Zhang, Jun; Ye, Wenjing
2015-09-01
In this paper, the attenuation coefficient of coherent SH waves in random porous material with uniformly randomly distributed elliptical cavities of different aspect ratios is studied. Based on an analysis of the mechanism for attenuation, a simple macro model for the attenuation coefficient is proposed. The macro model says that the attenuation coefficient can be expressed as a function of the mean scattering cross section and the number density of cavities at low porosities. Then, large-scale numerical simulations using the pre-corrected Fast Fourier Transform (pFFT) algorithm accelerated Boundary Element Method (BEM) are conducted to specify this macro model. Finally, this macro model is compared with four theoretical models derived for composite/porous materials with circular inclusions at the porosity p=3.17% and 5%. Results show this macro model agree well with three of them. Compared to the existing theoretical models, the form of this macro model is simple and has a clear physical meaning. In addition, it is applicable to cases with relatively complex cavities. PMID:25983311
Global teleseismic S wave attenuation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hwang, Y.; Ritsema, J. E.
2009-12-01
We have measured 140,000 teleseismic S wave spectra from 150 deep (focal depth > 200 km) earthquakes recorded at 890 broadband global and regional network stations up to 0.7 Hz. We have analyzed these data to constrain the (1) epicentral distance and (2) spatial variation of the shear wave attenuation parameter tS*. tS* increases by about 2 s between 30° and 98°. The increase in tS* is consistent (correlation coefficient of 0.9) with global QS profiles (Dziewonski and Anderson, 1981; Durek and Ekström, 1996; Lawrence and Wysession, 2006). However, there are well resolved departures in the distance dependence of tS*. Most notably, tS* is lower than PREM-predicted values between 58°-64°. This indicates a reduction in shear attenuation from the global average at ~1600 km depth beneath Central America, eastern Asia, and Alaska. These regions have previously been identified as downwelling mantle regions on the basis of seismic tomography (Grand et al., 1997), plate reconstructions (Ricard et al., 1993), and waveform analysis (Lay et al., 2004). Stations terms of tS* represent the spatial variation of attenuation in the upper mantle. Using multi-channel cross-correlation and least-squares inversion of differential spectra we resolve high attenuation in the upper mantle beneath western North America, western Europe, and eastern Africa. Attenuation is low beneath eastern North America, the Baltic regions, and central and southern Africa. This variation correlates well with global variations in heat flow (Pollack et al., 1993) and crustal age (Mooney et al., 1995).
Attenuation coefficients for water quality trading.
Keller, Arturo A; Chen, Xiaoli; Fox, Jessica; Fulda, Matt; Dorsey, Rebecca; Seapy, Briana; Glenday, Julia; Bray, Erin
2014-06-17
Water quality trading has been proposed as a cost-effective approach for reducing nutrient loads through credit generation from agricultural or point source reductions sold to buyers facing costly options. We present a systematic approach to determine attenuation coefficients and their uncertainty. Using a process-based model, we determine attenuation with safety margins at many watersheds for total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads as they transport from point of load reduction to the credit buyer. TN and TP in-stream attenuation generally increases with decreasing mean river flow; smaller rivers in the modeled region of the Ohio River Basin had TN attenuation factors per km, including safety margins, of 0.19-1.6%, medium rivers of 0.14-1.2%, large rivers of 0.13-1.1%, and very large rivers of 0.04-0.42%. Attenuation in ditches transporting nutrients from farms to receiving rivers is 0.4%/km for TN, while for TP attenuation in ditches can be up to 2%/km. A 95 percentile safety margin of 30-40% for TN and 6-10% for TP, applied to the attenuation per km factors, was determined from the in-stream sensitivity of load reductions to watershed model parameters. For perspective, over 50 km a 1% per km factor would result in 50% attenuation = 2:1 trading ratio. PMID:24866482
Full wave-field reflection coefficient inversion.
Dettmer, Jan; Dosso, Stan E; Holland, Charles W
2007-12-01
This paper develops a Bayesian inversion for recovering multilayer geoacoustic (velocity, density, attenuation) profiles from a full wave-field (spherical-wave) seabed reflection response. The reflection data originate from acoustic time series windowed for a single bottom interaction, which are processed to yield reflection coefficient data as a function of frequency and angle. Replica data for inversion are computed using a wave number-integration model to calculate the full complex acoustic pressure field, which is processed to produce a commensurate seabed response function. To address the high computational cost of calculating short range acoustic fields, the inversion algorithms are parallelized and frequency averaging is replaced by range averaging in the forward model. The posterior probability density is interpreted in terms of optimal parameter estimates, marginal distributions, and credibility intervals. Inversion results for the full wave-field seabed response are compared to those obtained using plane-wave reflection coefficients. A realistic synthetic study indicates that the plane-wave assumption can fail, producing erroneous results with misleading uncertainty bounds, whereas excellent results are obtained with the full-wave reflection inversion. PMID:18247743
Direct determination of the attenuation coefficient for radionuclide volume measurements
A. M. Keller; T. R. Simon; T. C. Smitherman; C. R. Malloy; G. J. Dehmer
1987-01-01
Correcting for the attenuation of photons between the cardiac chambers and chest surface is crucial for accurate nongeometric ventricular volume determinations from equilibrium radionuclide angiograms. Previous techniques have assumed that the attenuation coefficient of water for \\/sup 99m\\/Tc (0.15\\/cm) should be used for this correction. In this study, this assumption was tested directly by measuring attenuation of the activity of
FREQUENCY DEPENDENT ULTRASONIC ATTENUATION COEFFICIENT ASSESSMENT IN FRESH
Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of
= = where is the average acoustic energy density, I is the acoustic intensity and cois procedures for measuring total acoustic power typically measure the force via a balance apparatus using a phase insensitive, radiation force balance technique. Ultrasonic attenuation coefficient
Measurements of spectral attenuation coefficients in the lower Chesapeake Bay
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Houghton, W. M.
1983-01-01
The spectral transmission was measured for water samples taken in the lower Chesapeake Bay to allow characterization of several optical properties. The coefficients of total attenuation, particle attenuation, and absorption by dissolved organic matter were determined over a wavelength range from 3500 A to 8000 A. The data were taken over a 3 year period and at a number of sites so that an indication of spatial and temporal variations could be obtained. The attenuations determined in this work are, on the average, 10 times greater than those obtained by Hulburt in 1944, which are commonly accepted in the literature for Chesapeake Bay attenuation.
Direct determination of the attenuation coefficient for radionuclide volume measurements
Keller, A.M.; Simon, T.R.; Smitherman, T.C.; Malloy, C.R.; Dehmer, G.J.
1987-01-01
Correcting for the attenuation of photons between the cardiac chambers and chest surface is crucial for accurate nongeometric ventricular volume determinations from equilibrium radionuclide angiograms. Previous techniques have assumed that the attenuation coefficient of water for /sup 99m/Tc (0.15/cm) should be used for this correction. In this study, this assumption was tested directly by measuring attenuation of the activity of a radioactive source within the right and left cardiac chambers. The balloon of a flow-directed catheter, filled with /sup 99m/Tc, was used as a source and its depth within the body was measured with biplane fluoroscopy. In ten patients, a total of 36 measurements of attenuation were made. With linear regression analysis, the overall calculated attenuation coefficient, mu, was 0.12/cm (standard error of slope = 0.01, R = 0.93). Although the mean value of mu varied from 0.08 to 0.13 for four different intracardiac locations these differences were not significant. These direct measurements indicate that the attenuation of photons in the heart is not equivalent to that of water and suggest that an attenuation coefficient of 0.12/cm should be used in analyzing ventricular activity.
Direct determination of the attenuation coefficient for radionuclide volume measurements.
Keller, A M; Simon, T R; Smitherman, T C; Malloy, C R; Dehmer, G J
1987-01-01
Correcting for the attenuation of photons between the cardiac chambers and chest surface is crucial for accurate nongeometric ventricular volume determinations from equilibrium radionuclide angiograms. Previous techniques have assumed that the attenuation coefficient of water for 99mTc (0.15/cm) should be used for this correction. In this study, this assumption was tested directly by measuring attenuation of the activity of a radioactive source within the right and left cardiac chambers. The balloon of a flow-directed catheter, filled with 99mTc, was used as a source and its depth within the body was measured with biplane fluoroscopy. In ten patients, a total of 36 measurements of attenuation were made. With linear regression analysis, the overall calculated attenuation coefficient, mu, was 0.12/cm (standard error of slope = 0.01, R = 0.93). Although the mean value of mu varied from 0.08 to 0.13 for four different intracardiac locations these differences were not significant. These direct measurements indicate that the attenuation of photons in the heart is not equivalent to that of water and suggest that an attenuation coefficient of 0.12/cm should be used in analyzing ventricular activity. PMID:3794802
Attenuated Fractional Wave Equations With Anisotropy.
Meerschaert, Mark M; McGough, Robert J
2014-10-01
This paper develops new fractional calculus models for wave propagation. These models permit a different attenuation index in each coordinate to fully capture the anisotropic nature of wave propagation in complex media. Analytical expressions that describe power law attenuation and anomalous dispersion in each direction are derived for these fractional calculus models. PMID:25278739
The attenuation of strong shock waves
Kirkpatrick, Ronald Crecelius
1963-01-01
26 II. Shock Front Velocity Energy Losses 35 41 LIST OF FIGURES ~Fi ure ~Pa e Lossless Shock Wave Attenuation The Parameter 1 for Shock Waves in Nitrogen The Parameter l for Shock Waves in a Perfect Gas 13 Shock Tube Electrode Configuration.... 18. 19. Shock Wave Propagation in Air Shock Wave Propagation in Nitrogen Shock Wave Propagation in Argon Shock Wave Propagation in Helium Shock Velocity Dependence on Distance for Air Shock Velocity Dependence on Distance for Nitrogen 33 33...
Fiber Attenuation To measure the attenuation coefficient of a multi-mode fiber, and to
Collins, Gary S.
Fiber Attenuation Purpose: To measure the attenuation coefficient of a multi-mode fiber, and to see the effect of mode scrambling on the fiber output. Equipment: · optics table, or 2'x2' breadboard · 4 1 -20 (340C) · short rod For the fiber- · F-MLD-500 fiber (~500 meters) · fiber coupler · 20X objective lens
Improved techniques for measuring x-ray mass attenuation coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Jonge, Martin D.; Tran, Chanh Q.; Chantler, Christopher T.; Barnea, Zwi N. M...
2006-04-01
We apply the x-ray extended-range technique (XERT) to measure mass attenuation coefficients over one order of magnitude more accurately than previously reported in the literature. We describe the application of the XERT to the investigation of systematic effects due to harmonic energy components in the x-ray beam, scattering and fluorescence from the absorbing sample, the bandwidth of the x-ray beam, and thickness variations across the absorber. The high-accuracy measurements are used for comparison with different calculations of mass attenuation coefficients, and to identify particular regions where these calculations fail.
Attenuation law of planar shock waves propagating through dust-gas suspensions
F. Aizik; G. Ben-Dor; T. Elperin; O. Igra; M. Mond; H. Gronig
1995-01-01
Olim et al. has proposed a general law for describing the instantaneous shock wave Mach number as it attenuates while propagating through dust-gas suspensions. Owing to the inadequacy of Olim's proposal, this study is aimed at finding the functional dependence of both the attenuation coefficient and Mach number on the initial shock wave Mach number, the diameter of the solid
Kube, Christopher M; Turner, Joseph A
2015-06-01
This letter provides a theoretical extension to the elastic properties of polycrystals in order to describe elastic wave scattering from grain boundaries. The extension allows the longitudinal and shear attenuation coefficients for scattering to be derived and is valid for polycrystals containing crystallites of any symmetry class. Attenuation curves are given for polycrystalline SiO2, ZrO2, and SnF2, which contain monoclinic crystallites. This work will allow ultrasonic techniques to be applied to new classes of materials containing nontrivial microstructures. PMID:26093458
Teleseismic Body Wave Attenuation and Diffraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hwang, Yong Keun
Using available digital seismic stations deployed since the 1980's, the largest data set based on broadband waveforms among studies on body-wave attenuation (t*) and quality factor (Q) are used in this thesis. The use of nearly 300,000 measurements of body-wave spectral ratio from globally distributed stations renders better constraints of t* and Q variations with higher spatial and depth resolutions in the mantle than have been previously available. The maps of body-wave t* correlate well with the variations of t* computed from the most recent surface-wave Q model QRFSI12 indicating that body-wave and surface-wave t* reflect the same intrinsic attenuation even though these waves sample the upper mantle entirely differently. The high correlation between body-wave t* maps and the t* inferred from a thermal interpretation of shear-wave velocity tomography S20RTS suggests that temperature controls both variations in attenuation and velocity in the upper mantle. The distance variations of P- and S-wave t* (t*P and t*S) are inverted for a radial profile of the quality factor Qmu in the lower mantle. On average, t* P and t*S increase by about 0.2 s and 0.7 s, respectively, between epicentral distances of 30° and 97°. The body-wave spectra are explained best if Qmu, increases in the lower mantle with the rate of 0.1/km. The relatively strong increase of t*S compare to t*P (t*S ? 4 t*P) suggests that intrinsic attenuation is the cause of the overall trend in our data. The ratio of P- and S-wave quality factor determined in this thesis (QP/Qmu = 2.27) confirms that intrinsic attenuation occurs mostly in shear and that bulk attenuation is negligible in the mantle. Finally, the delay of seismic waves which traversed numerical mantle plumes are calculated in this thesis for the first time. High-resolution numerical simulations of mantle plume are used to investigate the effects of numerical plumes on waveforms. The measurements of wave front delay demonstrate that the delay of shear-waves by plume tails at depths larger than 1000 km are immeasurably small (< 0.2 s) at seismic periods commonly used in waveform analysis.
Attenuation of an air shock wave by perforated baffles
Klapovskii, V.E.; Grigor'ev, G.S.; Logvenov, A.Y.; Mineev, V.N.; Vershinin, V.Y.
1984-03-01
One of the ways of attenuating an air shock wave (ASW) is to use a perforated shield; the parameters of the ASW behind a perforated baffle in the form of a steel sheet with holes are determined by the amplitude of the incident ASW and the sheet perforation coefficient. The authors examine the effects of the perforated shield structure on the ASW behind it and examples are given where the results can be used in the design of test chambers.
Improved techniques for measuring x-ray mass attenuation coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Jonge, Martin D.; Tran, Chanh Q.; Chantler, Christopher T.; Barnea, Zwi
2004-10-01
We have applied the x-ray extended-range technique (XERT) to measure mass attenuation coefficients over one order of magnitude more accurately than previously reported in the literature. We describe here the application of the XERT to the investigation of a number of systematic effects which has enabled us to ensure that these recent measurements are free from systematic error. In particular we describe our techniques for quantifying the effects of harmonic components in the x-ray beam, scattering and fluorescence from the absorbing sample, the bandwidth of the x-ray beam, and thickness variations across the absorber.
Measurement of Acoustic Attenuation and Absorption Coefficients using Thermometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morris, Hugh; Rivens, Ian; Shaw, Adam; ter Haar, Gail
2007-05-01
Accurate knowledge of both the attenuation and the absorption coefficient of tissue are required when planning an optimal high intensity focused ultrasound treatment. A novel technique for simple measurement of this parameters has been developed in which a thin-film thermocouple (TFT) is placed between two layers of tissue of different thicknesses. The sample can be rotated about an axis through the junction of the TFT so that it can be insonated from either side leaving the tissue adjacent to the junction unchanged, but changing the overlying thickness. The attenuation and absorption coefficients can be calculated from the heating curves measured in the two orientations. Experiments have been carried out in both tissue mimicking material (TMM) and in ex vivo liver tissue. Weakly focused transducers, resonant at 1.05 MHz, 2.4 MHz and 3.55 MHz were used at free-field spatial peak intensities of 9-14 W/cm2. The temperature rise was measured as a function of time using a TFT. These thermocouples are not subject to the viscous heating artefact that is common to other thermocouple devices and so are advantageous for this purpose. Alignment was achieved with a 3D automated gantry system, which was controlled with specialised software. Timing and data acquisition were also controlled with this software. All experiments were carried out in degassed water. Results for TMM and degassed excised bovine liver are presented.
The attenuation of strong shock waves
Kirkpatrick, Ronald Crecelius
1963-01-01
in that same region after the passage of the shock wave. This is illustrated in Figure 1 and expressed by equation (1) in A p j Tj f ~ ~ (so-j-7o jps u Figure 1. LOSSLESS SHOCK WAVE ATTENUATION which E is the energy supporting the shock wave, A... High Voltage P. ower Supply '7. 5p f C apacitor Shorting Switch Ignition Trigger Circuit Regulated Gas Supply Shock Tube Gas Vacuum Pump Accumulator Vacuum Gage Figure 5, SCHEMATIC OF SHOCK TUBE SYSTEM 22 luminous gas behind the shock...
Meyers, Steven D.
sensing MODIS SeaWiFS Bio-optical algorithm Diffuse attenuation coefficient Euphotic depth Optical data to MODIS/Aqua, MODIS/Terra, and SeaWiFS satellite observations. The products included the diffuse attenuAuthor's personal copy Assessment of satellite-derived diffuse attenuation coefficients
Representative Elementary Length to Measure Soil Mass Attenuation Coefficient
Borges, J. A. R.; Pires, L. F.; Costa, J. C.
2014-01-01
With increasing demand for better yield in agricultural areas, soil physical property representative measurements are more and more essential. Nuclear techniques such as computerized tomography (CT) and gamma-ray attenuation (GAT) have been widely employed with this purpose. The soil mass attenuation coefficient (?s) is an important parameter for CT and GAT analysis. When experimentally determined (?es), the use of suitable sized samples enable to evaluate it precisely, as well as to reduce measurement time and costs. This study investigated the representative elementary length (REL) of sandy and clayey soils for ?es measurements. Two radioactive sources were employed (241Am and 137Cs), three collimators (2–4?mm diameters), and 14 thickness (x) samples (2–15?cm). Results indicated ideal thickness intervals of 12–15 and 2–4?cm for the sources 137Cs and 241Am, respectively. The application of such results in representative elementary area (REA) evaluations in clayey soil clods via CT indicated that ?es average values obtained for x?>?4?cm and source 241Am might induce to the use of samples which are not large enough for soil bulk density evaluations (?s). As a consequence, ?s might be under- or overestimated, generating inaccurate conclusions about the physical quality of the soil under study. PMID:24672338
Representative elementary length to measure soil mass attenuation coefficient.
Borges, J A R; Pires, L F; Costa, J C
2014-01-01
With increasing demand for better yield in agricultural areas, soil physical property representative measurements are more and more essential. Nuclear techniques such as computerized tomography (CT) and gamma-ray attenuation (GAT) have been widely employed with this purpose. The soil mass attenuation coefficient (?(s)) is an important parameter for CT and GAT analysis. When experimentally determined (?(es)), the use of suitable sized samples enable to evaluate it precisely, as well as to reduce measurement time and costs. This study investigated the representative elementary length (REL) of sandy and clayey soils for ?(es) measurements. Two radioactive sources were employed ((241)Am and (137)Cs), three collimators (2-4 mm diameters), and 14 thickness (x) samples (2-15 cm). Results indicated ideal thickness intervals of 12-15 and 2-4 cm for the sources (137)Cs and (241)Am, respectively. The application of such results in representative elementary area (REA) evaluations in clayey soil clods via CT indicated that ?(es) average values obtained for x > 4 cm and source (241)Am might induce to the use of samples which are not large enough for soil bulk density evaluations (?(s)). As a consequence, ?(s) might be under- or overestimated, generating inaccurate conclusions about the physical quality of the soil under study. PMID:24672338
Attenuation of seismic waves in Central Egypt
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morsy, Mamdouh Abbas; Abed, Azza M.
2013-06-01
Attenuation of seismic waves in central Egypt had never been studied before. The results of the research on the seismic attenuation are based upon the information collected by the seismological network from 1998 to 2011. 855 earthquakes were selected from the Egyptian seismological catalog, with their epicenter distances between 15 and 150 km, their magnitudes ranging from 2 and 4.1 and focal depths reaching up to 30 km. The first systematic study of attenuation derived from the P-, S- and coda wave in the frequency range 1-24 Hz is presented. In the interpretation of the results both single and multiple scattering in a half space are considered. The single scattering model proposed by Sato (1977) was used. Two methods, the coda (Qc) and the Multiple Lapse Time Window (MLTW) method are used. The aim of this study is to validate these interpretations in the region and to try to identify the effects of attenuation due to intrinsic (Qi) and scattering attenuation (Qsc). The mean Qc value calculated was Qc = (39 ± 1)f1.0±0.009. The average Qc at 1.5 Hz is (53 ± 6) and Qc = (900 ± 195) at 24 Hz with Qo ranging between 23 and 107, where ? ranging between 0.9 and 1.3. The quality factor (Q) was estimated from spectra of P- and S-waves by applying a spectral ratio technique. The results show variations in Qp and QS as a function of frequency, according to the power law Q = 56?1.1. The seismic albedo is 0.7 at all stations and it mean that the earthquake activity is due to tectonic origin. The attenuation and frequency dependency for different paths and the correlation of the results with the geotectonic of the region are presented. The Qc values were calculated and correlated with the geology and tectonics of the area. The relatively low Qo and the high frequency dependency agree with the values of a region characterized by a low tectonic activity and vise versa.
The remote sensing algorithm of spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean
Qiankun Zhu; Xianqiang He; Zhihua Mao; Fang Gong
2008-01-01
Diffuse attenuation coefficient is an apparent optical property (AOP) which directly links to the inherent optical properties in ocean color remote sensing. So far, the study on the satellite retrieve algorithm of water diffuse attenuation coefficient has not been deeply-going, which is mainly discussed using the bands-ratio methods based on the in situ data. Only a few scientists apply the
Influences of obstacle geometries on shock wave attenuation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sha, S.; Chen, Z.; Jiang, X.
2014-11-01
The interactions of planar shock waves with obstacles of different geometries were investigated numerically using large eddy simulation and a high-order numerical scheme. The immersed boundary method was also employed to handle complex boundary geometries. The development and variations of shock wave structures during the interaction processes were discussed. The influences of the upper side, windward and leeward geometries of the obstacles on shock wave attenuation were also examined. Our numerical results showed that the shock wave attenuation is inversely related to the width of the upper side of the obstacles. For the windward sides of the obstacles, negative slopes have better effects on shock wave attenuation than do other values. In addition, the influence of the leeward slope on shock wave attenuation is weaker than that of the upside and windward slopes. Finally, obstacle shapes with a high efficiency for shock wave attenuation have been obtained and validated.
5. SOUND ATTENUATION 5.1 NATURE OF SOUND WAVE
Cambridge, University of
5. SOUND ATTENUATION 5.1 NATURE OF SOUND WAVE Historically, acoustic is the scientific study of sound. Sound can be considered as a wave phenomenon. A sound wave is a longitudinal wave where particles the sound wave, the particles of the medium through which the sound moves is vibrating in a back and forth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agarwal, Neeraj; Sharma, Rashmi; Agarwal, Vijay K.
2006-12-01
The realism of the impact of penetrative solar radiation, an effect we refer to as biological heating, on the upper ocean thermodynamics has been studied using an Ocean General Circulation Model (OGCM). Daily fields of winds, air temperature, specific humidity, net long-wave and shortwave radiation from NCEP were used to force the model. In the control run (cntl-R), diffuse attenuation coefficient (K d) which signifies the visible radiation penetration is parameterized for clear water condition. In the experimental run (exp-R), attenuation coefficient for blue-green wavelength (K d_490) obtained from SeaWiFS sensor was used to determine the penetrative depth of solar radiation. Use of satellite derived K d_490 alters the upper ocean thermodynamics quite significantly. Model simulated parameters sea surface temperature (SST), current and mixed layer depth (MLD) were found to be sensitive to the choice of diffuse attenuation coefficients that limit the penetration of solar radiation into the ocean. The SST cools and MLD deepens in clear water regions (large attenuation depths) due to heat penetration in deeper layers, while the surface gets heated and MLD shoals in regions of high turbidity (low attenuation depths) due to heat trapping.
Time-reverse modelling of acoustic wave propagation in attenuating media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Tieyuan
2014-04-01
Time-reverse modelling (TRM) of acoustic wave propagation has been widely implemented in seismic migration and time-reversal source imaging. The basic assumption of this modelling is that the wave equation is time-invariant in non-attenuating media. In the Earth, attenuation often invalidates this assumption of time-invariance. To overcome this problem, I propose a TRM approach that compensates for attenuation and dispersion effects during the wave propagation in attenuating media. This approach is based on a viscoacoustic wave equation which explicitly separates attenuation and dispersion following a constant-Q model. Compensating for attenuation and dispersion during TRM is achieved by reversing the sign of the attenuation operator coefficient while leaving the counterpart dispersion parameter unchanged in this viscoacoustic wave equation. A low-pass filter is included to avoid amplifying high-frequency noise during TRM. I demonstrate the effects of the filter on the attenuation and the phase velocity by comparing with theoretical solutions in a 1-D Pierre shale homogeneous medium. Three synthetic examples are used to demonstrate the feasibility of attenuation compensation during TRM. The first example uses a 1-D homogeneous model to demonstrate the accuracy of the numerical implementation of the methodology. The second example shows the applicability of source location using a 2-D layering model. The last example uses a 2-D cross-well synthetic experiment to show that the methodology can also be implemented in conjunction with reverse-time migration to image subsurface reflectors. When attenuation compensation is included, I find improved estimation of the source location, the excitation timing of the point source, the magnitude of the focused source wavelet and the reflectivity image of reflectors, particularly for deep structures underneath strongly attenuating zones.
Nonlinear attenuation of S-waves and Love waves within ambient rock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sleep, Norman H.; Erickson, Brittany A.
2014-04-01
obtain scaling relationships for nonlinear attenuation of S-waves and Love waves within sedimentary basins to assist numerical modeling. These relationships constrain the past peak ground velocity (PGV) of strong 3-4 s Love waves from San Andreas events within Greater Los Angeles, as well as the maximum PGV of future waves that can propagate without strong nonlinear attenuation. During each event, the shaking episode cracks the stiff, shallow rock. Over multiple events, this repeated damage in the upper few hundred meters leads to self-organization of the shear modulus. Dynamic strain is PGV divided by phase velocity, and dynamic stress is strain times the shear modulus. The frictional yield stress is proportional to depth times the effective coefficient of friction. At the eventual quasi-steady self-organized state, the shear modulus increases linearly with depth allowing inference of past typical PGV where rock over the damaged depth range barely reaches frictional failure. Still greater future PGV would cause frictional failure throughout the damaged zone, nonlinearly attenuating the wave. Assuming self-organization has taken place, estimated maximum past PGV within Greater Los Angeles Basins is 0.4-2.6 m s-1. The upper part of this range includes regions of accumulating sediments with low S-wave velocity that may have not yet compacted, rather than having been damaged by strong shaking. Published numerical models indicate that strong Love waves from the San Andreas Fault pass through Whittier Narrows. Within this corridor, deep drawdown of the water table from its currently shallow and preindustrial levels would nearly double PGV of Love waves reaching Downtown Los Angeles.
X-Ray Mass Attenuation Coefficient of Silicon: Theory versus Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tran, C. Q.; Chantler, C. T.; Barnea, Z.
2003-06-01
We compare new experimental x-ray total mass attenuation coefficients of silicon obtained with the x-ray extended-range technique (XERT) from 5 to 20keV with theoretical calculations and earlier experimental measurements over a 5 to 50keV energy range. The accuracy of between 0.27% and 0.5% of the XERT data allows us to probe alternate atomic and solid state wave function calculations and to test dominant scattering mechanisms. Discrepancies between experimental results and theoretical computations of the order of 5% are discussed in detail. No single theoretical computation is currently able to reproduce the experimental results over the entire 5 to 50keV energy range investigated.
X-ray mass attenuation coefficient of silicon: theory versus experiment.
Tran, C Q; Chantler, C T; Barnea, Z
2003-06-27
We compare new experimental x-ray total mass attenuation coefficients of silicon obtained with the x-ray extended-range technique (XERT) from 5 to 20 keV with theoretical calculations and earlier experimental measurements over a 5 to 50 keV energy range. The accuracy of between 0.27% and 0.5% of the XERT data allows us to probe alternate atomic and solid state wave function calculations and to test dominant scattering mechanisms. Discrepancies between experimental results and theoretical computations of the order of 5% are discussed in detail. No single theoretical computation is currently able to reproduce the experimental results over the entire 5 to 50 keV energy range investigated. PMID:12857162
Seo, Youngho; Wong, Kenneth H; Hasegawa, Bruce H
2005-12-01
Nuclear medicine tracers using 111In as a radiolabel are increasing in their use, especially in the domain of oncologic imaging. In these applications, it often is critical to have the capability of quantifying radionuclide uptake and being able to relate it to the biological properties of the tumor. However, images from single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be degraded by photon attenuation, photon scattering, and collimator blurring; without compensation for these effects, image quality can be degraded, and accurate and precise quantification is impossible. Although attenuation correction for SPECT is becoming more common, most implementations can only model single energy radionuclides such as 99mTc and 123I. Thus, attenuation correction for 111In is challenging because it emits two photons (171 and 245 keV) at nearly equal rates (90.2% and 94% emission probabilities). In this paper, we present a method of calculating a single "effective" attenuation coefficient for the dual-energy emissions of 111In, and that can be used to correct for photon attenuation in radionuclide images acquired with this radionuclide. Using this methodology, we can derive an effective linear attenuation coefficient Micro(eff) and an effective photon energy E(eff) based on the emission probabilities and linear attenuation coefficients of the 111In photons. This approach allows us to treat the emissions from 111In as a single photon with an effective energy of 210 keV. We obtained emission projection data from a tank filled with a uniform solution of 111In. The projection data were reconstructed using an iterative maximum-likelihood algorithm with no attenuation correction, and with attenuation correction assuming photon energies of 171, 245, and 210 keV (the derived E(eff)). The reconstructed tomographic images demonstrate that the use of no attenuation correction, or correction assuming photon energies of 171 or 245 keV introduces inaccuracies into the reconstructed radioactivity distribution when compared against the effective energy method. In summary, this work provides both a theoretical framework and experimental methodology of attenuation correction for the dual-energy emissions from 111In. Although these results are specific to 111In, the foundation could easily be extended to other multiple-energy isotopes. PMID:16475761
Signature of seismic wave attenuation during fracture network formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnhoorn, Auke; Zhubayev, Alimzhan; Houben, Maartje; Hardebol, Nico; Smeulders, David
2015-04-01
Seismic waves are significantly affected by the presence of fractures and faults. Fractures alter the arrival time of a seismic wave and the amplitude of the seismic wave. Attenuation of a seismic wave is the reduction of wave amplitude due to the presence of e.g. fractures. Attenuation of acoustic compressional P- and shear S-waves have been measured in laboratory studies on different rock types. These studies generally show a decrease in attenuation with an increase in stress. This decrease in attenuation is attributed to progressive crack closure of pre-existing cracks. The stress-dependent decrease in attenuation reported in these studies all occur within the elastic deformation field, i.e. below yield stress levels and thus no additional cracks/micro-fractures have yet been formed. At stress levels just above the yield strength the first fractures start to form. With increasing stress, fractures nucleate, grow and coalesce until a connected network of fractures has developed at which failure of the rock sample occurs. The change in attenuation during the fracturing process however has seldom been investigated. In analogy to fracture closure, where attenuation generally decreases, fracture formation should cause again an increase in attenuation. Here we report an experimental study on shales from Whitby (UK), where s-wave attenuation was measured in the laboratory during an increase in stress towards fracture formation until complete failure of the shale samples. Before yield stress conditions, as expected an increase in stress caused a gradual decrease in attenuation. At the transition from elastic to inelastic deformation behaviour, the first microfractures start to form and attenuation starts to increase again. This reversal in attenuation behaviour could potentially be used as an indicator that failure of a rock mass under stress is imminent (imminence of seismicity). The measured seismic velocities do not depict the transition from elastic to inelastic deformation behavior. After peak stress conditions, a fully connected network of fractures is gradually formed and attenuation of the s-waves starts to be more complex. Changes in attenuation depend here on how individual fractures connect with each other and thereby influence the seismic waves.
Factors That Attenuate the Correlation Coefficient and Its Analogs.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dolenz, Beverly
The correlation coefficient is an integral part of many other statistical techniques (analysis of variance, t-tests, etc.), since all analytic methods are actually correlational (G. V. Glass and K. D. Hopkins, 1984). The correlation coefficient is a statistical summary that represents the degree and direction of relationship between two variables.…
Eddy Diffusion Coefficients due to Instabilities in Internal Gravity Waves
R. R. Hodges Jr.; R. R. Jr
1969-01-01
Internal gravity waves in the upper atmosphere tend to grow in amplitude with increasing height to maintain continuous vertical transport of wave energy. The growth of amplitude of a wave is limited by convective instabilities that must form at the heighwhere the tem- perature oscillation becomes great enough to include a superadiabatic region. This turbulence attenuates the wave by eddy
Seismic wave attenuation and yield determination at regional distances
B. J. Mitchell; O. W. Nuttli; J. K. Xie; H. Al-Shukri; A. Correig
1989-01-01
Work was completed on yield determination at the Soviet test site on Novaya Zemlya. Magnitudes and yields, determined for 30 explosions using Lg amplitudes recorded in northwestern Europe, ranged between 2.5 and 4900 kt, the largest since April 1976 being about 145 kt. Studies were completed on seismic wave attenuation of surface waves at intermediate periods and of Lg waves
Rainfall attenuation of centimeter waves: Comparison of theory and measurement
1965-01-01
Numerical results for attenuation of centimeter waves by rainfall have been computed from J. W. Ryde's formula. These correct, and considerably extend, the previously published Ryde results. Comparison with available measurements suggests that the agreement is not entirely satisfactory; there is a tendency for measured attenuations to exceed the maximum possible levels predicted by the theory.
Ultrasonic Velocity and Attenuation of Longitudinal Waves in Rocks
Michel Auberger; John S. Rinehart
1961-01-01
Hughes' pulse technique for measuring longitudinal velocities has been adapted and extended to measure attenuation of longitudinal waves in the frequency range from 250 to 1000 kc\\/s. Data for velocity and attenuation in eight different rocks (three granites, one porphyry, two sandstones, one limestone, and one marble) are given at eight different frequencies ranging from 250 to 1000 kc\\/s. The
The role of the reflection coefficient in precision measurement of ultrasonic attenuation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Generazio, E. R.
1984-01-01
Ultrasonic attenuation measurements using contact, pulse-echo techniques are sensitive to surface roughness and couplant thickness variations. This can reduce considerable inaccuracies in the measurement of the attenuation coefficient for broadband pulses. Inaccuracies arise from variations in the reflection coefficient at the buffer-couplant-sample interface. The reflection coefficient is examined as a function of the surface roughness and corresponding couplant thickness variations. Interrelations with ultrasonic frequency are illustrated. Reliable attenuation measurements are obtained only when the frequency dependence of the reflection coefficient is incorporated in signal analysis. Data are given for nickel 200 samples and a silicon nitride ceramic bar having surface roughness variations in the 0.3 to 3.0 microns range for signal bandwidths in the 50 to 100 MHz range.
Attenuation of acoustic waves in glacial ice and salt domes
Price, P B
2005-01-01
Two classes of natural solid media (glacial ice and salt domes) are under consideration as media in which to deploy instruments for detection of neutrinos with energy >1e18 eV. Though insensitive to 1e11 to 1e16 eV neutrinos for which observatories (e.g., AMANDA and IceCube) that utilize optical Cherenkov radiation detectors are designed, radio and acoustic methods are suited for searches for the very low fluxes of neutrinos with energies >1017 eV. This is because, due to the very long attenuation lengths of radio and acoustic waves in ice and salt, detection modules can be spaced very far apart. In this paper, I calculate the absorption and scattering coefficients as a function of frequency and grain size for acoustic waves in glacial ice and salt domes and show that experimental measurements on laboratory samples and in glacial ice and salt domes are consistent with theory. For South Pole ice with grain size 0.2 cm at -51 degrees C, scattering lengths are calculated to be 2000 km and 25 km at 10 kHz and 30 ...
Investigation of photon attenuation coefficient of some building materials used in Turkey
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dogan, B.; Altinsoy, N.
2015-03-01
In this study, some building materials regularly used in Turkey, such as concrete, gas concrete, pumice and brick have been investigated in terms of mass attenuation coefficient at different gamma-ray energies. Measurements were carried out by gamma spectrometry containing NaI(Tl) detector. Narrow beam gamma-ray transmission geometry was used for the attenuation measurements. The results are in good agreement with the theoretical calculation of XCOM code.
Han, I; Demir, L
2010-01-01
The total mass attenuation coefficients (mu/rho) for pure Au and Au99Be1, Au88Ge12, Au95Zn5 alloys were measured at 59.5 and 88.0 keV photon energies. The samples were irradiated with 241Am and 109Cd radioactive point source using transmission arrangement. The gamma- rays were counted by a Si(Li) detector with resolution of 160 eV at 5.9 keV. Total atomic and electronic cross-sections (sigmat and sigmae), effective atomic and electron densities (Zeff and Nel) were determined using the obtained mass attenuation coefficients for investigated Au alloys. The theoretical mass attenuation coefficients of each alloy were estimated using mixture rule. PMID:20421703
Wave attenuation in thick graphite\\/epoxy composites
A. K. Mal; Y. Bar-Cohen
1992-01-01
The mechanics of wave attenuation in thick graphite\\/epoxy composites is examined in order to facilitate interpretation of the wave amplitudes recorded in ultrasonic experiments. The values of a small number of parameters are determined through comparison between calculated and measured waveforms for four specimens. The agreement between the measured and calculated waveforms are shown to be excellent in all four
Effect of external magnetic field on attenuation coefficient for magnetic substances.
Kumar Gupta, Manoj; Dhaliwal, A S; Kahlon, K S
2014-10-29
The measurement of attenuation coefficient of some magnetic substances, to include diamagnetic: Cu, Zn, Ag, Te, Au, Pb, and Perspex; paramagnetic: Al, Ti, Mo, Dy, Ho, and Pt and ferromagnetic substances: Fe, Co, Ni, Gd, FeO, NiO, FeS, and Fe2O3, both in the presence and absence of an external magnetic field has been carried out using narrow beam transmission geometry by using gamma ray photons of incident energy 59.54keV from 100mCi, (241)Am point source. It was observed very keenly that the value of linear attenuation coefficient of various substances mentioned above decreased remarkably. It varied in the range of 1-2%, 2-6% and 6-9% for diamagnetic, paramagnetic and ferromagnetic substances respectively in the presence of an external magnetic field. Measured results elucidated it very clearly that linear attenuation coefficient at H=0T, 0.6T and 1.2T continued to decrease with a regular increase of magnetic field. It is also manifested that measurements of linear attenuation coefficient is not affected with the change in thickness of the given substance. Within error limits (1-3%) variations are observed with increases of thickness along with magnetic field. Further to it the obtained results of linear attenuation coefficient without magnetic field (H=0T) were compared with theoretical data tables of FFAST and WinXCOM. It was established that values obtained are well within the experimental errors. To the best of our knowledge no other study in relation to the effect of linear attenuation coefficient in the presence of magnetic field available as precedence. PMID:25464197
Byun, Jong-In; Yun, Ju-Yong
2015-08-01
It is shown that the gamma-ray linear attenuation coefficient of a sample with unknown chemical composition can be determined through a systematic calibration of the correlation between the linear attenuation coefficient, gamma-ray energy and the relative degree of attenuation. For calibration, H2O, MnO2, NaCl, Na2CO3 and (NH4)2SO4 were used as reference materials. Point-like gamma-ray sources with modest activity of approximately 37kBq, along with an HPGe detector, were used in the measurements. A semi-empirical formula was derived to calculate the linear attenuation coefficients as a function of the relative count rate and the gamma-ray energy. The method was applied to the determination of the linear attenuation coefficients for K2CrO4 and SiO2 test samples in the same setup used in calibration. The experimental result agreed well with the ones calculated by elementary data. PMID:25997111
Hirasawa, Takeshi; Fujita, Masanori; Okawa, Shinpei; Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Ishihara, Miya
2013-12-10
A method for quantifying the effective attenuation coefficients of optical absorbers by using the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) to calculate the time-resolved frequency spectra of photoacoustic signals is proposed. Because the coefficients can be quantified according to the relative intensity of the frequency content of the signals, it is unnecessary to determine the fluences. A computational simulation reveals that the time-resolved frequency spectra exhibit better correlation with the coefficients than do power spectra calculated using a Fourier transformation. The CWT-based method was experimentally verified, and the coefficients were quantified with mean square error of 2.0??cm(-1). PMID:24513902
Estimation of wave transmission coefficients for overtopping of impermeable breakwaters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seelig, W. N.
1980-12-01
Methods are presented for estimating coefficients of wave transmission by overtopping for smooth and rough impermeable breakwaters. These techniques can be used for monochromatic or irregular wave conditions and for submerged breakwaters. Example problems are worked to illustrate calculations.
Dispersion and attenuation of acoustic waves in randomly heterogeneous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parra, J. O.; Hackert, C. L.; Ababou, R.; Sablik, M. J.
1999-10-01
We derive the effective displacement relation for acoustic waves in a spatially random heterogeneous one-dimensional medium. This relationship is expressed in terms of parameters ?R and ?A which represent the standard deviations of the randomly varying density ?( x) and the randomly varying Young's modulus ?( x), of the medium. In this way, we build the contributions into the total displacement relationship for the spatially random heterogeneous medium and apply this result to determine the dispersion and attenuation of acoustic waves propagating in the random heterogeneous medium. Attenuation and dispersion of waves propagating in media with randomly varying properties has been the subject of much study. Most of this work has neglected the effects of intrinsic dispersion and attenuation in order to concentrate on the effects of the medium inhomogeneities. We demonstrate how intrinsic attenuation may be easily included in the theoretical development, and explore the combined effects of scattering-based and intrinsic attenuation and dispersion on wave propagation. We apply the solution to model interwell acoustic waves propagating in the Kankakee formation at the Buckhorn Test Site, IL. The modeling results show that the strong dispersion in the frequency range of 500-2000 Hz is due to the reservoir heterogeneity. Alternatively, the velocity dispersion for frequencies greater than 2000 Hz corresponds to the intrinsic properties of the reservoir.
Surface wave attenuation measurement for application to pavement characterization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popovics, John S.; Song, Won-Joon; Achenbach, Jan D.
1998-03-01
There is a need for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques which can effectively determine the extent of damage (cracking) in concrete structures. Non-destructive, one-sided surface wave attenuation measurement is a very sensitive and practical tool for such characterization. A technique for practical determination of frequency-dependent surface wave attenuation is introduced and demonstrated to be sensitive to damage in free concrete slabs. A theoretical model for the attenuation response in undamaged free slabs is introduced and shown to accurately predict experimentally obtained responses in concrete within certain frequency limits. The theoretical model is then used to investigate the practical application of the attenuation technique to concrete pavement NDE in terms of slab depth and subbase conditions. Theoretically obtained data are presented for a variety of pavement types. Based on the presented results of the theoretical model, conclusions concerning practical application of the technique to pavement inspection are given.
Stochastic solution to a time-fractional attenuated wave equation.
Meerschaert, Mark M; Straka, Peter; Zhou, Yuzhen; McGough, Robert J
2012-10-01
The power law wave equation uses two different fractional derivative terms to model wave propagation with power law attenuation. This equation averages complex nonlinear dynamics into a convenient, tractable form with an explicit analytical solution. This paper develops a random walk model to explain the appearance and meaning of the fractional derivative terms in that equation, and discusses an application to medical ultrasound. In the process, a new strictly causal solution to this fractional wave equation is developed. PMID:23258950
Guided wave attenuation in pipes buried in sand
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael JS
2015-03-01
Long-range ultrasonic guided wave testing of pipelines is used routinely for detection of corrosion defects in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipelines that are buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised compared to those achieved for pipelines above ground because of the attenuation of the guided wave, due to energy leaking into the embedding soil. The attenuation characteristics of guided wave propagation in a pipe buried in sand are investigated using a full scale experimental rig. The apparatus consists of an 8"-diameter, 6-meters long steel pipe embedded over 3 meters in a rectangular container filled with sand and fitted with an air-bladder for the application of overburden pressure. Measurements of the attenuation of the T(0,1) and L(0,2) guided wave modes over a range of sand conditions, including loose, compacted, water saturated and drained, are presented. Attenuation values are found to be in the range of 1-5.5 dB/m. The application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation. The attenuation decreases in the fully water-saturated sand, while it increases in drained sand to values comparable with those obtained for the compacted sand. The attenuation behavior of the torsional guided wave mode is found not to be captured by a uniform soil model; comparison with predictions obtained with the Disperse software suggest that this is likely to be due to a layer of sand adhering to the surface of the pipe.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richter, Tom; Wegler, Ulrich
2015-04-01
Modeling of peak ground velocity caused by induced earthquakes requires detailed knowledge about seismic attenuation properties of the subsurface. Especially shear wave attenuation is important, because shear waves usually show the largest amplitude in high frequency seismograms. We report intrinsic and scattering attenuation coefficients of shear waves near three geothermal reservoirs in Germany for frequencies between 2 Hz and 50 Hz. The geothermal plants are located in the sedimentary basins of the upper Rhine graben (Insheim and Landau) and the Molasse basin (Unterhaching). The method optimizes the fit between Green's functions for the acoustic, isotropic radiative transfer theory and observed energy densities of induced earthquakes. The inversion allows the determination of scattering and intrinsic attenuation, site corrections, and spectral source energies for the investigated frequency bands. We performed the inversion at the three sites for events with a magnitude between 0.7 and 2. We determined a transport mean free path of 70 km for Unterhaching. For Landau and Insheim the transport mean free path depends on frequency. It ranges from 2 km (at 2 Hz) to 30 km (at 40 Hz) for Landau and from 9 km to 50 km for Insheim. The quality factor for intrinsic attenuation is constant for frequencies smaller than 10 Hz at all three sites. It is around 100 for Unterhaching and 200 for Landau and Insheim with higher values above 10 Hz.
Richard W. Gould; Robert A. Arnone
1994-01-01
An iterative technique has been developed to improve coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) estimates of upwelled subsurface water radiances (Lu) in Case II waters. Regional relationships between the diffuse attenuation coefficient measured at 490 nm (K490) and Lu measured at 443, 520, and 550 nm were developed using data collected in the northern Gulf of Mexico in April 1993. These
Xiaoju Pan; Richard C. Zimmerman
2010-01-01
The diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) is critical to understand the vertical distribution of underwater downwelling irradiance (Ed). Theoretically Ed is composed of the direct solar beam and the diffuse sky irradiance. Applying the statistical results from Hydrolight radiative transfer simulations, Kd is expressed into a mathematical equation (named as PZ06) integrated from the contribution of direct solar beam and diffuse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehranian, Abolfazl; Zaidi, Habib
2015-06-01
In standard segmentation-based MRI-guided attenuation correction (MRAC) of PET data on hybrid PET/MRI systems, the inter/intra-patient variability of linear attenuation coefficients (LACs) is ignored owing to the assignment of a constant LAC to each tissue class. This can lead to PET quantification errors, especially in the lung regions. In this work, we aim to derive continuous and patient-specific lung LACs from time-of-flight (TOF) PET emission data using the maximum likelihood reconstruction of activity and attenuation (MLAA) algorithm. The MLAA algorithm was constrained for estimation of lung LACs only in the standard 4-class MR attenuation map using Gaussian lung tissue preference and Markov random field smoothness priors. MRAC maps were derived from segmentation of CT images of 19 TOF-PET/CT clinical studies into background air, lung, soft tissue and fat tissue classes, followed by assignment of predefined LACs of 0, 0.0224, 0.0864 and 0.0975?cm?1, respectively. The lung LACs of the resulting attenuation maps were then estimated from emission data using the proposed MLAA algorithm. PET quantification accuracy of MRAC and MLAA methods was evaluated against the reference CT-based AC method in the lungs, lesions located in/near the lungs and neighbouring tissues. The results show that the proposed MLAA algorithm is capable of retrieving lung density gradients and compensate fairly for respiratory-phase mismatch between PET and corresponding attenuation maps. It was found that the mean of the estimated lung LACs generally follow the trend of the reference CT-based attenuation correction (CTAC) method. Quantitative analysis revealed that the MRAC method resulted in average relative errors of???5.2???±???7.1% and???6.1???±???6.7% in the lungs and lesions, respectively. These were reduced by the MLAA algorithm to???0.8???±???6.3% and???3.3???±???4.7%, respectively. In conclusion, we demonstrated the potential and capability of emission-based methods in deriving patient-specific lung LACs to improve the accuracy of attenuation correction in TOF PET/MR imaging, thus paving the way for their adaptation in the clinic.
Mehranian, Abolfazl; Zaidi, Habib
2015-06-21
In standard segmentation-based MRI-guided attenuation correction (MRAC) of PET data on hybrid PET/MRI systems, the inter/intra-patient variability of linear attenuation coefficients (LACs) is ignored owing to the assignment of a constant LAC to each tissue class. This can lead to PET quantification errors, especially in the lung regions. In this work, we aim to derive continuous and patient-specific lung LACs from time-of-flight (TOF) PET emission data using the maximum likelihood reconstruction of activity and attenuation (MLAA) algorithm. The MLAA algorithm was constrained for estimation of lung LACs only in the standard 4-class MR attenuation map using Gaussian lung tissue preference and Markov random field smoothness priors. MRAC maps were derived from segmentation of CT images of 19 TOF-PET/CT clinical studies into background air, lung, soft tissue and fat tissue classes, followed by assignment of predefined LACs of 0, 0.0224, 0.0864 and 0.0975?cm(-1), respectively. The lung LACs of the resulting attenuation maps were then estimated from emission data using the proposed MLAA algorithm. PET quantification accuracy of MRAC and MLAA methods was evaluated against the reference CT-based AC method in the lungs, lesions located in/near the lungs and neighbouring tissues. The results show that the proposed MLAA algorithm is capable of retrieving lung density gradients and compensate fairly for respiratory-phase mismatch between PET and corresponding attenuation maps. It was found that the mean of the estimated lung LACs generally follow the trend of the reference CT-based attenuation correction (CTAC) method. Quantitative analysis revealed that the MRAC method resulted in average relative errors of??-5.2???±???7.1% and??-6.1???±???6.7% in the lungs and lesions, respectively. These were reduced by the MLAA algorithm to??-0.8???±???6.3% and??-3.3???±???4.7%, respectively. In conclusion, we demonstrated the potential and capability of emission-based methods in deriving patient-specific lung LACs to improve the accuracy of attenuation correction in TOF PET/MR imaging, thus paving the way for their adaptation in the clinic. PMID:26047036
Attenuation of acoustic waves in glacial ice and salt domes
P. B. Price
2005-06-27
Two classes of natural solid media (glacial ice and salt domes) are under consideration as media in which to deploy instruments for detection of neutrinos with energy >1e18 eV. Though insensitive to 1e11 to 1e16 eV neutrinos for which observatories (e.g., AMANDA and IceCube) that utilize optical Cherenkov radiation detectors are designed, radio and acoustic methods are suited for searches for the very low fluxes of neutrinos with energies >1017 eV. This is because, due to the very long attenuation lengths of radio and acoustic waves in ice and salt, detection modules can be spaced very far apart. In this paper, I calculate the absorption and scattering coefficients as a function of frequency and grain size for acoustic waves in glacial ice and salt domes and show that experimental measurements on laboratory samples and in glacial ice and salt domes are consistent with theory. For South Pole ice with grain size 0.2 cm at -51 degrees C, scattering lengths are calculated to be 2000 km and 25 km at 10 kHz and 30 kHz, respectively, and the absorption length is calculated to be 9 km at frequencies above 100 Hz. For NaCl (rock salt) with grain size 0.75 cm, scattering lengths are calculated to be 120 km and 1.4 km at 10 kHz and 30 kHz, and absorption lengths are calculated to be 30,000 km and 3300 km at 10 kHz and 30 kHz. Existing measurements are consistent with theory. For ice, absorption is the limiting factor; for salt, scattering is the limiting factor.
Shear-wave attenuation and velocity studies in southeastern Asia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jemberie, Alemayehu Lakew
Models of shear-wave Q (Qmu) have been obtained for southeastern Asia using two methods. The first method inverts attenuation coefficients of the fundamental Rayleigh mode obtained using a standard two-station technique. The second method matches theoretical amplitude spectra for the fundamental and higher-mode Rayleigh waves computed for previously obtained velocity and assumed Qmu models, and earthquakes with known source depths and focal mechanisms, to observed spectra. The latter method provides much better regional coverage than the first and allows us to map lateral variations of Qmu at various levels in the crust and uppermost mantle. For the single-station, multi-mode method, I assumed an Earth model consisting of three layers, layer 1 being 10 km, layer 2 being 20 km, and layer 3 being 30 km in thickness. Qmu in layer 1 achieves lowest values (about 40) in the southern part of the Tibetan Plateau and in the Tarim basin and is highest (about 250) in southeastern China. The Qmu map of layer 2 indicates that the highest Qmu values (about 150) he in the central part of China and in parts of the Sino-Korean platform. The lowest Q mu value (about 50) occurs in Tibet and the Pamir thrust system. Layer 2 exhibits an overall increase in Qmu going from south to north. For layer 3 the resolution of crustal variations in Qmu, is poorer than layers 1 and 2. Available results, however, indicate that Qmu, is highest (about 180) under southern Mongolia and the Tarim basin, somewhat lower (100) beneath the southern portion of the Baikal Rift, and lowest (80) under the Pamir thrust system.
Antoine, David
Diel cycles of the particulate beam attenuation coefficient under varying trophic conditions in the diel variability of the particulate beam attenuation coefficient (cp) were investigated at 4 and 9 m physical and trophic situations. We observed a diel cycle in cp during the winter mixing of the water
Attenuation of weak shock waves along pseudo-perforated walls
A. Sasoh; K. Matsuoka; K. Nakashio; E. Timofeev; K. Takayama; P. Voinovich; T. Saito; S. Hirano; S. Ono; Y. Makino
1998-01-01
. In order to attenuate weak shock waves in ducts, effects of pseudo-perforated walls were investigated. Pseudo-perforated\\u000a walls are defined as wall perforations having a closed cavity behind it. Shock wave diffraction and reflection created by\\u000a these perforations were visualized in a shock tube by using holographic interferometer, and also by numerical simulation.\\u000a Along the pseudo-perforated wall, an incident shock
Shock waves attenuation by granular filters
A Britan; G Ben-Dor; O Igra; H Shapiro
2001-01-01
Proper design of protecting filters mitigates the effect of blast and shock waves and thereby makes such filters effective protection against both accidental and planned explosions. The main goal of the present study was to clarify the filter performance in reducing the loading on structures as well as reducing the strength of the transmitted shock. While most of the granular
Attenuation of sound waves in drill strings
Douglas S. Drumheller
1993-01-01
During drilling of deep wells, digital data are often transmitted from sensors located near the drill bit to the surface. Development of a new communication system with increased data capacity is of paramount importance to the drilling industry. Since steel drill strings are used, transmission of these data by elastic carrier waves traveling within the drill pipe is possible, but
Gravitons to Photons -- attenuation of gravitational waves
Preston Jones; Douglas Singleton
2015-05-19
In this essay we examine the response of an Unruh-DeWitt detector (a quantum two-level system) to a gravitational wave background. The spectrum of the Unruh-Dewitt detector is of the same form as some scattering processes or three body decays such as muon-electron scattering {\\it i.e.} $\\mu ^- + e^- \\rightarrow \
Review of methods to attenuate shock/blast waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Igra, O.; Falcovitz, J.; Houas, L.; Jourdan, G.
2013-04-01
Quick and reliable shock wave attenuation is the goal of every protection facility and therefore it is not surprising that achieving this has drawn much attention during the past hundred years. Different options have been suggested; their usefulness varying from a reasonable protection to the opposite, a shock enhancement. An example for a suggestion for shock mitigation that turned out to be an enhancement of the impinging shock wave was the idea to cover a protected object with a foam layer. While the pressure behind the reflected shock wave from the foam frontal surface was smaller than that recorded in a similar reflection from a rigid wall [25], the pressure on the “protected” surface, attached to the foam's rear-surface, was significantly higher than that recorded in a similar reflection from a bare, rigid wall [11]. In protecting humans and installations from destructive shock and/or blast waves the prime goal is to reduce the wave amplitude and the rate of pressure increase across the wave front. Both measures result in reducing the wave harmful effects. During the past six decades several approaches for achieving the desired protection have been offered in the open literature. We point out in this review that while some of the suggestions offered are practical, others are impractical. In our discussion we focus on recent schemes for shock/blast wave attenuation, characterized by the availability of reliable measurements (notably pressure and optical diagnostics) as well as high-resolution numerical simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moulik, P.; Ekstrom, G.
2011-12-01
A self-consistent radial and lateral description of the Earth's elastic and anelastic heterogeneity has implications for understanding the internal geodynamic processes with their thermal, chemical and compositional contexts. We investigate the extent and amplitude of radial anisotropy and attenuation in the Earth's mantle using observations of eigenfrequencies, quality factors (Q) and splitting functions of free oscillations collected from the literature. We observe that the convergence to a best-fit 1-D shear attenuation model using the Q data requires an iterative framework of recalculating the sensitivity kernels. This non-linearity is due to the dependence of the anelastic kernels on the intrinsic attenuation structure of the reference model in addition to the expected theoretical dependence on the elastic structure. We perform forward modeling of the splitting coefficients while accounting for shear-wave anisotropy (Mochizuki 1986) and using the 3-D anisotropic mantle model S362ANI (Kustowski et al., 2008), which was constrained using surface-wave phase anomalies, long-period waveforms, and body-wave travel times. We use these calculations to investigate the sensitivity of the mode splitting functions to radial anisotropy at different depths in the Earth. The differences in the synthetic predictions of the 2-D splitting functions while including and excluding the anisotropic part of S362ANI are observed to be significant for some modes, indicating that splitting functions can provide useful additional constraints on mantle anisotropy. Corrections to the splitting coefficients are implemented to remove the effects of the lateral heterogeneities in the crust using the spherical harmonic expansion of the different layers and discontinuities in CRUST 2.0 (Bassin et al., 2000). An iterative inversion is being developed using the eigenfrequencies and quality factors as constraints on the spherically averaged radial (1-D) elastic and attenuation structure and the splitting coefficients as additional constraints on the lateral (3-D) variations in elastic structure.
Bubbles attenuate elastic waves at seismic frequencies: First experimental evidence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tisato, Nicola; Quintal, Beatriz; Chapman, Samuel; Podladchikov, Yury; Burg, Jean-Pierre
2015-05-01
The migration of gases from deep to shallow reservoirs can cause damageable events. For instance, some gases can pollute the biosphere or trigger explosions and eruptions. Seismic tomography may be employed to map the accumulation of subsurface bubble-bearing fluids to help mitigating such hazards. Nevertheless, how gas bubbles modify seismic waves is still unclear. We show that saturated rocks strongly attenuate seismic waves when gas bubbles occupy part of the pore space. Laboratory measurements of elastic wave attenuation at frequencies <100 Hz are modeled with a dynamic gas dissolution theory demonstrating that the observed frequency-dependent attenuation is caused by wave-induced-gas-exsolution-dissolution (WIGED). This result is incorporated into a numerical model simulating the propagation of seismic waves in a subsurface domain containing CO2-gas bubbles. This simulation shows that WIGED can significantly modify the wavefield and illustrates how accounting for this physical mechanism can potentially improve the monitoring and surveying of gas bubble-bearing fluids in the subsurface.
Body Wave Crustal Attenuation Characteristics in the Garhwal Himalaya, India
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Negi, Sanjay S.; Paul, Ajay; Joshi, Anand; Kamal
2015-06-01
We estimate frequency-dependent attenuation of P and S waves in Garhwal Himalaya using the extended coda normalization method for the central frequencies 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 16 Hz, with earthquake hypocentral distance ranging from 27 to 200 km. Forty well-located local earthquake waveforms were used to study the seismic attenuation characteristics of the Garhwal Himalaya, India, as recorded by eight stations operated by Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun, India, from 2007 to 2012. We find frequency-dependent P and S wave quality factors as defined by the relations Q P = 56 ± 8 f 0.91±0.002 and Q S = 151 ± 8 f 0.84±0.002 by fitting a power-law frequency dependence model for the estimated values over the whole region. Both the Q P and Q S values indicate strong attenuation in the crust of Garhwal Himalaya. The ratio of Q S/ Q P > 1 obtained for the entire analyzed frequency range suggests that the scattering loss is due to a random and high degree of heterogeneities in the earth medium, playing an important role in seismic wave attenuation in the Himalayan crust.
