new attenuation measurement equipment is calibrated in a gas apparatus (Paterson rig) using aluminum as elastic standard and Plexiglas as a viscoelastic standard. Measurements were performed on 25.4 mm diameter, 60 mm long samples. Berea sandstone samples with 20% porosity, and ~500 mD permeability have been measured at different saturation conditions. Attenuation measurements show dependence upon saturation. Moreover, measurements on two well-characterized shale samples have been performed. The two shales have significantly different quality factors; which result to be dependent on both the saturation state of the samples and the propagation direction of the oscillatory signal with respect to the sedimentary bedding. The attenuation coefficient parallel to bedding is less than that vertical to bedding. Thanks to Luigi's initiative and inspiration two generations of his Ph.D. students are now able to jointly present these new challenging experimental results.

Madonna, C.; Tisato, N.; Delle Piane, C.; Saenger, E. H.

2012-04-01

106

Studies on Shock Attenuation in Plastic Materials and Applications in Detonation Wave Shaping

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pressure in plastic materials attenuates due to change of impedance, phase change in the medium and plastic deformation. A lot of theoretical and experimental efforts have been devoted to the attenuation of shock wave produced by the impact of explosive driven flyer plate. However comparatively less work has been done on the attenuation of shock waves due to contact explosive detonation. Present studies deal with the attenuation of explosive driven shock waves in various plastic materials and its applications in design of Hybrid Detonation Wave Generator In present work shock attenuating properties of different polymers such as Perspex, Teflon, nylon, polypropylene and viton has been studied experimentally using rotating mirror streak camera and electrical position pins. High explosive RDX/TNT and OCTOL of diameter 75-100mm and thickness 20 to 50mm were detonated to induce shock wave in the test specimens. From experimental determined shock velocity at different locations the attenuation in shock pressure was calculated. The attenuation of shock velocity with thickness in the material indicates exponential decay according to relation US = UOexp(-ax). In few of the experiments manganin gauge of resistance 50 ohms was used to record stress time profile across shock wave. The shock attenuation data of Viton has successfully been used in the design of hybrid detonation wave generator using Octol as high explosive. While selecting a material it was ensured that the attenuated shock remains strong enough to initiate an acceptor explosive. Theoretical calculation were supported by Autodyne 2D hydro-code simulation which were validated with the experiments conducted using high speed streak photography and electrical shock arrival pins. Shock attenuation data of Perspex was used to establishing card gap test and wedge test in which test items is subjected to known pressure pulse by selecting the thickness of the plastic material.

Khurana, Ritu; Gautam, P. C.; Rai, Rajwant; Kumar, Anil; Sharma, A. C.; Singh, Manjit, Dr

2012-07-01

107

A three-dimensional model of wave attenuation in the marginal ice zone

A three-dimensional model of wave scattering by a large array of floating thin elastic plates is used to predict the rate of ocean wave attenuation in the marginal ice zone in terms of the properties of the ice cover and the incoming wavefield. This is regarded as a small step toward assimilating interactions of ocean waves with areas of sea

L. G. Bennetts; M. A. Peter; V. A. Squire; M. H. Meylan

2010-01-01

108

Estimation of seismic wave attenuation using sonic logging data -Comparison of estimating methods-

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane hydrates (MHs) that form in marine sediments at water depths greater than a few hundred meters are naturally occurring ice-like crystalline solids composed of methane molecules surrounded by water molecules. Several authors have estimated the amount of MH from seismic velocity data, as MH within sediment pore space stiffens the sediment and results in an increase in seismic velocity. Although seismic velocity is potentially a useful indicator of MH concentration, seismic velocity is also strongly controlled by the microscale MH distribution in pore spaces. While the presence of MH increases the seismic velocity of the host sediment, recent work on sonic logging data shows that sonic waveforms are also significantly attenuated by the presence of MH. The combined use of velocity and attenuation data provides greater insight into the MH-bearing sediments. Seismic attenuation can be conveniently separated into intrinsic attenuation and scattering attenuation. Scattering attenuation is the diminution in the amplitude of a seismic wave caused by the scattering of energy from a propagating pulse by heterogeneities in the medium of propagation. In scattering attenuation, energy is only redistributed to other parts of the wavefield. Scattering attenuation needs to be separated from total attenuation for precise estimation of attenuation value. Although there are many methods exist for estimating attenuation, it is not easy to determine which method is the best. The purpose of this study is to compare two methods for estimating attenuation. The method to be applied for estimating attenuation in this study was the median frequency shift method and spectral ratio method. Firstly, we estimated attenuation at Nankai Trough area. Secondly, we calculated scattering attenuation results by an inversion method, assuming the total attenuation factors to be linear combinations of the scattering and intrinsic attenuation factors. After introducing some assumptions to these relationships, we can estimate the scattering attenuation and isolate the intrinsic attenuation. Our results suggested that most part of total attenuation is scattering attenuation. Additionally, in order to validate our results we calculated scattering attenuation using synthetic data generated by the frequency-wavenumber integration method. To calculate synthetic data, we use a complex velocity with various enhancements such as causal attenuation, complex frequencies, and Filon integration. We estimated scattering attenuation from these synthetic data using two methods (inversion method and frequency-wavenumber integration method). Then we compared two methods (median frequency shift method and spectral ratio method) using these estimated scattering attenuation.

Suzuki, H.; Matsushima, J.

2010-12-01

109

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immersion grating is a next-generation diffraction grating which has the immersed the diffraction surface in an optical material with high refractive index of n > 2, and can provide higher spectral resolution than a classical reflective grating. Our group is developing various immersion gratings from the near- to mid-infrared region (Ikeda et al.1, 2, 3, 4, Sarugaku et al.5, and Sukegawa et al.6). The internal attenuation ?att of the candidate materials is especially very important to achieve the high efficiency immersion gratings used for astronomical applications. Nevertheless, because there are few available data as ?att < 0.01cm-1 in the infrared region, except for measurements of CVD-ZnSe, CVD-ZnS, and single-crystal Si in the short near-infrared region reported by Ikeda et al.7, we cannot select suitable materials as an immersion grating in an aimed wavelength range. Therefore, we measure the attenuation coefficients of CdTe, CdZnTe, Ge, Si, ZnSe, and ZnS that could be applicable to immersion gratings. We used an originally developed optical unit attached to a commercial FTIR which covers the wide wavelength range from 1.3?m to 28?m. This measurement system achieves the high accuracy of (triangle)?att ~ 0.01cm-1. As a result, high-resistivity single-crystal CdZnTe, single-crystal Ge, single-crystal Si, CVD-ZnSe, and CVD-ZnS show ?att < 0.01cm-1 at the wavelength range of 5.5 - 19.0?m, 2.0 - 10.5?m, 1.3 - 5.4?m, 1.7 - 13.2?m, and 1.9 - 9.2?m, respectively. This indicates that these materials are good candidates for high efficiency immersion grating covering those wavelength ranges. We plan to make similar measurement under the cryogenic condition as T <= 10K for the infrared, especially mid-infrared applications.

Kaji, Sayumi; Sarugaku, Yuki; Ikeda, Yuji; Kobayashi, Naoto; Nakanishi, Kenshi; Kondo, Sohei; Yasui, Chikako; Kawakita, Hideyo

2014-07-01

110

Attenuation anisotropy and the relative frequency content of split shear waves

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variation of frequency-dependent seismic wave attenuation with direction (attenuation anisotropy) contains additional information to that contained in velocity anisotropy. In particular, it has the potential to distinguish between different mechanisms that can cause velocity anisotropy. For example, aligned fracturing might be expected to cause measurable velocity and attenuation anisotropy, while preferred crystal orientation leads to significant velocity anisotropy but may cause only small amounts of attenuation. Attenuation anisotropy may also contain useful information about pore-fluid content and properties. We present a methodology for analysis of attenuation anisotropy, and apply it to a microseismic data set previously analysed for shear-wave splitting by Teanby et al. (2004). Attenuation anisotropy values obtained show a temporal variation which appears to correlate with the temporal variation in the velocity anisotropy. The comparison of the relative frequency content of fast (S1) and slow (S2) split shear waves is a convenient method for examining seismic attenuation anisotropy. Provided that S1 and S2 initially have the same spectral colouring, that no spectral distortion is introduced by the differences between receiver responses of geophone components, and that spectral distortion due to background noise can be ignored or corrected for, we can attribute any differences in their frequency content to attenuation anisotropy. Attenuation anisotropy, where present, should be detected by the different (approximately orthogonal) polarizations of S1 and S2 as they pass through the anisotropic medium. In the presence of attenuation anisotropy S1 and S2 should experience different levels of frequency-dependent attenuation. We quantify the differential attenuation of S1 and S2 using a scheme based on a spectral ratio method. We present results from a microseismic data set acquired in an abandoned oil well at Valhall, a North Sea oil field. The results are surprising in that sometimes the slower arrival, S2, is richer in high frequencies than the faster, S1. This appears to be contrary to results predicted by theoretical crack models for attenuation anisotropy (e.g. Hudson 1981). The mechanism responsible for these observations is not clear. Our differential attenuation attribute correlates with the angle between the strike of the inferred initial shear-wave source polarization and the fast shear-wave polarization, which suggests that the split shear wave with the larger amplitude is preferentially attenuated. Our attribute also correlates with the event backazimuth, and the minimum percentage anisotropy.

Carter, Andrew J.; Kendall, J.-Michael

2006-06-01

111

As it is inconvenient to use elements like hydrogen, carbon and oxygen in pure forms for measurement of their gamma mass-attenuation coefficients, the measurements are to be done indirectly, by using compounds of the elements or a mixture of them. We give here a simple method of measuring the total mass-attenuation coefficients ?\\/? of the elements in a compound simultaneously

M. T. Teli; R. Nathuram; C. S. Mahajan

2000-01-01

112

INFLUENCE OF CLOUDS ON ATTENUATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

The semi-empirical method for determination of the cloud attenuation was used. The cloud attenuation was determined by using the meteorological data measured at the ground level. It was assumed that the clouds would form at some height above the ground level when the conditions for vapour condensation would be present and the liquid water content in the air would be

M. Tamoöifl

113

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subsurface geology of Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates is primarily composed of carbonate rocks. Such media are known to be highly heterogeneous. Very few studies have attempted to estimate attenuation in carbonate rocks. In Abu Dhabi no attenuation profile has been published. This study provides the first seismic wave attenuation profiles in Abu Dhabi using dense array of VSP data. We estimated three attenuation profiles: the apparent, the scattering, and the intrinsic attenuations. The apparent attenuation profile was computed using amplitude decay and spectral-ratio methods. The scattering attenuation profile was estimated using a generalized reflection-transmission matrix forward model. It is usually estimated from the sonic log, but to be more consistent with the apparent attenuation, we succeeded in this paper to estimate it from the VSP data. We subtracted the scattering attenuation from the apparent attenuation to deduce the intrinsic attenuation. The results of the study indicate that the scattering attenuation is significant compared to the published studies that are mainly based on clastic rocks. The high scattering attenuation can reach up to 0.02. It can be explained by the strong heterogeneity of the carbonate rocks. This study demonstrates that the Simsima and Rus Formations have considerable scattering and intrinsic attenuations. These formations are considered aquifers in Abu Dhabi; we therefore interpreted this high intrinsic attenuation zones to be due to the heterogeneity and to the fluids contained in these formations. The Umm-Er-Radhuma Formation is a more homogenous formation with limited aquifer potential. Hence, scattering and intrinsic attenuations of the Umm-Er-Radhuma Formation are low.

Bouchaala, Fateh; Ali, Mohammed Y.; Farid, Asam

2014-07-01

114

Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices coated with a thin film of a stationary phase sense chemical vapors in the gas phase by detecting the mass of the vapor that distributes into the stationary phase. This distribution can be described by the partition coefficient. An equation is presented that allows partition coefficients to be calculated from SAW vapor sensor frequency shifts. The experimental responses of fluoropolyol-coated 158-MHz dual delay line SAW vapor sensors are converted to partition coefficients by this method, and these results are compared with partition coefficients determined by gas-liquid chromatography. These two methods rank the vapors in the same order of increasing sorption, but individual partition coefficient values are not always in precise agreement. The influence of temperature and gas-phase vapor concentration on vapor sorption is also examined.

Grate, J.W.; Snow, A.; Ballantine, D.S. Jr.; Wohltjen, H.; Abraham, M.H.; McGill, R.A.; Sasson, P.

1988-05-01

115

Wave attenuation and mode dispersion in a waveguide coated with lossy dielectric material

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The modal attenuation constants in a cylindrical waveguide coated with a lossy dielectric material are studied as functions of frequency, dielectric constant, and thickness of the dielectric layer. A dielectric material best suited for a large attenuation is suggested. Using Kirchhoff's approximation, the field attenuation in a coated waveguide which is illuminated by a normally incident plane wave is also studied. For a circular guide which has a diameter of two wavelengths and is coated with a thin lossy dielectric layer (omega sub r = 9.1 - j2.3, thickness = 3% of the radius), a 3 dB attenuation is achieved within 16 diameters.

Lee, C. S.; Chuang, S. L.; Lee, S. W.; Lo, Y. T.

1984-01-01

116

Attenuation of electromagnetic wave propagation in sandstorms incorporating charged sand particles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical approach for predicting the attenuation of microwave propagation in sandstorms is presented, with electric charges generated on the sand grains taken into account. It is found that the effect of electric charges distributed partially on the sand surface is notable. The calculated attenuation is in good agreement with that measured in certain conditions. The distribution of electric charges on the surface of sand grains, which is not easy to measure, can be approximately determined by measuring the attenuation value of electromagnetic waves. Some effects of sand radius, dielectric permittivity, frequency of electromagnetic wave, and visibility of sandstorms on the attenuation are also discussed quantitatively. Finally, a new electric parameter is introduced to describe the roles of scattering, absorption and effect of charges in attenuation.

Zhou, You-He; Shu He, Qin; Zheng, Xiao Jing

2005-06-01

117

Attenuation of electromagnetic wave propagation in sandstorms incorporating charged sand particles.

A theoretical approach for predicting the attenuation of microwave propagation in sandstorms is presented, with electric charges generated on the sand grains taken into account. It is found that the effect of electric charges distributed partially on the sand surface is notable. The calculated attenuation is in good agreement with that measured in certain conditions. The distribution of electric charges on the surface of sand grains, which is not easy to measure, can be approximately determined by measuring the attenuation value of electromagnetic waves. Some effects of sand radius, dielectric permittivity, frequency of electromagnetic wave, and visibility of sandstorms on the attenuation are also discussed quantitatively. Finally, a new electric parameter is introduced to describe the roles of scattering, absorption and effect of charges in attenuation. PMID:15909076

Zhou, You-He; Shu He, Qin; Jing Zheng, Xiao

2005-06-01

118

Shear wave velocity, seismic attenuation, and thermal structure of the continental upper mantle

Seismic velocity and attenuation anomalies in the mantle are commonly interpreted in terms of temperature variations on the basis of laboratory studies of elastic and anelastic properties of rocks. In order to evaluate the relative contributions of thermal and non-thermal effects on anomalies of attenuation of seismic shear waves, QS-1, and seismic velocity, VS, we compare global maps of the thermal structure of the continental upper mantle with global QS-1 and Vs maps as determined from Rayleigh waves at periods between 40 and 150 S. We limit the comparison to three continental mantle depths (50, 100 and 150 km), where model resolution is relatively high. The available data set does not indicate that, at a global scale, seismic anomalies in the upper mantle are controlled solely by temperature variations. Continental maps have correlation coefficients of <0.56 between VS and T and of <0.47 between QS and T at any depth. Such low correlation coefficients can partially be attributed to modelling arrefacts; however, they also suggest that not all of the VS and QS anomalies in the continental upper mantle can be explained by T variations. Global maps show that, by the sign of the anomaly, VS and QS usually inversely correlate with lithospheric temperatures: most cratonic regions show high VS and QS and low T, while most active regions have seismic and thermal anomalies of the opposite sign. The strongest inverse correlation is found at a depth of 100 km, where the attenuation model is best resolved. Significantly, at this depth, the contours of near-zero QS anomalies approximately correspond to the 1000 ??C isotherm, in agreement with laboratory measurements that show a pronounced increase in seismic attenuation in upper mantle rocks at 1000-1100 ??C. East-west profiles of VS, QS and T where continental data coverage is best (50??N latitude for North America and 60??N latitude for Eurasia) further demonstrate that temperature plays a dominant, but non-unique, role in determining the value of lithospheric VS and QS. At 100 km depth, where the resolution of seismic models is the highest, we compare observed seismic VS and QS with theoretical VST and QST values, respectively, that are calculated solely from temperature anomalies and constrained by experimental data on temperature dependencies of velocity and attenuation. This comparison shows that temperature variations alone are sufficient to explain seismic VS and QS in ca 50 per cent of continental regions. We hypothesize that compositional anomalies resulting from Fe depletion can explain the misfit between seismic and theoretical VS in cratonic lithosphere. In regions of active tectonics, temperature effects alone cannot explain seismic VS and QS in the lithosphere. It is likely that partial melts and/or fluids may affect seismic parameters in these regions. This study demonstrates that lithospheric temperature plays the dominant role in controlling VS and QS anomalies, but other physical parameters, such as compositional variations, fluids, partial melting and scattering, may also play a significant role in determining VS and QS variations in the continental mantle. ?? 2004 RAS.

Artemieva, I. M.; Billien, M.; Leveque, J. -J.; Mooney, W. D.

2004-01-01

119

Shear wave velocity, seismic attenuation, and thermal structure of the continental upper mantle

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic velocity and attenuation anomalies in the mantle are commonly interpreted in terms of temperature variations on the basis of laboratory studies of elastic and anelastic properties of rocks. In order to evaluate the relative contributions of thermal and non-thermal effects on anomalies of attenuation of seismic shear waves, Q-1s, and seismic velocity, Vs, we compare global maps of the thermal structure of the continental upper mantle with global Q-1s and Vs maps as determined from Rayleigh waves at periods between 40 and 150 s. We limit the comparison to three continental mantle depths (50, 100 and 150 km), where model resolution is relatively high. The available data set does not indicate that, at a global scale, seismic anomalies in the upper mantle are controlled solely by temperature variations. Continental maps have correlation coefficients of <0.56 between Vs and T and of <0.47 between Qs and T at any depth. Such low correlation coefficients can partially be attributed to modelling artefacts; however, they also suggest that not all of the Vs and Qs anomalies in the continental upper mantle can be explained by T variations. Global maps show that, by the sign of the anomaly, Vs and Qs usually inversely correlate with lithospheric temperatures: most cratonic regions show high Vs and Qs and low T, while most active regions have seismic and thermal anomalies of the opposite sign. The strongest inverse correlation is found at a depth of 100 km, where the attenuation model is best resolved. Significantly, at this depth, the contours of near-zero Qs anomalies approximately correspond to the 1000 °C isotherm, in agreement with laboratory measurements that show a pronounced increase in seismic attenuation in upper mantle rocks at 1000-1100 °C. East-west profiles of Vs, Qs and T where continental data coverage is best (50°N latitude for North America and 60°N latitude for Eurasia) further demonstrate that temperature plays a dominant, but non-unique, role in determining the value of lithospheric Vs and Qs. At 100 km depth, where the resolution of seismic models is the highest, we compare observed seismic Vs and Qs with theoretical VTs and QTs values, respectively, that are calculated solely from temperature anomalies and constrained by experimental data on temperature dependencies of velocity and attenuation. This comparison shows that temperature variations alone are sufficient to explain seismic Vs and Qs in ca 50 per cent of continental regions. We hypothesize that compositional anomalies resulting from Fe depletion can explain the misfit between seismic and theoretical Vs in cratonic lithosphere. In regions of active tectonics, temperature effects alone cannot explain seismic Vs and Qs in the lithosphere. It is likely that partial melts and/or fluids may affect seismic parameters in these regions. This study demonstrates that lithospheric temperature plays the dominant role in controlling Vs and Qs anomalies, but other physical parameters, such as compositional variations, fluids, partial melting and scattering, may also play a significant role in determining Vs and Qs variations in the continental mantle.

Artemieva, Irina M.; Billien, Magali; Lévêque, Jean-Jacques; Mooney, Walter D.

2004-05-01

120

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye that affects vision. Phacoemulsification is the mostly common surgical method for treating cataracts, and determining that the optimal phacoemulsification energy is dependent on measuring the hardness of the lens. This study explored the use of an ultrasound needle transducer for invasive measurements of ultrasound attenuation coefficient to evaluate the hardness of the cataract lens. A 47 MHz high-frequency needle transducer with a diameter of 0.9 mm was fabricated by a polarized PMN-33%PT single crystal in the present study. The attenuation coefficients at different stages of an artificial porcine cataract lens were measured using the spectral shift approach. The hardness of the cataract lens was also evaluated by mechanical measurement of its elastic properties. The results demonstrated that the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient was increased from 0.048 ± 0.02 to 0.520 ± 0.06 dB mm-1 MHz-1 corresponding to an increase in Young's modulus from 6 ± 0.4 to 96 ± 6.2 kPa as the cataract further developed. In order to evaluate the feasibility of combining needle transducer and phacoemulsification probe for real-time measurement during cataract surgery, the needle transducer was mounted on the phacoemulsification probe for a vibration test. The results indicated that there was no apparent damage to the tip of the needle transducer and the pulse-echo test showed that a good performance in sensitivity was maintained after the vibration test.

Huang, Chih-Chung; Chen, Ruimin; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Zhou, Qifa; Humayun, Mark S.; Shung, K. Kirk

2009-10-01

121

We use seismograms of local earthquakes to image relative shear wave attenuation structure in the shallow crust beneath the region containing the Coso volcanic-geothermal area of E California. Seismograms of 16 small earthquakes show SV amplitudes which are greatly diminished at some azimuths and takeoff angles, indicating strong lateral variations in S wave attenuation in the area. 3-D images of the relative S wave attenuation structure are obtained from forward modeling and a back projection inversion of the amplitude data. The results indicate regions within a 20 by 30 by 10 km volume of the shallow crust (one shallower than 5 km) that severely attenuate SV waves passing through them. These anomalies lie beneath the Indian Wells Valley, 30 km S of the Coso volcanic field, and are coincident with the epicentral locations of recent earthquake swarms. No anomalous attenuation is seen beneath the Coso volcanic field above about 5 km depth. Geologic relations and the coincidence of anomalously slow P wave velocities suggest that the attenuation anomalies may be related to magmatism along the E Sierra front.-from Authors

Sanders, C.; Ho-Liu, P.; Rinn, D.; Hiroo, Kanamori

1988-01-01

122

The results from studies of wave propagation in large arteries carried out over the last 25 years have shown that there is a good agreement among values of the imaginary part of the complex propagation coefficient, as expressed by pressure or flow-rate wave propagation velocity. However, there is considerable disparity among estimations of the degree of wave attenuation, the real part of the propagation coefficient. In order to determine whether this disparity is due to differences inherent in the various methods used to measure true wave propagation coefficients or whether it is caused by differences in experimental conditions, we have compared three techniques for determining true pulse wave propagation coefficients the three-point method, the occlusion method and a recently described iterative procedure. In addition, the results were compared to apparent propagation coefficients calculated without accounting for reflections. Measurements were carried out using each method in turn on a rubber tube of known transmission characteristics in which the magnitude of reflections was small. The iterative procedure and the three-point method were also compared under conditions of strong reflection. In the tube, the values of propagation velocity and attenuation coefficient determined by each method were similar. Although some discrepancies were noted, they did not amount to a systematic trend. The iterative procedure and the occlusion method were also used to analyse measurements on the thoracic aorta of three anaesthetized greyhounds. In the animal experiments, in spite of increased scatter, partly due to the variation between dogs, the two methods for determining true pulse-wave propagation yielded similar results. Since the differences between our estimates of propagation coefficients obtained by the methods tested are small with respect to those found when comparing the results from several reports in the literature, we conclude that any discrepancies between studies cannot be due to problems associated with the methods themselves but must have been caused by variations in experimental conditions or by other unknown artefacts. PMID:9239640

Bertram, C D; Gow, B S; Greenwald, S E

1997-04-01

123

Application of sound-absorbent plastic to weak-shock-wave attenuators

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A device for attenuating weak shock waves propagating in a duct has been developed utilizing sound-absorbent plastic which is usually used for attenuating sound waves. The device has a tube made of the sound-absorbent plastic installed coaxially to a surrounding metal tube with a clearance between them. The clearance acts as an air layer to enhance the performance of the shock wave attenuation. When a weak shock wave propagates through this device, the pressure gradient of the shock wave is gradually smeared and hence its overpressure is decreased. The performance of the device was examined using a 1/250-scaled train tunnel simulator which simulated the discharge of weak shock waves created by high-speed entry of trains to tunnels. The overpressure of the shock waves ranged up to 5 kPa. The shock wave overpressure was decreased by 90% with the present attenuator attached. This device can be applied to various industrial noise suppressions which are associated with unsteady compressible flows.

Ootsuta, Katsuhisa; Matsuoka, Kei; Sasoh, Akihiro; Takayama, Kazuyoshi

1998-04-01

124

Fluid infiltration and pore fluid pressure changes are known to have a significant effect on the occurrence of earthquakes. Yet, for most damaging earthquakes, with nucleation zones below a few kilometers depth, direct measurements of fluid pressure variations are not available. Instead, pore fluid pressures are inferred primarily from seismic-wave propagation characteristics such as Vp/Vs ratio, attenuation, and reflectivity contacts. We present laboratory measurements of changes in P-wave velocity and attenuation during the injection of water into a granite sample as it was loaded to failure. A cylindrical sample of Westerly granite was deformed at constant confining and pore pressures of 50 and 1 MPa, respectively. Axial load was increased in discrete steps by controlling axial displacement. Anisotropic P-wave velocity and attenuation fields were determined during the experiment using an array of 13 piezoelectric transducers. At the final loading steps (86% and 95% of peak stress), both spatial and temporal changes in P-wave velocity and peak-to-peak amplitudes of P and S waves were observed. P-wave velocity anisotropy reached a maximum of 26%. Transient increases in attenuation of up to 483 dB/m were also observed and were associated with diffusion of water into the sample. We show that velocity and attenuation of P waves are sensitive to the process of opening of microcracks and the subsequent resaturation of these cracks as water diffuses in from the surrounding region. Symmetry of the orientation of newly formed microcracks results in anisotropic velocity and attenuation fields that systematically evolve in response to changes in stress and influx of water. With proper scaling, these measurements provide constraints on the magnitude and duration of velocity and attenuation transients that can be expected to accompany the nucleation of earthquakes in the Earth's crust.

Stanchits, S. A.; Lockner, D. A.; Ponomarev, A. V.

2003-01-01

125

Origin of coda waves: Source, attenuation, and scattering effects

Coda waves from small local earthquakes are interpreted as backscattering waves from numerous heterogeneities distributed uniformly in the earth's crust. Two extreme models of the wave medium that account for the observations on the coda are proposed. In the single backscattering model the scattering is considered to be a weak process, and the loss of seismic energy by scattering is

Keiiti Aki; Bernard Chouet

1975-01-01

126

The large-scale influence of the Great Barrier Reef matrix on wave attenuation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Offshore reef systems consist of individual reefs, with spaces in between, which together constitute the reef matrix. This is the first comprehensive, large-scale study, of the influence of an offshore reef system on wave climate and wave transmission. The focus was on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia, utilizing a 16-yr record of wave height from seven satellite altimeters. Within the GBR matrix, the wave climate is not strongly dependent on reef matrix submergence. This suggests that after initial wave breaking at the seaward edge of the reef matrix, wave energy that penetrates the matrix has little depth modulation. There is no clear evidence to suggest that as reef matrix porosity (ratio of spaces between individual reefs to reef area) decreases, wave attenuation increases. This is because individual reefs cast a wave shadow much larger than the reef itself; thus, a matrix of isolated reefs is remarkably effective at attenuating wave energy. This weak dependence of transmitted wave energy on depth of reef submergence, and reef matrix porosity, is also evident in the lee of the GBR matrix. Here, wave conditions appear to be dependent largely on local wind speed, rather than wave conditions either seaward, or within the reef matrix. This is because the GBR matrix is a very effective wave absorber, irrespective of water depth and reef matrix porosity.

Gallop, Shari L.; Young, Ian R.; Ranasinghe, Roshanka; Durrant, Tom H.; Haigh, Ivan D.

2014-12-01

127

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present approximate formulae for the plane-wave displacement reflection/transmission (R/T) coefficients for interfaces of arbitrary contrast, separating two homogeneous, weakly anisotropic media. They result from boundary conditions requiring continuity of displacement vector and traction, in which coupled S waves are considered as a single S wave and exact quantities are replaced by first-order quantities used in first-order ray tracing. Specifically, the phase velocities, slowness and polarization vectors of P and coupled S waves appearing in the boundary conditions are of the first-order with respect to the deviations of anisotropy from isotropy. Application of the derived R/T coefficients transforms the amplitude of an incident P wave into amplitudes of reflected/transmitted P or coupled S waves. Coefficients can be computed for any incidence angle between 0° and 90°, and for any azimuth. In this paper, we test the accuracy of the derived R/T coefficients of unconverted plane P waves. We show that, except for critical regions, first-order coefficients approximate the exact coefficients with accuracy comparable or better than accuracy of linearized weak-contrast coefficients, which are, however, applicable only in subcritical regions.

Farra, Véronique; Pšen?ík, Ivan

2010-12-01

128

Within the viscosity-extended Biot framework of wave propagation in porous media, the existence of a slow shear wave mode with non-vanishing velocity is predicted. It is a highly diffusive shear mode wherein the two constituent phases essentially undergo out-of-phase shear motions (slow shear wave). In order to elucidate the interaction of this wave mode with propagating wave fields in an inhomogeneous medium the process of conversion scattering from fast compressional waves into slow shear waves is analyzed using the method of statistical smoothing in randomly heterogeneous poroelastic media. The result is a complex wave number of a coherent plane compressional wave propagating in a dynamic-equivalent homogeneous medium. Analysis of the results shows that the conversion scattering process draws energy from the propagating wave and therefore leads to attenuation and phase velocity dispersion. Attenuation and dispersion characteristics are typical for a relaxation process, in this case shear stress relaxation. The mechanism of conversion scattering into the slow shear wave is associated with the development of viscous boundary layers in the transition from the viscosity-dominated to inertial regime in a macroscopically homogeneous poroelastic solid. PMID:21568383

Müller, Tobias M; Sahay, Pratap N

2011-05-01

129

Origin, propagation and attenuation of pressure waves in gas—solid fluidized beds

Recently reported results on the origin, propagation and attenuation of pressure waves in bubbling gas—solid fluidized beds are re-evaluated and the results are compared with additional experiments reported here. It is found that the measured pressure fluctuations are a result of slow and fast propagating pressure waves. Pressure waves with high propagation velocities (> 10 m\\/s) are unambiguously identified as

J. van der Schaaf; J. C. Schouten; C. M. van den Bleek

1998-01-01

130

Attenuation Anisotropy and the Relative Frequency Content of Split Shear-Waves

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variation of frequency-dependent seismic wave attenuation with direction (attenuation anisotropy) contains additional information to that contained in velocity anisotropy. In particular it has the potential to distinguish between different mechanisms that can cause velocity anisotropy. For example, aligned fracturing might be expected to cause both velocity and attenuation anisotropy, whilst preferred crystal orientation should lead only to velocity anisotropy. Attenuation anisotropy may also contain useful information about pore-fluid content and properties. We present a methodology for analysis of attenuation anisotropy, and apply it to a microseismic dataset previously analysed for shear-wave splitting by Teanby et al. (2004). The comparison of the relative frequency content of fast (S1) and slow (S2) split shear-waves is a convenient method for examining seismic attenuation anisotropy. Provided that S1 and S2 initially have the same spectral colouring, that no spectral distortion is introduced by the differences between receiver responses of geophone components, and that spectral distortion due to background noise can be ignored or corrected for, we can attribute any differences in their frequency content to attenuation anisotropy. Attenuation anisotropy should be detected by the different (approximately orthogonal) polarisations of S1 and S2 as they pass through the anisotropic medium. In the presence of attenuation anisotropy S1 and S2 should experience different levels of frequency-dependent attenuation. We quantify the differential attenuation of S1 and S2 using a scheme based on the spectral ratio method. We present results from a microseismic dataset acquired in an abandoned oil well at Valhall, a North Sea oil field. The results are surprising in that sometimes the slower arrival, S2, is richer in high frequencies than the faster, S1. This appears to be contrary to results predicted by theoretical crack models for attenuation anisotropy (e.g. Hudson 1981). The mechanism responsible for these observations is not clear. Our differential attenuation measurements correlate with the angles between the initial shear-wave source polarization and the crack normal, the event back azimuths, and the splitting times.

Carter, A. J.; Kendall, J.

2004-12-01

131

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The periodic theory of solid-state physics is introduced to study the reduction characteristics of periodic pile barriers. The attenuation zones of a two-dimensional infinite periodic pile barrier subjected to plane waves are analyzed by plane wave expansion method. Influences of soil parameters and pile configurations on the first no-directional attenuation zone are discussed. The screening effectiveness of finite periodic pile barriers is simulated by the finite element method. The present theoretical results are in well agreement with experimental data, which validates the existence of attenuation zones in the periodic structures. The results show that vibrations with frequencies in the attenuation zones can be reduced significantly. The present investigation provides a new concept for designing pile barriers to block mid-frequency vibration.

Huang, Jiankun; Shi, Zhifei

2013-09-01

132

The accurate, quantitative analysis of absorption and scattering properties in tissue is a central problem in biochemical optics, in particular for the determination of hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin concentrations. Because of light scattering, the absolute concentrations of these chromophores (i.e., the absorption coefficient) cannot easily be inferred. A new method for the estimation of the absorption coefficients in scattering media, based

Matthias Kohl; Russell Watson; Mark Cope

1996-01-01

133

Determination of surface tension coefficient of liquids by diffraction of light on capillary waves

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a simple technique for determining the coefficient of the surface tension of liquids, based on laser light diffraction on capillary waves. Capillary waves of given frequency are created by an exciter needle acting on the surface of liquid and represent a reflective diffraction grating, the constant of which (the wavelength of capillary waves) can be determined based on a known incidence angle of light (grazing angle). We obtain the coefficient of the surface tension of liquids by applying the dispersion relation for capillary waves and analyze the difficulties that arise when setting up and conducting the experiment in detail.

Nikoli?, D.; Neši?, Lj

2012-11-01

134

Study on energy attenuation of ultrasonic guided waves going through girth welds.

Ultrasonic guided wave is introduced as a new non-destructive long range pipe inspection method. It can be used to inspect pipe which is inaccessible to other conventional NDT methods, and rapid, long distance inspection can be achieved. An investigation of the guided ultrasonic waves traveling along pipe with special geometry characteristics, such as elbow, several girth welds, and some artificial defects is described. In this paper, factors that may cause attenuation of ultrasonic guided waves are discussed and energy attenuation of longitudinal and torsional guided waves is studied on an experimental pipe having seven girth welds. Good agreement has been obtained between the experiments and the predictions. In the end, the detection sensitivity and locating precision of two guided waves, namely longitudinal and torsional, were compared on defects, such as notch, burr and branch. PMID:17070566

Yibo, Li; Liying, Sun; Zhidong, Song; Yuankai, Zhang

2006-12-22

135

Measurement of alkali-silica reaction progression by ultrasonic waves attenuation

Development of non-destructive methods, developed specifically for assessing the damage induced by alkali-silica reaction (ASR) in concrete structures, is needed in order to carry out a systematic evaluation of the concrete condition. The aim of this study is to monitor the evolution of the ASR-damage in laboratory with concrete samples with ultrasonic pulse velocity and attenuation of ultrasonic waves methods. For this study, results of both methods were compared with expansion and mass variation. One reactive concrete mixture was made with reactive aggregate, and one other mixture, incorporating non-reactive aggregate, was made as a control. Specimens were kept at 38 deg. C in a 1 mol l{sup -1} NaOH solution to accelerate the reaction. Attenuation of transmitted ultrasonic waves appeared to be more appropriate for the evaluation of ASR-damage compared with pulse velocity. The attenuation of accelerated reactive concrete cylinders increased by 90% after 1 year while it increased by 40% for the non-reactive concrete used as a control. Major part of the attenuation increase in the non-reactive concrete is due to liquid absorption. This work suggests that in-situ non-destructive techniques based on ultrasonic wave attenuation, like ultrasonic attenuation tomography, should be developed in order to evaluate the development of ASR in concrete structures. Petrographic examination confirmed that damage to concrete is associated with ASR.

