NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Jianghai; Xu, Yixian; Miller, Richard D.; Ivanov, Julian
2012-07-01
Quality factors (Q) of near-surface materials are as important as velocities of the materials in many applications. Only phase information of surface-wave data is utilized when high-frequency (? 2 Hz) surface-wave data are routinely inverted to determine near-surface shear (S)-wave velocities. Amplitude information of high-frequency surface-wave data can be used to determine quality factors of near-surface materials. Given S-wave velocity, compressional (P)-wave velocity, and Rayleigh-wave phase velocities, it is feasible to solve for S-wave quality factor QS and P-wave quality factor QP (for some specific velocity models) down to 30 m below the ground surface in many settings by inverting high-frequency Rayleigh-wave attenuation coefficients in a layered earth model. Amplitude of seismic data is an exponential function of attenuation coefficients. When calculating attenuation coefficients from changes in amplitude, this nonlinear nature would result in that small variations in amplitude cause huge changes in attenuation coefficients. This result suggests data (attenuation coefficients) that normally possess large errors could eventually transfer to a model (quality factors); therefore, constraints (or a priori information) on models are necessary. Because an inversion system to solve this problem is unstable, a regularization parameter must be introduced into an inversion algorithm to stabilize the inversion. These characteristics of the inversion problem allow us to solve the problem as a constrained and regularized linear system. Usually, a set of models that meet the defined constraints can be obtained by solving the system. Based on the linear nature of the inversion system, a smooth model can be selected from the set of models as a solution of the inversion using the L-curve method. This approach is a trade-off solution between data misfit and model length. Several real-world examples demonstrate the importance of constraints in finding acceptable realistic quality factors from empirical data.
Ghanashev, I.; Zhelyazkov, I. )
1994-12-01
A new and efficient method for calculating the attenuation coefficient of weakly damped electromagnetic waves traveling along wave-guiding structures partially or entirely filled by a lossy anisotropic dielectric, in particular cold axially magnetized plasma, is proposed. The structure cross-section geometry can be arbitrary and any nonradiating mode can be considered. In the case of plasma columns, they might be transversely inhomogeneous. Having obtained the attenuation coefficient, it is straightforward to find out the axial structure of plasma columns sustained by the waves themselves. The method is applied to azimuthally symmetric and dipolar waves in cylindrical plasma columns and it is found to reproduce all known theoretical results within its applicability.
Sound wave attenuation in foam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faerman, V. T.
2016-01-01
Experimental measurements are presented for sound wave attenuation in foam without additives (standing wave method) and in foam with added particles (pulse method). A setup is developed that makes it possible to obtain a standing sound wave in stable foam and estimate the attenuation coefficient. A comparison is made of the coefficients of sound attenuation in foam in the sonic and ultrasonic frequency ranges, which have been published in a number of works. It is shown that the introduction of particles into foam leads to an increase in sound wave attenuation and may be the result of the viscous mechanism of sound wave energy loss.
Experimental Investigation of Wave Attenuation Through Vegetation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ozeren, Y.; Wren, D. G.
2011-12-01
Wetlands and coastal vegetation can reduce the surge and wave impact on coastal areas. Yet, the primary mechanisms of wave mitigation by vegetation are still unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate and quantify the attenuation of waves through vegetation using laboratory experiments. The wave attenuation properties of artificial vegetation and live and dormant S. alterniflora and J. roemerianus were investigated under monochromatic and irregular wave conditions at full scale in a wave tank facility at the USDA-ARS-National Sedimentation Laboratory in Oxford, Mississippi. Water level sensors and a video camera were used to record water level data. Drag coefficients were estimated for artificial and natural plants and regression equations were derived for the drag coefficients as functions of both Reynolds and Keulegan-Carpenter number. It was observed that vertical variation of vegetation density had an important effect on the drag coefficient.
Optical attenuation coefficient in individual ZnO nanowires.
Little, Anree; Hoffman, Abigail; Haegel, Nancy M
2013-03-11
Attenuation coefficient measurements for the propagation of bandedge luminescence are made on individual ZnO nanowires by combining the localized excitation capability of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) to record the distribution and intensity of wave-guided emission. Measurements were made for individual nanostructures with triangular cross-sections ranging in diameter from 680 to 2300 nm. The effective attenuation coefficient shows an inverse dependence on nanowire diameter (d(-1)), indicating scattering losses due to non-ideal waveguiding behavior. PMID:23482201
Attenuation coefficients for water quality trading.
Keller, Arturo A; Chen, Xiaoli; Fox, Jessica; Fulda, Matt; Dorsey, Rebecca; Seapy, Briana; Glenday, Julia; Bray, Erin
2014-06-17
Water quality trading has been proposed as a cost-effective approach for reducing nutrient loads through credit generation from agricultural or point source reductions sold to buyers facing costly options. We present a systematic approach to determine attenuation coefficients and their uncertainty. Using a process-based model, we determine attenuation with safety margins at many watersheds for total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads as they transport from point of load reduction to the credit buyer. TN and TP in-stream attenuation generally increases with decreasing mean river flow; smaller rivers in the modeled region of the Ohio River Basin had TN attenuation factors per km, including safety margins, of 0.19-1.6%, medium rivers of 0.14-1.2%, large rivers of 0.13-1.1%, and very large rivers of 0.04-0.42%. Attenuation in ditches transporting nutrients from farms to receiving rivers is 0.4%/km for TN, while for TP attenuation in ditches can be up to 2%/km. A 95 percentile safety margin of 30-40% for TN and 6-10% for TP, applied to the attenuation per km factors, was determined from the in-stream sensitivity of load reductions to watershed model parameters. For perspective, over 50 km a 1% per km factor would result in 50% attenuation = 2:1 trading ratio. PMID:24866482
FRACTIONAL WAVE EQUATIONS WITH ATTENUATION
Straka, Peter; Meerschaert, Mark M.; McGough, Robert J.; Zhou, Yuzhen
2013-01-01
Fractional wave equations with attenuation have been proposed by Caputo [5], Szabo [27], Chen and Holm [7], and Kelly et al. [11]. These equations capture the power-law attenuation with frequency observed in many experimental settings when sound waves travel through inhomogeneous media. In particular, these models are useful for medical ultrasound. This paper develops stochastic solutions and weak solutions to the power law wave equation of Kelly et al. [11]. PMID:25045309
Spatial and seasonal variation in wave attenuation over Zostera noltii
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paul, M.; Amos, C. L.
2011-08-01
Wave attenuation is a recognized function of sea grass ecosystems which is believed to depend on plant characteristics. This paper presents field data on wave attenuance collected over a 13 month period in a Zostera noltii meadow. The meadow showed a strong seasonality with high shoot densities in summer (approximately 4,600 shoots/m2) and low densities in winter (approximately 600 shoots/m2). Wave heights and flow velocities were measured along a transect at regular intervals during which the site was exposed to wind waves and boat wakes that differ in wave period and steepness. This difference was used to investigate whether wave attenuation by sea grass changes with hydrodynamic conditions. A seasonal change in wave attenuation was observed from the data. Results suggest that a minimum shoot density is necessary to initiate wave attenuation by sea grass. Additionally, a dependence of wave attenuation on hydrodynamics was found. Results suggest that the threshold shoot density varies with wave period and a change in energy dissipation toward the shore was observed once this threshold was exceeded. An attempt was made to quantify the bed roughness of the meadow; the applicability of this roughness value in swaying vegetation is discussed. Finally, the drag coefficient for the meadow was computed: A relationship between wave attenuance and vegetation Reynolds number was found which allows comparing the wave attenuating effect of Zostera noltii to other plant species.
Effects of Wave Nonlinearity on Wave Attenuation by Vegetation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, W. C.; Cox, D. T.
2014-12-01
The need to explore sustainable approaches to maintain coastal ecological systems has been widely recognized for decades and is increasingly important due to global climate change and patterns in coastal population growth. Submerged aquatic vegetation and emergent vegetation in estuaries and shorelines can provide ecosystem services, including wave-energy reduction and erosion control. Idealized models of wave-vegetation interaction often assume rigid, vertically uniform vegetation under the action of waves described by linear wave theory. A physical model experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of wave nonlinearity on the attenuation of random waves propagating through a stand of uniform, emergent vegetation in constant water depth. The experimental conditions spanned a relative water depth from near shallow to near deep water waves (0.45 < kh <1.49) and wave steepness from linear to nonlinear conditions (0.03 < ak < 0.18). The wave height to water depth ratios were in the range 0.12 < Hs/h < 0.34, and the Ursell parameter was in the range 2 < Ur < 68. Frictional losses from the side wall and friction were measured and removed from the wave attenuation in the vegetated cases to isolate the impact of vegetation. The normalized wave height attenuation decay for each case was fit to the decay equation of Dalrymple et al. (1984) to determine the damping factor, which was then used to calculate the bulk drag coefficients CD. This paper shows that the damping factor is dependent on the wave steepness ak across the range of relative water depths from shallow to deep water and that the damping factor can increase by a factor of two when the value of ak approximately doubles. In turn, this causes the drag coefficient CD to decrease on average by 23%. The drag coefficient can be modeled using the Keulegan-Carpenter number using the horizontal orbital wave velocity estimate from linear wave theory as the characteristic velocity scale. Alternatively, the Ursell parameter can be used to parameterize CD to account for the effect of wave nonlinearity, particularly in shallow water, for vegetation of single stem diameter.
Lg wave attenuation in Britain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sargeant, Susanne; Ottemller, Lars
2009-12-01
The Lg wave quality factor (QLg) in Britain has been modelled using data from the UK Seismic Network, operated by the British Geological Survey. The data set consists of 631 vertical, mostly short-period recordings of Lg waves from 64 earthquakes (2.7-4.7 ML) and 93 stations. We have inverted for both regional average QLg and tomographic images of QLg, and simultaneously a source term for each event and a site term for each station for 22 frequencies in the band 0.9-10.0 Hz. The regional average model is 266f0.53 between 1.0 and 10.0 Hz and indicates that attenuation in Britain is slightly higher than in France, and significantly higher than in eastern North America and Scandinavia. Tomographic inversions at each frequency indicate that QLg varies spatially. Broadly speaking, southeastern England, the Lake District and parts of the East Irish Sea Basin, and a small region between the Highland Boundary Fault and the Southern Uplands Fault are characterized by higher than average attenuation. Southwestern England, eastern central England and northwestern Scotland are regions of relatively low attenuation. To some extent, these regions correlate with what is known about the tectonics and structure of the crust in the UK.
Attenuation Coefficient Estimation of the Healthy Human Thyroid In Vivo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rouyer, J.; Cueva, T.; Portal, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Lavarello, R.
Previous studies have demonstrated that attenuation coefficients can be useful towards characterizing thyroid tissues. In this work, ultrasonic attenuation coefficients were estimated from healthy human thyroids in vivo using a clinical scanner. The selected subjects were five young, healthy volunteers (age: 26 ± 6 years old, gender: three females, two males) with no reported history of thyroid diseases, no palpable thyroid nodules, no smoking habits, and body mass index less than 30 kg/m2. Echographic examinations were conducted by a trained sonographer using a SonixTouch system (Ultrasonix Medical Corporation, Richmond, BC) equipped with an L14-5 linear transducer array (nominal center frequency of 10 MHz, transducer footprint of 3.8 cm). Radiofrequency data corresponding to the collected echographic images in both transverse and longitudinal views were digitized at a sampling rate of 40 MHz and processed with Matlab codes (MathWorks, Natick, MA) to estimate attenuation coefficients using the spectral log difference method. The estimation was performed using an analysis bandwidth spanning from 4.0 to 9.0 MHz. The average value of the estimated ultrasonic attenuation coefficients was equal to 1.34 ± 0.15 dB/(cm.MHz). The standard deviation of the estimated average attenuation coefficient across different volunteers suggests a non-negligible inter-subject variability in the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient of the human thyroid.
Measurements of spectral attenuation coefficients in the lower Chesapeake Bay
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Houghton, W. M.
1983-01-01
The spectral transmission was measured for water samples taken in the lower Chesapeake Bay to allow characterization of several optical properties. The coefficients of total attenuation, particle attenuation, and absorption by dissolved organic matter were determined over a wavelength range from 3500 A to 8000 A. The data were taken over a 3 year period and at a number of sites so that an indication of spatial and temporal variations could be obtained. The attenuations determined in this work are, on the average, 10 times greater than those obtained by Hulburt in 1944, which are commonly accepted in the literature for Chesapeake Bay attenuation.
Measurements of Wave Attenuation Through Model and Live Vegetation in a Wave Tank
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ozeren, Y.; Wren, D. G.
2010-12-01
It is well accepted that wetlands have an important role in shoreline protection against wave damage. However, there is still a lack of knowledge on primary mechanisms of wave attenuation though wetland vegetation. The purpose of this study was to understand these mechanisms and quantify the impact of vegetation on the waves through a series of laboratory experiments. Experiments were conducted in a wave tank at the USDA-ARS-National Sedimentation Laboratory to measure the rate of wave attenuation through emergent and submerged rigid and flexible cylindrical stems, and live vegetation. Dormant and healthy Spartina alterniflora and healthy Juncus romerianus, two common plant species in coastal areas, were used during the tests. The time series water surface elevation at five locations was recorded by wave probes and the water surface profile through the vegetation field was recorded using a digital video camera. The recorded data were analyzed with imaging techniques to identify the wave attenuation characteristic of wetland vegetation and drag coefficients.
Graphene-Based Waveguide Terahertz Wave Attenuator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jian-rong, Hu; Jiu-sheng, Li; Guo-hua, Qiu
2016-02-01
We design an electrically controllable terahertz wave attenuator by using graphene. We show that terahertz wave can be confined and propagate on S-shaped graphene waveguide with little radiation losses, and the confined terahertz wave is further manipulated and controlled via external applied voltage bias. The simulated results show that, when chemical potential changes from 0.03 into 0.05 eV, the extinction ratio of the terahertz wave attenuator can be tuned from 1.28 to 39.42 dB. Besides the simplicity, this novel terahertz wave attenuator has advantages of small size (24 × 30 μm2), a low insertion loss, and good controllability. It has a potential application for forthcoming planar terahertz wave integrated circuit fields.
Compressional wave attenuation in oceanic basalts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wepfer, William W.; Christensen, Nikolas I.
1990-10-01
To understand better the seismic attenuation in the upper volcanic regions of the oceanic crust, compressional wave attenuations of oceanic basalts have been measured as a function of confining pressure using an ultrasonic pulse-echo spectral ratio technique capable of measuring attenuations to pressures of 500 MPa. Seven basalts, five from Deep Sea Drilling Project cores and two from dredge samples, have wide ranges of densities, porosities, and alterations, making possible an analysis of the parameters influencing basalt attenuation. Attenuation increases with the volume of secondary minerals present and with increasing porosity. Thus vesicularity and compositional changes associated with basalt alteration will produce variations in attenuation. With the application of hydrostatic pressure, cracks close, thereby reducing attenuations. This pressure dependence should be manifested in oceanic layer 2 by decreasing attenuation with depth. An inverse relationship between velocity and attenuation is observed at high hydrostatic pressures. Water saturation increases attenuation at pressures below 200 MPa and enhances the sensitivity of attenuation to pressure, thus making the state of saturation important in the 40 to 100 MPa range generally found in layer 2. These results provide a framework for interpreting marine attenuation data.
Relation between the diffuse attenuation coefficient and the Secchi depth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mankovsky, V. I.
2014-02-01
A semi-empirical model of the relation between the diffuse attenuation coefficient ?? and the Secchi depth Z w is suggested. According to the model, the parameter ? = ?? Z w is not a constant value; it increases when Z w increases. From experimental observation data, the relationship ? = f( Z w) has been established, which confirms the model calculations.
Compressional head waves in attenuative formations
Liu, Q.H.; Chang, C.
1994-12-31
The attenuation of compressional head waves in a fluid-filled borehole is studied with the branch-cut integration method. The borehole fluid and solid formation are both assumed lossy with quality factors Q{sub f}({omega}) for the fluid, and Q{sub c}({omega}) and Q{sub s}({omega}) for the compressional and shear waves in the solid, respectively. The branch-cut integration method used in this work is an extension of that for a lossless medium. With this branch-cut integration method, the authors can isolate the groups of individual arrivals such as the compressional head waves and shear head waves, and study the attenuation of those particular wavefields in lossy media. This study, coupled with experimental work to be performed, may result in an effective way of measuring compressional head wave attenuation in the field.
Traveling Wave Modal Attenuation in Layered Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Odom, R. I.; Blair, L.
2009-12-01
For weakly attenuating media, perturbation theory is suitable for incorporating attenuation into a synthetic signal. Each mode is multiplied by an exponentially decaying term that affects the mode amplitude, but neither the real part of the eigenvalue, nor the mode shape beyond the amplitude damping. However, it is known that stronger attenuation affects the real part of the eigenvalue and the mode shape. Locating the eigenvalues for a strongly attenuating elastic medium is notoriously difficult and problematic to numerically implement accurately and efficiently. An approach for incorporating stronger attenuation, which has been effectively employed for the standing wave Earth free oscillations, is to represent the free oscillations for the attenuating Earth as a superposition of modes of the perfectly elastic Earth. The eigenfrequency is found by solving a nonlinear complex generalized eigenvalue problem (CGEP). For the traveling wave problem the eigenvalue is an eigenwavenumber, which is also found by solving a CGEP. The CGEP for traveling waves is exactly quadratic in the eigenvalue, so it may be exactly linearized at the expense of doubling the size of the system to be solved. The theory is briefly sketched, and numerical results are shown comparing a method employing an adaptive winding-number integration (Ivansson & Karasalo,1993), with the representation in terms of a superposition of modes of the perfectly elastic medium. The examples use attenuation typical for marine sediments. Sediment shear wave Q can be as low as 50 or less.
Teleseismic Body Wave Attenuation and Diffraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hwang, Yong Keun
Using available digital seismic stations deployed since the 1980's, the largest data set based on broadband waveforms among studies on body-wave attenuation (t*) and quality factor (Q) are used in this thesis. The use of nearly 300,000 measurements of body-wave spectral ratio from globally distributed stations renders better constraints of t* and Q variations with higher spatial and depth resolutions in the mantle than have been previously available. The maps of body-wave t* correlate well with the variations of t* computed from the most recent surface-wave Q model QRFSI12 indicating that body-wave and surface-wave t* reflect the same intrinsic attenuation even though these waves sample the upper mantle entirely differently. The high correlation between body-wave t* maps and the t* inferred from a thermal interpretation of shear-wave velocity tomography S20RTS suggests that temperature controls both variations in attenuation and velocity in the upper mantle. The distance variations of P- and S-wave t* (t*P and t*S) are inverted for a radial profile of the quality factor Qmu in the lower mantle. On average, t* P and t*S increase by about 0.2 s and 0.7 s, respectively, between epicentral distances of 30 and 97. The body-wave spectra are explained best if Qmu, increases in the lower mantle with the rate of 0.1/km. The relatively strong increase of t*S compare to t*P (t*S ? 4 t*P) suggests that intrinsic attenuation is the cause of the overall trend in our data. The ratio of P- and S-wave quality factor determined in this thesis (QP/Qmu = 2.27) confirms that intrinsic attenuation occurs mostly in shear and that bulk attenuation is negligible in the mantle. Finally, the delay of seismic waves which traversed numerical mantle plumes are calculated in this thesis for the first time. High-resolution numerical simulations of mantle plume are used to investigate the effects of numerical plumes on waveforms. The measurements of wave front delay demonstrate that the delay of shear-waves by plume tails at depths larger than 1000 km are immeasurably small (< 0.2 s) at seismic periods commonly used in waveform analysis.
Wave Attenuation in Partially Saturated Porous Solids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, Chuan-Sheng
1992-01-01
This thesis consists of three independent papers. Paper 1 studies effects of pulsating gas pockets on wave propagation in partially saturated porous solids containing both liquid and gas phases. On the basis of Biot theory, an analytic solution for the White model for study of the effects of saturation history on wave attenuation is derived. One of the most significant findings of this work is that when the average spacing among the neighboring gas pockets is of the order of the boundary-layer thickness associated with the slow compressional (or P2) wave, the attenuation of the compressional (or P) wave due to local fluid flow reaches its maximum. Results of Paper 1 bear direct applications to seismic and logging responses of partially saturated rocks in prospecting for petroleum, and monitoring of oil and natural gas reservoirs. Paper 2 presents the results of the experimental studies of the effects of partial liquid/gas saturation on extensional wave attenuation in Berea sandstones. Two experimental methods are used; one is the resonant-bar method and the other the forced-deformation method. It is found that the wave attenuation depends on sample-saturation history (drainage or imbibition), as well as boundary-flow conditions, and the degree of saturation. The attenuation caused by "flowable" liquid is sensitive only in the region of low degree of gas saturation. An open-pore boundary tends to induce higher attenuation. The results obtained by the forced-deformation method show that the magnitude of the attenuation decreases substantially with decreasing frequency to the extent that no attenuation peak was apparent at frequencies below 100 Hz. Paper 3 analyzes extensional wave propagation in a porous fluid-saturated hollow-cylinder of infinite extent. Analytic solutions of complex Young's modulus for the long wavelength limit was obtained for a hollow -cylinder with open-pore inner surface. A simplified formula for estimating the frequency at which the attenuation is most severe was provided as a useful tool for experimentalists. The results of this work have potential applications to measuring dynamic properties of fluid saturated rock samples, especially those with very low permeabilities.
Attenuation of sound waves in drill strings
Drumheller, D.S. )
1993-10-01
During drilling of deep wells, digital data are often transmitted from sensors located near the drill bit to the surface. Development of a new communication system with increased data capacity is of paramount importance to the drilling industry. Since steel drill strings are used, transmission of these data by elastic carrier waves traveling within the drill pipe is possible, but the potential communication range is uncertain. The problem is complicated by the presence of heavy-threaded tool joints every 10 m, which form a periodic structure and produce classical patterns of passbands and stop bands in the wave spectra. In this article, field measurements of the attenuation characteristics of a drill string in the Long Valley Scientific Well in Mammoth Lakes, California are presented. Wave propagation distances approach 2 km. A theoretical model is discussed which predicts the location, width, and attenuation of the passbands. Mode conversion between extensional and bending waves, and spurious reflections due to deviations in the periodic spacings of the tool joints are believed to be the sources of this attenuation. It is estimated that attenuation levels can be dramatically reduced by rearranging the individual pipes in the drill string according to length. 7 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs.
A study on photon attenuation coefficients of different wood materials with different densities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saritha, B.; Nageswara Rao, A. S.
2015-12-01
A study on the variation of linear attenuation coefficients with the densities of the wood samples is under taken. The soft wood and hard wood samples were collected from the forest area of Pakal in Warangal district. The linear and mass attenuation coefficients are measured using gamma ray spectrometry based on NaI (Tl) scintillation detector with energies of 662 KeV and 59.5 KeV respectively. The mass attenuation coefficient values measured from experiment and are compared with theoretical methods using XCOM program. The plots of density versus linear attenuation coefficient for different wood materials correspond to higher order polynomial are presented. It is observed that variation of linear attenuation coefficient depends on densities of materials. The Chloroxylon swietenia with more density has more linear attenuation coefficient at 59.5 KeV and 662 KeV. The variation in attenuation coefficient attributed to chemical composition of wood used in the experiment.
Uranium soft x-ray total attenuation coefficients
Del Grande, N.K.; Oliver, A.J.
1981-01-01
Uranium total attenuation coefficients were measured continuously from 0.84 to 6.0 keV and at selected higher energies using a vacuum single crystal diffractometer and flow-proportional counter. Statistical fluctuations ranged from 0.5% to 2%. The overall accuracy was 3%. Prominent structure was measured within 20 eV of the M/sub 5/ (3.552 keV) and M/sub 4/ (3.728 keV) edges. Jump ratios were determined from log-log polynomial fits to data at energies apart from the near-edge regions. These data were compared with calculations based on a relativistic HFS central potential model and with previously tabulated data.
Propagation and attenuation of P-waves in patchy saturated porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Hui-Xing; He, Bing-Shou
2015-09-01
We establish a patchy saturation model and derive the seismic wave equations for patchy saturated porous media on the basis of Biot's equations and Johnson's bulk modulus. We solve the equations, obtain the attenuation coefficients, and analyze the characteristics of wave attenuation in the seismic frequency range. The results suggest that seismic waves show attenuation and dispersion in partially saturated rocks in the low frequency range. With frequency increasing, attenuation increases. The attenuation of P-waves of the second kind is more pronounced in agreement with Biot's theory. We also study the effect of porosity, saturation, and inner sphere radius on the attenuation of the P-waves of the first kind and find that attenuation increases with increasing frequency and porosity, and decreases with increasing frequency and degree of saturation. As for the inner sphere radius, wave attenuation is initially increasing with increasing frequency and inner sphere radius less than half the outer radius. Subsequently, wave attenuation decreases with increasing frequency and inner sphere radius is higher than half the outer sphere radius.
Representative Elementary Length to Measure Soil Mass Attenuation Coefficient
Borges, J. A. R.; Pires, L. F.; Costa, J. C.
2014-01-01
With increasing demand for better yield in agricultural areas, soil physical property representative measurements are more and more essential. Nuclear techniques such as computerized tomography (CT) and gamma-ray attenuation (GAT) have been widely employed with this purpose. The soil mass attenuation coefficient (?s) is an important parameter for CT and GAT analysis. When experimentally determined (?es), the use of suitable sized samples enable to evaluate it precisely, as well as to reduce measurement time and costs. This study investigated the representative elementary length (REL) of sandy and clayey soils for ?es measurements. Two radioactive sources were employed (241Am and 137Cs), three collimators (24?mm diameters), and 14 thickness (x) samples (215?cm). Results indicated ideal thickness intervals of 1215 and 24?cm for the sources 137Cs and 241Am, respectively. The application of such results in representative elementary area (REA) evaluations in clayey soil clods via CT indicated that ?es average values obtained for x?>?4?cm and source 241Am might induce to the use of samples which are not large enough for soil bulk density evaluations (?s). As a consequence, ?s might be under- or overestimated, generating inaccurate conclusions about the physical quality of the soil under study. PMID:24672338
Vermeer, K. A.; Mo, J.; Weda, J. J. A.; Lemij, H. G.; de Boer, J. F.
2013-01-01
We present a method, based on a single scattering model, to calculate the attenuation coefficient of each pixel in optical coherence tomography (OCT) depth profiles. Numerical simulations were used to determine the models response to different depths and attenuation coefficients. Experiments were performed on uniform and layered phantoms with varying attenuation coefficients. They were measured by a 1300 nm OCT system and their attenuation coefficients were evaluated by our proposed method and by fitting the OCT slope as the gold standard. Both methods showed largely consistent results for the uniform phantoms. On the layered phantom, only our proposed method accurately estimated the attenuation coefficients. For all phantoms, the proposed method largely reduced the variability of the estimated attenuation coefficients. The method was illustrated on an in-vivo retinal OCT scan, effectively removing common imaging artifacts such as shadowing. By providing localized, per-pixel attenuation coefficients, this method enables tissue characterization based on attenuation coefficient estimates from OCT data. PMID:24466497
Nonlinear attenuation of S-waves and Love waves within ambient rock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sleep, Norman H.; Erickson, Brittany A.
2014-04-01
obtain scaling relationships for nonlinear attenuation of S-waves and Love waves within sedimentary basins to assist numerical modeling. These relationships constrain the past peak ground velocity (PGV) of strong 3-4 s Love waves from San Andreas events within Greater Los Angeles, as well as the maximum PGV of future waves that can propagate without strong nonlinear attenuation. During each event, the shaking episode cracks the stiff, shallow rock. Over multiple events, this repeated damage in the upper few hundred meters leads to self-organization of the shear modulus. Dynamic strain is PGV divided by phase velocity, and dynamic stress is strain times the shear modulus. The frictional yield stress is proportional to depth times the effective coefficient of friction. At the eventual quasi-steady self-organized state, the shear modulus increases linearly with depth allowing inference of past typical PGV where rock over the damaged depth range barely reaches frictional failure. Still greater future PGV would cause frictional failure throughout the damaged zone, nonlinearly attenuating the wave. Assuming self-organization has taken place, estimated maximum past PGV within Greater Los Angeles Basins is 0.4-2.6 m s-1. The upper part of this range includes regions of accumulating sediments with low S-wave velocity that may have not yet compacted, rather than having been damaged by strong shaking. Published numerical models indicate that strong Love waves from the San Andreas Fault pass through Whittier Narrows. Within this corridor, deep drawdown of the water table from its currently shallow and preindustrial levels would nearly double PGV of Love waves reaching Downtown Los Angeles.
The Attenuation of Correlation Coefficients: A Statistical Literacy Issue
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Trafimow, David
2016-01-01
Much of the science reported in the media depends on correlation coefficients. But the size of correlation coefficients depends, in part, on the reliability with which the correlated variables are measured. Understanding this is a statistical literacy issue.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuccaro, R.; Magnetto, C.; Albo, P. A. Giuliano; Troia, A.; Lago, S.
Although high intensity focused ultrasound beams (HIFU) have found rapid agreement in clinical environment as a tool for non invasive surgical ablation and controlled destruction of cancer cells, some aspects related to the interaction of ultrasonic waves with tissues, such as the conversion of acoustic energy into heat, are not thoroughly understood. In this work, innovative tissue-mimicking materials (TMMs), based on Agar and zinc acetate, have been used to conduct investigations in order to determine a relation between the sample attenuation coefficient and its temperature increase measured in the focus region when exposed to an HIFU beam. An empirical relation has been deduced establishing useful basis for further processes of validations of numerical models to be adopted for customizing therapeutic treatments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yimei; Yang, Hongqin; Wang, Yuhua; Zheng, Liqin; Xie, Shusen
2010-11-01
The physical properties of acupuncture point were important to discover the mechanism of acupuncture meridian. In this paper, we used an optical coherence tomography to monitor in vivo the changes of optical attenuation coefficients of Hegu acupuncture point and non-acupuncture point during laser irradiation on Yangxi acupuncture point. The optical attenuation coefficients of Hegu acupuncture point and non-acupuncture point were obtained by fitting the raw data according to the Beer-Lambert's law. The experimental results showed that the optical attenuation coefficient of Hegu acupuncture point decreased during the laser acupuncture, in contrast to a barely changed result in that of non-acupuncture point. The significant change of optical attenuation coefficient of Hegu acupuncture point indicated that there was a correlation between Hegu and Yangxi acupuncture points to some extent.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blackmar, P.; Wu, W.; Cox, D. T.
2012-12-01
Coastal vegetation is commonly accepted as a means of wave damping, but existing methodologies for predicting the wave height attenuation focus on homogeneous vegetation, primarily in periodic waves. In this project, quarter scale experiments were performed in conjunction with numerical modeling in FUNWAVE to evaluate random wave attenuation through two types of synthetic vegetation. The experiment was performed with two peak periods, three water depths, and two stem densities. For each combination of parameters, free surface time series were collected at 7 locations throughout the vegetation field and 1 location seaward of the vegetation. Each combination of wave conditions was evaluated for four different cases: Case 1 with no vegetation, Case 2 and 3 with short and long specimens, respectively, and Case 4 with mixed vegetation. The decay of the spectral wave heights were fit with the Dalrymple et al. (1984) and Kobayashi et al. (1993) equations. The decay equations provided reasonable predictions, with an average mean square error of 1.3%. We found that adding the coefficients obtained for the cases of the individual plants provided a reasonable prediction of the coefficient for the cases of the combined, heterogeneous vegetation. Use of a reduction factor on the sum of the two coefficients improved the predictions, giving an average mean square error of 2.1% between the predictions and the measured values. A phase resolved numerical model (FUNWAVE) was used to model wave attenuation for these tests using a bottom drag coefficient calibrated for each run. The numerical attenuation followed the same trends as the measured data, with an average mean square error of 1.7% when considering all of the observation locations throughout the vegetation field. Similar to the physical model study, we found that adding the calibrated model drag coefficients for the cases of the individual plants reasonably predicted the wave height attenuation for the cases of the combined vegetation with an average mean square error of 3.2%. References: Dalrymple, R.A., Kirby, J.T., Hwang, P.A., 1984. Wave refraction due to areas of energy dissipation. J. Waterw., Port Coast. Ocean Eng. 110 (1), 67-79. Kobayashi, N., Raichlen, A.W., Asano, T., 1993. Wave attenuation by vegetation. J. Waterw., Port Coast. Ocean Eng. 199 (1), 30-48.
Derivation of linear attenuation coefficients from CT numbers for low-energy photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watanabe, Yoichi
1999-09-01
One can estimate photon attenuation properties from the CT number. In a standard method one assumes that the linear attenuation coefficient is proportional to electron density and ignores its nonlinear dependence on atomic number. When the photon energy is lower than about 50 keV, such as for brachytherapy applications, however, photoelectric absorption and Rayleigh scattering become important. Hence the atomic number must be explicitly considered in estimating the linear attenuation coefficient. In this study we propose a method to more accurately estimate the linear attenuation coefficient of low-energy photons from CT numbers. We formulate an equation that relates the CT number to the electron density and the effective atomic number. We use a CT calibration phantom to determine unknown coefficients in the equation. The equation with a given CT number is then solved for the effective atomic number, which in turn is used to calculate the linear attenuation coefficient for low-energy photons. We use the CT phantom to test the new method. The method significantly improves the standard method in estimating the attenuation coefficient at low photon energies (20 keV E40 keV) for materials with high atomic numbers.
Scattering and attenuation of seismic waves, Part 3
Wu, R.S. ); Aki, K. )
1989-01-01
The topics covered in this book include: Propagation and attenuation characteristics of the crustal phase, Seismic scattering near the earth's surface, Stratigraphic filtering, The scattering of shear waves in the crust, Unified approach to amplitude attenuation and coda excitation in the randomly inhomogeneous lithosphere, Time-domain solution for multiple scattering and the coda envelopes, Inhomogeneities near the core-mantle boundary evidenced from scattering waves: a review, and Transmission fluctuations across an array and heterogeneities in the crust and upper mantle.
Comparison of RNFL thickness and RPE-normalized RNFL attenuation coefficient for glaucoma diagnosis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vermeer, K. A.; van der Schoot, J.; Lemij, H. G.; de Boer, J. F.
2013-03-01
Recently, a method to determine the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) attenuation coefficient, based on normalization on the retinal pigment epithelium, was introduced. In contrast to conventional RNFL thickness measures, this novel measure represents a scattering property of the RNFL tissue. In this paper, we compare the RNFL thickness and the RNFL attenuation coefficient on 10 normal and 8 glaucomatous eyes by analyzing the correlation coefficient and the receiver operator curves (ROCs). The thickness and attenuation coefficient showed moderate correlation (r=0.82). Smaller correlation coefficients were found within normal (r=0.55) and glaucomatous (r=0.48) eyes. The full separation between normal and glaucomatous eyes based on the RNFL attenuation coefficient yielded an area under the ROC (AROC) of 1.0. The AROC for the RNFL thickness was 0.9875. No statistically significant difference between the two measures was found by comparing the AROC. RNFL attenuation coefficients may thus replace current RNFL thickness measurements or be combined with it to improve glaucoma diagnosis.
Correlation equation for the marine drag coefficient and wave steepness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foreman, Richard J.; Emeis, Stefan
2012-09-01
This work questions, starting from dimensional considerations, the generality of the belief that the marine drag coefficient levels off with increasing wind speed. Dimensional analysis shows that the drag coefficient scales with the wave steepness as opposed to a wave-age scaling. A correlation equation is employed here that uses wave steepness scaling at low aspect ratios (inverse wave steepnesses) and a constant drag coefficient at high aspect ratios. Invoked in support of the correlation are measurements sourced from the literature and at the FINO1 platform in the North Sea. The correlation equation is then applied to measurements recorded from buoys during the passage of hurricanes Rita, Katrina (2005) and Ike (2008). Results show that the correlation equation anticipates the expected levelling off in deeper water, but a drag coefficient more consistent with a Charnock type relation is also possible in more shallower water. Some suggestions are made for proceeding with a higher-order analysis than that conducted here.
Seo, Youngho; Wong, Kenneth H.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.
2005-12-15
Nuclear medicine tracers using {sup 111}In as a radiolabel are increasing in their use, especially in the domain of oncologic imaging. In these applications, it often is critical to have the capability of quantifying radionuclide uptake and being able to relate it to the biological properties of the tumor. However, images from single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be degraded by photon attenuation, photon scattering, and collimator blurring; without compensation for these effects, image quality can be degraded, and accurate and precise quantification is impossible. Although attenuation correction for SPECT is becoming more common, most implementations can only model single energy radionuclides such as {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I. Thus, attenuation correction for {sup 111}In is challenging because it emits two photons (171 and 245 keV) at nearly equal rates (90.2% and 94% emission probabilities). In this paper, we present a method of calculating a single 'effective' attenuation coefficient for the dual-energy emissions of {sup 111}In, and that can be used to correct for photon attenuation in radionuclide images acquired with this radionuclide. Using this methodology, we can derive an effective linear attenuation coefficient {mu}{sub eff} and an effective photon energy E{sub eff} based on the emission probabilities and linear attenuation coefficients of the {sup 111}In photons. This approach allows us to treat the emissions from {sup 111}In as a single photon with an effective energy of 210 keV. We obtained emission projection data from a tank filled with a uniform solution of {sup 111}In. The projection data were reconstructed using an iterative maximum-likelihood algorithm with no attenuation correction, and with attenuation correction assuming photon energies of 171, 245, and 210 keV (the derived E{sub eff}). The reconstructed tomographic images demonstrate that the use of no attenuation correction, or correction assuming photon energies of 171 or 245 keV introduces inaccuracies into the reconstructed radioactivity distribution when compared against the effective energy method. In summary, this work provides both a theoretical framework and experimental methodology of attenuation correction for the dual-energy emissions from {sup 111}In. Although these results are specific to {sup 111}In, the foundation could easily be extended to other multiple-energy isotopes.
The attenuation mechanism of S-waves in the source zone of the 1999 Chamoli earthquake
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukhopadhyay, S.; Kumar, A.; Garg, A.; Del-Pezzo, E.; Kayal, J. R.
2014-01-01
In the present study the attenuation mechanism of seismic wave energy in and around the source area of the Chamoli earthquake of 29th March 1999 is estimated using the aftershock data. Most of the analyzed events are from the vicinity of the Main Central Thrust (MCT), which is a well-defined tectonic discontinuity in the Himalayas. Separation of intrinsic (Qi-1) and scattering (Qs-1) attenuation coefficient is done over the frequencies 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 Hz using Multiple Lapse Time Window Analysis (MLTWA) method. It is observed that S-waves and their coda are primarily attenuated due to scattering attenuation and seismic albedo is very high at all the frequencies. A comparison of attenuation characteristics obtained using these aftershock data with those obtained using data of general seismicity of this region reveal that at lower frequencies both intrinsic and scattering attenuation for Chamoli was much higher compared to those for Garwhal-Kumaun region using general seismicity data. At higher frequencies intrinsic attenuation for Chamoli is lower than and scattering attenuation is comparable to those obtained using general seismicity data of Garwhal-Kumaun region.
Attenuation of seismic waves by grain boundary relaxation.
Jackson, D D
1971-07-01
Experimental observations of the attenuation of elastic waves in polycrystalline ceramics and rocks reveal an attenuation mechanism, called grain boundary relaxation, which is likely to be predominant cause of seismic attenuation in the earth's mantle. For this mechanism, the internal friction (the reciprocal of the "intrinsic Q" of the material) depends strongly upon frequency and is in good agreement with Walsh's theory of attenuation (J. Geophys. Res., 74, 4333, 1969) in partially melted rock. When Walsh's theory is extended to provide a model of the anelasticity of the earth, using the experimental values of physical parameters reported here, the results are in excellent agreement with seismic observations. PMID:16591937
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilson, Celia M.
2010-01-01
Research pertaining to the distortion of the squared canonical correlation coefficient has traditionally been limited to the effects of sampling error and associated correction formulas. The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of attenuation of the squared canonical correlation coefficient under varying conditions of score reliability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ebru Ermis, Elif; Celiktas, Cuneyt
2015-07-01
Calculations of gamma-ray mass attenuation coefficients of various detector materials (crystals) were carried out by means of FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) method at different gamma-ray energies. NaI, PVT, GSO, GaAs and CdWO4 detector materials were chosen in the calculations. Calculated coefficients were also compared with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) values. Obtained results through this method were highly in accordance with those of the NIST values. It was concluded from the study that FLUKA MC method can be an alternative way to calculate the gamma-ray mass attenuation coefficients of the detector materials.
The role of the reflection coefficient in precision measurement of ultrasonic attenuation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Generazio, E. R.
1984-01-01
Ultrasonic attenuation measurements using contact, pulse-echo techniques are sensitive to surface roughness and couplant thickness variations. This can reduce considerable inaccuracies in the measurement of the attenuation coefficient for broadband pulses. Inaccuracies arise from variations in the reflection coefficient at the buffer-couplant-sample interface. The reflection coefficient is examined as a function of the surface roughness and corresponding couplant thickness variations. Interrelations with ultrasonic frequency are illustrated. Reliable attenuation measurements are obtained only when the frequency dependence of the reflection coefficient is incorporated in signal analysis. Data are given for nickel 200 samples and a silicon nitride ceramic bar having surface roughness variations in the 0.3 to 3.0 microns range for signal bandwidths in the 50 to 100 MHz range.
Wave attenuation in thick graphite/epoxy composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mal, A. K.; Bar-Cohen, Y.
1992-01-01
The mechanics of wave attenuation in thick graphite/epoxy composites is examined in order to facilitate interpretation of the wave amplitudes recorded in ultrasonic experiments. The values of a small number of parameters are determined through comparison between calculated and measured waveforms for four specimens. The agreement between the measured and calculated waveforms are shown to be excellent in all four cases.
Relative velocity of seagrass blades: Implications for wave attenuation in low-energy environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bradley, Kevin; Houser, Chris
2009-03-01
While the ability of subaquatic vegetation to attenuate wave energy is well recognized in general, there is a paucity of data from the field to describe the rate and mechanisms of wave decay, particularly with respect to the relative motion of the vegetation. The purpose of this study was to quantify the attenuation of incident wave height through a seagrass meadow and characterize the blade movement under oscillatory flow under the low-energy conditions characteristic of fetch-limited and sheltered environments. The horizontal motion of the seagrass blades and the velocity just above the seagrass canopy were measured using a digital video camera and an acoustic Doppler velicometer (ADV) respectively in order to refine the estimates of the drag coefficient based on the relative velocity. Significant wave heights (Hs) were observed to increase by ˜0.02 m (˜20%) through the first 5 m of the seagrass bed but subsequently decrease exponentially over the remainder of the bed. The exponential decay coefficient varied in response to the Reynolds number calculated using blade width (as the length scale) and the oscillatory velocity measured immediately above the canopy. The ability of the seagrass to attenuate wave energy decreases as incident wave heights increase and conditions become more turbulent. Estimates of the time-averaged canopy height and the calculated hydraulic roughness suggest that, as the oscillatory velocity increases, the seagrass becomes fully extended and leans in the direction of flow for a longer part of the wave cycle. The relationship between the drag coefficient and the Reynolds number further suggests that the vegetation is swaying (going with the flow) at low-energy conditions but becomes increasingly rigid as oscillatory velocities increase over the limited range of the conditions observed (200 < Re < 800). In addition to the changing behavior of the seagrass motion, the attenuation was not uniform with wave frequency, and waves at a secondary frequency of 0.38 Hz (2.6 s) appeared to be unaffected by the seagrass. Cospectral analysis between the oscillatory and blade velocity suggests that the seagrass was moving in phase with the current at the (lower) secondary frequency and out of phase at the (higher) peak frequency. In this respect, seagrass is not only an attenuator of wave energy but also serves as a low-pass filter; higher frequencies in the spectra tend to be more attenuated.
Alles, J; Mudde, R F
2007-07-01
Polychromatic x-ray beams traveling though material are prone to beam hardening, i.e., the high energy part of the incident spectrum gets over represented when traveling farther into the material. This study discusses the concept of a mean attenuation coefficient in a formal way. The total energy fluence is one-to-one related to the traveled distance in case of a polychromatic beam moving through a given, inhomogeneous material. On the basis of this one-to-one relation, it is useful to define a mean attenuation coefficient and study its decrease with depth. Our results are based on a novel parametrization of the energy dependence of the attenuation coefficient that allows for closed form evaluation of certain spectral integrals. This approach underpins the ad hoc semianalytical expressions given in the literature. An analytical model for the average attenuation coefficient is proposed that uses a simple fit of the attenuation coefficient as a function of the photon energy as input. It is shown that a simple extension of this model gives a rather good description of beam hardening for x-rays traveling through water. PMID:17821996
Alles, J.; Mudde, R. F.
2007-07-15
Polychromatic x-ray beams traveling though material are prone to beam hardening, i.e., the high energy part of the incident spectrum gets over represented when traveling farther into the material. This study discusses the concept of a mean attenuation coefficient in a formal way. The total energy fluence is one-to-one related to the traveled distance in case of a polychromatic beam moving through a given, inhomogeneous material. On the basis of this one-to-one relation, it is useful to define a mean attenuation coefficient and study its decrease with depth. Our results are based on a novel parametrization of the energy dependence of the attenuation coefficient that allows for closed form evaluation of certain spectral integrals. This approach underpins the ad hoc semianalytical expressions given in the literature. An analytical model for the average attenuation coefficient is proposed that uses a simple fit of the attenuation coefficient as a function of the photon energy as input. It is shown that a simple extension of this model gives a rather good description of beam hardening for x-rays traveling through water.
Stochastic solution to a time-fractional attenuated wave equation
Meerschaert, Mark M.; Straka, Peter; Zhou, Yuzhen; McGough, Robert J.
2012-01-01
The power law wave equation uses two different fractional derivative terms to model wave propagation with power law attenuation. This equation averages complex nonlinear dynamics into a convenient, tractable form with an explicit analytical solution. This paper develops a random walk model to explain the appearance and meaning of the fractional derivative terms in that equation, and discusses an application to medical ultrasound. In the process, a new strictly causal solution to this fractional wave equation is developed. PMID:23258950
Attenuation character of seismic waves in Sikkim Himalaya
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hazarika, Pinki; Kumar, M. Ravi; Kumar, Dinesh
2013-10-01
In this study, we investigate the seismic wave attenuation beneath Sikkim Himalaya using P, S and coda waves from 68 local earthquakes registered by eight broad-band stations of the SIKKIM network. The attenuation quality factor (Q) depends on frequency as well as lapse time and depth. The value of Q varies from (i) 141 to 639 for P waves, (ii) 143 to 1108 for S waves and (iii) 274 to 1678 for coda waves, at central frequencies of 1.5 Hz and 9 Hz, respectively. The relations that govern the attenuation versus frequency dependence are Q? = (96 0.9) f (0.94 0.01), Q? = (100 1.4) f (1.16 0.01) and Qc = (189 1.5) f (1.2 0.01) for P, S and coda waves, respectively. The ratio between Q? and Q? is larger than unity, implying larger attenuation of P compared to S waves. Also, the values of Qc are higher than Q?. Estimation of the relative contribution of intrinsic (Qi) and scattering (Qs) attenuation reveals that the former mechanism is dominant in Sikkim Himalaya. We note that the estimates of Qc lie in between Qi and Qs and are very close to Qi at lower frequencies. This is in agreement with the theoretical and laboratory experiments. The strong frequency and depth dependence of the attenuation quality factor suggests a highly heterogeneous crust in the Sikkim Himalaya. Also, the high Q values estimated for this region compared to the other segments of Himalaya can be reconciled in terms of moderate seismic activity, unlike rest of the Himalaya, which is seismically more active.
Analytic expressions for ULF wave radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients
Ozeke, Louis G; Mann, Ian R; Murphy, Kyle R; Jonathan Rae, I; Milling, David K
2014-01-01
We present analytic expressions for ULF wave-derived radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients, as a function of L and Kp, which can easily be incorporated into global radiation belt transport models. The diffusion coefficients are derived from statistical representations of ULF wave power, electric field power mapped from ground magnetometer data, and compressional magnetic field power from in situ measurements. We show that the overall electric and magnetic diffusion coefficients are to a good approximation both independent of energy. We present example 1-D radial diffusion results from simulations driven by CRRES-observed time-dependent energy spectra at the outer boundary, under the action of radial diffusion driven by the new ULF wave radial diffusion coefficients and with empirical chorus wave loss terms (as a function of energy, Kp and L). There is excellent agreement between the differential flux produced by the 1-D, Kp-driven, radial diffusion model and CRRES observations of differential electron flux at 0.976 MeV—even though the model does not include the effects of local internal acceleration sources. Our results highlight not only the importance of correct specification of radial diffusion coefficients for developing accurate models but also show significant promise for belt specification based on relatively simple models driven by solar wind parameters such as solar wind speed or geomagnetic indices such as Kp. Key Points Analytic expressions for the radial diffusion coefficients are presented The coefficients do not dependent on energy or wave m value The electric field diffusion coefficient dominates over the magnetic PMID:26167440
Investigation of photon attenuation coefficient of some building materials used in Turkey
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dogan, B.; Altinsoy, N.
2015-03-01
In this study, some building materials regularly used in Turkey, such as concrete, gas concrete, pumice and brick have been investigated in terms of mass attenuation coefficient at different gamma-ray energies. Measurements were carried out by gamma spectrometry containing NaI(Tl) detector. Narrow beam gamma-ray transmission geometry was used for the attenuation measurements. The results are in good agreement with the theoretical calculation of XCOM code.
Investigation of photon attenuation coefficient of some building materials used in Turkey
Dogan, B.; Altinsoy, N.
2015-03-30
In this study, some building materials regularly used in Turkey, such as concrete, gas concrete, pumice and brick have been investigated in terms of mass attenuation coefficient at different gamma-ray energies. Measurements were carried out by gamma spectrometry containing NaI(Tl) detector. Narrow beam gamma-ray transmission geometry was used for the attenuation measurements. The results are in good agreement with the theoretical calculation of XCOM code.
Trends in attenuation coefficients in Athens, Greece, from 1954 to 1991
Jacovides, C.P.; Kaltsounides, N.A.; Giannourakos, G.P.; Kallos, G.B.
1995-06-01
Unsworth and Monteith`s attenuation coefficient T{sub UM} was calculated from midday cloudless sky data in Athens, Greece, for the period 1954 to 1991. An interdependence between T{sub UM} and the Linke factor T{sub L} was found and is expressed as a mathematical function. It was also shown that the minimum turbidity levels occur during the winter and maximum levels occur during summer. An analysis of the long-term variation of the attenuation coefficients depicts the deterioration of air quality during the same period. The dependence of the ratio of diffuse to global radiation on the attenuation coefficient T{sub UM}, is also presented. 26 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Measurement of atomic number and mass attenuation coefficient in magnesium ferrite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kadam, R. H.; Alone, S. T.; Bichile, G. K.; Jadhav, K. M.
2007-05-01
Pure magnesium ferrite sample was prepared by standard ceramic technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction method. XRD pattern revealed that the sample possess single-phase cubic spinel structure. The linear attenuation coefficient (?), mass attenuation coefficient (?/?), total atomic cross-section (?_{tot}), total electronic cross-section (?_{ele}) and the effective atomic number (Z_{eff}) were calculated for pure magnesium ferrite (MgFe_{2}O_{4}). The values of ?-ray mass attenuation coefficient were obtained using a NaI energy selective scintillation counter with radioactive ?-ray sources having energy 0.36, 0.511, 0.662, 1.17 and 1.28 MeV. The experimentally obtained values of ?/? and Z_{eff} agreed fairly well with those obtained theoretically.
Zhang, Y.; Xu, Y.; Xia, J.
2011-01-01
We analyse dispersion and attenuation of surface waves at free surfaces of possible vacuum/poroelastic media: permeable-'open pore', impermeable-'closed pore' and partially permeable boundaries, which have not been previously reported in detail by researchers, under different surface-permeable, viscous-damping, elastic and fluid-flowing conditions. Our discussion is focused on their characteristics in the exploration-seismic frequency band (a few through 200 Hz) for near-surface applications. We find two surface-wave modes exist, R1 waves for all conditions, and R2 waves for closed-pore and partially permeable conditions. For R1 waves, velocities disperse most under partially permeable conditions and least under the open-pore condition. High-coupling damping coefficients move the main dispersion frequency range to high frequencies. There is an f1 frequency dependence as a constant-Q model for attenuation at high frequencies. R1 waves for the open pore are most sensitive to elastic modulus variation, but least sensitive to tortuosities variation. R1 waves for partially permeable surface radiate as non-physical waves (Im(k) < 0) at low frequencies. For R2 waves, velocities are slightly lower than the bulk slow P2 waves. At low frequencies, both velocity and attenuation are diffusive of f1/2 frequency dependence, as P2 waves. It is found that for partially permeable surfaces, the attenuation displays -f1 frequency dependence as frequency increasing. High surface permeability, low-coupling damping coefficients, low Poisson's ratios, and low tortuosities increase the slope of the -f1 dependence. When the attenuation coefficients reach 0, R2 waves for partially permeable surface begin to radiate as non-physical waves. ?? 2011 The Authors Geophysical Journal International ?? 2011 RAS.
Guided wave attenuation in pipes buried in sand
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael JS
2015-03-01
Long-range ultrasonic guided wave testing of pipelines is used routinely for detection of corrosion defects in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipelines that are buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised compared to those achieved for pipelines above ground because of the attenuation of the guided wave, due to energy leaking into the embedding soil. The attenuation characteristics of guided wave propagation in a pipe buried in sand are investigated using a full scale experimental rig. The apparatus consists of an 8"-diameter, 6-meters long steel pipe embedded over 3 meters in a rectangular container filled with sand and fitted with an air-bladder for the application of overburden pressure. Measurements of the attenuation of the T(0,1) and L(0,2) guided wave modes over a range of sand conditions, including loose, compacted, water saturated and drained, are presented. Attenuation values are found to be in the range of 1-5.5 dB/m. The application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation. The attenuation decreases in the fully water-saturated sand, while it increases in drained sand to values comparable with those obtained for the compacted sand. The attenuation behavior of the torsional guided wave mode is found not to be captured by a uniform soil model; comparison with predictions obtained with the Disperse software suggest that this is likely to be due to a layer of sand adhering to the surface of the pipe.
Estimation of ultrasound attenuation coefficient using log-spectrum domain processing.
Jirik, R; Taxt, T; Jan, J
2004-01-01
Ultrasound attenuation coefficient is an important diagnostic parameter in medical ultrasonography. Furthermore, it is a parameter of a component related to the attenuation process of the space-variant point spread function, which can be used to improve the spatial resolution of ultrasound images through deconvolution. A recently published approach to the estimation of the ultrasound attenuation coefficient from B-scan radiofrequency data is extended and explained in a detail. First, a parametric image of the mean attenuation coefficients between the probe and a given pixel position is computed by applying linear regression to log-spectra of short segments of radiofrequency signals. Three methods of forming the parametric image are presented. As a second step, the local tissue-specific attenuation coefficients are estimated in small regions of the obtained parametric image. The method has been tested on synthetic radiofrequency data and on radiofrequency data recorded from a tissue-mimicking phantom. A fairly good correlation with the known reference values was achieved. PMID:17271958
Byun, Jong-In; Yun, Ju-Yong
2015-08-01
It is shown that the gamma-ray linear attenuation coefficient of a sample with unknown chemical composition can be determined through a systematic calibration of the correlation between the linear attenuation coefficient, gamma-ray energy and the relative degree of attenuation. For calibration, H2O, MnO2, NaCl, Na2CO3 and (NH4)2SO4 were used as reference materials. Point-like gamma-ray sources with modest activity of approximately 37kBq, along with an HPGe detector, were used in the measurements. A semi-empirical formula was derived to calculate the linear attenuation coefficients as a function of the relative count rate and the gamma-ray energy. The method was applied to the determination of the linear attenuation coefficients for K2CrO4 and SiO2 test samples in the same setup used in calibration. The experimental result agreed well with the ones calculated by elementary data. PMID:25997111
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, R. C.; Longo, R.; Rigon, L.; Zanconati, F.; De Pellegrin, A.; Arfelli, F.; Dreossi, D.; Menk, R.-H.; Vallazza, E.; Xiao, T. Q.; Castelli, E.
2010-09-01
The measurement of the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues is of fundamental importance in the field of breast x-ray diagnostic imaging. Different groups have evaluated the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues by carrying out direct attenuation measurements in which the specimens were thin and selected as homogeneous as possible. Here, we use monochromatic and high-intensity synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SR CT) to evaluate the linear attenuation coefficients of surgical breast tissues in the energy range from 15 to 26.5 keV. X-ray detection is performed by a custom digital silicon micro-strip device, developed in the framework of the PICASSO INFN experiment. Twenty-three human surgical breast samples were selected for SR CT and histological study. Six of them underwent CT, both as fresh tissue and after formalin fixation, while the remaining 17 were imaged only as formalin-fixed tissues. Our results for fat and fibrous tissues are in good agreement with the published values. However, in contrast to the published data, our measurements show no significant differences between fibrous and tumor tissues. Moreover, our results for fresh and formalin-fixed tissues demonstrate a reduction of the linear attenuation coefficient for fibrous and tumor tissues after fixation.
Chen, R C; Longo, R; Rigon, L; Zanconati, F; De Pellegrin, A; Arfelli, F; Dreossi, D; Menk, R-H; Vallazza, E; Xiao, T Q; Castelli, E
2010-09-01
The measurement of the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues is of fundamental importance in the field of breast x-ray diagnostic imaging. Different groups have evaluated the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues by carrying out direct attenuation measurements in which the specimens were thin and selected as homogeneous as possible. Here, we use monochromatic and high-intensity synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SR CT) to evaluate the linear attenuation coefficients of surgical breast tissues in the energy range from 15 to 26.5 keV. X-ray detection is performed by a custom digital silicon micro-strip device, developed in the framework of the PICASSO INFN experiment. Twenty-three human surgical breast samples were selected for SR CT and histological study. Six of them underwent CT, both as fresh tissue and after formalin fixation, while the remaining 17 were imaged only as formalin-fixed tissues. Our results for fat and fibrous tissues are in good agreement with the published values. However, in contrast to the published data, our measurements show no significant differences between fibrous and tumor tissues. Moreover, our results for fresh and formalin-fixed tissues demonstrate a reduction of the linear attenuation coefficient for fibrous and tumor tissues after fixation. PMID:20702925
Gravitons to photons — Attenuation of gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, Preston; Singleton, Douglas
2015-11-01
In this essay, we examine the response of an Unruh-DeWitt (UD) detector (a quantum two-level system) to a gravitational wave background. The spectrum of the UD detector is of the same form as some scattering processes or three body decays such as muon-electron scattering or muon decay. Based on this similarity, we propose that the UD detector response implies a “decay” or attenuation of gravitons, G, into photons, γ, via G + G → γ + γ or G → γ + γ + G. Over large distances such a decay/attenuation may have consequences in regard to the detection of gravitational waves.
Body-Wave Attenuation Structure in Southern Mexico
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, T.; Clayton, R. W.
2008-12-01
Velocity spectra from moderate-sized earthquakes are used to investigate the body-wave attenuation structure in southern Mexico. In particular, we include local events with magnitudes in the range 4.0 < M < 6.2 and depths larger than 50 km recorded from July 2007 to present on the VEOX array, which consists of 47 broadband sensors from Pacific Coast to Gulf of Mexico, cross Oaxaca and Veracruz states in southern Mexico. By assuming a Brune-type source, a path-averaged frequency-independent Q is obtained for each seismogram in the frequency band 2 to 30 Hz, depending on the signal quality. P wave analyses show that waves from events deeper than 130 km and north of 16.5N generally attenuate more in the back arc than in the fore arc, while the waves from events shallower than 100 km do not show much distinctive feature. This indicates that the mantle wedge in this region is characterized by high attenuation, and the high-attenuation zone may lie approximately between the depths of 100 km and 130 km. Preliminary estimates show Q ~ 1000 in the crust and slab, and Q ~ 200 in the high-attenuation mantle wedge zone. The fact that waves from events to further south do not show a distinction between the back arc and fore arc is probably due to a 3D effect. We will present a detailed attenuation tomography model of this region, which then can be used to estimate variations in viscosity.
Pore-Scale Modeling of Pore Structure Effects on P-Wave Scattering Attenuation in Dry Rocks
Li, Tianyang; Qiu, Hao; Wang, Feifei
2015-01-01
Underground rocks usually have complex pore system with a variety of pore types and a wide range of pore size. The effects of pore structure on elastic wave attenuation cannot be neglected. We investigated the pore structure effects on P-wave scattering attenuation in dry rocks by pore-scale modeling based on the wave theory and the similarity principle. Our modeling results indicate that pore size, pore shape (such as aspect ratio), and pore density are important factors influencing P-wave scattering attenuation in porous rocks, and can explain the variation of scattering attenuation at the same porosity. From the perspective of scattering attenuation, porous rocks can safely suit to the long wavelength assumption when the ratio of wavelength to pore size is larger than 15. Under the long wavelength condition, the scattering attenuation coefficient increases as a power function as the pore density increases, and it increases exponentially with the increase in aspect ratio. For a certain porosity, rocks with smaller aspect ratio and/or larger pore size have stronger scattering attenuation. When the pore aspect ratio is larger than 0.5, the variation of scattering attenuation at the same porosity is dominantly caused by pore size and almost independent of the pore aspect ratio. These results lay a foundation for pore structure inversion from elastic wave responses in porous rocks. PMID:25961729
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richter, Tom; Wegler, Ulrich
2015-04-01
Modeling of peak ground velocity caused by induced earthquakes requires detailed knowledge about seismic attenuation properties of the subsurface. Especially shear wave attenuation is important, because shear waves usually show the largest amplitude in high frequency seismograms. We report intrinsic and scattering attenuation coefficients of shear waves near three geothermal reservoirs in Germany for frequencies between 2 Hz and 50 Hz. The geothermal plants are located in the sedimentary basins of the upper Rhine graben (Insheim and Landau) and the Molasse basin (Unterhaching). The method optimizes the fit between Green's functions for the acoustic, isotropic radiative transfer theory and observed energy densities of induced earthquakes. The inversion allows the determination of scattering and intrinsic attenuation, site corrections, and spectral source energies for the investigated frequency bands. We performed the inversion at the three sites for events with a magnitude between 0.7 and 2. We determined a transport mean free path of 70 km for Unterhaching. For Landau and Insheim the transport mean free path depends on frequency. It ranges from 2 km (at 2 Hz) to 30 km (at 40 Hz) for Landau and from 9 km to 50 km for Insheim. The quality factor for intrinsic attenuation is constant for frequencies smaller than 10 Hz at all three sites. It is around 100 for Unterhaching and 200 for Landau and Insheim with higher values above 10 Hz.
A simplified model of radiation attenuation and energy absorption coefficients of the elements.
Sutcliffe, John F
2015-11-01
This paper presents a model to predict mass attenuation and mass energy absorption coefficients of the elements for photons of energy from 1keV to 20MeV. The Compton scattering component is modeled by the attenuation and energy absorption of hydrogen at photon energies above 10keV. Photoelectric attenuation and absorption is modeled as a simple power law of photon energy, modified by a simple function of the difference between the photon energy and the K shell binding energy of the absorber atoms. Attenuation and absorption by pair production above 1.022MeV is modeled as a quadratic function of the square root of the photon energy. The mass attenuation and mass energy absorption coefficients of compounds can be predicted by the mixture rule. The errors in the model are greatest at the lowest photon energies, in part due to a lack of experimental data for photon energies below 1keV. Worked examples are presented for the attenuation of photons at various energies in several elements and also in water over the whole range of photon energies. PMID:26319092
Comparison of attenuation coefficients for VVER-440 and VVER-1000 pressure vessels
Marek, M.; Rataj, J.; Vandlik, S.
2011-07-01
The paper summarizes the attenuation coefficient of the neutron fluence with E > 0.5 MeV through a reactor pressure vessel for vodo-vodyanoi energetichesky reactor (VVER) reactor types measured and/or calculated for mock-up experiments, as well as for operated nuclear power plant (NPP) units. The attenuation coefficient is possible to evaluate directly only by using the retro-dosimetry, based on a combination of the measured activities from the weld sample and concurrent ex-vessel measurement. The available neutron fluence attenuation coefficients (E > 0.5 MeV), calculated and measured at a mock-up experiment simulating the VVER-440-unit conditions, vary from 3.5 to 6.15. A similar situation is used for the calculations and mock-up experiment measurements for the VVER-1000 RPV, where the attenuation coefficient of the neutron fluence varies from 5.99 to 8.85. Because of the difference in calculations for the real units and the mock-up experiments, the necessity to design and perform calculation benchmarks both for VVER-440 and VVER-1000 would be meaningful if the calculation model is designed adequately to a given unit. (authors)
Total photon attenuation coefficients in some rare earth elements using selective excitation method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
SitaMahalakshmi, N. V.; Kareem, M. A.; Premachand, K.
2015-01-01
The total mass attenuation coefficients were measured in the elements La, Nd, Sm, Gd and Dy belonging to rare earth region in the energy range 30-55 keV by employing the selective excitation method. This method facilitates selection of excitation energies near the K edge. The present experimental results were compared with the theoretical values due to Chantler and XCOM.
Mehranian, Abolfazl; Zaidi, Habib
2015-06-21
In standard segmentation-based MRI-guided attenuation correction (MRAC) of PET data on hybrid PET/MRI systems, the inter/intra-patient variability of linear attenuation coefficients (LACs) is ignored owing to the assignment of a constant LAC to each tissue class. This can lead to PET quantification errors, especially in the lung regions. In this work, we aim to derive continuous and patient-specific lung LACs from time-of-flight (TOF) PET emission data using the maximum likelihood reconstruction of activity and attenuation (MLAA) algorithm. The MLAA algorithm was constrained for estimation of lung LACs only in the standard 4-class MR attenuation map using Gaussian lung tissue preference and Markov random field smoothness priors. MRAC maps were derived from segmentation of CT images of 19 TOF-PET/CT clinical studies into background air, lung, soft tissue and fat tissue classes, followed by assignment of predefined LACs of 0, 0.0224, 0.0864 and 0.0975 cm(-1), respectively. The lung LACs of the resulting attenuation maps were then estimated from emission data using the proposed MLAA algorithm. PET quantification accuracy of MRAC and MLAA methods was evaluated against the reference CT-based AC method in the lungs, lesions located in/near the lungs and neighbouring tissues. The results show that the proposed MLAA algorithm is capable of retrieving lung density gradients and compensate fairly for respiratory-phase mismatch between PET and corresponding attenuation maps. It was found that the mean of the estimated lung LACs generally follow the trend of the reference CT-based attenuation correction (CTAC) method. Quantitative analysis revealed that the MRAC method resulted in average relative errors of -5.2 ± 7.1% and -6.1 ± 6.7% in the lungs and lesions, respectively. These were reduced by the MLAA algorithm to -0.8 ± 6.3% and -3.3 ± 4.7%, respectively. In conclusion, we demonstrated the potential and capability of emission-based methods in deriving patient-specific lung LACs to improve the accuracy of attenuation correction in TOF PET/MR imaging, thus paving the way for their adaptation in the clinic. PMID:26047036
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehranian, Abolfazl; Zaidi, Habib
2015-06-01
In standard segmentation-based MRI-guided attenuation correction (MRAC) of PET data on hybrid PET/MRI systems, the inter/intra-patient variability of linear attenuation coefficients (LACs) is ignored owing to the assignment of a constant LAC to each tissue class. This can lead to PET quantification errors, especially in the lung regions. In this work, we aim to derive continuous and patient-specific lung LACs from time-of-flight (TOF) PET emission data using the maximum likelihood reconstruction of activity and attenuation (MLAA) algorithm. The MLAA algorithm was constrained for estimation of lung LACs only in the standard 4-class MR attenuation map using Gaussian lung tissue preference and Markov random field smoothness priors. MRAC maps were derived from segmentation of CT images of 19 TOF-PET/CT clinical studies into background air, lung, soft tissue and fat tissue classes, followed by assignment of predefined LACs of 0, 0.0224, 0.0864 and 0.0975 cm-1, respectively. The lung LACs of the resulting attenuation maps were then estimated from emission data using the proposed MLAA algorithm. PET quantification accuracy of MRAC and MLAA methods was evaluated against the reference CT-based AC method in the lungs, lesions located in/near the lungs and neighbouring tissues. The results show that the proposed MLAA algorithm is capable of retrieving lung density gradients and compensate fairly for respiratory-phase mismatch between PET and corresponding attenuation maps. It was found that the mean of the estimated lung LACs generally follow the trend of the reference CT-based attenuation correction (CTAC) method. Quantitative analysis revealed that the MRAC method resulted in average relative errors of -5.2 ± 7.1% and -6.1 ± 6.7% in the lungs and lesions, respectively. These were reduced by the MLAA algorithm to -0.8 ± 6.3% and -3.3 ± 4.7%, respectively. In conclusion, we demonstrated the potential and capability of emission-based methods in deriving patient-specific lung LACs to improve the accuracy of attenuation correction in TOF PET/MR imaging, thus paving the way for their adaptation in the clinic.