Hosten, Bernard; Moreau, Ludovic; Castaings, Michel
2007-06-01
The paper presents a Fourier transform-based signal processing procedure for quantifying the reflection and transmission coefficients and mode conversion of guided waves diffracted by defects in plates made of viscoelastic materials. The case of the S(0) Lamb wave mode incident on a notch in a Perspex plate is considered. The procedure is applied to numerical data produced by a finite element code that simulates the propagation of attenuated guided modes and their diffraction by the notch, including mode conversion. Its validity and precision are checked by the way of the energy balance computation and by comparison with results obtained using an orthogonality relation-based processing method. PMID:17552692
Saxby Brown; Dale L. Bailey; Kathy Willowson; Clive Baldock
2008-01-01
This study has investigated the relationship between linear attenuation coefficients (?) and Hounsfield units (HUs) for six materials covering the range of values found clinically. Narrow-beam ? values were measured by performing radionuclide transmission scans using 99mTc, 123I, 131I, 201Tl and 111In. The ? values were compared to published data. The relationships between ? and HU were determined. These relationships
Diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance: An evaluation of remote sensing methods
Zhong-Ping Lee; Miroslaw Darecki; Kendall L. Carder; Curtiss O. Davis; Dariusz Stramski; W. Joseph Rhea
2005-01-01
The propagation of downwelling irradiance at wavelength ? from surface to a depth (z) in the ocean is governed by the diffuse attenuation coefficient, $\\\\bar{K}_{d}$(?). There are two standard methods for the derivation of $\\\\bar{K}_{d}$(?) in remote sensing, which both are based on empirical relationships involving the blue-to-green ratio of ocean color. Recently, a semianalytical method to derive $\\\\bar{K}_{d}$(?) from
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferreira, C. C.; Ximenes, R. E.; Garcia, C. A. B.; Vieira, J. W.; Maia, A. F.
2010-11-01
To study the doses received by patient submitted to ionizing radiation, several materials are used to simulate the human tissue and organs. The total mass attenuation coefficient is a reasonable way for evaluating the usage in dosimetry of these materials. The total mass attenuation coefficient is determined by photon energy and constituent elements of the material. Currently, the human phantoms are composed by a unique material that presents characteristics similar to the mean proprieties of the different tissues within the region. Therefore, the phantoms are usually homogeneous and filled with a material similar to soft tissue. We studied ten materials used as soft tissue-simulating. These materials were named: bolus, nylon®, orange articulation wax, red articulation wax, PMMA, modelling clay, bee wax, paraffin 1, paraffin 2 and pitch. The objective of this study was to verify the best material to simulate the human cerebral tissue. We determined the elementary composition, mass density and, therefore, calculated the total mass attenuation coefficient of each material. The results were compared to the values established by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements - ICRU, report n° 44, and by the International Commission on Radiation Protection - ICRP, report n° 89, to determine the best material for this energy interval. These results indicate that new head phantoms can be constructed with nylon®.
Panin, V Y; Aykac, M; Casey, M E
2013-06-01
The simultaneous PET data reconstruction of emission activity and attenuation coefficient distribution is presented, where the attenuation image is constrained by exploiting an external transmission source. Data are acquired in time-of-flight (TOF) mode, allowing in principle for separation of emission and transmission data. Nevertheless, here all data are reconstructed at once, eliminating the need to trace the position of the transmission source in sinogram space. Contamination of emission data by the transmission source and vice versa is naturally modeled. Attenuated emission activity data also provide additional information about object attenuation coefficient values. The algorithm alternates between attenuation and emission activity image updates. We also proposed a method of estimation of spatial scatter distribution from the transmission source by incorporating knowledge about the expected range of attenuation map values. The reconstruction of experimental data from the Siemens mCT scanner suggests that simultaneous reconstruction improves attenuation map image quality, as compared to when data are separated. In the presented example, the attenuation map image noise was reduced and non-uniformity artifacts that occurred due to scatter estimation were suppressed. On the other hand, the use of transmission data stabilizes attenuation coefficient distribution reconstruction from TOF emission data alone. The example of improving emission images by refining a CT-based patient attenuation map is presented, revealing potential benefits of simultaneous CT and PET data reconstruction. PMID:23648397
Attenuation of Coda Waves in the Saurashtra Region, Gujarat (India)
Babita Sharma; Dinesh Kumar; S. S. Teotia; B. K. Rastogi; Arun K. Gupta; Srichand Prajapati
2011-01-01
The attenuation characteristics based on coda waves of two areas—Jamnagar and Junagarh of Saurashtra, Gujarat (India)—have\\u000a been investigated in the present study. The frequency dependent relationships have been developed for both the areas using\\u000a single back scattering model. The broadband waveforms of the vertical components of 33 earthquakes (Mw 1.5–3.5) recorded at\\u000a six stations of the Jamnagar area, and broadband
Seismic wave attenuation and dispersion in thin layer sequences
Edwards, Clifford Murray
1975-01-01
be attributed to wave propagation through cyclic sequences consisting of thin layers with no absorption. iv Multiples tend to disperse the seismogram in the time domain, In frequency bands in which dispersion is pronounced, notches appear in the amplitude... Truncation 22 Group Velocities The Notch Attenuation Models Investigated Equal Thickness Layers Models With Two Layer Thicknesses 'Stratified System Between Half Spaces Distribution of Layer Thicknesses With Only Two Veloci. ties Conclusions...
Shock wave attenuation by perforated plates with various hole sizes
C. Kingery; R. Pearson; G. Coulter
1977-01-01
Results are presented for a set of experiments designed to determine the attenuation of shock waves passing through perforated plates as a function of peak overpressure and hole size for a given percentage of plate area vented. The venting hole size was varied from 1\\/8 inch (0.32 cm) to 2-13\\/16 inches (7.14 cm) as the vented area was varied from
Wave attenuation over coastal salt marshes under storm surge conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Möller, Iris; Kudella, Matthias; Rupprecht, Franziska; Spencer, Tom; Paul, Maike; van Wesenbeeck, Bregje K.; Wolters, Guido; Jensen, Kai; Bouma, Tjeerd J.; Miranda-Lange, Martin; Schimmels, Stefan
2014-10-01
Coastal communities around the world face an increasing risk from flooding as a result of rising sea level, increasing storminess and land subsidence. Salt marshes can act as natural buffer zones, providing protection from waves during storms. However, the effectiveness of marshes in protecting the coastline during extreme events when water levels are at a maximum and waves are highest is poorly understood. Here we experimentally assess wave dissipation under storm surge conditions in a 300-metre-long wave flume tank that contains a transplanted section of natural salt marsh. We find that the presence of marsh vegetation causes considerable wave attenuation, even when water levels and waves are highest. From a comparison with experiments without vegetation, we estimate that up to 60% of observed wave reduction is attributed to vegetation. We also find that although waves progressively flatten and break vegetation stems and thereby reduce dissipation, the marsh substrate remained stable and resistant to surface erosion under all conditions. The effectiveness of storm wave dissipation and the resilience of tidal marshes even at extreme conditions suggest that salt marsh ecosystems can be a valuable component of coastal protection schemes.
A heterogeneous nonlinear attenuating full-wave model of ultrasound.
Pinton, Gianmarco F; Dahl, Jeremy; Rosenzweig, Stephen; Trahey, Gregg E
2009-03-01
A full-wave equation that describes nonlinear propagation in a heterogeneous attenuating medium is solved numerically with finite differences in the time domain (FDTD). Three-dimensional solutions of the equation are verified with water tank measurements of a commercial diagnostic ultrasound transducer and are shown to be in excellent agreement in terms of the fundamental and harmonic acoustic fields and the power spectrum at the focus. The linear and nonlinear components of the algorithm are also verified independently. In the linear nonattenuating regime solutions match results from Field II, a well established software package used in transducer modeling, to within 0.3 dB. Nonlinear plane wave propagation is shown to closely match results from the Galerkin method up to 4 times the fundamental frequency. In addition to thermoviscous attenuation we present a numerical solution of the relaxation attenuation laws that allows modeling of arbitrary frequency dependent attenuation, such as that observed in tissue. A perfectly matched layer (PML) is implemented at the boundaries with a numerical implementation that allows the PML to be used with high-order discretizations. A -78 dB reduction in the reflected amplitude is demonstrated. The numerical algorithm is used to simulate a diagnostic ultrasound pulse propagating through a histologically measured representation of human abdominal wall with spatial variation in the speed of sound, attenuation, nonlinearity, and density. An ultrasound image is created in silico using the same physical and algorithmic process used in an ultrasound scanner: a series of pulses are transmitted through heterogeneous scattering tissue and the received echoes are used in a delay-and-sum beam-forming algorithm to generate a images. The resulting harmonic image exhibits characteristic improvement in lesion boundary definition and contrast when compared with the fundamental image. We demonstrate a mechanism of harmonic image quality improvement by showing that the harmonic point spread function is less sensitive to reverberation clutter. PMID:19411208
Attenuation of shock waves in copper and stainless steel
Harvey, W.B.
1986-06-01
By using shock pins, data were gathered on the trajectories of shock waves in stainless steel (SS-304L) and oxygen-free-high-conductivity copper (OFHC-Cu). Shock pressures were generated in these materials by impacting the appropriate target with thin (approx.1.5 mm) flying plates. The flying plates in these experiments were accelerated to high velocities (approx.4 km/s) by high explosives. Six experiments were conducted, three using SS-304L as the target material and three experiments using OFHC-Cu as the target material. Peak shock pressures generated in the steel experiments were approximately 109, 130, and 147 GPa and in the copper experiments, the peak shock pressures were approximately 111, 132, and 143 GPa. In each experiment, an attenuation of the shock wave by a following release wave was clearly observed. An extensive effort using two characteristic codes (described in this work) to theoretically calculate the attenuation of the shock waves was made. The efficacy of several different constitutive equations to successfully model the experiments was studied by comparing the calculated shock trajectories to the experimental data. Based on such comparisons, the conclusion can be drawn that OFHC-Cu enters a melt phase at about 130 GPa on the principal Hugoniot. There was no sign of phase changes in the stainless-steel experiments. In order to match the observed attenuation of the shock waves in the SS-304L experiments, it was necessary to include strength effects in the calculations. It was found that the values for the parameters in the strength equations were dependent on the equation of state used in the modeling of the experiments. 66 refs., 194 figs., 77 tabs.
?brahim Türkmen; Yüksel Özdemir; Murat Kurudirek; Faruk Demir; Önder Simsek; Ramazan Demirbo?a
2008-01-01
This paper presents the radiation attenuation coefficients expressed as mass attenuation coefficients for Portland cement, zeolite, blast furnace slag, silica fume and their mixed types in function of the Photon energy over the energy range of 1keV to 2MeV. It was observed that different percentages of constituents in cement and cement mixed with different additives such as zeolite, silica fume
Analytic expressions for ULF wave radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients
Ozeke, Louis G; Mann, Ian R; Murphy, Kyle R; Jonathan Rae, I; Milling, David K
2014-01-01
We present analytic expressions for ULF wave-derived radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients, as a function of L and Kp, which can easily be incorporated into global radiation belt transport models. The diffusion coefficients are derived from statistical representations of ULF wave power, electric field power mapped from ground magnetometer data, and compressional magnetic field power from in situ measurements. We show that the overall electric and magnetic diffusion coefficients are to a good approximation both independent of energy. We present example 1-D radial diffusion results from simulations driven by CRRES-observed time-dependent energy spectra at the outer boundary, under the action of radial diffusion driven by the new ULF wave radial diffusion coefficients and with empirical chorus wave loss terms (as a function of energy, Kp and L). There is excellent agreement between the differential flux produced by the 1-D, Kp-driven, radial diffusion model and CRRES observations of differential electron flux at 0.976 MeV—even though the model does not include the effects of local internal acceleration sources. Our results highlight not only the importance of correct specification of radial diffusion coefficients for developing accurate models but also show significant promise for belt specification based on relatively simple models driven by solar wind parameters such as solar wind speed or geomagnetic indices such as Kp. Key Points Analytic expressions for the radial diffusion coefficients are presented The coefficients do not dependent on energy or wave m value The electric field diffusion coefficient dominates over the magnetic
Zhang, Siyuan; Wan, Mingxi; Zhong, Hui; Xu, Cheng; Liao, Zhenzhong; Liu, Huanqing; Wang, Supin
2009-11-01
This paper simultaneously investigated the transient characteristics of integrated backscatter (IBS), attenuation coefficient and bubble activities as time traces before, during and after HIFU treatment, with different HIFU parameters (acoustic power and duty cycle) in both transparent tissue-mimicking phantoms and freshly excised bovine livers. These dynamic changes of acoustic parameters and bubble activities were correlated with the visualization of lesion development selected from photos, conventional B-mode ultrasound images and differential IBS images over the whole procedure of HIFU treatment. Two-dimensional radiofrequency (RF) data were acquired by a modified diagnostic ultrasound scanner to estimate the changes of mean IBS and attenuation coefficient averaged in the lesion region, and to construct the differential IBS images and B-mode ultrasound images simultaneously. Bubble activities over the whole procedure of HIFU treatment were investigated by the passive cavitation detection (PCD) method and the changes in subharmonic and broadband noise were correlated with the transient characteristics of IBS and attenuation coefficient. When HIFU was switched on, IBS and attenuation coefficient increased with the appearance of bubble clouds in the B-mode and differential IBS image. At the same time, the level of subharmonic and broadband noise rose abruptly. Then, there was an initial decrease in the attenuation coefficient, followed by an increase when at lower HIFU power. As the lesion appeared, IBS and attenuation coefficient both increased rapidly to a value twice that of normal. Then the changes in IBS and attenuation coefficient showed more complex patterns, but still showed a slower trend of increases with lesion development. Violent bubble activities were visible in the gel and were evident as strongly echogenic regions in the differential IBS images and B-mode images simultaneously. This was detected by a dramatic high level of subharmonic and broadband noise at the same time. These bubble activities caused fluctuations in IBS and attenuation coefficient during HIFU treatment. After HIFU, IBS and attenuation coefficient decreased gradually accompanied by the fadeout of bright hyperechoic spot in the B-mode and differential IBS image, but were still higher than normal when they were stable. The increases of IBS and attenuation coefficient were greater when using higher acoustic power or a higher duty cycle of the therapeutic emission. These experiments indicated that the bubble activities had the dominant effects on the transient characteristics of IBS and attenuation. This should be taken into consideration when using the dynamic acoustic-property changes for the potentially real-time monitoring imaging of HIFU treatment. PMID:19716225
Seismic Attenuation Technology for the Advanced Virgo Gravitational Wave Detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beker, M. G.; Blom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Bulten, H. J.; Hennes, E.; Rabeling, D. S.
The current interferometric gravitational wave detectors are being upgraded to what are termed 'second generation' devices. Sensitivities will be increased by an order of magnitude and these new instruments are expected to uncover the ?eld of gravitational astronomy. A main challenge in this endeavor is the mitigation of noise induced by seismic motion. Detailed studies with Virgo show that seismic noise can be reinjected into the dark fringe signal. For example, laser beam jitter and backscattered light limit the sensitivity of the interferometer. Here, we focus on seismic attenuators based on compact inverted pendulums in combination with geometric anti-prings to obtain 40 dB of attenuation above 4 Hz in six degrees of freedom. Low frequency resonances (< 0.5 Hz) are damped by using a control system based on input from LVDTs and geophones. Such systems are under development for the seismic attenuation of optical benches operated both in air and vacuum. The design and realization of the seismic attenuation system for the Virgo external injection bench, including its control scheme, will be discussed and stand-alone performance presented.
Louisnard, O
2012-01-01
The bubbles involved in sonochemistry and other applications of cavitation oscillate inertially. A correct estimation of the wave attenuation in such bubbly media requires a realistic estimation of the power dissipated by the oscillation of each bubble, by thermal diffusion in the gas and viscous friction in the liquid. Both quantities and calculated numerically for a single inertial bubble driven at 20 kHz, and are found to be several orders of magnitude larger than the linear prediction. Viscous dissipation is found to be the predominant cause of energy loss for bubbles small enough. Then, the classical nonlinear Caflish equations describing the propagation of acoustic waves in a bubbly liquid are recast and simplified conveniently. The main harmonic part of the sound field is found to fulfill a nonlinear Helmholtz equation, where the imaginary part of the squared wave number is directly correlated with the energy lost by a single bubble. For low acoustic driving, linear theory is recovered, but for larger drivings, namely above the Blake threshold, the attenuation coefficient is found to be more than 3 orders of magnitude larger then the linear prediction. A huge attenuation of the wave is thus expected in regions where inertial bubbles are present, which is confirmed by numerical simulations of the nonlinear Helmholtz equation in a 1D standing wave configuration. The expected strong attenuation is not only observed but furthermore, the examination of the phase between the pressure field and its gradient clearly demonstrates that a traveling wave appears in the medium. PMID:21764348
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Önder, P.; Tur?ucu, A.; Demir, D.; Gürol, A.
2012-12-01
Mass attenuation coefficient, ?m , effective atomic number, Zeff, and effective electron density, Nel, were determined experimentally and theoretically for some thermoluminescent dosimetric (TLD) compounds such as MgSO4, CdSO4, Al2O3, Mg2SiO4, ZnSO4, CaSO4, CaF2, NaSO4, Na4P2O7, Ca5F(PO4)3, SiO2, CaCO3 and BaSO4 at 8.04, 8.91, 13.37, 14.97, 17.44, 19.63, 22.10, 24.90, 30.82, 32.06, 35.40, 36.39, 37.26, 43.74, 44.48, 50.38, 51.70, 53.16, 80.99, 276.40, 302.85, 356.01, 383.85 and 661.66 keV photon energies by using an HPGe detector with a resolution of 182 eV at 5.9 keV. The theoretical mass attenuation coefficients were estimated using mixture rule. The calculated values were compared with the experimental values for all compounds. Good agreement has been observed between experimental and theoretical values within experimental uncertainties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kore, Prashant S.; Pawar, Pravina P.
2014-05-01
The mass attenuation coefficients of some amino acids, such as DL-aspartic acid-LR(C4H7NO4), L-glutamine (C4H10N2O3), creatine monohydrate LR(C4H9N3O2H2O), creatinine hydrochloride (C4H7N3O·HCl) L-asparagine monohydrate(C4H9N3O2H2O), L-methionine LR(C5H11NO2S), were measured at 122, 356, 511, 662, 1170, 1275 and 1330 keV photon energies using a well-collimated narrow beam good geometry set-up. The gamma-rays were detected using NaI (Tl) scintillation detection system with a resolution of 0.101785 at 662 keV. The attenuation coefficient data were then used to obtain the effective atomic numbers (Zeff), and effective electron densities (Neff) of amino acids. It was observed that the effective atomic number (Zeff) and effective electron densities (Neff) initially decrease and tend to be almost constant as a function of gamma-ray energy. Zeff and Neff experimental values showed good agreement with the theoretical values with less than 1% error for amino acids.
Attenuation of shock waves propagating in polyurethane foams
K. Kitagawa; M. Yasuhara; K. Takayama
2006-01-01
Shock wave attenuation in polyurethane foams is investigated experimentally and numerically. This study is a part of research\\u000a project regarding shock propagation in polyurethane foams with high-porosities\\u000a $$\\\\phi_{g}$$ = 0.951 ~ 0.977 and low densities of ?c = 27.6 ~55.8 kg\\/m3. Sixty Millimeter long cylindrical foams with various cell numbers and foam insertion condition were installed in a horizontal\\u000a shock tube
Wave attenuation over coastal salt marshes under storm surge conditions
Möller, Iris; Kudella, Matthias; Rupprecht, Franziska; Spencer, Tom; Paul, Maike; van Wesenbeeck, Bregje K.; Wolters, Guido; Jensen, Kai; Bouma, Tjeerd J.; Miranda-Lange, Martin; Schimmels, Stefan
2014-09-29
requirements11) perspectives. This has resulted in a re-evaluation of coastal flood and erosion risk 35 reduction methods5. Natural coastal landforms, including sand dunes, mudflats and salt marshes, are 36 now widely recognised as potential barriers to wave... dissipation by vegetated beds commonly rely on knowledge of the drag coefficient 87 CD incorporated into a friction factor that takes account of vegetation stem density, height, and 88 diameter. The complex nature of salt marsh vegetation precludes the a...
Seismic wave attenuation and yield determination at regional distances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitchell, B. J.; Nuttli, O. W.; Xie, J. K.; Al-Shukri, H.; Correig, A.
1989-05-01
Work was completed on yield determination at the Soviet test site on Novaya Zemlya. Magnitudes and yields, determined for 30 explosions using Lg amplitudes recorded in northwestern Europe, ranged between 2.5 and 4900 kt, the largest since April 1976 being about 145 kt. Studies were completed on seismic wave attenuation of surface waves at intermediate periods and of Lg waves at 1 Hz in several regions of the world. Limits were determined for the degree of frequency dependence of Q sub beta which can occur in the crust in stable and tectonically active regions. A stochastic convolution model was proposed for Lg coda at distances greater than 200 km which considers the effects of dispersion scattering and mode conversions at those distances. A back projection tomographic method was developed to regionalize large scale lateral variations of coda Q for Lg waves which traverse long continental paths. A seismically active region in the New Madrid seismic zone was found to be characterized by lower than normal Q values. In the western United States it was found that Q values in the upper mantle vary laterally, becoming smaller from east to west. Crust of the Basin and Range province has a low-Q upper crust overlying a lower crust with higher Q values.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lo, WeiCheng; Lee, JheWei; Lee, ChengHaw
2015-04-01
A central issue in the theoretical treatment of a multiphase system is the proper mathematical description of momentum transfer across fluid-solid and fluid-fluid interfaces. Although recent studies have advanced our knowledge on modeling the coupling behavior between a porous framework and the fluids permeating it, the effect of viscous resistance caused by two-fluid flow on elastic wave behavior in unsaturated porous media still remains unaddressed. In the present study, we generalize the theory of dynamic poroelasticity to incorporate viscous cross coupling arising from the velocity difference between two adjacent fluids for examining the dynamic behavior of fluid flow in deformable porous media related to harmonic wave perturbation. The corresponding dispersion relations that characterize three compressional waves and one shear wave are precisely formulated, with the coefficients featuring all elasticity, inertial coupling, and viscous coupling parameters, for describing how wave number changes as excitation frequency is stipulated. To evaluate quantitatively this as-yet unknown effect, numerical simulations are implemented to solve the dispersion relations for Columbia fine sandy loam bearing an oil-water mixture with respect to three representative wave excitation frequencies. Our results show that the phase speed and attenuation coefficient of the third compressional wave which has the smallest speed is strongly sensitive to the presence of viscous cross coupling, as expected for this wave being attributed primarily to the out-of-phase motion of the two pore fluids. Viscous cross coupling also exerts an impact on the attenuation coefficient of the shear wave and the first compressional wave whose speed is greatest, which exhibits two opposite trends at different ranges of low and high water contents. A sensitivity analysis is further conducted to provide information on the importance of the coupling parameter, revealing that the effect becomes more significant as the coupling is stronger.
Ultrasonic Attenuation in Lanthanum Monochalcogenides
Raja Ram Yadav; Devraj Singh
2001-01-01
Ultrasonic attenuation due to phonon-phonon interaction and thermoelastic relaxation are studied in Lanthanum Monochalcogenides in direction at different higher temperatures. For evaluation of ultrasonic absorption coefficients the second and third order elastic constants (SOEC) and (TOEC) are also calculated. Shear wave attenuation shows maximum along propagation direction with polarized along and the attenuation increases at higher temperatures. Thermo-elastic loss is
Martinho Junior, A C; Freitas, A Z; Raele, M P; Santin, S P; Soares, F A N; Herson, M R; Mathor, M B
2015-03-01
As banked human tissues are not widely available, the development of new non-destructive and contactless techniques to evaluate the quality of allografts before distribution for transplantation is very important. Also, tissues will be processed accordingly to standard procedures and to minimize disease transmission most tissue banks will include a decontamination or sterilization step such as ionizing radiation. In this work, we present a new method to evaluate the internal structure of frozen or glycerol-processed human cartilages, submitted to various dosis of irradiation, using the total optical attenuation coefficient retrieved from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. Our results show a close relationship between tensile properties and the total optical attenuation coefficient of cartilages. Therefore, OCT associated with the total optical attenuation coefficient open a new window to evaluate quantitatively biological changes in processed tissues. PMID:24322969
Martinho, A C; Freitas, A Z; Raele, M P; Santin, S P; Soares, F A N; Herson, M R; Mathor, M B
2014-09-01
As banked human tissues are not widely available, the development of new non-destructive and contactless techniques to evaluate the quality of allografts before distribution for transplantation is very important. Also, tissues will be processed accordingly to standard procedures and to minimize disease transmission most tissue banks will include a decontamination or sterilization step such as ionizing radiation. In this work, we present a new method to evaluate the internal structure of frozen or glycerol processed human cartilages, submitted to various dosis of irradiation, using the total optical attenuation coefficient retrieved from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. Our results show a close relationship between tensile properties and the total optical attenuation coefficient of cartilages. Therefore, OCT associated with the total optical attenuation coefficient open a new window to evaluate quantitatively biological changes in processed tissues. PMID:23887800
Lg waves attenuation studies over the Iranian Plateau and Zagros
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaviani, A.; Sandvol, E. A.; Rumpker, G.; Ku, W.; Gok, R.
2012-12-01
Waveforms from regional events collected over the last 15 years by the permanent seismological networks and temporary deployments deployed within the Iranian plateau provide a unique and unprecedented opportunity to investigate the crustal and mantle attenuation characteristics by analysis of the regional phases including Lg and Pg waves. We have investigated the crustal attenuation using Lg waveforms available from 305 stations consisting of 101 permanent and 204 temporary stations. This study is performed within the framework of a larger project aimed at developing high-resolution seismic attenuation models for the Iranian plateau and the Zagros mountains using different data and approaches. We have combined the Iranian data set with data from numerous networks across Turkey, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Syria, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. This combination provides us with waveforms from over 550 stations spanning most of the Northern Middle East. Simultaneous inversion of the Lg Q values calculated using two-station paths gives us a model of Lg Q that extends from the western Anatolian plate to the eastern edge of the Iranian plateau. Prior studies have suggested strong complexity in the crustal and uppermost mantle attenuation structure beneath much of the Iranian plateau and the surrounding regions. Lg waves propagating over different paths in this region show strong variations in amplitude and frequency content due to this very complex structure. We have created a frequency dependent Lg Q model that covers most of the Iranian plateau using instrument corrected two station method that eliminates the contributions from the source. Our model maps Lg Q around 200 for most part of the central Iranian plateau and Alborz mountains whereas it is lower than 150 for the western Anatolian plateau. Relatively high Q values (>300) are observed in the Zagros belt that abruptly changes across the Zagros suture. We have also found unexpected results, including a high Q zone that surrounds the Caspian Sea. We argue that it originates from energy that is bending around the south Caspian Sea oceanic crust as well as efficient Lg propagation through the Alborz mountain crust.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hummel, Johann; Semturs, Friedrich; Menhart, Susanne; Figl, Michael
2010-04-01
According to the 'European protocol for the quality control of the physical and technical aspects of mammography screening' (EPQC) image quality digital mammography units has to be evaluated at different breast thicknesses. At the standard thickness of 50 mm polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) image quality is determined by the analysis of CDMAM contrast detail phantom images where threshold contrasts are calculated for different gold disc diameters. To extend these results to other breast thicknesses contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) and threshold contrast (TC) visibilities have to be calculated for all required thicknesses. To calculate the latter the mass attenuation coefficient (MAC) of gold has to be known for all possible beam qualities in the tube voltage range between 26 and 32 kV. In this paper we first determined the threshold contrast visibility using the CDMAM phantom with the same beam quality at different current-time products (mAs). We can derive from Rose theory that CNR • CT • ? = const, where ? is the diameter of the gold cylinder. From this the corresponding attenuation coefficients can be calculated. This procedure was repeated for four different beam qualities (Mo/Mo 27kV, Rh/Rh 29kV, Rh/Rh 31 kV, and W/Rh 29 kV)). Next, we measured the aluminium half value layer (HVL) of all x-ray spectra relevant for mammography. Using a first order Taylor expansion of MAC as a function of HVL, all other desired MAC can be calculated. The MAC as a function of the HVL was derived to MAChvl = -286.97 * hvl+186.03 with R2 = 0.997, where MAChvl indicates the MAC for all specific x-ray spectrum defined by its aluminium half value layer. Based on this function all necessary MACs needed for quality assurance (QA) were calculated. The results were in good agreement with the data found in the protocol.
Local energy decay for linear wave equations with variable coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ikehata, Ryo
2005-06-01
A uniform local energy decay result is derived to the linear wave equation with spatial variable coefficients. We deal with this equation in an exterior domain with a star-shaped complement. Our advantage is that we do not assume any compactness of the support on the initial data, and its proof is quite simple. This generalizes a previous famous result due to Morawetz [The decay of solutions of the exterior initial-boundary value problem for the wave equation, Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 14 (1961) 561-568]. In order to prove local energy decay, we mainly apply two types of ideas due to Ikehata-Matsuyama [L2-behaviour of solutions to the linear heat and wave equations in exterior domains, Sci. Math. Japon. 55 (2002) 33-42] and Todorova-Yordanov [Critical exponent for a nonlinear wave equation with damping, J. Differential Equations 174 (2001) 464-489].
Shear wave speed and attenuation in water-saturated glass beads and sand
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Shear wave speed and attenuation in water-saturated glass beads and sand N. P. Chotiros and M. J dependence of shear wave attenuation in water-saturated glass beads and sand contains distinguishable, in the frequency band from 200 Hz to 2 kHz, indicated that the constant-Q model may be applicable to dry sand
Application of sound-absorbent plastic to weak-shock-wave attenuators
Katsuhisa Ootsuta; Kei Matsuoka; Akihiro Sasoh; Kazuyoshi Takayama
1998-01-01
A device for attenuating weak shock waves propagating in a duct has been developed utilizing sound-absorbent plastic which is usually used for attenuating sound waves. The device has a tube made of the sound-absorbent plastic installed coaxially to a surrounding metal tube with a clearance between them. The clearance acts as an air layer to enhance the performance of the
Attenuation of capillary and gravity waves at sea by monomolecular organic surface films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hühnerfuss, Heinrich; Alpers, Werner; Garrett, William D.; Lange, Philipp A.; Stolte, Siegfried
1983-11-01
During the MARSEN 79 experiment, attenuation of capillary and gravity water waves by two oleyl alcohol and one methyl oleate surface films (`slicks') was investigated. A slight influence of an oleyl alcohol slick occurs at frequencies between 0.5 Hz and 0.7 Hz and above 0.7 Hz (wavelength L = 3.2 m) wave attenuation becomes significant. A methyl oleate slick causes only a slight wave damping in the frequency range ƒ<5 Hz (L>6.7 cm). In the capillary wave range ƒ?14 Hz the wave-damping characteristics for the two surface film substances are comparable. In the high-frequency capillary wave range ƒ>20 Hz, however, methyl oleate surface films act more strongly on the wave field, as was demonstrated by additional wind-wave tunnel experiments. The different wave attenuation characteristics of these two surface active compounds are attributed to different interaction between their hydrophilic part and the adjacent water layer.
Chih-Chung Huang; Ruimin Chen; Po-Hsiang Tsui; Qifa Zhou; Mark S. Humayun; K. Kirk Shung
2009-01-01
A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye that affects vision. Phacoemulsification is the mostly common surgical method for treating cataracts, and determining the optimal phacoemulsification energy is dependent on measuring the hardness of the lens. This study explored the use of an ultrasound needle transducer for in situ minimally invasive measurements of ultrasound attenuation coefficient to
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Xiaoju; Zimmerman, Richard C.
2010-08-01
The diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) is critical to understand the vertical distribution of underwater downwelling irradiance (Ed). Theoretically Ed is composed of the direct solar beam and the diffuse sky irradiance. Applying the statistical results from Hydrolight radiative transfer simulations, Kd is expressed into a mathematical equation (named as PZ06) integrated from the contribution of direct solar beam and diffuse sky irradiance with the knowledge of sky and water conditions. The percent root mean square errors (RMSE) for the vertical distribution of Ed(z) under various sky and water conditions between PZ06 and Hydrolight results are typically less than 4%. Field observations from the southern Middle Atlantic Bight (SMAB) and global in situ data set (NOMAD) also confirmed the validity of PZ06 in reproducing Kd. PZ06 provides an alternative and improvement to the simpler models (e.g., Gordon, 1989; and Kirk, 1991) and an operational ocean color algorithm, while the latter two kinds of models are valid to limited sky and water conditions. PZ06 can be applied to study Kd from satellite remotely sensed images and seems to improve Kd derivation over current operational ocean color algorithm.
Gilbes, Fernando
Virgin Islands, MODIS Aqua, ENVI #12;INTRODUCTION The vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd properties. The vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) was evaluated for the waters around Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. The MODIS K490 of Band 3 Level-2 daily images were processed with a resolution
Hull, C C; Crofts, N C
1996-03-01
The Beer-Lambert law has been used to determine the total attenuation coefficient, mu t, of three hard and three soft contact lens materials. The three hard contact lens materials were PMMA, Polycon II and Boston IV whereas the 3 soft materials were chosen with differing water contents of 38, 55 and 70%, respectively. The total attenuation coefficients of all six materials were obtained from measurements of the axial transmission at 632.8 nm of a series of plano powered lenses varying in axial thickness from 0.5 to 3.5 mm. The value of the total attenuation coefficient depends on both scattering and absorption and hence PMMA and Boston IV, which both incorporated a handling tint, showed significantly higher values (P < 0.0001) of mu t (0.562 +/- 0.010 mm-1 and 0.820 +/- 0.008 mm-1, respectively) than Polycon II (mu t = 0.025 +/- 0.005 mm-1). A comparison between Polycon II and the three hydrated soft contact lens materials showed a significant increase (P < 0.02) in the total attenuation coefficients for the 38% and 55% water content materials, and a weakly significant increase for the 70% water content soft lens material (P < 0.1). On the assumption that the absorption coefficients of these four materials are approximately constant, then this change would be due to an increase in the scattering coefficient of the material and could contribute to an increase in intraocular scatter. No significant difference (P > 0.5) was found between any of the hydrated soft contact lens materials tested. PMID:8762777
Extensional wave attenuation and velocity in partially-saturated sand in the sonic frequency range
Liu, Z.; Rector, J.W.; Nihei, K.T.; Tomutsa, L.; Myer, L.R.; Nakagawa, S.
2002-06-17
Extensional wave attenuation and velocity measurements on a high permeability Monterey sand were performed over a range of gas saturations for imbibition and degassing conditions. These measurements were conducted using extensional wave pulse propagation and resonance over a 1 - 9 kHz frequency range for a hydrostatic confining pressure of 8.3 MPa. Analysis of the extensional wave data and the corresponding X-ray CT images of the gas saturation show strong attenuation resulting from the presence of the gas (QE dropped from 300 for the dry sand to 30 for the partially-saturated sand), with larger attenuation at a given saturation resulting from heterogeneous gas distributions. The extensional wave velocities are in agreement with Gassmann theory for the test with near-homogeneous gas saturation and with a patchy saturation model for the test with heterogeneous gas saturation. These results show that partially-saturated sands under moderate confining pressure can produce strong intrinsic attenuation for extensional waves.
Studies on Shock Attenuation in Plastic Materials and Applications in Detonation Wave Shaping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khurana, Ritu; Gautam, P. C.; Rai, Rajwant; Kumar, Anil; Sharma, A. C.; Singh, Manjit, Dr
2012-07-01
Pressure in plastic materials attenuates due to change of impedance, phase change in the medium and plastic deformation. A lot of theoretical and experimental efforts have been devoted to the attenuation of shock wave produced by the impact of explosive driven flyer plate. However comparatively less work has been done on the attenuation of shock waves due to contact explosive detonation. Present studies deal with the attenuation of explosive driven shock waves in various plastic materials and its applications in design of Hybrid Detonation Wave Generator In present work shock attenuating properties of different polymers such as Perspex, Teflon, nylon, polypropylene and viton has been studied experimentally using rotating mirror streak camera and electrical position pins. High explosive RDX/TNT and OCTOL of diameter 75-100mm and thickness 20 to 50mm were detonated to induce shock wave in the test specimens. From experimental determined shock velocity at different locations the attenuation in shock pressure was calculated. The attenuation of shock velocity with thickness in the material indicates exponential decay according to relation US = UOexp(-ax). In few of the experiments manganin gauge of resistance 50 ohms was used to record stress time profile across shock wave. The shock attenuation data of Viton has successfully been used in the design of hybrid detonation wave generator using Octol as high explosive. While selecting a material it was ensured that the attenuated shock remains strong enough to initiate an acceptor explosive. Theoretical calculation were supported by Autodyne 2D hydro-code simulation which were validated with the experiments conducted using high speed streak photography and electrical shock arrival pins. Shock attenuation data of Perspex was used to establishing card gap test and wedge test in which test items is subjected to known pressure pulse by selecting the thickness of the plastic material.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaji, Sayumi; Sarugaku, Yuki; Ikeda, Yuji; Kobayashi, Naoto; Nakanishi, Kenshi; Kondo, Sohei; Yasui, Chikako; Kawakita, Hideyo
2014-07-01
Immersion grating is a next-generation diffraction grating which has the immersed the diffraction surface in an optical material with high refractive index of n > 2, and can provide higher spectral resolution than a classical reflective grating. Our group is developing various immersion gratings from the near- to mid-infrared region (Ikeda et al.1, 2, 3, 4, Sarugaku et al.5, and Sukegawa et al.6). The internal attenuation ?att of the candidate materials is especially very important to achieve the high efficiency immersion gratings used for astronomical applications. Nevertheless, because there are few available data as ?att < 0.01cm-1 in the infrared region, except for measurements of CVD-ZnSe, CVD-ZnS, and single-crystal Si in the short near-infrared region reported by Ikeda et al.7, we cannot select suitable materials as an immersion grating in an aimed wavelength range. Therefore, we measure the attenuation coefficients of CdTe, CdZnTe, Ge, Si, ZnSe, and ZnS that could be applicable to immersion gratings. We used an originally developed optical unit attached to a commercial FTIR which covers the wide wavelength range from 1.3?m to 28?m. This measurement system achieves the high accuracy of (triangle)?att ~ 0.01cm-1. As a result, high-resistivity single-crystal CdZnTe, single-crystal Ge, single-crystal Si, CVD-ZnSe, and CVD-ZnS show ?att < 0.01cm-1 at the wavelength range of 5.5 - 19.0?m, 2.0 - 10.5?m, 1.3 - 5.4?m, 1.7 - 13.2?m, and 1.9 - 9.2?m, respectively. This indicates that these materials are good candidates for high efficiency immersion grating covering those wavelength ranges. We plan to make similar measurement under the cryogenic condition as T <= 10K for the infrared, especially mid-infrared applications.
Extracting the Green's function of attenuating heterogeneous acoustic media from uncorrelated waves
Roel Snieder
2007-01-01
The Green's function of acoustic or elastic wave propagation can, for loss-less media, be retrieved by correlating the wave field that is excited by random sources and is recorded at two locations. Here the generalization of this idea to attenuating acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium is addressed, and it is shown that the Green's function can be retrieved from
A three-dimensional model of wave attenuation in the marginal ice zone
L. G. Bennetts; M. A. Peter; V. A. Squire; M. H. Meylan
2010-01-01
A three-dimensional model of wave scattering by a large array of floating thin elastic plates is used to predict the rate of ocean wave attenuation in the marginal ice zone in terms of the properties of the ice cover and the incoming wavefield. This is regarded as a small step toward assimilating interactions of ocean waves with areas of sea
Stress Wave attenuation in SiC3D/Al Composite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chunyuan, Yuan; Yangwei, Wang; Guoju, Li; Xu, Zhang; Jubin, Gao
2013-03-01
SiC3D/Al composite is a kind of special composite with interpenetrating network microstructure. The attenuation properties of stress wave propagation along the SiC3D/Al composite are studied by a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar system & FEM simulations, and the attenuation mechanism is discussed in this paper. Results show that the attenuation rate of the stress wave in the composite is up to 1.73MPa·mm-1. The reduction of the amplitude of waves is caused by that plenty of interfaces between SiC and Al within the composite acting with stress waves. When the incident plane wave reaches the SiC3D/Al interface, reflection wave and transmission wave propagates in different directions along the irregular interface between SiC phase and aluminium phase due to the impedance mismatch of them, which leads to the divergence of stress wave. At the same time, some stress micro-focuses occurs in the aluminium phase for the complex wave superimposition, and some plastic deformation may take place within such micro-regions, which results in the consumption of stress wave energy. In conclusion, the stress wave attenuation is derived from divergence and consumption of stress wave.
Subduction zone guided waves: 3D modelling and attenuation effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garth, T.; Rietbrock, A.
2013-12-01
Waveform modelling is an important tool for understanding complex seismic structures such as subduction zone waveguides. These structures are often simplified to 2D structures for modelling purposes to reduce computational costs. In the case of subduction zone waveguide affects, 2D models have shown that dispersed arrivals are caused by a low velocity waveguide, inferred to be subducted oceanic crust and/or hydrated outer rise normal faults. However, due to the 2D modelling limitations the inferred seismic properties such as velocity contrast and waveguide thickness are still debated. Here we test these limitations with full 3D waveform modelling. For waveguide effects to be observable the waveform must be accurately modelled to relatively high frequencies (> 2 Hz). This requires a small grid spacing due to the high seismic velocities present in subduction zones. A large area must be modelled as well due to the long propagation distances (400 - 600 km) of waves interacting with subduction zone waveguides. The combination of the large model area and small grid spacing required means that these simulations require a large amount of computational resources, only available at high performance computational centres like the UK National super computer HECTOR (used in this study). To minimize the cost of modelling for such a large area, the width of the model area perpendicular to the subduction trench (the y-direction) is made as small as possible. This reduces the overall volume of the 3D model domain. Therefore the wave field is simulated in a model ';corridor' of the subduction zone velocity structure. This introduces new potential sources of error particularly from grazing wave side reflections in the y-direction. Various dampening methods are explored to reduce these grazing side reflections, including perfectly matched layers (PML) and more traditional exponential dampening layers. Defining a corridor model allows waveguide affects to be modelled up to at least 2 Hz (needed for dispersion analysis) for the large model area that is considered. Simulations with a variety of quality factors (Q) at different parts of the subduction zone have been run to investigate how seismic attenuation affects the observed dispersed waveforms. We show that the low Q in the mantle wedge can improve the fit of the dispersed waveforms. A low Q in the low velocity waveguide structure however means that the delayed high frequency energy has very low amplitude, and so is not seen clearly at the surface. The Q of the low velocity crustal waveguide must therefore be greater than 250, suggesting that melting does not occur in the subducted oceanic crust at depths of 220 km or less. The velocity contrast seen at these depths must therefore be due to compositional variations. Benchmarking 2D elastic models with the 3D case shows that 2D models give a good approximation of 3D subduction zone waveguide structure. Visco-elastic simulations show that attenuation in the mantle wedge affects the observed dispersion, but the low velocity waveguide itself does not have significantly reduced Q. This work is an example of how the increasing computing power coupled with well-defined model boundaries can allow high resolution 3D modelling to be applied to specific structures of interest.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rae, Nicholas A.; Glover, Jack L.; Chantler, Christopher T.
2010-07-01
The limiting uncertainty in recent high accuracy measurements of the mass attenuation coefficient is the measurement of the integrated column density. An improvement in the design of the absorption foil holder is described which reduces the integrated column density uncertainty. The new design allows the edges of the foil to be more accurately mapped by the X-ray beam by reducing the largest source of uncertainty in the foil mapping: the uncertainty in the points along the foil edge. The method is shown to reduce the uncertainty in measurements of the mass attenuation coefficient of zinc foils. The reduced uncertainty in the full-foil mapping will allow the X-ray Extended Range Technique (XERT) to be applied to small non-metallic absorption foils more accurately.
Determination of Mass Attenuation Coefficients for CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2 Semiconductors
Celik, Ahmet; Cevik, Ugur; Baltas, Hasan; Bacaksiz, Emin [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)
2007-04-23
This work presents mass attenuation coefficients values of CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2 semiconductor thin films commonly used in photovoltaic devices. The mass attenuation coefficients were measured at different energies from 11.9 to 37.3 keV by using the secondary excitation method. Monochromatic photons were obtained using the Br, Sr, Mo, Cd, Te, Ba and Nd secondary targets. 59.5 keV gamma rays emitted from an annular Am-241 radioactive source were used to excite secondary targets. Characteristic X-rays emitted from secondary target were counted by a Si(Li) detector with a resolution of 0.16 keV at 5.9 keV. The measured values were compared with theoretical values calculated using WinXCOM program.
A model for P-wave attenuation and dispersion in a porous medium permeated by aligned fractures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brajanovski, Miroslav; Gurevich, Boris; Schoenberg, Michael
2005-10-01
Fractures in a porous rock can be modelled as very thin and highly porous layers in a porous background. First, a dispersion equation for a P wave propagating in periodically layered poroelastic medium is obtained using propagator matrix approach applied to Biot equations of poroelasticity with periodic coefficients. Then in the limit of low stiffness and thickness this dispersion equation yields an expression for the effective P-wave modulus of the fractured porous material. When both pores and fractures are dry, this material is equivalent to a transversely isotropic elastic porous material with linear-slip interfaces. When saturated with a liquid this material exhibits significant attenuation and velocity dispersion due to wave-induced fluid flow between pores and fractures. In the low-frequency limit the material properties are equal to those obtained by anisotropic Gassmann (or Brown-Korringa) theory applied to a porous material with linear-slip interfaces. At low frequencies inverse quality factor scales with the first power of frequency ?. At high frequencies the effective elastic properties are equal to those for isolated fluid-filled fractures in a solid (non-porous) background, and inverse quality factor scales with ?-1/2. The magnitude of both attenuation and dispersion strongly depends on both the degree of fracturing and background porosity of the medium. The characteristic frequency of the attenuation and dispersion depends on the background permeability, fluid viscosity, as well as fracture density and spacing.
Tsai, C M; Cho, Z H
1976-07-01
Detailed studies of the basic contrast mechanisms in computerized transverse axial tomography scanners have been carried out. Contrast is related to the effective atomic numbers and electron densities of materials and the resultant linear attenuation coefficients. We have therefore quantitatively evaluated various samples defined by these parameters. A multienergetic X-ray source causes resolution degrading problems arising from the averaging effect of the linear attenuation coefficients. The controversy regarding the use of fixed length water bath as a reference to compensate the spectral shift (hardening) effect of the multienergetic X-ray source is also analysed and reported. Computer simulations demonstrating the sensitivities of the linear attenuation coefficient measurements and errors, as functions of the energy spectrum, were made for representative cases. Simulation results indicate that by using a full water bath, artifacts stemming from the multienergetic X-ray souce can be significantly reduced. An alternative approach using a count rate equalizer, considered to be another way of reducing the wide dynamic range in count rate when a water bath is not used, is also studied and the results reported. PMID:972920
Teleseismic Body-Wave Attenuation beneath the Western and Central United States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, B.; Reed, C. A.; Liu, K. H.; Gao, S. S.
2014-12-01
Attenuation of seismic waves is the consequence of anelasticity of the Earth's layers along the path of propagation. Joint analyses of seismic velocity with attenuation anomalies can significantly reduce the non-uniqueness in the interpretation of velocity images and result in a better understanding of the Earth's interior structure, composition, and dynamics. Employing a Bayesian approach with a common spectrum simultaneous inversion for attenuation factors (Gao, 1997), we have processed over 14,000 teleseismic body-wave seismograms recorded by all publicly available broadband seismic stations in the western and central United States. Preliminary results show extensive low-attenuation areas beneath the central United States probably related to fragments of the ancient Farallon slab, while less pronounced regions of likely cold material underlie the Colorado Plateau. High-attenuation anomalies are discovered in association with the Snake River Plain and the Rio Grande Rift. We apply station-averaged parameters and P-S attenuation ratios and compare our findings with published shear-wave splitting results to examine the presence of partial melt and asthenospheric upwelling. Additionally, we examine the azimuthal variation of attenuation measurements to constrain the possible existence of attenuation anisotropy and attempt to constrain the source depth of anisotropy through tomographic methods.
The Computation of Conical Diffraction Coefficients in High-Frequency Acoustic Wave Scattering
B. D. Bonner; I. G. Graham; V. P. Smyshlyaev
2005-01-01
When a high-frequency acoustic or electromagnetic wave is scattered by a surface with a conical point, the component of the asymptotics of the scattered wave corresponding to diffraction by the conical point can be represented as an asymptotic expansion, valid as the wave number k ?? . The diffraction coefficient is the coefficient of the principal term in this expansion
Shear wave velocity, seismic attenuation, and thermal structure of the continental upper mantle
Artemieva, I.M.; Billien, M.; Leveque, J.-J.; Mooney, W.D.
2004-01-01
Seismic velocity and attenuation anomalies in the mantle are commonly interpreted in terms of temperature variations on the basis of laboratory studies of elastic and anelastic properties of rocks. In order to evaluate the relative contributions of thermal and non-thermal effects on anomalies of attenuation of seismic shear waves, QS-1, and seismic velocity, VS, we compare global maps of the thermal structure of the continental upper mantle with global QS-1 and Vs maps as determined from Rayleigh waves at periods between 40 and 150 S. We limit the comparison to three continental mantle depths (50, 100 and 150 km), where model resolution is relatively high. The available data set does not indicate that, at a global scale, seismic anomalies in the upper mantle are controlled solely by temperature variations. Continental maps have correlation coefficients of <0.56 between VS and T and of <0.47 between QS and T at any depth. Such low correlation coefficients can partially be attributed to modelling arrefacts; however, they also suggest that not all of the VS and QS anomalies in the continental upper mantle can be explained by T variations. Global maps show that, by the sign of the anomaly, VS and QS usually inversely correlate with lithospheric temperatures: most cratonic regions show high VS and QS and low T, while most active regions have seismic and thermal anomalies of the opposite sign. The strongest inverse correlation is found at a depth of 100 km, where the attenuation model is best resolved. Significantly, at this depth, the contours of near-zero QS anomalies approximately correspond to the 1000 ??C isotherm, in agreement with laboratory measurements that show a pronounced increase in seismic attenuation in upper mantle rocks at 1000-1100 ??C. East-west profiles of VS, QS and T where continental data coverage is best (50??N latitude for North America and 60??N latitude for Eurasia) further demonstrate that temperature plays a dominant, but non-unique, role in determining the value of lithospheric VS and QS. At 100 km depth, where the resolution of seismic models is the highest, we compare observed seismic VS and QS with theoretical VST and QST values, respectively, that are calculated solely from temperature anomalies and constrained by experimental data on temperature dependencies of velocity and attenuation. This comparison shows that temperature variations alone are sufficient to explain seismic VS and QS in ca 50 per cent of continental regions. We hypothesize that compositional anomalies resulting from Fe depletion can explain the misfit between seismic and theoretical VS in cratonic lithosphere. In regions of active tectonics, temperature effects alone cannot explain seismic VS and QS in the lithosphere. It is likely that partial melts and/or fluids may affect seismic parameters in these regions. This study demonstrates that lithospheric temperature plays the dominant role in controlling VS and QS anomalies, but other physical parameters, such as compositional variations, fluids, partial melting and scattering, may also play a significant role in determining VS and QS variations in the continental mantle. ?? 2004 RAS.
Trunova, Valentina; Sidorina, Anna; Kriventsov, Vladimir
2014-10-17
Information about X-ray mass attenuation coefficients in different materials is necessary for accurate X-ray fluorescent analysis. The X-ray mass attenuation coefficients for energy of 7-12keV were measured in biological (Mussel and Oyster tissues, blood, hair, liver, and Cabbage leaves) and geological (Baikal sludge, soil, and Alaskite granite) samples. The measurements were carried out at the EXAFS Station of Siberian Synchrotron Radiation Center (VEPP-3). Obtained experimental mass attenuation coefficients were compared with theoretical values calculated for some samples. PMID:25464176
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cao, Fang; Fichot, Cedric G.; Hooker, Stanford B.; Miller, William L.
2014-01-01
Photochemical processes driven by high-energy ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in inshore, estuarine, and coastal waters play an important role in global bio geochemical cycles and biological systems. A key to modeling photochemical processes in these optically complex waters is an accurate description of the vertical distribution of UVR in the water column which can be obtained using the diffuse attenuation coefficients of down welling irradiance (Kd()). The Sea UV Sea UVc algorithms (Fichot et al., 2008) can accurately retrieve Kd ( 320, 340, 380,412, 443 and 490 nm) in oceanic and coastal waters using multispectral remote sensing reflectances (Rrs(), Sea WiFS bands). However, SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms are currently not optimized for use in optically complex, inshore waters, where they tend to severely underestimate Kd(). Here, a new training data set of optical properties collected in optically complex, inshore waters was used to re-parameterize the published SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms, resulting in improved Kd() retrievals for turbid, estuarine waters. Although the updated SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms perform best in optically complex waters, the published SeaUVSeaUVc models still perform well in most coastal and oceanic waters. Therefore, we propose a composite set of SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms, optimized for Kd() retrieval in almost all marine systems, ranging from oceanic to inshore waters. The composite algorithm set can retrieve Kd from ocean color with good accuracy across this wide range of water types (e.g., within 13 mean relative error for Kd(340)). A validation step using three independent, in situ data sets indicates that the composite SeaUVSeaUVc can generate accurate Kd values from 320 490 nm using satellite imagery on a global scale. Taking advantage of the inherent benefits of our statistical methods, we pooled the validation data with the training set, obtaining an optimized composite model for estimating Kd() in UV wavelengths for almost all marine waters. This optimized composite set of SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms will provide the optical community with improved ability to quantify the role of solar UV radiation in photochemical and photobiological processes in the ocean.
Stanchits, S.A.; Lockner, D.A.; Ponomarev, A.V.
2003-01-01
Fluid infiltration and pore fluid pressure changes are known to have a significant effect on the occurrence of earthquakes. Yet, for most damaging earthquakes, with nucleation zones below a few kilometers depth, direct measurements of fluid pressure variations are not available. Instead, pore fluid pressures are inferred primarily from seismic-wave propagation characteristics such as Vp/Vs ratio, attenuation, and reflectivity contacts. We present laboratory measurements of changes in P-wave velocity and attenuation during the injection of water into a granite sample as it was loaded to failure. A cylindrical sample of Westerly granite was deformed at constant confining and pore pressures of 50 and 1 MPa, respectively. Axial load was increased in discrete steps by controlling axial displacement. Anisotropic P-wave velocity and attenuation fields were determined during the experiment using an array of 13 piezoelectric transducers. At the final loading steps (86% and 95% of peak stress), both spatial and temporal changes in P-wave velocity and peak-to-peak amplitudes of P and S waves were observed. P-wave velocity anisotropy reached a maximum of 26%. Transient increases in attenuation of up to 483 dB/m were also observed and were associated with diffusion of water into the sample. We show that velocity and attenuation of P waves are sensitive to the process of opening of microcracks and the subsequent resaturation of these cracks as water diffuses in from the surrounding region. Symmetry of the orientation of newly formed microcracks results in anisotropic velocity and attenuation fields that systematically evolve in response to changes in stress and influx of water. With proper scaling, these measurements provide constraints on the magnitude and duration of velocity and attenuation transients that can be expected to accompany the nucleation of earthquakes in the Earth's crust.
Application of sound-absorbent plastic to weak-shock-wave attenuators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ootsuta, Katsuhisa; Matsuoka, Kei; Sasoh, Akihiro; Takayama, Kazuyoshi
1998-04-01
A device for attenuating weak shock waves propagating in a duct has been developed utilizing sound-absorbent plastic which is usually used for attenuating sound waves. The device has a tube made of the sound-absorbent plastic installed coaxially to a surrounding metal tube with a clearance between them. The clearance acts as an air layer to enhance the performance of the shock wave attenuation. When a weak shock wave propagates through this device, the pressure gradient of the shock wave is gradually smeared and hence its overpressure is decreased. The performance of the device was examined using a 1/250-scaled train tunnel simulator which simulated the discharge of weak shock waves created by high-speed entry of trains to tunnels. The overpressure of the shock waves ranged up to 5 kPa. The shock wave overpressure was decreased by 90% with the present attenuator attached. This device can be applied to various industrial noise suppressions which are associated with unsteady compressible flows.
Shock-Wave Attenuation and Energy-Dissipation Potential of Granular Materials
Grujicic, Mica
Shock-Wave Attenuation and Energy-Dissipation Potential of Granular Materials Mica Grujicic, B shocks in granular materials is analyzed using a conventional shock-physics approach. Within this approach, both compression shocks and decompression waves are treated as (stress, specific volume, particle
Attenuation of compressional waves in peridotite measured as a function of temperature at 200 MPa
Hiroki Sato; I. Selwyn Sacks; Tsutomu Murase; Gregory Muncill; Hiroyuki Fukuyama
1988-01-01
A technique has been developed to determine attenuation in rocks at high temperature using a gas-media, high-pressure apparatus. A pulse transmission technique and a spectral ratio method are used to study compressional seismic properties of rocks. Seismic waves are transmitted to and from the sample through buffer rods of mullite. The effect of seismic wave reflections within the sample assembly
Interferometric ground-roll removal: Attenuation of scattered surface waves in single-sensor data
Interferometric ground-roll removal: Attenuation of scattered surface waves in single-sensor data of these scattered surface waves exist and can be separated into two categories: acquisition-based suppression-driven Herman and Perkins, 2006 inverse-scattering series. The use of extensive stacked arrays in acquisition
Electromagnetic wave attenuation measurements in a ring-shaped inductively coupled air plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Xiaolong; Xu, Haojun; Li, Jianhai; Lin, Min; Su; Chen
2015-05-01
An aerocraft with the surface, inlet and radome covered large-area inductive coupled plasma (ICP) can attenuate its radar echo effectively. The shape, thickness, and electron density ( N e ) distribution of ICP are critical to electromagnetic wave attenuation. In the paper, an air all-quartz ICP generator in size of 20 × 20 × 7 cm3 without magnetic confinement is designed. The discharge results show that the ICP is amorphous in E-mode and ring-shaped in H-mode. The structure of ICP stratifies into core region and edge halo in H-mode, and its width and thickness changes from power and pressure. Such phenomena are explained by the distribution of RF magnetic field, the diffusion of negative ions plasma and the variation of skin depth. In addition, the theoretical analysis shows that the N e achieves nearly uniform within the electronegative core and sharply steepens in the edge. The N e of core region is diagnosed by microwave interferometer under varied conditions (pressure in range of 10-50 Pa, power in 300-700 W). Furthermore, the electromagnetic wave attenuation measurements were carried out with the air ICP in the frequencies of 4-5 GHz. The results show that the interspaced ICP is still effective to wave attenuation, and the wave attenuation increases with the power and pressure. The measured attenuation is approximately in accordance with the calculation data of finite-different time-domain simulations.
Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Pressure Wave Attenuation due to Bubbly Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jayaprakash, Arvind; Fourmeau, Tiffany; Hsiao, Chao-Tsung; Chahine, Georges; Dynaflow Inc. Team
2013-03-01
In this work, the effects of dispersed microbubbles on a steep pressure wave and its attenuation are investigated both numerically and experimentally. Numerical simulations were carried out using a compressible Euler equation solver, where the liquid-gas mixture was modeled using direct numerical simulations involving discrete deforming bubbles. To reduce computational costs a 1D configuration is used and the bubbles are assumed distributed in layers and the initial pressure profile is selected similar to that of a one-dimensional shock tube problem. Experimentally, the pressure pulse was generated using a submerged spark electric discharge, which generates a large vapor bubble, while the microbubbles in the bubbly layer are generated using electrolysis. High speed movies were recorded in tandem with high fidelity pressure measurements. The dependence of pressure wave attenuation on the bubble radii, the void fraction, and the bubbly layer thickness were parametrically studied. It has been found that the pressure wave attenuation can be seen as due to waves reflecting and dispersing in the inter-bubble regions, with the energy absorbed by bubble volume oscillations and re-radiation. Layer thickness and small bubble sizes were also seen as having a strong effect on the attenuation with enhanced attenuation as the bubble size is reduced for the same void fraction. In this work, the effects of dispersed microbubbles on a steep pressure wave and its attenuation are investigated both numerically and experimentally. Numerical simulations were carried out using a compressible Euler equation solver, where the liquid-gas mixture was modeled using direct numerical simulations involving discrete deforming bubbles. To reduce computational costs a 1D configuration is used and the bubbles are assumed distributed in layers and the initial pressure profile is selected similar to that of a one-dimensional shock tube problem. Experimentally, the pressure pulse was generated using a submerged spark electric discharge, which generates a large vapor bubble, while the microbubbles in the bubbly layer are generated using electrolysis. High speed movies were recorded in tandem with high fidelity pressure measurements. The dependence of pressure wave attenuation on the bubble radii, the void fraction, and the bubbly layer thickness were parametrically studied. It has been found that the pressure wave attenuation can be seen as due to waves reflecting and dispersing in the inter-bubble regions, with the energy absorbed by bubble volume oscillations and re-radiation. Layer thickness and small bubble sizes were also seen as having a strong effect on the attenuation with enhanced attenuation as the bubble size is reduced for the same void fraction. This study was supported by the Department of Energy, under SBIR Phase II Contract DE-FG02-07ER84839.