Saint-Pierre, Francois [Centre de Recherche sur les Infrastructures en beton - CRIB, Civil Engineering Department, Universite de Sherbrooke, J1K 2R1 (Canada); Rivard, Patrice [Centre de Recherche sur les Infrastructures en beton - CRIB, Civil Engineering Department, Universite de Sherbrooke, J1K 2R1 (Canada)]. E-mail: Patrice.Rivard@Usherbrooke.ca; Ballivy, Gerard [Centre de Recherche sur les Infrastructures en beton - CRIB, Civil Engineering Department, Universite de Sherbrooke, J1K 2R1 (Canada)

2007-06-15

136

The effect of frequency on Young`s modulus and seismic wave attenuation

Laboratory experiments were performed to measure the effect of frequency, water-saturation, and strain amplitude on Young`s modulus and seismic wave attenuation on rock cores recovered on or near the site of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The purpose of this investigation is to perform the measurements using four techniques: cyclic loading, waveform inversion, resonant bar, and ultrasonic velocity. The measurements ranged in frequency between 10{sup {minus}2} and 10{sup 6} Hz. For the dry specimens Young`s modulus and attenuation were independent of frequency; that is, all four techniques yielded nearly the same values for modulus and attenuation. For saturated specimens, a frequency dependence for both Young`s modulus and attenuation was observed. In general, saturation reduced Young`s modulus and increased seismic wave attenuation. The effect of strain amplitude on Young`s modulus and attenuation was measured using the cyclic loading technique at a frequency of 10{sup {minus}1} Hz. The effect of strain amplitude in all cases was small. For some rocks, such as the potential repository horizon of the Topopah Spring Member tuff (TSw2), the effect of strain amplitude on both attenuation and modulus was minimal.

Price, R.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). YMP Performance Assessment Applications Dept.; Martin, R.J. III; Haupt, R.W. [New England Research, Inc., White River Junction, VT (United States)

1994-07-01

137

Comparison of fractional wave equations for power law attenuation in ultrasound and elastography.

A set of wave equations with fractional loss operators in time and space are analyzed. The fractional Szabo equation, the power law wave equation and the causal fractional Laplacian wave equation are all found to be low-frequency approximations of the fractional Kelvin-Voigt wave equation and the more general fractional Zener wave equation. The latter two equations are based on fractional constitutive equations, whereas the former wave equations have been derived from the desire to model power law attenuation in applications like medical ultrasound. This has consequences for use in modeling and simulation, especially for applications that do not satisfy the low-frequency approximation, such as shear wave elastography. In such applications, the wave equations based on constitutive equations are the viable ones. PMID:24433745

Holm, Sverre; Näsholm, Sven Peter

2014-04-01

138

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Pressure Wave Attenuation due to Bubbly Layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the effects of dispersed microbubbles on a steep pressure wave and its attenuation are investigated both numerically and experimentally. Numerical simulations were carried out using a compressible Euler equation solver, where the liquid-gas mixture was modeled using direct numerical simulations involving discrete deforming bubbles. To reduce computational costs a 1D configuration is used and the bubbles are assumed distributed in layers and the initial pressure profile is selected similar to that of a one-dimensional shock tube problem. Experimentally, the pressure pulse was generated using a submerged spark electric discharge, which generates a large vapor bubble, while the microbubbles in the bubbly layer are generated using electrolysis. High speed movies were recorded in tandem with high fidelity pressure measurements. The dependence of pressure wave attenuation on the bubble radii, the void fraction, and the bubbly layer thickness were parametrically studied. It has been found that the pressure wave attenuation can be seen as due to waves reflecting and dispersing in the inter-bubble regions, with the energy absorbed by bubble volume oscillations and re-radiation. Layer thickness and small bubble sizes were also seen as having a strong effect on the attenuation with enhanced attenuation as the bubble size is reduced for the same void fraction.

Jayaprakash, Arvind; Fourmeau, Tiffany; Hsiao, Chao-Tsung; Chahine, Georges

2013-03-01

139

Near-surface seismic attenuation of P-waves in West Texas

(Member) Robert R. Berg (Member) el S. Watkins (Head of Department) August 1992 ABSTRACT Near-surface Seismic Attenuation of P-Waves in West Texas. (August 1992) Said Awdhah AI-Zahrani, B. S, University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi... (Member) Robert R. Berg (Member) el S. Watkins (Head of Department) August 1992 ABSTRACT Near-surface Seismic Attenuation of P-Waves in West Texas. (August 1992) Said Awdhah AI-Zahrani, B. S, University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi...

Al-Zahrani, Said Awdhah

2012-06-07

140

Attenuation of wave propagation in a novel periodic structure

A novel periodic mount was presented. A theoretical model was developed to describe the dynamics of wave propagation in the\\u000a novel periodic mount. The model was derived using Hamilton’s energy conservation principle. The characteristics of wave propagation\\u000a in unit cell were analyzed by transfer matrix formulation. Numerical examples were given to illustrate the effectiveness of\\u000a the periodic mount. The experiments

Ling Zheng; Yi-nong Li; A. Baz

2011-01-01

141

For medical applications of ultrasound inside the brain, it is necessary to understand the relationship between the apparent density of skull bone and its corresponding speed of sound and attenuation coefficient. Although there have been previous studies exploring this phenomenon, there is still a need to extend the measurements to cover more of the clinically relevant frequency range. The results of measurements of the longitudinal speed of sound and attenuation coefficient are presented for specimens of human calvaria. The study was performed for the frequencies of 0.27, 0.836, 1.402, 1.965 and 2.525 MHz. Specimens were obtained from fresh cadavers through a protocol with the Division of Anatomy of the University of Toronto. The protocol was approved by the Research Ethics Board of Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. The specimens were mounted in polycarbonate supports that were marked for stereoscopic positioning. Computer tomography (CT) scans of the skulls mounted on their supports were performed, and a three-dimensional skull surface was reconstructed. This surface was used to guide a positioning system to ensure the normal sound incidence of an acoustic signal. This signal was produced by a focused device with a diameter of 5 cm and a focal length of 10 cm. Measurements of delay in time of flight were carried out using a needle hydrophone. Measurements of effective transmitted energy were carried out using a radiation force method with a 10 ?g resolution scale. Preliminary functions of speed of sound and attenuation coefficient, both of which are related to apparent density, were established using a multi-layer propagation model that takes into account speed of sound, density and thickness of the layer. An optimization process was executed from a large set of random functions and the best functions were chosen for those ones that closest reproduced the experimental observations. The final functions were obtained after a second pass of the optimization process was executed, but this time using a finite-difference time-difference solution of the Westervelt equation, which is more precise than the multi-layer model but much more time consuming for computation. For six of seven specimens, measurements were carried out on five locations on the calvaria, and for the other specimen three measurements were made. In total, measurements were carried out on 33 locations. Results indicated the presence of dispersion effects and that these effects are different according to the type of bone in the skull (cortical and trabecular). Additionally, both the speed of sound and attenuation showed dependence on the skull density that varied with the frequency. Using the optimal functions and the information of density from the CT scans, the average values (±s.d.) of the speed of sound for cortical bone were estimated to be 2384(±130), 2471(±90), 2504(±120), 2327(±90) and 2053(±40) m s?1 for the frequencies of 270, 836, 1402, 1965 and 2526 kHz, respectively. For trabecular bone, and in the same order of frequency values, the speeds of sound were 2140(±130), 2300(±100), 2219(±200), 2133(±130) and 1937(±40) m s?1, respectively. The average values of the attenuation coefficient for cortical bone were 33(±9), 240(±9) and 307(±30) Np m?1 for the frequencies of 270, 836, and 1402, respectively. For trabecular bone, and in the same order of frequency values, the average values of the attenuation coefficient were 34(±13), 216(±16) and 375(±30) Np m?1, respectively. For frequencies of 1.965 and 2.525 MHz, no measurable radiation force was detected with the setup used. PMID:21149950

Pichardo, Samuel; Sin, Vivian W; Hynynen, Kullervo

2011-01-01

142

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For medical applications of ultrasound inside the brain, it is necessary to understand the relationship between the apparent density of skull bone and its corresponding speed of sound and attenuation coefficient. Although there have been previous studies exploring this phenomenon, there is still a need to extend the measurements to cover more of the clinically relevant frequency range. The results of measurements of the longitudinal speed of sound and attenuation coefficient are presented for specimens of human calvaria. The study was performed for the frequencies of 0.27, 0.836, 1.402, 1.965 and 2.525 MHz. Specimens were obtained from fresh cadavers through a protocol with the Division of Anatomy of the University of Toronto. The protocol was approved by the Research Ethics Board of Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. The specimens were mounted in polycarbonate supports that were marked for stereoscopic positioning. Computer tomography (CT) scans of the skulls mounted on their supports were performed, and a three-dimensional skull surface was reconstructed. This surface was used to guide a positioning system to ensure the normal sound incidence of an acoustic signal. This signal was produced by a focused device with a diameter of 5 cm and a focal length of 10 cm. Measurements of delay in time of flight were carried out using a needle hydrophone. Measurements of effective transmitted energy were carried out using a radiation force method with a 10 µg resolution scale. Preliminary functions of speed of sound and attenuation coefficient, both of which are related to apparent density, were established using a multi-layer propagation model that takes into account speed of sound, density and thickness of the layer. An optimization process was executed from a large set of random functions and the best functions were chosen for those ones that closest reproduced the experimental observations. The final functions were obtained after a second pass of the optimization process was executed, but this time using a finite-difference time-difference solution of the Westervelt equation, which is more precise than the multi-layer model but much more time consuming for computation. For six of seven specimens, measurements were carried out on five locations on the calvaria, and for the other specimen three measurements were made. In total, measurements were carried out on 33 locations. Results indicated the presence of dispersion effects and that these effects are different according to the type of bone in the skull (cortical and trabecular). Additionally, both the speed of sound and attenuation showed dependence on the skull density that varied with the frequency. Using the optimal functions and the information of density from the CT scans, the average values (±s.d.) of the speed of sound for cortical bone were estimated to be 2384(± 130), 2471(± 90), 2504(± 120), 2327(± 90) and 2053(± 40) m s-1 for the frequencies of 270, 836, 1402, 1965 and 2526 kHz, respectively. For trabecular bone, and in the same order of frequency values, the speeds of sound were 2140(± 130), 2300(± 100), 2219(± 200), 2133(± 130) and 1937(± 40) m s-1, respectively. The average values of the attenuation coefficient for cortical bone were 33(± 9), 240(± 9) and 307(± 30) Np m-1 for the frequencies of 270, 836, and 1402, respectively. For trabecular bone, and in the same order of frequency values, the average values of the attenuation coefficient were 34(± 13), 216(± 16) and 375(± 30) Np m-1, respectively. For frequencies of 1.965 and 2.525 MHz, no measurable radiation force was detected with the setup used.

Pichardo, Samuel; Sin, Vivian W.; Hynynen, Kullervo

2011-01-01

143

Extensional wave attenuation and velocity in partially saturated sand in the sonic frequency range

Extensional wave attenuation and velocity measurements on a high permeability Monterey sand were performed over a range of gas saturations for imbibition and degassing conditions. These measurements were conducted using extensional wave pulse propagation and resonance over a 1-9 kHz frequency range for a hydrostatic confining pressure of 8.3 MPa. Analysis of the extensional wave data and the corresponding X-ray CT images of the gas saturation show strong attenuation resulting from the presence of the gas (Q{sub E} dropped from 300 for the dry sand to 30 for the partially-saturated sand), with larger attenuation at a given saturation resulting from heterogeneous gas distributions. The extensional wave velocities are in agreement with Gassmann theory for the test with near-homogeneous gas saturation and with a patchy saturation model for the test with heterogeneous gas saturation. These results show that partially-saturated sands under moderate confining pressure can produce strong intrinsic attenuation for extensional waves.

Liu, Z.; Rector, J.W.; Nihei, K.T.; Tomutsa, L.; Myer, L.R.; Nakagawa, S.

2001-08-10

144

Dynamic aspects of apparent attenuation and wave localization in layered media

We present a theory for multiply-scattered waves in layered media which takes into account wave interference. The inclusion of interference in the theory leads to a new description of the phenomenon of wave localization and its impact on the apparent attenuation of seismic waves. We use the theory to estimate the localization length at a CO2 sequestration site in New Mexico at sonic frequencies (2 kHz) by performing numerical simulations with a model taken from well logs. Near this frequency, we find a localization length of roughly 180 m, leading to a localization-induced quality factor Q of 360.

Haney, M. M.; van, Wijk, K.

2008-01-01

145

Ocean current and wave effects on wind stress drag coefficient over the global ocean

The effects of ocean surface currents and dominant waves on the wind stress drag coefficient (CD) are examined over the global ocean. Major findings are as follows: (1) the combination of both ocean wave and current speeds can result in reductions in daily CD (>10%), but the notable impact of the latter is only evident in the tropical Pacific Ocean;

A. Birol Kara; E. Joseph Metzger; Mark A. Bourassa

2007-01-01

146

Ocean current and wave effects on wind stress drag coefficient over the global ocean

(1) The effects of ocean surface currents and dominant waves on the wind stress drag coefficient (CD) are examined over the global ocean. Major findings are as follows: (1) the combination of both ocean wave and current speeds can result in reductions in daily CD (>10%), but the notable impact of the latter is only evident in the tropical Pacific

A. Birol Kara; E. Joseph Metzger; Mark A. Bourassa

2007-01-01

147

Influence Of Wave Steepness On Force Coefficient For Square And Rectangular Caissons

The influence of wave steepness on force coefficient for large square and rectangular section caissons has been studied experimentally and compared with the results obtained using the modified linear diffraction theory proposed by Mogridge and Jamieson. The square caisson was tested for orientations of 0°, 15°, 30° and 45° of its side with the wave front and the rectangular caisson

N. Jothi Shankar; K. Subbiah

1981-01-01

148

Attenuation of P, S, and coda waves in Koyna region, India

The attenuation properties of the crust in the Koyna region of the Indian shield have been investigated using 164 seismograms\\u000a from 37 local earthquakes that occurred in the region. The extended coda normalization method has been used to estimate the\\u000a quality factors for P waves $$ {\\\\left( {Q_{\\\\alpha } } \\\\right)} $$ and S waves $$ {\\\\left( {Q_{\\\\beta } }

Babita Sharma; S. S. Teotia; Dinesh Kumar

2007-01-01

149

The radiotherapy-related types of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) have been established, which give the most effective treatment for NPC patients using the individual therapy. To diagnose the types of NPC, we assess the general NPC cell lines CNE1, CNE2 and normal nasopharyngeal cell line NP69 using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in two steps: firstly, the OCT images of the three different types of cell pellets are captured. Secondly, by fitting Beer's law to the averaged A-scans in these OCT datasets, the attenuation coefficients (? t ) of the cells can be extracted. The median attenuation coefficients (interquartile range) of CNE1, CNE2, and NP69 are 5.58 mm(-1) (IQR 5.55 to 5.65 mm(-1)), 5.91 mm(-1) (IQR 5.82 to 5.88 mm(-1)), and 8.96 mm(-1) (IQR 8.80 to 9.47 mm(-1)), respectively. The distinguishable quantitative OCT analysis (by ? t ) shows that the types of NPC could potentially be differentiated in real time and noninvasive. PMID:22618158

Li, Jianghua; Tu, Ziwei; Shen, Zhiyuan; Xia, Yunfei; He, Yonghong; Liu, Songhao; Chen, Changshui

2013-02-01

150

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground motion prediction is an essential component of earthquake hazard assessment. Seismic wave attenuation with distance is an important, yet difficult to constrain, factor for such estimation. Using the empirical method of ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs), seismic wave attenuation with distance, which includes both the effect of anelastic attenuation and scattering, can be estimated from the distance decay of peak ground velocity (PGV) or peak ground acceleration (PGA) of ordinary earthquakes; however, in some regions where plate-boundary earthquakes are infrequent, such as Cascadia and Nankai, there are fewer data with which to constrain the empirical parameters. In both of those subduction zones, tectonic tremor occurs often. In this study, we use tectonic tremor to estimate the seismic wave attenuation with distance, and in turn use the attenuation results to estimate the radiated seismic energy of tremor. Our primary interest is in the variations among subduction zones. Ground motion attenuation and the distribution of released seismic energy from tremors are two important subduction zone characteristics. Therefore, it is very interesting to see whether there are variations of these parameters in different subduction zones, or regionally within the same subduction zone. It is also useful to estimate how much energy is released by tectonic tremor from accumulated energy to help understand subduction dynamics and the difference between ordinary earthquakes and tremor. We use the tectonic tremor catalog of Ide (2012) in Nankai, Cascadia, Mexico and southern Chile. We measured PGV and PGA of individual tremor bursts at each station. We assume a simple GMPE relationship and estimate seismic attenuation and relative site amplification factors from the data. In the Nankai subduction zone, there are almost no earthquakes on the plate interface, but intra-slab earthquakes occur frequently. Both the seismic wave attenuation with distance and the site response obtained from intra-slab earthquakes is almost the same as that determined from tectonic tremor. This means the attenuation parameter should be well estimated from tremor. Furthermore, we find substantial along-strike variation in the estimated attenuation parameter in the Nankai subduction zone, allowing us to infer with-in region differences in behavior.

Yabe, S.; Baltay, A.; Ide, S.; Beroza, G. C.

2013-12-01

151

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fundamental-mode Love and Rayleigh waves generated by 57 earthquakes which occurred in the north and central Indian Ocean (extending to 40°S) and recorded at Indian seismograph and other WWSSN stations such as HOW, SHL, VIS, MDR, HYB, KOD, CHG, TRD, POO, BOM, GOA, NDI, NIL and QUE are analysed. Love and Rayleigh wave attenuation coefficients are estimated at periods of 15-100 s using the spectral amplitude of these waves for 98 different paths across the Bay of Bengal Fan, the Arabian Fan, and the north and central Indian Ocean. The large standard deviations observed in the surface wave attenuation coefficients may be a result of regional variation of the attenuative properties of the crust and upper mantle beneath these regions. Love wave attenuation coefficients are found to vary from 0.000 03 to 0.000 45 km -1 for the Bay of Bengal Fan; from 0.000 03 to 0.000 85 km -1 for the Arabian Fan; and from 0.000 03 to 0.000 35 km -1 for the north and central Indian Ocean. Similarly, Rayleigh wave attenuation coefficients vary from 0.000 03 to 0.0004 km -1 for the Bay of Bengal Fan; from 0.000 06 to 0.0007 km -1 for the Arabian Fan; and from 0.000 03 to 0.0007 km -1 for the north and central Indian Ocean. Backus and Gilbert inversion theory is applied to these surface wave attenuation data to obtain average Q-1 models for the crust and upper mantle beneath the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Fan, and the north and central Indian Ocean. Inversion of Love and Rayleigh wave attenuation data shows a high-attenuation zone centred at a depth of > 120 km ( Q? ? 125) for the Bay of Bengal Fan. Similarly, a high-attenuation zone ( Q? ? 40-70) occurs at a depth of 60-160 km for the Arabian Fan at 100-160 km ( Q? ? 115) for the Indian Ocean off Ninetyeast Ridge, and at 80-160 km ( Q? ? 80) for the Indian Ocean across the Ninetyeast Ridge. The Q?-1 models show a lithosphere thickness of 120 km beneath the Bay of Bengal Fan. Similarly, lithosphere thickness of 70, 100 and 80 km is estimated beneath the Arabian Fan, and the Indian Ocean off Ninetyeast Ridge and across Ninetyeast Ridge, respectively. The base of the lithosphere is identified as the depth at which there is a significant increase in the Q?-1 value, which attains its maximum value in the asthenosphere. The thinning of Indian lithosphere beneath the Arabian Fan suggests high temperature below Moho depth (60 km from surface) which has caused a high-attenuation zone at this shallow depth.

Singh, D. D.

152

Excitation and Attenuation of Hypersonic Waves in Quartz

A method for the generation and detection of hypersonic waves, which has only been briefly described earlier, together with some absorption measurements in quartz, is discussed in some detail. Further measurements of the hypersonic absorption in quartz at different crystal orientations and after neutron irradiation are reported. The results are in qualitative agreement with a phonon-phonon relaxation process.

H. E. Bömmel; K. Dransfeld

1960-01-01

153

Seismic attenuation due to wave-induced flow

Jan 14, 2004 ... quality factor Q?1 which represents the fraction of wave energy lost to heat in .... by one fluid type (say gas), the outer shell is saturated by another fluid type (say ... more compressible and have a higher intrinsic permeability than the ..... We will find it natural to define phase 2 as being more compliant than ...

2004-01-03

154

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterogeneous porous media such as hydrocarbon reservoir rocks are effectively described as anisotropic viscoelastic solids. They show characteristic velocity dispersion and attenuation of seismic waves within a broad frequency band, and an explanation for this observation is the mechanism of wave-induced pore fluid flow. Various theoretical models quantify dispersion and attenuation of normal incident compressional waves in finely layered porous media. Similar models of shear wave attenuation are not known, nor do general theories exist to predict wave-induced fluid flow effects in media with a more complex distribution of medium heterogeneities. By using finite element simulations of poroelastic relaxation, the total frequency-dependent complex stiffness tensor can be computed for a porous medium with arbitrary internal heterogeneity. From the stiffness tensor, velocity dispersion and frequency-dependent attenuation are derived for compressional and shear waves as a function of the angle of incidence. We apply our approach to the case of layered media and to that of an ellipsoidal poroelastic inclusion. In the case of the ellipsoidal inclusion, compressional and shear wave modes show significant attenuation, and the characteristic frequency dependence of the effect is governed by the spatiotemporal scale of the pore fluid pressure relaxation. In our anisotropic examples, the angle dependence of the attenuation is stronger than that of the velocity dispersion. It becomes clear that the spatial attenuation patterns show specific characteristics of wave-induced fluid flow, implying that anisotropic attenuation measurements may contribute to the inversion of fluid transport properties in heterogeneous porous media.

Wenzlau, F.; Altmann, J. B.; Müller, T. M.

2010-07-01

155

The most promising mechanism for the very low-frequency sound attenuation observed in the deep sound channel is diffusive scattering by internal waves, Mellen, et al. (1976) have obtained estimates for the extra attenuation using the Garrett-Munk internal wave model and found consistency with the lower experimental values reported. Kibblewhite, et al, (1978) have shown a definite regional dependence in the

D. G. Browning; M. J. Fecher; R. H. Mellen

1981-01-01

156

Journal of Sound and Vibration (1996) 196(1), 107127 ATTENUATION OF WAVES IN PLATES AND BARS

Journal of Sound and Vibration (1996) 196(1), 107Â127 ATTENUATION OF WAVES IN PLATES AND BARS USING that shear effects are important in this attenuation mechanism. Numerical simulations indicate situation is often required in order to perform certain critical experiments in elastic wave propagation

Norris, Andrew

157

Water saturation effects on elastic wave attenuation in porous rocks with aligned fractures

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elastic wave attenuation anisotropy in porous rocks with aligned fractures is of interest to seismic remote sensing of the Earth's structure and to hydrocarbon reservoir characterization in particular. We investigated the effect of partial water saturation on attenuation in fractured rocks in the laboratory by conducting ultrasonic pulse-echo measurements on synthetic, silica-cemented, sandstones with aligned penny-shaped voids (fracture density of 0.0298 ± 0.0077), chosen to simulate the effect of natural fractures in the Earth according to theoretical models. Our results show, for the first time, contrasting variations in the attenuation (Q-1) of P and S waves with water saturation in samples with and without fractures. The observed Qs/Qp ratios are indicative of saturation state and the presence or absence of fractures, offering an important new possibility for remote fluid detection and characterization.

Amalokwu, Kelvin; Best, Angus I.; Sothcott, Jeremy; Chapman, Mark; Minshull, Tim; Li, Xiang-Yang

2014-05-01

158

Civil defense shelters are often constructed beneath the ground to provide protection against blast loadings. Concrete is widely used as the material for the defense layer of the shelters. This paper adopts a continuum damage model of brittle media to numerically investigate the dynamic fracture and attenuation effect of perforated concrete defense layer on stress waves from planar charge. The

Zhi-liang Wang; Yong-chi Li; J. G. Wang; R. F. Shen

2007-01-01

159

Excess attenuation of leaky Lamb waves due to viscous fluid loading

acoustic field from a fluidÂsolid interface has a wealth of information which, if exploited, revealsExcess attenuation of leaky Lamb waves due to viscous fluid loading Adnan H. Nayfeh and Peter B. Nagy Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, University of Cincinnati

Nagy, Peter B.

160

Solution of coupled acousticÂelastic wave propagation problems with anelastic attenuation using Science and Modeling, Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, AGH Â University of Science and Technology, KrakÃ³w, Poland c Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences (ICES

Torres-VerdÃn, Carlos

161

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Single crystals of lithium metatantalate and lithium metaniobate, grown from melts having different stoichiometries and different amounts of magnesium oxide, show that doping lowers temperature-independent portion of attenuation of acoustic waves. Doped crystals possess optical properties well suited for electro-optical and photoelastic applications.

Croft, W.; Damon, R.; Kedzie, R.; Kestigian, M.; Smith, A.; Worley, J.

1970-01-01

162

Parameters affecting water-hammer wave attenuation, shape and timing—Part 1: Mathematical tools

This two-part paper investigates key parameters that may affect the pressurewaveform predicted by the classical theory ofwater-hammer. Shortcomings in the prediction of pressure wave attenuation, shape and timing originate from violation of assumptions made in the derivation of the classical waterhammer equations. Possible mechanisms that may significantly affect pressure waveforms include unsteady friction, cavitation (including column separation and trapped air

Anton Bergant; Arris S. Tijsseling; John P. Vítkovský; Dídia I. C. Covas; Angus R. Simpson; Martin F. Lambert

2008-01-01

163

Measurement of the speed and attenuation of the Biot slow wave using a large ultrasonic transmitter

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two compressional wave modes, a fast P1 and a slow P2, propagate through fluid-saturated porous and permeable media. This contribution focuses on new experimental tests of existing theories describing wave propagation in such media. Updated observations of this P2 mode are obtained through a water-loaded, porous sintered glass bead plate with a novel pair of ultrasonic transducers consisting of a large transmitter and a near-point receiver. The properties of the porous plate are measured in independent laboratory experiments. Waveforms are acquired as a function of the angle of incidence over the range from -50° to +50° with respect to the normal. The porous plate is fully characterized, and the physical properties are used to calculate the wave speeds and attenuations of the P1, the P2, and the shear S waves. Comparisons of theory and observation are further facilitated by numerically modeling the observed waveforms. This modeling method incorporates the frequency and angle of incidence-dependent reflectivity, transmissivity, and transducer edge effects; the modeled waveforms match well those observed. Taken together, this study provides further support for existing poroelastic bulk wave propagation and boundary condition theory. However, observed transmitted P1 and S mode amplitudes could not be adequately described unless the attenuation of the medium's frame was also included. The observed P2 amplitudes could be explained without any knowledge of the solid frame attenuation.

Bouzidi, Youcef; Schmitt, Douglas R.

2009-08-01

164

Wave attenuation over coastal salt marshes under storm surge conditions

. A., Kirby, J. T. & Hwang, P. A. Wave diffraction due to areas of energy 269 dissipation. J. Waterw. Port Coast. Ocean Eng. 110 (1), 67-79 (1984). 270 13 30. Mendez, F. & Losada, I. An empirical model to estimate the propagation of random... for supporting the 278 research time of IM, and Chris Rolfe, Cambridge University, for the soil analysis. The work described 279 in this publication was supported by the European Community’s 7th Framework Programme through 280 the grant to the budget...

Möller, Iris; Kudella, Matthias; Rupprecht, Franziska; Spencer, Tom; Paul, Maike; van Wesenbeeck, Bregje K.; Wolters, Guido; Jensen, Kai; Bouma, Tjeerd J.; Miranda-Lange, Martin; Schimmels, Stefan

2014-09-29

165

Attenuation of Non-Physical Oscillations in Supernova Shock Waves

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial viscosity is widely used in numerical calculations of stellar core collapse. The failure or success of the prompt mechanism explosion of type-II supernovae is strongly dependent on the numerical code, and the study of a suitable and efficient method of capturing the shock front is a current problem. We present a novel one-term artificial viscosity which is dependent on the velocity field along the shock front. We show that this form of artificial viscosity is able to capture the profile of a plane shock wave, removing the non-physical oscillations originated by the artificial viscosity of von Neumann and Richtmyer type.

Duarte, S. B.; Rodrigues, H.; Portes, D.

166

Temporal change in coda wave attenuation observed during an eruption of Mount St. Helens

During the past few years there have been numerous reports of changes in coda wave attenuation occurring before major earthquakes. These observations are important because they may provide insight into stress-related structural changes taking place in the focal region prior to the occurrence of large earthquakes. The results of these studies led us to suspect that temporal changes in coda wave attenuation might also accompany volcanic eruptions. By measuring power decay envelopes for earthquakes at Mount St. Helens recorded before, during, and after an eruption that took place during September 3--6, 1981, we found that coda Q/sup -1/ for frequencies between 6 and 30 Hz was 20--30% higher before the eruption than after. The change is attributed to an increase in the density of open microcracks in the rock associated with inflation of the volcano prior to the eruption. Q/sup -1/ was found to be only weakly dependent on frequency and displayed a slight peak near 10 Hz. The weak frequency dependence is attributed to the dominance of intrinsic attenuation over scattering attenuation, since it is generally accepted that intrinsic attenuation is constant with frequency, whereas scattering attenuation decreases strongly at higher frequencies. The weak frequency dependence of Q/sup -1/ at Mount St. Helens contrasts with results reported for studies in nonvolcanic regions. The peak in Q/sup -1/ near 10 Hz at Mount St. Helens is attributed to the scale length of heterogeneity responsible for generating backscattered waves. Results for nonvolcanic regions have shown this peak to occur near 0.5 Hz. Thus a smaller scale length of heterogeneity is required to explain the 10-Hz peak at Mount St. Helens. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988

Fehler, M.; Roberts, P.; Fairbanks, T.

1988-05-10

167

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low attenuation of Sezawa modes operating at GHz frequencies in ZnO/GaAs systems immersed in liquid helium has been observed. This unexpected behaviour for Rayleigh-like surface acoustic waves (SAWs) is explained in terms of the calculated depth profiles of their acoustic Poynting vectors. This analysis allows reproduction of the experimental dispersion of the attenuation coefficient. In addition, the high attenuation of the Rayleigh mode is compensated by the strengthening provided by the ZnO layer. The introduction of the ZnO film will enable the operation of SAW-driven single-photon sources in GaAs-based systems with the best thermal stability provided by the liquid helium bath.

Pedrós, J.; García-Gancedo, L.; Ford, C. J. B.; Griffiths, J. P.; Jones, G. A. C.; Flewitt, A. J.

2013-01-01

168

The attenuation of Love waves and toroidal oscillations of the earth.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attempt has been made to invert a large set of attenuation data for Love waves and toroidal oscillations in the earth, using a recent method by Backus and Gilbert. The difficulty in finding an acceptable model of internal friction which explains the data, under the assumption that the internal friction is independent of frequency, casts doubt on the validity of this assumption. A frequency-dependent model of internal friction is presented which is in good agreement with the seismic data and with recent experimental measurements of attenuation in rocks.

Jackson, D. D.

1971-01-01

169

Ultrasonic attenuation in the transverse spin density wave phase of chromium

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A strong hysteretic attenuation peak is seen when a polarizing field itHp is applied perpendicular to both the longitudinal ultrasonic wavevector itq and the wavevector itQ of the transverse spin density wave (TSDW) in chromium, i.e., itHp? itq? itQ, but not when ( itHp? itq)? itQ. This effect is discussed in relation to the various models for the configuration of the polarization that have been proposed to explain the anomalous attenuation seen in the TSDW phase for itq? itQ.

Muir, W. C.; Fawcett, E.; Perz, J. M.

1987-10-01

170

In vivo estimations of the frequency-dependent acoustic attenuation (?) and backscatter (?) coefficients using radio frequency (RF) echoes acquired with clinical ultrasound systems must be independent of the data acquisition setup and the estimation procedures. In a recent in vivo assessment of these parameters in rodent mammary tumors, overall agreement was observed among ? and ? estimates using data from four clinical imaging systems. In some cases, particularly in highly attenuating heterogeneous tumors, multi-system variability was observed. This paper compares ? and ? estimates of a well-characterized rodent-tumor-mimicking homogeneous phantom scanned using 7 transducers with the same four clinical imaging systems: a Siemens Acuson S2000, an Ultrasonix RP, a Zonare Z.one, and a VisualSonics Vevo2100. ? and ? estimates of lesion-mimicking spheres in the phantom were independently assessed by three research groups, who analyzed their system’s RF echo signals. Imaging-system-based estimates of ? and ? of both lesion-mimicking spheres were comparable to through-transmission laboratory estimates and to predictions using Faran’s theory, respectively. A few notable variations in results among the clinical systems were observed, but the average and maximum percent difference between ? estimates and laboratory-assessed values was 11% and 29%, respectively. Excluding a single outlier dataset, the average and maximum average difference between ? estimates for the clinical systems and values predicted from scattering theory was 16% and 33%, respectively. These results were an improvement over previous inter-laboratory comparisons of attenuation and backscatter estimates. Although the standardization of our estimation methodologies can be further improved, this study validates our results from previous rodent breast-tumor model studies. PMID:22518954

Nam, Kibo; Rosado-Mendez, Ivan M.; Wirtzfeld, Lauren A.; Pawlicki, Alexander D.; Kumar, Viksit; Madsen, Ernest L.; Ghoshal, Goutam; Lavarello, Roberto J.; Oelze, Michael L.; Bigelow, Timothy A.; Zagzebski, James A.; O'Brien, William D.; Hall, Timothy J.