Body Wave Crustal Attenuation Characteristics in the Garhwal Himalaya, India
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Negi, Sanjay S.; Paul, Ajay; Joshi, Anand; Kamal
2015-06-01
We estimate frequency-dependent attenuation of P and S waves in Garhwal Himalaya using the extended coda normalization method for the central frequencies 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 16 Hz, with earthquake hypocentral distance ranging from 27 to 200 km. Forty well-located local earthquake waveforms were used to study the seismic attenuation characteristics of the Garhwal Himalaya, India, as recorded by eight stations operated by Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun, India, from 2007 to 2012. We find frequency-dependent P and S wave quality factors as defined by the relations Q P = 56 8 f 0.910.002 and Q S = 151 8 f 0.840.002 by fitting a power-law frequency dependence model for the estimated values over the whole region. Both the Q P and Q S values indicate strong attenuation in the crust of Garhwal Himalaya. The ratio of Q S/ Q P > 1 obtained for the entire analyzed frequency range suggests that the scattering loss is due to a random and high degree of heterogeneities in the earth medium, playing an important role in seismic wave attenuation in the Himalayan crust.
First evidence for high anelastic attenuation beneath the Red Sea from Love wave analysis
Hadiouche, Ouiza )
1990-10-01
Attenuation coefficients of Love waves are determined for two seismic paths along the Red Sea. The attenuation coefficients are obtained using the multiple filter method for periods from 25 to 130 s along one path and from 40 to 130 s along the second one. The two sets of observations are in good agreement with anomalously high attenuation coefficients similar to those reported across a young part of the Pacific Ocean. Indeed, the values lie on average between 3.3 {plus minus} 0.6 and 1.1 {plus minus} 0.3 (10{sup {minus}4}km{sup {minus}1}) higher values being observed at shorter periods. In a second part of the paper, these apparent attenuation observations are interpreted in terms of a distribution of intrinsic absorption in the upper mantle. A frequency independent Q{sub {beta}} model is obtained using a trial-and-error method. The best fit to the data required a large and very low Q{sub {beta}} (30-50) zone below a depth of 50 km, underlying a thin and high Q{sub {beta}} (200-300) lid. These results are consistent with high heat flows and low velocities which characterize this tectonically active area, and corroborate the inference of anomalously high temperatures and low viscosity in the upper mantle beneath the Red Sea from recent seismological results.
Quantitative RNFL attenuation coefficient measurements by RPE-normalized OCT data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vermeer, K. A.; van der Schoot, J.; Lemij, H. G.; de Boer, J. F.
2012-03-01
We demonstrate significantly different scattering coefficients of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) between normal and glaucoma subjects. In clinical care, SD-OCT is routinely used to assess the RNFL thickness for glaucoma management. In this way, the full OCT data set is conveniently reduced to an easy to interpret output, matching results from older (non- OCT) instruments. However, OCT provides more data, such as the signal strength itself, which is due to backscattering in the retinal layers. For quantitative analysis, this signal should be normalized to adjust for local differences in the intensity of the beam that reaches the retina. In this paper, we introduce a model that relates the OCT signal to the attenuation coefficient of the tissue. The average RNFL signal (within an A-line) was then normalized based on the observed RPE signal, resulting in normalized RNFL attenuation coefficient maps. These maps showed local defects matching those found in thickness data. The average (normalized) RNFL attenuation coefficient of a fixed band around the optic nerve head was significantly lower in glaucomatous eyes than in normal eyes (3.0mm-1 vs. 4.9mm-1, P<0.01, Mann-Whitney test).
Miller, Rita J; Frizzell, Leon A; Zachary, James F; O'Brien, William D
2002-10-01
Attention coefficient and propagation speed of intercostal tissues were estimated from chest walls removed postmortem (pm) from 15 5.3+/-2.3-day-old, 19 31+/-6-day-old, and 15 61+/-3-day-old crossbred pigs. These ultrasonic propagation properties were determined from measurements through the intercostal tissues, from the surface of the skin to the parietal pleura. The chest walls were placed in a 0.9% sodium chloride solution, sealed in freezer bags, and stored at -15 degrees C prior to measurements. When evaluated, chest-wall storage time ranged between 1 and 477 days pm. All chest walls were allowed to equilibrate to 22 degrees C in a water bath prior to evaluation. There was an age dependency of the intercostal tissue propagation speed, with the speed increasing with increasing age. The attenuation coefficient of intercostal tissue was shown to be independent of the age of the pig at the discrete frequencies of 3.1 and 6.2 MHz. For pig intercostal tissues, the estimated attenuation coefficient over the 3.1-9.2 MHz frequency range was A = 1.94f(0.90) where A is in decibels per centimeter (dB/cm) and f is the ultrasonic frequency in megahertz. In order to determine if there was an effect of storage time pm on estimates of attenuation coefficient, a second experiment was conducted. Five of the youngest pig chest walls measured on day 1 pm in the first experiment were stored at 4 degrees C prior to the first evaluation then stored at -15 degrees C before being measured again at 108 days pm. There was no difference in the estimated intercostal tissue attenuation coefficient as a function of storage time pm. PMID:12403143
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bachura, Martin; Fischer, Tomas
2014-05-01
Seismic waves are attenuated by number of factors, including geometrical spreading, scattering on heterogeneities and intrinsic loss due the anelasticity of medium. Contribution of the latter two processes can be derived from the tail part of the seismogram - coda (strictly speaking S-wave coda), as these factors influence the shape and amplitudes of coda. Numerous methods have been developed for estimation of attenuation properties from the decay rate of coda amplitudes. Most of them work with the S-wave coda, some are designed for the P-wave coda (only on teleseismic distances) or for the whole waveforms. We used methods to estimate the 1/Qc - attenuation of coda waves, methods to separate scattering and intrinsic loss - 1/Qsc, Qi and methods to estimate attenuation of direct P and S wave - 1/Qp, 1/Qs. In this study, we analyzed the S-wave coda of local earthquake data recorded in the West Bohemia/Vogtland area. This region is well known thanks to the repeated occurrence of earthquake swarms. We worked with data from the 2011 earthquake swarm, which started late August and lasted with decreasing intensity for another 4 months. During the first week of swarm thousands of events were detected with maximum magnitudes ML = 3.6. Amount of high quality data (including continuous datasets and catalogues with an abundance of well-located events) is available due to installation of WEBNET seismic network (13 permanent and 9 temporary stations) monitoring seismic activity in the area. Results of the single-scattering model show seismic attenuations decreasing with frequency, what is in agreement with observations worldwide. We also found decrease of attenuation with increasing hypocentral distance and increasing lapse time, which was interpreted as a decrease of attenuation with depth (coda waves on later lapse times are generated in bigger depths - in our case in upper lithosphere, where attenuations are small). We also noticed a decrease of frequency dependence of 1/Qc with depth, where 1/Qc seems to be frequency independent in depth range of upper lithosphere. Lateral changes of 1/Qc were also reported - it decreases in the south-west direction from the Novy Kostel focal zone, where the attenuation is the highest. Results from more advanced methods that allow for separation of scattering and intrinsic loss show that intrinsic loss is a dominant factor for attenuating of seismic waves in the region. Determination of attenuation due to scattering appears ambiguous due to small hypocentral distances available for the analysis, where the effects of scattering in frequency range from 1 to 24 Hz are not significant.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gumbs, Godfrey; Aizin, G. R.; Pepper, Michael
1998-03-01
The velocity change and the attenuation coefficient of the transmitted surface acoustic wave (SAW) of wave number k interacting with a 2DEG in a piezoelectric semiconductor are well-known. Here, the energy change ? U/U is calculated for a narrow channel of width r_? (kr_? << 1) at distance d below the surface of a slab of piezoelectric material of finite thickness when an elastic wave is launched on the surface. We obtain ? U/U as a closed-form expression in terms of the velocity of the elastic wave, the elastic constants and the piezoelectric tensor. Numerical results are presented for ? U/U as a function of kd for several values of the thickness of a slab of GaAs/Al_xGa_1-xAs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lu; Wu, Li-Wei; Wei, Le; Gao, Juan; Sun, Cui-Li; Chai, Pei; Li, Dao-Wu
2014-02-01
The accuracy of attenuation correction in positron emission tomography scanners depends mainly on deriving the reliable 511-keV linear attenuation coefficient distribution in the scanned objects. In the PET/CT system, the linear attenuation distribution is usually obtained from the intensities of the CT image. However, the intensities of the CT image relate to the attenuation of photons in an energy range of 40 keV-140 keV. Before implementing PET attenuation correction, the intensities of CT images must be transformed into the PET 511-keV linear attenuation coefficients. However, the CT scan parameters can affect the effective energy of CT X-ray photons and thus affect the intensities of the CT image. Therefore, for PET/CT attenuation correction, it is crucial to determine the conversion curve with a given set of CT scan parameters and convert the CT image into a PET linear attenuation coefficient distribution. A generalized method is proposed for converting a CT image into a PET linear attenuation coefficient distribution. Instead of some parameter-dependent phantom calibration experiments, the conversion curve is calculated directly by employing the consistency conditions to yield the most consistent attenuation map with the measured PET data. The method is evaluated with phantom experiments and small animal experiments. In phantom studies, the estimated conversion curve fits the true attenuation coefficients accurately, and accurate PET attenuation maps are obtained by the estimated conversion curves and provide nearly the same correction results as the true attenuation map. In small animal studies, a more complicated attenuation distribution of the mouse is obtained successfully to remove the attenuation artifact and improve the PET image contrast efficiently.
Mass attenuation coefficients of X-rays in different medicinal plants.
Morabad, R B; Kerur, B R
2010-02-01
The mass attenuation coefficients of specific parts of several plants, (fruits, leaves, stem and seeds) often used as medicines in the Indian herbal system, have been measured employing NaI (TI)) detector. The electronic setup used is a NaI (TI) detector, which is coupled to MCA for analysis of the spectrum. A source of (241)Am is used to get X-rays in the energy range 8-32keV from Cu, Rb, Mo, Ag and Ba targets. In the present study, the measured mass attenuation coefficient of Ocimum sanctum, Catharanthus roseus, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Azadirachta indica, Aegle marmelos, Zingiber officinalis, Emblica officinalis, Anacardium occidentale, Momordica charantia and Syzygium cumini show a linear relation with the energy. PMID:19910203
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dreischuh, Tanja N.; Gurdev, Ljuan L.; Vankov, Orlin I.; Avramov, Lachezar A.; Stoyanov, Dimitar V.
2015-01-01
The experimental investigations on different aspects of optical tomography require the knowledge of the optical parameters of tissues and tissue-like phantoms in order to unambiguously interpret the experimental data and specify characteristic inhomogeneities in tissue diagnostics. The main optical parameters of interest are the absorption coefficient, the scattering, backscattering, and reduced-scattering coefficients, the total attenuation (extinction) coefficient and the anisotropy factor. In this work, we extend our investigations of the optical properties of tissuemimicking phantoms, such as Intralipid-20% fat emulsion, using an approach we have developed recently based on the peculiarities of laser radiation beams propagating through semi-infinite turbid media. The dependence of the total attenuation coefficient on the Intralipid concentration, for laser radiation wavelengths ?=405, 672, 850, and 1314 nm, is studied, by using a set of phantoms consisting of different dilutions of Intralipid in distilled water. The experimental results for the extinction are in agreement with our previous results and with empiric formulae found by other authors concerning the wavelength dependence of the scattering coefficient of Intralipid -10% and Intralipid - 20%. They are also in agreement with known data of the water absorptance. As a whole, the results obtained in this work confirm the consideration of the experimental phantoms as semi-infinite media. They also confirm and extend theoretical and experimental results obtained previously, and reveal advantages of using longer wavelengths for deeper diagnostics of tissues and mimic turbid media.
Spatial variation of coda wave attenuation in northwestern Colombia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vargas, Carlos A.; Ugalde, Arantza; Pujades, Llus G.; Canas, Jos A.
2004-08-01
One thousand seven hundred and eighty-six vertical-component, short-period observations of microearthquake codas from regional earthquakes recorded by 17 stations belonging to the National Seismological Network of Colombia were used to estimate seismic wave attenuation in Colombia. Local magnitudes range from 2.9 to 6.0 and only events occurring at hypocentral distances up to 255 km were considered for the analysis. The frequencies of interest lay between 1 and 19 Hz and the analysis was performed for each seismic station separately. Coda-wave attenuation (Q-1c) was estimated by means of a single-scattering method whereas the separation of intrinsic absorption (Q-1i) and scattering attenuation (Q-1s) from total attenuation (Q-1t) was performed using a multiple lapse time-window analysis based on the hypothesis of multiple isotropic scattering and uniform distribution of scatterers. A regionalization of the estimated Q0 (Qc at 1 Hz) values was performed and a contour map of seismic coda attenuation in Colombia is presented, where four zones with significant variations of attenuation related to different geological and tectonic characteristics can be observed. The highest attenuation is linked to the central and western regions (Q0 around 50 and 56) whereas a lower attenuation (Q0 around 69 and 67) is assigned to the northern and eastern regions. Results show that the Q-1 values are frequency dependent in the considered frequency range, and are approximated by a least-square fit to the power law Q-1(f) =Q-10(f/f0)-?. The exponents of the frequency dependence law ranged from ?= 0.65 to 1.01 for Q-1c, ?= 0.62 to 1.78 for Q-1i, ?= 0.28 to 1.49 for Q-1s, and ?= 0.53 to 1.67 for Q-1t. On the other hand, intrinsic absorption is found to dominate over scattering in the attenuation process for most of the stations and frequency bands analysed. Some discrepancies have been observed between the theoretical model and the observations for some frequency bands which indicate that it would be necessary to consider models for depth-dependent velocity structure and/or non-isotropic scattering patterns.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferreira, C. C.; Ximenes, R. E.; Garcia, C. A. B.; Vieira, J. W.; Maia, A. F.
2010-11-01
To study the doses received by patient submitted to ionizing radiation, several materials are used to simulate the human tissue and organs. The total mass attenuation coefficient is a reasonable way for evaluating the usage in dosimetry of these materials. The total mass attenuation coefficient is determined by photon energy and constituent elements of the material. Currently, the human phantoms are composed by a unique material that presents characteristics similar to the mean proprieties of the different tissues within the region. Therefore, the phantoms are usually homogeneous and filled with a material similar to soft tissue. We studied ten materials used as soft tissue-simulating. These materials were named: bolus, nylon, orange articulation wax, red articulation wax, PMMA, modelling clay, bee wax, paraffin 1, paraffin 2 and pitch. The objective of this study was to verify the best material to simulate the human cerebral tissue. We determined the elementary composition, mass density and, therefore, calculated the total mass attenuation coefficient of each material. The results were compared to the values established by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements - ICRU, report n 44, and by the International Commission on Radiation Protection - ICRP, report n 89, to determine the best material for this energy interval. These results indicate that new head phantoms can be constructed with nylon.
Guided wave attenuation in coated pipes buried in sand
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael J. S.
2016-02-01
Long-range guided wave testing (GWT) is routinely used for the monitoring and detection of corrosion defects in above ground pipelines in various industries. The GWT test range in buried, coated pipelines is greatly reduced compared to aboveground pipelines due to energy leakage into the embedding soil. In this study, we aim to increase test ranges for buried pipelines. The effect of pipe coatings on the T(0,1) and L(0,2) guided wave attenuation is investigated using a full-scale experimental apparatus and model predictions. Tests are performed on a fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE)-coated 8" pipe, buried in loose and compacted sand over a frequency range of 10-35 kHz. The application of a low impedance coating is shown to effectively decouple the influence of the sand on the ultrasound leakage from the buried pipe. We demonstrate ultrasonic isolation of a buried pipe by coating the pipe with a Polyethylene (PE)-foam layer that has a smaller impedance than both pipe and sand and the ability to withstand the overburden load from the sand. The measured attenuation in the buried PE-foam-FBE-coated pipe is substantially reduced, in the range of 0.3-1.2 dBm-1 for loose and compacted sand conditions, compared to buried FBE-coated pipe without the PE-foam, where the measured attenuation is in the range of 1.7-4.7 dBm-1. The acoustic properties of the PE-foam are measured independently using ultrasonic interferometry technique and used in model predictions of guided wave propagation in a buried coated pipe. Good agreement is found between the attenuation measurements and model predictions. The attenuation exhibits periodic peaks in the frequency domain corresponding to the through-thickness resonance frequencies of the coating layer. The large reduction in guided wave attenuation for PE-coated pipes would lead to greatly increased GWT test ranges, so such coatings would be attractive for new pipeline installations.
Attenuation of shock waves in copper and stainless steel
Harvey, W.B.
1986-06-01
By using shock pins, data were gathered on the trajectories of shock waves in stainless steel (SS-304L) and oxygen-free-high-conductivity copper (OFHC-Cu). Shock pressures were generated in these materials by impacting the appropriate target with thin (approx.1.5 mm) flying plates. The flying plates in these experiments were accelerated to high velocities (approx.4 km/s) by high explosives. Six experiments were conducted, three using SS-304L as the target material and three experiments using OFHC-Cu as the target material. Peak shock pressures generated in the steel experiments were approximately 109, 130, and 147 GPa and in the copper experiments, the peak shock pressures were approximately 111, 132, and 143 GPa. In each experiment, an attenuation of the shock wave by a following release wave was clearly observed. An extensive effort using two characteristic codes (described in this work) to theoretically calculate the attenuation of the shock waves was made. The efficacy of several different constitutive equations to successfully model the experiments was studied by comparing the calculated shock trajectories to the experimental data. Based on such comparisons, the conclusion can be drawn that OFHC-Cu enters a melt phase at about 130 GPa on the principal Hugoniot. There was no sign of phase changes in the stainless-steel experiments. In order to match the observed attenuation of the shock waves in the SS-304L experiments, it was necessary to include strength effects in the calculations. It was found that the values for the parameters in the strength equations were dependent on the equation of state used in the modeling of the experiments. 66 refs., 194 figs., 77 tabs.
Seismic interferometry of scattered surface waves in attenuative media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Halliday, David; Curtis, Andrew
2009-07-01
Seismic interferometry can be used to estimate interreceiver surface wave signals by cross-correlation of signals recorded at each receiver that are emitted from a surrounding boundary of impulsive or uncorrelated noise sources. We study seismic interferometry for scattered surface waves using a stationary-phase analysis and surface wave Green's functions for isotropic point scatterers embedded in laterally homogeneous media. Our analysis reveals key differences between the interferometric construction of reflected and point-scattered body or surface waves, since point scatterers radiate energy in all directions but a reflection from a finite flat reflector is specular. In the case of surface waves, we find that additional cancelling terms are introduced in the stationary-phase analysis for scattered waves related to the constraint imposed by the optical theorem for surface waves. The additional terms are of second order even for single-scattered waves, and we show that these can be highly significant in multiple-scattering cases. In attenuative media errors are introduced due to amplitude errors in these additional terms. Further, we find that as the distribution of scatterers in a medium becomes more complex the errors in correlation-type interferometry caused by attenuation in the background medium become larger. Convolution-type interferometry has been shown to be effective when considering electromagnetic wavefields in lossy media, and we show that this is also true for scattered surface waves in attenuating elastic media. By adapting our stationary-phase approach to this case, we reveal why convolution-type interferometry performs well in such media: the second-order cancelling terms that appear in the correlation-type approach do not appear in convolution-type interferometry. Finally, we find that when using both correlation- and convolution-type interferometry with realistic source geometries (illustrative of both industrial seismics and `passive noise' interferometry), we cannot necessarily expect to produce estimates with all dominant scattering events present. This is shown to be especially important if, as proposed previously for electromagnetic applications, the convolution and correlation approaches are compared to help identify errors in the interferometric estimates.
Results of a monte carlo investigation of the diffuse attenuation coefficient.
Concannon, B M; Davis, J P
1999-08-20
There has been a large effort to relate the apparent optical properties of ocean water to the inherent optical properties, which are the absorption coefficient a, the scattering coefficient b, and the scattering phase function rho(theta). The diffuse attenuation coefficient kdiff' has most often been considered an apparent optical property. However, kdiff' can be considered a quasi-inherent property kdiff' when defined as a steady-state light distribution attenuation coefficient. The Honey-Wilson research empirically relates kdiff' to a and b. The Honey-Wilson relation most likely applies to a limited range of water types because it does not include dependence on rho(theta). A series of Monte Carlo simulations were initiated to calculate kdiff' in an unstratified water column. The calculations, which reflected open ocean water types, used ranges of the single-scattering albedo omega(0) and the mean forward-scattering angle theta(m) for two analytic phase functions with different shapes. It was found that kdiff' is nearly independent of the shape of rho(theta) and can be easily parameterized in terms of a, b, and theta(m) for 0.11
A Heterogeneous Nonlinear Attenuating Full-Wave Model of Ultrasound
Pinton, Gianmarco F.; Dahl, Jeremy; Rosenzweig, Stephen; Trahey, Gregg E.
2015-01-01
A full-wave equation that describes nonlinear propagation in a heterogeneous attenuating medium is solved numerically with finite differences in the time domain (FDTD). Three-dimensional solutions of the equation are verified with water tank measurements of a commercial diagnostic ultrasound transducer and are shown to be in excellent agreement in terms of the fundamental and harmonic acoustic fields and the power spectrum at the focus. The linear and nonlinear components of the algorithm are also verified independently. In the linear nonattenuating regime solutions match results from Field II, a well established software package used in transducer modeling, to within 0.3 dB. Nonlinear plane wave propagation is shown to closely match results from the Galerkin method up to 4 times the fundamental frequency. In addition to thermoviscous attenuation we present a numerical solution of the relaxation attenuation laws that allows modeling of arbitrary frequency dependent attenuation, such as that observed in tissue. A perfectly matched layer (PML) is implemented at the boundaries with a numerical implementation that allows the PML to be used with high-order discretizations. A −78 dB reduction in the reflected amplitude is demonstrated. The numerical algorithm is used to simulate a diagnostic ultrasound pulse propagating through a histologically measured representation of human abdominal wall with spatial variation in the speed of sound, attenuation, nonlinearity, and density. An ultrasound image is created in silico using the same physical and algorithmic process used in an ultrasound scanner: a series of pulses are transmitted through heterogeneous scattering tissue and the received echoes are used in a delay-and-sum beam-forming algorithm to generate a images. The resulting harmonic image exhibits characteristic improvement in lesion boundary definition and contrast when compared with the fundamental image. We demonstrate a mechanism of harmonic image quality improvement by showing that the harmonic point spread function is less sensitive to reverberation clutter. PMID:19411208
Attenuation characteristics of nonlinear pressure waves propagating in pipes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, C. C.
1974-01-01
A series of experiments was conducted to investigate temporal and spatial velocity distributions of fluid flow in 3-in. open-end pipes of various lengths up to 210 ft, produced by the propagation of nonlinear pressure waves of various intensities. Velocity profiles across each of five sections along the pipes were measured as a function of time with the use of hot-film and hot-wire anemometers for two pressure waves produced by a piston. Peculiar configurations of the velocity profiles across the pipe section were noted, which are uncommon for steady pipe flow. Theoretical consideration was given to this phenomenon of higher velocity near the pipe wall for qualitative confirmation. Experimentally time-dependent velocity distributions along the pipe axis were compared with one-dimensional theoretical results obtained by the method of characteristics with or without diffusion term for the purpose of determining the attenuation characteristics of the nonlinear wave propagation in the pipes.
Lateral Variations of Coda Wave Attenuation in the Alps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayor, J.; Margerin, L.; Calvet, M.; Traversa, P.
2014-12-01
We explore lateral variations of coda wave attenuation in the French Alps and surrounding regions. The area of investigation extends from the Rhine Graben in the north, to the northern Apennine Range in the south, and includes the Eastern and Western Alps. Following the classical work of Aki and Chouet (1975), coda wave attenuation has been characterized by measuring the coda quality factor of short-period S waves (Qc). We have selected about 2000 weak to moderate earthquakes, with magnitudes ranging from 3 to 5. Waveform data recorded by permanent seismic networks have been collected at the ORFEUS data center through the ArcLink protocol. Qc has been measured in five frequency bands [1-2], [2-4], [4-8], [8-16], [16-32] Hz, by applying a simple linear regression to the smooth energy envelopes of seismograms in the time domain. Various choices of coda window length (Lw), and coda onset time (tw, as measured from the origin time) have been tested to ensure that our measurements are free from any systematic effects of lapse-time dependence in the range of epicentral distance considered. The optimal choice, which simultaneously maximizes the geographical coverage and minimizes the measurement biases, is obtained for Lw=50s and tw=70s, for epicentral distances smaller than 180 km. The map of Qc is obtained by discretizing the Alpine region into pixels of dimension (20km x 20km). For each source/receiver pair, the estimated value of Qc is distributed along the direct ray path. An average over all paths that cross an individual pixel is performed to obtain the local value of Qc. A spatial smoothing over an area covering a square of 9 pixels is subsequently applied. The maps of Qc display strong lateral variations of attenuation in the Alpine area. At all frequencies, the ratio between the lowest and largest value of Qc is typically larger than 2. The attenuation pattern is complex but relatively independent of frequency. Some geological formations such as the Upper Rhine Graben and the eastern Alps show up clearly on the maps and systematically exhibit lower attenuation than the Po Valley and the Apennines. The typical scale of the spatial variations of the coda quality factor is of the order of 100km, which suggests rapid lateral variation of attenuation properties in the crust.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xin; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Zigone, Dimitri
2015-11-01
We develop and apply an algorithm for deriving interstation seismic attenuation from cross-correlations of ambient noise recorded by linear arrays. Theoretical results on amplitude decay due to attenuation are used to form a linear least-square inversion for interstation QR values of Rayleigh surface waves propagating along linear arrays having three or more stations. The noise wave field is assumed stationary within each day and the interstation distances should be greater than the employed wavelength. The inversion uses differences of logarithmic amplitude decay curves measured at different stations from cross-correlation functions within a given frequency band. The background attenuation between noise sources and receivers is effectively cancelled with this method. The site amplification factors are assumed constant (or following similar patterns) in the frequency band of interest. The inversion scheme is validated with synthetic tests using ambient noise generated by ray-theory-based calculations with heterogeneous attenuation and homogenous velocity structure. The interstation attenuation and phase velocity dispersion curves are inverted from cross-correlations of the synthetic data. The method is then applied to triplets of stations from the regional southern California seismic network crossing the Mojave section of the San Andreas fault, and a dense linear array crossing the southern San Jacinto Fault zone. Bootstrap technique is used to derive empirical mean and confidence interval for the obtained inverse Q values. The results for the regional stations yield QR values around 25 for a frequency band 0.2-0.36 Hz. The results for the San Jacinto fault zone array give QR values of about 6-30 for frequencies in the range 15-25 Hz.
Body-Wave Attenuation Structure in Southern Mexico
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clayton, R. W.; Chen, T.
2006-12-01
Velocity spectra from moderate earthquakes are used to investigate the P-wave attenuation structure in southern Mexico. We include the regional events with magnitudes in the range 4.5 < M < 5.0 recorded on the Meso American Subduction Experiment (MASE) array, which consists of 100 broadband sensors from Acapulco to Tampico. By assuming a Brune-type source, a path-averaged frequency-independent Q is obtained for each seismogram in the frequency band 0.5 Hz to 7-30 Hz, depending on the signal quality. These measurements are then inverted for spatial variations in Q. The 1-D tomography result shows a pattern of Q qualitatively similar to other subduction zones, with low attenuation crust (Q~ 1100), and high attenuation in the mantle wedge beneath the Trans-Mexico-Volcanic-Belt (Q < 250). The location of the low-Q region and the variation of the Q value also provides some constraints on the geometry of the subducting slab, or with the structure provided by other methods such as receiver functions. The Q estimates can be used to estimate variations in viscosity. No lateral variations in Q were observed for either P or S waves from teleseismic events.
Body-Wave Attenuation Structure in Central Mexico
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clayton, R. W.; Chen, T.
2007-12-01
Velocity spectra from moderate-sized earthquakes are used to investigate the P-wave attenuation structure in southern Mexico. In particular, we include regional events with magnitudes in the range 4.5 < M < 6.1 recorded from February 2005 to March 2007 on the Meso American Subduction Experiment (MASE) array, which consists of 100 broadband sensors from Acapulco to Tampico in central Mexico. By assuming a Brune-type source, a path-averaged frequency-independent Q is obtained for each seismogram in the frequency band 2 to 30 Hz, depending on the signal quality. These measurements are then inverted for spatial variations in Q. The 1- D tomography result shows a pattern of Q qualitatively similar to other subduction zones, with low attenuation crust (Q ~~1100), and high attenuation in the mantle wedge beneath the Trans-Mexico-Volcanic-Belt (Q < 250). The 2-D inversion shows more detail, with a low-Q zone above the slab between the depth of 100 km and 120 km. The location of the low-Q region provides some constraints on the geometry of the subducting slab, or with the structure provided by other methods such as receiver functions, the Q estimates will be used to estimate variations in viscosity. We also find that there are some attenuation variations in the crust.
Seismic Attenuation Technology for the Advanced Virgo Gravitational Wave Detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beker, M. G.; Blom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Bulten, H. J.; Hennes, E.; Rabeling, D. S.
The current interferometric gravitational wave detectors are being upgraded to what are termed 'second generation' devices. Sensitivities will be increased by an order of magnitude and these new instruments are expected to uncover the field of gravitational astronomy. A main challenge in this endeavor is the mitigation of noise induced by seismic motion. Detailed studies with Virgo show that seismic noise can be reinjected into the dark fringe signal. For example, laser beam jitter and backscattered light limit the sensitivity of the interferometer. Here, we focus on seismic attenuators based on compact inverted pendulums in combination with geometric anti-prings to obtain 40 dB of attenuation above 4 Hz in six degrees of freedom. Low frequency resonances (< 0.5 Hz) are damped by using a control system based on input from LVDTs and geophones. Such systems are under development for the seismic attenuation of optical benches operated both in air and vacuum. The design and realization of the seismic attenuation system for the Virgo external injection bench, including its control scheme, will be discussed and stand-alone performance presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panin, V. Y.; Aykac, M.; Casey, M. E.
2013-06-01
The simultaneous PET data reconstruction of emission activity and attenuation coefficient distribution is presented, where the attenuation image is constrained by exploiting an external transmission source. Data are acquired in time-of-flight (TOF) mode, allowing in principle for separation of emission and transmission data. Nevertheless, here all data are reconstructed at once, eliminating the need to trace the position of the transmission source in sinogram space. Contamination of emission data by the transmission source and vice versa is naturally modeled. Attenuated emission activity data also provide additional information about object attenuation coefficient values. The algorithm alternates between attenuation and emission activity image updates. We also proposed a method of estimation of spatial scatter distribution from the transmission source by incorporating knowledge about the expected range of attenuation map values. The reconstruction of experimental data from the Siemens mCT scanner suggests that simultaneous reconstruction improves attenuation map image quality, as compared to when data are separated. In the presented example, the attenuation map image noise was reduced and non-uniformity artifacts that occurred due to scatter estimation were suppressed. On the other hand, the use of transmission data stabilizes attenuation coefficient distribution reconstruction from TOF emission data alone. The example of improving emission images by refining a CT-based patient attenuation map is presented, revealing potential benefits of simultaneous CT and PET data reconstruction.
Alam, M N; Miah, M M; Chowdhury, M I; Kamal, M; Ghose, S; Rahman, R
2001-06-01
The linear and mass attenuation coefficients of different types of soil, sand, building materials and heavy beach mineral samples from the Chittagong and Cox's Bazar area of Bangladesh were measured using a high-resolution HPGe detector and the gamma-ray energies 276.1, 302.8, 356.0, 383.8, 661.6 and 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV emitted from point sources of 133Ba, 137Cs and 60Co, respectively. The linear attenuation coefficients show a linear relationship with the corresponding densities of the samples studied. The variations of the mass attenuation coefficient with gamma-ray energy were exponential in nature. The measured mass attenuation coefficient values were compared with measurements made in other countries for similar kinds of materials. The values are in good agreement with each other in most cases. PMID:11300413
Stress wave attenuation in thin structures by ultrasonic through-transmission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, S. S.; Williams, J. H., Jr.
1980-01-01
The steady state amplitude of the output of an ultrasonic through transmission measurement is analyzed and the result is given in closed form. Provided that the product of the input and output transduction ratios; the specimen-transducer reflection coefficient; the specimen-transducer phase shift parameter; and the material phase velocity are known, this analysis gives a means for determining the through-thickness attenuation of an individual thin sample. Multiple stress wave reflections are taken into account and so signal echoes do not represent a difficulty. An example is presented for a graphite fiber epoxy composite (Hercules AS/3501-6). A direct method for continuous or intermittent monitoring of through thickness attenuation of plate structures which may be subject to service structural degradation is provided.
Stress-wave attenuation in thin structures by ultrasonic through-transmission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, S. S.; Williams, J. H., Jr.
1980-01-01
The steady-state amplitude of the output of an ultrasonic through-transmission measurement is analyzed and the result is given in closed form. Provided that the product of the input and output transduction ratios, the specimen-transducer reflection coefficient, the specimen-transducer phase-shift parameter, and the material phase velocity are known, this analysis gives a means for determining the through-thickness attenuation of an individual thin sample. Multiple stress-wave reflections are taken into account, and so signal echoes do not represent a difficulty. An example is presented for a graphite fiber epoxy composite (Hercules AS/3501-6). Thus, the technique provides a direct method for continuous or intermittent monitoring of through-thickness attenuation of plate structures which may be subject to service structural degradation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wessels, Ronni; de Bruin, Daniel M.; Faber, Dirk J.; Sanders, Joyce; Vincent, Andrew D.; van Beurden, Marc; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Ruers, Theo J. M.
2015-12-01
The learning curve and interobserver variance of attenuation coefficient (?OCT) determination from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images were quantified. The ?OCT of normal and diseased vulvar tissues was determined at five time points by three novice students and three OCT experts who reached consensus for reference. Students received feedback between time points. Eventually, variance in ?OCT was smaller in images of diseased tissue than in images of normal vulvar tissue. The difference between the consensus and student ?OCT values was larger for smaller values of ?OCT. We conclude that routine ?OCT determination for tissue classification does not require extensive training.
Wessels, Ronni; de Bruin, Daniel M; Faber, Dirk J; Sanders, Joyce; Vincent, Andrew D; van Beurden, Marc; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Ruers, Theo J M
2015-12-01
The learning curve and interobserver variance of attenuation coefficient (?OCT ) determination from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images were quantified. The ?OCT of normal and diseased vulvar tissues was determined at five time points by three novice students and three OCT experts who reached consensus for reference. Students received feedback between time points. Eventually, variance in ?OCT was smaller in images of diseased tissue than in images of normal vulvar tissue. The difference between the consensus and student ?OCT values was larger for smaller values of ?OCT . We conclude that routine ?OCT determination for tissue classification does not require extensive training. PMID:26662606
Zheng, Xiaobing; Dickey, Tommy; Chang, Grace
2002-10-20
In situ time-series measurements of spectral diffuse downwelling irradiance from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring are presented. Averaged diffuse attenuation coefficients of downwelling irradiance, Kd,and their elastic and inelastic components are investigated at seven wavelengths. At shorter wavelengths (<510 nm), Kd is weakly dependent on the solar zenith angle owing to the prevailing scattering effect and therefore can be considered a quasi-inherent optical property. At longer wavelengths (>510 nm), Kd shows a strong dependence on the solar zenith angle. As depth increases, inelastic scattering plays a greater role for the underwater light field at red wavelengths. PMID:12396201
Wave Dispersion and Attenuation on Human Femur Tissue
Strantza, Maria; Louis, Olivia; Polyzos, Demosthenes; Boulpaep, Frans; van Hemelrijck, Danny; Aggelis, Dimitrios G.
2014-01-01
Cortical bone is a highly heterogeneous material at the microscale and has one of the most complex structures among materials. Application of elastic wave techniques to this material is thus very challenging. In such media the initial excitation energy goes into the formation of elastic waves of different modes. Due to “dispersion”, these modes tend to separate according to the velocities of the frequency components. This work demonstrates elastic wave measurements on human femur specimens. The aim of the study is to measure parameters like wave velocity, dispersion and attenuation by using broadband acoustic emission sensors. First, four sensors were placed at small intervals on the surface of the bone to record the response after pencil lead break excitations. Next, the results were compared to measurements on a bulk steel block which does not exhibit heterogeneity at the same wave lengths. It can be concluded that the microstructure of the tissue imposes a dispersive behavior for frequencies below 1 MHz and care should be taken for interpretation of the signals. Of particular interest are waveform parameters like the duration, rise time and average frequency, since in the next stage of research the bone specimens will be fractured with concurrent monitoring of acoustic emission. PMID:25196011
P-Wave to Rayleigh-wave conversion coefficients for wedge corners; model experiments
Gangi, A.F.; Wesson, R.L.
1978-01-01
An analytic solution is not available for the diffraction of elastic waves by wedges; however, numerical solutions of finite-difference type are available for selected wedge angles. The P- to Rayleigh-wave conversion coefficients at wedge tips have been measured on two-dimensional seismic models for stress-free wedges with wedge angles, ??0, of 10, 30, 60, 90 and 120??. The conversion coefficients show two broad peaks and a minimum as a function of the angle between the wedge face and the direction of the incident P-wave. The minimum occurs for the P wave incident parallel to the wedge face and one maximum is near an incidence angle of 90?? to the wedge face. The amplitude of this maximum, relative to the other, decreases as the wedge angle increases. The asymmetry of the conversion coefficients, CPR(??; ??0), relative to parallel incidence (?? = 0) increases as the wedge angle increases. The locations of the maxima and the minimum as well as the asymmetry can be explained qualitatively. The conversion coefficients are measured with an accuracy of ??5% in those regions where there are no interfering waves. A comparison of the data for the 10?? wedge with the theoretical results for a half plane (0?? wedge) shows good correlation. ?? 1978.
Seismic wave attenuation studies using VSP data recorded in Germany`s continental ultradeep borehole
Pujol, J.; Hu, Yiguang; Lueschen, E.
1995-12-31
VSP data recorded in the German continental deep borehole (KTB) between 3 and 6 km have been used to study the attenuation of P-waves. The main lithologic unit in this depth range is amphibolite (a metamorphic rock formed at high temperatures and pressures) with various degrees of alteration, intercalated with gneisses. The method used to determine attenuation is based on the fit of a straight line to the logarithm of amplitude ratios for variable depth and fixed frequency, but inspection of the corresponding plots showed sharp discontinuities, which correlate with changes in the location of the seismic source. These changes were recorded by a monitor geophone buried near the source. To avoid the uncertainties introduced by changes in the source location, the analysis was restricted to the longest depth interval (3,576 to 4,538 m) for which the source was not moved. Even in this case, however, the monitor traces showed pronounced variations in their frequency content, although not much variation in their time-domain amplitudes. Therefore, the attenuation coefficients obtained for the actual data were corrected for source variations by subtraction of the attenuation coefficients determined from the analysis of synthetic VSP data computed using the monitor traces. After these corrections, the values of Q for P-waves for frequencies between 7.8 and 46.9 Hz are between 14 and 32. These values are quite low, but are probably related to the presence of fluids known to exist in the depth range under consideration. The variation of Q with frequency may be the result of processing artifacts.
Retrieval of diffuse attenuation coefficient in the China seas from surface reflectance.
Qiu, Zhongfeng; Wu, Tingting; Su, Yuanyuan
2013-07-01
Accurate estimation of the diffuse attenuation coefficient is important for our understanding the availability of light to underwater communities, which provide critical information for the China seas ecosystem. However, algorithm developments and validations of the diffuse attenuation coefficient in the China seas have been seldom performed before and therefore our knowledge on the quality of retrieval of the diffuse attenuate coefficient is poor. In this paper optical data at 306 sites collected in coastal waters of the China seas between July 2000 and February 2004 are used to evaluate three typical existing Kd(490) models. The in situ Kd(490) varied greatly among different sites from 0.029 m(-1) to 10.3 m(-1), with a mean of 0.92 1.59 m(-1). Results show that the empirical model and the semi-analytical model significantly underestimate the Kd(490) value, with estimated mean values of 0.24 m(-1) and 0.5 m(-1), respectively. The combined model also shows significant differences when the in situ Kd(490) range from 0.2 m(-1) to 1 m(-1). Thus, the present study proposes that the three algorithms cannot be directly used to appropriately estimate Kd(490) in the turbid coastal waters of the China seas without a fine tuning for regional applications. In this paper, new Kd(490) algorithms are developed based on the semi-analytical retrieval of the absorption coefficient a(m(-1)) and the backscattering coefficient bb(m(-1)) from the reflectance at two wavelengths, 488 and 667 nm for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and 490 and 705 nm for the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) applications, respectively. With the new approaches, the mean ratio and the relative percentage difference are 1.05 and 4.6%, respectively, based on an independent in situ data set. Furthermore, the estimates are reliable within a factor of 1.9 (95% confidence interval). Comparisons also show that the Kd(490) derived with the new algorithms are well correlated with the in situ measurements. Our results showed a good improvement in the estimation for Kd(490) using the new approaches, contrasting with existing empirical, semi-analytical and combined models. Therefore, we propose the new approaches for accurate retrieval of Kd(490) in the China seas. PMID:23842315
Zhang, Siyuan; Wan, Mingxi; Zhong, Hui; Xu, Cheng; Liao, Zhenzhong; Liu, Huanqing; Wang, Supin
2009-11-01
This paper simultaneously investigated the transient characteristics of integrated backscatter (IBS), attenuation coefficient and bubble activities as time traces before, during and after HIFU treatment, with different HIFU parameters (acoustic power and duty cycle) in both transparent tissue-mimicking phantoms and freshly excised bovine livers. These dynamic changes of acoustic parameters and bubble activities were correlated with the visualization of lesion development selected from photos, conventional B-mode ultrasound images and differential IBS images over the whole procedure of HIFU treatment. Two-dimensional radiofrequency (RF) data were acquired by a modified diagnostic ultrasound scanner to estimate the changes of mean IBS and attenuation coefficient averaged in the lesion region, and to construct the differential IBS images and B-mode ultrasound images simultaneously. Bubble activities over the whole procedure of HIFU treatment were investigated by the passive cavitation detection (PCD) method and the changes in subharmonic and broadband noise were correlated with the transient characteristics of IBS and attenuation coefficient. When HIFU was switched on, IBS and attenuation coefficient increased with the appearance of bubble clouds in the B-mode and differential IBS image. At the same time, the level of subharmonic and broadband noise rose abruptly. Then, there was an initial decrease in the attenuation coefficient, followed by an increase when at lower HIFU power. As the lesion appeared, IBS and attenuation coefficient both increased rapidly to a value twice that of normal. Then the changes in IBS and attenuation coefficient showed more complex patterns, but still showed a slower trend of increases with lesion development. Violent bubble activities were visible in the gel and were evident as strongly echogenic regions in the differential IBS images and B-mode images simultaneously. This was detected by a dramatic high level of subharmonic and broadband noise at the same time. These bubble activities caused fluctuations in IBS and attenuation coefficient during HIFU treatment. After HIFU, IBS and attenuation coefficient decreased gradually accompanied by the fadeout of bright hyperechoic spot in the B-mode and differential IBS image, but were still higher than normal when they were stable. The increases of IBS and attenuation coefficient were greater when using higher acoustic power or a higher duty cycle of the therapeutic emission. These experiments indicated that the bubble activities had the dominant effects on the transient characteristics of IBS and attenuation. This should be taken into consideration when using the dynamic acoustic-property changes for the potentially real-time monitoring imaging of HIFU treatment. PMID:19716225
Body-Wave Attenuation Structure in Central Mexico
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, T.; Clayton, R. W.
2007-05-01
Velocity spectra from moderate earthquakes are used to investigate the P-wave attenuation structure in southern Mexico. We include regional events with magnitudes in the range 4.5 < M < 5.0 recorded on the Meso American Subduction Experiment (MASE) array, which consists of 100 broadband sensors from Acapulco to Tampico. By assuming a Brune-type source, a path-averaged frequency- independent Q is obtained for each seismogram in the frequency band 0.5 Hz to 7-30 Hz, depending on the signal quality. These measurements are then inverted for spatial variations in Q. The 1-D tomography result shows a pattern of Q qualitatively similar to other subduction zones, with low attenuation crust (Q ~ 1100), and high attenuation in the mantle wedge beneath the Trans-Mexico-Volcanic-Belt (Q < 250). The 2-D inversion shows a more detailed image of Q variations. The location of the low-Q region and the variation of the Q value also provides some constraints on the geometry of the subducting slab, or with the structure provided by other methods such as receiver functions, The Q estimates will be used to estimate variations in viscosity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crescenti, Remo A.; Bamber, Jeffrey C.; Partridge, Mike; Bush, Nigel L.; Webb, Steve
2007-11-01
Research on polymer-gel dosimetry has been driven by the need for three-dimensional dosimetry, and because alternative dosimeters are unsatisfactory or too slow for that task. Magnetic resonance tomography is currently the most well-developed technique for determining radiation-induced changes in polymer structure, but quick low-cost alternatives remain of significant interest. In previous work, ultrasound attenuation and speed of sound were found to change as a function of absorbed radiation dose in polymer-gel dosimeters, although the investigations were restricted to one ultrasound frequency. Here, the ultrasound attenuation coefficient ? in one polymer gel (MAGIC) was investigated as a function of radiation dose D and as a function of ultrasonic frequency f in a frequency range relevant for imaging dose distributions. The nonlinearity of the frequency dependence was characterized, fitting a power-law model ? = afb; the fitting parameters were examined for potential use as additional dose readout parameters. In the observed relationship between the attenuation coefficient and dose, the slopes in a quasi-linear dose range from 0 to 30 Gy were found to vary with the gel batch but lie between 0.0222 and 0.0348 dB cm-1 Gy-1 at 2.3 MHz, between 0.0447 and 0.0608 dB cm-1 Gy-1 at 4.1 MHz and between 0.0663 and 0.0880 dB cm-1 Gy-1 at 6.0 MHz. The mean standard deviation of the slope for all samples and frequencies was 15.8%. The slope was greater at higher frequencies, but so were the intra-batch fluctuations and intra-sample standard deviations. Further investigations are required to overcome the observed variability, which was largely associated with the sample preparation technique, before it can be determined whether any frequency is superior to others in terms of accuracy and precision in dose determination. Nevertheless, lower frequencies will allow measurements through larger samples. The fit parameter a of the frequency dependence, describing the attenuation coefficient at 1 MHz, was found to be dose dependent, which is consistent with our expectations, as polymerization is known to be associated with increased absorption of ultrasound. No significant dose dependence was found for the fit parameter b, which describes the nonlinearity with frequency. This is consistent with the increased absorption being due to the introduction of new relaxation processes with characteristic frequencies similar to those of existing processes. The data presented here will help with optimizing the design of future 3D dose-imaging systems using ultrasound methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kore, Prashant S.; Pawar, Pravina P.
2014-05-01
The mass attenuation coefficients of some amino acids, such as DL-aspartic acid-LR(C4H7NO4), L-glutamine (C4H10N2O3), creatine monohydrate LR(C4H9N3O2H2O), creatinine hydrochloride (C4H7N3OHCl) L-asparagine monohydrate(C4H9N3O2H2O), L-methionine LR(C5H11NO2S), were measured at 122, 356, 511, 662, 1170, 1275 and 1330 keV photon energies using a well-collimated narrow beam good geometry set-up. The gamma-rays were detected using NaI (Tl) scintillation detection system with a resolution of 0.101785 at 662 keV. The attenuation coefficient data were then used to obtain the effective atomic numbers (Zeff), and effective electron densities (Neff) of amino acids. It was observed that the effective atomic number (Zeff) and effective electron densities (Neff) initially decrease and tend to be almost constant as a function of gamma-ray energy. Zeff and Neff experimental values showed good agreement with the theoretical values with less than 1% error for amino acids.
Linear attenuation coefficients of tissues from 1 keV to 150 keV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bke, Aysun
2014-09-01
The linear attenuation coefficients and three interaction processes have been computed for liver, kidney, muscle, fat and for a range of x-ray energies from 1 keV to 150 keV. Molecular photoelectric absorption cross sections were calculated from atomic cross section data. Total coherent (Rayleigh) and incoherent (Compton) scattering cross sections were obtained by numerical integration over combinations of F2m(x) with the Thomson formula and Sm(x) with the Klein-Nishina formula, respectively. For the coherent (Rayleigh) scattering cross section calculations, molecular form factors were obtained from recent experimental data in the literature for values of x<1 -1 and from the relativistic modified atomic form factors for values of x?1 -1. With the inclusion of molecular interference effects in the coherent (Rayleigh) scattering, more accurate knowledge of the scatter from these tissues will be provided. The number of elements involved in tissue composition is 5 for liver, 47 for kidney, 44 for muscle and 3 for fat. The results are compared with previously published experimental and theoretical linear attenuation coefficients. In general, good agreement is obtained. The molecular form factors and scattering functions and cross sections are incorporated into a Monte Carlo program. The energy distributions of x-ray photons scattered from tissues have been simulated and the results are presented.
A Rayleigh-Wave Attenuation Method for Crack Depth Determination in Asphalt Beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gibson, Alex; Gallo, Gonzalo E.
2004-02-01
It has been established through research on concrete structures that the attenuation of surface waves is sensitive to the presence of a surface-breaking obstructing its path. This is the basis for a non-destructive crack depth measurement technique to quantitatively establish the extent of damage on a pavement subject to of top-down cracking. A previously developed self-compensating technique was applied to asphalt concrete beams constructed with a variety of crack and notch configurations. In the study different notch geometries and the effect of crack width, by comparing results from saw-cut notches to those of narrow cracks, were examined. Two types of impact sources were used and the results obtained were compared to each other. The frequency-dependent signal transmission coefficient was measured at 30 and 50 mm spacing for both undamaged and cracked beams. A single relationship between signal attenuation and crack depth can be attained by normalizing the crack depth with respect to the wavelength. Although the frequency response of a beam is different to that of a slab, the viability of Rayleigh wave attenuation measurements in asphalt pavement surfaces was proved if certain corrections are considered. The method may provide a non-destructive means to determine the depth of cracks in asphalt, such as it does in concrete, with the future understanding of certain phenomena encountered in this work.
Attenuation of High-Frequency Seismic Waves in Eastern Iran
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahood, M.
2014-09-01
We investigated the frequency-dependent attenuation of the crust in Eastern Iran by analysis data from 132 local earthquakes having focal depths in the range of 5-25 km. We estimated the quality factor of coda waves ( Q c) and body waves ( Q p and Q s) in the frequency band of 1.5-24 Hz by applying the single backscattering theory of S-coda envelopes and the extended coda-normalization method, respectively. Considering records from recent earthquakes (Rigan M w 6.5, 2010/12/20, Goharan M w 6.2, 2013/5/11 and Sirch M w 5.5, 2013/1/21), the estimated values of Q c, Q p and Q s vary from 151 49, 63 6, and 93 14 at 1.5 Hz to 1,994 124, 945 84 and 1,520 123 at 24 Hz, respectively. The average frequency-dependent relationships ( Q = Q o f n ) estimated for the region are Q c = (108 10) f (0.960.01), Q p = (50 5) f (1.010.04), and Q s = (75 6) f (1.030.06). These results evidenced a frequency dependence of the quality factors Q c, Q p, and Q s, as commonly observed in tectonically active zones characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity, and the low value of Q indicated an attenuative crust beneath the entire region.
Seismic attenuation due to wave-induced flow
Pride, S.R.; Berryman, J.G.; Harris, J.M.
2003-10-09
Analytical expressions for three P-wave attenuation mechanisms in sedimentary rocks are given a unified theoretical framework. Two of the models concern wave-induced flow due to heterogeneity in the elastic moduli at mesoscopic scales (scales greater than grain sizes but smaller than wavelengths). In the first model, the heterogeneity is due to lithological variations (e.g., mixtures of sands and clays) with a single fluid saturating all the pores. In the second model, a single uniform lithology is saturated in mesoscopic ''patches'' by two immiscible fluids (e.g., air and water). In the third model, the heterogeneity is at ''microscopic'' grain scales (broken grain contacts and/or micro-cracks in the grains) and the associated fluid response corresponds to ''squirt flow''. The model of squirt flow derived here reduces to proper limits as any of the fluid bulk modulus, crack porosity, and/or frequency is reduced to zero. It is shown that squirt flow is incapable of explaining the measured level of loss (10{sup -2} < Q{sup -1} < 10{sup -1}) within the seismic band of frequencies (1 to 10{sup 4} Hz); however, either of the two mesoscopic scale models easily produce enough attenuation to explain the field data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Houser, C.; Hill, P. R.
2010-12-01
This paper describes the results of two instrument field studies to examine sediment transport processes and wave attenuation across Roberts Bank, a sandy intertidal bank on the Fraser River Delta. The field work was completed as part of a three-year study of the sensitivity of Roberts Bank to sea level rise and changing storminess. It was hypothesized that the response of the mudflats and salt marshes along the landward margin of the delta were dependent on the ability of the fronting sand flat to attenuate wave height and energy. The attenuation of wave height and energy was monitored at four stations along a shore-normal transect between December 23, 2003 and February 10, 2004. The attenuation varied with the relative wave height ratio (Hs h-1) along the seaward margin, with dissipation increasing as water depths decrease and/or incident wave heights increase. Under the most dissipative conditions observed (Hs h-1 ? 0.25), the exponential decay coefficient reached 0.00045. This decay coefficient is an order of magnitude smaller than predicted by a simple wave transformation model due to the relatively large wind fetch over the sand flat. Despite the maintenance of wave energy, the range of wave heights remains constrained in the landward direction, with the frequency of waves capable of entraining sediment on the sand flat decreasing from 11% at the outer flat to 2% at the inner stations. In response, bed elevation change and depth of sediment activation are greatest at the seaward margin and decrease exponentially landward. It is argued that the sand flat provides a natural barrier that defines the extent of mudflat development by limiting the potential for sediment resuspension and morphological change on the mudflat. The ability of the sand flat to provide continued protection to the mudflats and salt marshes depends on how it will respond to change in sea level and storminess. A comparison of the dimensionless, current-induced skin friction with the critical skin friction for the initiation of sediment motion suggests that the currents are only capable of entraining sediment briefly with the ebbing tide or when enhanced by the wind. Since these wind-generated currents are associated with storm waves, which typically exceed the critical skin friction, they have a disproportionately large impact on the direction of the sediment transport. An energetics-based model, driven by locally measured near-bottom currents, is used to characterize the rate and direction of bedload and suspended load transport. The largest transport rates were predicted in response to storm waves and were initially directed onshore with weak oscillatory transport and alongshore by wind-generated currents that turned offshore as the ebbing currents strengthened. The integrated transport (over the duration of the study) was predicted to be weakly offshore, but this is ascribed to the coincidental occurrence of storm activity with the ebbing tide. It is argued that if storm waves were equally distributed between the flood and ebb phases of the tide, the wind-generated currents and oscillatory transport would lead to a partly onshore-directed net transport during storms, which may contribute to sand flat accretion and maintenance of form as it migrates landward in response to sea level rise.
Seismic-wave attenuation associated with crustal faults in the New Madrid seismic zone
Hamilton, R.M.; Mooney, W.D.
1990-01-01
The attenuation of upper crustal seismic waves that are refracted with a velocity of about 6 kilometers per second varies greatly among profiles in the area of the New Madrid seismic zone in the central Mississippi Valley. The waves that have the strongest attenuation pass through the seismic trend along the axis of the Reelfoot rift in the area of the Blytheville arch. Defocusing of the waves in a low-velocity zone and/ or seismic scattering and absorption could cause the attenuation; these effects are most likely associated with the highly deformed rocks along the arch. Consequently, strong seismic-wave attenuation may be a useful criterion for identifying seismogenic fault zones.
Lg waves attenuation studies over the Iranian Plateau and Zagros
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaviani, A.; Sandvol, E. A.; Rumpker, G.; Ku, W.; Gok, R.
2012-12-01
Waveforms from regional events collected over the last 15 years by the permanent seismological networks and temporary deployments deployed within the Iranian plateau provide a unique and unprecedented opportunity to investigate the crustal and mantle attenuation characteristics by analysis of the regional phases including Lg and Pg waves. We have investigated the crustal attenuation using Lg waveforms available from 305 stations consisting of 101 permanent and 204 temporary stations. This study is performed within the framework of a larger project aimed at developing high-resolution seismic attenuation models for the Iranian plateau and the Zagros mountains using different data and approaches. We have combined the Iranian data set with data from numerous networks across Turkey, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Syria, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. This combination provides us with waveforms from over 550 stations spanning most of the Northern Middle East. Simultaneous inversion of the Lg Q values calculated using two-station paths gives us a model of Lg Q that extends from the western Anatolian plate to the eastern edge of the Iranian plateau. Prior studies have suggested strong complexity in the crustal and uppermost mantle attenuation structure beneath much of the Iranian plateau and the surrounding regions. Lg waves propagating over different paths in this region show strong variations in amplitude and frequency content due to this very complex structure. We have created a frequency dependent Lg Q model that covers most of the Iranian plateau using instrument corrected two station method that eliminates the contributions from the source. Our model maps Lg Q around 200 for most part of the central Iranian plateau and Alborz mountains whereas it is lower than 150 for the western Anatolian plateau. Relatively high Q values (>300) are observed in the Zagros belt that abruptly changes across the Zagros suture. We have also found unexpected results, including a high Q zone that surrounds the Caspian Sea. We argue that it originates from energy that is bending around the south Caspian Sea oceanic crust as well as efficient Lg propagation through the Alborz mountain crust.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lo, WeiCheng; Lee, JheWei; Lee, ChengHaw
2015-04-01
A central issue in the theoretical treatment of a multiphase system is the proper mathematical description of momentum transfer across fluid-solid and fluid-fluid interfaces. Although recent studies have advanced our knowledge on modeling the coupling behavior between a porous framework and the fluids permeating it, the effect of viscous resistance caused by two-fluid flow on elastic wave behavior in unsaturated porous media still remains unaddressed. In the present study, we generalize the theory of dynamic poroelasticity to incorporate viscous cross coupling arising from the velocity difference between two adjacent fluids for examining the dynamic behavior of fluid flow in deformable porous media related to harmonic wave perturbation. The corresponding dispersion relations that characterize three compressional waves and one shear wave are precisely formulated, with the coefficients featuring all elasticity, inertial coupling, and viscous coupling parameters, for describing how wave number changes as excitation frequency is stipulated. To evaluate quantitatively this as-yet unknown effect, numerical simulations are implemented to solve the dispersion relations for Columbia fine sandy loam bearing an oil-water mixture with respect to three representative wave excitation frequencies. Our results show that the phase speed and attenuation coefficient of the third compressional wave which has the smallest speed is strongly sensitive to the presence of viscous cross coupling, as expected for this wave being attributed primarily to the out-of-phase motion of the two pore fluids. Viscous cross coupling also exerts an impact on the attenuation coefficient of the shear wave and the first compressional wave whose speed is greatest, which exhibits two opposite trends at different ranges of low and high water contents. A sensitivity analysis is further conducted to provide information on the importance of the coupling parameter, revealing that the effect becomes more significant as the coupling is stronger.
Shivaramu; Amutha, R.; Ramprasath, V.
1999-05-01
Effective atomic numbers for total gamma-ray interaction with some selected thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds such as barium acetate, barium sulfate, calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, calcium sulfate dihydrate, cadmium sulfate (anhydrous), cadmium sulfate, strontium sulfate, and lithium fluoride have been calculated in the 1-keV to 20-MeV energy region. Experimental mass attenuation coefficients and effective atomic numbers for these compounds at selected photon energies of 26.3, 33.2, 59.54, and 661.6 keV have been obtained from good geometry transmission measurements and compared with theoretical values. The effect of absorption edge on effective atomic numbers and its variation with energy, and nonvalidity of the Bragg`s mixture rule at incident photon energies closer to the absorption edges of constituent elements of compounds are discussed.
Pires, L F; Medhat, M E
2016-05-01
The mass attenuation coefficients of Brazilian soils (μs) and water (μw) were measured and calculated at 59.5keV ((241)Am) photon energy. The μs and μw experimental values were compared using XCOM and Monte Carlo computer codes (FLUKA, GEANT4 and MCNP). The influence of different methods of µ evaluation on the measurement of soil bulk density (ρs) and soil water content (θ) distributions and soil water retention (SWRC) was investigated. ρs and θ distributions were analyzed by using computed tomography (CT). Distinct ρs distributions were obtained even for similar µs values measured among methods. θ distributions were also greatly influenced by the different methods of μw evaluation. Regarding the SWRC, the results exhibited great differences in the region of structural pores, which directly affected the pore size distribution. PMID:26926378
Calculation of solar attenuation coefficient using ACCOS V along a critical scattering path
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ames, Alan J.
1989-01-01
An appraisal of the optical properties of the AVHRR is made for a proposed orbital trajectory which results in an unexpected solar stray-light path; i.e., bypassing the external scan mirror and Cassegrain telescope and proceeding directly to the inner conical baffle. This stray-light path is directed onto an internal beamsplitter which, in turn, is directly observed by the detectors. Stray-light analysis, as a goal, seeks to remove or minimize the influence of such critical scattering paths. The AVHRR path is evaluated using a standard optical ray-tracing program, ACCOS V. To determine the expected sensor degradation, a calculation of the expected attenuation coefficient of scattered sunlight in the AVHRR sensor is estimated based on this important critical scattering path.
A method for estimating the diffuse attenuation coefficient (KdPAR)from paired temperature sensors
Read, Jordan S.; Rose, Kevin C.; Winslow, Luke A.; Read, Emily Kara
2015-01-01
A new method for estimating the diffuse attenuation coefficient for photosynthetically active radiation (KdPAR) from paired temperature sensors was derived. We show that during cases where the attenuation of penetrating shortwave solar radiation is the dominant source of temperature changes, time series measurements of water temperatures at multiple depths (z1 and z2) are related to one another by a linear scaling factor (a). KdPAR can then be estimated by the simple equation KdPAR ln(a)/(z2/z1). A suggested workflow is presented that outlines procedures for calculating KdPAR according to this paired temperature sensor (PTS) method. This method is best suited for conditions when radiative temperature gains are large relative to physical noise. These conditions occur frequently on water bodies with low wind and/or high KdPARs but can be used for other types of lakes during time periods of low wind and/or where spatially redundant measurements of temperatures are available. The optimal vertical placement of temperature sensors according to a priori knowledge of KdPAR is also described. This information can be used to inform the design of future sensor deployments using the PTS method or for campaigns where characterizing sub-daily changes in temperatures is important. The PTS method provides a novel method to characterize light attenuation in aquatic ecosystems without expensive radiometric equipment or the user subjectivity inherent in Secchi depth measurements. This method also can enable the estimation of KdPAR at higher frequencies than many manual monitoring programs allow.
Attenuation of groundwater pressure due to surface waves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Przyborska, Anna
2010-05-01
For tideless seas, the groundwater flow in shallow water is governed entirely by the surface wave dynamics on the beach. As waves propagate towards the shore, they become steeper owing to the decreasing water depth and at some depth, the waves lose their stability and start to break. When waves break, waves energy is dissipated and the spatial changes of the radiation stress give rise to changes in the mean sea level, known as the set_up. Longuet-Higgins demonstrated that the mean on-shore pressure gradient due to wave set_up driver a groundwater circulation within the beach zone. Water infiltrates into the coastal aquifer on the upper part of the beach near the maximum run_up, and exfiltration occurs on the lower part of the beach face near the breaking point. The velocity of the flow as well as the amount of water circulation within the permeable beach is important for the biological status of the organisms inhabiting the beach sand, transporting organic matter and dissolved oxygen to beach body , influence on sediment transport at shallow waters and stability of engineering structures. The paper is organized in two main parts. The first part of the paper is dedicated to the formulation of the mathematical model for attenuation of pore pressure in shallow water zone when wave breaking is present. Solution of system of nonlinear equations for wave propagation on permeable beach is compared with experimental data. The main purpose of the experimental part of the paper is dealing with the analysis of sets of good quality data on pore pressure data which will serve for comparison with theoretical results. In particular, two set of data are discussed, namely data obtained during measurements in the shallow water at the Coastal Station Lubiatowo (Poland) in Southern Baltic Sea and data from the large scale laboratory experiments in the Grossen Wallenkanal in Hannover (Germany). In the first case, the set of transmittance functions between the surface waves and pore pressure in the soil at various levels and transmittance functions between the pressures recorded at different levels are compared with the developed theory. During the laboratory experiment in Hannover two components of pore pressure were clearly distinguished i.e. in the zone of non-breaking waves only so called phase resolving component induced by surface waves is observed and in the surf zone two types of pore pressure are present : phase resolving and so called phase averaged , induced by set-up phenomena (mean water level rising). The total pressure recorded by the pressure gauges is a summation of the phase-averaged and the phase-resolving components. The pore pressure gradients provide also valuable information on the kinematics of groundwater flow in the beach body. In the experiment we are not able to measure the flow velocity in a straightforward manner, but the flow velocity can be estimated from the recorded pressure gradients using the formulas resulting from the theoretical solution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kheireddine, Malika; Antoine, David
2014-08-01
The diel variability of the particulate beam attenuation coefficient, cp, and of the particulate backscattering coefficient, bbp, were investigated during five seasonal cycles at an oceanic site in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, covering contrasting physical and trophic situations. We observed a diel cycle in cp and bbp, related to changes in phytoplankton properties (i.e., size and refractive index) induced by the accumulation of carbon within phytoplankton cells associated with photosynthetic processes, during the winter mixing of the water column, the development of the spring phytoplankton bloom, its decline, and during the summer oligotrophy. The relative amplitude of the cp diel variability was much larger during the spring bloom (20-50%) than during other seasons (10-20%), whereas that of bbp is steadily around 20% and does not show significant seasonal variability. The minimal cp and bbp occurred at sunrise and are synchronized, whereas maximum bbp values are often reached 3-6 h before those for cp (except during bloom conditions), which occur near sunset. These different amplitudes and timing are tentatively explained using Mie computations, which allow discerning the respective roles of changes in the particle size distribution and refractive index. The differences observed here in the diel cycles of cp and bbp show that they cannot be used interchangeably to determine the daily increase of the particle pool. This result has implications on the feasibility to determine net community production from the bbp diel changes, when only bbp is measured in situ or available from ocean color observations.
Martinho Junior, A C; Freitas, A Z; Raele, M P; Santin, S P; Soares, F A N; Herson, M R; Mathor, M B
2015-03-01
As banked human tissues are not widely available, the development of new non-destructive and contactless techniques to evaluate the quality of allografts before distribution for transplantation is very important. Also, tissues will be processed accordingly to standard procedures and to minimize disease transmission most tissue banks will include a decontamination or sterilization step such as ionizing radiation. In this work, we present a new method to evaluate the internal structure of frozen or glycerol-processed human cartilages, submitted to various dosis of irradiation, using the total optical attenuation coefficient retrieved from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. Our results show a close relationship between tensile properties and the total optical attenuation coefficient of cartilages. Therefore, OCT associated with the total optical attenuation coefficient open a new window to evaluate quantitatively biological changes in processed tissues. PMID:24322969
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goulart, Viviane P.; dos Santos, Moiss O.; Latrive, Anne; Freitas, Anderson Z.; Correa, Luciana; Zezell, Denise M.
2015-05-01
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has become a promising alternative for treatment of skin lesions such as squamous cell carcinoma. We propose a method to monitor the effects of PDT in a noninvasive way by using the optical attenuation coefficient (OAC) calculated from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. We conducted a study on mice with chemically induced neoplastic lesions and performed PDT on these lesions using homemade photosensitizers. The response of neoplastic lesions to therapy was monitored using, at the same time, macroscopic clinical visualization, histopathological analysis, OCT imaging, and OCT-based attenuation coefficient measurement. Results with all four modalities demonstrated a positive response to treatment. The attenuation coefficient was found to be 1.4 higher in skin lesions than in healthy tissue and it decreased after therapy. This study shows that the OAC is a potential tool to noninvasively assess the evolution of skin neoplastic lesions with time after treatment.