F. Wenzlau; J. B. Altmann; T. M. Müller
2010-01-01
Heterogeneous porous media such as hydrocarbon reservoir rocks are effectively described as anisotropic viscoelastic solids. They show characteristic velocity dispersion and attenuation of seismic waves within a broad frequency band, and an explanation for this observation is the mechanism of wave-induced pore fluid flow. Various theoretical models quantify dispersion and attenuation of normal incident compressional waves in finely layered porous
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Figueiredo, J. J. S.; Schleicher, J.; Stewart, R. R.; Dayur, N.; Omoboya, B.; Wiley, R.; William, A.
2013-04-01
To understand their influence on elastic wave propagation, anisotropic cracked media have been widely investigated in many theoretical and experimental studies. In this work, we report on laboratory ultrasound measurements carried out to investigate the effect of source frequency on the elastic parameters (wave velocities and the Thomsen parameter ?) and shear wave attenuation) of fractured anisotropic media. Under controlled conditions, we prepared anisotropic model samples containing penny-shaped rubber inclusions in a solid epoxy resin matrix with crack densities ranging from 0 to 6.2 per cent. Two of the three cracked samples have 10 layers and one has 17 layers. The number of uniform rubber inclusions per layer ranges from 0 to 100. S-wave splitting measurements have shown that scattering effects are more prominent in samples where the seismic wavelength to crack aperture ratio ranges from 1.6 to 1.64 than in others where the ratio varied from 2.72 to 2.85. The sample with the largest cracks showed a magnitude of scattering attenuation three times higher compared with another sample that had small inclusions. Our S-wave ultrasound results demonstrate that elastic scattering, scattering and anelastic attenuation, velocity dispersion and crack size interfere directly in shear wave splitting in a source-frequency dependent manner, resulting in an increase of scattering attenuation and a reduction of shear wave anisotropy with increasing frequency.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Jiankun; Shi, Zhifei
2013-09-01
The periodic theory of solid-state physics is introduced to study the reduction characteristics of periodic pile barriers. The attenuation zones of a two-dimensional infinite periodic pile barrier subjected to plane waves are analyzed by plane wave expansion method. Influences of soil parameters and pile configurations on the first no-directional attenuation zone are discussed. The screening effectiveness of finite periodic pile barriers is simulated by the finite element method. The present theoretical results are in well agreement with experimental data, which validates the existence of attenuation zones in the periodic structures. The results show that vibrations with frequencies in the attenuation zones can be reduced significantly. The present investigation provides a new concept for designing pile barriers to block mid-frequency vibration.
Laboratory measurements of wave attenuation through model and live vegetation
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Surge and waves generated by hurricanes and tropical storms often cause severe damage and loss of life in coastal areas. It is widely recognized that wetlands along coastal fringes reduce storm surge and waves. Yet, the potential role and primary mechanisms of wave mitigation by wetland vegetation a...
Ultrasonic attenuation of 700MHz surface acoustic waves in thin films of superconducting NbN
H. P. Fredricksen; M. Levy; J. R. Gavaler; M. Ashkin
1983-01-01
The temperature dependence of the ultrasonic attenuation of 700-MHz surface acoustic waves has been measured for nine films of superconducting NbN varying in thickness from 0.02 to 0.3 mum. The films, sputter deposited on LiNbO3 substrates, exhibited attenuation changes in the superconducting state which were very similar in each case. These changes did not, however, follow the predictions of Bardeen,
Pichardo, Samuel; Sin, Vivian W; Hynynen, Kullervo
2011-01-01
For medical applications of ultrasound inside the brain, it is necessary to understand the relationship between the apparent density of skull bone and its corresponding speed of sound and attenuation coefficient. Although there have been previous studies exploring this phenomenon, there is still a need to extend the measurements to cover more of the clinically relevant frequency range. The results of measurements of the longitudinal speed of sound and attenuation coefficient are presented for specimens of human calvaria. The study was performed for the frequencies of 0.27, 0.836, 1.402, 1.965 and 2.525 MHz. Specimens were obtained from fresh cadavers through a protocol with the Division of Anatomy of the University of Toronto. The protocol was approved by the Research Ethics Board of Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. The specimens were mounted in polycarbonate supports that were marked for stereoscopic positioning. Computer tomography (CT) scans of the skulls mounted on their supports were performed, and a three-dimensional skull surface was reconstructed. This surface was used to guide a positioning system to ensure the normal sound incidence of an acoustic signal. This signal was produced by a focused device with a diameter of 5 cm and a focal length of 10 cm. Measurements of delay in time of flight were carried out using a needle hydrophone. Measurements of effective transmitted energy were carried out using a radiation force method with a 10 µg resolution scale. Preliminary functions of speed of sound and attenuation coefficient, both of which are related to apparent density, were established using a multi-layer propagation model that takes into account speed of sound, density and thickness of the layer. An optimization process was executed from a large set of random functions and the best functions were chosen for those ones that closest reproduced the experimental observations. The final functions were obtained after a second pass of the optimization process was executed, but this time using a finite-difference time-difference solution of the Westervelt equation, which is more precise than the multi-layer model but much more time consuming for computation. For six of seven specimens, measurements were carried out on five locations on the calvaria, and for the other specimen three measurements were made. In total, measurements were carried out on 33 locations. Results indicated the presence of dispersion effects and that these effects are different according to the type of bone in the skull (cortical and trabecular). Additionally, both the speed of sound and attenuation showed dependence on the skull density that varied with the frequency. Using the optimal functions and the information of density from the CT scans, the average values (±s.d.) of the speed of sound for cortical bone were estimated to be 2384(± 130), 2471(± 90), 2504(± 120), 2327(± 90) and 2053(± 40) m s(-1) for the frequencies of 270, 836, 1402, 1965 and 2526 kHz, respectively. For trabecular bone, and in the same order of frequency values, the speeds of sound were 2140(± 130), 2300(± 100), 2219(± 200), 2133(± 130) and 1937(± 40) m s(-1), respectively. The average values of the attenuation coefficient for cortical bone were 33(± 9), 240(± 9) and 307(± 30) Np m(-1) for the frequencies of 270, 836, and 1402, respectively. For trabecular bone, and in the same order of frequency values, the average values of the attenuation coefficient were 34(± 13), 216(± 16) and 375(± 30) Np m(-1), respectively. For frequencies of 1.965 and 2.525 MHz, no measurable radiation force was detected with the setup used. PMID:21149950
Pichardo, Samuel; Sin, Vivian W; Hynynen, Kullervo
2011-01-01
For medical applications of ultrasound inside the brain, it is necessary to understand the relationship between the apparent density of skull bone and its corresponding speed of sound and attenuation coefficient. Although there have been previous studies exploring this phenomenon, there is still a need to extend the measurements to cover more of the clinically relevant frequency range. The results of measurements of the longitudinal speed of sound and attenuation coefficient are presented for specimens of human calvaria. The study was performed for the frequencies of 0.27, 0.836, 1.402, 1.965 and 2.525 MHz. Specimens were obtained from fresh cadavers through a protocol with the Division of Anatomy of the University of Toronto. The protocol was approved by the Research Ethics Board of Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. The specimens were mounted in polycarbonate supports that were marked for stereoscopic positioning. Computer tomography (CT) scans of the skulls mounted on their supports were performed, and a three-dimensional skull surface was reconstructed. This surface was used to guide a positioning system to ensure the normal sound incidence of an acoustic signal. This signal was produced by a focused device with a diameter of 5 cm and a focal length of 10 cm. Measurements of delay in time of flight were carried out using a needle hydrophone. Measurements of effective transmitted energy were carried out using a radiation force method with a 10 ?g resolution scale. Preliminary functions of speed of sound and attenuation coefficient, both of which are related to apparent density, were established using a multi-layer propagation model that takes into account speed of sound, density and thickness of the layer. An optimization process was executed from a large set of random functions and the best functions were chosen for those ones that closest reproduced the experimental observations. The final functions were obtained after a second pass of the optimization process was executed, but this time using a finite-difference time-difference solution of the Westervelt equation, which is more precise than the multi-layer model but much more time consuming for computation. For six of seven specimens, measurements were carried out on five locations on the calvaria, and for the other specimen three measurements were made. In total, measurements were carried out on 33 locations. Results indicated the presence of dispersion effects and that these effects are different according to the type of bone in the skull (cortical and trabecular). Additionally, both the speed of sound and attenuation showed dependence on the skull density that varied with the frequency. Using the optimal functions and the information of density from the CT scans, the average values (±s.d.) of the speed of sound for cortical bone were estimated to be 2384(±130), 2471(±90), 2504(±120), 2327(±90) and 2053(±40) m s?1 for the frequencies of 270, 836, 1402, 1965 and 2526 kHz, respectively. For trabecular bone, and in the same order of frequency values, the speeds of sound were 2140(±130), 2300(±100), 2219(±200), 2133(±130) and 1937(±40) m s?1, respectively. The average values of the attenuation coefficient for cortical bone were 33(±9), 240(±9) and 307(±30) Np m?1 for the frequencies of 270, 836, and 1402, respectively. For trabecular bone, and in the same order of frequency values, the average values of the attenuation coefficient were 34(±13), 216(±16) and 375(±30) Np m?1, respectively. For frequencies of 1.965 and 2.525 MHz, no measurable radiation force was detected with the setup used. PMID:21149950
Study on energy attenuation of ultrasonic guided waves going through girth welds.
Yibo, Li; Liying, Sun; Zhidong, Song; Yuankai, Zhang
2006-12-22
Ultrasonic guided wave is introduced as a new non-destructive long range pipe inspection method. It can be used to inspect pipe which is inaccessible to other conventional NDT methods, and rapid, long distance inspection can be achieved. An investigation of the guided ultrasonic waves traveling along pipe with special geometry characteristics, such as elbow, several girth welds, and some artificial defects is described. In this paper, factors that may cause attenuation of ultrasonic guided waves are discussed and energy attenuation of longitudinal and torsional guided waves is studied on an experimental pipe having seven girth welds. Good agreement has been obtained between the experiments and the predictions. In the end, the detection sensitivity and locating precision of two guided waves, namely longitudinal and torsional, were compared on defects, such as notch, burr and branch. PMID:17070566
M. S. Diallo; M. Holschneider; M. Kulesh; F. Scherbaum; M. Ohrnberger; E. Lück
2004-01-01
This contribution is concerned with the estimate of attenuation and dispersion characteristics of surface waves observed on a shallow seismic record. The analysis is based on a initial parameterization of the phase and attenuation functions which are then estimated by minimizing a properly defined merit function. To minimize the effect of random noise on the estimates of dispersion and attenuation
Hubert Loisel; Dariusz Stramski
2000-01-01
By means of radiative transfer simulations we developed a model for estimating the absorption a , the scattering b , and the backscattering b b coefficients in the upper ocean from irradiance reflectance just beneath the sea surface, R ( 0 ), and the average attenuation coefficient for downwelling irradiance, K d 1 , between the surface and the first
Near-surface seismic attenuation of P-waves in West Texas
Al-Zahrani, Said Awdhah
1992-01-01
NEAR-SURFACE SEISMIC ATTENUATION OF P-WAVES IN WEST TEXAS A Thesis by SAID AWDHAH AL-ZAHRANI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1992 Major Subject: Geophysics NEAR-SURFACE SEISMIC ATTENUATION OF P-WAVES IN WEST TEXAS A Thesis by SAID AWDHAH AL-ZAHRANI Approved as to style and content by: Steven H. arder (Chair of Committee) rry W. S neer (Me ber) I S. Watkins...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erlangga, Mokhammad Puput
2015-04-01
Separation between signal and noise, incoherent or coherent, is important in seismic data processing. Although we have processed the seismic data, the coherent noise is still mixing with the primary signal. Multiple reflections are a kind of coherent noise. In this research, we processed seismic data to attenuate multiple reflections in the both synthetic and real seismic data of Mentawai. There are several methods to attenuate multiple reflection, one of them is Radon filter method that discriminates between primary reflection and multiple reflection in the ?-p domain based on move out difference between primary reflection and multiple reflection. However, in case where the move out difference is too small, the Radon filter method is not enough to attenuate the multiple reflections. The Radon filter also produces the artifacts on the gathers data. Except the Radon filter method, we also use the Wave Equation Multiple Elimination (WEMR) method to attenuate the long period multiple reflection. The WEMR method can attenuate the long period multiple reflection based on wave equation inversion. Refer to the inversion of wave equation and the magnitude of the seismic wave amplitude that observed on the free surface, we get the water bottom reflectivity which is used to eliminate the multiple reflections. The WEMR method does not depend on the move out difference to attenuate the long period multiple reflection. Therefore, the WEMR method can be applied to the seismic data which has small move out difference as the Mentawai seismic data. The small move out difference on the Mentawai seismic data is caused by the restrictiveness of far offset, which is only 705 meter. We compared the real free multiple stacking data after processing with Radon filter and WEMR process. The conclusion is the WEMR method can more attenuate the long period multiple reflection than the Radon filter method on the real (Mentawai) seismic data.
Su, Ya; Yao, X Steve; Li, Zhihong; Meng, Zhuo; Liu, Tiegen; Wang, Longzhi
2015-02-01
We present detailed measurement results of optical attenuation's thermal coefficients (referenced to the temperature of the skin surface) in different depth regions of in vivo human forearm skins using optical coherence tomography (OCT). We first design a temperature control module with an integrated optical probe to precisely control the surface temperature of a section of human skin. We propose a method of using the correlation map to identify regions in the skin having strong correlations with the surface temperature of the skin and find that the attenuation coefficient in these regions closely follows the variation of the surface temperature without any hysteresis. We observe a negative thermal coefficient of attenuation in the epidermis. While in dermis, the slope signs of the thermal coefficient of attenuation are different at different depth regions for a particular subject, however, the depth regions with a positive (or negative) slope are different in different subjects. We further find that the magnitude of the thermal coefficient of attenuation coefficient is greater in epidermis than in dermis. We believe the knowledge of such thermal properties of skins is important for several noninvasive diagnostic applications, such as OCT glucose monitoring, and the method demonstrated in this paper is effective in studying the optical and biological properties in different regions of skin. PMID:25780740
Experimental investigation of wave attenuation through model and live vegetation
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Hurricanes and tropical storms often cause severe damage and loss of life in coastal areas. It is widely recognized that wetlands along coastal fringes reduce storm surge and waves. Yet, the potential role and primary mechanisms of wave mitigation by wetland vegetation are not fully understood. K...
Extensional wave attenuation and velocity in partially saturated sand in the sonic frequency range
Liu, Z.; Rector, J.W.; Nihei, K.T.; Tomutsa, L.; Myer, L.R.; Nakagawa, S.
2001-08-10
Extensional wave attenuation and velocity measurements on a high permeability Monterey sand were performed over a range of gas saturations for imbibition and degassing conditions. These measurements were conducted using extensional wave pulse propagation and resonance over a 1-9 kHz frequency range for a hydrostatic confining pressure of 8.3 MPa. Analysis of the extensional wave data and the corresponding X-ray CT images of the gas saturation show strong attenuation resulting from the presence of the gas (Q{sub E} dropped from 300 for the dry sand to 30 for the partially-saturated sand), with larger attenuation at a given saturation resulting from heterogeneous gas distributions. The extensional wave velocities are in agreement with Gassmann theory for the test with near-homogeneous gas saturation and with a patchy saturation model for the test with heterogeneous gas saturation. These results show that partially-saturated sands under moderate confining pressure can produce strong intrinsic attenuation for extensional waves.
Study of transmission line attenuation in broad band millimeter wave frequency range
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pandya, Hitesh Kumar B.; Austin, M. E.; Ellis, R. F.
2013-10-01
Broad band millimeter wave transmission lines are used in fusion plasma diagnostics such as electron cyclotron emission (ECE), electron cyclotron absorption, reflectometry and interferometry systems. In particular, the ECE diagnostic for ITER will require efficient transmission over an ultra wide band, 100 to 1000 GHz. A circular corrugated waveguide transmission line is a prospective candidate to transmit such wide band with low attenuation. To evaluate this system, experiments of transmission line attenuation were performed and compared with theoretical loss calculations. A millimeter wave Michelson interferometer and a liquid nitrogen black body source are used to perform all the experiments. Atmospheric water vapor lines and continuum absorption within this band are reported. Ohmic attenuation in corrugated waveguide is very low; however, there is Bragg scattering and higher order mode conversion that can cause significant attenuation in this transmission line. The attenuation due to miter bends, gaps, joints, and curvature are estimated. The measured attenuation of 15 m length with seven miter bends and eighteen joints is 1 dB at low frequency (300 GHz) and 10 dB at high frequency (900 GHz), respectively.
Frequency-dependent attenuation of S-waves in the Kanto region, Japan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshimoto, K.; Okada, M.
2009-09-01
Apparent, scattering, and intrinsic S-wave attenuations (QS-1, Qscat-1 and Qint-1) of the upper lithosphere in the Kanto region of Japan were measured in the 1- to 32-Hz frequency range using Multiple Lapse Time Window Analysis (MLTWA) for 115 borehole seismograms of local earthquakes. A new set of time windows for MLTWA, in which multiple isotropic scattering is assumed, was proposed and employed to estimate the frequency dependence of S-wave attenuation parameters. Scattering attenuation was found to dominate intrinsic attenuation in the S-wave attenuation mechanism at low frequencies (<2 Hz), whereas the opposite relation was observed at high frequencies. The transition is caused by the different frequency dependences of Qscat-1(? f -1.5) and Qint-1(? f -0.7) at this frequency. Interestingly, Qscat-1 is almost frequency independent at frequencies >8 Hz, which implies the self-similar nature of short-wavelength heterogeneities in the upper lithosphere. In terms of the upper lithosphere of the Kanto region, these results may indicate that the random heterogeneities characterized by the Gaussian autocorrelation function with a fractional fluctuation ? ? 10% and a correlation length a ? 2 km are superimposed on the weak background self-similar heterogeneity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yabe, S.; Baltay, A.; Ide, S.; Beroza, G. C.
2013-12-01
Ground motion prediction is an essential component of earthquake hazard assessment. Seismic wave attenuation with distance is an important, yet difficult to constrain, factor for such estimation. Using the empirical method of ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs), seismic wave attenuation with distance, which includes both the effect of anelastic attenuation and scattering, can be estimated from the distance decay of peak ground velocity (PGV) or peak ground acceleration (PGA) of ordinary earthquakes; however, in some regions where plate-boundary earthquakes are infrequent, such as Cascadia and Nankai, there are fewer data with which to constrain the empirical parameters. In both of those subduction zones, tectonic tremor occurs often. In this study, we use tectonic tremor to estimate the seismic wave attenuation with distance, and in turn use the attenuation results to estimate the radiated seismic energy of tremor. Our primary interest is in the variations among subduction zones. Ground motion attenuation and the distribution of released seismic energy from tremors are two important subduction zone characteristics. Therefore, it is very interesting to see whether there are variations of these parameters in different subduction zones, or regionally within the same subduction zone. It is also useful to estimate how much energy is released by tectonic tremor from accumulated energy to help understand subduction dynamics and the difference between ordinary earthquakes and tremor. We use the tectonic tremor catalog of Ide (2012) in Nankai, Cascadia, Mexico and southern Chile. We measured PGV and PGA of individual tremor bursts at each station. We assume a simple GMPE relationship and estimate seismic attenuation and relative site amplification factors from the data. In the Nankai subduction zone, there are almost no earthquakes on the plate interface, but intra-slab earthquakes occur frequently. Both the seismic wave attenuation with distance and the site response obtained from intra-slab earthquakes is almost the same as that determined from tectonic tremor. This means the attenuation parameter should be well estimated from tremor. Furthermore, we find substantial along-strike variation in the estimated attenuation parameter in the Nankai subduction zone, allowing us to infer with-in region differences in behavior.
Miroslav Brajanovski; Tobias M. Müller; Boris Gurevich
2006-01-01
We analyse compressional wave attenuation in fluid saturated porous material with porous inclusions having different compressibilities and very different spatial scales in comparison with the background. Such a medium exhibits significant attenuation due to wave-induced fluid flow across the interface between inclusion and background. For the representative element containing two layers (one of them representing inclusion), we show that overall
Global Drag-Coefficient Estimates From Scatterometer Wind and Wave Steepness
Guoqiang Liu; Yijun He; Hui Shen; Jie Guo
2011-01-01
A neural-network model was developed to retrieve the wave steepness (?), which was used to represent the sea state (particularly wave state), from the European Remote Sensing (ERS) scatterometer onboard ERS-1\\/2. Using the retrieved ? and scatterometer wind speed, we calculated and examined the drag coefficient (CD) over the global ocean. The results show that CD changes significantly when wave
Wave energy attenuation and shoreline alteration characteristics of submerged breakwaters
Krafft, Katherine Margaret
1993-01-01
in this research was sometimes deficient in resolving exactly the fundamental frequency of a periodic wave, comparison of results for the two methods was generally favorable. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Many thanks are extended to my advisor, Dr. J. B. Herbich... - frequency X ? distance from original shoreline, (assuming a constant slope of 1: 15) Xt - centered and padded time series data CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1. 1 General The dynamic behavior of waves on a shore in conjunction with inadequate littoral drift...
Anelastic Attenuation and Elastic Scattering of Seismic Waves in the Los Angeles Region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, X.; Jordan, T. H.
2013-12-01
The accuracy of earthquake simulations needed for physics-based seismic hazard analysis depends on good information about crustal structure. For low-frequency (f < 0.3 Hz) simulations, the most important structural parameters are the seismic wave velocities, but as the frequencies increase, seismic wave attenuation becomes more important. We compare attenuation models that have been recently used in the CyberShake hazard model (Graves et al., 2011) and other simulation studies for the Los Angeles region (Olsen et al., 2009; Taborda & Bielak, 2013) with constraints from local earthquake data out to 10 Hz, which include those from Hauksson & Shearer's (2006) attenuation tomography as well as our own measurements. We show that the velocity-attenuation scaling relationship for shear waves employed by CyberShake (QS = 50VS, where VS is in km/s) provides a good approximation to the average crustal structure at f = 0.3 Hz, but it does not capture the lateral variations in QS at shallow depths. Moreover, this frequency-independent model is inconsistent with the high QS values observed throughout most of the crust at f > 1 Hz. The data indicate a frequency-dependent attenuation of the form QS ~ f ?, where 0.5 ? ? ? 0.8. Anomalously low QS factors are observed at very shallow depths, which can be explained by a combination of anelastic attenuation and elastic scattering. The scattering parameters are roughly consistent with small-scale, near-surface heterogeneities observed in well-logs and seismic reflection surveys in the Los Angeles basin. High-frequency scattering may also play a role in explaining Hauksson & Shearer's (2006) observation that the QP/QS ratio is anomalously low (~ unity). We summarize the observations in a new attenuation and scattering model for the CyberShake region that is laterally heterogeneous and frequency dependent.
Gladden, Josh
for a set of multi-wall carbon nanotube MWCNT -nylon composites from pure nylon to 20% MWCNT by weight coefficients of the respective samples are found to decrease with increasing MWCNT content and a similar trend with increasing MWCNT content indicating an increase in the mechanical moduli. © 2009 Acoustical Society
Attenuation of P, S, and coda waves in Koyna region, India
Babita Sharma; S. S. Teotia; Dinesh Kumar
2007-01-01
The attenuation properties of the crust in the Koyna region of the Indian shield have been investigated using 164 seismograms\\u000a from 37 local earthquakes that occurred in the region. The extended coda normalization method has been used to estimate the\\u000a quality factors for P waves $$ {\\\\left( {Q_{\\\\alpha } } \\\\right)} $$ and S waves $$ {\\\\left( {Q_{\\\\beta } }
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, E. K.
1982-01-01
Calculations are presented for atmospheric absorption and radiation emission for several atmospheric conditions and elevation angles. The calculations are for frequencies in the 1 to 340 GHz frequency range. The calculations are compared to those from other models. Agreement is found to within 15% for absorption coefficient (7.5 g/m/cubed water vapor at 290 K) and approximately the same for total zenithal attenuation. The attenuation and gaseous emission noise curves defined by the International Radio Consultative Committee are found to have minor inconsistencies.
Shear wave attenuation and dispersion in melt-bearing olivine polycrystals
Shear wave attenuation and dispersion in melt-bearing olivine polycrystals: 1. Specimen fabrication 2003; accepted 7 January 2004; published 23 June 2004. [1] Five melt-bearing polycrystalline olivine behavior of melt-free materials, a broad dissipation peak is observed for each of the melt-bearing
Shear wave attenuation and dispersion in melt-bearing olivine polycrystals
Shear wave attenuation and dispersion in melt-bearing olivine polycrystals: 2. Microstructural forced oscillation tests of melt-bearing olivine aggregates reported by Jackson et al. [2004. While the nanometer scale grain boundary structure in the melt-bearing aggregates is essentially
Zhi-liang Wang; Yong-chi Li; J. G. Wang; R. F. Shen
2007-01-01
Civil defense shelters are often constructed beneath the ground to provide protection against blast loadings. Concrete is widely used as the material for the defense layer of the shelters. This paper adopts a continuum damage model of brittle media to numerically investigate the dynamic fracture and attenuation effect of perforated concrete defense layer on stress waves from planar charge. The
A temporal change in coda wave attenuation observed during an eruption of Mount St. Helens
Michael Fehler; Peter Roberts; Tom Fairbanks
1988-01-01
During the past few years there have been numerous reports of changes in coda wave attenuation occurring before major earthquakes. These observations are important because they may provide insight into stress-related structural changes taking place in the focal region prior to the occurrence of large earthquakes. The results of these studies led us to suspect that temporal changes in coda
Plastic yielding as a frequency and amplitude independent mechanism of seismic wave attenuation
Podladchikov, Yuri
for micro- fracturing. INTRODUCTION The attenuation of elastic waves has received a good deal of atten- tion and Deresiewicz, 1953; Knopoff and MacDonald, 1960; Walsh, 1966 , grain contact adhesion hysteresis Sharma and Mindlin and Deresiewicz 1953 assume two identi- cal elastic homogeneous spherical particles in contact
Attenuation of acoustic waves in glacial ice and salt domes P. B. Price
Price, P. Buford
Attenuation of acoustic waves in glacial ice and salt domes P. B. Price Physics Department and salt domes, are under consideration as media in which to deploy instruments for detection of neutrinos domes and show that experimental measurements on laboratory samples and in glacial ice and salt domes
Attenuation, transport and diffusion of scalar waves in textured random media
L. Margerin
2006-01-01
Most theoretical investigations of seismic wave scattering rely on the assumption that the underlying medium is statistically isotropic. However, deep seismic soundings of the crust as well as geological observations often reveal the existence of elongated or preferentially oriented scattering structures. In this paper, we develop mean field and radiative transfer theories to describe the attenuation and multiple scattering of
Effect of surface waves on Charnock coefficient under tropical cyclones
Il-Ju Moon; Isaac Ginis; Tetsu Hara
2004-01-01
The dependence of the air-sea momentum flux on surface wave fields is investigated at very high winds under tropical cyclones. A coupled wave-wind model is applied to estimate the momentum flux under ten hurricanes in the western Atlantic Ocean during 1998–2003. The model explicitly calculates the wave-induced stress vector and the total wind stress vector from a given wind speed
Effect of surface waves on Charnock coefficient under tropical cyclones
Il-Ju Moon; Isaac Ginis; Tetsu Hara
2004-01-01
The dependence of the air-sea momentum flux on surface wave fields is investigated at very high winds under tropical cyclones. A coupled wave-wind model is applied to estimate the momentum flux under ten hurricanes in the western Atlantic Ocean during 1998-2003. The model explicitly calculates the wave-induced stress vector and the total wind stress vector from a given wind speed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lei; Zhang, Lu Lu; Qi, Feng-Hua
2015-04-01
Under investigation in this paper is an inhomogeneous modified nonlinear Schrödinger (MNLS) equation describing the ultrashort pulse dynamics with the distributed dispersion, self-phase modulation, self-steepening, and linear gain/loss. Nonautonomous rogue waves for the inhomogeneous MNLS equation are constructed via the modified Darboux transformation with the inhomogeneous parameters. The dynamical behaviours and main characteristics of the nonautonomous rogue waves in inhomogeneous fibers are discussed by analysing certain physical quantities. The inhomogeneous effects on the evolution of rogue waves are considered by virtue of the presented rational solutions with distributed coefficients. It is found that the group velocity dispersion (GVD) and linear gain/loss coefficients have effects on the trajectories and amplitudes of the rogue waves, respectively. Additionally, an intriguing composite rogue wave of the inhomogeneous MNLS equation is revealed, owing to the proper choice of the GVD coefficient. Our results could be useful for controlling the rogue waves in the dispersion-managed fiber system.
Blast wave attenuation by lightly destructable granular materials
Texas at Arlington, University of
is to coat the surface with a sacrificial layer. In [3] full-scale experiments were carried out to investigate the behaviour of a covering of aluminum foam under the effect of a blast wave. In our study steel chamber V BK - 2, 4.5m in diameter and 7m in length. The sand/cement cylinder was placed 95cm
Excitation and Attenuation of Hypersonic Waves in Quartz
H. E. Bömmel; K. Dransfeld
1960-01-01
A method for the generation and detection of hypersonic waves, which has only been briefly described earlier, together with some absorption measurements in quartz, is discussed in some detail. Further measurements of the hypersonic absorption in quartz at different crystal orientations and after neutron irradiation are reported. The results are in qualitative agreement with a phonon-phonon relaxation process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golosio, B.; Brunetti, A.; Cesareo, R.; Amendolia, S. R.; Rao, D. V.; Seltzer, S. M.
2001-06-01
Images of soft materials are obtained using image intensifier based X-ray system (Rao et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 437 (1999) 141). The interior of the soft material is visualized using the novel software in order to know the distribution of attenuation coefficient in terms of density. The novel software is based mainly on graphical library and applicable to several operating systems without any change. It can be applied to several applications starting from biomedical to industries, for example, quality control. The results for walnut and brew tooth are presented as a set of images from the internal parts of the sample. A description of the principal parameters required for tomographic visualization is given and some results based on this technique are reported and discussed.
Akman, F; Durak, R; Turhan, M F; Kaçal, M R
2015-07-01
The effective atomic numbers and electron densities of some samarium compounds were determined using the experimental total mass attenuation coefficient values near the K edge in the X-ray energy range from 36.847 up to 57.142keV. The measurements, in the region from 36.847 to 57.142keV, were done in a transmission geometry utilizing the K?2, K?1, K?1 and K?2 X-rays from different secondary source targets excited by the 59.54keV gamma-photons from an Am-241 annular source. This paper presents the first measurement of the effective atomic numbers and electron densities for some samarium compounds near the K edge. The results of the study showed that the measured values were in good agreement with the theoretically calculated ones. PMID:25880612
Klyen, Blake R.; Scolaro, Loretta; Shavlakadze, Tea; Grounds, Miranda D.; Sampson, David D.
2014-01-01
We present the assessment of ex vivo mouse muscle tissue by quantitative parametric imaging of the near-infrared attenuation coefficient µt using optical coherence tomography. The resulting values of the local total attenuation coefficient µt (mean ± standard error) from necrotic lesions in the dystrophic skeletal muscle tissue of mdx mice are higher (9.6 ± 0.3 mm?1) than regions from the same tissue containing only necrotic myofibers (7.0 ± 0.6 mm?1), and significantly higher than values from intact myofibers, whether from an adjacent region of the same sample (4.8 ± 0.3 mm?1) or from healthy tissue of the wild-type C57 mouse (3.9 ± 0.2 mm?1) used as a control. Our results suggest that the attenuation coefficient could be used as a quantitative means to identify necrotic lesions and assess skeletal muscle tissue in mouse models of human Duchenne muscular dystrophy. PMID:24761302
Chantler, C.T.; Islam, M.T.; Rae, N.A.; Tran, C.Q.; Glover, J.L.; Barnea, Z. (La Trobe); (Melbourne)
2012-09-25
An extension of the X-ray extended-range technique is described for measuring X-ray mass attenuation coefficients by introducing absolute measurement of a number of foils - the multiple independent foil technique. Illustrating the technique with the results of measurements for gold in the 38-50 keV energy range, it is shown that its use enables selection of the most uniform and well defined of available foils, leading to more accurate measurements; it allows one to test the consistency of independently measured absolute values of the mass attenuation coefficient with those obtained by the thickness transfer method; and it tests the linearity of the response of the counter and counting chain throughout the range of X-ray intensities encountered in a given experiment. In light of the results for gold, the strategy to be ideally employed in measuring absolute X-ray mass attenuation coefficients, X-ray absorption fine structure and related quantities is discussed.
Temporal change in coda wave attenuation observed during an eruption of Mount St. Helens
Fehler, M.; Roberts, P.; Fairbanks, T.
1988-05-10
During the past few years there have been numerous reports of changes in coda wave attenuation occurring before major earthquakes. These observations are important because they may provide insight into stress-related structural changes taking place in the focal region prior to the occurrence of large earthquakes. The results of these studies led us to suspect that temporal changes in coda wave attenuation might also accompany volcanic eruptions. By measuring power decay envelopes for earthquakes at Mount St. Helens recorded before, during, and after an eruption that took place during September 3--6, 1981, we found that coda Q/sup -1/ for frequencies between 6 and 30 Hz was 20--30% higher before the eruption than after. The change is attributed to an increase in the density of open microcracks in the rock associated with inflation of the volcano prior to the eruption. Q/sup -1/ was found to be only weakly dependent on frequency and displayed a slight peak near 10 Hz. The weak frequency dependence is attributed to the dominance of intrinsic attenuation over scattering attenuation, since it is generally accepted that intrinsic attenuation is constant with frequency, whereas scattering attenuation decreases strongly at higher frequencies. The weak frequency dependence of Q/sup -1/ at Mount St. Helens contrasts with results reported for studies in nonvolcanic regions. The peak in Q/sup -1/ near 10 Hz at Mount St. Helens is attributed to the scale length of heterogeneity responsible for generating backscattered waves. Results for nonvolcanic regions have shown this peak to occur near 0.5 Hz. Thus a smaller scale length of heterogeneity is required to explain the 10-Hz peak at Mount St. Helens. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988
Irradiance attenuation coefficient in a stratified ocean - A local property of the medium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gordon, H. R.
1980-01-01
The influence of optically important constituents of water on the absorption (a) and scattering (b) coefficients and the backscattering probability is considered, with emphasis placed on measuring the volume scattering function (B/theta/). Two stratification models are examined; one in which the phase function (B(theta)/b) is depth independent and only b/c is allowed to vary with optical depth, and the other in which both b/c and the phase function depend on depth. The results demonstrate that Gordon's (1977) technique of estimating a and b is applicable without change to a stratified ocean.
Velocity-Space Diffusion Coefficients Due to Full-Wave ICRF Fields in Toroidal Geometry
Harvey, R.W. [CompX, P.O. Box 2672, Del Mar, CA 92014-5672 (United States); Jaeger, F.; Berry, L.A.; Batchelor, D.B.; D'Azevedo, E.; Carter, M.D. [ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ershov, N.M.; Smirnov, A.P. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation); Bonoli, P.; Wright, J.C. [PSFC, MIT, Boston, MA (United States); Smithe, D.N. [ATK-Mission Research (United States)
2005-09-26
Jaeger et al. have calculated bounce-averaged QL diffusion coefficients from AORSA full-wave fields, based on non-Maxwellian distributions from CQL3D Fokker-Planck code. A zero banana-width approximation is employed. Complementing this calculation, a fully numerical calculation of ion velocity diffusion coefficients using the full-wave fields in numerical tokamak equilibria has been implemented to determine the finite orbit width effects. The un-approximated Lorentz equation of motion is integrated to obtain the change in velocity after one complete poloidal transit of the tokamak. Averaging velocity changes over initial starting gyro-phase and toroidal angle gives bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients. The coefficients from the full-wave and Lorentz orbit methods are compared for an ITER DT second harmonic tritium ICRF heating case: the diffusion coefficients are similar in magnitude but reveal substantial finite orbit effects.
Imaging Rayleigh Wave Attenuation and Phase Velocity beneath North America with USArray
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bao, X.; Dalton, C. A.; Jin, G.; Gaherty, J. B.
2014-12-01
The EarthScope USArray provides an opportunity to obtain detailed images of the continental upper mantle of United States at a novel scale. The majority of mantle models derived from USArray data contain spatial variations in velocity; however, little is known about the attenuation structure of the North American upper mantle. Joint interpretation of seismic attenuation and velocity models can improve upon the interpretations based only on velocity, and provide important constraints on the temperature, composition, melt content, and volatile content of the mantle. In this study, Rayleigh wave travel time and amplitude are measured using an interstation cross-correlation version of the Generalized Seismological Data Functional algorithm, which takes advantage of waveform similarity at nearby stations. Our data are from 670 large teleseismic earthquakes that occurred from 2006 to 2014 and were recorded by 1,764 Transportable Array stations. More than 4.8 million measurements at periods between 20 and 100 s are collected into our database. Isolating the signal of attenuation in the amplitude observations is challenging because amplitudes are sensitive to a number of factors in addition to attenuation, such as focusing/defocusing and local site amplification. We generate several Rayleigh wave attenuation maps at each period, using several different approaches to account for source and receiver effects on amplitude. This suite of attenuation maps allows us to distinguish between the robust features in the maps and the features that are sensitive to the treatment of source and receiver effects. We apply Helmholtz surface-wave tomography (Lin et al., 2012) to determine velocity and attenuation maps. A significant contrast in velocity and attenuation is observed in the transition between the western and central United States along the Rocky Mountain front. We find low Q values in the western US, along the eastern coast, and the Gulf plain. These areas are also characterized by low wave speed in the phase-velocity maps. The lateral variations in Q may indicate possible temperature variations in the upper mantle of the continental interior. Our Q maps in the western US show good agreement with those presented by Lin et al. (2012). Both models contain low Q (< 100) beneath the Colorado Plateau and the West Coast for 60 s.
Comparison of photon attenuation coefficients (2-150 KeV) for diagnostic imaging simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dodge, Charles W., III; Flynn, Michael J.
2004-05-01
The Radiology Research Laboratory at the Henry Ford Hospital has been involved in modeling x-ray units in order to predict image quality. A critical part of that modeling process is the accurate choice of interaction coefficients. This paper serves as a review and comparison of existing interaction models. Our objective was to obtain accurate and easily calculated interaction coefficients, at diagnostically relevant energies. We obtained data from: McMaster, Lawrence Berkeley Lab data (LBL), XCOM and FFAST Data from NIST, and the EPDL-97 database via LLNL. Our studies involve low energy photons; therefore, comparisons were limited to Coherent (Rayleigh), Incoherent (Compton) and Photoelectric effects, which were summed to determine a total interaction cross section. Without measured data, it becomes difficult to definitively choose the most accurate method. However, known limitations in the McMaster data and smoothing of photo-edge transitions can be used as a guide to establish more valid approaches. Each method was compared to one another graphically and at individual points. We found that agreement between all methods was excellent when away from photo-edges. Near photo-edges and at low energies, most methods were less accurate. Only the Chanter (FFAST) data seems to have consistently and accurately predicted the placement of edges (through M-shell), while minimizing smoothing errors. The EPDL-97 data by LLNL was the best over method in predicting coherent and incoherent cross sections.
Numerical investigation of wave attenuation by vegetation using a 3D RANS model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marsooli, Reza; Wu, Weiming
2014-12-01
Vegetation has been recognized as an important natural shoreline protection against storm surges and waves. Understanding of wave-vegetation interaction is essential for assessing the ability of vegetation patches, such as wetlands, to mitigate storm damages. In this study the wave attenuation by vegetation is investigated numerically using a 3-D model which solves the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) by means of a finite-volume method based on collocated hexahedron mesh. A mixing length model is used for turbulence closure of the RANS equations. The water surface boundary is tracked using the Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) method with the Compressive Interface Capturing Scheme for Arbitrary Meshes (CICSAM) to solve the VOF advection equation. The presence of vegetation is taken into account by adding the vegetation drag and inertia forces to the momentum equations. The model is validated by several laboratory experiments of short wave propagation through vegetation over flat and sloping beds. The comparisons show good agreement between the measured data and calculated results, but the swaying motion of flexible vegetation which is neglected in this study can influence the accuracy of the wave height predictions. The model is then applied to one of the validation tests with different vegetation properties, revealing that the wave height attenuation by vegetation depends not only on the wave conditions, but also the vegetation characteristics such as vegetation height and density.
Characteristics of vibrational wave propagation and attenuation in submarine fluid-filled pipelines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Jin; Zhang, Juan
2015-04-01
As an important part of lifeline engineering in the development and utilization of marine resources, the submarine fluid-filled pipeline is a complex coupling system which is subjected to both internal and external flow fields. By utilizing Kennard's shell equations and combining with Helmholtz equations of flow field, the coupling equations of submarine fluid-filled pipeline for n=0 axisymmetrical wave motion are set up. Analytical expressions of wave speed are obtained for both s=1 and s=2 waves, which correspond to a fluid-dominated wave and an axial shell wave, respectively. The numerical results for wave speed and wave attenuation are obtained and discussed subsequently. It shows that the frequency depends on phase velocity, and the attenuation of this mode depends strongly on material parameters of the pipe and the internal and the external fluid fields. The characteristics of PVC pipe are studied for a comparison. The effects of shell thickness/radius ratio and density of the contained fluid on the model are also discussed. The study provides a theoretical basis and helps to accurately predict the situation of submarine pipelines, which also has practical application prospect in the field of pipeline leakage detection.
Ultrasonic attenuation in pearlitic steel.
Du, Hualong; Turner, Joseph A
2014-03-01
Expressions for the attenuation coefficients of longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic waves are developed for steel with pearlitic microstructure. This type of lamellar duplex microstructure influences attenuation because of the lamellar spacing. In addition, longitudinal attenuation measurements were conducted using an unfocused transducer with 10 MHz central frequency on the cross section of a quenched railroad wheel sample. The dependence of longitudinal attenuation on the pearlite microstructure is observed from the changes of longitudinal attenuation from the quenched tread surface to deeper locations. The results show that the attenuation value is lowest and relatively constant within the quench depth, then increases linearly. The experimental results demonstrate a reasonable agreement with results from the theoretical model. Ultrasonic attenuation provides an important non-destructive method to evaluate duplex microstructure within grains which can be implemented for quality control in conjunction with other manufacturing processes. PMID:24268679
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemein, T.; Cox, D. T.; Albert, D.; Blackmar, P.
2012-12-01
Feedbacks between vegetation, wave climate, and sedimentation create stable ecosystem states within estuaries that provide ecosystem services such as wildlife habitat, erosion control, and pollution filtration. Flume and field studies conducted with cordgrass (Spartina spp.) and sea grasses (Zostera spp., Halodule spp.) have demonstrated that the presence of vegetation reduces wave energy and increases sediment retention. Since the spatial distribution of plant species and the presence of unique plant species differ between estuaries, there is a need to understand how individual plant species, or groups of species with similar morphology, influence wave characteristics and sedimentation. Within Tillamook Bay, Oregon, three species of emergent vascular vegetation species (Carex lyngbyei, Eleocharis sp., Schoenoplectus pungens) and one species of submergent vascular vegetation species (Zostera marina) are present in the high wave energy portion of the estuary at the border of open water and the start of vegetation. These species represent three distinct growth forms (emergent reeds, emergent grasses, submergent grasses) and occur at varying densities relative to each other, as well as within the estuary. Using paired acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs), we quantify the relative attenuation of wave velocity between vegetation types and densities within the estuary and compare these results with published attenuation rates from flume and field studies in different environments. The effect of decreased wave velocity on sediment retention is measured using permanent sediment markers within and outside of vegetation stands and paired with ADV data. Sediment retention is predicted to vary seasonally with seasonal vegetation composition changes and remain constant in unvegetated areas. From this experiment we expect to identify like groups of plant species whose attenuation characteristics are the same, allowing for models of wave-vegetation-sediment interaction to be created with multiple vegetation types.
Ocean current and wave effects on wind stress drag coefficient over the global ocean
A. Birol Kara; E. Joseph Metzger; Mark A. Bourassa
2007-01-01
The effects of ocean surface currents and dominant waves on the wind stress drag coefficient (CD) are examined over the global ocean. Major findings are as follows: (1) the combination of both ocean wave and current speeds can result in reductions in daily CD (>10%), but the notable impact of the latter is only evident in the tropical Pacific Ocean;
Ocean current and wave effects on wind stress drag coefficient over the global ocean
A. Birol Kara; E. Joseph Metzger; Mark A. Bourassa
2007-01-01
(1) The effects of ocean surface currents and dominant waves on the wind stress drag coefficient (CD) are examined over the global ocean. Major findings are as follows: (1) the combination of both ocean wave and current speeds can result in reductions in daily CD (>10%), but the notable impact of the latter is only evident in the tropical Pacific
Attenuation of shock waves propagating through nano-structured porous materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Al-Qananwah, Ahmad K.; Koplik, Joel; Andreopoulos, Yiannis
2013-07-01
Porous materials have long been known to be effective in energy absorption and shock wave attenuation. These properties make them attractive in blast mitigation strategies. Nano-structured materials have an even greater potential for blast mitigation because of their high surface-to-volume ratio, a geometric parameter which substantially attenuates shock wave propagation. A molecular dynamics approach was used to explore the effects of this remarkable property on the behavior of traveling shocks impacting on solid materials. The computational setup included a moving piston, a gas region and a target solid wall with and without a porous structure. The gas and porous solid were modeled by Lennard-Jones-like and effective atom potentials, respectively. The shock wave is resolved in space and time and its reflection from a solid wall is gradual, due to the wave's finite thickness, and entails a self-interaction as the reflected wave travels through the incoming incident wave. Cases investigated include a free standing porous structure, a porous structure attached to a wall and porous structures with graded porosity. The effects of pore shape and orientation have been also documented. The results indicate that placing a nano-porous material layer in front of the target wall reduced the stress magnitude and the energy deposited inside the solid by about 30 percent, while at the same time substantially decreasing the loading rate.
Numerical Analysis of Pulsed Pressure Waves in Attenuative and Dispersive Media.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wismer, Margaret Gertrude
This thesis examines the behavior of pulsed pressure waves as they propagate through dissipative fluids whose attenuation is characterized by a frequency power law. This means that the degree of attenuation increases as the frequency of a sinusoidal input signal increases where the rate of change is a physical property of the substance. Previously published experimental data indicates that this form of attenuation is typical of many viscous materials including biological tissues and fluids, adhesive glues, etc. The model developed to describe this behavior is based on the assumption that the pulsed waves have finite amplitude and can therefore be uniquely represented in the Fourier frequency domain in which the attenuation is equal to the imaginary part of the complex wavenumber. To ensure causality of the system impulse response, it is shown that the real part of the wavenumber must be nonlinearly dependent on frequency. This means that the physical system must be dispersive as well as attenuative and consequently pulsed waves are distorted as they propagate. Based on the complex wavenumber, a dispersive version of the wave equation which satisfies continuity conditions at material interfaces is derived. A spatial and temporal discretization of this equation allows for the analysis of realistic imaging regions. Due to noninteger powers of frequency in the wavenumber a continuous time version of the wave equation is not easily obtained making traditional finite difference time domain operators inapplicable. The interdependence of imaginary and real parts of the wavenumber, however, makes it possible to combine the corresponding terms in the wave equation into a single factor. This factor can then be mapped into discrete time frequency. In this domain noninteger exponents can be eliminated via a power series expansion and the resulting equations transform naturally to discrete time operators. The validity of this method is verified by comparing the results with those obtained through a numerical frequency domain implementation. The algorithm is demonstrated in two dimensions by simulating pulsed pressure waves radiating from a finite aperture through an adhesive bond layer in which case a thin dispersive layer is sandwiched between two lossless fluids.
Surface multiple attenuation operators in the plane-wave domain: Theory and applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Faqi
1999-11-01
This dissertation conducts the study of wave theory based multiple attenuation methods in the plane wave domain. The first part includes a detailed event based description of the forward modeling of a complete seismogram, which plays a key role in the derivation of different multiple attenuation equations. With the aid of some synthetic examples, the second part of this dissertation theoretically addresses different multiple attenuation methods. The most important part of this study is that all the initially unrelated methods reported in the literature are derived from a single forward modeling equation. I classified these methods into two fundamental groups: a prediction and subtraction based group and a deconvolution based group. In the former category, the prediction of multiples is performed by optimization, which requires the knowledge of either a source function or the reflectivity of the structure. Multiple attenuation methods in the second group make use of the convolutional model of a seismic reflection, where the multiple free data are represented as a deconvolution of the downgoing incident wavefield from the upgoing reflection. This approach has the potential application to multi-component ocean bottom seismometer data, where the dual sensor measurements, namely pressure and vertical velocity, provide an efficient way for the decomposition of pressure to its upgoing and downgoing wave components. The third part of the research consists of the evaluation of three different multiple attenuation methods and their applications to real data. The first method is designed for fairly flat layered earth model, which aims at the attenuation of the water layer multiples. The second one is a 2-D method that handles the lateral variation of the structure by coupling different upgoing and downgoing plane waves, which results in an elegant equation in a matrix form. In most geological settings, these matrices show band limited structure with narrow band width in the plane wave domain, which significantly increases the efficiency of the method. These two methods belong to the prediction and subtraction approach. The third method is a representative of the deconvolution approach, it decomposes the pressure to its upgoing and downgoing components by using the hydrophone and geophone data. For a optimal separation, I design a filter to calibrate the geophone data so that the variant coupling of the hydrophone and geophone together with different noise can be properly taken care. Examples on both synthetic and real data show that the methods are stable and successful. Theoretically, they all can be extended to 3-D cases.
The propagation and attenuation of complex acoustic waves in treated circular and annular ducts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reethof, G.
1976-01-01
The propagation of plane waves and higher order acoustic modes in a circular multisectioned duct was studied. A unique source array consisting of two concentric rings of sources, providing phase and amplitude control in the radial, as well as circumferential direction, was developed to generate plane waves and both spinning and nonspinning higher order modes. Measurements of attenuation and radial mode shapes were taken with finite length liners between the hard wall sections of an anechoically terminated duct. Materials tested as liners included a glass fiber material and both sintered fiber metals and perforated sheet metals with a honeycomb backing. The fundamental acoustic properties of these materials were studied with emphasis on the attenuation of sound by the liners and the determination of local versus extended reaction behavior for the boundary condition. The experimental results were compared with a mathematical model for the multisectioned duct.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, E. S. M.; Spencer, B.; McEwen, M. R.; Rogers, D. W. O.
2015-02-01
In this study, a quantitative estimate is derived for the uncertainty in the XCOM photon mass attenuation coefficients in the energy range of interest to external beam radiation therapy—i.e. 100 keV (orthovoltage) to 25 MeV—using direct comparisons of experimental data against Monte Carlo models and theoretical XCOM data. Two independent datasets are used. The first dataset is from our recent transmission measurements and the corresponding EGSnrc calculations (Ali et al 2012 Med. Phys. 39 5990–6003) for 10–30 MV photon beams from the research linac at the National Research Council Canada. The attenuators are graphite and lead, with a total of 140 data points and an experimental uncertainty of ˜0.5% (k = 1). An optimum energy-independent cross section scaling factor that minimizes the discrepancies between measurements and calculations is used to deduce cross section uncertainty. The second dataset is from the aggregate of cross section measurements in the literature for graphite and lead (49 experiments, 288 data points). The dataset is compared to the sum of the XCOM data plus the IAEA photonuclear data. Again, an optimum energy-independent cross section scaling factor is used to deduce the cross section uncertainty. Using the average result from the two datasets, the energy-independent cross section uncertainty estimate is 0.5% (68% confidence) and 0.7% (95% confidence). The potential for energy-dependent errors is discussed. Photon cross section uncertainty is shown to be smaller than the current qualitative ‘envelope of uncertainty’ of the order of 1–2%, as given by Hubbell (1999 Phys. Med. Biol 44 R1–22).
Ali, E S M; Spencer, B; McEwen, M R; Rogers, D W O
2015-02-21
In this study, a quantitative estimate is derived for the uncertainty in the XCOM photon mass attenuation coefficients in the energy range of interest to external beam radiation therapy-i.e. 100 keV (orthovoltage) to 25 MeV-using direct comparisons of experimental data against Monte Carlo models and theoretical XCOM data. Two independent datasets are used. The first dataset is from our recent transmission measurements and the corresponding EGSnrc calculations (Ali et al 2012 Med. Phys. 39 5990-6003) for 10-30 MV photon beams from the research linac at the National Research Council Canada. The attenuators are graphite and lead, with a total of 140 data points and an experimental uncertainty of ?0.5% (k = 1). An optimum energy-independent cross section scaling factor that minimizes the discrepancies between measurements and calculations is used to deduce cross section uncertainty. The second dataset is from the aggregate of cross section measurements in the literature for graphite and lead (49 experiments, 288 data points). The dataset is compared to the sum of the XCOM data plus the IAEA photonuclear data. Again, an optimum energy-independent cross section scaling factor is used to deduce the cross section uncertainty. Using the average result from the two datasets, the energy-independent cross section uncertainty estimate is 0.5% (68% confidence) and 0.7% (95% confidence). The potential for energy-dependent errors is discussed. Photon cross section uncertainty is shown to be smaller than the current qualitative 'envelope of uncertainty' of the order of 1-2%, as given by Hubbell (1999 Phys. Med. Biol 44 R1-22). PMID:25622289
Jalali, Majid [Esfahan Nuclear Technology Center - ENTC (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2006-07-01
The compounds, Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}, H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}, CdCl{sub 2} and NaCl and their solutions, attenuate gamma rays in addition to neutron absorption. These compounds are widely used in shielding of neutron sources, reactor control and neutron converters. Mass attenuation coefficients of gamma related to saturated solutions of the above four compounds, in energies 1172 keV and 1332 keV have been measured by NaI detector and agree very well with the results obtained by Xcom code. Experiment and computation show that, H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} has the highest gamma ray attenuation coefficient among the aforementioned compounds. (author)
Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficients of gold in the 38?50-keV energy range
Islam, M.T.; Rae, N.A.; Glover, J.L.; Barnea, Z.; de Jonge, M.D.; Tran, C.Q.; Wang, J.; Chantler, C.T. (Melbourne)
2010-11-12
We used synchrotron x rays to measure the x-ray mass attenuation coefficients of gold at nine energies from 38 to 50 keV with accuracies of 0.1%. Our results are much more accurate than previous measurements in this energy range. A comparison of our measurements with calculated mass attenuation coefficients shows that our measurements fall almost exactly midway between the XCOM and FFAST calculated theoretical values, which differ from one another in this energy region by about 4%, even though the range includes no absorption edge. The consistency and accuracy of these measurements open the way to investigations of the x-ray attenuation in the region of the L absorption edge of gold.
Effect of phase change on shock wave attenuation in GeO2 and T. J. Ahrens
Stewart, Sarah T.
wave velocity decreases to a value below 2.5 km/s the speed of the bulk wave, at the HEL . 3 A shockEffect of phase change on shock wave attenuation in GeO2 C. Liua) and T. J. Ahrens Seismological shock regime with ramp 4 GPa Hugoniot elastic limit HEL precursor. Shock propagation velocity decreases
B. J. Mitchell; O. W. Nuttli; J. K. Xie; H. Al-Shukri; A. Correig
1989-01-01
Work was completed on yield determination at the Soviet test site on Novaya Zemlya. Magnitudes and yields, determined for 30 explosions using Lg amplitudes recorded in northwestern Europe, ranged between 2.5 and 4900 kt, the largest since April 1976 being about 145 kt. Studies were completed on seismic wave attenuation of surface waves at intermediate periods and of Lg waves
Multiple component mode conversion coefficients via Lamb wave polarization measurements
James T. Ayers; Nicoleta Apetre; Massimo Ruzzene
2011-01-01
The paper presents a method of quantifying the mode conversion of Lamb waves within a 1D structure from a notch-like asymmetric damage using both in-plane and out-of-plane velocity\\/displacement measurements. The method is applied to data recorded from a Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer, and likewise to numerical studies from a plane strain finite element model. A filtering procedure is implemented, and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, M. D.; Kumar, M.
2011-01-01
The mathematical model for wave motion in a porous solid saturated by two immiscible fluids is solved for the propagation of harmonic plane waves along a general direction in 3-D space. The solution is obtained in the form of Christoffel equations, which are solved further to calculate the complex velocities and polarisations of three longitudinal waves and one transverse wave. For any of these four attenuated waves, a general inhomogeneous propagation is considered through a particular specification of complex slowness vector. Inhomogeneity of an attenuated wave is represented through a finite non-dimensional parameter. For an arbitrarily chosen value of this inhomogeneity parameter, phase velocity and attenuation of a wave are calculated from the specification of its slowness vector. This specification enables to separate the contribution from homogeneous propagation of attenuated wave to the total attenuation. The phenomenon of reflection is studied to calculate the partition of wave-induced energy incident at the plane boundary of the porous solid. A parameter is used to define the partial opening of pores at the surface of porous solid. An arbitrary value of this parameter allows to study the variations in the energy partition with the opening of surface pores from fully closed to perfectly open. Another parameter is used to vary the saturation in pores from whole liquid to whole gas. Numerical examples are considered to discuss the effects of propagation direction, inhomogeneity parameter, opening of surface pores and saturating pore-fluid on the partition of incident energy.
Mackawa, T.; Shimada, T.; Inoue, S.; Jitsumori, A. (Mitsubishi Electric Corp., 8-1-1 Tsukaguchi-honmachi, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661 (JP)); Okumura, N. (Japan National Oil Corp., 1-1-2 Hamada, Chiba 260 (JP)); Akizuki, K. (Waseda Univ., 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160 (JP))
1992-03-01
In the field of oil well drilling. EM-MWD (Electromagnetic Measurement While Drilling) offers many advantages. The EM-MWD system can transmit measured data from the well bottom to the surface with high speed using electromagnetic waves. Developing the EM-MWD technology requires analysis of the electric field around a drill string. A new computer simulation method has been developed. The method considers attenuation of electromagnetic waves propagated in lossy media, the earth, using features of analysis models. This paper reports that the simulation method can be applied to waveform simulation. This method has been verified by field experiment using a borehole of 500m depth.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrov, P. S.; Zakharenko, A. D.; Trofimov, M. Yu.
2012-11-01
A suitable tool for the simulation of low frequency acoustic pulse signals propagating in a shallow sea is the numerical integration of the nonstationary wave equation. The main feature of such simulation problems is that in this case the sound waves propagate in the geoacoustic waveguide formed by the upper layers of the bottom and the water column. By this reason, the correct dependence of the attenuation of sound waves in the bottom on their frequency must be taken into account. In this paper we obtain an integro-differential equation for the sound waves in the viscoelastic fluid, which allows to simulate the arbitrary dependence of acoustic wave attenuation on frequency in the time domain computations. The procedure of numerical solution of this equation based on its approximation by a system of differential equations is then considered and the methods of artificial limitation of computational domain are described. We also construct a simple finite-difference scheme for the proposed equation suitable for the numerical solution of nonstationary problems arising in the shallow-sea acoustics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romanowicz, Barbara
1990-07-01
We present the results of an analysis of global lateral variations in anelasticity of the upper mantle, as measured from very long period Rayleigh waves observed on the GEOSCOPE network. Four consecutive wave trains are used on each record to eliminate uncertainty on the amplitude at the source and to take into account, in a linear manner, focussing effects due to lateral variations in elastic parameters. Local estimates of attenuation are obtained using an inversion method based on the introduction of a correlation length, as an alternative to spherical harmonics expansion. Comparison of phase velocity and attenuation maps obtained at various periods shows a strong correlation of high-Q and high-velocity regions (respectively low Q and low velocity) both for great circle and minor arc data, at periods around 200 s. The detailed analysis of the degree 2 pattern, well resolved in the attenuation maps around this period, shows that it originates in the depth range 250-500 km and indicates that of the upper mantle degree 2 pattern observed in shear velocity is likely to be of thermal origin, possibly related to the topmost part of the large-scale convective system. Corrections for dispersion due to anelastic attenuation in degree 2 lead to significant decrease of corresponding lateral variations in shear velocity and a better agreement in phase and amplitude of the upper mantle degree 2 pattern with that observed in the geoid. This study shows that it is important to consider correcting presently available upper mantle tomographic models for the effects of intrinsic attenuation at long periods, before performing any comparison with short-period data or other geophysical parameters.