2012-01-01

171

Dual-energy x-ray computed tomography (DECT) has the capability to decompose attenuation coefficients using two basis functions and has proved its potential in reducing beam-hardening artifacts from reconstructed images. The method typically involves two successive scans with different x-ray tube voltage settings. This work proposes an approach to dual-energy imaging through x-ray beam filtration that requires only one scan and a single tube voltage setting. It has been implemented in a preclinical microCT tomograph with minor modifications. Retrofitting of the microCT scanner involved the addition of an automated filter wheel and modifications to the acquisition and reconstruction software. Results show that beam-hardening artifacts are reduced to noise level. Acquisition of a ?-Compton image is well suited for attenuation-correction of PET images while dynamic energy selection (4D viewing) offers flexibility in image viewing by adjusting contrast and noise levels to suit the task at hand. All dual-energy and single energy reference scans were acquired at the same soft tissue dose level of 50 mGy. PMID:20107245

Taschereau, R; Silverman, R W; Chatziioannou, A F

2010-01-01

172

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feedbacks between vegetation, wave climate, and sedimentation create stable ecosystem states within estuaries that provide ecosystem services such as wildlife habitat, erosion control, and pollution filtration. Flume and field studies conducted with cordgrass (Spartina spp.) and sea grasses (Zostera spp., Halodule spp.) have demonstrated that the presence of vegetation reduces wave energy and increases sediment retention. Since the spatial distribution of plant species and the presence of unique plant species differ between estuaries, there is a need to understand how individual plant species, or groups of species with similar morphology, influence wave characteristics and sedimentation. Within Tillamook Bay, Oregon, three species of emergent vascular vegetation species (Carex lyngbyei, Eleocharis sp., Schoenoplectus pungens) and one species of submergent vascular vegetation species (Zostera marina) are present in the high wave energy portion of the estuary at the border of open water and the start of vegetation. These species represent three distinct growth forms (emergent reeds, emergent grasses, submergent grasses) and occur at varying densities relative to each other, as well as within the estuary. Using paired acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs), we quantify the relative attenuation of wave velocity between vegetation types and densities within the estuary and compare these results with published attenuation rates from flume and field studies in different environments. The effect of decreased wave velocity on sediment retention is measured using permanent sediment markers within and outside of vegetation stands and paired with ADV data. Sediment retention is predicted to vary seasonally with seasonal vegetation composition changes and remain constant in unvegetated areas. From this experiment we expect to identify like groups of plant species whose attenuation characteristics are the same, allowing for models of wave-vegetation-sediment interaction to be created with multiple vegetation types.

Lemein, T.; Cox, D. T.; Albert, D.; Blackmar, P.

2012-12-01

173

An extension of the X-ray extended-range technique is described for measuring X-ray mass attenuation coefficients by introducing absolute measurement of a number of foils - the multiple independent foil technique. Illustrating the technique with the results of measurements for gold in the 38-50 keV energy range, it is shown that its use enables selection of the most uniform and well defined of available foils, leading to more accurate measurements; it allows one to test the consistency of independently measured absolute values of the mass attenuation coefficient with those obtained by the thickness transfer method; and it tests the linearity of the response of the counter and counting chain throughout the range of X-ray intensities encountered in a given experiment. In light of the results for gold, the strategy to be ideally employed in measuring absolute X-ray mass attenuation coefficients, X-ray absorption fine structure and related quantities is discussed.

Chantler, C.T.; Islam, M.T.; Rae, N.A.; Tran, C.Q.; Glover, J.L.; Barnea, Z. (La Trobe); (Melbourne)

2012-09-25

174

Physics-based ULF Wave Radial Diffusion Coefficients in the Van Allen Belts

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power in the Pc5 ULF wave band is believed to have strong impact on the acceleration and transport of MeV energy electrons in the outer radiation belt. Typically, radial belt diffusion coefficients are defined from empirical approaches, based on observed flux variations and param-eterised by geomagnetic indices. We report the results of new ULF wave diffusion coefficients derived from statistical analyses of ULF wave power from ground-based magnetometers from the CARISMA chain, as well as from in-situ data from GOES and THEMIS. These results are compared to previous empirical results, and the dependence of the wave-driven coefficients on energy and solar wind speed presented. The ULF wave physics model illustrates the importance of global measurements for identifying dominant or active acceleration mechanisms. Future in-situ radiation belt missions such as the Canadian Space Agency Outer Radiation Belt Injec-tion, Transport, Acceleration and Loss Satellite (ORBITALS) will enable these physics-based models to be tested and the relative importance of various ULF and VLF wave acceleration and loss processes established. In combination with the approved NASA LWS RBSP mission, and the proposed Japanese ERG satellite, the ORBITALS-RBSP-ERG three petal constella-tion together with supporting ground-based and geosynchronous measurements will resolve the spatio-temporal ambiguities and global dynamics and morphology of the Earths radiation belts.

Mann, Ian; Rae, Jonathan; Murphy, Kyle; Ozeke, Louis; Milling, David; Chan, Anthony; Elkington, Scot; Angelopoulos, Vassilis

175

Numerical Analysis of Pulsed Pressure Waves in Attenuative and Dispersive Media.

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis examines the behavior of pulsed pressure waves as they propagate through dissipative fluids whose attenuation is characterized by a frequency power law. This means that the degree of attenuation increases as the frequency of a sinusoidal input signal increases where the rate of change is a physical property of the substance. Previously published experimental data indicates that this form of attenuation is typical of many viscous materials including biological tissues and fluids, adhesive glues, etc. The model developed to describe this behavior is based on the assumption that the pulsed waves have finite amplitude and can therefore be uniquely represented in the Fourier frequency domain in which the attenuation is equal to the imaginary part of the complex wavenumber. To ensure causality of the system impulse response, it is shown that the real part of the wavenumber must be nonlinearly dependent on frequency. This means that the physical system must be dispersive as well as attenuative and consequently pulsed waves are distorted as they propagate. Based on the complex wavenumber, a dispersive version of the wave equation which satisfies continuity conditions at material interfaces is derived. A spatial and temporal discretization of this equation allows for the analysis of realistic imaging regions. Due to noninteger powers of frequency in the wavenumber a continuous time version of the wave equation is not easily obtained making traditional finite difference time domain operators inapplicable. The interdependence of imaginary and real parts of the wavenumber, however, makes it possible to combine the corresponding terms in the wave equation into a single factor. This factor can then be mapped into discrete time frequency. In this domain noninteger exponents can be eliminated via a power series expansion and the resulting equations transform naturally to discrete time operators. The validity of this method is verified by comparing the results with those obtained through a numerical frequency domain implementation. The algorithm is demonstrated in two dimensions by simulating pulsed pressure waves radiating from a finite aperture through an adhesive bond layer in which case a thin dispersive layer is sandwiched between two lossless fluids.

Wismer, Margaret Gertrude

176

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dual energy computed tomography (DECT) can provide simultaneous estimation of relative electron density ?e and effective atomic number Zeff. The ability to obtain these quantities (?e, Zeff) has been shown to benefit selected radiotherapy applications where tissue characterization is required. The conventional analysis method (spectral method) relies on knowledge of the CT scanner photon spectra which may be difficult to obtain accurately. Furthermore an approximate empirical attenuation correction of the photon spectrum through the patient is necessary. We present an alternative approach based on a parameterization of the measured ratio of low and high kVp linear attenuation coefficients for deriving Zeff which does not require the estimation of the CT scanner spectra. In a first approach, the tissue substitute method (TSM), the Rutherford parameterization of the linear attenuation coefficients was employed to derive a relation between Zeff and the ratio of the linear attenuation coefficients measured at the low and high kVp of the CT scanner. A phantom containing 16 tissue mimicking inserts was scanned with a dual source DECT scanner at 80 and 140 kVp. The data from the 16 inserts phantom was used to obtain model parameters for the relation between Zeff and \\mu \\big|_{140kVp}^{80kVp}. The accuracy of the method was evaluated with a second phantom containing 4 tissue mimicking inserts. The TSM was compared to a more complex approach, the reference tissue method (RTM), which requires the derivation of stoichiometric fit parameters. These were derived from the 16 inserts phantom scans and used to calculate CT numbers at 80 and 140 kVp for a set of tabulated reference human tissues. Model parameters for the parameterization of \\mu \\big|_{140\\;kVp}^{80\\;kVp} were estimated for this reference tissue dataset and compared to the results of the TSM. Residuals on Zeff for the reference tissue dataset for both TSM and RTM were compared to those obtained from the spectral method. The tissue substitutes were well fitted by the TSM with R2 = 0.9930. Residuals on Zeff for the phantoms were similar between the TSM and spectral methods for Zeff < 8 while they were improved by the TSM for higher Zeff. The RTM fitted the reference tissue dataset well with R2 = 0.9999. Comparing the Zeff extracted from TSM and the more complex RTM to the known values from the reference tissue dataset yielded errors of up to 0.3 and 0.15 units of Zeff respectively. The parameterization approach yielded standard deviations which were up to 0.3 units of Zeff higher than those observed with the spectral method for Zeff around 7.5. Procedures for the DECT estimation of Zeff removing the need for estimates of the CT scanner spectra have been presented. Both the TSM and the more complex RTM performed better than the spectral method. The RTM yielded the best results for the reference human tissue dataset reducing errors from up to 0.3 to 0.15 units of Zeff compared to the simpler TSM. Both TSM and RTM are simpler to implement than the spectral method which requires estimates of the CT scanner spectra.

Landry, Guillaume; Seco, Joao; Gaudreault, Mathieu; Verhaegen, Frank

2013-10-01

177

Seismic?wave attenuation determined from tectonic tremor in multiple subduction zones

Tectonic tremor provides a new source of observations that can be used to constrain the seismic attenuation parameter for ground?motion prediction and hazard mapping. Traditionally, recorded earthquakes of magnitude ?3–8 are used to develop ground?motion prediction equations; however, typical earthquake records may be sparse in areas of high hazard. In this study, we constrain the distance decay of seismic waves using measurements of the amplitude decay of tectonic tremor, which is plentiful in some regions. Tectonic tremor occurs in the frequency band of interest for ground?motion prediction (i.e., ?2–8??Hz) and is located on the subducting plate interface, at the lower boundary of where future large earthquakes are expected. We empirically fit the distance decay of peak ground velocity from tremor to determine the attenuation parameter in four subduction zones: Nankai, Japan; Cascadia, United States–Canada; Jalisco, Mexico; and southern Chile. With the large amount of data available from tremor, we show that in the upper plate, the lower crust is less attenuating than the upper crust. We apply the same analysis to intraslab events in Nankai and show the possibility that waves traveling from deeper intraslab events experience more attenuation than those from the shallower tremor due to ray paths that pass through the subducting and highly attenuating oceanic crust. This suggests that high pore?fluid pressure is present in the tremor source region. These differences imply that the attenuation parameter determined from intraslab earthquakes may underestimate ground motion for future large earthquakes on the plate interface.

Yabe, Suguru; Baltay, Annemarie S.; Ide, Satoshi; Beroza, Gregory C.

2014-01-01

178

Dislocation damping and anisotropic seismic wave attenuation in Earth's upper mantle.

Crystal defects form during tectonic deformation and are reactivated by the shear stress associated with passing seismic waves. Although these defects, known as dislocations, potentially contribute to the attenuation of seismic waves in Earth's upper mantle, evidence for dislocation damping from laboratory studies has been circumstantial. We experimentally determined the shear modulus and associated strain-energy dissipation in pre-deformed synthetic olivine aggregates under high pressures and temperatures. Enhanced high-temperature background dissipation occurred in specimens pre-deformed by dislocation creep in either compression or torsion, the enhancement being greater for prior deformation in torsion. These observations suggest the possibility of anisotropic attenuation in relatively coarse-grained rocks where olivine is or was deformed at relatively high stress by dislocation creep in Earth's upper mantle. PMID:22517856

Farla, Robert J M; Jackson, Ian; Fitz Gerald, John D; Faul, Ulrich H; Zimmerman, Mark E

2012-04-20

179

The propagation and attenuation of complex acoustic waves in treated circular and annular ducts

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The propagation of plane waves and higher order acoustic modes in a circular multisectioned duct was studied. A unique source array consisting of two concentric rings of sources, providing phase and amplitude control in the radial, as well as circumferential direction, was developed to generate plane waves and both spinning and nonspinning higher order modes. Measurements of attenuation and radial mode shapes were taken with finite length liners between the hard wall sections of an anechoically terminated duct. Materials tested as liners included a glass fiber material and both sintered fiber metals and perforated sheet metals with a honeycomb backing. The fundamental acoustic properties of these materials were studied with emphasis on the attenuation of sound by the liners and the determination of local versus extended reaction behavior for the boundary condition. The experimental results were compared with a mathematical model for the multisectioned duct.

Reethof, G.

1976-01-01

180

Parameters affecting water-hammer wave attenuation, shape and timing—Part 2: Case studies

This two-part paper investigates parameters that may significantly affect water-hammer wave attenuation, shape and timing. Possible sources that may affect the waveform predicted by classical water-hammer theory include unsteady friction, cavitation (including column separation and trapped air pockets), a number of fluid–structure interaction effects, viscoelastic behaviour of the pipe-wall material, leakages and blockages. Part 1 of this two-part paper presents

Anton Bergant; Arris S. Tijsseling; John P. Vítkovský; Dídia I. C. Covas; Angus R. Simpson; Martin F. Lambert

2008-01-01

181

Tables and graphs of the photon mass attenuation coefficient mu\\/rho and the mass energy-absorption coefficient mu(en)\\/rho are presented for all of the elements Z=1 to 92, and for 48 compounds and mixtures of radiological interest. The tables cover energies of the photon (x ray, gamma ray, bremsstrahlung) from 1 keV to 20 MeV. The mu\\/rho values are taken from the

J. H. Hubbell; Stephen M Seltzer

1995-01-01

182

Air-ground interface: Surface waves, surface impedance and acoustic-to-seismic coupling coefficient

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In atmospheric acoustics, the subject of surface waves has been an area of discussion for many years. The existence of an acoustic surface wave is now well established theoretically. The mathematical solution for spherical wave propagation above an impedance boundary includes the possibility of a contribution that possesses all the standard properties for a surface wave. Surface waves exist when the surface is sufficiently porous, relative to its acoustical resistance, that it can influence the airborne particle velocity near the surface and reduce the phase velocity of sound waves in air at the surface. This traps some of the sound energy in the air to remain near the surface as it propagates. Above porous grounds, the existence of surface waves has eluded direct experimental confirmation (pulse experiments have failed to show a separate arrival expected from the reduced phase speed) and indirect evidence for its existence has appeared contradictory. The experimental evidence for the existence of an acoustical surface wave above porous boundaries is reviewed. Recent measurements including pulse experiments are also described. A few years ago the acoustic impedance of a grass-covered surface was measured in the frequency range 30 to 300 Hz. Here, further measurements on the same site are discussed. These measurements include core samples, a shallow refractive survey to determine the seismic velocities, and measurements of the acoustic-to-seismic coupling coefficient.

Daigle, Gilles; Embleton, Tony

1990-01-01

183

Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficients of gold in the 38?50-keV energy range

We used synchrotron x rays to measure the x-ray mass attenuation coefficients of gold at nine energies from 38 to 50 keV with accuracies of 0.1%. Our results are much more accurate than previous measurements in this energy range. A comparison of our measurements with calculated mass attenuation coefficients shows that our measurements fall almost exactly midway between the XCOM and FFAST calculated theoretical values, which differ from one another in this energy region by about 4%, even though the range includes no absorption edge. The consistency and accuracy of these measurements open the way to investigations of the x-ray attenuation in the region of the L absorption edge of gold.

Islam, M.T.; Rae, N.A.; Glover, J.L.; Barnea, Z.; de Jonge, M.D.; Tran, C.Q.; Wang, J.; Chantler, C.T. (Melbourne)

2010-11-12

184

The compounds, Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}, H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}, CdCl{sub 2} and NaCl and their solutions, attenuate gamma rays in addition to neutron absorption. These compounds are widely used in shielding of neutron sources, reactor control and neutron converters. Mass attenuation coefficients of gamma related to saturated solutions of the above four compounds, in energies 1172 keV and 1332 keV have been measured by NaI detector and agree very well with the results obtained by Xcom code. Experiment and computation show that, H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} has the highest gamma ray attenuation coefficient among the aforementioned compounds. (author)

Jalali, Majid [Esfahan Nuclear Technology Center - ENTC (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2006-07-01

185

Numerical simulation of ultrasonic wave propagation in anisotropic and attenuative solid materials.

The axisymmetric elastodynamic finite element code developed is capable of predicting quantitatively accurate displacement fields for elastic wave propagation in isotropic and transversely isotropic materials. The numerical algorithm incorporates viscous damping by adding a time-dependent tensor to Hooke's law. Amplitude comparisons are made between the geometric attenuation in the far field and the corresponding finite element predictions to investigate the quality and validity of the code. Through-transmission experimental measurements made with a 1 MHz L-wave transducer attached to an aluminum sample support the code predictions. The algorithm successfully models geometric beam spreading dispersion and energy absorption due to viscous damping. This numerical model is a viable tool for the study of elastic wave propagation in nondestructive testing applications. PMID:18267605

You, Z; Lusk, M; Ludwig, R; Lord, W

1991-01-01

186

Northeastern Venezuela has been studied in terms of coda wave attenuation using seismograms from local earthquakes recorded by a temporary short-period seismic network. The studied area has been separated into two subregions in order to investigate lateral variations in the attenuation parameters. Coda-Q-1 (Q(c)-1) has been obtained using the single-scattering theory. The contribution of the intrinsic absorption (Q(i)-1) and scattering (Q(s)-1) to total attenuation (Q(t)-1) has been estimated by means of a multiple lapse time window method, based on the hypothesis of multiple isotropic scattering with uniform distribution of scatterers. Results show significant spatial variations of attenuation: the estimates for intermediate depth events and for shallow events present major differences. This fact may be related to different tectonic characteristics that may be due to the presence of the Lesser Antilles subduction zone, because the intermediate depth seismic zone may be coincident with the southern continuation of the subducting slab under the arc.

Ugalde, A.; Pujades, L.G.; Canas, J.A.; Villasenor, A.

1998-01-01

187

Determination of Stress-Acoustic Coefficients of Rayleigh Wave by Use of Laser Doppler Velocimetry

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper, 1) a new non-contact ultrasonic stress measurement technique is proposed based on acoustoelasticity, in which ultrasonic wave motion is detected by use of a laser Doppler velocimeter, and 2) the stress-acoustic coefficients of Rayleigh wave for aluminum alloy and structural steel are determined by the technique. In the measurement system, Rayleigh waves are emitted into the specimen by a wedge-type piezoelectric transducer and vertical velocities of the surface motions of the traveling Rayleigh waves are detected by the laser Doppler velocimeter at two points of 4 cm apart. In order to measure the traveling time of the wave between the two points, the converted voltage signals are supplied both to i) a sing-around unit and ii) to a digital oscilloscope. The time-of-flight over the distance between the two points is obtained either by subtracting the sing-around periods measured at the two points or by direct reading at zero-cross of the overlapped images of the two waves on the CR display of the oscilloscope. Both measurements are made at the same time under increasing or decreasing loads. The stress-acoustic coefficients obtained are -1.2×10-5/MPa and -0.21×10-5/MPa for aluminum alloy 5052 and structural steel SS400, respectively. These results are in good agreement with those determined using two knife-edge contact piezoelectric transducers. This study shows that the proposed non-contact measuring technique by use of laser velocimetry is applicable to determining the stress-acoustic coefficients.

He, Lingfeng; Kobayashi, Shoichi

188

A Split of Direction of Propagation and Attenuation of P Waves in the Po Valley

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On July 17, 2011 a ML 4.8 earthquake occurred in the PO valley at a 48 km epicentral distance from a seismic station located at Palazzo Te (Mantova). The station is situated on deep quaternary sediments: the uppermost layers are mainly composed of clay and silty clay with interbedded sands; the Robertson index is 1.4

Daminelli, R.; Tento, A.; Marcellini, A.

2013-12-01

189

This report considers and prioritizes the primary potential technical cost__reduction pathways for offshore wave activated body attenuators designed for ocean resources. This report focuses on technical research and development costreduction pathways related to the device technology rather than environmental monitoring or permitting opportunities. Three sources of information were used to understand current cost drivers and develop a prioritized list of potential cost reduction pathways: a literature review of technical work related to attenuators, a reference device compiled from literature sources, and a webinar with each of three industry device developers. Data from these information sources were aggregated and prioritized with respect to the potential impact on the lifetime levelized cost of energy, the potential for progress, the potential for success, and the confidence in success. Results indicate the five most promising costreduction pathways include advanced controls, an optimized structural design, improved power conversion, planned maintenance scheduling, and an optimized device profile.__

Bull, Diana L; Ochs, Margaret Ellen

2013-09-01

190

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Guided THz wave characteristics in a parallel-plate waveguide (PPWG) consisting of ferroelectric film (LiNbO3 and LiTaO3) and multilayer graphene (MLG) is studied in this paper, with their low and tunable attenuation valley predicted. The electrical conductivity of MLG is calculated by a set of closed-form equations with the coupling effect between the bottom graphene layer (BGL) and its substrate taken into account carefully, while the dispersive behavior of ferroelectric film itself is described by the Lorentz model over an ultra-wide THz band. It is shown that the guided TM-mode propagation can be adjusted effectively by changing temperature, frequency, optical pumping intensity, MLG layer number, film thickness and its transverse optical-phonon frequency. Moreover, one low attenuation valley of TM-mode in such ferroelectric-graphene waveguide is captured, which can be exploited for developing some THz planar tunable waveguides with ultra-low loss.

Gu, Xiao-Qiang; Yin, Wen-Yan; Zheng, Ting

2014-11-01

191

S wave attenuation and site effects in the region of Friuli, Italy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used strong motion records from the 1976 Friuli earthquake (M 6.4) and 10 of the biggest aftershocks recorded by the National Accelerograph Network of the Electrical Power Company of Italy to estimate the quality factor Q of S waves in this region. The wide distance range of the recordings (10 < r < 190 km) permits us to analyze the spectral amplitude decay of the records using a nonparametric approach [e.g., Anderson and Quaas, 1988; Castro et al., 1990; Anderson, 1991]. We obtained attenuation functions for a set of 18 frequencies ranging between 0.4 and 25.0 Hz. The values of Q retrieved from the attenuation functions obtained follow the frequency-dependent relation Q = 20.4f. A test of the method was made using a second data set consisting of digital seismograms from the Friuli-Venezia Giulia Seismograph Network. In spite of the different size of the volume sampled by these data (10 < r < 131 km), the frequency dependence of Q obtained (Q = 16.1f0.92) is similar to that obtained with the strong motion data set. The near-surface attenuation was also estimated using the model proposed by Anderson and Hough [1984] and Anderson [1991]. We found that ?0 is smaller for the strong motion stations located on rock compared to stations located on either shallow or soft sediments. To estimate the site response of the strong motion stations, we corrected the spectral records for the attenuation effect and then inverted the corrected records to separate source and site effects using the inversion scheme proposed by Andrews [1986]. To verify the site amplification estimates obtained, we also calculated the transfer function of each site using Nakamura's [1989] method for S wave [e.g., Lermo and Chavez-García, 1993]. In general, the shapes of the site functions obtained with the inversion are consistent with the transfer functions obtained calculating the horizontal to vertical component ratio.

Castro, Raúl R.; Pacor, Francesca; Sala, Alfio; Petrungaro, Carmine

1996-10-01

192

Ultrasonic attenuation in pearlitic steel.

Expressions for the attenuation coefficients of longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic waves are developed for steel with pearlitic microstructure. This type of lamellar duplex microstructure influences attenuation because of the lamellar spacing. In addition, longitudinal attenuation measurements were conducted using an unfocused transducer with 10 MHz central frequency on the cross section of a quenched railroad wheel sample. The dependence of longitudinal attenuation on the pearlite microstructure is observed from the changes of longitudinal attenuation from the quenched tread surface to deeper locations. The results show that the attenuation value is lowest and relatively constant within the quench depth, then increases linearly. The experimental results demonstrate a reasonable agreement with results from the theoretical model. Ultrasonic attenuation provides an important non-destructive method to evaluate duplex microstructure within grains which can be implemented for quality control in conjunction with other manufacturing processes. PMID:24268679

Du, Hualong; Turner, Joseph A

2014-03-01

193

Piezooptic Coefficients and Acoustic Wave Velocities in Sn2P2S6 Crystals

Piezooptic coefficients of Sn2P2S6 crystals are experimentally determined for l=623.8 nm and T=293 K with the aid of interferometric technique. The components of the elastic stiffness tensor for these crystals are calculated on the basis of studies for the acoustic wave velocities. It is shown that acoustooptic figure of merit can achieve extremely high values for Sn2P2S6 crystals (M2 - 2x10-12s3/kg2).

O. Mys; I. Martynyuk-Lototska; A. Grabar; Yu. Vysochanskii; R. Vlokh

2007-06-28

194

Spatial variation of Lg-wave attenuation in the Iberian Peninsula

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within a global context, the Iberian Peninsula is a region where low to moderate (Mw < 5.5) earthquakes occur, most of them at shallow depths (h < 40 km). Seismicity concentrates mainly around the Pyrenean Range, the northwestern part of the peninsula, and the southern deformation zone that includes the Betics, the Alborán Sea and the Gulf of Cádiz. In recent years, considerable improvements in seismic data quality and geographic coverage have been made by the deployment of new permanent and portable broadband seismic stations in the Iberian Peninsula. The dense accumulation of seismic data has allowed us to investigate lateral variation of crustal seismic attenuation to develop the first regional 2D Lg-wave attenuation model for the entire Iberian Peninsula and its frequency dependence. Seismic data used consist of 71 events with magnitudes 3 ? mbLg ? 5.4 focal depths less than 30 km and epicentral distances from 100 to 1000 km which were recorded by 343 seismic stations between January 2008 and October 2013. To avoid confusion with fundamental-mode Love-wave energy on the transverse components, we only analyzed vertical component recordings. Among all the methods proposed to measure Lg attenuation, we considered the reliable Two-Station Method that allows removing the common source term by taking the ratio of Lg amplitudes recorded at two different stations along the same great-circle path from the same event. It requires, however, strict source-station configuration and dense event and station coverage. The spectral ratios collected over high-quality interstation paths were used to determine 1 Hz Lg Q (Q0) and its frequency dependence ?. Then, the lateral variations of the attenuation parameters were mapped using inversion. Lg-wave propagation was found to be inefficient or blocked for most of the paths crossing the Mediterranean Sea, the western Alborán Sea and the Strait of Gibraltar. Our results reflect large variations in Q0 values across the Iberian Peninsula which is in accordance with the different geotectonic characteristics present in the region. Low Lg Q0 values (high attenuation) were found in the Pyrenean Range and in the southern area whereas the most stable western part of Iberia showed high Lg Q0. The obtained Lg ? spatial variation map show that intermediate ? values characterize most of the analyzed region.

Noriega, Raquel; Ugalde, Arantza; Villaseñor, Antonio; José Jurado, María

2014-05-01

195

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The roots of Eremurus spp. were used as a bio-adhesive in the fabrication of Rhizophora spp. particleboards. The mass attenuation coefficients of Eremurus-Rhizophora spp. particleboard of six samples with two different weight percentages of the Eremurus spp. root (6% and 12%) and three various Rhizophora spp. particle sizes (?149 ?m, 149-500 ?m and 500-1000 ?m) were determined by using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) photons in 16.63 keV and 25.30 keV of the photon energy range. The results were compared with theoretically calculated mass attenuations using the XCOM computer program for younger-age (breast 1: 75% muscle+25% fat), middle-age (breast 2: 50% muscle+50% fat), and old-age (breast 3: 25% muscle+75% fat) breasts. The results indicated that Eremurus-Rhizophora spp. particleboard is the appropriate suitable phantom in the diagnostic energy region. The mass attenuation coefficient in the low weight percentage of the bio-adhesive and the large Rhizophora spp. particle size were found very close to breast 1. Moreover the mass attenuation coefficient of the sample with high weight percentage of the bio-adhesive and small Rhizophora spp. particle size was found very close to water as a standard material phantom. In addition, the viscosity of dissolved Eremurus spp. root in water could be considerably higher than that of formaldehyde-based adhesives, which affects on some properties such as high strength and high binding.

Tousi, E. T.; Bauk, S.; Hashim, R.; Jaafar, M. S.; Abuarra, A.; Aldroobi, K. S. A.; Al-Jarrah, A. M.

2014-10-01

196

Laboratory ultrasonic measurements of compressional wave velocity and attenuation were made as a function of effective pressure on samples of limestone, sandstone and siltstone taken from a shallow borehole test site. The results indicate that the sandstones are pervaded by grain contact microcracks which dramatically affect their compressional wave attenuations. Clean sandstone shows a compressional wave quality factor (Q{sub p}) of 24 {+-} 2 at 5 MPa effective pressure (close to the estimated in situ burial pressure) and a Q{sub p} of 83 {+-} 29 at 60 MPa. The Q{sub p} of limestones and siltstones at the site show negligible and small increases with pressure in the laboratory, respectively. The strong pressure dependence of Q{sub p} in clean sandstone was used to infer the presence of in situ microcracks. Sediment velocities measured in the laboratory at about 1 MHz were compared with those from the full waveform sonic log at about 10 kHz implies that they must also be highly attenuating over a significant part of the frequency range 10 kHz to 1 MHz, to account for the magnitude of the observed velocity dispersion. Assuming the laboratory Q{sub p} values measured at 5 MPa remain constant down to 10 kHz predicts the observed dispersion quite well. Furthermore, the sonic log velocities of sandstones, limestones and siltstones (after normalizing each lithology for porosity and clay content) were found to reflect the same pressure (depth) trends observed in the laboratory. The results provide evidence for the existence of in situ microcracks in near-surface sediments.

Best, A.I. [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom). Postgraduate Research Inst. for Sedimentology] [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom). Postgraduate Research Inst. for Sedimentology; Sams, M.S. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology] [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology

1997-03-01

197

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time grading of bladder urothelial carcinoma (UC) is clinically important, but the current standard for grading (histopathology) cannot provide this information. Based on optical coherence tomography (OCT)-measured optical attenuation (?t), the grade of bladder UC could potentially be assessed in real time. We evaluate ex vivo whether ?t differs between different grades of UC and benign bladder tissue. Human bladder tissue specimens are examined ex vivo by 850-nm OCT using dynamic focusing. Three observers independently determine the ?t from the OCT images, and three pathologists independently review the corresponding histology slides. For both methods, a consensus diagnosis is made. We include 76 OCT scans from 54 bladder samples obtained in 20 procedures on 18 patients. The median (interquartile range) ?t of benign tissue is 5.75 mm-1 (4.77 to 6.14) versus 5.52 mm-1 (3.47 to 5.90), 4.85 mm-1 (4.25 to 6.50), and 5.62 mm-1 (5.01 to 6.29) for grade 1, 2, and 3 UC, respectively (p = 0.732). Interobserver agreement of histopathology is ``substantial'' [Kappa 0.62, 95% confidence interval (IC) 0.54 to 0.70] compared to ``almost perfect'' [interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.87, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.92] for OCT. Quantitative OCT analysis (by ?t) does not detect morphological UC changes. This may be due to factors typical for an ex-vivo experimental setting.

Cauberg, Evelyne C. C.; de Bruin, Daniël M.; Faber, Dirk J.; de Reijke, Theo M.; Visser, Mike; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

2010-11-01

198

Velocity and attenuation of scalar and elastic waves in random media: a spectral function approach.

This paper investigates the scattering of scalar and elastic waves in two-phase materials and single-mineral-cubic, hexagonal, orthorhombic-polycrystalline aggregates with randomly oriented grains. Based on the Dyson equation for the mean field, explicit expressions for the imaginary part of Green's function in the frequency-wavenumber domain (?, p), also known as the spectral function, are derived. This approach allows the identification of propagating modes with their relative contribution, and the computation of both attenuation and phase velocity for each mode. The results should be valid from the Rayleigh (low-frequency) to the geometrical optics (high-frequency) regime. Comparisons with other approaches are presented for both scalar and elastic waves. PMID:22423683

Calvet, Marie; Margerin, Ludovic

2012-03-01

199

Differential shear wave attenuation and its lateral variation in the North Atlantic region

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A digital data base of over 150 seismograms and a spectral radio technique are used to measure SS-S differential attenuation in the North Atlantic region. Differential attenuation is positively correlated with SS-S travel time residual, and both differential attentuation and travel time residual decrease with increasing seafloor age. Models are developed for seismic Q in which lateral variations include contributions from the asthenospheric low-Q zone as well as from lithospheric cooling. The Q models obtained under this assumption are in good agreement with those obtained from surface wave studies and are therefore preferred over those models with lateral variations confined to the upper 125 km. Systematic long-wavelength (1000-7000 km) variations in differential attenuation, corrected for seafloor age, are evident along the axis of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. These variations can be qualitatively correlated with long-wavelength variations in SS-S differential travel time residuals and are attributed to along-axis differences in upper mantle temperature.

Sheehan, Anne F.; Solomon, Sean C.

1992-01-01

200

We compare the attenuation of high-frequency (3-30 Hz) shear waves for crystal paths in New York State, South Africa, and southern California over source-Receiver distances of about 10-400 km. The data consist of digital recordings of S waves (Delta=5-100 km) and Lg waves (Delta=100-400) produced by earthquakes. We use a coda normalization method to remove the effects of site amplification

Arthur Frankel; Art McGarr; John Bicknell; Jim Mori; Leonardo Seeber; Edward Cranswick

1990-01-01

201

P-wave seismic attenuation by slow-wave diffusion. Effects of ...

saturated with small amounts of gas (around 10 % saturation) and water. Grain- .... tained the P-wave quality-factor as a function of frequency for 1D finely ..... erties of granular sedimentary materials, Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford University. Norris

2005-09-20

202

Determination of the profile of the attenuation factor in an aerosol using two-wave sounding

One of the more important problems in laser sounding of the atmosphere is the determination of the spatial distribution of the aerosol which is created by local sources of either artificial or natural origin. In such a case, the aerosol medium generally has the form of a cloud or a stream which is elongated along the direction of the wind. In this study, the authors consider the possibility of determining the profile of the aerosol attenuation factor using two-wave laser sounding without the use of a priori information on the unknown profile and without applying data on independent measurements. The authors assume that there is knowledge of the lidar ratios and of the ratios of the attenuation factors at the sounding wavelengths. Using the above assumptions on the aerosol medium, the authors derive a geometric expression of the experiment using two wavelengths for the equations for laser location. The results of the calculations show that the solution guarantees small errors of electric field intensity in comparison with the one-wave solutions.

Korshunov, V.A.

1986-12-01

203

Velocity and attenuation of seismic waves in random media: A spectral function approach

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution investigates the scattering of scalar and elastic waves in two-phase materials and single-mineral-cubic, hexagonal, orthorhombic-polycrystalline aggregates with randomly oriented grains. Based on the Dyson equation for the mean field, explicit expressions for the imaginary part of Green's function in the frequency-wavenumber domain (?,p), also known as the spectral function, are derived. This approach allows the identification of propagating modes with their relative contribution, and the computation of both attenuation and phase velocity for each mode. The results should be valid from the Rayleigh (low-frequency) to the geometrical optics (high-frequency) regime. Applications of the proposed theory to the structure of the inner core of the Earth will be presented. In particular, it will be shown that our scattering theory can explain the striking correlation between velocity and attenuation and the associated hemispherical variations revealed by PKP waves propagating through the inner core of the Earth. The implications for inner core dynamics will be summarized.

Margerin, Ludovic; Calvet, Marie; Monnereau, Marc; Souriau, Annie

2013-04-01

204

The so-called Localized Waves (LW), and the "Frozen Waves" (FW), have arisen significant attention in the areas of Optics and Ultrasound, because of their surprising energy localization properties. The LWs resist the effects of diffraction for large distances, and possess an interesting self-reconstruction (self-healing) property, after obstacles with size smaller than the antenna's; while the FWs, a sub-class of theirs, offer the possibility of arbitrarily modeling the field longitudinal intensity pattern inside a prefixed interval, for instance 0 < z < L, of the wave propagation axis. More specifically, the FWs are localized fields "at rest", that is, with a static envelope (within which only the carrier wave propagates), and can be endowed moreover with a high transverse localization. In this paper we investigate by simulated experiments, various cases of generation of ultrasonic FW fields, with frequency f_o = 1 MHz in a water-like medium, taking account of the effects of attenuation. We present res...