Broadband attenuation of Lamb waves through a periodic array of thin rectangular junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moiseyenko, Rayisa P.; Pennec, Yan; Marchal, Rmi; Bonello, Bernard; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram
2014-10-01
We study theoretically subwavelength physical phenomena, such as resonant transmission and broadband sound shielding for Lamb waves propagating in an acoustic metamaterial made of a thin plate drilled with one or two row(s) of rectangular holes. The resonances and antiresonances of periodically arranged rectangular junctions separated by holes are investigated as a function of the geometrical parameters of the junctions. With one and two row(s) of holes, high frequency specific features in the transmission coefficient are explained in terms of a coupling of incident waves with both Fabry-Perot oscillations inside the junctions and induced surface acoustic waves between the homogeneous part of the plate and the row of holes. With two rows of holes, low frequency peaks and dips appear in the transmission spectrum. The choice of the distance between the two rows of holes allows the realization of a broadband low frequency acoustic shielding with attenuation over 99% for symmetric waves in a wide low frequency range and over 90% for antisymmetric ones. The origin of the transmission gap is discussed in terms of localized modes of the "H" element made by the junctions, connecting the two homogeneous parts of the plate.
Attenuation characteristics of coda waves in Mainland Gujarat (India)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Arun K.; Sutar, Anup K.; Chopra, Sumer; Kumar, Santosh; Rastogi, B. K.
2012-03-01
The attenuation characteristics based on coda waves of Mainland Gujarat (India) have been investigated in the present study. The broadband waveforms of 53 local earthquakes (Mw 1.1-3.3) having focal depths in the 6.0-33.6 km range recorded at five stations of Mainland Gujarat region has been used for the analysis. The frequency-dependent relationships (Q = Q0fn) for coda-Q (Qc) and dependency of coda-Q on lapse time windows have been determined for the said region. The average lapse time dependent coda-Q relations estimated for the region are: Qc = (87 13)f(1.01 0.06) (lapse time: 30 s), Qc = (112 20)f(0.94 0.08) (lapse time: 40 s) and Qc = (120 22)f(0.76 0.07) (lapse time: 50 s). The increase in Qc values with lapse time shows the depth dependence of Qc as longer lapse time windows will sample larger area. The observed quality factor is strongly dependent on frequency and lapse time, which indicates that the upper lithosphere, is more heterogeneous and seismotectonically active, while the lower lithosphere is homogeneous and relatively less active. A comparison of the coda-Q estimated for Mainland Gujarat region with those of nearby Kachchh and Saurashtra regions shows that Mainland Gujarat region is more heterogeneous. The rate of decay of attenuation (Q-1) with frequency for the relations obtained here is found to be comparable with those of other regions of the world though the absolute values differ. The obtained relations are expected to be useful for the estimation of source parameters of the earthquakes in the Mainland Gujarat region where no such relations were available earlier. These relations are also important for the simulation of earthquake strong ground motions in the region.
Il Lee, Kang; Joo Choi, Min
2012-01-01
The frequency-dependent attenuation and backscatter coefficients were measured in 25 bovine femoral trabecular bone samples from 0.2 to 1.2 MHz. When the average attenuation coefficient was fitted to a nonlinear power law ?(f)=?(0)+?(1)f(n), the exponent n was found to be 1.65. In contrast, the average backscatter coefficient was fitted to a power law ?(f)=?(1)f(n) and the exponent n was measured as 3.25. The apparent bone density was significantly correlated with the parameter ?(1) (0.2-0.7 MHz: r = 0.852, 0.6-1.2 MHz: r = 0.832) as well as the backscatter coefficient (0.5 MHz: r = 0.751, 1.0 MHz: r = 0.808). PMID:22280732
Attenuation of Coda Waves in the Saurashtra Region, Gujarat (India)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Babita; Kumar, Dinesh; Teotia, S. S.; Rastogi, B. K.; Gupta, Arun K.; Prajapati, Srichand
2012-01-01
The attenuation characteristics based on coda waves of two areasJamnagar and Junagarh of Saurashtra, Gujarat (India)have been investigated in the present study. The frequency dependent relationships have been developed for both the areas using single back scattering model. The broadband waveforms of the vertical components of 33 earthquakes (Mw 1.5-3.5) recorded at six stations of the Jamnagar area, and broadband waveforms of 68 earthquakes (Mw 1.6-5) recorded at five stations of the Junagarh area have been used for the analysis. The estimated relations for the Junagarh area are: Q c = (158 5)f(0.990.04) (lapse time : 20 s), Q c = (170 4.4)f(0.970.02) (lapse time : 30 s) and Q c = (229 6.6)f(0.940.03) (lapse time : 40 s) and for the Jamnagar area are: Q c = (178 3)f(0.950.05) (lapse time : 20 s), Q c = (224 6)f(0.980.06) (lapse time : 30 s) and Q c = (282 7)f(0.910.03) (lapse time : 40 s). These are the first estimates for the areas under consideration. The Junagarh area appears to be more attenuative as compared to the Jamnagar area. The increase in Q c values with lapse time found here for both the areas show the depth dependence of Q c as longer lapse time windows will sample larger area. The rate of decay of attenuation ( Q -1) with frequency for the relations obtained here is found to be comparable with those of other regions of the world though the absolute values differ. A comparison of the coda-Q estimated for the Saurashtra region with those of the nearby Kachchh region shows that the Saurashtra region is less heterogeneous. The obtained relations are expected to be useful for the estimation of source parameters of the earthquakes in the Saurashtra region of Gujarat where no such relations were available earlier. These relations are also important for the simulation of earthquake strong ground motions in the region.
Frequency-dependent Lg-wave attenuation in northern Morocco
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noriega, Raquel; Ugalde, Arantza; Villaseñor, Antonio; Harnafi, Mimoun
2015-11-01
Frequency-dependent attenuation (Q- 1) in the crust of northern Morocco is estimated from Lg-wave spectral amplitude measurements every quarter octave in the frequency band 0.8 to 8 Hz. This study takes advantage of the improved broadband data coverage in the region provided by the deployment of the IberArray seismic network. Earthquake data consist of 71 crustal events with magnitudes 4 ≤ mb ≤ 5.5 recorded on 110 permanent and temporary seismic stations between January 2008 and December 2013 with hypocentral distances between 100 and 900 km. 1274 high-quality Lg waveforms provide dense path coverage of northern Morocco, crossing a region with a complex structure and heterogeneous tectonic setting as a result of continuous interactions between the African and Eurasian plates. We use two different methods: the coda normalization (CN) analysis, that allows removal of the source and site effects from the Lg spectra, and the spectral amplitude decay (SAD) method, that simultaneously inverts for source, site, and path attenuation terms. The CN and SAD methods return similar results, indicating that the Lg Q models are robust to differences in the methodologies. Larger errors and no significant frequency dependence are observed for frequencies lower than 1.5 Hz. For distances up to 400 km and the frequency band 1.5 ≤ ƒ (Hz) ≤ 4.5, the model functions Q(f) = (529- 22+ 23)(f/1.5)0.23 ± 0.06 and Q(f) = (457- 7+ 7)(f/1.5)0.44 ± 0.02 are obtained using the CN and SAD methods, respectively. A change in the frequency dependence is observed above 4.5 Hz for both methods which may be related to the influence of the Sn energy on the Lg window. The frequency-dependent Q- 1 estimates represent an average attenuation beneath a broad region including the Rif and Tell mountains, the Moroccan and Algerian mesetas, the Atlas Mountains and the Sahara Platform structural domains, and correlate well with areas of moderate seismicity where intermediate Q values have been obtained.
Q c and Q S wave attenuation of South African earthquakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandt, Martin B. C.
2015-11-01
Quality factor Q, which describes the attenuation of seismic waves with distance, was determined for South Africa using data recorded by the South African National Seismograph Network. Because of an objective paucity of seismicity in South Africa and modernisation of the seismograph network only in 2007, I carried out a coda wave decay analysis on only 13 tectonic earthquakes and 7 mine-related events for the magnitude range 3.6 ? M L ? 4.4. Up to five seismograph stations were utilised to determine Q c for frequencies at 2, 4, 8 and 16 Hz resulting in 84 individual measurements. The constants Q 0 and ? were determined for the attenuation relation Q c(f) = Q 0 f ? . The result was Q 0 = 396 29 and ? = 0.72 0.04 for a lapse time of 1.9*(t s - t 0) (time from origin time t 0 to the start of coda analysis window is 1.9 times the S-travel time, t s) and a coda window length of 80 s. This lapse time and coda window length were found to fit the most individual frequencies for a signal-to-noise ratio of at least 3 and a minimum absolute correlation coefficient for the envelope of 0.5. For a positive correlation coefficient, the envelope amplitude increases with time and Q c was not calculated. The derived Q c was verified using the spectral ratio method on a smaller data set consisting of nine earthquakes and one mine-related event recorded by up to four seismograph stations. Since the spectral ratio method requires absolute amplitudes in its calculations, site response tests were performed to select four appropriate stations without soil amplification and/or signal distortion. The result obtained for Q S was Q 0 = 391 130 and ? = 0.60 0.16, which agrees well with the coda Q c result.
Q c and Q S wave attenuation of South African earthquakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandt, Martin B. C.
2016-04-01
Quality factor Q, which describes the attenuation of seismic waves with distance, was determined for South Africa using data recorded by the South African National Seismograph Network. Because of an objective paucity of seismicity in South Africa and modernisation of the seismograph network only in 2007, I carried out a coda wave decay analysis on only 13 tectonic earthquakes and 7 mine-related events for the magnitude range 3.6 ≤ M L ≤ 4.4. Up to five seismograph stations were utilised to determine Q c for frequencies at 2, 4, 8 and 16 Hz resulting in 84 individual measurements. The constants Q 0 and α were determined for the attenuation relation Q c( f) = Q 0 f α . The result was Q 0 = 396 ± 29 and α = 0.72 ± 0.04 for a lapse time of 1.9*( t s - t 0) (time from origin time t 0 to the start of coda analysis window is 1.9 times the S-travel time, t s) and a coda window length of 80 s. This lapse time and coda window length were found to fit the most individual frequencies for a signal-to-noise ratio of at least 3 and a minimum absolute correlation coefficient for the envelope of 0.5. For a positive correlation coefficient, the envelope amplitude increases with time and Q c was not calculated. The derived Q c was verified using the spectral ratio method on a smaller data set consisting of nine earthquakes and one mine-related event recorded by up to four seismograph stations. Since the spectral ratio method requires absolute amplitudes in its calculations, site response tests were performed to select four appropriate stations without soil amplification and/or signal distortion. The result obtained for Q S was Q 0 = 391 ± 130 and α = 0.60 ± 0.16, which agrees well with the coda Q c result.
Lee, Cheng-Kuang; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Chang, Feng-Yu; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Shen, Su-Chin; Yuan, Ouyang; Yang, Chih-He
2013-01-01
In this study, time-resolved optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning images of the process of water diffusion in the skin that illustrate the enhancement in the backscattered intensities due to the increased water concentration are presented. In our experiments, the water concentration in the skin was increased by soaking the hand in water, and the same region of the skin was scanned and measured with the OCT system and a commercial moisture monitor every three minutes. To quantitatively analyze the moisture-related optical properties and the velocity of water diffusion in human skin, the attenuation coefficients of the skin, including the epidermis and dermis layers, were evaluated. Furthermore, the evaluated attenuation coefficients were compared with the measurements made using the commercial moisture monitor. The results demonstrate that the attenuation coefficient increases as the water concentration increases. Furthermore, by evaluating the positions of center-of mass of the backscattered intensities from OCT images, the diffusion velocity can be estimated. In contrast to the commercial moisture monitor, OCT can provide three-dimensional structural images of the skin and characterize its optical property, which together can be used to observe morphological changes and quantitatively evaluate the moisture-related attenuation coefficients in different skin layers. PMID:23529149
Attenuation coefficient of the light in skin of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva, C. R.; Camargo, C. F. M.; Aureliano, D. P.; De Pretto, L. R.; Freitas, A. Z.; Ribeiro, M. S.
2015-06-01
Optical properties of the biological tissue play an important role to a correct use of optical techniques for therapy and diagnosis. The mice skin presents morphological differences due to characteristics such as gender, body mass and age. Murine models are frequently used in pre-clinical trials in optical therapy and diagnosis. Therefore, the assessment of the skin tissue in animal models is needed for a proper understanding of how light interacts with skin. Noninvasive techniques such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) have been used to obtain optical information of the tissue, as the attenuation coefficient, with the advantage of obtaining sectional images in real time. In this study, eight female BALB/c albino mice (twenty-four weeks old) and eight male C57BL/6 black mice (eight weeks old) were used to measure the attenuation coefficient of the light in the skin, utilizing the OCT technique, aiming to check for influence of the aging process. Two moments were assessed twenty-two weeks apart from each other. Our data show that the aging process significantly affects the light attenuation coefficient in mice skin. Twenty-two weeks after, statistical significant differences were observed between groups within a same strain. We conclude that light attenuation coefficient of mice skin may be influenced by factors such as disorganization of the dermis. Morphological aspects of skin should be taken into account in studies that involve optical strategies in murine models.
Estimating the beam attenuation coefficient in coastal waters from AVHRR imagery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gould, Richard W.; Arnone, Robert A.
1997-09-01
This paper presents an algorithm to estimate particle beam attenuation at 660 nm ( cp660) in coastal areas using the red and near-infrared channels of the NOAA AVHRR satellite sensor. In situ reflectance spectra and cp660 measurements were collected at 23 stations in Case I and II waters during an April 1993 cruise in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The reflectance spectra were weighted by the spectral response of the AVHRR sensor and integrated over the channel 1 waveband to estimate the atmospherically corrected signal recorded by the satellite. An empirical relationship between integrated reflectance and cp660 values was derived with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.88. Because the AVHRR sensor requires a strong channel 1 signal, the algorithm is applicable in highly turbid areas ( cp660 > 1.5 m -1) where scattering from suspended sediment strongly controls the shape and magnitude of the red (550-650 nm) reflectance spectrum. The algorithm was tested on a data set collected 2 years later in different coastal waters in the northern Gulf of Mexico and satellite estimates of cp660 averaged within 37% of measured values. Application of the algorithm provides daily images of nearshore regions at 1 km resolution for evaluating processes affecting ocean color distribution patterns (tides, winds, currents, river discharge). Further validation and refinement of the algorithm are in progress to permit quantitative application in other coastal areas. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd
Subduction zone guided waves: 3D modelling and attenuation effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garth, T.; Rietbrock, A.
2013-12-01
Waveform modelling is an important tool for understanding complex seismic structures such as subduction zone waveguides. These structures are often simplified to 2D structures for modelling purposes to reduce computational costs. In the case of subduction zone waveguide affects, 2D models have shown that dispersed arrivals are caused by a low velocity waveguide, inferred to be subducted oceanic crust and/or hydrated outer rise normal faults. However, due to the 2D modelling limitations the inferred seismic properties such as velocity contrast and waveguide thickness are still debated. Here we test these limitations with full 3D waveform modelling. For waveguide effects to be observable the waveform must be accurately modelled to relatively high frequencies (> 2 Hz). This requires a small grid spacing due to the high seismic velocities present in subduction zones. A large area must be modelled as well due to the long propagation distances (400 - 600 km) of waves interacting with subduction zone waveguides. The combination of the large model area and small grid spacing required means that these simulations require a large amount of computational resources, only available at high performance computational centres like the UK National super computer HECTOR (used in this study). To minimize the cost of modelling for such a large area, the width of the model area perpendicular to the subduction trench (the y-direction) is made as small as possible. This reduces the overall volume of the 3D model domain. Therefore the wave field is simulated in a model ';corridor' of the subduction zone velocity structure. This introduces new potential sources of error particularly from grazing wave side reflections in the y-direction. Various dampening methods are explored to reduce these grazing side reflections, including perfectly matched layers (PML) and more traditional exponential dampening layers. Defining a corridor model allows waveguide affects to be modelled up to at least 2 Hz (needed for dispersion analysis) for the large model area that is considered. Simulations with a variety of quality factors (Q) at different parts of the subduction zone have been run to investigate how seismic attenuation affects the observed dispersed waveforms. We show that the low Q in the mantle wedge can improve the fit of the dispersed waveforms. A low Q in the low velocity waveguide structure however means that the delayed high frequency energy has very low amplitude, and so is not seen clearly at the surface. The Q of the low velocity crustal waveguide must therefore be greater than 250, suggesting that melting does not occur in the subducted oceanic crust at depths of 220 km or less. The velocity contrast seen at these depths must therefore be due to compositional variations. Benchmarking 2D elastic models with the 3D case shows that 2D models give a good approximation of 3D subduction zone waveguide structure. Visco-elastic simulations show that attenuation in the mantle wedge affects the observed dispersion, but the low velocity waveguide itself does not have significantly reduced Q. This work is an example of how the increasing computing power coupled with well-defined model boundaries can allow high resolution 3D modelling to be applied to specific structures of interest.
Studies on Shock Attenuation in Plastic Materials and Applications in Detonation Wave Shaping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khurana, Ritu; Gautam, P. C.; Rai, Rajwant; Kumar, Anil; Sharma, A. C.; Singh, Manjit, Dr
2012-07-01
Pressure in plastic materials attenuates due to change of impedance, phase change in the medium and plastic deformation. A lot of theoretical and experimental efforts have been devoted to the attenuation of shock wave produced by the impact of explosive driven flyer plate. However comparatively less work has been done on the attenuation of shock waves due to contact explosive detonation. Present studies deal with the attenuation of explosive driven shock waves in various plastic materials and its applications in design of Hybrid Detonation Wave Generator In present work shock attenuating properties of different polymers such as Perspex, Teflon, nylon, polypropylene and viton has been studied experimentally using rotating mirror streak camera and electrical position pins. High explosive RDX/TNT and OCTOL of diameter 75-100mm and thickness 20 to 50mm were detonated to induce shock wave in the test specimens. From experimental determined shock velocity at different locations the attenuation in shock pressure was calculated. The attenuation of shock velocity with thickness in the material indicates exponential decay according to relation US = UOexp(-ax). In few of the experiments manganin gauge of resistance 50 ohms was used to record stress time profile across shock wave. The shock attenuation data of Viton has successfully been used in the design of hybrid detonation wave generator using Octol as high explosive. While selecting a material it was ensured that the attenuated shock remains strong enough to initiate an acceptor explosive. Theoretical calculation were supported by Autodyne 2D hydro-code simulation which were validated with the experiments conducted using high speed streak photography and electrical shock arrival pins. Shock attenuation data of Perspex was used to establishing card gap test and wedge test in which test items is subjected to known pressure pulse by selecting the thickness of the plastic material.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murai, Y.
2004-12-01
We compute the synthetic seismograms of multiply scattered SH waves in 2-D elastic media with densely distributed parallel cracks. We assume two spatial distributions; elastic media with periodic distribution of cracks in a zone and randomly distributed cracks in a rectangle bounded region. The calculated attenuation coefficient Q-1 of the primary wave is directly proportional to the crack density in the ranges of ? a2 ? 0.05, where ? and a are the number density and half length of cracks, respectively. This is consistent with that obtained by a stochastic analysis based on Foldy's approximation. When cracks are distributed densely (? a2=0.075 and 0.1), our result on Q-1 still agrees with it for the random crack distribution models but appears to differ from it for the periodic distribution of cracks especially in the low wavenumber ranges. This suggests that the effect of multiple interactions among densely distributed cracks depends on not only the density but also the spatial distribution of cracks at low wavenumbers. The calculated phase velocity of the primary wave is consistent with that from the stochastic analysis in the ranges of ? a2 ? 0.1 and does not depend on the spatial distribution of cracks. This suggests that the multiple crack interactions have a small effect to the phase velocity. Therefore the crack density can be estimated from the values of the phase velocity for the cases of densely distributed cracks even if the effect of the multiple crack interactions is not considered. We can clearly observe the reflected waves in the synthetic seismograms. The reflection coefficient shows a periodical behavior in low wavenumber ranges and its wavenumber dependence is identical to that of an anisotropic layer. The elastic constants and thickness of the cracked zone are estimated by fitting the reflection coefficients to those of a single anisotropic layer for both cases of normal and oblique incidence. The estimated thickness and elastic constants are shown to be reasonable. The elastic constants depend on a crack density, so that it is possible to estimate the density of cracks distributed in a fracture zone when the elastic constants are obtained from the frequency dependence of the reflection coefficients.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaji, Sayumi; Sarugaku, Yuki; Ikeda, Yuji; Kobayashi, Naoto; Nakanishi, Kenshi; Kondo, Sohei; Yasui, Chikako; Kawakita, Hideyo
2014-07-01
Immersion grating is a next-generation diffraction grating which has the immersed the diffraction surface in an optical material with high refractive index of n > 2, and can provide higher spectral resolution than a classical reflective grating. Our group is developing various immersion gratings from the near- to mid-infrared region (Ikeda et al.1, 2, 3, 4, Sarugaku et al.5, and Sukegawa et al.6). The internal attenuation ?att of the candidate materials is especially very important to achieve the high efficiency immersion gratings used for astronomical applications. Nevertheless, because there are few available data as ?att < 0.01cm-1 in the infrared region, except for measurements of CVD-ZnSe, CVD-ZnS, and single-crystal Si in the short near-infrared region reported by Ikeda et al.7, we cannot select suitable materials as an immersion grating in an aimed wavelength range. Therefore, we measure the attenuation coefficients of CdTe, CdZnTe, Ge, Si, ZnSe, and ZnS that could be applicable to immersion gratings. We used an originally developed optical unit attached to a commercial FTIR which covers the wide wavelength range from 1.3?m to 28?m. This measurement system achieves the high accuracy of (triangle)?att ~ 0.01cm-1. As a result, high-resistivity single-crystal CdZnTe, single-crystal Ge, single-crystal Si, CVD-ZnSe, and CVD-ZnS show ?att < 0.01cm-1 at the wavelength range of 5.5 - 19.0?m, 2.0 - 10.5?m, 1.3 - 5.4?m, 1.7 - 13.2?m, and 1.9 - 9.2?m, respectively. This indicates that these materials are good candidates for high efficiency immersion grating covering those wavelength ranges. We plan to make similar measurement under the cryogenic condition as T <= 10K for the infrared, especially mid-infrared applications.
Ultrasonic P-wave and S-wave attenuation in partially frozen porous material saturated with brine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsushima, J.; Suzuki, M.; Kato, Y.; Rokugawa, S.
2010-12-01
Ultrasonic wave transmission measurements were conducted in order to examine the influence of ice-brine coexisting system grown in porous material on ultrasonic P- and S-waves. We observed the variations of a transmitted wave with a frequency content of 150-1000 kHz through a liquid system to a solid-liquid coexistence system, changing its temperature from 20C to -15C. We quantitatively estimated attenuation for porous materials with two different porosities (37.3 and 48.2 %) during the freezing of salty water in porous material by considering different distances between the source and receiver transducers. This paper is concerned with attenuation at ultrasonic frequencies of 500-1000 kHz for P-waves and 100-400 kHz for S-waves. The waveform analyses indicate that the attenuation curves reach their peak at a temperature of -3C and gradually decrease with decreasing temperature. We found a positive correlation between the attenuation of ultrasonic waves and the existence of unfrozen brine estimated by the pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique. Thus, the laboratory experiments of the present study demonstrated that ultrasonic waves with such a frequency range are significantly affected by the existence of a solid-liquid coexistence system in the porous material. In terms of a plausible mechanism for attenuation, we must consider the physical interactions between pore fluid and ice, that is, the pore microstructure and permeability in such system is important. Furthermore, We demonstrate a method that derives a more accurate measurement of ultrasonic attenuation by using sweep-type signals than by using impulse-type signals. We obtained spectral amplitude of the sweep signal in frequency-time domain using the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and estimated attenuation in the time-frequency domain using the spectral-ratio method. The advantage of this method is independent on the effect of windowing. Finally we demonstrated the possibility of sweep signal to estimate attenuation.
Attenuation anisotropy and the relative frequency content of split shear waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carter, Andrew J.; Kendall, J.-Michael
2006-06-01
The variation of frequency-dependent seismic wave attenuation with direction (attenuation anisotropy) contains additional information to that contained in velocity anisotropy. In particular, it has the potential to distinguish between different mechanisms that can cause velocity anisotropy. For example, aligned fracturing might be expected to cause measurable velocity and attenuation anisotropy, while preferred crystal orientation leads to significant velocity anisotropy but may cause only small amounts of attenuation. Attenuation anisotropy may also contain useful information about pore-fluid content and properties. We present a methodology for analysis of attenuation anisotropy, and apply it to a microseismic data set previously analysed for shear-wave splitting by Teanby et al. (2004). Attenuation anisotropy values obtained show a temporal variation which appears to correlate with the temporal variation in the velocity anisotropy. The comparison of the relative frequency content of fast (S1) and slow (S2) split shear waves is a convenient method for examining seismic attenuation anisotropy. Provided that S1 and S2 initially have the same spectral colouring, that no spectral distortion is introduced by the differences between receiver responses of geophone components, and that spectral distortion due to background noise can be ignored or corrected for, we can attribute any differences in their frequency content to attenuation anisotropy. Attenuation anisotropy, where present, should be detected by the different (approximately orthogonal) polarizations of S1 and S2 as they pass through the anisotropic medium. In the presence of attenuation anisotropy S1 and S2 should experience different levels of frequency-dependent attenuation. We quantify the differential attenuation of S1 and S2 using a scheme based on a spectral ratio method. We present results from a microseismic data set acquired in an abandoned oil well at Valhall, a North Sea oil field. The results are surprising in that sometimes the slower arrival, S2, is richer in high frequencies than the faster, S1. This appears to be contrary to results predicted by theoretical crack models for attenuation anisotropy (e.g. Hudson 1981). The mechanism responsible for these observations is not clear. Our differential attenuation attribute correlates with the angle between the strike of the inferred initial shear-wave source polarization and the fast shear-wave polarization, which suggests that the split shear wave with the larger amplitude is preferentially attenuated. Our attribute also correlates with the event backazimuth, and the minimum percentage anisotropy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Madhav, Priti; Li, Christina M.; Tornai, Martin P.
2010-04-01
With advances in 3D in vivo imaging technology, non-invasive procedures can be used to characterize tissues to identify tumors and monitor changes over time. Using a dedicated breast CT system with a quasi-monochromatic cone-beam x-ray source and flat-panel digital detector, this study was performed in an effort to directly characterize different materials in vivo based on their absolute attenuation coefficients. CT acquisitions were first acquired using a multi-material rod phantom with acrylic, delrin, polyethylene, fat-equivalent, and glandular-equivalent plastic rods, and also with a human cadaver breast. Projections were collected with and without a beam stop array for scatter correction. For each projection, the 2D scatter was estimated with cubic spline interpolation of the average values behind the shadow of each beam stop overlapping the object. Scatter-corrected projections were subsequently calculated by subtracting the scatter images containing only the region of the object from corresponding projections (consisting of primary and scatter x-rays) without the beam stop array. Iterative OSTR was used to reconstruct the data and estimate the non-uniform attenuation distribution. Preliminary results show that with reduced beam hardening from the x-ray beam, scatter correction further reduces the cupping artifact, improves image contrast, and yields attenuation coefficients < 8% of narrow-beam values of the known materials (range 1.2 - 7.8%). Peaks in the histogram showed clear separation between the different material attenuation coefficients. These findings indicate that minimizing beam hardening and applying scatter correction make it practical to directly characterize different tissues in vivo using absolute attenuation coefficients.
Seismic-wave attenuation associated with crustal faults in the new madrid seismic zone.
Hamilton, R M; Mooney, W D
1990-04-20
The attenuation of upper crustal seismic waves that are refracted with a velocity of about 6 kilometers per second varies greatly among profiles in the area of the New Madrid seismic zone in the central Mississippi Valley. The waves that have the strongest attenuation pass through the seismic trend along the axis of the Reelfoot rift in the area of the Blytheville arch. Defocusing of the waves in a low-velocity zone and/or seismic scattering and absorption could cause the attenuation; these effects are most likely associated with the highly deformed rocks along the arch. Consequently, strong seismic-wave attenuation may be a useful criterion for identifying seismogenic fault zones. PMID:17784489
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kemppinen, Esa
2000-01-01
Both 1-port and 2-port measuring methods have been demonstrated and compared to determine the real part of the frequency-dependent effective relative permittivity, icons/Journals/Common/varepsilon" ALT="varepsilon" ALIGN="TOP"/> re (f ), of microstrip lines fabricated on an alumina substrate. Signal flow diagram analysis has been used to derive equations from which icons/Journals/Common/varepsilon" ALT="varepsilon" ALIGN="TOP"/> re (f ) was calculated at discrete frequencies for the substrate with a known dielectric constant, icons/Journals/Common/varepsilon" ALT="varepsilon" ALIGN="TOP"/> r = 9.5. Both methods gave similar results for icons/Journals/Common/varepsilon" ALT="varepsilon" ALIGN="TOP"/> re (f ) from 45 MHz to 50 GHz. In addition, the measured frequency dependence of icons/Journals/Common/varepsilon" ALT="varepsilon" ALIGN="TOP"/> re (f ) was in agreement with the Kirschning-Jansen dispersion model within better than 2%. From the measured S -parameter data it was also possible to determine approximately the attenuation coefficient of the microstrips. Measured values obtained by the 2-port method were about 1.5-2 times the calculated values whereas the 1-port method suffered from radiation loss at the open end of the microstrips in the millimetre wave region. Both 1-port and 2-port methods can be used, for example, for quality checking purposes to verify how well the icons/Journals/Common/varepsilon" ALT="varepsilon" ALIGN="TOP"/> r value of the substrate material employed is within the specified range in a broad frequency band. However, the 1-port method can be more easily used to determine icons/Journals/Common/varepsilon" ALT="varepsilon" ALIGN="TOP"/> r of the substrate material at low microwave frequencies because it is faster than the 2-port method, the test structure is simpler and the calibration routine is easier to perform.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lei; Zhang, Lu Lu; Qi, Feng-Hua
2015-04-01
Under investigation in this paper is an inhomogeneous modified nonlinear Schrdinger (MNLS) equation describing the ultrashort pulse dynamics with the distributed dispersion, self-phase modulation, self-steepening, and linear gain/loss. Nonautonomous rogue waves for the inhomogeneous MNLS equation are constructed via the modified Darboux transformation with the inhomogeneous parameters. The dynamical behaviours and main characteristics of the nonautonomous rogue waves in inhomogeneous fibers are discussed by analysing certain physical quantities. The inhomogeneous effects on the evolution of rogue waves are considered by virtue of the presented rational solutions with distributed coefficients. It is found that the group velocity dispersion (GVD) and linear gain/loss coefficients have effects on the trajectories and amplitudes of the rogue waves, respectively. Additionally, an intriguing composite rogue wave of the inhomogeneous MNLS equation is revealed, owing to the proper choice of the GVD coefficient. Our results could be useful for controlling the rogue waves in the dispersion-managed fiber system.
A poroelastic model for ultrasonic wave attenuation in partially frozen brines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsushima, Jun; Nibe, Takao; Suzuki, Makoto; Kato, Yoshibumi; Rokugawa, Shuichi
2011-02-01
Although there are many possible mechanisms for the intrinsic seismic attenuation in composite materials that include fluids, relative motion between solids and fluids during seismic wave propagation is one of the most important attenuation mechanisms. In our previous study, we conducted ultrasonic wave transmission measurements on an ice-brine coexisting system to examine the influence on ultrasonic waves of the unfrozen brine in the pore microstructure of ice. In order to elucidate the physical mechanism responsible for ultrasonic wave attenuation in the frequency range of 350-600kHz, measured at different temperatures in partially frozen brines, we employed a poroelastic model based on the Biot theory to describe the propagation of ultrasonic waves through partially frozen brines. By assuming that the solid phase is ice and the liquid phase is the unfrozen brine, fluid properties measured by a pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance technique were used to calculate porosities at different temperatures. The computed intrinsic attenuation at 500kHz cannot completely predict the measured attenuation results from the experimental study in an ice-brine coexisting system, which suggests that other attenuation mechanisms such as the squirt-flow mechanism and wave scattering effect should be taken into account.
Investigation of guided wave propagation and attenuation in pipe buried in sand
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leinov, Eli; Lowe, Michael J. S.; Cawley, Peter
2015-07-01
Long-range guided wave testing is a well-established method for detection of corrosion defects in pipelines. The method is currently used routinely for above ground pipelines in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipes buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised and unpredictable due to attenuation of the guided wave resulting from energy leakage into the embedding soil. The attenuation characteristics of guided wave propagation in an 8 in. pipe buried in sand are investigated using a laboratory full-scale experimental rig and model predictions. We report measurements of attenuation of the T(0,1) and L(0,2) guided wave modes over a range of sand conditions, including loose, compacted, mechanically compacted, water saturated and drained. Attenuation values are found to be in the range of 1.65-5.5 dB/m and 0.98-3.2 dB/m for the torsional and longitudinal modes, respectively, over the frequency of 11-34 kHz. The application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation. Mechanical compaction of the sand yields similar attenuation values to those obtained with applied overburden pressure. The attenuation decreases in the fully water-saturated sand, and increases in drained sand to values comparable with those obtained for compacted sand. Attenuation measurements are compared with Disperse software model predictions and confirm that the attenuation phenomenon in buried pipes is essentially governed by the bulk shear velocity in the sand. The attenuation behaviour of the torsional guided wave mode is found not to be captured by a uniform soil model; comparison with predictions obtained with the Disperse software suggest that this is likely to be due to a layer of sand adhering to the surface of the pipe.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouchaala, Fateh; Ali, Mohammed Y.; Farid, Asam
2014-07-01
The subsurface geology of Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates is primarily composed of carbonate rocks. Such media are known to be highly heterogeneous. Very few studies have attempted to estimate attenuation in carbonate rocks. In Abu Dhabi no attenuation profile has been published. This study provides the first seismic wave attenuation profiles in Abu Dhabi using dense array of VSP data. We estimated three attenuation profiles: the apparent, the scattering, and the intrinsic attenuations. The apparent attenuation profile was computed using amplitude decay and spectral-ratio methods. The scattering attenuation profile was estimated using a generalized reflection-transmission matrix forward model. It is usually estimated from the sonic log, but to be more consistent with the apparent attenuation, we succeeded in this paper to estimate it from the VSP data. We subtracted the scattering attenuation from the apparent attenuation to deduce the intrinsic attenuation. The results of the study indicate that the scattering attenuation is significant compared to the published studies that are mainly based on clastic rocks. The high scattering attenuation can reach up to 0.02. It can be explained by the strong heterogeneity of the carbonate rocks. This study demonstrates that the Simsima and Rus Formations have considerable scattering and intrinsic attenuations. These formations are considered aquifers in Abu Dhabi; we therefore interpreted this high intrinsic attenuation zones to be due to the heterogeneity and to the fluids contained in these formations. The Umm-Er-Radhuma Formation is a more homogenous formation with limited aquifer potential. Hence, scattering and intrinsic attenuations of the Umm-Er-Radhuma Formation are low.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Usry, J. W.; Whitlock, C. H.
1981-01-01
Management of water resources such as a reservoir requires using analytical models which describe such parameters as the suspended sediment field. To select or develop an appropriate model requires making many measurements to describe the distribution of this parameter in the water column. One potential method for making those measurements expeditiously is to measure light transmission or turbidity and relate that parameter to total suspended solids concentrations. An instrument which may be used for this purpose was calibrated by generating curves of transmission measurements plotted against measured values of total suspended solids concentrations and beam attenuation coefficients. Results of these experiments indicate that field measurements made with this instrument using curves generated in this study should correlate with total suspended solids concentrations and beam attenuation coefficients in the water column within 20 percent.
Wave attenuation and mode dispersion in a waveguide coated with lossy dielectric material
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, C. S.; Chuang, S. L.; Lee, S. W.; Lo, Y. T.
1984-01-01
The modal attenuation constants in a cylindrical waveguide coated with a lossy dielectric material are studied as functions of frequency, dielectric constant, and thickness of the dielectric layer. A dielectric material best suited for a large attenuation is suggested. Using Kirchhoff's approximation, the field attenuation in a coated waveguide which is illuminated by a normally incident plane wave is also studied. For a circular guide which has a diameter of two wavelengths and is coated with a thin lossy dielectric layer (omega sub r = 9.1 - j2.3, thickness = 3% of the radius), a 3 dB attenuation is achieved within 16 diameters.
Demir, Faruk
2010-01-01
The mass attenuation coefficients of the 59.54keV radiation of (241)Am point source in boron ores such as tincal, ulexite and colemanite were determined experimentally by a scintillation detector and theoretically. Since boron ores contain boron, hydrogen, and a lot of elements, they may be used as shielding against neutrons and gammas simultaneously, e.g. for shielding (241)Am/Be neutron sources, as they emit both gammas and neutrons. PMID:19800806
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, Westin B.; Michaels, Thomas E.; Michaels, Jennifer E.
2016-02-01
The behavior of guided waves propagating in anisotropic composite panels can be substantially more complicated than for isotropic, metallic plates. The angular dependency of wave propagation characteristics need to be understood and quantified before applying methods for damage detection and characterization. This study experimentally investigates the anisotropy of wave speed and attenuation for the fundamental A0-like guided wave mode propagating in a solid laminate composite panel. A piezoelectric transducer is the wave source and a laser Doppler vibrometer is used to measure the outward propagating waves along radial lines originating at the source transducer. Group velocity, phase velocity and attenuation are characterized as a function of angle for a single center frequency. The methods shown in this paper serve as a framework for future adaptation to damage imaging methods using guided waves for structural health monitoring.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cao, Fang; Fichot, Cedric G.; Hooker, Stanford B.; Miller, William L.
2014-01-01
Photochemical processes driven by high-energy ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in inshore, estuarine, and coastal waters play an important role in global bio geochemical cycles and biological systems. A key to modeling photochemical processes in these optically complex waters is an accurate description of the vertical distribution of UVR in the water column which can be obtained using the diffuse attenuation coefficients of down welling irradiance (Kd()). The Sea UV Sea UVc algorithms (Fichot et al., 2008) can accurately retrieve Kd ( 320, 340, 380,412, 443 and 490 nm) in oceanic and coastal waters using multispectral remote sensing reflectances (Rrs(), Sea WiFS bands). However, SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms are currently not optimized for use in optically complex, inshore waters, where they tend to severely underestimate Kd(). Here, a new training data set of optical properties collected in optically complex, inshore waters was used to re-parameterize the published SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms, resulting in improved Kd() retrievals for turbid, estuarine waters. Although the updated SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms perform best in optically complex waters, the published SeaUVSeaUVc models still perform well in most coastal and oceanic waters. Therefore, we propose a composite set of SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms, optimized for Kd() retrieval in almost all marine systems, ranging from oceanic to inshore waters. The composite algorithm set can retrieve Kd from ocean color with good accuracy across this wide range of water types (e.g., within 13 mean relative error for Kd(340)). A validation step using three independent, in situ data sets indicates that the composite SeaUVSeaUVc can generate accurate Kd values from 320 490 nm using satellite imagery on a global scale. Taking advantage of the inherent benefits of our statistical methods, we pooled the validation data with the training set, obtaining an optimized composite model for estimating Kd() in UV wavelengths for almost all marine waters. This optimized composite set of SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms will provide the optical community with improved ability to quantify the role of solar UV radiation in photochemical and photobiological processes in the ocean.
Attenuation of high-frequency body waves in the crust of the Central External Dinarides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dasovi?, Iva; Ru?i?, Marija; Herak, Davorka; Herak, Marijan
2015-10-01
The Central External Dinarides are known as a tectonically complex region of moderate seismicity where several strong earthquakes occurred in the last century. In order to gain insight into the attenuation of seismic waves in the area, the extended coda normalization method was applied to band-pass-filtered seismograms of local earthquakes recorded at seven seismological broadband stations. Obtained results indicate strong attenuation of direct body waves: Q 0,P = Q P(1 Hz) is found between 21 and 120 and Q 0,S = Q S(1 Hz) is between 46 and 113, whereas the exponent n in the power law of frequency dependence of the quality factor is found in the range of 0.63-1.52 and 0.65-0.97 for n P and n S, respectively. P-waves are, on the average, attenuated more than S-waves. The three island stations (Dugi Otok (DUGI), irje (ZIRJ), Hvar (HVAR)) are distinguished by the strong low-frequency P-wave attenuation and more pronounced frequency dependence of the Q P factor ( Q 0,S/ Q 0,P > 1.7, Q 0,P < 60, n P > n S). The remaining four inland stations (Udbina (UDBI), Mori?i (MORI), Kijevo (KIJV), ?a?vina (CACV)) all exhibit similar qualitative attenuation properties for P- and S-waves ( n P ? n S ? 1 and Q 0,S ? Q 0,P), although individual values of the Q-factors vary notably within this group. Low-frequency attenuation of direct S-waves in the crust is stronger than mean attenuation of scattered coda waves in the lithosphere, especially for long coda lapse times. The results are also qualitatively in agreement with the thermal regime in the area.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Chih-Chung; Chen, Ruimin; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Zhou, Qifa; Humayun, Mark S.; Shung, K. Kirk
2009-10-01
A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye that affects vision. Phacoemulsification is the mostly common surgical method for treating cataracts, and determining that the optimal phacoemulsification energy is dependent on measuring the hardness of the lens. This study explored the use of an ultrasound needle transducer for invasive measurements of ultrasound attenuation coefficient to evaluate the hardness of the cataract lens. A 47 MHz high-frequency needle transducer with a diameter of 0.9 mm was fabricated by a polarized PMN-33%PT single crystal in the present study. The attenuation coefficients at different stages of an artificial porcine cataract lens were measured using the spectral shift approach. The hardness of the cataract lens was also evaluated by mechanical measurement of its elastic properties. The results demonstrated that the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient was increased from 0.048 0.02 to 0.520 0.06 dB mm-1 MHz-1 corresponding to an increase in Young's modulus from 6 0.4 to 96 6.2 kPa as the cataract further developed. In order to evaluate the feasibility of combining needle transducer and phacoemulsification probe for real-time measurement during cataract surgery, the needle transducer was mounted on the phacoemulsification probe for a vibration test. The results indicated that there was no apparent damage to the tip of the needle transducer and the pulse-echo test showed that a good performance in sensitivity was maintained after the vibration test.
Velocity-Space Diffusion Coefficients Due to Full-Wave ICRF Fields in Toroidal Geometry
Harvey, R.W.; Jaeger, F.; Berry, L.A.; Batchelor, D.B.; D'Azevedo, E.; Carter, M.D.; Ershov, N.M.; Smirnov, A.P.; Bonoli, P.; Wright, J.C.; Smithe, D.N.
2005-09-26
Jaeger et al. have calculated bounce-averaged QL diffusion coefficients from AORSA full-wave fields, based on non-Maxwellian distributions from CQL3D Fokker-Planck code. A zero banana-width approximation is employed. Complementing this calculation, a fully numerical calculation of ion velocity diffusion coefficients using the full-wave fields in numerical tokamak equilibria has been implemented to determine the finite orbit width effects. The un-approximated Lorentz equation of motion is integrated to obtain the change in velocity after one complete poloidal transit of the tokamak. Averaging velocity changes over initial starting gyro-phase and toroidal angle gives bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients. The coefficients from the full-wave and Lorentz orbit methods are compared for an ITER DT second harmonic tritium ICRF heating case: the diffusion coefficients are similar in magnitude but reveal substantial finite orbit effects.
Shear wave velocity, seismic attenuation, and thermal structure of the continental upper mantle
Artemieva, I.M.; Billien, M.; Leveque, J.-J.; Mooney, W.D.
2004-01-01
Seismic velocity and attenuation anomalies in the mantle are commonly interpreted in terms of temperature variations on the basis of laboratory studies of elastic and anelastic properties of rocks. In order to evaluate the relative contributions of thermal and non-thermal effects on anomalies of attenuation of seismic shear waves, QS-1, and seismic velocity, VS, we compare global maps of the thermal structure of the continental upper mantle with global QS-1 and Vs maps as determined from Rayleigh waves at periods between 40 and 150 S. We limit the comparison to three continental mantle depths (50, 100 and 150 km), where model resolution is relatively high. The available data set does not indicate that, at a global scale, seismic anomalies in the upper mantle are controlled solely by temperature variations. Continental maps have correlation coefficients of <0.56 between VS and T and of <0.47 between QS and T at any depth. Such low correlation coefficients can partially be attributed to modelling arrefacts; however, they also suggest that not all of the VS and QS anomalies in the continental upper mantle can be explained by T variations. Global maps show that, by the sign of the anomaly, VS and QS usually inversely correlate with lithospheric temperatures: most cratonic regions show high VS and QS and low T, while most active regions have seismic and thermal anomalies of the opposite sign. The strongest inverse correlation is found at a depth of 100 km, where the attenuation model is best resolved. Significantly, at this depth, the contours of near-zero QS anomalies approximately correspond to the 1000 ??C isotherm, in agreement with laboratory measurements that show a pronounced increase in seismic attenuation in upper mantle rocks at 1000-1100 ??C. East-west profiles of VS, QS and T where continental data coverage is best (50??N latitude for North America and 60??N latitude for Eurasia) further demonstrate that temperature plays a dominant, but non-unique, role in determining the value of lithospheric VS and QS. At 100 km depth, where the resolution of seismic models is the highest, we compare observed seismic VS and QS with theoretical VST and QST values, respectively, that are calculated solely from temperature anomalies and constrained by experimental data on temperature dependencies of velocity and attenuation. This comparison shows that temperature variations alone are sufficient to explain seismic VS and QS in ca 50 per cent of continental regions. We hypothesize that compositional anomalies resulting from Fe depletion can explain the misfit between seismic and theoretical VS in cratonic lithosphere. In regions of active tectonics, temperature effects alone cannot explain seismic VS and QS in the lithosphere. It is likely that partial melts and/or fluids may affect seismic parameters in these regions. This study demonstrates that lithospheric temperature plays the dominant role in controlling VS and QS anomalies, but other physical parameters, such as compositional variations, fluids, partial melting and scattering, may also play a significant role in determining VS and QS variations in the continental mantle. ?? 2004 RAS.
Sanders, C.; Ho-Liu, P.; Rinn, D.; Hiroo, Kanamori
1988-01-01
We use seismograms of local earthquakes to image relative shear wave attenuation structure in the shallow crust beneath the region containing the Coso volcanic-geothermal area of E California. Seismograms of 16 small earthquakes show SV amplitudes which are greatly diminished at some azimuths and takeoff angles, indicating strong lateral variations in S wave attenuation in the area. 3-D images of the relative S wave attenuation structure are obtained from forward modeling and a back projection inversion of the amplitude data. The results indicate regions within a 20 by 30 by 10 km volume of the shallow crust (one shallower than 5 km) that severely attenuate SV waves passing through them. These anomalies lie beneath the Indian Wells Valley, 30 km S of the Coso volcanic field, and are coincident with the epicentral locations of recent earthquake swarms. No anomalous attenuation is seen beneath the Coso volcanic field above about 5 km depth. Geologic relations and the coincidence of anomalously slow P wave velocities suggest that the attenuation anomalies may be related to magmatism along the E Sierra front.-from Authors
Laboratory measurements of wave attenuation through model and live vegetation
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Surge and waves generated by hurricanes and tropical storms often cause severe damage and loss of life in coastal areas. It is widely recognized that wetlands along coastal fringes reduce storm surge and waves. Yet, the potential role and primary mechanisms of wave mitigation by wetland vegetation a...
On shallow water waves in a medium with time-dependent dispersion and nonlinearity coefficients
Abdel-Gawad, Hamdy I.; Osman, Mohamed
2014-01-01
In this paper, we studied the progression of shallow water waves relevant to the variable coefficient Korteweg–de Vries (vcKdV) equation. We investigated two kinds of cases: when the dispersion and nonlinearity coefficients are proportional, and when they are not linearly dependent. In the first case, it was shown that the progressive waves have some geometric structures as in the case of KdV equation with constant coefficients but the waves travel with time dependent speed. In the second case, the wave structure is maintained when the nonlinearity balances the dispersion. Otherwise, water waves collapse. The objectives of the study are to find a wide class of exact solutions by using the extended unified method and to present a new algorithm for treating the coupled nonlinear PDE’s. PMID:26199750
On shallow water waves in a medium with time-dependent dispersion and nonlinearity coefficients.
Abdel-Gawad, Hamdy I; Osman, Mohamed
2015-07-01
In this paper, we studied the progression of shallow water waves relevant to the variable coefficient Korteweg-de Vries (vcKdV) equation. We investigated two kinds of cases: when the dispersion and nonlinearity coefficients are proportional, and when they are not linearly dependent. In the first case, it was shown that the progressive waves have some geometric structures as in the case of KdV equation with constant coefficients but the waves travel with time dependent speed. In the second case, the wave structure is maintained when the nonlinearity balances the dispersion. Otherwise, water waves collapse. The objectives of the study are to find a wide class of exact solutions by using the extended unified method and to present a new algorithm for treating the coupled nonlinear PDE's. PMID:26199750
Stanchits, S.A.; Lockner, D.A.; Ponomarev, A.V.
2003-01-01
Fluid infiltration and pore fluid pressure changes are known to have a significant effect on the occurrence of earthquakes. Yet, for most damaging earthquakes, with nucleation zones below a few kilometers depth, direct measurements of fluid pressure variations are not available. Instead, pore fluid pressures are inferred primarily from seismic-wave propagation characteristics such as Vp/Vs ratio, attenuation, and reflectivity contacts. We present laboratory measurements of changes in P-wave velocity and attenuation during the injection of water into a granite sample as it was loaded to failure. A cylindrical sample of Westerly granite was deformed at constant confining and pore pressures of 50 and 1 MPa, respectively. Axial load was increased in discrete steps by controlling axial displacement. Anisotropic P-wave velocity and attenuation fields were determined during the experiment using an array of 13 piezoelectric transducers. At the final loading steps (86% and 95% of peak stress), both spatial and temporal changes in P-wave velocity and peak-to-peak amplitudes of P and S waves were observed. P-wave velocity anisotropy reached a maximum of 26%. Transient increases in attenuation of up to 483 dB/m were also observed and were associated with diffusion of water into the sample. We show that velocity and attenuation of P waves are sensitive to the process of opening of microcracks and the subsequent resaturation of these cracks as water diffuses in from the surrounding region. Symmetry of the orientation of newly formed microcracks results in anisotropic velocity and attenuation fields that systematically evolve in response to changes in stress and influx of water. With proper scaling, these measurements provide constraints on the magnitude and duration of velocity and attenuation transients that can be expected to accompany the nucleation of earthquakes in the Earth's crust.
The large-scale influence of the Great Barrier Reef matrix on wave attenuation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gallop, Shari L.; Young, Ian R.; Ranasinghe, Roshanka; Durrant, Tom H.; Haigh, Ivan D.
2014-12-01
Offshore reef systems consist of individual reefs, with spaces in between, which together constitute the reef matrix. This is the first comprehensive, large-scale study, of the influence of an offshore reef system on wave climate and wave transmission. The focus was on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia, utilizing a 16-yr record of wave height from seven satellite altimeters. Within the GBR matrix, the wave climate is not strongly dependent on reef matrix submergence. This suggests that after initial wave breaking at the seaward edge of the reef matrix, wave energy that penetrates the matrix has little depth modulation. There is no clear evidence to suggest that as reef matrix porosity (ratio of spaces between individual reefs to reef area) decreases, wave attenuation increases. This is because individual reefs cast a wave shadow much larger than the reef itself; thus, a matrix of isolated reefs is remarkably effective at attenuating wave energy. This weak dependence of transmitted wave energy on depth of reef submergence, and reef matrix porosity, is also evident in the lee of the GBR matrix. Here, wave conditions appear to be dependent largely on local wind speed, rather than wave conditions either seaward, or within the reef matrix. This is because the GBR matrix is a very effective wave absorber, irrespective of water depth and reef matrix porosity.
Spatial variation of coda-wave attenuation in north-western Colombia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vargas, C. A.; Ugalde, A.; Pujades, L. G.; Canas, J. A.
2003-04-01
Seismic wave attenuation in Colombia has been studied using coda waves. Waveform data used were selected from 1200 regional earthquakes occurred between December, 1992 and June, 1999 which were recorded by 17 three-component short-period seismic stations of the Colombian National Seismological Network. Local magnitudes ranged from 2.9 to 6.0 and focal depths were less than 296 km. Two methods were used to estimate coda wave attenuation: 1/Qc was obtained using the single scattering theory and the contribution of intrinsic absorption (1/Qi) and scattering (1/Qs) to total attenuation (1/Qt) was estimated by means of a Multiple Lapse Time Window Analysis method based on the hypothesis of isotropic scattering with uniform distribution of scatterers. The frequencies of interest laid between 1 and 19 Hz. A regionalization of the estimated Q values was also performed by means of a generalized inversion technique. Results show significant spatial variations of attenuation which are related to different geological and tectonic characteristics. A contour map of seismic attenuation in Colombia is presented, where at least seven sub-regions with different attenuation properties are shown. A correlation of seismic attenuation with other geophysical parameters as geothermic gradient and gravimetric anomalies has also been observed.
Electromagnetic wave attenuation measurements in a ring-shaped inductively coupled air plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Xiaolong; Xu, Haojun; Li, Jianhai; Lin, Min; Su; Chen
2015-05-01
An aerocraft with the surface, inlet and radome covered large-area inductive coupled plasma (ICP) can attenuate its radar echo effectively. The shape, thickness, and electron density ( N e ) distribution of ICP are critical to electromagnetic wave attenuation. In the paper, an air all-quartz ICP generator in size of 20 20 7 cm3 without magnetic confinement is designed. The discharge results show that the ICP is amorphous in E-mode and ring-shaped in H-mode. The structure of ICP stratifies into core region and edge halo in H-mode, and its width and thickness changes from power and pressure. Such phenomena are explained by the distribution of RF magnetic field, the diffusion of negative ions plasma and the variation of skin depth. In addition, the theoretical analysis shows that the N e achieves nearly uniform within the electronegative core and sharply steepens in the edge. The N e of core region is diagnosed by microwave interferometer under varied conditions (pressure in range of 10-50 Pa, power in 300-700 W). Furthermore, the electromagnetic wave attenuation measurements were carried out with the air ICP in the frequencies of 4-5 GHz. The results show that the interspaced ICP is still effective to wave attenuation, and the wave attenuation increases with the power and pressure. The measured attenuation is approximately in accordance with the calculation data of finite-different time-domain simulations.
Comparison of viscoelastic-type models for ocean wave attenuation in ice-covered seas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mosig, Johannes E. M.; Montiel, Fabien; Squire, Vernon A.
2015-09-01
Continuum-based models that describe the propagation of ocean waves in ice-infested seas are considered, where the surface ocean layer (including ice floes, brash ice, etc.) is modeled by a homogeneous viscoelastic material which causes waves to attenuate as they travel through the medium. Three ice layer models are compared, namely a viscoelastic fluid layer model currently being trialed in the spectral wave model WAVEWATCH III and two simpler viscoelastic thin beam models. All three models are two dimensional. A comparative analysis shows that one of the beam models provides similar predictions for wave attenuation and wavelength to the viscoelastic fluid model. The three models are calibrated using wave attenuation data recently collected in the Antarctic marginal ice zone as an example. Although agreement with the data is obtained with all three models, several important issues related to the viscoelastic fluid model are identified that raise questions about its suitability to characterize wave attenuation in ice-covered seas. Viscoelastic beam models appear to provide a more robust parameterization of the phenomenon being modeled, but still remain questionable as a valid characterization of wave-ice interactions generally.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Figueiredo, J. J. S.; Schleicher, J.; Stewart, R. R.; Dayur, N.; Omoboya, B.; Wiley, R.; William, A.
2013-04-01
To understand their influence on elastic wave propagation, anisotropic cracked media have been widely investigated in many theoretical and experimental studies. In this work, we report on laboratory ultrasound measurements carried out to investigate the effect of source frequency on the elastic parameters (wave velocities and the Thomsen parameter ?) and shear wave attenuation) of fractured anisotropic media. Under controlled conditions, we prepared anisotropic model samples containing penny-shaped rubber inclusions in a solid epoxy resin matrix with crack densities ranging from 0 to 6.2 per cent. Two of the three cracked samples have 10 layers and one has 17 layers. The number of uniform rubber inclusions per layer ranges from 0 to 100. S-wave splitting measurements have shown that scattering effects are more prominent in samples where the seismic wavelength to crack aperture ratio ranges from 1.6 to 1.64 than in others where the ratio varied from 2.72 to 2.85. The sample with the largest cracks showed a magnitude of scattering attenuation three times higher compared with another sample that had small inclusions. Our S-wave ultrasound results demonstrate that elastic scattering, scattering and anelastic attenuation, velocity dispersion and crack size interfere directly in shear wave splitting in a source-frequency dependent manner, resulting in an increase of scattering attenuation and a reduction of shear wave anisotropy with increasing frequency.
Trunova, Valentina; Sidorina, Anna; Kriventsov, Vladimir
2014-10-17
Information about X-ray mass attenuation coefficients in different materials is necessary for accurate X-ray fluorescent analysis. The X-ray mass attenuation coefficients for energy of 7-12keV were measured in biological (Mussel and Oyster tissues, blood, hair, liver, and Cabbage leaves) and geological (Baikal sludge, soil, and Alaskite granite) samples. The measurements were carried out at the EXAFS Station of Siberian Synchrotron Radiation Center (VEPP-3). Obtained experimental mass attenuation coefficients were compared with theoretical values calculated for some samples. PMID:25464176
Experimental investigation of wave attenuation through model and live vegetation
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Hurricanes and tropical storms often cause severe damage and loss of life in coastal areas. It is widely recognized that wetlands along coastal fringes reduce storm surge and waves. Yet, the potential role and primary mechanisms of wave mitigation by wetland vegetation are not fully understood. K...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trimpi, Robert L.; Cohen, Nathaniel B.
1961-01-01
The linearized attenuation theory of NACA Technical Note 3375 is modified in the following manner: (a) an unsteady compressible local skin-friction coefficient is employed rather than the equivalent steady-flow incompressible coefficient; (b) a nonlinear approach is used to permit application of the theory to large attenuations; and (c) transition effects are considered. Curves are presented for predicting attenuation for a shock pressure ratio up to 20 and a range of shock-tube Reynolds numbers. Comparison of theory and experimental data for shock-wave strengths between 1.5 and 10 over a wide range of Reynolds numbers shows good agreement with the nonlinear theory evaluated for a transition Reynolds number of 2.5 X 10(exp 5).
Resonant attenuation of surface acoustic waves by a disordered monolayer of microspheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eliason, J. K.; Vega-Flick, A.; Hiraiwa, M.; Khanolkar, A.; Gan, T.; Boechler, N.; Fang, N.; Nelson, K. A.; Maznev, A. A.
2016-02-01
Attenuation of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) by a disordered monolayer of polystyrene microspheres is investigated. Surface acoustic wave packets are generated by a pair of crossed laser pulses in a glass substrate coated with a thin aluminum film and detected via the diffraction of a probe laser beam. When a 170 μm-wide strip of micron-sized spheres is placed on the substrate between the excitation and detection spots, strong resonant attenuation of SAWs near 240 MHz is observed. The attenuation is caused by the interaction of SAWs with a contact resonance of the microspheres, as confirmed by acoustic dispersion measurements on the microsphere-coated area. Frequency-selective attenuation of SAWs by such a locally resonant metamaterial may lead to reconfigurable SAW devices and sensors, which can be easily manufactured via self-assembly techniques.
P- and S-wave seismic attenuation for deep natural gas exploration and development
Walls, Joel; Uden, Richard; Singleton, Scott; Shu, Rone; Mavko, Gary
2005-04-12
Using current methods, oil and gas in the subsurface cannot be reliably predicted from seismic data. This causes domestic oil and gas fields to go undiscovered and unexploited, thereby increasing the need to import energy.The general objective of this study was to demonstrate a simple and effective methodology for estimating reservoir properties (gas saturation in particular, but also including lithology, net to gross ratios, and porosity) from seismic attenuation and other attributes using P- and S-waves. Phase I specific technical objectives: Develop Empirical or Theoretical Rock Physics Relations for Qp and Qs; Create P-wave and S-wave Synthetic Seismic Modeling Algorithms with Q; and, Compute P-wave and S-wave Q Attributes from Multi-component Seismic Data. All objectives defined in the Phase I proposal were accomplished. During the course of this project, a new class of seismic analysis was developed based on compressional and shear wave inelastic rock properties (attenuation). This method provides a better link between seismic data and the presence of hydrocarbons. The technique employs both P and S-wave data to better discriminate between attenuation due to hydrocarbons versus energy loss due to other factors such as scattering and geometric spreading. It was demonstrated that P and S attenuation can be computed from well log data and used to generate synthetic seismograms. Rock physics models for P and S attenuation were tested on a well from the Gulf of Mexico. The P- and S-wave Q attributes were computed on multi-component 2D seismic data intersecting this well. These methods generated reasonable results, and most importantly, the Q attributes indicated gas saturation.
Measurement of alkali-silica reaction progression by ultrasonic waves attenuation
Saint-Pierre, Francois; Rivard, Patrice . E-mail: Patrice.Rivard@Usherbrooke.ca; Ballivy, Gerard
2007-06-15
Development of non-destructive methods, developed specifically for assessing the damage induced by alkali-silica reaction (ASR) in concrete structures, is needed in order to carry out a systematic evaluation of the concrete condition. The aim of this study is to monitor the evolution of the ASR-damage in laboratory with concrete samples with ultrasonic pulse velocity and attenuation of ultrasonic waves methods. For this study, results of both methods were compared with expansion and mass variation. One reactive concrete mixture was made with reactive aggregate, and one other mixture, incorporating non-reactive aggregate, was made as a control. Specimens were kept at 38 deg. C in a 1 mol l{sup -1} NaOH solution to accelerate the reaction. Attenuation of transmitted ultrasonic waves appeared to be more appropriate for the evaluation of ASR-damage compared with pulse velocity. The attenuation of accelerated reactive concrete cylinders increased by 90% after 1 year while it increased by 40% for the non-reactive concrete used as a control. Major part of the attenuation increase in the non-reactive concrete is due to liquid absorption. This work suggests that in-situ non-destructive techniques based on ultrasonic wave attenuation, like ultrasonic attenuation tomography, should be developed in order to evaluate the development of ASR in concrete structures. Petrographic examination confirmed that damage to concrete is associated with ASR.
Seldis, Thomas
2013-09-01
Among the physical parameters characterising the interaction of the ultrasonic beam with its supporting medium, ultrasonic attenuation is an important input parameter to simulate wave propagation and defect-beam phenomena. The measurement of the intrinsic attenuation in anisotropic material however is a difficult task. The paper presents an approach to determine intrinsic attenuation in anisotropic materials such as austenitic stainless steel welds and cladding. It deals with improvements on the initial device, based on measurements on two samples with different thicknesses (10mm and 20mm). A previous paper presented preliminary results with this new approach for isotropic materials. PMID:23601966
The effect of frequency on Young`s modulus and seismic wave attenuation
Price, R.H.; Martin, R.J. III; Haupt, R.W.
1994-07-01
Laboratory experiments were performed to measure the effect of frequency, water-saturation, and strain amplitude on Young`s modulus and seismic wave attenuation on rock cores recovered on or near the site of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The purpose of this investigation is to perform the measurements using four techniques: cyclic loading, waveform inversion, resonant bar, and ultrasonic velocity. The measurements ranged in frequency between 10{sup {minus}2} and 10{sup 6} Hz. For the dry specimens Young`s modulus and attenuation were independent of frequency; that is, all four techniques yielded nearly the same values for modulus and attenuation. For saturated specimens, a frequency dependence for both Young`s modulus and attenuation was observed. In general, saturation reduced Young`s modulus and increased seismic wave attenuation. The effect of strain amplitude on Young`s modulus and attenuation was measured using the cyclic loading technique at a frequency of 10{sup {minus}1} Hz. The effect of strain amplitude in all cases was small. For some rocks, such as the potential repository horizon of the Topopah Spring Member tuff (TSw2), the effect of strain amplitude on both attenuation and modulus was minimal.
Body-wave Attenuation in the South-Central Region of the Gulf of California, Mxico
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castro, R. R.; Vidales-Basurto, C. A.; Huerta, C. I.; Sumy, D. F.; Gaherty, J. B.; Collins, J. A.
2014-12-01
We present results from a recent study of seismic attenuation of body waves in the south-central region of the Gulf of California (GoC) obtained using records from the Network of Autonomously Recording Seismographs of Baja California (NARS-Baja), from the CICESE's Broadband Seismological Network of the GoC (RESBAN), and from the Ocean Bottom Seismographs (OBS) deployed as part of the Sea of Cortez Ocean Bottom Array experiment (SCOOBA). We examine 27 well-located earthquakes that occurred from October 2005 to October 2006 with magnitudes (Mw) between 3.5 and 4.8. We estimated S-wave site effects by calculating horizontal to vertical spectral ratios and determined attenuation functions with a nonparametric model by inverting the observed spectral amplitudes of 21 frequencies between 0.13 and 12.59 Hz for the SCOOBA (OBS) stations and 19 frequencies between 0.16 and 7.94 Hz for NARS-Baja and RESBAN stations. We calculated the geometrical spreading and the attenuation (1/Q) factors for two distance intervals (10-120 km and 120-220 km, respectively) for each frequency considered. The estimates of Q obtained with the SCOOBA (OBS) records for the interval 10-120 km indicate that the P waves attenuate more than S waves (QP=34 f 0.82, QS=59 f 0.90) for frequencies between 0.6 and 12.6 Hz; while for the 120-220 km interval, where ray-paths travel deeper, S waves attenuate more than P waves (QP=117 f 0.44, QS=51 f 1.12). The estimates of Q obtained using NARS-Baja and RESBAN records, within 10-120 km, indicate that P waves attenuate more than S waves (QP=69 f 0.87, QS=176 f 0.61) at frequencies between 0.3 and 6.3 Hz; while at the 120-220 km distance interval S waves attenuate slightly more than P waves (QP=39 f 0.64, QS=48 f 0.37) at high frequencies (f > 3 Hz). These results, based on a unique OBS dataset, provide an indirect mean to constrain future models of the thermal structure beneth the GoC.
Effective atomic number and mass attenuation coefficient of PbO-BaO-B2O3 glass system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Issa, Shams A. M.
2016-03-01
Gamma-rays attenuation coefficient, half-value layer, mean free path, effective atomic number and electron density have been measured in glass system of xPbO-(50-x) BaO-50B2O3 (where 5≤x≤45 mol%) for gamma ray photon energies of 0.356, 0.662, 1.173 and 1.33 MeV. The emitted gamma ray was detected by 3×3 in. NaI(Tl) scintillation gamma ray spectrometers. The results were found in good agreement with the theoretical values which calculated from WinXcom.
Dynamic aspects of apparent attenuation and wave localization in layered media
Haney, M.M.; Van Wijk, K.
2008-01-01
We present a theory for multiply-scattered waves in layered media which takes into account wave interference. The inclusion of interference in the theory leads to a new description of the phenomenon of wave localization and its impact on the apparent attenuation of seismic waves. We use the theory to estimate the localization length at a CO2 sequestration site in New Mexico at sonic frequencies (2 kHz) by performing numerical simulations with a model taken from well logs. Near this frequency, we find a localization length of roughly 180 m, leading to a localization-induced quality factor Q of 360.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pichardo, Samuel; Sin, Vivian W.; Hynynen, Kullervo
2011-01-01
For medical applications of ultrasound inside the brain, it is necessary to understand the relationship between the apparent density of skull bone and its corresponding speed of sound and attenuation coefficient. Although there have been previous studies exploring this phenomenon, there is still a need to extend the measurements to cover more of the clinically relevant frequency range. The results of measurements of the longitudinal speed of sound and attenuation coefficient are presented for specimens of human calvaria. The study was performed for the frequencies of 0.27, 0.836, 1.402, 1.965 and 2.525 MHz. Specimens were obtained from fresh cadavers through a protocol with the Division of Anatomy of the University of Toronto. The protocol was approved by the Research Ethics Board of Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. The specimens were mounted in polycarbonate supports that were marked for stereoscopic positioning. Computer tomography (CT) scans of the skulls mounted on their supports were performed, and a three-dimensional skull surface was reconstructed. This surface was used to guide a positioning system to ensure the normal sound incidence of an acoustic signal. This signal was produced by a focused device with a diameter of 5 cm and a focal length of 10 cm. Measurements of delay in time of flight were carried out using a needle hydrophone. Measurements of effective transmitted energy were carried out using a radiation force method with a 10 µg resolution scale. Preliminary functions of speed of sound and attenuation coefficient, both of which are related to apparent density, were established using a multi-layer propagation model that takes into account speed of sound, density and thickness of the layer. An optimization process was executed from a large set of random functions and the best functions were chosen for those ones that closest reproduced the experimental observations. The final functions were obtained after a second pass of the optimization process was executed, but this time using a finite-difference time-difference solution of the Westervelt equation, which is more precise than the multi-layer model but much more time consuming for computation. For six of seven specimens, measurements were carried out on five locations on the calvaria, and for the other specimen three measurements were made. In total, measurements were carried out on 33 locations. Results indicated the presence of dispersion effects and that these effects are different according to the type of bone in the skull (cortical and trabecular). Additionally, both the speed of sound and attenuation showed dependence on the skull density that varied with the frequency. Using the optimal functions and the information of density from the CT scans, the average values (±s.d.) of the speed of sound for cortical bone were estimated to be 2384(± 130), 2471(± 90), 2504(± 120), 2327(± 90) and 2053(± 40) m s-1 for the frequencies of 270, 836, 1402, 1965 and 2526 kHz, respectively. For trabecular bone, and in the same order of frequency values, the speeds of sound were 2140(± 130), 2300(± 100), 2219(± 200), 2133(± 130) and 1937(± 40) m s-1, respectively. The average values of the attenuation coefficient for cortical bone were 33(± 9), 240(± 9) and 307(± 30) Np m-1 for the frequencies of 270, 836, and 1402, respectively. For trabecular bone, and in the same order of frequency values, the average values of the attenuation coefficient were 34(± 13), 216(± 16) and 375(± 30) Np m-1, respectively. For frequencies of 1.965 and 2.525 MHz, no measurable radiation force was detected with the setup used.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yun-Long; Hu, Meng-Hao
2013-08-01
A simple expression is presented to quickly estimate specific attenuation coefficient due to fog within the ranges of 100~300GHz and -8~20°C based on the Rayleigh approximation which is not very convenient. To evaluate the expression's estimation performance, the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) and maximal absolute value of the relative errors (MAVRE) are calculated. The maximum value of PCC is 1 and it reflects the fitting performance of an empirical expression. MAVRE denotes the largest deviation between a set of estimated values and corresponding theoretical values. Calculations show the PCC and MAVRE of the proposed expression are 0.99985 and 4.162%, respectively. Furthermore, a comparison analysis shows that the new expression has much better estimation performance than other two empirical expressions: the modified Mao expression and the Zhao expression.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oth, A.; Wenzel, F.; Wust-Bloch, H.; Gottschaemmer, E.; Ben-Avraham, Z.