Attenuation and velocity structure from diffuse coda waves: Constraints from underground array data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galluzzo, Danilo; La Rocca, Mario; Margerin, Ludovic; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Scarpa, Roberto
2015-03-01
An analysis of coda waves excited in the 0.2-20 Hz frequency band and recorded by the underground array Underseis (central Italy) has been performed to constrain both seismic attenuation at regional scale and velocity structure in the Mount Gran Sasso area. Attenuation was estimated with the MLTWA method, and shows a predominance of scattering phenomena over intrinsic absorption. The values of Qi and Qs are compatible with other estimates obtained in similar tectonic environments. Array methods allowed for a detailed study of the propagation characteristics, demonstrating that earthquake coda at frequencies greater than about 6 Hz is composed of only body waves. Coherence and spectral characteristics of seismic waves measured along the coda of local and regional earthquakes indicate that the wavefield becomes fully diffuse only in the late coda. The frequency-dependent energy partitioning between horizontal and vertical components has been also estimated and compared with synthetic values computed in a layered half-space under the diffuse field assumption. This comparison confirms that, for frequencies higher than 6 Hz, the coda appears as a sum of body waves coming from all directions while, in the low frequency range (0.2-2 Hz), the observations can be well explained by a coda wavefield composed of an equipartition mixture of surface and body waves traveling in a multiple-layered medium. A Monte-Carlo inversion has been performed to obtain a set of acceptable velocity models of the upper crust. The present results show that a broadband coda wavefield recorded in an underground environment is useful to constrain both the regional attenuation and the velocity structure of the target area, thereby complementing the results of classical array analysis of the wavefield.
P-wave attenuation tomography of Mount St. Helens: preliminary results from coda-normalized spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Siena, L.; Hicks, S.; Waite, G. P.; Moran, S. C.
2010-12-01
The P-wave velocity structure of Mount St. Helens has been recently imaged with local earthquake tomography, using the data recorded since its eruption in 1980. Part of this dataset has been processed to obtain a preliminary frequency dependent Qp image of the crust below the volcanic cone. We extended the so-called coda-normalization method, usually applied to S-waves, to the measurement of path-dependent P-wave attenuation. A scattering model has been developed in order to select the best time-window to measure the P-wave spectral amplitude on each trace. The objective is to average the effect of the source radiation pattern with the properties of early coda. The weighting matrix in the final inversion is dependent on the source radiation pattern and the spectral amplitude of noise. The Discrete Picard Condition and the Discrepancy Principle have been applied to investigate the maximum resolution available in each part of the medium. Truncated Singular Value Decomposition as well as Zeroth-, first- and second-order Tikhonov regularization techniques have been investigated by using the multi-resolution inversion code (MuReATA). The interpretation of the preliminary results is carried out by using cluster analysis on velocity and attenuation measurements.
Estimates of ocean wave heights and attenuation in sea ice using the SAR wave mode on Sentinel-1A
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ardhuin, Fabrice; Collard, Fabrice; Chapron, Bertrand; Girard-Ardhuin, Fanny; Guitton, Gilles; Mouche, Alexis; Stopa, Justin
2015-04-01
Swell evolution from the open ocean into sea ice is poorly understood, in particular the amplitude attenuation expected from scattering and dissipation. New synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data from Sentinel-1 wave mode reveal intriguing patterns of bright oscillating lines shaped like instant noodles. We investigate cases in which the oscillations are in the azimuth direction, around a straight line in the range direction. This observation is interpreted as the distortion by the SAR processing of crests from a first swell, due to the presence of a second swell. As deviations from a straight line should be proportional to the orbital velocity towards the satellite, swell height can be estimated, from 1.5 to 5 m in the present case. This evolution of this 13 s period swell across the ice pack is consistent with an exponential attenuation on a length scale of 200 km.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Collard, F.; Ardhuin, F.; Guitton, G.; Dumont, D.; Nicot, P.; Accenti, M.; Girard-Ardhuin, F.
2014-12-01
Sentinel-1A launched by the European Space Agency in April 2014 will complete its full calibration and validation phase including Level2 products early in 2015 but image quality is already good enought for scientific exploitation of observed wave modulations. The larger frequency bandwidth and new acquisition modes are providing a much improved capability for imaging ocean waves in the open water and in the ice compared to Envisat. Here we estimate wave spectra in the Arctic assuming a spatially uniform modulation transfer function where the backscatter over ice is homogeneous, matching the wave heights in open ocean and ice at the ice edge. These wave properties are used to estimate attenuation scales for wavelength longer than twice the radar image resolution. These estimated attenuations are compared to model results based on WAVEWATCH III, where attenuation and scattering uses a combination of friction below the ice and scattering adapted from Dumont et al. (2011) and Williams et al. (2013).
Bull, Diana L; Ochs, Margaret Ellen
2013-09-01
This report considers and prioritizes the primary potential technical costreduction pathways for offshore wave activated body attenuators designed for ocean resources. This report focuses on technical research and development costreduction pathways related to the device technology rather than environmental monitoring or permitting opportunities. Three sources of information were used to understand current cost drivers and develop a prioritized list of potential costreduction pathways: a literature review of technical work related to attenuators, a reference device compiled from literature sources, and a webinar with each of three industry device developers. Data from these information sources were aggregated and prioritized with respect to the potential impact on the lifetime levelized cost of energy, the potential for progress, the potential for success, and the confidence in success. Results indicate the five most promising costreduction pathways include advanced controls, an optimized structural design, improved power conversion, planned maintenance scheduling, and an optimized device profile.
A Split of Direction of Propagation and Attenuation of P Waves in the Po Valley
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daminelli, R.; Tento, A.; Marcellini, A.
2013-12-01
On July 17, 2011 a ML 4.8 earthquake occurred in the PO valley at a 48 km epicentral distance from a seismic station located at Palazzo Te (Mantova). The station is situated on deep quaternary sediments: the uppermost layers are mainly composed of clay and silty clay with interbedded sands; the Robertson index is 1.4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, X.; Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Bortnik, J.; Angelopoulos, V.; Lu, Q.; Tao, X.; Wang, S.
2014-11-01
The bandwidths and coherence coefficients of lower band whistler mode waves are analyzed using Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) waveform data for rising tones, falling tones, and hiss-like emissions separately. We also evaluate their dependences on the spatial location, electron density, the ratio of plasma frequency to local electron gyrofrequency (fpe/fce), and the wave amplitude. Our results show that the bandwidth normalized by the local electron gyrofrequency (fce) of rising and falling tones is very narrow (~0.01 fce), smaller than that of the hiss-like emissions (~0.025 fce). Meanwhile, the normalized bandwidth of discrete emissions gradually decreases with increasing wave amplitude, whereas that of hiss-like emissions increases slowly. The coherence coefficient of rising and falling tones is extremely large (~1), while the coherence coefficient of hiss-like emissions is smaller but is still larger than 0.5. For all categories of whistler mode waves, the normalized bandwidth increases at larger L shells. Furthermore, the normalized bandwidth is positively correlated with local fpe/fce but is inversely correlated with the electron density. Interactions between radiation belt electrons and whistler mode waves have been widely described by quasi-linear diffusion theory. Our results suggest that although quasi-linear theory is not entirely applicable for modeling electron interactions with rising and falling tones due to their narrow bandwidth and high coherence coefficient, it is suitable to treat wave-particle interactions between electrons and low-amplitude hiss-like emissions. Moreover, the correlations between the normalized bandwidth of chorus waves (especially the discrete emissions) and other parameters may provide insights for the generation mechanism of chorus waves.
Teleseismic Body Wave Attenuation in the Upper Mantle beneath the United States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cafferky, S.; Schmandt, B.
2014-12-01
EarthScope seismic data provide opportunities to examine mantle properties on a continental scale as the Transportable Array (TA) nears the end of its traverse across the contiguous United States. We use P- and S-wave amplitude spectra from all >M5.7 deep earthquakes recorded by the TA to examine seismic attenuation patterns in the upper mantle. More than 2 million inter-station P-wave spectral ratios were inverted for maps of relative tP* variations across the U.S. in multiple frequency bands between 0.08 - 2 Hz. We plan to have corresponding S-wave results by meeting time. Maps of tP* are strongly correlated (>0.8) for frequency bands of 0.08 - 2 Hz, 0.25 - 2 Hz, 0.08 - 1 Hz, and 0.25 - 1 Hz. The broader the frequency band examined (e.g. 0.08 - 2 Hz), the lower the magnitude in variations of tP*; however, those broader frequency bands still exhibited geographic patterns similar to the narrow frequency bands. We compare our maps' tP* with seismic velocity models and constraints on crustal scattering to assess the physical origin of apparent attenuation. In the tectonically active and high heat flow domain of the western U.S., tP* variations are moderately correlated with thermal variations predicted by tomography studies of seismic velocity. However, contrast in tP* between western Cordillera and the cratonic interior is weaker than predicted by tomography. Additionally some areas of high attenuation are correlated with Precambrian tectonic boundaries within the Laurentian craton. The weak contrast between the western and eastern U.S. and correlations with Precambrian tectonics suggest that elastic scattering due to small-scale (~10 - 100 km) heterogeneity or compositional variations in the lithosphere are major contributors to tP* estimates from deep earthquake spectral ratios. Moderate correlation of tP* with estimates of mantle temperature within the western U.S. suggests deep earthquake spectral ratios do carry some evidence of intrinsic attenuation, but separating the effects of elastic scattering and intrinsic attenuation remains a challenge.
Zhou, Ji-Xun; Zhang, Xue-Zhen
2012-12-01
Several physics-based seabed geoacoustic models (including the Biot theory) predict that compressional wave attenuation ?(2) in sandy marine sediments approximately follows quadratic frequency dependence at low frequencies, i.e., ?(2)?kf(n) (dB/m), n=2. A recent paper on broadband geoacoustic inversions from low frequency (LF) field measurements, made at 20 locations around the world, has indicated that the frequency exponent of the effective sound attenuation n?1.80 in a frequency band of 50-1000 Hz [Zhou et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, 2847-2866 (2009)]. Carey and Pierce hypothesize that the discrepancy is due to the inversion models' neglect of shear wave effects [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 124, EL271-EL277 (2008)]. The broadband geoacoustic inversions assume that the seabottom is an equivalent fluid and sound waves interact with the bottom at small grazing angles. The shear wave velocity and attenuation in the upper layer of ocean bottoms are estimated from the LF field-inverted effective bottom attenuations using a near-grazing bottom reflection expression for the equivalent fluid model, derived by Zhang and Tindle [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 3391-3396 (1995)]. The resultant shear wave velocity and attenuation are consistent with the SAX99 measurement at 25 Hz and 1000 Hz. The results are helpful for the analysis of shear wave effects on long-range sound propagation in shallow water. PMID:23231101
Best, A.I. [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom). Postgraduate Research Inst. for Sedimentology] [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom). Postgraduate Research Inst. for Sedimentology; Sams, M.S. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology] [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology
1997-03-01
Laboratory ultrasonic measurements of compressional wave velocity and attenuation were made as a function of effective pressure on samples of limestone, sandstone and siltstone taken from a shallow borehole test site. The results indicate that the sandstones are pervaded by grain contact microcracks which dramatically affect their compressional wave attenuations. Clean sandstone shows a compressional wave quality factor (Q{sub p}) of 24 {+-} 2 at 5 MPa effective pressure (close to the estimated in situ burial pressure) and a Q{sub p} of 83 {+-} 29 at 60 MPa. The Q{sub p} of limestones and siltstones at the site show negligible and small increases with pressure in the laboratory, respectively. The strong pressure dependence of Q{sub p} in clean sandstone was used to infer the presence of in situ microcracks. Sediment velocities measured in the laboratory at about 1 MHz were compared with those from the full waveform sonic log at about 10 kHz implies that they must also be highly attenuating over a significant part of the frequency range 10 kHz to 1 MHz, to account for the magnitude of the observed velocity dispersion. Assuming the laboratory Q{sub p} values measured at 5 MPa remain constant down to 10 kHz predicts the observed dispersion quite well. Furthermore, the sonic log velocities of sandstones, limestones and siltstones (after normalizing each lithology for porosity and clay content) were found to reflect the same pressure (depth) trends observed in the laboratory. The results provide evidence for the existence of in situ microcracks in near-surface sediments.
The effect of in-stream structures on flood wave attenuation in Western Carpathians of Slovakia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majerova, M.
2010-12-01
In-stream structures were built as a part of the erosion and sediment flux control on mountainous streams in Slovakia. These structures, steps, drop structures, and check dams, affect the flow regime and flood wave attenuation. Flood magnitude for ten and hundred-year flood events decreased by 0.21-29% depending on the flow and type of structures used. The largest decrease in flood duration was 39%. Relative change in flow depth and velocity, representing local stream conditions, ranged from 16 to 52%, and 12 to 106% respectively. These changes were modeled with 1D model, HEC-RAS, version 4.0, using unsteady flow simulations. Observed water surface was used for the calibration. Roughness was calculated using Chow and Cowan equations which were based on field observations. The flood events were modeled on Breznicky Creek, Sutovsky Creek, and Ilanovsky Creek in Kremnica Mountains, Little Fatra and Low Tatras as part of the Western Carpathian Mountains. Two scenarios were analyzed for ten and hundred-year flood events: 1) streams in their natural state, and 2) streams which have been altered by different in-stream structures. The results of this study are consistent with practice of torrent control for steps, small in-stream structures, and results from stream study in Czech Republic. The steps, used for local erosion control and habitat improvement, did not change the flood wave attenuation significantly. For drop structures and check dams, actual available water storage created by structures influenced the overall flood wave attenuation change. Quantification of flood magnitude and time duration under different flow regimes with different types of in-stream structures provides necessary information for flood risk management.
Ultrasonic attenuation of surface acoustic waves in a thin film of superconducting Nb 3Sn
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fredricksen, H. P.; Salvo, H. L.; Levy, M.; Hammond, R. H.; Geballe, T. H.
1980-02-01
The attenuation of 660 MHz surface acoustic waves propagating in a thin film of Nb 3Sn 5000 Å thick has been measured as a function of temperature from 4.2 K to 16 K. The A 15 Nb 3Sn, electron-beam codeposited on YZ lithium niobate and annealed at 700°C, was studied using 5.1 ?m wavelength interdigital electrodes. The film revealed a transition temperature of 14.2 ± 0.1 K and using the BCS theory, an energy gap 2 ?(0) = 3.5 kBTc.
Ediguer E. Franco; Julio Adamowski; Flavio Buiochi
2010-01-01
Real-time viscosity measurement remains a necessity for highly automated industry. To resolve this problem, many studies have been carried out using an ultrasonic shear wave reflectance method. This method is based on the determination of the complex reflection coefficient's magnitude and phase at the solid-liquid interface. Although magnitude is a stable quantity and its measurement is relatively simple and precise,
Ultrasonic Attenuation in Lanthanum Monochalcogenides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yadav, Raja; Singh, Devraj
2001-06-01
Ultrasonic attenuation due to phonon-phonon interaction and thermoelastic relaxation are studied in Lanthanum Monochalcogenides in <110> direction at different higher temperatures. For evaluation of ultrasonic absorption coefficients the second and third order elastic constants (SOEC) and (TOEC) are also calculated. Shear wave attenuation shows maximum along <110> propagation direction with polarized along <110> and the attenuation increases at higher temperatures. Thermo-elastic loss is very small compared to phonon-viscosity loss. Behavior of temperature dependence of the absorption is the same as in case of pure metals and dielectric crystals.
Differential shear wave attenuation and its lateral variation in the North Atlantic region
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sheehan, Anne F.; Solomon, Sean C.
1992-01-01
A digital data base of over 150 seismograms and a spectral radio technique are used to measure SS-S differential attenuation in the North Atlantic region. Differential attenuation is positively correlated with SS-S travel time residual, and both differential attentuation and travel time residual decrease with increasing seafloor age. Models are developed for seismic Q in which lateral variations include contributions from the asthenospheric low-Q zone as well as from lithospheric cooling. The Q models obtained under this assumption are in good agreement with those obtained from surface wave studies and are therefore preferred over those models with lateral variations confined to the upper 125 km. Systematic long-wavelength (1000-7000 km) variations in differential attenuation, corrected for seafloor age, are evident along the axis of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. These variations can be qualitatively correlated with long-wavelength variations in SS-S differential travel time residuals and are attributed to along-axis differences in upper mantle temperature.
New experimental approach to measure seismic wave attenuation of rocks at low frequencies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Madonna, C.; Boutareaud, S.; Burlini, L.; Habiger, R.
2009-04-01
Here we present a new experimental approach to accurately characterize attenuation on fluid-bearing rock samples. A prototype of apparatus has been built and developed in order to measure attenuation (1/Q) of seismic P-waves passing through a rock sample in the low frequency regime (0.1Hz - 50Hz), by the stress-strain method in an internally heated gas apparatus (Paterson-rig). Stress is measured with a high-sensitivity load cell (resolution 1N). Strain is measured with high sensitive LVDTs of 1mm full range (resolution 1e-7mm). The quality factor Q (i.e. the reciprocal of attenuation) is obtained from the time shift between the mechanically applied sinusoidal stress at the bottom of the sample, and the sinusoidal strain's response measured on the top sample. We report basic sketch of the apparatus, explain the technical difficulties and lastest improvements. In addition, we present the preliminary results on aluminium (1/Q close to 0) and Fontainbleau-sandstone saturated with oil, and their corresponding digital signal processing. This new technique can be used to accurately establish a catalog of 1/Q values as a function of in-situ rock properties. In particular, future studies using this apparatus will be used to investigate the effect of different fluid properties on 1/Q.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bauer, K.; Haberland, Ch.; Pratt, R. G.; Ryberg, T.; Weber, M. H.; Mallik Working Group
2003-04-01
We present crosswell seismic data from the Mallik 2002 Production Research Well Program, an international research project on Gas Hydrates in the Northwest Territories of Canada. The program participants include 8 partners; The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC), The Japan National Oil Corporation (JNOC), GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), United States Geological Survey (USGS), United States Department of the Energy (USDOE), India Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (MOPNG)/Gas Authority of India (GAIL) and the Chevron-BP-Burlington joint venture group. The crosswell seismic measurements were carried out by making use of two 1160 m deep observation wells (Mallik 3L-38 and 4L-38) both 45 m from and co-planar with the 1188 m deep production research well (5L-38). A high power piezo-ceramic source was used to generate sweeped signals with frequencies between 100 and 2000 Hz recorded with arrays of 8 hydrophones per depth level. A depth range between 800 and 1150 m was covered, with shot and receiver spacings of 0.75 m. High quality data could be collected during the survey which allow for application of a wide range of crosswell seismic methods. The initial data analysis included suppression of tube wave energy and picking of first arrivals. A damped least-squares algorithm was used to derive P-wave velocities from the travel time data. Next, t* values were derived from the decay of the amplitude spectra, which served as input parameters for a damped least-squares attenuation tomography. The initial results of the P-wave velocity and attenuation tomography reveal significant features reflecting the stratigraphic environment and allow for detection and eventually quantification of gas hydrate bearing sediments. A prominent correlation between P velocity and attenuation was found for the gas hydrate layers. This contradicts to the apparently more meaningful inverse correlation as it was determined for the gas hydrates at the Blake Ridge but supports the results from the Mallik 2L-38 sonic log data. The P velocities and attenuation values, if combined with other information can be important for the quantitative evaluation of the gas hydrate saturation, and may further constrain petrophysical models of the hydrate bearing sediment formation.
Determination of the profile of the attenuation factor in an aerosol using two-wave sounding
Korshunov, V.A.
1986-12-01
One of the more important problems in laser sounding of the atmosphere is the determination of the spatial distribution of the aerosol which is created by local sources of either artificial or natural origin. In such a case, the aerosol medium generally has the form of a cloud or a stream which is elongated along the direction of the wind. In this study, the authors consider the possibility of determining the profile of the aerosol attenuation factor using two-wave laser sounding without the use of a priori information on the unknown profile and without applying data on independent measurements. The authors assume that there is knowledge of the lidar ratios and of the ratios of the attenuation factors at the sounding wavelengths. Using the above assumptions on the aerosol medium, the authors derive a geometric expression of the experiment using two wavelengths for the equations for laser location. The results of the calculations show that the solution guarantees small errors of electric field intensity in comparison with the one-wave solutions.
Seismic tomography of compressional wave attenuation structure for K?¯lauea Volcano, Hawai`i
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Guoqing; Shearer, Peter M.; Amelung, Falk; Okubo, Paul G.
2015-04-01
We present a frequency-independent three-dimensional (3-D) compressional wave attenuation model (indicated by the reciprocal of quality factor Qp) for K?¯lauea Volcano in Hawai`i. We apply the simul2000 tomographic algorithm to the attenuation operator t* values for the inversion of Qp perturbations through a recent 3-D seismic velocity model and earthquake location catalog. The t* values are measured from amplitude spectra of 26708 P wave arrivals of 1036 events recorded by 61 seismic stations at the Hawaiian Volcanology Observatory. The 3-D Qp model has a uniform horizontal grid spacing of 3 km, and the vertical node intervals range between 2 and 10 km down to 35 km depth. In general, the resolved Qp values increase with depth, and there is a correlation between seismic activity and low-Qp values. The area beneath the summit caldera is dominated by low-Qp anomalies throughout the entire resolved depth range. The Southwest Rift Zone and the East Rift Zone exhibit very high Qp values at about 9 km depth, whereas the shallow depths are characterized with low-Qp anomalies comparable with those in the summit area. The seismic zones and fault systems generally display relatively high Qp values relative to the summit. The newly developed Qp model provides an important complement to the existing velocity models for exploring the magmatic system and evaluating and interpreting intrinsic physical properties of the rocks in the study area.
Lg Wave Attenuation in the Isparta Angle and Anatolian Plateau (Turkey)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sahin, Sakir; Bao, Xueyang; Turkelli, Niyazi; Sandvol, Eric; Teoman, Ugur; Kahraman, Metin
2013-03-01
We estimate Lg wave attenuation using local and regional seismic phases in the Isparta Angle and the Anatolian Plateau (Turkey). The Isparta Angle (IA) is a tectonically active zone forming the boundary between the African Plate and the Anatolian Plateau, and is currently undergoing N-S extensional deformation. The Anatolian Plateau contains many intra-continental faults including the North Anatolian Fault Zone and the East Anatolian Fault Zone as well as the Menderes Massif. A large waveform data set was compiled from a variety of local and regional seismic networks including 121 digital seismic stations (broad-band and short period) between 1999 and 2008 spanning the IA, the Anatolian Plateau and Azerbaijan. The data set was used to determine the nature of Lg wave propagation and characterize the nature of seismic attenuation within the crust of these regions. Lg waveforms were used to calculate the frequency-dependent Lg- Q o and Lg- ? . A wide range of Lg- Q o values was obtained between ~52 ± 6 and 524 ± 227. Low Lg- Q o values (~90-155) are calculated towards the north of IA, Iskenderun Gulf and its vicinity, Bingöl-Karl?ova, Izmit and its vicinity. Lg- Q o values are especially low (<90) along the Menderes Massif and the Aksehir-Simav Fault Zones. This may be due to intrinsic attenuation of Lg associated with the partially molten crust and young volcanism. The high Lg- Q o values (~350) are probably caused by the crust not being subject to large amounts of extensional deformation like the Antalya Gulf and apparently being thick enough to support Lg propagation. Relatively higher values along the border of this subduction zone and plate boundary might be related to the Taurus Mountain belts and Bitlis-Zagros Suture Zone. The lateral frequency dependency Lg- ? is also consistent with high tectonic activity in this region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martínez-Arévalo, Carmen; Bianco, Francesca; Ibáñez, Jesús M.; Del Pezzo, Edoardo
2003-11-01
The occurrence of a seismic series in Deception Island volcano (Antarctica), composed of hundreds of local volcano-tectonic earthquakes, has permitted us to study the seismic attenuation of such a volcanic environment in the short-distance and high-frequency range. This study has been performed using P-waves, S-waves and coda-waves and applying different, frequency dependent and independent, techniques. The methods used for this analysis have been: spectral and broadening-of-the-pulse, for direct P- and S-waves, coda normalization for S-waves, and single back-scattering model for coda-waves. The results show that, in general, Q values are significantly smaller for the entire frequency range used (6-30 Hz) than those found in other volcanic and tectonic areas. The attenuation for P-waves is greater than for S-waves in the frequency independent methods, with a Q ?/ QP ratio that ranges between 1.9 and 3.2. Comparing the Q-factor obtained for S-waves we have observed clear differences as a function of the method used; the coda normalization method has supplied significantly higher Q values ( Q d) than the other two methods ( Q ?). We have interpreted this discrepancy as an effect of the methods: coda normalization and single back-scattering methods eliminate the contribution of the near-surface attenuation in their Q values. Comparing both Q ? and Q d we have estimated the near-surface attenuation under the recording site, named Q ?. On the other hand, we have observed that Q d has anomalous frequency dependence, with a minimum value at 21 Hz. This pattern is interpreted as an effect of strong scattering of the seismic waves in the source area of the earthquakes. Q c values depend clearly with frequency and lapse time and the lapse time dependence could be interpreted as a depth dependence of the seismic attenuation in Deception Island volcano, Antarctica. The obtained Q values have allowed us to separate the contribution of intrinsic and scattering attenuation, deriving that the scattering attenuation is predominant over the intrinsic effects. Finally, in order to investigate how the heterogeneous medium of the volcanic island could produce other effects, we have checked whether it produces polarization of the shear-waves. The preliminary results of the polarization direction indicate a main E-W strain direction. All these evidences reveal the strongly heterogeneous structure of Deception Island volcano.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bellis, C.; Lin, P.; Holtzman, B. K.; Gaherty, J. B.; Roy, M.
2013-12-01
The upper mantle beneath the Colorado Plateau (CP) is characterized by high seismic velocities in the plateau interior and lower seismic velocities beneath the plateau margins, below the Basin and Range to the west and the Rio Grande Rift to the east. The seismic velocity contrast across the margins has been interpreted as a thermal- mechanical modification of the sub-CP lithospheric keel, by various mechanisms. Using teleseismic P- and S-wave spectra from the La Ristra 1.5 Array and EarthScope USArray Transportable Array (TA), we measure t*, the seismic parameter representing integrated attenuation along a ray path, across the western margin of the CP. For wave fields from two sets of earthquakes to the Northwest and Southeast of the CP, we measured the spectra of P- and S-waves at each station, relative to the spectra of the reference stations and extracted the differential attenuation factor (dt*) across the frequency band 0.2-4 Hz for P waves and 0.1-1.5 Hz for S waves for each event-station pair. To first order, both tp* and ts* varies from higher in the Basin and Range to lower on the CP, which suggests that coherent variations in attenuation are present across the Northwestern margin of the CP. However, the gradients of dt* for the two sets of NW and SE wave fields are significantly different, with a sharper gradient observed for the NW set. One of our primary questions concerns the origin of these variations: to what extent do they reflect the spatial distribution of intrinsic attenuation structure or wave propagation effects such as focusing and defocusing. To address these questions, our approach is to first build 1- and 2-D models for hypothetical spatial variations in state and compositional variables (T, water and melt content), and then calculate attenuation structures based on experimentally derived power-law frequency-dependent anelastic models. These structures are transferred into our anelastic finite difference wave propagation code, from which we measure t*. From 1D forward models of viscoelastic wave propagation, we show that teleseismic t* measurements are very sensitive to intrinsic attenuation structure at the lithosphere scale (upper 400 km) beneath the array. From 2D models that represent hypothetical structures of the western margin of the CP, wave propagation effects can also be explored. Comparison of 1D and 2D models will help us understand trade-offs between wave propagation effects and intrinsic attenuation on the measured t* variations across the CP.
Effects of fracture contact areas on seismic attenuation due to wave-induced fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Germán Rubino, J.; Müller, Tobias M.; Milani, Marco; Holliger, Klaus
2014-05-01
Wave-induced fluid flow (WIFF) between fractures and the embedding matrix is considered to be a predominant seismic attenuation mechanism in fractured rocks. That is, due to the strong compressibility contrast between fractures and embedding matrix, seismic waves induce strong fluid pressure gradients, followed by local fluid flow between such regions, which in turn produces significant energy dissipation. Natural fractures can be conceptualized as two surfaces in partial contact, containing very soft and highly permeable material in the inner region. It is known that the characteristics of the fracture contact areas control the mechanical properties of the rock sample, since as the contact area increases, the fracture becomes stiffer. Correspondingly, the detailed characteristics of the contact area of fractures are expected to play a major role in WIFF-related attenuation. To study this topic, we consider a simple model consisting of a horizontal fracture located at the center of a porous rock sample and represented by a number of rectangular cracks of constant height separated by contact areas. The cracks are modelled as highly compliant, porous, and permeable heterogeneities, which are hydraulically connected to the background material. We include a number of rectangular regions of background material separating the cracks, which represent the presence of contact areas of the fracture. In order to estimate the WIFF effects, we apply numerical oscillatory relaxation tests based on the quasi-static poro-elastic equations. The equivalent undrained, complex plane-wave modulus, which allows to estimate seismic attenuation and velocity dispersion for the vertical direction of propagation, is expressed in terms of the imposed displacement and the resulting average vertical stress at the top boundary. In order to explore the effects of the presence of fracture contact areas on WIFF effects, we perform an exhaustive sensitivity analysis considering different characteristics for the regions of contact. This study enabled us to observe that in the case of regular distributions of contact areas seismic attenuation and dispersion levels increase with decreasing size or increasing separation of the contact areas. In addition, we corroborated that for the same fraction of contact area, seismic attenuation and dispersion are weaker for regular distributions of contact areas and stronger when they are located within a narrow cluster. Our numerical approach also allowed us to explore the vertical solid displacement gap across fractures. We found that this parameter is strongly affected by the geometrical details of the fracture contact areas and turned out to be complex-valued and frequency-dependent due to WIFF effects. Finally, using laboratory measurements of changes in fracture contact area as a function of the applied stress, we proposed a model illustrating the effects related to the evolution of the contact area with increasing stress. The corresponding results suggest that seismic attenuation and phase velocity may constitute useful attributes to extract information on the prevailing effective stress of fractured media.
Zhong, Wei-Ping; Beli?, Milivoj
2010-10-01
Exact traveling wave and soliton solutions, including the bright-bright and dark-dark soliton pairs, are found for the system of two coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with harmonic potential and variable coefficients, by employing the homogeneous balance principle and the F-expansion technique. A kind of shape-changing soliton collision is identified in the system. The collision is essentially elastic between the two solitons with opposite velocities. Our results demonstrate that the dynamics of solitons can be controlled by selecting the diffraction, nonlinearity, and gain coefficients. PMID:21230420
Determination of Stress-Acoustic Coefficients of Rayleigh Wave by Use of Laser Doppler Velocimetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Lingfeng; Kobayashi, Shoichi
In the present paper, 1) a new non-contact ultrasonic stress measurement technique is proposed based on acoustoelasticity, in which ultrasonic wave motion is detected by use of a laser Doppler velocimeter, and 2) the stress-acoustic coefficients of Rayleigh wave for aluminum alloy and structural steel are determined by the technique. In the measurement system, Rayleigh waves are emitted into the specimen by a wedge-type piezoelectric transducer and vertical velocities of the surface motions of the traveling Rayleigh waves are detected by the laser Doppler velocimeter at two points of 4 cm apart. In order to measure the traveling time of the wave between the two points, the converted voltage signals are supplied both to i) a sing-around unit and ii) to a digital oscilloscope. The time-of-flight over the distance between the two points is obtained either by subtracting the sing-around periods measured at the two points or by direct reading at zero-cross of the overlapped images of the two waves on the CR display of the oscilloscope. Both measurements are made at the same time under increasing or decreasing loads. The stress-acoustic coefficients obtained are -1.2×10-5/MPa and -0.21×10-5/MPa for aluminum alloy 5052 and structural steel SS400, respectively. These results are in good agreement with those determined using two knife-edge contact piezoelectric transducers. This study shows that the proposed non-contact measuring technique by use of laser velocimetry is applicable to determining the stress-acoustic coefficients.
Measurement of the X-ray mass attenuation coefficients of silver in the 5-20?keV range.
Islam, M Tauhidul; Tantau, Lachlan J; Rae, Nicholas A; Barnea, Zwi; Tran, Chanh Q; Chantler, Christopher T
2014-03-01
The X-ray mass attenuation coefficients of silver were measured in the energy range 5-20?keV with an accuracy of 0.01-0.2% on a relative scale down to 5.3?keV, and of 0.09-1.22% on an absolute scale to 5.0?keV. This analysis confirms that with careful choice of foil thickness and careful correction for systematics, especially including harmonic contents at lower energies, the X-ray attenuation of high-Z elements can be measured with high accuracy even at low X-ray energies (<6?keV). This is the first high-accuracy measurement of X-ray mass attenuation coefficients of silver in the low energy range, indicating the possibility of obtaining high-accuracy X-ray absorption fine structure down to the L1 edge (3.8?keV) of silver. Comparison of results reported here with an earlier data set optimized for higher energies confirms accuracy to within one standard error of each data set collected and analysed using the principles of the X-ray extended-range technique (XERT). Comparison with theory shows a slow divergence towards lower energies in this region away from absorption edges. The methodology developed can be used for the XAFS analysis of compounds and solutions to investigate structural features, bonding and coordination chemistry. PMID:24562564
Dependence of drag coefficient on the directional spreading of ocean waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ting, Chia-Huan; Babanin, Alexander V.; Chalikov, Dmitry; Hsu, Tai-Wen
2012-11-01
Drag coefficient C10 is one of the main characteristics used for calculation of surface stress based on mean wind speed U10. Most of the dependences employ the sea drag as a function of this wind speed. It has been proposed, however, that for a given wind speed C10 can depend on a number of other properties in the air-sea system. In the present paper, dependence of the drag coefficient on the directional spreading of surface waves is studied numerically. It is shown that such dependence can be significant. For a given wind speed, the sea drag can grow as much as 25% depending on the width of directional spectrum. The highest drag corresponds to the narrowest spectra, and for very narrow directional distribution it saturates. The largest impact of the sea-drag directional dependence is observed for the highest winds. Accounting for the directional spread of surface waves is therefore essential to improve parameterizations of C10.
Lenhart, S. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Mathematics Dept.]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Div.; Protopopescu, V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Div.; Yong, J. [Fudan Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Mathematics
1997-12-31
The authors apply optimal control techniques to find approximate solutions to an inverse problem for the acoustic wave equation. The inverse problem (assumed here to have a solution) is to determine the boundary reflection coefficient from partial measurements of the acoustic signal. The sought reflection coefficient is treated as a control and the goal--quantified by an approximate functional--is to drive the model solution close to the experimental data by adjusting this coefficient. The problem is solved by finding the optimal control that minimizes the approximate functional. Then by driving the cost of the control to zero one proves that the corresponding sequence of optimal controls represents a converging sequence of estimates for the solution of the inverse problem. Compared to classical regularization methods (e.g., Tikhonov coupled with optimization schemes), their approach yields: (1) a systematic procedure to solve inverse problems of identification type and (ii) an explicit expression for the approximations of the solution.
Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Attenuation in Sand and Dust Storms
Xiao-Ying Dong; Hsing-Yi Chen; Dong-Hui Guo
2011-01-01
The attenuation and phase delay due to sand and dust storms are obtained by using the effective material property tech- nique and general formulation of the complex propagation factor. The validity of attenuation is verified by Ghobrial et al.'s formula. Attenuations obtained for various frequencies are shown in this letter. It is found that the attenuation decreases sharply as the
Upper mantle and crustal P-wave attenuation beneath the North Korea region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cleveland, M.; Randall, G. E.; Patton, H. J.; Phillips, W. S.
2014-12-01
Accurate estimation of the magnitude of crustal seismic sources is dependent upon a strong understanding of the anelastic P-wave attenuation in the crust and upper mantle. In this study, we estimate the crustal/upper mantle average attenuation (t*) for the region around North Korea by expanding upon methods described by Ichinose et al. [2013]. We estimate t* by modeling the observed spectra and spectral ratio of regional and teleseismic P- and pP-phases of large, deep (> 500 km) earthquakes rupturing beneath the North Korea region. We use seismograms, acquired from the IRIS data archive, from operational stations at the time of each earthquake. Because of a trade-off between the variables, we use multi-variable optimization to estimate the best-fitting corner frequency (fc) and t* for each spectrum. In addition to using a more quantitative and global approach than earlier studies, we introduce new measurement approaches enabling a better understanding of the uncertainty in the measured t* value and its trade-off with fc.
Correlation Between Drag Coefficient and Wave Slope at Extremely High Wind Speeds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takagaki, N.; Iwano, K.; Komori, S.
2013-12-01
Reliable predictions of the intensity of a tropical cyclone need accurate estimates of momentum and heat transfer rates across the sea surface. For the momentum transfer across the sea surface, it is well known that that drag coefficient (CD) monotonically increases with increasing the wind speed U10 at normal wind speeds. On the other hands, at extremely high wind speeds, recent field measurements [Powell et al., Nature, 2003] in a tropical cyclone showed that CD decreases with increasing U10, and recent laboratory data showed almost constant values of CD. Such dependence of CD on U10 is possibly changed by difference between ocean surface conditions at normal (U10 < 35 m/s) and extremely high (U10 > 35 m/s) wind speeds. Therefore, we aim to investigate how the dependence of wind wave parameters on wind speeds is different between normal and extremely high wind speeds, by using high-speed wind-wave tank [Takagaki et al., GRL, 2012]. Figure 1 shows the power spectrum of water-level fluctuation at U10 = 68 m/s. Although the spectral slope at high frequency region is known to be -5 at normal wind speeds of U10 < 35m/s, the present slope shows -3 at the extremely high wind speed. This means that the wind waves are broken by high wind shear and the power spectrum at the significant wave frequency is damped. Figure 2 shows the relationship between the wave slope and U10. At normal wind speeds, the wave slope increases with increasing U10, but it saturates at U10 ~ 20 m/s. Then, the wave slope gradually decreases at extremely high wind speeds. The results suggest that the wave slope is damped by wave breaking due to high wind shear and then the damping of the wave slope at extremely high wind speeds causes the trend of drag coefficient against U10 (see Figure 1a of Takagaki et al. [2012, GRL]). Figure 1. Spectrum of water-level fluctuation at U10 = 68m/s. Figure 2. Wave slope HS/LS against U10.
Differential shear-wave attenuation (deltat) across the East Pacific Rise
Schlue, J.W.
1981-08-01
SS phases from earthquakes on fracture zones near the Easter Island Cordillera and the West Chile Rise which are recorded in the United States have reflection points on either side of the East Pacific Rise (EPR) near the equator. The east-west records from seven WWSSN stations of seven events in this region were used to obtain spectral amplitudes of horizontally polarized S and SS waves. SS-to-S amplitude ratios were formed, and differential attenuation (deltat) computed within the frequency band 0.01 to 0.11 Hz. The values of deltat vary between -0.1 sec and +35.8 sec for the 23 station-event paris used. However, the change in deltat with distance from the axis of the EPR does not reflect the smooth variation expected using a model of a simple cooling slab.
VHF/UHF wave attenuation in a city with regularly spaced buildings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blaunstein, N.; Levin, M.
1996-03-01
In this work a theoretical and experimental investigation analyzing VHF/UHF radio wave propagation in a suburban environment with a grid-type street plan is presented for the purpose of personal communication services prediction. A waveguide with randomly distributed gaps (slits) between the sides of buildings is considered as a model of straight streets with two- and three-story buildings. The average field intensity and path loss at the street level, taking into account the reflection from the ground, multireflection, and diffraction from the walls and building edges, are investigated in line-of-sight (LOS) conditions using a new three-dimensional multislit waveguide model. This model gives good agreement with the two-rays model and with an experimentally found law of field intensity attenuation at the street level with high and low building density up to 1-2 km from the source.
Attenuation of seismic waves and the universal rheological model of the Earth's mantle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Birger, B. I.
2007-08-01
Analysis of results of laboratory studies on creep of mantle rocks, data on seismic wave attenuation in the mantle, and rheological micromechanisms shows that the universal, i.e., relevant to all time scales, rheological model of the mantle can be represented as four rheological elements connected in series. These elements account for elasticity, diffusion rheology, high temperature dislocation rheology, and low temperature dislocation rheology. The diffusion rheology element is described in terms of a Newtonian viscous fluid. The high temperature dislocation rheology element is described by the rheological model previously proposed by the author. This model is a combination of a power-law non-Newtonian fluid model for stationary flows and the linear hereditary Andrade model for flows associated with small strains. The low temperature dislocation rheology element is described by the linear hereditary Lomnitz model.
Bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients in the Tsyganenko field model for oblique chorus waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orlova, Ksenia; Shprits, Yuri
We present the results of computations of bounce-averaged quasi-linear momentum Dpp, pitch-angle D?? and mixed D?p diffusion coefficients in the Tsyganenko magnetic field model. We assume that electrons are scattered by oblique whistler mode chorus waves of Gaussian spread of wave power spectral density and wave normal angle outside the plasmasphere. The scat-tering rates are computed using the full electromagnetic dispersion relation and up to 5-order resonance condition including Landau resonance. The diffusion coefficients are calculated for quiet conditions and storm-time conditions for the day and night sides. We compare scattering rates bounce-averaged in the Tsyganenko field model with those in the dipole field and discuss the differences. The results are followed by a physical explanation of how the magnetic field model can change the bounce-averaged scattering rates. The calculations show that, during active conditions, the pitch-angle scattering by chorus waves in the realistic magnetic field can diffuse relativistic electrons to the loss cone not only on the day side, but also on the night side. Our study shows that while there are still a number of unknown parameters that determine scattering rates, inclusion of bounce-averaging in the realistic field will be crucially important for future radiation belt modeling.
Pasyanos, M E; Walter, W R; Matzel, E M
2009-02-26
We have generalized the methodology of our regional amplitude tomography from the Lg phase to the four primary regional phases (Pn, Pg, Sn, Lg). Differences in the geometrical spreading, source term, site term, and travel paths are accounted for, while event source parameters such as seismic moment are consistent among phases. In the process, we have developed the first regional attenuation model that uses the amplitudes of four regional phases to determine a comprehensive P-wave and S-wave attenuation model of the crust and upper mantle. When applied to an area encompassing the Middle East, eastern Europe, western Asia, south Asia, and northeast Africa for the 1-2 Hz passband, we find large differences in the attenuation of the lithosphere across the region. The tectonic Tethys collision zone has high attenuation, while stable outlying regions have low attenuation. While crust and mantle Q variations are often consistent, we do find several notable areas where they differ considerably, but are appropriate given the region's tectonic history. Lastly, the relative values of Qp and Qs indicate that scattering Q is likely the dominant source of attenuation in the crust at these frequencies.
Torello, David; Thiele, Sebastian; Matlack, Kathryn H; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Qu, Jianmin; Jacobs, Laurence J
2015-02-01
This research considers the effects of diffraction, attenuation, and the nonlinearity of generating sources on measurements of nonlinear ultrasonic Rayleigh wave propagation. A new theoretical framework for correcting measurements made with air-coupled and contact piezoelectric receivers for the aforementioned effects is provided based on analytical models and experimental considerations. A method for extracting the nonlinearity parameter ?11 is proposed based on a nonlinear least squares curve-fitting algorithm that is tailored for Rayleigh wave measurements. Quantitative experiments are conducted to confirm the predictions for the nonlinearity of the piezoelectric source and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the curve-fitting procedure. These experiments are conducted on aluminum 2024 and 7075 specimens and a ?11(7075)/?11(2024) measure of 1.363 agrees well with previous literature and earlier work. The proposed work is also applied to a set of 2205 duplex stainless steel specimens that underwent various degrees of heat-treatment over 24h, and the results improve upon conclusions drawn from previous analysis. PMID:25287976
Lee, Kevin M; Wilson, Preston S; Wochner, Mark S
2014-04-01
The use of bubble resonance effects to attenuate low-frequency underwater sound was investigated experimentally in a large water tank. A compact electromechanical sound source was used to excite standing wave fields at frequencies ranging between 50 and 200 Hz in the tank. The source was then surrounded by a stationary array of tethered encapsulated air bubbles, and reduction in standing wave amplitude by as much as 26?dB was observed. The bubbles consisted of either thin-shelled latex balloons with approximately 5?cm radii or thicker-shelled vinyl boat fenders with 6.9?cm radii. The effects of changing the material and thickness of the bubble shells were found to be in qualitative agreement with predictions from Church's model for sound propagation in a liquid containing encapsulated bubbles [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 97, 1510-1521 (1995)]. Although demonstrated here for low frequency noise abatement within a tank, which is useful for quieting acoustic test facilities and large tanks used for marine life husbandry, the eventual aim of this work is to use stationary arrays of large tethered encapsulated bubbles to abate low frequency underwater noise from anthropogenic sources in the marine environment. PMID:25234970
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smale, L. F.; Chantler, C. T.; de Jonge, M. D.; Barnea, Z.; Tran, C. Q.
2006-11-01
XAFS structures are solved routinely and hundreds of publications appear per annum. Limitations in theoretical predictions and XAFS analytical frameworks lead to significant uncertainty in results. This impairs structural predictions and prevents ab initio determination. The highest accuracy experimental data have been obtained using the XERT and the most popular technique to analyse the structure. We apply an accurate ?2 fitting procedure to the molybdenum attenuation data including error propagation and improve the XAFS determinations by between 5% and 70%.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jianghua; Shen, Zhiyuan; He, Yonghong; Tu, Ziwei; Xia, Yunfei; Chen, Changshui; Liu, Songhao
2012-10-01
Oncogenesis and metastasis of tumor are difficult to detect during the clinic therapy. To explore the optical properties of tumorigenesis and metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), we assessed the NPC cell lines 5-8F and 6-10B by optical coherence tomography (OCT): first, the OCT images of the two different types of cell pellets were captured. Second, by fitting Beer's law to the averaged A-scans in these OCT datasets, the attenuation coefficients (?t) of the cells were extracted. The median attenuation coefficients (interquartile range (IQR)) of 5-8F and 6-10B were 6.79 mm-1 (IQR 6.52 to 7.23 mm-1) versus 8.06 mm-1 (IQR 7.65 to 8.40 mm-1), respectively (p < 0.01, df = 39). Subsequently, the results were compared with those obtained by polarization sensitive OCT, which further confirmed that the quantitative OCT analysis (by ?t) could differentiate the oncogenesis and metastasis NPC cell lines in real time non-invasively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Wanlu; Wu, You; Zuo, Lei
2015-06-01
Beam or plate metamaterials with periodic piezoelectric arrays have attracted more and more attention in recent years for wave propagation attenuation and the corresponding vibration reduction. Conventional designs use resistive shunt (R-shunt) and resistor-inductor shunt (RL-shunt). An innovative metamaterial with a high-order resonant shunt circuit is proposed and investigated for vibration and wave propagation attenuation in this paper. The proposed high-order resonant shunt circuit can introduce two local resonances in series around the tuning frequency to broaden the attenuation bandwidth, or can create two separate resonances to achieve two separate bandgaps. Finite element modeling of the beam metamaterial with wave propagation and vibration in the transverse direction is established. Simulations have been conducted to compare the vibration attenuation performances among R-shunt, RL-shunt, and the proposed high-order shunt. An impedance-based method has been presented for the parameter design of electrical components in the proposed high-order shunt for bandgaps at two desired frequencies.
The Velocity and Attenuation of Acoustic Emission Waves in SiC/SiC Composites Loaded in Tension
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morscher, Gregory N.; Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The behavior of acoustic waves produced by microfracture events and from pencil lead breaks was studied for two different silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix composites. The two composite systems both consisted of Hi-Nicalon (trademark) fibers and carbon interfaces but had different matrix compositions that led to considerable differences in damage accumulation and acoustic response. This behavior was primarily due to an order of magnitude difference in the interfacial shear stress for the two composite systems. Load/unload/reload tensile tests were performed and measurements were made over the entire stress range in order to determine the stress-dependence of acoustic activity for increasing damage states. It was found that using the extensional wave velocities from acoustic emission (AE) events produced from pencil lead breaks performed outside of the transducers enabled accurate measurements of the stiffness of the composite. The extensional wave velocities changed as a function of the damage state and the stress where the measurement was taken. Attenuation for AE waveforms from the pencil lead breaks occurred only for the composite possessing the lower interfacial shear stress and only at significantly high stresses. At zero stress after unloading from a peak stress, no attenuation occurred for this composite because of crack closure. For the high interfacial stress composite no attenuation was discernable at peak or zero stress over the entire stress-range of the composite. From these observations, it is believed that attenuation of AE waveforms is dependent on the magnitude of matrix crack opening.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tripathi, Saroj R.; Inoue, Hiroo; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Kawase, Kodo
2013-02-01
The chloride induced corrosion of reinforcing steel bar is one of the major causes of deterioration of concrete structures. Therefore, it is essential to periodically monitor the level of chloride ion (Cl-) concentration in concrete structures. In this work, we developed millimeter wave attenuated total reflection measurement setup in order to determine the Cl- concentration in concrete structures. We prepared concrete samples with different compositions and varying Cl- concentrations and we measured their attenuated total reflectance at 65 GHz. We observed that the reflectance decreases almost linearly with the increase in Cl- concentration indicating that this technique could be used to inspect the Cl- concentration in concrete structures nondestructively.
Explicit use of the Biot coefficient in predicting shear-wave velocity of water-saturated sediments
Lee, M.W.
2006-01-01
Predicting the shear-wave (S-wave) velocity is important in seismic modelling, amplitude analysis with offset, and other exploration and engineering applications. Under the low-frequency approximation, the classical Biot-Gassmann theory relates the Biot coefficient to the bulk modulus of water-saturated sediments. If the Biot coefficient under in situ conditions can be estimated, the shear modulus or the S-wave velocity can be calculated. The Biot coefficient derived from the compressional-wave (P-wave) velocity of water-saturated sediments often differs from and is less than that estimated from the S-wave velocity, owing to the interactions between the pore fluid and the grain contacts. By correcting the Biot coefficients derived from P-wave velocities of water-saturated sediments measured at various differential pressures, an accurate method of predicting S-wave velocities is proposed. Numerical results indicate that the predicted S-wave velocities for consolidated and unconsolidated sediments agreewell with measured velocities. ?? 2006 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.
Steven A. Stotts; David P. Knobles; Robert A. Koch
2003-01-01
The inversion of range-dependent broadband data in shallow water is presented using a previously developed approach with rays and complex bottom plane-wave reflection coefficients [Stotts, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109, 2334 (2001)], allowing separation of seabed physics from water column contributions. Using geometrical optics, waterborne eigenray characteristics are calculated once and stored. Model fields are calculated by including reflection coefficient
Modeling Biot's Coefficient for High Porosity Sediments From P Wave Velocity and Density Data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fabricius, I. L.
2006-12-01
The effective stress coefficient predicts to which extent the fluid pressure in a given sediment counteracts the load of overlying sediments. When monitoring changes in fluid pressure and fluid composition from seismic data, the effective stress coefficient may be approximated by Biot's coefficient, ?. ? is under assumption of hydrostatic stress and linear elasticity defined as: ? = 1 - Kdry/Kmin where Kdry is bulk modulus of the dry sediment and Kmin is the mineral bulk modulus. In heavily cemented sedimentary rocks ? is close to porosity. In lightly cemented sediments Biot's coefficient is close to one and the effective stress, ?' is then predicted from Terzaghi's law: ?' = ? - U where ? is the stress due to the total load of the overburden and U is pore pressure. When ? is taken into account we get the equivalent expression: ?' = ? - ? U For calculation of ? we need information on Kdry. It may be calculated from density, ?dry, P wave velocity vP-dry and shear velocity vS-dry for the dry sediment: Kdry = ?dry (vP-dry2 - 4/3 vS-dry2) In many cases only wet density and P wave velocity are known, and then a possibility is to use Castagna's relations for predicting wet shear wave velocity and then using Gassmann's equations to predict the sonic velocities of the dry sediment. An alternative, which also works outside the range of Castagna's relations is to calculate the isoframe value from wet density and wet P-wave velocity and then use the isoframe value to model Kdry. The isoframe value, IF, is derived from a Hashin-Shtrikman model: K = ((? + (1-IF)(1-?))/(Ksus + 4/3Gmin) + (IF(1-?))/(Kmin + 4/3Gmin))-1 - 4/3Gmin G = ((? + (1-IF)(1-?))/? + (IF(1-?))/(Gmin + ?))-1 - ? ? = Gmin/6 ((9Kmin + 8 Gmin)/(Kmin + 2Gmin)) M = K + 4/3G = ? vP2 Where: K is bulk modulus, G is shear modulus, ? is porosity, Gmin is mineral shear modulus, Kfluid is bulk modulus of pore fluid, Kair is bulk modulus of air, and where for wet sediments: Ksus = (?/Kfluid + ((1-?)(1-IF))/ Kmin)-1 and for dry sediments: Ksus = Kair
Wave functions of the Q .Q interaction in terms of unitary 9-j coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zamick, Larry; Harper, Matthew
2015-03-01
We obtain wave functions for two protons and two neutrons in the g9 /2 shell expressed as column vectors with amplitudes D (Jp,Jn) . When we use a quadrupole-quadrupole interaction (Q .Q ) we get, in many cases, a very strong overlap with wave functions given by a single set of unitary 9-j coefficients—U 9 j =<(jj ) 2 j(jjJB|(jj ) Jp(jj ) Jn) I> . Here JB=9 for even I T =0 states. For both even and odd T =1 states we take JB equal to 8 whilst for odd I ,T =0 we take JB to be 7. We compare the Q .Q results with those of a more realistic interaction.
The Effect of Viscosity on Love Waves in Piezoelectric Structures
Wang, Ji
The Effect of Viscosity on Love Waves in Piezoelectric Structures Jianke Du1 , Xiaoyu Cheng1 , Ji dissipation of material on the dispersive and attenuated characteristics of Love wave propagation in a layered. The effects of the viscous coefficient on the phase velocity of Love waves and attenuation are presented
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Preston, L.; Smith, K.
2006-12-01
The UE#25 UZ-16 borehole array at Yucca Mountain, Nevada (designated site for the nation's high-level nuclear waste repository), provides a prime opportunity to investigate near surface effects on seismic waveforms as a function of depth. The borehole 3-component geophone array consists of 96 depth levels of 4.5 Hz sensors from about 30 m to 500 m depth below the surface. Currently we are recording at 18 approximately equally spaced depth levels and the array was recently augmented with three 3-component matching surface sensors (totaling 63 16-bit 200 sps data channels). The time stamped continuous digital data stream is telemetered in real-time to the Nevada Seismological Laboratory where it is visually inspected and event data is subset and integrated with regional network data when necessary; system check calibrations have been performed on all recorded sensors. Therefore, we have high resolution time-depth local and regional earthquake waveform histories from 500 m to the surface within the Yucca Mountain block. Due to the thick cover of Miocene volcanic tuffs at Yucca Mountain, the borehole does not penetrate into the underlying Paleozoic basement but samples tuff horizons of varying thicknesses and properties. Ground motion design criteria for the repository and surface facilities are based, in part, on characterizing the near surface velocities and the amplification, intrinsic attenuation, and scattering of seismic waves from local earthquakes. We present results from several investigations of local earthquake recordings including spectral ratios and attenuation as a function of depth and characterize scattering in the tuff layers. Preliminary results indicate differences in spectral ratios depending on component, with E-W components indicating higher ratios relative to N-S and Z components as compared to the bottom most geophone, most likely due to the structural fabric of Yucca Mountain. Also, most observed amplification from spectral ratios (from about 3 Hz to 15 Hz) appears to occur within the top 60 m of the borehole with the surface geophones demonstrating the largest amplifications, as expected. Preliminary results indicate coda energy amplification, as a function of depth, within the first 5 s after the primary S-wave arrival.
Study of the absorption coefficient of alpha particles to lower hybrid waves in tokamak
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jianbing; Zhang, Xianmei; Yu, Limin; Zhao, Xiang
2014-02-01
Part of the energy of the Lower Hybrid (LH) waves may be absorbed by the ? particles via the so-called perpendicular landau damping mechanism, which depends on various parameters of fusion reactors and the LH waves. In this article, we calculate the absorption coefficient ?? of LH waves due to ? particles. Results show that, the ?? increases with the parallel refraction index n? while deceases with increasing the frequency of LH waves ?LH over a wide range. Higher background plasma temperature and toroidal magnetic field will increase the absorption, and there is a peak value of ?? when ne?8×1019m-3 for ITER-like scenario. The thermal corrections to the cold plasma dispersion relation will change the damping rate to a certain extent under some specific conditions. We have also evaluated the fraction of LH power absorbed by the alpha particles, ? ? 0.47% and 4.1% for an LH frequency of 5 GHz and 3.7 GHz respectively for ITER-like scenario. This work gives the effective reference for the choice of parameters of future fusion reactors.
Study of the absorption coefficient of alpha particles to lower hybrid waves in tokamak
Wang, Jianbing, E-mail: zhangxm@ecust.edu.cn; Zhang, Xianmei, E-mail: zhangxm@ecust.edu.cn; Yu, Limin, E-mail: zhangxm@ecust.edu.cn; Zhao, Xiang, E-mail: zhangxm@ecust.edu.cn [Department of Physics, East China University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 385, Shanghai 200237 (China)
2014-02-12
Part of the energy of the Lower Hybrid (LH) waves may be absorbed by the ? particles via the so-called perpendicular landau damping mechanism, which depends on various parameters of fusion reactors and the LH waves. In this article, we calculate the absorption coefficient ?{sub ?} of LH waves due to ? particles. Results show that, the ?{sub ?} increases with the parallel refraction index n{sub ?} while deceases with increasing the frequency of LH waves ?{sub LH} over a wide range. Higher background plasma temperature and toroidal magnetic field will increase the absorption, and there is a peak value of ?{sub ?} when n{sub e}?8×10{sup 19}m{sup ?3} for ITER-like scenario. The thermal corrections to the cold plasma dispersion relation will change the damping rate to a certain extent under some specific conditions. We have also evaluated the fraction of LH power absorbed by the alpha particles, ? ? 0.47% and 4.1% for an LH frequency of 5 GHz and 3.7 GHz respectively for ITER-like scenario. This work gives the effective reference for the choice of parameters of future fusion reactors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stochino, Alberto; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Huang, Yumei; Sannibale, Virginio
2007-10-01
The Monolithic Geometric Anti-Spring (GAS) filter is one of the most efficient vertical seismic isolation devices for Gravitational Wave (GW) interferometers. However, the attenuation of this filter was previously limited to around 60 dB due to the high frequency saturation associated with the filter's distributed mass—a problem typical of passive mechanical filters. We show that it is possible to circumvent this limit using a compensation wand based on the Center Of Percussion (COP) effect. When this device is mounted in parallel with the blade springs of a GAS filter, attenuation improves to 80 dB in the region above 10 Hz. Using this device it is therefore possible to design simpler attenuation chains consisting of fewer stages.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meirova, Tatiana; Pinsky, Vladimir
2014-04-01
For the first time, a regional seismic attenuation for the Israel region is quantitatively estimated as a combination of intrinsic and scattering attenuations. We use a multiple lapse time windows analysis (MLTWA) to determinate the relative contributions of intrinsic absorption and scattering processes to the total regional attenuation in the crust. A single isotropic scattering model assuming a uniform half-space lithosphere is used to fit MLTWA predicted and measured energies from the records of 232 regional earthquakes recorded at 17 short-period and 5 broad-band local seismic stations. Analysis is performed for a set of 10 frequencies between 0.5 and 10 Hz. The frequency-dependent quality factor Q obtained by MLTWA ranges between Q = 77f0.96 in the Northern Israel and Q = 132f0.96 in Southern Israel. Independent estimates of regional coda Q value based on S-wave coda decay rate obtained by averaging of five broad-band Israel Seismic Network stations are approximated by the relation Qc = 126f1.05. As a whole, our findings indicate that in the Israel region, intrinsic absorption prevails over scattering attenuation. Separate analysis for three tectonically different regions in Israel region-Galilee-Lebanon, Judea-Samaria and Eastern Sinai-shows a regional dependence of attenuation parameters. The variation of attenuation characteristics implies different physical mechanisms of seismic attenuation in the Israel region and is related to the differences of structure in the Earth's crust beneath Israel. Such variation in the attenuation patterns is in agreement with the assumption that Northern Israel is tectonically more active than Southern Israel and that in the northern and central parts of Israel the upper crust is more heterogeneous than in the southern part.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martínez-Arévalo, C.; Bianco, F.; Ibáñez, J. M.; del Pezzo, E.