Prego-Borges, Jose' L; Recami, Erasmo; Tavares-Costa, Eduardo

2013-01-01

205

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a globally distributed data set of ~400000 frequency-dependent SH-wave traveltimes. An automated technique is used to measure teleseismic S, ScS and SS traveltimes at several periods ranging from 10 to 51 s. The targeted seismic phases are first extracted from the observed and synthetic seismograms using an automated time window algorithm. Traveltimes are then measured at several periods, by cross-correlation between the selected observed and synthetic filtered waveforms. Frequency-dependent effects due to crustal reverberations beneath each receiver are handled by incorporating crustal phases into WKBJ synthetic waveforms. After correction for physical dispersion due to intrinsic anelastic processes, we observe a residual traveltime dispersion on the order of 1-2 s in the period range of analysis. This dispersion occurs differently for S, ScS and SS, which is presumably related to their differing paths through the Earth. We find that: (1) Wavefront-healing phenomenon is observed for S and to a lesser extent SS waves having passed through very low velocity anomalies. (2) A preferred sampling of high velocity scatterers located at the CMB may explain our observation that ScS waves travel faster at low-frequency than at high-frequency. (3) A frequency-dependent attenuation q(?) ~ q0 × ?-?, with ? ~ 0.2, is compatible with the globally averaged dispersion observed for S waves.

Zaroli, Christophe; Debayle, Eric; Sambridge, Malcolm

2010-08-01

206

Wave field synthesis of a sound field described by spherical harmonics expansion coefficients.

Near-field compensated higher order Ambisonics (NFC-HOA) and wave field synthesis (WFS) constitute the two best-known analytic sound field synthesis methods. While WFS is typically used for the synthesis of virtual sound scenes, NFC-HOA is typically employed in order to synthesize sound fields that have been captured with appropriate microphone arrays. Such recorded sound fields are essentially represented by the coefficients of the underlying surface spherical harmonics expansion. A sound field described by such coefficients cannot be straightforwardly synthesized in WFS. This is a consequence of the fact that, unlike in NFC-HOA, it is critical in WFS to carefully select those loudspeakers that contribute to the synthesis of a given sound source in a sound field under consideration. In order to enable such a secondary source selection, it is proposed to employ the well-known concept of decomposing the sound field under consideration into a continuum of plane waves, for which the secondary source selection is straightforward. The plane wave representation is projected onto the horizontal plane and a closed form expression of the secondary source driving signals for horizontal WFS systems of arbitrary convex shape is derived. PMID:22423715

Ahrens, Jens; Spors, Sascha

2012-03-01

207

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

three-dimensional (3-D), high-resolution P wave seismic attenuation model for the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) is determined using P wave path attenuation (t*) values of small-magnitude earthquakes (MD < 3.9). Events were recorded at 89 broadband and short-period seismometers of the Cooperative New Madrid Seismic Zone Network and 40 short-period seismometers of the Portable Array for Numerical Data Acquisition experiment. The amplitude spectra of all the earthquakes are simultaneously inverted for source, path (t*), and site parameters. The t* values are inverted for QP using local earthquake tomography methods and a known 3-D P wave velocity model for the region. The four major seismicity arms of the NMSZ exhibit reduced QP (higher attenuation) than the surrounding crust. The highest attenuation anomalies coincide with areas of previously reported high swarm activity attributed to fluid-rich fractures along the southeast extension of the Reelfoot fault. The QP results are consistent with previous attenuation studies in the region, which showed that active fault zones and fractured crust in the NMSZ are highly attenuating.

Bisrat, Shishay T.; DeShon, Heather R.; Pesicek, Jeremy; Thurber, Clifford

2014-01-01

208

Analysis of P-wave attenuation in hydrate-bearing sediments in the Shenhu area, South China Sea

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to analyze the wave attenuation characteristics in hydrate-bearing sediments, the Biot-Squirt (BISQ) porous medium model was implemented in the Shenhu area, South China Sea. Theoretical studies indicated that decrease of P-wave attenuation at seismic frequency range is observed with the increasing hydrate saturation. In the case studies in the Shenhu area, we estimated the quality factor from seismic reflection data after spectral correction by using the centroid-frequency method. The quality factor in the hydrate-bearing sediments is greater than 30, and with the hydrate saturation increasing to 40 % the quality factor increases from 30 to 50. This shows good agreement with the theoretical results based on the BISQ model. The field data example indicated that seismic wave attenuation is an effective attribute to identify the distribution of gas hydrates.

Li, Chuanhui; Feng, Kai; Liu, Xuewei

2014-11-01

209

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the interaction of energetic particles with parallel propagating shear Alfvén waves. We use analytical tools as well as test-particle simulations. The analytical derivation of the parallel diffusion coefficient is done by employing quasi-linear theory, a well-known tool in diffusion theory. The perpendicular diffusion coefficient, however, is derived by employing the unifield non-linear transport theory. This is the first time we derive a simple analytical form of the perpendicular mean free path based on the latter theory. We perform the simulations and we show that quasi-linear theory works well for parallel diffusion in Alfvénic slab turbulence as expected. We also show that the unified non-linear transport theory perfectly describes perpendicular diffusion for the turbulence model used here.

Hussein, M.; Shalchi, A.

2014-11-01

210

Study of the absorption coefficient of alpha particles to lower hybrid waves in tokamak

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part of the energy of the Lower Hybrid (LH) waves may be absorbed by the ? particles via the so-called perpendicular landau damping mechanism, which depends on various parameters of fusion reactors and the LH waves. In this article, we calculate the absorption coefficient ?? of LH waves due to ? particles. Results show that, the ?? increases with the parallel refraction index n? while deceases with increasing the frequency of LH waves ?LH over a wide range. Higher background plasma temperature and toroidal magnetic field will increase the absorption, and there is a peak value of ?? when ne?8×1019m-3 for ITER-like scenario. The thermal corrections to the cold plasma dispersion relation will change the damping rate to a certain extent under some specific conditions. We have also evaluated the fraction of LH power absorbed by the alpha particles, ? ? 0.47% and 4.1% for an LH frequency of 5 GHz and 3.7 GHz respectively for ITER-like scenario. This work gives the effective reference for the choice of parameters of future fusion reactors.

Wang, Jianbing; Zhang, Xianmei; Yu, Limin; Zhao, Xiang

2014-02-01

211

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of various gasdynamic phenomena on the attenuation of an electromagnetic wave propagating through the nonequilibrium chemically reacting air flow field generated by an aerodynamic body travelling at high velocity is investigated. The nonequilibrium flow field is assumed to consist of seven species including nitric oxide ions and free electrons. The ionization of oxygen and nitrogen atoms is ignored. The aerodynamic body considered is a blunt wedge. The nonequilibrium chemically reacting flow field around this body is numerically simulated using a computer code based on computational fluid dynamics. The computer code solves the Navier-Stokes equations including mass diffusion and heat transfer, using a time-marching, explicit Runge-Kutta scheme. A nonequilibrium air kinetics model consisting of seven species and twenty-eight reactions as well as an equilibrium air model consisting of the same seven species are used. The body surface boundaries are considered as adiabatic or isothermal walls, as well as fully-catalytic and non-catalytic surfaces. Both laminar and turbulent flows are considered; wall generated flow turbulence is simulated using an algebraic mixing length model. An electromagnetic wave is considered as originating from an antenna within the body and is effected by the free electrons in the chemically reacting flow. Analysis of the electromagnetics is performed separately from the fluid dynamic analysis using a series solution of Maxwell's equations valid for the propagation of a long-wavelength plane electromagnetic wave through a thin (i.e., in comparison to wavelength) inhomogeneous plasma layer. The plasma layer is the chemically reacting shock layer around the body. The Navier-Stokes equations are uncoupled from Maxwell's equations. The results of this computational study demonstrate for the first time and in a systematic fashion, the importance of several parameters including equilibrium chemistry, nonequilibrium chemical kinetics, the reaction mechanism, flow viscosity, mass diffusion, and wall boundary conditions on modeling wave attenuation resulting from the interaction of an electromagnetic wave with an aerodynamic plasma. Comparison is made with experimental data.

Nusca, Michael Joseph, Jr.

212

The Attenuation of a Detonation Wave by an Aircraft Engine Axial Turbine Stage

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Constant Volume Combustion Cycle Engine concept consisting of a Pulse Detonation Combustor (PDC) followed by a conventional axial turbine was simulated numerically to determine the attenuation and reflection of a notional PDC pulse by the turbine. The multi-stage, time-accurate, turbomachinery solver TURBO was used to perform the calculation. The solution domain consisted of one notional detonation tube coupled to 5 vane passages and 8 rotor passages representing 1/8th of the annulus. The detonation tube was implemented as an initial value problem with the thermodynamic state of the tube contents, when the detonation wave is about to exit, provided by a 1D code. Pressure time history data from the numerical simulation was compared to experimental data from a similar configuration to verify that the simulation is giving reasonable results. Analysis of the pressure data showed a spectrally averaged attenuation of about 15 dB across the turbine stage. An evaluation of turbine performance is also presented.

VanZante, Dale; Envia, Edmane; Turner, Mark G.

2007-01-01

213

Differential shear-wave attenuation (deltat) across the East Pacific Rise

SS phases from earthquakes on fracture zones near the Easter Island Cordillera and the West Chile Rise which are recorded in the United States have reflection points on either side of the East Pacific Rise (EPR) near the equator. The east-west records from seven WWSSN stations of seven events in this region were used to obtain spectral amplitudes of horizontally polarized S and SS waves. SS-to-S amplitude ratios were formed, and differential attenuation (deltat) computed within the frequency band 0.01 to 0.11 Hz. The values of deltat vary between -0.1 sec and +35.8 sec for the 23 station-event paris used. However, the change in deltat with distance from the axis of the EPR does not reflect the smooth variation expected using a model of a simple cooling slab.

Schlue, J.W.

1981-08-01

214

Wave attenuation in nonlinear periodic structures using harmonic balance and multiple scales

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the attenuation, caused by weak damping, of harmonic waves through a discrete, periodic structure with frequency nominally within the Propagation Zone (i.e., propagation occurs in the absence of the damping). The period of the structure consists of a linear stiffness and a weak linear/nonlinear damping. Adapting the transfer matrix method and using harmonic balance for the nonlinear terms, a four-dimensional linear/nonlinear map governing the dynamics is obtained. We analyze this map by applying the method of multiple scales upto first order. The resulting slow evolution equations give the amplitude decay rate in the structure. The approximations are validated by comparing with other analytical solutions for the linear case and full numerics for the nonlinear case. Good agreement is obtained. The method of analysis presented here can be extended to more complex structures.

Marathe, Amol; Chatterjee, Anindya

2006-02-01

215

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In November 2011 a major upgrade of the Virgo gravitational wave detector was started. After these improvements the detector's sensitivity will have increased by an order of magnitude, increasing the expected event rate by 103 compared to its predecessor. Extensive noise studies showed that this improvement can only be accomplished if a number of optical benches, hosting ancillary optics and optical sensors for the alignment of the interferometer, are isolated from seismic ground motion to reduce the amount of beam jitter and control noise they introduce. Here we present the first of these systems: the External Injection Bench Seismic Attenuation System, or EIB-SAS, which is able to reduce seismically induced motion of the external injection bench (last bench before laser beam enters the vacuum system) by more than 40 dB above 10 Hz in 6 degrees of freedom.

Blom, M. R.; Beker, M. G.; Bertolini, A.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Bulten, H. J.; Hennes, E.; Mul, F. A.; Rabeling, D. S.; Schimmel, A.

2013-08-01

216

The propagation characteristics of surface acoustic waves (SAW) and piezoelectric leaky surface waves in KNbO3 single crystal were investigated theoretically and experimentally. The results show that the electromechanical coupling coefficient of the surface wave propagating along the X-axis of the rotated Y-cut plane is very large, K 2=0.53, compared to K2 of 0.055 for LiNbO3 . Also the KNbO3 substrates

Kazuhiko Yamanouchi; Hiroyuki Odagawa; Toshiyuki Kojima; Takeshi Matsumura

1997-01-01

217

The propagation characteristics of surface acoustic waves (SAW) and piezoelectric leaky surface waves in KNbO3 single crystal have been investigated theoretically and experimentally. The results show that the electromechanical coupling coefficient k2 of the surface wave propagating along the X-axis of the rotated Y-cut plate is very large with k2=0.53. This is about 10 times as large as that of

Kazuhiko Yamanouchi; Hiroyuki Odagawa

1999-01-01

218

We have generalized the methodology of our regional amplitude tomography from the Lg phase to the four primary regional phases (Pn, Pg, Sn, Lg). Differences in the geometrical spreading, source term, site term, and travel paths are accounted for, while event source parameters such as seismic moment are consistent among phases. In the process, we have developed the first regional attenuation model that uses the amplitudes of four regional phases to determine a comprehensive P-wave and S-wave attenuation model of the crust and upper mantle. When applied to an area encompassing the Middle East, eastern Europe, western Asia, south Asia, and northeast Africa for the 1-2 Hz passband, we find large differences in the attenuation of the lithosphere across the region. The tectonic Tethys collision zone has high attenuation, while stable outlying regions have low attenuation. While crust and mantle Q variations are often consistent, we do find several notable areas where they differ considerably, but are appropriate given the region's tectonic history. Lastly, the relative values of Qp and Qs indicate that scattering Q is likely the dominant source of attenuation in the crust at these frequencies.

Pasyanos, M E; Walter, W R; Matzel, E M

2009-02-26

219

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical and experimental studies were made of the attenuation of the stress waves during passage through single and multilayer structures. The investigation included studies on elastic and plastic stress wave propagation in the composites and those on shock mitigating material characteristics such as dynamic stress-strain relations and energy absorbing properties. The results of the studies are applied to methods for reducing the stresses imposed on a spacecraft during planetary or ocean landings.

Yang, J. C. S.; Tsui, C. Y.

1972-01-01

220

Ground truth data provide the opportunity to calibrate regional seismic velocity and Q (inverse attenuation) models. However, in many cases, available wave propagation data are too sparse to characterize seismic velocities and Q everywhere. It is therefore of interest to examine on a global basis the relationship between regional geology and heat flow versus the seismic properties (Vs and Qs)

Walter D. Mooney; Irina Artemieva; Shane T. Detweiler; Magali Billien; Jean-Jacques Leveque

221

Shear wave propagation properties including phase velocity and attenuation coefficient are indispensable information in materials characterization and nondestructive evaluation. A computer controlled scanning shear-wave ultrasonic imaging system has been developed. It consists of a pair of focusing broadband pvdf transducers of central frequency of 50 MHz immersed in distilled water. Shear waves in a solid specimen are generated by mode-conversion.

Shigong Ye; Junru Wu

2000-01-01

222

The paper provides a rigorous analysis of the dispersion spectrum of SH (shear horizontal) elastic waves in periodically stratified solids. The problem consists of an ordinary differential wave equation with periodic coefficients, which involves two free parameters $\\omega $ (the frequency) and $k$ (the wavenumber in the direction orthogonal to the axis of periodicity). Solutions of this equation satisfy a quasi-periodic boundary condition which yields the Floquet parameter $K$. The resulting dispersion surface $\\omega (K,k)$ may be characterized through its cuts at constant values of $K, k$ and $\\omega $ that define the passband (real $K$) and stopband areas, the Floquet branches and the isofrequency curves, respectively. The paper combines complementary approaches based on eigenvalue problems and on the monodromy matrix $\\mathbf{M}$. The pivotal object is the Lyapunov function $\\Delta (\\omega ^{2},k^{2}) \\equiv 1/2\\mathrm{trace}\\mathbf{M}=\\cos K$ which is generalized as a function of two variables. Its analytical properties, asymptotics and bounds are examined and an explicit form of its derivatives obtained. Attention is given to the special case of a zero-width stopband. These ingredients are used to analyze the cuts of the surface $\\omega (K,k).$ The derivatives of the functions $\\omega (k)$ at fixed $K$ and $\\omega (K)$ at fixed $k$ and of the function $K(k)$ at fixed $\\omega $ are described in detail. The curves $\\omega (k)$ at fixed $K$ are shown to be monotonic for real $K,$ while they may be looped for complex $K$ (i.e. in the stopband areas). The convexity of the closed (first) real isofrequency curve $K(k)$ is proved thus ruling out low-frequency caustics of group velocity. The results are relevant to the broad area of applicability of ordinary differential equation for scalar waves in 1D phononic (solid or fluid) and photonic crystals.

A. A. Kutsenko; A. L. Shuvalov; A. N. Norris; O. Poncelet

2011-06-27

223

The total mass attenuation coefficients for element Fe and compounds FeF3, Fe2O3, FeCl2·4H2O, FeCl32NH4Cl·H2O were measured at different energies between 4.508–17.443keV range by using secondary excitation method. Ti, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo were chosen as secondary exciter. 59.5keV gamma rays emitted from an 241Am annular source were used to excite

U. Turgut; E. Buyukkasap; O. ?im?ek; M. Ertugrul

2005-01-01

224

Mass attenuation coefficients of some boron compounds (H3BO3,Na2B4O7 and B3Al2O3) and the trommel sieve waste (TSW) have been measured by using an extremely narrow collimated-beam transmission method in the energy range 15.746–40.930keV. The characteristic K? and K? X-rays of Zr, Mo, Ag, In, Sb, Ba and Pr passed through H3BO3,Na2B4O7, B3Al2O3 and TSW were detected with a high-resolution Si(Li) detector.

Orhan ?çelli; Salih Erzeneo?lu; Recep Boncukçuo?lu

2003-01-01

225

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report here the results of a comprehensive seismic attenuation investigation along the paths connecting Canada's Yellowknife seismic array (YKA) with seven active nuclear explosion testing areas. The data consist of more than 600 explosion-generated teleseismic P wave records. A dual time-frequency averaging technique is used to take advantage of the array recording characteristics without the drawback of the conventional beam-forming, excessive annihilation of high-frequency signal energies. The dual averaging technique, deployed in conjunction with a multiwindow spectral analysis method, yields smooth amplitude spectra whose falloff at high frequencies suffers little from spectral leakage due to the familiar presence of a prominent low-frequency plateau. Measured in terms of t*, the highest attenuation (0.66 s) is found along the path which originates from the Tuamotu test area; somewhat less attenuating are the two paths which depart from the Pahute Mesa (0.59 s) and Yucca Flat (0.50 s) nuclear test areas, both located within the U.S. Nevada Test Site. We find t* for these three paths to be substantially (up to 0.21 s) higher than recently published estimates (e.g., Der et al., 1985). We attribute these disparities largely to differences in spectral leakage control capability between the conventional single window and the improved multiwindow spectral analysis methods. The least attenuating paths all originate from the Soviet test areas: Novaya Zemlya (NZ), west Kazakhstan, Degelen Mountain (DM), and Shagan River (SR). The last two of these test areas, DM and SR, are both located in east Kazakhstan. The P wave signatures of the Soviet explosions are rich in high-frequency (>4.5 Hz) energies, and the YKA data (0.5-8.0 Hz) support a frequency-dependent t* whose value at high frequencies (>4.5 Hz) is as small as 0.17 s. To gain a grasp of the ramifications of the t* disparity between the multiple-window and the single-window results, we have compared explosion source time functions obtained by the multichannel deconvolution technique of Shumway and Der (1985) in order to assess their sensitivity to the input t* value. In our example involving the deconvolved source functions of five French Tuamotu explosions, we find that a 0.1-s t* difference is large enough to cause clearly discernible signature differences, in terms of the signal frequency content as well as the extractability of a secondary arrival some 0.4 s behind the first P arrival. This secondary arrival is believed to be the depth phase pP, a seismic signature of importance in both yield estimation and earthquake/explosion source discrimination. The absorption band modeling (Minster, 1978a, b) of the French Tuamotu explosion data yields 1.08±0.05 and 0.079±0.008 s for t*0 and ?m, respectively. The corresponding parameter estimates derived from the U.S. explosion data are somewhat smaller. The t*0 and ?m estimates are the smallest along the paths which depart from the four Soviet test areas. For the NZ-YKA path the t*0 and ?m estimates are 0.56±0.08 and 0.061±0.013 s, respectively. Plagued by a strong trade-off between the two model parameters, these estimates are not tightly constrained, however.

Chun, Kin-Yip; Zhu, Tianfei; West, Gordon F.

1991-07-01

226

The Velocity and Attenuation of Acoustic Emission Waves in SiC/SiC Composites Loaded in Tension

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The behavior of acoustic waves produced by microfracture events and from pencil lead breaks was studied for two different silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix composites. The two composite systems both consisted of Hi-Nicalon (trademark) fibers and carbon interfaces but had different matrix compositions that led to considerable differences in damage accumulation and acoustic response. This behavior was primarily due to an order of magnitude difference in the interfacial shear stress for the two composite systems. Load/unload/reload tensile tests were performed and measurements were made over the entire stress range in order to determine the stress-dependence of acoustic activity for increasing damage states. It was found that using the extensional wave velocities from acoustic emission (AE) events produced from pencil lead breaks performed outside of the transducers enabled accurate measurements of the stiffness of the composite. The extensional wave velocities changed as a function of the damage state and the stress where the measurement was taken. Attenuation for AE waveforms from the pencil lead breaks occurred only for the composite possessing the lower interfacial shear stress and only at significantly high stresses. At zero stress after unloading from a peak stress, no attenuation occurred for this composite because of crack closure. For the high interfacial stress composite no attenuation was discernable at peak or zero stress over the entire stress-range of the composite. From these observations, it is believed that attenuation of AE waveforms is dependent on the magnitude of matrix crack opening.

Morscher, Gregory N.; Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

227

Spin waves and spin diffusion in Fermi liquids: Bounds on effective diffusion coefficients

We investigate the accuracy of the usual relaxation-time approximations, involving the spin-diffusion lifetime tau/sub D/, which are generally made in analyses of spin waves and the Leggett-Rice effect in Fermi liquids. By employing the variational methods of Ah-Sam, Hojgaard-Jensen, and Smith and of Egilsson and Pethick, we are able to determine upper and lower bounds on the effective diffusion coefficient resulting from spin-wave phenomena which are accurate in the whole Fermi-liquid regime (T<

Bedell, K.S.; Meltzer, D.E.

1986-04-01

228

Influence of the surface drag coefficient (young waves) on the current structure of the Berre lagoon

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the shallowness, currents and hydrodynamics of Berre lagoon (South of France) are closely conditioned by the bottom topography, and wind affects the entire water column, as for many other Mediterranean lagoons (Perez-Ruzafa, 2011). Wind stress, which is caused by moving atmospheric disturbance, is known to have a major influence in lagoon water circulation. According to the numerical simulation for the main directions of the wind: N-NW, S-SE and W (wind speed of 80 km/h) it is observed that the current is maximal alongshore in the wind direction; the bottom nearshore current being larger in shallower area. This fact is coherent with fundamental principle of wind-driven flows in closed or partially closed basins which states that in shallow water the dominant force balance is between surface wind stress and bottom friction, yielding a current in the direction of the wind (Mathieu et al, 2002, Hunter and Hearn, 1987; Hearn and Hunter,1990). A uniform wind stress applied at the surface of a basin of variable depth sets up a circulation pattern characterized by relatively strong barotropic coastal currents in the direction of the wind, with return flow occurring over the deeper regions (Csanady, 1967; Csanady, 1971). One of the key parameters characterizing the wind stress formulation is a surface drag coefficient (Cds). Thus, an effect of a surface drag coefficient, in the range 0.0016 - 0.0032, will be analyzed in this work. The value of surface drag coefficient Cds = 0.0016 used in our previous studies (Alekseenko et al., 2012), would correspond to mature waves (open sea). But, in the case of semi-closed lagoonal ecosystem, it would be more appropriate to consider "young waves" mechanism. A dependency of this coefficient in terms of the wind speed is given by Young (1999) in both cases of mature waves and young waves. For "young waves" generated at a wind speed of 80 km/h, Cds = 0.0032. So, the influence of Cds on the vertical profile of the velocity in the water column is analyzed in the range 0.0016 - 0.0032. For the three main wind directions considered in this work, for a wind speed of 80 km/h, the complex current structure of the Berre lagoon is analysed. In the nearshore zones, strong alongshore downwind currents are generated, reaching values of the order of 1m/s (up to 1.5 m/s) at the free surface, and 0.5 - 0.6 m/s at the bottom. References Alekseenko E., B. Roux, A. Sukhinov, R. Kotarba, D. Fougere. Coastal hydrodynamics in a windy lagoon; submitted to Computers and Fluids, oct. 2012 Csanady G. T.: Large-scale motion in the Great Lakes, Journal of Geophysical Research, 72(16), 4151-4161, 1967. Csanady G. T. : Baroclinic boundary currents and long edge-waves in basins with sloping shores. J. Physical Oceanography 1(2):92-104, 1971. Hunter, J.R. and Hearn, C.J.: Lateral and vertical variations in the wind-driven circulations in long, shallow lakes, Journal of Geophysical Research, 92 (C12), 1987. Hearn, C.J. and Hunter, J.R.: A note on the equivalence of some two- and three-dimensional models of wind-driven barotropic flow in shallow seas, Applied Mathematical Modelling, 14, 553-556, 1990. Mathieu P.P., Deleersnijder E., Cushman-Roisin B., Beckers J.M. and Bolding K.: The role of topography in small well-mixed bays, with application to the lagoon of Mururoa. Continental Shelf research, 22(9), 1379-1395, 2002. A. Pérez-Ruzafa, C. Marcos, I.M. Pérez-Ruzafa (2011). Mediterranean coastal lagoons in an ecosystem and aquatic resources management context//Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 36, Issues 5-6, 2011, Pages 160-166 Young I.R., Wind generated ocean waves. Ocean Engineering Series Editors. Elsevier, 1999, ISBN: 0-08-043317-0.

Alekseenko, Elena; Roux, Bernard; Kharif, Christian; Sukhinov, Alexander; Kotarba, Richard; Fougere, Dominique; Chen, Paul Gang

2013-04-01

229

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simultaneous measurements of black carbon (BC, based on Aethalometer) and elemental carbon (EC, using thermo-optical EC-OC analyzer) in airborne particles collected from an urban location (Kanpur) in northern India are reported here. The strategy for site-selection is most relevant in order to assess the relative dominance of emissions from coal-fired industries, fossil-fuel combustion and biomass burning on the seasonal variability of EC (BC) concentrations. An inter-comparison of the analytical data ( n = 32) suggests that BC mass concentration is ˜ 20% higher than that of EC. However, attenuation coefficient ( bATN) measured by the two analytical instruments shows good agreement (slope = 0.97, n = 27), establishing the validity of bATN derived from thermo-optical EC-OC analyzer. Furthermore, slope (20.7 m 2 g - 1 ) of a linear-fit to the data ( n = 48, R2 = 0.86) for surface EC concentration (EC s ? 8 ?g C cm - 2 ) and optical-attenuation (ATN ? 180) measured at 678 nm on thermo-optical analyzer provides an independent and novel way of determining the "site-specific" attenuation cross-section ( ?ATN).

Ram, Kirpa; Sarin, M. M.; Tripathi, S. N.

2010-08-01

230

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oncogenesis and metastasis of tumor are difficult to detect during the clinic therapy. To explore the optical properties of tumorigenesis and metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), we assessed the NPC cell lines 5-8F and 6-10B by optical coherence tomography (OCT): first, the OCT images of the two different types of cell pellets were captured. Second, by fitting Beer's law to the averaged A-scans in these OCT datasets, the attenuation coefficients (?t) of the cells were extracted. The median attenuation coefficients (interquartile range (IQR)) of 5-8F and 6-10B were 6.79 mm-1 (IQR 6.52 to 7.23 mm-1) versus 8.06 mm-1 (IQR 7.65 to 8.40 mm-1), respectively (p < 0.01, df = 39). Subsequently, the results were compared with those obtained by polarization sensitive OCT, which further confirmed that the quantitative OCT analysis (by ?t) could differentiate the oncogenesis and metastasis NPC cell lines in real time non-invasively.

Li, Jianghua; Shen, Zhiyuan; He, Yonghong; Tu, Ziwei; Xia, Yunfei; Chen, Changshui; Liu, Songhao

2012-10-01

231

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent reports have suggested that spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is a useful tool for quantifying the permeability of hyperosmotic agents in various tissues. We report our preliminary results on quantification of glucose diffusion and assessment of the optical attenuation change due to the diffusion of glucose in normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro by using a SD-OCT and then calculated the permeability coefficients (PC) and optical attenuation coefficients (AC). The PC of a 30% aqueous solution of glucose was 3.37±0.23×10-6 cm/s in normal tissue and 5.65±0.16×10-6 cm/s in cancerous colon tissue. Optical AC in a normal colon ranged from 3.48±0.37 to 2.68±0.82 mm-1 and was significantly lower than those seen in the cancerous tissue (8.48±0.95 to 3.16±0.69 mm-1, p<0.05). The results suggest that quantitative measurements of using PC and AC from OCT images could be a potentially powerful method for colon cancer detection.

Zhao, Qingliang; Zhou, Chuanqing; Wei, Huajiang; He, Yonghong; Chai, Xinyu; Ren, Qiushi

2012-10-01

232

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Monolithic Geometric Anti-Spring (GAS) filter is one of the most efficient vertical seismic isolation devices for Gravitational Wave (GW) interferometers. However, the attenuation of this filter was previously limited to around 60 dB due to the high frequency saturation associated with the filter's distributed mass—a problem typical of passive mechanical filters. We show that it is possible to circumvent this limit using a compensation wand based on the Center Of Percussion (COP) effect. When this device is mounted in parallel with the blade springs of a GAS filter, attenuation improves to 80 dB in the region above 10 Hz. Using this device it is therefore possible to design simpler attenuation chains consisting of fewer stages.

Stochino, Alberto; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Huang, Yumei; Sannibale, Virginio

2007-10-01

233

Additional attenuation of natural VLF electromagnetic waves observed by the DEMETER spacecraft resulting from VLF electromagnetic wave data measured by the DEMETER (Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions of statistically significant changes of natural wave intensity (due to signals from lightning) related

Santolik, Ondrej

234

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been used widely in electrical equipment such as capacitors and transformers because of their coolant-insulation properties. However, their use has been discontinued because of their perceived toxicity to humans and other organisms in conjunction with their environmental persistence. This report provides information on the desorption or release rates of individual PCB congeners from four utility substation soils contaminated with Aroclor mixtures when these soils are in contact with water and the distribution of these congeners between the rapidly and the slowly released fractions of the total congeners bound to the soils. In addition to this kinetic information, experimental equilibrium sorption (partition) coefficients for individual PCB congeners have been measured for a series of eight soils differing in their organic carbon and clay mineral contents, from various locations throughout the United States. From these coefficients, a predictive relationship was derived for estimating partitioning coefficients for soils and congeners for which no sorption data are available. 49 refs., 9 figs., 13 tabs.

Girvin, D.C.; Sklarew, D.S.; Scott, A.J.; Zipperer, J.P. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1990-06-01

235

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We estimate the attenuation around Cajon Pass, southern California, for frequencies above 10 Hz, and we find total Q to exhibit only weak frequency dependence, ranging from ˜800 at 10 Hz to ˜1500 at 100 Hz. The intrinsic attenuation is approximately twice the level of the scattering attenuation. Measurements are made using earthquake seismograms recorded at 0-3 km depth using the multiple lapse time window method. The results are not dependent on receiver depth and are consistent with previous estimates of Q made from direct waves recorded at 2.5 km depth. Our Q values are therefore thought to be representative of the seismogenic crust, and the technique used is uncontaminated by the highly attenuating near surface, at least above ˜10 Hz. We also calculate Q from surface data between 1 and 10 Hz and find a clear change in the frequency dependence of both intrinsic and scattering attenuation at ˜10 Hz. Q exhibits strong frequency dependence below 10 Hz ( ?ƒ1.8), consistent with previous studies in active tectonic regions, and only weak frequency dependence at higher frequencies ( ?ƒ0.34). This change in behavior renders it unwise to extrapolate Q measurements outside the frequency range from which they were derived, for example, in earthquake-source studies. Possible factors responsible for the apparent change in frequency dependence of Q are considered. Further work is required, however, to resolve the causes of this change.

Adams, David A.; Abercrombie, Rachel E.

1998-10-01

236

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A better understanding of seismic wave attenuation in hydrate-bearing sediments is needed for the improved geophysical quantification of seafloor methane hydrates, important for climate change, geohazard and economic resource assessment. Hence, we conducted a series of small strain (<10-6), seismic frequency (50-550 Hz), laboratory resonant column experiments on synthetic methane hydrate-bearing sands under excess-water seafloor conditions. The results show a complex dependence of P- and S-wave attenuation on hydrate saturation and morphology. P- and S-wave attenuation in excess-water hydrate-bearing sand is much higher than in excess-gas hydrate-bearing sand and increases with hydrate saturation between 0 and 0.44 (the experimental range). Theoretical modelling suggests that load-bearing hydrate is an important cause of heightened attenuation for both P- and S-waves in gas and water saturated sands, while pore-filling hydrate also contributes significantly to P-wave attenuation in water saturated sands. A squirt flow attenuation mechanism, related to microporous hydrate and low aspect ratio pores at the interface between sand grains and hydrate, is thought to be responsible for the heightened levels of attenuation in hydrate-bearing sands at low hydrate saturations (<0.44).

Best, Angus I.; Priest, Jeffrey A.; Clayton, Christopher R. I.; Rees, Emily V. L.

2013-04-01

237

Attenuation of electromagnetic wave propagation in sandstorms incorporating charged sand particles

A theoretical approach for predicting the attenuation of microwave propagation in sandstorms is presented, with electric charges generated on the sand grains taken into account. It is found that the effect of electric charges distributed partially on the sand surface is notable. The calculated attenuation is in good agreement with that measured in certain conditions. The distribution of electric charges

You-He Zhou; Qin Shu He; Xiao Jing Zheng

2005-01-01

238

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ocean color algorithms are based on the parameterization of apparent optical properties as a function of inherent optical properties. WET Labs underwater absorption and attenuation meters (ac-9 and ac-s) measure both the spectral beam attenuation [c (lambda)] and absorption coefficient [a (lambda)]. The ac-s reports in a continuous range of 390-750 nm with a band pass of 4 nm, totaling approximately 83 distinct wavelengths, while the ac-9 reports at 9 wavelengths. We performed the ac-s field measurements at nine stations in the Mid-Atlantic Bight from water calibrations to data analysis. Onboard the ship, the ac-s was calibrated daily using Milli Q-water. Corrections for the in situ temperature and salinity effects on optical properties of water were applied. Corrections for incomplete recovery of the scattered light in the ac-s absorption tube were performed. The fine scale of spectral and vertical distributions of c (lambda) and a (lambda) were described from the ac-s. The significant relationships between a (674) and that of spectrophotometric analysis and chlorophyll a concentration of discrete water samples were observed.

Ohi, Nobuaki; Makinen, Carla P.; Mitchell, Richard; Moisan, Tiffany A.