2005-12-01
Attenuation relations are a crucial component in the prediction of ground motion generated by strong earthquakes. Even though the relations from different authors (e.g. Boore et al., 1997; Abrahamson and Silva, 1997) vary in their form, they all have in common that some engineering ground motion parameter, such as peak ground acceleration (PGA) or peak spectral acceleration (PSA), is determined by the magnitude, distance to the earthquake source, site conditions and possibly source mechanism. In general, attenuation relations parameterize distance in a way that does not take into account a change in geologic features in the region of interest. Sedimentary basins or grabens, however, may strongly influence attenuation, due to both site and basin effects. By engineering seismology practice, site effects are generally taken into account by considering the shear wave velocity structure of the top 30 meters. Basins effects, on the other hand, are caused by deep geologic structures and much harder to quantify, as this requires the consideration of a two-- or three--dimensional wave propagation model. The Dead Sea Basin (DSB) is a 15 km by 100 km, N--S elongated structure around which basin effects have been observed in damage patterns of past earthquakes (Wust--Bloch, 2002). In addition, Gottschmmer et al. (2002) showed through 3D simulation of the 1927 Jericho earthquake (M=6.2) that wave focusing effects in the DSB are indeed significant. The results of this research show that the standard attenuation relation utilized in the area is inadequate to assess the basin--related effect of the DSB. A new strategy for the parametrization of attenuation relations in graben structures is developed by looking at the statistical properties of 53 3D finite--difference simulations (Olsen, 1994) of earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 5.5 to 7.0 at the boundary fault of the DSB. The frequency range of these simulations is restricted to frequencies lower than about 1.5 Hz. An attenuation relation is designed for the 1 Hz spectral acceleration, modifying the Joyner--Boore relations by adding coefficients suited for three different source--to--site configurations: within the DSB, beyond the DSB and path unaffected by the graben structure.
Yang, Lei; Ume, I Charles
2015-12-01
The non-contact feature of the Laser/EMAT ultrasonic (LEU) technique is attractive for its NDT applications. However, it is challenging to apply it in thin structures because of the difficulties in the signal interpretations. In this work, the LEU technique is used to inspect the notch depths in thin steel plates. A Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT)-based algorithm is developed to calculate the transmission coefficients of laser-generated Lamb waves. The effect of varying notch depths on Lamb waves' transmission coefficients is investigated both numerically and experimentally. The transmission coefficients of laser-generated Lamb waves calculated using CWT have been used successfully to predict the notch depths in thin structures. PMID:26195299
Su, Ya; Yao, X. Steve; Li, Zhihong; Meng, Zhuo; Liu, Tiegen; Wang, Longzhi
2015-01-01
We present detailed measurement results of optical attenuations thermal coefficients (referenced to the temperature of the skin surface) in different depth regions of in vivo human forearm skins using optical coherence tomography (OCT). We first design a temperature control module with an integrated optical probe to precisely control the surface temperature of a section of human skin. We propose a method of using the correlation map to identify regions in the skin having strong correlations with the surface temperature of the skin and find that the attenuation coefficient in these regions closely follows the variation of the surface temperature without any hysteresis. We observe a negative thermal coefficient of attenuation in the epidermis. While in dermis, the slope signs of the thermal coefficient of attenuation are different at different depth regions for a particular subject, however, the depth regions with a positive (or negative) slope are different in different subjects. We further find that the magnitude of the thermal coefficient of attenuation coefficient is greater in epidermis than in dermis. We believe the knowledge of such thermal properties of skins is important for several noninvasive diagnostic applications, such as OCT glucose monitoring, and the method demonstrated in this paper is effective in studying the optical and biological properties in different regions of skin. PMID:25780740
Erlangga, Mokhammad Puput
2015-04-16
Separation between signal and noise, incoherent or coherent, is important in seismic data processing. Although we have processed the seismic data, the coherent noise is still mixing with the primary signal. Multiple reflections are a kind of coherent noise. In this research, we processed seismic data to attenuate multiple reflections in the both synthetic and real seismic data of Mentawai. There are several methods to attenuate multiple reflection, one of them is Radon filter method that discriminates between primary reflection and multiple reflection in the τ-p domain based on move out difference between primary reflection and multiple reflection. However, in case where the move out difference is too small, the Radon filter method is not enough to attenuate the multiple reflections. The Radon filter also produces the artifacts on the gathers data. Except the Radon filter method, we also use the Wave Equation Multiple Elimination (WEMR) method to attenuate the long period multiple reflection. The WEMR method can attenuate the long period multiple reflection based on wave equation inversion. Refer to the inversion of wave equation and the magnitude of the seismic wave amplitude that observed on the free surface, we get the water bottom reflectivity which is used to eliminate the multiple reflections. The WEMR method does not depend on the move out difference to attenuate the long period multiple reflection. Therefore, the WEMR method can be applied to the seismic data which has small move out difference as the Mentawai seismic data. The small move out difference on the Mentawai seismic data is caused by the restrictiveness of far offset, which is only 705 meter. We compared the real free multiple stacking data after processing with Radon filter and WEMR process. The conclusion is the WEMR method can more attenuate the long period multiple reflection than the Radon filter method on the real (Mentawai) seismic data.
Guided Waves Attenuation in Water Immersed Corrugated Plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meier, Dominique; Franklin, Herv; Izbicki, Jean Louis; Predoi, Mihai; Rousseau, Martine
Influences of surface corrugations on the propagation of guided waves along an immersed elastic plate are investigated. The Finite Elements Method is used to compute the reflected and transmitted pressure fields for oblique incident plane harmonic waves in a selected frequency range. The effects of corrugations can also be accounted by means of a rheological model. The corrugated surface is then modeled by using modified boundary conditions at the liquid - corrugated plate interface. In this condition a parameter is introduced that can be evaluated by a fit procedure between the analytical solutions of modal resonance peaks and the FEM results for the corrugated plate.
Rogue waves in a two-component Manakov system with variable coefficients and an external potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, Wei-Ping; Beli?, Milivoj; Malomed, Boris A.
2015-11-01
We construct rogue waves (RWs) in a coupled two-mode system with the self-focusing nonlinearity of the Manakov type (equal SPM and XPM coefficients), spatially modulated coefficients, and a specially designed external potential. The system may be realized in nonlinear optics and Bose-Einstein condensates. By means of a similarity transformation, we establish a connection between solutions of the coupled Manakov system with spatially variable coefficients and the basic Manakov model with constant coefficients. Exact solutions in the form of two-component Peregrine and dromion waves are obtained. The RW dynamics is analyzed for different choices of parameters in the underlying parameter space. Different classes of RW solutions are categorized by means of a naturally introduced control parameter which takes integer values.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vul'fson, A. N.
2000-12-01
Similarity theory and dimensional analysis are applied to the construction of a relationship for the spectral aerosol extinction coefficient in the visible atmospheric window 0.48 (DOT) 10-4 cm < (lambda) < 0.76 (DOT) 10-4 cm. For maritime mist the results allow one to compare the dependence of the spectral extinction coefficient on humidity as determined in situ with known laboratory observations on the variation in the radius of aerosol particle in moist air. Raoult's modified law is used to show that the variation in the optical properties of soluble aerosol is entirely determined by the variation in the average radius of particles depending on humidity.
Kubo, Kohjiro; Norisuye, Tomohisa; Tran, Thao Nguyen; Shibata, Daisuke; Nakanishi, Hideyuki; Tran-Cong-Miyata, Qui
2015-09-01
Size and elastic properties of micro-particles suspended in liquid can be acoustically determined by ultrasound attenuation and velocity measurements with the aid of elastic scattering theories and a dispersion relation. While quantitative evaluation for hard micron-sized spheres using the theories is available in literature, that for hollow particles is not yet achieved. In this study, we show that the shell thickness and the elastic modulus of hollow particles can be quantitatively evaluated by ultrasound spectroscopy. Several kinds of microparticles including polystyrene rigid particles, polydivinylbenzene rigid particles, borosilicate hollow particles, and phenolic-resin hollow particles were examined as a function of the particle concentration. PMID:26067926
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saulquin, Bertand; Hamdi, Anouar; Populus, Jacques; Loutier, Romain; Demaria, Julien; Mangin, Antoine; D'Andon, Odile Fanton
2010-12-01
Accurate estimations of the diffuse attenuation coefficient is critical to understand physical processes such as the heat transfer in the upper layer of the ocean and also biological processes such as phytoplankton photosynthesis in the ocean euphotic zone. Light availability in the water column and the seabed determine the euphotic zone and constraints the type and distribution of the algae species. The EuSeaMap project's aim is to characterize at a resolution of 250m the European infralitoral benthic zone, according to biology, physic and geology criteriums and using observations and models. Satellite observations of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of the downwelling spectral irradiance at wavelength 490 nm (Kd490) or the diffuse attenuation coefficient for the downwelling photosynthetically available radiation (KdPAR) is an effective method to provide large scale maps of these parameters at high spatial and temporal resolution. Several empirical and semi-analytical models are commonly used to derive the Kd490 and KdPAR maps from ocean colour satellite sensors such as the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer Instrument (MERIS), the Sea- viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Most of these existing empirical or semi- analytical models have been calibrated on open ocean waters and provide good results in these areas, but tend to underestimate the attenuation of light in coastal waters, our area of interest. We propose here a new estimation of the euphotic depth and the KdPAR for coastal European waters using MERIS reflectances at the resolution of 1km and 250 m. First, a semi-analytical model is used to estimate the Kd490, and in a second step, two relationships have been developed between the KdPAR and the Kd490 for respectively clear and turbid waters. Satellite-derived fields of Kd490 and the deduced KdPAR are validated using matchups collected over the world. Distribution maps of seabed algae are compared with the satellite-derived euphotic limit and the influence of the KdPAR on a hydrodynamic simulation is also illustrated.
Bardaji, Raul; Sánchez, Albert-Miquel; Simon, Carine; Wernand, Marcel R; Piera, Jaume
2016-01-01
A critical parameter to assess the environmental status of water bodies is the transparency of the water, as it is strongly affected by different water quality related components (such as the presence of phytoplankton, organic matter and sediment concentrations). One parameter to assess the water transparency is the diffuse attenuation coefficient. However, the number of subsurface irradiance measurements obtained with conventional instrumentation is relatively low, due to instrument costs and the logistic requirements to provide regular and autonomous observations. In recent years, the citizen science concept has increased the number of environmental observations, both in time and space. The recent technological advances in embedded systems and sensors also enable volunteers (citizens) to create their own devices (known as Do-It-Yourself or DIY technologies). In this paper, a DIY instrument to measure irradiance at different depths and automatically calculate the diffuse attenuation Kd coefficient is presented. The instrument, named KdUINO, is based on an encapsulated low-cost photonic sensor and Arduino (an open-hardware platform for the data acquisition). The whole instrument has been successfully operated and the data validated comparing the KdUINO measurements with the commercial instruments. Workshops have been organized with high school students to validate its feasibility. PMID:26999132
Damla, Nevzat; Cevik, U?ur; Kobya, Ali Ihsan; Celik, Ahmet; Celik, Necati
2010-11-01
The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in lime and gypsum samples used as building materials in Turkey were measured using gamma spectrometry. The mean activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were found to be 3816, 209, and 15654 Bq kg(-1) for lime and found to be 176, 135, and 42924 Bq kg(-1) for gypsum, respectively. The radiological hazards due to the natural radioactivity in the samples were inferred from calculations of radium equivalent activities (Raeq), indoor absorbed dose rate in the air, the annual effective dose, and gamma and alpha indices. These radiological parameters were evaluated and compared with the internationally recommended limits. The experimental mass attenuation coefficients (?/?) of the samples were determined in the energy range 81-1,332 keV. The experimental mass attenuation coefficients were compared with theoretical values obtained using XCOM. It is found that the calculated values and the experimental results are in good agreement. PMID:19921450
Frequency-dependent attenuation of S-waves in the Kanto region, Japan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshimoto, K.; Okada, M.
2009-09-01
Apparent, scattering, and intrinsic S-wave attenuations (QS-1, Qscat-1 and Qint-1) of the upper lithosphere in the Kanto region of Japan were measured in the 1- to 32-Hz frequency range using Multiple Lapse Time Window Analysis (MLTWA) for 115 borehole seismograms of local earthquakes. A new set of time windows for MLTWA, in which multiple isotropic scattering is assumed, was proposed and employed to estimate the frequency dependence of S-wave attenuation parameters. Scattering attenuation was found to dominate intrinsic attenuation in the S-wave attenuation mechanism at low frequencies (<2 Hz), whereas the opposite relation was observed at high frequencies. The transition is caused by the different frequency dependences of Qscat-1(? f -1.5) and Qint-1(? f -0.7) at this frequency. Interestingly, Qscat-1 is almost frequency independent at frequencies >8 Hz, which implies the self-similar nature of short-wavelength heterogeneities in the upper lithosphere. In terms of the upper lithosphere of the Kanto region, these results may indicate that the random heterogeneities characterized by the Gaussian autocorrelation function with a fractional fluctuation ? ? 10% and a correlation length a ? 2 km are superimposed on the weak background self-similar heterogeneity.
Attenuation of high-frequency P and S waves in Garhwal Himalaya, India
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tripathi, Jayant N.; Singh, Priyamvada; Sharma, Mukat L.
2014-12-01
Tectonics of a region plays important role on the attenuation characteristics of the region. Attenuation characteristics have been estimated to understand the effect of the heterogeneity of the region in a tectonically active Garhwal region of Himalaya. Seismic body wave attenuation characteristics in the region is studied using 234 short-period, seismic observations from local events. The P-wave attenuation (QP- 1) and S-wave attenuation (QS- 1) were estimated by applying the state-of-the-art, extended coda normalization method for the frequency range from 1.5 to 24 Hz. Estimates of QP- 1 and QS- 1 decrease from (15.86 0.90) 10- 3 and (5.35 0.51) 10- 3 at 1.5 Hz to (0.54 0.11) 10- 3 and (0.34 0.06) 10- 3 at 24 Hz, respectively. The values of QP- 1 and QS- 1 show strong frequency dependence and fit the power-law relation QP- 1(f) = (27.43 3.15) 10- 3f(- 1.16 0.06) and QS- 1(f) = (8.05 0.74) 10- 3f(- 0.93 0.05), respectively. Obtained results are in the range of those reported for QP- 1 and QS- 1 of the other seismically active regions. The ratio of QP- 1/QS- 1 is larger than unity in the entire analyzed frequency range and may suggest high degree of heterogeneity in the region.
Study of transmission line attenuation in broad band millimeter wave frequency range.
Pandya, Hitesh Kumar B; Austin, M E; Ellis, R F
2013-10-01
Broad band millimeter wave transmission lines are used in fusion plasma diagnostics such as electron cyclotron emission (ECE), electron cyclotron absorption, reflectometry and interferometry systems. In particular, the ECE diagnostic for ITER will require efficient transmission over an ultra wide band, 100 to 1000 GHz. A circular corrugated waveguide transmission line is a prospective candidate to transmit such wide band with low attenuation. To evaluate this system, experiments of transmission line attenuation were performed and compared with theoretical loss calculations. A millimeter wave Michelson interferometer and a liquid nitrogen black body source are used to perform all the experiments. Atmospheric water vapor lines and continuum absorption within this band are reported. Ohmic attenuation in corrugated waveguide is very low; however, there is Bragg scattering and higher order mode conversion that can cause significant attenuation in this transmission line. The attenuation due to miter bends, gaps, joints, and curvature are estimated. The measured attenuation of 15 m length with seven miter bends and eighteen joints is 1 dB at low frequency (300 GHz) and 10 dB at high frequency (900 GHz), respectively. PMID:24182108
Study of transmission line attenuation in broad band millimeter wave frequency range
Pandya, Hitesh Kumar B.; Austin, M. E.; Ellis, R. F.
2013-10-15
Broad band millimeter wave transmission lines are used in fusion plasma diagnostics such as electron cyclotron emission (ECE), electron cyclotron absorption, reflectometry and interferometry systems. In particular, the ECE diagnostic for ITER will require efficient transmission over an ultra wide band, 100 to 1000 GHz. A circular corrugated waveguide transmission line is a prospective candidate to transmit such wide band with low attenuation. To evaluate this system, experiments of transmission line attenuation were performed and compared with theoretical loss calculations. A millimeter wave Michelson interferometer and a liquid nitrogen black body source are used to perform all the experiments. Atmospheric water vapor lines and continuum absorption within this band are reported. Ohmic attenuation in corrugated waveguide is very low; however, there is Bragg scattering and higher order mode conversion that can cause significant attenuation in this transmission line. The attenuation due to miter bends, gaps, joints, and curvature are estimated. The measured attenuation of 15 m length with seven miter bends and eighteen joints is 1 dB at low frequency (300 GHz) and 10 dB at high frequency (900 GHz), respectively.
Ladefoged, Claes N; Benoit, Didier; Law, Ian; Holm, Sren; Kjr, Andreas; Hjgaard, Liselotte; Hansen, Adam E; Andersen, Flemming L
2015-10-21
The reconstruction of PET brain data in a PET/MR hybrid scanner is challenging in the absence of transmission sources, where MR images are used for MR-based attenuation correction (MR-AC). The main challenge of MR-AC is to separate bone and air, as neither have a signal in traditional MR images, and to assign the correct linear attenuation coefficient to bone. The ultra-short echo time (UTE) MR sequence was proposed as a basis for MR-AC as this sequence shows a small signal in bone. The purpose of this study was to develop a new clinically feasible MR-AC method with patient specific continuous-valued linear attenuation coefficients in bone that provides accurate reconstructed PET image data. A total of 164 [(18)F]FDG PET/MR patients were included in this study, of which 10 were used for training. MR-AC was based on either standard CT (reference), UTE or our method (RESOLUTE). The reconstructed PET images were evaluated in the whole brain, as well as regionally in the brain using a ROI-based analysis. Our method segments air, brain, cerebral spinal fluid, and soft tissue voxels on the unprocessed UTE TE images, and uses a mapping of R(*)2 values to CT Hounsfield Units (HU) to measure the density in bone voxels. The average error of our method in the brain was 0.1% and less than 1.2% in any region of the brain. On average 95% of the brain was within??10% of PETCT, compared to 72% when using UTE. The proposed method is clinically feasible, reducing both the global and local errors on the reconstructed PET images, as well as limiting the number and extent of the outliers. PMID:26422177
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ladefoged, Claes N.; Benoit, Didier; Law, Ian; Holm, Søren; Kjær, Andreas; Højgaard, Liselotte; Hansen, Adam E.; Andersen, Flemming L.
2015-10-01
The reconstruction of PET brain data in a PET/MR hybrid scanner is challenging in the absence of transmission sources, where MR images are used for MR-based attenuation correction (MR-AC). The main challenge of MR-AC is to separate bone and air, as neither have a signal in traditional MR images, and to assign the correct linear attenuation coefficient to bone. The ultra-short echo time (UTE) MR sequence was proposed as a basis for MR-AC as this sequence shows a small signal in bone. The purpose of this study was to develop a new clinically feasible MR-AC method with patient specific continuous-valued linear attenuation coefficients in bone that provides accurate reconstructed PET image data. A total of 164 [18F]FDG PET/MR patients were included in this study, of which 10 were used for training. MR-AC was based on either standard CT (reference), UTE or our method (RESOLUTE). The reconstructed PET images were evaluated in the whole brain, as well as regionally in the brain using a ROI-based analysis. Our method segments air, brain, cerebral spinal fluid, and soft tissue voxels on the unprocessed UTE TE images, and uses a mapping of R2* values to CT Hounsfield Units (HU) to measure the density in bone voxels. The average error of our method in the brain was 0.1% and less than 1.2% in any region of the brain. On average 95% of the brain was within ±10% of PETCT, compared to 72% when using UTE. The proposed method is clinically feasible, reducing both the global and local errors on the reconstructed PET images, as well as limiting the number and extent of the outliers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, D. D.
The fundamental-mode Love and Rayleigh waves generated by 57 earthquakes which occurred in the north and central Indian Ocean (extending to 40S) and recorded at Indian seismograph and other WWSSN stations such as HOW, SHL, VIS, MDR, HYB, KOD, CHG, TRD, POO, BOM, GOA, NDI, NIL and QUE are analysed. Love and Rayleigh wave attenuation coefficients are estimated at periods of 15-100 s using the spectral amplitude of these waves for 98 different paths across the Bay of Bengal Fan, the Arabian Fan, and the north and central Indian Ocean. The large standard deviations observed in the surface wave attenuation coefficients may be a result of regional variation of the attenuative properties of the crust and upper mantle beneath these regions. Love wave attenuation coefficients are found to vary from 0.000 03 to 0.000 45 km -1 for the Bay of Bengal Fan; from 0.000 03 to 0.000 85 km -1 for the Arabian Fan; and from 0.000 03 to 0.000 35 km -1 for the north and central Indian Ocean. Similarly, Rayleigh wave attenuation coefficients vary from 0.000 03 to 0.0004 km -1 for the Bay of Bengal Fan; from 0.000 06 to 0.0007 km -1 for the Arabian Fan; and from 0.000 03 to 0.0007 km -1 for the north and central Indian Ocean. Backus and Gilbert inversion theory is applied to these surface wave attenuation data to obtain average Q-1 models for the crust and upper mantle beneath the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Fan, and the north and central Indian Ocean. Inversion of Love and Rayleigh wave attenuation data shows a high-attenuation zone centred at a depth of > 120 km ( Q? ? 125) for the Bay of Bengal Fan. Similarly, a high-attenuation zone ( Q? ? 40-70) occurs at a depth of 60-160 km for the Arabian Fan at 100-160 km ( Q? ? 115) for the Indian Ocean off Ninetyeast Ridge, and at 80-160 km ( Q? ? 80) for the Indian Ocean across the Ninetyeast Ridge. The Q?-1 models show a lithosphere thickness of 120 km beneath the Bay of Bengal Fan. Similarly, lithosphere thickness of 70, 100 and 80 km is estimated beneath the Arabian Fan, and the Indian Ocean off Ninetyeast Ridge and across Ninetyeast Ridge, respectively. The base of the lithosphere is identified as the depth at which there is a significant increase in the Q?-1 value, which attains its maximum value in the asthenosphere. The thinning of Indian lithosphere beneath the Arabian Fan suggests high temperature below Moho depth (60 km from surface) which has caused a high-attenuation zone at this shallow depth.
Water saturation effects on elastic wave attenuation in porous rocks with aligned fractures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amalokwu, Kelvin; Best, Angus I.; Sothcott, Jeremy; Chapman, Mark; Minshull, Tim; Li, Xiang-Yang
2014-05-01
Elastic wave attenuation anisotropy in porous rocks with aligned fractures is of interest to seismic remote sensing of the Earth's structure and to hydrocarbon reservoir characterization in particular. We investigated the effect of partial water saturation on attenuation in fractured rocks in the laboratory by conducting ultrasonic pulse-echo measurements on synthetic, silica-cemented, sandstones with aligned penny-shaped voids (fracture density of 0.0298 ± 0.0077), chosen to simulate the effect of natural fractures in the Earth according to theoretical models. Our results show, for the first time, contrasting variations in the attenuation (Q-1) of P and S waves with water saturation in samples with and without fractures. The observed Qs/Qp ratios are indicative of saturation state and the presence or absence of fractures, offering an important new possibility for remote fluid detection and characterization.
Estimate eddy diffusion coefficients from gravity wave vertical momentum and heat fluxes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Alan Z.
2009-04-01
A method was presented to estimate the eddy momentum and thermal diffusion coefficients from the gravity wave momentum and heat fluxes based on linear saturation theory. This method was applied using the fluxes between 85-100 km altitude measured by a Na wind/temperature lidar at Starfire Optical Range, NM (35N, 106.5W). The seasonal and altitude variations of the diffusion coefficients and Prandtl number were estimated. It is found that both diffusion coefficients are small in spring and fall and large in winter and summer. The annual mean momentum diffusion coefficient is about 400 m2/s between 85-100 km; the thermal diffusion coefficient decreases from 400 m2/s at 85 km to 100 m2/s at 100 km, resulting in a Prandtl number that increases with altitude from 1 to over 3.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Croft, W.; Damon, R.; Kedzie, R.; Kestigian, M.; Smith, A.; Worley, J.
1970-01-01
Single crystals of lithium metatantalate and lithium metaniobate, grown from melts having different stoichiometries and different amounts of magnesium oxide, show that doping lowers temperature-independent portion of attenuation of acoustic waves. Doped crystals possess optical properties well suited for electro-optical and photoelastic applications.
Amplitude-frequency dependencies of wave attenuation in single-crystal quartz: Experimental study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mashinskii, E. I.
2008-11-01
The experiments have been conducted to investigate the effect of strain amplitude and frequency on the compressional and shear wave attenuation in quartz samples of three types: the intact quartz, fractured quartz, and smoky quartz. The measurements were performed using the reflection method on a pulse frequency of 1 MHz with changing strain in the range 0.3 ? ? ? 2.0 ?strain under a confining pressure of 10 MPa and at ambient temperature. The essential difference in amplitude-frequency characteristics of wave attenuation in three quartz types has been detected. The intact quartz shows the more "simple" behavior in comparison with the fractured and smoky quartz. The attenuation (the inverse quality factor Q) depends on strain amplitude as Q-1(?) ?-n, where n ? 0.005-0.085, with the greatest decrease in the smoky and fractured quartz reaching of about 15%. Relaxation spectra of attenuation are presented in the frequency range from 0.4 to 1.4 MHz. The dependence Qp-1(f) f-1.2 characterizes the intact and fractured quartz, whereas the smoky quartz has the relaxation peak. The dependence Qs-1(f) f-0.84 presents S wave relaxation spectrum in the intact quartz; in the fractured and smoky quartz, the attenuation peaks take place. The strain amplitude variation exerts influence on the relaxation strength, the peak frequency, and the width of the relaxation peak. Such behavior of attenuation can be explained by a joint action of viscoelastic and microplastic mechanisms. These results can be considered as a contribution for providing the experimental background to the theory of attenuation in rocks. They can also be used in solving applied problems in material science, seismic prospecting, etc.
Electromagnetic wave attenuation measurements in a ring-shaped inductively coupled air plasma
Xiaolong, Wei; Haojun, Xu; Min, Lin; Chen, Su; Jianhai, Li
2015-05-28
An aerocraft with the surface, inlet and radome covered large-area inductive coupled plasma (ICP) can attenuate its radar echo effectively. The shape, thickness, and electron density (N{sub e}) distribution of ICP are critical to electromagnetic wave attenuation. In the paper, an air all-quartz ICP generator in size of 20 × 20 × 7 cm{sup 3} without magnetic confinement is designed. The discharge results show that the ICP is amorphous in E-mode and ring-shaped in H-mode. The structure of ICP stratifies into core region and edge halo in H-mode, and its width and thickness changes from power and pressure. Such phenomena are explained by the distribution of RF magnetic field, the diffusion of negative ions plasma and the variation of skin depth. In addition, the theoretical analysis shows that the N{sub e} achieves nearly uniform within the electronegative core and sharply steepens in the edge. The N{sub e} of core region is diagnosed by microwave interferometer under varied conditions (pressure in range of 10–50 Pa, power in 300–700 W). Furthermore, the electromagnetic wave attenuation measurements were carried out with the air ICP in the frequencies of 4–5 GHz. The results show that the interspaced ICP is still effective to wave attenuation, and the wave attenuation increases with the power and pressure. The measured attenuation is approximately in accordance with the calculation data of finite-different time-domain simulations.
Su, Ya; Yao, X Steve; Li, Zhihong; Meng, Zhuo; Liu, Tiegen; Wang, Longzhi
2015-02-01
We present detailed measurement results of optical attenuation's thermal coefficients (referenced to the temperature of the skin surface) in different depth regions of in vivo human forearm skins using optical coherence tomography (OCT). We first design a temperature control module with an integrated optical probe to precisely control the surface temperature of a section of human skin. We propose a method of using the correlation map to identify regions in the skin having strong correlations with the surface temperature of the skin and find that the attenuation coefficient in these regions closely follows the variation of the surface temperature without any hysteresis. We observe a negative thermal coefficient of attenuation in the epidermis. While in dermis, the slope signs of the thermal coefficient of attenuation are different at different depth regions for a particular subject, however, the depth regions with a positive (or negative) slope are different in different subjects. We further find that the magnitude of the thermal coefficient of attenuation coefficient is greater in epidermis than in dermis. We believe the knowledge of such thermal properties of skins is important for several noninvasive diagnostic applications, such as OCT glucose monitoring, and the method demonstrated in this paper is effective in studying the optical and biological properties in different regions of skin. PMID:25780740
Characteristics of vibrational wave propagation and attenuation in submarine fluid-filled pipelines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Jin; Zhang, Juan
2015-04-01
As an important part of lifeline engineering in the development and utilization of marine resources, the submarine fluid-filled pipeline is a complex coupling system which is subjected to both internal and external flow fields. By utilizing Kennard's shell equations and combining with Helmholtz equations of flow field, the coupling equations of submarine fluid-filled pipeline for n=0 axisymmetrical wave motion are set up. Analytical expressions of wave speed are obtained for both s=1 and s=2 waves, which correspond to a fluid-dominated wave and an axial shell wave, respectively. The numerical results for wave speed and wave attenuation are obtained and discussed subsequently. It shows that the frequency depends on phase velocity, and the attenuation of this mode depends strongly on material parameters of the pipe and the internal and the external fluid fields. The characteristics of PVC pipe are studied for a comparison. The effects of shell thickness/radius ratio and density of the contained fluid on the model are also discussed. The study provides a theoretical basis and helps to accurately predict the situation of submarine pipelines, which also has practical application prospect in the field of pipeline leakage detection.
Influence of reef geometry on wave attenuation on a Brazilian coral reef
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costa, Mirella B. S. F.; Araújo, Moacyr; Araújo, Tereza C. M.; Siegle, Eduardo
2016-01-01
This study presents data from field experiments that focus on the influence of coral reef geometry on wave transformation in the Metropolitan Area of Recife (MAR) on the northeast coast of Brazil. First, a detailed bathymetric survey was conducted, revealing a submerged reef bank, measuring 18 km long by 1 km wide, parallel to the coastline with a quasi-horizontal top that varies from 0.5 m to 4 m in depth at low tide. Cluster similarity between 180 reef profiles indicates that in 75% of the area, the reef geometry has a configuration similar to a platform reef, whereas in 25% of the area it resembles a fringing reef. Measurements of wave pressure fluctuations were made at two stations (experiments E1 and E2) across the reef profile. The results indicate that wave height was tidally modulated at both experimental sites. Up to 67% (E1) and 99.9% (E2) of the incident wave height is attenuated by the reef top at low tide. This tidal modulation is most apparent at E2 due to reef geometry. At this location, the reef top is only approximately 0.5 m deep during mean low spring water, and almost all incident waves break on the outer reef edge. At E1, the reef top depth is 4 m, and waves with height ratios smaller than the critical breaking limit are free to pass onto the reef and are primarily attenuated by bottom friction. These results highlight the importance of reef geometry in controlling wave characteristics of the MAR beaches and demonstrate its effect on the morphology of the adjacent coast. Implications of differences in wave attenuation and the level of protection provided by the reefs to the adjacent shoreline are discussed.
Temporal change in coda wave attenuation observed during an eruption of Mount St. Helens
Fehler, M.; Roberts, P.; Fairbanks, T.
1988-05-10
During the past few years there have been numerous reports of changes in coda wave attenuation occurring before major earthquakes. These observations are important because they may provide insight into stress-related structural changes taking place in the focal region prior to the occurrence of large earthquakes. The results of these studies led us to suspect that temporal changes in coda wave attenuation might also accompany volcanic eruptions. By measuring power decay envelopes for earthquakes at Mount St. Helens recorded before, during, and after an eruption that took place during September 3--6, 1981, we found that coda Q/sup -1/ for frequencies between 6 and 30 Hz was 20--30% higher before the eruption than after. The change is attributed to an increase in the density of open microcracks in the rock associated with inflation of the volcano prior to the eruption. Q/sup -1/ was found to be only weakly dependent on frequency and displayed a slight peak near 10 Hz. The weak frequency dependence is attributed to the dominance of intrinsic attenuation over scattering attenuation, since it is generally accepted that intrinsic attenuation is constant with frequency, whereas scattering attenuation decreases strongly at higher frequencies. The weak frequency dependence of Q/sup -1/ at Mount St. Helens contrasts with results reported for studies in nonvolcanic regions. The peak in Q/sup -1/ near 10 Hz at Mount St. Helens is attributed to the scale length of heterogeneity responsible for generating backscattered waves. Results for nonvolcanic regions have shown this peak to occur near 0.5 Hz. Thus a smaller scale length of heterogeneity is required to explain the 10-Hz peak at Mount St. Helens. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988
Akman, F; Durak, R; Turhan, M F; Kaçal, M R
2015-07-01
The effective atomic numbers and electron densities of some samarium compounds were determined using the experimental total mass attenuation coefficient values near the K edge in the X-ray energy range from 36.847 up to 57.142 keV. The measurements, in the region from 36.847 to 57.142 keV, were done in a transmission geometry utilizing the Kα2, Kα1, Kβ1 and Kβ2 X-rays from different secondary source targets excited by the 59.54 keV gamma-photons from an Am-241 annular source. This paper presents the first measurement of the effective atomic numbers and electron densities for some samarium compounds near the K edge. The results of the study showed that the measured values were in good agreement with the theoretically calculated ones. PMID:25880612
The Influence of wave state and sea spray on drag coefficient from low to high wind speeds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Jian; Zhong, Zhong; Li, Xunqiang; Jiang, Guorong; Zeng, Wenhua; Li, Yan
2016-02-01
Ocean waves alter the roughness of sea surface, and sea spray droplets redistribute the momentum flux at the air-sea interface. Hence, both wave state and sea spray influence sea surface drag coefficient. Based on the new sea spray generation function which depends on sea surface wave, a wave-dependent sea spray stress is obtained. According to the relationship between sea spray stress and the total wind stress on the sea surface, a new formula of drag coefficient at high wind speed is acquired. With the analysis of the new drag coefficient, it is shown that the drag coefficient reduces at high wind speed, indicating that the sea spray droplets can limit the increase of drag coefficient. However, the value of high wind speed corresponding to the initial reduced drag coefficient is not fixed, and it depends on the wave state, which means the influence of wave cannot be ignored. Comparisons between the theoretical and measured sea surface drag coefficients in field and laboratory show that under different wave ages, the theoretical result of drag coefficient could include the measured data, and it means that the new drag coefficient can be used properly from low to high wind speeds under any wave state condition.
The attenuation of Love waves and toroidal oscillations of the earth.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackson, D. D.
1971-01-01
An attempt has been made to invert a large set of attenuation data for Love waves and toroidal oscillations in the earth, using a recent method by Backus and Gilbert. The difficulty in finding an acceptable model of internal friction which explains the data, under the assumption that the internal friction is independent of frequency, casts doubt on the validity of this assumption. A frequency-dependent model of internal friction is presented which is in good agreement with the seismic data and with recent experimental measurements of attenuation in rocks.
Surface Wave Constraints on Q in the Upper Mantle: Isolating the Signal of Attenuation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dalton, C.; Ekstrm, G.
2003-12-01
We use more than 60,000 surface wave amplitude measurements in the period range 150-300 seconds (Ekstrm et al., 1997) to construct maps of attenuation, or 1/Q, in the upper mantle. We initially calculate Q by constructing a datum that uses four consecutive wave trains to desensitize the amplitudes to effects from the source, instrument, and elastic structure. These Q measurements are inverted for maps of even-degree attenuation structure, and the results show variations of approximately 50% from PREM. When the Q measurements are averaged for nearly coincident great-circle paths, the resulting attenuation maps are nearly identical to the original ones, confirming that, despite extraneous effects, there is a robust signal in the amplitudes. Using the method of Selby and Woodhouse (2002), we invert minor- and major-arc Rayleigh and Love wave amplitudes for even- and odd-degree Q structure. When we assume that the amplitude anomaly is due entirely to intrinsic attenuation, the ability of the models obtained through this process to fit the data is poor. We next include terms in the inversion that allow the source moment and instrument gain to be corrected. These corrections greatly improve the fit of the data by the models. The path integral approximation to the amplitude anomaly (Woodhouse and Wong, 1986) is used both to predict the effect of focusing from existing phase velocity maps and to jointly invert for attenuation and phase velocity. We also perform a pure-path regionalized inversion using a six-tectonic-region model of the Earth, GTR1 (Jordan, 1981). On the most simplistic level, the results show that oceans are more strongly attenuating than continents at all periods, and that the surface wave attenuation values of PREM fall in between those of continents and oceans. The results using the great-circle Q measurements show many familiar patterns, in particular that young oceans are more highly attenuating than older oceans. Although the data set of minor- and major-arc amplitudes is somewhat noisy, its ability to match the results of the great-circle Q regionalization is a good measure of the usefulness of the amplitude corrections described above.
Attenuation of Slab determined from T-wave generation by deep earthquakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, J.; Ni, S.
2006-05-01
T-wave are seismically generated acoustic waves that propagate over great distance in the ocean sound channel (SOFAR). Because of the high attenuation in both the upper mantle and the ocean crust, T wave is rarely observed for earthquakes deeper than 80 km. However some deep earthquakes deeper than 80km indeed generate apparent T-waves if the subducted slab is continuous Okal et al. (1997) . We studied the deep earthquakes in the Fiji/Tonga region, where the subducted lithosphere is old and thus with small attenuation. After analyzing 33 earthquakes with the depth from 10 Km to 650 Km in Fiji/Tonga, we observed and modeled obvious T-phases from these earthquakes observed at station RAR. We used the T-wave generated by deep earthquakes to compute the quality factor of the Fiji/Tonga slab. The method used in this study is followed the equation (1) by [Groot-Hedlin et al,2001][1]. A=A0/(1+(Ω0/Ω)2)×exp(-LΩ/Qv)×Ωn where the A is the amplitude computed by the practicable data, amplitude depending on the earthquakes, and A0 is the inherent frequency related with the earthquake's half duration, L is the length of ray path that P wave or S travel in the slab, and the V is the velocity of P-wave. In this study, we fix the n=2, by assuming the T- wave scattering points in the Fiji/Tonga island arc having the same attribution as the continental shelf. After some computing and careful analysis, we determined the quality factor of the Fiji/Tonga to be around 1000, Such result is consistent with results from the traditional P,S-wave data[Roth & Wiens,1999][2] . Okal et al. (1997) pointed out that the slab in the part of central South America was also a continuous slab, by modeling apparent T-waves from the great 1994 Bolivian deep earthquake in relation to channeling of S wave energy propagating upward through the slab[3]. [1]Catherine D. de Groot-Hedlin, John A. Orcutt, excitation of T-phases by seafloor scattering, J. Acoust. Soc, 109,1944-1954,2001. [2]Erich G.Roth and Douglas A.Wiens, Leroy M.Dorman, Seismic attenuation tomography of the Tonga-Fiji region using phase pair methods, Geophys. Res.,104,4795-4809,1999. [3]Emile A.Okal and Jacques Talandier, T waves from the great 1994 Bolivian deep earthquake in relation to channeling of S wave energy up the slab, J.Geophys. Res.,102(12):27421-27437,1997.
Air-ground interface: Surface waves, surface impedance and acoustic-to-seismic coupling coefficient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daigle, Gilles; Embleton, Tony
1990-01-01
In atmospheric acoustics, the subject of surface waves has been an area of discussion for many years. The existence of an acoustic surface wave is now well established theoretically. The mathematical solution for spherical wave propagation above an impedance boundary includes the possibility of a contribution that possesses all the standard properties for a surface wave. Surface waves exist when the surface is sufficiently porous, relative to its acoustical resistance, that it can influence the airborne particle velocity near the surface and reduce the phase velocity of sound waves in air at the surface. This traps some of the sound energy in the air to remain near the surface as it propagates. Above porous grounds, the existence of surface waves has eluded direct experimental confirmation (pulse experiments have failed to show a separate arrival expected from the reduced phase speed) and indirect evidence for its existence has appeared contradictory. The experimental evidence for the existence of an acoustical surface wave above porous boundaries is reviewed. Recent measurements including pulse experiments are also described. A few years ago the acoustic impedance of a grass-covered surface was measured in the frequency range 30 to 300 Hz. Here, further measurements on the same site are discussed. These measurements include core samples, a shallow refractive survey to determine the seismic velocities, and measurements of the acoustic-to-seismic coupling coefficient.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tisato, N.; Madonna, C.; Saenger, E. H.
2012-04-01
Seismic wave attenuation at low frequencies in the earth crust has been explained by partial saturation as well as permeability models. We present results obtained by the Broad Band Attenuation Vessel (BBAV) which measures seismic wave attenuation using the sub-resonance method in the frequency range 0.01 - 100 Hz. The apparatus also allows the investigation of attenuation mechanisms related to fluid flow by means of five pore pressure sensors placed in the specimen. This allows continuous local measurements of pore pressure changes generated by stress field changes. Measurements were performed on 76 mm diameter, 250 mm long, 20% porosity, and ~500 mD permeability Berea sandstone samples. The confining pressure was varied between 0 and 20 MPa, and the specimens were saturated with water between 0% and 90%. Attenuation measurements show dependence with saturation. For instance, when samples are at dry conditions they exhibit attenuation values around 0.01, the same sample saturated with 90% water shows attenuation values between 0.018 and 0.028 across the entire frequency range. Attenuation is also confining pressure dependent. For instance, variations of confining pressure ranging between 0 and 8 MPa lead to quality factors between 40 and 10 at 60 Hz and 60% water saturation. Best fits on these measurements reveal that the corner frequency of the attenuation mechanism decreases from ~800 to ~200 Hz with increasing confining pressure. Using calibration measurements with Aluminum the possibility of apparatus resonances can be ruled out. Local pore pressure measurements corroborate this observation showing pore pressure evolution as a function of saturation. The results are discussed and interpreted in light of known attenuation mechanisms for partially saturated rocks (patchy saturation and squirt flow). We rule out the possibility of patchy saturation occurrence, but squirt flow would offer an explanation. The confining pressure dependence could be the result of crack closure which produces the corner frequency shift. Crack closure in similar samples and conditions (i.e. Berea sandstone at confining pressure less than 20 MPa) was also observed using ultrasonic tests.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemein, T.; Cox, D. T.; Albert, D.; Blackmar, P.
2012-12-01
Feedbacks between vegetation, wave climate, and sedimentation create stable ecosystem states within estuaries that provide ecosystem services such as wildlife habitat, erosion control, and pollution filtration. Flume and field studies conducted with cordgrass (Spartina spp.) and sea grasses (Zostera spp., Halodule spp.) have demonstrated that the presence of vegetation reduces wave energy and increases sediment retention. Since the spatial distribution of plant species and the presence of unique plant species differ between estuaries, there is a need to understand how individual plant species, or groups of species with similar morphology, influence wave characteristics and sedimentation. Within Tillamook Bay, Oregon, three species of emergent vascular vegetation species (Carex lyngbyei, Eleocharis sp., Schoenoplectus pungens) and one species of submergent vascular vegetation species (Zostera marina) are present in the high wave energy portion of the estuary at the border of open water and the start of vegetation. These species represent three distinct growth forms (emergent reeds, emergent grasses, submergent grasses) and occur at varying densities relative to each other, as well as within the estuary. Using paired acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs), we quantify the relative attenuation of wave velocity between vegetation types and densities within the estuary and compare these results with published attenuation rates from flume and field studies in different environments. The effect of decreased wave velocity on sediment retention is measured using permanent sediment markers within and outside of vegetation stands and paired with ADV data. Sediment retention is predicted to vary seasonally with seasonal vegetation composition changes and remain constant in unvegetated areas. From this experiment we expect to identify like groups of plant species whose attenuation characteristics are the same, allowing for models of wave-vegetation-sediment interaction to be created with multiple vegetation types.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ichinose, G.; Woods, M.; Dwyer, J.
2014-03-01
We estimated the network-averaged mantle attenuation t*(total) of 0.5 s beneath the North Korea test site (NKTS) by use of P-wave spectra and normalized spectral stacks from the 25 May 2009 declared nuclear test (mb 4.5; IDC). This value was checked using P-waves from seven deep (580-600 km) earthquakes (4.8 < M w < 5.5) in the Jilin-Heilongjiang, China region that borders with Russia and North Korea. These earthquakes are 200-300 km from the NKTS, within 200 km of the Global Seismic Network seismic station in Mudanjiang, China (MDJ) and the International Monitoring System primary arrays at Ussuriysk, Russia (USRK) and Wonju, Republic of Korea (KSRS). With the deep earthquakes, we split the t*(total) ray path into two segments: a t*(u), that represents the attenuation of the up-going ray from the deep hypocenters to the local-regional receivers, and t*(d), that represents the attenuation along the down-going ray to teleseismic receivers. The sum of t*(u) and t*(d) should be equal to t*(total), because they both share coincident ray paths. We estimated the upper-mantle attenuation t*(u) of 0.1 s at stations MDJ, USRK, and KSRS from individual and stacks of normalized P-wave spectra. We then estimated the average lower-mantle attenuation t*(d) of 0.4 s using stacked teleseismic P-wave spectra. We finally estimated a network average t*(total) of 0.5 s from the stacked teleseismic P-wave spectra from the 2009 nuclear test, which confirms the equality with the sum of t*(u) and t*(d). We included constraints on seismic moment, depth, and radiation pattern by using results from a moment tensor analysis and corner frequencies from modeling of P-wave spectra recorded at local distances. We also avoided finite-faulting effects by excluding earthquakes with complex source time functions. We assumed ?2 source models for earthquakes and explosions. The mantle attenuation beneath the NKTS is clearly different when compared with the network-averaged t* of 0.75 s for the western US and is similar to values of approximately 0.5 s for the Semipalatinsk test site within the 0.5-2 Hz range.
Chantler, C.T.; Islam, M.T.; Rae, N.A.; Tran, C.Q.; Glover, J.L.; Barnea, Z.
2012-09-25
An extension of the X-ray extended-range technique is described for measuring X-ray mass attenuation coefficients by introducing absolute measurement of a number of foils - the multiple independent foil technique. Illustrating the technique with the results of measurements for gold in the 38-50 keV energy range, it is shown that its use enables selection of the most uniform and well defined of available foils, leading to more accurate measurements; it allows one to test the consistency of independently measured absolute values of the mass attenuation coefficient with those obtained by the thickness transfer method; and it tests the linearity of the response of the counter and counting chain throughout the range of X-ray intensities encountered in a given experiment. In light of the results for gold, the strategy to be ideally employed in measuring absolute X-ray mass attenuation coefficients, X-ray absorption fine structure and related quantities is discussed.
Červenka, Milan; Bednařík, Michal
2015-10-01
This work verifies the idea that in principle it is possible to reconstruct axial temperature distribution of fluid employing reflection or transmission of acoustic waves. It is assumed that the fluid is dissipationless and its density and speed of sound vary along the wave propagation direction because of the fluid temperature distribution. A numerical algorithm is proposed allowing for calculation of the temperature distribution on the basis of known frequency characteristics of reflection coefficient modulus. Functionality of the algorithm is illustrated on a few examples, its properties are discussed. PMID:26520344
Seismic?wave attenuation determined from tectonic tremor in multiple subduction zones
Yabe, Suguru; Baltay, Annemarie S.; Ide, Satoshi; Beroza, Gregory C.
2014-01-01
Tectonic tremor provides a new source of observations that can be used to constrain the seismic attenuation parameter for ground?motion prediction and hazard mapping. Traditionally, recorded earthquakes of magnitude ?38 are used to develop ground?motion prediction equations; however, typical earthquake records may be sparse in areas of high hazard. In this study, we constrain the distance decay of seismic waves using measurements of the amplitude decay of tectonic tremor, which is plentiful in some regions. Tectonic tremor occurs in the frequency band of interest for ground?motion prediction (i.e., ?28??Hz) and is located on the subducting plate interface, at the lower boundary of where future large earthquakes are expected. We empirically fit the distance decay of peak ground velocity from tremor to determine the attenuation parameter in four subduction zones: Nankai, Japan; Cascadia, United StatesCanada; Jalisco, Mexico; and southern Chile. With the large amount of data available from tremor, we show that in the upper plate, the lower crust is less attenuating than the upper crust. We apply the same analysis to intraslab events in Nankai and show the possibility that waves traveling from deeper intraslab events experience more attenuation than those from the shallower tremor due to ray paths that pass through the subducting and highly attenuating oceanic crust. This suggests that high pore?fluid pressure is present in the tremor source region. These differences imply that the attenuation parameter determined from intraslab earthquakes may underestimate ground motion for future large earthquakes on the plate interface.
An observation related to directional attenuation of SKS waves propagating in anisotropic media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Liang; Xue, Mei
2015-04-01
Azimuthal anisotropy of attenuation is a physical phenomenon related to the directional change of attenuation. This study examines the frequency properties and directional attenuation of SKS waves. The directional frequency-dependent characteristics of SKS waves are investigated in the frequency band of 0.02-0.5 Hz using data from 53 permanent seismic stations located throughout the northern Yangtze Craton, the southern North China Craton and adjacent areas. In addition to normal splitting behavior, the analysis reveals that many SKS splitting measurements exhibit a lemniscate shape, reflecting frequency differences along fast and slow polarization directions. Frequency analysis shows that spectral ratios between fast/slow components of the lemniscate-type splitting results fluctuate strongly in a higher frequency band of 0.2-0.5 Hz, and fluctuate less within the main frequency band of 0.02-0.2 Hz. For each station, the ratio of the peak amplitude of the fast/slow components can be represented as a cotangential function of event backazimuth multiplying with a constant = 0.42 0.10. This transformation shows that the regional average angles consistently fall within the relatively narrow range of -46.5 3 with respect to the north, suggesting that a regional tectonic controlling factor dictates the relatively uniform directional attenuation of SKS waves within the frequency band of 0.02-0.2 Hz. Further analysis is performed by projecting the SKS waves onto the components along and perpendicular to the regional average angles. The calculation also shows that, in the 0.02-0.2 Hz band, the relationship between amplitude ratio and event backazimuth matches a cotangential functions with the same best matching angles and constant a < 1. Synthetic calculations demonstrate that although different filters influence the splitting parameters, attenuation anisotropy cannot be explained by elastic anisotropic media, including multilayer anisotropy and anisotropy with a tilting symmetrical axis. This observed behavior of the SKS wave may arise from the combined effects of frequency-dependent attenuation anisotropy and small-scale heterogeneities in the crust and the upper mantle.
Baksi, A John; Davies, Justin E; Hadjiloizou, Nearchos; Baruah, Resham; Unsworth, Beth; Foale, Rodney A; Korolkova, Olga; Siggers, Jennifer H; Francis, Darrel P; Mayet, Jamil; Parker, Kim H; Hughes, Alun D
2015-01-01
Background Wave reflection may be an important influence on blood pressure, but the extent to which reflections undergo attenuation during retrograde propagation has not been studied. We quantified retrograde transmission of a reflected wave created by occlusion of the left femoral artery in man. Methods 20 subjects (age 31-83 y; 14 male) underwent invasive measurement of pressure and flow velocity with a sensor-tipped intra-arterial wire at multiple locations distal to the proximal aorta before, during and following occlusion of the left femoral artery by thigh cuff inflation. A numerical model of the circulation was also used to predict reflected wave transmission. Wave reflection was measured as the ratio of backward to forward wave energy (WRI) and the ratio of peak backward to forward pressure (Pb/Pf). Results Cuff inflation caused a marked reflection which was largest 5-10cm from the cuff (change (Δ) in WRI = 0.50 (95% CI 0.38, 0.62); p<0.001, ΔPb/Pf = 0.23 (0.18 - 0.29); p<0.001). The magnitude of the cuff-induced reflection decreased progressively at more proximal locations and was barely discernible at sites >40cm from the cuff including in the proximal aorta. Numerical modelling gave similar predictions to those observed experimentally. Conclusions Reflections due to femoral artery occlusion are markedly attenuated by the time they reach the proximal aorta. This is due to impedance mismatches of bifurcations traversed in the backward direction. This degree of attenuation is inconsistent with the idea of a large discrete reflected wave arising from the lower limb and propagating back into the aorta. PMID:26436672
Dislocation damping and anisotropic seismic wave attenuation in Earth's upper mantle.
Farla, Robert J M; Jackson, Ian; Fitz Gerald, John D; Faul, Ulrich H; Zimmerman, Mark E
2012-04-20
Crystal defects form during tectonic deformation and are reactivated by the shear stress associated with passing seismic waves. Although these defects, known as dislocations, potentially contribute to the attenuation of seismic waves in Earth's upper mantle, evidence for dislocation damping from laboratory studies has been circumstantial. We experimentally determined the shear modulus and associated strain-energy dissipation in pre-deformed synthetic olivine aggregates under high pressures and temperatures. Enhanced high-temperature background dissipation occurred in specimens pre-deformed by dislocation creep in either compression or torsion, the enhancement being greater for prior deformation in torsion. These observations suggest the possibility of anisotropic attenuation in relatively coarse-grained rocks where olivine is or was deformed at relatively high stress by dislocation creep in Earth's upper mantle. PMID:22517856
The propagation and attenuation of complex acoustic waves in treated circular and annular ducts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reethof, G.
1976-01-01
The propagation of plane waves and higher order acoustic modes in a circular multisectioned duct was studied. A unique source array consisting of two concentric rings of sources, providing phase and amplitude control in the radial, as well as circumferential direction, was developed to generate plane waves and both spinning and nonspinning higher order modes. Measurements of attenuation and radial mode shapes were taken with finite length liners between the hard wall sections of an anechoically terminated duct. Materials tested as liners included a glass fiber material and both sintered fiber metals and perforated sheet metals with a honeycomb backing. The fundamental acoustic properties of these materials were studied with emphasis on the attenuation of sound by the liners and the determination of local versus extended reaction behavior for the boundary condition. The experimental results were compared with a mathematical model for the multisectioned duct.
Attenuation and localization of bending waves in a periodic/disordered fourfold composite beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Zhi-Zhong; Zhang, Chuanzeng; Wang, Yue-Sheng
2009-10-01
By using the transfer matrix method this paper presents a study of the complex band structure, attenuation spectra and localization of bending waves in a periodic/disordered fourfold composite beam constructed by inserting thin piezoelectric or soft rubber layer at each interface of original elastic composite structures. Numerical examples are presented and the accuracy is validated by the wavelet method. The results show that the piezoelectricity can adjust the band gaps and the soft rubber can enlarge the degree of the localization and the frequency ranges of the complex band gaps. The localization factor resembles the shape of the attenuation curve in the complex band gaps. Subtle differences between the random disorder and the deterministic disorder are observed, except at lower frequencies. The behavior of the wave propagation and localization in random disordered beams can be altered by tuning different inserting position. The existence of piezoelectricity and/or soft rubber layers lends new insight into the vibration control of composite beams.
Rheological anisotropy of the Earth's mantle and attenuation of seismic waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Birger, B. I.
2006-11-01
The nonlinear integral (having memory) model previously proposed by the author for the description of the dislocation rheology of mantle rocks is generalized to the case of crystals with anisotropic rheology. The latter is caused by a large difference between the effective viscosities associated with dislocation glide and dislocation climb (in the crystallographic coordinate system, the dislocation glide governs simple shear, whereas the dislocation climb governs pure shear). Since the mantle is polycrystalline and crystal grains an order of a millimeter in size are oriented chaotically, anisotropy vanishes with volume averaging. However, convective flows in the mantle produce large strains and lead to a preferred orientation of grains and, thereby, anisotropy of the upper mantle. The lower mantle is dominated by diffusion rheology, which cannot cause anisotropy. The mantle rheological anisotropy gives rise to anisotropic attenuation of seismic waves. It is shown that the attenuation depends on the polarization and direction of seismic waves and on the parameters of the rheological model.
Extraction of surface wave attenuation from ambient noise: approaches to simulated and real data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, X.; Zhou, L.; Weaver, R. L.
2012-12-01
Attenuation, or its inverse, quality factor (Q), is one of the most fundamental parameters of the Earth's media. Measurement of attenuation at regional distances traditionally uses seismic waves generated by earthquakes, which generally requires either a good knowledge of the source or a special choice of geometries to cancel out source effects. Seismic ambient noise correlation methodology has been demonstrated to be highly effective at extracting seismic velocities. Extracting amplitude information is more challenging. The greatest challenge is that the Earth's ambient noise field is highly anisotropic, non-uniform, and variable with time. Here, we explore the methodologies and procedures for extracting surface wave attenuation from empirical Green functions (EGFs) constructed from seismic ambient noise. Our approaches are to combine sound theoretical understanding and practical considerations with real data. Recent theoretical derivations and numerical simulations show that even in the case of incompletely diffuse noise fields, we can robustly recover not only travel times, but also ray arrival amplitudes, the ambient field's specific intensity, the strength and density of its scatterers if any, site amplification factors, and most importantly attenuation. In applications to the Earth, we propose two approaches with detailed formulations: linear array methods and more general methods for 2D station networks, each to be developed through applications to numerically simulated data, and to real data. In the preprocessing of real data, we explore a temporal "flattening" procedure, which speeds up EGF convergence and, in the mean time, preserves amplitudes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Z.; Masters, G.
2011-12-01
We have developed a technique that uses cluster analysis method to efficiently measure Rayleigh wave phase and amplitude anomalies. Amplitude anomaly measurements have been made on the vertical components of all permanent stations recording LHZ data from IRIS. We currently consider earthquakes with Ms>5.5 between 1990 and 2004 and correct for source phase and magnitude according to the CMT. This technique leads to a large set of amplitude measurements at 7mHz, 10mHz, 15mHz and 20mHz. We discard data with erroneously large amplitude anomalies (|dlnA|>1) and inconsistent instrument responses and we only use earthquakes recorded by more than 30 stations. Out of about 250000 raw measurements for each frequency, about 140000 measurements are retained for inverting for attenuation structure. Similar to Dalton and Ekstrom (2006), phase and amplitude data are inverted together for phase velocity maps, attenuation maps, and source and receiver terms. However, we use the 2D finite frequency amplitude kernel of Zhou et al, (2004) to model the focusing-defocusing effects. Ray theory, which has been used to date, gives amplitude anomaly predictions which depend strongly on short wavelength structure and so are very sensitive to how phase velocity maps are smoothed. Our resulting attenuation maps show structures correlating well with surface tectonics, with high attenuation in regions of ridges, back-arc basins and western North America, and low attenuation in stable continental shields. The success of getting reasonable attenuation structures demonstrates the feasibility of applying 2D finite frequency amplitude kernel to real data.
Finite-floe wave reflection and transmission coefficients from a semi-infinite model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meylan, Michael; Squire, Vernon A.
1993-07-01
A model to describe the reflection and transmission of ocean waves by a single ice floe is developed from the semi-infinite model of Fox and Squire (1990, 1991). This is done by considering the coefficients for the transition from ice to water in the semi-infinite case in terms of those from water to ice. Finite-floe reflection and transmission coefficients, R and T, respectively, are then found as the solution of a set of four simple simultaneous equations. The properties of R and T are investigated, and examples of their absolute values are given for several geometries. |R| compares well with the predictions of a precise model in the case of deep water. These results suggest that the analytical model described has applications to defining the sea state within marginal ice zones, given the floe size and ice thickness distributions and the incoming sea wave spectrum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Un, A.; Sahin, Y.
2011-07-01
The total mass attenuation coefficients, ? m, for PbO, barite, colemanite, tincal and ulexite were determined at 80.1, 302.9, 356.0, 661.7 and 1250.0 keV photon energies by using NaI (Tl) scintillation detector. Effective atomic number, Z eff, effective electron number, N eff, total atomic cross-section, ? t, total electronic cross-section, ? e, mean free path, mfp, and kerma relative to air were determined experimentally and theoretically. The theoretical mass attenuation coefficients were estimated using mixture rule. The calculated values were compared with the experimental values for all samples.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kraft, Barbara J.; Mayer, Larry A.; Simpkin, Peter G.; Goff, John A.
2002-11-01
The importance of estimating acoustic wave properties in saturated marine sediments is well known in geophysics and underwater acoustics. As part of the ONR sponsored Geoclutter program, in situ acoustic measurements were obtained using in situ sound speed and attenuation probe (ISSAP), a device developed and built by the Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping (CCOM). The location of the Geoclutter field area was the mid-outer continental shelf off New Jersey. Over 30 gigabytes of seawater and surficial sediment data was collected at 99 station locations selected to represent a range of seafloor backscatter types. At each station, the ISSAP device recorded 65 kHz waveform data across five acoustic paths with nominal probe spacing of 20 or 30 cm. The recorded waveforms were processed for compressional wave speed and attenuation. Experimental results are compared to predicted values obtained using the Biot-Stoll theory of acoustic wave propagation. Several methods are examined to estimate the required model parameters. The contribution of loss mechanisms to the effective attenuation is considered. [Research supported by ONR Grant No. N00014-00-1-0821 under the direction of Roy Wilkens and Dawn Lavoie.
S-wave attenuation characteristics in the Galeras volcanic complex (south western Colombia)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ugalde, Arantza; Carcolé, Eduard; Vargas, Carlos A.
2010-08-01
Vertical-component, short period seismograms from 435 well located volcano-tectonic earthquakes are used to estimate S-wave attenuation in the Galeras volcanic complex (south western Colombia) using coda waves. The coda magnitudes ( Mc) of the events are less than 2. Event depths are less than 10 km and hypocentral distances up to 16 km. Intrinsic absorption ( Qi-1) and scattering attenuation ( Qs-1) are estimated by means of a fitting procedure between the observed and synthetic coda envelopes in four frequency bands (1-2, 2-4, 4-8, and 8-12 Hz). The observations are compared with the theoretical predictions by an accurate approximate analytical solution of the radiative transfer equation which is based on the assumptions of multiple isotropic scattering, impulsive isotropic point source, and a medium with homogeneous scattering and absorption properties. Results show that scattering is strong and it constitutes the predominant attenuation effect in this region. In the frequency range analyzed in this study the values of the mean free path for scattering of S waves range between 2.7 ≤ l ≤ 8.1 km, which are clearly higher than those obtained in other volcanic regions of the world, but about two orders of magnitude smaller than average estimates for the Earth's crust. The characteristic length scale of intrinsic absorption gives values of 2.5 ≤ la ≤ 77 km, which are on the same order as the usual values for the Earth's crust.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Yeli
2013-04-01
In the frame of ocean dynamical system, considering the nonlinearity and isotropy of the sub-small scale turbulence the paper derived the second order moment closure equations and according to the statistical theory of breaking waves gave the boundary conditions for the kinetic energy input and the mixing length on the sea surface first, which are the physic-mathematical description of the turbulence generated by sea waves. Considering the observation effect that the dissipation rate of the turbulence kinetic energy has power vertical distribution of sea waves, we derived the balanced solution of the variation equations for the turbulence characteristics and gave the analytical expressions of the kinetic energy and the dissipation rate , and then the analytic expressions of the mixing coefficients in the upper ocean according to the closure technique with high determinacy.The theoretical coefficients were applied to the numerical modeling of ocean circulation and then the substantive progress in qualitative and quantitative modeling was gained on the premise of no any coefficient tune-up.
Lenhart, S. |; Protopopescu, V.; Yong, J.
1997-12-31
The authors apply optimal control techniques to find approximate solutions to an inverse problem for the acoustic wave equation. The inverse problem (assumed here to have a solution) is to determine the boundary reflection coefficient from partial measurements of the acoustic signal. The sought reflection coefficient is treated as a control and the goal--quantified by an approximate functional--is to drive the model solution close to the experimental data by adjusting this coefficient. The problem is solved by finding the optimal control that minimizes the approximate functional. Then by driving the cost of the control to zero one proves that the corresponding sequence of optimal controls represents a converging sequence of estimates for the solution of the inverse problem. Compared to classical regularization methods (e.g., Tikhonov coupled with optimization schemes), their approach yields: (1) a systematic procedure to solve inverse problems of identification type and (ii) an explicit expression for the approximations of the solution.
Ali, E S M; Spencer, B; McEwen, M R; Rogers, D W O
2015-02-21
In this study, a quantitative estimate is derived for the uncertainty in the XCOM photon mass attenuation coefficients in the energy range of interest to external beam radiation therapy-i.e. 100 keV (orthovoltage) to 25 MeV-using direct comparisons of experimental data against Monte Carlo models and theoretical XCOM data. Two independent datasets are used. The first dataset is from our recent transmission measurements and the corresponding EGSnrc calculations (Ali et al 2012 Med. Phys. 39 5990-6003) for 10-30 MV photon beams from the research linac at the National Research Council Canada. The attenuators are graphite and lead, with a total of 140 data points and an experimental uncertainty of ∼0.5% (k = 1). An optimum energy-independent cross section scaling factor that minimizes the discrepancies between measurements and calculations is used to deduce cross section uncertainty. The second dataset is from the aggregate of cross section measurements in the literature for graphite and lead (49 experiments, 288 data points). The dataset is compared to the sum of the XCOM data plus the IAEA photonuclear data. Again, an optimum energy-independent cross section scaling factor is used to deduce the cross section uncertainty. Using the average result from the two datasets, the energy-independent cross section uncertainty estimate is 0.5% (68% confidence) and 0.7% (95% confidence). The potential for energy-dependent errors is discussed. Photon cross section uncertainty is shown to be smaller than the current qualitative 'envelope of uncertainty' of the order of 1-2%, as given by Hubbell (1999 Phys. Med. Biol 44 R1-22). PMID:25622289
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, E. S. M.; Spencer, B.; McEwen, M. R.; Rogers, D. W. O.
2015-02-01
In this study, a quantitative estimate is derived for the uncertainty in the XCOM photon mass attenuation coefficients in the energy range of interest to external beam radiation therapyi.e. 100 keV (orthovoltage) to 25 MeVusing direct comparisons of experimental data against Monte Carlo models and theoretical XCOM data. Two independent datasets are used. The first dataset is from our recent transmission measurements and the corresponding EGSnrc calculations (Ali et al 2012 Med. Phys. 39 5990-6003) for 10-30 MV photon beams from the research linac at the National Research Council Canada. The attenuators are graphite and lead, with a total of 140 data points and an experimental uncertainty of 0.5% (k = 1). An optimum energy-independent cross section scaling factor that minimizes the discrepancies between measurements and calculations is used to deduce cross section uncertainty. The second dataset is from the aggregate of cross section measurements in the literature for graphite and lead (49 experiments, 288 data points). The dataset is compared to the sum of the XCOM data plus the IAEA photonuclear data. Again, an optimum energy-independent cross section scaling factor is used to deduce the cross section uncertainty. Using the average result from the two datasets, the energy-independent cross section uncertainty estimate is 0.5% (68% confidence) and 0.7% (95% confidence). The potential for energy-dependent errors is discussed. Photon cross section uncertainty is shown to be smaller than the current qualitative envelope of uncertainty of the order of 1-2%, as given by Hubbell (1999 Phys. Med. Biol 44 R1-22).
Bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients in the Tsyganenko field model for oblique chorus waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orlova, Ksenia; Shprits, Yuri
We present the results of computations of bounce-averaged quasi-linear momentum Dpp, pitch-angle Dαα and mixed Dαp diffusion coefficients in the Tsyganenko magnetic field model. We assume that electrons are scattered by oblique whistler mode chorus waves of Gaussian spread of wave power spectral density and wave normal angle outside the plasmasphere. The scat-tering rates are computed using the full electromagnetic dispersion relation and up to 5-order resonance condition including Landau resonance. The diffusion coefficients are calculated for quiet conditions and storm-time conditions for the day and night sides. We compare scattering rates bounce-averaged in the Tsyganenko field model with those in the dipole field and discuss the differences. The results are followed by a physical explanation of how the magnetic field model can change the bounce-averaged scattering rates. The calculations show that, during active conditions, the pitch-angle scattering by chorus waves in the realistic magnetic field can diffuse relativistic electrons to the loss cone not only on the day side, but also on the night side. Our study shows that while there are still a number of unknown parameters that determine scattering rates, inclusion of bounce-averaging in the realistic field will be crucially important for future radiation belt modeling.
Attenuation and velocity structure from diffuse coda waves: Constraints from underground array data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galluzzo, Danilo; La Rocca, Mario; Margerin, Ludovic; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Scarpa, Roberto
2015-03-01
An analysis of coda waves excited in the 0.2-20 Hz frequency band and recorded by the underground array Underseis (central Italy) has been performed to constrain both seismic attenuation at regional scale and velocity structure in the Mount Gran Sasso area. Attenuation was estimated with the MLTWA method, and shows a predominance of scattering phenomena over intrinsic absorption. The values of Qi and Qs are compatible with other estimates obtained in similar tectonic environments. Array methods allowed for a detailed study of the propagation characteristics, demonstrating that earthquake coda at frequencies greater than about 6 Hz is composed of only body waves. Coherence and spectral characteristics of seismic waves measured along the coda of local and regional earthquakes indicate that the wavefield becomes fully diffuse only in the late coda. The frequency-dependent energy partitioning between horizontal and vertical components has been also estimated and compared with synthetic values computed in a layered half-space under the diffuse field assumption. This comparison confirms that, for frequencies higher than 6 Hz, the coda appears as a sum of body waves coming from all directions while, in the low frequency range (0.2-2 Hz), the observations can be well explained by a coda wavefield composed of an equipartition mixture of surface and body waves traveling in a multiple-layered medium. A Monte-Carlo inversion has been performed to obtain a set of acceptable velocity models of the upper crust. The present results show that a broadband coda wavefield recorded in an underground environment is useful to constrain both the regional attenuation and the velocity structure of the target area, thereby complementing the results of classical array analysis of the wavefield.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almasian, Mitra; Bosschaart, Nienke; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Faber, Dirk J.
2015-12-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the potential to quantitatively measure optical properties of tissue such as the attenuation coefficient and backscattering coefficient. However, to obtain reliable values for strong scattering tissues, accurate consideration of the effects of multiple scattering and the nonlinear relation between the scattering coefficient and scatterer concentration (concentration-dependent scattering) is required. We present a comprehensive model for the OCT signal in which we quantitatively account for both effects, as well as our system parameters (confocal point spread function and sensitivity roll-off). We verify our model with experimental data from controlled phantoms of monodisperse silica beads (scattering coefficients between 1 and 30 mm-1 and scattering anisotropy between 0.4 and 0.9). The optical properties of the phantoms are calculated using Mie theory combined with the Percus-Yevick structure factor to account for concentration-dependent scattering. We demonstrate excellent agreement between the OCT attenuation and backscattering coefficient predicted by our model and experimentally derived values. We conclude that this model enables us to accurately model OCT-derived parameters (i.e., attenuation and backscattering coefficients) in the concentration-dependent and multiple scattering regime for spherical monodisperse samples.
Transmission, attenuation and reflection of shear waves in the human brain.
Clayton, Erik H; Genin, Guy M; Bayly, Philip V
2012-11-01
Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are caused by acceleration of the skull or exposure to explosive blast, but the processes by which mechanical loads lead to neurological injury remain poorly understood. We adapted motion-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging methods to measure the motion of the human brain in vivo as the skull was exposed to harmonic pressure excitation (45, 60 and 80 Hz). We analysed displacement fields to quantify the transmission, attenuation and reflection of distortional (shear) waves as well as viscoelastic material properties. Results suggest that internal membranes, such as the falx cerebri and the tentorium cerebelli, play a key role in reflecting and focusing shear waves within the brain. The skull acts as a low-pass filter over the range of frequencies studied. Transmissibility of pressure waves through the skull decreases and shear wave attenuation increases with increasing frequency. The skull and brain function mechanically as an integral structure that insulates internal anatomic features; these results are valuable for building and validating mathematical models of this complex and important structural system. PMID:22675163
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ménesguen, Y.; Gerlach, M.; Pollakowski, B.; Unterumsberger, R.; Haschke, M.; Beckhoff, B.; Lépy, M.-C.
2016-02-01
The knowledge of atomic fundamental parameters such as mass attenuation coefficients with low uncertainties, is of decisive importance in elemental quantification using x-ray fluorescence analysis techniques. Several databases are accessible and frequently used within a large community of users. These compilations are most often in good agreement for photon energies in the hard x-ray ranges. However, they significantly differ for low photon energies and around the absorption edges of any element. In a joint cooperation of the metrology institutes of France and Germany, mass attenuation coefficients of copper and zinc were determined experimentally in the photon energy range from 100 eV to 30 keV by independent approaches using monochromatized synchrotron radiation at SOLEIL (France) and BESSY II (Germany), respectively. The application of high-accuracy experimental techniques resulted in mass attenuation coefficient datasets determined with low uncertainties that are directly compared to existing databases. The novel datasets are expected to enhance the reliability of mass attenuation coefficients.
Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficients of gold in the 38-50-keV energy range
Islam, M T; Rae, N A; Glover, J L; Barnea, Z; de Jonge, M D; Tran, C Q; Wang, J; Chantler, C T
2010-11-12
We used synchrotron x rays to measure the x-ray mass attenuation coefficients of gold at nine energies from 38 to 50 keV with accuracies of 0.1%. Our results are much more accurate than previous measurements in this energy range. A comparison of our measurements with calculated mass attenuation coefficients shows that our measurements fall almost exactly midway between the XCOM and FFAST calculated theoretical values, which differ from one another in this energy region by about 4%, even though the range includes no absorption edge. The consistency and accuracy of these measurements open the way to investigations of the x-ray attenuation in the region of the L absorption edge of gold.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dalton, C. A.; Hjorleifsdottir, V.; Ekstrom, G.
2011-12-01
Surface-wave amplitudes provide the primary constraint on upper-mantle anelastic structure and are also sensitive to small-scale elastic structure through focusing effects. However, the use of amplitudes for seismic imaging presents several challenges. One, amplitudes are affected not only by propagation through anelastic and elastic heterogeneity but also by uncertainty in the source excitation, local receiver structure, and instrument response. Two, accounting for focusing and defocusing effects, which is important if amplitudes are to be used to study anelasticity, depends considerably on the chosen theoretical treatment. Three, multiple scattering of seismic energy by elastic heterogeneity can be mapped into attenuation, especially at high frequencies. With the objective of improving our ability to image mantle seismic attenuation using real amplitude observations, we investigate how approximations in the theoretical treatment of wave excitation and propagation influence the interpretation of amplitudes. We use a spectral-element wave-propagation solver (SPECFEM3D_GLOBE) to generate accurate seismograms for global Earth models containing one-dimensional attenuation structure and three-dimensional variations in seismic velocity. The seismograms are calculated for 42 realistically distributed earthquakes. Fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave amplitudes in the period range 50--200 seconds are measured using the approach of Ekstrm et al. (1997), for which PREM is the assumed Earth model. We show that using the appropriate local seismic structure at the source and receiver instead of PREM has a non-negligible effect on the amplitudes and improves their interpretation. The amplitudes due to focusing and defocusing effects are predicted for great-circle ray theory, exact ray theory (JWKB theory), and finite-frequency theory. We assess the ability of each theory to predict amplitudes that agree with those measured from the SPECFEM synthetics for an Earth model that contains short-wavelength velocity structure and one that does not. We also evaluate to what extent unmodeled focusing and scattering effects can be mapped into anelastic heterogeneity.
Velocity Dispersion and Attenuation of Acoustic Waves in Granular Sedimentary Media.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tutuncu, Azra Nur
An experimental and theoretical investigation of the effects of stress, frequency, and clay content on compressional and shear wave velocities and attenuations has been conducted using tight gas sandstone samples. The ultrasonic pulse transmission technique (~ 1 MHz) was used to measure velocities and attenuations and calculate dynamic moduli of fully brine saturated samples with porosities from 3 to 11.9 percent and clay contents from 1 to 38 percent. Simultaneous measurements were carried out to record axial and radial deformation under a biaxial stress state in order to calculate the static elastic moduli. The static moduli were found to be 1 to 6 times smaller than the dynamic moduli under the stress state. The velocities measured at ultrasonic frequency were also compared to the sonic log velocities (~20 KHz) in order to investigate dispersion effects. The trend observed in P and S wave velocities in homogeneous intervals shows that clean sandstone velocities measured in the ultrasonic frequency range deviate systematically from the log derived velocities. Compressional and shear wave amplitude data exhibited a shift in peak frequency toward lower frequencies for clay rich samples as compared to clean samples showing the important role clays play in the dissipative behavior of sandstones. The deviations from the log derived velocities are correlatable in most cases to the clay content and dispersion. The presence of clay softens the rock grain contacts and causes larger contact area values compared to the values for nearly clean rock under the same applied load. The frame moduli of sedimentary rocks are strongly influenced by the properties of the grain contacts. A modified Hertz contact theory is presented for the self consistent calculation of contact deformation, equilibrium separation distance (film thickness) and contact area for two spherical asperities in contact and subjected to an external load. It is shown that surface forces, i.e. electrostatic repulsion, Born, structural, and Van der Waals forces can be incorporated into the contact deformation problem. These forces play an important role in determining seismic wave velocities and attenuations at low confining stresses. The computed equilibrium separation distances and contact radii were used to calculate velocities and attenuations as a function of frequency and compared with measured values for glass beads, Navajo, Berea, Obernkirchner and Fort Union sandstones. The velocities and attenuations calculated as functions of stress, frequency, fluid type and saturation are all in good agreement with reported experimental data.
Wave-speed dispersion associated with an attenuation obeying a frequency power law.
Buckingham, Michael J
2015-11-01
An attenuation scaling as a power of frequency, |?|(?), over an infinite bandwidth is neither analytic nor square-integrable, thus calling into question the application of the Kramers-Krnig dispersion relations for determining the frequency dependence of the associated phase speed. In this paper, three different approaches are developed, all of which return the dispersion formula for the wavenumber, K(?). The first analysis relies on the properties of generalized functions and the causality requirement that the impulse response, k(t), the inverse Fourier transform of -iK(?), must vanish for t?wave equation is introduced that yields the phase-speed dispersion associated with a frequency-power-law attenuation. Finally, it is shown that, with minor modification, the Kramers-Krnig dispersion relations with no subtractions (the Plemelj formulas) do in fact hold for an attenuation scaling as |?|(?), yielding the same dispersion formula as the other two derivations. From this dispersion formula, admissible values of the exponent ? are established. Physically, the inadmissible values of ?, which include all the integers, correspond to attenuation-dispersion pairs whose Fourier components cannot combine in such a way as to make the impulse response, k(t), vanish for t?
Ugalde, A.; Pujades, L.G.; Canas, J.A.; Villasenor, A.
1998-01-01
Northeastern Venezuela has been studied in terms of coda wave attenuation using seismograms from local earthquakes recorded by a temporary short-period seismic network. The studied area has been separated into two subregions in order to investigate lateral variations in the attenuation parameters. Coda-Q-1 (Q(c)-1) has been obtained using the single-scattering theory. The contribution of the intrinsic absorption (Q(i)-1) and scattering (Q(s)-1) to total attenuation (Q(t)-1) has been estimated by means of a multiple lapse time window method, based on the hypothesis of multiple isotropic scattering with uniform distribution of scatterers. Results show significant spatial variations of attenuation: the estimates for intermediate depth events and for shallow events present major differences. This fact may be related to different tectonic characteristics that may be due to the presence of the Lesser Antilles subduction zone, because the intermediate depth seismic zone may be coincident with the southern continuation of the subducting slab under the arc.
Wave field synthesis of a sound field described by spherical harmonics expansion coefficients.
Ahrens, Jens; Spors, Sascha
2012-03-01
Near-field compensated higher order Ambisonics (NFC-HOA) and wave field synthesis (WFS) constitute the two best-known analytic sound field synthesis methods. While WFS is typically used for the synthesis of virtual sound scenes, NFC-HOA is typically employed in order to synthesize sound fields that have been captured with appropriate microphone arrays. Such recorded sound fields are essentially represented by the coefficients of the underlying surface spherical harmonics expansion. A sound field described by such coefficients cannot be straightforwardly synthesized in WFS. This is a consequence of the fact that, unlike in NFC-HOA, it is critical in WFS to carefully select those loudspeakers that contribute to the synthesis of a given sound source in a sound field under consideration. In order to enable such a secondary source selection, it is proposed to employ the well-known concept of decomposing the sound field under consideration into a continuum of plane waves, for which the secondary source selection is straightforward. The plane wave representation is projected onto the horizontal plane and a closed form expression of the secondary source driving signals for horizontal WFS systems of arbitrary convex shape is derived. PMID:22423715
An SVD-Polarization Filter for Surface Wave Attenuation on Multi-Component Data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Meersman, K.; Grion, S.; Ronen, S.
2006-12-01
We introduce a time-domain, complex SVD method to estimate and remove surface wave energy from multi- component exploration seismic data. Surface waves typically obscure the lower frequencies (5-20 Hz) of P- waves and S-waves that are reflected from potential exploration targets. They are therefore considered noise. Singular Value Decomposition, or SVD, is useful to extract surface wave energy from a set of seismic records that are `contaminated' with other modes and ambient noise. In ideal circumstances and with increasing number of traces N, the SVD provides a ground roll estimate in which leakage from P-wave and S-wave energy is reduced by √(N). The principal assumption is that for a fixed time-lag between traces, surface wave energy is correlated while other signals and noise are uncorrelated. When applied to multi-component data SVD not only has more data to work with, but it will also provide information on the polarization properties of the estimated waveform. This allows the design of so-called polarization filters that remove signals with specific polarization properties. The Hilbert transform is used to form the band limited analytic signal of a number of nearby multi-component records. We then run SVD over a sliding data-window to adaptively estimate the dominant signal, or first eigenimage, at the station of interest. Surface wave energy within this eigenimage can then be detected automatically using polarization and amplitude attributes that are provided by the SVD as well as velocity properties. A pure Rayleigh wave is elliptically polarized and of higher amplitude than linearly polarized reflections. Backscattered surface wave energy has random polarization, but is still typically of higher energy than reflections. Once the desired energy is removed from the first eigenimage we are left with a noise model that can be subtracted form the original shot record. We tested our adaptive polarization filter on synthetic and field data and we compare the output to that of other industry-standard surface wave attenuation techniques. Results indicate that our filter successfully removes surface wave energy. In contrast to FK-(dip)filters we find that our approach shows little sensitivity to spatial sampling and spatial aliasing. An additional advantage over FK-filters is that our approach provides better preservation of reflected signal within the surface wave frequency range.
A Split of Direction of Propagation and Attenuation of P Waves in the Po Valley
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daminelli, R.; Tento, A.; Marcellini, A.
2013-12-01
On July 17, 2011 a ML 4.8 earthquake occurred in the PO valley at a 48 km epicentral distance from a seismic station located at Palazzo Te (Mantova). The station is situated on deep quaternary sediments: the uppermost layers are mainly composed of clay and silty clay with interbedded sands; the Robertson index is 1.4
Bull, Diana L; Ochs, Margaret Ellen
2013-09-01
This report considers and prioritizes the primary potential technical costreduction pathways for offshore wave activated body attenuators designed for ocean resources. This report focuses on technical research and development costreduction pathways related to the device technology rather than environmental monitoring or permitting opportunities. Three sources of information were used to understand current cost drivers and develop a prioritized list of potential costreduction pathways: a literature review of technical work related to attenuators, a reference device compiled from literature sources, and a webinar with each of three industry device developers. Data from these information sources were aggregated and prioritized with respect to the potential impact on the lifetime levelized cost of energy, the potential for progress, the potential for success, and the confidence in success. Results indicate the five most promising costreduction pathways include advanced controls, an optimized structural design, improved power conversion, planned maintenance scheduling, and an optimized device profile.
Oil droplets transport due to irregular waves: Development of large-scale spreading coefficients.
Geng, Xiaolong; Boufadel, Michel C; Ozgokmen, Tamay; King, Thomas; Lee, Kenneth; Lu, Youyu; Zhao, Lin
2016-03-15
The movement of oil droplets due to waves and buoyancy was investigated by assuming an irregular sea state following a JONSWAP spectrum and four buoyancy values. A technique known as Wheeler stretching was used to model the movement of particles under the moving water surface. In each simulation, 500 particles were released and were tracked for a real time of 4.0h. A Monte Carlo approach was used to obtain ensemble properties. It was found that small eddy diffusivities that decrease rapidly with depth generated the largest horizontal spreading of the plume. It was also found that large eddy diffusivities that decrease slowly with depth generated the smallest horizontal spreading coefficient of the plume. The increase in buoyancy resulted in a decrease in the horizontal spreading coefficient, which suggests that two-dimensional (horizontal) models that predict the transport of surface oil could be overestimating the spreading of oil. PMID:26795121
Attenuation of compressional waves in peridotite measured as a function of temperature at 200 MPa
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sato, Hiroki; Sacks, I. Selwyn; Murase, Tsutomu; Muncill, Gregory; Fukuyama, Hiroyuki
1988-03-01
A technique has been developed to determine attenuation in rocks at high temperature using a gas-media, high-pressure apparatus. A pulse transmission technique and a spectral ratio method are used to study compressional seismic properties of rocks. Seismic waves are transmitted to and from the sample through buffer rods of mullite. The effect of seismic wave reflections within the sample assembly are cancelled out by taking ratios of the spectra measured at different temperatures. In order to obtain good signal-to-noise ratio for resolving the attenuation at high pressure and temperature, special care is taken in the sample assembly and the ultrasonic coupling between the sample, buffer rods and transducers. A very tight connection of the sample-buffer rod-transducer is essential for obtaining high frequency signals (>300 kHz) at high temperature. A small mass is attached to each outside end of the transducer to drive low frequency signals (<250 kHz) into the sample. Before attenuation measurements, the sample and the buffer rods are tightly compacted in a platinum tube at high pressure and room temperature to ensure pressure seal of the sample assembly. The frequency range of measurement covers 50 to 450 kHz for the sample. Attenuation is very small in the buffer rod compared to the sample for the entire temperature range of the study. Because of the small attenuation, a wide frequency band of 50 kHz to 3.2 MHz can be covered for investigating the attenuation in the buffer rod. The technique has been used to measure attenuation at high confining pressure, and temperatures including sub- and hyper-solidus of upper mantle rocks. Therefore, effects of partial melting on attenuation can be studied. The method is applied to the attenuation measurement in a peridotite as a function of temperature to 1225°C at 200 MPa confining pressure. At high temperature, signal amplitude decays more rapidly at high frequency than at low frequency, from which attenuation (and Q) can be determined using a spectral ratio method. No frequency dependence of Q is resolved for both the sample and the buffer rod over the entire temperature and frequency ranges of the measurement. The results show that Q decreases rapidly with increasing temperature even in the temperature range below the solidus of peridotites. Such temperature sensitivity of Q is probably more useful to probe thermal structure in the upper mantle than that of conductivity at temperatures below the solidus. The results in this study are compared with available seismic velocity, electrical conductivity and solidus data for peridotites, suggesting that there is no discontinuous change in both mechanical and electrical properties of peridotites at the solidus temperature. Even at hypersolidus temperatures, it appears that velocity drops and conductivity increases continuously (not abruptly) with increasing melt fraction. This implies that mechanical and electrical properties of the upper mantle will gradually change at the boundary where the geotherm crosses the solidus.
Wave functions of the Q .Q interaction in terms of unitary 9-j coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zamick, Larry; Harper, Matthew
2015-03-01
We obtain wave functions for two protons and two neutrons in the g9 /2 shell expressed as column vectors with amplitudes D (Jp,Jn) . When we use a quadrupole-quadrupole interaction (Q .Q ) we get, in many cases, a very strong overlap with wave functions given by a single set of unitary 9-j coefficientsU 9 j =<(jj ) 2 j(jjJB|(jj ) Jp(jj ) Jn) I> . Here JB=9 for even I T =0 states. For both even and odd T =1 states we take JB equal to 8 whilst for odd I ,T =0 we take JB to be 7. We compare the Q .Q results with those of a more realistic interaction.
Spatial variation of Lg-wave attenuation in the Iberian Peninsula
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noriega, Raquel; Ugalde, Arantza; Villaseor, Antonio; Jos Jurado, Mara
2014-05-01
Within a global context, the Iberian Peninsula is a region where low to moderate (Mw < 5.5) earthquakes occur, most of them at shallow depths (h < 40 km). Seismicity concentrates mainly around the Pyrenean Range, the northwestern part of the peninsula, and the southern deformation zone that includes the Betics, the Alborn Sea and the Gulf of Cdiz. In recent years, considerable improvements in seismic data quality and geographic coverage have been made by the deployment of new permanent and portable broadband seismic stations in the Iberian Peninsula. The dense accumulation of seismic data has allowed us to investigate lateral variation of crustal seismic attenuation to develop the first regional 2D Lg-wave attenuation model for the entire Iberian Peninsula and its frequency dependence. Seismic data used consist of 71 events with magnitudes 3 ? mbLg ? 5.4 focal depths less than 30 km and epicentral distances from 100 to 1000 km which were recorded by 343 seismic stations between January 2008 and October 2013. To avoid confusion with fundamental-mode Love-wave energy on the transverse components, we only analyzed vertical component recordings. Among all the methods proposed to measure Lg attenuation, we considered the reliable Two-Station Method that allows removing the common source term by taking the ratio of Lg amplitudes recorded at two different stations along the same great-circle path from the same event. It requires, however, strict source-station configuration and dense event and station coverage. The spectral ratios collected over high-quality interstation paths were used to determine 1 Hz Lg Q (Q0) and its frequency dependence ?. Then, the lateral variations of the attenuation parameters were mapped using inversion. Lg-wave propagation was found to be inefficient or blocked for most of the paths crossing the Mediterranean Sea, the western Alborn Sea and the Strait of Gibraltar. Our results reflect large variations in Q0 values across the Iberian Peninsula which is in accordance with the different geotectonic characteristics present in the region. Low Lg Q0 values (high attenuation) were found in the Pyrenean Range and in the southern area whereas the most stable western part of Iberia showed high Lg Q0. The obtained Lg ? spatial variation map show that intermediate ? values characterize most of the analyzed region.
Study of Spectral Attenuation Laws of Seismic Waves for Michoacn state, Mxico
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vazquez Rosas, R.; Aguirre, J.; Mijares Arellano, H.
2009-12-01
Several attenuation relationships have been developed for Mexico, mostly after the earthquake of September 19, 1985, an event that gave great impetus to the development of engineering seismology in Mexico. Since 1985, the number of seismic stations in the country has increased significantly, especially between the Coast of Guerrero and Mexico City. This is due to the infamous large amplifications observed in the lake area of Mexico City with respect to hard ground sites. Some studies have analyzed how seismic waves are attenuated or amplified from the Pacific Coast toward the inland. The attenuation relationship used for seismic hazard assessment in Mexico is that of Ordaz (1989), which uses data from the Guerrero acceleration network. Another recent study is that of Garca et al. (2005), which uses more recent data from intraplate earthquakes recorded at the Guerrero acceleration network. It is important to note that, since these relations were derived for only part of the Mexican subduction zone and for certain types of seismic sources, caution should be exercised when using them for earthquake risk studies in other regions of Mexico. In the present work, we study the state of Michoacn, one of the most important seimogenic zones in Mexico. Three kinds of sources exist in the state, producing tectonic earthquakes, volcanic earthquakes, and events due to local faults in the region. For this reason, it is of vital importance to study the propagation of seismic waves within Michoacn state, and in this paper in particular we study their attenuation. We installed a temporary network consisting of 7 accelerograph stations across the state, at the following locations: Faro de Bruceras, Aguililla, Apatzingn, Taretn, Ptzcuaro, Morelia, and Maravato. The stations form a line that is perpendicular to the coastline and has a total length of 366 km, while the distance between neighboring stations varies from 60 to 80 km. Among all the seismic events recorded at this temporary network, we select 8 events that originated along the coastline of Michoacn, with moment magnitudes ranging from 4.3 to 5.1 Mw. Using these records, we calculate Q values for frequencies between 0.1 and 10 Hz, which is the frequency range of interest for Earthquake Engineering. According to our preliminary results, the attenuation estimated is significantly larger than what the attenuation laws predict for the states of Guerrero and Colima. One limitation of this study is that we used relatively small-magnitude earthquakes. This was a consequence of the relatively short operation period of the temporary network, which had to be limited to 3 months.
Lapse time dependence of coda wave attenuation in Central West Turkey
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akyol, Nihal
2015-09-01
The attenuation of coda waves has been inferred for Central West Turkey, which is characterized by a very complex tectonic evolution. The selected dataset is composed of 440 waveforms from 228 local earthquakes with a magnitude range of 2.9-4.9. The coda quality factor (Qc) was estimated for five central frequencies (fc = 1.5, 3, 5, 7, 10 Hz) and eight lapse times (tL, ranging from 25 to 60 s), based on the assumption of single isotropic scattering model. Estimated Qc values were strongly dependent on frequency and lapse time. The frequency dependence of Qc values for each lapse time was inferred from Qc(f) = Q0fn relationships. Q0 values change between 32.7 and 82.1, while n values changes between 0.91 and 0.79 for the lapse times of 25 and 60 s, respectively. The obtained low Q0 values show that the Central West Turkey region is characterized by a high seismic attenuation, in general. The whole region was divided into four subregions to examine spatial differences of attenuation characteristics. Obtained 1/Q0 and n values versus the lapse time for each subregion implies the tectonic complexity of the region. Lapse time dependencies of attenuation and n values were also examined for subdatasets from two different ranges of event depth (h < 10 km and h ? 10 km) and distance (r < 40 km and r ? 40 km). High attenuation and its high frequency dependence for long distances manifest the elevation of isotherms and increasing heterogeneity with depth. This could be associated with the extensional intra-continental plate setting, forming regional tectonics in the back-arc area.
Study of the absorption coefficient of alpha particles to lower hybrid waves in tokamak
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jianbing; Zhang, Xianmei; Yu, Limin; Zhao, Xiang
2014-02-01
Part of the energy of the Lower Hybrid (LH) waves may be absorbed by the ? particles via the so-called perpendicular landau damping mechanism, which depends on various parameters of fusion reactors and the LH waves. In this article, we calculate the absorption coefficient ?? of LH waves due to ? particles. Results show that, the ?? increases with the parallel refraction index n? while deceases with increasing the frequency of LH waves ?LH over a wide range. Higher background plasma temperature and toroidal magnetic field will increase the absorption, and there is a peak value of ?? when ne?81019m-3 for ITER-like scenario. The thermal corrections to the cold plasma dispersion relation will change the damping rate to a certain extent under some specific conditions. We have also evaluated the fraction of LH power absorbed by the alpha particles, ? ? 0.47% and 4.1% for an LH frequency of 5 GHz and 3.7 GHz respectively for ITER-like scenario. This work gives the effective reference for the choice of parameters of future fusion reactors.
Study of the absorption coefficient of alpha particles to lower hybrid waves in tokamak
Wang, Jianbing Zhang, Xianmei Yu, Limin Zhao, Xiang
2014-02-12
Part of the energy of the Lower Hybrid (LH) waves may be absorbed by the ? particles via the so-called perpendicular landau damping mechanism, which depends on various parameters of fusion reactors and the LH waves. In this article, we calculate the absorption coefficient ?{sub ?} of LH waves due to ? particles. Results show that, the ?{sub ?} increases with the parallel refraction index n{sub ?} while deceases with increasing the frequency of LH waves ?{sub LH} over a wide range. Higher background plasma temperature and toroidal magnetic field will increase the absorption, and there is a peak value of ?{sub ?} when n{sub e}?810{sup 19}m{sup ?3} for ITER-like scenario. The thermal corrections to the cold plasma dispersion relation will change the damping rate to a certain extent under some specific conditions. We have also evaluated the fraction of LH power absorbed by the alpha particles, ? ? 0.47% and 4.1% for an LH frequency of 5 GHz and 3.7 GHz respectively for ITER-like scenario. This work gives the effective reference for the choice of parameters of future fusion reactors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tousi, E. T.; Bauk, S.; Hashim, R.; Jaafar, M. S.; Abuarra, A.; Aldroobi, K. S. A.; Al-Jarrah, A. M.
2014-10-01
The roots of Eremurus spp. were used as a bio-adhesive in the fabrication of Rhizophora spp. particleboards. The mass attenuation coefficients of Eremurus-Rhizophora spp. particleboard of six samples with two different weight percentages of the Eremurus spp. root (6% and 12%) and three various Rhizophora spp. particle sizes (?149 ?m, 149-500 ?m and 500-1000 ?m) were determined by using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) photons in 16.63 keV and 25.30 keV of the photon energy range. The results were compared with theoretically calculated mass attenuations using the XCOM computer program for younger-age (breast 1: 75% muscle+25% fat), middle-age (breast 2: 50% muscle+50% fat), and old-age (breast 3: 25% muscle+75% fat) breasts. The results indicated that Eremurus-Rhizophora spp. particleboard is the appropriate suitable phantom in the diagnostic energy region. The mass attenuation coefficient in the low weight percentage of the bio-adhesive and the large Rhizophora spp. particle size were found very close to breast 1. Moreover the mass attenuation coefficient of the sample with high weight percentage of the bio-adhesive and small Rhizophora spp. particle size was found very close to water as a standard material phantom. In addition, the viscosity of dissolved Eremurus spp. root in water could be considerably higher than that of formaldehyde-based adhesives, which affects on some properties such as high strength and high binding.
Zhou, Ji-Xun; Zhang, Xue-Zhen
2012-12-01
Several physics-based seabed geoacoustic models (including the Biot theory) predict that compressional wave attenuation ?(2) in sandy marine sediments approximately follows quadratic frequency dependence at low frequencies, i.e., ?(2)?kf(n) (dB/m), n=2. A recent paper on broadband geoacoustic inversions from low frequency (LF) field measurements, made at 20 locations around the world, has indicated that the frequency exponent of the effective sound attenuation n?1.80 in a frequency band of 50-1000 Hz [Zhou et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, 2847-2866 (2009)]. Carey and Pierce hypothesize that the discrepancy is due to the inversion models' neglect of shear wave effects [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 124, EL271-EL277 (2008)]. The broadband geoacoustic inversions assume that the seabottom is an equivalent fluid and sound waves interact with the bottom at small grazing angles. The shear wave velocity and attenuation in the upper layer of ocean bottoms are estimated from the LF field-inverted effective bottom attenuations using a near-grazing bottom reflection expression for the equivalent fluid model, derived by Zhang and Tindle [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 3391-3396 (1995)]. The resultant shear wave velocity and attenuation are consistent with the SAX99 measurement at 25 Hz and 1000 Hz. The results are helpful for the analysis of shear wave effects on long-range sound propagation in shallow water. PMID:23231101
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cauberg, Evelyne C. C.; de Bruin, Danil M.; Faber, Dirk J.; de Reijke, Theo M.; Visser, Mike; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.
2010-11-01
Real-time grading of bladder urothelial carcinoma (UC) is clinically important, but the current standard for grading (histopathology) cannot provide this information. Based on optical coherence tomography (OCT)-measured optical attenuation (?t), the grade of bladder UC could potentially be assessed in real time. We evaluate ex vivo whether ?t differs between different grades of UC and benign bladder tissue. Human bladder tissue specimens are examined ex vivo by 850-nm OCT using dynamic focusing. Three observers independently determine the ?t from the OCT images, and three pathologists independently review the corresponding histology slides. For both methods, a consensus diagnosis is made. We include 76 OCT scans from 54 bladder samples obtained in 20 procedures on 18 patients. The median (interquartile range) ?t of benign tissue is 5.75 mm-1 (4.77 to 6.14) versus 5.52 mm-1 (3.47 to 5.90), 4.85 mm-1 (4.25 to 6.50), and 5.62 mm-1 (5.01 to 6.29) for grade 1, 2, and 3 UC, respectively (p = 0.732). Interobserver agreement of histopathology is ``substantial'' [Kappa 0.62, 95% confidence interval (IC) 0.54 to 0.70] compared to ``almost perfect'' [interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.87, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.92] for OCT. Quantitative OCT analysis (by ?t) does not detect morphological UC changes. This may be due to factors typical for an ex-vivo experimental setting.
High frequency P wave attenuation and degradation of detection capability by large earthquakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bache, T. C.; Bratt, S. R.
1985-09-01
This report describes two distinct seismological studies. The first is High Frequency P Wave Attenuation Along Five Teleseismic Paths from Central Asia. P Wave spectra from E. Kazakhstan explosions recorded at five arrays are computed for all five paths using an absorption band model. The Q exhibits strong frequency dependence in the band from 0.5 to 3 Hz, and is nearly the same for all five paths. The second study is, An Investigation of the Degradation of Teleseismic Detection Capability Caused by Large Earthquakes. A ten year global seismicity bulletin is searched to determine the extent to which large earthquakes inhibit the detection of small earthquakes occurring a short time thereafter. Significant degradation of the detection capability of the 115 station global network contributing to the bulletin is seen for periods up to an hour for earthquakes of M sub b 5.8 and larger.
Velocity and attenuation of scalar and elastic waves in random media: a spectral function approach.
Calvet, Marie; Margerin, Ludovic
2012-03-01
This paper investigates the scattering of scalar and elastic waves in two-phase materials and single-mineral-cubic, hexagonal, orthorhombic-polycrystalline aggregates with randomly oriented grains. Based on the Dyson equation for the mean field, explicit expressions for the imaginary part of Green's function in the frequency-wavenumber domain (?, p), also known as the spectral function, are derived. This approach allows the identification of propagating modes with their relative contribution, and the computation of both attenuation and phase velocity for each mode. The results should be valid from the Rayleigh (low-frequency) to the geometrical optics (high-frequency) regime. Comparisons with other approaches are presented for both scalar and elastic waves. PMID:22423683
Optical measurement of velocity and drag coefficient of droplets accelerated by shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirahara, H.; Kawahashi, M.
2005-02-01
The drag coefficient of micron-sized droplets accelerated by a shock wave has been investigated. The motion of the droplets was studied by an optical measurement system, and an inertial relaxation in the mist flow is discussed in detail. An expansion-shock tube was employed in the present experiment, in which water droplets were produced by a homogeneous condensation when humid nitrogen gas expanded adiabatically in the test section. The local mean diameter and local number density of the droplet cloud were 1.0 ?m and on the order of 1012 particles/m3, respectively, as estimated using a light scattering measurement in a preliminary experiment. The droplet cloud accelerated behind a shock wave was observed using a direct shadowgraph method with a spatial filter. Since the intensity of transmitted light through the mist flow is a function of the radius and number density of droplets, we can obtain the locally averaged number density distribution under an adequate approximation. The transmitted light intensity was related to the velocity distribution of droplets under the adequate assumption. So, the acceleration of droplets was estimated from the velocity ratio between the droplets and gas flow. Then, the drag coefficient was calculated for the particle Reynolds number. The experimental result was also compared to a numerical prediction.
Fast computation of seabed spherical-wave reflection coefficients in geoacoustic inversion.
Quijano, Jorge E; Dosso, Stan E; Dettmer, Jan; Holland, Charles W
2015-10-01
This paper develops a fast numerical approach to computing spherical-wave reflection coefficients (SWRCs) for layered seabeds, which provides substantial savings in computation time when used as the forward model for geoacoustic inversion of broadband seabed reflectivity data. The approach exploits the Sommerfeld-integral representation of SWRCs as the Hankel transform of a function proportional to the plane-wave reflection coefficient (PWRC), and applies Levin integration to the rapidly oscillating integrand cast as the product of a (pre-computed) media-independent matrix and a vector involving PWRCs at a sparse sampling of integration angles. Compared to conventional Simpson's rule integration for computation of the SWRC, the Levin integration yields speed-up factors of an order of magnitude or more. Further, it results in reduced memory requirements for storage of pre-computed quantities, a desirable property when a graphics processing unit (GPU) is used for parallel computation of SWRCs. The paper applies trans-dimensional Bayesian inversion to investigate the impact of forward modeling in terms of PWRCs and SWRCs on the estimation of geoacoustic parameters and uncertainties. Model comparisons are quantified in simulated- and measured-data inversions by comparing the estimated geoacoustic parameters to the true parameters or core measurements, respectively, and by calculating the deviance information criterion for model selection. PMID:26520293
Differential shear wave attenuation and its lateral variation in the North Atlantic region
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sheehan, Anne F.; Solomon, Sean C.
1992-01-01
A digital data base of over 150 seismograms and a spectral radio technique are used to measure SS-S differential attenuation in the North Atlantic region. Differential attenuation is positively correlated with SS-S travel time residual, and both differential attentuation and travel time residual decrease with increasing seafloor age. Models are developed for seismic Q in which lateral variations include contributions from the asthenospheric low-Q zone as well as from lithospheric cooling. The Q models obtained under this assumption are in good agreement with those obtained from surface wave studies and are therefore preferred over those models with lateral variations confined to the upper 125 km. Systematic long-wavelength (1000-7000 km) variations in differential attenuation, corrected for seafloor age, are evident along the axis of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. These variations can be qualitatively correlated with long-wavelength variations in SS-S differential travel time residuals and are attributed to along-axis differences in upper mantle temperature.
Input-Dependent Wave Attenuation in a Critically-Balanced Model of Cortex
Yan, Xiao-Hu; Magnasco, Marcelo O.
2012-01-01
A number of studies have suggested that many properties of brain activity can be understood in terms of critical systems. However it is still not known how the long-range susceptibilities characteristic of criticality arise in the living brain from its local connectivity structures. Here we prove that a dynamically critically-poised model of cortex acquires an infinitely-long ranged susceptibility in the absence of input. When an input is presented, the susceptibility attenuates exponentially as a function of distance, with an increasing spatial attenuation constant (i.e., decreasing range) the larger the input. This is in direct agreement with recent results that show that waves of local field potential activity evoked by single spikes in primary visual cortex of cat and macaque attenuate with a characteristic length that also increases with decreasing contrast of the visual stimulus. A susceptibility that changes spatial range with input strength can be thought to implement an input-dependent spatial integration: when the input is large, no additional evidence is needed in addition to the local input; when the input is weak, evidence needs to be integrated over a larger spatial domain to achieve a decision. Such input-strength-dependent strategies have been demonstrated in visual processing. Our results suggest that input-strength dependent spatial integration may be a natural feature of a critically-balanced cortical network. PMID:22848489
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bauer, K.; Haberland, Ch.; Pratt, R. G.; Ryberg, T.; Weber, M. H.; Mallik Working Group
2003-04-01
We present crosswell seismic data from the Mallik 2002 Production Research Well Program, an international research project on Gas Hydrates in the Northwest Territories of Canada. The program participants include 8 partners; The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC), The Japan National Oil Corporation (JNOC), GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), United States Geological Survey (USGS), United States Department of the Energy (USDOE), India Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (MOPNG)/Gas Authority of India (GAIL) and the Chevron-BP-Burlington joint venture group. The crosswell seismic measurements were carried out by making use of two 1160 m deep observation wells (Mallik 3L-38 and 4L-38) both 45 m from and co-planar with the 1188 m deep production research well (5L-38). A high power piezo-ceramic source was used to generate sweeped signals with frequencies between 100 and 2000 Hz recorded with arrays of 8 hydrophones per depth level. A depth range between 800 and 1150 m was covered, with shot and receiver spacings of 0.75 m. High quality data could be collected during the survey which allow for application of a wide range of crosswell seismic methods. The initial data analysis included suppression of tube wave energy and picking of first arrivals. A damped least-squares algorithm was used to derive P-wave velocities from the travel time data. Next, t* values were derived from the decay of the amplitude spectra, which served as input parameters for a damped least-squares attenuation tomography. The initial results of the P-wave velocity and attenuation tomography reveal significant features reflecting the stratigraphic environment and allow for detection and eventually quantification of gas hydrate bearing sediments. A prominent correlation between P velocity and attenuation was found for the gas hydrate layers. This contradicts to the apparently more meaningful inverse correlation as it was determined for the gas hydrates at the Blake Ridge but supports the results from the Mallik 2L-38 sonic log data. The P velocities and attenuation values, if combined with other information can be important for the quantitative evaluation of the gas hydrate saturation, and may further constrain petrophysical models of the hydrate bearing sediment formation.
Seismic tomography of compressional wave attenuation structure for K?lauea Volcano, Hawai`i
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Guoqing; Shearer, Peter M.; Amelung, Falk; Okubo, Paul G.
2015-04-01
We present a frequency-independent three-dimensional (3-D) compressional wave attenuation model (indicated by the reciprocal of quality factor Qp) for K?lauea Volcano in Hawai`i. We apply the simul2000 tomographic algorithm to the attenuation operator t* values for the inversion of Qp perturbations through a recent 3-D seismic velocity model and earthquake location catalog. The t* values are measured from amplitude spectra of 26708 P wave arrivals of 1036 events recorded by 61 seismic stations at the Hawaiian Volcanology Observatory. The 3-D Qp model has a uniform horizontal grid spacing of 3 km, and the vertical node intervals range between 2 and 10 km down to 35 km depth. In general, the resolved Qp values increase with depth, and there is a correlation between seismic activity and low-Qp values. The area beneath the summit caldera is dominated by low-Qp anomalies throughout the entire resolved depth range. The Southwest Rift Zone and the East Rift Zone exhibit very high Qp values at about 9 km depth, whereas the shallow depths are characterized with low-Qp anomalies comparable with those in the summit area. The seismic zones and fault systems generally display relatively high Qp values relative to the summit. The newly developed Qp model provides an important complement to the existing velocity models for exploring the magmatic system and evaluating and interpreting intrinsic physical properties of the rocks in the study area.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, J. C. S.; Tsui, C. Y.
1972-01-01
The propagation of an initialrcidrical pressure pulse through a linear elastic fiber reinforced composite medium is analysed, both experimentally and analytically. In the experiment, tests were performed on plates with single and multiple circular inclusions embedded in a matrix of lower characteristic impedance. Sharp compression pulses were generated at an edge of the plate. Strain gages were mounted on various positions of the plate to determine the attenuation of the transient stress in the fiber reinforced composite. The qualitative analytical treatment is based on the methods of propagating stress discontinuities. Computer programs were written to numerically determine the changes in the shape of the leading wave front and the stresses immediately behind it. Experimental results for the attenuation of stress wave on steel-aluminum and steel-brass fiber-matrix composites compared very well with the computed analytical results when the applied pressure is generated by small explosive charges. The results did not compare well when the applied pressure is generated by projectile impact.
Attenuation Characteristics of Body-Waves for the Bilaspur Region of Himachal Lesser Himalaya
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vandana; Kumar, Ashwani; Gupta, S. C.
2015-06-01
The attenuation characteristics around Bilaspur region of the Himachal Lesser Himalaya have been estimated adopting extended-coda-normalization method, and using a data set of 41 local events (0.5 < M L ? 2.9) that occurred in the region from May 2013 to March 2014. The frequency-dependent relations governing the quality factors of P-waves (Q ? ) and S-waves (Q ? ) in the frequency range from 1.5 to 24 Hz are: (Q ? ) = (43 4) f 1.300.04 and Q ? = (79 6) f 1.250.02. The average estimates of (Q ? ) and (Q ? ) are found to vary from 71 and 125 at 1.5 Hz to 2901 and 4243 at 24 Hz, respectively. The (Q ? ) and (Q ? ) estimates are compared to the similar estimates obtained for the other seismically active regions of the Himalaya. It is found that for the various Himalayan regions, the (Q ? ) estimates at 1 Hz vary between 22 (for the Kumaon Himalaya) and 97 (for the northwest Himalaya), whereas (Q ? ) estimates range between 63 (for the Garhwal Himalaya) and 127 (for the northwest Himalaya). For the Bilaspur region, the (Q ? )/(Q ? ) ratio is greater than unity and varies between 1.84 and 1.45 in the frequency range from 1 to 24 Hz. The region-specific attenuation relations can be adopted for estimating earthquake source parameters, simulating strong ground motion and assessing seismic hazard for the Bilaspur region of Himachal Lesser Himalaya.
Lg Wave Attenuation in the Isparta Angle and Anatolian Plateau (Turkey)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sahin, Sakir; Bao, Xueyang; Turkelli, Niyazi; Sandvol, Eric; Teoman, Ugur; Kahraman, Metin
2013-03-01
We estimate Lg wave attenuation using local and regional seismic phases in the Isparta Angle and the Anatolian Plateau (Turkey). The Isparta Angle (IA) is a tectonically active zone forming the boundary between the African Plate and the Anatolian Plateau, and is currently undergoing N-S extensional deformation. The Anatolian Plateau contains many intra-continental faults including the North Anatolian Fault Zone and the East Anatolian Fault Zone as well as the Menderes Massif. A large waveform data set was compiled from a variety of local and regional seismic networks including 121 digital seismic stations (broad-band and short period) between 1999 and 2008 spanning the IA, the Anatolian Plateau and Azerbaijan. The data set was used to determine the nature of Lg wave propagation and characterize the nature of seismic attenuation within the crust of these regions. Lg waveforms were used to calculate the frequency-dependent Lg- Q o and Lg- ? . A wide range of Lg- Q o values was obtained between ~52 6 and 524 227. Low Lg- Q o values (~90-155) are calculated towards the north of IA, Iskenderun Gulf and its vicinity, Bingl-Karl?ova, Izmit and its vicinity. Lg- Q o values are especially low (<90) along the Menderes Massif and the Aksehir-Simav Fault Zones. This may be due to intrinsic attenuation of Lg associated with the partially molten crust and young volcanism. The high Lg- Q o values (~350) are probably caused by the crust not being subject to large amounts of extensional deformation like the Antalya Gulf and apparently being thick enough to support Lg propagation. Relatively higher values along the border of this subduction zone and plate boundary might be related to the Taurus Mountain belts and Bitlis-Zagros Suture Zone. The lateral frequency dependency Lg- ? is also consistent with high tectonic activity in this region.
Variability of crustal attenuation in the northeastern United States from Lg waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Jinghua; Kim, Won-Young; Richards, Paul G.
1996-11-01
High-quality, digital seismograms from eight pairs of collocated earthquakes in the northeastern United States were analyzed to determine accurate source spectrum corner frequencies. This was accomplished by applying the empirical Green's function method to regional Pg and Lg (or Sg) phases recorded by vertical component seismographs of the U.S. National Seismographic Network (USNSN) and the Lamont-Doherty Cooperative Seismographic Network (LCSN) stations. The frequency band used was 0.5-16 Hz for USNSN and 1-30 Hz for LCSN records. The source spectrum corner frequencies for the eight larger earthquakes of the event pairs (magnitudes between mb(Lg) = 2.5 - 4.1) range from about 4.3 to 16.3 Hz. Based on the comer frequencies obtained independently from the empirical Green's function analysis, Sg or Lg wave displacement amplitude spectra up to 30 Hz were used to determine the crustal average Q factors along 87 event-station paths. These paths crossed diverse tectonic features in the northeastern United States and were in the epicentral distance range of 41 to 1394 km. We found that within the northeastern United States, the crustal average QLg we obtained was frequency dependent and showed spatial variability which correlated fairly well with the major tectonic features in the region. Our attenuation measurements indicated low Lg attenuation in the Adirondack Mountains with exposed Precambrian Grenville basement with QLg = 905 f0.40, high Lg attenuation in the central Appalachian Province with QLg = 561-586 f0.46-0.47, and an intermediate Lg attenuation in northern New England Appalachians with Q = 705 f0.41.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molyneux, Joseph Benedict
Laboratory velocity measurements are an integral component of solid earth seismic investigations. Typically, ultrasonic measurements from centimeter scale plug samples are used to model large sections of the crust, core and mantle. By using the laboratory determined velocities, the seismic arrival time can more accurately calibrate spatial physical properties of the solid-earth. A semi-automated picking procedure is presented which determines the velocity measured from recorded ultrasonic pulses propagated through laboratory samples. This procedure is quicker and more consistent than the standard hand picking method, allowing larger data sets to be accurately investigated. Furthermore, a series of common velocity analyses are compared to the physical properties of phase and group velocity in an attenuating medium of glycerol saturated glass bead packs (Q ˜ 3). It is found that the velocity determined from the first break of the waveform (signal velocity) is up to 13% different from group and phase velocities. This illustrates that signal velocity is unsuitable to determine rock properties in highly attenuating media. Also, greater than 81% velocity dispersion is observed when the dominant propagating wavelength is comparable to the bead size. More surprisingly, on propagation of the broad band input signal a bimodal amplitude spectrum becomes apparent. The low frequency peak is consistent with standard attenuation, whereas the high frequency peak is related to resonance of either the constituent beads or the interbead fluid cavity. Such resonance partitions energy of the main incoming signal. This phenomenon represents a new and fundamental attenuation mechanism that should be considered in many wave-propagation experiments.
Declercq, Nico F; Degrieck, Joris; Leroy, Oswald
2005-02-01
If a bounded beam is described using a superposition of infinite inhomogeneous waves, the values of the coefficients attributed to each inhomogeneous wave are found using a classical optimization procedure, whence it is impossible to describe the obtained values analytically. In this paper, we develop a new and easy to apply straightforward analytical method to find the appropriate values of the sought coefficients. Supplementary to its analytical and straightforward nature, the method proves to reduce the inherent instabilities found in the inhomogeneous wave decomposition. PMID:15567205
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohd Yusof, Mohd Fahmi; Hamid, Puteri Nor Khatijah Abdul; Bauk, Sabar; Hashim, Rokiah; Tajuddin, Abdul Aziz
2015-04-01
The Rhizophora spp. particleboards were fabricated using ≤ 104 µm particle size at three different fabrication methods; binderless, steam pre-treated and tannin-added. The mass attenuation coefficient of Rhizophora spp. particleboards were measured using x-ray fluorescent (XRF) photon from niobium, molybdenum, palladium, silver and tin metal plates that provided photon energy between 16.59 to 25.26 keV. The results were compared to theoretical values for water calculated using photon cross-section database (XCOM).The results showed that all Rhizophora spp. particleboards having mass attenuation coefficient close to calculated XCOM for water. Tannin-added Rizophora spp. particleboard was nearest to calculated XCOM for water with χ2 value of 13.008 followed by binderless Rizophora spp. (25.859) and pre-treated Rizophora spp. (91.941).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Degrelle, D.; Mavon, C.; Groetz, J.-E.
2016-04-01
This study presents a numerical method in order to determine the mass attenuation coefficient of a sample with an unknown chemical composition at low energy. It is compared with two experimental methods: a graphic method and a transmission method. The method proposes to realise a numerical absorption calibration curve to process experimental results. Demineralised water with known mass attenuation coefficient (0.2066cm2g-1 at 59.54 keV) is chosen to confirm the method. 0.1964 ± 0.0350cm2g-1 is the average value determined by the numerical method, that is to say less than 5% relative deviation compared to more than 47% for the experimental methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ratilal, Purnima; Makris, Nicholas C.
2002-11-01
Analytic expressions for the mean field propagated through a stratified ocean with random volume or sufrace inhomogeneities of arbitrary size compared to the wavelength are derived from a wave guide scattering model stemming from Green's theorem. It is found that multiple scattering through inhomogeneities in the forward direction can be succinctly expressed in terms of modal attenuation and dispersion coefficients under widely satisfied conditions. The inhomogeneities can have an arbitrary distribution in depth so that the model can realistically apply to scattering from internal waves, bubbles, fish, seafloor and seasurface roughness as well as sub-bottom anomalies. An understanding of the coherence of the forward scattered field can be gained by analogy with the formation of optical mirages in low-grazing angle forward scatter from random surfaces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Sushil; Singh, Priyamvada; Singh, Pitam; Biswal, Shubhasmita; Parija, Mahesh Prasad
2016-03-01
Digital seismogram data of 82 earthquakes from the Northwestern Himalayan (India) region recorded at different stations during 2004-2006 were analyzed to study the seismic coda wave attenuation characteristics in this region. We used 132 seismic observations from local earthquakes with a hypocentral distance <240 km and a magnitude range of 1.2-4.9 to study the coda QC using the single isotropic scattering model. These earthquakes were recorded at 20 temporary seismic stations installed in the Northwestern Himalayas (India) by the Wadia institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun. The QC values were estimated at 10 central frequencies: 1.5, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 16, 20, 24, and 28 Hz using starting lapse-times of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 s and coda window-lengths of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 s. The QC fits the frequency dependent power-law, QC =Q0fn . For a 10 s lapse time with a 10-s coda window length QC = 47.42f1.012 and for a 50 s lapse time with a 50 s coda window length, QC = 204.1f0.934 . Q0 (QC at 1 Hz) varied from ∼47 for a 10 s lapse time and a 10 s window length, to ∼204 for a 50 s lapse time and a 50 s window length. An average frequency dependent power law fit for the study region may be given as QC = 116.716f0.9943 . The exponent of the frequency dependence law n ranged from 1.08 to 0.9, which correlates well with values obtained in other seismically and tectonically active and heterogeneous regions of the world. In our study region, QC increases both with respect to lapse time and frequency, i.e., the attenuation decreases as the quality factor is inversely proportional to attenuation. The low QC values or high attenuation at lower frequencies and high QC values or low attenuation at higher frequencies suggest that the heterogeneity decreases with increasing depth in our study region.
Germn Rubino, J; Monachesi, Leonardo B; Mller, Tobias M; Guarracino, Luis; Holliger, Klaus
2013-12-01
Oscillatory fluid movements in heterogeneous porous rocks induced by seismic waves cause dissipation of wave field energy. The resulting seismic signature depends not only on the rock compressibility distribution, but also on a statistically averaged permeability. This so-called equivalent seismic permeability does not, however, coincide with the respective equivalent flow permeability. While this issue has been analyzed for one-dimensional (1D) media, the corresponding two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cases remain unexplored. In this work, this topic is analyzed for 2D random medium realizations having strong permeability fluctuations. With this objective, oscillatory compressibility simulations based on the quasi-static poroelasticity equations are performed. Numerical analysis shows that strong permeability fluctuations diminish the magnitude of attenuation and velocity dispersion due to fluid flow, while the frequency range where these effects are significant gets broader. By comparing the acoustic responses obtained using different permeability averages, it is also shown that at very low frequencies the equivalent seismic permeability is similar to the equivalent flow permeability, while for very high frequencies this parameter approaches the arithmetic average of the permeability field. These seemingly generic findings have potentially important implications with regard to the estimation of equivalent flow permeability from seismic data. PMID:25669286
The Influence of Water on Seismic Wave Attenuation in the Upper Mantle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
David, E. C.; Jackson, I.; Faul, U.; Berry, A.
2014-12-01
Trace amounts of water, present as protons structurally bound in olivine crystal defects, are inferred to significantly enhance the low-strain solid-state viscoelastic relaxation responsible for attenuation and dispersion of seismic waves in the upper mantle. This inferrence is supported by recent observation of water weakening at moderate compressive strains in synthetic, water-undersaturated aggregates (Faul et al., in preparation). In these fine-grained olivine polycrystals of Fo90 composition, doped with 0.02wt% TiO2, "water" is incorporated in the remarkably stable Ti-clinohumite defect. Such synthetic olivine specimens reproduce the infrared spectra of natural mantle olivines (Berry et al., 2005), and present the advantage of being melt-free and of low dislocation density. The water contents in such synthetic polycrystalline olivine aggregates, which can be quantitatively measured by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), range up to 90 ppm, and are thus representative of water-undersaturated conditions in the upper mantle. We will report here the outcome of torsional-oscillation tests,in which attenuation and shear modulus were measured at seismic frequencies (mHz-Hz) and various temperatures up to 1300C on Pt-encapsulated, Ti-doped olivine specimens, enclosed within a mild-steel jacket.
The Attenuation of a Detonation Wave by an Aircraft Engine Axial Turbine Stage
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
VanZante, Dale; Envia, Edmane; Turner, Mark G.
2007-01-01
A Constant Volume Combustion Cycle Engine concept consisting of a Pulse Detonation Combustor (PDC) followed by a conventional axial turbine was simulated numerically to determine the attenuation and reflection of a notional PDC pulse by the turbine. The multi-stage, time-accurate, turbomachinery solver TURBO was used to perform the calculation. The solution domain consisted of one notional detonation tube coupled to 5 vane passages and 8 rotor passages representing 1/8th of the annulus. The detonation tube was implemented as an initial value problem with the thermodynamic state of the tube contents, when the detonation wave is about to exit, provided by a 1D code. Pressure time history data from the numerical simulation was compared to experimental data from a similar configuration to verify that the simulation is giving reasonable results. Analysis of the pressure data showed a spectrally averaged attenuation of about 15 dB across the turbine stage. An evaluation of turbine performance is also presented.
Upper mantle and crustal P-wave attenuation beneath the North Korea region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cleveland, M.; Randall, G. E.; Patton, H. J.; Phillips, W. S.
2014-12-01
Accurate estimation of the magnitude of crustal seismic sources is dependent upon a strong understanding of the anelastic P-wave attenuation in the crust and upper mantle. In this study, we estimate the crustal/upper mantle average attenuation (t*) for the region around North Korea by expanding upon methods described by Ichinose et al. [2013]. We estimate t* by modeling the observed spectra and spectral ratio of regional and teleseismic P- and pP-phases of large, deep (> 500 km) earthquakes rupturing beneath the North Korea region. We use seismograms, acquired from the IRIS data archive, from operational stations at the time of each earthquake. Because of a trade-off between the variables, we use multi-variable optimization to estimate the best-fitting corner frequency (fc) and t* for each spectrum. In addition to using a more quantitative and global approach than earlier studies, we introduce new measurement approaches enabling a better understanding of the uncertainty in the measured t* value and its trade-off with fc.
Experimental Measurements Of Seismic Wave Speeds And Attenuation In CO2 Saturated Porous Rocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Njiekak, G.; Yam, H.; Kofman, R. S.; Chowdhury, M.; Schmitt, D. R.
2011-12-01
Due to the sensitivity of seismic waves to pore fluid contents, time lapse seismology is regarded as a promising monitoring method for geological CO2 sequestration projects and is employed in all industrial scale projects (Sleipner, Weyburn, In Salah). Therefore, understanding the effect of CO2 as a pore fluid on the overall rock seismic response is critical, and it is particularly interesting as CO2 can be in gas, liquid, or supercritical phases even at the relatively modest pore pressures and temperatures in the uppermost kilometer of the earth's crust. To address this issue, ultrasonic P- and S-wave pulse transmission experiments were carried out on fully CO2 saturated samples of a synthetic porous ceramic, Berea and Fontainebleau sandstones, and carbonates under a variety of temperatures and pressures representative of conditions expected in volcanic edifices and geological sequestration projects. The synthetic sample was chosen because of its lack of microcracks, which can complicate the acoustic behavior of real rocks. Although this sample is extremely porous (58%) and is not reflective of real reservoir rocks, its large porosity allows the overall rock behavior to be more susceptible to the changes in the physical properties of the pore fluid; this could provide an extreme end member understanding on the rock physics involved with CO2 as the pore fluid. Laboratory results show waveform variations (velocity, amplitude, attenuation) in response to CO2's varying phase state. For the ceramic rod, CO2 phase changes (gas to liquid and gas to supercritical fluid) are marked by a drop in velocities of 4-5% likely due to the increased density of the liquid or the supercritical fluid relative to the gas. Wave attenuation increases with pore pressure and with frequency. The measured elastic wave velocities showed good agreement with Biot's model in this highly porous sample. The real sandstones, in contrast, display more complicated behaviour at the point of the phase transition. The abruptness in the velocity change differs significantly between the gas-liquid and gas-supercritical fluid transitions; and the gradual variations seen for the latter suggest that this will be difficult to detect using seismic reflection methods.
Attenuation Characteristics of Body-Waves for the Bilaspur Region of Himachal Lesser Himalaya
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vandana; Kumar, Ashwani; Gupta, S. C.
2016-02-01
The attenuation characteristics around Bilaspur region of the Himachal Lesser Himalaya have been estimated adopting extended-coda-normalization method, and using a data set of 41 local events (0.5 < M L ≤ 2.9) that occurred in the region from May 2013 to March 2014. The frequency-dependent relations governing the quality factors of P-waves ( Q α ) and S-waves ( Q β ) in the frequency range from 1.5 to 24 Hz are: ( Q α ) = (43 ± 4) f 1.30±0.04 and Q β = (79 ± 6) f 1.25±0.02. The average estimates of ( Q α ) and ( Q β ) are found to vary from 71 and 125 at 1.5 Hz to 2901 and 4243 at 24 Hz, respectively. The ( Q α ) and ( Q β ) estimates are compared to the similar estimates obtained for the other seismically active regions of the Himalaya. It is found that for the various Himalayan regions, the ( Q α ) estimates at 1 Hz vary between 22 (for the Kumaon Himalaya) and 97 (for the northwest Himalaya), whereas ( Q β ) estimates range between 63 (for the Garhwal Himalaya) and 127 (for the northwest Himalaya). For the Bilaspur region, the ( Q β )/( Q α ) ratio is greater than unity and varies between 1.84 and 1.45 in the frequency range from 1 to 24 Hz. The region-specific attenuation relations can be adopted for estimating earthquake source parameters, simulating strong ground motion and assessing seismic hazard for the Bilaspur region of Himachal Lesser Himalaya.
Influence of the surface drag coefficient (young waves) on the current structure of the Berre lagoon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alekseenko, Elena; Roux, Bernard; Kharif, Christian; Sukhinov, Alexander; Kotarba, Richard; Fougere, Dominique; Chen, Paul Gang
2013-04-01
Due to the shallowness, currents and hydrodynamics of Berre lagoon (South of France) are closely conditioned by the bottom topography, and wind affects the entire water column, as for many other Mediterranean lagoons (Perez-Ruzafa, 2011). Wind stress, which is caused by moving atmospheric disturbance, is known to have a major influence in lagoon water circulation. According to the numerical simulation for the main directions of the wind: N-NW, S-SE and W (wind speed of 80 km/h) it is observed that the current is maximal alongshore in the wind direction; the bottom nearshore current being larger in shallower area. This fact is coherent with fundamental principle of wind-driven flows in closed or partially closed basins which states that in shallow water the dominant force balance is between surface wind stress and bottom friction, yielding a current in the direction of the wind (Mathieu et al, 2002, Hunter and Hearn, 1987; Hearn and Hunter,1990). A uniform wind stress applied at the surface of a basin of variable depth sets up a circulation pattern characterized by relatively strong barotropic coastal currents in the direction of the wind, with return flow occurring over the deeper regions (Csanady, 1967; Csanady, 1971). One of the key parameters characterizing the wind stress formulation is a surface drag coefficient (Cds). Thus, an effect of a surface drag coefficient, in the range 0.0016 - 0.0032, will be analyzed in this work. The value of surface drag coefficient Cds = 0.0016 used in our previous studies (Alekseenko et al., 2012), would correspond to mature waves (open sea). But, in the case of semi-closed lagoonal ecosystem, it would be more appropriate to consider "young waves" mechanism. A dependency of this coefficient in terms of the wind speed is given by Young (1999) in both cases of mature waves and young waves. For "young waves" generated at a wind speed of 80 km/h, Cds = 0.0032. So, the influence of Cds on the vertical profile of the velocity in the water column is analyzed in the range 0.0016 - 0.0032. For the three main wind directions considered in this work, for a wind speed of 80 km/h, the complex current structure of the Berre lagoon is analysed. In the nearshore zones, strong alongshore downwind currents are generated, reaching values of the order of 1m/s (up to 1.5 m/s) at the free surface, and 0.5 - 0.6 m/s at the bottom. References Alekseenko E., B. Roux, A. Sukhinov, R. Kotarba, D. Fougere. Coastal hydrodynamics in a windy lagoon; submitted to Computers and Fluids, oct. 2012 Csanady G. T.: Large-scale motion in the Great Lakes, Journal of Geophysical Research, 72(16), 4151-4161, 1967. Csanady G. T. : Baroclinic boundary currents and long edge-waves in basins with sloping shores. J. Physical Oceanography 1(2):92-104, 1971. Hunter, J.R. and Hearn, C.J.: Lateral and vertical variations in the wind-driven circulations in long, shallow lakes, Journal of Geophysical Research, 92 (C12), 1987. Hearn, C.J. and Hunter, J.R.: A note on the equivalence of some two- and three-dimensional models of wind-driven barotropic flow in shallow seas, Applied Mathematical Modelling, 14, 553-556, 1990. Mathieu P.P., Deleersnijder E., Cushman-Roisin B., Beckers J.M. and Bolding K.: The role of topography in small well-mixed bays, with application to the lagoon of Mururoa. Continental Shelf research, 22(9), 1379-1395, 2002. A. Pérez-Ruzafa, C. Marcos, I.M. Pérez-Ruzafa (2011). Mediterranean coastal lagoons in an ecosystem and aquatic resources management context//Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 36, Issues 5-6, 2011, Pages 160-166 Young I.R., Wind generated ocean waves. Ocean Engineering Series Editors. Elsevier, 1999, ISBN: 0-08-043317-0.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, J. C. S.; Tsui, C. Y.
1972-01-01
Analytical and experimental studies were made of the attenuation of the stress waves during passage through single and multilayer structures. The investigation included studies on elastic and plastic stress wave propagation in the composites and those on shock mitigating material characteristics such as dynamic stress-strain relations and energy absorbing properties. The results of the studies are applied to methods for reducing the stresses imposed on a spacecraft during planetary or ocean landings.
Traveling wave solutions for fifth-order KdV type equations with time-dependent coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Triki, Houria; Wazwaz, Abdul-Majid
2014-03-01
We investigate two families of fifth-order KdV equations with time-dependent coefficients and linear damping term. These models apply to the description of envelope wave dynamics in inhomogeneous systems modeled by KdV-type equation. The modified sine-cosine method is used to construct exact periodic solutions and solitons solutions for the wave equations. The conditions of existence and uniqueness of exact solutions are also presented. The obtained results show that the sine-cosine.method provides a powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear equations with variable coefficients.
Pasyanos, M E; Walter, W R; Matzel, E M
2009-02-26
We have generalized the methodology of our regional amplitude tomography from the Lg phase to the four primary regional phases (Pn, Pg, Sn, Lg). Differences in the geometrical spreading, source term, site term, and travel paths are accounted for, while event source parameters such as seismic moment are consistent among phases. In the process, we have developed the first regional attenuation model that uses the amplitudes of four regional phases to determine a comprehensive P-wave and S-wave attenuation model of the crust and upper mantle. When applied to an area encompassing the Middle East, eastern Europe, western Asia, south Asia, and northeast Africa for the 1-2 Hz passband, we find large differences in the attenuation of the lithosphere across the region. The tectonic Tethys collision zone has high attenuation, while stable outlying regions have low attenuation. While crust and mantle Q variations are often consistent, we do find several notable areas where they differ considerably, but are appropriate given the region's tectonic history. Lastly, the relative values of Qp and Qs indicate that scattering Q is likely the dominant source of attenuation in the crust at these frequencies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Min; Xu, Haojun; Wei, Xiaolong; Liang, Hua; Song, Huimin; Sun, Quan; Zhang, Yanhua
2015-10-01
The attenuation of electromagnetic (EM) waves in unmagnetized plasma generated by an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) actuator has been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. A numerical study is conducted to investigate the propagation of EM waves in multilayer plasma structures which cover a square flat plate. Experimentally, an ICP actuator with dimensions of 20 cm×20 cm×4 cm is designed to produce a steady plasma slab. The attenuation of EM waves in the plasma generated by the ICP actuator is measured by a reflectivity arch test method at incident waves of 2.3 GHz and 10.1 GHz, respectively. A contrastive analysis of calculated and measured results of these incident wave frequencies is presented, which suggests that the experiment accords well with our theory. As expected, the plasma slab generated by the ICP actuator can effectively attenuate the EM waves, which may have great potential application prospects in aircraft stealth. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51276197, 11472306 and 11402301)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sipelgas, Liis; Raudsepp, Urmas
2015-11-01
The spectral variations in the attenuation and scattering coefficients measured with a hyperspectral ac-spectra (Wetlabs) instrument were analyzed from a dataset collected in the vicinity of commercial harbors on the Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea. In total, the measured TSM concentration varied from 0.4 to 30 mg L-1 and the concentration of Chl a varied from values below the detection limit (0.05) to 23 mg m-3. The reliability of the power law describing the particle attenuation cp (λ) and scattering bp(λ) coefficients was evaluated by means of a determination coefficient (R2). The power law described the particle attenuation spectra with high accuracy (R2 > 0.67), giving the dataset an average cp (λ) slope of 1.3. In the case of particle scattering coefficients, the power law did not represent the whole dataset. Depending on a particular spectrum, the R2 varied from 0 to 1.0 and the slope varied from 1.15 to -0.56. Decomposition of bp(λ) into dominant modes using principal component analyses resulted in the first principal mode accounting for the power law dependence of bp(λ), i.e. the "mineral-type" spectrum, and the second and third mode representing the characteristic bp(λ) of dominant algal particles, i.e. the "algae-type" spectrum. From our dataset we estimated that if Chl a concentration is above 10 mg m-3 or below 5 mg m-3 then most likely the "algae-type" or the "mineral-type" spectrum is dominant, respectively. There was strong linear relationship (R2 > 0.92) between TSM concentration and cp(555) and bp(555),irrespective of the dominant shape of the particle scattering spectra. The estimated TSM-specific attenuation and scattering coefficients at 555 nm were 0.8 m2 g-1 and 0.68 m2 g-1, respectively. Corresponding values for water samples with a dominant "mineral-type" spectrum were 0.85 m2 g-1 and 0.73 m2 g-1, respectively and for water samples with a dominant "algae-type" spectrum were 0.64 m2 g-1 and 0.52 m2 g-1, respectively.