The occurrence of a seismic series in Deception Island volcano (Antarctica), com- posed by hundreds of local volcano-tectonic earthquakes, has permitted us to study the seismic attenuation of such a volcanic environment in the short-distance and high- frequency range. This study has been performed using P, S and coda waves and ap- plying different, frequency dependent and independent, techniques. The methods used for this analysis have been: Spectral and Broadening of the Pulse, for direct P and S waves, Coda Normalization for S-waves and Single Back-Scattering model for coda waves. The results show that, in general, Q values are significantly smaller, for all the frequency range used (6-30 Hz), than those found in other volcanic and tectonic areas. The attenuation for P-waves is greater than for S-waves in the frequency in- dependent methods, with a Qb/QP ratio that ranges between 1.9 and 3.2. Comparing the Q factor obtained for S-waves we have observed clear differences as a function of the method used; the Coda Normalization Method has supplied significantly higher Q values (Qd) than the other two methods (Qb). These Qd values are similar to the Q factor for coda waves (Qc). We have interpreted this discrepancy as an effect of the methods: Coda Normalization and Single Back-Scattering methods eliminate the con- tribution of the near surface attenuation in their Q values. Comparing both Qb and Qd we have estimated the near surface attenuation under the recording site, named Qk. On the other hand, we have observed that Qd has an anomalous frequency dependence, with a minimum value at 21 Hz. This pattern is interpreted as an effect of strong scat- tering of the seismic waves in the source area of the earthquakes. Qc values depend clearly with frequency and lapse time, and the lapse time dependence is interpreted as a depth dependence of the seismic attenuation in Deception Island volcano. The de- rived Q values have allowed us to separate the contribution of intrinsic and scattering attenuation, deriving that the scattering attenuation is predominant over the intrinsic effects. Finally, in order to investigate how the heterogeneous medium of the volcanic island could produce other effects, we have measured the splitting of the shear waves of the same data set. The observations reveal that the arrival delay of the shear waves horizontal components varies between 0.02 and 0.14 seconds, a big amount if we take into account the short hypocentral distances (less than 5 km). The study of the polar- 1 ization direction indicates a main E-W direction. All these evidences reveal the strong heterogeneous structure of Deception Island volcano. 2
Franco, Ediguer E; Adamowski, Julio C; Buiochi, Flávio
2010-05-01
Real-time viscosity measurement remains a necessity for highly automated industry. To resolve this problem, many studies have been carried out using an ultrasonic shear wave reflectance method. This method is based on the determination of the complex reflection coefficient's magnitude and phase at the solid-liquid interface. Although magnitude is a stable quantity and its measurement is relatively simple and precise, phase measurement is a difficult task because of strong temperature dependence. A simplified method that uses only the magnitude of the reflection coefficient and that is valid under the Newtonian regimen has been proposed by some authors, but the obtained viscosity values do not match conventional viscometry measurements. In this work, a mode conversion measurement cell was used to measure glycerin viscosity as a function of temperature (15 to 25 degrees C) and corn syrup-water mixtures as a function of concentration (70 to 100 wt% of corn syrup). Tests were carried out at 1 MHz. A novel signal processing technique that calculates the reflection coefficient magnitude in a frequency band, instead of a single frequency, was studied. The effects of the bandwidth on magnitude and viscosity were analyzed and the results were compared with the values predicted by the Newtonian liquid model. The frequency band technique improved the magnitude results. The obtained viscosity values came close to those measured by the rotational viscometer with percentage errors up to 14%, whereas errors up to 96% were found for the single frequency method. PMID:20442023
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vogel, Gerard N.
1988-02-01
An evaluation is performed for two millimeter wave propagation models: the LIEBE model, developed at the Institute for Telecommunications, Boulder, CO, under the guidance of Dr. H. Liebe; and the EOSAEL model, developed at the U. S. Army Atmospheric Laboratory at White Sands Missile Range, NM. This evaluation is conducted for horizontal attenuation due to both clear atmosphere and hydrometer effects under typical surface meteorological conditions, and within the frequency range 70-115 GHz. Intercomparisons of model theories and predictions show slight differences for molecular oxygen and fog attenuations, but significant differences for water vapor and rain attenuations. Results indicate that, while the qualitative agreement between either the EOSAEL or LIEBE model predictions, and measurements, for horizontal attenuation due to oxygen, water vapor, fog and rain is certainly satisfactory, there is a definite need for improvement. Overall, no clear preference for either the EOSAEL or LIEBE model for operational use is ascertained. Data comparisons suggest that, for several attenuation types, model preference is dependent on either the frequency or meteorological conditions.
Yasuo Kuga; Guifu Zhang; Ji-Hae Yea; Akira Ishimaru
1998-01-01
The analytical solution for the angular correlation function of scattered waves from randomly distributed infinitely long cylinders is obtained using the second-order approximation with a modified attenuation coefficient. The approach is based on the coherent summation of the scattered waves which preserves the interference effects such as backscattering enhancement. The modification of the transport attenuation coefficient includes the contribution due
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esfandiari, M.; Shirmardi, S. P.; Medhat, M. E.
2014-06-01
In this study, element analysis and the mass attenuation coefficient for matrixes of gold, bronze and water with various impurities and the concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) are evaluated and calculated by the MCNP simulation code for photons emitted from Barium-133, Americium-241 and sources with energies between 1 and 100 keV. The MCNP data are compared with the experimental data and WinXCom code simulated results by Medhat. The results showed that the obtained results of bronze and gold matrix are in good agreement with the other methods for energies above 40 and 60 keV, respectively. However for water matrixes with various impurities, there is a good agreement between the three methods MCNP, WinXCom and the experimental one in low and high energies.
Zhang, Chan; Le, Lawrence H; Zheng, Rui; Ta, Dean; Lou, Edmond
2011-05-01
The water-saturated aluminum foams with an open network of interconnected ligaments were investigated by ultrasonic transmission technique for the suitability as cancellous bone-mimicking phantoms. The phase velocities and attenuation of nine samples covering three pores per inch (5, 10, and 20 PPI) and three aluminum volume fractions (5, 8, and 12% AVF) were measured over a frequency range of 0.7-1.3 MHz. The ligament thickness and pore sizes of the phantoms and low-density human cancellous bones are similar. A strong slow wave and a weak fast wave are observed for all samples while the latter is not visible without significant amplification (100x). This study reports the characteristics of slow wave, whose speeds are less than the sound speed of the saturating water and decrease mildly with AVF and PPI with an average 1469 m/s. Seven out of nine samples show positive dispersion and the rest show minor negative dispersion. Attenuation increases with AVF, PPI, and frequency except for the 20 PPI samples, which exhibit non-increasing attenuation level with fluctuations due to scattering. The phase velocities agree with Biot's porous medium theory. The RMSE is 16.0 m/s (1%) at n = 1.5. Below and above this value, the RMSE decreases mildly and rises sharply, respectively. PMID:21568432
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ohi, Nobuaki; Makinen, Carla P.; Mitchell, Richard; Moisan, Tiffany A.
2008-01-01
Ocean color algorithms are based on the parameterization of apparent optical properties as a function of inherent optical properties. WET Labs underwater absorption and attenuation meters (ac-9 and ac-s) measure both the spectral beam attenuation [c (lambda)] and absorption coefficient [a (lambda)]. The ac-s reports in a continuous range of 390-750 nm with a band pass of 4 nm, totaling approximately 83 distinct wavelengths, while the ac-9 reports at 9 wavelengths. We performed the ac-s field measurements at nine stations in the Mid-Atlantic Bight from water calibrations to data analysis. Onboard the ship, the ac-s was calibrated daily using Milli Q-water. Corrections for the in situ temperature and salinity effects on optical properties of water were applied. Corrections for incomplete recovery of the scattered light in the ac-s absorption tube were performed. The fine scale of spectral and vertical distributions of c (lambda) and a (lambda) were described from the ac-s. The significant relationships between a (674) and that of spectrophotometric analysis and chlorophyll a concentration of discrete water samples were observed.
Wave-induced fluid flow in random porous media: Attenuation and ...
2005-04-20
compressional wave P-wave which accounts for the effect of wave-induced flow. ...... gating in media with varying thermal conductivity is caused by conversion into a ... for many situations where wave field energy is dissipated. 2740. J. Acoust.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mocanu, Victor; Russo, Raymond; Ambrosius, Boudewijn
2010-05-01
In the Vrancea seismogenic zone (SE Carpathians), where very strong earthquakes (Mw > 7) are reported several times a century, the seismotectonics is very complex. It develops beneath the contact between the Moldavian East European Platform, the Scythian Platform, and the Moesian Platform, to the east and southeast, and terranes of the Transylvania Basin lying within the Carpathian arc. Several hypothesis have been considered by scientists in order to explain the clustered foci of crustal and intermediate events (as deep as 200 km). However, until now, there is no tectonic scenario which could explain all geological and geophysical observations. We try to integrate long-term permanent and campaign GPS outcomes with contributions from seismic attenuation and S-wave splitting results. GPS contributions mainly refer to determination of velocity vectors. 15 campaigns and seven permanent stations are being used in order to determine the detailed kinematics of an area characterized by very small velocities (1-2 mm/y), bringing the satellite technique to almost its limit. The results suggest a counterclockwise mantle flow around the Vrancea seismogenic zone, which is a high velocity body developed in an almost vertical position, developing deeper than 200 km. This results is also supported by seismic attenuation studies. We found that models like delamination and subduction could be supported by seismic attenuation studies in this zone. The delamination model implies strong upwelling and horizontal inflow of asthenosphere into the gap between the delaminating and remnant lithosphere. The other model implies downwelling and perhaps lateral-horizontal inflow along the slab detachment or tear. The models imply different distributions of density and rheological properties associated with the different lithosphere - asthenosphere structures. We use the ratio of spectral amplitudes of P and S waves from vertical and transverse seismograms to estimate the S to P ratio in the frequency domain, and then we calculate Qs, the relative shear wave attenuation via two complementary techniques: We find that stations located near and above the Vrancea zone and in the Transylvanian Basin, attenuation is high (low Q). Stations situated on the East European, Moesian, and Scythian Platforms are characterized by higher Qs (low attenuation). We interpret the high attenuation in the Vrancea and Transylvanian Basin is the result of shallow hot asthenosphere present in this area. Observations of source-side shear wave splitting clearly show that upper mantle anisotropy is strongly variable in the region of the tightly curved Carpathian Arc: shear waves taking off from Vrancea along paths that sample the East and Southern Carpathians have fast anisotropy axes parallel to these ranges, whereas those leaving the source region to traverse the upper mantle beneath the Transylvanian Basin (i.e., mantle wedge side) trend NE-SW. Shear waves sampling the East European and Scythian Platforms are separable into two groups, one characterized by fast shear trends to the NE-SW, and a second, deeper group, with trends to NW-SE; also, the majority of null splits occur along paths leaving Vrancea in these NE-E azimuths. Deeper fabric with E-W trend marking asthenospheric flow beneath the craton's base. This more complex anisotropy beneath the western edge of the East European Platform would account for both the variability of observed splitting of waves that sample this volume.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, T. W.; Huang, L.; Leaitch, W. R.; Sharma, S.; Brook, J. R.; Slowik, J. G.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Brickell, P. C.; Liggio, J.; Li, S.-M.; Moosmüller, H.
2010-03-01
Ambient particulate matter (PM) samples were collected on quartz filters at a rural site in central Ontario during an intensive study in 2007. The concentrations of organic carbon (OC), pyrolysis organic carbon (POC), and elemental carbon (EC) were determined by thermal analysis. The concentrations are compared to the organic aerosol mass concentration (OM) measured with an Aerodyne C-ToF Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and to the particle absorption coefficient (basp) obtained from a Radiance Research Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP). The total organic mass to organic carbon ratios (OM/OC) and specific attenuation coefficients (SAC=basp/EC) are derived. Proportionality of the POC mass with the oxygen mass in the aerosols estimated from the AMS offers a potential means to estimate OM/OC from thermal measurements only. The mean SAC for the study is 3.8±0.3 m2 g-1. It is found that the SAC is independent of or decrease with increasing particle mass loading, depending on whether or not the data are separated between aerosols dominated by more recent anthropogenic input and aerosols dominated by longer residence time or biogenic components. There is no evidence to support an enhancement of light absorption by the condensation of secondary material to particles, suggesting that present model simulations built on such an assumption may overestimate atmospheric warming by BC.
Dislocation Damping and Anisotropic Seismic-wave Attenuation in the Earth's Upper Mantle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farla, R. J. M.; Jackson, I.; Fitz Gerald, J. D.; Faul, U. H.; Zimmerman, M. E.
2012-04-01
Seismic anisotropy, attributed to olivine lattice preferred orientation, suggests that tectonic deformation in the Earth's shallow upper mantle involves dislocation creep. Reversible glide of dislocations, generated by the prevailing/fossil tectonic stress, may result in anelastic relaxation that contributes to the reduction of seismic wave speeds and associated attenuation. To test this hypothesis, pure polycrystalline olivine specimens were synthesised by isostatic hot-pressing of synthetic powders of Fo90 composition. The hot-pressed material is dense (< 1% porosity), fine-grained, essentially dry and melt-free olivine. Other, more coarse-grained material was prepared in the same way from crushed natural (San Carlos) olivine. These contrasting materials provided the opportunity to distinguish between the influences of grain size, dislocation density and minor impurities. Selected specimens were deformed by dislocation creep either in compression or torsion and characterised for dislocation density via oxidative decoration and backscattered electron imaging. The shear modulus and associated strain-energy dissipation in both hot-pressed and pre-deformed specimens were measured at seismic frequencies and low strain amplitudes under conditions of simultaneous high pressure and temperature with torsional forced-oscillation methods. On the basis of a prior study of dislocation recovery, a maximum temperature of 1100C was chosen to allow sustained forced-oscillation testing under conditions of relatively stable dislocation microstructure. The high-temperature dissipation background, attributed in undeformed fine-grained materials to grain-boundary sliding, and the associated partial relaxation of the shear modulus, are systematically enhanced in the pre-deformed materials - suggesting a role for the dislocations introduced during the prior deformation. The enhancement is systematically greater for prior torsional deformation than for prior deformation in compression. This observation is consistent with the prediction from a simple model of resolved shear stress that dislocations generated by prior torsional deformation are more favourably oriented for glide during the subsequent torsional oscillation measurements. Such dislocation damping is expected to become more significant relative to grainsize-sensitive effects for the larger grain sizes of the Earth's mantle. Moreover, it is predicted that dislocation damping in the Earth's mantle will be anisotropic - being greatest for those shear-wave propagation directions and polarisations with shear stress aligned with the prevailing/fossil tectonic stress.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, J.; Zhou, L.; Song, X.; Weaver, R. L.
2014-12-01
It can be shown that the field-field correlation function of an imperfectly diffuse wave field is equal to the (time derivative of) Green's function times the specific intensity of the noise (Weaver, 2013). The theoretical understanding permits the interpretation of correlation amplitudes and promises to facilitate the retrieval of attenuation, site amplification factors, and scattering strengths from the noise correlation. In order to develop methods for extracting attenuation from ambient noise and apply to real data (particularly in Tibetan Plateau), we propose approaches with detailed formulations for a linear array and a more general 2D station network. A particular problem in retrieving amplitudes from noise is that seismic ambient noise source is not uniform and changes with time. We tested numerical simulations with azimuthally and temporally varying noise source, and have started to add internal scattering in the simulations. Our simulations validate that amplitudes and attenuations can indeed be extracted from noise correlations for a linear array or for a more general 2D array. We propose a temporal flattening procedure, which is effective in speeding up convergence while preserving relative amplitudes. For real data, we propose an "asynchronous" temporal flattening procedure that does not require all stations to have the data at the same time. Tests on real data suggest attenuations extracted are comparable with those from earthquakes.
Attenuation of wind waves by monomolecular sea slicks and the Marangoni effect
Heinrich Hühnerfuss; Wolfgang Walter; Philipp A. Lange; Werner Alpers
1987-01-01
Previous observations of wind wave damping by monomolecular surface films (``slicks'') have shown a pronounced energy detraction (``dip'') in the short gravity wave range of the wind wave spectra. In this work, wind wave tunnel experiments with mechanically generated water waves have supplied experimental evidence which clearly shows that this dip is predominantly caused by the film-induced ``Marangoni effect.''
Influence of the surface drag coefficient (young waves) on the current structure of the Berre lagoon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alekseenko, Elena; Roux, Bernard; Kharif, Christian; Sukhinov, Alexander; Kotarba, Richard; Fougere, Dominique; Chen, Paul Gang
2013-04-01
Due to the shallowness, currents and hydrodynamics of Berre lagoon (South of France) are closely conditioned by the bottom topography, and wind affects the entire water column, as for many other Mediterranean lagoons (Perez-Ruzafa, 2011). Wind stress, which is caused by moving atmospheric disturbance, is known to have a major influence in lagoon water circulation. According to the numerical simulation for the main directions of the wind: N-NW, S-SE and W (wind speed of 80 km/h) it is observed that the current is maximal alongshore in the wind direction; the bottom nearshore current being larger in shallower area. This fact is coherent with fundamental principle of wind-driven flows in closed or partially closed basins which states that in shallow water the dominant force balance is between surface wind stress and bottom friction, yielding a current in the direction of the wind (Mathieu et al, 2002, Hunter and Hearn, 1987; Hearn and Hunter,1990). A uniform wind stress applied at the surface of a basin of variable depth sets up a circulation pattern characterized by relatively strong barotropic coastal currents in the direction of the wind, with return flow occurring over the deeper regions (Csanady, 1967; Csanady, 1971). One of the key parameters characterizing the wind stress formulation is a surface drag coefficient (Cds). Thus, an effect of a surface drag coefficient, in the range 0.0016 - 0.0032, will be analyzed in this work. The value of surface drag coefficient Cds = 0.0016 used in our previous studies (Alekseenko et al., 2012), would correspond to mature waves (open sea). But, in the case of semi-closed lagoonal ecosystem, it would be more appropriate to consider "young waves" mechanism. A dependency of this coefficient in terms of the wind speed is given by Young (1999) in both cases of mature waves and young waves. For "young waves" generated at a wind speed of 80 km/h, Cds = 0.0032. So, the influence of Cds on the vertical profile of the velocity in the water column is analyzed in the range 0.0016 - 0.0032. For the three main wind directions considered in this work, for a wind speed of 80 km/h, the complex current structure of the Berre lagoon is analysed. In the nearshore zones, strong alongshore downwind currents are generated, reaching values of the order of 1m/s (up to 1.5 m/s) at the free surface, and 0.5 - 0.6 m/s at the bottom. References Alekseenko E., B. Roux, A. Sukhinov, R. Kotarba, D. Fougere. Coastal hydrodynamics in a windy lagoon; submitted to Computers and Fluids, oct. 2012 Csanady G. T.: Large-scale motion in the Great Lakes, Journal of Geophysical Research, 72(16), 4151-4161, 1967. Csanady G. T. : Baroclinic boundary currents and long edge-waves in basins with sloping shores. J. Physical Oceanography 1(2):92-104, 1971. Hunter, J.R. and Hearn, C.J.: Lateral and vertical variations in the wind-driven circulations in long, shallow lakes, Journal of Geophysical Research, 92 (C12), 1987. Hearn, C.J. and Hunter, J.R.: A note on the equivalence of some two- and three-dimensional models of wind-driven barotropic flow in shallow seas, Applied Mathematical Modelling, 14, 553-556, 1990. Mathieu P.P., Deleersnijder E., Cushman-Roisin B., Beckers J.M. and Bolding K.: The role of topography in small well-mixed bays, with application to the lagoon of Mururoa. Continental Shelf research, 22(9), 1379-1395, 2002. A. Pérez-Ruzafa, C. Marcos, I.M. Pérez-Ruzafa (2011). Mediterranean coastal lagoons in an ecosystem and aquatic resources management context//Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 36, Issues 5-6, 2011, Pages 160-166 Young I.R., Wind generated ocean waves. Ocean Engineering Series Editors. Elsevier, 1999, ISBN: 0-08-043317-0.
Louisnard, Olivier
2013-01-01
The bubbles involved in sonochemistry and other applications of cavitation oscillate inertially. A correct estimation of the wave attenuation in such bubbly media requires a realistic estimation of the power dissipated by the oscillation of each bubble, by thermal diffusion in the gas and viscous friction in the liquid. Both quantities and calculated numerically for a single inertial bubble driven at 20 kHz, and are found to be several orders of magnitude larger than the linear prediction. Viscous dissipation is found to be the predominant cause of energy loss for bubbles small enough. Then, the classical nonlinear Caflish equations describing the propagation of acoustic waves in a bubbly liquid are recast and simplified conveniently. The main harmonic part of the sound field is found to fulfill a nonlinear Helmholtz equation, where the imaginary part of the squared wave number is directly correlated with the energy lost by a single bubble. For low acoustic driving, linear theory is recovered, but for larger ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, X.; Li, W.; Bortnik, J.; Thorne, R. M.; Angelopoulos, V.; Lu, Q.; Tao, X.
2014-12-01
The bandwidth and coherence coefficient of lower-band whistler mode waves are analyzed using THEMIS waveform data for rising tone, falling tone, and hiss-like emissions separately. We also evaluate their dependences on the spatial location, electron density, the ratio of plasma frequency to local electron gyrofrequency, and the wave amplitude. Our results show that the bandwidth normalized by the local electron gyrofrequency (fce) of rising and falling tones is very narrow (~0.01 fce), much smaller than that of the hiss-like emissions (~0.025 fce). Meanwhile, with the increasing wave amplitude, the normalized bandwidth of discrete emissions gradually decreases, whereas that of hiss-like emissions increases slowly. The coherence coefficient of rising and falling tones is extremely large (~1), while the coherence coefficient of hiss-like emissions is a little smaller, but is still larger than 0.5. For all categories of whistler-mode waves, the normalized bandwidth increases at larger L-shells. Furthermore, the normalized bandwidth is positively correlated with the ratio of plasma frequency to local electron gyrofrequency, but is inversely correlated with the electron density. Interaction between radiation belt electrons and whistler mode waves has been widely described within quasi-linear diffusion theory. Our observations show that the quasi-linear theory is not entirely applicable for modeling electron interaction with rising and falling tones due to their narrow bandwidth and high coherence coefficient. However, it is suitable to simulate wave-particle interaction between electrons and hiss-like emissions. Moreover, the correlations between the normalized bandwidth of chorus waves (especially the discrete emissions) and other parameters may provide insights for the generation mechanism of chorus waves.
The contribution of activated processes to Q. [stress corrosion cracking in seismic wave attenuation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spetzler, H. A.; Getting, I. C.; Swanson, P. L.
1980-01-01
The possible role of activated processes in seismic attenuation is investigated. In this study, a solid is modeled by a parallel and series configuration of dashpots and springs. The contribution of stress and temperature activated processes to the long term dissipative behavior of this system is analyzed. Data from brittle rock deformation experiments suggest that one such process, stress corrosion cracking, may make a significant contribution to the attenuation factor, Q, especially for long period oscillations under significant tectonic stress.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Peng-Cheng; Pan, Guang
2015-06-01
Due to the high speed of underwater vehicles, cavitation is generated inevitably along with the sound attenuation when the sound signal traverses through the cavity region around the underwater vehicle. The linear wave propagation is studied to obtain the influence of bubbly liquid on the acoustic wave propagation in the cavity region. The sound attenuation coefficient and the sound speed formula of the bubbly liquid are presented. Based on the sound attenuation coefficients with various vapor volume fractions, the attenuation of sound intensity is calculated under large cavitation number conditions. The result shows that the sound intensity attenuation is fairly small in a certain condition. Consequently, the intensity attenuation can be neglected in engineering. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51279165 and 51479170) and the National Defense Basic Scientific Research Program of China (Grant No. B2720133014).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delaney, D.; Purcell, C. C.; Mur, A. J.; Haljasmaa, I.; Soong, Y.; Harbert, W.
2012-12-01
Parameters related to seismic and ultrasonic elastic waves traveling through a porous rock material with compliant pores, cracks and isometric pores are subject to variations which are dependent on the physical properties of the rock such as density, porosity, permeability, frame work moduli, fluid moduli, micro structural variation, and effective pressure. Our goal is to understand these variations through experiments completed using Berea sandstone, rhyolites, coal, and carbonate samples. Understanding these lithologies are relevant to enhanced oil recovery, enhanced geothermal, and CO2 storage activities. Working in the COREFLOW laboratory at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) we performed several experiments on these rock types with various different pore filling fluids, effective pressures, and temperatures. We measured P, S1 and S2 ultrasonic velocities using an New England Research (NER) Autolab 1500 device and calculated the lame parameters (Bulk modulus (K), Young's modulus (E), Lamè's first parameter (?), Shear modulus (G), Poisson's ratio ( ), P-wave modulus (M)). Using an aluminum reference core and the P, S1, and S2 ultrasonic waveform data collected, we employed the spectral ratio method to estimate Q. This method uses the ratio of the amplitude-frequency spectrum (obtained via fast Fourier Transform and processed using Matlab) of the rock core compared with the amplitude-frequency spectrum of the aluminum reference core to calculate the quality factor (Q). The quality factor is a dimensionless value that represents the attenuation of a seismic wave as it travels through a rock. Seismic attenuation is dependent on wave velocity, the path length or time the wave is in the rock, and of course the physical properties of the rock through which the wave travels. Effective pressures used in our experiments varied between 0.01 MPa and 50 MPa and temperatures varied between 21 C to 80 C which allowed us to more accurately represent subsurface conditions. Pore filling fluids consisted of deionized water, oil, gas, and supercritical CO2. We have found that Q for the P, S1, and S2 seismic waves is strongly dependent on and proportional to the effective pressure of the rock. Also our experiments indicate that the presence of different pore filling fluids such as water, oil, and CO2 alter the value of Q. Carbonate samples were tested dry (atmospheric gas as pore fluid) and with deionized water, oil, and CO2. With the substitution of each of these fluids into the dry rock core sample, we see the value of Q shift as much as 20% lower for the P, S1, and S2 seismic waves. Our experiments indicate that the presence of oil, water, or CO2 lowers the value of Q of a rock. For all effective pressures we see this shift in the value of Q, it would seem that with the introduction of these pore-filling fluids the quality factor value is typically lowered, however at higher effective pressures (about 40 MPa) the shift in Q is less. By understanding how seismic waves attenuate we can better understand what collected seismic signals traveled through. This knowledge and understanding of seismic wave attenuation could prove to be a powerful tool for better subsurface imaging, tracking of sequestrated CO2, and energy exploration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghasemzadeh, Hasan; Abounouri, Amir Ali
2012-08-01
SummaryOver the past years there has been a growing interest in the use of seismic waves to gain required information about the Earth's subsurface. Despite all achievements, the problem of accurately linking field measurement of seismic attributes to subsurface hydrological properties such as porosity and intrinsic permeability is still ambiguous. The goal of the present paper is to provide a comprehensive study on the effect of subsurface hydrological properties on seismic attributes such as wave attenuation and velocity. This is achieved by using dispersion relations obtained from equations of wave motion that are derived from Biot's theory of poroelasticity. Since the attenuation predicted from Biot's theory is only due to relative motion of the solid and fluid phases, viscoelasticity effects are introduced to consider the attenuation caused by grain to grain contact. The dispersion relations for body waves including fast wave, slow wave and shear wave are valid in both low and high frequency ranges where viscous and inertia effects are dominant, respectively. Numerical simulations are performed on sand samples over a wide range of frequencies (1 Hz to 1 MHz). For samples with constant porosity, but different intrinsic permeabilities, it is demonstrated that the velocity of slow wave is higher for the more permeable sample over the full frequency range. The velocity of fast wave and shear wave is higher for the more permeable sample, but the difference is significant only at intermediate frequencies (10-100,000 Hz). However, the corresponding peak velocity and attenuation of each of the wave modes are almost equal for different intrinsic permeability values and, therefore, independent of intrinsic permeability. Another series of numerical simulations are carried out on sand samples with different porosity values. It is shown that the most porous sand has higher slow wave and shear wave velocity, but lower fast wave velocity. Also, the peak attenuation of fast wave and shear wave gets larger as sand porosity increases, but slow wave behavior is opposite. Remarkable result is that all wave modes become more dispersive when porosity increases. Thus, neglecting the dependence of wave velocity on frequency can lead to significant miscalculation of wave velocity for sand samples with high porosity values.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, N. E.; Bliven, L. F.; Long, S. R.; Deleonibus, P. S.
1986-01-01
Controlled laboratory experiments are reported which demonstrate directly and quantitatively the influence of wave conditions in determining the drag law at the air-sea interface under neutral stability conditions. It is concluded that the analytic form first proposed by Kitaigorodskii (1970) models the roughness scale very well when the sea is dominated by the locally generated waves. It is demonstrated that, by using a unified two-parameter wave spectral model by Huang et al. (1981), Kitaigorodskii's result can be shown to contain the formulas of Charnock (1955) and Hsu (1974) as special cases. The results also identify two wind and wave-related parameters as important in determining the drag coefficient for developing wave fields.
Geoacoustic inversion of short range source data using a plane wave reflection coefficient approach.
Stotts, S A; Knobles, D P; Keller, J A; Piper, J N; Thompson, L A
2006-12-01
Acoustic time series data were collected in a shallow, hard bottom lake environment located in central Texas using both short range (2 m) implosive data, obtained with the source and a single hydrophone located near mid-depth in the waveguide, along with longer range implosive and explosive data from a near surface source to a bottom mounted hydrophone. Matched field inversions using simulated annealing were performed with a ray trace plus complex plane wave reflection coefficient forward propagation model that was validated in previous work. Isolating bottom interacting paths to perform the inversions is shown to be essential to reduce parameter uncertainties in the hard bottom environment and enables a systematic approach to the inversions which establishes the number of layers needed to represent the lake environment. Measured transmission loss data from a towed source were compared through a RMS error analysis to modeled transmission loss, constructed with the parameters from inversions of data from several source types, to further establish the validity of the inversion approach for this environment. Geoacoustic parameters obtained by inversions of short range, low frequency impulsive data are used to predict transmission loss at longer ranges and higher frequencies. The range dependence of the global minimum is discussed. PMID:17225390
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, T. W.; Huang, L.; Leaitch, R.; Sharma, S.; Brook, J.; Slowik, J.; Abbatt, J.
2008-05-01
Carbonaceous species (organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC)) contribute a large portion of atmospheric fine particle mass and influence air quality, human health, and climate forcing. However, their emission sources and atmospheric aging processes are not well understood. The OM/OC ratio, defined as the organic mass per unit OC mass, is useful to understand the degree of oxidation of aerosol particles in atmospheric processes. We define the modified BC/EC (mod BC/EC) ratio as the ratio of the non-scattering corrected absorption coefficient per unit mass of EC. The mod BC/EC ratio has a similar meaning as the site specific attenuation coefficient, which is an important parameter used to convert light absorption measurements to black carbon mass. The mod BC/EC ratio can vary due to light scattering effect on absorption measurements, in which the oxygenated organics may play a role. The pyrolysis organic carbon (POC) is defined as the carbon mass fraction obtained at T= 870°C under a pure helium environment using the thermal separation method [Huang et al., 2006]. Since POC mass is generally proportional to the amount of oxygenated OC, studying the relationships among OC, EC, POC, as well as OM/OC and mod BC/EC ratios may help us understand the mechanisms of aerosol aging from different emission sources. Two 1-month field studies were conducted at a rural site in southern Ontario (NW of Toronto) during fall 2005 and spring 2007. Quartz filter samples were collected and analyzed for OC, POC, and EC concentrations using a thermal/optical method [Huang et al., 2006]. Together with the total organic matter measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and the absorption coefficient obtained from a Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP), the OM/OC and mod BC/EC ratios for ambient aerosols were obtained. Our results show that when air mass was mainly from south, OC, POC, and EC were relatively high, with average ratios of OC/EC, OM/OC, and POC/EC as 1.94, 1.41, and 0.52, respectively; this indicates significant anthropogenic impacts and relatively large portion of oxygenated OC, which might be due to either primary emissions or photo-chemical reactions occurred in a short period of time. When air mass was mainly from north, OC, POC, and EC were much lower, with average ratios of OC/EC, OM/OC, and POC/EC as 3.10, 1.20, and 0.79, respectively; this suggests less influence from anthropogenic emissions and relatively aged air mass from biogenic-source dominated clean air. Using POC, we estimate the specific attenuation at the site to be 5.8 m2 g-1 independent of the air mass origin. The relationships among OM/OC, mod BC/EC, and POC will be further discussed. References: Huang, L., Brook, J.R., Zhang, W., Li, S.M., Graham, L., Ernst, D., Chivulescu, A., and Lu, G. (2006) Stable isotope measurements of carbon fractions (OC/EC) in airborne particulate: a new dimension for source characterization and apportionment, Atmospheric Environment, 40, 2690-2705.
Modeling Biot's Coefficient for High Porosity Sediments From P Wave Velocity and Density Data
I. L. Fabricius
2006-01-01
The effective stress coefficient predicts to which extent the fluid pressure in a given sediment counteracts the load of overlying sediments. When monitoring changes in fluid pressure and fluid composition from seismic data, the effective stress coefficient may be approximated by Biot's coefficient, alpha. alpha is under assumption of hydrostatic stress and linear elasticity defined as: alpha = 1 -
Mitchell, B.J.; Nuttli, O.W.; Xie, J.K.; Al-Shukri, H.; Correig, A.
1989-05-25
Work was completed on yield determination at the Soviet test site on Novaya Zemlya. Magnitudes and yields, determined for 30 explosions using Lg amplitudes recorded in northwestern Europe, ranged between 2.5 and 4900 kt, the largest since April 1976 being about 145 kt. Studies were completed on seismic wave attenuation of surface waves at intermediate periods and of Lg waves at 1 Hz in several regions of the world. Limits were determined for the degree of frequency dependence of Q (sub beta) which can occur in the crust in stable and tectonically active regions. A stochastic convolution model was proposed for Lg coda at distances > 200 km which considers the effects of dispersion scattering and mode conversions at those distances. A back-projection tomographic method was developed to regionalize large-scale lateral variations of coda Q for Lg waves which traverse long continental paths. A seismically active region in the New Madrid seismic zone was found to be characterized by lower than normal Q values. In the western United States, Q values in the upper mantle vary laterally, becoming smaller from east to west. Crust of the Basin and Range province has a low-Q upper crust overlying a lower crust with higher Q values.
Laboratory experiments and numerical modeling of wave attenuation through artificial vegetation
Augustin, Lauren Nicole
2009-05-15
friction factor approach, have been successfully applied to determine bottom friction coefficients for flows in the presence of vegetation. There have been numerous relationships derived relating the friction factor to different flow regime boundary layers...
Barbara Romanowicz
1990-01-01
We present the results of an analysis of global lateral variations in anelasticity of the upper mantle, as measured from very long period Rayleigh waves observed on the GEOSCOPE network. Four consecutive wave trains are used on each record to eliminate uncertainty on the amplitude at the source and to take into account, in a linear manner, focussing effects due
Martin D. de Jonge; Chanh Q. Tran; Christopher T. Chantler; Zwi Barnea; Bipin B. Dhal; David Paterson; Elliot P. Kanter; Stephen H. Southworth; Linda Young; Mark A. Beno; Jennifer A. Linton; Guy Jennings
2007-01-01
We use the x-ray extended-range technique (XERT) [C. T. Chantler , Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001)] to measure the mass attenuation coefficients of tin in the x-ray energy range of 29-60keV to 0.04-3% accuracy, and typically in the range 0.1-0.2% . Measurements made over an extended range of the measurement parameter space are critically examined to identify, quantify, and
Martin D. de Jonge; Chanh Q. Tran; Christopher T. Chantler; Zwi Barnea; Bipin B. Dhal; David Paterson; Elliot P. Kanter; Stephen H. Southworth; Linda Young; Mark A. Beno; Jennifer A. Linton; Guy Jennings
2007-01-01
We use the x-ray extended-range technique (XERT) [C. T. Chantler et al., Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001)] to measure the mass attenuation coefficients of tin in the x-ray energy range of 29-60 keV to 0.04-3 % accuracy, and typically in the range 0.1-0.2 %. Measurements made over an extended range of the measurement parameter space are critically examined to
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hudier, E. J.; Bahoura, M.
2012-12-01
Sea ice is a two-phase porous medium consisting of a solid matrix of pure ice and a salty liquid phase. At spring when ice permeability increases, it has been observed that pressure gradients induced at the ice-water interface upstream and downstream of pressure ridge keels can cause sea water and brine to be forced through the ice water boundary. It suggests that salt and heat fluxes through the bottom ice layers may be a major factor controlling the decay of an ice sheet. Knowing how water flows through the ice matrix is fundamental to a modeling of ocean-ice heat exchanges integrating the advective import/export of latent heat that result from melting/freezing within the ice. Permeability is the measurement of the ease with which fluids flow through a porous medium, however one of the most tricky to measure without altering the porosity of the sampled medium. To further complicate the challenge, horizontal and vertical permeability of the ice, referred as ice anisotropy, is significant. Acoustic wave propagation through porous media have been theorized to relate the acoustic velocity and attenuation to the physical properties of the tested material. It is a non-invasive technique, and as such could provide more reliable measurements of sea ice permeability than anything presently used. Simulations combining the Biot's and squirt flow mechanisms are performed to investigate the effect of permeability on the attenuation and phase velocity as a function of frequency. We first present the attenuation dispersion curves for an isotropic sea ice, then low-frequency and high-frequency limits are determined. Optimal frequency range and resolution requirements are evaluated for testing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Jonge, Martin D.; Tran, Chanh Q.; Chantler, Christopher T.; Barnea, Zwi; Dhal, Bipin B.; Cookson, David J.; Lee, Wah-Keat; Mashayekhi, Ali
2005-03-01
We use the x-ray extended-range technique (XERT) [Chantler , Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001)] to measure the mass attenuation coefficients of molybdenum in the x-ray energy range of 13.5-41.5keV to 0.02-0.15 % accuracy. Measurements made over an extended range of the measurement parameter space are critically examined to identify, quantify, and correct where necessary a number of experimental systematic errors. These results represent the most extensive experimental data set for molybdenum and include absolute mass attenuation coefficients in the regions of the x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and x-ray-absorption near-edge structure (XANES). The imaginary component of the atomic form-factor f2 is derived from the photoelectric absorption after subtracting calculated Rayleigh and Compton scattering cross sections from the total attenuation. Comparison of the result with tabulations of calculated photoelectric absorption coefficients indicates that differences of 1-15 % persist between the calculated and observed values.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Jonge, Martin D.; Tran, Chanh Q.; Chantler, Christopher T.; Barnea, Zwi; Dhal, Bipin B.; Paterson, David; Kanter, Elliot P.; Southworth, Stephen H.; Young, Linda; Beno, Mark A.; Linton, Jennifer A.; Jennings, Guy
2007-03-01
We use the x-ray extended-range technique (XERT) [C. T. Chantler , Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001)] to measure the mass attenuation coefficients of tin in the x-ray energy range of 29-60keV to 0.04-3% accuracy, and typically in the range 0.1-0.2% . Measurements made over an extended range of the measurement parameter space are critically examined to identify, quantify, and correct a number of potential experimental systematic errors. These results represent the most extensive experimental data set for tin and include absolute mass attenuation coefficients in the regions of x-ray absorption fine structure, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, and x-ray absorption near-edge structure. The imaginary component of the atomic form factor f2 is derived from the photoelectric absorption after subtracting calculated Rayleigh and Compton scattering cross sections from the total attenuation. Comparison of the result with tabulations of calculated photoelectric absorption coefficients indicates that differences of 1-2% persist between calculated and observed values.
Jonge, Martin D. de; Tran, Chanh Q.; Chantler, Christopher T.; Barnea, Zwi; Dhal, Bipin B.; Paterson, David; Kanter, Elliot P.; Southworth, Stephen H.; Young, Linda; Beno, Mark A.; Linton, Jennifer A.; Jennings, Guy [X-Ray Operations and Research, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Australian Synchrotron Project, Major Projects Victoria, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); BESSRC-CAT, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)
2007-03-15
We use the x-ray extended-range technique (XERT) [C. T. Chantler et al., Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001)] to measure the mass attenuation coefficients of tin in the x-ray energy range of 29-60 keV to 0.04-3 % accuracy, and typically in the range 0.1-0.2 %. Measurements made over an extended range of the measurement parameter space are critically examined to identify, quantify, and correct a number of potential experimental systematic errors. These results represent the most extensive experimental data set for tin and include absolute mass attenuation coefficients in the regions of x-ray absorption fine structure, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, and x-ray absorption near-edge structure. The imaginary component of the atomic form factor f{sub 2} is derived from the photoelectric absorption after subtracting calculated Rayleigh and Compton scattering cross sections from the total attenuation. Comparison of the result with tabulations of calculated photoelectric absorption coefficients indicates that differences of 1-2 % persist between calculated and observed values.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Jong-Won; Giorgi, Giacomo; Yamashita, Koichi; Hirao, Kimihiko
2013-06-01
Integrable singularity in the exact exchange calculations in hybrid functionals is an old and well-known problem in plane-wave basis. Recently, we developed a hybrid functional named Gaussian-attenuating Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (Gau-PBE), which uses a Gaussian function as a modified Coulomb potential for the exact exchange. We found that the modified Coulomb potential of Gaussian function enables the exact exchange calculation in plane-wave basis to be singularity-free and, as a result, the Gau-PBE functional shows faster energy convergence on k and q grids for the exact exchange calculations. Also, a tight comparison (same k and q meshes) between Gau-PBE and two other hybrid functionals, i.e., PBE0 and HSE06, indicates Gau-PBE functional as the least computational time consuming. The Gau-PBE functional employed in conjunction with a plane wave basis provides bandgaps with higher accuracy than the PBE0 and HSE06 in agreement with bandgaps previously calculated using Gaussian-type-orbitals.
Villalobos-Escobar, Gina P; Castro, Raúl R
2014-01-01
We used a new data set of relocated earthquakes recorded by the Seismic Network of Northeastern Sonora, Mexico (RESNES) to characterize the attenuation of S-waves in the fault zone of the 1887 Sonora earthquake (M w 7.5). We determined spectral attenuation functions for hypocentral distances (r) between 10 and 140 km using a nonparametric approach and found that in this fault zone the spectral amplitudes decay slower with distance at low frequencies (f?attenuation functions obtained for 23 frequencies (0.4???f???63.1 Hz) permit us estimating the average quality factor Q S ?=?(141 ± 1.1 )f ((0.74 ± 0.04)) and a geometrical spreading term G(r) =?1/r (0.21). The values of Q estimated for S-wave paths traveling along the fault system that rupture during the 1887 event, in the north-south direction, are considerably lower than the average Q estimated using source-station paths from multiple stations and directions. These results indicate that near the fault zone S waves attenuate considerably more than at regional scale, particularly at low frequencies. This may be the result of strong scattering near the faults due to the fractured upper crust and higher intrinsic attenuation due to stress concentration near the faults. PMID:25674476
Microscopic Observation of Mechanism for Shear Wave Attenuation in Nylon-66
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ting
2005-07-01
Gupta[1] found rapid shear attenuation near the impact surface for PMMA target. However, the physical mechanism remains unknown. In this article, nylon-66 was chosen for experimental investigation by using a keyed gas gun and EMV method, since nylon-66 has the spherical grain structure, which can be observed under a polarized microscope. The similar rapid shear attenuation occurs in the present study when the impact velocity and inclination angle reach a critical value. The polarized micro-observation of recovered samples shows that near the impact surface there is a melting layer of thickness about 6-8?m, which causes the decay of the shear component propagating into the sample. The interesting thing is that there is a discontinuous crystalline layer about 2-3?m thick above the melting layer, which indicates the melting may not directly caused by the friction on the impact surface and the heat produces inside of the sample and near the surface. Further observation discloses an adiabatic shear band near the surface to cause the material failure. [1]Gupta Y M, J. Appl. Phys. 51(1980), 5352.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yingjie
The primary goal of this thesis is to understand the structure, dynamics, deformation and evolution of the Earth's lithosphere and mantle in both oceanic and continental settings by surface wave tomography. In chapter 1, we revised 2-D Born-approximation sensitivity kernels of surface waves for the global case to that for a regional case. We found that the kernels can accurately predict the perturbation of the wavefield. Based on the 2-D sensitivity kernels, we developed a surface wave tomography method and tested the inversion method by using synthesized data obtained from numerical simulations. We found the method can almost completely recover the input checkerboard structure when the size of anomalies is larger than one wavelength. In chapter 2, we applied the tomography method developed in chapter 1 to fundamental mode Rayleigh waves in southern California. Two-dimensional phase velocities are used to invert for three-dimensional S-wave velocities of the upper mantle. The pattern of velocity anomalies indicates that there is active small-scale convection in the asthenosphere beneath southern California and that the dominant form of convection is 3-D lithospheric drips and asthenospheric upwellings, rather than 2-D sheets or slabs. Azimuthal anisotropy is obtained in a joint inversion including lateral variations of phase velocities. The strength of anisotropy is ˜1.7% at periods shorter than 67s and decreases to ˜1% at longer periods. In chapter 3, we invert Rayleigh waves recorded at ocean-bottom seismometers (OBSs) in very young (less than 10 Ma) seafloor for shear wave velocity (Vs) and attenuation (Qmu). A high velocity lid with negative gradient in the uppermost mantle overlying a low velocity zone is observed. Our Q mu models exhibit a sharp change over the depth range of 40 to 60 km with higher values above 40 km. The change of Qmu and S-wave velocity with depth is partly due to the sharp change of water content in the upper mantle as a result of the extraction of water by large fractional melting above ˜65 km. ˜1% partial melting in the low velocity zone is required to satisfy the minimum value of shear wave velocity.
Pei-Lin Shao; Chaw-Chi Chiu; Chun-Man Yuen; Sarah Chua; Li-Teh Chang; Jiunn-Jye Sheu; Cheuk-Kwan Sun; Chiung-Jen Wu; Ching-Jen Wang; Hon-Kan Yip
2010-01-01
Background: This study investigates the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave (ECSW) in ameliorating inflammatory mediator expression and neointimal formation in a rat model of vascular injury. Methods and Results: Male Sprague-Dawley rats with left carotid artery (LCA) injury induced by balloon dilatation (BD; group 1) were compared with group 2 [LCA injury plus ECSW-181 (defined as 181 total shocks given
A model for P-wave attenuation and dispersion in a porous medium ...
lll
2005-09-05
fluid-saturated porous medium composed of two constituents, b and c can be ... 376. M. Brajanovski, B. Gurevich and M. Schoenberg. The results presented in this .... 9 ??µ?. K2 g . (30). As with the frequency-dependent P-wave modulus, the
Evaluation of coastal wave attenuation due to viscous fluid sediment at Jefferson County, Texas
Tuttle, Meghan I
2000-01-01
echosounder and collected soil samples. Testing concluded that a dual frequency fathometer is employable in the surf zone, but that low frequency data must be collected in water depths greater than two meters of water. The observed wave data is employed...
Physical modeling and analysis of P-wave attenuation anisotropy in transversely isotropic media
Boise State University
can provide sensitive attributes for fracture detection and lithology discrimination. This pa- per-preserving migration, and seismic fracture detec- tion. INTRODUCTION Most existing publications on seismic anisotropy and amplitudes of seismic waves. It is likely; howev- er, that anisotropic formations are also characterized
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steeb, H.; Kurzeja, P.; Frehner, M.; Schmalholz, S. M.
2012-04-01
Propagation of seismic waves in partially saturated porous media depends on various material properties, e.g. saturation, porosity, elastic properties of the skeleton, viscous properties of the pore fluids and, additionally, capillary pressure and effective permeability. If the wetting fluid is in a discontinuous state, i.e. residual-saturated configuration, phase velocities and frequency-dependent attenuation additionally depend on microscopical (pore-scale) properties such as droplet and/or ganglia size. To model wave propagation in residual-saturated porous media, we developed a three-phase model based on an enriched continuum mixture theory capturing the strong coupling between the micro- and the macroscale. The three-phase model comprises the porous solid skeleton, a continuous fluid part and a discontinuous fluid part. The discontinuous part describes the movement of blobs/clusters of the wetting fluid and is based on an oscillator rheology. On the microscale, the oscillators are determined by their mass, damping and eigenfrequency. Amongst others, these properties depend on the microscopic geometry and surface tension. To embed the microscopic oscillators into a macroscopic poroelastic description of the non-wetting fluid and the skeleton, a scale bridging between both spatial scales is applied conserving density, eigenfrequency and damping. This homogenization approach accounts for the discontinuous character of the wetting fluid. Furthermore, probability density functions are used to describe the size distribution of different kinds of fluid clusters. The discontinuous fluid part is linked to the continuous solid phase by momentum exchange in the form of pinned or sliding oscillators. The non-wetting continuous fluid phase exhibits similar behavior as the poroelastic model introduced by Biot. The final model delivers insight into the behavior of propagating waves on the macroscale, influenced by different properties of the microscopic oscillating fluid clusters. Furthermore, the dispersion relations allow for a comparison with continuous models, such as the Biot model, and for the calculation of characteristic values, which might be helpful for the comparison with experimental studies. We define a dimensionless parameter that determines if the overall motion of the residual fluid is dominated by oscillations (underdamped, resonance) or not (overdamped). Our results show that the residual fluid has a significant impact on the velocity dispersion and attenuation, no matter if it oscillates or not. For long wavelengths, our model coincides with the Biot-Gassmann equations. We show under which conditions and how the classical biphasic models can be used to approximate the dynamic behavior of residual-saturated porous media.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakshi, A. K.; Chatterjee, S.; Palani Selvam, T.; Joshi, V. J.; Chougaonkar, M. P.
2011-10-01
Self attenuation of TL and relative TL efficiency of polytetra fluoro ethylene (PTFE) embedded CaSO 4:Dy disc, LiF:Mg,Ti (MTS) disc and LiF:Mg,Cu,P (MCP-N) chip were determined in the present study for photons of energy 10-34 keV. The relative TL efficiency was determined using an alternative approach in which ratio of experimental response and corrected theoretical response was used instead of measuring the absolute TL emission in photon counting mode. For CaSO 4:Dy disc, it was found that with increasing the proportion of CaSO 4:Dy phosphor in the disc, the light attenuation coefficient increases. The light attenuation coefficient of MTS disc and MCP-N chip was found to be 23.4 and 45.5 cm -1, respectively. The relative TL efficiency in the photon energy range of 10-34 keV for MTS discs and MCP-N chips, evaluated in the present study matches well with the reported values in the literature.
VHF\\/UHF wave attenuation in a city with regularly spaced buildings
N. Blaunstein; M. Levin
1996-01-01
In this work a theoretical and experimental investigation analyzing VHF\\/UHF radio wave propagation in a suburban environment with a grid-type street plan is presented for the purpose of personal communication services prediction. A waveguide with randomly distributed gaps (slits) between the sides of buildings is considered as a model of straight streets with two- and three-story buildings. The average field
T. Maekawa; T. Shimada; S. Inoue; A. Jitsumori; N. Okumura; K. Akizuki
1992-01-01
It is pointed out that, in the field of oil well drilling, EM-MWD (electromagnetic measurement while drilling) offers many advantages. The EM-MWD system can transmit measured data from the well bottom to the surface at high speed using electromagnetic waves. Developing the EM-MWD technology requires analysis of the electric field around a drill string. A novel computer simulation method has
Pingenot, J; Rieben, R; White, D
2004-12-06
We present a computational study of signal propagation and attenuation of a 200 MHz dipole antenna in a cave environment. The cave is modeled as a straight and lossy random rough wall. To simulate a broad frequency band, the full wave Maxwell equations are solved directly in the time domain via a high order vector finite element discretization using the massively parallel CEM code EMSolve. The simulation is performed for a series of random meshes in order to generate statistical data for the propagation and attenuation properties of the cave environment. Results for the power spectral density and phase of the electric field vector components are presented and discussed.
Spreading Waves of a Reduced Diffusion Coefficient of Water in Normal and Ischemic Rat Brain
Yasuhiro Hasegawa; Lawrence L. Latour; James E. Formato; Christopher H. Sotak; Marc Fisher
1995-01-01
Summary: Using echo planar diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, we measured three-dimensional changes in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of water in eight contiguous coronal slices, encompassing the entire rat brain, before and after local cortical stimulation. We applied chemical (potassium chloride application; n = 6) and mechanical (needle stab; n = 4) stimulations to the right posterior parietal rat cortex.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
PíšA, David; N?Mec, FrantišEk; SantolíK, Ond?Ej; Parrot, Michel; Rycroft, Michael
2013-08-01
We use VLF electromagnetic wave data measured by the DEMETER (Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions) satellite at an altitude of about 700 km to check for the presence of statistically significant changes of natural wave intensity (due to signals from lightning) related to preseismic activity. All the relevant data acquired by DEMETER during almost 6.5 years of the mission have been analyzed using a robust two-step data-processing schema. This enables us to compare data from the vicinity of about 8400 earthquakes with an unperturbed background distribution based on data collected during the whole DEMETER mission and to evaluate the statistical significance of the observed effects. We confirm previously reported results of a small but statistically significant decrease of the wave intensity (by ˜2 dB) at frequencies of about 1.7 kHz. The effect is observed for a few hours before the times of the main shocks; it occurs during the night. The effect is stronger between March and August, at higher latitudes and for the positions of hypocenters below the sea. We suggest an explanation based on changed properties of the lower boundary of the ionosphere, which leads to a decrease of the intensity of lightning-generated whistlers observed at the spacecraft altitude. This effect might result from a lowering of the ionosphere associated with an increase in the electrical conductivity of the lower troposphere due to an additional ionization of air molecules at the Earth's surface prior to earthquakes.
Delamination of southern Puna lithosphere revealed by body wave attenuation tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Xiaofeng; Sandvol, Eric; Kay, Suzanne; Heit, Benjamin; Yuan, Xiaohui; Mulcahy, Patrick; Chen, Chen; Brown, Larry; Comte, Diana; Alvarado, Patricia
2014-01-01
The southern Puna Plateau has been proposed to result from a major Pliocene delamination event that has previously been inferred from geochemical, geological, and some preliminary geophysical data. Seventy-five seismic stations were deployed across the southern Puna Plateau in 2007-2009 by scientists from the U.S., Germany, Chile, and Argentina to test the delamination model for the region. The Puna passive seismic stations were located between 25 and 28°S. Using the seismic waveform data collected from the PUNA experiment, we employ attenuation tomography methods to resolve both compressional and shear quality factors (Qp and Qs, respectively) in the crust and uppermost mantle. The images clearly show a high-Q Nazca slab subducting eastward beneath the Puna plateau and another high-Q block with a westward dip beneath the Eastern Cordillera. We suggest that the latter is a piece of delaminated South American lithosphere. A significant low-Q zone lies between the Nazca slab and the South American lithosphere and extends southward from the northern margin of the seismic array at 25°S before vanishing around 27.5°S. This low-Q zone extends farther west in the crust and uppermost mantle at the southern end of the seismic array. The low-Q zone reaches ~100 km depth beneath the northern part of the array but only ~50 km depth in the south. Lateral variations of the low-Q zone reflect the possible mechanism conversion between mantle upwelling related to delamination and dehydration. The depth of the Nazca slab as defined by Q images decreases from north to south beneath the plateau, which is consistent with the steep-flat transition of the angle of the subducting slab as defined by previous earthquake studies.
Modeling, evaluation, and asymptotic analysis of attenuation anisotropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shekar, Bharath Chandra
Seismic attenuation is sensitive to the physical properties of the subsurface, which makes attenuation analysis a useful tool for reservoir characterization. In this thesis, I present algorithms for estimating directionally dependent attenuation coefficients and perform asymptotic and numerical analysis of wave propagation in attenuative anisotropic media. First, I introduce a methodology to estimate the S-wave interval attenuation coefficient by extending the layer-stripping method of Behura and Tsvankin (2009) to mode-converted (PS) waves. Kinematic reconstruction of pure shear (SS) events in the target layer and the overburden is performed by combining velocity-independent layer stripping with the PP+PS=SS method. Then, application of the spectral-ratio method and the dynamic version of velocity-independent layer stripping to the constructed SS reflections yields the S-wave interval attenuation coefficient in the target layer. The attenuation coefficient estimated for a range of source-receiver offsets can be inverted for the interval attenuation-anisotropy parameters. The method is tested on synthetic data generated with the anisotropic reflectivity method for layered VTI (transversely isotropic with a vertical symmetry axis) media and vertical symmetry planes of orthorhombic media. Then, I analyze a cross-hole data set generated by perforation shots set off in a horizontal borehole to induce hydraulic fracturing in a tight gas reservoir. The spectral-ratio method is applied to pairs of traces to set up a system of equations for directionally-dependent effective attenuation. Although the inversion provides clear evidence of attenuation anisotropy, the narrow range of propagation directions impairs the accuracy of anisotropy analysis. The observed variations of the attenuation coefficient between different perforation stages appear to be related to changes in the medium due to hydraulic fracturing and stimulation. Important insights into point-source radiation in attenuative anisotropic media can be gained by applying asymptotic methods. I derive the asymptotic Green's function in homogeneous, attenuative, arbitrarily anisotropic media using the steepest-descent method. The saddle-point condition helps describe the behavior of the far field slowness and group-velocity vectors and evaluate the inhomogeneity angle (the angle between the real and imaginary parts of the slowness vector). The results from the asymptotic analysis are compared with those from the ray-perturbation method for P-waves in TI media. Finally, I address the problem of efficient viscoelastic modeling in heterogeneous anisotropic media. The Kirchhoff scattering integral is employed to generate reflected P-waves, with the required Green's functions computed by summation of Gaussian beams. The influence of attenuation on the Gaussian beams is incorporated using ray-perturbation theory. The method is applied to generate synthetic data from a highly attenuative VTI medium above a horizontal reflector and a structurally complex acoustic model with a salt body.
Evans, Joshua D.; Whiting, Bruce R.; O’Sullivan, Joseph A.; Politte, David G.; Klahr, Paul H.; Yu, Yaduo; Williamson, Jeffrey F.
2013-01-01
Purpose: Accurate patient-specific photon cross-section information is needed to support more accurate model-based dose calculation for low energy photon-emitting modalities in medicine such as brachytherapy and kilovoltage x-ray imaging procedures. A postprocessing dual-energy CT (pDECT) technique for noninvasive in vivo estimation of photon linear attenuation coefficients has been experimentally implemented on a commercial CT scanner and its accuracy assessed in idealized phantom geometries. Methods: Eight test materials of known composition and density were used to compare pDECT-estimated linear attenuation coefficients to NIST reference values over an energy range from 10 keV to 1 MeV. As statistical image reconstruction (SIR) has been shown to reconstruct images with less random and systematic error than conventional filtered backprojection (FBP), the pDECT technique was implemented with both an in-house polyenergetic SIR algorithm, alternating minimization (AM), as well as a conventional FBP reconstruction algorithm. Improvement from increased spectral separation was also investigated by filtering the high-energy beam with an additional 0.5 mm of tin. The law of propagated uncertainty was employed to assess the sensitivity of the pDECT process to errors in reconstructed images. Results: Mean pDECT-estimated linear attenuation coefficients for the eight test materials agreed within 1% of NIST reference values for energies from 1 MeV down to 30 keV, with mean errors rising to between 3% and 6% at 10 keV, indicating that the method is unbiased when measurement and calibration phantom geometries are matched. Reconstruction with FBP and AM algorithms conferred similar mean pDECT accuracy. However, single-voxel pDECT estimates reconstructed on a 1 × 1 × 3 mm3 grid are shown to be highly sensitive to reconstructed image uncertainty; in some cases pDECT attenuation coefficient estimates exhibited standard deviations on the order of 20% around the mean. Reconstruction with the statistical AM algorithm led to standard deviations roughly 40% to 60% less than FBP reconstruction. Additional tin filtration of the high energy beam exhibits similar pDECT estimation accuracy as the unfiltered beam, even when scanning with only 25% of the dose. Using the law of propagated uncertainty, low Z materials are found to be more sensitive to image reconstruction errors than high Z materials. Furthermore, it is estimated that reconstructed CT image uncertainty must be limited to less than 0.25% to achieve a target linear-attenuation coefficient estimation uncertainty of 3% at 28 keV. Conclusions: That pDECT supports mean linear attenuation coefficient measurement accuracies of 1% of reference values for energies greater than 30 keV is encouraging. However, the sensitivity of the pDECT measurements to noise and systematic errors in reconstructed CT images warrants further investigation in more complex phantom geometries. The investigated statistical reconstruction algorithm, AM, reduced random measurement uncertainty relative to FBP owing to improved noise performance. These early results also support efforts to increase DE spectral separation, which can further reduce the pDECT sensitivity to measurement uncertainty. PMID:24320525
Surface-wave attenuation and its lateral variation in the crust of the southwestern United States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sholy, Beshara Ibrahim
Shear wave Q (Qmu) models are obtained for a broad region of the southwestern United States. A single station method that compares observed amplitude spectra of fundamental and higher-mode Rayleigh waves to theoretically predicted spectra for assumed Qmu models is used to determine Q mu as a function of depth. Velocity structure and initial Qmu models are assumed for event-station pairs in which the events have known source depths and focal mechanisms. 164 event-station paths obtained from 33 earthquakes and 32 stations provide good path coverage for the region. The coverage is adequate to map lateral variations of Qmu at various depths in the continental crust of the southwestern United States. Two Qmu earth models of the crust are presented. Both models have three horizontal crustal layers of varying thickness overlying a uniform half-space. The analyses reveal that the Qmu variations correlate with changes in surface tectonics of the region. Average Qmu values for the upper crust for the whole region are found to vary between 55 and 75. These low values are expected for the seismically active and highly fractured crust of California and for the rifted Basin and Range province. Higher average Qmu values (103--116) are found at mid-crustal and lower-crustal depths. Qmu variations patterns are compared to geological and geophysical parameters of the southwestern United States, and found to partially correlate with heat flow patterns of the region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gharashi, Seyed Ebrahim; Daily, K. M.; Blume, D.