2008-01-01

239

The vertical spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient of Kd is an important optical property related to the penetration and availability of light underwater, which is of fundamental interest in studies of ocean physics and biology. Models developed in the recent decades were mainly based on theoretical analyses and numerical (radiative transfer) simulations to estimate this property in optically deep waters, thus leaving inadequate knowledge of its variability at multiple depths and wavelengths, covering a wide range of solar incident geometry, in turbid coastal waters. In the present study, a new model is developed to quantify the vertical, spatial and temporal variability of K(d) at multiple wavelengths and to quantify its dependence with respect to solar incident geometry under differing sky conditions. Thus, the new model is derived as a function of inherent optical properties (IOPs - absorption a and backscattering b(b)), solar zenith angle and depth parameters. The model results are rigorously evaluated using time-series and discrete in situ data from clear and turbid coastal waters. The K(d) values derived from the new model are found to agree with measured data within the mean relative error 0.02~6.24% and R² 0.94~0.99. By contrast, the existing models have large errors when applied to the same data sets. Statistical results of the new model for the vertical spectral distribution of K(d) in clear oceanic waters (for different solar zenith and in-water conditions) are also good when compared to those of the existing models. These results suggest that the new model can provide an improved interpretation about the variation of the vertical spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance, which will have important implications for ocean physics, biogeochemical cycles and underwater applications in both relatively clear and turbid coastal waters. PMID:24514558

Simon, Arthi; Shanmugam, Palanisamy

2013-12-01

240

Estimation of Coda Wave Attenuation in the East Anatolia Fault Zone, Turkey

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the attenuation of coda waves Q c( f) has been estimated for different lapse times and frequencies in the East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ) in Turkey using a single back-scattering model of S-coda envelopes. The data include 255 earthquakes recorded by ten stations. The frequency-dependent Q c values are estimated at central frequencies of 1.5, 3, 6, 8, 12, and 18 Hz using 20-30-40 s lapse time windows. Along this fault zone, the frequency-dependent Q c obtained for all data and lapse time is Q c = 57.5 f 0.82. The entire study area is divided into six subregions according to the magnitude of the earthquakes and the location of the fault segments. The estimated average frequency-dependent relation for all lapse times are; Q_{{{{c}}_{{( {{I}} )}} }} = 3 4. 3f^{0. 9 3} for Bingöl-Karliova-Erzincan triple junction; Q_{{{{c}}_{{( {{II}} )}} }} = 56.3f^{0.71} for Bingol-Lake Hazar segment; Q_{{{{c}}_{{( {{III}} )}} }} = 68.5f^{0.75} for Lake Hazar-Sincik segment; Q_{{{{c}}_{{( {{IV}} )}} }} = 72.5f^{0.78} Hazar-Sincik and Çelikhan-Gölba?? faults; Q_{{{{c}}_{{( {{V}} )}} }} = 59.7f^{0.87} for Kahramanmaras triple junction and Q_{{{{c}}_{{( {{VI}} )}} }} = 67.4f^{0.94} for Amanos Range and Karasu Basin. The lowest Q c is determined between Bingol and Malatya. The highest Q c value is along Amanos Range. In addition, Q c values are calculated for each regions at different lapse times. The average Q c value of the study region varies from 53 ± 11 at 1.5 Hz to 498 ± 41 at 18 Hz for 20 s lapse time window, as its variation is from 116 ± 11 at 1.5 Hz to 749 ± 75 at 18 Hz of central frequency for 40 s lapse time window. The increase of Q c with lapse times changes from one subregion to another along the fault zone. The rate of increment is significantly higher in Bingöl-Karliova-Erzincan triple junction than in the other subregions. This rapid increase of low Q c values in the junction reaches the general attenuation characteristics of the fault at 40 s lapse time. Finally, the low Q 0 and high n values can be attributed to the energy loss as a result of the heterogeneity and activity along the fault zone. The increase of Q c with frequency, lapse time may be related to heterogeneity decreases with depth. The rapid increase of Q c with depth in Bingöl-Karliova-Erzincan triple junction may be interpreted that the effect of the Northern Anatolian Fault Zone is effective in the upper crust is not so deep compared to EAFZ.

Sertçelik, Fadime

2012-07-01

241

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variation in the reflection coefficient of an interface of two liquids (water and magnetic liquid) in the presence of an electric field is experimentally studied. An increase in the reflection coefficient of the interface is demonstrated. A surface instability of the water-magnetic liquid interface, the wave motion at the interface, and wave interference are observed.

Chekanov, V. V.; Kandaurova, N. V.; Chekanov, V. S.

2014-09-01

242

The contribution of activated processes to Q. [stress corrosion cracking in seismic wave attenuation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possible role of activated processes in seismic attenuation is investigated. In this study, a solid is modeled by a parallel and series configuration of dashpots and springs. The contribution of stress and temperature activated processes to the long term dissipative behavior of this system is analyzed. Data from brittle rock deformation experiments suggest that one such process, stress corrosion cracking, may make a significant contribution to the attenuation factor, Q, especially for long period oscillations under significant tectonic stress.

Spetzler, H. A.; Getting, I. C.; Swanson, P. L.

1980-01-01

243

We determine compressional wave velocity and attenuation structures for the upper crust beneath Medicine Lake volcano in northeast California using a high-resolution active source seismic tomography method. Medicine Lake volcano is a basalt through rhyolite shield volcano of the Cascade Range, lying east of the range axis. The Pg wave from eight explosive sources which has traveled upward through the

John R. Evans; John J. Zucca

1988-01-01

244

1 Attenuation of electromagnetic waves at the frequency ~1.7 kHz in the vicinity of earthquakes of VLF electromagnetic waves observed in the upper ionosphere. A robust two-step data processing has been is the first satellite specially dedicated to observe the electromagnetic10 phenomena connected

Santolik, Ondrej

245

Attenuation of electromagnetic waves at the frequency ~1.7 kHz in the upper ionosphere observed frequency electromagnetic waves recorded in the upper ionosphere. Robust two-step data processing has been was the first satellite specifically dedicated to the recording of electromagnetic phenomena connected

Santolik, Ondrej

246

Comparison of fractional wave equations for power law attenuation in ultrasound and elastography

A set of wave equations with fractional loss operators in time and space are analyzed. It is shown that the fractional Szabo equation, the power law wave equation, and the fractional Laplacian wave equation in the causal and non-causal forms all are low frequency approximations of the fractional Kelvin-Voigt wave equation and the more general fractional Zener wave equation. The latter two equations are based on fractional constitutive equations while the former wave equations are ad hoc, heuristic equations. We show that this has consequences for use in modelling and simulation especially for applications that do not satisfy the low frequency approximation, such as shear wave elastography. In such applications the wave equations based on constitutive equations are the preferred ones.

Holm, Sverre

2013-01-01

247

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dispersion, attenuation and wavefronts in a class of linear viscoelastic media proposed by Strick and Mainardi (Geophys J R Astr Soc 69:415-429, 1982) and a related class of models due to Lomnitz, Jeffreys and Strick are studied by a new method due to the author. Unlike the previously studied explicit models of relaxation modulus or creep compliance, these two classes support propagation of discontinuities. Due to an extension made by Strick, either of these two classes of models comprise both viscoelastic solids and fluids. We also discuss the Andrade viscoelastic media. The Andrade media do not support discontinuity waves and exhibit the pedestal effect.

Hanyga, Andrzej

2014-09-01

248

We study the effects of frequency-dependent squeeze amplitude attenuation and squeeze angle rotation by electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) on gravitational wave (GW) interferometers. We propose the use of low-pass, band-pass, and high-pass EIT filters, an S-shaped EIT filter, and an intra-cavity EIT filter to generate frequency-dependent squeezing for injection into the antisymmetric port of GW interferometers. We find that the EIT filters have several advantages over the previous filter designs with regard to optical losses, compactness, and the tunability of the filter linewidth.

Eugeniy E. Mikhailov; Keisuke Goda; Thomas Corbitt; Nergis Mavalvala

2005-08-25

249

approach to describe the effect of heterogeneity on the coherent wave as well as the coda for surface wave. These phenomena express the fact that the pulse loses coherence by which incoherent coda energy is created. First-order scattering theory violates the law of energy conservation and therefore cannot be used when the wave field

Snieder, Roel

250

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have made a statistical study of the spatial distribution of low frequency waves (approx. 0.01-0.1 Hz) in the region upstream of the pre-dawn to dawn side bow shock (-50 Re less than X less than 15 Re) using both GEOTAIL and international sun earth explorer 3 (ISEE-3) magnetometer data. We have found that the wave amplitude dependence on D and X(sub s), where D is the distance from the bow shock and X(sub s) the x-coordinate position of shock foot point of the IMF, can be described by a functional form of A exp (X(sub s)/L(sub X)-D/L(sub D), with the characteristic attenuation distances, L(sub X) = 62 +/- 12 Re and L(sub D) = 59 +/- 38 Re.

Sugiyama, T.; Terasawa, T.; Kawano, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Kokubun, S.; Frank, L. A.; Ackerson, K.; Tsurutani, B. T.

1995-01-01

251

Ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements have been made by traveling-wave methods on several refractory metals and their alloys. Broad-band pulses centered around 120 kHz were used for extensional waves (and some torsional waves) in wire specimens. Elastic moduli calculated from the velocities decrease with increasing temperature; the slope increases in magnitude at about half the absolute melting point. At the

E. P. Papadakis; K. A. Fowler; L. C. Lynnworth; A. Robertson; E. D. Zysk

1974-01-01

252

The x-ray mass attenuation coefficients of zinc are measured in a high-accuracy experiment between 7.2 and 15.2 keV with an absolute accuracy of 0.044% and 0.197%. This is the most accurate determination of any attenuation coefficient on a bending-magnet beamline and reduces the absolute uncertainty by a factor of 3 compared to earlier work by advances in integrated column density determination and the full-foil mapping technique described herein. We define a relative accuracy of 0.006%, which is not the same as either the precision or the absolute accuracy. Relative accuracy is the appropriate parameter for standard implementation of analysis of near-edge spectra. Values of the imaginary components f'' of the x-ray form factor of zinc are derived. Observed differences between the measured mass attenuation coefficients and various theoretical calculations reach a maximum of about 5% at the absorption edge and up to 2% further than 1 keV away from the edge. The measurements invite improvements in the theoretical calculations of mass attenuation coefficients of zinc.

Rae, Nicholas A.; Chantler, Christopher T.; Barnea, Zwi; Jonge, Martin D. de; Tran, Chanh Q.; Hester, James R. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Australian Synchrotron, Victoria 3168 (Australia); La Trobe University, Victoria 3086 (Australia); Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New South Wales 2234 (Australia)

2010-02-15

253

Estimation of shear-wave interval attenuation from mode-converted data Bharath Shekar1

be inverted for the interval attenuation parameters. The method is tested on multicomponent syn- thetic data sonic logs in sandstone formations with variable oil, water, and gas saturation and observes that QP due to the pre- sence of gas in the near-surface layers causes distortions in the amplitudes

Tsvankin, Ilya

254

Work was completed on yield determination at the Soviet test site on Novaya Zemlya. Magnitudes and yields, determined for 30 explosions using Lg amplitudes recorded in northwestern Europe, ranged between 2.5 and 4900 kt, the largest since April 1976 being about 145 kt. Studies were completed on seismic wave attenuation of surface waves at intermediate periods and of Lg waves at 1 Hz in several regions of the world. Limits were determined for the degree of frequency dependence of Q (sub beta) which can occur in the crust in stable and tectonically active regions. A stochastic convolution model was proposed for Lg coda at distances > 200 km which considers the effects of dispersion scattering and mode conversions at those distances. A back-projection tomographic method was developed to regionalize large-scale lateral variations of coda Q for Lg waves which traverse long continental paths. A seismically active region in the New Madrid seismic zone was found to be characterized by lower than normal Q values. In the western United States, Q values in the upper mantle vary laterally, becoming smaller from east to west. Crust of the Basin and Range province has a low-Q upper crust overlying a lower crust with higher Q values.

Mitchell, B.J.; Nuttli, O.W.; Xie, J.K.; Al-Shukri, H.; Correig, A.

1989-05-25

255

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations have been made and reported that the experimental normal force coefficients at a constant angle of attack were constant with a variation of more than 2 orders of magnitude of Reynolds number at a free-stream Mach number M(sub infinity) of 8.00 and more than 1 order of magnitude variation at M(sub infinity) = 6.00 on the same body-wing hypersonic cruise configuration. These data were recorded under laminar, transitional, and turbulent boundary layer conditions with both hot-wall and cold-wall models. This report presents experimental data on 25 configurations of 17 models of both simple and complex geometry taken at M(sub infinity) = 6.00, 6.86, and 8.00 in 4 different hypersonic facilities. Aerodynamic calculations were made by computational fluid dynamics (CID) and engineering methods to analyze these data. The conclusions were that the normal force coefficients at a given altitude are constant with Reynolds numbers at hypersonic speeds and that the axial force coefficients recorded under laminar boundary-layer conditions at several Reynolds numbers may be plotted against the laminar parameter (the reciprocal of the Reynolds number to the one-half power) and extrapolated to the ordinate axis to determine the inviscid-wave-drag coefficient at the intercept.

Hawkins, Richard; Penland, Jim A.

1997-01-01

256

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AlN and AlScN thin films with 27% scandium (Sc) were synthesized by DC magnetron sputtering deposition and used to fabricate surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices. Compared with AlN-based devices, the AlScN SAW devices exhibit much better transmission properties. Scandium doping results in electromechanical coupling coefficient, K2, in the range of 2.0% ˜ 2.2% for a wide normalized thickness range, more than a 300% increase compared to that of AlN-based SAW devices, thus demonstrating the potential applications of AlScN in high frequency resonators, sensors, and high efficiency energy harvesting devices. The coupling coefficients of the present AlScN based SAW devices are much higher than that of the theoretical calculation based on some assumptions for AlScN piezoelectric material properties, implying there is a need for in-depth investigations on the material properties of AlScN.

Wang, Wenbo; Mayrhofer, Patrick M.; He, Xingli; Gillinger, Manuel; Ye, Zhi; Wang, Xiaozhi; Bittner, Achim; Schmid, Ulrich; Luo, J. K.

2014-09-01

257

Laboratory experiments and numerical modeling of wave attenuation through artificial vegetation

density, wave period, plant type, and water depth with respect to stem length. In wetland regions vegetation is one of the main factors influencing hydraulic roughness. Traditional open-channel flow equations, including the Manning and Darcy- Weisbach...

Augustin, Lauren Nicole

2009-05-15

258

Measurement of the speed and attenuation of the Biot slow wave using a large ultrasonic transmitter

Two compressional wave modes, a fast P1 and a slow P2, propagate through fluid-saturated porous and permeable media. This contribution focuses on new experimental tests of existing theories describing wave propagation in such media. Updated observations of this P2 mode are obtained through a water-loaded, porous sintered glass bead plate with a novel pair of ultrasonic transducers consisting of a

Youcef Bouzidi; Douglas R. Schmitt

2009-01-01

259

Attenuation of P and S waves in a magma chamber in Long Valley caldera, California

Shallow earthquakes around the southwest boundary of Long Valley caldera, west of the Hilton Creek Fault, are characterized by lack of s-waves at regional seismic network stations to the northwest, north and northeast, and P-waves for these same station-event combinations are deficient in frequencies higher than about 2-3 Hz. Earthquakes east of the Hilton Creek fault and southeast of the

Floriana Ryall; Alan Ryall

1981-01-01

260

The extraordinary case of increase in velocity of surface acoustic waves (SAW) caused by electrical shorting of the surface of the superstrong piezoelectric crystal potassium niobate, KNbO3, is numerically found. The explanation of this effect is based on considering SAWs as coupled Rayleigh and Bleustein-Gulyaev modes. A general procedure of approximate decoupling of the modes is suggested for piezoelectric crystals of arbitrary anisotropy. The effect under study takes place when the phase velocity of uncoupled sagittally polarized Rayleigh waves is intermediate between the phase velocities of uncoupled shear-horizontal Bleustein Gulyaev waves at the free and metallized surfaces. In this case, the metallization of the surface by an infinitely thin layer may cause a crossover of the velocity curves of the uncoupled waves. The presence of the mode coupling results in splitting of the curves with transition from one uncoupled branch to the other. This transition is responsible for the increase in SAW velocity, which appears to be greater than its common decrease produced by electrical shorting of the substrate surface. PMID:10950352

Mozhaev, V G; Weihnacht, M

2000-07-01

261

Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can be performed by using compensators. To make a compensator for an IMRT practice, it is required to calculate the effective attenuation coefficient (?{sub eff}) of its material, which is affected by various factors. We studied the effect of the variation of the most important factors on the calculation of the ?{sub eff} of the cerrobend compensator for 6-MV photon beams, including the field size, compensator thickness, and off-axis distance. Experimental measurements were carried out at 100 cm source-to-surface distance and 10 cm depth for the 6-MV photon beams of an Elekta linac using various field size, compensator thickness, and off-axis settings. The field sizes investigated ranged from 4 × 4 to 25 × 25 cm{sup 2} and the cerrobend compensator thicknesses from 0.5–6 cm. For a fixed compensator thickness, variation of the ?{sub eff} with the field size ranged from 3.7–6.8%, with the highest value attributed to the largest compensator thickness. At the reference field size of 10 × 10 cm{sup 2}, the ?{sub eff} varied by 16.5% when the compensator thickness was increased from 0.5–6 cm. However, the variation of the ?{sub eff} with the off-axis distance was only 0.99% at this field size, whereas for the largest field size, it was more significant. Our results indicated that the compensator thickness and field size have the most significant effect on the calculation of the compensator ?{sub eff} for the 6-MV photon beam. Therefore, it is recommended to consider these parameters when calculating the compensator thickness for an IMRT practice designed for these beams. The off-axis distance had a significant effect on the calculation of the ?{sub eff} only for the largest field size. Hence, it is recommended to consider the effect of this parameter only for field sizes larger than 25 × 25 cm{sup 2}.

Haghparast, Abbas [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, Bijan, E-mail: bhashemi@modares.ac.ir [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eivazi, Mohammad Taghi [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-04-01

262

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Wave Propagation Laboratory (WPL) presently operates five dual-channel microwave radiometers, one triple-channel microwave radiometer, and one six-channel microwave radiometer. The dual-channel radiometers operate at frequencies of 20.6 or 23.87 GHz and 31.4 or 31.65 GHz. The triple-channel radiometer operates at 20.6, 31.65, and 90.0 GHz. The six-channel radiometer operates at frequencies of 20.6, 31.65, 52.85, 53.85, 55.45, and 58.8 GHz. Recent brightness temperature measurements and attenuation values from some of the above radiometers are presented. These radiometric measurements, taken in different locations throughout the world, have given WPL a diverse set of measurements under a variety of atmospheric conditions. We propose to do a more complete attenuation analysis on these measurements in the future. In addition, a new spinning reflector was installed recently for the dual-channel radiometer at the Platteville, Colorado site. This reflector will extend our measurement capabilities during precipating conditions. Locating the three-channel and portable dual-channel radiometers at or near Greeley, Colorado to support the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) program is discussed.

Jacobson, Mark D.; Snider, J. B.; Westwater, E. R.

1993-01-01

263

High-frequency Po/So guided waves in the oceanic lithosphere: II-heterogeneity and attenuation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the western Pacific, high-frequency seismic energy is carried to very great distances from the source. The Po and So phases with observed seismic velocities characteristic of the mantle lithosphere have complex and elongated waveforms that are well explained by a model of stochastic heterogeneity. However, in the eastern part of the Pacific Basin equivalent paths show muted Po and weak, or missing, So. Once established, it is hard to eliminate such guided Po and So energy in the mantle lithosphere by purely structural effects. Even sharp changes in lithospheric thickness or complex transitions at fracture zones only weaken the mantle ducted wave trains, but Po and So remain distinct. In contrast, the effect of attenuation is much more severe and can lead to suppression of the So phase to below the noise level after passage of a few hundred kilometres. The differing characteristics of Po and So across the Pacific can therefore be related directly to the thermal state via the enhanced attenuation in hotter regions, such as the spreading ridges and backarc regions.

Kennett, B. L. N.; Furumura, T.; Zhao, Y.

2014-10-01

264

Extended Capillary Waves and the Negative Rigidity Coefficient in the d=2 SOS model

The solid-on-solid (SOS) model of an interface separating two phases is exactly soluble in two dimensions (d=2) when the interface becomes a one-dimensional string. The exact solution in terms of the transfer matrix is recalled and the density-density correlation function $H(z_1,z_2;\\Delta x)$ together with its projections, is computed. It is demonstrated that the shape fluctuations follow the (extended) capillary-wave theory expression $S(q)=kT/(D+\\gamma q^2 +\\kappa q^4) $ for sufficiently small wave vectors $q$. We find $\\kappa$ {\\it negative}, $\\kappa <0$ . At $q=2\\pi$ there is a strong nearest-neighbor peak. Both these results confirm the earlier findings as established in simulations in d=3 and in continuous space, but now in an exactly soluble lattice model.

J. Stecki

2006-02-15

265

The extraordinary case of increase in velocity of surface acoustic waves (SAW) caused by electrical shorting of the surface of the superstrong piezoelectric crystal potassium niobate, KNbO3, is numerically found. The explanation of this effect is based on considering SAWs as coupled Rayleigh and Bleustein–Gulyaev modes. A general procedure of approximate decoupling of the modes is suggested for piezoelectric crystals

V. G. Mozhaev; M. Weihnacht

2000-01-01

266

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anelastic attenuation of seismic waves provides us with valuable information on temperature and water content in the Earth's mantle. While seismic velocity models have been investigated by many researchers, anelastic attenuation (or Q) models have yet to be investigated in detail mainly due to the intrinsic difficulties and uncertainties in the amplitude analysis of observed seismic waveforms. To increase the horizontal resolution of surface wave attenuation models on a regional scale, we have developed a new method of fully non-linear waveform fitting to measure inter-station phase velocities and amplitude ratios simultaneously, using the Neighborhood Algorithm (NA) as a global optimizer. Model parameter space (perturbations of phase speed and amplitude ratio) is explored to fit two observed waveforms on a common great-circle path by perturbing both phase and amplitude of the fundamental-mode surface waves. This method has been applied to observed waveform data of the USArray from 2007 to 2008, and a large-number of inter-station amplitude and phase speed data are corrected in a period range from 20 to 200 seconds. We have constructed preliminary phase speed and attenuation models using the observed phase and amplitude data, with careful considerations of the effects of elastic focusing and station correction factors for amplitude data. The phase velocity models indicate good correlation with the conventional tomographic results in North America on a large-scale; e.g., significant slow velocity anomaly in volcanic regions in the western United States. The preliminary results of surface-wave attenuation achieved a better variance reduction when the amplitude data are inverted for attenuation models in conjunction with corrections for receiver factors. We have also taken into account the amplitude correction for elastic focusing based on a geometrical ray theory, but its effects on the final model is somewhat limited and our attenuation model show anti-correlation with the phase velocity models; i.e., lower attenuation is found in slower velocity areas that cannot readily be explained by the temperature effects alone. Some former global scale studies (e.g., Dalton et al., JGR, 2006) indicated that the ray-theoretical focusing corrections on amplitude data tend to eliminate such anti-correlation of phase speed and attenuation, but this seems not to work sufficiently well for our regional scale model, which is affected by stronger velocity gradient relative to global-scale models. Thus, the estimated elastic focusing effects based on ray theory may be underestimated in our regional-scale studies. More rigorous ways to estimate the focusing corrections as well as data selection criteria for amplitude measurements are required to achieve a high-resolution attenuation models on regional scales in the future.

Hamada, K.; Yoshizawa, K.

2013-12-01

267

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) wave power in the Pc5 period band is thought to play an important role in the dynamics, acceleration and transport of energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt. Current estimates of radial diffusion coefficients are typically derived empirically and characterised in terms of Kp. Using the results from a statistical analysis of ground-based and in-situ electric- and magnetic field power spectral densities as a function of solar wind speed, MLT and L-shell we compile statistical representations for the transport under a diffusive approximation. Electric diffusion rates are calculated using ground-based data from the CARISMA magnetometer network and mapped into in-situ equatorial electric fields using the Ozeke et al. [2009] model. These diffusion rates are compared to those derived from the THEMIS satellites and from previously published CRRES estimates. We find an excellent comparison between the ground-based estimates and in-situ observations. Interestingly the ground-based Pc5 power spectra show evidence of mHz spectral power peaks consistent with those observed on CRRES, and consistent with a role for field line resonances in radial diffusion. We further calculate the magnetic diffusion coefficients using data from THEMIS and GOES, and compare with previous AMPTE estimates. Overall such analysis provides a wave power based method for calculating diffusive transport using observed wave fields. Future in-situ radiation belt missions such as the Canadian Space Agency Outer Radiation Belt Injection, Transport, Acceleration and Loss Satellite (ORBITALS) will enable these physics-based models to be tested and will provide an excellent complement to the single point measurements available from the satellites.

Mann, I. R.; Rae, J.; Ozeke, L.; Murphy, K. R.; Milling, D. K.; Chan, A. A.; Elkington, S. R.

2010-12-01

268

The results of a theoretical investigation of the interaction between electromagnetic fields and acoustic and entropy waves in a partially ionized gas are presented. The simulation uses for the first time actual property curve fits for a coal-combustion plasma rather than the perfect gas relationships that were used in previous studies. The working fluid employed was a combustion plasma from

Manohar R. Kulkarni; John P. Barton

1989-01-01

269

S wave attenuation and site effects in the region of Friuli, Italy

We used strong motion records from the 1976 Friuli earthquake (M 6.4) and 10 of the biggest aftershocks recorded by the National Accelerograph Network of the Electrical Power Company of Italy to estimate the quality factor Q of S waves in this region. The wide distance range of the recordings (10

Raúl R. Castro; Francesca Pacor; Alfio Sala; Carmine Petrungaro

1996-01-01

270

The propagation behavior of Love waves in a layered structure that includes a functionally graded material (FGM) substrate carrying a piezoelectric thin film is investigated. Analytical solutions are obtained for both constant and gradient dielectric coefficients in the FGM substrate. Numerical results show that the gradient dielectric coefficient decreases phase velocity in any mode, and the electromechanical coupling factor significantly increases in the first- and secondorder modes. In some modes, the difference in Love waves' phase velocity between these two types of structure might be more than 1%, resulting in significant differences in frequency of the surface acoustic wave devices. PMID:22718875

Cao, Xiaoshan; Shi, Junping; Jin, Feng

2012-06-01

271

To investigate the validity of the mixture rule which is used to compute the mass attenuation coefficients in compounds, the total mass attenuation coefficients for Cu, Cr elements and Cu2O, CuC2O4, CuCl2·2H2O, Cu(C2H3O2)2·H2O, Cr2O3, Cr(NO3)3, Cr2(SO4)3·H2O, Cr3(CH3CO7)(OH)2 compounds were measured at photon energies between 4.508 and 13.375keV by using the secondary excitation method. Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Ge, As,

Ü Turgut; Ö ?im?ek; E Büyükkasap; M Ertu?rul

2004-01-01

272

Attenuation measurements were made of shock waves propagated through ; ionized gas in the presence of a transversc magnetic field. Ionization was ; produced by maintaining a radio frequency discharge in the low pressure section ; of a shock tube. The electrical gas conductivity achieved by this means was less ; than 1 mho\\/m, a value much smaller than was

S. P. Carfagno; G. P. Wachtell

1961-01-01

273

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I present a frequency-independent three-dimensional (3-D) compressional wave attenuation model (indicated by quality factor Qp) for the crust and uppermost mantle of Northern and central California. The tomographic inversion used t? values measured from amplitude spectra of 80,988 P wave arrivals of 3247 events recorded by 463 network stations through a 3-D seismic velocity model. The model has a uniform horizontal grid spacing of 15 km, and the vertical node intervals range between 2 and 10 km down to 45 km depth. In general, the resulting Qp values increase with depth and agree with the surface geology at shallow depth layers. The most significant features observed in the Qp model are the high Qp values in the Sierra Nevada mountains and low Qp anomalies in the western fault zones. Low Qp values are also imaged in Owens Valley and Long Valley at shallow depths and the Cape Mendocino region in the lower crust (˜25 km depth). An overall contrast of Qp values across the fault is observed in the creeping, Parkfield and Cholame-Carrizo sections of the San Andreas Fault. The new 3-D Qp model provides an important complement to the existing regional-scale velocity models for interpreting structural heterogeneity and fluid saturation of rocks in the study area.

Lin, Guoqing

2014-04-01

274

Effect of particle size distribution on millimeter wave propagation into sandstorms

The paper considers the propagation of millimeter waves into sandstorms and addresses two questions i) how critical is the choice of a size distribution of sand particles in estimating the attenuation coefficient? and ii) can the attenuation coefficient obtained for one distribution be applied to other distributions when properly scaled? The relation of the propagation constant to the size distribution

Adel A. Ali

1986-01-01

275

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A time-domain numerical modeling of transversely isotropic Biot poroelastic waves is proposed in two dimensions. The viscous dissipation occurring in the pores is described using the dynamic permeability model developed by Johnson-Koplik-Dashen (JKD). Some of the coefficients in the Biot-JKD model are proportional to the square root of the frequency. In the time-domain, these coefficients introduce shifted fractional derivatives of order 1/2, involving a convolution product. Based on a diffusive representation, the convolution kernel is replaced by a finite number of memory variables that satisfy local-in-time ordinary differential equations, resulting in the Biot-DA (diffusive approximation) model. The properties of both the Biot-JKD and the Biot-DA models are analyzed: hyperbolicity, decrease of energy, dispersion. To determine the coefficients of the diffusive approximation, two approaches are analyzed: Gaussian quadratures and optimization methods in the frequency range of interest. The nonlinear optimization is shown to be the better way of determination. A splitting strategy is then applied to approximate numerically the Biot-DA equations. The propagative part is discretized using a fourth-order ADER scheme on a Cartesian grid, whereas the diffusive part is solved exactly. An immersed interface method is implemented to take into account heterogeneous media on a Cartesian grid and to discretize the jump conditions at interfaces. Numerical experiments are presented. Comparisons with analytical solutions show the efficiency and the accuracy of the approach, and some numerical experiments are performed to investigate wave phenomena in complex media, such as multiple scattering across a set of random scatterers.

Blanc, Emilie; Chiavassa, Guillaume; Lombard, Bruno

2014-10-01

276

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use VLF electromagnetic wave data measured by the DEMETER (Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions) satellite at an altitude of about 700 km to check for the presence of statistically significant changes of natural wave intensity (due to signals from lightning) related to preseismic activity. All the relevant data acquired by DEMETER during almost 6.5 years of the mission have been analyzed using a robust two-step data-processing schema. This enables us to compare data from the vicinity of about 8400 earthquakes with an unperturbed background distribution based on data collected during the whole DEMETER mission and to evaluate the statistical significance of the observed effects. We confirm previously reported results of a small but statistically significant decrease of the wave intensity (by ˜2 dB) at frequencies of about 1.7 kHz. The effect is observed for a few hours before the times of the main shocks; it occurs during the night. The effect is stronger between March and August, at higher latitudes and for the positions of hypocenters below the sea. We suggest an explanation based on changed properties of the lower boundary of the ionosphere, which leads to a decrease of the intensity of lightning-generated whistlers observed at the spacecraft altitude. This effect might result from a lowering of the ionosphere associated with an increase in the electrical conductivity of the lower troposphere due to an additional ionization of air molecules at the Earth's surface prior to earthquakes.

PíšA, David; N?Mec, FrantišEk; SantolíK, Ond?Ej; Parrot, Michel; Rycroft, Michael

2013-08-01

277

Attenuation of Spurious Oscillations in the Numerical Capture of Shock Waves

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial viscosity is often expressed as a superposition of linear and quadratic terms in the first derivative of the velocity field. In trying to find a continuous solution for the hydrodynamic equations, we propose an alternative one-term artificial viscosity which is a linear form of the derivative of the specific volume. It is shown that this artificial viscosity is able to capture the profile of the steady plane shock wave, largely removing the non-physical oscillations originated by the artificial viscosity of von Neumann and Richtmyer. Analytical and numerical calculations for one-dimensional shock using both artificial viscosities are compared.

Portes, D.; Rodrigues, H.; Duarte, S. B.

278

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the S+Lg+surface wave groups radiated out to 600 km by four moderate (4 ? M ? 5) earthquakes in Quebec, New York, and Maine: the 1997 Cap Rouge, 2002 Ausable Forks, 2005 Rivière du Loup, and 2006 Bar Harbor earthquakes. The raypaths predominately sample the Appalacian Province, and the crustal velocity structure is roughly homogeneous across the study area. We compute spectra using 20-60 s windows of the horizontal broadband components. We restrict our analysis to hard-rock (Vs > 1500 m/s) and soft-rock (Vs > 700 m/s) sites, avoiding resonant sedimentary sites; we model site amplification using average 1D impedance functions (Boore and Joyner, 1997). We use ro = 50 km instead of ro = 100 km for the crossover distance in the Street et al. (1975) function for geometrical spreading: this distance adjusts the corrected spectra at 10 s to the moment tensor estimates. This simple correction scheme allows us to regress for Q directly as a function of frequency: the source spectral shape is entirely unconstrained. Fitting a Qo f q function to the Q estimates from 0.2 to 25 Hz yields Q = 410 f 0.5 for a group velocity of 3.5 km/s. This attenuation is stronger than the Lg attenuation of 650 f 0.36 obtained by Erickson et al. (2004). The Q estimates are consistent for individual events. For f > 20 Hz, the Q estimates increase more rapidly than f 0.5: this deviation from the Qo f q form appears characteristic. To gauge how these Q estimates depend on the distance limit, we will rerun the analysis using broadband data out to 1000 km, adding 30% more recordings to the dataset.

Boatwright, J.; Seekins, L. C.

2009-12-01

279

The effective electromechanical coupling coefficient has been studied for thin film bulk acoustic wave resonators (TBARs) with fundamental frequencies between 200 and 400MHz. An increase in the effective electromechanical coupling coefficient (ktTBAR2) is observed with the increase in the ZnO thickness ratio: thickness of ZnO thin film and that of TBAR. In case where the ZnO thickness ratio is >70%,

Masaki Takeuchi; Hajime Yamada; Yukio Yoshino; Takahiro Makino; Seiichi Arai

2002-01-01

280

Attenuation of high frequency P and S waves in the crust of the East-Central Iran

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We simultaneously estimated Qp-1 and Qs-1 by applying the extended coda-normalization method at 39 stations of three local networks in the East-Central Iran. We measured frequency-dependent attenuation of both P and S waves for the frequency range of 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, 12 and 24 Hz. We have analysed 266 three-component seismograms of 53 local earthquakes, having focal depths less than 25 km, which occurred from 2003 December 28 to 2005 April 11. By fitting power-law frequency dependence to the estimated values over the whole stations, we obtained Qp-1 = (25 +/- 3) × 10-3 f (-0.99+/-0.04) and Qs-1 = (19 +/- 2) × 10-3 f(-1.02+/-0.06) in the upper crust of the East-Central Iran, where f is frequency in Hz. Our results are in the range of those estimated for Qp-1 and Qs-1 of the other seismically active regions.

Ma'hood, M.; Hamzehloo, H.; Doloei, G. J.

2009-12-01

281

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Morlet wavelet multiple-filter method is applied to measure relative group delays from first cycle P waves, from eight CWBSN stations located near the source of the 1999 Chi Chi, and Chia-Yi, Taiwan earthquakes. The data used in this study is from the year between 1998 and 2000. The epicentral distance is less than 30 km with depth less than 25 km and ML?3.0. Using continuous relaxation model, we can relates intrinsic dispersion to attenuation and by applying the genetic algorithm (GA), we are able to determine Qp, which allows us to investigate the temporal variations of Qp before and after the occurrence of a large earthquake. Our results indicate that the Qp is highly sensitive to crack density. Before the occurrence of a large earthquake, Qp increases significantly, which indicates that the pre-seismic stress accumulation may associate with fluid-filled higher density fractured rock in the source area and causes crack density to increase. One interesting phenomena that we find is that Qp decreases right before the occurrence of a large earthquake, not after the occurrence of an earthquake. This observation implies that t the temporal variation pattern of Qp can serve as an important indicator for stress level change before an earthquake occurs, which also provides another perspective to understand the siemogeneric process in the source area.

Chen, C.; Weng, C.; Chang, W.