Lee, Kevin M; Wilson, Preston S; Wochner, Mark S
2014-04-01
The use of bubble resonance effects to attenuate low-frequency underwater sound was investigated experimentally in a large water tank. A compact electromechanical sound source was used to excite standing wave fields at frequencies ranging between 50 and 200 Hz in the tank. The source was then surrounded by a stationary array of tethered encapsulated air bubbles, and reduction in standing wave amplitude by as much as 26?dB was observed. The bubbles consisted of either thin-shelled latex balloons with approximately 5?cm radii or thicker-shelled vinyl boat fenders with 6.9?cm radii. The effects of changing the material and thickness of the bubble shells were found to be in qualitative agreement with predictions from Church's model for sound propagation in a liquid containing encapsulated bubbles [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 97, 1510-1521 (1995)]. Although demonstrated here for low frequency noise abatement within a tank, which is useful for quieting acoustic test facilities and large tanks used for marine life husbandry, the eventual aim of this work is to use stationary arrays of large tethered encapsulated bubbles to abate low frequency underwater noise from anthropogenic sources in the marine environment. PMID:25234970
Torello, David; Thiele, Sebastian; Matlack, Kathryn H; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Qu, Jianmin; Jacobs, Laurence J
2015-02-01
This research considers the effects of diffraction, attenuation, and the nonlinearity of generating sources on measurements of nonlinear ultrasonic Rayleigh wave propagation. A new theoretical framework for correcting measurements made with air-coupled and contact piezoelectric receivers for the aforementioned effects is provided based on analytical models and experimental considerations. A method for extracting the nonlinearity parameter ?11 is proposed based on a nonlinear least squares curve-fitting algorithm that is tailored for Rayleigh wave measurements. Quantitative experiments are conducted to confirm the predictions for the nonlinearity of the piezoelectric source and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the curve-fitting procedure. These experiments are conducted on aluminum 2024 and 7075 specimens and a ?11(7075)/?11(2024) measure of 1.363 agrees well with previous literature and earlier work. The proposed work is also applied to a set of 2205 duplex stainless steel specimens that underwent various degrees of heat-treatment over 24h, and the results improve upon conclusions drawn from previous analysis. PMID:25287976
Viscoacoustic wave form inversion of transmission data for velocity and attenuation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watanabe, Toshiki; Nihei, Kurt T.; Nakagawa, Seiji; Myer, Larry R.
2004-06-01
This study investigates the performance of a frequency domain viscoacoustic full wave form nonlinear inversion to obtain high resolution images of velocity and attenuation. An efficient frequency domain implementation is applied that consists of performing a series of single frequency inversions sweeping from low to high frequency. A cascaded inversion was adopted in which the real part of the velocity is first imaged using the phase information, then the quality factor (Q) is imaged using the amplitude information. Tests with synthetic data indicate that our approach yielded better images than the simultaneous determination of the real and imaginary parts of the complex velocity. The method is applied to laboratory data obtained in a water tank with suspended acrylic bars. Broadband 200 kHz data are obtained for a crosshole configuration with a computer-controlled scanning system and piezofilm source and detector. The velocity image produced by the full wave form inversion is compared to a curved ray travel time tomography velocity image, and was observed to possess higher resolution and more precise locations of the acrylic bars. The Q image shows a lower resolution than the velocity image, but recovers the correct Q for acrylic. This method can be applied for geophysical applications targeted to soil, unconsolidated rocks, and marine sediments and also nondestructive evaluation and medical applications.
Viscoacoustic wave form inversion of transmission data for velocity and attenuation
Watanabe, Toshiki; Nihei, Kurt T.; Nakagawa, Seiji; Myer, Larry R.
2003-12-01
This study investigates the performance of a frequency domain viscoacoustic full wave form nonlinear inversion to obtain high resolution images of velocity and attenuation. An efficient frequency domain implementation is applied that consists of performing a series of single frequency inversions sweeping from low to high frequency. A cascaded inversion was adopted in which the real part of the velocity is first imaged using the phase information, then the quality factor (Q) is imaged using the amplitude information. Tests with synthetic data indicate that our approach yielded better images than the simultaneous determination of the real and imaginary parts of the complex velocity. The method is applied to laboratory data obtained in a water tank with suspended acrylic bars. Broadband 200 kHz data are obtained for a crosshole configuration with a computer-controlled scanning system and piezofilm source and detector. The velocity image produced by the full wave form inversion is compared to a curved ray travel time tomography velocity image, and was observed to possess higher resolution and more precise locations of the acrylic bars. The Q image shows a lower resolution than the velocity image, but recovers the correct Q for acrylic. This method can be applied for geophysical applications targeted to soil, unconsolidated rocks, and marine sediments and also nondestructive evaluation and medical applications.
Hubbell, J.H.; Seltzer, S.M.
1995-05-01
Tables and graphs of the photon mass attenuation coefficient mu/rho and the mass energy-absorption coefficient mu(en)/rho are presented for all of the elements Z=1 to 92, and for 48 compounds and mixtures of radiological interest. The tables cover energies of the photon (x ray, gamma ray, bremsstrahlung) from 1 keV to 20 MeV. The mu/rho values are taken from the current photon interaction database at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and the mu(en)/rho values are based on the new calculations by Seltzer described in Radiation Research. These tables of mu/rho and mu(en)/rho replace and extend the tables given by Hubbell in the International Journal of Applied Radiation and Isotopes.
2-D Coda and Direct Wave Attenuation Tomography in Northern Italy
Morasca, P; Mayeda, K; Gok, R; Phillips, W S; Malagnini, L
2007-10-17
A 1-D coda method was proposed by Mayeda et al. (2003) in order to obtain stable seismic source moment-rate spectra using narrowband coda envelope measurements. That study took advantage of the averaging nature of coda waves to derive stable amplitude measurements taking into account all propagation, site, and Sto-coda transfer function effects. Recently this methodology was applied to micro earthquake data sets from three sub-regions of northern Italy (i.e., western Alps, northern Apennines and eastern Alps). Since the study regions were small, ranging between local-to-near-regional distances, the simple 1-D path assumptions used in the coda method worked very well. The lateral complexity of this region would suggest, however, that a 2-D path correction might provide even better results if the datasets were combined, especially when paths traverse larger distances and complicated regions. The structural heterogeneity of northern Italy makes the region ideal to test the extent to which coda variance can be reduced further by using a 2-D Q tomography technique. The approach we use has been developed by Phillips et al. (2005) and is an extension of previous amplitude ratio techniques to remove source effects from the inversion. The method requires some assumptions such as isotropic source radiation which is generally true for coda waves. Our results are compared against direct Swave inversions for 1/Q and results from both share very similar attenuation features that coincide with known geologic structures. We compare our results with those derived from direct waves as well as some recent results from northern California obtained by Mayeda et al. (2005) which tested the same tomographic methodology applied in this study to invert for 1/Q. We find that 2-D coda path corrections for this region significantly improve upon the 1-D corrections, in contrast to California where only a marginal improvement was observed. We attribute this difference to stronger lateral variations in Q for northern Italy relative to California.
Geoacoustic inversion of short range source data using a plane wave reflection coefficient approach.
Stotts, S A; Knobles, D P; Keller, J A; Piper, J N; Thompson, L A
2006-12-01
Acoustic time series data were collected in a shallow, hard bottom lake environment located in central Texas using both short range (2 m) implosive data, obtained with the source and a single hydrophone located near mid-depth in the waveguide, along with longer range implosive and explosive data from a near surface source to a bottom mounted hydrophone. Matched field inversions using simulated annealing were performed with a ray trace plus complex plane wave reflection coefficient forward propagation model that was validated in previous work. Isolating bottom interacting paths to perform the inversions is shown to be essential to reduce parameter uncertainties in the hard bottom environment and enables a systematic approach to the inversions which establishes the number of layers needed to represent the lake environment. Measured transmission loss data from a towed source were compared through a RMS error analysis to modeled transmission loss, constructed with the parameters from inversions of data from several source types, to further establish the validity of the inversion approach for this environment. Geoacoustic parameters obtained by inversions of short range, low frequency impulsive data are used to predict transmission loss at longer ranges and higher frequencies. The range dependence of the global minimum is discussed. PMID:17225390
Mass attenuation coefficient of the Earth, Moon and Mars samples over 1keV-100GeV energy range.
Camargo Moreira, Anderson; Roberto Appoloni, Carlos
2006-09-01
This work presents the calculation of the mass attenuation coefficient (micro) of lunar, Martian and terrestrial samples in function of the energy. WinXCOM software was employed to determine the micro values for the samples in the range from 1 keV to 100 GeV. The obtained values were practically the same for energies larger than 100 keV, but marked differences among the samples were observed for energies below 25 keV, which is the energy range of interest for the XRF system used in space probes. PMID:16725330
Teleseismic P wave spectra from USArray and implications for upper mantle attenuation and scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cafferky, Samantha; Schmandt, Brandon
2015-10-01
Teleseismic P wave amplitude spectra from deep earthquakes recorded by USArray are inverted for maps of upper mantle ?t* for multiple frequency bands within 0.08-2 Hz. All frequency bands show high ?t* regions in the southwestern U.S., southern Rocky Mountains, and Appalachian margin. Low ?t* is more common across the cratonic interior. Inversions with narrower frequency bands yield similar patterns, but greater ?t* magnitudes. Even the two standard deviation ?t* magnitude for the widest band is 2-7 times greater than predicted by global QS tomography or an anelastic olivine thermal model, suggesting that much of the ?t* signal is nonthermal in origin. Nonthermal contributions are further indicated by only a moderate correlation between ?t* and P travel times. Some geographic variations, such as high ?t* in parts of the cratonic interior with high mantle velocities and low heat flow, demonstrate that the influence of temperature is regionally overwhelmed. Transverse spectra are used to investigate the importance of scattering because they would receive no P energy in the absence of 3-D heterogeneity or anisotropy. Transverse to vertical (T/Z) spectral ratios for stations with high ?t* are higher and exhibit steeper increases with frequency compared to T/Z spectra for low ?t* stations. The large magnitude of ?t* estimates and the T/Z spectra are consistent with major contributions to ?t* from scattering. A weak positive correlation between intrinsic attenuation and apparent attenuation due to scattering may contribute to ?t* magnitude and the moderate correlation of ?t* with travel times.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osman, M. S.; Abdel-Gawad, H. I.
2015-10-01
In this paper, we present a generalized unified method for finding multi-wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations via the (2+1)-dimensional Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov equations with variable coefficients (vary with time). Multi-auxiliary equations have been introduced in this method to obtain not only multi-soliton solutions but also multi-periodic or multi-elliptic solutions. Compared with the Hirota's method and the inverse scattering method, the proposed method gives more general exact multi-wave solutions without much extra effort. To give more physical insight to the obtained solutions, we present graphically their representative structures by setting the arbitrary functions in the solutions as specific functions. It is shown that rogue waves are generated in the solutions of the velocity components in an incompressible fluid which they are enveloped by the characteristic curves. Furthermore, we found multi-elliptic waves highly dispersed far from the core of waves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Zhitu; Masters, Guy; Mancinelli, Nicholas
2016-01-01
In this study, we obtain a set of 2-D global phase velocity and attenuation maps for Rayleigh waves between 5 and 25 mHz. Correcting the effect of focusing-defocusing is crucial in order to obtain reliable attenuation structure. Great circle linearized ray theory, which has been used to date, can give useful predictions of this effect if careful attention is paid to how the phase velocity model is smoothed. In contrast, predictions based on the 2-D finite-frequency kernels are quite robust in this frequency range and suggest that they are better suited as a basis for inversion. We use a large data set of Rayleigh wave phase and amplitude measurements to invert for the phase velocity, attenuation, source and receiver terms simultaneously. Our models provide 60-70 per cent variance reduction to the raw data though the source terms are the biggest contribution to the fit of the data. The attenuation maps show structures that correlate well with surface tectonics and the age progression trend of the attenuation is clearly seen in the ocean basins. We have also identified problematic stations and earthquake sources as a by-product of our data selection process.
The Velocity and Attenuation of Acoustic Emission Waves in SiC/SiC Composites Loaded in Tension
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morscher, Gregory N.; Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The behavior of acoustic waves produced by microfracture events and from pencil lead breaks was studied for two different silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix composites. The two composite systems both consisted of Hi-Nicalon (trademark) fibers and carbon interfaces but had different matrix compositions that led to considerable differences in damage accumulation and acoustic response. This behavior was primarily due to an order of magnitude difference in the interfacial shear stress for the two composite systems. Load/unload/reload tensile tests were performed and measurements were made over the entire stress range in order to determine the stress-dependence of acoustic activity for increasing damage states. It was found that using the extensional wave velocities from acoustic emission (AE) events produced from pencil lead breaks performed outside of the transducers enabled accurate measurements of the stiffness of the composite. The extensional wave velocities changed as a function of the damage state and the stress where the measurement was taken. Attenuation for AE waveforms from the pencil lead breaks occurred only for the composite possessing the lower interfacial shear stress and only at significantly high stresses. At zero stress after unloading from a peak stress, no attenuation occurred for this composite because of crack closure. For the high interfacial stress composite no attenuation was discernable at peak or zero stress over the entire stress-range of the composite. From these observations, it is believed that attenuation of AE waveforms is dependent on the magnitude of matrix crack opening.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Wanlu; Wu, You; Zuo, Lei
2015-06-01
Beam or plate metamaterials with periodic piezoelectric arrays have attracted more and more attention in recent years for wave propagation attenuation and the corresponding vibration reduction. Conventional designs use resistive shunt (R-shunt) and resistor-inductor shunt (RL-shunt). An innovative metamaterial with a high-order resonant shunt circuit is proposed and investigated for vibration and wave propagation attenuation in this paper. The proposed high-order resonant shunt circuit can introduce two local resonances in series around the tuning frequency to broaden the attenuation bandwidth, or can create two separate resonances to achieve two separate bandgaps. Finite element modeling of the beam metamaterial with wave propagation and vibration in the transverse direction is established. Simulations have been conducted to compare the vibration attenuation performances among R-shunt, RL-shunt, and the proposed high-order shunt. An impedance-based method has been presented for the parameter design of electrical components in the proposed high-order shunt for bandgaps at two desired frequencies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sleep, Norman H.; Nakata, Nori
2015-07-01
Strong seismic waves bring rock into frictional failure at the uppermost few hundred meters. Numerous small fractures slip with the cumulative effect of anelastic strain and nonlinear attenuation; these fractures should not distinguish between remote sources of stress. Still, frictional failure criteria are not evident especially when seismic waves change the normal traction on fractures. We identify three earthquakes as examples where consideration of interaction among dynamic stresses from different wave types and ambient tectonic stress provides theoretical predictions of nonlinear attenuation that are potentially testable with single station seismograms. For example, because Rayleigh waves produce shallow horizontal dynamic tension and compression, frictional failure should preferentially occur on the tensile half-cycle if no shallow tectonic stress is present and on the compressional half-cycle if the tectonic stress is already near thrust-faulting failure. We observed neither effect on records from the 2011 Mw 9.0 Great Tohoku earthquake. However, Rayleigh waves from this event appear to have brought rock beneath MYGH05 station into frictional failure at 10 m depth and thus suppressed high-frequency S waves. The tensile half-cycle of high-frequency P waves reduced normal traction on horizontal planes beneath station IWTH25 during the 2008 Mw 6.9 Iwate-Miyagi earthquake, weakening the rock in shear and suppressing high-frequency S waves. The near-field velocity pulse from the 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers earthquake brought the uppermost few hundred meters of granite beneath Lucerne station into frictional failure, suppressing high-frequency S waves. These moderately positive examples support the reality of nonlinear wave interaction, warranting study future strong ground motions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jianghua; Shen, Zhiyuan; He, Yonghong; Tu, Ziwei; Xia, Yunfei; Chen, Changshui; Liu, Songhao
2012-10-01
Oncogenesis and metastasis of tumor are difficult to detect during the clinic therapy. To explore the optical properties of tumorigenesis and metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), we assessed the NPC cell lines 5-8F and 6-10B by optical coherence tomography (OCT): first, the OCT images of the two different types of cell pellets were captured. Second, by fitting Beer's law to the averaged A-scans in these OCT datasets, the attenuation coefficients (?t) of the cells were extracted. The median attenuation coefficients (interquartile range (IQR)) of 5-8F and 6-10B were 6.79 mm-1 (IQR 6.52 to 7.23 mm-1) versus 8.06 mm-1 (IQR 7.65 to 8.40 mm-1), respectively (p < 0.01, df = 39). Subsequently, the results were compared with those obtained by polarization sensitive OCT, which further confirmed that the quantitative OCT analysis (by ?t) could differentiate the oncogenesis and metastasis NPC cell lines in real time non-invasively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Tieyuan; Harris, Jerry M.
2015-12-01
We present an iterative joint inversion approach for improving the consistence of estimated P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity and attenuation factor models. This type of inversion scheme links two or more independent inversions using a joint constraint, which is constructed by the cross-gradient function in this paper. The primary advantages of this joint inversion strategy are: avoiding weighting for different datasets in conventional simultaneous joint inversion, flexible for incorporating prior information, and relatively easy to code. We demonstrate the algorithm with two synthetic examples and two field datasets. The inversions for P- and S-wave velocity are based on ray traveltime tomography. The results of the first synthetic example show that the iterative joint inversion take advantages of both P- and S-wave sensitivity to resolve their ambiguities as well as improve structural similarity between P- and S-wave velocity models. In the second synthetic and field examples, joint inversion of P- and S-wave traveltimes results in an improved Vs velocity model that shows better structural correlation with the Vp model. More importantly, the resultant VP/VS ratio map has fewer artifacts and is better correlated for use in geological interpretation than the independent inversions. The second field example illustrates that the flexible joint inversion algorithm using frequency-shift data gives a structurally improved attenuation factor map constrained by a prior VP tomogram.
Attenuation of elastic waves in bentonite and monitoring of radioactive waste repositories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biryukov, A.; Tisato, N.; Grasselli, G.
2016-04-01
Deep geological repositories, isolated from the geosphere by an engineered bentonite barrier, are currently considered the safest solution for high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) disposal. As the physical conditions and properties of the bentonite barrier are anticipated to change with time, seismic tomography was suggested as a viable technique to monitor the physical state and integrity of the barrier and to timely detect any unforeseen failure. To do so, the seismic monitoring system needs to be optimized, and this can be achieved by conducting numerical simulations of wave propagation in the repository geometry. Previous studies treated bentonite as an elastic medium, whereas recent experimental investigations indicate its pronounced viscoelastic behaviour. The aims of this contribution are (i) to numerically estimate the effective attenuation of bentonite as a function of temperature T and water content Wc, so that synthetic data can accurately reproduce experimental traces and (ii) assess the feasibility and limitation of the HLRW repository monitoring by simulating the propagation of sonic waves in a realistic repository geometry. A finite difference method was utilized to simulate the wave propagation in experimental and repository setups. First, the input of the viscoelastic model was varied to achieve a match between experimental and numerical traces. The routine was repeated for several values of Wc and T, so that quality factors Qp(Wc, T) and Qs(Wc, T) were obtained. Then, the full-scale monitoring procedure was simulated for six scenarios, representing the evolution of bentonite's physical state. The estimated Qp and Qs exhibited a minimum at Wc = 20 per cent and higher sensitivity to Wc, rather than T, suggesting that pronounced inelasticity of the clay has to be taken into account in geophysical modelling and analysis. The repository-model traces confirm that active seismic monitoring is, in principle, capable of depicting physical changes in the bentonite barrier. However, the locations of sources and receivers relative to the tunnel need to be optimized to achieve best sensitivity to the changes. It was also observed that first arrivals do not necessarily represent the most informative part of the signal; thus the time windows of the analysis need to be selected, accounting for the geometry of the acquisition system. This contribution should be considered as a next step towards the development of a numerical approach to aid in the design and optimization of a non-intrusive monitoring system in HLRW repositories.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gubaidullin, D. A.; Osipov, P. P.; Zakirov, A. N.
2014-11-01
A one-dimensional drift of spherical particle in standing sinusoidal wave is studied numerically. The impact of stationary and non-stationary forces of viscous drag, as well as Archimedes, added masses and Basset forces on particle drift direction is investigated. For various Reynolds and Strouhal numbers the dependencies of the threshold particle drag coefficient on density parameter have been found. These dependencies show that with increasing Reynolds and Strouhal numbers the threshold value of the squared drag coefficient decreases markedly. Impact of Basset force on threshold values is especially strong for low- density particles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milani, Marco; Rubino, J. Germn; Baron, Ludovic; Sidler, Rolf; Holliger, Klaus
2015-10-01
The attenuation and velocity dispersion of sonic waves contain valuable information on the mechanical and hydraulic properties of the probed medium. An inherent complication arising in the interpretation of corresponding measurements is, however, that there are multiple physical mechanisms contributing to the energy dissipation and that the relative importance of the various contributions is difficult to unravel. To address this problem for the practically relevant case of terrestrial alluvial sediments, we analyse the attenuation and velocity dispersion characteristics of broad-band multifrequency sonic logs with dominant source frequencies ranging between 1 and 30 kHz. To adequately compensate for the effects of geometrical spreading, which is critical for reliable attenuation estimates, we simulate our experimental setup using a correspondingly targeted numerical solution of the poroelastic equations. After having applied the thus inferred corrections, the broad-band sonic log data set, in conjunction with a comprehensive suite of complementary logging data, allows for assessing the relative importance of a range of pertinent attenuation mechanisms. In doing so, we focus on the effects of wave-induced fluid flow over a wide range of scales. Our results indicate that the levels of attenuation due to the presence of mesoscopic heterogeneities in unconsolidated clastic sediments fully saturated with water are expected to be largely negligible. Conversely, Monte-Carlo-type inversions indicate that Biot's classical model permits to explain most of the considered data. Refinements with regard to the fitting of the observed attenuation and velocity dispersion characteristics are locally provided by accounting for energy dissipation at the microscopic scale, although the nature of the underlying physical mechanism remains speculative.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Mingquan; Li, Zhitao; Wang, Chen; Han, Aijun
2015-12-01
Composite carbon fibers (CFs) coated with Ni-X-P (X = Cu, Co, none) alloys were prepared by electroless plating. The morphology, crystal structure, elemental composition, and millimeter wave (MMW) attenuation performance of the alloy-coated CFs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffractometry, energy-dispersive spectrometry, and microwave attenuation. CFs were coated with a layer of alloy particles. The P content in the Ni-Cu-P or Ni-Co-P-coated alloy was lower than that in the Ni-P alloy, and coating alloy Ni-P was amorphous. Coating alloys exhibited crystal characteristics after Cu or Co introduction. MMW-attenuation performance of alloy-coated CFs showed that the 3 and 8 mm wave-attenuation effects of CF/Ni-Cu-P and CF/Ni-Co-P were better than those of CF/Ni-P and CFs. The 8 mm wave-attenuation values and their increases were larger than those of the 3 mm wave. The MMW-attenuation performance is attributable to the alloy bulk resistivity and P content. The 3 mm wave-attenuation effects of wavelength-coated CF samples were slightly larger than those of the half wavelength samples. An optimal weight gain value existed for the MMW-attenuation performance of alloy-coated CFs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yong; Weisberg, Robert H.; Zheng, Lianyuan; Zijlema, Marcel
2013-08-01
The effects of wind input parameterizations on wave estimations under hurricane conditions are examined using the unstructured grid, third-generation wave model, Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN). Experiments using Hurricane Ike wind forcing, which impacted the Gulf of Mexico in 2008, illustrate that the default and recommended setting for the wind input parameterization tends to overestimate the maximum significant wave heights in the deep Gulf of Mexico by about 2 m when comparing with observations. The overestimation can be remedied either by adjusting the maximum value of the surface drag coefficient or by substituting a high wind speed formula for the default low to moderate wind speed. Because of added dissipative effects in the shallow coastal areas, the overestimations found in deep water have limited effect on the waves in the near shore shallower waters. Thus, previous wave model results using a low to moderate wind speed bulk formula may still be reliable in waters shallower than about 20-30 m even while overestimating significant wave heights in deeper waters under hurricane conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sorokin, B. P.; Telichko, A. V.; Kvashnin, G. M.; Bormashov, V. S.; Blank, V. D.
2015-11-01
Acoustic attenuation in a multifrequency bulk acoustic wave resonator based on the synthetic diamond single crystal is investigated. The acoustic energy loss in a layered piezoelectric Al/AlN/Mo/(001) diamond structure is analyzed. The depth of a damaged surface layer with a thickness of 20-30 nm in diamond after abrasive finishing is estimated using high-energy electron backscattered diffraction and observation of Kikuchi lines. The estimation shows that the acoustic energy loss at a diamond substrate roughness of up to 20 nm, as well as acoustic loss in thin films, is lower than the bulk acoustic attenuation by an order of magnitude and is of no fundamental importance. However, the surface roughness of the piezoelectric AlN film can contribute comparably with the bulk attenuation in the substrate. It is demonstrated that the transition from the Akhiezer to Landau-Rumer regime in diamond occurs at a frequency of ~1 GHz and the phonon-phonon relaxation time is ~1.6 10-10 s. Calculation of acoustic attenuation showed that, although at a frequency of ~1 GHz the acoustic loss in diamond is somewhat higher than in well-known materials with a low attenuation level, the loss in diamond becomes noticeably lower as frequency increases to 8-10 GHz. The obtained maximum experimental value Qf ? 10 1013 Hz (9.5 GHz) makes synthetic diamond promising for microwave acoustoelectronic devices.
Surface acoustic wave attenuation by localized electrons in a 2DEG at a GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rampton, V. W.; McEnaney, K.; Kozorezov, A. G.; Carter, P. J. A.; Wilkinson, C. D. W.; Henini, M.; Hughes, O. H.
1992-05-01
The surface acoustic wave (SAW) transmission has been measured at 4.2 K, as a function of magnetic field up to 5 T, for a GaAs wafer on which a heterojunction has been grown by MBE. Frequencies up to 1920 MHz were generated by interdigital SAW transducers deposited directly on the GaAs surface. At all frequencies, oscillations in the SAW attenuation, analogous to the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in sigma xx, can be observed due to piezoelectric coupling to the non-localized electrons of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) of the heterojunction. The authors find, at frequencies of about 900 MHz and above, an additional attenuation at all magnetic fields, which increases with magnetic field. At half-integer filling factor, the increase in attenuation is initially linear with increase of field and then, at higher fields, the attenuation increases as the square root of the field. They interpret this as due to deformation potential coupling to the localized electrons of the 2DEG. A small SAW attenuation is observed at zero magnetic field which may be due to a very low density of three-dimensional electrons in the GaAs buffer layer or remaining in the doped AlGaAs layer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vogel, Gerard N.
1988-02-01
An evaluation is performed for two millimeter wave propagation models: the LIEBE model, developed at the Institute for Telecommunications, Boulder, CO, under the guidance of Dr. H. Liebe; and the EOSAEL model, developed at the U. S. Army Atmospheric Laboratory at White Sands Missile Range, NM. This evaluation is conducted for horizontal attenuation due to both clear atmosphere and hydrometer effects under typical surface meteorological conditions, and within the frequency range 70-115 GHz. Intercomparisons of model theories and predictions show slight differences for molecular oxygen and fog attenuations, but significant differences for water vapor and rain attenuations. Results indicate that, while the qualitative agreement between either the EOSAEL or LIEBE model predictions, and measurements, for horizontal attenuation due to oxygen, water vapor, fog and rain is certainly satisfactory, there is a definite need for improvement. Overall, no clear preference for either the EOSAEL or LIEBE model for operational use is ascertained. Data comparisons suggest that, for several attenuation types, model preference is dependent on either the frequency or meteorological conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franco, Ediguer E.; Adamowski, Julio C.; Buiochi, Flvio
2012-05-01
This work implements the ultrasonic shear-wave reflectance method for viscosity measurements. A modeconversion device was used for the dynamic viscosity measurement of mineral oil, SAE 40 automotive oil and glycerin samples at room temperature and 1 MHz. A novel signals processing technique that calculates the reflection coefficient magnitude in a frequency band, instead of a single frequency, was employed, showing an important improvement on the measurement accuracy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blanc, Émilie; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Chaljub, Emmanuel; Lombard, Bruno; Xie, Zhinan
2016-04-01
This paper concerns the numerical modelling of time-domain mechanical waves in viscoelastic media based on a generalized Zener model. To do so, classically in the literature relaxation mechanisms are introduced, resulting in a set of the so-called memory variables and thus in large computational arrays that need to be stored. A challenge is thus to accurately mimic a given attenuation law using a minimal set of relaxation mechanisms. For this purpose, we replace the classical linear approach of Emmerich & Korn with a nonlinear optimization approach with constraints of positivity. We show that this technique is more accurate than the linear approach. Moreover, it ensures that physically meaningful relaxation times that always honour the constraint of decay of total energy with time are obtained. As a result, these relaxation times can always be used in a stable way in a modelling algorithm, even in the case of very strong attenuation for which the classical linear approach may provide some negative and thus unusable coefficients.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Pommellec, Jean-Yves; Piron, Vianney; Askoura, Mohamed-Lamine; L'Huillier, Jean-Pierre
2015-07-01
The knowledge of the light fluence rate distribution inside a biological tissue irradiated by a Laser (or LED) is fundamental to achieve medical treatments. In this paper, we present a semi-analytical model based on the 2-D Fourier Transform of the diffusion equation. This method can be applied to any irradiation source (cylindrically symmetric or not) at the surface of the tissue. Two particular beam shapes are studied: planar irradiation and flat beam with finite radius. The total fluence rate along the depth in tissues was computed by adding the collimated and the diffuse components. The analytical solution was also used to study the effect of the beam radius on the light attenuation. Measurements were performed using a tank filled with a liquid-simulating medium (Milk), illuminated with a LED array (660 nm, 100mm×100mm). Several circular diaphragms were used to obtain uniform circular beams with well defined radii. An optical fibre (with an isotropic tip) was used to measure the fluence rate inside the medium. Preliminary experimental results are in agreement with theoretical predictions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toyokuni, Genti; Takenaka, Hiroshi
2012-06-01
We propose a method for modeling global seismic wave propagation through an attenuative Earth model including the center. This method enables accurate and efficient computations since it is based on the 2.5-D approach, which solves wave equations only on a 2-D cross section of the whole Earth and can correctly model 3-D geometrical spreading. We extend a numerical scheme for the elastic waves in spherical coordinates using the finite-difference method (FDM), to solve the viscoelastodynamic equation. For computation of realistic seismic wave propagation, incorporation of anelastic attenuation is crucial. Since the nature of Earth material is both elastic solid and viscous fluid, we should solve stress-strain relations of viscoelastic material, including attenuative structures. These relations represent the stress as a convolution integral in time, which has had difficulty treating viscoelasticity in time-domain computation such as the FDM. However, we now have a method using so-called memory variables, invented in the 1980s, followed by improvements in Cartesian coordinates. Arbitrary values of the quality factor (Q) can be incorporated into the wave equation via an array of Zener bodies. We also introduce the multi-domain, an FD grid of several layers with different grid spacings, into our FDM scheme. This allows wider lateral grid spacings with depth, so as not to perturb the FD stability criterion around the Earth center. In addition, we propose a technique to avoid the singularity problem of the wave equation in spherical coordinates at the Earth center. We develop a scheme to calculate wavefield variables on this point, based on linear interpolation for the velocity-stress, staggered-grid FDM. This scheme is validated through a comparison of synthetic seismograms with those obtained by the Direct Solution Method for a spherically symmetric Earth model, showing excellent accuracy for our FDM scheme. As a numerical example, we apply the method to simulate seismic waves affected by hemispherical variations of P-wavespeed and attenuation in the top 300 km of the inner core.
Wang, J.; Zhang, X. Yu, L.; Zhao, X.
2014-12-15
In tokamaks, fusion generated α particles may absorb lower hybrid (LH) wave energy, thus reducing the LH current drive efficiency. The absorption coefficient γ{sub α} of LH waves due to α particles changing with some typical parameters is calculated in this paper. Results show that γ{sub α} increases with the parallel refraction index n{sub ‖}, while decreases with the frequency of LH waves ω over a wide range. Higher background plasma temperature and toroidal magnetic field will increase the absorption. The absorption coefficient γ{sub α} increases with n{sub e} when n{sub e} ≤ 8 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}, while decreases with n{sub e} when n{sub e} becomes larger, and there is a peak value of γ{sub α} when n{sub e} ≈ 8 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −1} for the ITER-like scenario. The influence of spectral broadening in parametric decay instabilities on the absorption coefficient is evaluated. The value of γ{sub α} with n{sub ‖} being 2.5 is almost two times larger than that with n{sub ‖} being 2.0 and is even lager in the case of 2.9, which will obviously increase the absorption of the LH power by alpha particles.
Ellwood, R; Stratoudaki, T; Sharples, S D; Clark, M; Somekh, M G
2014-03-01
The third-order elastic constants of a material are believed to be sensitive to residual stress, fatigue, and creep damage. The acoustoelastic coefficient is directly related to these third-order elastic constants. Several techniques have been developed to monitor the acoustoelastic coefficient using ultrasound. In this article, two techniques to impose stress on a sample are compared, one using the classical method of applying a static strain using a bending jig and the other applying a dynamic stress due to the presence of an acoustic wave. Results on aluminum samples are compared. Both techniques are found to produce similar values for the acoustoelastic coefficient. The dynamic strain technique however has the advantages that it can be applied to large, real world components, in situ, while ensuring the measurement takes place in the nondestructive, elastic regime. PMID:24606250
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esfandiari, M.; Shirmardi, S. P.; Medhat, M. E.
2014-06-01
In this study, element analysis and the mass attenuation coefficient for matrixes of gold, bronze and water with various impurities and the concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) are evaluated and calculated by the MCNP simulation code for photons emitted from Barium-133, Americium-241 and sources with energies between 1 and 100 keV. The MCNP data are compared with the experimental data and WinXCom code simulated results by Medhat. The results showed that the obtained results of bronze and gold matrix are in good agreement with the other methods for energies above 40 and 60 keV, respectively. However for water matrixes with various impurities, there is a good agreement between the three methods MCNP, WinXCom and the experimental one in low and high energies.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ohi, Nobuaki; Makinen, Carla P.; Mitchell, Richard; Moisan, Tiffany A.
2008-01-01
Ocean color algorithms are based on the parameterization of apparent optical properties as a function of inherent optical properties. WET Labs underwater absorption and attenuation meters (ac-9 and ac-s) measure both the spectral beam attenuation [c (lambda)] and absorption coefficient [a (lambda)]. The ac-s reports in a continuous range of 390-750 nm with a band pass of 4 nm, totaling approximately 83 distinct wavelengths, while the ac-9 reports at 9 wavelengths. We performed the ac-s field measurements at nine stations in the Mid-Atlantic Bight from water calibrations to data analysis. Onboard the ship, the ac-s was calibrated daily using Milli Q-water. Corrections for the in situ temperature and salinity effects on optical properties of water were applied. Corrections for incomplete recovery of the scattered light in the ac-s absorption tube were performed. The fine scale of spectral and vertical distributions of c (lambda) and a (lambda) were described from the ac-s. The significant relationships between a (674) and that of spectrophotometric analysis and chlorophyll a concentration of discrete water samples were observed.
Ross, R.J.
1984-01-01
This research was conducted to further the development of the longitudinal stress-wave method of nondestructively evaluating the mechanical properties of wood-based particle composite materials. A mathematical model was developed that quantifies the motion of any cross-section of a homogeneous viscoelastic bar in response to a propagating stress wave in terms of the bar's viscoelastic parameters. It was found to be in agreement with a qualitative evaluation of the motion of such a bar. The model revealed wave speed to be a function of the modulus of elasticity of the bar and that the motion of any cross-section is periodic and attenuates at a rate which is a function of the energy-dissipation properties of the bar. An experimental investigation of stress-wave behavior in clear wood and wood-based particle composites revealed that the model developed accounts for the major components of stress-wave behavior in such materials. Also, it was found that defect-related interfaces in these materials result in predictable deviations in wave behavior from that described by the model.
The contribution of activated processes to Q. [stress corrosion cracking in seismic wave attenuation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spetzler, H. A.; Getting, I. C.; Swanson, P. L.
1980-01-01
The possible role of activated processes in seismic attenuation is investigated. In this study, a solid is modeled by a parallel and series configuration of dashpots and springs. The contribution of stress and temperature activated processes to the long term dissipative behavior of this system is analyzed. Data from brittle rock deformation experiments suggest that one such process, stress corrosion cracking, may make a significant contribution to the attenuation factor, Q, especially for long period oscillations under significant tectonic stress.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Chengliang; Soon, Bo Woon; Zhu, Yao; Wang, Nan; Loke, Samuel Pei Hao; Mu, Xiaojing; Tao, Jifang; Gu, Alex Yuandong
2015-06-01
An AlN piezoelectric Lamb-wave resonator, which is excited by two dimensional electric field, is reported in this paper. Rhombus-shape electrodes are arranged on AlN thin film in a checkered formation. When out-of-phase alternating currents are applied to adjacent checkers, two dimensional acoustic Lamb waves are excited in the piezoelectric layer along orthogonal directions, achieving high electromechanical coupling coefficient, which is comparable to film bulk acoustic resonators. The electromechanical coupling coefficient of the 285.3 MHz resonator presented in this paper is 5.33%, which is the highest among AlN based Lamb-wave resonators reported in literature. Moreover, the spurious signal within a wide frequency range is significantly suppressed to be 90% lower than that of the resonance mode. By varying the electrode dimension and inter-electrode distance, resonators having different resonant frequencies can be fabricated on a single wafer, making single-chip broadband filters, duplexers, and multiplexers possible.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hawkins, Richard; Penland, Jim A.
1997-01-01
Observations have been made and reported that the experimental normal force coefficients at a constant angle of attack were constant with a variation of more than 2 orders of magnitude of Reynolds number at a free-stream Mach number M(sub infinity) of 8.00 and more than 1 order of magnitude variation at M(sub infinity) = 6.00 on the same body-wing hypersonic cruise configuration. These data were recorded under laminar, transitional, and turbulent boundary layer conditions with both hot-wall and cold-wall models. This report presents experimental data on 25 configurations of 17 models of both simple and complex geometry taken at M(sub infinity) = 6.00, 6.86, and 8.00 in 4 different hypersonic facilities. Aerodynamic calculations were made by computational fluid dynamics (CID) and engineering methods to analyze these data. The conclusions were that the normal force coefficients at a given altitude are constant with Reynolds numbers at hypersonic speeds and that the axial force coefficients recorded under laminar boundary-layer conditions at several Reynolds numbers may be plotted against the laminar parameter (the reciprocal of the Reynolds number to the one-half power) and extrapolated to the ordinate axis to determine the inviscid-wave-drag coefficient at the intercept.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Bin; Zhang, Hong-Qing
2008-11-01
In this paper, a new auxiliary equation method is presented of constructing more new non-travelling wave solutions of nonlinear differential equations in mathematical physics, which is direct and more powerful than projective Riccati equation method. In order to illustrate the validity and the advantages of the method, (2+1)-dimensional asymmetric Nizhnik-Novikov-Vesselov equation is employed and many new double periodic non-travelling wave solutions are obtained. This algorithm can also be applied to other nonlinear differential equations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Wenbo; Mayrhofer, Patrick M.; He, Xingli; Gillinger, Manuel; Ye, Zhi; Wang, Xiaozhi; Bittner, Achim; Schmid, Ulrich; Luo, J. K.
2014-09-01
AlN and AlScN thin films with 27% scandium (Sc) were synthesized by DC magnetron sputtering deposition and used to fabricate surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices. Compared with AlN-based devices, the AlScN SAW devices exhibit much better transmission properties. Scandium doping results in electromechanical coupling coefficient, K2, in the range of 2.0% 2.2% for a wide normalized thickness range, more than a 300% increase compared to that of AlN-based SAW devices, thus demonstrating the potential applications of AlScN in high frequency resonators, sensors, and high efficiency energy harvesting devices. The coupling coefficients of the present AlScN based SAW devices are much higher than that of the theoretical calculation based on some assumptions for AlScN piezoelectric material properties, implying there is a need for in-depth investigations on the material properties of AlScN.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Przadka, A.; Cabane, B.; Pagneux, V.; Maurel, A.; Petitjeans, P.
2012-02-01
We present a study of the damping of capillary-gravity waves in water containing pigments. The practical interest comes from a recent profilometry technique (FTP for Fourier Transform Profilometry) using fringe projection onto the liquid-free surface. This experimental technique requires diffusive reflection of light on the liquid surface, which is usually achieved by adding white pigments. It is shown that the use of most paint pigments causes a large enhancement of the damping of the waves. Indeed, these paints contain surfactants which are easily adsorbed at the air-water interface. The resulting surface film changes the attenuation properties because of the resonance-type damping between capillary-gravity waves and Marangoni waves. We study the physicochemical properties of coloring pigments, showing that particles of the anatase (TiO2) pigment make the water surface light diffusive while avoiding any surface film effects. The use of the chosen particles allows to perform space-time resolved FTP measurements on capillary-gravity waves, in a liquid with the damping properties of pure water.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanyga, Andrzej
2014-09-01
Dispersion, attenuation and wavefronts in a class of linear viscoelastic media proposed by Strick and Mainardi (Geophys J R Astr Soc 69:415-429, 1982) and a related class of models due to Lomnitz, Jeffreys and Strick are studied by a new method due to the author. Unlike the previously studied explicit models of relaxation modulus or creep compliance, these two classes support propagation of discontinuities. Due to an extension made by Strick, either of these two classes of models comprise both viscoelastic solids and fluids. We also discuss the Andrade viscoelastic media. The Andrade media do not support discontinuity waves and exhibit the pedestal effect.
Le, Ut V.
2010-10-15
This paper deals with regularity and stability of solutions to an initial-boundary value problem of a semilinear wave equation. This equation admits space-time dependent coefficients and a memory boundarylike antiperiodic condition. For regularity or existence of a unique strong solution, the Faedo-Galerkin method and the energy method, associated with the maximal solution of a nonlinear Volterra integral equation, are applied. Then, as an application of the regularity result, stability of this unique strong solution is obtained by the energy method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramos, Jairzinho
2006-05-01
The quantum theory of angular momentum affords a treatment of tensors and vectors in a spherical basis. By using this theory we define the tensor differential operators: divergence, curl and gradient which act on a tensor of any rank, in terms of C-G coefficients. With these definitions we obtain a matrix representation and useful properties for those operators. An interesting application of this formalism is to find the wave equation of a tensor of any rank in a linear theory. This provides a new common way to look at the wave equations associated with both Maxwell's equations and the Maxwell-like equations for the linearized Weyl curvature tensor in gravitoelectromagnetism describing gravitational radiation on a Minkowski spacetime background.
Shallow S wave attenuation and actively degassing magma beneath Taal Volcano, Philippines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumagai, Hiroyuki; Lacson, Rudy; Maeda, Yuta; Figueroa, Melquiades S.; Yamashina, Tadashi
2014-10-01
Taal Volcano, Philippines, is one of the world's most dangerous volcanoes given its history of explosive eruptions and its close proximity to populated areas. A real-time broadband seismic network was recently deployed and has detected volcano-tectonic events beneath Taal. Our source location analysis of these volcano-tectonic events, using onset arrival times and high-frequency seismic amplitudes, points to the existence of a region of strong attenuation near the ground surface beneath the east flank of Volcano Island in Taal Lake. This region is beneath the active fumarolic area and above sources of pressure contributing inflation and deflation, and it coincides with a region of high electrical conductivity. The high-attenuation region matches that inferred from an active-seismic survey conducted at Taal in 1993. These features strongly suggest that the high-attenuation region represents an actively degassing magma body near the surface that has existed for more than 20 years.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sugiyama, T.; Terasawa, T.; Kawano, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Kokubun, S.; Frank, L. A.; Ackerson, K.; Tsurutani, B. T.
1995-01-01
We have made a statistical study of the spatial distribution of low frequency waves (approx. 0.01-0.1 Hz) in the region upstream of the pre-dawn to dawn side bow shock (-50 Re less than X less than 15 Re) using both GEOTAIL and international sun earth explorer 3 (ISEE-3) magnetometer data. We have found that the wave amplitude dependence on D and X(sub s), where D is the distance from the bow shock and X(sub s) the x-coordinate position of shock foot point of the IMF, can be described by a functional form of A exp (X(sub s)/L(sub X)-D/L(sub D), with the characteristic attenuation distances, L(sub X) = 62 +/- 12 Re and L(sub D) = 59 +/- 38 Re.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milani, Marco; Germn Rubino, J.; Mller, Tobias M.; Quintal, Beatriz; Holliger, Klaus
2014-05-01
Fractures are present in most geological formations and they tend to dominate not only their mechanical but also, and in particular, their hydraulic properties. For these reasons, the detection and characterization of fractures are of great interest in several fields of Earth sciences. Seismic attenuation has been recognized as a key attribute for this purpose, as both laboratory and field experiments indicate that the presence of fractures typically produces significant energy dissipation and that this attribute tends to increase with increasing fracture density. This energy loss is generally considered to be primarily due to wave-induced pressure diffusion between the fractures and the embedding porous matrix. That is, due to the strong compressibility contrast between these two domains, the propagation of seismic waves can generate a strong fluid pressure gradient and associated pressure diffusion, which leads to fluid flow and in turn results in frictional energy dissipation. Numerical simulations based on Biot's poroelastic wave equations are computationally very expensive. Alternative approaches consist in performing numerical relaxation or creep tests on representative elementary volumes (REV) of the considered medium. These tests are typically based on Biot's consolidation equations. Assuming that the heterogeneous poroelastic medium can be replaced by an effective, homogeneous viscoelastic solid, these numerical creep and relaxation tests allow for computing the equivalent seismic P-wave attenuation and phase velocity. From a practical point of view, an REV is typically characterized by the smallest volume for which rock physical properties are statistically stationary and representative of the probed medium in its entirety. A more general definition in the context of wavefield attributes is to consider an REV as the smallest volume over which the P-wave attenuation and phase velocity dispersion are independent of the applied boundary conditions. That is, the corresponding results obtained from creep and relaxation tests must be equivalent. For most analyses of media characterized by patchy saturation or double-porosity-type structures these two definitions are equivalent. It is, however, not clear whether this equivalence remains true in the presence of strong material contrasts as those prevailing in fractured rocks. In this work, we explore this question for periodically fractured media. To this end, we build a medium composed of infinite replicas of a unit volume containing one fracture. This unit volume coincides with the smallest possible volume that is statistically representative of the whole. Then, we perform several creep and relaxation tests on samples composed of an increasing number of these unit volumes. We find that the wave field signatures determined from relaxation tests are independent from the number of unit volumes. Conversely, the P-wave attenuation and phase velocity characteristics inferred from creep tests are different and vary with the number of unit volumes considered. Quite interestingly, the creep test results converge with those of the relaxation tests as the number of unit volumes increases. These findings are expected to have direct implications for corresponding laboratory measurements as well as for our understanding of seismic wave propagation in fractured media.
Ashoor, Mansour; Asgari, Afrouz; Khorshidi, Abdollah; Rezaei, Ali
2015-01-01
Purpose: Estimation of Compton attenuation and the photoelectric absorption coefficients were explored at various depths. Methods: A new method was proposed for estimating the depth based on the convolution of two exponential functions, namely convolution of scattering and primary functions (CSPF), which the convolved result will conform to the photopeak region of energy spectrum with the variable energy-window widths (EWWs) and a theory on the scattering cross-section. The triple energy-windows (TEW) and extended triple energy-windows scatter correction (ETEW) methods were used to estimate the scattered and primary photons according to the energy spectra at various depths due to a better performance than the other methods in nuclear medicine. For this purpose, the energy spectra were employed, and a distinct phantom along with a technetium-99 m source was simulated by Monte Carlo method. Results: The simulated results indicate that the EWW, used to calculate the scattered and primary counts in terms of the integral operators on the functions, was proportional to the depth as an exponential function. The depth will be calculated by the combination of either TEW or ETEW and proposed method resulting in the distinct energy-window. The EWWs for primary photons were in good agreement with those of scattered photons at the same as depths. The average errors between these windows for both methods TEW, and ETEW were 7.25% and 6.03% at different depths, respectively. The EWW value for functions of scattered and primary photons was reduced by increasing the depth in the CSPF method. Conclusions: This coefficient may be an index for the scattering cross-section. PMID:26170567
Yue, Ning J.
2008-06-15
As different types of radionuclides (e.g., {sup 131}Cs source) are introduced for clinical use in brachytherapy, the question is raised regarding whether a relatively simple method exists for the derivation of values of the half value layer (HVL) or the tenth value layer (TVL). For the radionuclide that has been clinically used for years, such as {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd, the sources have been manufactured and marketed by several vendors with different designs and structures. Because of the nature of emission of low energy photons for these radionuclides, energy spectra of the sources are very dependent on their individual designs. Though values of the HVL or the TVL in certain commonly used shielding materials are relatively small for these low energy photon emitting sources, the question remains how the variations in energy spectra affect the HVL (or TVL) values and whether these values can be calculated with a relatively simple method. A more fundamental question is whether a method can be established to derive the HVL (TVL) values for any brachytherapy sources and for different materials in a relatively straightforward fashion. This study was undertaken to answer these questions. Based on energy spectra, a well established semiempirical mass attenuation coefficient computing scheme was utilized to derive the HVL (TVL) values of different materials for different types of brachytherapy sources. The method presented in this study may be useful to estimate HVL (TVL) values of different materials for brachytherapy sources of different designs and containing different radionuclides.
Overton, T R; Snyder, R E; Hangartner, T N; Girgis, S; Audette, R J; Secord, D C
1992-04-01
Changes in the average linear attenuation coefficient (LAC) within a fixed measurement volume in the proximal end of the dog tibia, which contains trabecular bone and associated soft tissues (the trabecular bone "space"), were monitored continuously using gamma-ray computed tomography (gamma-CT) prior to, during, and following intravenous infusion of strontium (Sr) lactate. An infusion of 1.3-4.7 g of Sr over a period of 110-160 minutes into 20-kg dogs resulted, within 6-8 hours, in an increase of 0.019-0.045 cm-1 (P less than 0.002) in the LAC. Calibration of the gamma-CT system showed that 0.44 mg/cm3 of Sr produced a change of 0.01 cm-1 in the LAC. Using this conversion factor, the Sr concentration in the trabecular bone space resulting from infusion, as measured by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy, agreed with that predicted by the change observed in the LAC. Sr present in the serum and urine was consistent with the changes observed in the LAC over the study period. Control dogs infused with mineral-free solutions showed no change in LAC. Calcium equivalents required to give the changes observed in the LAC using Sr indicate that variations in skeletal turnover in man can be monitored in the peripheral skeleton using gamma-CT. PMID:1571847
Ellwood, R; Stratoudaki, T; Sharples, S D; Clark, M; Somekh, M G
2015-11-01
Much interest has arisen in nonlinear acoustic techniques because of their reported sensitivity to variations in residual stress, fatigue life, and creep damage when compared to traditional linear ultrasonic techniques. However, there is also evidence that the nonlinear acoustic properties are also sensitive to material microstructure. As many industrially relevant materials have a polycrystalline structure, this could potentially complicate the monitoring of material processes when using nonlinear acoustics. Variations in the nonlinear acoustoelastic coefficient on the same length scale as the microstructure of a polycrystalline sample of aluminum are investigated in this paper. This is achieved by the development of a measurement protocol that allows imaging of the acoustoelastic response of a material across a samples surface at the same time as imaging the microstructure. The development, validation, and limitations of this technique are discussed. The nonlinear acoustic response is found to vary spatially by a large factor (>20) between different grains. A relationship is observed when the spatial variation of the acoustoelastic coefficient is compared to the variation in material microstructure. PMID:26627757
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Draganov, Deyan; Ruigrok, Elmer; Ghose, Ranajit; Mikesell, Dylan; van Wijk, Kasper
2015-01-01
Seismic interferometry can retrieve the Green's function between receivers from the cross-correlation and summation of recordings from a boundary of surrounding sources. Having the sources only along a boundary is sufficient if the medium is lossless. If the medium is dissipative, the retrieved result using cross-correlation contains non-physical (ghost) arrivals. When using receivers at the surface and transient sources in the subsurface for the retrieval of the reflection response in a dissipative medium, it has been shown that the retrieved ghost reflections are characteristic of the quality factor of the subsurface. The ghost reflections are caused by internal reflections inside subsurface layers. It has been shown with numerical examples for recordings in a borehole from a surface source that a ghost reflection can be discriminated from physical reflections and tied to a specific subsurface layer. After connecting the ghost reflection to a specific layer, the quality factor of the medium above this layer and the reflection coefficient at the layer interface can be estimated. In this article, we show how the above principles can be adapted and applied for surface waves. Due to intrinsic losses in the medium, surface-wave ghost reflections are retrieved from internal scattering between subvertical boundaries. We demonstrate the method on an ultrasonic dataset recorded on a sample composed of a PVC block and an aluminum block. The aluminum block has a groove parallel to the PVC/aluminum interface. Using a surface-wave ghost reflection between the groove and the PVC/aluminum interface, we estimate the quality factor of the PVC and the reflection coefficient at the PVC/aluminum interface. We also show that the ghost reflection can be identified and tied to the layer between the groove and the PVC/aluminum interface, thus confirming previous numerical findings.
Le, Ut V.
2011-02-15
This paper studies a low-frequency asymptotic expansion for a unique strong solution to an initial-boundary value problem of a semilinear wave equation. This equation admits space-time dependent coefficients and a memory boundarylike antiperiodic condition. For some small parameters from coefficients of this semilinear wave equation and of boundary conditions, we approximate a unique strong solution to this problem by a polynomial of these parameters, and coefficients of this polynomial are strong solutions of a sequence of well-defined linear initial-boundary value problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Lian-Feng; Xie, Xiao-Bi; Tian, Bao-Feng; Chen, Qi-Fu; Hao, Tian-Yao; Yao, Zhen-Xing
2015-11-01
We investigate the geometric spreading and attenuation of seismic Pn waves in Northeast China and the Korean Peninsula. A high-quality broadband Pn wave data set generated by North Korean nuclear tests is used to constrain the parameters of a frequency-dependent log-quadratic geometric spreading function and a power law Pn Q model. The geometric spreading function and apparent Pn wave Q are obtained for Northeast China and the Korean Peninsula between 2.0 and 10.0 Hz. Using the two-station amplitude ratios of the Pn spectra and correcting them with the known spreading function, we remove the contributions of the source and crust from the apparent Pn Q and retrieve the P wave attenuation information along the pure upper mantle path. We then use both Pn amplitudes and amplitude ratios in a tomographic approach to obtain the upper mantle P wave attenuation in the studied area. The Pn wave spectra observed in China are compared with those recorded in Japan, and the result reveals that the high-frequency Pn signal across the oceanic path attenuated faster compared with those through the continental path.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monien, H.; Tewordt, L.; Scharnberg, K.
1987-09-01
For a polar and a planar state we obtain a peak in the attenuation of longitudinal ultrasound below Tc which is caused by fluctuations of the amplitude of the order parameter. In the planar state the "real" clapping modes give rise to additional peaks. The height and position of the peaks are roughly proportional to the sound frequency ? 0/2?. The shape depends on the normal state scattering rate ? (we consider the hydrodynamic limit ? 0/??1). The attenuation is proportional to ? 2 where the particle-hole asymmetry parameter ?=( Tc2 T0) ln (2? cT c (here > KBT0= band- width, kB?c= BCS cutoff energy). An interpretation of the observed peaks in the heavy fermion superconductors UBe 13 and UPt 3 seems indeed feasible.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Priestley, Keith; McKenzie, Dan
2013-11-01
Surface wave tomography, using the fundamental Rayleigh wave velocities and those of higher modes between 1 and 4 and periods between 50 and 160 s, is used to image structures with a horizontal resolution of ˜250 km and a vertical resolution of ˜50 km to depths of ˜300 km in the mantle. A new model, PM_v2_2012, obtained from 3×106 seismograms, agrees well with earlier lower resolution models. It is combined with temperature estimates from oceanic plate models and with pressure and temperature estimates from the mineral compositions of garnet peridotite nodules to generate a number of estimates of SV(P,T) based on geophysical and petrological observations alone. These are then used to estimate the unrelaxed shear modulus and its derivatives with respect to pressure and temperature, which agree reasonably with values from laboratory experiments. At high temperatures relaxation occurs, causing the shear wave velocity to depend on frequency. This behaviour is parameterised using a viscosity to obtain a Maxwell relaxation time. The relaxation behaviour is described using a dimensionless frequency, which depends on an activation energy E and volume Va. The values of E and Va obtained from the geophysical models agree with those from laboratory experiments on high temperature creep. The resulting expressions are then used to determine the lithospheric thickness from the shear wave velocity variations. The resolution is improved by about a factor of two with respect to earlier models, and clearly resolves the thick lithosphere beneath active intracontinental belts that are now being shortened. The same expressions allow the three dimensional variations of the shear wave attenuation and viscosity to be estimated.
Wang, Wenbo; He, Xingli; Ye, Zhi E-mail: jl2@bolton.ac.uk; Wang, Xiaozhi; Mayrhofer, Patrick M.; Gillinger, Manuel; Bittner, Achim; Schmid, Ulrich
2014-09-29
AlN and AlScN thin films with 27% scandium (Sc) were synthesized by DC magnetron sputtering deposition and used to fabricate surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices. Compared with AlN-based devices, the AlScN SAW devices exhibit much better transmission properties. Scandium doping results in electromechanical coupling coefficient, K{sup 2}, in the range of 2.0%???2.2% for a wide normalized thickness range, more than a 300% increase compared to that of AlN-based SAW devices, thus demonstrating the potential applications of AlScN in high frequency resonators, sensors, and high efficiency energy harvesting devices. The coupling coefficients of the present AlScN based SAW devices are much higher than that of the theoretical calculation based on some assumptions for AlScN piezoelectric material properties, implying there is a need for in-depth investigations on the material properties of AlScN.
Microscopic Observation of Mechanism for Shear Wave Attenuation in Nylon-66
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ting
2005-07-01
Gupta[1] found rapid shear attenuation near the impact surface for PMMA target. However, the physical mechanism remains unknown. In this article, nylon-66 was chosen for experimental investigation by using a keyed gas gun and EMV method, since nylon-66 has the spherical grain structure, which can be observed under a polarized microscope. The similar rapid shear attenuation occurs in the present study when the impact velocity and inclination angle reach a critical value. The polarized micro-observation of recovered samples shows that near the impact surface there is a melting layer of thickness about 6-8μm, which causes the decay of the shear component propagating into the sample. The interesting thing is that there is a discontinuous crystalline layer about 2-3μm thick above the melting layer, which indicates the melting may not directly caused by the friction on the impact surface and the heat produces inside of the sample and near the surface. Further observation discloses an adiabatic shear band near the surface to cause the material failure. [1]Gupta Y M, J. Appl. Phys. 51(1980), 5352.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacobson, Mark D.; Snider, J. B.; Westwater, E. R.
1993-01-01
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Wave Propagation Laboratory (WPL) presently operates five dual-channel microwave radiometers, one triple-channel microwave radiometer, and one six-channel microwave radiometer. The dual-channel radiometers operate at frequencies of 20.6 or 23.87 GHz and 31.4 or 31.65 GHz. The triple-channel radiometer operates at 20.6, 31.65, and 90.0 GHz. The six-channel radiometer operates at frequencies of 20.6, 31.65, 52.85, 53.85, 55.45, and 58.8 GHz. Recent brightness temperature measurements and attenuation values from some of the above radiometers are presented. These radiometric measurements, taken in different locations throughout the world, have given WPL a diverse set of measurements under a variety of atmospheric conditions. We propose to do a more complete attenuation analysis on these measurements in the future. In addition, a new spinning reflector was installed recently for the dual-channel radiometer at the Platteville, Colorado site. This reflector will extend our measurement capabilities during precipating conditions. Locating the three-channel and portable dual-channel radiometers at or near Greeley, Colorado to support the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) program is discussed.
Mohammed, Arshed Abdulhamed; Haris, Sallehuddin Mohamed; Nuawi, Mohd Zaki
2015-01-01
Refractory metals have attracted increasing interest in recent years because of their use in many high-temperature applications. However, the characteristics of these metals calculated using loaded tests (such as tensile strength tests) differ considerably from those calculated using one of the most famous methods in NDT which is called time of flying of the wave (TOF).The present study presents two solutions based on calculating the pressure transmission coefficient (PTC) of the transmitted wave between the test sample and magnesium metal. The first is based on the development of a highly accurate algorithm that lowers the cost by determining the acoustic impedance of the test specimen to calculating mechanical properties. Up to 26 theoretical tests were done (10 of these tests for refractory materials) according to their known mechanical properties to verify the accuracy of the algorithm. The convergence in results ranged from 92% to 99%. The second solution was designed to solve the same problem for specimens with a thickness of less than 1mm. Eight experimental tests were done (five using refractory materials) to verify the accuracy of the second solution, with the convergence in the results ranging from 94% to 97%. The relationships of the Vrms measured from the oscilloscope with the PTC and with the Fourier transform spectrum were derived. The results of this research were closer to the standard mechanical properties for refractory metals compared with several recent acoustic tests. PMID:25096851
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asano, Kimiyuki; Sekiguchi, Haruko; Iwata, Tomotaka; Yoshimi, Masayuki; Hayashida, Takumi; Saomoto, Hidetaka; Horikawa, Haruo
2016-03-01
On 2013 April 13, an inland earthquake of Mw 5.8 occurred in Awaji Island, which forms the western boundary of the Osaka sedimentary basin in western Japan. The strong ground motion data were collected from more than 100 stations within the basin and it was found that in the Osaka Plain, the pseudo velocity response spectra at a period of around 6.5 s were significantly larger than at other stations of similar epicentral distance outside the basin. The ground motion lasted longer than 3 min in the Osaka Plain where its bedrock depth spatially varies from approximately 1 to 2 km. We modelled long-period (higher than 2 s) ground motions excited by this earthquake, using the finite difference method assuming a point source, to validate the present velocity structure model and to obtain better constraint of the attenuation factor of the sedimentary part of the basin. The effect of attenuation in the simulation was included in the form of Q(f) = Q0(f/f0), where Q0 at a reference frequency f0 was given by a function of the S-wave velocity, Q0 = αVS. We searched for appropriate Q0 values by changing α for a fixed value of f0 = 0.2 Hz. It was found that values of α from 0.2 to 0.5 fitted the observations reasonably well, but that the value of α = 0.3 performed best. Good agreement between the observed and simulated velocity waveforms was obtained for most stations within the Osaka Basin in terms of both amplitude and ground motion duration. However, underestimation of the pseudo velocity response spectra in the period range of 5-7 s was recognized in the central part of the Osaka Plain, which was caused by the inadequate modelling of later phases or wave packets in this period range observed approximately 2 min after the direct S-wave arrival. We analysed this observed later phase and concluded that it was a Love wave originating from the direction of the east coast of Awaji Island.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mao, Xia; Liu, Yun-Long; Chen, Li-Jiang; Xue, Yu-Li
2013-04-01
At millimeter wavelengths, normalized fog attenuation (NFA) in units of (dB/km)/ (g/m3) is generally calculated by the Rayleigh approximation when working wavelengths are much larger than the average diameter of fog droplets. The calculations of the Rayleigh approximation are much less than those of Mie scattering theory, but still complex and heavy. To solve the above problem and facilitate the engineering applications of the Rayleigh approximation, a new empirical formula is discussed to estimate NFA in the frequency range 30 ~ 100 GHz and the fog common temperature range -8 ~ 20 °C. The simulation results of the new formula are compared with those got by other three empirical formulae: the Altshuler empirical formula, the Liebe empirical formula and the Zhao empirical formula. Maximal absolute value of the relative errors (MAVRE) and Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) indicate the largest deviation of estimated results and the fitting performance of an empirical formula, respectively. Comparisons show that the MAVRE of the new formula is only 4.482 %, which is much smaller than those of the other three formulae. The mean value of the Pearson correlation coefficients (PCCs) of the proposed formula is 0.999943, larger than those of other methods. Additionally, relative error (RE) curves of the four empirical formulae are given at four certain temperatures -8 °C, 0 °C, 10 °C and 20 °C.
Villalobos-Escobar, Gina P; Castro, Ral R
2014-01-01
We used a new data set of relocated earthquakes recorded by the Seismic Network of Northeastern Sonora, Mexico (RESNES) to characterize the attenuation of S-waves in the fault zone of the 1887 Sonora earthquake (M w 7.5). We determined spectral attenuation functions for hypocentral distances (r) between 10 and 140km using a nonparametric approach and found that in this fault zone the spectral amplitudes decay slower with distance at low frequencies (f?attenuation functions obtained for 23 frequencies (0.4???f???63.1Hz) permit us estimating the average quality factor Q S ?=?(141 1.1)f ((0.74 0.04)) and a geometrical spreading term G(r)=?1/r (0.21). The values of Q estimated for S-wave paths traveling along the fault system that rupture during the 1887 event, in the north-south direction, are considerably lower than the average Q estimated using source-station paths from multiple stations and directions. These results indicate that near the fault zone S waves attenuate considerably more than at regional scale, particularly at low frequencies. This may be the result of strong scattering near the faults due to the fractured upper crust and higher intrinsic attenuation due to stress concentration near the faults. PMID:25674476
On the sound attenuation in fluid due to the thermal diffusion and viscous dissipation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Hanping; Wang, Yandong; Wang, Dongdong
2015-09-01
We review the sound attenuation in fluid due to the thermal diffusion and viscous dissipation and derive the formula of the sound attenuation coefficient in fluid by solving a fully thermally-mechanically coupled equation set. Problem occurring in Stokes-Kirchhoff relation, the well-known and widely used classical formula for sound attenuation coefficient, is therefore found and pointed out. The reason for its generation is analyzed and verified. An improved formula to replace Stokes-Kirchhoff relation is suggested and the typical case for the error in calculating sound pressure level (SPL) of attenuated sound wave in fluid between the two formulas is also given.