2012-10-01
We present highly accurate solutions of the Schrödinger equation for three fermions in two different spin states with zero-range s-wave interactions under harmonic confinement. Our approach covers spherically symmetric, strictly two-dimensional, strictly one-dimensional, cigar-shaped, and pancake-shaped traps. In particular, we discuss the transition from quasi-one-dimensional to strictly one-dimensional and from quasi-two-dimensional to strictly two-dimensional geometries. We determine and interpret the eigenenergies of the system as a function of the trap geometry and the strength of the zero-range interactions. The eigenenergies are used to investigate the dependence of the second- and third-order virial coefficients, which play an important role in the virial expansion of the thermodynamic potential, on the geometry of the trap. We show that the second- and third-order virial coefficients for anisotropic confinement geometries are, for experimentally relevant temperatures, very well approximated by those for the spherically symmetric confinement for all s-wave scattering lengths.
NUMERICAL METHOD FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE LAMì E COEFFICIENTS IN LINEAR ELASTIC WAVE EQUATION
K. SHIROTA
The purpose of this research is to propose a numerical method for the Lamì ec oeécients identiåcation problem in linear elastic wave equation: Determine the unknown Lamì ec oeécients from the knowledge of the plural sets of simultaneous displacement and traction on the surface of an isotropic, linearly elastic bounded body. We assume that the initial displacement and velocity are
Steven Stotts; David Knobles; Robert Koch; Adam Cook; David Grant; Karl Focke
2002-01-01
A previously reported method of inversion in range-dependent environments using a complex plane-wave approach [Stotts et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109, 2334 (2001)] has been applied to data analysis. The method separates the propagation in the water column from the interaction with the seabed by first calculating and then storing the eigenray characteristics associated with the assumed known waveguide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Fu-Ping; Meng, Xian-Jun; Xiao, Jia-Qi
2012-03-01
The optimization inversion method based on derivatives is an important inversion technique in seismic data processing, where the key problem is how to compute the Jacobian matrix. The computational precision of the Jacobian matrix directly influences the success of the optimization inversion method. Currently, most of the AVO (amplitude versus offset) inversions are based on approximate expressions for the Zoeppritz equations to obtain the derivatives of the seismic wave reflection coefficients (SWRCs) with respect to the stratum parameters. As a result, the computational precision and range of applications of these AVO inversions are restricted undesirably. In order to improve the computational precision and to extend the range of applications of AVO inversions, the partial derivative equations of the Zoeppritz equations are established, with respect to the ratios of wave velocities and medium densities. By solving the partial derivative equations of the Zoeppritz equations accurately, we obtained the partial derivative of SWRCs with respect to the ratios of seismic wave velocities and medium densities. With the help of the chain rule for derivatives, the gradient of the SWRCs can be accurately computed. To better understand the behavior of the gradient of the SWRCs, we plotted the partial derivative curves of the SWRCs, analyzed the characteristics of these curves, and gained some new insight into the derivatives. Because only a linear system of equations is solved in our method without adding any new restrictions, the new computational method has both high precision and a quick running speed; it is not only suitable for small incident angles and weak reflection seismic waves but also for large incident angles and strong reflection seismic waves. With the theoretical foundations established in the article, we can further study inversion problems for layered stratum structures and we can further improve the computational speed and precision of the inversions.
Ri, Yong-Wu; Im, Song-Jin
2014-01-01
The modified Beer-Lambert law (MBL) and the spatially resolved spectroscopy are used to measure the tissue oxidation in muscles and brains by the continuous wave near-infrared spectroscopy. The spatially resolved spectroscopy predicts the change in the concentration of the absorber by measuring the slope of attenuation data according to the separation and calculating the absorption coefficients of tissue on the basis of the slop in attenuation at the separation distance satisfying the linearity of this slop. This study analyzed the appropriate source-detector separation distance by using the diffuse approximation resolution for photon migration when predicting the absorption coefficient by the spatially resolved spectroscopy on the basis of the reflective image of the tissue. We imagine the 3 dimensional attenuation image with the absorption coefficient, reduced scattering coefficient and separation distance as its axes and obtained the attenuation data cube by calculating the attenuation on a certain interva...
EE334 -Reflection Coefficient & Standing Waves 4 Lecture: pp 53-61 2-5
Kaiser, Todd J.
will be the phasor sum of the wave traveling to the right and to the left ( ) zjzj eVeVzV +--+ += 00 ~ and the phasor current at the load will be: ( ) zjzj e Z V e Z V zI + - - + -= 0 0 0 0~ Let z=0 at the load impedance is the ratio of the phasor voltage to the phasor current. 0 00 00 ~ ~ Z VV VV I V Z L L L
Eugeniy E. Mikhailov; Keisuke Goda; Thomas Corbitt; Nergis Mavalvala
2006-01-01
We study the effects of frequency-dependent squeeze-amplitude attenuation and squeeze-angle rotation by electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) on gravitational-wave (GW) interferometers. We propose the use of low-pass, bandpass, and high-pass EIT filters, an S-shaped EIT filter, and an intracavity EIT filter to generate frequency-dependent squeezing for injection into the antisymmetric port of GW interferometers. We find that the EIT filters have
Bjarne Madsen Härdig; Jonas Carlson; Anders Roijer
2008-01-01
BACKGROUND: Ultrasound (US) has been used to enhance thrombolytic therapy in the treatment of stroke. Considerable attenuation of US intensity is however noted if US is applied over the temporal bone. The aim of this study was therefore to explore possible changes in the effect of thrombolytic drugs during low-intensity, high-frequency continuous-wave ultrasound (CW-US) exposure. METHODS: Clots were made from
Long-Term Change of Sound Wave Propagation Attenuation Due to the Effects of Ocean Acidification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gotoh, S.; Tsuchiya, T.; Hiyoshi, Y.
2014-12-01
In recent years, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing due to global warming. And, the ocean acidification advances because this melts into seawater, pH decrease in seawater are concerned. The sound wave to propagate seawater, pH is known to affect absorption loss (?) by chemical buffer effects of the seawater. However, conventionally, ? has not been investigated much in the calculation of pH. Therefore, when calculating the propagation distance in the sonar equation, pH =8~8.1 (Weak alkaline) are used empirically. Therefore we used an actual value of pH of 30 years from 1984 in the sea near the Japan, and investigated change over the years of absorption loss (?) at some frequency. As a result, we found that ? value decreases gradually in the past 30 years, as high-latitude decreases. Further, the future, assuming that ocean acidification is more advanced, and to simulate a change of the absorption loss and propagation loss in end of this century using the pH value reported from the "Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change" (IPCC). As a result, it was just suggested that ? decreased more in the end of this century and affected the submarine detection. In addition, in recent years, we examined the effects of noise that offshore wind power construction proceeds in each country emits gives to the underwater sound. As a result, in the end of this century, an underwater noise increases about 17%, and underwater sound environmental degradation of the sea is concerned.
On the apparent attenuation in the spatial coherence estimated from seismic arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menon, Ravishankar; Gerstoft, Peter; Hodgkiss, William S.
2014-04-01
Several recent studies have used the coherence of seismic noise between stations to retrieve the phase slowness and attenuation. However, there is considerable debate on the feasibility of attenuation retrieval, its interpretation, and its dependence on the noise directionality and has been the subject of several analytical and numerical studies. In this article, we perform a detailed analysis of the various factors that play a role in the estimation of spatial coherence and attenuation from seismic arrays using data from the Southern California Seismic Network. For instance, certain common preprocessing steps such as averaging neighboring frequencies to improve the estimate are sufficient to introduce attenuation-like effects. The presence of first-mode surface Rayleigh wave and P waves in addition to the fundamental mode in Southern California (at frequencies 0.05-0.2 Hz) suggests that the underlying spatial coherence is better modeled as a linear combination of the above wave types. Although this describes the observed coherence better than a simple zeroth-order Bessel function, the resulting phase cancelations due to the multiple seismic waves can be misconstrued as attenuation if not taken into consideration. Using simulations, we show that due to the slowness inhomogeneity, azimuthally averaging the coherence is not equivalent to homogenizing the medium and instead introduces apparent attenuation in the coherence due to interference. Trying to fit an exponential decay model to this apparent attenuation results in an attenuation coefficient which is similar to previously published results.
David C. Adams; Eugene D. Humphreys
2010-01-01
We estimate attenuation (t*) for teleseismic P and S arrivals to seismometers in the Yellowstone Intermountain Seismic Array; tomographically invert these data for upper mantle Qp-1 and Qs-1 structure; and, with the aid of the upper mantle velocity model of Waite et al. (2006), interpret the results for mantle temperature, partial melt, and water content. Because attenuation analysis is susceptible
William R. Walter; Kevin Mayeda; Luca Malagnini; Laura Scognamiglio
2007-01-01
We develop a new methodology to determine apparent attenuation for the regional seismic phases Pn, Pg, Sn, and Lg using coda-derived source spectra. The apparent Q, combining path and site attenuation, is determined from the difference between the geometrical spreading-corrected amplitude and the independently determined source spectra derived from the coda methodology. We apply the technique to 50 earthquakes with
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Islam, M. Tauhidul; Rae, Nicholas A.; Glover, Jack L.; Barnea, Zwi; Chantler, Christopher T.
2010-07-01
Absolute values of the column densities [?t]c of four gold foils were measured using micrometry combined with the 2D X-ray attenuation profile. The absolute calibration of [?t]c was made with a reference foil and the [?t]c of other foils were determined following the thickness transfer method. By this method, we obtain absolute calibration to 0.1% or better which was not possible using only the X-ray map of a single foil over its central region.
P. D. Panetta; G. A. Alers
2001-01-01
There is a desire to detect plastically deformed regions in structures to monitor their integrity. The ultimate goal of this work is to develop an ultrasonic technique that can serve as a tool to detect and characterize plastically deformed regions in large structures. It is well known that the velocity and attenuation coefficient of propagating ultrasonic waves are sensitive to
Pingenot, J; Rieben, R; White, D; Dudley, D
2005-10-31
We present a computational study of signal propagation and attenuation of a 200 MHz planar loop antenna in a cave environment. The cave is modeled as a straight and lossy random rough wall. To simulate a broad frequency band, the full wave Maxwell equations are solved directly in the time domain via a high order vector finite element discretization using the massively parallel CEM code EMSolve. The numerical technique is first verified against theoretical results for a planar loop antenna in a smooth lossy cave. The simulation is then performed for a series of random rough surface meshes in order to generate statistical data for the propagation and attenuation properties of the antenna in a cave environment. Results for the mean and variance of the power spectral density of the electric field are presented and discussed.
T. Qureshi; S. N. Bhattacharya
2006-01-01
We present a new approach to evaluate phase and group velocities of Love and Rayleigh waves in a spherical layered earth using the generalized reflection-transmission coefficient method. The approach is simple and self-efficient to give numerically stable results at all frequency ranges. The method has been previously used for computing phase velocities in a flat layered earth. For spherical earth,
Skarpalezos, Loukas; Argyrakis, Panos; Vikhrenko, Vyacheslav S
2014-05-01
We investigate the self-intermediate scattering function (SISF) in a three-dimensional (3D) cubic lattice fluid (interacting lattice gas) with attractive nearest-neighbor interparticle interactions at a temperature slightly above the critical one by means of Monte Carlo simulations. A special representation of SISF as an exponent of the mean tracer diffusion coefficient multiplied by the geometrical factor and time is considered to highlight memory effects that are included in time and wave-vector dependence of the diffusion coefficient. An analytical expression for the diffusion coefficient is suggested to reproduce the simulation data. It is shown that the particles' mean-square displacement is equal to the time integral of the diffusion coefficient. We make a comparison with the previously considered 2D system on a square lattice. The main difference with the two-dimensional case is that the time dependence of particular characteristics of the tracer diffusion coefficient in the 3D case cannot be described by exponentially decreasing functions, but requires using stretched exponentials with rather small values of exponents, of the order of 0.2. The hydrodynamic values of the tracer diffusion coefficient (in the limit of large times and small wave vectors) defined through SIFS simulation results agree well with the results of its direct determination by the mean-square displacement of the particles in the entire range of concentrations and temperatures. PMID:25353925
Liebler, Marko; Ginter, Siegfried; Dreyer, Thomas; Riedlinger, Rainer E
2004-11-01
For the simulation of therapeutic ultrasound applications, a method including frequency-dependent attenuation effects directly in the time domain is highly desirable. This paper describes an efficient numerical time-domain implementation of the power-law attenuation model presented by Szabo [Szabo, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 491-500 (1994)]. Simulations of therapeutic ultrasound applications are feasible in conjunction with a previously presented finite differences time-domain (FDTD) algorithm for nonlinear ultrasound propagation [Ginter et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 111, 2049-2059 (2002)]. Szabo implemented the empirical frequency power-law attenuation using a causal convolutional operator directly in the time-domain equation. Though a variety of time-domain models has been published in recent years, no efficient numerical implementation has been presented so far for frequency power-law attenuation models. Solving a convolutional integral with standard time-domain techniques requires enormous computational effort and therefore often limits the application of such models to 1D problems. In contrast, the presented method is based on a recursive algorithm and requires only three time levels and a few auxiliary data to approximate the convolutional integral with high accuracy. The simulation results are validated by comparison with analytical solutions and measurements. PMID:15603120
Zhong, Wei-Ping; Beli?, Milivoj; Zhang, Yiqi
2015-02-01
Nonlinear Schrödinger equation with simple quadratic potential modulated by a spatially-varying diffraction coefficient is investigated theoretically. Second-order rogue wave breather solutions of the model are constructed by using the similarity transformation. A modal quantum number is introduced, useful for classifying and controlling the solutions. From the solutions obtained, the behavior of second order Kuznetsov-Ma breathers (KMBs), Akhmediev breathers (ABs), and Peregrine solitons is analyzed in particular, by selecting different modulation frequencies and quantum modal parameter. We show how to generate interesting second order breathers and related hybrid rogue waves. The emergence of true rogue waves - single giant waves that are generated in the interaction of KMBs, ABs, and Peregrine solitons - is explicitly displayed in our analytical solutions. PMID:25836223
SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION
Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin
2002-04-01
Wave-induced variations of pore pressure in a partially-saturated reservoir result in oscillatory liquid flow. The viscous losses during this flow are responsible for wave attenuation. The same viscous effects determine the changes in the dynamic bulk modulus of the system versus frequency. These changes are necessarily linked to attenuation via the causality condition. We analytically quantify the frequency dependence of the bulk modulus of a partially saturated rock by assuming that saturation is patchy and then link these changes to the inverse quality factor. As a result, the P-wave attenuation is quantitatively linked to saturation and thus can serve as a saturation indicator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dobrynina, Anna; Sankov, Vladimir; Chechelnitsky, Vladimir
2014-05-01
The deep profiles of quality factor were obtained using coda-waves of local strong and moderate earthquakes (epicentral distances up to 50 km) occurred within north-eastern flanc of the Baikal rift system during 2002-2009. We used two methods: 1 - the coda envelope method [Experimental.., 1981; Kopnichev, 1991] and 2 - the sliding window method (lapse time window 10-15 sec with a step of 5 sec). Depth of coda-wave penetration was determined according to Pulli's formulae [1984], the velocity of coda-wave is 3.55 km/s (equal to shear wave velocity). For analysis we used the Q values at frequency 1 Hz since for this frequency the attenuation field heterogeneity is most evident [Aptikaeva and Kopnichev, 1991]. In result Q-profiles for eleven local areas were obtained. The Q-values vary from 50 to 170 for different profiles and depths. Herewith quality factor changes nonuniformly - the alternation of layers with high and low Q-values is observed. This phenomenon can be explained by existing velocity discontinuity. In particular for all profiles this alternation is confined to the depth about 100 km. Analysis VP-anomalies obtained in result of 2D teleseismic tomography along Baikal rift system [Mordvinova, 2009] shows the existence discontinuity on depth about 100 km under most of Baikal rift system structures. Analysis of 1D profiles of shear wave velocities in the crust and upper mantle after inversion of receiver functions [Anan'in et al., 2009] also shows presence of these discontinuity dividing high and low velocity layers. The comparison of Q-values and shear wave velocities [Anan'in et al., 2009] shown that in high velocity layers quality factor is higher too and vice versa. Multilayer quality factor model for the lithosphere in north-eastern flanc of the Baikal rift system with the alternation of layers with high and low attenuation determined by us together with analogous data obtained by Yu.F. Kopnichev [1992] for south-western flanc of the rift system can be one of inferential evidences of passive rifting mechanism in studied area. The reported study was supported by RFBR (research project N12-05-31038-mol_a) and by grant of President of Russian Federation (research project N MK-1171.2014.5).
An inversion of site response and Lg attenuation using Lg waveform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Xin-Yun; Chen, Yun-Tai
2007-11-01
Based on spectral ratio method, a joint inversion method was used to obtain parameters of Lg wave attenuation and site response. The inversion method allows simple and direct (two-parameter) determination of Lg wave attenuation and site response from sparse spectral data, which are not affected by radiation pattern factor and different response of same instrument after geometrical spreading. The method was used successfully for estimating site response of stations of Zhejiang Seismic Network and measuring Lg wave attenuation. The study is based on 20 earthquakes occurred in northeast of Taiwan with magnitude M S5.0-6.7 and 960 seismic wave records from 16 stations in Zhejiang area from 2002 to 2005. The parameters of site response and Lg attenuation were calculated with a frequency interval of 0.2 Hz in the range of 0.5 Hz to 10 Hz. Lg wave attenuation coefficient corresponding to U-D, E-W and N-S components are ?( f)=0.00175 f 0.43485, ?( f)=0.00145 f 0.48467 and ?( f)=0.0021 f 0.41241, respectively. It is found that the site response is component-independent. It is also found that the site response of QIY station is significant above the frequency of 1.5 Hz, and that the site response of NIB station is low for most frequency
Slack, P.D.; Davis, P.M.; Baldridge, W.S.; Olsen, K.H.; Glahn, A.; Achauer, U.; Spence, W.
1996-01-01
The lithosphere beneath a continental rift should be significantly modified due to extension. To image the lithosphere beneath the Rio Grande rift (RGR), we analyzed teleseismic travel time delays of both P and S wave arrivals and solved for the attenuation of P and S waves for four seismic experiments spanning the Rio Grande rift. Two tomographic inversions of the P wave travel time data are given: an Aki-Christofferson-Husebye (ACH) block model inversion and a downward projection inversion. The tomographic inversions reveal a NE-SW to NNE-SSW trending feature at depths of 35 to 145 km with a velocity reduction of 7 to 8% relative to mantle velocities beneath the Great Plains. This region correlates with the transition zone between the Colorado Plateau and the Rio Grande rift and is bounded on the NW by the Jemez lineament, a N52??E trending zone of late Miocene to Holocene volcanism. S wave delays plotted against P wave delays are fit with a straight line giving a slope of 3.0??0.4. This correlation and the absolute velocity reduction imply that temperatures in the lithosphere are close to the solidus, consistent with, but not requiring, the presence of partial melt in the mantle beneath the Rio Grande rift. The attenuation data could imply the presence of partial melt. We compare our results with other geophysical and geologic data. We propose that any north-south trending thermal (velocity) anomaly that may have existed in the upper mantle during earlier (Oligocene to late Miocene) phases of rifting and that may have correlated with the axis of the rift has diminished with time and has been overprinted with more recent structure. The anomalously low-velocity body presently underlying the transition zone between the core of the Colorado Plateau and the rift may reflect processes resulting from the modern (Pliocene to present) regional stress field (oriented WNW-ESE), possibly heralding future extension across the Jemez lineament and transition zone.
Flood wave attenuation by a wetland following a beaver dam failure on a second order boreal stream
Graham R. Hillman
1998-01-01
On June 8 1994, a beaver dam on Rocky Creek, a small stream in central Alberta, failed and released about 7500 m3 of water. The estimated peak of the resulting flood wave was 15 m3 s?1, which is 3.5 times the maximum discharge recorded for the creek over 23 years. The flood wave destroyed five hydrometric\\u000a stations, scoured some channel
Xiqiang Liu; Chauhuei Chen; Yanwen Zhou; Junhao Qu
2009-01-01
Based on the measurement of the arrival time of maxima magnitude from band-pass filtering signals which were determined using\\u000a a new Morlet wavelet multiple-filter method, we develop a method for measuring intrinsic and attenuative dispersion of the\\u000a first cycle direct P-wave. We determine relative group delays of spectral components of direct P-waves for 984 ray paths from\\u000a SML and ALS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prieux, Vincent; Brossier, Romain; Operto, Stéphane; Virieux, Jean
2013-09-01
Multiparameter full waveform inversion (FWI) is a challenging quantitative seismic imaging method for lithological characterization and reservoir monitoring. The difficulties in multiparameter FWI arise from the variable influence of the different parameter classes on the phase and amplitude of the data, and the trade-off between these. In this framework, choosing a suitable parametrization of the subsurface and designing the suitable FWI workflow are two key methodological issues in non-linear waveform inversion. We assess frequency-domain visco-acoustic FWI to reconstruct the compressive velocity (VP), the density (?) or the impedance (IP) and the quality factor (QP), from the hydrophone component, using a synthetic data set that is representative of the Valhall oil field in the North Sea. We first assess which of the (VP, ?) and (VP, IP) parametrizations provides the most reliable FWI results when dealing with wide-aperture data. Contrary to widely accepted ideas, we show that the (VP, ?) parametrization allows a better reconstruction of both the VP, ? and IP parameters, first because it favours the broad-band reconstruction of the dominant VP parameter, and secondly because the trade-off effects between velocity and density at short-to-intermediate scattering angles can be removed by multiplication, to build an impedance model. This allows for the matching of the reflection amplitudes, while the broad-band velocity model accurately describes the kinematic attributes of both the diving waves and reflections. Then, we assess different inversion strategies to recover the quality factor QP, in addition to parameters VP and ?. A difficulty related to attenuation estimation arises because, on the one hand the values of QP are on average one order of magnitude smaller than those of VP and ?, and on the other hands model perturbations relative to the starting models can be much higher for QP than for VP and ? during FWI. In this framework, we show that an empirical tuning of the FWI regularization, which is adapted to each parameter class, is a key issue to correctly account for the attenuation in the inversion. We promote a hierarchical approach where the dominant parameter VP is reconstructed first from the full data set (i.e. without any data preconditioning) to build a velocity model as kinematically accurate as possible before performing the joint update of the three parameter classes during a second step. This hierarchical imaging of compressive wave speed, density and attenuation is applied to a real wide-aperture ocean-bottom-cable data set from the Valhall oil field. Several geological features, such as accumulation of gas below barriers of claystone and soft quaternary sediment are interpreted in the FWI models of density and attenuation. The models of VP, ? and QP that have been developed by visco-acoustic FWI of the hydrophone data can be used as initial models to perform visco-elastic FWI of the geophone data for the joint update of the compressive and shear wave speeds.
Nonlinear Acoustics FDTD method including Frequency Power Law Attenuation for Soft Tissue Modeling
Jiménez, Noé; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor; Camarena, Francisco; Hou, Yi; Konofagou, Elisa E
2014-01-01
This paper describes a model for nonlinear acoustic wave propagation through absorbing and weakly dispersive media, and its numerical solution by means of finite differences in time domain method (FDTD). The attenuation is based on multiple relaxation processes, and provides frequency dependent absorption and dispersion without using computational expensive convolutional operators. In this way, by using an optimization algorithm the coefficients for the relaxation processes can be obtained in order to fit a frequency power law that agrees the experimentally measured attenuation data for heterogeneous media over the typical frequency range for ultrasound medical applications. Our results show that two relaxation processes are enough to fit attenuation data for most soft tissues in this frequency range including the fundamental and the first ten harmonics. Furthermore, this model can fit experimental attenuation data that do not follow exactly a frequency power law over the frequency range of interest. The main...
Inverse problems of ultrasound tomography in models with attenuation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goncharsky, Alexander V.; Romanov, Sergey Y.
2014-04-01
We develop efficient methods for solving inverse problems of ultrasound tomography in models with attenuation. We treat the inverse problem as a coefficient inverse problem for unknown coordinate-dependent functions that characterize both the speed cross section and the coefficients of the wave equation describing attenuation in the diagnosed region. We derive exact formulas for the gradient of the residual functional in models with attenuation, and develop efficient algorithms for minimizing the gradient of the residual by solving the conjugate problem. These algorithms are easy to parallelize when implemented on supercomputers, allowing the computation time to be reduced by a factor of several hundred compared to a PC. The numerical analysis of model problems shows that it is possible to reconstruct not only the speed cross section, but also the properties of the attenuating medium. We investigate the choice of the initial approximation for iterative algorithms used to solve inverse problems. The algorithms considered are primarily meant for the development of ultrasound tomographs for differential diagnosis of breast cancer.
Viscothermal Coupling Effects on Sound Attenuation in Concentrated Colloidal Dispersions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Wei
1995-11-01
This thesis describes a Unified Coupled Phase Continuum (UCPC) model to analyze sound propagation through aerosols, emulsions and suspensions in terms of frequency dependent attenuation coefficient and sound speed. Expressions for the viscous and thermal coupling coefficients explicitly account for the effects of particle size, shape factor, orientation as well as concentration and the sound frequency. The UCPC model also takes into account the intrinsic acoustic absorption within the fluid medium due to its viscosity and heat conductivity. The effective complex wave number as a function of frequency is derived. A frequency- and concentration-dependent complex Nusselt number for the interfacial thermal coupling coefficient is derived using an approximate similarity between the 'viscous skin drag' and 'heat conduction flux' associated with the discontinuous suspended phase, on the basis of a cell model. The theoretical predictions of attenuation spectra provide satisfactory agreement with reported experimental data on two concentrated suspensions (polystyrene latex and kaolin pigment), two concentrated emulsions (toluene -in-water, n-hexadecane-in-water), and two aerosols (oleic acid droplets-in-nitrogen, alumina-in-air), covering a wide range of relative magnitudes (from 10^ {-3} to 10^{3}) of thermal versus viscous contributions, for dispersed phase volume fractions as high as 50%. The relative differences between the additive result of separate viscous and thermal loss estimates and combined viscothermal absorption results are also presented. Effects of particle shape on viscous attenuation of sound in concentrated suspensions of non-spherical clay particles are studied. Attenuation spectra for 18 frequencies from 3 to 100 MHz are measured and analyzed for eleven kaolin clay slurries with solid concentrations ranging from 0.6% to 35% (w/w). A modified viscous drag coefficient that considers frequency, concentration, particle size, shape and orientation of spheroids, is developed and applied to estimate the viscous attenuation coefficients. With incorporation of particle size and shape distributions (PSSD), predictions agree quantitatively with observed attenuation coefficients. The effects of particle aspect ratio and orientation become more evident as particle concentrations and frequencies are increased. The UCPC model combined with the ultrasonic spectroscopy techniques can provide for theoretical and experimental frameworks in characterization of concentrated colloidal dispersions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, T. W.; Huang, L.; Leaitch, W. R.; Sharma, S.; Brook, J. R.; Slowik, J. G.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Brickell, P. C.; Liggio, J.; Li, S.-M.; Moosmüller, H.
2009-07-01
Ambient particulate matter (PM) samples were collected on quartz filters at a rural site in southern Ontario during intensive studies in 2005 and 2007. The concentrations of organic carbon (OC), pyrolysis organic carbon (POC), and elemental carbon (EC) were determined by thermal analysis. These results were compared to the organic aerosol mass concentration (OM) measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and to the particle absorption coefficient (b_asp) obtained from a Radiance Research Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP). The total organic mass to organic carbon ratios (OM/OC) and specific attenuation coefficients (SAC) were also derived. According to the results, the POC mass is proportional to the approximated oxygen mass in the aerosols and OM/OC ratios can be estimated directly from thermal measurements. The study also suggests that the air masses from the south, with relatively low OC/EC ratios, high EC, sulphate contents and OM/OC ratios, were originated from urban and industrial emissions and subsequently experienced photo-oxidations in the atmosphere, implying that the oxygenated organics could come from both primary and secondary sources. Whereas the air masses from the north, with relatively high OC/EC ratios, low EC, sulphate contents and OM/OC ratios, were dominant by the background clean air with relatively larger contributions from biogenic emissions. The mean SAC derived from the 2005 and 2007 studies are 4.9 m2 g-1 and 3.8 m2 g-1, respectively. When POC mass approaching zero (i.e. the impact of atmospheric aging is minimized), the SAC for primary emitted soot is estimated to be 5.8 m2 g-1 and 6.3 m2 g-1 for the northern and southern air masses, respectively, supported by the corresponding values when particulate sulphate concentration approaches zero. A decreasing trend in the SAC value with atmospheric aging of the aerosol was observed at the site, suggesting that during the study, the light absorption enhancement due to the presence of coating on particles was likely to be offset by the decrease in light absorption caused by increasing soot particle diameter and collapsing of soot particle structure. This result may imply that model simulations of atmospheric warming by BC could be 50% too high.
Creep-Induced Evolution of Ultrasonic Attenuation in a Martensite Stainless Steel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohtani, T.
2008-02-01
Electromagnetic acoustic resonance (EMAR) is a contactless resonance method using an electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT). In this study, EMAR was applied to detect the creep damage process in a martensite stainless steel (JIS-SUS403). We used a bulk-wave EMAT and measured ultrasonic attenuation and velocity as creep progressed. Attenuation coefficient exhibits a much larger sensitivity to the damage accumulation than the velocity. It shows a maximum peak at approximately 20% and a minimum peak at 50% of the creep life.
Diffracted and head waves associated with waves on nonseparable surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barger, Raymond L.
1992-01-01
A theory is presented for computing waves radiated from waves on a smooth surface. With the assumption that attention of the surface wave is due only to radiation and not to dissipation in the surface material, the radiation coefficient is derived in terms of the attenuation factor. The excitation coefficient is determined by the reciprocity condition. Formulas for the shape and the spreading of the radiated wave are derived, and some sample calculations are presented. An investigation of resonant phase matching for nonseparable surfaces is presented with a sample calculation. A discussion of how such calculations might be related to resonant frequencies of nonseparable thin shell structures is included. A description is given of nonseparable surfaces that can be modeled in the vector that facilitates use of the appropriate formulas of differential geometry.
Attenuation and velocity dispersion in the exploration seismic frequency band
Langqiu Sun
2009-01-01
In an anelastic medium, seismic waves are distorted by attenuation and velocity dispersion, which depend on petrophysical properties of reservoir rocks. The effective attenuation and velocity dispersion is a combination of intrinsic attenuation and apparent attenuation due to scattering, transmission response, and data acquisition system. Velocity dispersion is usually neglected in seismic data processing partly because of insufficient observations in
Potential Advantages for Millimeter-Wave Heating of Powdered Metals
Jirun Luo; Christian Hunyar; Lambert Feher; Guido Link; Manfred Thumm; Paola Pozzo
2004-01-01
Based on electromagnetic induction heating, an interaction model of microwaves with powdered metal has been established. The formulae of attenuation coefficient, heating rate and heating conversion efficiency are obtained and analyzed. The results of calculations show that millimeter waves may be able to overcome the obstacle caused by smaller skin depth and have strong advantages for the microwave heating of
Millimeter-wave propagation measurements at the Ballistic Research Laboratory
H. Bruce Wallace
1988-01-01
Results of measurements made with radars from 35 to 217 GHz of near-earth propagation in rain, fog, snow, and humidity are presented. The effects of water vapor are characterized by an attenuation coefficient that is a function of vapor pressure or absolute humidity. Backscatter contributes significantly to the adverse effect of rain on mm-wave radars because the droplet sizes become
Controlling frontal photopolymerization with optical attenuation and mass diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hennessy, Matthew G.; Vitale, Alessandra; Matar, Omar K.; Cabral, João T.
2015-06-01
Frontal photopolymerization (FPP) is a versatile directional solidification process that can be used to rapidly fabricate polymer network materials by selectively exposing a photosensitive monomer bath to light. A characteristic feature of FPP is that the monomer-to-polymer conversion profiles take on the form of traveling waves that propagate into the unpolymerized bulk from the illuminated surface. Practical implementations of FPP require detailed knowledge about the conversion profile and speed of these traveling waves. The purpose of this theoretical study is to (i) determine the conditions under which FPP occurs and (ii) explore how optical attenuation and mass transport can be used to finely tune the conversion profile and propagation kinetics. Our findings quantify the strong optical attenuation and slow mass transport relative to the rate of polymerization required for FPP. The shape of the traveling wave is primarily controlled by the magnitude of the optical attenuation coefficients of the neat and polymerized material. Unexpectedly, we find that mass diffusion can increase the net extent of polymerization and accelerate the growth of the solid network. The theoretical predictions are found to be in excellent agreement with experimental data acquired for representative systems.
Pawlicki, Alexander D; O'Brien, William D
2013-04-01
Estimating total ultrasound attenuation from backscatter data is essential in the field of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) because of the need to compensate for attenuation when estimating the backscatter coefficient and QUS parameters. This work uses a reference phantom method of attenuation estimation to create a spatial map of attenuation slope (AS) from backscatter radio-frequency (RF) data of three phantoms and a rat mammary adenocarcinoma tumor (MAT). The attenuation maps show changes in attenuation between different regions of the phantoms and the MAT tumor. Analyses of the attenuation maps of the phantoms suggest that the AS estimates are in good quantitative agreement with the known values for the phantoms. Furthermore, estimates of total attenuation from the attenuation maps are likewise in good quantitative agreement with known values. PMID:23493614
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarkar, Tanmay
2015-06-01
In this paper, we demonstrate that previously reported traveling wave solutions for the fifth order KdV type equations with time dependent coefficients (Triki and Wazwaz, 2014) are incorrect. We present the corrected traveling wave solutions for fifth order KdV type equations using sine-cosine method. In addition, we provide traveling wave solutions for the Kawahara equation and Kaup-Kupershmidt equation as an application.
Simeone, Timothy A; Samson, Kaeli K; Matthews, Stephanie A; Simeone, Kristina A
2014-05-01
The ketogenic diet (KD) is an effective therapy for pediatric refractory epilepsies; however, whether the KD changes the pathologic network oscillations generated by an epileptic brain remains unknown. We have reported that hippocampal CA3 regions of epileptic Kv1.1? knockout (KO) mice generate pathologic sharp waves (SPWs) and high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) that have higher incidence, longer duration, and fast ripples compared to wild-type (WT). Synaptic activity of hyperexcitable KO mossy fibers significantly decreased CA3 principal cell spike-timing reliability, which contributed to this network pathology. In addition, we have demonstrated that the KD reduces seizures by 75% in KO mice. Here, we determined whether 10- to 14-day in vivo KD treatment exerts disease-modifying effects that alter the spontaneous SPW-HFO complexes generated by the hippocampal CA3 region of KO mice in vitro using extracellular multielectrode array recordings. We found that KD treatment significantly attenuated the pathologic features of KO SPWs and ripples and reduced the incidence of fast ripples. The KD also improved spike-timing reliability of KO CA3 principal cells, decreased mossy fiber excitability, increased mossy fiber-CA3 paired-pulse ratios, and reduced coupling of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials and population spikes in the CA3 region. Collectively, these data indicate that KD treatment modulates CA3-generated pathologic oscillations by dampening hyperactive mossy fiber synapses. PMID:24702645
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sumy, D. F.; Cochran, E. S.; Keranen, K. M.; Neighbors, C.; Atkinson, G. M.
2014-12-01
During November 2011, three M?5.0 earthquakes and thousands of aftershocks occurred on and near the Wilzetta fault, a structurally complex ~200 km long, Pennsylvanian-aged fault near Prague, Oklahoma, in close proximity to several active wastewater injection wells. All three M?5.0 earthquakes had strike-slip mechanisms consistent with rupture on three independent focal planes, suggesting activation of three different strands of the Wilzetta fault. Wastewater injection can cause a buildup of pore ?uid pressure along the fault, which decreases the fault strength and may induce earthquakes. Based on the proximity of earthquakes to active ?uid injection wells, the unilateral progression of aftershocks away from the initial M5.0 event, and shallow earthquake depths, Keranen et al. [2013] concluded that fluid injection was responsible for inducing the first M5.0 event. Furthermore, Sumy et al. [2014] found that the initial M5.0 event increased the Coulomb stress in the region of the M5.7 mainshock, triggering a cascade of earthquakes along the Wilzetta fault. Thus, while nearby wastewater injection directly induced the initial M5.0 event, this earthquake triggered successive failure along the Wilzetta fault; however, it remains unclear if the additional ruptured fault strands are also influenced by fluid injection. In this study, we explore instrumental ground motions and shear-wave splitting of the November 2011 Prague, Oklahoma sequence, in order to construct ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and understand the local stress regime, respectively. We examine ~1,000 earthquakes recorded by a total of 47 seismometers, located within ~150 km of the Wilzetta fault. With respect to GMPEs, initial results suggest that the ground motions are smaller than similar magnitude earthquakes of natural/tectonic origins, and these lower intensities may be a result of lower stress drops [e.g. Hough, 2014]. With respect to shear-wave splitting, we examine quality graded fast polarization and delay time measurements and observe fast directions oriented roughly E-W across the study area, which is consistent with the maximum principal stress of N80E determined from the focal mechanism inversion of Sumy et al. [2014].
Prediction of spectral acceleration response ordinates based on PGA attenuation
Graizer, V.; Kalkan, E.
2009-01-01
Developed herein is a new peak ground acceleration (PGA)-based predictive model for 5% damped pseudospectral acceleration (SA) ordinates of free-field horizontal component of ground motion from shallow-crustal earthquakes. The predictive model of ground motion spectral shape (i.e., normalized spectrum) is generated as a continuous function of few parameters. The proposed model eliminates the classical exhausted matrix of estimator coefficients, and provides significant ease in its implementation. It is structured on the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) database with a number of additions from recent Californian events including 2003 San Simeon and 2004 Parkfield earthquakes. A unique feature of the model is its new functional form explicitly integrating PGA as a scaling factor. The spectral shape model is parameterized within an approximation function using moment magnitude, closest distance to the fault (fault distance) and VS30 (average shear-wave velocity in the upper 30 m) as independent variables. Mean values of its estimator coefficients were computed by fitting an approximation function to spectral shape of each record using robust nonlinear optimization. Proposed spectral shape model is independent of the PGA attenuation, allowing utilization of various PGA attenuation relations to estimate the response spectrum of earthquake recordings.
R. H. Carlson; M. G. Sanders; A. Tal; W. G. Wood
1975-01-01
Tested and confirmed the hypothesis that scopolamine attenuates habituation occurring within a training session as well as that occurring between training sessions. Subcutaneous scopolamine injections (.5 mg\\/kg) reduced spontaneous wheel running in 8 female prairie dogs. The same dosage did not affect the threshold for wheel running induced by electrical brain stimulation (EBS) in 6 Ss in Exp II. Exp
Propagation properties of guided wave in the anchorage structure of rock bolts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Cheng; He, Wen; Ning, Jianguo; Zhang, Changsuo
2009-12-01
We investigated the properties of guided wave propagating in grouted rock bolts and the formation of the interface wave through theoretical analysis along with experimental and numerical simulations. Experimental and numerical simulations reveal that the wave propagating in anchorage structure is related to boundary conditions within the range of excitation wave frequencies. Waves with different frequencies have different propagation velocities and attenuation characteristics. The optimal excitation wave occurs in grouted rock bolts with minimized attenuation and maximized propagation distance, and the end reflection of grouted rock bolts can be observed clearly. Longitudinal wave propagating in rock bolts is very sensitive to anchorage strength. With the increase of anchorage strength, longitudinal wave gradually attenuates and eventually disappears. Subsequently, interface wave appears and the velocity of wave propagating in the grouted part becomes that of the interface wave. Based on these studies, ultrasonic guided wave was used to study the end reflection of embedded rock bolts with different anchorage strengths and bonding lengths. The relationships among anchorage strength, bonding length and attenuation coefficient K, as well as the means to inspect the bonding quality of the embedded rock bolts were also evaluated.
A Study of the Core-Mantle Boundary Using P Waves Diffracted by the Earth's Core
Shelton S. Alexander; Robert A. Phinney
1966-01-01
Ratios of the spectrums of diffracted P waves can be used to isolate effects of propagation along the core-mantle boundary, and the rate of attenuation with distance as a function of frequency is a useful quantitative measure of core-mantle properties. Spectrums of the attenuation coefficient for a number of patches on the core-mantle boundary were measured in the frequency range
Massoud, Amr M.; Abdelbary, Ahmed M.; Al-Dessoukey, Ahmad A.; Moussa, Ayman S.; Zayed, Ahmed S.; Mahmmoud, Osama
2014-01-01
Objective To determine the utility of the urinary stone-attenuation value (SAV, in Hounsfield units, HU) from non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) for predicting the success of extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Patients and methods The study included 305 patients with renal calculi of ?30 mm and upper ureteric calculi of ?20 mm. The SAV was measured using NCCT. Numerical variables were compared using a one-way analysis of variance with posthoc multiple two-group comparisons. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis models were used to test the preferential effect of the independent variable(s) on the success of ESWL. Results Patients were grouped according to the SAV as group 1 (?500 HU, 81 patients), group 2 (501–1000 HU, 141 patients) and group 3 (>1000 HU, 83 patients). ESWL was successful in 253 patients (83%). The rate of stone clearance was 100% in group 1, 95.7% (135/141) in group 2 and 44.6% (37/83) in group 3 (P = 0.001). Conclusions The SAV value is an independent predictor of the success of ESWL and a useful tool for planning stone treatment. Patients with a SAV ?956 HU are not ideal candidates for ESWL. The inclusion criteria for ESWL of stones with a SAV <500 HU can be expanded with regard to stone size, site, age, renal function and coagulation profile. In patients with a SAV of 500–1000 HU, factors like a body mass index of >30 kg/m2 and a lower calyceal location make them less ideal for ESWL. PMID:26019941
One-Dimensional Plane Monochromatic Filtration Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filippov, A. I.; Akhmetova, O. V.
2015-03-01
Equations and relations to describe one-dimensional plane monochromatic fi ltration waves in a homogeneous isotropic porous medium have been obtained. To this end, use was made of the equation of motion of a liquid phase with account of frictional forces, which in the case of steady-state fi ltration with parallel streamlines agrees with Darcy's fi ltration law for an anisotropic medium. The equations of motion and continuity reduced to an equation of telegraphy enabled us to construct relations for the wave number, the absorption and attenuation coefficients, and the velocity of filtration waves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shadangi, Asit Ku.; Rout, G. C.
2015-05-01
We report here a microscopic model study of ultrasonic attenuation in f-electron systems based on Periodic Anderson Model in which Coulomb interaction is considered within a mean-field approximation for a weak interaction. The Phonon is coupled to the conduction band and f-electrons. The phonon Green's function is calculated by Zubarev's technique of the Green's function method. The temperature dependent ultrasonic attenuation co-efficient is calculated from the imaginary part of the phonon self-energy in the dynamic and long wave length limit. The f-electron occupation number is calculated self-consistently in paramagnetic limit of Coulomb interaction. The effect of the Coulomb interaction on ultrasonic attenuation is studied by varying the phonon coupling parameters to the conduction and f-electrons, hybridization strength, the position of f-level and the Coulomb interaction Strength. Results are discussed on the basis of experimental results.
Ploix, Marie-Aude; Guy, Philippe; Chassignole, Bertrand; Moysan, Joseph; Corneloup, Gilles; El Guerjouma, Rachid
2014-09-01
Multipass welds made of 316L stainless steel are specific welds of the primary circuit of pressurized water reactors in nuclear power plants. Because of their strong heterogeneous and anisotropic nature due to grain growth during solidification, ultrasonic waves may be greatly deviated, split and attenuated. Thus, ultrasonic assessment of the structural integrity of such welds is quite complicated. Numerical codes exist that simulate ultrasonic propagation through such structures, but they require precise and realistic input data, as attenuation coefficients. This paper presents rigorous measurements of attenuation in austenitic weld as a function of grain orientation. In fact attenuation is here mainly caused by grain scattering. Measurements are based on the decomposition of experimental beams into plane-wave angular spectra and on the modeling of the ultrasonic propagation through the material. For this, the transmission coefficients are calculated for any incident plane wave on an anisotropic plate. Two different hypotheses on the welded material are tested: first it is considered as monoclinic, and then as triclinic. Results are analyzed, and validated through comparison to theoretical predictions of related literature. They underline the great importance of well-describing the anisotropic structure of austenitic welds for UT modeling issues. PMID:24759567
Seismic attenuation in fractured media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rao, Ying; Wang, Yanghua
2015-02-01
The prime objective of this paper is to quantitatively estimate seismic attenuation caused by fractures with different physical parameters. In seismic wave simulation, the fractured media are treated as the anisotropic media and fractures are represented by frequency-dependent elastic constants. Based on numerical experiments with three different parameters, namely viscosity, porosity and the Lamé parameters, this paper has the following observations. First, seismic attenuation is not affected by the viscosity within fractures, although it increases with the increase of porosity and decreases with the increase of the Lamé parameters within fractures. Among the latter two parameters, seismic attenuation is more sensitive to the Lamé parameters than to the porosity. Second, for the attenuation anisotropy, low frequencies have more anisotropic effect than high frequencies. For example, a 50?Hz wavefield has the strongest anisotropy effect if compared to 100 and 150?Hz wavefields. The attenuation anisotropy for low frequency (say 50?Hz) is more sensitive to the viscosity than the porosity and the Lamé parameters have the weakest effect among these three parameters. These observations suggest that low-frequency seismic attenuation, and especially the attenuation anisotropy in low frequency, would have great potential for fluid discrimination within fractured media.
Noncontact measurement of ultrasonic attenuation during rotating fatigue test of steel
Ogi, H.; Hirao, M.; Minoura, K. [Faculty of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama 1-3, Toyonaka, Osaka 560 (Japan)] [Faculty of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama 1-3, Toyonaka, Osaka 560 (Japan)
1997-04-01
Acoustic resonance technique has been applied to monitor the fatigue damage process of steel pipes exposed to rotating bending fatigue. The technique incorporates a superheterodyne spectrometer and an electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT). The EMAT was newly developed for this purpose, and uses the magnetostrictive mechanism of ferromagnetic metals and excites and detects axial shear waves traveling around the sample pipe with axial polarization. Noncontact ultrasonic spectroscopy permits the accurate determination of the resonant frequency and the attenuation coefficient throughout the fatigue life. The attenuation coefficient shows a sharp peak around 80{percent}{endash}90{percent} of the life. The evolution is interpreted as reflecting dislocation multiplication, depinning, and formation of cell structures, which is supported by transmission electron microscopy observations. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
Frank Silvio Marzano; Carlo Riva
1999-01-01
Long-term correlation between microwave scintillation and path attenuation in clear-air troposphere is quantitatively evaluated carrying out a numerical and experimental analysis on a monthly basis. Amplitude scintillation variance is simulated by means of a weak-fluctuation propagation model, while path attenuation is obtained from ground-based brightness temperature data using a radiative transfer model. Both the scintillation and radiative transfer models are
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teplykh, A. A.; Zaitsev, B. D.; Kuznetsova, I. E.
2012-05-01
A theoretical study of cylindrical acoustic waves of zero order propagating in cylindrical waveguide in contact with nonconducting viscous liquid was carried out. Waveguides considered in this paper are represented by circular rod of piezoelectric ceramics, surrounded by a viscous liquid or thick-walled piezoelectric tube filled with liquid. The orientation of the piezoceramic was chosen in this way that the polarization vector coincided with the cylinder axis. In this case due to the isotropy in the plane which is perpendicular to the cylinder axis one can use the mathematic methods based on the cylindrical functions expansion of the wave potentials. As a result we found the phase and group velocities of the waves under study and also their electromechanical coupling coefficient and attenuation coefficient. It has been shown that compressional wave of zero order c0 has a high electromechanical coupling coefficient and low attenuation. The obtained results may be used for development of the sensors operating in hostile environment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fan, Xitao
This study focused on the issue of measurement reliability and its attenuation on correlation between two composites and two seemingly different approaches for correcting the attenuation. As expected, Monte Carlo simulation results show that correlation coefficients uncorrected for measurement error are systematically biased downward. For the data…
Downhole pressure attenuation apparatus
Ricles, T.D.; Barton, J.A.
1992-02-18
This patent describes a process for preventing damage to tool strings and other downhole equipment in a well caused by pressures produced during detonation of one or more downhole explosive devices. It comprises adding to a tool string at least one pressure attenuating apparatus for attenuating the peak pressure wave and quasi-static pressure pulse produced by the explosive devices, the pressure attenuating apparatus including an initially closed relief vent including tubing means supporting a plurality of charge port assemblies each including an explosive filled shaped charge and a prestressed disc, the shaped charges interconnected by a detonating cord, the amount of explosive in each shaped charge being sufficient to rupture its associated disc without damaging surrounding tubular bodies in the well, and a vent chamber defined by the tubing means and providing a liquid free volume, and opening the relief vent substantially contemporaneously with downhole explosive device detonation by detonating the shaped charges to rupture the discs of the charge port assemblies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Yang
2014-05-01
For modeling the propagation of infrasound below 5 Hz, the high frequency approximation is no longer valid and the effect of gravity needs to be taken into account. Damping of infrasound in the realistic atmosphere is another important ingredient. With the impacts of gravitational field and realistic atmospheric attenuation considered, an acoustic ray tracing model and a Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) model are developed. The ray tracing equations are deduced from the real part of the dissipative dispersion relation of acoustic wave, while the acoustic attenuation coefficient and growth rate in a stratified moving atmosphere are deduced from the imaginary part of the dispersion relation.The buoyancy frequency and the cut-off frequency of acoustic wave are set to be the values in a nonisothermal atmosphere, and the attenuation coefficient is corrected by the realistic absorption. In the FDTD model, the governing equations of acoustic wave in a dissipative gravitational-stratified atmosphere is solved by combing a dispersion relation preserving scheme in space and a Runge-Kutta scheme in time. The results show that the ray trajectory obtained by the ray tracing model agrees well with that simulated by the FDTD model. The simulation of the ray tracing model illustrate that the gravitational effect plays a dominant role in the stratospheric ducting and the attenuation effect could be neglected. However, the contribution of the absorption becomes more important and can't be ignored in the thermospheric ducting. By taking the gravity into consideration, the acoustic frequency in our models is no longer constrained by the high frequency approximation. Consideration of the dissipation effect can also improve the computation accuracy of ray trajectories and the efficiency of wave amplitude evaluation.
On the excess attenuation of sound in the atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deloach, R.
1975-01-01
The attenuation suffered by an acoustic plane wave propagating from an elevated source to the ground, in excess of absorption losses, was studied. Reported discrepancies between attenuation measurements made in the field and theories which only account for absorption losses are discussed. It was concluded that the scattering of sound by turbulence results in a nonnegligible contribution to the total attenuation.
Multiple-frequency tomography with shear waves and Love waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Yue
In this thesis I study the velocity and attenuation structure of the North American mantle using multiple-frequency shear-wave and Love-wave measurements, together with finite-frequency sensitivity kernels. The software for dynamic ray tracing and fast computation of body-wave finite-frequency sensitivity kernels is described and extensively validated and tested for accuracy. The program works for arbitrarily defined phases and one-dimensional background models. In kinematic and dynamic ray tracing, an integration step size of about 20 km is needed to produce travel-time errors under 0.1 s for the most common seismic phases. In kernel computation, a minimum integration step size of 10--30 km is sufficient to obtain numerical errors of the kernel's spatial quadrature below observational uncertainties. Larger errors may occur for long-period minimax phases such as SS . The paraxial approximation fails and errors become intolerable at epicentral distances larger than 140°. A global data set is built to contain multiple-frequency SH-wave travel-time and amplitude anomalies and SS-wave differential delays, estimated by band-pass filtering and cross-correlation. Most of the data are recorded at USArray stations. Frequency dependence is observed for all three types of data, and is strongest for amplitudes. The shallow structure is constrained by the addition of Love-wave phase delays. Velocity and attenuation heterogeneities are simultaneously estimated by allowing for focusing. The velocity model shows evidence of heavy fragmentation of the Farallon slab, including two separate subduction systems under western and eastern North America respectively, trench-perpendicular slab tears, and blob-like slab fragments in the lower mantle. The velocity model reveals a lower-mantle plume originating at about 1500 km depth beneath the Yellowstone area and tilting about 40° from vertical. Complex interaction between the plume and slab fragments is observed. High correlation coefficients between velocity and attenuation heterogeneities beneath the Central and Eastern U.S. suggest one physical source, most likely temperature, dominant variations. The smaller correlation coefficients and larger deltalnQS-deltaln VS slopes under the Western U.S. suggest an influence of non-thermal factors such as the existence of water and partial melt. The benefits of the methodological improvements are investigated. Amplitude data help to sharpen the edges of narrow velocity heterogeneities in the shallow upper mantle. The focusing effect dominates over the attenuation effect in interpreting amplitude anomalies. The addition of Love-wave phase delays helps to improve the resolution of both velocity and attenuation, and the effect is noticeable even in the lower mantle.
The Physics of the Gas Attenuator for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)
Ryutov, D.D.; Bionta, R.M.; Hau-Riege, S.P.; Kishiyama, K.I.; McMahon, D.; Roeben, M.D.; Shen, S.; /LLNL, Livermore; Stefan, P.M.; /SLAC; ,
2011-02-07
A systematic assessment of a variety of physics issues affecting the performance of the LCLS X-ray beam attenuator is presented. Detailed analysis of the gas flow in the gas attenuator and in the apertures is performed. A lot of attention is directed towards the gas ionization and heating by intense X-ray pulses. The role of these phenomena in possible deviations of the attenuation coefficient from its 'dialed in' value is evaluated and found small in most cases. Other sources of systematic and statistical errors are also discussed. The regimes where the errors may reach a few percent correspond to the lower X-ray energies (less than 2 keV) and highest beam intensities. Other effects discussed include chemical interaction of the gas with apertures, shock formation in the transonic flow in the apertures of the attenuator, generation of electromagnetic wakes in the gas, and head-to-tail variation of the attenuation caused by the ionization of gas or solid. Possible experimental tests of the consistency of the physics assumptions used in the concept of the gas attenuator are discussed. Interaction of X-rays with the solid attenuator (that will be used at higher X-ray energies, from 2.5 to 8 keV) is considered and thermo-mechanical effects caused by the beam heating are evaluated. Wave-front distortions induced by non-uniform heating of both the solid and the gas are found to be small. An overall conclusion drawn from the analysis presented is that the attenuator will be a reliable and highly versatile device, provided that some caution is exercised in its use for highest beam intensities at lowest X-ray energies.
Viscosity measurement based on shear-wave laser speckle contrast analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Yi; Li, Sinan; Eckersley, Robert J.; Elson, Daniel S.; Tang, Meng-Xing
2013-12-01
Tissue viscosity is correlated with tissue pathological changes and provides information for tissue characterization. In this study, we report an optical method to track continuous shear-wave propagation at centimeter depths in an optically turbid medium. Shear-wave attenuation coefficients were measured at multiple frequencies using shear-wave laser speckle contrast analysis (SW-LASCA) to quantitatively estimate tissue viscosity using the Voigt model. Shear waves were generated within tissue-mimicking phantoms by an amplitude-modulated ultrasound (modulation frequency: 100 to 600 Hz) and tracked by time-resolved laser speckle contrast difference received on a charged-coupled device camera. Averaged contrast difference over a selected time window was related to shear-wave amplitude and used to calculate the shear-wave attenuation coefficient. Phantoms of varying viscosities (0.1 and 0.3 Pa s) were studied. Attenuation coefficients for different shear-wave frequencies (100 to 600 Hz) were calculated. Derived viscosity values had a maximum standard deviation of 9%, and these values were consistent with the independent measurements reported in a previous study using nonoptical methods.
Applying Echoes Mean Frequency Shift for Attenuation Imaging in Tissue
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Litniewski, J.; Klimonda, Z.; Nowicki, A.
The purpose of this study was to develop the attenuation parametric imaging technique and to apply it for in vivo characterization of tissue. Local attenuation coefficient was determined by evaluating the frequency downshift that encounters the amplitude spectrum of the interrogating ultrasonic pulse during propagation in the absorbing tissue. Operation and accuracy of the processing methods were verified by assessing the size-independent region of interest (ROI) for attenuation determination and calculating the attenuation coefficient distribution for experimentally recorded tissue-phantom scattered waveforms. The Siemens Antares scanner equipped with Ultrasound Research Interface unit allowing for direct radiofrequency (RF) signals recording was used for B-scan imaging of the tissue- mimicking phantom in vitro and liver in vivo. RF data were processed to determine attenuation coefficient along the B-scan lines. Also, the preliminary studies of backscattered signals from skin recorded using a skin scanner were performed to calculate parametric-attenuation images.
Study on laser and infrared attenuation performance of carbon nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xiang-cui; Liu, Qing-hai; Dai, Meng-yan; Cheng, Xiang; Fang, Guo-feng; Zhang, Tong; Liu, Haifeng
2014-11-01
In recent years, the weapon systems of laser and infrared (IR) imaging guidance have been widely used in modern warfare because of their high precision and strong anti-interference. However, military smoke, a rapid and effective passive jamming method, can effectively counteract the attack of precision-guided weapons by their scattering and absorbing effects. The traditional smoke has good visible light (0.4-0.76?m) obscurant performance, but hardly any effects to other electromagnetic wave bands while the weapon systems of laser and IR imaging guidance usually work in broad band, including the near-infrared (1-3?m), middle-infrared (3-5?m), far-infrared (8-14?m), and so on. Accordingly, exploiting new effective obscurant materials has attracted tremendous interest worldwide nowadays. As is known, the nano-structured materials have lots of unique properties comparing with the traditional materials suggesting that they might be the perfect alternatives to solve the problems above. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are well-ordered, all-carbon hollow graphitic nano-structured materials with a high aspect ratio, lengths from several hundred nanometers to several millimeters. CNTs possess many unique intrinsic physical-chemical properties and are investigated in many areas reported by the previous studies. However, no application research about CNTs in smoke technology field is reported yet. In this paper, the attenuation performances of CNTs smoke to laser and IR were assessed in 20m3 smoke chamber. The testing wavebands employed in experiments are 1.06?m and 10.6?m laser, 3-5?m and 8-14?m IR radiation. The main parameters were obtained included the attenuation rate, transmission rate, mass extinction coefficient, etc. The experimental results suggest that CNTs smoke exhibits excellent attenuation ability to the broadband IR radiation. Their mass extinction coefficients are all above 1m2·g-1. Nevertheless, the mass extinction coefficients vary with the sampling time and smoke particles concentrations, even in the same testing waveband. With the time going the mass extinction coefficients will increase gradually. Based on the above results, theoretical calculations are also carried out for further exploitations. In general, CNTs smoke behaves excellent attenuation ability toward laser and IR under the experimental conditions. Therefore, they have great potentials to develop new smoke obscurant materials which could effectively interfere with broadband IR radiation including 1.06?m, 10.6?m, 3-5?m and 8-12?m IR waveband.
Sound attenuation in magnetorheological fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodríguez-López, J.; Elvira, L.; Resa, P.; Montero de Espinosa, F.
2013-02-01
In this work, the attenuation of ultrasonic elastic waves propagating through magnetorheological (MR) fluids is analysed as a function of the particle volume fraction and the magnetic field intensity. Non-commercial MR fluids made with iron ferromagnetic particles and two different solvents (an olive oil based solution and an Araldite-epoxy) were used. Particle volume fractions of up to 0.25 were analysed. It is shown that the attenuation of sound depends strongly on the solvent used and the volume fraction. The influence of a magnetic field up to 212 mT was studied and it was found that the sound attenuation increases with the magnetic intensity until saturation is reached. A hysteretic effect is evident once the magnetic field is removed.