2007-12-01

282

Purpose: Accurate patient-specific photon cross-section information is needed to support more accurate model-based dose calculation for low energy photon-emitting modalities in medicine such as brachytherapy and kilovoltage x-ray imaging procedures. A postprocessing dual-energy CT (pDECT) technique for noninvasivein vivo estimation of photon linear attenuation coefficients has been experimentally implemented on a commercial CT scanner and its accuracy assessed in idealized phantom geometries. Methods: Eight test materials of known composition and density were used to compare pDECT-estimated linear attenuation coefficients to NIST reference values over an energy range from 10 keV to 1 MeV. As statistical image reconstruction (SIR) has been shown to reconstruct images with less random and systematic error than conventional filtered backprojection (FBP), the pDECT technique was implemented with both an in-house polyenergetic SIR algorithm, alternating minimization (AM), as well as a conventional FBP reconstruction algorithm. Improvement from increased spectral separation was also investigated by filtering the high-energy beam with an additional 0.5 mm of tin. The law of propagated uncertainty was employed to assess the sensitivity of the pDECT process to errors in reconstructed images. Results: Mean pDECT-estimated linear attenuation coefficients for the eight test materials agreed within 1% of NIST reference values for energies from 1 MeV down to 30 keV, with mean errors rising to between 3% and 6% at 10 keV, indicating that the method is unbiased when measurement and calibration phantom geometries are matched. Reconstruction with FBP and AM algorithms conferred similar mean pDECT accuracy. However, single-voxel pDECT estimates reconstructed on a 1 × 1 × 3 mm{sup 3} grid are shown to be highly sensitive to reconstructed image uncertainty; in some cases pDECT attenuation coefficient estimates exhibited standard deviations on the order of 20% around the mean. Reconstruction with the statistical AM algorithm led to standard deviations roughly 40% to 60% less than FBP reconstruction. Additional tin filtration of the high energy beam exhibits similar pDECT estimation accuracy as the unfiltered beam, even when scanning with only 25% of the dose. Using the law of propagated uncertainty, low Z materials are found to be more sensitive to image reconstruction errors than high Z materials. Furthermore, it is estimated that reconstructed CT image uncertainty must be limited to less than 0.25% to achieve a target linear-attenuation coefficient estimation uncertainty of 3% at 28 keV. Conclusions: That pDECT supports mean linear attenuation coefficient measurement accuracies of 1% of reference values for energies greater than 30 keV is encouraging. However, the sensitivity of the pDECT measurements to noise and systematic errors in reconstructed CT images warrants further investigation in more complex phantom geometries. The investigated statistical reconstruction algorithm, AM, reduced random measurement uncertainty relative to FBP owing to improved noise performance. These early results also support efforts to increase DE spectral separation, which can further reduce the pDECT sensitivity to measurement uncertainty.

Evans, Joshua D., E-mail: jevans2@mcvh-vcu.edu; Yu, Yaduo; Williamson, Jeffrey F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Whiting, Bruce R. [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); O’Sullivan, Joseph A. [Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Politte, David G. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)] [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Klahr, Paul H. [Philips Healthcare, 595 Miner Rd., Highland Hts., Ohio 44143 (United States)] [Philips Healthcare, 595 Miner Rd., Highland Hts., Ohio 44143 (United States)

2013-12-15

283

We present a new approach to evaluate phase and group velocities of Love and Rayleigh waves in a spherical layered earth using the generalized reflection-transmission coefficient method. The approach is simple and self-efficient to give numerically stable results at all frequency ranges. The method has been previously used for computing phase velocities in a flat layered earth. For spherical earth,

T. Qureshi; S. N. Bhattacharya

2006-01-01

284

Seismic viscoelastic attenuation Submitted to

the resultant elastic deformation (strain) in the material lags in time the applied stress induced by the wave T of a seismic body wave given by the expression exp(- f T/Q). The apparent Q combines the energy lost to heat attenuate? The attenuation of seismic waves is due to three effects: geometric spreading, intrinsic

Cormier, Vernon F.

285

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the self-intermediate scattering function (SISF) in a three-dimensional (3D) cubic lattice fluid (interacting lattice gas) with attractive nearest-neighbor interparticle interactions at a temperature slightly above the critical one by means of Monte Carlo simulations. A special representation of SISF as an exponent of the mean tracer diffusion coefficient multiplied by the geometrical factor and time is considered to highlight memory effects that are included in time and wave-vector dependence of the diffusion coefficient. An analytical expression for the diffusion coefficient is suggested to reproduce the simulation data. It is shown that the particles' mean-square displacement is equal to the time integral of the diffusion coefficient. We make a comparison with the previously considered 2D system on a square lattice. The main difference with the two-dimensional case is that the time dependence of particular characteristics of the tracer diffusion coefficient in the 3D case cannot be described by exponentially decreasing functions, but requires using stretched exponentials with rather small values of exponents, of the order of 0.2. The hydrodynamic values of the tracer diffusion coefficient (in the limit of large times and small wave vectors) defined through SIFS simulation results agree well with the results of its direct determination by the mean-square displacement of the particles in the entire range of concentrations and temperatures.

Skarpalezos, Loukas; Argyrakis, Panos; Vikhrenko, Vyacheslav S.

2014-05-01

286

Experimental and theoretical studies on visible light attenuation in water

In this study we describe lab experiments on determining the above water reflectance Rrs coefficient, and the water attenuation coefficient Kd for fresh water. Different types of screens (totally absorbent, gray, etc.) were submerged in water (0-0.6 m) and illuminated from outside. The spectral density of the water leaving radiance was measured for different depths. The results were ran by a code which took into account the geometry of the incident irradiation, the geometry of the screen under water, and boundary conditions at the water surface provided by the radiation transfer theory. From the experimental data and our model we obtain the spectral distribution of the attenuation coefficient for fresh water and compared it with other data in literature. These experiments, performed in the Nonlinear Wave Lab at ERAU# represent just a preliminary calibration of the experimental protocol. More tests with water of different degrees of turbidity, and possibly wave filed at the water surface are in progress and wi...

Simpson, A; Cho, H J; Liu, H

2014-01-01

287

We estimate attenuation (t*) for teleseismic P and S arrivals to seismometers in the Yellowstone Intermountain Seismic Array; tomographically invert these data for upper mantle Qp-1 and Qs-1 structure; and, with the aid of the upper mantle velocity model of Waite et al. (2006), interpret the results for mantle temperature, partial melt, and water content. Because attenuation analysis is susceptible

David C. Adams; Eugene D. Humphreys

2010-01-01

288

Anisotropy of Earth's inner core intrinsic attenuation from seismic normal mode models

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth's inner core, the slowly growing sphere of solid iron alloy at the centre of our planet, is known to exhibit seismic anisotropy. Both normal mode and body wave studies have established that, when the global average is taken, compressional waves propagate faster in the North-South direction than in the equatorial plane. Recent body wave studies also indicate that this fast direction may be more attenuating, and interpret this anisotropic attenuation in terms of anisotropic scattering due to inner core texturing. Here we use the Earth's normal modes to study the attenuation anisotropy of both compressional and shear waves in the inner core. As normal modes have wavelengths several orders of magnitude longer than estimates of inner core grain size, any attenuation anisotropy quantified using normal modes must reflect the anisotropy of intrinsic (viscoelastic) attenuation of the crystalline inner core alloy. By inverting zonal anelastic and elastic normal mode splitting function coefficients of twenty inner core sensitive modes, we construct models of inner core intrinsic attenuation and velocity anisotropy. We find that, for compressional waves, the North-South direction is both fast and more strongly attenuating. The existence of intrinsic inner core attenuation anisotropy can be interpreted in terms of anisotropic Zener relaxation in the metallic alloy comprising the inner core. Such anisotropic Zener relaxation has only been observed in the presence of solute atoms, and is thus entirely consistent with the presence of a few atomic per cent of light elements in the Earth's inner core.

Mäkinen, Anna M.; Deuss, Arwen; Redfern, Simon A. T.

2014-10-01

289

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimum and off-optimum properties of circumferentially segmented duct liners are compared with those of uniform liners to identify any potential benefits of circumferentially segmented liners. High- and low-order spinning-mode sources are considered in the study. The solution for the segmented liner is obtained by a multimodal expansion of the segmented-liner eigenmodes in terms of a series of hardwall duct models. The coefficients in the hard-wall series are obtained by using Galerkin's method. Results show that for some frequencies and duct lengths, circumferentially segmented liners scatter energy equally between a higher and lower order circumferential wave number. Studies for higher order spinning-mode sources show that an optimized segmented liner with a hard-wall/soft-wal admittance variation representing an optimum configuration gives better performance than an optimized uniform liner. Overall, the greatest benefit of the segmented liner over the uniform liner occurs under off-optimum conditions. The optimized segmented liner gives more effective broadband performance than the optimized uniform liner.

Watson, W. R.

1982-01-01

290

Modeling, evaluation, and asymptotic analysis of attenuation anisotropy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic attenuation is sensitive to the physical properties of the subsurface, which makes attenuation analysis a useful tool for reservoir characterization. In this thesis, I present algorithms for estimating directionally dependent attenuation coefficients and perform asymptotic and numerical analysis of wave propagation in attenuative anisotropic media. First, I introduce a methodology to estimate the S-wave interval attenuation coefficient by extending the layer-stripping method of Behura and Tsvankin (2009) to mode-converted (PS) waves. Kinematic reconstruction of pure shear (SS) events in the target layer and the overburden is performed by combining velocity-independent layer stripping with the PP+PS=SS method. Then, application of the spectral-ratio method and the dynamic version of velocity-independent layer stripping to the constructed SS reflections yields the S-wave interval attenuation coefficient in the target layer. The attenuation coefficient estimated for a range of source-receiver offsets can be inverted for the interval attenuation-anisotropy parameters. The method is tested on synthetic data generated with the anisotropic reflectivity method for layered VTI (transversely isotropic with a vertical symmetry axis) media and vertical symmetry planes of orthorhombic media. Then, I analyze a cross-hole data set generated by perforation shots set off in a horizontal borehole to induce hydraulic fracturing in a tight gas reservoir. The spectral-ratio method is applied to pairs of traces to set up a system of equations for directionally-dependent effective attenuation. Although the inversion provides clear evidence of attenuation anisotropy, the narrow range of propagation directions impairs the accuracy of anisotropy analysis. The observed variations of the attenuation coefficient between different perforation stages appear to be related to changes in the medium due to hydraulic fracturing and stimulation. Important insights into point-source radiation in attenuative anisotropic media can be gained by applying asymptotic methods. I derive the asymptotic Green's function in homogeneous, attenuative, arbitrarily anisotropic media using the steepest-descent method. The saddle-point condition helps describe the behavior of the far field slowness and group-velocity vectors and evaluate the inhomogeneity angle (the angle between the real and imaginary parts of the slowness vector). The results from the asymptotic analysis are compared with those from the ray-perturbation method for P-waves in TI media. Finally, I address the problem of efficient viscoelastic modeling in heterogeneous anisotropic media. The Kirchhoff scattering integral is employed to generate reflected P-waves, with the required Green's functions computed by summation of Gaussian beams. The influence of attenuation on the Gaussian beams is incorporated using ray-perturbation theory. The method is applied to generate synthetic data from a highly attenuative VTI medium above a horizontal reflector and a structurally complex acoustic model with a salt body.

Shekar, Bharath Chandra

291

On the basis of a set of boundary conditions describing quite generally mass and energy transport processes across the free surface of helium II, the acoustic coefficients of reflection, transmission, and transformation of first sound, second sound, and the sound wave propagating in the vapor are calculated in the case of perpendicular incidence of sound waves against the liquid--vapor phase boundary. Considering rigoroulsy the influences of the Onsager surface coefficients, the isobaric thermal expansion coefficients, and the thermal conductivities of the liquid and the vapor, we derive sets of equations from which the acoustic coefficients are determined numerically. For estimations, simple explicit formulas of the acoustic coefficients are given. It is shown that the evaporation and energy transport processes occurring at the free surface of helium II due to the incidence of sound waves may be connected with appreciable energy dissipation. The surface absorption coefficients of first, second, and gas sound waves are deduced.

Wiechert, H.; Buchholz, F.I.

1980-06-01

292

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3D P- and S-wave attenuation and velocity structure of the Cocos subduction zone in Mexico is imaged using seismic events recorded by the MASE (100 seismometers running across central Mexico, 2005-2007) and VEOX (47 seismometers running across southern Mexico, 2007-2009) arrays, supplemented by stations from the National Seismic Network in Mexico (SSN). Using a spectral-decay method, we obtain a path attenuation operator t* for each seismogram in the frequency band 1 to 30 Hz, depending on the signal quality. These measurements are then inverted for 3D spatial variations in attenuation. Direct body-wave arrivals from local events are used for 3D velocity inversion. Deeper velocity structures along MASE and VEOX arrays are obtained by including teleseismic events. Inversion results show low attenuation associated with the Cocos slab, and show the slab dip angle increases from central to southern Mexico. High attenuation is imaged in the mantle wedge and the crust above. The highest attenuation is found in the crust near the active Los Tuxtlas volcanic field, probably related to the dehydration and melting process. Low velocity is observed in the mantle wedge and the crust above from velocity inversion. The Cocos slab is traced as high-velocity structure. The Cocos slab dips down to about 500 km in central Mexico along MASE array as shown by previous study (Perez-Campos, GRL, 2008). In southern Mexico along VEOX line, no clear continuous Cocos slab is observed deeper than about 150 km, which is also found by receiver function studies (Kim et al., in press; Perez-Campos et al., in press). There are some indications that the Cocos slab in southern Mexico near the Isthmus of Tehuantepec is truncated by some high-velocity structure dipping south from the Gulf of Mexico. This anomalous south-dipping structure is also seen in receiver function images, and may be related to the collision between the Yucatan Block and Mexico in the Miocene (Kim et al., in press).

Chen, T.; Clayton, R. W.

2011-12-01

293

On the apparent attenuation in the spatial coherence estimated from seismic arrays

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several recent studies have used the coherence of seismic noise between stations to retrieve the phase slowness and attenuation. However, there is considerable debate on the feasibility of attenuation retrieval, its interpretation, and its dependence on the noise directionality and has been the subject of several analytical and numerical studies. In this article, we perform a detailed analysis of the various factors that play a role in the estimation of spatial coherence and attenuation from seismic arrays using data from the Southern California Seismic Network. For instance, certain common preprocessing steps such as averaging neighboring frequencies to improve the estimate are sufficient to introduce attenuation-like effects. The presence of first-mode surface Rayleigh wave and P waves in addition to the fundamental mode in Southern California (at frequencies 0.05-0.2 Hz) suggests that the underlying spatial coherence is better modeled as a linear combination of the above wave types. Although this describes the observed coherence better than a simple zeroth-order Bessel function, the resulting phase cancelations due to the multiple seismic waves can be misconstrued as attenuation if not taken into consideration. Using simulations, we show that due to the slowness inhomogeneity, azimuthally averaging the coherence is not equivalent to homogenizing the medium and instead introduces apparent attenuation in the coherence due to interference. Trying to fit an exponential decay model to this apparent attenuation results in an attenuation coefficient which is similar to previously published results.

Menon, Ravishankar; Gerstoft, Peter; Hodgkiss, William S.

2014-04-01

294

The modified Beer-Lambert law (MBL) and the spatially resolved spectroscopy are used to measure the tissue oxidation in muscles and brains by the continuous wave near-infrared spectroscopy. The spatially resolved spectroscopy predicts the change in the concentration of the absorber by measuring the slope of attenuation data according to the separation and calculating the absorption coefficients of tissue on the basis of the slop in attenuation at the separation distance satisfying the linearity of this slop. This study analyzed the appropriate source-detector separation distance by using the diffuse approximation resolution for photon migration when predicting the absorption coefficient by the spatially resolved spectroscopy on the basis of the reflective image of the tissue. We imagine the 3 dimensional attenuation image with the absorption coefficient, reduced scattering coefficient and separation distance as its axes and obtained the attenuation data cube by calculating the attenuation on a certain interva...

Ri, Yong-Wu; Im, Song-Jin

2014-01-01

295

Dark optical solitons in power law media with time-dependent coefficients

This Letter talks about the dynamics of dark optical solitons that are governed by the nonlinear Schrödinger's equation with power law nonlinearity. The solitons are considered in presence of linear attenuation, third order dispersion and self-steepening terms, all with time-dependent coefficients. The solitary wave ansatz is used to carry out the integration and an exact soliton solution is obtained. It

Manirupa Saha; Amarendra K. Sarma; Anjan Biswas

2009-01-01

296

Effect of Rain Attenuation for a 10Gb\\/s 120-GHz-Band Millimeter-Wave Wireless Link

We measured the effects of rain attenuation on 120-GHz band wireless link during the heavy rainy period (from July to September, 2008) and annual period (from March to December, 2008). The heavy rainy period data are used as a basis for the wireless link design, and the annual data are used to calculate the reliability of the wireless link. The

Akihiko Hirata; Ryoichi Yamaguchi; Hiroyuki Takahashi; Toshihiko Kosugi; Koichi Murata; Naoya Kukutsu; Yuichi Kado

2009-01-01

297

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements were made of direct path with no trees, attenuated direct, and tree scattered signal levels at 1.3 GHz. Signals were received in two small groves of mixed hardwood trees. In the groves studied, average total signal levels were about 13 dB below adjacent no-trees locations, with attenuated direct signal levels about 14.6 dB below the no-trees case and scattered signals about 17.3 dB below the no-trees case. A simple model for land mobile satellite service (LMSS) propagation in groves of trees is proposed. The model assumes a constant scattered signal contribution at 17 dB below no-trees levels added to an attenuated direct signal which varies, depending on the number and density of trees in the direct path. When total signal levels are strong, the attenuated direct signal dominates. When total signal levels are more than 15 dB below no-trees levels, the scattered signals dominate.

Campbell, Richard L.; Estus, Robert

1988-01-01

298

The optical properties of scattering media determine the attenuation (A) and the transit time () of light diffusely reflected from the medium as well as the phase ((Phi) ) and modulation depth (M) of an intensity modulated light wave. Here it is described how the absorption coefficient can be derived from the ratio of changes in A, (Phi) and M.

Matthias Kohl; Russell W. Watson; Mark Cope

1997-01-01

299

. The study found that under a uniform and stationary wind speed the Charnock coefficient depends on both, and Tetsu Hara Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA with recent observations and previous modeling studies. The most important finding of this study

Rhode Island, University of

300

We investigated the correlation between the temperature coefficient of elasticity (TCE) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption spectra of SiO(2) for SAW devices. The measurement indicated that the TCE is strongly correlated with peak frequencies; that is, with the fractional change of the Si-O-Si bond angle with temperature. PMID:21859588

Matsuda, Satoru; Hara, Motoaki; Miura, Michio; Matsuda, Takashi; Ueda, Masanori; Satoh, Yoshio; Hashimoto, Ken-Ya

2011-08-01

301

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a statistical study of the spatial distribution of low frequency waves in the region upstream of the pre-dawn to dawn side bow shock using both GEOTAIL and ISEE-3 magnetometer data.

Sugiyama, T.; Terasawa, T.; Kawano, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Kokubun, S.; Frank, L.; Ackerson, K.; Tsurutani, B.

1994-01-01

302

The lithosphere beneath a continental rift should be significantly modified due to extension. To image the lithosphere beneath the Rio Grande rift (RGR), we analyzed teleseismic travel time delays of both P and S wave arrivals and solved for the attenuation of P and S waves for four seismic experiments spanning the Rio Grande rift. Two tomographic inversions of the P wave travel time data are given: an Aki-Christofferson-Husebye (ACH) block model inversion and a downward projection inversion. The tomographic inversions reveal a NE-SW to NNE-SSW trending feature at depths of 35 to 145 km with a velocity reduction of 7 to 8% relative to mantle velocities beneath the Great Plains. This region correlates with the transition zone between the Colorado Plateau and the Rio Grande rift and is bounded on the NW by the Jemez lineament, a N52??E trending zone of late Miocene to Holocene volcanism. S wave delays plotted against P wave delays are fit with a straight line giving a slope of 3.0??0.4. This correlation and the absolute velocity reduction imply that temperatures in the lithosphere are close to the solidus, consistent with, but not requiring, the presence of partial melt in the mantle beneath the Rio Grande rift. The attenuation data could imply the presence of partial melt. We compare our results with other geophysical and geologic data. We propose that any north-south trending thermal (velocity) anomaly that may have existed in the upper mantle during earlier (Oligocene to late Miocene) phases of rifting and that may have correlated with the axis of the rift has diminished with time and has been overprinted with more recent structure. The anomalously low-velocity body presently underlying the transition zone between the core of the Colorado Plateau and the rift may reflect processes resulting from the modern (Pliocene to present) regional stress field (oriented WNW-ESE), possibly heralding future extension across the Jemez lineament and transition zone.

Slack, P. D.; Davis, P. M.; Baldridge, W. S.; Olsen, K. H.; Glahn, A.; Achauer, U.; Spence, W.

1996-01-01

303

On the relative scattering of P- and S-waves

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using a single-scattering approximation, equations for the scattering attenuation coefficients of P-body and S-body waves are derived. The results are discussed in the light of the energy-renormalization approaches of Wu (1980, 1982) and Sato (1982) to seismic wave scattering. Practical methods for calculating the scattering attenuation coefficients for various earth models are emphasized. The conversions of P-waves to S-waves and S-waves to P-waves are included in the theory. The earth models are assumed to be randomly inhomogeneous, with their properties known only through their average-wavenumber power spectra. The power spectra are approximated with piecewise constant functions, each segment of which contributes to the net frequency-dependent scattering attenuation coefficient. The smallest and largest wavenumbers of a segment can be plotted along with the wavevectors of the incident and scattered waves on a wavenumber diagram. This diagram gives a geometric interpretation for the frequency behavior associated with each spectral segment, including a transition peak that is due entirely to the wavenumber limits of the segment. For regions of the earth where the inhomogeneity spectra are concentrated in a band of wavenumbers, it should be possible to observe such a peak in the apparent attenuation of seismic waves. Both the frequency and distance limits on the accuracy of the theoretical results are given.

Malin, P. E.; Phinney, R. A.

1985-01-01

304

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple measurement system is developed to study the optical effect of the low-frequency liquid surface wave excited underwater acoustic source. The high stability and clear diffraction patterns were observed experimentally. The relationship between the diffraction patterns divergence angle and the distance of the acoustic signal was derived. Furthermore, with the increase in distance, the diffraction patterns divergence angle will decrease. The damping characters of the liquid surface wave were theoretically obtained when underwater acoustic wave spread to the liquid surface. The analytical expression between the diffraction patterns divergence angle and the liquid surface wave amplitude was theoretically derived. It was found that the surface wave amplitude is exponently attenuated with the change of the horizontal distance. The attenuation coefficients are dependent on the frequency of the liquid surface acoustic wave, and the greater the frequency, the smaller is the attenuation coefficient.

Miao, Runcai; Wang, Yuming; Meng, Feng; Ma, Jing

2014-02-01

305

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During magma emplacement in the shallow crust, transient variations of physical properties underneath active volcanoes are expected and in a few cases observed. The predictability of such changes strongly depends on how fast this process is, compared to our ability to handle geophysical data and consistently resolve transient anomalies in the physical properties of the medium. The velocity of the magma upwelling depends on the local conditions of the volcanic conduit and rheology of the magma. Mt Etna is a perfect natural laboratory to investigate such issues, due to the almost continuous magmatic activity and the high quality of seismologic and geodetic data. Our experience with the most recent eruptive activity at Etna volcano (1989, 1991-1993, 1999, 2001, 2002-2003, 2004, 2006-2007, 2008-2009) has indicated that most of these eruptions were preceded by changes in several geophysical parameters, the most evident being: i) increase of seismicity; ii) deformation and iii) stress field variations. Changes in seismic attenuation properties in the region of magma intrusion can be also detected, and the 3D tomography by using a set of earthquakes recorded just before an eruption provides an image of such changes. Thus, to recognize if any change in the attenuation parameters, QP and/or QS, was produced by intrusive processes at Mt Etna, we analyzed the seismicity occurred in two different periods (2001-2003 and 2007-2008) during which three eruptive episodes occurred. Here we show that seismic attenuation of local earthquakes strongly increases due to the emplacement of magma within the crust, forecasting eruptions.

Giampiccolo, E.; De Gori, P.; Chiarabba, C.; Cocina, O.; Patanè, D.

2012-04-01

306

Borehole guided waves in a non-Newtonian (Maxwell) fluid-saturated porous medium

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The property of acoustic guided waves generated in a fluid-filled borehole surrounded by a non-Newtonian (Maxwell) fluid-saturated porous formation with a permeable wall is investigated. The influence of non-Newtonian effects on acoustic guided waves such as Stoneley waves, pseudo-Rayleigh waves, flexural waves, and screw waves propagations in a fluid-filled borehole is demonstrated based on the generalized Biot-Tsiklauri model by calculating their velocity dispersion and attenuation coefficients. The corresponding acoustic waveforms illustrate their properties in time domain. The results are also compared with those based on generalized Biot's theory. The results show that the influence of non-Newtonian effect on acoustic guided wave, especially on the attenuation coefficient of guided wave propagation in borehole is noticeable.

Cui, Zhi-Wen; Liu, Jin-Xia; Yao, Gui-Jin; Wang, Ke-Xie

2010-08-01

307

SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

Wave-induced variations of pore pressure in a partially-saturated reservoir result in oscillatory liquid flow. The viscous losses during this flow are responsible for wave attenuation. The same viscous effects determine the changes in the dynamic bulk modulus of the system versus frequency. These changes are necessarily linked to attenuation via the causality condition. We analytically quantify the frequency dependence of the bulk modulus of a partially saturated rock by assuming that saturation is patchy and then link these changes to the inverse quality factor. As a result, the P-wave attenuation is quantitatively linked to saturation and thus can serve as a saturation indicator.

Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

2002-04-01

308

This two-part paper investigates key parameters that may affect the pressure waveform predicted by the classical theory of water-hammer. Shortcomings in the prediction of pressure wave attenuation, shape and timing originate from violation of assumptions made in the derivation of the classical water- hammer equations. Possible mechanisms that may significantly affect pressure waveforms include unsteady friction, cavitation (including column separation

ANTON BERGANT; ARRIS S. TIJSSELING; JOHN P. VÍTKOVSKÝ; ANGUS R. SIMPSON; MARTIN F. LAMBERT

309

Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) promotes non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS), in part via a well characterized hypothalamic sleep-promoting site. However, GHRH may also act in the cortex to influence sleep. Application of GHRH to the surface of the cortex changes electroencephalographic (EEG) delta power. GHRH and the GHRH receptor (GHRHR) mRNAs are detectable in the rat cortex, and the expression of cortical GHRHR is activity dependent. Here, we microinjected a GHRH antagonist or GHRHR small interfering RNA (siGHRHR) onto the somatosensory cortex surface in rats. The unilateral application of the GHRH antagonist ipsilaterally decreased EEG delta wave power during NREMS, but not wakefulness, during the initial 40 min after injection. Similarly, the injection of siGHRHR reduced cortical expression of GHRHR and suppressed NREMS EEG delta wave power during 20-24 h after injection. Using the fura-2 calcium imaging technique, cultured cortical cells responded to GHRH by increasing intracellular calcium. Approximately 18% of the GHRH-responsive cells were GABAergic as illustrated by glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 (GAD67) immunostaining. Double labeling for GAD67 and GHRHR in vitro and in vivo indicated that only a minority of cortical GHRHR-containing cells were GABAergic. Our data suggest that endogenous cortical GHRH activates local cortical cells to affect EEG delta wave power state-specifically. Results are also consistent with the hypothesis that GHRH contributes to local network state regulation. PMID:20237285

Liao, Fan; Taishi, Ping; Churchill, Lynn; Urza, Marcus J; Krueger, James M

2010-03-17

310

Calculation Of Pneumatic Attenuation In Pressure Sensors

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Errors caused by attenuation of air-pressure waves in narrow tubes calculated by method based on fundamental equations of flow. Changes in ambient pressure transmitted along narrow tube to sensor. Attenuation of high-frequency components of pressure wave calculated from wave equation derived from Navier-Stokes equations of viscous flow in tube. Developed to understand and compensate for frictional attenuation in narrow tubes used to connect aircraft pressure sensors with pressure taps on affected surfaces.

Whitmore, Stephen A.

1991-01-01

311

Ultrasonic Attenuation in Zircaloy-4

In this work the relationship between Zircaloy-4 grain size and ultrasonic attenuation behavior was studied for longitudinal waves in the frequency range of 10-90 MHz. The attenuation was analyzed as a function of frequency for samples with different mechanical and heat treatments having recrystallized and Widmanstatten structures with different grain size. The attenuation behavior was analyzed by different scattering models, depending on grain size, wavelength and frequency.

Gomez, M.P. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Facultad Regional Buenos Aires, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Medrano 951 (C1179AAQ), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Banchik, A.D. [Grupo LMFAE, CAE, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Presbitero Luis Gonzalez y Aragon 15 (B1802AYA), Ezeiza, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Lopez Pumarega, M.I. [Grupo de Ondas Elasticas, UA ENDE, CAC, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. General Paz 1499 (1650) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ruzzante, J.E. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Facultad Regional Buenos Aires, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Medrano 951 (C1179AAQ), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Grupo de Ondas Elasticas, UA ENDE, CAC, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. General Paz 1499 (1650) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2005-04-09

312

The resonance regions for resonant interactions of radiation belt electrons with obliquely propagating whistler-mode chorus waves are investigated in detail in the Dungey magnetic fields that are parameterized by the intensity of uniform southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz or, equivalently, by the values of D=(M/B{sub z,0}){sup 1/3} (where M is the magnetic moment of the dipole and B{sub z,0} is the uniform southward IMF normal to the dipole's equatorial plane). Adoption of background magnetic field model can considerably modify the determination of resonance regions. Compared to the results for the case of D = 50 (very close to the dipole field), the latitudinal coverage of resonance regions for 200 keV electrons interacting with chorus waves tends to become narrower for smaller D-values, regardless of equatorial pitch angle, resonance harmonics, and wave normal angle. In contrast, resonance regions for 1 MeV electrons tend to have very similar spatial lengths along the field line for various Dungey magnetic field models but cover different magnetic field intervals, indicative of a strong dependence on electron energy. For any given magnetic field line, the resonance regions where chorus-electron resonant interactions can take place rely closely on equatorial pitch angle, resonance harmonics, and kinetic energy. The resonance regions tend to cover broader latitudinal ranges for smaller equatorial pitch angles, higher resonance harmonics, and lower electron energies, consistent with the results in Ni and Summers [Phys. Plasmas 17, 042902, 042903 (2010)]. Calculations of quasi-linear bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients for radiation belt electrons due to nightside chorus waves indicate that the resultant scattering rates differ from using different Dungey magnetic field models, demonstrating a strong dependence of wave-induced electron scattering effect on the adoption of magnetic field model. Our results suggest that resonant wave-particle interaction processes should be implemented into a sophisticated, accurate global magnetic field model to pursue comprehensive and complete models of radiation belt electron dynamics.

Shi Run [Polar Research Institute of China, Shanghai (China); Ni, Binbin [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095-1565 (United States); Gu Xudong [Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095-1567 (United States); Zhao Zhengyu; Zhou Chen [Department of Space Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

2012-07-15

313

Fast and slow waves were detected in a bovine cancellous bone sample for thicknesses ranging from 7 to 12?mm using bandlimited deconvolution and the modified least-squares Prony's method with curve fitting (MLSP?+?CF). Bandlimited deconvolution consistently isolated two waves with linear-with-frequency attenuation coefficients as evidenced by high correlation coefficients between attenuation coefficient and frequency: 0.997?±?0.002 (fast wave) and 0.986?±?0.013 (slow wave) (mean?±?standard deviation). Average root-mean-squared (RMS) differences between the two algorithms for phase velocities were 5?m/s (fast wave, 350?kHz) and 13?m/s (slow wave, 750?kHz). Average RMS differences for signal loss were 1.6?dB (fast wave, 350?kHz) and 0.4?dB (slow wave, 750?kHz). Phase velocities for thickness?=?10?mm were 1726?m/s (fast wave, 350?kHz) and 1455?m/s (slow wave, 750?kHz). Results show support for the model of two waves with linear-with frequency attenuation, successful isolation of fast and slow waves, good agreement between bandlimited deconvolution and MLSP?+?CF as well as with a Bayesian algorithm, and potential variations of fast and/or slow wave properties with bone sample thickness. PMID:25324100

Wear, Keith; Nagatani, Yoshiki; Mizuno, Katsunori; Matsukawa, Mami

2014-10-01

314

The ketogenic diet (KD) is an effective therapy for pediatric refractory epilepsies; however, whether the KD changes the pathologic network oscillations generated by an epileptic brain remains unknown. We have reported that hippocampal CA3 regions of epileptic Kv1.1? knockout (KO) mice generate pathologic sharp waves (SPWs) and high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) that have higher incidence, longer duration, and fast ripples compared to wild-type (WT). Synaptic activity of hyperexcitable KO mossy fibers significantly decreased CA3 principal cell spike-timing reliability, which contributed to this network pathology. In addition, we have demonstrated that the KD reduces seizures by 75% in KO mice. Here, we determined whether 10- to 14-day in vivo KD treatment exerts disease-modifying effects that alter the spontaneous SPW-HFO complexes generated by the hippocampal CA3 region of KO mice in vitro using extracellular multielectrode array recordings. We found that KD treatment significantly attenuated the pathologic features of KO SPWs and ripples and reduced the incidence of fast ripples. The KD also improved spike-timing reliability of KO CA3 principal cells, decreased mossy fiber excitability, increased mossy fiber-CA3 paired-pulse ratios, and reduced coupling of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials and population spikes in the CA3 region. Collectively, these data indicate that KD treatment modulates CA3-generated pathologic oscillations by dampening hyperactive mossy fiber synapses. PMID:24702645

Simeone, Timothy A; Samson, Kaeli K; Matthews, Stephanie A; Simeone, Kristina A

2014-05-01

315

Inverse problems of ultrasound tomography in models with attenuation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop efficient methods for solving inverse problems of ultrasound tomography in models with attenuation. We treat the inverse problem as a coefficient inverse problem for unknown coordinate-dependent functions that characterize both the speed cross section and the coefficients of the wave equation describing attenuation in the diagnosed region. We derive exact formulas for the gradient of the residual functional in models with attenuation, and develop efficient algorithms for minimizing the gradient of the residual by solving the conjugate problem. These algorithms are easy to parallelize when implemented on supercomputers, allowing the computation time to be reduced by a factor of several hundred compared to a PC. The numerical analysis of model problems shows that it is possible to reconstruct not only the speed cross section, but also the properties of the attenuating medium. We investigate the choice of the initial approximation for iterative algorithms used to solve inverse problems. The algorithms considered are primarily meant for the development of ultrasound tomographs for differential diagnosis of breast cancer.

Goncharsky, Alexander V.; Romanov, Sergey Y.

2014-04-01

316

Nonlinear Acoustics FDTD method including Frequency Power Law Attenuation for Soft Tissue Modeling

This paper describes a model for nonlinear acoustic wave propagation through absorbing and weakly dispersive media, and its numerical solution by means of finite differences in time domain method (FDTD). The attenuation is based on multiple relaxation processes, and provides frequency dependent absorption and dispersion without using computational expensive convolutional operators. In this way, by using an optimization algorithm the coefficients for the relaxation processes can be obtained in order to fit a frequency power law that agrees the experimentally measured attenuation data for heterogeneous media over the typical frequency range for ultrasound medical applications. Our results show that two relaxation processes are enough to fit attenuation data for most soft tissues in this frequency range including the fundamental and the first ten harmonics. Furthermore, this model can fit experimental attenuation data that do not follow exactly a frequency power law over the frequency range of interest. The main...