Mohd Yusof, Mohd Fahmi Hamid, Puteri Nor Khatijah Abdul; Tajuddin, Abdul Aziz; Bauk, Sabar; Hashim, Rokiah
2015-04-29
The Rhizophora spp. particleboards were fabricated using ≤ 104 µm particle size at three different fabrication methods; binderless, steam pre-treated and tannin-added. The mass attenuation coefficient of Rhizophora spp. particleboards were measured using x-ray fluorescent (XRF) photon from niobium, molybdenum, palladium, silver and tin metal plates that provided photon energy between 16.59 to 25.26 keV. The results were compared to theoretical values for water calculated using photon cross-section database (XCOM).The results showed that all Rhizophora spp. particleboards having mass attenuation coefficient close to calculated XCOM for water. Tannin-added Rizophora spp. particleboard was nearest to calculated XCOM for water with χ2 value of 13.008 followed by binderless Rizophora spp. (25.859) and pre-treated Rizophora spp. (91.941)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Peng-Cheng; Pan, Guang
2015-06-01
Due to the high speed of underwater vehicles, cavitation is generated inevitably along with the sound attenuation when the sound signal traverses through the cavity region around the underwater vehicle. The linear wave propagation is studied to obtain the influence of bubbly liquid on the acoustic wave propagation in the cavity region. The sound attenuation coefficient and the sound speed formula of the bubbly liquid are presented. Based on the sound attenuation coefficients with various vapor volume fractions, the attenuation of sound intensity is calculated under large cavitation number conditions. The result shows that the sound intensity attenuation is fairly small in a certain condition. Consequently, the intensity attenuation can be neglected in engineering. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51279165 and 51479170) and the National Defense Basic Scientific Research Program of China (Grant No. B2720133014).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lan, Zhong-Zhou; Gao, Yi-Tian; Yang, Jin-Wei; Su, Chuan-Qi; Zuo, Da-Wei
2016-01-01
Under investigation in this article is a (2+1)-dimensional generalised variable-coefficient shallow water wave equation, which describes the interaction of the Riemann wave propagating along the y axis with a long-wave propagating along the x axis in a fluid, where x and y are the scaled space coordinates. Bilinear forms, Bäcklund transformation, Lax pair, and infinitely many conservation law are derived based on the binary Bell polynomials. Multi-soliton solutions are constructed via the Hirota method. Propagation and interaction of the solitons are illustrated graphically: (i) variable coefficients affect the shape of the multi-soliton interaction in the scaled space and time coordinates. (ii) Positions of the solitons depend on the sign of wave numbers after each interaction. (iii) Interaction of the solitons is elastic, i.e. the amplitude, velocity, and shape of each soliton remain invariant after each interaction except for a phase shift.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lan, Zhong-Zhou; Gao, Yi-Tian; Yang, Jin-Wei; Su, Chuan-Qi; Zuo, Da-Wei
2016-01-01
Under investigation in this article is a (2+1)-dimensional generalised variable-coefficient shallow water wave equation, which describes the interaction of the Riemann wave propagating along the y axis with a long-wave propagating along the x axis in a fluid, where x and y are the scaled space coordinates. Bilinear forms, Bcklund transformation, Lax pair, and infinitely many conservation law are derived based on the binary Bell polynomials. Multi-soliton solutions are constructed via the Hirota method. Propagation and interaction of the solitons are illustrated graphically: (i) variable coefficients affect the shape of the multi-soliton interaction in the scaled space and time coordinates. (ii) Positions of the solitons depend on the sign of wave numbers after each interaction. (iii) Interaction of the solitons is elastic, i.e. the amplitude, velocity, and shape of each soliton remain invariant after each interaction except for a phase shift.
Haghparast, Abbas; Hashemi, Bijan; Eivazi, Mohammad Taghi
2013-04-01
Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can be performed by using compensators. To make a compensator for an IMRT practice, it is required to calculate the effective attenuation coefficient (μ{sub eff}) of its material, which is affected by various factors. We studied the effect of the variation of the most important factors on the calculation of the μ{sub eff} of the cerrobend compensator for 6-MV photon beams, including the field size, compensator thickness, and off-axis distance. Experimental measurements were carried out at 100 cm source-to-surface distance and 10 cm depth for the 6-MV photon beams of an Elekta linac using various field size, compensator thickness, and off-axis settings. The field sizes investigated ranged from 4 × 4 to 25 × 25 cm{sup 2} and the cerrobend compensator thicknesses from 0.5–6 cm. For a fixed compensator thickness, variation of the μ{sub eff} with the field size ranged from 3.7–6.8%, with the highest value attributed to the largest compensator thickness. At the reference field size of 10 × 10 cm{sup 2}, the μ{sub eff} varied by 16.5% when the compensator thickness was increased from 0.5–6 cm. However, the variation of the μ{sub eff} with the off-axis distance was only 0.99% at this field size, whereas for the largest field size, it was more significant. Our results indicated that the compensator thickness and field size have the most significant effect on the calculation of the compensator μ{sub eff} for the 6-MV photon beam. Therefore, it is recommended to consider these parameters when calculating the compensator thickness for an IMRT practice designed for these beams. The off-axis distance had a significant effect on the calculation of the μ{sub eff} only for the largest field size. Hence, it is recommended to consider the effect of this parameter only for field sizes larger than 25 × 25 cm{sup 2}.
de Jonge, M. D.; Tran, C. Q.; Chantler, C. T.; Barnea, Z.; Dhal, B. P.; Paterson, D.; Kanter, E. P.; Southworth, S. H.; Young, L.; Beno, M. A.; Linton, J. A.; Jennings, G.; Univ. of Melbourne; Australian Synchrotron Project
2007-01-01
We use the x-ray extended-range technique (XERT) [C. T. Chantler et al., Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001)] to measure the mass attenuation coefficients of tin in the x-ray energy range of 29-60 keV to 0.04-3 % accuracy, and typically in the range 0.1-0.2 %. Measurements made over an extended range of the measurement parameter space are critically examined to identify, quantify, and correct a number of potential experimental systematic errors. These results represent the most extensive experimental data set for tin and include absolute mass attenuation coefficients in the regions of x-ray absorption fine structure, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, and x-ray absorption near-edge structure. The imaginary component of the atomic form factor f{sub 2} is derived from the photoelectric absorption after subtracting calculated Rayleigh and Compton scattering cross sections from the total attenuation. Comparison of the result with tabulations of calculated photoelectric absorption coefficients indicates that differences of 1-2 % persist between calculated and observed values.
Sound attenuation in amorphous silica at frequencies near the boson peak
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Zhi; Keblinski, Pawel
2016-02-01
We use molecular dynamics phonon wave packet (WP) simulations to study acoustic propagation and attenuation in amorphous silica (a -Si O2 ) at frequencies near the boson peak (BP) position and compare them with the results of equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) simulations. The sound attenuation coefficients obtained from WP simulations are generally consistent with those from EMD predictions and have reasonable agreement with the existing experimental data. Near the BP position, we found the frequency-dependent sound attenuation coefficients for longitudinal and transverse modes both follow the Rayleigh-scattering fourth power law. Above the BP frequency, however, the propagating phonon is essentially attenuated in a -Si O2 within a few nanometers, and the accurate determination of the sound attenuation coefficients by the WP simulation becomes challenging. The modeling results provide a reference for future experimental investigations of sound attenuation in a -Si O2 thin film using narrow-band coherent phonons.
Influence of bubble size and thermal dissipation on compressive wave attenuation in liquid foams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monloubou, M.; Saint-Jalmes, A.; Dollet, B.; Cantat, I.
2015-11-01
Acoustic or blast wave absorption by liquid foams is especially efficient and bubble size or liquid fraction optimization is an important challenge in this context. A resonant behavior of foams has recently been observed, but the main local dissipative process is still unknown. In this paper, we evidence the thermal origin of the dissipation, with an optimal bubble size close to the thermal boundary layer thickness. Using a shock tube, we produce typical pressure variation at time scales of the order of the millisecond, which propagates in the foam in linear and slightly nonlinear regimes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wynne, T. T.; Pirhalla, D. E.; Ransi, V.; Christensen, J. D.
2006-05-01
Turbidity and light attenuation, indicators of suspended and dissolved materials in the euphotic zone, are key water clarity parameters measured in the Chesapeake Bay Program's Water Quality Monitoring Network. Chesapeake Bay resources affected by reduced clarity often include critical seagrass habitats where much of the sediment and organic inputs to the Bay are resuspended and deposited. These critical habitats are used by a variety of organisms as nursery, spawning and feeding grounds. Relatively little information is known about the spatio-temporal variability of these areas in the Bay, mainly because the required field effort to synoptically characterize variability would be costly. In December 2005, a new SeaWiFS algorithm to estimate light attenuation was made available in the standardized NASA processing software (SeaDAS). This enabled generation of a diffuse attenuation coefficient as one of the SeaWiFS derived products. Although ocean color data from SeaWiFS is freely accessible and applicable to this line of research, light attenuation derived from this product can only be derived from blue wavelengths, where a naturally occurring abundance of dissolved organic materials would likely reduce our confidence in the estimate. Unlike previous algorithms, light attenuation can be estimated at any wavelength, including 670 nm, a wavelength that would be least affected by the presence of dissolved organic materials. We constructed a 9 year time series of SeaWiFS- derived light attenuation to characterize turbidity features, and to describe seasonal and spatial variability in the Bay. A first step in this process is the work presented here; namely, a validation of the derived light attenuation against optical field data in Chesapeake Bay.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boatwright, J.; Seekins, L. C.
2009-12-01
We analyze the S+Lg+surface wave groups radiated out to 600 km by four moderate (4 ≤ M ≤ 5) earthquakes in Quebec, New York, and Maine: the 1997 Cap Rouge, 2002 Ausable Forks, 2005 Rivière du Loup, and 2006 Bar Harbor earthquakes. The raypaths predominately sample the Appalacian Province, and the crustal velocity structure is roughly homogeneous across the study area. We compute spectra using 20-60 s windows of the horizontal broadband components. We restrict our analysis to hard-rock (Vs > 1500 m/s) and soft-rock (Vs > 700 m/s) sites, avoiding resonant sedimentary sites; we model site amplification using average 1D impedance functions (Boore and Joyner, 1997). We use ro = 50 km instead of ro = 100 km for the crossover distance in the Street et al. (1975) function for geometrical spreading: this distance adjusts the corrected spectra at 10 s to the moment tensor estimates. This simple correction scheme allows us to regress for Q directly as a function of frequency: the source spectral shape is entirely unconstrained. Fitting a Qo f q function to the Q estimates from 0.2 to 25 Hz yields Q = 410 f 0.5 for a group velocity of 3.5 km/s. This attenuation is stronger than the Lg attenuation of 650 f 0.36 obtained by Erickson et al. (2004). The Q estimates are consistent for individual events. For f > 20 Hz, the Q estimates increase more rapidly than f 0.5: this deviation from the Qo f q form appears characteristic. To gauge how these Q estimates depend on the distance limit, we will rerun the analysis using broadband data out to 1000 km, adding 30% more recordings to the dataset.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kser, Martin; Dumbser, Michael; de la Puente, Josep; Igel, Heiner
2007-01-01
We present a new numerical method to solve the heterogeneous anelastic, seismic wave equations with arbitrary high order accuracy in space and time on 3-D unstructured tetrahedral meshes. Using the velocity-stress formulation provides a linear hyperbolic system of equations with source terms that is completed by additional equations for the anelastic functions including the strain history of the material. These additional equations result from the rheological model of the generalized Maxwell body and permit the incorporation of realistic attenuation properties of viscoelastic material accounting for the behaviour of elastic solids and viscous fluids. The proposed method combines the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element (FE) method with the ADER approach using Arbitrary high order DERivatives for flux calculations. The DG approach, in contrast to classical FE methods, uses a piecewise polynomial approximation of the numerical solution which allows for discontinuities at element interfaces. Therefore, the well-established theory of numerical fluxes across element interfaces obtained by the solution of Riemann problems can be applied as in the finite volume framework. The main idea of the ADER time integration approach is a Taylor expansion in time in which all time derivatives are replaced by space derivatives using the so-called Cauchy-Kovalewski procedure which makes extensive use of the governing PDE. Due to the ADER time integration technique the same approximation order in space and time is achieved automatically and the method is a one-step scheme advancing the solution for one time step without intermediate stages. To this end, we introduce a new unrolled recursive algorithm for efficiently computing the Cauchy-Kovalewski procedure by making use of the sparsity of the system matrices. The numerical convergence analysis demonstrates that the new schemes provide very high order accuracy even on unstructured tetrahedral meshes while computational cost and storage space for a desired accuracy can be reduced when applying higher degree approximation polynomials. In addition, we investigate the increase in computing time, when the number of relaxation mechanisms due to the generalized Maxwell body are increased. An application to a well-acknowledged test case and comparisons with analytic and reference solutions, obtained by different well-established numerical methods, confirm the performance of the proposed method. Therefore, the development of the highly accurate ADER-DG approach for tetrahedral meshes including viscoelastic material provides a novel, flexible and efficient numerical technique to approach 3-D wave propagation problems including realistic attenuation and complex geometry.
Pingenot, J; Rieben, R; White, D
2004-12-06
We present a computational study of signal propagation and attenuation of a 200 MHz dipole antenna in a cave environment. The cave is modeled as a straight and lossy random rough wall. To simulate a broad frequency band, the full wave Maxwell equations are solved directly in the time domain via a high order vector finite element discretization using the massively parallel CEM code EMSolve. The simulation is performed for a series of random meshes in order to generate statistical data for the propagation and attenuation properties of the cave environment. Results for the power spectral density and phase of the electric field vector components are presented and discussed.
Long-Term Change of Sound Wave Propagation Attenuation Due to the Effects of Ocean Acidification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gotoh, S.; Tsuchiya, T.; Hiyoshi, Y.
2014-12-01
In recent years, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing due to global warming. And, the ocean acidification advances because this melts into seawater, pH decrease in seawater are concerned. The sound wave to propagate seawater, pH is known to affect absorption loss (?) by chemical buffer effects of the seawater. However, conventionally, ? has not been investigated much in the calculation of pH. Therefore, when calculating the propagation distance in the sonar equation, pH =8~8.1 (Weak alkaline) are used empirically. Therefore we used an actual value of pH of 30 years from 1984 in the sea near the Japan, and investigated change over the years of absorption loss (?) at some frequency. As a result, we found that ? value decreases gradually in the past 30 years, as high-latitude decreases. Further, the future, assuming that ocean acidification is more advanced, and to simulate a change of the absorption loss and propagation loss in end of this century using the pH value reported from the "Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change" (IPCC). As a result, it was just suggested that ? decreased more in the end of this century and affected the submarine detection. In addition, in recent years, we examined the effects of noise that offshore wind power construction proceeds in each country emits gives to the underwater sound. As a result, in the end of this century, an underwater noise increases about 17%, and underwater sound environmental degradation of the sea is concerned.
Wang, Lei Li, Min; Qi, Feng-Hua; Xu, Tao
2015-03-15
Under investigation in this paper is a variable-coefficient derivative nonlinear Schrödinger (vc-DNLS) equation modeling the nonlinear Alfvén waves in the inhomogeneous plasmas. The modulation instability is examined for this inhomogeneous nonlinear model. The nonautonomous breather and rogue wave solutions of the vc-DNLS equation are obtained via the modified Darboux transformation. It is found that the velocity and amplitude of the breather can be controlled by the inhomogeneous magnetic field and nonuniform density. Such novel phenomena as breather amplification and nonlinear Talbot effect-like property are demonstrated with the proper choices of the inhomogeneous parameters. Furthermore, dynamics of the fundamental rogue wave, periodical rogue wave, and composite rogue wave are graphically discussed. The trajectories and amplitudes of the rogue waves can be manipulated by the inhomogeneous magnetic field and nonuniform density. In addition, the nonlinear tunneling of the rogue waves and breathers is studied. As an application, a sample model is treated with our results, and the graphical illustrations exhibit the compressing, expanding, and fluctuating phenomena of the Alfvén rogue waves.
Evans, Joshua D. Yu, Yaduo; Williamson, Jeffrey F.; Whiting, Bruce R.; O’Sullivan, Joseph A.; Politte, David G.; Klahr, Paul H.
2013-12-15
Purpose: Accurate patient-specific photon cross-section information is needed to support more accurate model-based dose calculation for low energy photon-emitting modalities in medicine such as brachytherapy and kilovoltage x-ray imaging procedures. A postprocessing dual-energy CT (pDECT) technique for noninvasivein vivo estimation of photon linear attenuation coefficients has been experimentally implemented on a commercial CT scanner and its accuracy assessed in idealized phantom geometries. Methods: Eight test materials of known composition and density were used to compare pDECT-estimated linear attenuation coefficients to NIST reference values over an energy range from 10 keV to 1 MeV. As statistical image reconstruction (SIR) has been shown to reconstruct images with less random and systematic error than conventional filtered backprojection (FBP), the pDECT technique was implemented with both an in-house polyenergetic SIR algorithm, alternating minimization (AM), as well as a conventional FBP reconstruction algorithm. Improvement from increased spectral separation was also investigated by filtering the high-energy beam with an additional 0.5 mm of tin. The law of propagated uncertainty was employed to assess the sensitivity of the pDECT process to errors in reconstructed images. Results: Mean pDECT-estimated linear attenuation coefficients for the eight test materials agreed within 1% of NIST reference values for energies from 1 MeV down to 30 keV, with mean errors rising to between 3% and 6% at 10 keV, indicating that the method is unbiased when measurement and calibration phantom geometries are matched. Reconstruction with FBP and AM algorithms conferred similar mean pDECT accuracy. However, single-voxel pDECT estimates reconstructed on a 1 × 1 × 3 mm{sup 3} grid are shown to be highly sensitive to reconstructed image uncertainty; in some cases pDECT attenuation coefficient estimates exhibited standard deviations on the order of 20% around the mean. Reconstruction with the statistical AM algorithm led to standard deviations roughly 40% to 60% less than FBP reconstruction. Additional tin filtration of the high energy beam exhibits similar pDECT estimation accuracy as the unfiltered beam, even when scanning with only 25% of the dose. Using the law of propagated uncertainty, low Z materials are found to be more sensitive to image reconstruction errors than high Z materials. Furthermore, it is estimated that reconstructed CT image uncertainty must be limited to less than 0.25% to achieve a target linear-attenuation coefficient estimation uncertainty of 3% at 28 keV. Conclusions: That pDECT supports mean linear attenuation coefficient measurement accuracies of 1% of reference values for energies greater than 30 keV is encouraging. However, the sensitivity of the pDECT measurements to noise and systematic errors in reconstructed CT images warrants further investigation in more complex phantom geometries. The investigated statistical reconstruction algorithm, AM, reduced random measurement uncertainty relative to FBP owing to improved noise performance. These early results also support efforts to increase DE spectral separation, which can further reduce the pDECT sensitivity to measurement uncertainty.
Evans, Joshua D. Yu, Yaduo; Williamson, Jeffrey F.; Whiting, Bruce R.; OSullivan, Joseph A.; Politte, David G.; Klahr, Paul H.
2013-12-15
Purpose: Accurate patient-specific photon cross-section information is needed to support more accurate model-based dose calculation for low energy photon-emitting modalities in medicine such as brachytherapy and kilovoltage x-ray imaging procedures. A postprocessing dual-energy CT (pDECT) technique for noninvasivein vivo estimation of photon linear attenuation coefficients has been experimentally implemented on a commercial CT scanner and its accuracy assessed in idealized phantom geometries. Methods: Eight test materials of known composition and density were used to compare pDECT-estimated linear attenuation coefficients to NIST reference values over an energy range from 10 keV to 1 MeV. As statistical image reconstruction (SIR) has been shown to reconstruct images with less random and systematic error than conventional filtered backprojection (FBP), the pDECT technique was implemented with both an in-house polyenergetic SIR algorithm, alternating minimization (AM), as well as a conventional FBP reconstruction algorithm. Improvement from increased spectral separation was also investigated by filtering the high-energy beam with an additional 0.5 mm of tin. The law of propagated uncertainty was employed to assess the sensitivity of the pDECT process to errors in reconstructed images. Results: Mean pDECT-estimated linear attenuation coefficients for the eight test materials agreed within 1% of NIST reference values for energies from 1 MeV down to 30 keV, with mean errors rising to between 3% and 6% at 10 keV, indicating that the method is unbiased when measurement and calibration phantom geometries are matched. Reconstruction with FBP and AM algorithms conferred similar mean pDECT accuracy. However, single-voxel pDECT estimates reconstructed on a 1 1 3 mm{sup 3} grid are shown to be highly sensitive to reconstructed image uncertainty; in some cases pDECT attenuation coefficient estimates exhibited standard deviations on the order of 20% around the mean. Reconstruction with the statistical AM algorithm led to standard deviations roughly 40% to 60% less than FBP reconstruction. Additional tin filtration of the high energy beam exhibits similar pDECT estimation accuracy as the unfiltered beam, even when scanning with only 25% of the dose. Using the law of propagated uncertainty, low Z materials are found to be more sensitive to image reconstruction errors than high Z materials. Furthermore, it is estimated that reconstructed CT image uncertainty must be limited to less than 0.25% to achieve a target linear-attenuation coefficient estimation uncertainty of 3% at 28 keV. Conclusions: That pDECT supports mean linear attenuation coefficient measurement accuracies of 1% of reference values for energies greater than 30 keV is encouraging. However, the sensitivity of the pDECT measurements to noise and systematic errors in reconstructed CT images warrants further investigation in more complex phantom geometries. The investigated statistical reconstruction algorithm, AM, reduced random measurement uncertainty relative to FBP owing to improved noise performance. These early results also support efforts to increase DE spectral separation, which can further reduce the pDECT sensitivity to measurement uncertainty.
Second coefficient of viscosity in air
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ash, Robert L.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Zheng, Zhonquan
1991-01-01
Acoustic attenuation measurements in air were analyzed in order to estimate the second coefficient of viscosity. Data over a temperature range of 11 C to 50 C and at relative humidities between 6 percent and 91 percent were used. This analysis showed that the second coefficient of viscosity varied between 1900 and 20,000 times larger than the dynamic or first coefficient of viscosity over the temperature and humidity range of the data. In addition, the data showed that the molecular relaxation effects, which are responsible for the magnitude of the second coefficient of viscosity, place severe limits on the use of time-independent, thermodynamic equations of state. Compressible flows containing large streamwise velocity gradients, like shock waves, which cause significant changes in particle properties to occur during time intervals shorter than hundredths of seconds, must be modeled using dynamic equations of state. The dynamic model approach is described briefly.
Aki, K.; Cormier, V.F.; Toksoz, M.N.
1985-01-01
During this reporting period, work was completed on testing alternative measures of body-wave magnitude. It was found that alternative measures of body waves magnitude often exhibit as much scatter as classical measures of magnitude, although coda magnitudes usually have slightly less scatter than spectral and classical magnitudes. In the cases investigated, these differences were usually not statistically significant. Another completed task was an investigation of the intrinsic attenuation of the Earth's mantle selected paths from the Sea of Okhotsk to Regional Seismic Test Network (RSTN) and Global Digital Seismic Network (GDSN) Stations in North America. It was concluded that the intrinsic attenuation in the mantle beneath eastern North America is both depth and frequency dependent and that spectral and time domain studies of attenuation can be reconciled in the frequency band up to 2 Hz. The focus of the project was then divided between source problems related to scattering and seismic wave propagation in three-dimensional, heterogeneous media. A significant result was that short period and broadband waveforms can improve the depth-resolution-determined earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions, forming a powerful discriminant. Scattering was studied theoretically and observationally. The significant result of that work is that the Earth's lithosphere must possess multiple scales of heterogeneity in order to explain both the amplitude and phase fluctuations at large arrays as well as the shapes of local S coda.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castro, Ral R.; Pacor, Francesca; Puglia, Rodolfo; Ameri, Gabriele; Letort, Jean; Massa, Marco; Luzi, Lucia
2013-10-01
We used strong-motion records from the 2012 May 20 and 29 Emilia-Romagna earthquakes (Mw 6.1 and 5.9, respectively) and four aftershocks with magnitudes ranging between 4.9 and 5.5 to analyse the S-wave spectral amplitude decay with distance and estimate acceleration source functions and site effects. The data set consists of six earthquakes, 44 stations and 248 records with hypocentral distances in the range 10 < r < 100 km. We rotated the accelerograms to calculate transverse and radial components of the acceleration spectrum. We found non-parametric attenuation functions that describe the spectral amplitude decay of SH and SV waves with distance at 60 different frequencies between 0.1 and 40 Hz. These attenuation functions provide an estimate of the quality factor Q at each frequency analysed. Assuming that geometrical spreading is 1/r for r ? rx and 1/(rx r)0.5 for r > rx with rx = 60 km and normalizing at 15 km (the recording distance where the attenuation functions start to decay), we find that the average Q for SH waves can be approximated by QSH = 82 1 f 1.20.02 and by QSV = 79 1 f 1.240.03 for SV waves in the frequency range 0.10 ? f ? 10.7 Hz. At higher frequencies, 11.8 ? f ? 40 Hz, the frequency dependence of Q weakens and is approximated by QSH = 301 1 f 0.360.04 and QSV = 384 1 f 0.280.04. These results indicate that the S-wave attenuation is radially isotropic at local distances in the epicentral area. Nevertheless, we used these attenuation parameters separately to correct the radial (with QSV) and transverse (with QSH) components of the acceleration spectra and to separate source and site effects using a non-parametric spectral inversion scheme. We found that the source function of the main event and the bigger aftershocks show enhanced low frequency radiation between 0.4 and 3.0 Hz. We converted the source functions into far-field source acceleration spectra and interpreted the resulting source spectra in terms of Brune's model. The stress drops obtained range between approximately 0.9 and 2.9 MPa. Although all the recording stations used are located in the Po Plain, the site functions obtained from the spectral inversion show important amplification variability between the sites. We compared these site functions with the average horizontal to vertical spectral ratios calculated for each station, and we found consistent results for most stations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hayashi, M.; Sakurai, A.; Aso, S.
1986-01-01
A thin film heat transfer gauge is applied to the measurement of heat transfer coefficients in the interaction regions of incident shock waves and fully developed turbulent boundary layers. It was developed to measure heat flux with high spatial resolution and fast response for wind tunnels with long flow duration. To measure the heat transfer coefficients in the interaction region in detail, experiments were performed under the conditions of Mach number = 4, total pressure = 1.2 MPa, 0.59 to approximately 0.65. Reynolds number = 1.3 to approximately 1.5 x 10 to the 7th power and incident shock angles from 17.8 to 22.8 degrees. The results show that the heat transfer coefficient changes complicatedly in the interaction region. At the beginning the interaction region, the heat transfer coefficient decreases at first, reaches its minimum value at the point where the pressure begins to increase, and then increases sharply. When the boundary layer begins to separate, even a small separation bubble causes significant changes in the heat transfer coefficient, while the pressure does not show any changes which suggests that the boundary layer begins to separate.
Pingenot, J; Rieben, R; White, D; Dudley, D
2005-10-31
We present a computational study of signal propagation and attenuation of a 200 MHz planar loop antenna in a cave environment. The cave is modeled as a straight and lossy random rough wall. To simulate a broad frequency band, the full wave Maxwell equations are solved directly in the time domain via a high order vector finite element discretization using the massively parallel CEM code EMSolve. The numerical technique is first verified against theoretical results for a planar loop antenna in a smooth lossy cave. The simulation is then performed for a series of random rough surface meshes in order to generate statistical data for the propagation and attenuation properties of the antenna in a cave environment. Results for the mean and variance of the power spectral density of the electric field are presented and discussed.
Modeling, evaluation, and asymptotic analysis of attenuation anisotropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shekar, Bharath Chandra
Seismic attenuation is sensitive to the physical properties of the subsurface, which makes attenuation analysis a useful tool for reservoir characterization. In this thesis, I present algorithms for estimating directionally dependent attenuation coefficients and perform asymptotic and numerical analysis of wave propagation in attenuative anisotropic media. First, I introduce a methodology to estimate the S-wave interval attenuation coefficient by extending the layer-stripping method of Behura and Tsvankin (2009) to mode-converted (PS) waves. Kinematic reconstruction of pure shear (SS) events in the target layer and the overburden is performed by combining velocity-independent layer stripping with the PP+PS=SS method. Then, application of the spectral-ratio method and the dynamic version of velocity-independent layer stripping to the constructed SS reflections yields the S-wave interval attenuation coefficient in the target layer. The attenuation coefficient estimated for a range of source-receiver offsets can be inverted for the interval attenuation-anisotropy parameters. The method is tested on synthetic data generated with the anisotropic reflectivity method for layered VTI (transversely isotropic with a vertical symmetry axis) media and vertical symmetry planes of orthorhombic media. Then, I analyze a cross-hole data set generated by perforation shots set off in a horizontal borehole to induce hydraulic fracturing in a tight gas reservoir. The spectral-ratio method is applied to pairs of traces to set up a system of equations for directionally-dependent effective attenuation. Although the inversion provides clear evidence of attenuation anisotropy, the narrow range of propagation directions impairs the accuracy of anisotropy analysis. The observed variations of the attenuation coefficient between different perforation stages appear to be related to changes in the medium due to hydraulic fracturing and stimulation. Important insights into point-source radiation in attenuative anisotropic media can be gained by applying asymptotic methods. I derive the asymptotic Green's function in homogeneous, attenuative, arbitrarily anisotropic media using the steepest-descent method. The saddle-point condition helps describe the behavior of the far field slowness and group-velocity vectors and evaluate the inhomogeneity angle (the angle between the real and imaginary parts of the slowness vector). The results from the asymptotic analysis are compared with those from the ray-perturbation method for P-waves in TI media. Finally, I address the problem of efficient viscoelastic modeling in heterogeneous anisotropic media. The Kirchhoff scattering integral is employed to generate reflected P-waves, with the required Green's functions computed by summation of Gaussian beams. The influence of attenuation on the Gaussian beams is incorporated using ray-perturbation theory. The method is applied to generate synthetic data from a highly attenuative VTI medium above a horizontal reflector and a structurally complex acoustic model with a salt body.
Mikhailov, Eugeniy E.; Goda, Keisuke; Corbitt, Thomas; Mavalvala, Nergis
2006-05-15
We study the effects of frequency-dependent squeeze-amplitude attenuation and squeeze-angle rotation by electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) on gravitational-wave (GW) interferometers. We propose the use of low-pass, bandpass, and high-pass EIT filters, an S-shaped EIT filter, and an intracavity EIT filter to generate frequency-dependent squeezing for injection into the antisymmetric port of GW interferometers. We find that the EIT filters have several advantages over the previous filter designs with regard to optical losses, compactness, and the tunability of the filter linewidth.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehdian, H.; AbasiRostami, S.; Hasanbeigi, A.
2016-04-01
A theoretical study of electron trajectories and gain in a free electron laser (FEL) with an electromagnetic-wave wiggler and ion-channel guiding is presented based on the Einstein coefficient method. The laser gain in the low-gain regime is obtained for the case of a cold tenuous relativistic electron beam, where the beam plasma frequency is much less than the radiation frequency propagating in this configuration. The resulting gain equation is analyzed numerically over a wide range of system parameters.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, Richard L.; Estus, Robert
1988-01-01
Measurements were made of direct path with no trees, attenuated direct, and tree scattered signal levels at 1.3 GHz. Signals were received in two small groves of mixed hardwood trees. In the groves studied, average total signal levels were about 13 dB below adjacent no-trees locations, with attenuated direct signal levels about 14.6 dB below the no-trees case and scattered signals about 17.3 dB below the no-trees case. A simple model for land mobile satellite service (LMSS) propagation in groves of trees is proposed. The model assumes a constant scattered signal contribution at 17 dB below no-trees levels added to an attenuated direct signal which varies, depending on the number and density of trees in the direct path. When total signal levels are strong, the attenuated direct signal dominates. When total signal levels are more than 15 dB below no-trees levels, the scattered signals dominate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dobrynina, Anna; Sankov, Vladimir; Chechelnitsky, Vladimir
2014-05-01
The deep profiles of quality factor were obtained using coda-waves of local strong and moderate earthquakes (epicentral distances up to 50 km) occurred within north-eastern flanc of the Baikal rift system during 2002-2009. We used two methods: 1 - the coda envelope method [Experimental.., 1981; Kopnichev, 1991] and 2 - the sliding window method (lapse time window 10-15 sec with a step of 5 sec). Depth of coda-wave penetration was determined according to Pulli's formulae [1984], the velocity of coda-wave is 3.55 km/s (equal to shear wave velocity). For analysis we used the Q values at frequency 1 Hz since for this frequency the attenuation field heterogeneity is most evident [Aptikaeva and Kopnichev, 1991]. In result Q-profiles for eleven local areas were obtained. The Q-values vary from 50 to 170 for different profiles and depths. Herewith quality factor changes nonuniformly - the alternation of layers with high and low Q-values is observed. This phenomenon can be explained by existing velocity discontinuity. In particular for all profiles this alternation is confined to the depth about 100 km. Analysis VP-anomalies obtained in result of 2D teleseismic tomography along Baikal rift system [Mordvinova, 2009] shows the existence discontinuity on depth about 100 km under most of Baikal rift system structures. Analysis of 1D profiles of shear wave velocities in the crust and upper mantle after inversion of receiver functions [Anan'in et al., 2009] also shows presence of these discontinuity dividing high and low velocity layers. The comparison of Q-values and shear wave velocities [Anan'in et al., 2009] shown that in high velocity layers quality factor is higher too and vice versa. Multilayer quality factor model for the lithosphere in north-eastern flanc of the Baikal rift system with the alternation of layers with high and low attenuation determined by us together with analogous data obtained by Yu.F. Kopnichev [1992] for south-western flanc of the rift system can be one of inferential evidences of passive rifting mechanism in studied area. The reported study was supported by RFBR (research project N12-05-31038-mol_a) and by grant of President of Russian Federation (research project N MK-1171.2014.5).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Satoru; Tkal?i?, Hrvoje
2015-12-01
Frequency-dependent reflection coefficients of P waves at the inner core boundary (ICB) are estimated from the spectral ratios of PKiKP and PcP waves observed by the high-sensitivity seismograph network (Hi-net) in Japan. The corresponding PKiKP reflection locations at the ICB are distributed beneath the western Pacific. At frequencies where noise levels are sufficiently low, spectra of reflection coefficients show four distinct sets of characteristics: a flat spectrum, a spectrum with a significant spectral hole at approximately 1 or 3 Hz, a spectrum with a strong peak at approximately 2 or 3 Hz, and a spectrum containing both a sharp peak and a significant hole. The variety in observed spectra suggests complex lateral variations in ICB properties. To explain the measured differences in frequency characteristics of ICB reflection coefficients, we conduct 2D finite difference simulations of seismic wavefields near the ICB. The models tested in our simulations include a liquid layer and a solid layer above the ICB, as well as sinusoidal and spike-shaped ICB topography with varying heights and scale lengths. We find that the existence of a layer above the ICB can be excluded as a possible explanation for the observed spectra. Furthermore, we find that an ICB topographic model with wavelengths and heights of several kilometers is too extreme to explain our measurements. However, restricting the ICB topography to wavelengths and heights of 1.0-1.5 km can explain the observed frequency-related phenomena. The existence of laterally varying topography may be a sign of lateral variations in inner core solidification.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Lian; Wu, Qingju
2014-05-01
The Northeast China is an important region of the occurrence of deep earthquakes. In our work we have selected lots of ML amplitudes and travel times of Pn arrivals as reported in the Annual Bulletin of Chinese Earthquakes and regional seismic network of Northeast China. A two-dimensional tomography method is employed to find regional variation of crustal attenuation, Pn velocity and anisotropy in the uppermost mantle in Northeast China and its adjacent regions. Regions with the highest attenuation are beneath Bohai Basin, and Songliao Plain and Hailaer Basin also have low Q0 values, as these areas have thick sedimentary and strong tectonic activity. The entire Northeast region shows distribution of alternating high and low attenuation. And Pn velocity structure is close to the regional tectonic structure and shows distribution of alternating high and low Pn velocity in the direction of NE-NNE. Quantitative analysis result indicates that Pn velocity is positively correlated with crust thickness and negatively correlated with Earth's heatflow. The Pn velocities in the Changbai volcano and Jingpohu volcano activities are obviously low. In addition, the overall performance of Pn anisotropy is weak. This study was supported by the international cooperation project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (NO.2011DFB20210) and NSFC (Grant No.41004034).
On the relative scattering of P- and S-waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malin, P. E.; Phinney, R. A.
1985-01-01
Using a single-scattering approximation, equations for the scattering attenuation coefficients of P-body and S-body waves are derived. The results are discussed in the light of the energy-renormalization approaches of Wu (1980, 1982) and Sato (1982) to seismic wave scattering. Practical methods for calculating the scattering attenuation coefficients for various earth models are emphasized. The conversions of P-waves to S-waves and S-waves to P-waves are included in the theory. The earth models are assumed to be randomly inhomogeneous, with their properties known only through their average-wavenumber power spectra. The power spectra are approximated with piecewise constant functions, each segment of which contributes to the net frequency-dependent scattering attenuation coefficient. The smallest and largest wavenumbers of a segment can be plotted along with the wavevectors of the incident and scattered waves on a wavenumber diagram. This diagram gives a geometric interpretation for the frequency behavior associated with each spectral segment, including a transition peak that is due entirely to the wavenumber limits of the segment. For regions of the earth where the inhomogeneity spectra are concentrated in a band of wavenumbers, it should be possible to observe such a peak in the apparent attenuation of seismic waves. Both the frequency and distance limits on the accuracy of the theoretical results are given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarkar, Tanmay
2015-06-01
In this paper, we demonstrate that previously reported traveling wave solutions for the fifth order KdV type equations with time dependent coefficients (Triki and Wazwaz, 2014) are incorrect. We present the corrected traveling wave solutions for fifth order KdV type equations using sine-cosine method. In addition, we provide traveling wave solutions for the Kawahara equation and Kaup-Kupershmidt equation as an application.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sugiyama, T.; Terasawa, T.; Kawano, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Kokubun, S.; Frank, L.; Ackerson, K.; Tsurutani, B.
1994-01-01
This paper presents a statistical study of the spatial distribution of low frequency waves in the region upstream of the pre-dawn to dawn side bow shock using both GEOTAIL and ISEE-3 magnetometer data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slack, Philip D.; Davis, Paul M.; Baldridge, W. Scott; Olsen, Kenneth H.; Glahn, Andreas; Achauer, Ulrich; Spence, William
1996-07-01
The lithosphere beneath a continental rift should be significantly modified due to extension. To image the lithosphere beneath the Rio Grande rift (RGR), we analyzed teleseismic travel time delays of both P and S wave arrivals and solved for the attenuation of P and S waves for four seismic experiments spanning the Rio Grande rift. Two tomographic inversions of the P wave travel time data are given: an Aki-Christofferson-Husebye (ACH) block model inversion and a downward projection inversion. The tomographic inversions reveal a NE-SW to NNE-SSW trending feature at depths of 35 to 145 km with a velocity reduction of 7 to 8% relative to mantle velocities beneath the Great Plains. This region correlates with the transition zone between the Colorado Plateau and the Rio Grande rift and is bounded on the NW by the Jemez lineament, a N52E trending zone of late Miocene to Holocene volcanism. S wave delays plotted against P wave delays are fit with a straight line giving a slope of 3.0 0.4. This correlation and the absolute velocity reduction imply that temperatures in the lithosphere are close to the solidus, consistent with, but not requiring, the presence of partial melt in the mantle beneath the Rio Grande rift. The attenuation data could imply the presence of partial melt. We compare our results with other geophysical and geologic data. We propose that any north-south trending thermal (velocity) anomaly that may have existed in the upper mantle during earlier (Oligocene to late Miocene) phases of rifting and that may have correlated with the axis of the rift has diminished with time and has been overprinted with more recent structure. The anomalously low-velocity body presently underlying the transition zone between the core of the Colorado Plateau and the rift may reflect processes resulting from the modern (Pliocene to present) regional stress field (oriented WNW-ESE), possibly heralding future extension across the Jemez lineament and transition zone.
Slack, P.D.; Davis, P.M.; Baldridge, W.S.; Olsen, K.H.; Glahn, A.; Achauer, U.; Spence, W.
1996-01-01
The lithosphere beneath a continental rift should be significantly modified due to extension. To image the lithosphere beneath the Rio Grande rift (RGR), we analyzed teleseismic travel time delays of both P and S wave arrivals and solved for the attenuation of P and S waves for four seismic experiments spanning the Rio Grande rift. Two tomographic inversions of the P wave travel time data are given: an Aki-Christofferson-Husebye (ACH) block model inversion and a downward projection inversion. The tomographic inversions reveal a NE-SW to NNE-SSW trending feature at depths of 35 to 145 km with a velocity reduction of 7 to 8% relative to mantle velocities beneath the Great Plains. This region correlates with the transition zone between the Colorado Plateau and the Rio Grande rift and is bounded on the NW by the Jemez lineament, a N52??E trending zone of late Miocene to Holocene volcanism. S wave delays plotted against P wave delays are fit with a straight line giving a slope of 3.0??0.4. This correlation and the absolute velocity reduction imply that temperatures in the lithosphere are close to the solidus, consistent with, but not requiring, the presence of partial melt in the mantle beneath the Rio Grande rift. The attenuation data could imply the presence of partial melt. We compare our results with other geophysical and geologic data. We propose that any north-south trending thermal (velocity) anomaly that may have existed in the upper mantle during earlier (Oligocene to late Miocene) phases of rifting and that may have correlated with the axis of the rift has diminished with time and has been overprinted with more recent structure. The anomalously low-velocity body presently underlying the transition zone between the core of the Colorado Plateau and the rift may reflect processes resulting from the modern (Pliocene to present) regional stress field (oriented WNW-ESE), possibly heralding future extension across the Jemez lineament and transition zone.
Shi Run; Ni, Binbin; Gu Xudong; Zhao Zhengyu; Zhou Chen
2012-07-15
The resonance regions for resonant interactions of radiation belt electrons with obliquely propagating whistler-mode chorus waves are investigated in detail in the Dungey magnetic fields that are parameterized by the intensity of uniform southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz or, equivalently, by the values of D=(M/B{sub z,0}){sup 1/3} (where M is the magnetic moment of the dipole and B{sub z,0} is the uniform southward IMF normal to the dipole's equatorial plane). Adoption of background magnetic field model can considerably modify the determination of resonance regions. Compared to the results for the case of D = 50 (very close to the dipole field), the latitudinal coverage of resonance regions for 200 keV electrons interacting with chorus waves tends to become narrower for smaller D-values, regardless of equatorial pitch angle, resonance harmonics, and wave normal angle. In contrast, resonance regions for 1 MeV electrons tend to have very similar spatial lengths along the field line for various Dungey magnetic field models but cover different magnetic field intervals, indicative of a strong dependence on electron energy. For any given magnetic field line, the resonance regions where chorus-electron resonant interactions can take place rely closely on equatorial pitch angle, resonance harmonics, and kinetic energy. The resonance regions tend to cover broader latitudinal ranges for smaller equatorial pitch angles, higher resonance harmonics, and lower electron energies, consistent with the results in Ni and Summers [Phys. Plasmas 17, 042902, 042903 (2010)]. Calculations of quasi-linear bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients for radiation belt electrons due to nightside chorus waves indicate that the resultant scattering rates differ from using different Dungey magnetic field models, demonstrating a strong dependence of wave-induced electron scattering effect on the adoption of magnetic field model. Our results suggest that resonant wave-particle interaction processes should be implemented into a sophisticated, accurate global magnetic field model to pursue comprehensive and complete models of radiation belt electron dynamics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Devasirvatham, D. M. J.; Hodge, D. B.
1981-01-01
A model of the microwave and millimeter wave link in the presence of atmospheric turbulence is presented with emphasis on satellite communications systems. The analysis is based on standard methods of statistical theory. The results are directly usable by the design engineer.
Sound Attenuation in Tubes due to Visco-Thermal Effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
RODARTE, E.; SINGH, G.; MILLER, N. R.; HRNJAK, P.
2000-04-01
The propagation of periodic axial sound waves in gases contained in circular cylindrical structures is a function of four parameters: s=R??/?, the shear wave number or Stokes number, k=?R/c, known as the reduced frequency, ?=?Cp/?, the square root of the Prandtl number and ?=Cp/Cv, the ratio of specific heats. The complete Kirchhoff solution of the sound propagation in tubes problem obtained in 1868 was expressed in terms of these parameters by Tijdeman [1]. In previous works [1, 2] the complex propagation constant was obtained by solving this expression. The results were presented for a limited range in reference [1] and for a broader range in reference [2] but in both cases only for a single fluid, air. In this work the results of a computer code to solve for this propagation constant are presented. The code was used to find the propagation constants (attenuation and phase-shift coefficients) in the range 5attenuation and phase-shift coefficients in terms of simpler polynomial-type expressions as a function of these four parameters. A set of tables to obtain the values of the attenuation and phase shift coefficients for values of these four non-dimensional parameters in the above range is also presented. Sound attenuation measurements using superheated R134a refrigerant agrees reasonably well with the computed attenuation in the plane wave region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prieux, Vincent; Brossier, Romain; Operto, Stphane; Virieux, Jean
2013-09-01
Multiparameter full waveform inversion (FWI) is a challenging quantitative seismic imaging method for lithological characterization and reservoir monitoring. The difficulties in multiparameter FWI arise from the variable influence of the different parameter classes on the phase and amplitude of the data, and the trade-off between these. In this framework, choosing a suitable parametrization of the subsurface and designing the suitable FWI workflow are two key methodological issues in non-linear waveform inversion. We assess frequency-domain visco-acoustic FWI to reconstruct the compressive velocity (VP), the density (?) or the impedance (IP) and the quality factor (QP), from the hydrophone component, using a synthetic data set that is representative of the Valhall oil field in the North Sea. We first assess which of the (VP, ?) and (VP, IP) parametrizations provides the most reliable FWI results when dealing with wide-aperture data. Contrary to widely accepted ideas, we show that the (VP, ?) parametrization allows a better reconstruction of both the VP, ? and IP parameters, first because it favours the broad-band reconstruction of the dominant VP parameter, and secondly because the trade-off effects between velocity and density at short-to-intermediate scattering angles can be removed by multiplication, to build an impedance model. This allows for the matching of the reflection amplitudes, while the broad-band velocity model accurately describes the kinematic attributes of both the diving waves and reflections. Then, we assess different inversion strategies to recover the quality factor QP, in addition to parameters VP and ?. A difficulty related to attenuation estimation arises because, on the one hand the values of QP are on average one order of magnitude smaller than those of VP and ?, and on the other hands model perturbations relative to the starting models can be much higher for QP than for VP and ? during FWI. In this framework, we show that an empirical tuning of the FWI regularization, which is adapted to each parameter class, is a key issue to correctly account for the attenuation in the inversion. We promote a hierarchical approach where the dominant parameter VP is reconstructed first from the full data set (i.e. without any data preconditioning) to build a velocity model as kinematically accurate as possible before performing the joint update of the three parameter classes during a second step. This hierarchical imaging of compressive wave speed, density and attenuation is applied to a real wide-aperture ocean-bottom-cable data set from the Valhall oil field. Several geological features, such as accumulation of gas below barriers of claystone and soft quaternary sediment are interpreted in the FWI models of density and attenuation. The models of VP, ? and QP that have been developed by visco-acoustic FWI of the hydrophone data can be used as initial models to perform visco-elastic FWI of the geophone data for the joint update of the compressive and shear wave speeds.
Diffracted and head waves associated with waves on nonseparable surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barger, Raymond L.
1992-01-01
A theory is presented for computing waves radiated from waves on a smooth surface. With the assumption that attention of the surface wave is due only to radiation and not to dissipation in the surface material, the radiation coefficient is derived in terms of the attenuation factor. The excitation coefficient is determined by the reciprocity condition. Formulas for the shape and the spreading of the radiated wave are derived, and some sample calculations are presented. An investigation of resonant phase matching for nonseparable surfaces is presented with a sample calculation. A discussion of how such calculations might be related to resonant frequencies of nonseparable thin shell structures is included. A description is given of nonseparable surfaces that can be modeled in the vector that facilitates use of the appropriate formulas of differential geometry.
Giordano, S.
1963-11-12
A high peak power level r-f attenuator that is readily and easily insertable along a coaxial cable having an inner conductor and an outer annular conductor without breaking the ends thereof is presented. Spaced first and second flares in the outer conductor face each other with a slidable cylindrical outer conductor portion therebetween. Dielectric means, such as water, contact the cable between the flares to attenuate the radio-frequency energy received thereby. The cylindrical outer conductor portion is slidable to adjust the voltage standing wave ratio to a low level, and one of the flares is slidable to adjust the attenuation level. An integral dielectric container is also provided. (AFC)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumagai, H.; Lacson, R. _Jr., Jr.; Maeda, Y.; Figueroa, M. S., II; Yamashina, T.
2014-12-01
Taal volcano, Philippines, is one of the world's most dangerous volcanoes given its history of explosive eruptions and its close proximity to populated areas. A key feature of these eruptions is that the eruption vents were not limited to Main Crater but occurred on the flanks of Volcano Island. This complex eruption history and the fact that thousands of people inhabit the island, which has been declared a permanent danger zone, together imply an enormous potential for disasters. The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) constantly monitors Taal, and international collaborations have conducted seismic, geodetic, electromagnetic, and geochemical studies to investigate the volcano's magma system. Realtime broadband seismic, GPS, and magnetic networks were deployed in 2010 to improve monitoring capabilities and to better understand the volcano. The seismic network has recorded volcano-tectonic (VT) events beneath Volcano Island. We located these VT events based on high-frequency seismic amplitudes, and found that some events showed considerable discrepancies between the amplitude source locations and hypocenters determined by using onset arrival times. Our analysis of the source location discrepancies points to the existence of a region of strong S-wave attenuation near the ground surface beneath the east flank of Volcano Island. This region is beneath the active fumarolic area and above sources of pressure contributing inflation and deflation, and it coincides with a region of high electrical conductivity. The high-attenuation region matches that inferred from an active-seismic survey conducted at Taal in 1993. Our results, synthesized with previous results, suggest that this region represents actively degassing magma near the surface, and imply a high risk of future eruptions on the east flank of Volcano Island.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hardin, E. L.; Cheng, C. H.; Paillet, F. L.; Mendelson, J. D.
1987-07-01
Results are presented from experiments carried out in conjunction with the U. S. Geological Survey at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest near Mirror Lake, New Hampshire. The study focuses on our ability to obtain orientation and transmissivity estimates of naturally occurring fractures. The collected data set includes a four-offset hydrophone vertical seismic profile, full waveform acoustic logs at 5, 15, and 34 kHz, borehole televiewer, temperature, resistivity, and self-potential logs, and borehole-to-borehole pump test data. Borehole televiewer and other geophysical logs indicate that permeable fractures intersect the Mirror Lake boreholes at numerous depths, but less than half of these fractures appear to have significant permeability beyond the annulus of drilling disturbance on the basis of acoustic waveform log analysis. The vertical seismic profiling (VSP) data indicate a single major permeable fracture near a depth of 44 m, corresponding to one of the most permeable fractures identified in the acoustic waveform log analysis. VSP data also indicate a somewhat less permeable fracture at 220 m and possible fractures at depths of 103 and 135 m; all correspond to major permeable fractures in the acoustic waveform data set. Pump test data confirm the presence of a hydraulic connection between the Mirror Lake boreholes through a shallow dipping zone of permeability at 44 m in depth. Effective fracture apertures calculated from modeled transmissivities correspond to those estimated for the largest fractures indicated on acoustic waveform logs but are over an order of magnitude larger than effective apertures calculated from tube waves in the VSP data set. This discrepancy is attributed to the effect of fracture stiffness. A new model is presented to account for the mechanical strength of asperities in resisting fracture closure during the passage of seismic waves during the generation of VSPs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sumy, D. F.; Cochran, E. S.; Keranen, K. M.; Neighbors, C.; Atkinson, G. M.
2014-12-01
During November 2011, three M≥5.0 earthquakes and thousands of aftershocks occurred on and near the Wilzetta fault, a structurally complex ~200 km long, Pennsylvanian-aged fault near Prague, Oklahoma, in close proximity to several active wastewater injection wells. All three M≥5.0 earthquakes had strike-slip mechanisms consistent with rupture on three independent focal planes, suggesting activation of three different strands of the Wilzetta fault. Wastewater injection can cause a buildup of pore fluid pressure along the fault, which decreases the fault strength and may induce earthquakes. Based on the proximity of earthquakes to active fluid injection wells, the unilateral progression of aftershocks away from the initial M5.0 event, and shallow earthquake depths, Keranen et al. [2013] concluded that fluid injection was responsible for inducing the first M5.0 event. Furthermore, Sumy et al. [2014] found that the initial M5.0 event increased the Coulomb stress in the region of the M5.7 mainshock, triggering a cascade of earthquakes along the Wilzetta fault. Thus, while nearby wastewater injection directly induced the initial M5.0 event, this earthquake triggered successive failure along the Wilzetta fault; however, it remains unclear if the additional ruptured fault strands are also influenced by fluid injection. In this study, we explore instrumental ground motions and shear-wave splitting of the November 2011 Prague, Oklahoma sequence, in order to construct ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and understand the local stress regime, respectively. We examine ~1,000 earthquakes recorded by a total of 47 seismometers, located within ~150 km of the Wilzetta fault. With respect to GMPEs, initial results suggest that the ground motions are smaller than similar magnitude earthquakes of natural/tectonic origins, and these lower intensities may be a result of lower stress drops [e.g. Hough, 2014]. With respect to shear-wave splitting, we examine quality graded fast polarization and delay time measurements and observe fast directions oriented roughly E-W across the study area, which is consistent with the maximum principal stress of N80E determined from the focal mechanism inversion of Sumy et al. [2014].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohashi, Yuji; Arakawa, Mototaka; Kushibiki, Jun?ichi
2006-05-01
Measurement accuracies of leaky surface acoustic wave (LSAW) velocities for materials with highly attenuated waveforms of V(z) curves obtained by the line-focus-beam ultrasonic material characterization (LFB-UMC) system are investigated. Theoretical investigations were carried out and experiments were performed for TiO2-SiO2 glass (C-7972), Li2O-Al2O3-SiO2 glass ceramic (Zerodur\\textregistered), and (111) gadolinium gallium garnet (GGG) single crystal as specimens. Waveform attenuations of V(z) curves for C-7972 and Zerodur\\textregistered are greater than those for the (111) GGG single crystal. Frequency dependences of the waveform attenuations were calculated for each specimen by considering the propagation attenuation of LSAWs. The theoretical results revealed that the waveform attenuation dominantly depends upon the acoustic energy loss due to the water loading effect on the specimen surface, and that the waveform attenuation becomes smaller with decreasing frequency. Significant improvement of the measurement precision of LSAW velocities was demonstrated for each specimen using three LFB ultrasonic devices with different curvature radii R of the cylindrical acoustic lenses: R=2.0 mm at 75 MHz, R=1.5 mm at 110 MHz, and R=1.0 mm at 225 MHz; for C-7972, the precisions were improved from 0.0053% at 225 MHz to 0.0020% at 75 MHz.
Ultrasonic Attenuation in Zircaloy-4
Gomez, M.P.; Banchik, A.D.; Lopez Pumarega, M.I.; Ruzzante, J.E.
2005-04-09
In this work the relationship between Zircaloy-4 grain size and ultrasonic attenuation behavior was studied for longitudinal waves in the frequency range of 10-90 MHz. The attenuation was analyzed as a function of frequency for samples with different mechanical and heat treatments having recrystallized and Widmanstatten structures with different grain size. The attenuation behavior was analyzed by different scattering models, depending on grain size, wavelength and frequency.
Yuen, Chun-Man; Chung, Sheng-Ying; Tsai, Tzu-Hsien; Sung, Pei-Hsun; Huang, Tien-Hung; Chen, Yi-Ling; Chen, Yung-Lung; Chai, Han-Tan; Zhen, Yen-Yi; Chang, Meng-Wei; Wang, Ching-Jen; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Yip, Hon-Kan
2015-01-01
Background: To investigate the effect of shock wave (SW) on brain-infarction volume (BIV) and neurological function in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) by left internal carotid artery occlusion in rats. Methods and results: SD rats (n=48) were divided into group 1 [sham-control (SC)], group 2 [SC-ECSW (energy dosage of 0.15 mJ/mm2/300 impulses)], group 3 (AIS), and group 4 (AIS-ECSW) and sacrificed by day 28 after IS induction. In normal rats, caspase-3, Bax and TNF-? biomarkers did not differ between animals with and without ECSW therapy, whereas Hsp70 was activated post-ECSW treatment. By day 21 after AIS, Sensorimotor-functional test identified a higher frequency of turning movement to left in group 3 than that in group 4 (P<0.05). By day 28, brain MRI demonstrated lager BIV in group 3 than that in group 4 (P<0.001). Angiogenesis biomarkers at cellular (CD31, ?-SMA+) and protein (eNOS) levels and number of neuN+ cells were higher in groups 1 and 2 than those in groups 3 and 4, and higher in group 4 than those in group 3, whereas VEGF and Hsp70 levels were progressively increased from groups 1 and 2 to group 4 (all P<0.001). Protein expressions of apoptosis (Bax, caspase 3, PARP), inflammation (MMP-9, TNF-?), oxidative stress (NOX-1, NOX-2, oxidized protein) and DNA-damage marker (?-H2AX), and expressions of ?-H2AX+, GFAP+, AQP-4+ cells showed an opposite pattern compared to that of angiogenesis among the four groups (all P<0.001). Conclusion: ECSW therapy was safe and effective in reducing BIV and improved neurological function. PMID:26279744
Simeone, Timothy A.; Samson, Kaeli K.; Matthews, Stephanie A.; Simeone, Kristina A.
2014-01-01
Summary The ketogenic diet (KD) is an effective therapy for pediatric refractory epilepsies, however, whether the KD changes the pathologic network oscillations generated by an epileptic brain remains unknown. We have reported that hippocampal CA3 regions of epileptic Kv1.1? knockout (KO) mice generate pathologic sharp waves (SPWs) and high frequency oscillations (HFOs) that have higher incidence, longer duration and fast ripples compared to wild-type. Synaptic activity of hyperexcitable KO mossy fibers significantly decreased CA3 principal cell spike-timing reliability contributing to this network pathology. Also, we have demonstrated that the KD reduces seizures by 75% in KO mice. Here, we determined whether 10-14 day in vivo KD treatment exerts disease modifying effects that alter the spontaneous SPW-HFO complexes generated by the hippocampal CA3 region of KO mice in vitro using extracellular multielectrode array recordings. We found that KD treatment significantly attenuated the pathologic features of KO SPWs and ripples and reduced the incidence of fast ripples. The KD also improved spike-timing reliability of KO CA3 principal cells, decreased mossy fiber excitability, increased mossy fiber-CA3 paired pulse ratios and reduced EPSP-spike coupling in the CA3 region. Collectively, these data indicate that KD treatment modulates CA3-generated pathologic oscillations by dampening hyperactive mossy fiber synapses. PMID:24702645
Massoud, Amr M.; Abdelbary, Ahmed M.; Al-Dessoukey, Ahmad A.; Moussa, Ayman S.; Zayed, Ahmed S.; Mahmmoud, Osama
2014-01-01
Objective To determine the utility of the urinary stone-attenuation value (SAV, in Hounsfield units, HU) from non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) for predicting the success of extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Patients and methods The study included 305 patients with renal calculi of ?30mm and upper ureteric calculi of ?20mm. The SAV was measured using NCCT. Numerical variables were compared using a one-way analysis of variance with posthoc multiple two-group comparisons. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis models were used to test the preferential effect of the independent variable(s) on the success of ESWL. Results Patients were grouped according to the SAV as group 1 (?500 HU, 81 patients), group 2 (5011000 HU, 141 patients) and group 3 (>1000 HU, 83 patients). ESWL was successful in 253 patients (83%). The rate of stone clearance was 100% in group 1, 95.7% (135/141) in group 2 and 44.6% (37/83) in group 3 (P=0.001). Conclusions The SAV value is an independent predictor of the success of ESWL and a useful tool for planning stone treatment. Patients with a SAV ?956 HU are not ideal candidates for ESWL. The inclusion criteria for ESWL of stones with a SAV <500 HU can be expanded with regard to stone size, site, age, renal function and coagulation profile. In patients with a SAV of 5001000 HU, factors like a body mass index of >30kg/m2 and a lower calyceal location make them less ideal for ESWL. PMID:26019941
Quan, Y.; Harris, J.M.; Chen, X.
1994-12-31
The centroid frequency shift method is proposed to estimate seismic attenuation from full waveform acoustic logs. This approach along with the amplitude ratio method is applied to investigate the attenuation properties of the P head wave in fluid-filled boreholes. The generalized reflection and transmission coefficients method is used to perform forward modeling. The authors suggest an empirical formula to describe the frequency-dependent geometrical spreading of the P-wave in a borehole. They simulate a more realistic borehole by including a mudcake and an invaded zone which are modeled by a large number of radially symmetric thin layers. The numerical tests show that this invaded zone exhibits very strong influence on the attenuation measurement.
Modeling nonlinear compressional waves in marine sediments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McDonald, B. E.
2009-02-01
A computational model is presented which will help guide and interpret an upcoming series of experiments on nonlinear compressional waves in marine sediments. The model includes propagation physics of nonlinear acoustics augmented with granular Hertzian stress of order 3/2 in the strain rate. The model is a variant of the time domain NPE (McDonald and Kuperman, 1987) supplemented with a causal algorithm for frequency-linear attenuation. When attenuation is absent, the model equations are used to construct analytic solutions for nonlinear plane waves. The results imply that Hertzian stress causes a unique nonlinear behavior near zero stress. A fluid, in contrast, exhibits nonlinear behavior under high stress. A numerical experiment with nominal values for attenuation coefficient implies that in a water saturated Hertzian chain, the nonlinearity near zero stress may be experimentally observable.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.
1994-01-01
Discusses and provides an example of reflectivity approximation to determine whether reflection will occur. Provides a method to show thin-film interference on a projection screen. Also applies the reflectivity concepts to electromagnetic wave systems. (MVL)
Controlling frontal photopolymerization with optical attenuation and mass diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hennessy, Matthew G.; Vitale, Alessandra; Matar, Omar K.; Cabral, Joo T.
2015-06-01
Frontal photopolymerization (FPP) is a versatile directional solidification process that can be used to rapidly fabricate polymer network materials by selectively exposing a photosensitive monomer bath to light. A characteristic feature of FPP is that the monomer-to-polymer conversion profiles take on the form of traveling waves that propagate into the unpolymerized bulk from the illuminated surface. Practical implementations of FPP require detailed knowledge about the conversion profile and speed of these traveling waves. The purpose of this theoretical study is to (i) determine the conditions under which FPP occurs and (ii) explore how optical attenuation and mass transport can be used to finely tune the conversion profile and propagation kinetics. Our findings quantify the strong optical attenuation and slow mass transport relative to the rate of polymerization required for FPP. The shape of the traveling wave is primarily controlled by the magnitude of the optical attenuation coefficients of the neat and polymerized material. Unexpectedly, we find that mass diffusion can increase the net extent of polymerization and accelerate the growth of the solid network. The theoretical predictions are found to be in excellent agreement with experimental data acquired for representative systems.
Franceschini, Emilie; Yu, Franois T.H.; Destrempes, Franois; Cloutier, Guy
2010-01-01
The analysis of the ultrasonic frequency-dependent backscatter coefficient of aggregating red blood cells reveals information about blood structural properties. The difficulty in applying this technique in vivo is due to the frequency-dependent attenuation caused by intervening tissue layers that distorts the spectral content of signals backscattered by blood. An optimization method is proposed to simultaneously estimate tissue attenuation and blood structure properties, and was termed the structure factor size and attenuation estimator (SFSAE). An ultrasound scanner equipped with a wide-band 25 MHz probe was used to insonify porcine blood sheared in both Couette and tubular flow devices. Since skin is one of the most attenuating tissue layers during in vivo scanning, four skin-mimicking phantoms with different attenuation coefficients were introduced between the transducer and the blood flow. The SFSAE gave estimates with relative errors below 25% for attenuations between 0.115 and 0.411 dB?MHz and kR<2.08 (k being the wave number and R the aggregate radius). The SFSAE can be useful to examine in vivo and in situ abnormal blood conditions suspected to promote pathophysiological cardiovascular consequences. PMID:20136231
Nonlinear attenuation and rock damage during strong seismic ground motions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sleep, Norman H.; Hagin, Paul
2008-10-01
Strong seismic waves cause nonlinear behavior in the shallow subsurface in fractured rocks. Seismologists use low-amplitude signals from small repeating earthquakes to measure S wave velocity decrease after strong motion. The 2004 Parkfield, California, earthquake provides examples of such velocity changes in fractured sandstone with an S wave velocity of 300 m s-1. This nonlinear behavior occurred around the wave number depth of the incident waves, 30 m, for the 10 s-1 dominant angular frequency on a velocity seismogram. The low-amplitude S wave velocity gradually recovered with the logarithm of time. The attenuation of strong waves in general depends nonlinearly on their amplitude. High dynamic stress triggered small, very shallow earthquakes, at sites including Parkfield. The theoretical frictional behavior of a fractured medium with heterogeneous prestress relates these phenomena. Failure occurs in the highly prestressed domains causing small earthquakes and opening-mode cracks. The energy to dilate the cracks dissipates a significant fraction of the incoming seismic energy. The local high-porosity domains close with the logarithm of time, as expected from the aging law of rate and state friction, increasing the S wave velocity. The domain model indicates that nonlinear effects increase gradually over a range of dynamic Coulomb stresses as observed and as included in the widely used Masing rules. The Linker and Dieterich (1992) relationship provides the maximum sustainable dynamic coefficient of friction needed to utilize the Masing rules. This parameter is the coefficient of friction at a laboratory normal traction plus a constant 0.15 times the logarithm of the ratio of field normal traction to the laboratory normal traction. It is helpful to relate S wave velocity to starting frictional strength, as coefficient of friction near the quarter-wavelength depth determines nonlinear behavior. Then the dynamic coefficient of friction and equivalently the maximum sustainable acceleration at the dominant frequency depend weakly on S wave velocity. For example, the coefficient of friction at an angular frequency of 10 s-1 is less than 1.5 for rocks ranging from Parkfield sandstone to intact granite.
Acoustic waves in unsaturated soils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lo, Wei-Cheng; Sposito, Garrison
2013-09-01
Seminal papers by Brutsaert (1964) and Brutsaert and Luthin (1964) provided the first rigorous theoretical framework for examining the poroelastic behavior of unsaturated soils, including an important application linking acoustic wave propagation to soil hydraulic properties. Theoretical developments during the 50 years that followed have led Lo et al., (2005) to a comprehensive model of these phenomena, but the relationship of its elasticity parameters to standard poroelasticity parameters measured in hydrogeology has not been established. In the present study, we develop this relationship for three key parameters, the Gassman modulus, Skempton coefficient, and Biot-Willis coefficient by generalizing them to an unsaturated porous medium. We demonstrate the remarkable result that well-known and widely applied relationships among these parameters for a porous medium saturated by a single fluid are also valid under very general conditions for unsaturated soils. We show further that measurement of the Biot-Willis coefficient along with three of the six elasticity coefficients in the model of Lo et al. (2005) is sufficient to characterize poroelastic behavior. The elasticity coefficients in the model of Lo et al. (2005) are sensitive to the dependence of capillary pressure on water saturation and its viscous-drag coefficients are functions of relative permeability, implying that hysteresis in the water retention curve and hydraulic conductivity function should affect acoustic wave behavior in unsaturated soils. To quantify these as-yet unknown effects, we performed numerical simulations for Dune sand at two representative wave excitation frequencies. Our results show that the acoustic wave investigated by Brutsaert and Luthin (1964) propagates at essentially the same speed during imbibition and drainage, but is attenuated more during drainage than imbibition. Overall, effects on acoustic wave behavior caused by hysteresis become more significant as the excitation frequency increases.
Full-wave description of the lower hybrid reflection of whistler waves
Kuzichev, I. V. Shklyar, D. R.
2013-10-15
A quasi-electrostatic whistler wave propagating in the direction of increasing lower hybrid resonance (LHR) frequency experiences reflection from the region in which its frequency becomes lower than the LHR frequency. This phenomenon is usually described in the framework of geometrical optics. For a wave propagating along a magnetospheric trajectory, the LHR reflection frequently takes place in the ionospheric region in which electron-neutral collisions are essential and lead to wave attenuation. In this case, the wave approach to the description of the LHR reflection is most consistent. This work is aimed at developing such an approach. The coefficients of the wave reflection are calculated for different plasma parameters. The relation between the problem under consideration and the problem of exit of whistler-mode waves to the ground is considered.
Short surface waves in the Canadian Arctic in 2007 and 2008
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogucki, D. J.; Drennan, W. M.; Woods, S.; Gremes-Cordero, S.; Long, D. G.; Mitchell, C.
2013-07-01
We have collected time series data of short oceanic waves as a part of the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2008. Using a shipboard laser wave slope (LAWAS) system operating at 900 nm, we have obtained wave slopes measurements up to 60 rad m-1 wave number. We have compared our in situ wave slopes with collocated and concurrent high-resolution upwind Normalized Radar Cross Sections (NRCS) collected by QuikSCAT. The LAWAS measured wave slope spectra were consistent with local wind speeds and QuikSCAT measured NRCS. Our measured short wave mean slopes indicate their enhancement by long waves (0-1 rad m-1) at small values of long-wave slope. Concurrent with wave slope measurements, the strength of the reflected LAWAS light beam was analyzed in terms of the light attenuation coefficient at 900 nm. We have observed a correlation between surface elevation and light attenuation. The mechanism of wave modulated beam attenuation was found to be related to the instantaneous long wave skewness.