Shear waves in vegetal tissues at ultrasonic frequencies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fariñas, M. D.; Sancho-Knapik, D.; Peguero-Pina, J. J.; Gil-Pelegrín, E.; Gómez Álvarez-Arenas, T. E.
2013-03-01
Shear waves are investigated in leaves of two plant species using air-coupled ultrasound. Magnitude and phase spectra of the transmission coefficient around the first two orders of the thickness resonances (normal and oblique incidence) have been measured. A bilayer acoustic model for plant leaves (comprising the palisade parenchyma and the spongy mesophyll) is proposed to extract, from measured spectra, properties of these tissues like: velocity and attenuation of longitudinal and shear waves and hence Young modulus, rigidity modulus, and Poisson's ratio. Elastic moduli values are typical of cellular solids and both, shear and longitudinal waves exhibit classical viscoelastic losses. Influence of leaf water content is also analyzed.
Podladchikov, Yuri
70th EAGE Conference & Exhibition -- Rome, Italy, 9 - 12 June 2008 Microscale yielding as mechanism & Exhibition -- Rome, Italy, 9 - 12 June 2008 Introduction. Energy dissipation accompanying the wave
Millimeter-wave propagation measurements at the Ballistic Research Laboratory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wallace, H. Bruce
1988-05-01
Results of measurements made with radars from 35 to 217 GHz of near-earth propagation in rain, fog, snow, and humidity are presented. The effects of water vapor are characterized by an attenuation coefficient that is a function of vapor pressure or absolute humidity. Backscatter contributes significantly to the adverse effect of rain on mm-wave radars because the droplet sizes become comparable to signal wavelengths. Path losses from fogs, haze, or clouds, are caused by both absorption and scattering by water droplets. Attenuation due to falling snow is difficult to link to and single characteristics.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Mr. Hansen
2010-11-12
The following websites are useful tools in understanding how energy is transferred from place to place through waves. Start by downloading the assignment and then begin with website number 1 and continue until you have visited all three websites. Begin by downloading the IA Waves Internet Assignment: IA Waves Internet Assignment You will answer the questions in Microsoft Word and then e-mail the assignment to me. Website #1: Read about basic information on waves and answer the questions from part 1 of the IA Waves Guide: Basic Wave Information Website #2: Follow the instructions for the following ...
Fidone, I.; Giruzzi, G. (Association Euratom-CEA Sur la Fusion, Departement de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee, Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, Cedex (France)); Caron, X.; Meyer, R.L. (Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises, U. A. CNRS 835, Universite de Nancy I, B. P. 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France))
1991-10-01
A method for measuring the radial profile of the lower-hybrid-driven current in a low-density tokamak plasma using electron-cyclotron wave attenuation is discussed. This diagnostic scheme is reminiscent of the transmission interferometry approach, commonly used in tokamaks to measure the plasma density, but now the wave amplitude instead of the phase is measured. Wave attenuation of the ordinary mode at {omega}{sub {ital p}} {much lt} {omega} {lt} {omega}{sub {ital c}} along vertical chords is measured; at these frequencies, the waves are absorbed by the superthermal tail sustained by lower-hybrid waves and the local wave absorption coefficient is proportional to the noninductive current density. The radial profile of this current is obtained from Abel inversion. An application to the Tore Supra tokamak is presented.
Micromechanics of Seismic Wave Propagation in Granular Rocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nihei, Kurt Toshimi
1992-09-01
This thesis investigates the details of seismic wave propagation in granular rocks by examining the micromechanical processes which take place at the grain level. Grain contacts are identified as the primary sites of attenuation in dry and fluid-saturated rocks. In many sedimentary rocks such as sandstones and limestones, the process of diagenesis leaves the grains only partially cemented together. When viewed at the micron scale, grain contacts are non-welded interfaces similar in nature to large scale joints and faults. Using a lumped properties approximation, the macroscopic properties of partially cemented grain contacts are modeled using a displacement-discontinuity boundary condition. This model is used to estimate the magnitude and the frequency dependence of the grain contact scattering attenuation for an idealized grain packing geometry. Ultrasonic P- and S-wave group velocity and attenuation measurements on sintered glass beads, alundum, and Berea sandstones were performed to determine the effects of stress, frequency, and pore fluid properties in granular materials with sintered and partially sintered grain contacts. P - and S-wave attenuation displayed the same overall trends for tests with n-decane, water, silicone oil, and glycerol. The magnitudes of the attenuation coefficients were, in general, higher for S-waves. The experimental measurements reveal that viscosity-dependent attenuation dominates in material with sintered grain contacts. Viscosity-dependent attenuation is also observed in Berea sandstone but only at hydrostatic stresses in excess of 15 MPa where the grain contacts are highly stiffened. Fluid surface chemistry-related attenuation was observed in Berea sandstone loaded uniaxially. These measurements suggest that attenuation in fluid-saturated rocks with partially cemented grain contacts is dependent on both the fluid properties and the state of stress at the grain contacts. A numerical method for simulating seismic wave propagation in granular materials was developed to examine the influence of the grain packing geometry, grain shape, and grain contact properties on seismic velocities and attenuation. The multi-grain method is formulated using a dynamic boundary integral equation method in which individual grains are coupled together using a displacement-discontinuity boundary condition. Viscous fluid-flow losses which take place in the grain contacts are modeled using a complex interfacial stiffness. Preliminary simulations demonstrate the utility of the method for investigating the micromechanical processes of seismic wave propagation in granular rocks.
Tantau, L J; Chantler, C T; Bourke, J D; Islam, M T; Payne, A T; Rae, N A; Tran, C Q
2015-07-01
We use the x-ray extended range technique (XERT) to experimentally determine the mass attenuation coefficient of silver in the x-ray energy range 11 kev-28 kev including the silver K absorption edge. The results are accurate to better than 0.1%, permitting critical tests of atomic and solid state theory. This is one of the most accurate demonstrations of cross-platform accuracy in synchrotron studies thus far. We derive the mass absorption coefficients and the imaginary component of the form factor over this range. We apply conventional XAFS analytic techniques, extended to include error propagation and uncertainty, yielding bond lengths accurate to approximately 0.24% and thermal Debye-Waller parameters accurate to 30%. We then introduce the FDMX technique for accurate analysis of such data across the full XAFS spectrum, built on full-potential theory, yielding a bond length accuracy of order 0.1% and the demonstration that a single Debye parameter is inadequate and inconsistent across the XAFS range. Two effective Debye-Waller parameters are determined: a high-energy value based on the highly-correlated motion of bonded atoms ([Formula: see text] Å), and an uncorrelated bulk value ([Formula: see text] Å) in good agreement with that derived from (room-temperature) crystallography. PMID:26075571
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tantau, L. J.; Chantler, C. T.; Bourke, J. D.; Islam, M. T.; Payne, A. T.; Rae, N. A.; Tran, C. Q.
2015-07-01
We use the x-ray extended range technique (XERT) to experimentally determine the mass attenuation coefficient of silver in the x-ray energy range 11 kev–28 kev including the silver K absorption edge. The results are accurate to better than 0.1%, permitting critical tests of atomic and solid state theory. This is one of the most accurate demonstrations of cross-platform accuracy in synchrotron studies thus far. We derive the mass absorption coefficients and the imaginary component of the form factor over this range. We apply conventional XAFS analytic techniques, extended to include error propagation and uncertainty, yielding bond lengths accurate to approximately 0.24% and thermal Debye–Waller parameters accurate to 30%. We then introduce the FDMX technique for accurate analysis of such data across the full XAFS spectrum, built on full-potential theory, yielding a bond length accuracy of order 0.1% and the demonstration that a single Debye parameter is inadequate and inconsistent across the XAFS range. Two effective Debye–Waller parameters are determined: a high-energy value based on the highly-correlated motion of bonded atoms ({?\\text{DW}}=0.1413(21) Å), and an uncorrelated bulk value ({?\\text{DW}}=0.1766(9) Å) in good agreement with that derived from (room-temperature) crystallography.
Zolotoverkh, I I [D. V. Skobel'tsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2008-09-30
The effect of the phase difference of the coupling coefficients on relaxation frequencies in the emission spectrum of a solid-state ring laser operating in the self-modulation regime of the first kind is studied theoretically. A strong dependence of one of the frequencies of relaxation oscillations on the phase difference of coupling coefficients is found. The stability of the self-modulation regime is studied analytically. (control of laser radiation parameters)
Attenuation, scattering, and absorption properties of light emitting planar waveguides
L. Schrottke
1995-01-01
Attenuation, scattering, and absorption coefficients of planar waveguides which contain light emitting areas are investigated by analysis of the lateral intensity distribution of the light scattered out from regions of the waveguides surrounding the active areas. Short attenuation lengths require an experimental method without the use of coupling prisms. This method was succesfully applied to a set of thin film
Low energy gamma ray attenuation in multiphase water
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singh, Jag J.; Sprinkle, Danny R.; Eftekhari, Abe
1990-01-01
A gauging system is proposed to enable monitoring of slush density, solid-liquid interface, and slush level as well as its flow rate. It is based on the principle that the electromagnetic radiation mass attenuation coefficient of a multiphase chemical compound is constant for all relative phase concentrations. Results showing the essential constancy of mass attenuation coefficients for single-phase water vapor, liquid water, ice, and multiphase mixtures of water/ice are described.
Gobbert, Matthias K.
Long-Time Simulation of Calcium Waves in a Heart Cell to Study the Effects of Calcium Release Flux and Statistics, University of Maryland, Baltimore County Abstract Spontaneous calcium sparks can lead to propagation of a self-initiated calcium wave under certain conditions in a heart cell. A model for diffusion
Statistical model for diffusion attenuated MR signal
Dmitriy A. Yablonskiy; G. Larry Bretthorst; Joseph J. H. Ackerman
2003-01-01
A general statistical model that can describe a rather large number of experimental results related to the structure of the diffusion-attenuated MR signal in biological systems is intro- duced. The theoretical framework relies on a phenomenological model that introduces a distribution function for tissue appar- ent diffusion coefficients (ADC). It is shown that at least two parameters—the position of distribution
SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION
Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin
2002-07-01
In fully-saturated rock and at ultrasonic frequencies, the microscopic squirt flow induced between the stiff and soft parts of the pore space by an elastic wave is responsible for velocity-frequency dispersion and attenuation. In the seismic frequency range, it is the macroscopic cross-flow between the stiffer and softer parts of the rock. We use the latter hypothesis to introduce simple approximate equations for velocity-frequency dispersion and attenuation in a fully water saturated reservoir. The equations are based on the assumption that in heterogeneous rock and at a very low frequency, the effective elastic modulus of the fully-saturated rock can be estimated by applying a fluid substitution procedure to the averaged (upscaled) dry frame whose effective porosity is the mean porosity and the effective elastic modulus is the Backus-average (geometric mean) of the individual dry-frame elastic moduli of parts of the rock. At a higher frequency, the effective elastic modulus of the saturated rock is the Backus-average of the individual fully-saturated-rock elastic moduli of parts of the rock. The difference between the effective elastic modulus calculated separately by these two methods determines the velocity-frequency dispersion. The corresponding attenuation is calculated from this dispersion by using (e.g.) the standard linear solid attenuation model.
Attenuation of external Bremsstrahlung in metallic absorbers
Dhaliwal, A.S.; Powar, M.S.; Singh, M. (Punjabi Univ., Physics Dept., Patiala 147002 (IN))
1990-12-01
In this paper attenuation of bremsstrahlung from {sup 147}Pm and {sup 170}Tm beta emitters has been studied in aluminum, copper, tin, and lead metallic absorbers. Bremsstrahlung spectra and mass attenuation coefficients for monoenergetic gamma rays are used to calculate theoretical attenuation curves. Magnetic deflection and beta stopping techniques are used to measure the integral bremsstrahlung intensities above 30 keV in different target thicknesses. Comparison of measured and calculated attenuation curves shows a good agreement for various absorbers, thus providing a test of this technique, which may be useful in understanding bremsstrahlung intensity buildup and in the design of optimum shielding for bremsstrahlung sources. It is found that the absorption of bremsstrahlung in metallic absorbers does not obey an exponential law and that absorbers act as energy filters.
Light attenuation on unicellular marine phytoplankton
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krol, Tadeusz; Lotocka, Maria
1994-10-01
Sea phytoplankton plays a considerable role in the interactive processes between light and the sea. Its species composition and the physiological development phase influence the spectrum of the light attenuation coefficient in the sea. Laboratory measurements of light attenuation spectrum were carried out on three different phytoplankton monocultures of the unicellular green algae Chlorella vulgaris and the larger Chlorella kesleri and the blue-green alga Chroococcus minor. The cultures were subjected to chemical (NaOH and temperature) or physical (ultrasounds) factors which altered their internal cell structures. Distinct changes in the light attenuation spectrum were observed as a result of the modification of the internal cell structures. Light attenuation cross-sections of those phytoplankton cells were also determined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kagan, B. A.; Timofeev, A. A.; Rashidi, E. H. A.
2012-07-01
To find variations in the dynamics of the surface M 2 tide in the White Sea induced by the spatially inhomogeneity of the resistance coefficient, we use a modified version of the QUODDY-4 three-dimensional finite-element hydrostatic model. This version differs from the original version in that it has a module introduced to calculate the resistance coefficient in the bottom boundary layer (BBL). The resistance coefficient is found from resistance laws for an oscillating rotating turbulent BBL over hydrodynamically rough and partially rough (smoothly rough) underlying surfaces describing the dependence of the resistance coefficient and other integral characteristics of resistance on dimensionless similarity parameters: the sea-bottom Rossby number Ro, the streaming Reynolds number Re, and the relative (normalized to tidal frequency) inertial frequency f/?. The use of spatial inhomogeneity of the resistance coefficient was shown not to lead to considerable changes in tidal characteristics. The values of these characteristics are several times larger than the instrumental measurement errors for the level and velocity but less than the errors in their calculation.
Absorption coefficient instrument for turbid natural waters.
Friedman, E; Poole, L; Cherdak, A; Houghton, W
1980-05-15
An instrument has been developed that directly measures the multispectral absorption coefficient of turbid natural water. The design incorporates methods for compensation of variation in the internal light source intensity, correction of the spectrally dependent nature of the optical elements, and correction for variation in background light level. When used in conjunction with a spectrally matched total attenuation instrument, the spectrally dependent scattering coefficient can also be derived. Systematic errors associated with multiple scattering have been estimated using Monte Carlo techniques. PMID:20221099
The Physics Analysis of a Gas Attenuator with Argon as a Working Gas
D. D. Ryutov; R. M. Bionta; M. A. McKernan; S. Shen; J. W. Trent
2010-01-01
A gas attenuator is an important element of the LCLS facility. The attenuator must operate in a broad range of x-ray energies, provide attenuation coefficient between 1 and 10 with the accuracy of 1% and, at the same time, be reliable and allow for many months of un-interrupted operation. S. Shen has recently carried out a detailed design study of
Dissipation of atmospheric waves: An asymptotic approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Godin, Oleg A.
2014-05-01
Wave energy dissipation through irreversible thermodynamic processes is a major factor influencing propagation of acoustic and gravity waves in the Earth's atmosphere. Accurate modeling of the wave dissipation is important in a wide range of problems from understanding the momentum and energy transport by waves into the upper atmosphere to predicting long-range propagation of infrasound to the acoustic remote sensing of mesospheric and thermospheric winds. Variations with height of the mass density, kinematic viscosity, and other physical parameters of the atmosphere have a profound effect on the wave dissipation and its frequency dependence. To characterize the wave dissipation, it is typical to consider an idealized environment, which admits plane-wave solutions. For instance, kinematic viscosity is often assumed to be constant in derivations of dispersion equations of acoustic-gravity waves in the atmosphere. While the assumption of constant shear viscosity coefficient would be much more realistic, it does not lead to plane-wave solutions. Here, we use an asymptotic approach to derivation of dispersion equations of acoustic-gravity waves in dissipative fluids. The approach does not presuppose existence of any plane-wave solutions and relies instead on the assumption that spatial variations of environmental parameters are gradual. The atmosphere is modeled as a neutral, horizontally stratified, moving ideal gas of variable composition. Linearized hydrodynamic equations for compressible fluids in a gravity field are solved asymptotically, leading to a self-consistent version of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation for acoustic-gravity waves. Dissipative processes are found to affect both the eikonal and the geometric (Berry) phase of the wave. Newly found expressions for acoustic-gravity wave attenuation due to viscosity and thermal conductivity of the air are compared to results previously reported in the literature. Effects of the wind on the wave dissipation prove to be significant. Knowledge of the wind velocity profile is essential for accurate modeling of dissipation of the atmospheric waves.
LaCure, Mari Mae
2010-04-29
travel as waves through space and time. Waves can also manifest visibly through other mediums, water for example, as they travel outward from where an object disturbs the surface. As the title of my thesis exhibit, Waves refers to my aim to imbue.... As a viewer approaches a drawing from different angles the light reflected by the image subtly changes intensity. 4 Sewing by hand further adds dimension where it is seen in the front, and creates a shadow where it can be seen through the back...
Structure of central and southern Mexico from velocity and attenuation tomography
Clayton, Robert W.
Structure of central and southern Mexico from velocity and attenuation tomography Ting Chen1 September 2012. [1] The 3D Vp, Vp/Vs, P- and S-wave attenuation structure of the Cocos subduction zone wave arrivals on vertical components and direct S wave arrivals on transverse components from local
Tracer attenuation in groundwater
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cvetkovic, Vladimir
2011-12-01
The self-purifying capacity of aquifers strongly depends on the attenuation of waterborne contaminants, i.e., irreversible loss of contaminant mass on a given scale as a result of coupled transport and transformation processes. A general formulation of tracer attenuation in groundwater is presented. Basic sensitivities of attenuation to macrodispersion and retention are illustrated for a few typical retention mechanisms. Tracer recovery is suggested as an experimental proxy for attenuation. Unique experimental data of tracer recovery in crystalline rock compare favorably with the theoretical model that is based on diffusion-controlled retention. Non-Fickian hydrodynamic transport has potentially a large impact on field-scale attenuation of dissolved contaminants.
Broad beam and narrow beam attenuation in Lipowitz's metal
el-Khatib, E.E.; Podgorsak, E.B.; Pla, C.
1987-01-01
Attenuation properties of Lipowitz's metal have been studied for narrow and broad beams of cobalt-60 gamma rays and 4-10 MV x-rays. The measured transmitted fraction for geometries used in radiotherapy depends on the field size and depth of measurement. Therefore a calculation of dose for partially attenuated beams based on narrow beam attenuation coefficients can cause large errors in dosimetry. Our simple calculation of transmitted fractions based on primary attenuation and scattered radiation agrees quite well with the measured data for therapeutic geometries. Also given is a table for linear, mass attenuation, and mass energy absorption coefficients of Lipowitz's metal in the photon energy range from 10 keV to 10 MeV.
Attenuation of Seismic Energy in the Upper Mantle
Don L. Anderson; Ari Ben-Menahem; C. B. Archambeau
1965-01-01
The amplitude attenuation and phase dispersion for Love and Rayleigh waves in the period range 50 to 300 sec is determined from two earthquakes by digital techniques. A distribution of Q, or anelasticity, is determined for the upper mantle which satisfies the amplitude decay data for Love and Rayleigh waves and which is consistent with available body wave data. An
Attenuation Tomography of the Upper Mantle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adenis, A.; Debayle, E.; Ricard, Y. R.
2014-12-01
We present a 3-D model of surface wave attenuation in the upper mantle. The model is constrained by a large data set of fundamental and higher Rayleigh mode observations. This data set consists of about 1,800,000 attenuation curves measured in the period range 50-300s by Debayle and Ricard (2012). A careful selection allows us to reject data for which measurements are likely biased by the poor knowledge of the scalar seismic moment or by a ray propagation too close to a node of the source radiation pattern. For each epicenter-station path, elastic focusing effects due to seismic heterogeneities are corrected using DR2012 and the data are turned into log(1/Q). The selected data are then combined in a tomographic inversion using the non-linear least square formalism of Tarantola and Valette (1982). The obtained attenuation maps are in agreement with the surface tectonic for periods and modes sensitive to the top 200km of the upper mantle. Low attenuation regions correlate with continental shields while high attenuation regions are located beneath young oceanic regions. The attenuation pattern becomes more homogeneous at depths greater than 200 km and the maps are dominated by a high quality factor signature beneath slabs. We will discuss the similarities and differences between the tomographies of seismic velocities and of attenuations.
Predicting AE Attenuation in Structures by Geometric Analysis
Theodore Lim; P. Nivesrangsan; Jonathan R. Corney; J. A. Steel; R. L. Reuben
2005-01-01
This paper investigates the feasibility of predicting the attenuation of AE signals travelling within a complex solid body. Such AE can occur due to external stimulation (e.g. impact) or internal events (i.e. crack propagation). The attenuation of these signals is affected not only by material properties but also by the geometry of the object. For example, wave propagation on a
W. L. Stutzrnan; W. K. Dishman
1982-01-01
Design of millimeter wave satellite communication systems must include accurate estimates of the excess attenuation caused by rain. This paper presents a model for estimating the slant path attenuation due to rain. The model is both conceptually and computationally simple, allowing the system designer to easily obtain estimates of link outages caused by rain attenuation. Estimates of attenuation as a
Transient ultrasonic fields in power law attenuation media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kelly, James F.
Ultrasonic waves in biological media experience frequency dependent attenuation. Extensive measurement of the attenuation coefficient in human and mammalian tissue in the ultrasonic range has revealed a power law dependence on frequency, where the power law exponent ranges between 0 and 2. For most tissue, the power law exponent ranges between 1 and 1.7, which cannot be explained by classical theories for ultrasonic absorption, such as thermo-viscosity or molecular relaxation. The purpose of this thesis is threefold: (1) to understand the analytical structure of transient fields in power law media, (2) to provide a possible description of the physical mechanism responsible for power law attenuation in biological media, and (3) to develop analytical models for transient, three-dimensional sound beams in power law media. Insight into general dissipative media is gained by studying the approximations available in viscous media. The Stokes wave equation is considered in the time domain, and an asymptotic, causal Green's function is rigorously derived and verified using the material impulse response function (MIRF) approach. A lossy impulse response for the Stokes wave equation is derived for calculations of transient fields generated by finite aperture radiators. Expressions for the uniform circular aperture (in both the nearfield and the farfield), the uniform rectangular aperture in the nearfield, and the spherical shell in the nearfield are then derived. Power-law media is then studied using fractional partial differential equations (FPDEs), which add loss to the wave equation with a time-fractional or space-fractional derivative. A FPDE is derived that exactly describes power law attenuation, and analytical, time-domain James F. Kelly Green's functions in power law media are derived for exponents between 0 and 2. To construct solutions, stable law probability distributions are utilized, which are widely used in the study of anomalous diffusion and in the study of fractal media. For exponents strictly less than 1, the Green's functions are causal, while for exponents greater than or equal than 1, the Green's functions are noncausal. To address the lack of causality, alternate power law FPDEs based on fractional spatial operators are considered: the Chen-Holm wave equation and a spatially dispersive wave equation. Green's functions are derived for both equations, yielding causal solutions for all applicable power law exponents. The Chen-Holm equation is shown to be non-dispersive, while the spatially dispersive wave equation supports a phase velocity predicted by the Kramers-Kronig relations. To address the physical basis for FPDEs, a fractal ladder network is proposed as a model for the stress-strain relationship in tissue. This constitutive equation is based on a lumped-parameter infinite-ladder topology involving alternating springs and dashpots to capture the viscoelastic and self-similar properties of tissue. This ladder network yields a stress-strain constitutive equation involving a time-fractional derivative. The Caputo-Wismer FPDE is derived from this constitutive equation. Finally, the impulse response derived for viscous media is generalized to power law media. Expressions for finite apertures are then derived in dispersive media, thus forming the basis for ultrasonic image simulation in biological media.
Site response and attenuation analyses using strong motion and short-period data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Fangyin
Site amplification and seismic attenuation are analyzed in this study using strong ground motion records and short period records. Site amplification factors at instrumented free-field sites are inferred from recorded motions using: (1) Generalized Inversion of S-waves; (2) the H/V method (i.e., the ratio of the spectral amplitudes of the horizontal and vertical components of motion); (3) Coda-wave Inversion; (4) the Standard Spectral Ratio method; and (5) the Coda Normalization method. The site amplification factors inferred from the above methods are compared to each other. The amplification factors obtained from the Generalized Inversion are validated by the other four methods. The correlation of site amplification to site condition is also analyzed and the results demonstrate that site amplification appears to be stronger for the geologically younger (and thus softer) sediments, and the site classification in conformance with UBC provisions provides smaller scatter than the classification based on geological formation. The site amplification factors for the different site classes of the NEHRP classification (i.e., site class C, D and E), which is important for engineering application, are provided and compared with the values proposed by Borcherdt (1994) and adopted in the 1997 UBC and 2003 IBC design codes. The agreement between the site amplification obtained in this study and those proposed by Borcherdt (1994) and adopted by the design codes is good. The nonlinearity of site amplification, resulting from the intensity of ground motion, is clearly identified at selected station where this is feasible. The intrinsic and scattering attenuation are analyzed at stations SML and TYC using the Multiple Lapse Time Window (MLTW) method. The total attenuation is derived from the intrinsic and scattering attenuation. The coda attenuation is analyzed for 14 stations from coda decay curves using linear regression. The S-wave attenuation is analyzed using the coda normalization method at the stations SML and TYC. The coda attenuation estimated from the coda decay curves is close to the intrinsic attenuation. The intrinsic attenuation is the dominant component in the total attenuation. The total attenuation, estimated using the MLTW method, closely agrees with the results from the Coda Normalization Method. The scattering coefficient is estimated to be 3--8 x 10 -3km-1, consistent with estimates of this parameter for other tectonically active regions (see figure 3.10 in Sato and Fehler, 1998). The data sets used in this study are collected from a strong motion network and a short period network in Taiwan province, China. The strong motion data set contains: (1) 2751 motions recorded at 407 stations from 33 aftershocks ranging from ML = 4.11--6.80 and depths from 1.05km to 21.28km, following 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake; and (2) 410 motions recorded at 410 stations from the main event of 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. The short period data set contains 5499 records recorded by 71 stations instrumented with the Teledyne S-13 seismometers. The 108 events have a magnitude ranging from ML = 2.90--4.97, and depths from 2.21km to 30.82km; these events occurred over a period of time from 2000 to 2003.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fielitz, D.; Wegler, U.
2015-06-01
Hydraulically induced microseismicity is used to study high-frequency attenuation properties (6-72 Hz) in an enhanced geothermal system. Intrinsic and scattering attenuation are separated by jointly inverting seismogram envelopes for structural parameters, source and site effects. Modelling of synthetic envelopes is based on radiative transfer theory. To speed up inversion, an analytical solution of the radiative transfer equation for a 3-D isotropic scattering medium is implemented. In order to compensate for the actual anisotropic scattering, a smoothing algorithm is applied to introduce envelope broadening and peak delay. The approach is tested with seismic data from four fluid-induced earthquakes (Mw ? 1) recorded by a temporary seismic network at the German Continental Deep Drilling (KTB) site at epicentral distances of less than 20 km. Full S-wave envelopes are inverted in 12 overlapping frequency bands with centre frequencies between 1.5 and 72 Hz. With data sampling at 200 Hz and high-frequency S-wave sources, attenuation estimates are obtained for the rarely probed frequency range between 30 and 70 Hz. From the inversion, we infer average values of the transport scattering coefficient g*, and the intrinsic absorption parameter b, as well as corresponding quality factors Qs and Qi. By comparison with attenuation estimates from regions with different tectonic activities, we see that both Qs and Qi for the investigated geothermal region fit best to moderate scattering and intrinsic regimes as obtained in tectonically active regions. A comparison with a regional attenuation model for southern Germany proves that attenuation estimates are scale-dependent. To compare intrinsic and scattering attenuation in the KTB region the transport mean free path (TMFP) and the absorption length (la) are calculated. For both, we find a clear frequency dependence proportional to f -0.8 (TMFP) and f -0.3 (la). TMFP decreases from 340 km at 6 Hz to 60 km at 72 Hz, whereas absorption length drops from 40 to 20 km, respectively. Thus, intrinsic absorption dominates over scattering attenuation by at least one order of magnitude. The influence of scattering becomes more significant towards higher frequencies. Moreover, comparing the apparent attenuation (inverse sum of TMFP and la) to values estimated with the spectral ratio technique, achieves a good agreement with mean deviations in the order of 3-5 per cent. From the frequency dependence of TMFP, it can be inferred that a von Karman-type of random medium with a Hurst exponent of ? = 0.11 is a good model for representing the stimulated reservoir at the KTB. The fractal distribution of scatterers agrees well with results derived from independent analysis of acoustic logs.
Compensation for non-uniform attenuation in SPECT brain imaging
Glick, S.J.; King, M.A.; Pan, T.S. [Univ. of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA (United States)] [and others
1994-05-01
Photon attenuation is a major limitation in performing quantitative SPECT brain imaging. A number of methods have been proposed for compensation of attenuation in regions of the body that can be modelled as a uniform attenuator. The magnitude of the errors introduced into reconstructed brain images by assuming the head to be a uniform attenuator are uncertain (the skull, sinus cavities and head holder all have different attenuation properties than brain tissue). Brain imaging is unique in that the radioisotope, for the most part, is taken up within a uniform attenuation medium (i.e., brain tissue) which is surrounded by bone (i.e., the skull) of a different density. Using this observation, Bellini`s method for attenuation compensation (which is an exact solution to the exponential Radon transform) has been modified to account for the different attenuation properties of the skull. To test this modified Bellini method, a simple mathematical phantom was designed to model the brain and a skull of varying thickness less than 7.5 mm. To model brain imaging with Tc-99m HMPAO, the attenuation coefficient of the brain tissue and skull were set to 0.15 cm{sup -1} and 0.22 cm{sup -1} respectively. A ray-driven projector which accounted for non-uniform attenuation was used to simulate projection data from 128 views. The detector response and scatter were not simulated. It was observed that reconstructions processed with uniform attenuation compensation (i.e., where it was assumed that the brain tissue and the skull had the same attenuation coefficient) provided errors of 6-20%, whereas those processed with the non-uniform Bellini algorithm were biased by only 0-5%.
Foltyn, S.R.
1987-05-29
The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprising one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength. 9 figs.
Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM)
1988-01-01
The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprng one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength.
Whole Mantle 1-D Structure From Short-period Body Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shearer, P.; Oki, S.
2007-12-01
Modeling Earth's anelastic structure as well as elastic structure is important for several reasons: (1) the depth dependence of attenuation and the shear-to-bulk Q ratio constrain the physical state of the deep Earth including its melt content, (2) attenuation can be a strong indicator of temperature variations because they have a larger effect on attenuation than on elastic velocity, and (3) attenuation causes physical dispersion of seismic velocities, which must be taken into account when interpreting travel time data. However, attenuation studies have proven challenging because of the typically large scatter in attenuation measurements and the difficulty in separating out source and elastic propagation effects from the intrinsic attenuation signal. We describe a new 1-dimensional Q model for short-period body waves. It is modeled from a dataset of 15,000 differential t* measurements of teleseismic P and S waves recorded in broadband seismograms. The S waveform is synthesized from the observed P wave and then cross-correlated to the observed S wave. The t* that gives the best correlation coefficient provides an estimate of attenuation along the ray path. To avoid biases from multipathing and other propagation path effects, we perform the cross- correlation only on the first half swing of the waveform. An advantage of our dataset is that it is little affected by the source-time function or instrument response, since the P and S waves are recorded at the same station from the same event. We invert our t* measurements for a 3-layer Q? model (2 in upper mantle and 1 in lower mantle). Our new Q model has higher Q values (less attenuation) compared to existing Q models derived from longer period datasets, especially in the lower mantle. This is consistent with frequency dependence of Q as has been suggested both from laboratory experiments and previous seismic observations. The attenuation is strongest in the upper mantle and we examine regional variations in Q by computing station and event terms (i.e., by averaging the t* residuals). These results show correlations with tectonics that are generally consistent with regional attenuation studies.
T. Kawana; S. Miyajima
1978-01-01
Theoretical investigations are presented on the site attenuation of the measuring site in which radio interference waves radiated from electrical equipment are measured. The general formula for calculation of site attenuation was obtained from these investigations and the reference values were calculated by this formula. Comparing these values with the site attenuation values actually measured in an open field, good
Separating thermal coagulation and cavitation effects in HIFU attenuation measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reed, Justin; Bailey, Michael; Anand, Ajay; Kaczkowski, Peter
2003-10-01
HIFU can be used to destroy tumors. The conversion of acoustic energy into heat causes protein coagulation (Lesion) in tissue. Attenuation measurements have been proposed to monitor the progression of thermal therapy. The goal of this work is to study and separate the effects of cavitation and thermal coagulation in attenuation measurements. A HIFU transducer was used to treat Bovine liver. A receiving transducer mounted across from the transmitting HIFU transducer measured attenuation during the treatment. A pressure chamber provided static pressure greater than the pressure amplitude of the HIFU wave, which suppressed cavitation. rf data from a commercial ultrasound scanner was also obtained. A large increase in attenuation was observed with cavitation present, while a subtle increase in attenuation was observed with cavitation suppressed. Attenuation estimated from the RF data showed an increase in attenuation downstream of the location of the lesion with cavitation present, while a subtle increase in attenuation was observed at the location of the lesion with cavitation suppressed. It has been found that attenuation measurements are greatly affected by the presence of cavitation, and the actual effect of thermal coagulation on attenuation is quite small. [Work supported by NIH, NSF, NSBRI.
Investigations of ultrasonic wave interactions with grain boundaries and grain imperfections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
The main objective of our research is to obtain a better understanding of ultrasonic wave interaction with interfaces in polycrystalline materials. This report discusses two recently developed experimental techniques: scanning acoustic microscope and optical point sensors. As for general wave propagation problems in anisotropic media, four major topics are discussed in separate sections. First, single boundaries between large bicrystals are considered. The reflection and transmission coefficients of such interfaces are calculated for imperfect boundary conditions by using the finite interface stiffness approach. Ultrasonic transmission through multiple-grain structures are investigated by computer simulation based on the statistical evaluation of repeated acoustical wave interactions with individual grain boundaries. The number of grains interacting with the propagating acoustical wave is considered to be high enough to approximate the wave-material interaction as scattering on elastic inhomogeneities. The grain scattering induced attenuation of Rayleigh waves is investigated in polycrystalline materials.
(Investigations of ultrasonic wave interactions with grain boundaries and grain imperfections)
Not Available
1990-01-01
The main objective of our research is to obtain a better understanding of ultrasonic wave interaction with interfaces in polycrystalline materials. This report discusses two recently developed experimental techniques: scanning acoustic microscope and optical point sensors. As for general wave propagation problems in anisotropic media, four major topics are discussed in separate sections. First, single boundaries between large bicrystals are considered. The reflection and transmission coefficients of such interfaces are calculated for imperfect boundary conditions by using the finite interface stiffness approach. Ultrasonic transmission through multiple-grain structures are investigated by computer simulation based on the statistical evaluation of repeated acoustical wave interactions with individual grain boundaries. The number of grains interacting with the propagating acoustical wave is considered to be high enough to approximate the wave-material interaction as scattering on elastic inhomogeneities. The grain scattering induced attenuation of Rayleigh waves is investigated in polycrystalline materials. 41 refs., 43 figs.
Time domain attenuation estimation method from ultrasonic backscattered signals
Ghoshal, Goutam; Oelze, Michael L.
2012-01-01
Ultrasonic attenuation is important not only as a parameter for characterizing tissue but also for compensating other parameters that are used to classify tissues. Several techniques have been explored for estimating ultrasonic attenuation from backscattered signals. In the present study, a technique is developed to estimate the local ultrasonic attenuation coefficient by analyzing the time domain backscattered signal. The proposed method incorporates an objective function that combines the diffraction pattern of the source/receiver with the attenuation slope in an integral equation. The technique was assessed through simulations and validated through experiments with a tissue mimicking phantom and fresh rabbit liver samples. The attenuation values estimated using the proposed technique were compared with the attenuation estimated using insertion loss measurements. For a data block size of 15 pulse lengths axially and 15 beamwidths laterally, the mean attenuation estimates from the tissue mimicking phantoms were within 10% of the estimates using insertion loss measurements. With a data block size of 20 pulse lengths axially and 20 beamwidths laterally, the error in the attenuation values estimated from the liver samples were within 10% of the attenuation values estimated from the insertion loss measurements. PMID:22779499
Role of the inhomogeneity angle in anisotropic attenuation analysis Jyoti Behura1
Tsvankin, Ilya
- bation theory verified by exact numerical modeling.Application of the spectral-ratio method for uncommonly high attenuation with the quality factor Q less than 10 and strong velocity and attenuation , where solutions of the wave equation do not exist. If the wave- field is excited by a point source
Huntzicker, Steven; Nayak, Rohit; Doyley, Marvin M.
2014-01-01
Abstract. Quantitative sparse array vascular elastography visualizes the shear modulus distribution within vascular tissues, information that clinicans could use to reduce the number of strokes each year. However, the low transmit power sparse array (SA) imaging could hamper the clinical usefulness of the resulting elastograms. In this study, we evaluated the performance of modulus elastograms recovered from simulated and physical vessel phantoms with varying attenuation coefficients (0.6, 1.5, and 3.5??cm?1) and modulus contrasts (?12.04, ?6.02, and ?2.5??dB) using SA imaging relative to those obtained with conventional linear array (CLA) and plane-wave (PW) imaging techniques. Plaques were visible in all modulus elastograms, but those produced using SA and PW contained less artifacts. The modulus contrast-to-noise ratio decreased rapidly with increasing modulus contrast and attenuation coefficient, but more quickly when SA imaging was performed than for CLA or PW. The errors incurred varied from 10.9% to 24% (CLA), 1.8% to 12% (SA), and ?4% (PW). Modulus elastograms produced with SA and PW imagings were not significantly different (p>0.05). Despite the low transmit power, SA imaging can produce useful modulus elastograms in superficial organs, such as the carotid artery. PMID:26158040
Landing gear noise attenuation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)
2011-01-01
A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.
A direct measurement of skull attenuation for quantitative SPECT
Turkington, T.G.; Gilland, D.R.; Jaszczak, R.J.; Greer, K.L.; Coleman, R.E. (Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Radiology); Smith, M.F. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Biomedical Engineering)
1993-08-01
The attenuation of 140 keV photons was measured in three empty skulls by placing a [sup 99m]Tc line source inside each one and acquiring projection data. These projections were compared to projections of the line source alone to determine the transmission through each point in the skull surrounding the line source. The effective skull thickness was calculated for each point using an assumed dense bone attenuation coefficient. The relative attenuation for this thickness of bone was compared to that of an equivalent amount of soft tissue to evaluate the increased attenuation of photons in brain SPECT relative to a uniform soft tissue approximation. For the skull regions surrounding most of the brain, the effective bone thickness varied considerably, but was generally less than 6 mm, resulting in a relative attenuation increases of less than 6%.
Absorption coefficient instrument for turbid natural waters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedman, E.; Cherdak, A.; Poole, L.; Houghton, W.
1980-05-01
The paper presents an instrument that directly measures multispectral absorption coefficient of turbid natural water. Attention is given to the design, which is shown to incorporate methods for the compensation of variation in the internal light source intensity, correction of the spectrally dependent nature of the optical elements, and correction for variation in the background light level. In addition, when used in conjunction with a spectrally matched total attenuation instrument, the spectrally dependent scattering coefficient can also be derived. Finally, it is reported that systematic errors associated with multiple scattering have been estimated using Monte Carlo techniques.
Absorption coefficient instrument for turbid natural waters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Friedman, E.; Cherdak, A.; Poole, L.; Houghton, W.
1980-01-01
The paper presents an instrument that directly measures multispectral absorption coefficient of turbid natural water. Attention is given to the design, which is shown to incorporate methods for the compensation of variation in the internal light source intensity, correction of the spectrally dependent nature of the optical elements, and correction for variation in the background light level. In addition, when used in conjunction with a spectrally matched total attenuation instrument, the spectrally dependent scattering coefficient can also be derived. Finally, it is reported that systematic errors associated with multiple scattering have been estimated using Monte Carlo techniques.
Anderson, Gene R. (Albuquerque, NM); Armendariz, Marcelino G. (Albuquerque, NM); Carson, Richard F. (Albuquerque, NM); Bryan, Robert P. (Albuquerque, NM); Duckett, III, Edwin B. (Albuquerque, NM); Kemme, Shanalyn Adair (Albuquerque, NM); McCormick, Frederick B. (Albuquerque, NM); Peterson, David W. (Sandia Park, NM)
2006-04-04
An apparatus and method of attenuating and/or conditioning optical energy for an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module is disclosed. An apparatus for attenuating the optical output of an optoelectronic connector including: a mounting surface; an array of optoelectronic devices having at least a first end; an array of optical elements having at least a first end; the first end of the array of optical elements optically aligned with the first end of the array of optoelectronic devices; an optical path extending from the first end of the array of optoelectronic devices and ending at a second end of the array of optical elements; and an attenuator in the optical path for attenuating the optical energy emitted from the array of optoelectronic devices. Alternatively, a conditioner may be adapted in the optical path for conditioning the optical energy emitted from the array of optoelectronic devices.
Model-based tomographic optoacoustic reconstructions in acoustically attenuating media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deán-Ben, X. Luís.; Razansky, Daniel
2014-03-01
Acoustic attenuation influences the transmission of the ultrasonic waves excited optoacoustically in biological samples, in a way that the amplitude of the waves is reduced as they propagate through acoustically attenuating tissues. Furthermore, being dependent on frequency, acoustic attenuation also causes broadening of the time-resolved optoacoustic signals, which in turn leads to blurring of features and overall deterioration of image quality. The effects of acoustic attenuation are more prominent for the high frequency components of the optoacoustic waves and they must be taken into account for high resolution imaging. In this work, we modify a model-based reconstruction algorithm to incorporate the effects of acoustic attenuation in tomographic optoacoustic imaging set-ups. As the waves propagate from the excitation until the measurement points, they undergo space and frequency dependent attenuation, which can be effectively accounted for using the suggested model-based approach. The simulation results obtained showcase a good performance of the introduced method in terms of resolution improvement.
The Physics Analysis of a Gas Attenuator with Argon as a Working Gas
Ryutov,, D.D.
2010-12-07
A gas attenuator is an important element of the LCLS facility. The attenuator must operate in a broad range of x-ray energies, provide attenuation coefficient between 1 and 10{sup 4} with the accuracy of 1% and, at the same time, be reliable and allow for many months of un-interrupted operation. S. Shen has recently carried out a detailed design study of the attenuator based on the use of nitrogen as a working gas. In this note we assess the features of the attenuator based on the use of argon. We concentrate on the physics issues, not the design features.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1995-01-01
Mike Buzzetti designed a fiber optic attenuator while working at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, intended for use in NASA's Deep Space Network. Buzzetti subsequently patented and received an exclusive license to commercialize the device, and founded Nanometer Technologies to produce it. The attenuator functions without introducing measurable back-reflection or insertion loss, and is relatively insensitive to vibration and changes in temperature. Applications include cable television, telephone networks, other signal distribution networks, and laboratory instrumentation.
Attenuation of millimeter wavelength radiation by gaseous water.
Hall, J T
1967-08-01
A theoretical computation and absorption by water vapor of radiation within the millimeter and submillimeter region of the electromagnetic spectrum permits the determination of attenuation coefficients for given vapor densities, pressures, and temperatures. The rigid asymmetrical top rotor approximation for all angular momentum quantum numbers J
Ultrasonic attenuation in clean anisotropic superconductors
Coppersmith, S.N.; Klemm, R.A.
1985-01-01
Recently, the ultrasonic attenuation of UPt/sub 3/ in the hydrodynamic regime has been found to be proportional to T/sup 2/ at low temperatures T. In the opposite (clean) limit, ql>>1, we find that the ultrasonic attenuation for an anisotropic superconductor has a temperature dependence that depends not only on the nodal structure of the gap but also on the relative orientation of the sound wave and the nodes. Both power law and exponential temperature dependences are found to be possible for gaps with either points or lines of nodes, depending upon the sound wave orientation relative to the nodes. In some directions, finite experimental rsolution must be taken into account.
SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION
Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin
2003-12-01
We have developed and tested technology for a new type of direct hydrocarbon detection. The method uses inelastic rock properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic methods to the presence of oil and gas saturation. These methods include use of energy absorption, dispersion, and attenuation (Q) along with traditional seismic attributes like velocity, impedance, and AVO. Our approach is to combine three elements: (1) a synthesis of the latest rock physics understanding of how rock inelasticity is related to rock type, pore fluid types, and pore microstructure, (2) synthetic seismic modeling that will help identify the relative contributions of scattering and intrinsic inelasticity to apparent Q attributes, and (3) robust algorithms that extract relative wave attenuation attributes from seismic data. This project provides: (1) Additional petrophysical insight from acquired data; (2) Increased understanding of rock and fluid properties; (3) New techniques to measure reservoir properties that are not currently available; and (4) Provide tools to more accurately describe the reservoir and predict oil location and volumes. These methodologies will improve the industry's ability to predict and quantify oil and gas saturation distribution, and to apply this information through geologic models to enhance reservoir simulation. We have applied for two separate patents relating to work that was completed as part of this project.
SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION
Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin
2002-10-01
RSI has access to two synthetic seismic programs: Osiris seismic modeling system provided by Odegaard (Osiris) and synthetic seismic program, developed by SRB, implementing the Kennett method for normal incidence. Achieving virtually identical synthetic seismic traces from these different programs serves as cross-validation for both. The subsequent experiments have been performed with the Kennett normal incidence code because: We have access to the source code, which allowed us to easily control computational parameters and integrate the synthetics computations with our graphical and I/O systems. This code allows to perform computations and displays on a PC in MatLab or Octave environment, which is faster and more convenient. The normal incidence model allows us to exclude from the synthetic traces some of the physical effects that take place in 3-D models (like inhomogeneous waves) but have no relevance to the topic of our investigation, which is attenuation effects on seismic reflection and transmission.
Global models of seismic attenuation in the upper mantle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Selby, N.
2003-04-01
Measurement of the intrinsic attenuation characteristics of the Earth has proved to be one of the most difficult problems in global seismology. Essentially, this is because the amplitudes and frequency content of seismic waves, used to measure attenuation, are affected by errors in the determination of the magnitudes and source mechanisms of seismic disturbances, and by variations in the elastic structure of the Earth. Hence the relationship between `apparent' attenuation, measured by seismology, and intrinsic attenuation, which can be related to the anelastic properties of the Earth, is problematical. Here I review some recent tomographic global models of Q?, intrinsic shear attenuation, in the upper mantle, and compare these results with other published models. I also discuss the wider importance of anelasticity to problems in observational seismology.
Drag Coefficient, Dynamic Roughness and Reference Wind Speed
Paul A. Hwang
2005-01-01
Surface waves are the roughness element of the ocean surface. The parameterization of the drag coefficient of the ocean surface is simplified by referencing to wind speed at an elevation proportional to the characteristic wavelength. The dynamic roughness is analytically related to the drag coefficient. Under the assumption of fetch limited wave growth condition, various empirical functions of the dynamic
Effective x-ray attenuation measurements with full field digital mammography
Heine, John J.; Behera, Madhusmita [The H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, Florida 33612-4799 (United States)
2006-11-15
This work shows that effective x-ray attenuation coefficients may be estimated by applying Beer's Law to phantom image data acquired with the General Electric Senographe 2000D full field digital mammography system. Theoretical developments are provided indicating that an approximate form of the Beer's relation holds for polychromatic x-ray beams. The theoretical values were compared with experimentally determined measured values, which were estimated at various detector locations. The measured effective attenuation coefficients are in agreement with those estimated with theoretical developments and numerical integration. The work shows that the measured quantities show little spatial variation. The main ideas are demonstrated with polymethylmethacrylate and breast tissue equivalent phantom imaging experiments. The work suggests that the effective attenuation coefficients may be used as known values for radiometric standardization applications that compensate for the image acquisition influences. The work indicates that it is possible to make quantitative attenuation coefficient measurements from a system designed for clinical purposes.
The distribution of seismic velocities and attenuation in the earth. Ph.D. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hart, R. S.
1977-01-01
Estimates of the radial distribution of seismic velocities and density and of seismic attenuation within the earth are obtained through inversion of body wave, surface wave, and normal mode data. The effect of attenuation related dispersion on gross earth structure, and on the reliability of eigenperiod identifications is discussed. The travel time baseline discrepancies between body waves and free oscillation models are examined and largely resolved.
Lead attenuation characteristics models.
Lee, K L; Schick, D
2009-12-01
Lead attenuation characteristic curves are often consulted in premises radiation shielding assessments employing the non-destructive testing (NDT) method. This study developed lead attenuation characteristics mathematical models for the radionuclide Co-57. These models take into account the statistical variation of the attenuation characteristics. The results are a set of equations that a NDT assessor can use to predict the range of transmission factors for the NDT measurement or, using the inverse functions, to gauge the lead equivalence (with the associated uncertainty) of a radiation barrier. This study showed that the combined effect of types of statistical variations can form an uncertainty region on the transmission characteristics such that the relative uncertainty decreases for values of lead mass per unit area up to approximately 20 kg/m2 and 15 kg/m2 for the Ludlum 18 and Ludlum 2241-2 survey meters respectively but thereafter increases. PMID:20169840
Radiofrequency attenuator and method
Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ); Hall, Simon B. (Palmerston North, NZ)
2009-11-10
Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3 C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.
Radiofrequency attenuator and method
Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ); Hall, Simon B. (Palmerston North, NZ)
2009-01-20
Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.
ccsd-00016521,version1-5Jan2006 Dynamic sound attenuation at hypersonic frequencies in silica glass
Boyer, Edmond
ccsd-00016521,version1-5Jan2006 Dynamic sound attenuation at hypersonic frequencies in silica glass, up to the glass transition temperature. Comparison of the hypersonic wave attenuation in various of sound attenuation at hypersonic fre- quencies in silica. This work provide new data useful for shedding
Fuzzy clustering-based segmented attenuation correction in whole-body PET imaging
H. Zaidi; M. Diaz-Gomez; A. Boudraa; D. O. Slosman
2002-01-01
Segmented attenuation correction is now a widely accepted technique to reduce noise propagation from transmission scanning in positron emission tomography (PET). In this paper, we present a new method for segmenting transmission images in whole-body scanning. This reduces the noise in the correction maps while still correcting for differing attenuation coefficients of specific tissues. Based on the fuzzy C-means (FCM)
The attenuation of sound by turbulence in internal flows.
Weng, Chenyang; Boij, Susann; Hanifi, Ardeshir
2013-06-01
The attenuation of sound waves due to interaction with low Mach number turbulent boundary layers in internal flows (channel or pipe flow) is examined. Dynamic equations for the turbulent Reynolds stress on the sound wave are derived, and the analytical solution to the equation provides a frequency dependent eddy viscosity model. This model is used to predict the attenuation of sound propagating in fully developed turbulent pipe flow. The predictions are shown to compare well with the experimental data. The proposed dynamic equation shows that the turbulence behaves like a viscoelastic fluid in the interaction process, and that the ratio of turbulent relaxation time near the wall and the sound wave period is the parameter that controls the characteristics of the attenuation induced by the turbulent flow. PMID:23742331
X-Ray Attenuation and Absorption for Materials of Dosimetric Interest
National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway
SRD 126 X-Ray Attenuation and Absorption for Materials of Dosimetric Interest (Web, free access) Tables and graphs of the photon mass attenuation coefficient and the mass energy-absorption coefficient are presented for all of the elements Z = 1 to 92, and for 48 compounds and mixtures of radiological interest. The tables cover energies of the photon (x-ray, gamma ray, bremsstrahlung) from 1 keV to 20 MeV.
Chassignole, B; Duwig, V; Ploix, M-A; Guy, P; El Guerjouma, R
2009-12-01
Multipass welds made in austenitic stainless steel, in the primary circuit of nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors, are characterized by an anisotropic and heterogeneous structure that disturbs the ultrasonic propagation and makes ultrasonic non-destructive testing difficult. The ATHENA 2D finite element simulation code was developed to help understand the various physical phenomena at play. In this paper, we shall describe the attenuation model implemented in this code to give an account of wave scattering phenomenon through polycrystalline materials. This model is in particular based on the optimization of two tensors that characterize this material on the basis of experimental values of ultrasonic velocities attenuation coefficients. Three experimental configurations, two of which are representative of the industrial welds assessment case, are studied in view of validating the model through comparison with the simulation results. We shall thus provide a quantitative proof that taking into account the attenuation in the ATHENA code dramatically improves the results in terms of the amplitude of the echoes. The association of the code and detailed characterization of a weld's structure constitutes a remarkable breakthrough in the interpretation of the ultrasonic testing on this type of component. PMID:19450861
Fracture compliance estimation using borehole tube waves
Bakku, Sudhish Kumar
We tested two models, one for tube-wave generation and the other for tube-wave attenuation at a fracture intersecting a borehole that can be used to estimate fracture compliance, fracture aperture, and lateral extent. In ...
Superheterodyne three-wave detection of gravitation waves
A. F. Pisarev; S. A. Pisareva
1988-01-01
A superheterodyne method of mutual transformation of wave energies in the non-linear three wave process involving a gravitational wave is considered. A flexible possibility of Transferring the great external gain coefficient from an electromagnetic or acoustic wave to the gravitation one is shown. It can facilitate generation and detection of this wave.
Attenuation Margin Requirements in a Networked Radar System for Observation of Precipitation
V. Chandrasekar; Delbert Willie; Yanting Wang; Sanghun Lim; David McLaughlin
2009-01-01
In recent years, it becomes increasingly possible to move the operating frequency of weather radar systems from non-attenuating lower frequencies, such as at S-band, to attenuating higher frequencies, such as at X-band. However, wave is more easily extinct in rain at higher frequencies in which case there will be missing observations. Therefore, rain attenuation is one of the important metrics
Control algorithms for dynamic attenuators
Hsieh, Scott S.; Pelc, Norbert J.
2014-01-01
Purpose: The authors describe algorithms to control dynamic attenuators in CT and compare their performance using simulated scans. Dynamic attenuators are prepatient beam shaping filters that modulate the distribution of x-ray fluence incident on the patient on a view-by-view basis. These attenuators can reduce dose while improving key image quality metrics such as peak or mean variance. In each view, the attenuator presents several degrees of freedom which may be individually adjusted. The total number of degrees of freedom across all views is very large, making many optimization techniques impractical. The authors develop a theory for optimally controlling these attenuators. Special attention is paid to a theoretically perfect attenuator which controls the fluence for each ray individually, but the authors also investigate and compare three other, practical attenuator designs which have been previously proposed: the piecewise-linear attenuator, the translating attenuator, and the double wedge attenuator. Methods: The authors pose and solve the optimization problems of minimizing the mean and peak variance subject to a fixed dose limit. For a perfect attenuator and mean variance minimization, this problem can be solved in simple, closed form. For other attenuator designs, the problem can be decomposed into separate problems for each view to greatly reduce the computational complexity. Peak variance minimization can be approximately solved using iterated, weighted mean variance (WMV) minimization. Also, the authors develop heuristics for the perfect and piecewise-linear attenuators which do not require a priori knowledge of the patient anatomy. The authors compare these control algorithms on different types of dynamic attenuators using simulated raw data from forward projected DICOM files of a thorax and an abdomen. Results: The translating and double wedge attenuators reduce dose by an average of 30% relative to current techniques (bowtie filter with tube current modulation) without increasing peak variance. The 15-element piecewise-linear dynamic attenuator reduces dose by an average of 42%, and the perfect attenuator reduces dose by an average of 50%. Improvements in peak variance are several times larger than improvements in mean variance. Heuristic control eliminates the need for a prescan. For the piecewise-linear attenuator, the cost of heuristic control is an increase in dose of 9%. The proposed iterated WMV minimization produces results that are within a few percent of the true solution. Conclusions: Dynamic attenuators show potential for significant dose reduction. A wide class of dynamic attenuators can be accurately controlled using the described methods. PMID:24877818
Fluid dynamic bowtie attenuators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szczykutowicz, Timothy P.; Hermus, James
2015-03-01
Fluence field modulated CT allows for improvements in image quality and dose reduction. To date, only 1-D modulators have been proposed, the extension to 2-D modulation is difficult with solid-metal attenuation-based modulators. This work proposes to use liquids and gas to attenuate the x-ray beam which can be arrayed allowing for 2-D fluence modulation. The thickness of liquid and the pressure for a given path length of gas were determined that provided the same attenuation as 30 cm of soft tissue at 80, 100, 120, and 140 kV. Gaseous Xenon and liquid Iodine, Zinc Chloride, and Cerium Chloride were studied. Additionally, we performed some proof-of-concept experiments in which (1) a single cell of liquid was connected to a reservoir which allowed the liquid thickness to be modulated and (2) a 96 cell array was constructed in which the liquid thickness in each cell was adjusted manually. Liquid thickness varied as a function of kV and chemical composition, with Zinc Chloride allowing for the smallest thickness; 1.8, 2.25, 3, and 3.6 cm compensated for 30 cm of soft tissue at 80, 100, 120, and 140 kV respectively. The 96 cell Iodine attenuator allowed for a reduction in both dynamic range to the detector and scatter to primary ratio. Successful modulation of a single cell was performed at 0, 90, and 130 degrees using a simple piston/actuator. The thickness of liquids and the Xenon gas pressure seem logistically implementable within the constraints of CBCT and diagnostic CT systems.
Potential Wave Drift Force Simplified
G. Burns; S. Liu
1983-01-01
Morison's equation has the advantage of simplicity, and has been used extensively to determine wave forces on small diameter members of offshore platforms. For larger members the inertia coefficient of the Morison equation is replaced by a modified coefficient derived from diffraction theory to calculate first order wave forces. Linear wave analysis is not sufficient for compliant structures such as
Intensity attenuation in the Pannonian Basin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gy?ri, Erzsébet; Gráczer, Zoltán; Szanyi, Gyöngyvér
2015-04-01
Ground motion prediction equations play a key role in seismic hazard assessment. Earthquake hazard has to be expressed in macroseismic intensities in case of seismic risk estimations where a direct relation to the damage associated with ground shaking is needed. It can be also necessary for shake map generation where the map is used for prompt notification to the public, disaster management officers and insurance companies. Although only few instrumental strong motion data are recorded in the Pannonian Basin, there are numerous historical reports of past earthquakes since the 1763 Komárom earthquake. Knowing the intensity attenuation and comparing them with relations of other areas - where instrumental strong motion data also exist - can help us to choose from the existing instrumental ground motion prediction equations. The aim of this work is to determine an intensity attenuation formula for the inner part of the Pannonian Basin, which can be further used to find an adaptable ground motion prediction equation for the area. The crust below the Pannonian Basin is thin and warm and it is overlain by thick sediments. Thus the attenuation of seismic waves here is different from the attenuation in the Alp-Carpathian mountain belt. Therefore we have collected intensity data only from the inner part of the Pannonian Basin and defined the boundaries of the studied area by the crust thickness of 30 km (Windhoffer et al., 2005). 90 earthquakes from 1763 until 2014 have sufficient number of macroseismic data. Magnitude of the events varies from 3.0 to 6.6. We have used individual intensity points to eliminate the subjectivity of drawing isoseismals, the number of available intensity data is more than 3000. Careful quality control has been made on the dataset. The different types of magnitudes of the used earthquake catalogue have been converted to local and momentum magnitudes using relations determined for the Pannonian Basin. We applied the attenuation formula by Sorensen et al. (2009) using a least-squares regression method. This expression is comparable with the common type of strong-motion attenuation equations (e.g., Joyner and Boore, 1993). Joyner, W. B. and Boore, D. M. (1993). Methods for regression analysis of strong-motion data. BSSA, 83(2), 469-487. Sørensen, M. B., Stromeyer, D., Grünthal, G. (2009). Attenuation of macroseismic intensity: a new relation for the Marmara Sea region, northwest Turkey. BSSA, 99(2A), 538-553. Windhoffer, G., Dombrádi, E., Horváth, F., Székely, B., Bada, G., Szafián, P., Dövényi, P., Tóth, L., Grenerczy, Gy. and G. Timár (2005) Geodynamic Atlas of the Pannonian Basin and the Surrounding Orogens. 7th Workshop on Alpine Geological Studies, Abstract Book, p. 109.