Jiménez, Noé; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor; Camarena, Francisco; Hou, Yi; Konofagou, Elisa E

2014-01-01

317

This two-part paper investigates parameters that may significantly affect water-hammer wave attenuation, shape and timing. Possible sources that may affect the waveform predicted by classical water-hammer theory include unsteady friction, cavitation (including column separation and trapped air pockets), a number of fluid-structure interaction effects, viscoelastic behaviour of the pipe-wall material, leakages and blockages. Part 1 of this two-part paper presents

ANTON BERGANT; ARRIS S. TIJSSELING; I. C. COVAS; ANGUS R. SIMPSON; MARTIN F. LAMBERT

318

Generalized thermoelastic diffusive waves in heat conducting materials

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Keeping in view the applications of diffusion processes in geophysics and electronics industry, the aim of the present paper is to give a detail account of the plane harmonic generalized thermoelastic diffusive waves in heat conducting solids. According to the characteristic equation, three longitudinal waves namely, elastodiffusive (ED), mass diffusion (MD-mode) and thermodiffusive (TD-mode), can propagate in such solids in addition to transverse waves. The transverse waves get decoupled from rest of the fields and hence remain unaffected due to temperature change and mass diffusion effects. These waves travel without attenuation and dispersion. The other generalized thermoelastic diffusive waves are significantly influenced by the interacting fields and hence suffer both attenuation and dispersion. At low frequency mass diffusion and thermal waves do not exist but at high-frequency limits these waves propagate with infinite velocity being diffusive in character. Moreover, in the low-frequency regions, the disturbance is mainly dominant by mechanical process of transportation of energy and at high-frequency regions it is significantly dominated by a close to diffusive process (heat conduction or mass diffusion). Therefore, at low-frequency limits the waves like modes are identifiable with small amplitude waves in elastic materials that do not conduct heat. The general complex characteristic equation is solved by using irreducible case of Cardano's method with the help of DeMoivre's theorem in order to obtain phase speeds, attenuation coefficients and specific loss factor of energy dissipation of various modes. The propagation of waves in case of non-heat conducting solids is also discussed. Finally, the numerical solution is carried out for copper (solvent) and zinc (solute) materials and the obtained phase velocities, attenuation coefficients and specific loss factor of various thermoelastic diffusive waves are presented graphically.

Sharma, J. N.

2007-04-01

319

Shock attenuating apparatus and method

This patent describes an apparatus for attenuating a shock in a tool string within a well, comprising a body in extensible under tension loading. It comprises means for connecting the body into the tool string; and undergoing plastic deformation in response to an explosive impact load for serially dissipating energy of a shock wave propagated in the body in response to the explosion impact load wherein the means for undergoing deformation and dissipating energy includes a wall of the body wherein a plurality of indentations are defined. This patent also describes a method of attenuating shock from an explosion in a well. It comprises lowering into the well an explosive connected to a shock attenuating member; detonating the explosive whereby an impact load with a shock wave is generated; and collapsing without severing the member in response to the impact load and dissipating energy of the shock wave from a plurality of surfaces of the member.

Navarette, M.; Walker, J.L.

1992-06-02

320

Elimination of bandwidth effect in attenuation measurement with picosecond ultrasonics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the broadening effect of probing pulse light on the apparent attenuation of the Brillouin oscillation measured with picosecond ultrasonics. We observe experimentally that the attenuation of the Brillouin oscillation is sensitive to the bandwidth, and the apparent attenuation coefficient increases as the bandwidth increases, being far from the intrinsic attenuation coefficient. Theoretical calculation is performed to reconstruct the observed oscillations, and it is confirmed that there are several factors affecting the apparent attenuation in addition to the bandwidth. We finally propose equations that deduce the contribution of the broadening to the apparent attenuation of the Brillouin oscillation.

Maehara, Atsushi; Nakamura, Nobutomo; Ogi, Hirotsugu; Hirao, Masahiko

2014-08-01

321

Tested and confirmed the hypothesis that scopolamine attenuates habituation occurring within a training session as well as that occurring between training sessions. Subcutaneous scopolamine injections (.5 mg\\/kg) reduced spontaneous wheel running in 8 female prairie dogs. The same dosage did not affect the threshold for wheel running induced by electrical brain stimulation (EBS) in 6 Ss in Exp II. Exp

R. H. Carlson; M. G. Sanders; A. Tal; W. G. Wood

1975-01-01

322

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses and provides an example of reflectivity approximation to determine whether reflection will occur. Provides a method to show thin-film interference on a projection screen. Also applies the reflectivity concepts to electromagnetic wave systems. (MVL)

Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

1994-01-01

323

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical study of cylindrical acoustic waves of zero order propagating in cylindrical waveguide in contact with nonconducting viscous liquid was carried out. Waveguides considered in this paper are represented by circular rod of piezoelectric ceramics, surrounded by a viscous liquid or thick-walled piezoelectric tube filled with liquid. The orientation of the piezoceramic was chosen in this way that the polarization vector coincided with the cylinder axis. In this case due to the isotropy in the plane which is perpendicular to the cylinder axis one can use the mathematic methods based on the cylindrical functions expansion of the wave potentials. As a result we found the phase and group velocities of the waves under study and also their electromechanical coupling coefficient and attenuation coefficient. It has been shown that compressional wave of zero order c0 has a high electromechanical coupling coefficient and low attenuation. The obtained results may be used for development of the sensors operating in hostile environment.

Teplykh, A. A.; Zaitsev, B. D.; Kuznetsova, I. E.

2012-05-01

324

We prove a remarkably simple but powerful recursion relation for the coefficients of iterated polynomials. We also prove that the recursion relation holds for the coefficients of certain functions of the iterated polynomial. Using the recursion relations, we obtain a closed-form expression for the average number of closed-loop self-avoiding walks per site on a family of fractal lattices. We describe numerical results, which exhibit log-periodic oscillations, and find good agreement between these results and the theory developed here, which predicts the existence of the log-periodic oscillations and their amplitudes. Finally, we discuss insights gained into the mathematical origins of critical phenomena. PMID:11969435

Paul, G

1999-05-01

325

Another Approach to Model Attenuation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attenuation in the upper crust is a complex problem and a full understanding of where intrinsic attenuation remains problematic. This is particularly true in earth materials saturated with highly viscous liquids such as magma or bitumens. In fluid saturated materials, attenuation mechanisms have focused primarily on global and local type of fluid displacements. That is, the mechanisms have assumed that attenuation was produced only by fluid motions relative to the solids. Less emphasis has been placed on the potential mechanism for absorption within the fluids themselves. Here, we examine the mechanism of attenuation within the fluids themselves via rheological relaxation theory approach. In particular, the role of viscosity is generally examined with results on the frequency dependence on wave speed dispersion and attenuation. The evolution of elastic waveforms through such absorbing materials are also studied to evaluate the potential effects on seismic wave propagation. This work may also have implications towards the use of ultrasonic laboratory measurements in the interpretation of seismic frequency measurements.

Schmitt, D. R.; Qi, X.

2006-12-01

326

Acoustic waves in unsaturated soils

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seminal papers by Brutsaert (1964) and Brutsaert and Luthin (1964) provided the first rigorous theoretical framework for examining the poroelastic behavior of unsaturated soils, including an important application linking acoustic wave propagation to soil hydraulic properties. Theoretical developments during the 50 years that followed have led Lo et al., (2005) to a comprehensive model of these phenomena, but the relationship of its elasticity parameters to standard poroelasticity parameters measured in hydrogeology has not been established. In the present study, we develop this relationship for three key parameters, the Gassman modulus, Skempton coefficient, and Biot-Willis coefficient by generalizing them to an unsaturated porous medium. We demonstrate the remarkable result that well-known and widely applied relationships among these parameters for a porous medium saturated by a single fluid are also valid under very general conditions for unsaturated soils. We show further that measurement of the Biot-Willis coefficient along with three of the six elasticity coefficients in the model of Lo et al. (2005) is sufficient to characterize poroelastic behavior. The elasticity coefficients in the model of Lo et al. (2005) are sensitive to the dependence of capillary pressure on water saturation and its viscous-drag coefficients are functions of relative permeability, implying that hysteresis in the water retention curve and hydraulic conductivity function should affect acoustic wave behavior in unsaturated soils. To quantify these as-yet unknown effects, we performed numerical simulations for Dune sand at two representative wave excitation frequencies. Our results show that the acoustic wave investigated by Brutsaert and Luthin (1964) propagates at essentially the same speed during imbibition and drainage, but is attenuated more during drainage than imbibition. Overall, effects on acoustic wave behavior caused by hysteresis become more significant as the excitation frequency increases.

Lo, Wei-Cheng; Sposito, Garrison

2013-09-01

327

Short surface waves in the Canadian Arctic in 2007 and 2008

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have collected time series data of short oceanic waves as a part of the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2008. Using a shipboard laser wave slope (LAWAS) system operating at 900 nm, we have obtained wave slopes measurements up to 60 rad m-1 wave number. We have compared our in situ wave slopes with collocated and concurrent high-resolution upwind Normalized Radar Cross Sections (NRCS) collected by QuikSCAT. The LAWAS measured wave slope spectra were consistent with local wind speeds and QuikSCAT measured NRCS. Our measured short wave mean slopes indicate their enhancement by long waves (0-1 rad m-1) at small values of long-wave slope. Concurrent with wave slope measurements, the strength of the reflected LAWAS light beam was analyzed in terms of the light attenuation coefficient at 900 nm. We have observed a correlation between surface elevation and light attenuation. The mechanism of wave modulated beam attenuation was found to be related to the instantaneous long wave skewness.

Bogucki, D. J.; Drennan, W. M.; Woods, S.; Gremes-Cordero, S.; Long, D. G.; Mitchell, C.

2013-07-01

328

Multipass welds made of 316L stainless steel are specific welds of the primary circuit of pressurized water reactors in nuclear power plants. Because of their strong heterogeneous and anisotropic nature due to grain growth during solidification, ultrasonic waves may be greatly deviated, split and attenuated. Thus, ultrasonic assessment of the structural integrity of such welds is quite complicated. Numerical codes exist that simulate ultrasonic propagation through such structures, but they require precise and realistic input data, as attenuation coefficients. This paper presents rigorous measurements of attenuation in austenitic weld as a function of grain orientation. In fact attenuation is here mainly caused by grain scattering. Measurements are based on the decomposition of experimental beams into plane-wave angular spectra and on the modeling of the ultrasonic propagation through the material. For this, the transmission coefficients are calculated for any incident plane wave on an anisotropic plate. Two different hypotheses on the welded material are tested: first it is considered as monoclinic, and then as triclinic. Results are analyzed, and validated through comparison to theoretical predictions of related literature. They underline the great importance of well-describing the anisotropic structure of austenitic welds for UT modeling issues. PMID:24759567

Ploix, Marie-Aude; Guy, Philippe; Chassignole, Bertrand; Moysan, Joseph; Corneloup, Gilles; El Guerjouma, Rachid

2014-09-01

329

WAVES BY Mari LaCure Submitted to the graduate degree program in Visual Art and the Graduate Faculty of the University of Kansas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master’s of Fine Arts. Yoonmi Nam Chairperson... Committee members: Shawn Bitters Michael Krueger Date Defended: March 10, 2010 2 The Thesis Committee for Mari LaCure certifies that this is the approved Version of the following thesis: WAVES...

LaCure, Mari Mae

2010-04-29

330

Ultrasonic attenuation peak in steel and aluminum alloy during rotating bending fatigue

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using electromagnetic acoustic resonance (EMAR), we studied the evolution of the surface shearwave attenuation and phase velocity in a 0.45 pct C steel and a 5052 aluminum alloy exposed to rotating bending fatigue. In the EMAR method, we used electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) for the contactless measurements of the axial shear wave, which is a surface shear wave that propagates along a cylindrical surface in the circumferential direction, with an axial polarization. There has been no previous report of continuous and contactless monitoring of the surface wave attenuation and velocity being performed without interrupting the fatigue. The attenuation coefficient always showed sharp peaks around 90 pct of the fatigue life, independent of the fatigue-stress amplitude. To interpret this phenomenon, we made crack-growth observations using replicas and measurements of recovery of attenuation and velocity by stopping the cyclic loading before and after the peak. From these results, we concluded that the evolution of the ultrasonic properties is caused by a drastic change in dislocation mobility being accompanied by the crack growth at the final stage of the fatigue life.

Ogi, Hirotsugu; Hamaguchi, Takayuki; Hirao, Masahiko

2000-04-01

331

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ground roll and body wave usually show significant differences in arrival time, frequency content, and polarization characteristics, and conventional polarization filters that operate in either the time or frequency domain cannot consider all these elements. Therefore, we have developed a time-frequency dependent polarization filter based on the S transform to attenuate the ground roll in seismic records. Our approach adopts the complex coefficients of the S transform of the multi-component seismic data to estimate the local polarization attributes and utilizes the estimated attributes to construct the filter function. In this study, we select the S transform to design this polarization filter because its scalable window length can ensure the same number of cycles of a Fourier sinusoid, thereby rendering more precise estimation of local polarization attributes. The results of applying our approach in synthetic and real data examples demonstrate that the proposed polarization filter can effectively attenuate the ground roll and successfully preserve the body wave.

Tan, Yu-Yang; He, Chuan; Wang, Yan-Dong; Zhao, Zhong

2013-06-01

332

Shear waves in vegetal tissues at ultrasonic frequencies

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shear waves are investigated in leaves of two plant species using air-coupled ultrasound. Magnitude and phase spectra of the transmission coefficient around the first two orders of the thickness resonances (normal and oblique incidence) have been measured. A bilayer acoustic model for plant leaves (comprising the palisade parenchyma and the spongy mesophyll) is proposed to extract, from measured spectra, properties of these tissues like: velocity and attenuation of longitudinal and shear waves and hence Young modulus, rigidity modulus, and Poisson's ratio. Elastic moduli values are typical of cellular solids and both, shear and longitudinal waves exhibit classical viscoelastic losses. Influence of leaf water content is also analyzed.

Fariñas, M. D.; Sancho-Knapik, D.; Peguero-Pina, J. J.; Gil-Pelegrín, E.; Gómez Álvarez-Arenas, T. E.

2013-03-01

333

Experimental study of attenuation properties of normoxic polymer gel dosimeters

The change in linear attenuation coefficient with absorbed dose has been investigated for aqueous polyacrylamide, gelatine and tetrakis (PAGAT) and aqueous methacrylic acid, gelatine and tetrakis (MAGAT) normoxic polymer gel dosimeters using tetrakis (hydroxy methyl) phosphonium chloride as the antioxidant. The measured linear attenuation coefficient increased linearly with absorbed dose up to 15 Gy for PAGAT gels and 10 Gy

S Brindha; A J Venning; B Hill; C Baldock

2004-01-01

334

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To find variations in the dynamics of the surface M 2 tide in the White Sea induced by the spatially inhomogeneity of the resistance coefficient, we use a modified version of the QUODDY-4 three-dimensional finite-element hydrostatic model. This version differs from the original version in that it has a module introduced to calculate the resistance coefficient in the bottom boundary layer (BBL). The resistance coefficient is found from resistance laws for an oscillating rotating turbulent BBL over hydrodynamically rough and partially rough (smoothly rough) underlying surfaces describing the dependence of the resistance coefficient and other integral characteristics of resistance on dimensionless similarity parameters: the sea-bottom Rossby number Ro, the streaming Reynolds number Re, and the relative (normalized to tidal frequency) inertial frequency f/?. The use of spatial inhomogeneity of the resistance coefficient was shown not to lead to considerable changes in tidal characteristics. The values of these characteristics are several times larger than the instrumental measurement errors for the level and velocity but less than the errors in their calculation.

Kagan, B. A.; Timofeev, A. A.; Rashidi, E. H. A.

2012-07-01

335

The presence of two longitudinal waves in poroelastic media is predicted by Biot's theory and has been confirmed experimentally in through-transmission measurements in cancellous bone. Estimation of attenuation coefficients and velocities of the two waves is challenging when the two waves overlap in time. The modified least squares Prony's (MLSP) method in conjuction with curve-fitting (MLSP + CF) is tested using simulations based on published values for fast and slow wave attenuation coefficients and velocities in cancellous bone from several studies in bovine femur, human femur, and human calcaneus. The search algorithm is accelerated by exploiting correlations among search parameters. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated as a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). For a typical experimental SNR (40 dB), the root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) for one example (human femur) with fast and slow waves separated by approximately half of a pulse duration were 1 m/s (slow wave velocity), 4 m/s (fast wave velocity), 0.4 dB/cm MHz (slow wave attenuation slope), and 1.7 dB/cm MHz (fast wave attenuation slope). The MLSP + CF method is fast (requiring less than 2 s at SNR = 40 dB on a consumer-grade notebook computer) and is flexible with respect to the functional form of the parametric model for the transmission coefficient. The MLSP + CF method provides sufficient accuracy and precision for many applications such that experimental error is a greater limiting factor than estimation error. PMID:23556613

Wear, Keith A

2013-04-01

336

Thrust-augmented vortex attenuation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the vortex attenuating effect of engine thrust. Tests were made using a 0.03-scale model of the Boeing 747 transport aircraft as a vortex generating model. A Learjet-class probe model was used to measure the vortex induced rolling moment at a scale separation distance of 1.63 km. These tests were conducted at a lift coefficient of 1.4 at a model velocity of 30.48 m/s. The data presented indicate that engine thrust is effective as a vortex attenuating device when the engines are operated at high thrust levels and are positioned to direct the high energy engine wake into the core of the vortex. The greatest thrust vortex attenuation was obtained by operating the inboard engine thrust reversers at one-quarter thrust and the outboard engines at maximum forward thrust.

Patterson, J. C., Jr.; Jordan, F. L., Jr.

1977-01-01

337

The Physics of the Gas Attenuator for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)

A systematic assessment of a variety of physics issues affecting the performance of the LCLS X-ray beam attenuator is presented. Detailed analysis of the gas flow in the gas attenuator and in the apertures is performed. A lot of attention is directed towards the gas ionization and heating by intense X-ray pulses. The role of these phenomena in possible deviations of the attenuation coefficient from its 'dialed in' value is evaluated and found small in most cases. Other sources of systematic and statistical errors are also discussed. The regimes where the errors may reach a few percent correspond to the lower X-ray energies (less than 2 keV) and highest beam intensities. Other effects discussed include chemical interaction of the gas with apertures, shock formation in the transonic flow in the apertures of the attenuator, generation of electromagnetic wakes in the gas, and head-to-tail variation of the attenuation caused by the ionization of gas or solid. Possible experimental tests of the consistency of the physics assumptions used in the concept of the gas attenuator are discussed. Interaction of X-rays with the solid attenuator (that will be used at higher X-ray energies, from 2.5 to 8 keV) is considered and thermo-mechanical effects caused by the beam heating are evaluated. Wave-front distortions induced by non-uniform heating of both the solid and the gas are found to be small. An overall conclusion drawn from the analysis presented is that the attenuator will be a reliable and highly versatile device, provided that some caution is exercised in its use for highest beam intensities at lowest X-ray energies.

Ryutov, D.D.; Bionta, R.M.; Hau-Riege, S.P.; Kishiyama, K.I.; McMahon, D.; Roeben, M.D.; Shen, S.; /LLNL, Livermore; Stefan, P.M.; /SLAC; ,

2011-02-07

338

An empirical method to estimate the viscosity of mineral oil by means of ultrasonic attenuation.

This paper presents an empirical method for measuring the viscosity of mineral oil. In a built-in pipeline application, conventional ultrasonic methods using shear reflectance or rheological and acoustical phenomena may fail because of attenuated shear wave propagation and an unpredictable spreading loss caused by protective housings and comparable main flows. The empirical method utilizing longitudinal waves eliminates the unknown spreading loss from attenuation measurements on the object fluid by removing the normalized spreading loss per focal length with the measurement of a reference fluid of a known acoustic absorption coefficient. The ultrasonic attenuation of fresh water as the reference fluid and mineral oil as the object fluid were measured along with the sound speed and effective frequency. The empirical equation for the spreading loss in the reference fluid is determined by high-order polynomial fitting. To estimate the shear viscosity of the mineral oil, a linear fit is applied to the total loss difference between the two fluids, whose slope (the absorption coefficient) is combined with an assumed shear-to-volume viscosity relation. The empirical method predicted the viscosities of two types of the mineral oil with a maximum statistical uncertainty of 8.8% and a maximum systematic error of 12.5% compared with directly measured viscosity using a glass-type viscometer. The validity of this method was examined by comparison with the results from theoretical far-field spreading. PMID:20639155

Ju, Hyeong; Gottlieb, Emanuel; Augenstein, Donald; Brown, Gregor; Tittmann, Bernhard

2010-07-01

339

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An attenuated influenza virus of a first strain is described together with a method for preparing the attenuated influenza virus. The attenuated influenza virus of the first strain comprises a sufficient number of single strand RNA segments of negative po...

P. Palese, T. Muster, B. R. Murphy, M. Enami, M. Bergmann

1992-01-01

340

wave attenuation is dependent on relative vegetation height, stem density, and stem spacing standard deviation. As stems occupy more of the water column, an increase in attenuation occurred given that the highest wave particle velocities are being...

Anderson, Mary Elizabeth

2011-10-21

341

Separation of intrinsic and scattering attenuation in southern California using TERRAscope data

A multiple lapse time window analysis was applied to three-component broadband seismograms recorded at five TERRAscope stations in southern California to separate scattering and intrinsic attenuation. Seismic energies were integrated over three consecutive lapse time intervals: 0-15, 15-30, and 30-45 s (measured from the S arrival for approximately 30 earthquakes with hypocentral distances of less than 70 km from each station). Using the fundamental separability of source, site, and path effects for coda waves, the integrated energies for different magnitude earthquakes were normalized to a common source size at each station, and the effect of near-site amplification is removed. Subsequently, the authors constructed a group of geometric spreading-corrected normalized energy-distance curves for each station region over frequency bands 0.5-1, 1-2, 2-4, and 4-8 Hz for all five stations. Two more frequency bands, 8-16 and 16-32 Hz, were added at stations PAS and SVD, for which higher sample rate data were available. A theoretical model of body wave energy propagation in a randomly heterogeneous elastic medium was employed to interpret the observation. Two parameters describe the medium in this model. These are the scattering attenuation coefficients {eta}{sub s} and the intrinsic attenuation coefficient {eta}{sub i}. By assuming that scattering is isotropic and including all orders of multiple scattering, this model predicts the spatial and temporal distribution of seismic energy. A two-step least squares fitting procedure was used to find the best fitting model parameters. The results show the following: (1) the seismic albedo, B{sub 0} = {eta}{sub s}/({eta}{sub i} + {eta}{sub s}), increases with decreasing frequency for all station regions. (2) Significant differences exist for the scattering attenuation coefficient {eta}{sub s} and seismic albedo B{sub 0} among stations at lower frequencies. 21 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Jin, Anshu; Adams, D.; Aki, Keiiti [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Mayeda, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1994-09-10

342

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although there has been a significant progress in our understanding of seismo-ionospheric coupling in the past few decades, an exact description of mechanisms and effects that could be used as short-time precursors is still missing. We use the electromagnetic wave data measured by the DEMETER satellite at an altitude of about 700 km to check for the presence of statistically significant changes of VLF wave intensity related to the seismic activity. All relevant data acquired by DEMETER during almost 6.5 years of the mission have been analyzed. A robust two-step data processing has been used. It enables us to compare data from the vicinity of more than 9000 earthquakes with an unperturbed background distribution based on data collected during the whole DEMETER mission and to evaluate a statistical significance of the observed effects. We confirm the previously reported results of a statistically significant decrease of the wave intensity at the frequency of about 1.7 kHz using nearly twice larger data set. The effect is observed a few hours before the time of the main shock and it occurs exclusively during the night. Results can be explained by a variations of properties of the Earth-Ionospheric waveguide. This modification of the waveguide can change the propagation of electromagnetic waves generated by lightning discharges, which subsequently penetrate to the altitude of the satellite. The effect is very weak compared to common variation of wave intensity in the ionosphere. This decrease of the wave intensity is observable only on a large dataset and can not be considered as a possible short-time earthquake precursor.

Pisa, D.; Nemec, F.; Parrot, M.; Santolik, O.

2013-05-01

343

Sound attenuation in magnetorheological fluids

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the attenuation of ultrasonic elastic waves propagating through magnetorheological (MR) fluids is analysed as a function of the particle volume fraction and the magnetic field intensity. Non-commercial MR fluids made with iron ferromagnetic particles and two different solvents (an olive oil based solution and an Araldite-epoxy) were used. Particle volume fractions of up to 0.25 were analysed. It is shown that the attenuation of sound depends strongly on the solvent used and the volume fraction. The influence of a magnetic field up to 212 mT was studied and it was found that the sound attenuation increases with the magnetic intensity until saturation is reached. A hysteretic effect is evident once the magnetic field is removed.

Rodríguez-López, J.; Elvira, L.; Resa, P.; Montero de Espinosa, F.

2013-02-01

344

Compressional wave ultrasonic data were used to qualitatively assess the extent of crack closure during hydrostatic compression of damaged specimens of WIPP salt. Cracks were introduced during constant strain-rate triaxial tests at low confining pressure (0.5 MPa) as specimens were taken to either 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 percent axial strain. For three specimens taken to 1.0 percent axial strain, the pressure was increased to 5, 10 or 15 MPa. For the remaining specimens, pressure was raised to 15 MPa. Waveforms for compressional waves traveling both parallel and perpendicular to the direction of maximum principal stress were measured in the undamaged state, during constant strain-rate tests, and then monitored as functions of time while the specimens were held at pressure. Both wave velocities and amplitudes increased over time at pressure, indicating that cracks closed and perhaps healed. The recovery of ultrasonic wave characteristics depended upon both pressure and damage level. The higher the pressure, the greater the velocity recovery; however, amplitude recovery showed no clear correlation with pressure. For both amplitudes and velocities, recoveries were greatest in the specimens with the least damage. 13 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

Brodsky, N.S. (RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (USA))

1990-11-01

345

Shock propagation and attenuation in Green River oil shale

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shock waves produced by planar impact of thin plates onto samples of oil shale are monitored with time-resolved velocity interferometer diagnostics. Peak shock stresses are below the Hugoniot elastic limit. Stress wave measurements at successive sample thickness are analysed to determine the experimental shock energy attenuation with propagation distance. Shock attenuation is attributed to stress wave scattering at planes of oil shale kerogen within the shale matrix. Wave scattering from planar defects are evaluated from a shock physics perspective and a scattering model is constructed that sensibly reproduces the experimental observation of shock energy attenuation.

Grady, D. E.

2014-05-01

346

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of light propagation, diffraction and amplification in active multilayer corrugated waveguides with incorporated nonharmonic relief gratings, carried out by Rayleigh-Fourier formalism, is presented. On the base of this theoretical analysis the new possibilities of biharmonic grating for the design of single-frequency DFB lasers are discussed. The lasing characteristics of DFB heterolasers with biharmonic resonator are determined. It is shown that the biharmonic resonator with phase shift pi and space-modulated coupling coefficiency is capable of providing stable single-frequency oscillation at Bragg wavelength. The three-beam maskless holographic method for the fabrication of submicron biharmonic relief structures on the surface of n- AIIIBV semiconductors is developed. The biharmonic structure of period d equals 0.5 micrometer, possessing phase shift pi, is fabricated on n-InP in the process of laser-induced maskless wet photochemical etching under action of three Ar+ laser beams.

Sokolov, Victor I.; Panchenko, Vladislav Y.; Seminogov, Vladimir N.

1996-04-01

347

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we report on the evaluation of tilt angles of liquid crystal (LC) molecules near the surface of SiO2 alignment layers and in the whole cell when constant voltages are applied. A LC molecule, 4-cyano-4'n-pentylbiphenyl, was used in this study. The LC cell consisted of Au (50nm) / SiO2 (30nm) /LC (3 ?m)/ SiO2 (30nm) / Au (100nm) system. SiO2 alignment layers were obliquely evaporated on both Au surfaces. Surface plasmon resonance and guided waveguide excitation modes in attenuated total reflection configuration were used to monitor the alignment property of LC molecules adjacent to the surface and the bulk in the LC cell. In the ATR angular scan properties, the theoretical fittings agreed well with the experimental data on the assumption of simplified 5 LC layers model. The profile of the tilt angles from the surface to inside the cells was obtained by the theoretical fitting. In comparison with the internal bulk region, LC molecules near the surface required higher voltages to change their tilt angles toward vertical direction. As demonstrated in this report, this technique should provide the useful information to understand the interfacial phenomena for LC displays.

Ikarashi, Aya; Baba, Akira; Shinbo, Kazunari; Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao

348

Mode identification and extraction of broadband ultrasonic guided waves

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lamb waves have dispersion and multimodal characteristics, which are the major reasons for the complexity of their signals. A signal processing technique is established to extract individual dispersive waveforms from raw received Lamb wave signals, even when they interfere with each other in the time-frequency domain. In this technique, the prior knowledge of the dispersion characteristic is utilized for mode identification. On this basis, the propagation distances of concerned modes are estimated and ridge tracking is completed in the interfered neighboring area. Subsequently, an effective time-varying filter, the Vold-Kalman filter, is introduced to isolate these interfered wave modes. When each mode is extracted from the overall Lamb wave signal, accurate quantitative data on propagation characteristics such as energy, attenuation, amplitude, and reflection coefficients can be accurately estimated. The results illustrate a strategy for optimal design of Lamb wave inspections in either a pulse-echo or pitch-catch configuration.

Zhao, Ming; Zeng, Liang; Lin, Jing; Wu, Wentao

2014-11-01

349

Localization of harmonics generated in nonlinear shallow water waves

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The propagation of nonlinear shallow water waves over a random seabed is studied. A bathymetry which fluctuates randomly from a constant mean adds multiple scattering to resonant interactions and harmonic generation. By the method of multiple scales, nonlinear evolution equations for the harmonic amplitudes are derived. Effects of multiple scattering are shown to be represented by certain linear damping terms with complex coefficients related to the correlation function of the seabed disorder. For any finite number of harmonics, an equation governing the total wave energy is derived. By numerical solution of the amplitude equations, the effects of spatial attenuation (localization) on harmonic generation are studied.

Grataloup, Géraldine L.; Mei, Chiang C.

2003-08-01

350

Localization of harmonics generated in nonlinear shallow water waves.

The propagation of nonlinear shallow water waves over a random seabed is studied. A bathymetry which fluctuates randomly from a constant mean adds multiple scattering to resonant interactions and harmonic generation. By the method of multiple scales, nonlinear evolution equations for the harmonic amplitudes are derived. Effects of multiple scattering are shown to be represented by certain linear damping terms with complex coefficients related to the correlation function of the seabed disorder. For any finite number of harmonics, an equation governing the total wave energy is derived. By numerical solution of the amplitude equations, the effects of spatial attenuation (localization) on harmonic generation are studied. PMID:14525112

Grataloup, Géraldine L; Mei, Chiang C

2003-08-01

351

Attenuation Relationship of Arias Intensity for Taiwan

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arias intensity (AI) reflects the complete acceleration time history duration of ground vibrations. It correlates well with several commonly used demand measure of structural performance, liquefaction, and seismic slope stability. A good attenuation equation can reflect the characteristics of the ground-motion attenuation for a region, and can be used to predict the ground-motion value of a specific site for seismic resistance design. This study analyzed two local empirical attenuation relationships, one for the crustal earthquakes and the other for the subduction zone earthquakes, based on the strong ground-motion data from TSMIP and SMART1 array in Taiwan. Maximum likelihood method and mixed-effect model were used with non-linear regression analyses to determine coefficients. The result shows that adding terms of Vs30 and focal mechanism can effectively reduce the standard deviation in the attenuation models. To compare with other AI attenuation equations, the AI value predicted by our crustal earthquake attenuation equation is higher in the near field and is lower in the far field than the researches in other regions. The subduction zone earthquake attenuation equation predicts higher AI value than the crustal earthquake attenuation equation does.

Sung, C.; Hsieh, P.; Lin, P.; Lee, C.

2008-12-01

352

OTDR calibration for attenuation measurement

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cut-back method is the standard test method to check the attenuation of optical fibers. The advantages of this method are low uncertainty, good reproducibility, and an applicability in a broad spectral range. But for some applications, especially in the field service, the optical time domain reflectometry seems to be more useful because (1) this method is non-destructive, (2) measurements can be made from one end of the fiber, and (3) the back-scattered signal contains information about the longitudinal homogeneity of the fiber or the fiber system. For an approval of this technique as a second standard test method, an uncertainty of 0.01 dB/km of the attenuation coefficient measurement is required. This small uncertainty demands a calibration of the loss scale of the optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) used. Therefore, a calibration procedure is proposed using a standard fiber as a scale unit. The specification of this fiber, the preparation as a standard and its calibration in an accredited calibration laboratory, are discussed. An uncertainty of about 0.005 dB should be achievable in attenuation measurement of the standard. The calibration of the power scale of the OTDR with the aid of transfer standard, lead-in fiber and/or attenuator, and a proposal for linearizing the scale of power response are presented.

Moeller, Werner; Heitmann, Walter; Reich, Manfred

1991-09-01

353

Dissolved benzene was detected in the shallow unconfined Liwa aquifer (UAE). This aquifer represents the main freshwater source for a nearby residence camp area. A finite element model is used to simulate the fate, transport, and attenuation of the dissolved benzene plume to help decision makers assess natural attenuation as a viable remediation option. Sensitivity of benzene attenuation to uncertainties in the estimation of some of the kinetic and transport parameters is studied. It was found that natural attenuation is more sensitive to microbial growth rate and half saturation coefficients of both benzene and oxygen than initial biomass concentration and dispersivity coefficients. Increasing microbial growth rate by fourfold increased natural attenuation effectiveness after 40 years by 10%; while decreasing it by fourfold decreased natural attenuation effectiveness by 77%. On the other hand, increasing half saturation coefficient by fourfold decreased natural attenuation effectiveness by 46% in 40 years. Decreasing the same parameter fourfold caused natural attenuation effectiveness to increase by 9%. PMID:20237911

Mohamed, Mohamed M; Saleh, Nawal E; Sherif, Mohsen M

2010-04-01

354

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A seismic waveform inversion algorithm is demonstrated for the estimation of elastic soil properties from one-dimensional downhole array recordings. For a given bedrock motion, scarcity of near-surface geotechnical information, error propagation and limited resolution of the continuum usually result in predictions of surface ground motion that poorly compare with low amplitude observations. This discrepancy is further aggravated for strong ground motion, associated with hysteretic, nonlinear, and potentially irreversible material deformations. Seismogram inversion is a nonlinear multi-parameter optimization problem. Traditional search techniques that use characteristics of the problem to determine the next sampling point (e.g. gradients, Hessians, linearity and continuity) are computationally efficient, yet limited to convex regular functions. As a result, they fail to identify the best fit solution in seismogram inversion problems, when the starting model is too far from the global optimal solution. On the other hand, stochastic search techniques (e.g. genetic algorithms, simulated annealing) have been shown to efficiently identify promising regions in the search space, but perform very poorly in a localized search. The proposed inversion technique is a two-step process, namely a genetic algorithm in the wavelet domain in series with a nonlinear least-square fit in the frequency domain; we thus improve the computational efficiency of the former, while avoiding the pitfalls of using local linearization techniques such as the latter for the optimization of multi-modal, discontinuous and non-differentiable functions. The parameters to be estimated are stepwise variations of the shear modulus, attenuation and density with depth, for horizontally layered media with refined near-surface discretization. Equality constrains are imposed on the vector of unknowns to bound the search space, based on the available soil investigation. For the genetic algorithm, the objective function is defined as the normalized cross-correlation between the observed data and the synthetics. We perform the inversion in the wavelet domain to allow for equal weighting of the information across all frequency bands. Since ground motion is non-stationary in time and frequency, a time-domain inversion would inevitably emphasize the larger amplitude signals. The process is repeated in series for a subset of the available borehole and surface waveform pairs, selected on the basis of signal quality. The mean estimated soil properties from the genetic algorithm are then used as a starting model for the local minimization scheme. The target function in this stage is the empirical transfer function in the frequency domain, estimated using the average spectral ratio between surface and borehole pairs. The global-local inversion technique can efficiently identify the optimal solution vicinity in the search space by means of the hybrid genetic algorithm, whereas the use of nonlinear least-square fit accelerates substantially the detection of the best fit model. The algorithm has been implemented in MATLAB, and inversion results are illustrated for stations in the Japanese strong motion borehole array Kik-Net, as well as for borehole stations in Southern California jointly operated by the California Integrated Seismic Network, the Southern California Earthquake Center, and the University of California at Santa Barbara.