Elimination of bandwidth effect in attenuation measurement with picosecond ultrasonics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maehara, Atsushi; Nakamura, Nobutomo; Ogi, Hirotsugu; Hirao, Masahiko
2014-08-01
We study the broadening effect of probing pulse light on the apparent attenuation of the Brillouin oscillation measured with picosecond ultrasonics. We observe experimentally that the attenuation of the Brillouin oscillation is sensitive to the bandwidth, and the apparent attenuation coefficient increases as the bandwidth increases, being far from the intrinsic attenuation coefficient. Theoretical calculation is performed to reconstruct the observed oscillations, and it is confirmed that there are several factors affecting the apparent attenuation in addition to the bandwidth. We finally propose equations that deduce the contribution of the broadening to the apparent attenuation of the Brillouin oscillation.
A parametric analysis of waves propagating in a porous solid saturated by a three-phase fluid.
Santos, Juan E; Savioli, Gabriela B
2015-11-01
This paper presents an analysis of a model for the propagation of waves in a poroelastic solid saturated by a three-phase viscous, compressible fluid. The constitutive relations and the equations of motion are stated first. Then a plane wave analysis determines the phase velocities and attenuation coefficients of the four compressional waves and one shear wave that propagate in this type of medium. A procedure to compute the elastic constants in the constitutive relations is defined next. Assuming the knowledge of the shear modulus of the dry matrix, the other elastic constants in the stress-strain relations are determined by employing ideal gedanken experiments generalizing those of Biot's theory for single-phase fluids. These experiments yield expressions for the elastic constants in terms of the properties of the individual solid and fluids phases. Finally the phase velocities and attenuation coefficients of all waves are computed for a sample of Berea sandstone saturated by oil, gas, and water. PMID:26627777
Prediction of spectral acceleration response ordinates based on PGA attenuation
Graizer, V.; Kalkan, E.
2009-01-01
Developed herein is a new peak ground acceleration (PGA)-based predictive model for 5% damped pseudospectral acceleration (SA) ordinates of free-field horizontal component of ground motion from shallow-crustal earthquakes. The predictive model of ground motion spectral shape (i.e., normalized spectrum) is generated as a continuous function of few parameters. The proposed model eliminates the classical exhausted matrix of estimator coefficients, and provides significant ease in its implementation. It is structured on the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) database with a number of additions from recent Californian events including 2003 San Simeon and 2004 Parkfield earthquakes. A unique feature of the model is its new functional form explicitly integrating PGA as a scaling factor. The spectral shape model is parameterized within an approximation function using moment magnitude, closest distance to the fault (fault distance) and VS30 (average shear-wave velocity in the upper 30 m) as independent variables. Mean values of its estimator coefficients were computed by fitting an approximation function to spectral shape of each record using robust nonlinear optimization. Proposed spectral shape model is independent of the PGA attenuation, allowing utilization of various PGA attenuation relations to estimate the response spectrum of earthquake recordings.
Q structure of the Basin and Range from surface waves
Patton, H.J.; Taylor, S.R.
1984-08-10
Regionalized Rayleigh and Love wave attenuation coefficients have been measured across the Basin and Range province of western United States in the frequency range 0.02-0.2 Hz. The measurements were made by using the methods of Tsai and Aki (1969) and Yacoub and Mitchell (1977) adapted to work on any number of events simultaneously. Rayleigh wave Q values at low frequency approach values near 40, which are significantly lower than previous measurements in the western United States. Love wave Q values, on the other hand, are quite high at low frequencies. The authors suggest that interference between fundamental and higher modes may explain the Love wave observations. The Rayleigh and Love wave attenuation measurements have been inverted simultaneously for shear-wave attenuation as a function of depth. A frequency-independent Q model is consistent with both Rayleigh wave and short-period Love wave attenuation data. The shear-wave Q (Q/sub ..beta../) model is characterized by low Q/sub ..beta../ in the lower crust (Q/sub ..beta.. approx. 100) and Q/sub ..beta../ decreasing in the upper mantle with lowest values (Q..beta.. approx. 30) beneath 60 km depth. Forward modeling shows that a high-Q lower crust or upper mantle lid is inconsistent with the data. Our interpretation of these results is that the lithosphere is poorly developed beneath the Basin and Range and that the partially molten asthenosphere may reach very shallow depths, possibly to the base of the crust. This interpretation of the Q model in conjunction with a number of geological and geophysical evidence suggests that attenuation mechanisms involving partial melt predominate in the lower crust and upper mantle of the Basin and Range.
Shear waves in vegetal tissues at ultrasonic frequencies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fariñas, M. D.; Sancho-Knapik, D.; Peguero-Pina, J. J.; Gil-Pelegrín, E.; Gómez Álvarez-Arenas, T. E.
2013-03-01
Shear waves are investigated in leaves of two plant species using air-coupled ultrasound. Magnitude and phase spectra of the transmission coefficient around the first two orders of the thickness resonances (normal and oblique incidence) have been measured. A bilayer acoustic model for plant leaves (comprising the palisade parenchyma and the spongy mesophyll) is proposed to extract, from measured spectra, properties of these tissues like: velocity and attenuation of longitudinal and shear waves and hence Young modulus, rigidity modulus, and Poisson's ratio. Elastic moduli values are typical of cellular solids and both, shear and longitudinal waves exhibit classical viscoelastic losses. Influence of leaf water content is also analyzed.
Surface wave propagation in mangrove forests
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Massel, S. R.; Furukawa, K.; Brinkman, R. M.
1999-04-01
Mangroves are a special form of vegetation as they exist at the boundary of terrestrial and marine environment. They have a special role in supporting fisheries and in the stabilizing the tropical coastal zones. Biochemical and trophodynamic processes in the mangroves are strongly linked to water movement, due to tides and waves. In this paper we present the theoretical attempt to predict the attenuation of wind-induced random surface waves in the mangrove forest. The energy dissipation in the frequency domain is determined by treating the mangrove forest as a random media with certain characteristics determined using the geometry of mangrove trunks and their locations. Initial nonlinear governing equations are linearized using the concept of minimalization in the stochastic sense and interactions between mangrove trunks and roots have been introduced through the modification of the drag coefficients. The resulting rate of wave energy attenuation depends strongly on the density of the mangrove forest, diameter of mangrove roots and trunks, and on the spectral characteristics of the incident waves. Examples of numerical calculations as well as preliminary results from observation of wave attenuation through mangrove forests at Townsville (Australia) and Iriomote Island (Japan) are given.
Seismic Attenuation Inversion with t* Using tstarTomog.
Preston, Leiph
2014-09-01
Seismic attenuation is defined as the loss of the seismic wave amplitude as the wave propagates excluding losses strictly due to geometric spreading. Information gleaned from seismic waves can be utilized to solve for the attenuation properties of the earth. One method of solving for earth attenuation properties is called t*. This report will start by introducing the basic theory behind t* and delve into inverse theory as it pertains to how the algorithm called tstarTomog inverts for attenuation properties using t* observations. This report also describes how to use the tstarTomog package to go from observed data to a 3-D model of attenuation structure in the earth.
Shadangi, Asit Ku.; Rout, G. C.
2015-05-15
We report here a microscopic model study of ultrasonic attenuation in f-electron systems based on Periodic Anderson Model in which Coulomb interaction is considered within a mean-field approximation for a weak interaction. The Phonon is coupled to the conduction band and f-electrons. The phonon Green's function is calculated by Zubarev's technique of the Green's function method. The temperature dependent ultrasonic attenuation co-efficient is calculated from the imaginary part of the phonon self-energy in the dynamic and long wave length limit. The f-electron occupation number is calculated self-consistently in paramagnetic limit of Coulomb interaction. The effect of the Coulomb interaction on ultrasonic attenuation is studied by varying the phonon coupling parameters to the conduction and f-electrons, hybridization strength, the position of f-level and the Coulomb interaction Strength. Results are discussed on the basis of experimental results.
Wear, Keith A
2013-04-01
The presence of two longitudinal waves in poroelastic media is predicted by Biot's theory and has been confirmed experimentally in through-transmission measurements in cancellous bone. Estimation of attenuation coefficients and velocities of the two waves is challenging when the two waves overlap in time. The modified least squares Prony's (MLSP) method in conjuction with curve-fitting (MLSP + CF) is tested using simulations based on published values for fast and slow wave attenuation coefficients and velocities in cancellous bone from several studies in bovine femur, human femur, and human calcaneus. The search algorithm is accelerated by exploiting correlations among search parameters. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated as a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). For a typical experimental SNR (40 dB), the root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) for one example (human femur) with fast and slow waves separated by approximately half of a pulse duration were 1 m/s (slow wave velocity), 4 m/s (fast wave velocity), 0.4 dB/cm MHz (slow wave attenuation slope), and 1.7 dB/cm MHz (fast wave attenuation slope). The MLSP + CF method is fast (requiring less than 2 s at SNR = 40 dB on a consumer-grade notebook computer) and is flexible with respect to the functional form of the parametric model for the transmission coefficient. The MLSP + CF method provides sufficient accuracy and precision for many applications such that experimental error is a greater limiting factor than estimation error. PMID:23556613
Propagation of inernio-acoustic gravity waves in a rotating and radiating opaque atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bestman, A. R.
1987-06-01
The critical level for wave propagation is studied in the presence of radiation driven winds using a hydrodynamic model. As a result of the extremely complex nature of the problem, the galaxy is assumed opaque so that the optically thick gas approximation of radiation is invoked. Further the frequencies involved in the wave motion are taken fairly high so that the wave is essentially adiabatic. Despite these idealizations, the wave motion is governed by a fourth order ordinary differential equation with variable coefficients. The simplest configuration studied by the classical Frobenius method involves three waves which propagate across the critical level (regular singular point) attenuated, while the fourth is attenuated/amplified on crossing the critical level. This constitutes the well-known valve effect, which is enhanced by radiation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinrichs, J. F.; Holt, B.
2009-12-01
Several ICESat profiles taken across sea ice in the Weddell Sea exhibit wavelike patterns that suggest the passage and attenuation of ocean swells and long-period (200 s) waves through sea ice over distances of hundreds of kilometers. Detailed examination of the profiles, associated sensor telemetry, and MODIS imagery excludes sensor artifacts and other phenomena in the atmosphere and ice as explanations for the patterns. Wavelet analysis of the patterns shows that, as expected, shorter waves decay most rapidly after crossing the ice edge. Calculation of attenuation coefficients for the ocean swells provides values that are reasonable when compared to previous work using airborne laser altimetry and other measurements. Multiple possible explanations exist for the cause of the long-period waves, including lee waves, internal waves, infragravity waves, and rissaga (meteotsunamis).
Coupling of surface acoustic waves to a two-dimensional electron gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simon, Steven H.
1996-11-01
When a surface acoustic wave (SAW) is coupled piezoelectrically to a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG), a velocity shift and attenuation of the SAW are induced that reflect the conductivity of the 2DEG. This paper considers the case of an AlxGa1-xAs heterostructure with a 2DEG a distance d from a (100) surface of the crystal where the SAW's are propagated in the [011] direction at wave vector q. It is found that the velocity shift ?vs and the attenuation coefficient ? satisfy the well known equation (?vs/vs)-(i?/q)=(?2/2)/[1+i?xx(q,?)/? m], where ?xx(q,?) is the complex conductivity at wave vector q and frequency ?=vsq with vs the velocity of the SAW. The coefficients ? and ?m are calculated and it is found that ? has a nontrivial dependence on the product qd.
Brodsky, N.S. )
1990-11-01
Compressional wave ultrasonic data were used to qualitatively assess the extent of crack closure during hydrostatic compression of damaged specimens of WIPP salt. Cracks were introduced during constant strain-rate triaxial tests at low confining pressure (0.5 MPa) as specimens were taken to either 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 percent axial strain. For three specimens taken to 1.0 percent axial strain, the pressure was increased to 5, 10 or 15 MPa. For the remaining specimens, pressure was raised to 15 MPa. Waveforms for compressional waves traveling both parallel and perpendicular to the direction of maximum principal stress were measured in the undamaged state, during constant strain-rate tests, and then monitored as functions of time while the specimens were held at pressure. Both wave velocities and amplitudes increased over time at pressure, indicating that cracks closed and perhaps healed. The recovery of ultrasonic wave characteristics depended upon both pressure and damage level. The higher the pressure, the greater the velocity recovery; however, amplitude recovery showed no clear correlation with pressure. For both amplitudes and velocities, recoveries were greatest in the specimens with the least damage. 13 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.
On the excess attenuation of sound in the atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deloach, R.
1975-01-01
The attenuation suffered by an acoustic plane wave propagating from an elevated source to the ground, in excess of absorption losses, was studied. Reported discrepancies between attenuation measurements made in the field and theories which only account for absorption losses are discussed. It was concluded that the scattering of sound by turbulence results in a nonnegligible contribution to the total attenuation.
Tantau, L J; Chantler, C T; Bourke, J D; Islam, M T; Payne, A T; Rae, N A; Tran, C Q
2015-07-01
We use the x-ray extended range technique (XERT) to experimentally determine the mass attenuation coefficient of silver in the x-ray energy range 11 kev-28 kev including the silver K absorption edge. The results are accurate to better than 0.1%, permitting critical tests of atomic and solid state theory. This is one of the most accurate demonstrations of cross-platform accuracy in synchrotron studies thus far. We derive the mass absorption coefficients and the imaginary component of the form factor over this range. We apply conventional XAFS analytic techniques, extended to include error propagation and uncertainty, yielding bond lengths accurate to approximately 0.24% and thermal Debye-Waller parameters accurate to 30%. We then introduce the FDMX technique for accurate analysis of such data across the full XAFS spectrum, built on full-potential theory, yielding a bond length accuracy of order 0.1% and the demonstration that a single Debye parameter is inadequate and inconsistent across the XAFS range. Two effective Debye-Waller parameters are determined: a high-energy value based on the highly-correlated motion of bonded atoms (?(DW) = 0.1413(21) ), and an uncorrelated bulk value (?(DW) = 0.1766(9) ) in good agreement with that derived from (room-temperature) crystallography. PMID:26075571
The Physics of the Gas Attenuator for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)
Ryutov, D.D.; Bionta, R.M.; Hau-Riege, S.P.; Kishiyama, K.I.; McMahon, D.; Roeben, M.D.; Shen, S.; Stefan, P.M.; ,
2011-02-07
A systematic assessment of a variety of physics issues affecting the performance of the LCLS X-ray beam attenuator is presented. Detailed analysis of the gas flow in the gas attenuator and in the apertures is performed. A lot of attention is directed towards the gas ionization and heating by intense X-ray pulses. The role of these phenomena in possible deviations of the attenuation coefficient from its 'dialed in' value is evaluated and found small in most cases. Other sources of systematic and statistical errors are also discussed. The regimes where the errors may reach a few percent correspond to the lower X-ray energies (less than 2 keV) and highest beam intensities. Other effects discussed include chemical interaction of the gas with apertures, shock formation in the transonic flow in the apertures of the attenuator, generation of electromagnetic wakes in the gas, and head-to-tail variation of the attenuation caused by the ionization of gas or solid. Possible experimental tests of the consistency of the physics assumptions used in the concept of the gas attenuator are discussed. Interaction of X-rays with the solid attenuator (that will be used at higher X-ray energies, from 2.5 to 8 keV) is considered and thermo-mechanical effects caused by the beam heating are evaluated. Wave-front distortions induced by non-uniform heating of both the solid and the gas are found to be small. An overall conclusion drawn from the analysis presented is that the attenuator will be a reliable and highly versatile device, provided that some caution is exercised in its use for highest beam intensities at lowest X-ray energies.
Study on laser and infrared attenuation performance of carbon nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xiang-cui; Liu, Qing-hai; Dai, Meng-yan; Cheng, Xiang; Fang, Guo-feng; Zhang, Tong; Liu, Haifeng
2014-11-01
In recent years, the weapon systems of laser and infrared (IR) imaging guidance have been widely used in modern warfare because of their high precision and strong anti-interference. However, military smoke, a rapid and effective passive jamming method, can effectively counteract the attack of precision-guided weapons by their scattering and absorbing effects. The traditional smoke has good visible light (0.4-0.76?m) obscurant performance, but hardly any effects to other electromagnetic wave bands while the weapon systems of laser and IR imaging guidance usually work in broad band, including the near-infrared (1-3?m), middle-infrared (3-5?m), far-infrared (8-14?m), and so on. Accordingly, exploiting new effective obscurant materials has attracted tremendous interest worldwide nowadays. As is known, the nano-structured materials have lots of unique properties comparing with the traditional materials suggesting that they might be the perfect alternatives to solve the problems above. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are well-ordered, all-carbon hollow graphitic nano-structured materials with a high aspect ratio, lengths from several hundred nanometers to several millimeters. CNTs possess many unique intrinsic physical-chemical properties and are investigated in many areas reported by the previous studies. However, no application research about CNTs in smoke technology field is reported yet. In this paper, the attenuation performances of CNTs smoke to laser and IR were assessed in 20m3 smoke chamber. The testing wavebands employed in experiments are 1.06?m and 10.6?m laser, 3-5?m and 8-14?m IR radiation. The main parameters were obtained included the attenuation rate, transmission rate, mass extinction coefficient, etc. The experimental results suggest that CNTs smoke exhibits excellent attenuation ability to the broadband IR radiation. Their mass extinction coefficients are all above 1m2g-1. Nevertheless, the mass extinction coefficients vary with the sampling time and smoke particles concentrations, even in the same testing waveband. With the time going the mass extinction coefficients will increase gradually. Based on the above results, theoretical calculations are also carried out for further exploitations. In general, CNTs smoke behaves excellent attenuation ability toward laser and IR under the experimental conditions. Therefore, they have great potentials to develop new smoke obscurant materials which could effectively interfere with broadband IR radiation including 1.06?m, 10.6?m, 3-5?m and 8-12?m IR waveband.
Attenuated internal reflection terahertz imaging.
Wojdyla, Antoine; Gallot, Guilhem
2013-01-15
We present a terahertz (THz) imaging technique based on attenuated internal reflection, which is ideally suited for the analysis of liquid and biological samples. Inserted in a THz time-domain system, and using a high-resistivity low loss silicon prism to couple the THz wave into the sample, the detection scheme is based on the relative differential spectral phase of two orthogonal polarizations. Biological sample imaging as well as subwavelength (?/16) longitudinal resolution are demonstrated. PMID:23454932
Generalized viscoelastic wave equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yanghua
2016-02-01
This paper presents a generalized wave equation which unifies viscoelastic and pure elastic cases into a single wave equation. In the generalized wave equation, the degree of viscoelasticity varies between zero and unity, and is defined by a controlling parameter. When this viscoelastic controlling parameter equals to 0, the viscous property vanishes and the generalized wave equation becomes a pure elastic wave equation. When this viscoelastic controlling parameter equals to 1, it is the Stokes equation made up of a stack of pure elastic and Newtonian viscous models. Given this generalized wave equation, an analytical solution is derived explicitly in terms of the attenuation and the velocity dispersion. It is proved that, for any given value of the viscoelastic controlling parameter, the attenuation component of this generalized wave equation perfectly satisfies the power laws of frequency. Since the power laws are the fundamental characteristics in physical observations, this generalized wave equation can well represent seismic wave propagation through subsurface media.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Parveen; Joshi, A.; Sandeep; Kumar, Ashvini
2015-02-01
Three-dimensional attenuation structure based on frequency-dependent shear wave quality factor, Q β ( f), has been determined for the Kumaon region of the Himalayas. An algorithm based on inversion of strong motion data developed by J oshi (Curr Sci 90:581-585, 2006a) and later modified by K umar et al. (Pure Appl Geophys, doi: 10.1007/s00024-013-0658-x, 2013) was used for determination of three-dimensional attenuation coefficients. The input of this algorithm is the spectral acceleration of the S phase of the accelerogram and the outcome is the attenuation coefficient and the source acceleration spectra. A dense network monitoring strong ground motion in the Kumaon region of the Uttarakhand Himalayas has been operating since 2006. This network recorded 287 earthquakes up to July, 2013, of which 18 were used for this work. Shear-wave quality-factors were estimated for frequencies of 1.0, 5.0, and 10.0 Hz for two rectangular blocks of surface of dimensions 85 × 55 and 90 × 30 km2 in the Kumaon region of the Himalayas. Both blocks were divided into 25 three-dimensional blocks of uniform thickness with different Q β ( f) values. The spatial distribution of frequency-dependent shear-wave quality factors in two different blocks reveal the attenuation properties of the region. The profiles of the contours of shear-wave quality factors observed were comparable with those of major tectonic units present in the region.
High-frequency Rayleigh-wave method
Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Xu, Y.; Luo, Y.; Chen, C.; Liu, J.; Ivanov, J.; Zeng, C.
2009-01-01
High-frequency (???2 Hz) Rayleigh-wave data acquired with a multichannel recording system have been utilized to determine shear (S)-wave velocities in near-surface geophysics since the early 1980s. This overview article discusses the main research results of high-frequency surface-wave techniques achieved by research groups at the Kansas Geological Survey and China University of Geosciences in the last 15 years. The multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) method is a non-invasive acoustic approach to estimate near-surface S-wave velocity. The differences between MASW results and direct borehole measurements are approximately 15% or less and random. Studies show that simultaneous inversion with higher modes and the fundamental mode can increase model resolution and an investigation depth. The other important seismic property, quality factor (Q), can also be estimated with the MASW method by inverting attenuation coefficients of Rayleigh waves. An inverted model (S-wave velocity or Q) obtained using a damped least-squares method can be assessed by an optimal damping vector in a vicinity of the inverted model determined by an objective function, which is the trace of a weighted sum of model-resolution and model-covariance matrices. Current developments include modeling high-frequency Rayleigh-waves in near-surface media, which builds a foundation for shallow seismic or Rayleigh-wave inversion in the time-offset domain; imaging dispersive energy with high resolution in the frequency-velocity domain and possibly with data in an arbitrary acquisition geometry, which opens a door for 3D surface-wave techniques; and successfully separating surface-wave modes, which provides a valuable tool to perform S-wave velocity profiling with high-horizontal resolution. ?? China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2009.
Hargrove, Douglas L.
2004-09-14
A portable, hand-held meter used to measure direct current (DC) attenuation in low impedance electrical signal cables and signal attenuators. A DC voltage is applied to the signal input of the cable and feedback to the control circuit through the signal cable and attenuators. The control circuit adjusts the applied voltage to the cable until the feedback voltage equals the reference voltage. The "units" of applied voltage required at the cable input is the system attenuation value of the cable and attenuators, which makes this meter unique. The meter may be used to calibrate data signal cables, attenuators, and cable-attenuator assemblies.
Light attenuation characteristics of glacially-fed lakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rose, Kevin C.; Hamilton, David P.; Williamson, Craig E.; McBride, Chris G.; Fischer, Janet M.; Olson, Mark H.; Saros, Jasmine E.; Allan, Mathew G.; Cabrol, Nathalie
2014-07-01
Transparency is a fundamental characteristic of aquatic ecosystems and is highly responsive to changes in climate and land use. The transparency of glacially-fed lakes may be a particularly sensitive sentinel characteristic of these changes. However, little is known about the relative contributions of glacial flour versus other factors affecting light attenuation in these lakes. We sampled 18 glacially-fed lakes in Chile, New Zealand, and the U.S. and Canadian Rocky Mountains to characterize how dissolved absorption, algal biomass (approximated by chlorophyll a), water, and glacial flour contributed to attenuation of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm). Variation in attenuation across lakes was related to turbidity, which we used as a proxy for the concentration of glacial flour. Turbidity-specific diffuse attenuation coefficients increased with decreasing wavelength and distance from glaciers. Regional differences in turbidity-specific diffuse attenuation coefficients were observed in short UVR wavelengths (305 and 320 nm) but not at longer UVR wavelengths (380 nm) or PAR. Dissolved absorption coefficients, which are closely correlated with diffuse attenuation coefficients in most non-glacially-fed lakes, represented only about one quarter of diffuse attenuation coefficients in study lakes here, whereas glacial flour contributed about two thirds across UVR and PAR. Understanding the optical characteristics of substances that regulate light attenuation in glacially-fed lakes will help elucidate the signals that these systems provide of broader environmental changes and forecast the effects of climate change on these aquatic ecosystems.
Attenuation characteristics of peak horizontal acceleration in northeast and southwest China
Peng, K.Z.; Song, L.; Wu, F.T.
1985-05-01
Regional seismic characteristics in northeastern and southwestern China are quite different. Earthquakes are more frequent in SW China than in NE China and intensity attenuates faster in SW China than in NE China Through regression analyses of data from these two regions we have found the attenuation of peak horizontal accelerations also to be noticeably different. For northeastern China the regression is log/sub 10/(a) = - 0.474+0.613M - 0.873 log/sub 10/(R) - 0.00206R and for southwestern China, the regression is log/sub 10/(a) = 0.437+0.454M - 0.739 log/sub 10/(R) - 0.00279R where a is acceleration in cm/sec/sup 2/, M is the Chinese surface wave magnitude (Institute of Geophysics, State Seismological Bureau), and distance in kilometres. The formula for northeastern China has distance coefficients similar to those for Central United States as derived by Nuttli and Herrmann.
Evans, J.R.; Zucca, J.J.
1988-01-01
Medicine Lake volcano is a basalt through rhyolite shield volcano of the Cascade Range, lying east of the range axis. The Pg wave from eight explosive sources which has traveled upward through the target volume to a dense array of 140 seismographs provides 1- to 2-km resolution in the upper 5 to 7 km of the crust beneath the volcano. The experiment tests the hypothesis that Cascade Range volcanoes of this type are underlain only by small silicic magma chambers. We image a low-velocity low-Q region not larger than a few tens of cubic kilometers in volume beneath the summit caldera, supporting the hypothesis. A shallower high-velocity high-density feature, previously known to be present, is imaged for the first time in full plan view; it is east-west elongate, paralleling a topographic lineament between Medicine Lake volcano and Mount Shasta. Differences between this high-velocity feature and the equivalent feature at Newberry volcano, a volcano in central regon resembling Medicine Lake volcano, may partly explain the scarcity of surface hydrothermal features at Medicine Lake volcano. A major low-velocity low-Q feature beneath the southeast flank of the volcano, in an area with no Holocene vents, is interpreted as tephra, flows, and sediments from the volcano deeply ponded on the downthrown side of the Gillem fault. A high-Q normal-velocity feature beneath the north rim of the summit caldera may be a small, possibly hot, subsolidus intrusion. A high-velocity low-Q region beneath the eastern caldera may be an area of boiling water between the magma chamber and the ponded east flank material. -from Authors
Factor Scores, Structure Coefficients, and Communality Coefficients
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goodwyn, Fara
2012-01-01
This paper presents heuristic explanations of factor scores, structure coefficients, and communality coefficients. Common misconceptions regarding these topics are clarified. In addition, (a) the regression (b) Bartlett, (c) Anderson-Rubin, and (d) Thompson methods for calculating factor scores are reviewed. Syntax necessary to execute all four
(Investigations of ultrasonic wave interactions with grain boundaries and grain imperfections)
Not Available
1990-01-01
The main objective of our research is to obtain a better understanding of ultrasonic wave interaction with interfaces in polycrystalline materials. This report discusses two recently developed experimental techniques: scanning acoustic microscope and optical point sensors. As for general wave propagation problems in anisotropic media, four major topics are discussed in separate sections. First, single boundaries between large bicrystals are considered. The reflection and transmission coefficients of such interfaces are calculated for imperfect boundary conditions by using the finite interface stiffness approach. Ultrasonic transmission through multiple-grain structures are investigated by computer simulation based on the statistical evaluation of repeated acoustical wave interactions with individual grain boundaries. The number of grains interacting with the propagating acoustical wave is considered to be high enough to approximate the wave-material interaction as scattering on elastic inhomogeneities. The grain scattering induced attenuation of Rayleigh waves is investigated in polycrystalline materials. 41 refs., 43 figs.
Ultrasonic attenuation via energy diffusion channel in disordered conductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shtyk, Alexander; Feigel'man, Mikhail
2015-11-01
We predict an existence of a dissipation channel leading to attenuation of ultrasound in disordered conductors and superconductors with perfect electroneutrality. It is due to slow diffusion of thermal energy. We show that in doped silicon ultrasound attenuation may be enhanced by a factor about 100. A similar effect is also studied for s -wave and d -wave superconductors. The latter case is applied to BSCCO family where a strong enhancement of the ultrasound attenuation is predicted. For usual s -wave superconductors, this dissipation channel might be important for very low-electron-density materials near the BCS-BEC crossover.
Seismic Attenuation beneath Tateyama Volcano, Central Japan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iwata, K.; Kawakata, H.; Doi, I.
2014-12-01
Subsurface structures beneath active volcanoes have frequently been investigated (e.g., Oikawa et al., 1994: Sudo et al., 1996), and seismic attenuation beneath some active volcanoes are reported to be strong. On the other hand, few local subsurface structures beneath volcanoes whose volcanic activities are low have been investigated in detail, though it is important to study them to understand the potential of volcanic activity of these volcanoes. Then, we analyzed the seismic attenuation beneath Tateyama volcano (Midagahara volcano) located in central Japan, whose volcanic activity is quite low. We used seismograms obtained by Hi-net deployed by NIED (National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention). Hi-net is one of the densest seismic station networks in the world, and the spatial interval of their seismographs is about 20 km, which is suitable for investigating local structure beneath an individual volcano. We estimated S-wave attenuation using seismograms at five stations near Tateyama volcano for nineteen small, local, shallow earthquakes (M 2.7-4.0) that occurred from January 2012 to December 2013. We divided these earthquakes into six groups according to their hypocenter locations. We used twofold spectral ratios around the first S-arrivals to investigate the S-wave attenuation when S-waves passed through the region beneath Tateyama volcano. We focused on station pairs located on opposite sides of Tateyama volcano to each other, and earthquake pairs whose epicenters were located almost along the line connecting Tateyama volcano and the two stations, so that the spectral ratios reflect a local structure beneath Tateyama volcano. Twofold spectral ratios of all seismograms for S waves having northwestern or southeastern sources show strong attenuation beneath Tateyama volcano. On the other hand, those of seismograms having northeastern or southwestern sources show much weaker attenuation, which suggested that the region of strong attenuation is anisotropic and/or has complicated shape.
Attenuation measurements in solutions of some carbohydrates
Gagandeep; Singh, K.; Lark, B.S.; Sahota, H.S.
2000-02-01
The linear attenuation coefficients in aqueous solutions of three carbohydrates, glucose (C{sub 6}H{sub 12} O{sub 6}), maltose monohydrate (C{sub 12}H{sub 22}O{sub 11}{center{underscore}dot}H{sub 2}O), and sucrose (C{sub 12}H{sub 22}O{sub 11}), were determined at 81, 356, 511, 662, 1,173, and 1,332 keV by the gamma-ray transmission method in a good geometry setup. From the precisely measured densities of these solutions, mass attenuation coefficients were then obtained that varied systematically with the corresponding changes in the concentrations (g/cm{sup 3}) of these solutions. The experimental results were used in terms of effective atomic numbers and electron densities. A comparison between experimental and theoretical values of attenuation coefficients has proven that the study has a potential application for the determination of attenuation coefficients of solid solutes from their solutions without obtaining them in pure crystalline form.
Attenuation Measurements in Solutions of Some Carbohydrates
Gagandeep; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B.S.; Sahota, H.S.
2000-02-15
The linear attenuation coefficients in aqueous solutions of three carbohydrates, glucose (C{sub 6}H{sub 12}O{sub 6}), maltose monohydrate (C{sub 12}H{sub 22}O{sub 11}.H{sub 2}O), and sucrose (C{sub 12}H{sub 22}O{sub 11}), were determined at 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173, and 1332 keV by the gamma-ray transmission method in a good geometry setup. From the precisely measured densities of these solutions, mass attenuation coefficients were then obtained that varied systematically with the corresponding changes in the concentrations (g/cm{sup 3}) of these solutions. The experimental results were used in terms of effective atomic numbers and electron densities. A comparison between experimental and theoretical values of attenuation coefficients has proven that the study has a potential application for the determination of attenuation coefficients of solid solutes from their solutions without obtaining them in pure crystalline form.
X-Ray Form Factor, Attenuation and Scattering Tables
National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway
SRD 66 X-Ray Form Factor, Attenuation and Scattering Tables (Web, free access) This database collects tables and graphs of the form factors, the photoabsorption cross section, and the total attenuation coefficient for any element (Z <= 92).
Low energy gamma ray attenuation in multiphase water
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singh, Jag J.; Sprinkle, Danny R.; Eftekhari, Abe
1990-01-01
A gauging system is proposed to enable monitoring of slush density, solid-liquid interface, and slush level as well as its flow rate. It is based on the principle that the electromagnetic radiation mass attenuation coefficient of a multiphase chemical compound is constant for all relative phase concentrations. Results showing the essential constancy of mass attenuation coefficients for single-phase water vapor, liquid water, ice, and multiphase mixtures of water/ice are described.
Attenuation Tomography Based on Strong Motion Data: Case Study of Central Honshu Region, Japan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Parveen; Joshi, A.; Verma, O. P.
2013-12-01
Three-dimensional frequency dependent S-wave quality factor (Qβ(f)) value for the central Honshu region of Japan has been determined in this paper using an algorithm based on inversion of strong motion data. The method of inversion for determination of three-dimensional attenuation coefficients is proposed by H ashida and S himazaki (J Phys Earth. 32, 299-316, 1984) and has been used and modified by J oshi (Curr Sci. 90, 581-585, 2006; Nat Hazards. 43, 129-146, 2007) and J oshi et al. (J. Seismol. 14, 247-272, 2010). Twenty-one earthquakes digitally recorded on strong motion stations of Kik-net network have been used in this work. The magnitude of these earthquake ranges from 3.1 to 4.2 and depth ranging from 5 to 20 km, respectively. The borehole data having high signal to noise ratio and minimum site effect is used in the present work. The attenuation structure is determined by dividing the entire area into twenty-five three-dimensional blocks of uniform thickness having different frequency-dependent shear wave quality factor. Shear wave quality factor values have been determined at frequencies of 2.5, 7.0 and 10 Hz from record in a rectangular grid defined by 35.4°N to 36.4°N and 137.2°E to 138.2°E. The obtained attenuation structure is compared with the available geological features in the region and comparison shows that the obtained structure is capable of resolving important tectonic features present in the area. The proposed attenuation structure is compared with the probabilistic seismic hazard map of the region and shows that it bears some remarkable similarity in the patterns seen in seismic hazard map.
Inversion for Anisotropic Frequency-Dependent Spreading of Body Waves in a VSP Dataset
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baharvand Ahmadi, A.; Morozov, I. B.
2012-12-01
In Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP), body waves are often known to show spreading significantly different from the theoretical geometric-spreading behavior. This difference can be explained by ray bending, scattering, and attenuation, which need to be accurately measured in each specific case. Here, we invert for an anisotropic, combined amplitude spreading and attenuation model using a 1-D tomographic approach. The model is derived from first arrivals of a multi-offset, 3-D VSP dataset from Weyburn oilfield in southeast Saskatchewan. Using interpreted well-log data and geologic model of the study area, we constructed a six-layer interval velocity model. Unlike the traditional approaches based on the frequency-dependent quality factor (Q), our attenuation model is formulated without Q and in terms of the frequency-dependent attenuation/scattering coefficients attributed to these layers . Multi-offset, frequency-dependent first-arrival amplitudes also require that these attenuation parameters are anisotropic. Inversion of 35 shot records, reveals variations of geometric attenuation (focusing, defocusing and scattering, denoted ?) and the effective attenuation (Qe) with depth. Scattering and geometric spreading play significant roles at lower frequencies and shallower depths, with negative ? (i.e., focusing) to ~430-m depths, which gradually increase and become positive (defocusing) from 1360 m to 1390 m. Positive values of ? are also close to those predicted theoretically for back-scattering on the reflectivity structure derived from the log. The geometric attenuation shows significant anisotropy, with predominantly horizontal refraction and forward-scattering (focusing) within the structure. Statistical analysis of model uncertainties quantitatively measures the significance of these results. The resulting model of frequency-dependent body-wave amplitude correctly predicts the observed first-arrival VSP amplitudes at all frequencies. This and similar models can be applied to other types of waves and should be useful for true-amplitude studies, including inversion, Q-compensation, and the analysis of reflection amplitude variations with offset (AVO).
Attenuation of external Bremsstrahlung in metallic absorbers
Dhaliwal, A.S.; Powar, M.S.; Singh, M. )
1990-12-01
In this paper attenuation of bremsstrahlung from {sup 147}Pm and {sup 170}Tm beta emitters has been studied in aluminum, copper, tin, and lead metallic absorbers. Bremsstrahlung spectra and mass attenuation coefficients for monoenergetic gamma rays are used to calculate theoretical attenuation curves. Magnetic deflection and beta stopping techniques are used to measure the integral bremsstrahlung intensities above 30 keV in different target thicknesses. Comparison of measured and calculated attenuation curves shows a good agreement for various absorbers, thus providing a test of this technique, which may be useful in understanding bremsstrahlung intensity buildup and in the design of optimum shielding for bremsstrahlung sources. It is found that the absorption of bremsstrahlung in metallic absorbers does not obey an exponential law and that absorbers act as energy filters.
Light attenuation on unicellular marine phytoplankton
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krol, Tadeusz; Lotocka, Maria
1994-10-01
Sea phytoplankton plays a considerable role in the interactive processes between light and the sea. Its species composition and the physiological development phase influence the spectrum of the light attenuation coefficient in the sea. Laboratory measurements of light attenuation spectrum were carried out on three different phytoplankton monocultures of the unicellular green algae Chlorella vulgaris and the larger Chlorella kesleri and the blue-green alga Chroococcus minor. The cultures were subjected to chemical (NaOH and temperature) or physical (ultrasounds) factors which altered their internal cell structures. Distinct changes in the light attenuation spectrum were observed as a result of the modification of the internal cell structures. Light attenuation cross-sections of those phytoplankton cells were also determined.
Transient ultrasonic fields in power law attenuation media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kelly, James F.
Ultrasonic waves in biological media experience frequency dependent attenuation. Extensive measurement of the attenuation coefficient in human and mammalian tissue in the ultrasonic range has revealed a power law dependence on frequency, where the power law exponent ranges between 0 and 2. For most tissue, the power law exponent ranges between 1 and 1.7, which cannot be explained by classical theories for ultrasonic absorption, such as thermo-viscosity or molecular relaxation. The purpose of this thesis is threefold: (1) to understand the analytical structure of transient fields in power law media, (2) to provide a possible description of the physical mechanism responsible for power law attenuation in biological media, and (3) to develop analytical models for transient, three-dimensional sound beams in power law media. Insight into general dissipative media is gained by studying the approximations available in viscous media. The Stokes wave equation is considered in the time domain, and an asymptotic, causal Green's function is rigorously derived and verified using the material impulse response function (MIRF) approach. A lossy impulse response for the Stokes wave equation is derived for calculations of transient fields generated by finite aperture radiators. Expressions for the uniform circular aperture (in both the nearfield and the farfield), the uniform rectangular aperture in the nearfield, and the spherical shell in the nearfield are then derived. Power-law media is then studied using fractional partial differential equations (FPDEs), which add loss to the wave equation with a time-fractional or space-fractional derivative. A FPDE is derived that exactly describes power law attenuation, and analytical, time-domain James F. Kelly Green's functions in power law media are derived for exponents between 0 and 2. To construct solutions, stable law probability distributions are utilized, which are widely used in the study of anomalous diffusion and in the study of fractal media. For exponents strictly less than 1, the Green's functions are causal, while for exponents greater than or equal than 1, the Green's functions are noncausal. To address the lack of causality, alternate power law FPDEs based on fractional spatial operators are considered: the Chen-Holm wave equation and a spatially dispersive wave equation. Green's functions are derived for both equations, yielding causal solutions for all applicable power law exponents. The Chen-Holm equation is shown to be non-dispersive, while the spatially dispersive wave equation supports a phase velocity predicted by the Kramers-Kronig relations. To address the physical basis for FPDEs, a fractal ladder network is proposed as a model for the stress-strain relationship in tissue. This constitutive equation is based on a lumped-parameter infinite-ladder topology involving alternating springs and dashpots to capture the viscoelastic and self-similar properties of tissue. This ladder network yields a stress-strain constitutive equation involving a time-fractional derivative. The Caputo-Wismer FPDE is derived from this constitutive equation. Finally, the impulse response derived for viscous media is generalized to power law media. Expressions for finite apertures are then derived in dispersive media, thus forming the basis for ultrasonic image simulation in biological media.
Method of determining ultrasonic attenuation of tissue using reflective tomographic reconstruction
Flax, S. W.; Glover, G. H.
1984-10-09
Ultrasonic wave attenuation is determined for a plurality of limited volumes of tissue comprising a body under examination by directing ultrasonic waves through each limited volume along a plurality of vectors, determining a measure of attenuation of the limited volume by detecting the frequency shift of reflections of the ultrasonic wave along each vector, and averaging the attenuation of each limited volume from each vector intersecting the limited volume.
Active attenuation of noise - The Chelsea dipole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eghtesadi, K.; Leventhall, H. G.
1981-03-01
Methods of active attenuation of noise, that is to cancel the noise from a source by the addition of further noise, include the method of destructive interference. A number of configurations of active attenuators are possible and a new system which originated in work at Chelsea College, University of London has been developed further. This system employs two spaced secondary sources in a duct energized in antiphase, with the microphone situated centrally between them. The radiation from the secondary sources cancels at the microphone, which, ideally, responds only to the travelling wave in the duct. The microphone output is phase shifted by 90 deg and then amplitude compensated by a transfer function before being fed to the secondary sources, in order to bring its downstream radiation into antiphase with the travelling noise wave. There is radiation both upstream and downstream from the secondary sources, but the microphone is isolated from the resulting upstream standing waves and time delays are not required, unlike the systems employing the microphone remote from the attenuator. The action of the attenuator has been investigated on pure tones and bands of noise with a range of attenuator center frequencies.
Absorption coefficient instrument for turbid natural waters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Friedman, E.; Cherdak, A.; Poole, L.; Houghton, W.
1980-01-01
The paper presents an instrument that directly measures multispectral absorption coefficient of turbid natural water. Attention is given to the design, which is shown to incorporate methods for the compensation of variation in the internal light source intensity, correction of the spectrally dependent nature of the optical elements, and correction for variation in the background light level. In addition, when used in conjunction with a spectrally matched total attenuation instrument, the spectrally dependent scattering coefficient can also be derived. Finally, it is reported that systematic errors associated with multiple scattering have been estimated using Monte Carlo techniques.
Tracer attenuation in groundwater
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cvetkovic, Vladimir
2011-12-01
The self-purifying capacity of aquifers strongly depends on the attenuation of waterborne contaminants, i.e., irreversible loss of contaminant mass on a given scale as a result of coupled transport and transformation processes. A general formulation of tracer attenuation in groundwater is presented. Basic sensitivities of attenuation to macrodispersion and retention are illustrated for a few typical retention mechanisms. Tracer recovery is suggested as an experimental proxy for attenuation. Unique experimental data of tracer recovery in crystalline rock compare favorably with the theoretical model that is based on diffusion-controlled retention. Non-Fickian hydrodynamic transport has potentially a large impact on field-scale attenuation of dissolved contaminants.
The velocity and attenuation anisotropy of shale at ultrasonic frequency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Jixin; Wang, Shangxu; Han, De-hua
2009-09-01
The velocity and attenuation anisotropy of dry and oil-saturated shale were measured at laboratory ultrasonic frequency by using the transmission technique. Our purpose is to find the variation rules of wave velocity and attenuation in different directions as a function of effective pressure in dry and oil-saturated situations, and those intrinsic factors that result in such anisotropy. Using x-ray diffraction techniques and a scanning electron microscope, the causative factors for the velocity anisotropy are found to be mainly due to the alignment of clay mineral and microcracks. The attenuation of P- and S-waves also shows apparent directional dependence, but different from that of velocities. Attenuation anisotropy can be interpreted in terms of grain and pore geometry. For dry shale samples, the dominant attenuation mechanism is phase hysteresis due to static friction. On one hand, the Biot flow plays a key role in causing wave attenuation for the P-wave propagating parallel to bedding for fluid-saturated samples. On the other hand, the fluid-related attenuation is mainly attributed to the mechanisms of squirt flow for the P-wave propagating vertical to bedding.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakajima, Junichi
2014-12-01
The three-dimensional (3-D) P-wave attenuation ( Q p -1) structure beneath Kanto, Japan, is estimated by using a large number of waveform data. Corner frequencies of earthquakes are initially calculated from spectral ratios of S-coda waves, followed by an inversion to simultaneously determine attenuation terms and frequency-dependent site amplification factors. The attenuation terms are then inverted for estimation of the 3-D Q p -1 structure. The obtained results show that seismic attenuation is highly heterogeneous, and pronounced high-attenuation areas are located in the continental lower crust and mantle of the Philippine Sea slab. Seismic activity is very low in the high-attenuation lower crust, which is most likely attributable to ductile deformation facilitated by fluids supplied from the underlying Philippine Sea slab. The high-attenuation area in the Philippine Sea slab represents the serpentinized mantle, and two M ~ 7 earthquakes are documented to have occurred along the western boundary of this area. Interplate earthquakes on the Pacific slab are absent in areas overlain by the serpentinized Philippine Sea slab, which is likely due to the low viscosity of serpentine promoting continuous ductile deformation rather than brittle failures along the plate boundary.
Collective modes and sound propagation in a p-wave superconductor: Sr2RuO4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kee, Hae-Young; Kim, Yong Baek; Maki, Kazumi
2000-09-01
There are five distinct collective modes in the recently discovered p-wave superconductor Sr2RuO4; phase and amplitude modes of the order parameter, clapping mode (real and imaginary), and spin wave. The first two modes also exist in the ordinary s-wave superconductors, while the clapping mode with the energy 2?(T) is unique to Sr2RuO4 and couples to the sound wave. Here we report a theoretical study of the sound propagation in a two-dimensional p-wave superconductor. We identified the clapping mode and study its effects on the longitudinal and transverse sound velocities in the superconducting state. In contrast to the case of 3He, there is no resonance absorption associated with the collective mode, since in metals ?/(vF\\|q\\|)<<1, where vF is the Fermi velocity, q is the wave vector, and ? is the frequency of the sound wave. However, the velocity change in the collisionless limit gets modified by the contribution from the coupling to the clapping mode. We compute this contribution and comment on the visibility of the effect. In the diffusive limit, the contribution from the collective mode turns out to be negligible. The behaviors of the sound velocity change and the attenuation coefficient near Tc in the diffusive limit are calculated and compared with the existing experimental data wherever it is possible. We also present the results for the attenuation coefficients in both of the collisionless and diffusive limits at finite temperatures.
Yellowstone Attenuation Tomography from Ambient Seismic Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doungkaew, N.; Seats, K.; Lawrence, J. F.
2013-12-01
The goal of this study is to create a tomographic attenuation image for the Yellowstone region by analyzing ambient seismic noise. An attenuation image generated from ambient noise should provide more information about the structure and properties beneath Yellowstone, especially the caldera, which is known to be active. I applied the method of Lawrence & Prieto [2011] to examine lateral variations in the attenuation structure of Yellowstone. Ambient noise data were collected from broadband seismic stations located around Yellowstone National Park from 1999-2013. Noise correlation functions derived from cross correlations of the ambient noise at two stations were used to calculate a distance dependent decay (an attenuation coefficient) at each period and distance. An inversion was then performed to isolate and localize the spatial attenuation coefficients within the study area. I observe high amplitude decay of the ambient noise at the Yellowstone caldera, most likely due to elevated temperature and crustal melts caused by volcanism, geothermal heat flow, and hydrothermal activity such as geysers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fielitz, D.; Wegler, U.
2015-06-01
Hydraulically induced microseismicity is used to study high-frequency attenuation properties (6-72 Hz) in an enhanced geothermal system. Intrinsic and scattering attenuation are separated by jointly inverting seismogram envelopes for structural parameters, source and site effects. Modelling of synthetic envelopes is based on radiative transfer theory. To speed up inversion, an analytical solution of the radiative transfer equation for a 3-D isotropic scattering medium is implemented. In order to compensate for the actual anisotropic scattering, a smoothing algorithm is applied to introduce envelope broadening and peak delay. The approach is tested with seismic data from four fluid-induced earthquakes (Mw ? 1) recorded by a temporary seismic network at the German Continental Deep Drilling (KTB) site at epicentral distances of less than 20 km. Full S-wave envelopes are inverted in 12 overlapping frequency bands with centre frequencies between 1.5 and 72 Hz. With data sampling at 200 Hz and high-frequency S-wave sources, attenuation estimates are obtained for the rarely probed frequency range between 30 and 70 Hz. From the inversion, we infer average values of the transport scattering coefficient g*, and the intrinsic absorption parameter b, as well as corresponding quality factors Qs and Qi. By comparison with attenuation estimates from regions with different tectonic activities, we see that both Qs and Qi for the investigated geothermal region fit best to moderate scattering and intrinsic regimes as obtained in tectonically active regions. A comparison with a regional attenuation model for southern Germany proves that attenuation estimates are scale-dependent. To compare intrinsic and scattering attenuation in the KTB region the transport mean free path (TMFP) and the absorption length (la) are calculated. For both, we find a clear frequency dependence proportional to f -0.8 (TMFP) and f -0.3 (la). TMFP decreases from 340 km at 6 Hz to 60 km at 72 Hz, whereas absorption length drops from 40 to 20 km, respectively. Thus, intrinsic absorption dominates over scattering attenuation by at least one order of magnitude. The influence of scattering becomes more significant towards higher frequencies. Moreover, comparing the apparent attenuation (inverse sum of TMFP and la) to values estimated with the spectral ratio technique, achieves a good agreement with mean deviations in the order of 3-5 per cent. From the frequency dependence of TMFP, it can be inferred that a von Karman-type of random medium with a Hurst exponent of ? = 0.11 is a good model for representing the stimulated reservoir at the KTB. The fractal distribution of scatterers agrees well with results derived from independent analysis of acoustic logs.
Foltyn, S.R.
1987-05-29
The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprising one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength. 9 figs.
Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM)
1988-01-01
The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprng one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength.
The Study of Rain Specific Attenuation for the Prediction of Satellite Propagation in Malaysia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandeep, J. S.; Ng, Y. Y.; Abdullah, H.; Abdullah, M.
2010-06-01
Specific attenuation is the fundamental quantity in the calculation of rain attenuation for terrestrial path and slant paths representing as rain attenuation per unit distance (dB/km). Specific attenuation is an important element in developing the predicted rain attenuation model. This paper deals with the empirical determination of the power law coefficients which allow calculating the specific attenuation in dB/km from the knowledge of the rain rate in mm/h. The main purpose of the paper is to obtain the coefficients of k and α of power law relationship between specific attenuation. Three years (from 1st January 2006 until 31st December 2008) rain gauge and beacon data taken from USM, Nibong Tebal have been used to do the empirical procedure analysis of rain specific attenuation. The data presented are semi-empirical in nature. A year-to-year variation of the coefficients has been indicated and the empirical measured data was compared with ITU-R provided regression coefficient. The result indicated that the USM empirical measured data was significantly vary from ITU-R predicted value. Hence, ITU-R recommendation for regression coefficients of rain specific attenuation is not suitable for predicting rain attenuation at Malaysia.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsai, V. C.
2011-12-01
Cross correlations of ambient seismic noise have been used to produce both travel time and attenuation maps. However, while there is currently good understanding of what affects the travel times of noise correlation measurements, theory to understand the amplitudes has just begun to be worked out. Here, using a ray-theory framework that accounts for attenuation and the spatial distribution of noise sources (Tsai, JGR, 2011, in press), we evaluate the effect of various noise source distributions on the decay of amplitudes with station-station distance. For relatively simple and symmetric noise distributions, analytic solutions for both the raw cross correlation and the coherency are possible. For example, solutions for an arbitrary far-field distribution of sources placed symmetrically about the station pair can be expressed in terms of Bessel and modified Bessel functions. Cross correlations for more complicated noise distributions cannot be solved analytically but a few representative numerical computations are provided. In all cases except for the fully homogeneous distribution of noise sources, the decay of amplitudes does not match the exponential decay expected of the Green's function for the damped wave equation. One important consequence is that there are cases for which the cross correlation phases are consistent with the Green's function but the cross correlation amplitudes are not (e.g. when the noise distribution is azimuthally uniform but not uniform with distance). In general, cross correlation amplitudes are observed to be more sensitive to noise distributions than cross correlation phases. Despite this increased sensitivity, certain somewhat realistic noise distributions yield attenuation coefficient biases of less than an order of magnitude. This suggests that attenuation tomography may be feasible if researchers are careful in selecting data and performing the attenuation measurement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Denolle, M.; Prieto, G.; Lawrence, J. F.; Beroza, G. C.; Hirata, N.; Nakagawa, S.; Miyake, H.; Kasahara, K.; Sakai, S.; Aketagawa, T.; Kimura, H.
2010-12-01
Ground motion prediction is traditionally estimated in seismic hazard analysis using parametric scaling relations, which are often referred to as "attenuation relations." Increasingly, seismologists are turning to simulation-based hazard analysis. There are at least two reasons for this. First, it allows seismologists to overcome the scarcity of data from large events in the data. Second, it exploits our growing knowledge of the geological complexity of the Earth's crust and our ability to model wave propagation through it. The accuracy of these simulations is critical to their use for risk reduction, but is limited by our incomplete knowledge of the elastic and anelastic structure of the subsurface. The situation is particularly acute for sedimentary basins that underlie densely populated urban centers such as Los Angeles and Tokyo, both because the exposure is so high, and because it is difficult to obtain new images of Earth structure in urban settings. In this study, we show how ambient seismic field analysis can improve this situation. We take the advantage of the dense seismic networks in those areas and use 9 months of continuous records for about 180 stations from the Southern Californian Seismic Networks for Los Angeles and 6 months of a combination of 190 MeSO-net stations and 110 Hi-net instruments in Tokyo area. We estimate the basin amplification of these comparable urban centers with ambient field transfer function, or impulse response. The ambient seismic field also provides constraints on the attenuation signal in surface waves, and hence on the anelastic structure of the Earth. We exploit this by using the real part of the complex coherence to estimate the attenuation coefficient of Rayleigh waves, and from it variations in the anelastic structure. We acknowledge the support by the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.
Multiple resolution seismic attenuation imaging at Mt. Vesuvius
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Siena, Luca; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Bianco, Francesca; Tramelli, Anna
2009-03-01
A three-dimensional S wave attenuation tomography of Mt. Vesuvius has been obtained with multiple measurements of coda-normalized S-wave spectra of local small magnitude earthquakes. We used 6609 waveforms, relative to 826 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, located close to the crater axis in a depth range between 1 and 4 km (below the sea level), recorded at seven 3-component digital seismic stations. We adopted a two-point ray-tracing; rays were traced in an high resolution 3-D velocity model. The spatial resolution achieved in the attenuation tomography is comparable with that of the velocity tomography (we resolve 300 m side cubic cells). We statistically tested that the results are almost independent from the radiation pattern. We also applied an improvement of the ordinary spectral-slope method to both P- and S-waves, assuming that the differences between the theoretical and the experimental high frequency spectral-slope are only due to the attenuation effects. Consequently we could check the coda-normalization method also comparing the S attenuation image with the P attenuation image. The images were obtained inverting the spectral data with a multiple resolution approach. Results have shown the general coincidence of low attenuation with high velocity zones. The joint interpretation of velocity and attenuation images allows us to interpret the low attenuation zone intruding toward the surface until a depth of 500 m below the sea level as related to the residual part of solidified magma from the last eruption. In the depth range between - 700 and - 2300 images are consistent with the presence of multiple acquifer layers. No evidence of magma patches greater than the minimum cell dimension (300 m) has been found. A shallow P wave attenuation anomaly (beneath the southern flank of the volcano) is consitent with the presence of gas saturated rocks. The zone characterized by the maximum seismic energy release cohincides with a high attenuation and low velocity volume, interpreted as a cracked medium.
Compensation for non-uniform attenuation in SPECT brain imaging
Glick, S.J.; King, M.A.; Pan, T.S.
1994-05-01
Photon attenuation is a major limitation in performing quantitative SPECT brain imaging. A number of methods have been proposed for compensation of attenuation in regions of the body that can be modelled as a uniform attenuator. The magnitude of the errors introduced into reconstructed brain images by assuming the head to be a uniform attenuator are uncertain (the skull, sinus cavities and head holder all have different attenuation properties than brain tissue). Brain imaging is unique in that the radioisotope, for the most part, is taken up within a uniform attenuation medium (i.e., brain tissue) which is surrounded by bone (i.e., the skull) of a different density. Using this observation, Bellini`s method for attenuation compensation (which is an exact solution to the exponential Radon transform) has been modified to account for the different attenuation properties of the skull. To test this modified Bellini method, a simple mathematical phantom was designed to model the brain and a skull of varying thickness less than 7.5 mm. To model brain imaging with Tc-99m HMPAO, the attenuation coefficient of the brain tissue and skull were set to 0.15 cm{sup -1} and 0.22 cm{sup -1} respectively. A ray-driven projector which accounted for non-uniform attenuation was used to simulate projection data from 128 views. The detector response and scatter were not simulated. It was observed that reconstructions processed with uniform attenuation compensation (i.e., where it was assumed that the brain tissue and the skull had the same attenuation coefficient) provided errors of 6-20%, whereas those processed with the non-uniform Bellini algorithm were biased by only 0-5%.
Mechanisms for attenuation in cancellous-bone-mimicking phantoms.
Wear, Keith A
2008-11-01
Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) in cancellous bone is useful for prediction of osteoporotic fracture risk, but its causes are not well understood. To investigate attenuation mechanisms, 9 cancellous-bone-mimicking phantoms containing nylon filaments (simulating bone trabeculae) embedded within soft-tissue-mimicking fluid (simulating marrow) were interrogated. The measurements of frequency-dependent attenuation coefficient had 3 separable components: 1) a linear (with frequency) component attributable to absorption in the soft-tissue-mimicking fluid, 2) a quasilinear (with frequency) component, which may include absorption in and longitudinal-shear mode conversion by the nylon filaments, and 3) a nonlinear (with frequency) component, which may be attributable to longitudinal-longitudinal scattering by the nylon filaments. The slope of total linear (with frequency) attenuation coefficient (sum of components #1 and #2) versus frequency was found to increase linearly with volume fraction, consistent with reported measurements on cancellous bone. Backscatter coefficient measurements in the 9 phantoms supported the claim that the nonlinear (with frequency) component of attenuation coefficient (component #3) was closely associated with longitudinal-longitudinal scattering. This work represents the first experimental separation of these 3 components of attenuation in cancellous bone-mimicking phantoms. PMID:19049921
Generalized Hansen Coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Breiter, Sławomir; Métris, Gilles; Vokrouhlický, David
2004-02-01
Hansen coefficients X
GPR measurements of attenuation in concrete
Eisenmann, David Margetan, Frank J. Pavel, Brittney
2015-03-31
Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) signals from concrete structures are affected by several phenomenon, including: (1) transmission and reflection coefficients at interfaces; (2) the radiation patterns of the antenna(s) being used; and (3) the material properties of concrete and any embedded objects. In this paper we investigate different schemes for determining the electromagnetic (EM) attenuation of concrete from measured signals obtained using commercially-available GPR equipment. We adapt procedures commonly used in ultrasonic inspections where one compares the relative strengths of two or more signals having different travel paths through the material of interest. After correcting for beam spread (i.e., diffraction), interface phenomena, and equipment amplification settings, any remaining signal differences are assumed to be due to attenuation thus allowing the attenuation coefficient (say, in dB of loss per inch of travel) to be estimated. We begin with a brief overview of our approach, and then discuss how diffraction corrections were determined for our two 1.6 GHz GPR antennas. We then present results of attenuation measurements for two types of concrete using both pulse/echo and pitch/catch measurement setups.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Connolly, D. J. (Inventor)
1978-01-01
A traveling wave tube (TWT) has a slow wave structure (SWS) which is severed into two or more sections. A signal path, connects the end of an SWS section to the beginning of the following SWS section. The signal path comprises an impedance matching coupler (IMC), followed by an isolator, a variable phase shifter, and a second IMC. The aggregate band pass characteristic of the components in the signal path is chosen to reject, or strongly attenuate, all frequencies outside the desired operating frequency range of the TWT and yet pass, with minimal attenuation in the forward direction, all frequencies within the desired operating frequency range. The isolator is chosen to reject, or strongly attenuate, waves, of all frequencies, which propagate in the backward direction. The aggregate phase shift characteristic of the components in the signal path is chosen to apply signal power to the beginning of the following SWS section with the phase angle yielding maximum efficiency.
Huntzicker, Steven; Nayak, Rohit; Doyley, Marvin M.
2014-01-01
Abstract. Quantitative sparse array vascular elastography visualizes the shear modulus distribution within vascular tissues, information that clinicans could use to reduce the number of strokes each year. However, the low transmit power sparse array (SA) imaging could hamper the clinical usefulness of the resulting elastograms. In this study, we evaluated the performance of modulus elastograms recovered from simulated and physical vessel phantoms with varying attenuation coefficients (0.6, 1.5, and 3.5??cm?1) and modulus contrasts (?12.04, ?6.02, and ?2.5??dB) using SA imaging relative to those obtained with conventional linear array (CLA) and plane-wave (PW) imaging techniques. Plaques were visible in all modulus elastograms, but those produced using SA and PW contained less artifacts. The modulus contrast-to-noise ratio decreased rapidly with increasing modulus contrast and attenuation coefficient, but more quickly when SA imaging was performed than for CLA or PW. The errors incurred varied from 10.9% to 24% (CLA), 1.8% to 12% (SA), and ?4% (PW). Modulus elastograms produced with SA and PW imagings were not significantly different (p>0.05). Despite the low transmit power, SA imaging can produce useful modulus elastograms in superficial organs, such as the carotid artery. PMID:26158040
Coefficients of Effective Length.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edwards, Roger H.
1981-01-01
Under certain conditions, a validity Coefficient of Effective Length (CEL) can produce highly misleading results. A modified coefficent is suggested for use when empirical studies indicate that underlying assumptions have been violated. (Author/BW)
Laser Measurement Of Convective-Heat-Transfer Coefficient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Porro, A. Robert; Hingst, Warren R.; Chriss, Randall M.; Seablom, Kirk D.; Keith, Theo G., Jr.
1994-01-01
Coefficient of convective transfer of heat at spot on surface of wind-tunnel model computed from measurements acquired by developmental laser-induced-heat-flux technique. Enables non-intrusive measurements of convective-heat-transfer coefficients at many points across surfaces of models in complicated, three-dimensional, high-speed flows. Measurement spot scanned across surface of model. Apparatus includes argon-ion laser, attenuator/beam splitter electronic shutter infrared camera, and subsystem.
Charge Fluctuation of Dust Grain and Its Impact on Dusty-Acoustic Wave Damping
Atamaniuk, B.; Zuchowski, K.
2005-10-31
We consider the influence of dust charge fluctuations on damping of the dust-ion-acoustic waves. It is assumed that all grains have equal masses but charges are not constant in time -- they may fluctuate in time. The dust charges are not really independent of the variations in the plasma potentials. All modes will influence the charging mechanism, and feedback will lead to several new interesting and unexpected phenomena. The charging of the grains depends on local plasma characteristics. If the waves disturb these characteristic, then charging of the grains is affected and the grain charge is modified, with a resulting feedback on the wave mode. In the case considered here, when the temperature of electrons is much greater than the temperature of the ions and the temperature of electrons is not great enough for further ionization of the ions, we show that attenuation of the acoustic wave depends only on one phenomenological coefficient.
Ion Bernstein wave heating research
Ono, M. )
1993-02-01
Ion Bernstein wave heating (IBWH) utilizes the ion Bernstein wave (IBW), a hot plasma wave, to carry the radio frequency (rf) power to heat the tokamak reactor core. Earlier wave accessibility studies have shown that this finite-Larmor-radius (FLR) mode should penetrate into a hot dense reactor plasma core without significant attenuation. Moreover, the IBW's low perpendicular phase velocity ([omega]/[ital k][sub [perpendicular
Is there seismic attenuation in the mantle?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ricard, Y.; Durand, S.; Montagner, J.-P.; Chambat, F.
2014-02-01
The small scale heterogeneity of the mantle is mostly due to the mixing of petrological heterogeneities by a smooth but chaotic convection and should consist in a laminated structure (marble cake) with a power spectrum S(k) varying as 1/k, where k is the wavenumber of the anomalies. This distribution of heterogeneities during convective stirring with negligible diffusion, called Batchelor regime is documented by fluid dynamic experiments and corresponds to what can be inferred from geochemistry and seismic tomography. This laminated structure imposes density, seismic velocity and potentially, anisotropic heterogeneities with similar 1/k spectra. A seismic wave of wavenumber k0 crossing such a medium is partly reflected by the heterogeneities and we show that the scattered energy is proportional to k0S(2k0). The reduction of energy for the propagating wave appears therefore equivalent to a quality factor 1/Q?k0S(2k0). With the specific 1/k spectrum of the mantle, the resulting apparent attenuation should therefore be frequency independent. We show that the total contribution of 6-9% RMS density, velocity and anisotropy would explain the observed S and P attenuation of the mantle. Although these values are large, they are not unreasonable and we discuss how they depend on the range of frequencies over which the attenuation is explained. If such a level of heterogeneity were present, most of the attenuation of the Earth would be due to small scale scattering by laminations, not by intrinsic dissipation. Intrinsic dissipation must certainly exist but might correspond to a larger, yet unobserved Q. This provocative result would explain the very weak frequency dependence of the attenuation, and the fact that bulk attenuation seems negligible, two observations that have been difficult to explain for 50 years.
A numeric evaluation of attenuation from ambient noise correlation functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lawrence, Jesse F.; Denolle, Marine; Seats, Kevin J.; Prieto, Germn. A.
2013-12-01
The ambient noise correlation function (NCF) calculated between seismic stations contains, under appropriate conditions, accurate travel time information. However, NCF amplitudes are highly debated due to noise source intensity and distribution, seismic intrinsic attenuation, scattering, and elastic path effects such as focusing and defocusing. We prove with various numerical simulations that the NCFs calculated for a uniformly dispersive medium using the coherency method preserve accurate geometrical spreading and attenuation decay. We show that for a wide range of noise source distributions, the coherency of the noise correlation functions matches a Bessel function decaying exponentially with a specific attenuation coefficient. Conditions needed to obtain these results include averaging over long enough time intervals, a uniformly distributed seismic network, and a good distribution of far-field noise sources. We also show that the estimated attenuation coefficient corresponds to the interstation and not the noise-source-to-receiver structure.
Model-based tomographic optoacoustic reconstructions in acoustically attenuating media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Den-Ben, X. Lus.; Razansky, Daniel
2014-03-01
Acoustic attenuation influences the transmission of the ultrasonic waves excited optoacoustically in biological samples, in a way that the amplitude of the waves is reduced as they propagate through acoustically attenuating tissues. Furthermore, being dependent on frequency, acoustic attenuation also causes broadening of the time-resolved optoacoustic signals, which in turn leads to blurring of features and overall deterioration of image quality. The effects of acoustic attenuation are more prominent for the high frequency components of the optoacoustic waves and they must be taken into account for high resolution imaging. In this work, we modify a model-based reconstruction algorithm to incorporate the effects of acoustic attenuation in tomographic optoacoustic imaging set-ups. As the waves propagate from the excitation until the measurement points, they undergo space and frequency dependent attenuation, which can be effectively accounted for using the suggested model-based approach. The simulation results obtained showcase a good performance of the introduced method in terms of resolution improvement.
Landing gear noise attenuation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)
2011-01-01
A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.
Backscatter and attenuation properties of mammalian brain tissues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wijekularatne, Pushpani Vihara
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a common category of brain injuries, which contributes to a substantial number of deaths and permanent disability all over the world. Ultrasound technology plays a major role in tissue characterization due to its low cost and portability that could be used to bridge a wide gap in the TBI diagnostic process. This research addresses the ultrasonic properties of mammalian brain tissues focusing on backscatter and attenuation. Orientation dependence and spatial averaging of data were analyzed using the same method resulting from insertion of tissue sample between a transducer and a reference reflector. Apparent backscatter transfer function (ABTF) at 1 to 10 MHz, attenuation coefficient and backscatter coefficient (BSC) at 1 to 5 MHz frequency ranges were measured on ovine brain tissue samples. The resulting ABTF was a monotonically decreasing function of frequency and the attenuation coefficient and BSC generally were increasing functions of frequency, results consistent with other soft tissues such as liver, blood and heart.