AllamehZadeh, Mostafa, E-mail: dibaparima@yahoo.com [International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2011-12-15
A Quadratic Neural Networks (QNNs) model has been developed for identifying seismic source classification problem at regional distances using ARMA coefficients determination by Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). We have devised a supervised neural system to discriminate between earthquakes and chemical explosions with filter coefficients obtained by windowed P-wave phase spectra (15 s). First, we preprocess the recording's signals to cancel out instrumental and attenuation site effects and obtain a compact representation of seismic records. Second, we use a QNNs system to obtain ARMA coefficients for feature extraction in the discrimination problem. The derived coefficients are then applied to the neural system to train and classification. In this study, we explore the possibility of using single station three-component (3C) covariance matrix traces from a priori-known explosion sites (learning) for automatically recognizing subsequent explosions from the same site. The results have shown that this feature extraction gives the best classifier for seismic signals and performs significantly better than other classification methods. The events have been tested, which include 36 chemical explosions at the Semipalatinsk test site in Kazakhstan and 61 earthquakes (mb = 5.0-6.5) recorded by the Iranian National Seismic Network (INSN). The 100% correct decisions were obtained between site explosions and some of non-site events. The above approach to event discrimination is very flexible as we can combine several 3C stations.
Attenuation and Velocity tomography can we join them?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Debski, Wojciech
2013-04-01
Velocity tomography, is now routinely used to image velocity distributions which are subsequently interpreted in terms of the Earth or rock-sample structure. This technique has been successfully used in detailed mapping of the Earth in various scales ranging from the whole globe until very local rock-mass structure, e.g. in mines. It is also used in geo-technical (tunnels, mines, water dams, etc.) and laboratory measurements. The second tomography technique, namely attenuation tomography, is used to image another physical property of rocks: the acoustic attenuation structure usually describe by the parameter Q. This technique is, however, much more difficult than velocity tomography because the attenuation of seismic/acoustic waves is a much more subtle effect than a variation of delays of energy arrival times due to velocity heterogeneities. There exist a lot of factors that can easily disturb attenuation measurements so it is difficult to obtain a reliable image of the attenuation structure. For this reason, a very high quality of data used for attenuation tomography must be ensured. Nevertheless, the additional effort necessary to obtain an image of Q is worthwhile because Q is regarded to be more sensitive to the rock structure than seismic/acoustic wave velocity. Imaging the Q distribution can be achieved by inverting various characteristics of the measured signals: amplitudes, spectra decay, pulse broadening or central frequency shift. The advantages and limitations of each of these approaches are well known. In this presentation we discuss the approach developed for the acoustic ultrasonic tomography imaging and called Enhanced Velocity Tomography and possibility of its using in a ``global seismological'' framework. It consists in a combination of both velocity and attenuation tomography into one scheme to maximize the advantage of the robustness of velocity and the sensitivity to the micro-structure of attenuation.
Seismic Attenuation System (sas) in the KAMIOKA Mine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, Ryutaro; Desalvo, Riccardo; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Uchiyama, Takashi; Sekiguchi, Takanori; Ishizaki, Hideharu; Takamori, Akiteru; Majorana, Ettore; van den Brand, Jo; Hennes, Eric; Bertolini, Alessandro
2015-01-01
The second/third generation interferometric gravitational wave detectors need not only strong attenuation at the observation band but also reduction of root mean square motion of the mirrors. Many kinds of mechanisms for isolation at low frequencies have been suggested for gravitational wave detectors. An inverted pendulum and geometric anti-spring filters are used in the isolator for KAGRA located in the Kamioka mine. We employed two layer tunnels to put the isolators onto the ground rock directly.
First attenuation study at Usu volcano (Hokkaido, Japan)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prudencio, Janire; Taira, Taka'aki; De Siena, Luca; Onizawa, Shin'ya; Ibañez, Jesús; Hellweg, Margaret; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Aoyama, Hiroshi; García-Yeguas, Araceli; Oshima, Hiromitsu; Díaz-Moreno, Alejandro
2014-05-01
2D and 3D attenuation structures of Usu volcano has been obtained with measurements of diffusion model and coda-normalization method, respectively, with the same data-set used to develop the 3D velocity tomography by Onizawa et al., (2007). We have obtained intrinsic and scattering 2D maps applying the diffusion model which is an approximation of the general energy transport theory developed by Wegler and Lühr (2001) and Wegler (2003). As a result of the theoretical curves with the energy envelopes of the seismograms, we have obtained intrinsic attenuation coefficient and diffusivity coefficient values in the frequency range of 4-16 Hz. Then, We have quantified the contribution of intrinsic and scattering attenuation by inverse quality factor because is more representative. Finally, with a new representation method based in the Gaussian probability function distribution, we have represented the inverse quality factors obtained into 2D contour maps. To obtain 3D attenuation tomography of Deception Island, we have used more than 2000 waveforms recorded at over 288 on land seismic stations. The rays were traced in a 3D velocity model. We have inverted the spectral ratios obtained with the coda normalization method to obtain total-Q values. We resolve 1 km cubic cells. Both results, 2D maps and 3D attenuation structure, have shown that there is likewise agreement with the velocity tomography: the low velocity zones being consistent with regions featuring high attenuation effects and the high velocity zones with regions featuring low attenuation effects. This new models will be a complement to the better understanding of velocity anomalies and will allow remove some grades of uncertainty of the other studies.
Anderson, Mary Elizabeth
2011-10-21
Wave attenuation by vegetation is a highly dynamic process and its quantification is important for accurately understanding and predicting coastal hydrodynamics. However, the influence of vegetation on wave dissipation is not yet fully established...
The effects of acoustic attenuation in optoacoustic signals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luís Deán-Ben, X.; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis
2011-09-01
In this paper, it is demonstrated that the effects of acoustic attenuation may play a significant role in establishing the quality of tomographic optoacoustic reconstructions. Accordingly, spatially dependent reduction of signal amplitude leads to quantification errors in the reconstructed distribution of the optical absorption coefficient while signal broadening causes loss of image resolution. Here we propose a correction algorithm for accounting for attenuation effects, which is applicable in both the time and frequency domains. It is further investigated which part of the optoacoustic signal spectrum is practically affected by those effects in realistic imaging scenarios. The validity and benefits of the suggested modelling and correction approaches are experimentally validated in phantom measurements.
Ultrasonic attenuation in superconducting molybdenum-rhenium alloys.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ashkin, M.; Deis, D. W.; Gottlieb, M.; Jones, C. K.
1971-01-01
Investigation of longitudinal sound attenuation in superconducting Mo-Re alloys as a function of temperature, magnetic field, and frequency. Evaporated thin film CdS transducers were used for the measurements at frequencies up to 3 GHz. The normal state attenuation coefficient was found to be proportional to the square of frequency over this frequency range. Measurements in zero magnetic field yielded a value of the energy gap parameter close to the threshold value of 3.56 kTc, appropriate to a weakly coupled dirty limit superconductor.
Inversion for the attenuated radon transform with constant attenuation
Kim, K.I.; Bizais, Y.; Rowe, R.W.; Tewarson, R.P.
1984-02-01
An exact form of the inversion formula for the attenuated Radon transform with constant attenuation in a convex domain for use in Single-Photon Computerized Tomography is presented. This problem is reduced to solving a generalized Abel integral equation and the conditions for the existence of a unique continuous solution are given. Implementation of this method involves a preprocessing step (modified attenuated Radon transform), a convolution by an attenuation-dependent function and a weighted backprojection. Therefore, only slight modifications of existing reconstruction algorithms are needed. If the attenuation is zero, this formula reduces to Radon's original inversion formula. When attenuation is not constant, the conditions for a unique continuous solution can be established with a similar approach. Many results found empirically by previous authors are consistent with this theory.
Inversion for the attenuated radon transform with constant attenuation
Kim, K.I.; Tewarson, R.P.; Bizais, Y.; Rowe, R.W.
1983-01-01
An exact form of the inversion formula for the attenuated Radon transform with constant attenuation in a convex domain for use in Single-Photon Computerized Tomography is presented. This problem is reduced to solving a generalized Abel integral equation and the conditions for the existence of a unique continuous solution are given. Implementation of this method involves a preprocessing step (modified attenuated Radon transform), a convolution by an attenuation-dependent function and a weighted backprojection. Therefore, only slight modifications of existing reconstruction algorithms are needed. If the attenuation is zero, this formula reduces to Radon's original inversion formula. When attenuation is not constant, the conditions for a unique continuous solution can be established with a similar approach. Many results found empirically by previous authors are consistent with this theory.
Attenuation studies of booster-rocket propellants and their simulants
Weirick, L.J.
1990-08-01
A series of impact experiments on a composite propellant, an energetic propellant, and their simulants was recently completed using a light-gas gun. Previous experiments were done to obtain Hugoniot data, to investigate the pressure threshold at which a reaction occurs, and to measure spall damage at various impact velocities. The present studies measured the attenuation of shock waves in these materials, completing the shock characterization needed for material modeling. An initial impulse of 2.0 GPa magnitude and {approximately}0.6 {mu}s duration was imposed upon samples of various thicknesses. VISAR was used to measure the free-surface velocity at the back of the samples; these data were used to generate a curve of shock-wave attenuation versus sample thickness for each material. Results showed that all four materials attenuated the shock wave very similarly. Material thicknesses of 3.0, 7.62, 12.7, and 19.0 mm attenuated the shock wave {approximately}16%, 33%, 50%, and 66% respectively. 14 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.
Analysis of rain attenuation from experimental drop size distributions
Jose M. Garcia-Rubia; Jose M. Riera; Ana Benarroch; Pedro Garcia
2010-01-01
The prediction and analysis of rain attenuation is gaining interest in the recent years, because of the increasing use of millimetre-wave radio communication systems. In these frequencies, propagation in the troposphere produces strong degradations in the presence of rain, with deep fades for even moderate rainfall rates. More detailed measurements of the rain phenomena can be obtained with the use
Blast attenuation in Cymat foam core sacrificial claddings
D. Karagiozova; G. S. Langdon; G. N. Nurick
2010-01-01
The mechanism of air blast attenuation in a sacrificial cladding comprising a steel cover plate and a foam core is examined applying an analytical and numerical analysis. For the range of the analysed pressure pulses, the maximum magnitudes of the induced compaction velocities were usually smaller than the acoustic wave speed in the foam material and caused a non-uniform foam
Computational Study of Thrust Generation from Laser-Driven Blast Wave
Ohnishi, Naofumi [Center for Research Strategy and Support, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Department of Aerospace Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Ogino, Yousuke [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)
2008-04-28
We have performed axisymmetric simulations in order to investigate the thrust generation resulting from the interference between the projectile and the blast wave produced by a pulsed laser. The results obtained by our numerical code well agree for the pressure history and the momentum coupling coefficient with the experimental data. In such analysis, it is found that the approximate impulse estimated only by the pressure history at the projectile base is difficult to predict the actual one. Since the shock wave rapidly attenuates in low fill pressure, and the interaction with the projectile almost finishes in the shroud, a high momentum coupling coefficient can be achieved unlike the case of high fill pressure in which the projectile experiences the subsequent negative thrust.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2014-09-14
This is the fourth module in our series on open water waves. As deep-water waves approach the coastline, they encounter shallower water and begin to interact with the sea floor while evolving into shallow water waves. This module uses an interactive wave calculator to look at a variety of shallow-water wave behaviors, including shoaling, refraction, reflection, breaking, attenuation, and coastal run-up and set-up. All are important considerations when forecasting for small craft and other recreational interests in the near-shore environment.
Ultrasonic attenuation and velocity in AS\\/3501-6 graphite fiber composite
James H. Williams; Hamid Nayeb-Hashemi; Samson S. Lee
1980-01-01
The ultrasonic group velocity and attenuation were measured as a function of frequency for longitudinal and shear waves in the Hercules epoxy matrix (3501-6) and in the principal directions of the unidirectional Hercules graphite fiber epoxy composite (AS\\/3501-6). Tests were conducted in the frequency ranges 0.25–14 MHz and 0.5–3 MHz for longitudinal and shear wave modes, respectively. While the attenuation
Gullberg, Grant T.
1980-03-01
The properties of the attenuated Radon transform and its application to single-photon emission computed tomography (ECT) are analyzed in detail. In nuclear medicine and biological research, the objective of ECT is to describe quantitatively the position and strengths of internal sources of injected radiopharmaceuticals and radionuclides where the attenuation between the sources and detector is unknown. The problem is mathematically and practically quite different from well-known methods in transmission computed tomography (TCT) where only the attenuation is unknown. A mathematical structure using function theory and the theory of linear operators on Hilbert spaces is developed to better understand the spectral properties of the attenuated Radon transform. The continuous attenuated Radon transform is reduced to a matrix operator for discrete angular and lateral sampling, and the reconstruction problem reduces to a system of linear equations. For variable attenuation coefficients frequently found in imaging internal organs, the numerical methods developed in this paper involve iterative techniques of performing the generalized inverse. Its application to nuclear medicine is demonstrated by reconstructions of transverse sections of the brain, heart, and liver.
Radius of B-8 halo from the asymptotic normalization coefficient
Carstoiu, F.; Trache, L.; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Tribble, Robert E.; Mukhamedzhanov, AM.
2001-01-01
The experimental asymptotic normalization coefficient determined from peripheral transfer reactions is used to obtain the root-mean-square radius of the wave function for the loosely bound proton in SB. It is shown that the asymptotic region...
Measurement of acoustic attenuation in South Pole ice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
IceCube Collaboration; Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K.-H.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Bradley, L.; Braun, J.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Colnard, C.; Cowen, D. F.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Danninger, M.; de Clercq, C.; Demirörs, L.; Depaepe, O.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; Deyoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Duvoort, M. R.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Foerster, M. M.; Fox, B. D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Ganugapati, R.; Geisler, M.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gunasingha, R. M.; Gurtner, M.; Gustafsson, L.; Ha, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Helbing, K.; Herquet, P.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hülß, J.-P.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Imlay, R. L.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Joseph, J. M.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemming, N.; Kenny, P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Klein, S. R.; Knops, S.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Krings, T.; Kroll, G.; Kuehn, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lafebre, S.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Lauer, R.; Lehmann, R.; Lennarz, D.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Majumdar, P.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Matusik, M.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Meures, T.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Naumann, U.; Nießen, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; Ono, M.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pérez de Los Heros, C.; Petrovic, J.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Porrata, R.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Prikockis, M.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Roth, P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Roucelle, C.; Ruhe, T.; Rutledge, D.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schukraft, A.; Schultes, A.; Schulz, O.; Schunck, M.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Slipak, A.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stephens, G.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stoyanov, S.; Strahler, E. A.; Straszheim, T.; Sullivan, G. W.; Swillens, Q.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tarasova, O.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tosi, D.; Tur?an, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Voigt, B.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Walter, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wikström, G.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; IceCube Collaboration
2011-01-01
Using the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) and a retrievable transmitter deployed in holes drilled for the IceCube experiment, we have measured the attenuation of acoustic signals by South Pole ice at depths between 190 m and 500 m. Three data sets, using different acoustic sources, have been analyzed and give consistent results. The method with the smallest systematic uncertainties yields an amplitude attenuation coefficient ? = 3.20 ± 0.57 km-1 between 10 and 30 kHz, considerably larger than previous theoretical estimates. Expressed as an attenuation length, the analyses give a consistent result for ? ? 1/? of ˜300 m with 20% uncertainty. No significant depth or frequency dependence has been found.
Soliton Attenuation and Emergent Hydrodynamics in Fragile Matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Upadhyaya, N.; Gómez, L. R.; Vitelli, V.
2014-01-01
Disordered packings of soft grains are fragile mechanical systems that lose rigidity upon lowering the external pressure toward zero. At zero pressure, we find that any infinitesimal strain impulse propagates initially as a nonlinear solitary wave progressively attenuated by disorder. We demonstrate that the particle fluctuations generated by the solitary-wave decay can be viewed as a granular analogue of temperature. Their presence is manifested by two emergent macroscopic properties absent in the unperturbed granular packing: a finite pressure that scales with the injected energy (akin to a granular temperature) and an anomalous viscosity that arises even when the microscopic mechanisms of energy dissipation are negligible. Consistent with the interpretation of this state as a fluidlike thermalized state, the shear modulus remains zero. Further, we follow in detail the attenuation of the initial solitary wave, identifying two distinct regimes—an initial exponential decay, followed by a longer power-law decay—and suggest simple models to explain these two regimes.
Radar attenuation in desert soil
Gary Koh
2008-01-01
Soil properties make a significant impact in the observed responses of various sensors for subsurface target detection. Ground penetrating radars (GPRs) have been extensively researched as a tool for subsurface target detection. A key soil parameter of interest for evaluating GPR performance is the soil attenuation rate. The information about the soil attenuation rate coupled with target properties (size, shape,
Low-energy gamma ray attenuation characteristics of aviation fuels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singh, Jag J.; Shen, Chih-Ping; Sprinkle, Danny R.
1990-01-01
Am241 (59.5 keV) gamma ray attenuation characteristics were investigated in 270 aviation fuel (Jet A and Jet A-1) samples from 76 airports around the world as a part of world wide study to measure the variability of aviation fuel properties as a function of season and geographical origin. All measurements were made at room temperature which varied from 20 to 27 C. Fuel densities (rho) were measured concurrently with their linear attenuation coefficients (mu), thus providing a measure of mass attenuation coefficient (mu/rho) for the test samples. In 43 fuel samples, rho and mu values were measured at more than one room temperature, thus providing mu/rho values for them at several temperatures. The results were found to be independent of the temperature at which mu and rho values were measured. It is noted that whereas the individual mu and rho values vary considerably from airport to airport as well as season to season, the mu/rho values for all samples are constant at 0.1843 + or - 0.0013 cu cm/gm. This constancy of mu/rho value for aviation fuels is significant since a nuclear fuel quantity gauging system based on low energy gamma ray attenuation will be viable throughout the world.
Low-Frequency Sound Absorption and Attenuation in Marine Medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vadov, R. A.
2000-09-01
Original experimental data are analyzed on the low-frequency sound attenuation in the Mediterranean, Black, and Baltic Seas, Sea of Japan, and the north-western region of the Pacific Ocean. In these regions, waters significantly differ in their temperatures and salinities. The analysis is aimed at obtaining an expression for calculating the low-frequency absorption coefficient in sea water. The analysis uses the previously published data on the measured (by the temperature discontinuity method) low-frequency relaxation times associated with boron present in sea water. The dependence of the absorption on the pH value (which was revealed in the 1970s) and the experimental data on sound absorption at frequencies higher than 5 10 kHz are also taken into account. As a result of the analysis based on the assumption that low-frequency relaxation takes place, an expression is proposed that relates the low-frequency absorption to the temperature, salinity, and pH value and equally well describes the experimental frequency dependences of attenuation for the four regions at hand (except for the Baltic Sea). Increased attenuation coefficients are noticed for shallow seas and deep-water regions where waters are influenced by intense currents, strait zones, and zones of mixing waters of different origin, i.e., for the ocean areas where, in addition to the attenuation, sound scattering by inhomogeneities of the marine medium and sound energy leakage into the sea floor are significant.
Low-frequency sound absorption and attenuation in marine medium
R. A. Vadov
2000-01-01
Original experimental data are analyzed on the low-frequency sound attenuation in the Mediterranean, Black, and Baltic Seas,\\u000a Sea of Japan, and the north-western region of the Pacific Ocean. In these regions, waters significantly differ in their temperatures\\u000a and salinities. The analysis is aimed at obtaining an expression for calculating the low-frequency absorption coefficient\\u000a in sea water. The analysis uses the
Low-Frequency Sound Absorption and Attenuation in Marine Medium
R. A. Vadov
2000-01-01
Original experimental data are analyzed on the low-frequency sound attenuation in the Mediterranean, Black, and Baltic Seas, Sea of Japan, and the north-western region of the Pacific Ocean. In these regions, waters significantly differ in their temperatures and salinities. The analysis is aimed at obtaining an expression for calculating the low-frequency absorption coefficient in sea water. The analysis uses the
Equivalent analysis method of electromagnetic waves propagation in arched tunnel
Jiping Sun; Lingfei Cheng
2006-01-01
The attenuation characteristics of electromagnetic waves propagation in an arched tunnel cannot be studied by means of the classical theory method. Based on the equivalent analysis method, the lowermost attenuation mode of the arched tunnel was analysed and compared with attenuation modes of the circular tunnel with the equal cross sectional area. The results show that it is feasible to
Greene, Douglas Richard
1964-01-01
reduction as microwave energy propagates from its source "14]. The attenuation factor may have dimensions of reciprocal length or decibels (db) per length. In terms of power, the two-way attenuation of a radar beam along its path may be expressed [5, p... the operational use of radar systems at certain wave lengths. However~ a dual- frequency radar system~ with one radar radiating at an attenuated wave length and the other at an unattenuated wave length, permits one to exploit this seeming disadvantage...
Reflection Coefficients on Surfaces of Different Periodic Structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Niu, Pengfei; Kogut, Al
1997-01-01
Diffraction properties of lossy periodic gratings with the metal base were investigated by solving Maxwell's equations numerically using the differential method. Two periodic surfaces were employed in the simulation: triangle structure and tilting triangle structure. Based on the numerical solution and in conjunction with the algorithm of Adams-Moulton, we computed reflection coefficients of plane waves with different wavelengths and different incident angles. The dielectric properties were also explored using various dielectric constants. The results show that the reflection coefficients of both TE and TM waves are quite sensitive to the incident angles of the plane waves when the metal sheet exists, which is in good agreement with the experimental data.
The Inhomogeneous Waves in a Rotating Piezoelectric Body
Chen, Si
2013-01-01
This paper presents the analysis and numerical results of rotation, propagation angle, and attenuation angle upon the waves propagating in the piezoelectric body. Via considering the centripetal and Coriolis accelerations in the piezoelectric equations with respect to a rotating frame of reference, wave velocities and attenuations are derived and plotted graphically. It is demonstrated that rotation speed vector can affect wave velocities and make the piezoelectric body behaves as if it was damping. Besides, the effects of propagation angle and attenuation angle are presented. Critical point is found when rotation speed is equal to wave frequency, around which wave characteristics change drastically. PMID:24298219
The inhomogeneous waves in a rotating piezoelectric body.
Yuan, Xiaoguang; Chen, Si
2013-01-01
This paper presents the analysis and numerical results of rotation, propagation angle, and attenuation angle upon the waves propagating in the piezoelectric body. Via considering the centripetal and Coriolis accelerations in the piezoelectric equations with respect to a rotating frame of reference, wave velocities and attenuations are derived and plotted graphically. It is demonstrated that rotation speed vector can affect wave velocities and make the piezoelectric body behaves as if it was damping. Besides, the effects of propagation angle and attenuation angle are presented. Critical point is found when rotation speed is equal to wave frequency, around which wave characteristics change drastically. PMID:24298219
Coefficients of univalent functions
Peter L. Duren
1977-01-01
analytic and univalent in the unit disk \\\\z\\\\ < 1. This is the class of all univalent functions normalized by the conditions \\/(O) = 0 and \\/'(O) = 1. We shall concentrate on coefficient problems for the class S and for related classes, with emphasis on recent results and open problems. Most of the methods we shall describe have wide
Farid El-Tantawy; N. Abdel Aal; A. A. El-Daly; A. M. Abdel-Daiem; A. Bakry; Yong Kiel Sung
2004-01-01
A novel dry phantom material and attenuation backing from nanosized hydroxyapatite–carbon black (HAP–CB) epoxy composites that can stimulate the electromagnetic wave on human tissue and ultrasonic attenuation backing were fabricated. Good improvements on electrical conductivity, dielectric constant, ultrasonic attenuation and acoustic impedance have been achieved. The effect of HAP–CB concentration on network structure has been examined. The electrical properties (dielectric
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medhat, M. E.
2015-02-01
The main goal of this work is focused on testing the applicability of Geant4 electromagnetic models for studying mass attenuations for different types of composite materials at 59.5, 80, 356, 661.6, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV photon energies. The simulated results of mass attenuation coefficients were compared with the experimental and theoretical data for the same samples and a good agreement has been observed. The results indicate that this process can be followed to determine the data on the attenuation of gamma-rays with the several energies in different materials.
Dual energy CT for attenuation correction with PET/CT
Xia, Ting [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98105 (United States)] [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98105 (United States); Alessio, Adam M. [Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98105 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98105 (United States); Kinahan, Paul E., E-mail: kinahan@uw.edu [Departments of Radiology and Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98105 (United States)
2014-01-15
Purpose: The authors evaluate the energy dependent noise and bias properties of monoenergetic images synthesized from dual-energy CT (DECT) acquisitions. These monoenergetic images can be used to estimate attenuation coefficients at energies suitable for positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. This is becoming more relevant with the increased use of quantitative imaging by PET/CT and SPECT/CT scanners. There are, however, potential variations in the noise and bias of synthesized monoenergetic images as a function of energy. Methods: The authors used analytic approximations and simulations to estimate the noise and bias of synthesized monoenergetic images of water-filled cylinders with different shapes and the NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) phantom from 40 to 520 keV, the range of SPECT and PET energies. The dual-kVp spectra were based on the GE Lightspeed VCT scanner at 80 and 140 kVp with added filtration of 0.5 mm Cu. The authors evaluated strategies of noise suppression with sinogram smoothing and dose minimization with reduction of tube currents at the two kVp settings. The authors compared the impact of DECT-based attenuation correction with single-kVp CT-based attenuation correction on PET quantitation for the NCAT phantom for soft tissue and high-Z materials of bone and iodine contrast enhancement. Results: Both analytic calculations and simulations displayed the expected minimum noise value for a synthesized monoenergetic image at an energy between the mean energies of the two spectra. In addition the authors found that the normalized coefficient of variation in the synthesized attenuation map increased with energy but reached a plateau near 160 keV, and then remained constant with increasing energy up to 511 keV and beyond. The bias was minimal, as the linear attenuation coefficients of the synthesized monoenergetic images were within 2.4% of the known true values across the entire energy range. Compared with no sinogram smoothing, sinogram smoothing can dramatically reduce noise in the DECT-derived attenuation map. Through appropriate selection of tube currents for high and low kVp scans, DECT can deliver roughly the same amount of radiation dose as that of a single kVp CT scan, but could be used for PET attenuation correction with reduced bias in contrast agent regions by a factor of ?2.6 and slightly reduced RMSE for the total image. Conclusions: When DECT is used for attenuation correction at higher energies, there is a noise amplification that is dependent on the energy of the synthesized monoenergetic image of linear attenuation coefficients. Sinogram smoothing reduces the noise amplification in DECT-derived attenuation maps without increasing bias. With an appropriate selection of CT techniques, a DECT scan with the same radiation dose as a single CT scan can result in a PET image with improved quantitative accuracy.
Walsh, Jeffrey Robert
2001-01-01
, in particular the attenuation of free-surface multiples. Free-surface multiple elimination in shallow-water must address removal of the direct wave, interpolation of missing near-offsets, and the presence of guided waves and strong refracted wave energy...
Walsh, Jeffrey Robert
2001-01-01
, in particular the attenuation of free-surface multiples. Free-surface multiple elimination in shallow-water must address removal of the direct wave, interpolation of missing near-offsets, and the presence of guided waves and strong refracted wave energy...
3-D Distribution of Partial Melt beneath the Lau Backarc Basin from Seismic Attenuation Tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, S. S.; Relyea, H. N.; Wiens, D. A.; Webb, S. C.; Blackman, D. K.; Dunn, R. A.; Conder, J. A.
2013-12-01
We investigate seismic attenuation beneath the Lau Backarc basin and adjacent regions using data from the 2009 - 2010 Ridge2000 Lau Spreading Center Imaging project, which consisted of 50 ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs) and 17 land-based seismic stations deployed in Fiji, Tonga, and the Lau basin for about one year. We compute amplitude spectra for P and S arrivals from local and regional earthquakes and invert for seismic attenuation (Q-1) in three dimensions. Tomographic results show a notable similarity with the shear velocity structure in this region obtained from Rayleigh wave tomography. The Pacific slab and the lithosphere of the Fiji plateau and Lau ridge are characterized by low attenuation, implying low temperatures. At the depth of 50 km, extremely high attenuation of about 0.025 (Qp = 40), encompass a ~100 km wide region beneath the East Lau Spreading Center (ELSC), indicating perhaps the most seismologically attenuating region known in the mantle. The high attenuation anomalies become smaller and shift westwards at greater depth, with amplitude becoming negligible at about 200 km. The Tonga volcanic arc does not display as strong of an attenuation signal as the spreading centers. Although high temperature can significantly increase seismic attenuation, the extreme anomalies beneath the spreading centers cannot be explained solely by thermal variation, requiring some partial melting. The seismic attenuation varies along the spreading centers with higher attenuation in the north, perhaps implying a higher mantle melt porosity. This may result from the more efficient extraction of water-rich melt beneath the Valu Fa Ridge (VFR) in the south, which is more influenced by the subduction system. Maps of P wave attenuation at depths of 50 km. The black curves indicate the spreading centers: CLSC, the Central Lau Spreading Center; ELSC, the Eastern Lau Spreading Center; ETZ, the Extensional Transform Zone; VFR, the Valu Fa Ridge
Radar attenuation and temperature within the Greenland Ice Sheet
MacGregor, Joseph A; Li, Jilu; Paden, John D; Catania, Ginny A; Clow, Gary D.; Fahnestock, Mark A; Gogineni, S. Prasad; Grimm, Robert E.; Morlighem, Mathieu; Nandi, Soumyaroop; Seroussi, Helene; Stillman, David E
2015-01-01
The flow of ice is temperature-dependent, but direct measurements of englacial temperature are sparse. The dielectric attenuation of radio waves through ice is also temperature-dependent, and radar sounding of ice sheets is sensitive to this attenuation. Here we estimate depth-averaged radar-attenuation rates within the Greenland Ice Sheet from airborne radar-sounding data and its associated radiostratigraphy. Using existing empirical relationships between temperature, chemistry, and radar attenuation, we then infer the depth-averaged englacial temperature. The dated radiostratigraphy permits a correction for the confounding effect of spatially varying ice chemistry. Where radar transects intersect boreholes, radar-inferred temperature is consistently higher than that measured directly. We attribute this discrepancy to the poorly recognized frequency dependence of the radar-attenuation rate and correct for this effect empirically, resulting in a robust relationship between radar-inferred and borehole-measured depth-averaged temperature. Radar-inferred englacial temperature is often lower than modern surface temperature and that of a steady state ice-sheet model, particularly in southern Greenland. This pattern suggests that past changes in surface boundary conditions (temperature and accumulation rate) affect the ice sheet's present temperature structure over a much larger area than previously recognized. This radar-inferred temperature structure provides a new constraint for thermomechanical models of the Greenland Ice Sheet.
Enhanced Natural Attenuation of MTBE
Mario Schirmer; Marion Martienssen
MTBE contamination in groundwater is an increasing environmental problem and treatment costs using\\u000a conventional remediation technologies will increase if water is contaminated by MTBE. Generally, natural\\u000a attenuation (NA) and enhanced natural attenuation (ENA) are possible low-cost alternatives to conventional\\u000a techniques. Since biodegradation of MTBE is comparably slow under field conditions and often limited by\\u000a the environmental conditions, optimizing these conditions
Water Waves Over Non-Rigid Muddy Bottoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alam, M.; Liu, Y.; Yue, D.
2007-12-01
The phenomenon of the wave-attenuation over muddy sea beds is considered invoking a mass-spring-damper bottom model. Reports of observed strong dissipation for surface waves traveling over muddy bottoms in Gulf of Mexico and Indian ocean inflamed a great deal of attention in the late past century. Numerous models including two-layer models with Newtonian and/or non-Newtonian lower layer, porous ground models, and bottom friction models were developed. Considering the limitations of existing models due to the complicated nature of the mud, we develop a visco- elastic bottom model where the inertia, elasticity coefficient and the damping coefficient are dependent on the mud properties. The proposed system admits up to four eigen-mode solutions with oscillatory and exponentially decaying parts. Contrary to all existing models, and supportive to some recent observations (see for example Sheremet & Stone 2003; Sheremet 2005), the model explains the possibility of larger energy decay rate for higher incident wave frequencies. Amenable to numerical simulations, the model is converted to the classic flat bottom problem with a modified free surface boundary condition. An efficient numerical scheme based on the higher-order spectral method is adopted, and general cases including the evolution of broadband incident waves is studied. The effect of weak nonlinearity is considered numerically and theoretically. Sheremet, A. & Stone, G.~W. 2003 Observation of nearshore wave dissipation over muddy sea beds. Journal of Geophysical Research 108~(C11), 21(1--11). Sheremet, A., Mehta-A.J. Liu B. Stone~G.W. 2005 Wave-sediment interaction on a muddy inner shelf during hurricane claudette. ESTUARINE COASTAL AND SHELF SCIENCE 63~(1-2), 225--233.
Amplification, attenuation, and dispersion of sound in inhomogeneous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kentzer, C. P.
1975-01-01
First order effects of gradients in nonuniform potential flows of a compressible gas are included in a dispersion relation for sound waves. Three nondimensional numbers, the ratio of the change in the kinetic energy in one wavelength to the thermal energy of the gas, the ratio of the change in the total energy in one wavelength to the thermal energy, and the ratio of the dillatation frequency (the rate of expansion per unit volume) to the acoustic frequency, play a role in the separation of the effects of flow gradients into isotropic and anisotropic effects. Dispersion and attenuation (or amplification) of sound are found to be proportional to the wavelength for small wavelength, and depend on the direction of wave propagation relative to flow gradients. Modification of ray acoustics for the effects of flow gradients is suggested, and conditions for amplification and attenuation of sound are discussed.
Silicon-based optical leaky wave antenna with narrow beam radiation.
Song, Qi; Campione, Salvatore; Boyraz, Ozdal; Capolino, Filippo
2011-04-25
We propose a design of a dielectric (silicon nitride) optical leaky wave antenna (OLWA) with periodic semiconductor (silicon) corrugations, capable of producing narrow beam radiation. The optical antenna radiates a narrow beam because a leaky wave (LW) with low attenuation constant is excited at one end of the corrugated dielectric waveguide. We show that pointing angle, beam-width, and operational frequency are all related to the LW complex wavenumber, whose value depends on the amount of silicon perturbations in the waveguide. In this paper, the propagation constant and the attenuation coefficient of the LW in the periodic structure are extracted from full-wave simulations. The far-field radiation patterns in both glass and air environments predicted by LW theory agree well with the ones obtained by full-wave simulations. We achieve a directive radiation pattern in glass environment with about 17.5 dB directivity and 1.05 degree beam-width at the operative free space wavelength of 1.55 ?m, pointing at a direction orthogonal to the waveguide (broadside direction). We also show that the use of semiconductor corrugations facilitate electronic tuning of the radiation pattern via carrier injection. PMID:21643126
Ahmed, Salahuddin; Anderson, Michael T.
2009-04-20
One of the tasks of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission-sponsored project titled "Reliability of Nondestructive Examination (NDE) for Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Inservice Examination (ISI)" is to provide collaborative assistance to Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (CEA) in France through theoretical predictions of ultrasonic scattering by grains of cast stainless steels (CASS) components. More specifically, a mathematical treatment of ultrasonic scattering in media having duplex micro¬structure is sought because cast stainless steel components often contains larger-scale macrograins that are composed of sub-grains/colonies. In this report, we present formal mathematical theories for ultrasonic wave propagation in polycrystalline aggregates having both simple (composed of grains only) and complex microstructures (having macrograins and sub-grains/colonies). Computations based on these theories are then carried out for ultrasonic backscatter power, attenuation due to scattering, and phase velocity dispersions. Specifically, numerical results are presented for backscatter coefficient for plane longitudinal wave propagating in duplex steel containing macrograins and colonies. Furthermore, the expected propagation characteristics (attenuation coefficient and phase velocity) are computed and described in this report for plane longitudinal waves propagating in (1) steels composed of randomly oriented grains, (2) [001] aligned grains encountered in austenitic stainless steel welds and casts, and (3) duplex steels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saita, H.; Nakajima, J.; Shiina, T.
2014-12-01
The Philippine Sea (PHS) plate is subducting beneath Kyusyu and a clear volcanic front is formed through the middle of the arc. However, there is a volcanic gap in the central part of Kyushu, between Aso and Kirishima volcanoes. Many studies have discussed arc magmatism in Kyushu in terms of 3D seismic velocity structure, but little is known on seismic attenuation structure. Seismic attenuation structure provides additional insights into subduction-zone dynamics, because higher-temperature environments or the existence of fluids may have different effects on seismic attenuation from on seismic velocity. Therefore the estimate of seismic attenuation is very important to understand arc magmatism and mantle dynamics in subduction zone. This study estimates seismic attenuation structure beneath Kyushu using a large number of high-quality waveform data. We applied the method of Nakajima et al. (2013, JGR) to waveform data derived from 3052 earthquakes that occurred from April 2003 to May 2014. We determined the corner frequency of earthquakes by the spectral ratio method of S-coda waves. Then, we determined a whole-path attenuation term (t*), site-amplification factors and spectrum level simultaneously by a joint inversion. Finally, the t* values (N= 62290) were inverted to obtain three-dimensional attenuation structure. The obtained results show several interesting features. First, the subducting PHS slab is imaged as a low attenuation zone. Second, high-attenuation zone exists in the fore-arc mantle. This high-attenuation zone corresponds spatially to a high Poisson's ratio area, suggesting that the mantle is serpentinized as a result of fluids released by dehydration in the subducting crust. Third, an inclined high-attenuation zone that is interpreted as a mantle upwelling flow is observed in the back-arc mantle. However, the inclined high-attenuation zone is less developed in the volcanic gap between Aso and Kirishima volcanoes. This observation suggests the important role of mantle-wedge processes in the genesis of arc magmas.
Wave propagation and impact in composite materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moon, F. C.
1975-01-01
Anisotropic waves in composites are considered, taking into account wave speeds, wave surfaces, flexural waves in orthotropic plates, surface waves, edge waves in plates, and waves in coupled composite plates. Aspects of dispersion in composites are discussed, giving attention to pulse propagation and dispersion, dispersion in rods and plates, dispersion in a layered composite, combined material and structural dispersion, continuum theories for composites, and variational methods for periodic composites. The characteristics of attenuation and scattering processes are examined and a description is given of shock waves and impact problems in composites. A number of experiments are also reported.
Blast-wave density measurements
D. V. Ritzel
1986-01-01
Applications of a densitometer to obtain time-resolved data on the total density in blast-wave flows are described. A beta-source (promethium-147) is separated by a gap from a scintillator and a photomultiplier tube (PMT). Attenuation of the radiation beam by the passing blast wave is due to the total density in the gap volume during the wave passage. Signal conditioning and
Computing the Seismic Attenuation in Complex Porous Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masson, Yder Jean
The present work analyzes seismic attenuation due to wave-induced flow in complex poroelastic materials containing an arbitrary amount of heterogeneity and fully or partially saturated with a mixture of fluids. In the first part, two distinct finite-difference (FDTD) numerical schemes for solving Biot's poroelastic set of equations are introduced. The first algorithm is designed to be used in the seismic band of frequencies; i.e., when the permeability of the medium doesn't depend on frequency. The second algorithm accounts for viscous boundary layers that appear in the pores at high frequencies (in this case, the permeability depends on frequency) and can be used across the entire band of frequencies. An innovative numerical method is presented in the second part allowing computation of seismic attenuation due to wave-induced flow for any poroelastic material. This method is applied to study the attenuation associated with different classes of materials saturated with a single fluid (water). For a material having a self-affine (fractal) distribution of elastic properties, it is demonstrated that frequency dependence in the attenuation is controlled by a single parameter that is directly related to the fractal dimension of the material. For anisotropic materials, a relation is established between the attenuation levels associated with waves propagating in different directions and the geometrical aspect ratio of the heterogeneities present within the material. The third part concerns the study of attenuation associated with materials having a homogeneous solid skeleton saturated with a mixture of immiscible fluids. The special case where the distribution of fluids is the result of an invasion-percolation process is treated in detail. Finally, the last part presents a novel experimental setup designed to measure fluctuations of the elastic properties in real rock samples. This device performs automated micro-indentation tests at the surface of rock samples and produces maps of the spatial distribution of Young's modulus. These maps are then used in combination with the aforementioned numerical methods to compute accurately the attenuation as a function of frequency associated with real rock samples.
Paul A. Hwang
2005-01-01
Depending on the choice of reference wind speed, the quantitative and qualitative properties of the drag coefficient may vary. On the ocean surface, surface waves are the physical roughness at the air-sea interface, and they play an important role in controlling the air-sea exchange processes. The degree of dynamic influence of surface waves scales with wavelength. Drag coefficient computed with
Evidence of bulk attenuation in the asthenosphere from recordings of the Bolivia Earthquake
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durek, Joseph J.; Ekström, Göran
Radial modes excited by the 9 June 1994 Bolivia earthquake are analyzed to improve constraints on bulk attenuation in the Earth's interior. Using data recorded at 53 stations, quality factors for six radial modes are determined. The new observations are combined with previously published surface wave and normal mode attenuation measurements, and inverted for radial variations in shear and bulk attenuation, Q?-1(r) and Q?-1(r). The consequences of restricting finite Q? to specific regions of the Earth's interior are investigated using a layered model parameterization. The optimal model is characterized by: 1) no bulk attenuation in the core, 2) a ratio of bulk to shear dissipation in the asthenosphere (˜30%) consistent with the presence of partial melt, and 3) a ratio in the remainder of the mantle (˜1%) consistent with solid-state mechanisms of attenuation.
The changes in acoustic attenuation due to in vitro heating.
Clarke, R L; Bush, N L; Ter Haar, G R
2003-01-01
The effects of heat-generated changes on the attenuation of ultrasound (US) by porcine liver tissue have been studied over a frequency range of 2.0 to 5.0 MHz. Samples of fresh tissue, 4- to 5-mm thick, were pressurized and cooled before measurement. The insertion loss was measured at room temperature, using a broadband 3.5-MHz transducer of focal length 10 cm, employing a pulse-reflection technique. Fourier analysis of the results gave the frequency-dependence of the insertion loss. Samples were then heated in a water bath to a temperature in the range of 40 to 80 degrees C, for between 30 and 500 s. The insertion loss was then re-measured at room temperature. The frequency-dependence of the change in insertion loss, expressed as a coefficient, in dB/cm, was fitted by linear regression, from which the attenuation change at 3.5 MHz was determined. This change was attributed to protein coagulation. Increases of up to 2.4 dB/cm, (80 degrees C, 300 s) were found. The averaged data were fitted to a single step exponential model, resulting in a time constant on the order of 118 +/- 5 s, and an asymptotic limit to the increase of attenuation coefficient of 2.67 +/- 0.5 dB/cm. PMID:12604124
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bostian, C. W.; Holt, S. B., Jr.; Kauffman, S. R.; Manus, E. A.; Marshall, R. E.; Stutzman, W. L.; Wiley, P. H.
1976-01-01
An experiment for measuring precipitation attenuation and depolarization on the Communications Technology Satellite (CTS) 11.7 GHz downlink is described. Attenuation and depolarization of the signal received from the spacecraft is monitored on a 24 hour basis. Data is correlated with ground weather conditions. Theoretical models for millimeter wave propagation through rain are refined for maximum agreement with observed data. Techniques are developed for predicting and mimimizing the effects of rain scatter and depolarization on future satellite communication systems.
Huang, Qiu; Peng, Qiyu; Huang, Bin; Cheryauka, Arvi; Gullberg, Grant T.
2008-05-15
The measurement of flow obtained using continuous wave Doppler ultrasound is formulated as a directional projection of a flow vector field. When a continuous ultrasound wave bounces against a flowing particle, a signal is backscattered. This signal obtains a Doppler frequency shift proportional to the speed of the particle along the ultrasound beam. This occurs for each particle along the beam, giving rise to a Doppler velocity spectrum. The first moment of the spectrum provides the directional projection of the flow along theultrasound beam. Signals reflected from points further away from the detector will have lower amplitude than signals reflected from points closer to the detector. The effect is very much akin to that modeled by the attenuated Radon transform in emission computed tomography.A least-squares method was adopted to reconstruct a 2D vector field from directional projection measurements. Attenuated projections of only the longitudinal projections of the vector field were simulated. The components of the vector field were reconstructed using the gradient algorithm to minimize a least-squares criterion. This result was compared with the reconstruction of longitudinal projections of the vector field without attenuation. Ifattenuation is known, the algorithm was able to accurately reconstruct both components of the full vector field from only one set of directional projection measurements. A better reconstruction was obtained with attenuation than without attenuation implying that attenuation provides important information for the reconstruction of flow vector fields.This confirms previous work where we showed that knowledge of the attenuation distribution helps in the reconstruction of MRI diffusion tensor fields from fewer than the required measurements. In the application of ultrasound the attenuation distribution is obtained with pulse wave transmission computed tomography and flow information is obtained with continuous wave Doppler.
A simple rain attenuation model for earth-space radio links operating at 10-35 GHz
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stutzman, W. L.; Yon, K. M.
1986-01-01
The simple attenuation model has been improved from an earlier version and now includes the effect of wave polarization. The model is for the prediction of rain attenuation statistics on earth-space communication links operating in the 10-35 GHz band. Simple calculations produce attenuation values as a function of average rain rate. These together with rain rate statistics (either measured or predicted) can be used to predict annual rain attenuation statistics. In this paper model predictions are compared to measured data from a data base of 62 experiments performed in the U.S., Europe, and Japan. Comparisons are also made to predictions from other models.
Dynamics and sound attenuation in viscoelastic polymer containing hollow glass microspheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Honggang; Liu, Yaozong; Wen, Jihong; Yu, Dianlong; Wen, Xisen
2007-06-01
The practical design of composite material suggests that there is a need for an improved quantitative understanding of the interaction between acoustic waves and microspheres. The multiple scattering method is used to investigate the sound attenuation of the viscoelastic polymer containing hollow glass microspheres. Then the dynamics of the hollow glass microspheres is investigated by reference to the elements of the scattering matrices. It shows that the dilatational vibration of the microsphere plays a key role in the sound attenuation within the viscoelastic polymer composite at the quasistatic region. The thinner glass shell undergoes more severe dilatational vibration and induces more attenuation in the polymer composite.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parra, Jorge O.; Ababou, Rachid; Sablik, Martin J.; Hackert, Christopher L.
1999-10-01
In this paper we investigate the problem of compressional wave seismic propagation in random media. This problem is important because almost all geologic media is spatially heterogeneous by nature, consisting of a random agglomerate of many-sized rocks, soil and strata. In our formulation, a plane-harmonic seismic wave propagates in a medium having random material properties in the vertical direction. The random field representation is introduced through the intrinsic rock physical properties of the elastic medium. Each of these intrinsic properties is assumed to have a log-normal probability density function, and the random field representation is expressed in terms of these log-normal probability density functions. The constitutive law, the mass balance, and the moment balance equations are written in the Fourier-Stieltjes representation using random Lamé coefficients and random mass density. The stochastic wave equation is developed by introducing a perturbation approach based on an infinite series expansion of both random coefficients and the displacement solution in terms of ?-parameters (standard deviations of the random material properties). The method yields an integral representation of the displacement wavefield based on the Green's function. This representation is expressed in terms of the random rock physical properties of the medium. The key feature of this paper is that we have expressed the solution as a function of statistical parameters of 1D random medium, including the second order moments. Contrary to most previous derivations, the solutions can also simulate the coda and can be easily extended to simulate waves propagating in 2D and 3D random media. To test the displacement wave solution, synthetic seismograms and dispersion due to scattering effects were calculated for stiffness and density fluctuations of the random medium. This paper is the underlying foundation for the development of the effective propagation vector of acoustic waves in randomly heterogeneous media. This development is presented in a companion paper. In this case, an analytical expression is obtained using a second order perturbation solution. The solution is obtained in terms of the standard deviations of the density and the Young's modulus, respectively, as well as the cross-correlation coefficient and an integral that includes the spectral density and a kernel. In addition, this paper introduces practical expressions for the calculation of the effective attenuation and phase velocity of waves in randomly heterogeneous media. In this companion paper the solution is applied to interpret phase velocity curves that were obtained from interwell acoustic data recorded at Buckhorn test site, Illinois. The objective in this case is to be able to simulate the effect of scattering and intrinsic attenuation associated with acoustic waves in randomly heterogeneous media.
Sanders, C.O. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)
1993-12-01
Because of the strong interest in the magmatism and volcanism at Long Valley caldera, eastern California, and because of recent sifnigicant improvements in our knowledge of the caldera velocity structure and earthquake locations, I have reanalyzed the local-earthquake S-to-P amplitude-ratio data of Sanders (1984) for the gross three-dimensional attenuation structure of the upper 10 km of Long Valley caldera. The primary goals of the analysis are to provide more accurate constraints on the depths of the attenuation anomalies using improved knowledge of the ray locations and an objective inversion procedure. The new image of the high S wave attenuation anomaly in the west-central cadlera suggests that the top of the principal anomaly is at 7-km depth, which is 2 km deeper than previously determined. Because of poor resolution in much of the region, some of the data remain unsatisfied by the final attenuation model. This unmodeled data may imply unresolved attenuation anomalies, perhaps small anomalies in the kilometer or two just above the central-caldera anomaly and perhaps a larger anomaly at about 7-km depth in the northwest caldera or somewhere beneath the Mono Craters. The central-caldera S wave attenuation anomaly has a location similar to mapped regions of low teleseismic P wave velocity, crustal inflation, reduced density, and aseismicity, strongly suggesting magmatic association.
Internal Friction within the Earth and Seismic Attenuation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morozov, I. B.
2012-12-01
The existing theory of internal friction within the Earth uses viscosity for its fluids and "viscoelastic quality factor" (Q) for solids. Despite its broad acceptance, it is rarely noticed that this model also faces serious theoretical and practical difficulties. Such difficulties arise in cases of heterogeneous media, which are most important in seismology. For example, for a long-period Love wave, the viscoelastic model violates the energy balance and overestimates the attenuation by ~ 5-12 %. In all existing Q models, fluid layers such as the outer core unrealistically contribute zero dissipation of free oscillations, seismic waves, and tides. For fluids, internal friction (Q-1) is directly proportional to viscosity, whereas from comparing seismic observations with geodynamics, this empirical correlation is opposite for the upper mantle. The viscoelastic model also produces nonphysical solutions and incorrect phases of acoustic impedances in heterogeneous media. These problems need to be addressed in order o understand the meaning of Q shown in many attenuation models. Fortunately, an alternate approach to internal friction is well known in continuum mechanics and thermodynamics. This approach is free from the above problems. Instead of Q and "material memory", it considers several specific mechanisms of energy dissipation: 1) viscosity for both solids or fluids, which can be Newtonian or non-Newtonian, 2) thermoelasticity, 3) scattering and variations of geometric spreading, and 4) kinetic transformations within the material. Here, we apply this approach to field and lab observations of seismic attenuation. As an example, we invert the Love-wave QL observed on the surface at 20-200-s periods for physical parameters 1)-3) above. With the exception of thermoelasticity on small heterogeneities, each of these mechanisms explains the observed frequency dependence of QL very closely. For several mechanisms, Love-wave attenuation is dominated by mantle layers at ~70-km depths, whereas for both types of viscosity, internal friction below 200-450 km is most important. Thus, seismic attenuation can be described by conventional mechanics, leading to constraints on physical parameters of the medium. However, distinguishing between different dissipation mechanisms within the mantle from surface-wave data remains a challenging problem. To solve it, we need to look beyond the viscoelastic Q and into the true physical models of internal friction.
Relationship between Jovian Hectometric Attenuation Lanes And Io Volcanic Activity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Menietti, J. D.; Gurnett, D. A.; Spencer, J. R.; Stansberry, J. A.
2001-01-01
Within the Galileo plasma wave instrument data a narrow (in frequency) attenuation band is seen in the hectometric (HOM) emission that varies in frequency with system III longitude. This attenuation lane is believed to be the result of near-grazing incidence or coherent scattering of radio emission near the outer edge of the Io torus, i.e., when the ray path is nearly tangent to an L shell containing the Io flux tube. Such a process should, therefore, be enhanced when the Io volcanic activity is increased and the Io flux tube has enhanced density. We have performed a systematic study of the existing Galileo radio emission data in an effort to determine the phenomenology and frequency of occurrence of the attenuation lanes and the association, if any, with published volcanic activity of Io. Our results indicate that the attenuation lanes are present almost all of the time but are enhanced on occasion. The best examples of attenuation lanes occur when Galileo is within approximately 65 R(sub J) of Jupiter and thus are probably more apparent because of the increased signal-to-noise ratio of the radio receivers. The lack of continuous monitoring of Io activity and the lack of known activity on the anti-Earthward side of Io are problematic and make detailed correlation with radio emission very difficult at this time. Nevertheless, if the data are displayed for periods when the spacecraft is within 65 R(sub J) (i.e., for each perijove pass), then the highest-contrast lanes occur on most passes when the Io volcanic activity is also high for that pass. These results support our current understanding of attenuation lane formation and suggest that future efforts can be made to better understand the interaction of HOM emission with the Io flux tube.
The LCLS Gas Attenuator Revisited
Ryutov, D
2005-06-07
In the report ''X-ray attenuation cell'' [1] a preliminary analysis of the gas attenuator for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) was presented. This analysis was carried out for extremely stringent set of specifications. In particular, a very large diameter for the unobstructed beam was set (1 cm) to accommodate the spontaneous radiation; the attenuator was supposed to cover the whole range of energies of the coherent radiation, from 800 eV to 8000 eV; the maximum attenuation was set at the level of 10{sup 4}; the use of solid attenuators was not allowed, as well as the use of rotating shutters. The need to reach a sufficient absorption at the high-energy end of the spectrum predetermined the choice of Xe as the working gas (in order to have a reasonable absorption at a not-too-high pressure). A sophisticated differential pumping system that included a Penning-type ion pump was suggested in order to minimize the gas leak into the undulator/accelerator part of the facility. A high cost of xenon meant also that an efficient (and expensive) gas-recovery system would have to be installed. The main parameter that determined the high cost and the complexity of the system was a large radius of the orifice. The present viewpoint allows for much smaller size of the orifice, r{sub 0} = 1.5 mm. (1) The use of solid attenuators is also allowed (R.M. Bionta, private communication). It is, therefore, worthwhile to reconsider various parameters of the gas attenuator for these much less stringent conditions. This brief study should be considered as a physics input for the engineering design. As a working gas we consider now the argon, which, on the one hand, provides a reasonable absorption lengths and, on the other hand, is inexpensive enough to be exhausted into the atmosphere (no recovery). The absorption properties of argon are illustrated by Fig.1 where the attenuation factor A is shown for various beam energies, based on Ref. [2]. The other relevant parameters for argon are presented in Table 1.
SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION
Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin
2003-04-01
In this report we will show results of seismic and well log derived attenuation attributes from a deep water Gulf of Mexico data set. This data was contributed by Burlington Resources and Seitel Inc. The data consists of ten square kilometers of 3D seismic data and three well penetrations. We have computed anomalous seismic absorption attributes on the seismic data and have computed Q from the well log curves. The results show a good correlation between the anomalous absorption (attenuation) attributes and the presence of gas as indicated by well logs.
The effects of acoustic attenuation in optoacoustic signals.
Deán-Ben, X Luís; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis
2011-09-21
In this paper, it is demonstrated that the effects of acoustic attenuation may play a significant role in establishing the quality of tomographic optoacoustic reconstructions. Accordingly, spatially dependent reduction of signal amplitude leads to quantification errors in the reconstructed distribution of the optical absorption coefficient while signal broadening causes loss of image resolution. Here we propose a correction algorithm for accounting for attenuation effects, which is applicable in both the time and frequency domains. It is further investigated which part of the optoacoustic signal spectrum is practically affected by those effects in realistic imaging scenarios. The validity and benefits of the suggested modelling and correction approaches are experimentally validated in phantom measurements. PMID:21873768
The Attribute for Hydrocarbon Prediction Based on Attenuation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hermana, Maman; Harith, Z. Z. T.; Sum, C. W.; Ghosh, D. P.
2014-03-01
Hydrocarbon prediction is a crucial issue in the oil and gas industry. Currently, the prediction of pore fluid and lithology are based on amplitude interpretation which has the potential to produce pitfalls in certain conditions of reservoir. Motivated by this fact, this work is directed to find out other attributes that can be used to reduce the pitfalls in the amplitude interpretation. Some seismic attributes were examined and studies showed that the attenuation attribute is a better attribute for hydrocarbon prediction. Theoretically, the attenuation mechanism of wave propagation is associated with the movement of fluid in the pore; hence the existence of hydrocarbon in the pore will be represented by attenuation attribute directly. In this paper we evaluated the feasibility of the quality factor ratio of P-wave and S-wave (Qp/Qs) as hydrocarbon indicator using well data and also we developed a new attribute based on attenuation for hydrocarbon prediction -- Normalized Energy Reduction Stack (NERS). To achieve these goals, this work was divided into 3 main parts; estimating the Qp/Qs on well log data, testing the new attribute in the synthetic data and applying the new attribute on real data in Malay Basin data. The result show that the Qp/Qs is better than Poisson's ratio and Lamda over Mu as hydrocarbon indicator. The curve, trend analysis and contrast of Qp/Qs is more powerful at distinguishing pore fluid than Poisson ratio and Lamda over Mu. The NERS attribute was successful in distinguishing the hydrocarbon from brine on synthetic data. Applying this attribute on real data on Malay basin, the NERS attribute is qualitatively conformable with the structure and location where the gas is predicted. The quantitative interpretation of this attribute for hydrocarbon prediction needs to be investigated further.
Coefficients of associated Legendre functions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peasley, Q. D.
1976-01-01
The exact coefficients for the explicit forms of the associated Legendre functions Pm for integer values of m,n=0,1,2,...25 are presented in tabular form together with two cross-referenced listings of the zeroes for these functions rounded to five decimal places. The unfactored coefficients and the interger coefficients are presented in adjacent columns for each function. The greatest common factor and divisor have been removed and listed separately for the integer coefficients.
Stability of RNA virus attenuation approaches.
Kenney, Joan L; Volk, Sara M; Pandya, Jyotsna; Wang, Eryu; Liang, Xiaodong; Weaver, Scott C
2011-03-01
The greatest risk from live-attenuated vaccines is reversion to virulence. Particular concerns arise for RNA viruses, which exhibit high mutation frequencies. We examined the stability of 3 attenuation strategies for the alphavirus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV): a traditional, point mutation-dependent attenuation approach exemplified by TC-83; a rationally designed, targeted-mutation approach represented by V3526; and a chimeric vaccine, SIN/TC/ZPC. Our findings suggest that the chimeric strain combines the initial attenuation of TC-83 with the greater phenotypic stability of V3526, highlighting the importance of the both initial attenuation and stability for live-attenuated vaccines. PMID:21288800
Matthijs Joost Warrens
2008-01-01
In data analysis, an important role is played by similarity coefficients. A similarity coefficient is a measure of resemblance or association of two entities or variables. Similarity coefficients for binary data are used, for example, in biological ecology for measuring the degree of coexistence between two species type over different locations, or in psychology for a 2×2 reliability study where
Using Wind Setdown and Storm Surge on Lake Erie to Calibrate the Air-Sea Drag Coefficient
Drews, Carl
2013-01-01
The air-sea drag coefficient controls the transfer of momentum from wind to water. In modeling storm surge, this coefficient is a crucial parameter for estimating the surge height. This study uses two strong wind events on Lake Erie to calibrate the drag coefficient using the Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Wave Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system and the the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). Simulated waves are generated on the lake with Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN). Wind setdown provides the opportunity to eliminate wave setup as a contributing factor, since waves are minimal at the upwind shore. The study finds that model results significantly underestimate wind setdown and storm surge when a typical open-ocean formulation without waves is used for the drag coefficient. The contribution of waves to wind setdown and storm surge is 34.7%. Scattered lake ice also increases the effective drag coefficient by a factor of 1.1. PMID:23977309
The attenuation of solar UV radiation in lakes and the role of dissolved organic carbon
DONALD P. MORRIS; HORACIO ZAGARESE; CRAIG E. WILLIAMSON; ESTEBAN G. BALSEIRO; BRUCE R. HARGREAVES; BEATRIZ MODENUTTI; ROBERT MOELLER; CLAUDIA QUEIMALINOS
1995-01-01
Diffuse attenuation coefficients (&) for solar UV radiation (UVR) (305, 320, 340, 380 nm, and PAR) were measured in the mixed layer of 65 lake sites in Alaska, Colorado, and Pennsylvania and the Bariloche region of Argentina. Integrated mixed layer samples of lake water were concurrently collected, and a multivariate approach was used to model Kd with a number of
Factors affecting the in vivo precision of broad-band ultrasonic attenuation
W. D. Evans; E. A. Jones; G. M. Owen
1995-01-01
The in vivo precision of broad-band ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) was measured in one normal male volunteer over periods of one day and six weeks and in a group of 10 volunteers over a period of two weeks using a Walker Sonix UBA 1001 bone mineral analyser in which the foot is immersed in a water tank. Coefficients of variation ranged