Assimaki, D.; Tsuda, K.; Oakes, J.; Steidl, J.

2004-12-01

355

Attenuation Tomography Based on Strong Motion Data: Case Study of Central Honshu Region, Japan

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional frequency dependent S-wave quality factor (Q?(f)) value for the central Honshu region of Japan has been determined in this paper using an algorithm based on inversion of strong motion data. The method of inversion for determination of three-dimensional attenuation coefficients is proposed by H ashida and S himazaki (J Phys Earth. 32, 299-316, 1984) and has been used and modified by J oshi (Curr Sci. 90, 581-585, 2006; Nat Hazards. 43, 129-146, 2007) and J oshi et al. (J. Seismol. 14, 247-272, 2010). Twenty-one earthquakes digitally recorded on strong motion stations of Kik-net network have been used in this work. The magnitude of these earthquake ranges from 3.1 to 4.2 and depth ranging from 5 to 20 km, respectively. The borehole data having high signal to noise ratio and minimum site effect is used in the present work. The attenuation structure is determined by dividing the entire area into twenty-five three-dimensional blocks of uniform thickness having different frequency-dependent shear wave quality factor. Shear wave quality factor values have been determined at frequencies of 2.5, 7.0 and 10 Hz from record in a rectangular grid defined by 35.4°N to 36.4°N and 137.2°E to 138.2°E. The obtained attenuation structure is compared with the available geological features in the region and comparison shows that the obtained structure is capable of resolving important tectonic features present in the area. The proposed attenuation structure is compared with the probabilistic seismic hazard map of the region and shows that it bears some remarkable similarity in the patterns seen in seismic hazard map.

Kumar, Parveen; Joshi, A.; Verma, O. P.

2013-12-01

356

Medicine Lake volcano is a basalt through rhyolite shield volcano of the Cascade Range, lying east of the range axis. The Pg wave from eight explosive sources which has traveled upward through the target volume to a dense array of 140 seismographs provides 1- to 2-km resolution in the upper 5 to 7 km of the crust beneath the volcano. The experiment tests the hypothesis that Cascade Range volcanoes of this type are underlain only by small silicic magma chambers. We image a low-velocity low-Q region not larger than a few tens of cubic kilometers in volume beneath the summit caldera, supporting the hypothesis. A shallower high-velocity high-density feature, previously known to be present, is imaged for the first time in full plan view; it is east-west elongate, paralleling a topographic lineament between Medicine Lake volcano and Mount Shasta. Differences between this high-velocity feature and the equivalent feature at Newberry volcano, a volcano in central regon resembling Medicine Lake volcano, may partly explain the scarcity of surface hydrothermal features at Medicine Lake volcano. A major low-velocity low-Q feature beneath the southeast flank of the volcano, in an area with no Holocene vents, is interpreted as tephra, flows, and sediments from the volcano deeply ponded on the downthrown side of the Gillem fault. A high-Q normal-velocity feature beneath the north rim of the summit caldera may be a small, possibly hot, subsolidus intrusion. A high-velocity low-Q region beneath the eastern caldera may be an area of boiling water between the magma chamber and the ponded east flank material. -from Authors

Evans, J. R.; Zucca, J. J.

1988-01-01

357

Light attenuation on unicellular marine phytoplankton

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea phytoplankton plays a considerable role in the interactive processes between light and the sea. Its species composition and the physiological development phase influence the spectrum of the light attenuation coefficient in the sea. Laboratory measurements of light attenuation spectrum were carried out on three different phytoplankton monocultures of the unicellular green algae Chlorella vulgaris and the larger Chlorella kesleri and the blue-green alga Chroococcus minor. The cultures were subjected to chemical (NaOH and temperature) or physical (ultrasounds) factors which altered their internal cell structures. Distinct changes in the light attenuation spectrum were observed as a result of the modification of the internal cell structures. Light attenuation cross-sections of those phytoplankton cells were also determined.

Krol, Tadeusz; Lotocka, Maria

1994-10-01

358

Tracer attenuation in groundwater

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The self-purifying capacity of aquifers strongly depends on the attenuation of waterborne contaminants, i.e., irreversible loss of contaminant mass on a given scale as a result of coupled transport and transformation processes. A general formulation of tracer attenuation in groundwater is presented. Basic sensitivities of attenuation to macrodispersion and retention are illustrated for a few typical retention mechanisms. Tracer recovery is suggested as an experimental proxy for attenuation. Unique experimental data of tracer recovery in crystalline rock compare favorably with the theoretical model that is based on diffusion-controlled retention. Non-Fickian hydrodynamic transport has potentially a large impact on field-scale attenuation of dissolved contaminants.

Cvetkovic, Vladimir

2011-12-01

359

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, a theory of thermoelasticity with diffusion is taken into consideration by using the methodology of fractional calculus. The governing equations for particle motion in a homogeneous anisotropic fractional order generalized thermoelastic diffusive medium are presented. Uniqueness and reciprocity theorems are proved. The plane wave propagation in the homogeneous transversely isotropic thermoelastic diffusive medium with fractional order derivative is studied. For the two-dimensional problem, there exist a quasi-longitudinal wave, a quasi-transverse wave, a quasi-mass diffusion wave, and a quasi-thermal wave. From the obtained results, the different characteristics of waves, like phase velocity, attenuation coefficient, specific loss, and penetration depth, are computed numerically and presented graphically. Some special cases are also discussed.

Rajneesh, Kumar; Vandana, Gupta

2013-07-01

360

Fracture-Induced Anisotropic Attenuation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The triaxial nature of the tectonic stress in the earth's crust favors the appearance of vertical fractures. The resulting rheology is usually effective anisotropy with orthorhombic and monoclinic symmetries. In addition, the presence of fluids leads to azimuthally varying attenuation of seismic waves. A dense set of fractures embedded in a background medium enhances anisotropy and rock compliance. Fractures are modeled as boundary discontinuities in the displacement u and particle velocity v as [{\\varvec{ kappa}}\\cdot {u} + {\\varvec{?}} \\cdot {v} ], where the brackets denote discontinuities across the fracture surface, {\\varvec{kappa}} is a fracture stiffness, and {\\varvec{?}} is a viscosity related to the energy loss. We consider a transversely isotropic background medium (e.g., thin horizontal plane layers), with sets of long vertical fractures. Schoenberg and Muir's theory combines the background medium and sets of vertical fractures to provide the 13 complex stiffnesses of the long-wavelength equivalent monoclinic and viscoelastic medium. Long-wavelength equivalent means that the dominant wavelength of the signal is much longer than the fracture spacing. The symmetry plane is the horizontal plane. The equations for orthorhombic and transversely isotropic media follow as particular cases. We compute the complex velocities of the medium as a function of frequency and propagation direction, which provide the phase velocities, energy velocities (wavefronts), and quality factors. The effective medium ranges from monoclinic symmetry to hexagonal (transversely isotropic) symmetry from the low- to the high-frequency limits in the case of a particle-velocity discontinuity (lossy case) and the attenuation shows typical Zener relaxation peaks as a function of frequency. The attenuation of the coupled waves may show important differences when computed versus the ray or phase angles, with triplication appearing in the Q factor of the qS wave. We have performed a full-wave simulation to compute the field corresponding to the coupled qP-qS waves in the symmetry plane of an effective monoclinic medium. The simulations agree with the predictions of the plane-wave analysis.

Carcione, José M.; Santos, Juan E.; Picotti, Stefano

2012-09-01

361

Relationship between Jovian hectometric attenuation lanes and Io volcanic activity

Within the Galileo plasma wave instrument data a narrow (in frequency) attenuation band is seen in the hectometric (HOM) emission that varies in frequency with system III longitude. This attenuation lane is believed to be the result of near-grazing incidence or coherent scattering of radio emission near the outer edge of the Io torus, i.e., when the ray path is

J. D. Menietti; D. A. Gurnett; J. R. Spencer; J. A. Stansberry

2001-01-01

362

Ultrasonic attenuation studies in deuterated and undeuterated chromium potassium alum

The attenuation of 10- and 30-MHz sound waves in deuterated and undeuterated chromium potassium alum have been measured over the temperature range 300–4.2 K. A very large attenuation peak occurs in the temperature range 70–160 K. It is believed that this is associated with phonon-phonon scattering.

R. E. Miller; M. H. Norwood; B. J. Marshall

1972-01-01

363

Numerical experiments of fractureinduced velocity and attenuation ...

The algorithm is tested with the analytical solution and ... For instance, aligned vertical fractures can lead to an azimuthal anisotropy ... He used pseudo-spectral methods and domain decomposition (two grids) to model wave propagation and attenuation ...... Daley, T.M., Schoenberg, M.A., Rutqvist, J. & Nihei, K.T., 2006.

Joseph

2012-10-18

364

Dispersion-sensitive surface plasmon wave assisted by incoherent gain

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-level system with pumped electric-dipole allowed transition for incoherent-gain negative permittivity is suggested in order to realize dispersion-sensitive surface plasmon wave. The present surface wave modes occurring at an interface between an incoherent-gain negative-permittivity “plasmonic” medium (e.g., a semiconductor-quantum-dot material) and an ordinary dielectric can be amplified due to population transfer in the three-level system of the negative-permittivity medium. The issues of complex phase constant and the attenuation coefficients in the adjacent media are considered for addressing the problem of loss compensation of surface plasmon wave. The effect of incoherent-gain amplification exhibited by the dispersion-sensitive surface plasmon wave can be utilized for designing new quantum optical and photonic devices, e.g., photonic transistors and logic gates.

Shen, Jian Qi

2014-10-01

365

Inversion for Anisotropic Frequency-Dependent Spreading of Body Waves in a VSP Dataset

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP), body waves are often known to show spreading significantly different from the theoretical geometric-spreading behavior. This difference can be explained by ray bending, scattering, and attenuation, which need to be accurately measured in each specific case. Here, we invert for an anisotropic, combined amplitude spreading and attenuation model using a 1-D tomographic approach. The model is derived from first arrivals of a multi-offset, 3-D VSP dataset from Weyburn oilfield in southeast Saskatchewan. Using interpreted well-log data and geologic model of the study area, we constructed a six-layer interval velocity model. Unlike the traditional approaches based on the frequency-dependent quality factor (Q), our attenuation model is formulated without Q and in terms of the frequency-dependent attenuation/scattering coefficients attributed to these layers . Multi-offset, frequency-dependent first-arrival amplitudes also require that these attenuation parameters are anisotropic. Inversion of 35 shot records, reveals variations of geometric attenuation (focusing, defocusing and scattering, denoted ?) and the effective attenuation (Qe) with depth. Scattering and geometric spreading play significant roles at lower frequencies and shallower depths, with negative ? (i.e., focusing) to ~430-m depths, which gradually increase and become positive (defocusing) from 1360 m to 1390 m. Positive values of ? are also close to those predicted theoretically for back-scattering on the reflectivity structure derived from the log. The geometric attenuation shows significant anisotropy, with predominantly horizontal refraction and forward-scattering (focusing) within the structure. Statistical analysis of model uncertainties quantitatively measures the significance of these results. The resulting model of frequency-dependent body-wave amplitude correctly predicts the observed first-arrival VSP amplitudes at all frequencies. This and similar models can be applied to other types of waves and should be useful for true-amplitude studies, including inversion, Q-compensation, and the analysis of reflection amplitude variations with offset (AVO).

Baharvand Ahmadi, A.; Morozov, I. B.

2012-12-01

366

Factor Scores, Structure Coefficients, and Communality Coefficients

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents heuristic explanations of factor scores, structure coefficients, and communality coefficients. Common misconceptions regarding these topics are clarified. In addition, (a) the regression (b) Bartlett, (c) Anderson-Rubin, and (d) Thompson methods for calculating factor scores are reviewed. Syntax necessary to execute all four…

Goodwyn, Fara

2012-01-01

367

The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprising one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength. 9 figs.

Foltyn, S.R.

1987-05-29

368

Attenuation of coda waves in northern Greece

The single scattering model has been applied for the estimation of coda Q values for local earthquakes that occurred in northern Greece during the period 1983 1989 and recorded by the telemetered network of the Geophysical Laboratory of the University of Thessaloniki. Coda Q estimations were made for four frequency bands centered at 1.5 Hz, 3.0 Hz, 6.0 Hz and

P. M. Hatzidimitriou

1993-01-01

369

Attenuation of coda waves in northern Greece

The single scattering model has been applied for the estimation of codaQ values for local earthquakes that occurred in northern Greece during the period 1983–1989 and recorded by the telemetered network of the Geophysical Laboratory of the University of Thessaloniki. CodaQ estimations were made for four frequency bands centered at 1.5 Hz, 3.0 Hz, 6.0 Hz and 12.0 Hz and

P. M. Hatzidimitriou

1993-01-01

370

Fiber Attenuation To measure the attenuation coefficient of a multi-mode fiber, and to

" method. This amounts to coupling the laser beam into the fiber at one end, approximating the "stable mode the laser in the laser mount and align the beam along a row of threaded holes in the table. Fiber Coupler and Output Positioner- Attach the fiber coupler to the table so that its axis is aligned with the laser beam

Collins, Gary S.

371

Attenuation tomography of the western United States from ambient seismic noise

to the elastic and anelastic structure at crustal and upper mantle depths. The phase velocity maps obtained, the seismic velocities found in sedimentary basins amplify seismic waves, but attenuation also reduces.g., Olsen et al., 2006]. Third, by stripping the crustal and upper mantle attenuation from body wave

Prieto, GermÃ¡n A.

372

Hypersonic Attenuation by Low-Frequency Optical Phonons in SrTiO3 Crystals

Hypersonic attenuation above the structural phase transition temperature Ta~=103°K has been measured from 0.4 to 1 GHz in SrTiO3. Studies were made for both polarizations in - and -oriented single crystals. For temperatures above 150°K, the attenuation of shear waves is temperature-independent, while that of longitudinal waves is monotonically increasing with decreasing temperature. As T-->Ta from above, the attenuation of

R. Nava; R. Callarotti; H. Ceva; A. Martinet

1969-01-01

373

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the intrinsic dissipation and scattering properties of the lithosphere beneath the northeast India by using the seismic waves recorded by a network of ten broadband stations in the region with hypocentral distances ranging from 31 to 200 km. First, we determined coda Q from the amplitude decay rate of the S-wave coda envelopes in five frequency bands from 1.5 to 24 Hz based on single scattering theory and QS by means of the coda normalization method. Assuming a frequency dependent power-law of the form , we found a low Q0 (Q0 < 200) and a high frequency dependent parameter n (n ~ 1) for the whole study area, which indicates that the lithosphere beneath NE India is seismically active and heterogeneous. Then we applied the multiple lapse time window (MLTW) analysis in the hypothesis of velocity and scattering coefficients constant with depth. We calculated the variation of integrated spectral energy with hypocentral distance for three consecutive lapse time windows (0-15, 15-30, 30-45 sec), starting from the onset of the S-wave arrival. The spectral energies over an octave bandwidth with central frequencies at 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 24 Hz were calculated to obtain the frequency dependence of attenuation parameters. The results show that intrinsic absorption dominates over scattering in the attenuation process at high frequencies. However, in the hypothesis of uniform medium, the estimates of scattering attenuations obtained by MLTW analysis are overestimated. So the present results are correct to a first order approximation. To obtain more reliable and unbiased estimates of the attenuation parameters and their frequency dependences by considering the probable influence of crustal-mantel heterogeneities, we analyze the events by using the depth dependent MLTW method.

Padhy, S.

2010-12-01

374

Exactly Solvable Nonhomogeneous Burgers Equations with Variable Coefficients

We consider a nonhomogeneous Burgers equation with time variable coefficients, and obtain an explicit solution of the general initial value problem in terms of solution to a corresponding linear ODE. Special exact solutions such as generalized shock and multi-shock solitary waves, triangular wave, N-wave and rational type solutions are found and discussed. As exactly solvable models, we study forced Burgers

Sirin A. Buyukasik; Oktay K. Pashaev

2011-01-01

375

Landing gear noise attenuation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

2011-01-01

376

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustic experiments on the propagation of guided waves along water-filled boreholes in water-saturated porous materials are reported. The experiments were conducted using a shock tube technique. An acoustic funnel structure was placed inside the tube just above the sample in order to enhance the excitation of the surface modes. A fast Fourier transform-Prony-spectral ratio method is implemented to transform the data from the time-space domain to the frequency-wave-number domain. Frequency-dependent phase velocities and attenuation coefficients were measured using this technique. The results for a Berea sandstone material show a clear excitation of the fundamental surface mode, the pseudo-Stoneley wave. The comparison of the experimental results with numerical predictions based on Biot's theory of poromechanics [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 28, 168 (1956)], shows that the oscillating fluid flow at the borehole wall is the dominant loss mechanism governing the pseudo-Stoneley wave and it is properly described by the Biot's model at frequencies below 40 kHz. At higher frequencies, a systematic underestimation of the theoretical predictions is found, which can be attributed to the existence of other losses mechanisms neglected in the Biot formulation. Higher-order guided modes associated with the compressional wave in the porous formation and the cylindrical geometry of the shock tube were excited, and detailed information was obtained on the frequency-dependent phase velocity and attenuation in highly porous and permeable materials. The measured attenuation of the guided wave associated with the compressional wave reveals the presence of regular oscillatory patterns that can be attributed to radial resonances. This oscillatory behavior is also numerically predicted, although the measured attenuation values are one order of magnitude higher than the corresponding theoretical values. The phase velocities of the higher-order modes are generally well predicted by theory.

Chao, Gabriel; Smeulders, D. M. J.; van Dongen, M. E. H.

2006-05-01

377

A numeric evaluation of attenuation from ambient noise correlation functions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ambient noise correlation function (NCF) calculated between seismic stations contains, under appropriate conditions, accurate travel time information. However, NCF amplitudes are highly debated due to noise source intensity and distribution, seismic intrinsic attenuation, scattering, and elastic path effects such as focusing and defocusing. We prove with various numerical simulations that the NCFs calculated for a uniformly dispersive medium using the coherency method preserve accurate geometrical spreading and attenuation decay. We show that for a wide range of noise source distributions, the coherency of the noise correlation functions matches a Bessel function decaying exponentially with a specific attenuation coefficient. Conditions needed to obtain these results include averaging over long enough time intervals, a uniformly distributed seismic network, and a good distribution of far-field noise sources. We also show that the estimated attenuation coefficient corresponds to the interstation and not the noise-source-to-receiver structure.

Lawrence, Jesse F.; Denolle, Marine; Seats, Kevin J.; Prieto, Germán. A.

2013-12-01

378

An apparatus and method of attenuating and/or conditioning optical energy for an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module is disclosed. An apparatus for attenuating the optical output of an optoelectronic connector including: a mounting surface; an array of optoelectronic devices having at least a first end; an array of optical elements having at least a first end; the first end of the array of optical elements optically aligned with the first end of the array of optoelectronic devices; an optical path extending from the first end of the array of optoelectronic devices and ending at a second end of the array of optical elements; and an attenuator in the optical path for attenuating the optical energy emitted from the array of optoelectronic devices. Alternatively, a conditioner may be adapted in the optical path for conditioning the optical energy emitted from the array of optoelectronic devices.

Anderson, Gene R. (Albuquerque, NM); Armendariz, Marcelino G. (Albuquerque, NM); Carson, Richard F. (Albuquerque, NM); Bryan, Robert P. (Albuquerque, NM); Duckett, III, Edwin B. (Albuquerque, NM); Kemme, Shanalyn Adair (Albuquerque, NM); McCormick, Frederick B. (Albuquerque, NM); Peterson, David W. (Sandia Park, NM)

2006-04-04

379

Time domain attenuation estimation method from ultrasonic backscattered signals

Ultrasonic attenuation is important not only as a parameter for characterizing tissue but also for compensating other parameters that are used to classify tissues. Several techniques have been explored for estimating ultrasonic attenuation from backscattered signals. In the present study, a technique is developed to estimate the local ultrasonic attenuation coefficient by analyzing the time domain backscattered signal. The proposed method incorporates an objective function that combines the diffraction pattern of the source/receiver with the attenuation slope in an integral equation. The technique was assessed through simulations and validated through experiments with a tissue mimicking phantom and fresh rabbit liver samples. The attenuation values estimated using the proposed technique were compared with the attenuation estimated using insertion loss measurements. For a data block size of 15 pulse lengths axially and 15 beamwidths laterally, the mean attenuation estimates from the tissue mimicking phantoms were within 10% of the estimates using insertion loss measurements. With a data block size of 20 pulse lengths axially and 20 beamwidths laterally, the error in the attenuation values estimated from the liver samples were within 10% of the attenuation values estimated from the insertion loss measurements. PMID:22779499

Ghoshal, Goutam; Oelze, Michael L.

2012-01-01

380

Backscatter and attenuation properties of mammalian brain tissues

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a common category of brain injuries, which contributes to a substantial number of deaths and permanent disability all over the world. Ultrasound technology plays a major role in tissue characterization due to its low cost and portability that could be used to bridge a wide gap in the TBI diagnostic process. This research addresses the ultrasonic properties of mammalian brain tissues focusing on backscatter and attenuation. Orientation dependence and spatial averaging of data were analyzed using the same method resulting from insertion of tissue sample between a transducer and a reference reflector. Apparent backscatter transfer function (ABTF) at 1 to 10 MHz, attenuation coefficient and backscatter coefficient (BSC) at 1 to 5 MHz frequency ranges were measured on ovine brain tissue samples. The resulting ABTF was a monotonically decreasing function of frequency and the attenuation coefficient and BSC generally were increasing functions of frequency, results consistent with other soft tissues such as liver, blood and heart.

Wijekularatne, Pushpani Vihara

381

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the fourth module in our series on open water waves. As deep-water waves approach the coastline, they encounter shallower water and begin to interact with the sea floor while evolving into shallow water waves. This module uses an interactive wave calculator to look at a variety of shallow-water wave behaviors, including shoaling, refraction, reflection, breaking, attenuation, and coastal run-up and set-up. All are important considerations when forecasting for small craft and other recreational interests in the near-shore environment.

Spangler, Tim

2006-08-01

382

Spectral characterization of 4 MV Bremsstrahlung by attenuation analysis.

The "quality of radiation" for a high energy x-ray beam can be specified by its attenuation curve in a selected material. The inverse Laplace transform of the attenuation curve can be used as an approximate indication of the energy spectrum of the beam. Existing mathematical procedures for this purpose have been evaluated and were found to poorly represent measured transmission data for 4 MV x-rays from a linear accelerator. The transmission data between 1 and 0.002 could be fitted within the experimental uncertainty by expressing the logarithmic transmission as a second order polynomial of attenuator thickness. The inverse Laplace transform them becomes a Gaussian function of the attenuation coefficient. This new version of "attenuation analysis" provides a practical method for specification of the quality of the radiation in this energy range. PMID:6798393

Huang, P H; Kase, K R; Bjärngard, B E

1981-01-01

383

A unifying fractional wave equation for compressional and shear waves

equation which is a generalized Hooke's law with a loss term containing a fractional derivative, one can equation is derived from a proper constitutive equa- tion; in this case, it is a generalized Hooke's law of the power-law attenuation exponent for compressional and shear waves. Usually compressional attenuation

Sahay, Sundeep

384

Edge Diffraction Coefficients around Critical Rays

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classical GTD (Geometrical Theory of Diffraction) gives a recipe, based on high-frequency asymptotics, for calculating edge diffraction coefficients in the geometrical regions where only diffracted waves propagate. The Uniform GTD extends this recipe to transition zones between irradiated and silent regions, known as penumbra. For many industrial materials, e.g. steels, and frequencies utlized in industrial ultrasonic transducers, that is, around 5 MHz, asymptotics suggested for description of geometrical regions supporting the head waves or transition regions surrounding their boundaries, known as critical rays, prove unsatisfactory. We present a numerical extension of GTD, which is based on a regularized, variable step Simpson's method for evaluating the edge diffraction coefficients in the regions of interference between head waves, diffracted waves and/or reflected waves. In mathematical terms, these are the regions of coalescence of three critical points - a branch point, stationary point and/or pole, respectively. We show that away from the shadow boundaries, near the critical rays the GTD still produces correct values of the edge diffraction coefficients.

Fradkin, L.; Harmer, M.; Darmon, M.

2014-04-01

385

The distribution of seismic velocities and attenuation in the earth. Ph.D. Thesis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Estimates of the radial distribution of seismic velocities and density and of seismic attenuation within the earth are obtained through inversion of body wave, surface wave, and normal mode data. The effect of attenuation related dispersion on gross earth structure, and on the reliability of eigenperiod identifications is discussed. The travel time baseline discrepancies between body waves and free oscillation models are examined and largely resolved.

Hart, R. S.

1977-01-01

386

The Physics Analysis of a Gas Attenuator with Argon as a Working Gas

A gas attenuator is an important element of the LCLS facility. The attenuator must operate in a broad range of x-ray energies, provide attenuation coefficient between 1 and 10{sup 4} with the accuracy of 1% and, at the same time, be reliable and allow for many months of un-interrupted operation. S. Shen has recently carried out a detailed design study of the attenuator based on the use of nitrogen as a working gas. In this note we assess the features of the attenuator based on the use of argon. We concentrate on the physics issues, not the design features.

Ryutov,, D.D.

2010-12-07

387

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of the phase difference of the coupling coefficients on relaxation frequencies in the emission spectrum of a solid-state ring laser operating in the self-modulation regime of the first kind is studied theoretically. A strong dependence of one of the frequencies of relaxation oscillations on the phase difference of coupling coefficients is found. The stability of the self-modulation regime is studied analytically.

Zolotoverkh, I. I.

2008-09-01

388

Fluid distribution effect on sonic attenuation in partially saturated limestones

Extensional and torsional wave-attenuation measurements are obtained at a sonic frequency around 1 kHz on partially saturated limestones using large resonant bars, 1 m long. To study the influence of the fluid distribution, the authors use two different saturation methods: drying and depressurization. When water saturation (S{sub w}) is higher than 70%, the extensional wave attenuation is found to depend on whether the resonant bar is jacketed. This can be interpreted as the Biot-Gardner-White effect. The experimental results obtained on jacketed samples show that, during a drying experiment, extensional wave attenuation is influenced strongly by the fluid content when S{sub w} is between approximately 70% and 100%. This sensitivity to fluid saturation vanishes when saturation is obtained through depressurization. Using a computer-assisted tomographic (CT) scan, the authors found that, during depressurization, the fluid distribution is homogeneous at the millimetric scale at all saturations. In contrast, during drying, heterogeneous saturation was observed at high water-saturation levels. Thus, the authors interpret the dependence of the extensional wave attenuation upon the saturation method as principally caused by a fluid distribution effect. Torsional attenuation shows no sensitivity to fluid saturation for S{sub w} between 5% and 100%.

Cadoret, T. [Elf Exploration Production, Pau (France). Dept. Sismique] [Elf Exploration Production, Pau (France). Dept. Sismique; Mavko, G. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)] [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Zinszner, B. [Inst. Francais du Petrole, Rueil Malmaison (France). Lab. de Physique des Roches] [Inst. Francais du Petrole, Rueil Malmaison (France). Lab. de Physique des Roches

1998-01-01

389

Creating materials with a desired refraction coefficient

A method is given for creating material with a desired refraction coefficient. The method consists of embedding into a material with known refraction coefficient many small particles of size $a$. The number of particles per unit volume around any point is prescribed, the distance between neighboring particles is $O(a^{\\frac{2-\\kappa}{3}})$ as $a\\to 0$, $0<\\kappa<1$ is a fixed parameter. The total number of the embedded particle is $O(a^{\\kappa-2})$. The physical properties of the particles are described by the boundary impedance $\\zeta_m$ of the $m-th$ particle, $\\zeta_m=O(a^{-\\kappa})$ as $a\\to 0$. The refraction coefficient is the coefficient $n^2(x)$ in the wave equation $[\

A. G. Ramm

2009-09-02

390

Temperature and Strain Coefficient of Velocity for Langasite SAW Devices.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Surface Acoustic Wave sensors on Langasite substrates are being investigated for aerospace applications. Characterization of the Langasite material properties must be performed before sensors can be installed in research vehicles. The coefficients of velo...

G. M. Atkinson, W. C. Wilson

2013-01-01

391

Scale And Frequency Dependence Of Reflection And Transmission Coefficients

Well-logs show that heterogeneities occur at many different spatial scales. In this paper, we want to characterize how waves are affected by these heterogeneities, and we study how reflection and transmission coefficients ...

Imhof, Matthias G.

1998-01-01

392

Tritium Attenuation by Distillation

The objective of this study was to determine how a 100 Area distillation system could be used to reduce to a satisfactory low value the tritium content of the dilute moderator produced in the 100 Area stills, and whether such a tritium attenuator would have sufficient capacity to process all this material before it is sent to the 400 Area for reprocessing.

Wittman, N.E.

2001-07-31

393

Effective x-ray attenuation measurements with full field digital mammography

This work shows that effective x-ray attenuation coefficients may be estimated by applying Beer's Law to phantom image data acquired with the General Electric Senographe 2000D full field digital mammography system. Theoretical developments are provided indicating that an approximate form of the Beer's relation holds for polychromatic x-ray beams. The theoretical values were compared with experimentally determined measured values, which were estimated at various detector locations. The measured effective attenuation coefficients are in agreement with those estimated with theoretical developments and numerical integration. The work shows that the measured quantities show little spatial variation. The main ideas are demonstrated with polymethylmethacrylate and breast tissue equivalent phantom imaging experiments. The work suggests that the effective attenuation coefficients may be used as known values for radiometric standardization applications that compensate for the image acquisition influences. The work indicates that it is possible to make quantitative attenuation coefficient measurements from a system designed for clinical purposes.

Heine, John J.; Behera, Madhusmita [The H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, Florida 33612-4799 (United States)

2006-11-15

394

Local threshold for segmented attenuation correction of PET imaging of the thorax

A local threshold for segmented attenuation correction technique has been developed for positron emission tomography using short (2-3 minutes) post-injection transmission scans. The technique implements an optimal threshold method on localized histograms to get pseudo-anatomic segmentation on transmission images. Theoretical values of attenuation coefficients are assigned to corresponding anatomic regions. Emission images are reconstructed using attenuation correction factors computed by

M. Xu; W. K. Luk; P. D. Cutler; W. M. Digby

1994-01-01

395

Computational Study of Thrust Generation from Laser-Driven Blast Wave

We have performed axisymmetric simulations in order to investigate the thrust generation resulting from the interference between the projectile and the blast wave produced by a pulsed laser. The results obtained by our numerical code well agree for the pressure history and the momentum coupling coefficient with the experimental data. In such analysis, it is found that the approximate impulse estimated only by the pressure history at the projectile base is difficult to predict the actual one. Since the shock wave rapidly attenuates in low fill pressure, and the interaction with the projectile almost finishes in the shroud, a high momentum coupling coefficient can be achieved unlike the case of high fill pressure in which the projectile experiences the subsequent negative thrust.

Ohnishi, Naofumi [Center for Research Strategy and Support, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Department of Aerospace Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Ogino, Yousuke [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

2008-04-28

396

A unifying fractional wave equation for compressional and shear waves.

This study has been motivated by the observed difference in the range of the power-law attenuation exponent for compressional and shear waves. Usually compressional attenuation increases with frequency to a power between 1 and 2, while shear wave attenuation often is described with powers less than 1. Another motivation is the apparent lack of partial differential equations with desirable properties such as causality that describe such wave propagation. Starting with a constitutive equation which is a generalized Hooke's law with a loss term containing a fractional derivative, one can derive a causal fractional wave equation previously given by Caputo [Geophys J. R. Astron. Soc. 13, 529-539 (1967)] and Wismer [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 120, 3493-3502 (2006)]. In the low omegatau (low-frequency) case, this equation has an attenuation with a power-law in the range from 1 to 2. This is consistent with, e.g., attenuation in tissue. In the often neglected high omegatau (high-frequency) case, it describes attenuation with a power-law between 0 and 1, consistent with what is observed in, e.g., dynamic elastography. Thus a unifying wave equation derived properly from constitutive equations can describe both cases. PMID:20058999

Holm, Sverre; Sinkus, Ralph

2010-01-01

397

We invert phase and amplitude data of Rayleigh waves for attenuation (Q -1) and shear wave velocities beneath southern California using teleseismic sources recorded by the TriNet\\/USArray network. Fundamental mode surface wave studies from 25 to 143 s period allow us to constrain the vertical variation of shear quality factor Q mu in the upper mantle. We use 2-D sensitivity

Yingjie Yang; Donald W. Forsyth

2008-01-01

398

Attenuation of Radiation by Dr. James E. Parks

in the material. The range of charged particles at a given energy is defined as the average distance they travel charged particles interact with materials, (3) to study the 3 primary ways that gamma rays interact attenuation coefficients for beta particles and gamma rays. Theory There are two primary types of radiation

Dai, Pengcheng

399

Central pressure augmentation is associated with greater backward wave amplitude and shorter transit time and is higher in women for reasons only partially elucidated. Augmentation also is affected by left ventricular function and shapes of the forward and backward waves. The goal of this study was to examine the relative contributions of forward and backward wave morphology to central pressure augmentation in men and women. From noninvasive measurements of central pressure and flow in 7437 participants (4036 women) aged from 19 to 90 years (mean age, 51 years), we calculated several variables: augmentation index, backward wave arrival time, reflection factor, forward wave amplitude, forward wave peak width, and slope of the backward wave upstroke. Linear regression models for augmentation index, adjusted for height and heart rate, demonstrated nonlinear relations with age (age: B=4.6±0.1%; P<0.001; age2: B=?4.2±0.1%; P<0.001) and higher augmentation in women (B=4.5±0.4%; P<0.001; model R2=0.35). Addition of reflection factor and backward wave arrival time improved model fit (R2=0.62) and reduced the age coefficients: age (B=2.3±0.1%; P<0.001) and age2 (B=?2.2±0.1%; P<0.001). Addition of width of forward wave peak, slope of backward wave upstroke, and forward wave amplitude further improved model fit (R2=0.75) and attenuated the sex coefficient (B=1.9±0.2%; P<0.001). Thus, shape and amplitude of the forward wave may be important correlates of augmentation index, and part of the sex difference in augmentation index may be explained by forward and backward wave morphology. PMID:24866142

Torjesen, Alyssa A; Wang, Na; Larson, Martin G; Hamburg, Naomi M; Vita, Joseph A; Levy, Daniel; Benjamin, Emelia J; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Mitchell, Gary F

2014-08-01

400

Cloud attenuation at millimeter wavelengths

Total atmospheric attenuation under conditions of complete and cloud cover was measured at frequencies of 15 and 35 GHz in the Boston area. The attenuations were actually inferred from extinction measurements using the sun as a source. Measurements were made at 29 elevation angles from 1 to 20 deg, and the angular dependence of the attenuation was examined. For most

Edward E. Altshuler; Richard A. Marr

1989-01-01